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Alabama Historical Society. 

VOL. I. 



Alabama History Commission 



DECEMBER 1, 1900. 







Vol. 1, 




f'^ IC'-'U^ 

Copyrighted, 1901 


The work of the Alabama History Commission has been 
concluded, and is in part submitted in this volume. Its in- 
vestigations have as far as possible been conducted in accord- 
ance with the Act of appointment, an attempt being made to 
carry out both its letter and spirit. The failure to do so fully 
has been due to limitations which could not be overcome — 
neglect of officials, indifference of custodians of historical 
materials, want of time and means for personal research, be- 
sides other causes detailed in the Administrative Report. 

In order that the true purport of the work and investiga- 
tions may be properly understood, it may be stated that this 
Report is an attempt to show as far as possible what unpub- 
lished or undeveloped "materials, manuscript, documentary 
and record" are in existence bearing upon the history and 
antiquities of the State, where they are to be found, with 
notes on their probable value, extent and accessibility, also 
the "condition of historical work in the State," and what 
public attention and support is given it in other States. 
While the publication of these investigations will undoubted- 
ly prove a lasting and permanent contribution to the his- 
torical literature of the State, its primary value lies in the 
substantial basis it affords and the urgent necessity it empha- 
sizes for legislative action toward "fostering historic interest 
and the preservation of the records, archives and history of 
the State." If it fail in this latter particular, the arduous 
labor involved in its compilation, so far as the fundamental 
purpose is concerned, will have been in vain. 

Within the limits of the appropriation, it has been found 
impossible to embody the results of the examination of the^ 
County records, as well as the data secured as to the "location 
and present condition of battle fields, historic houses and 
buildings, and other places and things of historic interest and 
importance in the State." The material is in hand, and is 
really of great value for reference. It will be prepared for 
publication if sufficient interest is taken in the subject to 
provide the expense of printing and binding. 

In conclusion, an explanation of the origin of the Commis- 
sion may not be without interest. During the summer of 
1896, impressed with the importance of State aid for histori- 


6 Report Alabama History Commission. 

cal research and maintenance, but feeling that nothing would 
be done without a preliminary exploration of the field of in- 
vestigation, the editor prepared a plan, with a tentative draft 
of a bill, providing, for such exploration. It was submitted to 
members of the General Assembly which convened the follow- 
ing winter, but its promotion was not encouraged. Two 
years later substantially the same plan was proposed and car- 
ried to a successful issue in the passage of the Act under 
which the Commission has proceeded. 

So far as can be ascertained, no where has a similar efifort, 
quite so ambitious and comprehensive, been put forth with- 
out compensation, with the possible exception of the Report 
on the Custody and Condition of the Public Records of 
Parishes, Towns and Counties of Massachusetts, by Carroll 
D. Wright, as Commissioner (1889; 8vo. pp. 379). In this 
Report, however, it will be noticed that it was limited to three 
classes of public records, and it is to be further borne in mind 
that |i4,500.00 was appropriated to collect the data and to 
compile it, besides the cost of printing. On its publication, 
the importance of State supervision of public records became 
so apparent, that the office of "Commissioner of Public Rec- 
ords" was promptly established, and its 12th Annual Report 
has now appeared. Brief reference may also be made to 
other work in this direction : Report upon the condition of 
the records, files, papers and documents of the Secretary's 
office of Massachusetts (1885, 8vo. pp. 42); The Town 
Records of Rhode Island (1893; 8vo. pp. 182); First 
Report of the Public Record Commission of New Jersey, 
(1899; 8vo. pp. 116) ; and the Reports of the Historian of 
Confederate Records of South Carolina (1899 and 1900). 
The Historical Societies of the country have perhaps shown 
more zeal and interest in reference to the care and value 
of public records than States or officials. In December, 1895, 
the American Historical Association created the "Historical 
Manuscripts Commission," which has compiled four valuable 
Reports. At the meeting of the same Association in Decem- 
ber, 1899, a "Public Archives Commission" was created "to 
examine into the condition and character of the public rec- 
ords of the United States, of the several States, and of im- 
portant local communities." The Massachusetts Historical 
Society has an "Historical Manuscripts Committee," as has 
also other Societies. And it may be noted as of special inter- 
est that the Legislature of Mississippi in 1900 passed an Act, 
similar to that of Alabama, creating for like purposes a Mis- 
sissippi History Commission. 


No. 86, An Act. H. 459. 

To provide for the appointment of an Alabama History 
Commission, to regulate the powers and duties thereof, 
and to provide for the publication of its report. 
Section 1. — Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Ala- 
bama, That the President of the Alabama Historical Society 
is hereby directed and empowered to appoint five persons 
from the membership of said Society, who shall constitute 
an Alabama History Commission, whose duty it shall be, 
under such rules, regulations and plan of procedure as it may 
adopt, and without compensation, to make a full, detailed 
and exhaustive examination of all of the sources and mate- 
rials, manuscript, documentary and record of the history of 
Alabama from the earliest times, whether in domestic or 
foreign archives or repositories, or in private hands, includ- 
ing the records of Alabama troops in all wars in which they 
have participated, and also of the location and present condi- 
tion of battlefields, historic houses and buildings, and other 
places and things of historic interest and importance in the 
State; and the said commission shall embody the result of 
said examination in a detailed report to the Governor of Ala- 
bama prior to the next ensuing session of the General Assem- 
bly, with an account of the then condition of historical work 
in the State and with such recommendations as may be de- 

Section 2. — Be it further enacted, That on the receipt of 
the said report, the Governor shall cause one thousand copies 
thereof to be printed and bound in cloth under the super- 
vision and direction of the commission as one of the publica- 
tions of the Society, the printing and binding to be paid for 
as other public printing and binding. And the Governor 
shall submit said report to the ensuing session of the General 
Assembly with a plan for permanently fostering historic 
interest and the preservation of the records, archives and 
history of the State ; provided, however, that in the printing 


8 Heport Alabama History Commission. 

and binding of said volumes the Governor shall in his discre- 
tion authorize the expenditure of not exceeding (|500) five 
hundred dollars. 

Section 3. — Be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty 
of all State, county and municipal officials in Alabama to 
make prompt and full replies and answers, supplying all 
facts and data desired in relation to the records, books and 
papers of their respective offices, upon application therefor 
by the said commission ; and the failure, neglect or refusal to 
do so shall be a misdemeanor. — Approved December 10th, 

I hereby certify that the above is a true and correct copy.' 


Secretary of State. 

'Acts of the General Assembly of Alabama, 1898-99, pp. 20-21. 


Half Title, 1 

Title, 3 

Preface, 5 

Act creating the Alabama History Commission 7 

Contents 9 

Administrative Report, 11 

PART I. An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Documents 

Pertaining to Alabama in Official Repositokies ' 

Beyond the State. 

Chapter I. Foreign Offices 47 

Chapter II. Federal Offices, 53 

Chapter III. Adjacent States, 78 

PART II. An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Documents 

IN Official Repositories Within the State 

OF Alabama. 

Chapter I. State Offices, 87 

Chapter II. Counties and County Records, 115 

Chapter III. Municipalities 115 

Chapter IV. Educational Institutions 121 

Chapter V. Church Organizations, 128 

Chapter VI. Benevolent and Miscellaneous Institutions 139 

Chapter VII. Federal Offices in Alabama, 148 

PART III. An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Documents 
IN Private Hands. 

Chapter I. Literary remains of public characters, 157 

Chapter II. Libraries and Societies, 202 

Chapter III. Private collectors and students, 282 

PART IV. War Records of Alabama. 

Chapter I. War Department, 321 

Chapter II. Adjutant-General's Office 328 

Chapter III. War Records in private hands, 353 

(OVBE.) (9) 

PART V. Aboeiginal and Indian Remains in Alabama. 

Chapter I. Prehistoric Works 357 

Chapteb II. Cherokee Southern boundary 370 

Chapter III. District Divisions of the Choctaw Nation 375 

Chapter IV. Town'? and Villages of the Creek Confederacy 386 

Chapter V. Cherokee Towns and Villages In Alabama, 416 

Chapter VI. Indian Trails and early Records 422 

Chapter VII. Choctaw Crossing Places on the Tombigbee 430 


,^ Administrative Report. 

By the Commission. 




To His Excellency, 

The Governor op Alabama, 

Montgomery, Alabama. 

The undersigned, members of the Alabama History Com- 
mission, in obedience to the statute providing for their ap- 
pointment, have the honor to submit to your excellency a 
detailed report on "the sources and materials, manuscript, 
documentary and record of the history of Alabama from the 
earliest times," on "the records of Alabama troops in all wars 
in which they have participated," and also on "the location 
and present condition of battle fields, historic houses and 
buildings, and other places and things of historic interest and 
importance in the State," together with an account of the 
present condition of historical work in the State, and certain 
recommendations and suggestions which we deem of vital 
importance to permanently foster historic interest and the 
preservation of the records, archives and history of the State. 


In conformity >yith the act of the General Assembly, Hon. 
Joseph Forney Johnston, President of the Alabama Histori- 
cal Society, designated the members of the Commission by the 
following appointment :~ 

"Jan. 6, 1899. 
"Thos. M. Owen, Esq. 

CarroUton, Ala. 
"Deab Sik:- 

"I have your favor of 28th ultimo and have today, as President of the 
Alabama Historical Society, appointed Thos. M. Owen, W. S. Wyman, 
S. W. John, Peter J. Hamilton and Chas. C. Thach (of Auburn) 'The Ala. 
History Comn' under the act approved Dec. 10, 1898. I thought the A. 
& M. College should have at least one representative on the Board. 

"Yours truly, 
"Prest. Ala. Historical Society." 

14 Eeport Alabama History Commissiou. 


After their appointment there was an interchange of views 
by correspondence between the members. In this way much 
3f the preliminary details of the proposed investigations was 
informally agreed upon. The Commission held its first for- 
mal session at 9 :30 a. m. June 19, 1899, at the State Univer- 
sity, in the Latin lecture room of Dr. Wyman, one of our 
associates. There were present Dr. Wm. S. Wyman, Prof. 
Charles C. Thach and Thomas M. Owen. S. W. John and 
Peter J. Hamilton, the remaining members, were detained 
iit home on account of important business engagements. The 
Act of the General Assembly creating the Commission, and 
the letter of appointment by the President of the Society 
were read. Mr. Owen was formally agreed upon as Chair- 
man. After a prolonged, but informal discussion of the 
work, its purposes, importance and far reaching scope, the 
chairman submitted a tentative outline of the matters pro- 
posed to be covered by the researches, and to be embraced 
in the Report. After careful and critical examination, this 
was agreed upon as embodying the various subjects of in- 
vestigation. An assignment of the different parts of the 
work was then made to the several members of the Commis- 
sion. The chairman was authorized to secure the compila- 
tion of special parts of the Report by competent students 
where deemed desirable. He was also authorized to super- 
vise the preparation of the entire Report. 


The chairman on the same date issued a circular statement 
and appeal to the public, {Administrative Circular, No. 7, of 
the Alabama Historical Society), of which the following is a 

Statement of Work Proposed by the Commission, Tentative Outline of 
Report, Act op the General Assembly, Etc. 

To the Public: 

The General Assembly of Alabama, by Act approved Dec. 10, 1898, pro- 
vided for the appointment of an Alatama History Commission of five 
members. Its creation grew out of an enlightened public sentiment, 
and also a conviction on the part of the law-makers that there should 
be some legislative action toward "fostering historic interest and the 
preservation of the records, archives and history of the State." Under the 
authority conferred by the Act, the undersigned have been appointed 
as members by his Excellency, Governor Joseph F. Johnston, the Presi- 
dent of the Alabama Historical Society. 

Circular to the Public. 16 

The members of the Commission, duly impressed with the importance 
as well as patriotic nature of the task Imposed upon them, have organized 
and entered upon the performance of their labors. It is made their duty 
in a general way (for full Act see page 4 hereof), "to make a full, detailed 
and exhaustive examination of all of the sources and materials, manu- 
script, documentary and record of the history of Alabama from the 
earliest times," the result of the examination to be embodied 
in a report to the Governor for the use of the next Gen- 
eral Assembly, upon which intelligent legislative action can be 
predicated. This report will indicate fully and in detail ivhat 
material is in existence, and where it is to be found, with notes 
on its probable value, accessibility, extent, etc. To indicate more fully 
the character of the report and as a guide for work, a tentative outline 
of its contents has been agreed upon, and is submitted herewith. It is in- 
tended to be exhaustive and to embrace every field of inquiry. 

In order to better accomplish the purposes of its creation, the Com- 
mission now appeals with confidence to students and scholars everywhere, 
and especially to public spirited Alabamians, for aid and co-operation. 
It is obvious that it will be impossible, no matter how diligent and 
zealous its members may be, for them to do all that is designed without 
assistance. The outline given will indicate points on which information 
and data must be secured, and every person is urged to speedily commu- 
nicate any and all pertinent facts, as well as the names and addresses 
of others who may render aid. 

The Commission respectfully invites the attention of foreign archivists, 
keepers of records in Federal and States offices, and librarians generally 
to the very great importance of its proposed investigations. 

The custodians of public records, and of the official records (registers, 
journals, etc.) of churches, educational and benevolent institutions in 
Alabama, are requested to supply full accounts of the condition and extent 
of materials in their keeping. 

Local and other collectors of Alabama manuscripts, etc., are invited to 
forward detailed descriptions of their collections, the material parts of 
which will be embraced in the report. The various items should be listed, 
showing subject-matter, date, v/here obtained, historical value, etc. 

In all parts of Alabama are individuals who have facts in their knowl- 
edge on some, if not all of the topics embraced in the proposed investiga- 
tion. Hid away in old trunks, drawers, book-cases, and chests, are num- 
bers of manuscript treasures; private letters, letter books, diaries or 
journals, weather notes, manuscript maps, account books, surveyor's note 
or field bocks, etc. In the hands of participants, or their descendants, 
in the Indian wars, the Texan and Mexican wars, and the late war be- 
tween the States, are doubtless to be found valuable letters, journals 
of campaigns, and rolls of various commands, as well as mementoes 
of these struggles. The location, extent and present ownership of all such 
material is earnestly desired; and if possible a gift of the same to the 
Historical Society. 

At no time since the formation ot Alabama has so much interest 
been taken by all classes of citizens in its history. Individuals are 
doing much, and the Historical Society is exceedingly active in promoting 
and increasing this interest. But what is needed is State aid and en- 
couragement. To bring this about is the ultimate purpose of the Com- 
mission, and if proper assistance is given in its work, the next General 
Assembly can be reasonably expected to do all that the most enthusiastic 
should demand. 

Very respectfully, 

[Signed by the Commission.] 

16 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Appended to the circular was a copy of the Act of the 
General Assembly ; and in order to indicate the nature of the 
proposed work, there was also appended the following : 

"Tentative Outline or Report. 

T'ormal Report to the Governor. (Wltli recommendations.) 
Part I. An account of Manuscripts, Papers and Documents pertaining 
to Alabama in Official Repositories beyond the State. 

1. Foreign Offices: 1. — British Archives; 2. — French Archives; and 
3. — Spanish Archives. 

2. Federal Offices: 1.— War Dep't.; 2. — State Dep't; 3. — Navy 
Dep't; 4. — Interior Dep't (Patent Office, Land Office, Indian Affairs, Bureau 
of Education, etc.); 5. — Treasury Dep't; 6. — Post Office Dep't; 7.-^Dep't 
of Justice; and 8.— The Offices of the Clerk of the H. of R. and of the 
Secretary of the Senate. i 

3. Adjacent States: 1. — Tennessee; 2. — Georgia; 3. — Louisiana; 4. — 
Florida; 5. — Mississippi. 

Part II. — An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Documents in Official 
Repositories within the State of Alabama. 

1. Executive Offices: 1. — Governor; 2. — Sec'y of State; 3. — Auditor; 
4. — Treasurer; 5. — Supt. of Ed.; 6. — Board of Health; 7. — Convict Inspec- 
tors; 8.— Att'y General; 9. — Supt. of Agriculture; 10. — R. R. Commission; 
11.— Clerk of the Sup. Ct.; 12. — Sup. Ct. Reporter; and 13. — Adjutant 

2. County Offices. (To include descriptions of all Co. records.) 

3. Municipalities. (To include an account of the municipal records 
of the principal Alabama towns, as Mobile, Montgomery, Birmingham, 
et al.) 

4. Educational Institutions. (To Include an account of the source 
material for a history of primary education, and of the records, etc., of 
the University, Ala. Polytechnic Institute, et al.) 

5. Church Organizations. (To Include an account of the records of the 
different denominations, and of individual churches.) 

6. Benevolent Institutions. (To include general Masonic records. 
Temperance Societies, etc.) 

Part III. — An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Documents In Pri- 
vate Hands. 

1. Literary Remains of Public Characters. (To include an account 
of the papers left by Hawkins, Crowel, McKee, et al.) 

2. Libraries and Societies. 

3. Private Collectors and Students. (To Include an account of the 
collections made by Pickett, Brewer, Draper, et al.) 

Part IV. — War Records of Alabama. (To comprise accounts of Alabama 
war records In the offices of the TJ. S. Secretary of War and the Adj. Gen. 
of the State, and in Private Hands.) 

Part V. — Aboriginal and Indian Remains, etc. 1. — Prehistoric Works; 
2. — Indian Tribal Boundaries; 3. — Tribal Territorial Subdivisions; 4. — 
Town and Village Sites; 5. — Trails and Roads. 

Part VI. — Points and Places of Historic Interest in Alabama. 

1. Forts and Stockades. 

2. Battle Fields. 

3. Historic Houses. 

4. Historic Places not Otherwise Classified (as the place of Burr's 
capture in Alabama). 

5. Places of Birth and Interment of Persons Prominent In Alabama 

6. Scenes in Alabama History, and Portraits or Likenesses of Eminent 

Conduct of the Work. ,17 


The formal organization perfected, and plan of operation 
agreed upon, the work has proceeded steadily to completion 
in its present form. The press has been generous in calling 
attention to the wishes of the Commission for data, and in 
urging co-operation. As can he readily seen the collection 
of information has necessarily been by correspondence, a 
method often tedious and slow, and in many cases without 
returns. The results are not commensurate with the great 
importance of the subject, and yet so much has been brought 
together that one may Avell marvel at the great richness of 
the historical stores at hand. The records of municipalities, 
churches, benevolent and educational institutions have not 
been fully explored, as well as other parts of the field outlined. 
In this connection, however, it may be said that as this worii 
is pioneer in Alabama, the very best results were not of 
course to have been expected. In every movement much pre- 
liminary education on the part of the public is essential. 
Again, the work done by the Commission may in a sense be 
said to be only tentative. As interest widens and the number 
of students increases, new discoveries will be made and a 
correction of the report in many points necessitated. 

The results of the investigation as will appear from its 
inspection cover in the fullest and broadest sense the design 
and purpose of the Act of creation. In this, the purely ad- 
ministrative report, is given : (1) an account of the perform- 
ance of the duties assigned, (2) the present condition of 
historical work in the State, (3) what has been done by other 
States for their history, and (4) the results, with recommen- 
dations of the Commission. The exploration of the "sources 
and materials" which follows is presented as the separate 
and independent work of the individual members and con- 
tributors, and for which the Commission as a body is not re- 
sponsible. The indications of sources are printed in official 
and non-official groups, and are described according to their 
present location. The entire body of manuscript source ma- 
terial, whether official or non-official is therefore noted as (1) 
in foreign depositories, (2) in State depositories, and (3) in 
private hands. The only deviation from this order is in the 
case of the War Records, which, from their importance and 
distinctive character, are best grouped together as a whole. 
Then follow parts embracing accounts of all local evidences 
of the aboriginal and Indian remains of the State; and also 
lists of Points and Places of Historic Interest in the State, 

18 Report Alabama History Commission. 


In preparing an account of the present condition of tiistori- 
cal work in the State, no more satisfactory way is suggested 
than in summarizing the work of the several agencies which 
are arousing interest and disseminating information concern- 
ing the dignity and value of historical studies. These agen- 
cies are Historical Societies and Patriotic organizations, Col- 
lege and School history courses. Libraries and Museums, and 
Individual effort. While the present condition is far wide 
of what is needful to be done, it is still highly gratifying to 
note that substantial interest in historical work, investiga- 
tion and study, is steadily increasing, and as its high moral 
and ethical value comes to be more understood, that interest 
will be marvelously quickened. 

HisTORicAi, Societies and Patriotic Organizations. 

As historical societies and patriotic organizations have for 
their fundamental purposes the promotion of historical work 
and the stimulation of patriotism, it is natural that from 
them much should be expected. In a general way, it may 
be said that excellent work is being done by those organiza- 
tions in the State, although limited at times by many dis- 

The leading institution of the kind is the Alabama Histori- 
cal Society, organized July 8, 1850, and chartered February 
5, 1852. Its early accomplishments are not in any degree 
what was to have been expected, but it is now thoroughly 
revived, and is meeting its full obligation. In order to better 
carry on its work, at the annual meeting, June 18, 1900, the 
headquarters were removed to Birmingham. Here it is accu- 
mulating a library. Museum and Art Gallery, and a bright 
outlook is ahead, if interest continues, and the work is 
properly encouraged. During the last two years it has pub- 
lished two volumes of Transactions, which have received the 
highest commendation from students and from the press. 
The Society has lent every encouragement to the compilation 
of this Report, and has defrayed all of the local expenses of 
the Commission. 

The Alabama Baptist Historical Society, organized in 1893, 
cannot be said to be doing active work, although it served the 
useful purpose of materiallv assisting Dr. B. F. Riley in the 
preparation of his History of the Baptists of Alabama (1895.) 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Historical Society, appears 
from a recent published report in the Minutes of the Birming- 

Libraries and Museums. 19 

ham Presbytery, to be accumulating through its Secretary, 
Rev. J. H. B. Hall, of Birmingham, the necessary materials 
for a history of that Church in the State. 

The Conecuh Historical Society, organized in 1879, seems 
to have died after it had rendered necessary aid to Dr. B. P. 
Riley in the preparation of his History of Conecuh County, 
Alabama (1881). 

The Old St. Stephens Historical Society, organized Jan. 
19, 1899, at New St. Stepliens, in Washington County, co-op- 
erated with the committee of the Alabama Historical Society 
in the celebration on May 6, 1899, of the 100th anniversary 
of the Spanish evacuation of St. Stephens, and on May 26, 
1900, it held its second annual meting. It is organized for 
the purpose of studying the history of Washington and adjoin, 
ing counties. As yet it has issued no publications. 

The United Confederate Veterans, the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy, the United Sons of Confederate Veter- 
ans, the Colonial Dames, the Daughters of the American Rev- 
olution, and the Sons of the Revolution, are all in their re- 
spective spheres doing much for historical work. They are 
arousing interest in its study; encouraging the correction 
of errors in school history publications; stimulating the 
increase of historical literature in libraries throughout the 
State; collecting individual history; marking historic spots, 
and erecting monuments to our heroic dead. 


With library extension comes the increase of opportunity 
for investigation in all departments of inquiry. Recent in- 
terest in library work in the State may be said to be in some 
measure the results of the growth of historical investigations, 
but in turn the increase in the efficiency and working charac- 
ter of libraries has in a large degree stimulated a wider inter- 
est in historical pursuits. While there are few libraries of 
high class in the State, new ones are being established here 
and there, and the value of those already in existence is being 
strengthened. In no one line is a greater proportionate 
number of books added than in the department of history. 

In due time will develop the desire to make special and 
local collections, which as it increases will embrace manu- 
scripts, etc. Cases in point are the Alabama Girls' Industrial 
School, which is making an effort to collect every book writ- 
ten by an Alabamian, or printed in Alabama; and the Tus- 
kegee Normal and Industrial Institute, which is collecting a, 

20 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

special library of negro literature. As tbe educational value 
of libraries comes to be more appreciated, they will become 
more and more the objects of gifts and bequests. It will be 
recalled that recently the library of the University of Ala- 
bama has received two valuable collections, the "John Leslie 
Hibbard Memorial Library" of 1,000 volumes, and the B. F. 
Meek Library of 654 volumes. 

The museums of the Geological Survey, at Tuscaloosa, and 
of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, at Auburn, are collec- 
tions of great value. Cabinets are also being formed by 
the Insane Hospital, Tuscaloosa; the Young Men's Chris- 
tion Association, Mobile; the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, Montgomery ; several of the Camps of Confederate 
Veterans; the Birmingham Public Library; several educa- 
tional institutions; and the Alabama Historical Society. 

College and School Histoet Courses. 

While far from having the proper recognition in the 
Courses of instruction in the schools and higher institutions 
of learning in the State, the study of history is every year 
given more favorable consideration. With the recognition of 
its importance, methods of study will improve so that it will 
no longer be the mere acquisition of a lot of dry facts, but 
will be a critical and philosophical review of past events 
whereby lessons may be drawn for future guidance and in- 
spiration. The result of true historical study and investi- 
gation is not only acquirement, but is culture and. training. 
The facts themselves while important, are valueless without 
the lessons back of them. These lessons of history must be 
sought out. The discoveries are to be communicated to other 
students, who in time advance to higher altitudes of thought 
and life. The hope of the State is in its youth in the schools 
and colleges, who with eager untrameled minds await newly 
discovered truths in nature and in history. 

In response to public sentiment the General Assembly 
has provided that all persons applying for license to teach 
must stand an examination, among other things, on the 
history of Alabama. In response to the same sentiment it 
was provided that the history of the State must be taught in 
the public schools. How far reaching these measures will 
prove cannot be estimated. The attention of hundreds of 
teachers has been turned anew not only to the value of his- 
tory, but to its importance in a local aspect. Thousands of 
children will come from the schools with a more intelligent 
and buoyant patriotism, proud of their commonwealth and 

College and School Etistory Courses. 21 

its history, and from their knowledge of its career — in suc- 
cess and disaster — they will be better equipped to take part 
in its administration whether as citizens or leaders. 

The work of twenty of the principal colleges in the State 
is summarized below. History, ancient and modern in some 
form or other, is taught in all. As will appear, the union of 
history with other branches of study, while in the direction of 
economy of administration, must necessarily subordinate it. 

However, a study of these summaries is encouraging when 
compared with the work of the same institutions in previous 
years, and it is believed that as the influence of the public 
schools is felt, and the influence of the Historical Society 
and individual effort widens, these institutions will respond 
to the full measure of their duty. Only the representative 
Colleges are noted. While excellent work is being done by 
many academies and preparatory schools, particular details 
concerning them do not appear necessary. 

University of Alabama^ Tuscaloosa. The School of His- 
tory and Political Economy constitute a chair, under one 
professor. In the courses outlined will be found reference 
to such study as is devoted to Alabama history. What is 
done in the History branch of this School appears from the 
Catalogue, 1899-1900, as follows : 

"Course I. (a.). Advanced American History. This 
course is designed to give a fuller knowledge of the constitu- 
tional, the political, and the industrial development of the 
United States than that offered in the usual High School 
course. It presupposes such a general knowledge of Ameri- 
can History, on the part of the student, as can be gained from 
the study of any good Grammar School History. Text-Book : 
Channing's Students' History of the United States, or Mont- 
gomery's Students' American History. The course is supple- 
mented by a short course in the History and Government of 
the State of Alabama, (b.) History of England. This 
course traces the outline of English History from the earliest 
times to the present, special emphasis being placed upon the 
prominent English institutions, social, legal and political, 
which, under various modifications, survive in our American 
institutions. The organization and practical workings of the 
British Government at the present day are studied, and points 
of contrast and resemblance between it and the government 
of the United States are carefully presented to the student. 
Text-Book: Montgomery's Leading Facts in English His- 

22 Report Alabama History Oommissioti. 

"Course II. During tlie last half of the Sophomore year 
a course is offered in Ancient History— from the beginning ot 
civilization in the East to the Pall of the Eoman Empire in 
the West A D. 476. Text-Books: Myers's Eastern -Na- 
tions and Greece, and Allen's Short History of the Roman 

"Course III. (a.) An outline of the History of Mediaeval 
and Modern Europe. Text-Books : Emerton's Introduction 
to the Study of the Middle Ages, and Myers's Mediaeval and 
Modern History. This course and the one in Ancient History 
(offered in the last half of the Sophomore year) taken in 
succession are designed to give the student a fuller knowl- 
edge of general history than that outlined in the usual single 
volume text-books covering the subject, (b ) Political and 
Constitutional History of the United States. Johnston's 
American Politics is made the basis of this course; but the 
class work, including lectures and special topical studies, 
takes a wider range than that covered by the text. The Con- 
stitution itself, and its fore-runner, the Articles of Confed- 
eration, are studied in connection with the historical causes 
that gave them birth; and the growth of the Constitution, 
both by interpretation and by amendment, is pointed out in 
connection with the political struggles incident thereto." 

The University Library has about 25,000 volumes. 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. History and 
Latin are combined under one instructor. The work of the 
History branch is indicated by the Catalogue, 1900. Limited 
instruction in Alabama history appears to be given. 

"In this department the aim is not so much to memorize 
facts as to understand them. Strong emphasis is laid on the 
fact that history is not a succession of isolated facts but a 
progressive Avhole, each event being at once the cause and 
effect of other events. The students are taught to investi- 
gate the growth of ideas and institutions, the rise and pro- 
gress of great historical movements and the reciprocal influ- 
ences of men and circumstances. Frequent use is made of 
diagrams, photographs, charts and maps, with which the de- 
partment is well equipped. Constant practice in map draw- 
ing is insisted on in order to give precision to the geographical 
knowledge acquired. Instruction is given by text-books, lec- 
tures and class discussion, but a constant effort is made to 
stimulate to wider reading and research in the library. 

"In the freshman class, the subjects studied are the United 
States, Alabama and England. The first term (two hours 

College and School History Courses. 23 

per week) is devoted to the history and government of the 
United States, the second term (two hours per week) to Ala- 
bama, and the third term (three hours per week to the his- 
tory of England. 

"In the Sophomore class (three hours per week until 
March), the subject studied is general European history. 

"In the junior and senior classes opportunity for special 
historical work is given to those students of the General 
Course who may elect it instead of labratory work. During 
the session of 1900-01 the work will be in American history, 
social, political and constitutional. 

"A series of lectures will be given on American statesmen, 
including amongst others such Southern men as Randolph, 
Davis, Stephens, Toombs and Yancey. Lectures will also be 
given on important points in our history, including: The 
Failure of the Confederation; The Ordinance of 1787; The 
Constitutional Convention; The War of 1812; The Missouri 
Compromise ; The Monroe Doctrine ; Texas and Mexico ; The 
Compromise of 1850 ; The Kansas-Nebraska Struggle ; Seces- 

"The students will investigate under the direction of the 
professor topics connected with the lectures and will record 
the results of their research in note books. These records 
will be made the basis of general class discussion. 

"Graduate students are expected to take part in the junior 
and senior discussions and in addition will meet with the 
professor for conference in regard to their work. Those who 
take history as their major subject are expected to devote a 
large part of their time to original research upon some topic 
on which they can consult the original sources of informa- 

Southern University^ Greensboro. History, Mental and 
Moral Philosophy are combined in one chair. Courses in 
general and American history, the latter comprehending (1) 
growth of the American Nation, and (2) civil institutions and 
constitutional history. The course requires from the Fresh- 
man class, three hours per week ; Sophomore, three ; Junior, 
six elective ; and Senior, twelve elective, if not elected in the 
preceding year. 

In this connection it is highly pleasing to state that a 
movement is near fruition which has for its object the endow- 
ment of a Chair of History in this University. The Alumni 
of the institution, and friends of Christian education, have 
responded liberally to the appeal, and as a result not only will 

24 Report Alabama History Commission. 

the success of the effort be assured, but the importance of 
historical work has been emphasized. 

Spring Hill College (St. Joseph's), near Mobile. Thor- 
ough instruction in history is given in the preparatory, com- 
mercial and classical courses. Biblical history is included. 

Howard College^ East Lake. History is not provided for 
in any designated School, but instruction is given in general 
history in the A. B. Course, Sophomore year. 

North Alabama Conference College,, Birmingham 
(Owenton). History is combined under one instructor, who 
also has general direction of the Business Department. There 
is also an assistant in History and English, and lectures on 
Constitutional History, and Church History. Instruction in 
history during the entire four years of study. No reference 
to the study of Alabama history, but it is known that the lecr 
tures embrace this subject. 

Alabama State Normal College, Florence. History is 
not provided for in any designated Department, but instruc- 
tion in general history is given in the first and second years. 
In the Department of Pedagogy the school laws of Alabama 
are studied. 

State Normal College, Troy. History, Civil Government 
and Political Economy comprise the school of Civics, under 
one instructor. General instruction in history during the 
Sophomore, Junior and Senior years. "The subject of Alor 
hama History and Government is studied the last term of the 
Senior year. Much attention is given to the part the State 
has played in the history of the Union, and also to the pecu- 
liar features of her internal institutions. In this connection, 
there will be given a thorough drill upon the Public School 
System of the State." (Catalogue.) 

St. Bernard College, Cullman. Church, Ancient and 
Modern, Bible, and United States History, each combined 
with other work, form parts of the instruction committed to 
four separate Professors. Instruction in History is given in 
the several courses. 

Judson Institute, Marion. History and Penmanship com- 
bined under one instructor. The study of history is taken up 
in the preparatory Department and continued throughout 
the course. 

Alabama Central Female College, Tuscaloosa. His- 
tory and Elocution combined under one instructor. lustruc- 

College and School History Courses. 25 

tion iu history by the "topical method" in the Collegiate 
Course, first, second and third years. 

Alabama Conference Female College_, Tuskegee. French, 
History and Literature combiued under one instructor. His- 
tory studied through the entire course. 

Tuscaluoisa Female College, Tuscaloosa. History and 
English, and History and Geography comprise the work 
assigned to two instructors. Instruction in history during 
the Freshman, Sophomore and Sub- Senior years. 

Athens Female College, Athens. History, English and 
Literature combined under one instructor. History studied 
through the entire course. 

Alabama Girls' Industrial School, Montevallo. De- 
partment of English and History under four instructors. 
"The course in History is necessarily an adjunct to the de- 
partment of English." (Catalogue.) Instruction in history 
each year of the four years' course. One of the text-books 
named for the Senior year is Pickett's Alabama. 

Alabama Normal College for Girls, Livingston. No 
separate department, but instruction in history each year of 
the four years' course. Alabama history studied by text- 
books and lectures. 

Noble Institute, Anniston. History and Literature con- 
stitute a department. Instruction in history each year of the 
four years' course. a 

Fourth District Agricultural School and Experiment 
Station, Sylacauga. History, Science and Agriculture com- 
bined under one instructor. In the Collegiate Department, 
Freshman class, is a course in American history. During the 
three remaining years, election between history and latin. 
Alabama history studied in the Sophomore year. 

Seventh District Agricultural School and Experiment 
Station, Albertville. Mathematics, History and Pedagogy 
combined under one instructor. Instruction in history in 
both preparatory and collegiate departments. Course of lec- 
tures on Alabama history in the Junior year. 

Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee. 
Separate Professor of History. Limited courses in history 
in the Junior and Middle years. 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama for 
Negroes, Normal. No separate instructor in history. In- 

26 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

struction in history in the Normal, Agricultural, Mechanical 
and Literary courses. In fourth year of normal course the 
History of Alabama is studied. 

Individual Effort. 

To the independent efforts of individual students is due 
more perhaps than to any other influence in promoting inter- 
est in history. The work of the student in any field is not 
limited in its effects to the mere accomplishment of a given 
task. The moral influence of successful achievement is a 
quickening and stimulating leaven that goes out from the 
efforts of every student. In another part of this Report will 
be found an account of the collections made by Alabama 
students ; here their special work may be summarized. 

L»r. Anson West has published a Jlisiovy of Methodism in 
Alahaina (1893), Dr. B. F. Riley, a History of the Baptists 
of Alahaina (1895), and Kev. W. C. Whitaker, a History of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in Alabama (1898). Each 
is continuing his investigation in his special field. Rev. J. H. 
B. Hall has in preparation a History of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church in Alabama; and Rev. J. T. Howell, a His- 
iui-y of the Methodist Protestant Church in Alabama. 

Separate school histories of the State are in press, or are 
in course of preparation by Joel C. DuBose, Wm. G. Brown, 
Miss Louise Manly, Mrs. Belle Blandin, and L. D. Miller. 

Dr. Geo. W. Hamner, of Washington, is making extensive 
researches with a view to the publication of a full philosoph- 
ical history of the State. John W. DuBose is continuing his 
study of William L. Yancey and his times, with a view to 
a new and revised edition of his Life of Mr. Yancey. He is 
also engaged in a study of settlement and social life in the 
canebrake region of the State. Dr. E. A. Smith is pursuing 
the history of the industrial and economic life of the people. 
W. W. Screws has in preparation an exhaustive History of 
the State newspaper press. 

Peter J. Hamilton is engaged in the special study and ex- 
ploitation of the antiquities and history of the Alabama- 
Tombigbee basin, the City of Mobile, and the Gulf region; 
O. D. Street, the Tennessee Valley; Dr. George Petrie, the 
town of Montgomery ; Thomas P. Clinton, Tuscaloosa, Town 
and County; W. L. Andrews, Dale County and Southeast 
Alabama; and G. W. Whitfield, Jr., Demopolis. 

Dr. W. S. Wyman is engaged in the critical study of early 
exploration and settlement, and the history of the aboriginal 

Historical Work in Other States. 27 

and Indian inhabitants of the State. Prof. Henry Sale Hal- 
bert has in preparation a History of the Choctaw Indians. 
While it is not known that Dr. J. L. M. Curry, Willis Brewer, 
S. ^^^ John, W. D. Seed, T. 0. McCorvey, C. C. Thach and 
T. H. Clark are engaged in any particular subjects of investi- 
gation, yet their interest and enthusiasm in the growth and 
enlargement of the work is demonstrated in many ways. 
Thomas M. Owen is also engaged on studies in the history of 
the State. 


As illustrating general interest in the work, and at the 
same time by comparison emphasizing the duty of Alabama in 
reference to its history, the Commission has compiled data 
as to the historical publications and appropriations of the 
Federal Oovernment and of twenty- three States, which is 
herewith presented. In regard to the statements, they are 
not in all cases complete, for the reason that exact figures 
have not been obtainable, but they are believed to be accurate 
as far as they go. Where they do not set forth all that has 
been done by the State, it is simply because fuller informa- 
tion was not at hand. 

It will be seen from an examination of the statistics that all 
except Georgia, Florida and Mississippi have officially issued 
publications of an historical character, and that all except 
one, Florida, have been liberal in appropriations. Military 
records, in whole or in part, have been issued or are in process 
of publication by Maryland, Louisiana, New Jersey, New 
York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Nebraska. 
Of&cial Archives, Records, or State Papers, have been col- 
lected and published by Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New 
Hampshire, and Rhode Island. These are gotten out under 
the direction of an editor, either directly employed, or ap- 
pointed by an Historical Society, as in the case of Maryland. 
In Massachusetts the State confides its history interests to an 
Archives Division of the State Department; in New York, 
to a State Historian; in Iowa, to a Department of History; 
in Wisconsin, Kansas, Nebraska and Ohio, to the State His- 
torical Society. In Rhode Island, Mississippi, New Jersey, 
and Maryland the State Historical Societies are voted liberal 
aid ; while in Maryland, Ohio, New Hampshire, and Wiscon- 
sin, State aid has been given individuals in their history 

28 Report Alabama History Commission. 

As contrasted with the statements below, the contributions 
so far made by the State of Alabama in behalf of its history 
may be summarized as follows: (1) the purchase of fifty 
volumes of Pickett's History of Alabama at |150.00; (2) the 
purchase, after the close of the Civil War, of the military 
records and papers relating to Alabama troops collected by 
Wm. H. Fowler, for $3,000.00, (to this should be added a few 
hundred dollars paid him in depreciated currency on his sal- 
ary as Superintendent of War Records) ; (3) the payment of 
$172.00, for copies, from the War Department, of rolls of Ala- 
bama troops in the Mexican War;' (4) the sum of |500.00 to 
aid the Alabama Historical Society in the publication of its 
Transactions; and (5) foOO.OO to pay for the printing and 
binding of this Report. 

Arkansas. Has published a Manual (1884), containing 
lists of all State officials. No appropriations for historical 

Florida. The State of Florida has never made any appro- 
priations in behalf of its history. 

Georgia. No State historical publications. The only 
thing done by the State for its history has been to procure 
copies of documents in the British record offices, for which 
between |3,500.00 to |4,000.00 was expended. These copies 
were burned before publication. 

Iowa. The State established an "Historical Department" 
in 1892, and appropriated for its support |15,000.00 for two 
years. Since then the annual appropriation for the main- 
tenance of the Department has been f 6,000.00. The Curator 
in charge is paid a salary as an official out of the State fund. 
The Department issues a biennial report, vfhich is paid for 
out of the general printing fund. The Department publishes 
the Annals of Iowa, a quarterly journal devoted to the history 
of the State. 

Kansas. Has published through the Adjutant General's 
office rosters of Kansas troops in the Civil War, 3 vols. It 
has also published for the Historical Society of the State 
eleven Biennial Reports, and six volumes of Collections, with 
sundry minor papers. Some expenditures have been made 
for copying documents, and large sums for binding periodi- 
cals. For the last fifteen years the appropriations for the 

'Acts, 1851-52, p. 529; and Comptroller's Report, 1852-3, p. 33 
'Acts, 1886-1887, p. 113; and Auditor's Report, 1887-1888, p. 35. 

Historical Work in Other States. 29 

Historical Society have averaged |5,000.00 annually. His- 
torical work for the State is done through the Society. 

Louisiana. No State historical publications.. Prior to 
the Civil ^Var, about |3,000.00 was expended for procuring 
copies of documents from French and Spanish archives. In 
the report of the Secretary of State, 1886-1887, are published 
partial rosters of State troops in the Civil War. 

JMARYLAxn. Has published, or assisted in the publication, 
of Bozman's Histovy of Maryland, and of McMahon's His- 
tory of Maryland . Aid was given J. T. Scharf in the publi- 
cation of his History of Maryland by an advance subscription 
for 300 copies at fiO.OO per set of 3 vols. Twenty quarto 
volumes of Archives have been published, under the direction 
of the Maryland Historical Society, for which -138,000.00 have 
been appropriated. For each volume |2,000.00 is given, 
which includes all cost of preparation, copying, editing, print- 
ing, etc. In 1896 the sum of |15,000 was appropriated for 
the publication of rosters of Maryland troops in the Civil 

Massachusetts. No State has been more liberal in aid 
of historical effort and in attention to its records, archives, 
etc., than Massachusetts. James J. Tracy, chief of the 
Archives Division of the Office of the Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth has prepared a very full and satisfactory account 
of the methods of work, and its extent, which is presented 
herewith : 

"There has always been a very considerable and influential 
element in Massachusetts, taking pride in her early records, 
who have been able to secure legislation directed toward their 
care and preservation, and the publication of them. In one 
respect, conditions have been exceedingly favorable for hav- 
ing tbe work done above referred to, as the office of the Secre- 
tary, under Colonj^, Province and Commonwealth, has always 
been the repository for all official records of the State, legis- 
lative as well as executive; and all the successive olHcials 
entrusted with the custody of the records, have in a greater 
or less degree made them accessible to the public, indexed 
and arranged them, and favored publication whenever public 
sentiment demand it. 

The growth of the various patriotic societies, and the 
stimulation, among people of all classes, of an interest in 
early American history, has brought about within the last 
decade the creation of a department or division in the Secre- 

30 Report Alabama History Commission. 

tary's oflfice, where all records, apart from the current routine 
of the office, are filed and stored, and this division contains 
today a larger number of clerks than any other in the Sec- 
retary's office. 

The force employed in the Archives division, numbers four- 
teen persons in all, which requires an annual expenditure ol 
$11,040.00 in salaries. Their work consists entirely in index- 
ing, arranging and filing the records ; proof reading the offi- 
cial publication now going through the press, entitled "Mas- 
sachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolu- 
tion ;" assisting persons interested in historical and genealogi- 
cal researches ; and issuing official certificates or certified ab- 
stracts from the records and returns preserved here. 

You will understand the importance of the Archives de- 
partment, and the work carried on there, when I state that 
all the early records from 1628 to the adoption of the State 
Constitution, officially connected with the State in any way 
whatsoever, rest on the shelves and in the files of the divis- 
ion. From the adoption of the State Constitution down to 
the present date, all executive records, Council records and 
files, all legislative records, with their accompanying papers, 
that is, the original bills and resolves, committee report, 
et cetera, as well as the engrossed acts and resolves, together 
with all records of civil appointments, are all preserved here, 
and the whole collection is accessible, under reasonable and 
proper restrictions, to any and everybody. 

Inquiries of every sort and nature relating to the early his- 
tory of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the Plymouth Bay 
Colony, or from historical students, or from persons interest- 
ed in the service of ancestors, are answered freely and without 
charge unless certified abstracts from the records are desired. 

An annual appropriation of |5,000.00 for the cai'e and 
preservation of the Archives, is also at the disposal of the 
division, and more or less of it is expended every year in 
mounting, repairing, or re-binding, the manuscript records. 

An annual appropriation of $3,000.00 is also placed at the 
disposal of the Secretary, to pay for a volume of the "Massa- 
chusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution," 
and one volume, at least, is finished every year. I would state 
that 7 volumes of the records referred to have been completed 
up to this time, and should be found in your State library. 

I have practically had charge of the work in the Archives 
Division since 1891, although it was not made a separate and 
independent division, under the nominal direction of the Sec- 
retary, until several years later. 

Historical Work in Other States. 31 

The first important work undertaken by me, after my plans 
for the classification and publication of the State records had 
been adopted by the Archives Commission, was the compila- 
tion of a record index to the revolutionary rolls collection, 
which gives the exact service record of every individual 
credited witli service in the State's collection of muster and 
pay rolls, enlistment returns, et cetera. This record index 
numbers between six hundred and fifty and seven hundred 
thousand separate record slips, and assorted together, fur- 
nis])es all the information obtainable in the original records, 
for every separate individual. This record index also serves 
for the preparation of copy for the published records, and also 
renders unnecessary the use of the original volumes by the 
general public in searching for records of ancestors. 

The appropriation for the compilation of the record index 
and publication was made in 1891, and the sum of $15,500.00 
was allowed for the work. The |3,000.00 annually appro- 
priated, before referred to, is made to cover the successive 
volumes as they are gotten up. 

I have also completed a record index to the French and 
Indian War muster rolls, covering the period of 1710-1774, 
within the past two years, and I have no doubt that later on 
the publication of those records will be ordered, but at pres- 
ent there is no opportunity to publish the records, owing to 
the complete occupation of the force at my disposal, in the 
necessary work of the office, and the publication of the revolu- 
tionary records. 

So much for the work carried on in this office, year by year. 

As I have stilted, it would hardly be possible to furnish you 
with the amounts appropriated by the State for the publica- 
tion of records, and for rendering them more accessible to 
the public by indexing, et cetera, in the past. 

Among the publications that have been made under the di- 
rection of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, are the records 
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 5 volumes, covering the 
period of 1628-1686, these being copies of the first five volumes 
of the General Court records of the Colony; the Plymouth 
Colony records, covering 12 volumes of the original records 
at Plymouth ; the Acts and Resolves of the Province of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, covering the period from 1692 to the adop- 
tion of the State Constitution in 1780. Of these last, the 
volumes of acts for the entire period named have been pub- 
lished, but the volumes of resolves only carry the work down 
to 1708. I would state that the work was suspended for a 
while, but is again in progress, although not under the direc- 

32 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

tion of tlie Secretary of the Commonwealth, being published 
under the direction of a commission. 

An edition of what are known as the "Early Acts," being 
the acts and resolves of the General Court from the adoption 
of the State Constitution in 1780 down to 1806, was also made 
in this office, and edited by me, and completed about 2 years 
ago. This work comprised some 13 volumes, for which a sep- 
arate and distinct appropriation was allowed by the State, 
and the publication covered the period of about 10 years. 

The Adjutant General's office also has secured from time 
to time appropriations for the purpose of indexing and pub- 
lishing the records of the Civil War, et cetera, and for the 
care of such records, apart from the regular routine work 
of the office. 

"As you will see by the foregoing statements, the depart- 
ment for the care of records, and their publication, has 
grown to be a very important one here in Massachusetts, and 
is entirely separate from the Secretary's office, except that 
■its chief, as I have said before, is nominally under his direc- 
tion, although from the time of my taking charge of the work 
here, I have been allowed a free hand and autocratic authority 
in all matters connected with the records." 

Mississippi. No State historical publications. On March 
2, 1900, an appropriation of f2,000.00 was made to aid the 
State Historical Society "in the printing of its publications, 
including the report" of the Misssissippi History Commission. 

Nebraska. Rosters of State troops, 1861-65, and 1898, 
issued by office of Adjutant General. Cost not ascertained. 
Total State appropriation in aid of State Historical Society, 
1883 to 1899, $23,000.00, of which |3,200.00 actually expended 
in printing State historical material, the remainder going to 
library maintenance, etc. 

New Hampshire. Has published 28 volumes of State 
Papers. These include generally, miscellaneous docu- 
mentary material covering the early history of the State, 
rosters of troops in the Revolutionary War, Journals of the 
Council, Senate and House, Town Charters, early Wills, 
Laws, etc. These are prepared under the direction of an edi- 
tor ; and are of great value. Total appropriations not ascer- 
tained, but the cost of Vol. 28, pp. 532, octavo, is given to 
illustrate the general cost, viz : editorial work and incidental 
expenses for editor and his assistants, |928.00; printing, 
11,590.10; printing blanks for the collection of data, $5.20; 

Historical Work in Other States. 33 

making a total of |2,523.30. Pour volumes of Indexes have 
been published ; also rosters of its troops in the War of 1812, 
and in the Civil War. It also renders aid to the several 
Veterans' Associations, by an advance subscription for 400 
copies of each regimental history. 

New Jersey. Has published 22 volumes of Archives; 
three volumes of papers relating to the War of the Eevolu- 
tion, one volume of Officers and Men of New Jersey in the 
Revolution; and three volumes of lists of officers and men 
from the State in the Civil War. The appropriations for 
these publications have been about $50,000.00. The State 
has also secured copies of papers relating to New Jersey from 
the Public Record Office in London. The appropriations for 
the next fiscal year (1900-1901) for the further publication 
of the Archives is $3,500.00. 

New York. The office of the Adjutant General has pub- 
lished 17 volumes of the individual records of New York 
soldiers in the Civil War; the State Comptroller has pub- 
lished "New York in the Revolution," 1 volume; and the 
Office of the "State Historian," 7 volumes of historical 
papers. The State has had extensive researches made in 
Foreign offices, and copies of all papers of pertinent value 
made. The historical work of the State is now conducted 
through a State Historian, the average annual appropriation 
for the maintainance of his office being, during the past two 
years, |13,350.00. The expense of securing data and of pub- 
lishing the above volumes has been very great. The State 
Historian says "Since 1885, New York State has been very 
generous in her legislative appropriations for historical work 
and historical researches," and "has annually appropriated 
in the neighborhood of $50,000 a year for historical work." 

North Carolina. Has published its Colonial and State 
Records, 1662-1790, in 19 quarto volumes; and in 1874 a 
Legislative Manual. It has also published rosters of its 
troops in the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil 
War. About $6,000.00 has been expended for copying docu- 
ments in the British Public Record Office; besides large sums 
for printing the above works. 

Ohio. Rosters of the soldiers from the State in the Mexi- 
can and Civil Wars have been published, 12 volumes. Cost 
not ascertained. The State purchased the plates of Howe's 
History of Ohio, for $20,000.00. Appropriations have been 
made for the publication and distribution of several thousand 

34 Report Alabama History Commission. 

books printed from these plates. Total appropriations f 
history not ascertained, but at present a regular annual a 
propriation of |7,000.00 is made to the State Historic 

Pennsylvania. Has published its State Archives in thr 
series, as follows, viz : 1st, its Colonial Records, 12 volume 
2nd, Revolutionary Period, etc., 19 volumes; and 3rd, Misc( 
laneous, 30 volumes. A fourth series is now in progress, e 
titled the "Papers of the Governors." These volumes a 
prepared under the supervision of an editor who gets |500 
volume, each to contain 800 octavo pages. The State pa; 
all expenses of procuring copies and printing. The work 
the editor consists in locating and selecting material, editii 
and getting the volumes from the press. No detail as to oth 

Rhode Island. Has published its Colonial Records, : 
volumes, and is now arranging to publish the rolls of i 
soldiers in the Revolutionary War. Total appropriations n 
ascertained, but for last year (1899) the total expenditur 
for historical work was |4,478.00 which included |1,500.00 
the Rhode Island Historical Society, and $500 to the Ne 
port Historical Society. 

South Carolina. Has published tentative rosters < 
loose sheets of State troops in the Civil War, for which an a 
propriation of $1,000.00 was made. A further appropriati( 
of $1,000.00, used by the Historian of Confederate Records 
collecting data as to South Carolina troops, etc. The sum 
$6,500 has been expended in securing copies of all documen 
bearing on South Carolina history to be found in the Britii 
Public Record Office. 

Tennessee. No State historical publications. For sou 
years a small appropriation has been made to assist in t 
publication of the American Historical Magazine, a quarter 
periodical representing the Chair of American History in t' 
Peabody Normal College. 

Texas. No State historical publications. In 1891 t' 
office of Historical Clerk in the office of the Department 
Agriculture was created, and during the years 1893-1897, i 
appropriation of $500.00 per annum was made to aid in c< 
lecting data about the State. Since then the appropriate 
has been $150.00 per annum. One of the Departments of t 
State is now called the "Department of Agriculture, Insi 
ance. Statistics, and History," under a Commissioner. 

Historical Work in Other States. 35 

Vermont. Revised roster of Vermont Volunteers in the 
Civil War issued by the office of the Adjutant and Inspector 
General. Cost not ascertained. No appropriation for his- 
torical purposes. 

Virginia. Has published a Calendar of State Papers, of 
10 volumes. Copies have been made at State expense of the 
early records of a number of the older counties. Twenty-two 
quarto volumes of manuscripts have been obtained from the 
British Public Record Office, and paid for by the State. De- 
tails of the appropriations are not available. 

Wisconsin. Has published Smith's History of Wisconsin 
(2 volumes; 1854) ; Strong's Territorial History of Wisconsin 

(1885) ; Roster of Wisconsin Volunteers in the Civil Wwr 

(1886) ; and the Wisconsin Historical Collections (15 
volumes) ; and other volumes and papers issued by the His- 
torical Society. The appropriations have been large and ex- 
tend over a period of half a century . A magnificent new 
library building has been recently erected at public expense. 
The Wisconsin Historical Society is the most enterprising in- 
stitution of the kind in the United States. 

Federal Government. As presenting what the Federal 
Government has done, the following extract is taken from a 
paper by Dr. S. B. Weeks, in the Publications of the South- 
ern History Association, Jan., 1897, pp. 13-14: 

"The Federal Government has spent more than |2,000,000 
in the acquisition and publication of records pertaining to 
the history of this country ; it has spent many millions more 
in the erection of memorials, in the preservation of historical 
places and the celebration of historical events, and is an- 
nually spending more than |250,000 in the promotion of 
American history. In this field the South is well represent- 
ed. The most important work of all is its great historical 
publication known as the 'Official Records of the War of the 
Rebellion,' which includes all the available documentarv or 
official materials toward a general history of the Civil War. 
The war series now extends to 102 volumes, [many more now, 
19001, with maps and plans, while the naval series has only 
been begun. For the period of exploration and discovery the 
Federal Government has printed the Memoirs and Documents 
of Margry and Force's Tracts ; for later periods it has printed 
38 volumes of American State Papers and 9 volumes of 
American Archives, the Pension Rolls of the Revolutionary 
army in three volumes, the Journals, public and private, of 
t^:e Continental Congress, the Diplomatic Correspondence 

36 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

of the American Revolution, the Documentary History of the 
Constitution, and the exceedingly valuable series of Blue 
Books, now being published by the Bureau of Rolls and 
Library, which contain catalogues of the manuscript papers 
of the Continental Congress, of the Correspondence of Jeffer- 
son, Madison, Monroe, and other materials of great value. 

The 53d Congress provided that all military records, such 
as muster rolls and pay rolls, orders and reports relating to 
the personnel or operations of the armies of the Revolution 
and the War of 1812 then in any of the Executive Depart- 
ments should be transferred to the Secretary of War, to be 
preserved, indexed and prepared for publication. A force of 
experts has since been employed for this purpose. It is esti- 
mated that all of this material would make some 50 volumes 
and could be printed at a cost of |100,750.00. But as these 
records are now very incomplete it is hoped to make them 
more perfect by securing the loan of similar records now in 
the possession of the various States, historical associations, 
public libraries and private individuals, and having copies 
made of the same. Such loans have already been made by 
New Hampshire and Vermont. Until the records now in 
■possession of the Federal Government are made more com- 
plete. Congress will not be asked to print. In the meantime 
the work of preparing- from the materials on hand index- 
record cards of the military history of the soldiers engaged in 
the various wars has been going on and will be finished, it is 
expected, by the end of the present fiscal year." 


Having ^iven so much attention to the examination of the 
sources and materials for the history of the State, and of their 
several places of deposit, as well as having ascertained the 
condition of tiistorical work in the State, the Commission 
feels that it is in a position to make certain conservative 
recommendations, which, if followed, will place the State of 
Alabama in the front rank in respect to the permanent preser- 
vation of its records, archives and history. These recommen- 
dations involve a State supported Department, devoted ex- 
clusively to historical utilities, the further support of the 
State Historical Society, the purchase and marking of historic 
places, the publication of a Biennial State Register, the better 
regulation of the publication of State documents, and the 
better preservation of official records. 

Recommendations. 37 

State Depabtment of Histobt. 

And first, the Commission recommends the creation of a 
Department of Archives and History, charged with the cus- 
tody of the State official archives, and the collection and 
creation of a State library, museum and art gallery, with 
particular reference to the history and anticiuities of Ala- 
bama, to be under the supervision of a Director. A liberal 
continuing appropriation should be made to conduct the 
Department, maintain its official staff, purchase necessary 
equipment, and otherwise enable it to accomplish the object 
of its creation. In addition to the accumulation of books, 
pictures , museum articles, etc., the Director should be 
charged with the duty of compiling a series of State archives 
as hereinafter recommended. To the Department could also 
be committed the matter of marking historic sites, etc. 
As there would be no necessity for two collections, the accu- 
mulations of the Historical Society so far made, could 
properly form the nucleus of the collection of the Depart- 
ment, and thereafter the functions of the former as a collect- 
ing agency should cease. The existence of the Society should 
however, continue, (1) for the purpose of stimulating interest 
in the various parts of the State through its membership, (2) 
to provide a body of students for regular meetings for his- 
torical discussion, (3) to facilitate the accumulation of his- 
torical objects, and (4) to raise additional funds for publi- 

The members of the Commission feel that they cannot too 
strongly urge the importance of the proposed Department. 
Its establishment would mark a progressive advance on the 
part of the State, in line with its growth in other directions. 
It would also place Alabama in the front rank with those 
States which take an intelligent and patriotic interest in their 
history and archives. But apart from merely sentimental 
and patriotic considerations, this Department would prove 
of greatest practical benefit to the people of the whole 
State. Through its careful direction the entire body of the 
State archives would be given the attention befitting their 
priceless value, and they would be arranged and so indexed 
as to be available for almost immediate consultation by all 
interested parties. When the present condition of the 
archives is understood, these considerations alone would 
more than justify its establishment. It would build up for 
the whole State a great reference historical library, valuable 
alike to the general reader, the students of our institutions 

S8 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

of learning, the members of patriotic Societies, and the gen- 
eral historians of the United States. It would also gather 
together the surviving letters and papers of our public men, 
and the large number of interesting museum articles as well 
as pictures, which are now awaiting some safe place of de- 
posit. Unless some place is provided for these things, in which 
Alabamians should take a personal interest, they will find 
permanent place for preservation beyond the State. It is 
confidently believed that donations of books, relics, etc., could 
be secured in value far beyond the amount appropriated for 
maintenance. It would also collect the records and details of 
service of Alabama troops in all wars in which they have par- 
ticipated, "for the benefit and satisfaction of the living, as a 
grateful tribute to the memory of the dead, and as a wel- 
come presentation to our posterity, who, in freedom hereafter, 
will proudly hail this glorious roll of the Patriot Sons 
of Alabama." The educational value of the collection would 
be very great. In a short while it would be a favorite resort 
for all classes of students ; and such a resort is sadly needed. 
Again, consider its practical value to State, County and 
Municipal officials, legislators, politicians, lawyers, and all 
classes of professional and business men, who are in constant 
need of information now nowhere easily in reach. The De- 
partment would be prepared to supply data, statistical and 
otherwise on Alabama, whether pertaining to her past, her 
soldiers, or to her agricultural, or industrial resources. In- 
deed, it is not making too great a claim to assert that this 
Department would mark an epoch in the history of the State. 
It would be a place to which the patriotic heart of all Ala- 
bamians could turn with pride and delight. It would not 
only increase our sense of local importance and State pride, 
but would also engender a higher degree of respect on the 
part of sister commonwealths. 

Sebies or State Papers. 

Next in importance to the establishment and maintenance 
of the proposed Department of History, indeed, as a part of 
the activities to be committed to it is the compilation and pub- 
lication of a series of State Papers, which is most earnestly 
recommended. These should embrace in full all of the docu- 
mentary material bearing on all parts of its history and devel- 
opment from the first discovery of its territory. Historical 
students want nothing less than full compilations of all orig- 
inal material. Several States have responded to this demand 

Recommendations. 39 

in respect to their records, and have made liberal expendi- 
tures as will be seen above. To do this is a debt due by the 
State of Alabama to its history and to its own and general 
students. If the Department should be created the work of 
compilation should be placed in charge of its Director; other- 
wise, a special Commissioner, or Historian, should be named 
to execute the work. In either event an appropriation must be 
made to cover the cost of collecting the material and of its 
publication. In this connection reference is made to the cost 
of publishing similar volumes by other States. 

The following provisional list of volumes is suggested. 

Volume I. — Fundamental Charters, Proclamations, Acts of 
Congress and Constitutions, which affect the Territory 
now embraced in Alabama, from the earliest times to the 

Volume II. — Documents and Papers connected with Spanish 
Exploration and Occupation of what is now Alabama. 

Volume III. — Documents and Papers connected with French 
Occupation. 1699-1763. 

Volume IV. — Documents and Papers connected with Eng- 
lish Occupation. 1763-1783. 

Volume V. — Mississippi and Alabama Territorial Docu- 
ments. 1798-1819. 

Volume VI. — Governor's Messages. 1818-1900. 

Volume VII. — Miscellaneous State Documents : Banks and 
Finance, University, Schools, Boundaries, Indians, Inter- 
nal Improvements, Slavery, etc. 1818-1900. 

Volume VIII. — Census and Population Statistics. 1800-1900. 

Volume IX.— Official Eegister. 1800-1900. To include full 
rosters of all State and County Officials. 

Volume X. — Counties and County Boundaries. 1800-1900. 
To include in full all acts creating, or changing names of 
counties, establishing or changing county sites, or altering 
county boundaries. 

Volume XI. — Abstracts of the Records of the Several Coun- 
ties from 1800 to 1819. To include early deeds, wills, mar- 
. riage records, etc. 

40 Iteport Alabama History Commission. 

Volume XII. — War Records. This should embrace (1) a re- 
print of the Rolls of Revolutionary Pensioners who lived in 
Alabama; (2) Rosters of Commands from Mississippi, 
Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina, 
who served in the Creek War, 1813-1814; (3) Rosters and 
Documents of the Indian Wars, 1832-1842; (4) Rosters of 
Alabamians in the Texas Wars; (5) Rosters of Alabamians 
in the Mexican War; (6) the Records of Alabama in the 
War between the States, the latter to embrace the corre- 
spondence of the Executive and Adjutant General's offlces, 
Regimental and Company Reports, and Rosters of all com- 
mands; and (7) Rosters of Alabama commands in the 
Spanish- American War. 

Papers in Private Hands of an Unofficial Character. 

As will appear, a large number of original documents, let- 
ters and papers of histoiical value have been discovered in the 
hands of descendants of actors in the history of the State in 
its several periods. There are doubtless others no.t unearthed 
by the Commission, which are of importance. Although some 
of these have been located, and their contents indicated in a 
general way, they have not been fully explored, and hence in 
every case their permanent and specific historical value has 
not been determined. It has not been considered advisable, 
therefore, to recommend the publication of these in the series 
of documents proposed to be published by the State. They 
are of an unofficial character, and can well be left for the 
future exploitation of enterprising members of the Historical 
Society. This is not to be taken as an expression adverse to 
their historical value or significance, for many of them throw 
a flood of light on miscellaneous matters connected with the 
State's history. That they should be ultimately published is 
evident, but the Historical Society, or private enterprise, 
properly directed, should do it. It is hoped that the very full 
account given of the historical papers in private hands will 
be of use to students, and will not only stimulate further in- 
quiries, but will also serve to show the great importance of 
their safe and permanent preservation. 

Appropriations in Behalf of the Alabama Historical Society. 

As the Alabama Historical Society will continue its active 
existence irrespective of the creation of the State Department 
of History, and as it cannot possibly accomplish its very 

Recommendations. 41 

worthy purposes and objects without financial aid, it is recom- 
mended that an annual appropriation of at least one thousand 
dollars be made to enable it to publish its "Transactions," and 
its "Miscellaneous Collections." The Society should be re- 
quired to make an Annual Report to the Governor in which 
should be given an account of current local historical work, 
State annals and necrology of the year, with such documents 
and papers as might be pertinent, the report to be printed at 
State expense in a large edition. In the event the State De- 
partment of History is not established, the above amount 
should be greatly increased so as to enable the Society in some 
degree to enlarge its library, museum and art gallery. 

Points and Places op Historical Interest in Alabama 

In a general way the Report shows a large number of points 
and places of interest in the State, and indicates their his- 
torical connection and importance. 

It accords with an enlightened and grateful sentiment to 
respect the evidences of the former aboriginal habitation of 
our State, and to venerate the scenes of the exploits of our 
people in arms, or of the place of occurrence of some historic 
incident or event, or of the place where those great ones 
among us first came into existence or where they sleep the last 
sleep. A generous public opinion has been maturing for some 
time in favor of the permanent marking of these places in 
some suitable way, either by a memorial stone, mural or other 
tablet, with suitable inscriptions. The cost would not be very 
large, and the patriotic sentiments aroused would more than 
justify the expenditures. 

It is particularly recommended that the State purchase the 
sites of Old Port Louis, of Old St. Stephens, of Old Fort Jack- 
son, and of Old Fort Tombecbee, and have them suitably en- 
closed as public parks. Provisions should also be made for 
the erection therein of monuments and the placing of bronze 
or iron tablets to indicate local points of interest. No men- 
tion is here made of the number of Indian villages, the forts 
and stockades, the battlefields and historical houses which 
should be appropriately marked. An appropriation to meet 
the expense incident to this work should by all means be made 
either to the Historical Society, to whom all details could be 
entrusted, or to the Department of History, if created. 

42 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Biennial Official Register. 

It is highly important that the facts of current official his- 
tory be properly and authoritatively preserved, and a Bien- 
nial Official Register is therefore recommended. The Secre- 
tary of State might be charged with its compilation, or this 
might properly devolve on the Department of History if one 
is created. It should be prepared immediately following the 
biennial State elections in August, and published just prior 
to the meeting of the General Assembly in a large edition at 
the State's expense. It should embrace (1) Brief sketches of 
the several State Officers, Members of Congress, Supreme 
Court Judges, and Senators and Members of the House of 
Representatives; (2) Rosters of all State and County Offi- 
cials; (3) State Institutions and Officials; (4) State and 
County Population Statistics; (5) Miscellaneous State Sta- 
tistics. Similar publications are issued by many of the 
States, and they are found to be of great usefulness. 

Official Documents. 

It is further recommended that provision be made for the 
regular progressive numbering by the public printer of all 
State officials reports and documents for each biennial legis- 
la;tive period. The series could begin with the Governor's 
Message as No. 1, the Auditor's Report as No. 2, the Treas- 
urer's Report as No. 3, and so on for all regular publications. 
After the fixed numbers, miscellaneous legislative or other 
documents, reports, papers, etc., should follow in regular or- 
der, so as to embrace in one consecutive group all official is- 
sues for the biennial period. In case of annual reports, or 
other papers, published in the second year of the period, they 
should bear the regular fixed number, followed by the desig- 
nation of "Part 2." In addition to the regular edition of all 
public documents now required by law to be printed, the pub- 
lic printer should be required to collect and bind, after the 
adjournment of the General Assembly, fifty full sets, ar- 
ranged in regular numerical order, of all of the public 
documents in one or more volumes to the set as might be 
necessary, the said bound sets to be turned over to the De- 
partment of History for distribution. 

Executive Officers. 

It is further recommended that provision be made whereby 
all State officials should be charged with the duty of collect- 
ing and binding full sets of all early issues of the reports and 

Recommendations. 43 

other publications of their respective offices. And also that 
they be charged with the duty of collecting for their Depart- 
ments as far as possible life size likenesses of all of their pre- 
decessors in office. By a little efCort donations of these could 
be secured. 

Further Recommendations. 

It is further recommended that appropriate legislation be 

(1) Making compulsory the erection at once of fire proof 
vaults, or the purchase of fire proof safes, in all counties not 
at present provided with them, and that officials be held under 
severe penalty for failure to use them for all records. 

(2) Providing standard grades of paper for official flies 
and record books, and standard inks and typewriter ribbons 
for official use. 

(3) Enjoining more rigid care for official records and 
printed books, and providing that no official records shall 
leave official custody. 

(4) Directing the rebinding at once of all official records 
which appear at any time liable to become mutilated, or parts 
are liable to be lost or destroyed. 

(5) Providing a better system of official records for the of- 
fice of County Superintendent of Education. 

(6) Providing specially that the Secretary of State be per- 
mitted and authorized to complete and bring up to date the 
several land books of his office. 


The Commission does not feel the necessity of advancing 
any arguments whatever to emphasize the importance of his- 
torical study and investigation, or of the preservation of his- 
torical materials, or of the duty of the State in relation there- 
to. The preliminary stage of such work has too long passed 
and too much has been done by the Nation and by many of the 
States, for Alabama to hesitate. To take rank with sister 
States of far less wealth and infinitely less of historic annals, 
the State must in a generous spirit appropriate funds suffi- 
cient to publish its archives and to maintain a Department of 
History. Furthermore, from a comparative standpoint the 
State should do something of a substantial character in this 
direction. It now maintains at great cost the Public Schools, 

44 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

the Insane Hospital, the Deaf and Dumb Institute, the Ala- 
bama Girls' Industrial School, the Department of Agricul- 
ture, the several Normal Schools, the State Militia, the 
Health Department, and the Geological Survey. Surely 
something should be done to care for its archives, and to pre- 
serve the records of the State, the memorials of its past, and 
the current events of its existence. 

The Commission respectfully urges attention to the fact 
that this Report has involved much laborious investigation on 
the part of its members. This has been done altogether with- 
out compensation. The consideration which has moved the 
members has been the hope that the work done would so strik- 
ingly reveal the exceeding richness of the State's historical 
wealth, that a prompt response would be made by the General 
Assembly looking to its preservation. It is believed that such 
response will be made, if your excellency will only properly 
emphasize its necessity and urge action. 

The Commission feels that it has faithfully executed the 
trust imposed, and it confidently looks to appropriate legisla- 
tion to meet the share of duty devolved on the representa- 
tives of the people. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Thomas McAdoey Owen, Chairman. 

William Stokes Wyman, 

Sam^l Will John^ 

Charles C. Thach, 

Peter Joseph Hamilton. 

Birmingham, Alabama. 
December 1, 1900. 


An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Docu- 
ments Pertaining to Alabama in Official 
Repositories beyond the State. 



By Peter J. Hamilton. 

Spain, France, England and Spain again were the succes- 
sive owners of so much of the territory facing the Gulf and of 
the hinterland tributary as is now embraced in Alabama and 
Mississippi. Some records of these times survive at Mobile 
and are discussed elsewhere, but the bulk of the documents 
bearing on these periods is still in Europe. The most conveni- 
ent consideration of their location will be according to classi- 
fication by these countries. 

1. SPAIN. 

When it is remembered that this coast was discovered by 
the followers of Columbus, explored by Cortez, De Soto and 
many other Spaniards, as well as settled in part in the 16th 
century, and that competent judges say that Spiritu Santo, 
the most famous Spanish harbor in the north side of the Gulf, 
was Mobile Bay, it will be seen that the first Spanish period, 
A. D. 1507-1682, is as important as it is romantic. In it geo- 
graphical relations gradually developed and the natives, still 
in the Stone Age, were first met and studied. 

There are three classes of papers, throwing light on the 
period, some of which have been published : — Reports of ex- 
plorers and other olficers. Maps, and Accounts of Travelers . 
Much of what has been published is almost as rare as the 
originals and could be profitably copied so far as it relates to 
Alabama. This is the more easy as most of it is accessible in 
the larger libraries of this country. Spanish scholars have 
not been idle as is testified by the great collections of Munoz, 
Navarrete and the Madrid Academy of History. Ternaux 
Compans has translated some important papers into French, 
and B. F. French in his voluminous and rare Historical Col- 
lections of Louisiana has rendered many into English. These 
collections should be made accessible to Alabamians, for they 
cover the interior so far as then known as well as that great 
Gulf of which, as a Senator has expressed it, Alabama will 
be the front gallery and Mobile the steps. The Gulf and its 
coasts were discovered, explored, and named by the Span- 
iards, and will reach theirworld-importance under the Ameri- 


48 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

The explorations were undertaken from Seville and there 
was long the Indian House (Casa de la Contratacion de las 
Indias) to which came all goods and documents from the 
American colonies. At Seville, therefore, ought to be the 
richest collections for this early period. Much has been 
moved to Simancas and Madrid to form more central national 
collections and much work can be done there. But in the re- 
moval these papers have become known, indexed in part and 
to some extent published, and we judge that most of the 
American local material, because not specially affecting con- 
tinental history, has been left at Seville. The writer of this 
sub-division through Hon. Hannis Taylor when Minister to 
Spain, had a preliminary examination made for Mobile ma 
terial, but without success. This search, however, was per- 
functory. The proper way to do in the future is to employ a 
trained Spanish archivist, or to send from America one 
familiar with the history and with Spanish language and 
methods, who shall go to these archives, after proper authori- 
zation, and search through them. By a union of the forces of 
the States and societies interested, much can be done. Can- 
ada has undertaken the same work, but not in Spain. Archive 
searching is a recognized business and many good men in Eu- 
rope give their lives to it at so much a day or hour. 

For the second Spanish period, 1780-1813, more remains at 
Mobile itself, but instructions and reports must exist in abun- 
dance in Spain. The communication with other colonies was 
so intimate that investigations in Mexico and especially in 
Havana should also produce good results. 


The French records are much more systematic and acces- 
sible than the Spanish, but for that reason perhaps there is 
less to be found that is new. The time of LaSalle has been 
Avell worked, but of that of Iberville, Bienville and their suc- 
cessors less has been made. Yet the latter, 1699-1763, is the 
more important. During this time Mobile was founded and 
flourished and half a continent was explored from our shores. 

The pioneers were the coureurs du hois or wood rangers 
from Canada, who left no records, and then follow the mis- 
sionaries of the Seminary of Quebec, who came down the Mis- 
sissippi River in the wake of LaSalle. No collected Relations 
of these fathers are known, altho' much should be at Quebec. 
Better known are the Jesuits, but their Relations, lately re- 
published in extenso with a translation, at Cleveland, Ohio, 

Prance. 49 

contain little or nothing as to this part of the country. There 
may be more at the general office in Paris, but it is to be 
remembered that this was a Capuchin rather than a Jesuit 

The original official authorities for the French settlements 
are or were in the State archives of France and particularly 
in that of the department of the Marine and Colonies. These 
originally constituted one bureau, but are now separate, that 
of the Marine being the richer in materials. A great deal has 
been published in the splendid collection of Margry called 
EtabUssemens, etc., in six volumes, but this is really a selec- 
tion rather than a collection, and much more can still be 
found. The same is true of the monumental Collections in 
seven volumes, by B. F. French. 

In proof of this, reference may be had to the digests, or ab- 
stracts, of Pierre Magne and Pierre Margry elsewhere dis- 
cussed. Pickett worked on material obtained for him in the 
French archives,' and the same is true of the writer. For in- 
stance, special endeavor was made to obtain all the French 
maps that are known. One by DeVin, however, certainly once 
existed, for it is in Forstall's list, but it cannot now be found. 
•A careful archivist could unquestionably unearth a great 

With the breaking up of the department of the Marine & 
Colonies, or at some other time, these papers were re-ar- 
ranged and many could not be located despite the kind inter- 
est of French officials in the work of the writer on "Colonial 
Mobile." However, during the last few months the impor- 
tant discovery was made by Dr. Alc^e Fortier, while visiting 
France, that there exists in the French Colonial Office, at 
Paris, fifty- three volumes arranged chronologically, of what 
purports to be all the documents belonging to the French gov- 
ernment relating to Louisiana. These are easily accessible, 
and if they are, as is believed, approximately complete, the 
work of transcription of pertinent material will be easy.' 

Records or Law's Company.' 

As is stated elsewhere the "family papers" of John Law 
have been destroyed. The heirs of Law, in a Memorial to 

'/See in other parts of the Report for account of work done 
In the French archives by Brancroft, Sparks, and Parkman, and also for 
the States of New York, Massachusetts, Louisiana, etc. 

^At the meeting of the Louisiana Historical Society, Oct. 17, 1900, plans 
were formulated for securing the publication by the U. S. Government of 
all of the newly discovered documents. 

'Prepared by Thomas M. Owen. 

50 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Congress, March 26, 1838, for the confirmation of their claim 
to a tract of land in Arkansas, granted him as they alleged 
on July 5 1719, by the India Company then in chartered con- 
trol of Louisiana, state "that the records of said Company, 
for the period of the said grant, and for several years subse- 
quent thereto, have been lost or destroyed." Notwithstanding 
this statement as to the loss and destruction of these papers it 
is very gratifying to state that recently it has been learned 
that there are in existence at least one hundred and forty 
bundles of papers relating to the "Compagnie des Indes Occi- 
dentales" (1717-1731) , mostly in reference to Louisiana. They 
are at L'Orient, in the custody of the keeper of the archives 
of the Department in which the town stands. So far, no de- 
tailed statement of their contents has been secured. How- 
ever, William Beer, of New Orleans, who first called atten- 
tion to their location, is vigilant in his efforts to secure fur- 
ther particulars.' 

Ceozat Papers and Sxtprbme CotrNCiL Recokds. 

Nothing is known of the existence of the papers of Antoine 
Crozat, tiie rich merchant, whose control of Louisiana im- 
mediately antedated that of Law's Company. Neither is any- 
thing known of the Supreme Council records of Louisiana. 


In his address on Alabama History in Romantic Passages 
in South Western History, p. 85, A. B. Meek advocated as 
early as 1855, the examination of the papers in Somerset 
House in London, for there, he said, were the records of the 
British province of West Florida, whose capital was Pensa- 
cola, but whose chief city was Mobile. His indication has 
never been followed, but many of those records have been lo- 
cated in what is now called the Public Record Office in Lon- 

Much of this information is in volumes 252-267, inclusive, 
of the State Papers relative to America and West Indies, and 

'Report of the American Historical Association for 1898, p. 590. 
It has been suggested by Mr. Beer that the three Societies of Mis- 
sissippi, Louisiana and Alabama should engage some one to make chron- 
ological lists of the papers, with the shortest possible definite notes as to 
contents and length. It could then be determined by joint committee, or 
otherwise, which should be copied in part, and which in extenso. The re- 
spective Societies, or the States, could publish them iv^ Wl, pr in part, 
as was deemed advisable, 

Great Britain. 51 

some in vols. 331, 332, 333, 334, 438, and bundle 533 of the 
same series. As only the Council had the right to grant lands, 
these volumes are valuable for the record they contain of 
British land grants, which play such a great part in the earlv 
history of the Bigbee district. 

Their contents are of a very miscellaneous character, in- 
cluding reports of the governor, instructions from the royal 
government, minutes of governor's council, memorials of in- 
dividuals, and almost ever^1;hing else that could come before 
the officials. The acts of the provincial assembly are not 
there, except indirectly in the governor's reports, but they can 
be fairly followed in vols. 102 and 103 of the Acts of the Board 
of Trade,— which until Edmund Burke's famous onslaught, 
had a veto on colonial legislation. 

The time covered by these respective volumes so far as they 
apply to the Mobile district, is as follows : 

Vol. 2_5_2. 1763-5. Gov. George Johnstone. 

Gov. George Johnstone. 
Gov. George Johnstone. 
Lieut. Gov. Montfort Browne. 
Lieut. Gov. Montfort Browne. 
Lieut. Gov. Montfort Browne. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gov. Peter Chester. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 
Gen. Campbell. 

This is substantially the same as William Beer's list in 
American Historical Reoiem, vol. i, p. 380, Avith some correc- 
tions by the archivist w^ho digested them for this writer in 

William Beer, librarian of the Howard Memorial Library, 
New Orleans, who has personally explored these records, fur- 
nishes for this place a description of their location, etc. 

"The Record Office is situated in a narrow thoroughfare in 
London known as Fetter Lane. Though the entrance is nar- 

















































62 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

row and unimpressive, the building itself is large. In it are 
stored all the records of England antedating this century. 
These are gradually being indexed and made ready for refer- 
ence by the general public. On application for records of 
1785 I was told that the indexing had only reached the time 
of Henry VIII, and what I sought could not be communi- 
cated. An interview, however, with Maxwell Lyte, the keeper 
of the records, brought about their production without loss 
of time. The volumes are small folio, each containing about 
200 pages of manuscripts. These are of very varying value, at 
least tAvo-thirds of some of the volumes being taken up with 
three or four preparatory drafts of letters of which the com- 
pleted copies are also given. In many cases the documents 
and letters are in the handwritings of the officials whose sig- 
natures make them valuable." 

These volumes cover only the civil side of public affairs, 
(except that 267 is mainly military,) but curiously enough we 
have its correlative and corrective for several years in the 
military records preserved in the Haldimand Papers in the 
British Museum. This is fortunate, for the generals and the 
governors were almost always at loggerheads. On account of 
their importance for Canadian history, — Haldimand having 
been afterwards governor of Canada, — that ideal archivist, 
Douglas Brymner, has had these copied, and so they are ac- 
cessible at Ottawa. He has done even better in publishing a 
Calendar, or descriptive index of every item. The collection 
is that of Gen. Prederich Haldimand, the British commander 
in West Florida from 1767 to 177-3. This methodical Swiss 
seems to have kept every paper written to him and copies of 
many by him, so that besides military matters proper we get 
light on almost every subject. There are deeds and court pro- 
ceedings as well as all about the famous Maj. Eobert Farmer 
and his trial, the Indians, roads, forts, the first chart of 
Mobile Bay, &c., &c. 

Except in a general way, as in illustrating the origin and 
family history of French pioneers, &c., Canadian archives 
proper so far as known do not aid in the development of Ala- 
bama history. 


By Thomas M. Owen. 

The Federal Offices at Washington contain much valuable 
historical material. Under the direction of intelligent and 
capable officials this is accessible to students. Owing to its 
importance, more or less extended descriptions of the ma- 
terial in these several offices are given. Stimulated by the in- 
creasing demand of investigators and students, Congress, in 
order to define "the policy of the Government with reference 
to the use of its literary and scientific collections," passed a 
joint resolution in which it was declared that these collections 
were to be "accessible, under such rules and restrictions as 
the officers in charge of each collection may prescribe, or as 
are already, or hereafter may be, prescribed by act of Con- 
gress, to the students of any institution of higher education 
incorporated under the laws of Congress or of the District of 

The best key to the printed sources issued under govern- 
ment supervision is Ben : Perley Poore's Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the Government Publications of the United States, 
Sept. 5, 111k, March 4, 1881, ( 1885 ; 4to pp. 1392. ) One of the 
most valuable guides for ready use is Ames' and Crandall's 
Check List of Public Documents (1895.) In this publication 
will be found a full list of "Government Catalogues," pp. 179- 
191, covering every Department, etc. 


The available material of value in the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture is made accessible through its sev- 
eral publications. By reference to the following indexes, 
particular data can be readily located: General Index of 
the Agricultural Reports of the Patent Office, 1831 to 1861 
and of the Department of Agriculture, 1862 to 1816 {1819) ; 
Index to the Annual Reports of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, 1831 to 1893 (1896) ; Thomson's Synoptical In- 
dex of the Reports of the Statistician, 1863 to 1894 (1891) ; 
and Index to authors with Titles of their Publications in the 
Documents of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 1841 to 
1891 (1898). 


54 Keport Alabama History Commission. 


The Court of Claims was created by Act of Congress, Feb. 
25, 1855. It Avas given jurisdiction to hear and determine "all 
claims founded upon any laws of Congress or upon any regu- 
lation of an Executive Department, or upon any contract, 
express or implied, with the Government of the United 
States, and all claims which may be referred to it by either 
House of Congress." By subsequent acts this jurisdiction 
has been enlarged. Previous to its establishment private 
claims, and other demands against the Government, were 
presented to Congress for examination and relief. The old 
Congressional files, and the public documents of the several 
Congresses, contain a vast mass of data on a multitude of 
historical topics connected with the claims presented . Like- 
wise the records, reports, etc., of the Court of Claims contain 
valuable material. In most of the large and important cases 
coming before the Court, the pleadings and evidence have 
been printed. As a great part of the litigation grows out of 
matters connected with the Executive Departments, where 
the documentary evidence is found, the Court is authorized 
to call upon them for information and papers. The publica- 
tion of these documents preserves and makes accessible many 
historical papers. A full and consecutive list of all cases 
adjudicated has never been published, but in the public docu- 
ments will be found several lists of the most important 
classes of cases. The published Reports of decisions of the 
Court now number thirty-five volumes. 

As illustrating the character of claims coming up for adju- 
dication, two examples only are given. In the printed rec- 
ords of these two cases will be found more Choctaw and 
Cherokee Indian history in its relation to the government 
than in any other place. 

"On the 3d of March, 1881, Congress passed an act which 
authorized the Court of Claims to take jurisdiction of and 
try all questions of difference arising out of treaty stipula- 
tions with the Choctaw Nation and to render judgment 
thereon, with power to review the entire question of differ- 
ences de novo, without being estopped by any action had or 
award made by the Senate of the United States in pursuance 
of the treaty of 1855. These 'questions of difference' grew 
out of treaties made in 1820, 1825, 1830, 1855 and 1856. They 
had been in controversy in Congress and the Department for 
many years, and involved a claim of more than fifteen mil- 
lions of dollars. Suit has been instituted, and the printed 

Bureau of Education. 65 

record of the case covers more than three thousand printed 
pages. It has not yet been brought to a termination. (Case 
No. 12742.) 

"By act of March 3, 1883, Congress authorized the Eastern 
band of Cherolcee Indians to bring a suit in equity against 
the United States, as trustees, and the Cherol^ee Nation, to 
determine the claim of the former to a share of certain funds 
held in trust for the Cheroliees. The case involved the con- 
struction of numerous treaties and statutes, and made 
necessary a careful examination of the whole history of the 
Cherokee Indians since 1783. After a long trial the case 
Avas disposed of by a decree in favor of the Cherokee Nation.' 


The United States Bureau of Education has no local 
manuscripts. At its instance Hon. Willis G. Clark, late of 
Mobile, prepared a valuable monograph on the History of 
Education in Alabama, (1889; 8 vo. p. 281), which appeared 
as No. 8, of Contributions to American educational history, 
issued under the editorial supervision of Dr. Herbert B. Ad- 
ams. In its Reports, and publications on special topics will 
be found references to facts bearing on education in Ala- 

While it contains no original unpublished papers, there is, 
however, a large collection of source material for the educa- 
tional history of the State, consisting of Reports of the State 
Superintendent of Education, City School Documents, Ala- 
bama School Journals, and Proceedings of Associations. 

A list, which has in part been supplied by the Commis- 
sioner, is given herewith. 

School Documents. 

Keportof the Superintendent of Education [W. F. Perry], 
1855. 36 pp. 

Eeport of John Ryan, Superintendent of Education. 
Made April 1, 1866. 29 pp. 

Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1868- 
69. 48 pp. 

'/Sfee Wm. A. Richardson's History, Jurisdiction and Practice of the 
Court of Claims (1885) for further detail. 

'A list of the publications of the Bureau will be found in the Report of 
the Commissioner of Education, 1895-96, vol. i, pp. xlvi-liv. 

56 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Statement required by the House of Representatives from 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction pursuant to a 
resolution dated January 29, 1870. 34 pp. 

Special Report of Joseph Hodgson, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, January, 1871. 56 pp. 

Journal of the State Board of Education and Board of 
Regents, 1871. 144 pp. 

Report of Joseph Hodgson, Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, January 1 — September 30, 1871. 90-xxviii pp. 

Report of same, 1871-72. 32 pp. 

Same, session beginning November 25, 1872. 88 pp. 

Address of Hon. Joseph H. Speed, Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction, delivered before the Board of Education, 
November 23, 1872. 11 pp. 

Acts passed by the Board of Education at the session of 
1872. 30-8 pp. 

Report of Joseph H. Speed, Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, 1872-73. 158 pp. 

Report of same, 1873-74. 20 pp. 

Report of John M. McKleroy, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, 1874-75. 132 pp. 

Reports of same, 1875-76.. 38 pp. 

Journal of the State Board of Education and Board of 
Regents. Session commencing November 17, 1873. 120 pp. 

Report of Leroy F. Box, Superintendent of Education, 
1877-78, with statistics for 1876-77. Containing also laws 
relating to schools with an appendix of forms. LXIV-84 pp. 

Report of same, 1878-79. 128 pp. 

Report of same, 1879-80. 114 pp. 

Report of H. Clay Armstrong, Superintendent of Educa- 
tion, 1880-81. 52- (22) pp. 

Report of same, 1881-82. 115 pp. 

Report of same, 1882-83. 130 pp. 

Report of same, 1883-84. 142 pp. 

31st Annual Report of the Superintendent of Education, 
1884-85. By Solomon Palmer. 148 pp. 

32nd Annual Report, 1885-86, by same. 186 pp. 

33rd Annual Report, 1886-87, by same, with an appendix of 
school laws and forms. 239 pp. 

34th Annual Report, 1887-88, by same. 120 pp. 

35th Annual Report, 1888-89, by same. 128 pp. 

36th Annual Report, 1889-90, by same. 21-CXCIX pp. 

37th Annual Report, 1890-91, by Jno. G. Harris. 199 pp. 

38th Annual Report, 1891-92, by same. 109 pp. 

School Documents. 57 

Message of Governor Joseph F. Johnston to the General 
Assembly, December 1, 1896. 25 pp. 

Circular of Information from the Department of Educa- 
tion as to Alabama's educational status from 1855 to 1898. 
By John O. Turner. 152 pp. 

City School Documents. 

AvoNDALE. Eegister of Public School. No date. 7 pp. 

Bessemer. Second Annual Report Public Schools, 1890- 
91. 47 pp. 

Birmingham. Fourth Annual Report Public Schools, 
with Manual of the Board of Education. 1886-87. 160 pp. 

Annual Report Public Schools 1890-91, with Manual of the 
Board of Education. 189 pp. 

Cullman. District School Catalogue, 1888-89 and 1889- 
90. 13 pp. 

Annual Announcement for 1892-93. 11 pp. 

Decatur. Rules and Regulations of Public Schools. 
1887. 11 pp. 

Third Annual Report of Public Schools. 1889. 12 pp. 

Eupaula. City School Monthly. June, 1897. Volume 
1, No. 9. 26 pp. 

Rules and Course of Study. July, 1896. 9 pp. 

Gaylesville. Twenty-third Annual Catalogue of High 
School. 1893-94. 15 pp. 

HoLLYPOND. Announcement of High School. 1895-96. 
4 pp. 

Lauderdale County. Course of Study for Public Schools. 
1897. 12 pp. 

Mobile. Annual Report on the Condition of the Public 
Schools of the city and county of Mobile. 1855-56. 11 pp. 

Report of Special Committee on the State of the Schools. 
1858. 16 pp. 

Organization of the Board of School Commissioners and 
Regulation of the Public Schools. 1867. 34 pp. 

Annual Report of Superintendent of Public Schools. 1877. 

7 pp. 

Daily Register (newspaper) June 19, 1891, containing 

account of closing exercises of schools. 

58 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Organization, Rules and Regulations of Public Schools. 

Montgomery. Annual Message of Mayor and Reports of 
City Officers. 1885-8G. 82 pp. Containing schools reports, 
pp. 73-82. 

Course of Study, Rules and Regulations. 1888. 9 pp. 

Report and Manual of Public Schools. 1896. 59 pp. 

New Decatur. Course of Study, Rules and General In- 
formation concerning the Public Schools. 1890-91. 35 pp. 

Third Annual Report Public Schools. 1891-92, and Man- 
ual of Board of Trustees. 35 pp. 

Pratt City. Prospectus of City Schools, 1894. (Rules 
and Regulations and Course of Study. ) 22 pp. 

Tenth Annual Report Public Schools, 1898-99, and Manual 
of Board of Trustees. 29 pp. 

Prattvillk. Organization, Rules, etc.. of Public Schools. 
1885 86. 8 pp. 

Sblma. First Annual Report City School Board. 1890- 
91. 63 pp. 

Second Annual Report City School Board. 1891-92. 77 pp. 

Third Annual Report City School Board. 1892-93. 60 pp. 

Fifth Annual Report City School Board. 1894-95. 69 pp. 

Seventh Annual Report City School Board. 1896-97. 
68 pp. 

Sheffield. Special Manual of the Public School and 
Prospectus for 1898-99. (Not paged.) 

Talladega. First Annual Report of Public Schools. 1886- 
87. 47 pp. 

Third Annual Repor-t Public Schools. 1888-89. 45 pp. 

Fourth Annual Report of Superintendent of Public 
Schools. 1889-90. 13 pp. 

Fifth Annual Report of Superintendent of Public Schools. 
1890-91. 16 pp. 

Tuscaloosa. First Annual Report of Board of Educa- 
tion. 1886. 32 pp. 

White Plains. Third Annual Announcement of Talla- 
dega District High School. 1896-97. 15 pp. 

Engineers, Geological Survey, Indian Affairs. 59 


In the office of the Chief of Engineers are to be found official 
records and papere in reference to defensive worlis, and forti- 
fications erected by the Federal Government in the State, 
such as^ forts, stockades, etc. This office also has charge of 
all work on river and harbor improvements, and other civil 
works erected in the State, and in the appendixes to the 
Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers is to be found data 
as to these, liecords as to defensive works being confiden- 
tial, have not been published. See List of Records and 
Files, described under War Department, infra, for detailed 
schedule of the records of this Office. 


The collected materials and data brought together under 
the direction of the United States Geological Survey is pub- 
lished as rapidly as it can be prepared. The work done in 
this Bureau can be ascertained from a reference to the Bib- 
liography and Index of the Publications of the U. S. Geolog- 
ical ISurvey (Bulletin No. 100; 1893) ; and a List of the Pub- 
lications of the U. ki. Gelogical Survey (1898). The topo- 
graphic maps published by the Survey are of the first impor- 


To the Secretary of War was originally committed gover- 
mental direction and control of the Indian tribes. Under 
him was appointed first a Superintendent of Indian trade, 
who later was known as Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
A Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to be an officer of the War 
Department, was provided by Act of Congress, July 9, 1832. 
In 1849, when the Interior Department was organized, it 
became one of the bureaus of this Department, with which 
it still is connected. 

The Commissioner furnishes the following information 
concerning the official records of his office : 

"(1) The records of this office are supposed to be com- 
plete from 1838 to the present time; (2) they go back to 
July 9, 1832 but are not methodically arranged ; ( 3 ) some of 
the records of this office date back as far as 1800; (4) it is 
not considered that the War Department turned over the 
records for this period in its possession at the time of the 

60 Report Alabama History Commission. 

transfer of records when the Interior Department was es- 
tablished in 1849; (5) there are no manuscript collections 
made by the Kev. Jedediah Morse as to the Indian tribes in 
the possession of this office, his report to the Secretary of 
War was published in 1822, and this office is in possession 
of a copy of said publication; (6) there are a number of 
manuscript maps in this office showing early Indian bound- 
aries in the Southern States, and it would be difficult to enu- 
merate and explain each one of these maps." 

The American State Papers : Indian Affairs, 2 vols., folio, 
contain the printed official documents and papers of the Qov- 
ernment from the 1st to the 19th Congresses inclusive. 
May 25, 1789, to March 1, 1827. Annual Keports of the Su- 
perintendent of Indian Affairs, and also of the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, have been regularly issued annually, the 
latter dating from 1832. They form a part of the reports of 
the Secretary of War, or of the Secretary of the Interior, but 
are also issued separately as bureau publications. 


All of the manuscript books, documents and papers per- 
taining to the several censuses from the First to the Elev- 
enth, are preserved in the Interior Department. The follow- 
ing data in reference thereto has been f urnishd by the Secre- 

"1. Mississippi was organizd as a territory April 7, 1798, 
and admitted as a state December 10, 1817. The original re- 
turns of the population of Mississippi during the Census 
years of 1800, 1810 and 1820 are not found on the files of this 

"2. Alabama was organized as a territory March 3, 1817, 
and admitted as a state December 14, 1819. The first federal 
Census of Alabama was taken in 1820, (Fourth Census) but 
the original schedules of the enumeration of the population 
of Alabama at that time, do not appear on the records and 
files of this Department.' An abstract of the Censuses from 
1790 to 1820 inclusive, published under the supervision of the 
Secretary of State, shows the political divisions as well as 
the population of Alabama during the periods above men- 

"Notwithstanding these statements, the editor is able to note that 
a few years s^w.e he examined and made extracts from these 
particular records, here supposed to be lost. They have evidently been 
misplaced, or have been temporarily taken from their usual place ol cus- 

I)epartmeiit of Justice. 61 

"The original population schedules of the several Censuses 
of Alabama, with number of volumes composing same, here- 
inafter indicated, are on file in this Department, and may be 
examined by persons showing a proper interest therein, to 
wit- : 

"Census of 1830— Alabama, 3 volumes; 1840, 7 volumes; 
1850, 20 volumes; 1860, 18 volumes; 1870, 13 volumes; 1880, 
19 volumes. The population schedules of the Census of 1890 
are wrapped in the original portfolios of the 728 enumerators 
who took the Census of the State ; the attention of Congress 
has been called to the necessity for binding these schedules, 
but no appropriation has yet been made for the purpose. 

"3. The returns of population of the several Censuses, so 
far as same related to the names of the persons enumerated 
have never been published; the political divisions, however, 
of the several States and Territories and the aggregate popu- 
lation of each during the Census years, together with statis- 
tics of Manufacture, Agriculture, etc., have from time to time 
been published by authority of Congress." 


The Act of Congress, September 24, 1789, provided for the 
appointment of an Attorney General for the United States 
whose duty it should be "to prosecute and conduct all suits 
in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be 
concerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions 
of law when required by the President of the United States, 
or when requested by the heads of any of the Departments, 
touching any matters that may concern their Departments," 
etc., and his office was thereafter known as the office of the 
Attorney General. By the Act of June 22, 1870, it was pro- 
vided that "there shall be at the seat of Government an Ex- 
ecutive Department to be known as the Department of Jus- 
tice, and an Attorney-General who shall be the head there- 
of." And since the passage of this Act, what was the Attor- 
ney-General's office has been officially designated the Depart- 
ment of Justice. 

Prior to the organization of the Department in 1870, the 
records were not well kept and cannot be called complete. 
They consist, in a general way, of the 

(1) Correspondence of the Department, comprising that 

'The data in reference to this Department has been supplied by John 
W. Griggs, Esq., Attorney-General. 

62 Report Alabama History Commission. 

received and sent in relation to all the branches of the De- 
partment work, 

(2) Opinions rendered by the Attorney-General, 

(3) Registers of official appointments, and 

(4) Papers necessary to be preserved in cases in the Su- 
preme Court and elsewhere, etc. 

Sections oiG-SST, inclusive, of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States very clearly set forth the duties of the Attor- 
ney-General, his subordinate officials, and the Department 
as a whole, but there have been some additions made by later 
legislation. An additional Assistant Attorney-General has 
been appointed, charged with the defense of suits in Indian 
Depredation cases. 

An Accounting Division has been provided for, for the ex- 
amination of the accounts of attorneys, marshals, clerks of 
courts, and United States Commissioners. 

The rapid growth of the country in every way has neces- 
sarily made a corresponding increase in the work of the De- 
jiartment. New judicial districts have been created, busi- 
ness has increased with the population in those already ex- 
isting, and Congress has from time to time, by legislation, 
placed a variety of things under the control and management 
of the Attorney- General and the Department of Justice. An 
examination of the last A.nniial Report of the Attorney-Gen- 
eral will show quite clearly the extent and variety of the miat- 
ters within the Department's jurisdiction. 

No history of the Department has ever been written, nor 
has any description of its official records been printed. 

The "Department Register" contains the list of judges, at- 
torneys, marshals, and other officials. 1 volume." 


The General Land Office was established by Act of Con- 
gress, April 25, 1812.— U. S. Stat., vol. ii, p. 716. 

The public lands being under the entire control and direc- 
tion of Congress, that body has from time to time enacted 
various laws creating agents to sell and otherwise dispose 
of the public domain, and from 1776 it has made grants, 
r-'rom May 20, 1775, and after, under order of Congress, the 
Board of Treasury (three commissioners), the then Treasury 
Department, made sales of the public lands and gave certiii- 
cates. April 21, 1792, Congress authorized the President to 

"This book was compilea from the original records in the State De- 

Land Office Records. 63 

give patent to "the Ohio Coiiipany of Associates" (Winthrop 
Sargent, Cutler, Rufns Putman, and others). May 5, 1792, 
the President was antliorized to give patent for lands to John 
Cleves Symmes, and his associates. The money in these cases 
was paid direct to the Secretary of the Treasury. By act of 
MnY 18, 1796, for the sale of the lands in the Northwestern 
Territory, now in Ohio, the Secretary received a set of plats 
of survey, kept check books of sales, gave notice of sales, and 
performed other executive duties. He became the executive 
power or agent in the sale or disposition of the public do- 
main, issuing patents for grants of land, etc., with "the aid of 
registers and receivers of district land offices after 1810, and 
remained so until the organization of the General Land Of- 
fice in his Department, by act of Congress April 25, 1812, as 
above stated. 

Until March 3, 1849, the Land Office was under the direc- 
tion of the Secretary of the Treasury, but on the date men- 
tioned Congress created the Home (now Interior), Depart- 
ment, and by section 3 of the law provided that the Secretary 
of the Interior "shall perform all the duties in relation to the 
General Land Office of supervision and appeal noAv dis- 
charged by the Secretary of the Treasury." 


Practically all of the original papers, etc., pertaining to 
this office from its establishment are on file. The records of 
the Land Office ore full of valuable and interesting data, as 
will appear from detail below. 


The correspondence of the Office begins with its establish- 
ment, and is complete. The principal letters to the Survey- 
ors-General are filed in Division "E." Those to Land Com- 
missioners are in Division "G." 

Field Notes. 

The Field Notes are complete, and are on file in Division 

Tract Books. 

The Tract Books are complete, and are on file in Division 

64 Report Alabama ti^istory Commission. 

Maps and Plats. 

In Division "L" are on file all maps and plats of public 
land and private land claim surveys. These include a large 
number relating to Alabama lands, etc. 

Private Land Claims. 

All documents and papers relating to private land claims 
in Alabama are preserved in Division "G." They are dock- 
eted and easily accessible. Some papers in re claims are on 
file in the Land Office at Montgomery. There are no printed 
indexes to these claims except as appear in the American 
State Papers : Public Lands, vols, i-viii. 

Records of Land Commissioners. 

The original journals, documents, papers, etc., kept by 
the Commissioners (Feb. 2, 1804-Dec. 21, 1805) for the old 
Land District East of Pearl River are generally complete, 
and on file. Copies of the reports have been published in the 
American State Papers : Public Lands, vol. i, pp. — . This 
was the first Land Office in what is now Alabama, and was 
organized under act of Congress, March 3, 1803. 

Boundary Surveys. 

The data in reference to boundary surveys is of record iu 
Division "L." The following are on file, among other papers, 
viz : 

( 1 ) Boundary between Georgia and Florida : Maps, field 
notes, and correspondence relating to the surveys of Ellicott, 
Watson, McNeil, Orr, and Whitner ; and book of Maps of El- 
Jicott's survey of the 31st parallel from the Mississippi River 
to the Chattahoochee River. 

(2) Alabama and Florida: Ellicott's line, and resurveys 
by Wells, Whitner, and Cofeee. 

(3) Alabama and Mississippi: Maps, field notes, and 

As illustrating the abundance of material in relation to 
the survey and adjustment of boundaries, the following sum- 
mary of special data furnished Hon. John H. Bankhead by 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office, is reprinted 
from the Transactions of the Alabama Historical Society, 
1897-98, vol. ii, pp. 92-93. 

Land Office Eecords. 65 

"I have the honor to state that the matter relating to the 
survey of the boundary line between Alabama and Missis- 
sippi is not in printed form. 

Upon examining the records and files of this office consid- 
erable data with reference to the subject is found. 

There are on file about 60 photolithographic copies of plats 
of townships and fractional townships in the western part of 
Alabama showing the boundary line and the connections or 
closings of section lines on said boundary line. 

Uncertified photolithographic copies of these plats will be 
furnished at the rate of 25 cents for each plat or |15 for all. 
If certified photolithographic copies are desired, the fee will 
be 50 cents per plat and 10 cents for a revenue stamp on each 
-plat, or |36 for the 60 plats, duly certified including the 
revenue stamps. 

Other papers are found as follows : 

1. A copy of plat, certified by .John Coffee, surveyor gen- 
eral, under date of June 26, 1822, of the survey of that part 
of the boundary line from the mouth of Bear Creek, on the 
Tennessee Elver to the northwest corner of Washington 
county, executed by James W. Exum. The fee for a certified 
tracing of this plat is |5.10. 

2. Map of that part of said boundary line from the Choc- 
taw boundary south to the Gulf of Mexico, made under the 
direction of Thomas Freeman, a certified tracing of which 
will be furnished for |9.10. 

3. Map showing a portion of the townships through which 
the line passes, (Ts. 11 to 20, Rs. 16 & 17 W., Alabama). The 
photo-lithographic copies of plats above described give more 
complete data than the map, but if a certified tracing of said 
map is desired, the fee therefor is |6.10. 

4. Field notes of the survey of that part of the boundary 
line between Alabama and Mississippi, from the moyth of 
Bear Creek to the N. W. corner of Washington County, exe- 
cuted by James W. Exum and examined and approved by 
John Coffee, surveyor general, October 12, 1820. 

The estimated cost of a certified copy of the above 
described field notes, is |17.10, including the revenue stamp. 

In addition to the above the following papers are found, 
viz: (1) Copies of Instructions to James W. Exum, dated 
April 28, 1820, from Thomas Freeman to the Commissioner 
of General Land Office relative to the survey of said boun- 
dary line; (2) copy of Agreement, dated May 29, 1820, be- 
tween John Coffee, surveyor general, of Alabama, and 

66 Eeiwrt Alabama History Commission. 

Thomas Freeman, surveyor of U. S. lands south of Tennes- 
see, as to what portions of the line should be run under each 
one's direction; (3) letter dated September 30, 1820, from 
Thomas Freeman to the Commissioner of General Land Of- 
fice, transmitting certain papers; (4) letter John Coffee, 
dated October 12, 1820, to the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office transmitting papers in regard to the matter; (5) 
letter from Thomas Freeman dated September 30, 1820, to 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office transmitting a 
map of that portion of the boundary line extending from 
the Choctaw boundary line to the Gulf of Mexico ; ( 6 ) letter 
from John Coffee, dated October 12, 1820, to the Commis- 
sioners of the General Land Office stating the cause of delay 
in making his report of the survey; (7) letter from John 
Coffee to Jjimes W. Bxum appointing him a surveyor to run 
and mark the boundary line from the mouth of Bear Creek 
on the Tennessee River to' the N. W. corner of Washington 
County, Alabama; (8) letter from the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office dated November 2, 1820, addressed to 
the Secretary of the Treasury transmitting a map and field 
notes of the boundary line, also other papers." 


It is not known what materials, if any, of value to Ala- 
bama history exists in the several bureaus of the Navy De- 
partment. It is proper, however, to present a general ac- 
count of the department archives, in order to facilitate future 
special examination. James Russell Soley, in the Narrative 
and Critical History of America, vol. vii, p. 414, describes 
them as follows : 

"The MS. archives of the Navy Department fortunately es- 
caped a later and similar peril. The burning of the depart- 
ment by the British in 1814 involved no loss of records, as 
Secretary Jones reports (/I to. 8t. Pap., Nav. Aff., i. 320) that 
all the papers and effects, except the furniture of the office, 
were preserved. The fire in the War Office in 1800 had, how- 
ever, destroyed many papers connected w'th the administra- 
tion of the navy during the period prior to the establishment 
of the Navy Department in 1798. Fragments of these pa- 
pers, including letters of Secretary James McHenry on sub- 
jects connected with the new frigates, may be seen, with 
their charred edges, in the library of the Navy Department. 
They have only the interest of relics. From 1798 to 1805 the 
archives are scanty, but after the latter date they have been 
carefully preserved, They are arranged in classes, according 

Navy Department. 67 

to a simple and easily understood system, and, having been 
bound in volumes and fully indexed, are readily accessible. 
In fact, there are few series of early archives in Washington 
in so satisfactory a condition for the student «s those of the 
Navy Department. As in the War Department, the corre- 
spondence is arranged in two groups, letters received and let- 
ters sent. Of the letters received during the period of 1789- 
1850, the most important series is that known as 'Captains' 
letters,' in 350 volumes, beginning in 1805. Of nearly equal 
interest are the 'Masters' Commandant letters,' 1804-1837, 
and the 'Commander's letters,' 1838-1850, making 92 vol- 
umes in all. In addition to the above, a series of 390 volumes 
of 'Officers' letters,' begins in 1802. A comprehensive class 
is that of 'Miscellaneous letters,' 426 volumes, beginning in 
1794. As the business of the department increased, and work 
was distributed more systematically among its ofSces, a new 
series were begun. Thus the reports of the African squad- 
ron date from 1819, Marine Corps letters from 1828, and 
Executive letters from 1843. Communications from the 
Board of Navy Commissioners form a series from 1827 to 
1842, when the board was abolished and its place taken by 
the bureaus, whose correspondence begins at this time. 
Classified reports from cruising stations, including the Bra- 
zil, Mediterranean, Pacific, East and West Indian, and Home 
squadrons begin in the yearsl844-46, and Navy yard reports 
about 1848. 

"The 'Letters sent,' as might be expected, are much less 
numerous, comprising for the period about 170 volumes of 
all classes. The most important of these as far as naval op- 
erations are concerned, are the 60 volumes of Instructions 
to officers of ships of tear, and 30 volumes of 'General letters.' 
The instructions to commanders of gunboats, 1803-8, are con- 
tained in a separate volume. A single volume, for 1803, is 
devoted to the Barbary powers. The volumes of instructions, 
together with those known as 'Captains' letters,' 'Masters' 
Commandant and Commanders' letters,' and 'Officers' let- 
ters,' are indispensable to the student of the naval wars, and 
the naA^al history of the United States cannot be adequately 
written without a careful examination of them. The exami- 
nation must be supplemented by the study of the records of 
the Office of Detail, and of the court-martial records con- 
tained in the office of the judge-advocategeneral."" 

'A JAst of Log-booKS of U. S. Vessels, 1861-1865, on file in the 
Navy Department, has been published by the Library and Naval War 
Records Office (1891, 8 vo. pp. 49). See State Papers, No, 18, Nov. 17, 1814 
(13th Cong. 3d sess.) 

68 Beport Alabama History Commission. 

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies. 

This Department, July 7, 1884, begun the preparation of 
the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies; 
and by Act of Congress, July 31, 1894, their publication was 
authorized. In the series is incorporated only "such ma- 
terial as may be certified to be contemporaneous naval 
records of the war." Eleven volumes have appeared. In refer- 
ence to the difficulties surrounding the enterprise, in the Pre- 
face to vol. ix, the compilers say that — ^ 

"Much difficulty has been found in collecting the records, 
for, while the official reports of commanders of fleets and of 
vessels acting singly are on file in the Navy Department, it is 
found that the correspondence between flag officers and their 
subordinates is frequently missing. Without this squadron 
correspondence the historical value of the work would neces- 
sarily be impaired, and the Department therefore has spared 
no pains to secure the letter books and papers of the chief 
actors on both sides. These papers have for the most part 
been obtained, and they have been copiously used in the com- 
pilation of the work. The reports of the Union commanders 
are full and fairly complete. It is to be regretted, however, 
that the Confederate records are not equally complete, due to 
the great difficulty found in collecting them, and also to the 
fact that a large part of the archives of the Confederate Navy 
Department was burned at the close of the war. Frequent 
careful searches throughout various parts of the country, 
conducted by a special agent of the Department, have 
brought to light many duplicates of these papers, found 
among the personal files of participants. It is hoped that 
the publication will revive the interest of participants in the 
events referred to, and lead them to bring to the notice of 
the Department the whereabouts of any papers bearing upon 
naval operations in the civil war of which they may have 


The official records, drawings, models, etc., of the United 
States Patent Office are practically complete in every detail. 
By means of the excellent series of indexes and guides, data 
as to patentees and inventions from Alabama can be easily 
located. No special indexes have, however, been published 
showing the names of patentees by States. All models form 
a part of the records of the applications to which they relate; 
and in patented cases are open to inspection. They have not, 
however, been required since 1880. 

Bureau of Pensions. 69 


The Bureau of Pensions lias all papers connected with the 
application for, and the grant of pensions. These embrace 
the claim and proof, which often include transcripts from 
family registers, as well as original papers as to service, pro- 
motion, discharge, etc. Under the regulations of the Bureau 
information will be furnished on application therefor by in- 
terested parties, as to the services of their ancestors in the 
Revolutionary and subsequent wars. 

Who Abe Entitled to Pensions. 

The following summary of those who are entitled to pen- 
sions is taken from the Report of the Commissioner of Pen- 
sions for the year ended June 30, 1900. 

Revolutionary War. 

"The act of March 18, 1818, thirty-five years after the ter- 
mination of the Revolutionary war, was the first general act 
passed granting a pension for service only. Its beneficiaries 
were required to be in indigent circumstances and in need of 

"About 1820 Congress became alarmed at the large number 
of applicants for pensions under this act (there were about 
8,000), and, on May 1, 1820, passed what has been known as 
the 'alarm act' which required all pensioners then on the 
roll to furnish a schedule of the amount of property then in 
their possession. Many of the pensioners whose schedules 
showed they possessed too much property were dropped from 
the rolls. Pensioners were dropped who owned as small an 
amount as $150 worth of property. 

"On May 15, 1828, or forty-five years after the war, service 
pension was granted to those who served to the end of the 
war of the Revolution. 

"On June 7, 1832, or forty-nine years after the close of the 
war, a general law was enacted pensioning all survivors who 
served not less than six months in said war. 

"On July 4, 1836, being fifty-three years after the termina- 
tion of the war, an act was passed granting pension for five 
years to Revolutionary war widows, provided they were mar- 
ried to the soldier or sailor before the close of his last ser- 
vice and that his service was not less than six months. 

"On July 7, 1838, or fifty-five years after the close of the 
\var, the above act was amended so as to provide where the 
iniarriage took place before January 1, 1794. 

70 Report Alabama History Commission. 

"On July 29, 1848, or sixty-five years after the war, the 
above laws were amended to include those who were mar- 
ried prior to January 1, 1800. 

"On February 3, 1853, or seventy years after the war, an 
act was passed striking out the limitation as to date of mar- 

War of 1812. 

"The first law granting pension for service in the war of 
1812 was passed February 14, 1871, fifty-six years after the 
close of the war. This act required sixty days' service, and 
widows were not entitled unless they were married to soldier 
or sailor prior to the treaty of peace, February 17, 1815. 

"The act of March 9, 1878, sixty-three years after the close 
of the war, reduced the period of service to fourteen days, 
and made no limitation as to date of marriage in case of 

War With Mexico. 

"On January 29, 1887, thirty-nine years after the close of 
the war, an act was passed providing for soldiers and sailors 
and their widows for service of sixty days, if 62 years of age, 
or disabled or dependent. 

Indian Wars. 

"On July 27, 1892, fifty years after period included in the 
act, pension was provided for those who served thirty days 
in the Black Hawk, Creek, Cherokee, and Florida war with 
Seminole Indians from 1832 to 1842 and to their widows. 

"There has never been any law pensioning widows of sol- 
diers whose death was due to service in time of peace prior 
to March 4, 1861. 

"No provisions has ever been made for mothers and fathers 
and brothers and sisters if the death of soldier or sailor re- 
sulted from service prior to March 4, 1861. 

"The laws relating to pension have been more liberal since 
1861 than they were prior to that date. 

"To make it plainer, as an illustration of this fact, I will 
cite the case of a sailor who lost both arms in the service 
and line of duty prior to March 4, 1861. He would be en- 
titled to a rating beginning at f3.50 per month and to the 
various rates provided from time to time to February 12, 
1889, when he would receive $100 per month. 

Acts of July IJf, 1862, and March 3, 1873. 
"Any officer, soldier, sailor, or marine, disabled by reason 
of wound received or disease contracted in the service of the 

Post Office Department. 71 

United States, and in the line of duty, may be pensioned for 
such disability during its continuance. 

"In case of his death from causes originating as above set 
forth, his widow or his child or children under 16 years of 
age become entitled to pension. If he left no widow or child 
under 16, his dejtendent mother, father, or orphan sisters and 
brothers are entitled in the order named. 

Act of June 27, 1S90, as Amended hy the Act of May 9, 1900. 

"Any officer, soldier, sailor, or marine who served ninety 
days or more in the military or naval service of the United 
States during the late war of the rebellion, who has been 
honorably discharged therefrom, and who is suffering from 
disability of a permanent character, not the result of his own 
vicious habits, which incapacitates him from the perform- 
ance of manual labor in such a degree as to render him un- 
able to earn a support, is entitled to pension under this act of 
not less than |6 per month nor more than |12 per month. 

"In case of the death of any person named above, his widow 
becomes entitled to pension, provided she married him prior 
to June 27, 1890, and that she is without means of support 
than her daily labor. If she remarries or dies, the child or 
children of such soldier or sailor under the age of 16 years 
become entitled. 

"The act of May 9, 1900, which is an amendment of the act 
of June 27, 1890, provides that in determining inability to 
earn a support each and every infirmity shall be duly con- 
sidered, and the aggregate of the disabilities shown be rated. 

"It is also provided that a widow may have title to pension 
if she is left without means of support other than her daily 
labor and an actual net income not exceeding |250 per year. 

Act of August 5, 1892. 

"All women employed by the Surgeon-General of the Army 
as nurses during the late war of the rebellion for a period of 
six months or more and who were honorably relieved from 
such service, are granted a pension, provided they are unable 
to earn a support. 

Service Pensions. 

"There is no law granting service pension to any person 
for service rendered since the war with Mexico." 


The records of this Department which are of local interest 
consist of the correspondence, or outgoing letters, in refer- 
ence to the establishment of offices and of postal affairs in 


Report Alaibaina History Coiniiiission. 

Alabairia, and also of the lists of offices with the names of 
postmasters, and the dates of their Commissions. The gen- 
eral records of the several Bureaus and Divisions are ap- 
proximately complete, but it is not necessary to notice them 
in detail here. 

Lettbb Books. 

There are in all 115 large folio volumes of the Postmaster 
General's correspondence, from the organization of the De- 
partment. They are designated as "Letter Books," "Post Of- 
fice Department," and cover a period from Oct. 3, 1789, to 
1900. The following shows the name of the Postmaster Gen- 
eral, the designation of the volume and the period covered, 

Sam. Osgood and T. Pickering, 
T. Pickering, 

.T. Haversham, 

G. Granger, 

E. J. Mt-i 

R. J. Meigs and J. McLean, 
J. McLean, 

J McLean and W. T. I'arry, 
W. T, Barry, 












































Oct. 3, 1789— June 9, 1792. 
June 13, 1792— Oct. 27, 1793. 
Sept. 27, 1793— Oct. 27, 1794. 
Oct. 29, 1794— Jan. 25, 1796. 
Jan. 30, 1796— Nov. 25, 1896. 
Nov. 24, 1796— Oct 24, 1797. 
Oct. 14, 1797— Oct. 13, 1798. 
Oct. 14, 1798- May 8, 1799. 
May 1789— March 4, 1800. 
March 3, 1800— Aug. 6, 1801. 
Aug. 7, 1801— Jan. 25, 1803. 
Jan 24, 1893— March 16, 1804. 
March 10, 1804-April 17, 1806. 
April 13, 1806— Oct. 30, 1807. 
Oct. 30, J807— June 23, 1809. 
June 24, 1809- July 20, 1811. 
July 23, 1811— March 12, 1813. 
March 13, 1813— Dec. 15, 1814. 
Dec. 15, 1814— March 12, 1816. 
March 12, 1816— Dec. 13, 1817. 
Dec. 13, 1817-May 11, 1819. 
May 11, 1819— Dec. 12, 1820. 
Dec. 12,1820-Dec. 26, 1821. 
Dec. 27, 1821— Dec. 30, 1822. 
Jan. 3, 1823— Aug. 23, 1823. 
Aug. 29, 1823— April 9, 1824 
Aug 21, 1823— March 30.1824. 
March 30, 1824— Jan. 25, 1825. 
April9,1824— Sep. 9, 1826. 
Jan. 26, 1825— Aug. 23, 1825, 
March 14, 1825— Oct. 18, 1825. 
Aug. 23, 1825— March 28, 1826. 
Sep. 12, 1825— March 12, 1827. 
Oct 18, 1825— Aug 10, 1826. 
March 29, 1826— Dec. 20, 1826. 
May 9, 1827— Nov. 24, 1827. 
March 21, 1827— Dec. 20, 1827. 
Dec. 21, 1826— May 8, 1827. 
Dec. 19, 1827— May 12, 1828. 
May 12, 1828-Oct. 15, 1828. 
Oct. 15, 1828- -May 12, 1829. 
May 21, 1829— Dec. 14, 1829. 
Dec. 14, 1829— Got. 18. 1880. 

Post Office Department. 73 

The remainder of the series are designated as follows, viz : 

Y; Z; A-1; B-2; 0-2; l)-2 ; E-2 ; F-2; G-2; H-2; 1-2; ,)-2; K-2; 
L-2; M-2; N-2; 0-2; P-2;Q-2; R-2; 8-2; T-2 ; U-2;V-2;W-2; 
X-2; X-3; X-4; X-5; X-8; ani Nos 7 to 48 inclusive. 

Post Offices and Post Masters. 

From the beginning of the Department until 1832, the ap- 
pointments of all Postmasters were recorded together, and are 
found in books numbered from one to eight inclusive. 

However, one, two and' three were lost when the Depart- 
ment was destroyed by fire, and their contents are now found 
condensed in one book, which bears date, 1789 to 1818, the 
data having been compiled from the Auditor's records. 

They consist of the following, viz : 

Nos. 1-3. 

1789 to 1818; 


1818 to 1820 


1820 to 1825 


1825 to 1827 


1827 to 1829 


1829 to 1832 

County Book, 

1832 to 1844 

« « 

1844 to 1857 

" " 

1857 to 1875 

It tt 

1875 to 1889 

t€ €t 

1889 to 1900 


In the file rooms of the Secretary of the Senate and of the 
Clerk of the House of Representatives, are preserved original 
papers and documents connected with the various matters 
brought before Congress from its earliest sessions. In many 
of the files are to be found documents of historical interest, 
such as petitions and memorials, with original signatures, 


The historical manuscript treasures of the Government are 
principally collected in the Department of State and in the 
Library of Congress. The collections of the former came to 
it in the course of official business, and as a proper place of 

''See Winsor, vii. pp. 414-426; and also, papers by Mrs. Ellen Har- 
din \»alw6rth on the "Value of National Archives" in the Report of 
the American Historical Association for 1893, p. 31; by A. Howard Clark 
on "What the United States Government has done for History" in Report of 
the same Association, pp. 549-561; and by Andrew Hussey Allen on "The 
Historical Archives of the Department of State," in IMd, pp. 281-298. 

74 Report Alabama History Commission. 

deposit for sucli manuscripts as have been purchased by Con- 
gress. Except where in use as current official records, these 
papers are deposited in the 

Bureau or Rolls and Libeary. 

Fortunately for students the Department has given con- 
siderable attention to their arrangement and classification. 
An arbitrary Chapter designation has been adopted, which 
now runs from "Chapter A" to "Chapter N," with others to 
follow. The Chapters represent kindred groups of docu- 
ments, and will ultimately take in the entire body of its docu- 
mentary material. In September, 1893, appeared the first 
number of a series of Department Bulletins. It was stated 
that "The most practicable plan of making known and utiliz- 
ing the current miscellaneous index of the general collection 
■ — an index devoted to papers to the substance of which all 
clue is lacking — is found to be the publication of a series of 
Bulletins." Nine of these have so far been published, as fol- 
lows, viz : 

Bulletin No. 1, September, 1893, contains (1) a catalogue exhibiting 
the existing arrangement of the papers of the Continental Congress; (2) 
a partial miscellaneous index of manuscripts of the Continental Congress 
examined to the date of going to press; (3) the Documentary History of 
the Constitution for the period preceding the Federal Convention — being 
the Annapolis Convention and credentials of delegates to the Federal Con- 

Bulletin No. 2, November, 1893, is a revised and Indexed edition of the 
Calendar of the Correspondence of James Monroe. 

Bulletin No. 3, January, 1894, contains (1) a list indicating the ar- 
rangement of the Washington papers; (2) the continuation of a partial 
miscellaneous index of the manuscripts of the Continental Congress; (3) 
the Documentary History of the Constitution — proceedings of the Federal 

Bulletin No. 4, March, 1894, is a Calendar of the Correspondence of 
James Madison. 

Bulletin No. 5, May, 1894, contains (1) an arrangement of the papers 
of Madison, Jefferson, Hamilton, Monroe, and Franklin; (2) the continua- 
tion of the miscellaneous Index; (3) the Documentary History of the Con- 
stitution — the Constitution as signed in Convention; proceedings in Con- 
gress; ratifications by the several States. 

Bulletin No. 6, July, 1894, is a Calendar of the Correspondence of 
Thomas Jefferson — Part I. Letters from Jefferson. 

Bulletin No. 7, September, 1894, contains (1) a list of the territorial 
and State records deposited in the Bureau of Rolls and Library and classi- 
fied as Chapter I of the manuscript books and papers; (2) the continua- 
tion of a partial miscellaneous index of the manuscripts of the Continental 
Congress; (3) the Documentary History of the Constitution — Articles in 
addition to and amendment of the Constitution. 

Bulletin No. 8, November, 1894, is a Calendar of the Correspondence 
of Thomas Jefferson — Part II. Letters to Jefferson. 

Bulletin No. 9, October, 1897, contains (1) the continuation of the 
miscellaneous index; (2) Documentary History of the Constitution — Madl- 
Bon's Notes of the Proceedings of the Federal Conveutioa. 

State Department. 75 

The Miscellaneous Indexes indicate a number of papers 
bearing on affairs in the Southwest during and just follow- 
ing the period of the Revolutionary war. 

In the Monroe, Madison and Jefferson Papers will be found 
a number of letters to and from public men of the old South- 
west of very great interest. 

Chapter "I" embraces the "Records of the States and Ter- 
ritories." It appears from the list published in Bulletin No. 
7, that there are on file the following, among others, viz : 

Florida.— Papers and documents forming the "Florida Archives" so 
called, acquired by virtue of the treaty of amity, settlement, and limits be- 
tween the United States and Spain, signed February 22, 1819. 

Governors.— Various letters and papers, covering the period 1790-1812 
irom the chief executives of different States, gathered together under the 
general title "Letters from Governors of States." 

Louisiana. — "Governor Claiborne's correspondence relative to Louisi- 
ana," 1803-1812. In 6 volumes, folio. 

'Papers relating to the Southern Boundary," 1806-1818. In 

1 volume, folio, 


. Copies of acts of the legislature of the State for the year 

1807, letters and accompanying documents. Filed under the title "Papers 
and Records of the Territories." 

Mississippi. — "Governor's correspondence in the Mississippi Territory 
1804-1815." In 1 volume, folio. (See also papers filed under the title "Pa- 
pers and Records of the Territories.") 

. "Proceedings of the Executive Council and Legislature in 

the Mississippi Territory 1809-1816." In 2 volumes, folio. 

Tennessee. — "Journal of the proceedings of William Blount, Esquire, 
governor in and over the Territory of the United States of America south 
of the river Ohio," with letters and accompanying papers. Filed under the 
title "Papers and Records of the Territories." 

The Kohl Collection of Maps relating to America is also in 
the Bureau of Rolls and Library. It embraces several hun- 
dred maps, beginning with "A Symbolic Representation of 
the Earth, Heaven, and Sun, from an Egyptian Papyrus." 
In 1886 a descriptive and classified Calendar of the Collec- 
tion was prepared by Justin Winsor, and published as No. 
19 of the Bibliographical Contributions of Harvard Univer- 

Bureau of Appointments and Commissions. 

The records of Commissions issued to Federal officials by 
the State Department are complete. They are arranged in 
three classes, viz : Diplomatic, Consular and Miscellaneous. 
In the Miscellaneous class are included Governors and Sec- 
retaries of Territories, and Judges, Attorneys and Marshals 
of Federal Courts in the States and Territories. Since 1875, 

'See Winsor, viii, pp. ■::24-425. 

76 lieport Alabama History Commission. 

the Interior Department lias commissioned Territorial offi- 
cials; and since 1888, the Department of Justice has com- 
missioned Judges, Attorneys and Marshals. 

Index Bureau. 

In the Index Bureau are recorded all letters to the Ter- 
ritorial and State Governors in chronological order, in a gen- 
eral series called "Domestic Letters." 

In this Bureau are also fragmentary collections of letters 
and papers, arranged by Territories, including Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Alabama. 

The editor has copies of these documents so far as they 
relate to Alabama. 


The records of the Supreme Court of the United States are 
complete, with the exception of a very few which were de- 
stroyed by fire in 1899. The files and other records are in ex- 
cellent condition, and are open for consultation. There are a 
number of early cases, the files of which contain valuable 
documents, maps, papers, etc., in reference to land claims. 

Two members of the Supreme Court have been appointed 
from i^labama, Messrs. John McKinley and John A. Camp- 
bell. Sketches of these justices, with portraits, will be found 
in H. L. Carson's History of the Supremt Court of the (J. iS., 


In the Treasury Department, organized under Act of Con- 
gress, Sept. 2, 1789, the records pertaining to subjects under 
its jurisdiction in Alabama are necessarily limited. 

In the office of the Supervising Architect will be found the 
records as to the construction and history of the several pub- 
lic buildings in the State. 

The offices of the Light House Board, the Marine Hospital 
Service, the Internal Revenue Service, and the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Surveys contain some valuable local 

In the office of the Auditor for the Interior Department, 
charged with the duty of auditing pensions, there is a record 
or roll of pensioners. The records of this office also show the 
dates of the death of pensioners. 

The records, papers, etc., relating to customs affairs in the 
State are not complete. The only customs fort in Alabama 
is that originally established at Fort Stoddert, by act of Con- 
gress, Feb. 24, 1804, and later removed to Mobile. 

War Department. 77 

The appointment records of the Department show the 
names of Alabama appointees in this branch of the public 


The War Department contains in its several offices a great 
mass of data in reference to military operations in the United 
States, and in refei-ence to the troops from the several States. 
No detailed description is here attempted, because a List of 
the Records and Files of the Department (Washington : 1890 ; 
8 vo., pp. 145) has already been published under the orders of 
the Secretary of War. This is the most comprehensive effort 
ever yet made to present the character and condition of any 
collection of official records. The lists are arranged by offi- 
cers and divisions, and embrace an account of the records in 
the following offices at that date, viz : 

Chief Clerk, War Department. Office of Inspector General. 

Record Division. Office of Judge Advocate-General. 

Requisition Division. Office of Quartermaster-General. 

Correspondence Division. Office of Com. Gen. of Subsistence. 

Disbursing Clerk. Office of Surgeon-General. 

Advertising Division. Office of Paymaster-General. 

Supply Division. Office of Chief of Engineers. 

War Department Library. Office of Chief of Ordinance. 

War Records Office. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 
Office of Adjutant-General. 

'See Part IV, War Records of Alabama, infra, for account of military 
records in the War Department. 

By Thomas M, Owen. 

The territory now in Alabama has in part at different 
times been connected in organic governmental relation with 
the adjacent States of South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, 
and Mississippi; and also in part with Florida under the 
Spanish, and with Louisiana under the French. Col. Charles 
C. Jones in his History of Georgia (1883), calls Alabama the 
daughter of Mississippi, and the grand-daughter of Georgia. 
The official archives of these States may, therefore, be prop- 
erly considered as containing more or less material of value 
to the history of Alabama. 

While not connected territorially with other Southern 
States, yet because its population was largely drawn from all 
of them, the history of its settlement can only be profitably 
studied and emphasized through the history of these earlier 
commonwealths. And as the settlers came .from these States, 
they brought their institutions and peculiar forms of thought 
with them. It may be said that Alabama was almost wholly 
peopled by Virginians, North and South Carolinians, and 
Georgians. Emigrants to the State from Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee were of the same stock. Institutional transplanting, 
modification and growth can be satisfactorily studied from 
the original documents now published, the constitutions, laws 
and State Papers, and the extant histories of these States. 
From original record sources, in the State and County ar- 
chives, must be drawn the material for the study of the 
people, their migration, their property and culture status, 
while from meager church records in part must be obtained 
the evidences of spiritual growth and the expansion of re- 
ligious thought. In the short description below will be found 
such general suggestions as will enable the inquirer with more 
ease to make researches in the records of these States. 

The territorial development of Alabama is conveniently 
presented by Theodore L. Cole, of Washington, D. C, in the 
Ptiblirations of the Southern History Association, 1897, vol. 
i, pp. 61-63, as follows : 

"1st. — A strip (about 12 miles wide) extending across the 
State at the extreme north. This was under the jurisdiction : 

Adjacent States. 79 

Until 1787, of the State of South Carolina. 

(1787 to 1790, unattached.) 
1790 to 1796, of the Territory of the U. S. South of the River Ohio. 

(1796 to 1804, unattached.) 
1804 to 1817, of Mississippi Territory. 

"2d.— All that part of the State south of the above men- 
tioned strip and north of a line "drawn due east from the 
mouth of the Yasous." This was under the jurisdiction : 

Until 1802, of the State of Georgia. 
(1802 to 1804, unattached.) 

1804 to 1817, of Mississippi Territory. 

"3d.— All that part of the State south of the above men- 
tioned parcels and north of the 31st parallel. This was under 
the jurisdiction : 

Until 1898, of the State of Georgia. 
1798 to 1817, of Mississippi Territory. 

"4th.— All that part of the State south of the 31st parallel. 
This was under the jurisdiction : 

Until 1763, of France (as part of Louisiana.) 

1763 to 1783, of Great Britain (as part of the Floridas.) 

1783 to 1800, of Spain (then owning both Louisiana and the Floridas.) 

1800 to 1803, of France (as part of Louisiana). 

(1803 to 1812, unattached, but held by Spain.) 
1812 to 1817, of Mississippi Territory. 

"Mississippi Territory. — Created by act of Congress, April 
7, 1798, (U. S. Stat, qt Large, vol. I, p. 549), with the Missis- 
sippi and Chattahoochee rivers, "a line drawn due east from 
the mouth of the Yasous," and the 31st degree of north lati- 
tude as boundaries (being the 3d parcel above). By act of 
March 27, 1804, [Ih. vol. 2, p. 305)," "that tract of 'country 
north of the Mississippi Territory and south of the State of 
Tennessee," and between the Mississippi river and Georgia 
(the 1st and 2d parcels above), was annexed to Mississippi 
Territory. By act of May 14, 1812, (/?). p. 734) "all that por- 
tion of territory-lying east of Pearl river, west of the Perdido 
and south of the 31st degree of latitude" (the 4th pareeK 
above) was annexed to Mississippi Territory, which then had 
exactly the same extent as the present States of Mississippi 
and Alabama and remained unchanged until Aug. 15, 1817. 

"Alabama Territory. — Created by act of Congress, March 
3, 1817, in force Aug. 15, 1817, when the Constitution of 
Mississippi was formed (U. S. 8tat. at Large, vol. 3, p. 371) 
with the same boundaries as the State now has. 

"State of Alabama. — An enabling act was passed March 
2, 1819 {Ih., vol. 3, p. 489) ; the Constitution was adopted by 
the Convention on Aug. 2, 1819, (not submitted to the 
people) ; and the resolution of admission was passed by Con- 
gress, Dec. 14, 1819, {Ih. vol. 3, p. 608.)" 

80 Report Alabama History ppmmission. 


The Executive offices of Florida have but little of value to 
the history of Alabama. The Spaniards as far as possible 
made a general removal of all official records. It appears 
from inquiry on the subject that there are in the Secretary 
of State's office no maps or documents bearing on the Florida- 
Alabama boundary. 

No information has been secured respecting the early 
records of St. Augustine and Tampa. 

But few records of historical value remain at Pensacola. 
A fire on October 24, 1811, destroyed much that was there, 
and later pirates destroyed much more. The sub-delegate, 
Colonel Don Jose Masot, was instructed on closing the inten- 
dancy there to remove the archives to Havana, but he failed 
to do so. When Jackson captured Pensacola in May, 1818, it 
was agreed that the archives should be taken to Havana, and 
Masot duly embarked with them on the United States 
schooner Peggy. Corsairs overpowered the Peggy and threw 
the papers overboard, except one box which they kept. So it 
seems nothing ever reached Cuba from Pensacola, except 
some inventories brought the preceding year by Don Fran- 
cisco Gutierrez de Arroyo, the only part of the removal order 
which Masot had permitted him to carry out. See Pintado, in 
White's New Recopilacion, vol. ii, pp. 340, 341, 370. The fate 
of the records of British times is mentioned under the head of 
records in Great Britain.' 

The American State Papers, in the series of Indian Affairs, 
Foreign Affairs and Military Affairs, contain a large number 
of documents bearing on the related history of Florida and 
Alabama. White's New Recopilacion ( 2 vols. ) is an invalu- 
able repository, containing a collection of laws, charters, and 
local ordinances of the governments of Great Britain, France 
and Spain, relating to the concessions of land in their respec- 
tive colonies. Many full documents will be found in two U. 
S. government publications entitled Private Land Claims — 
Florida (House Ex. Doc. 121, 20th Cong., 2d sess.), and 
Documents and Other Papers relating to the Boundary Line 
hetiveen the States of Georgia and Florida (Sen. Mis. Doc. 
25, 33d Cong. 2d sess.) 

2. GBOkGIA. 

The official archives of Georgia are doubtless approxi- 
mately complete from the beginning of the State government, 

^This paragraph on the Pensacola records was prepared by Peter J. 

Louisiana. Si 

although nothing can be definitely stated as to either its Col- 
onial or State archives. State officials have declined to sup- 
ply information as to what records they have, their condition, 
period covered, etc., without compensation. 

However, Prof. C. C. Thach reports that on a visit to the 
State Department, Atlanta, he was shown a map, with accom- 
panying field notes and coiTespondence, of the Boundary line 
between Alabama and Georgia, made in 1826, by Capt. John 
Bright, Fayetteville, Tenn. 

The Adjutant-General's Office has no rosters of Georgia 
troops in the Creek War, 1813-14. Where they are to be 
found is unknown. 


The official archives of the State of Louisiana are believed 
to contain nothing bearing on the history of Alabama. The 
very valuable historical material in the Louisiana Historical 
Society, the Louisiana State Library, the New Orleans 
Cathedral, the Howard Memorial Library, and the archives 
of the city of New Orleans are described infra. 


Mississippi Territory was created by act of Congress, April 
7, 1798. By subsequent acts other territory was added to the 
original area until it embraced the present States of Alabama 
and Mississippi. In 1817 the State of Mississippi was ad- 
mitted into the Union with its present limits, and the eastern 
part was erected into Alabama Territory. 

From 1798 to 1817, therefore, all official records and pa- / 
pers of a general character relating to governmental aflfairsx/ 
in what is now the State of Alabama, are to be found in the' \„,^^^ 
archives of Mississippi at Jackson. ^ 

No detailed account has been secured and it can only ^^ . 
stated in a general way that these consist of the original V^ 
books, papers and correspondence of the several Territorial/ 
officials. They are not arranged or indexed, and cannot be 
consulted with any satisfaction. 

Perhaps the most valuable of these records are the Execu- 
tive Journals, numbering ten or more volumes, covering the 
official acts in detail of the several Governors of the Terri- 
tory, 1798-1817. Partial transcripts of these are on file in 
the State Department, Washington, D. C. See Governors W. 
C. C. Claiborne, David Holmes, Winthrop Sargent, and Rob- 
ert Williams, infra. Bee also State Department, p. 75, 

82 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 


With tlie burning of Columbia, S. C, Feb. 17, 1865, by Fed- 
eral troops under Gen. W. T. Sherman, the State archives 
were largely destroyed, but there are still in the office of the 
Secretary of State a number of early records, which may be 
consulted with profit, with reference to the extension of West- 
ern settlements, and trade and intercourse with the Southern 
Indians. These consist of several volumes of what are known 
as Indian Books, Council Journals, Common House Jour- 
nals, and some miscellaneous volumes.' There are also thirty- 
six folio volumes, indexed, of transcripts representing all that 
there is in the British Public Record Office concerning South 
Carolina. The Land Records are also preserved in the office 
of the Secretary of State, and comprise over two hundred vol- 
umes of Grants and Plat Books, dating from 1678. 

The official records of South Carolina troops in the Revo- 
lutionary War have been destroyed, and only scattering data 
exists here and there on the subject. In 1886 the State pub- 
lished a pamphlet of names as far as could be obtained of offi- 
cers who served in the South Carolina regiment on the Conti- 
nental establishment, of the officers who served in the militia, 
and of troops on the Continental establishment and militia 
organizations, together with other information, prepared by 
the Society of the Cincinnati. In the Charleston Year Book, 
1893, these lists were republished. 

No rosters of South Carolina soldiers in the Creek War, 
1813-14, are preserved in the office of the Adjutant-General. 
It is not known where they may be found. 

In the several counties, with the exception of some like Ab- 
beville and Lexington, whose official records have been de- 
stroyed, are to be found conveyances, wills, administrations 
and guardianships, throwing light on the antecedents of many 
Alabama families. Unfortunately South Carolina has never 
had any law requiring marriage licenses so that there are no 
official marriage records. In some few churches these are 


The office of the Secretary of State, at Nashville, has the 
following archives of historical interest : Executive Corre- 
spondence prior to 1861, Memoranda of Land Grants, Regis- 
ter of State and County Officials, and sundry miscellaneous 

^See Report of the Committee of the South Carolina Historical Society 
in the matter of procuring transcripts of the Colonial Records of [South 
Carolina] (1891), for detail of the papers in the Secretary of State's Office. 

Tennessee. 83 

records of early date. This office has no war records. 

Particular detail as to land grants will be found in the 
land offices at the following points: Jackson, Nashville, 
Sparta, Cleveland, Knoxville and Athens. 

The Adjutant-General's Office has no records of Tennessee 
troops in the Creek War, 1813-14. 


An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Docu- 
ments in Oificial Repositories within 
the State of Alabama. 




The official State archives have their beginning with the 
organization of the Alabama Territory, and its several execu- 
tive depai'tments. The Act of Congress creating the Territory 
was approved March 3, 1817, but its provisions were not to be 
in force until the date when Mississippi should adopt a con- 
stitution, which event was consummated Aug. 15, 1817.' On 
September 25, 1817, William Wyatt Bibb was commissioned 
Governor of Alabama Territory, and in December of the same 
year he reached St. Stephens. He at once set in motion the 
machinery of the territorial government. 

Prior to this time, and from the establishment of the Mis- 
sissippi Territory in 1798, the records of all official business 
in the Alabama portion of that Territory, not transacted as 
ordinary county business, form a part of the Mississippi ar- 
chives, at Jackson. See Mississippi, supra, for description. 

The act creating the Territory made St. Stephens "the seat 
of government," and here the official records were kept until 
1819, when they were removed to Huntsville. The Alabama 
Republican, published at the latter place, in its issue of June 
26, 1819, thus modestly comments on the arrival of the Gov- 
ernor and the records : "His Excellency Governor Bibb, ar- 
rived in Huntsville on Monday last. The Secretary of the 
Territory is daily expected, and the public records, etc., have 
already arrived here, where they will remain while this place 
continues to be the seat of government." 

Cahaba being fixed by the Constitution as the State capital, 
the records were carried there in 1820." Here they remained 
until 1826, when prior to June of that year they were carried 
to Tuscaloosa, the second State capital. In 1845 Montgomery 
was selected as the seat of government, and two years later, 
the capitol having been completed, the State archives were 
again removed. Mr. Garrett gives a brief account in his Picb- 
lic Men in Alabama (1872) , p. 460 : 

"No time was to be lost in transferring the archives, to be ready for the 
assembling of the Legislature, the 6th of December, less than a month. 
This, however, was accomplished by industry. On or about the 20th of 
November, the archives, records and papers of the Executive and State 

V. 8. Statutes at Large, vol. iii, p. 371. 
'Toulmin's Digest (1823), p. 679. 


88 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Departments, and Supreme Court, had been packed up in 113 boxes, and 
loaded in 13 wagons; and i-is train, under the control of James H. Owen, 
the door-keeper of the House of Representatives, moved off in the direc- 
tion of Montgomery. The cargo in weight was 26,704 pounds. Without 
accident, the whole train, in due time, arrived at Montgomery, and the 
archives deposited in their appropriate rooms. The entire cost of the re- 
moval of these archives from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery, was f 1,325, which 
was paid by Colonel Pollard, Chairman of the Building Committee." 

Up to this time the records and archives in every respect 
appear to have been full and complete. The desire of the 
early legislators seems to have been to preserve everything 
which might have a future value. Minute regulations were 
imposed upon officials. On Dec. 16, 1820, an act was ap- 
proved, providing "That in future it shall be the duty of the 
Secretary of State, at or soon after the close of each General 
Assembly, to deposit in his office all the records and papers 
necessarily belonging to the Legislature ; which shall be deter- 
mined by an examination made by the Secretary of State, 
Secretary of the Senate, and Clerk of the House of Represen- 
tatives, who are hereby appointed commissioners for that pur- 

It was at this time that a general description of the ar- 
chives was given by William Garrett, then Secretary of State, 
in a letter to Mr. Pickett, which appears to be appropriately 
presented in full in this connection. 

"Tuscaloosa 28th Aug., 1847." 
"Dear Sir: 

"Various causes have conspireu to prevent my answering before now, 
your letter and interrogatories under date the 28 ulto. Even now I 
have to regret that it is impossible for me to answer you definitely upon 
all the subjects of your enquiries — because such cannot be done without 
overhauling the papers in the Executive & State Departments, which, 
having to be done so soon for the purpose of removal, will postpone for a 
few weeks my answers in regard to many of the topics upon which you 
desire information. 

"There are no Journals and Documents of the Mississippi Territory in 
this office — (Secretary of State's). The Territorial records of Alabama, 
when the Legislature sat at St. Stephens — The Journal of the State Con- 
vention — The Journals of the Senate & House of Representatives, from 
the birth of the State to this time are all to be had in the office. 

"ihe correspondence between the Governors of Alabama and Mississippi, 
in relation to [illegible] &c., I have not seen but presume it is on 
record in the Executive office. 

"There are some bundles of papers in both offices (State & Executive) 
in relation to the University — but as the Board of Trustees of that Insti- 
tution has had its Secretary and Treasurer, and kept its own records, ever 
since its organization — it is more likely that the bulk of its papers, and of 
information in regard to its history will be found with the Secretary of 
the Board, H. P. Douthett, Esq. 

"Very little information can be obtained from this or the Executive 
office going to make up a history of the Banks. The Journals of the Legis- 
lature contain a good many reports made upon the subject of the Banks 

"Toulmin's Digest (1823), p. 698. 

state Offices. 89 

frota time to time — both of a general and special character — and all the 
elections of Bank Presidents and Directors. The reports made to the 
Legislature by bank officers, were generally printed for the use of mem- 
bers — and with a renegade form of pamphlets and slips, very few have 
been preserved. None have been filed in the State Department because 
no provision has been made for that purpose — and members have gener- 
ally been eager to obtain their full portion for distribution among their 
constituents. The original reports are generally to be found among the 
papers of the Senate and House of Representatives. There is in the office 
under my charge a book, containing the evidence taken by a committee 
of the Legislature in Novemoer & December, 1841, in relation to the 
celebrated 'Bank frauds' of that year. 

"I have never yet seen any documents in relation to the old Huntsville 
and St. Stephens Banks — nor of the Canoe fight — nor the fall of Fort Mlms, 
&c., &c. Major Jeremiah Austill, of Mobile, related the Canoe fight to me 
during the winter of '44-5. It is a fight that he does not appear anxious 
to talk about — but still I have but little doubt he would upon application, 
for this purpose, give you a full account of it. He could too afford much 
correct information in relation to the fall o^ Fort Mims, and the war of 
that period generally. 

"I think you will find in the Executive Office, the correspondence be- 
tween Governor Gayle and the General Government commonly called the 
'Creek Controversy' — and also the papers made and reed, by Governor 
Clay, during the Creek War of 1836. 

"I have never seen any of the handbills, pamphlets &c., &c. issued by Gov. 
Gayle, on tiie occasion alluded to. The Journals afford a good deal of 
information in regard to the 'impeachment of the Judges' and I have seen 
among the papers of the Legislature some manuscript documents upon this 

"You will observe that I am not prepared as I said in the outset to 
answer you fully until time anu occasion shall offer to handle and look 
into the various bundles in the offices — State or Kxecutive. This occasion 
will offer soon, and in adoilion the archives of the State will be placed 
convenient to you, where you can examine, and will doubtless be able to put 
your hands upon a good many items of interest. 

"I was fortunate enough to receive two copies of your 'eight days in New 
Orleans' one of which I handed to a less fortunate friend' — the other was 
read with much pleasure — particularly that portion in Chap. 3d. where you 
pay a merited tribute to that great and good man. General 'Jackson. 

"I am, with great respect, 

"Colo. A.J. Pickett, 


On. Dec. 14, 1849, just two years after it was completed, the 
State capitol was destroyed by fire, "communicated," as as- 
certained by a committee of the House of Eepresentatives, 
"from the flue or chimney to a timber, the end of which had 
been inserted in, and rested on an eyelet hole, left for that 
purpose in the wall of the Representative Hall." Resort is 
again had to Garrett's work, pp. 517-518, for a description of 
the burning, and of the rescue of the records. 

"About fifteen minutes after one o'clock in the afternoon, when both 
Houses were in session, it was discovered that the Capitol was on fire over 
the Representative Hall — the volume of smoke Issuing with rapid increase. 
Gen. [Joseph P.] Frazier, of the Senate, upon the first intimation of such 
a thing, hurried to the upper story, and into the room leading, by a trap- 
door, to the top, to see what discoveries could be made; but was met at 
the door by a dense volume of smoke, which arrested his progress. 

90 Report Alabama History Commission. 

"The Senate adjourned hastily; but the House broke up its sitting with- 
out the formality of an adjournment — such was the panic and confusion 
that suddenly seized upon the members. The fire extended rapidly from 
the south end of the building against a pretty stiff northern breeze, and 
in three hours, that superb, elegant structure — a monument of the liberali-; 
ty of the citizens of Montgomery, and the pride of the State — was in ruins: 
nothing left but portions of the blackened walls. 

The combined efforts of the members and citizens, with the heads of de- 
partments, saved the public property upon the basement and second floor. 
'ine State Library on the third floor could not be entered without peril. 
After the archives of his office [Secretary of State] were saved, the writer 
conducted a number of gentlemen to that apartment, to assist in throw- 
ing the contents out of the windows; but the heat was so great and in- 
creasing, that they could not remain, and the large collection of puilio 
documents, law-books, manuscript Journals of the General Assembly, his- 
torical works, maps of the several States, and valuable papers, with a 
variety of publications presented to the State in exchange for similar cour- 
tesies, and other volumes constituting a fine collection for public use — 
were all destroyed. 

The archives and papers of the Executive, of the Secretary of State, 
the Treasurer and Comptroller, of the Supreme Court, and of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, including all belonging to the public offices 
of the Capitol, that were saved, were secured in rooms procured for the 
purpose in the city, until the Houses should determine the location of the 
different offices." [Italics by the editor.] 

While it is generally supposed that the public records were 
thus saved, the facts must be limited to the official records 
proper of executive departments. From the last part of the 
foregoing statement by Mr. Garrett, it clearly appears that 
practically all of the archives gathered under the provisions 
of the Act of Dec. 16, 1820, supra, were kept in the State 
library, or at least on the third Hoor, and they were thus lost. 
This appears to be also true from an examination of the 
records found in the Secretary of State's office. How much 
has thus been lost to the Alabama historian will never be 
known, but certainly very much that would now be highly 
prized ! 

The new capitol having been completed, it appears from a 
joint resolution of Feb. 10, 1852, that the Governor was au- 
thorized and required "for the better protection of the public , 
records," to cause suitable shelves to be constructed in the 
executive and State offices. 

In April, 1865, the State archives were again subject to 
great hazard and in some cases distinct loss. The approach 
about this time of Gen. James H. Wilson with Federal troops 
so alarmed the officials at Montgomery that they collected the 
archives and sent them in charge of John B. Taylor, as State 
agent, to Eufaula for safe preservation. A part may have 
been sent to Augusta, Ga., as appears from the following com- 
munication from a Mobile correspondent to the New York 
Herald, June 8, 1865 : 

State Offices. 91 

"The rebel State archives of Alabama, removed from the capital to 
Augusta, Ga., on the advance of General Wilson, have been discovered, and 
are expected to be returned to Montgomery in a day or tw^o by the proper 
officers. At present they are in this city. Mr. John B. Taylor, State 
agent, arrived on Sunday evening from Augusta, Ga., having in his charge 
the archives of Alabama. It took no less than twelve six mule wagons to 
carry these papers and a portion of those of Mississippi. The latter were 
forwarded by the Red Chief No. 1 to Selma, and from thence will be sent 
to Jacltson, the capitol of that State." 

A part of them was certainly returned to Montgomery from 
Eufaula. The following interesting papers give the corre- 
spondence in reference to the shipment, charges, etc. 

Eufaula, Ala., November 18th, 1865. 
Geo. W. Parsons, Esq., Montgomery, Ala.: 
Priv. Sec. to the Governor. 
I am in receipt of your telegram of the 17th inst. giving me Instruction 
in reference to the State Records. There were only two boxes put into 
my store by Major Dent, Commandant of this post. They contained acts 
of the Legislature. There were also other boxes containing Missouri 
State papers. 

As I have no controul (sic) of them, I beg to refer you to Captain 
Grabenhous, the successor of Major Dent. I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 

per P. D. Woolhopter. 

"Str. Indian, June 2nd, '65. 
"U. S. Government, 

To Str. Indian. Dr. 

For freight from Eufaula to Columbus on 175 boxes papers belonging 
to State Ala. $600.00. 

As per annexed order. 
"Copy Telegram. 
J. B. Taylor, State Agent. 

Any Quartermaster of the U. S. Army will furnish transportation from 
Eufaula to Union Springs for State Papers and send bill to me. Wagons 
will meet them at Union Springs May 29th. 
By order Major General A. J. Smith. ' 

(Signed) C. K. DREW, 

Cap't & Chf Q M. 16th Army Corps. 

'•I certify that the steamer Indian furnished transportation for the 
freight above named from Eufaula to Oolumbus, Ga.— beiof; one hundred 
and seventv-flve boxes of freight, amounting to six hundred dollars. 

Agent State Ala."' 

"Received. | Approved. | F. G. Watson, | Lt. Comd'g. Post, | Columbus, 
Ga., I June 2, '65." 

It can never be determined how much loss the records sus- 
tained. The bound books hardly suffered. Loose papers must 
in the. majority of cases been left behind, and were thus liable 
to destruction. Col. W. H. Fowler, State Superintendent of 
Army Records, in his report to Gov. L. E. Parsons, Dec. 4, 
1865, Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1897-98, vol. 

92 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

ii, p. 187, says in reference to his work on the war records, 
"The events, however, of April and May, 1865, brought it to 
an abrupt termination in consequent confusion ; and much of 
the material that I had accumulated, having been deposited 
by me in the State Capitol at Montgomery, was lost or mis- 
placed in the evacuation of this city, at the date named." 

The records and books required to be kept, and those 
actually found in the executive departments and other State 
offices, are given below. These are : 

Governor. Commissioner of Agriculture. 

Secretary of State. >_onvict Bureau. 

Auditor. State Board of Health. 

Treasurer. Railroad Commissioners. 

Attorney General. Clerk of tne Supreme Court. 

Superintendent of Education. Adjutant General. 

The official books, papers, reports, etc., of certain tempor- 
ary officials, or of offices discontinued by law, or of special 
boards or commissions, are deposited, or filed with the Secre- 
tary of State, as general custodian of State archives. In some 
cases they will be found in other offices, as will more particu- 
larly appear from the descriptions hereafter given. Some of 
these are the old Bank Commissioners, the Debt Commission, 
1875, Commissioner of Swamp and Overflowed Lands, Com- 
missioner of Immigration, Commissioner to Survey Coosa 
River, Commissioner of Industrial Resources, Commissioner 
to Encourage Fish Culture, and Superintendent of Army 
Records. The official records and reports in some of the 
above cases have been printed in full. The military archives 
collected by Col. W. H. Fowler, such as escaped destruction, 
are fortunately preserved in the office of the Adjutant Gen- 

The State Board of Assessment is composed of the Gk)ver- 
Dior, Secretary of State, Auditor and Treasurer, and, is 
charged with the duty of assessing "the items of property of 
railroad and other companies required to be returned to the 
auditor." "A record of its proceedings" is required, which is 
kept in the custody of the Auditor. — Code, 1896, vol. i, sec- 
tions 3966, 3971. 

The office of State Examiner of Public Accounts was cre- 
ated by Act of Feb. 16, 1885. This act was amended Feb. 12, 
1897, so as to provide for assistant examiners. It is made the 
duty of these officials "to audit and examine the books, ac- 
counts and vouchers" of certain named officials. They are 
required "from time to time, [to] report to the governor un- 
der oath, the results of their examination," etc. These re- 

state Offices. 93 

ports are public records. It is made the duty of the governor 
to cause these reports to be printed. — Code, 1896, vol. i, sec- 
tions 1876-1879. What administrative boolis are kept in the 
operation of the office is not linown. 

The "Superintendent of Salt Springs and Salt Lands" is re- 
quired by statute to report every six months "to the governor 
all the property of every kind collected or received, and all 
settlements made by him, and, generally, all his actings and 
doings in regard to salt lands." — Code, 1896, vol. i, sec. 2696. 
These reports have never been printed, but are filed in the 
office of the governor. It is not known what office records, 
if any, are kept by the Superintendent. 

In the effort "to provide for the more efficient assessment 
and collection of taxes," by act of Feb. 3, 1897, amended Feb. 
21, 1899, the office of State Tax Commissioner was created, 
and a number of duties imposed, looking to the more efficient 
administration of the revenue branch of the State govern- 
ment. The office of the Commissioner is at the Capitol in 
Montgomery, and such records as are necessary to its admin- 
istration are kept by him. They have not been specially ex- 

The office of Chief Mining-Inspector, with two associate 
mining-inspectors, was created by act of Feb. 16, 1897. The 
act, among other things, provided regulations on the impor- 
tant subjects of the examination of mine bosses, standard 
scales, safety lamps, ventilation, maps of mines, and care for 
wounded in cases of accident. The Inspectors are required 
to make biennial reports to the governor "stating the con- 
dition of the mining interests in this State, with suggestions 
and information as may be of interest to the mining indus- 
ty." These Reports are printed. The office of the Chief 
Mining-Insi)ector is in Birmingham, where are kept the offi- 
cial correspondence, books, registers, etc. They have not 
been examined. 

The Department of Insurance was created by act of Febru- 
ary 18, 1897, with its chief officer as the Secretary of State 
under the title of "Insurance Commissioner Ex-Officio." 
Prior to this time all State supervision of insurance was con- 
ducted through the Auditor's Office, where the records are to 
be found. The records of the present office are described in 
connection with the records of the Secretary of State. 

There are also certain boards, which from their operation 
over the entire State on the subjects committed to them,- may 
be properly mentioned here. These are the Board of Phar- 
macy, created Feb. 28, 1887; the State Board of Dental Ex- 

94 Report Alabama History Commission. 

aminers, created Feb. 11, 1881 ; and the State Board of Em- 
balming, created Dec. 12, 1894. These several boards keep 
records of their proceedings, registers of licenses, etc. No 
inquiry has been made, however, as to their extent or special 


The oflBce of the Chief Executive, known as Governor, dates 
from March 3, 1817, when the Territory of Alabama was cre- 
ated. The first incumbent was Wm. W. Bibb, commissioned 
Sept. 25, 1817, but who did not enter upon the official dis- 
charge of his duties until his arrival at St. Stephens in Dec. 
1817. From this date the official records should begin, but 
unfortunately no executive journals, or record books, have 
been found for this period. In the Adjutant-General's office, 
in the "Military Returns," a few papers are to be found. In 
his message, Nov. 15, 1821, Gov. Israel Pickens recommended 
the appointment of Commissioners to examine the Executive 
records, as they had not been kept from the beginning for. 
want of suitable books. It is not known what action was 
taken. It does not appear to have been the practice of the 
Secretaries of State, or if so the books are out of place, to 
keep the "fair register of all official acts and proceedings of 
the governor," clearly enjoined in the Constitution. 

Many of the early records and papers, originally preserved 
in the Governor's office, are now in the office of the Secretary 
of State. Indeed, in the present practical administration of 
the office large numbers of its current papers and files are 
finally lodged in the latter office. An examination of the 
cases and vault discloses the following, among other, current 
files of papers : 

Lands, Quarantine Accounts, 

Insane Hospital, Board of Health, 

Mine Inspector. Alabama Gii-ls' Industrial 8chool. 

Mt. Vernon, University of Alabama. 

Current Pardon Papers, Current Appointment Papers, 

Examiners' Reports. Swamp and Overflowed Lands. 

Old Executive Cobrespondence. 

The executive letters received, appear regularly, with 
apparent fulness, from the beginning of Gov. C. C. Clay's 
term in 1835. They cover the Indian and Mexican Wars, the 
Provisional Government, the Reconstruction period, etc. The 
Confederate War Correspondence is in the Secretary of 
State's office. These old letters and papers are kept in file , 
cases, and in five large boxes. 

Secretary of State. % 

Old Files. 

The following files of papers are noted as of special inter- 
Pardon Files. 1870-1900. 
Annexation of Florida. 1869. 
Georgianna Murder, Butler County, 1891. 
Adjutant General Candee's Report on the Eufaula riot, 1874. 
State Salt Works. 1865. 

In re apprehension of Isaac H. Vincent; also papers relating to his 

Current Correspondence. 

The practice is to keep copies, in letter press books, of all 
letters sent out. 

Those received are preserved in file boxes. 


The act of Congress, March 3, 1817, creating Alabama Ter- 
ritory provided a Secretary thereof, with the same powers and 
duties as those exercised by the same officer under the Missis- 
sippi Territory. By the Constitution of 1819, article iv, it 
was provided as follows : "Sec. 14. There shall be a Secre- 
tary of State appointed by joint vote of both Houses of the 
General Assembly, who shall continue in office during the 
term of two years. He shall keep a fair register of all official 
acts and proceedings of the governor, and shall, when re- 
quired, lay the same, and all papers, minutes, and vouchers 
relative thereto, before the General Assembly," etc. It does 
not appear that the "fair register" contemplated by this sec- 
tion has ever been kept, at least a search has failed to discover 
any such tecord. The framers of the provision doubtless had 
in mind the regulation under which such a register was kept 
for Mississippi Territory. These were called Executive Jour- 
nals, and are fortunately preserved, covering its whole exist- 
ence, 1798 to 1817. See Mississippi, supra, for detailed ac- 
count of these. 

The same provision exists in the present Constitution, 1875, 
but there is no statute regulating the matter. The Secretary 
is the custodian of the principal archives of the State, particu- 
lar detail of which appears below. He is also the keeper of 
the State seal. Unfortunately the office facilities for proper 
care and attention to the vast mass of records committed to 
his care are altogether inadequate. 

In reference to the lists of books and papers described be- 
low it may be observed that they doubtless fail in many par- 
ticulars to include all of the existing material, and it is alto- 
gether probable that an exhaustive exploration of the records, 

Keport Alabama History Commission. 

in their various repositories would serve to fill up many 
apparent gaps. The examination has disclosed a much 
larger body of archives than has hitherto been supposed to 
exist. In the examination of his official records, every assist- 
ance was rendered by the present Secretary of State, Robert 
P. McDavid. 

Codes. .: 

Original manuscript of the Code of 1852. Folio. 2 vols. 

Original manuscript of the Code of 1867. Folio. 4 vols. 

Original manuscript of the Code of 1876. Folio. 6 vols. 

Original manuscript of the Code of 1886. Folio, 5 vols, 

Original manuscript of the Code of 1896. Folio. 6 vols. 
Conventions and Constitutions of Alabama. 

Enrolled copy of the Constitution, 1819, on parchment, to 
which are attached the signatures of members. In tin case. 


Original manuscript of the Constitution, 1861. Folio. In 
tin case. 

Manuscript of the Constitution, 1861. Printer's copy. 
Folio, pp. 74. In tin case. 

Enrolled copy of the Constitution, 1861, on parchment. In 
tin case. 

Manuscript Journal of the Convention, 1861. Large Folio. 
1 vol. 

Manuscript Ordinances of the Convention, 1861. Large 
Folio. I vol. 

Enrolled copy, on parchment, of the "Ordinance to Dissolve 
the Union," to which are attached the signatures of members 
of the convention. Circa : 24x36 inches. 


Manuscript Ordinances of the Convention, 1865, Nos. 1-54. 
Folio. 1 vol. 

Original Manuscript of the Constitution, 1865. In tin case. 


Election Eeturns District of Alabama. 4 to. 1 vol. 

Vote by Counties for and against the Constitution, 1867. Held 
under General Order, No. 101. 

Enrolled copy of the Constitution, 1867, on parchment. In 
tin case. 


Manuscript Journal of the Convention, 1875. Folio. 1 vol. 

Secretary of State. 97 

Vote for and against Convention, Aug. 3, 1875. Folio 1 

Vote for and against Constitution, Nov. 16, 1875. Folio. 
1 vol. 

Enrolled copy of the Constitution, 1875, on parchment. In 
tin case. 

Criminal Administration. 

Eeprievts and Pardons. Folio. 10 vols. 

1840-1852. 1881-1890. 

1852-1860. 1890-1892. 

1860-1866. 1893-1896. 

1865-1872. 1896-1899. 

1872-1881. 1899-1900. 

Earned Pardons. Folio. 5 vols. 

1883-1887. 1888-1890. 
1884-1887. 1889-1890. 

Demands for Fugitives, or Requisitions. Polio. 10 vols. 

1866-1877. 1888-1891. 

1877-1881. 1891-1893. 

1881-1883. 1893-1896. 

1883-1886. 1896-1898. 

1886-1888. 1899-1900. 

Abstracts of Writs of Arrest, 1881-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 

Contains record of writs issued in response to requisitions from 
executives of other States. 

Records of Warrants issued on Requisitions from other 
States, Nov. 1, 1881 ; Sept. 13, 1883. Folio. 1 vol. 

No longer used. 

Remitted Forfeitures. 1891-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 


Records of Proclamations and Writs of Elections. 1843- 
1860. Folio. 1 vol. 

Election Returns District of Alabama. 1867. Folio. 1 

Certificate of vote In eacii County. Held under General Order, No. 59. 

Elections. 1868. Folio. 1vol. 

Registration Books. 1868. Several Folio pamphlets, by 

Election Returns. Aug. 3, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872. Folio. 
I vol. 

Registrars of Counties. 1875-1890. Folio. 1 vol. 

Presidential Elections. Vote for electors by Counties. 
Folio. 6 vols.. 

1868. 1876. 1884. 
1872. 1880, 1888, 


98 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Eegistration lists of Electors. 1875. 1 vol. Folio, for 

each County. 

Contains lists by precincts, or wards. 

Election Keturns. Judges, Chancellors, Congressmen, 
Supt. Public Instruction, and Members Board of Education. 
1874-1890. Small folio. 1 vol. 


Manuscript House Journals. Folio. 

Incomplete file. The following early sessions were found: 1822-3, 
1824, 1825-6, 1832-3, 1833-4, 1838-9, 1840-41, 1842-3, 1845-6. Later ses- 
sions comparatively full. 

Manuscript Senate Journals. Folio. 

Incomplete file. The following early sessions were found: 1829-30, 
1834-5. Later sessions comparatively full. 

Manuscript Acts of the General Assembly. 1818-1898. 


Except for very few sessions the original manuscript copies of the 
enrolled acts have been found. It is altogether probable that the 
missing volumes can be located in some unused parts of the Capitol 
building. A volume of unusual interest is the one containing the 
original acts of the first and second sessions of the first Territorial 
General Assembly, in 1818. 

Land Records. 

Spanish Grants. Translation. Folio. 1 vol. 

Covers various grants, 1763-1803; and other land transactions. 

Translated Eecords. Office of the Secretary of State. Nov. 
12, 1715-Jan. 18, 1812. Folio. 1 vol. 

Made by Joseph E. Caro, translator, under Act of January 9, 1833, 
said Caro being commissioneo March 3, 1840. His certificate is dated 
Oct. 14, 1840. 

See Mobile County, infra. 

Surveyor's Office. Letter Books. Folio. 2 vols. 

Dec. 15, 1827 to July 3, 1833. 

1833-1839. Not found. 

Aug. 3, 1839 to Aug. 1, 1848. 

The first book begins with a letter from Gen. John Coffee giving an 
account of the fire which destroyed the office of the Surveyor General 
at Florence. It ends with a letter saying that "General Coffee is at 
this time (July 3, 1833) so much indisposed, that he is unable to attend 
the duties of this office." 

The second book is by James H. Weakley, Surveyor General. 

Field Notes of Surveys of Alabama Lands. Folio. 75 vols. 
Descriptive Notes. Old Washington County Surveys. 
Folio. 2 vols. 

Vol i made up of large sheets, originally loose. Vol. ii, consists of 
descriptions filled in blanks. The first survey, which fills the first 
14 pp. was of Tp. 1 R. 1., West of the Base Meridian (St. Stephens). 
At end of page 14 it is stated that the preceding was "Recorded in 
Book B. I From page 72 to 77. I Washington M. T. 16 of the 8 mo. 
1806. I Seth Pease. I " 

It is stated that Gideon Fitz was the Deputy Surveyor in charge of 
the work, the chain bearers being Robert Caller, John Bettis, Wil- 
liam Felps, William Ba,ldwin. 

Secretary of State. 99 

It appears that T. 4 R. 1. West was surveyed by John Dinsmore, 
Dep. Surveyor, Stephen Hogg, and Alexander McCuUough, Chain car- 
riers. It is recorded in Book B., Aug. 4, 1807. All surveys in the 
book appear to be in 1806-1807. 

Field INotes, by Silas Dinsmore, Deputy Surveyor. 8vo. 1 
vol. pp. 101. 

Begun March 19, 1821. The book begins with this entry: "Prom 
the Stake at the Beach of the Gulph of Mexico between sections 26 A 
27, T. 9, R. 1, E.," etc. 

Jliscellaueous Field Notes. Several vols., as below. 

Creek Lands. 1832-33. Small Folio and Svo. 35 vols. 
Cherokee Lands. 1839-40. Small Folio and Svo. 9 vols. 
Chickasaw Lands. 1S33. Small Folio and Svo. 3 vols. 
Choctaw Lands. 1832. Small Folio and Svo. 7 vols. 
Retraced Survey. 1S42-3-4. Small Folio, Svo. 13 vols. 

Tract Books of Alabama Lands. Folio. 66 vols. 

By counties, one vol. for each. 

Plat Books. Large Folio. 

Huntsville District. Vols. 1, 2, 3. 

Coosa District. Nos. 1-2. 

St. Stephens District. Nos. 1-3. 

Tallapoosa District. 1 vol. 

Demopolis District. 1 vol. 

Southern Survey. 1 vol. 

Northern burvey. 1 vol. 

Sparta District. Vols 1 and 2. 

Cahaba District. Vols. 1 and 2. 

Tuscaloosa District. Vols. 1 and 2. 

Township Plats, Retraced Surveys. 1 vol. 

llecord of State Lands. 1819-1900. Folio. 

Autauga to Lamar. * vol. 
Limestone to Winston. 1 vol. 

Eailroad Lands. Folio. 1 vol. 
Original lists of selections by railroads of lands granted under acts 

of Congress, 1856, et seq. 
There is also one volume of lists bundled together, not bound up. 

Lands Certified to Eail Roads. 1856-1899. Folio. 1 vol. 
Has also "Letters from the Commissioner of Public Lands, State Land 
Office." 1861-64. 

Eecord of Land Patents, General Land Office of Alabama. 
Vol. 1. 1862. Folio. 

Only 15 patents entered. 

Letters from the Commissioner of Public Lands, State 
Land Office, April 4, 1861— Aug. 24, 1864. 

In volume entitled "Lands Certified to Rail Roads," the title preceding 
the last. 

University Lands. 1822. Small Folio. 1 vol. 

Contains also "Militia Orders," 1823-1834. 

Ledger of the Montgomery Land Office. 1834. Folio. 1 


Contains also "Paroles," 1865. 

100 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Register of Receipts issued by the Receiver of Public 
Moneys at Montgomery for Lands sold. Jan. 20, 1834— Dec. 
25, 1844. Folio. 1 vol. 

Courtland Land Office. 1841-42. Folio. 1vol. 

Patents from the United States to the State of Alabama. 
1850-1894. Folio. 1 vol. 

School Indemnity Patents. 1899-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 

Alabama Land Patents. General. Folio. 

1831-35. 1 vol. 

Contains Deeds to Lots in Cahaba, 1837-1840. 
1834-36. 1 vol. 
1836-39. 1 vol. 
1839-40. 1 vol. 
1840-72. 1 vol. 

Alabama Land Patents. Valueless 16th section locations. 

1852. 1 vol. 
1852-58. 1 vol. 
1859-92. 1 vol. 

Record Book of Lots in the Town of Cahaba, 1822-1835. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

See also title preceding tlie last, for record, 1837-1840. 

Sixteenth Section Patents. Folio. 

Book A. 1836-1845. I vol. 

Book B. 1845-1852. 1 vol. 

Book C. 1852-1856. 1 vol. 

Book D. 1856-1886. 1 vol. 

Book E. 1886. 1 vol. 

Register of 16th Section Stock. Under Act of March 6, 
1848. Folio. 1 vol. 

Register of 16th Section Notes. Folio. 

Vol. A. Jan. 19, 1849 to 1852. 1 vol. 
Vol. B. 1852 (Current). I vol. 

Original papers and patents to Swamp and Overflowed 
Lands. Folio. 1 vol. 

A map of the S. and O. Lands of Alabama compiled by A. 
B. W. Kennedy and D. M. N. Ross, civil engineers. By order 
commissioners, appointed under act of Sept. 18, 1850. 1871. 

Swamp and Overflowed Land Registry. 1871-1872. Folio. 

Book of Swamp and Overflowed Land entries made under 
Thomas H. Price, commissioner of S. and O. Lands. 1878. 
Small Folio. 1 vol. 

Very few entries. Contains also manuscript report, Nov. 1879, to 
Gov. R. K. Cobb. 

No. 7. Pre-emption affidavits Swamp and Overflowed 
Lands. Folio. 1 vol. 

Swamp Land Patents, 1893-1900, Folio. 1 vol, 

Iia extenso. 

Secretary of State. 


List of Patents to S. and O .Lands. 1872-1894. Folio. 1 

Deeds to lands by the State of Alabama. 1888-1900. 
Folio. 1 vol. 

Land Files. In one of the file cases are the following files, 
or packages, pertaining to land matters : 

1821. Comptrollers' Certificates to Treasurer of Land Sales. 1 

. 3 per cent. Fund. 1 package 

1836-7. Lots in Cahaba. 1 package. 

Lands selected in lieu of valueless 16th Sections. 1 package. 

Miscellaneous Papers. 1 package. 

6 per cent Stock Certificate. 1 package. 

Accounts and claims Land Office at Cahaba. 1 package. 

Creek Indian Patents. 1 package. 

U. S. Land Patents. 1 package. 

Old Letters. Prior to 1861. 2 packages. 

Votes on 16 Section Funds. 1 package. 






Abstract of Land Sold in Montgomery. 

State Bank Lands. 1 package. 

Land Papers. By Counties. 69 packages. 

Washington County. Swamp and Overflowed Lands. 


Civil Registers, 


Notwithstanding they are variously designated, all books containing 
records of appointments, commissions, etc., are regarded as parts of 
one series. 




County officials. 

I vol. 








" For one year. 
" For one year. 
" For one year. 

1900- (Current.) 



Executive and State officers. 1819-1861. Folio. 1 vol. 
Contains also Commissioners of Deeds to 1858. 

Executive and State officers. 1861-1865. Folio. 1 vol. 
Contains also Commissioners of Deeds, 1862-1900. 

Executive and State officers. 1868-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 
Eecord of Commissions of State and county officers. 1878- 
1892. Small Folio. 1 vol. 
Record of Miscellaneous appointments and commissions. 

1866-1885. Folio. 1 vol. 

Copies of Commissions in extenso. , ,„ ,, 

102 Beport Alabama History Commission. 

Appointments to office in Alabama, made by Maj. Gen. 

Pope, commanding Tliird Military Department. 1867. Folio. 

20, 1868-Dec. 14, 1872. Polio. 1 vol. 
Contains also "Orders," 1867-1868. 

Official bonds of State Officers. Folio. 2 vols. 

Book A. 1868-1883. 
Book B. 1883-1900. 

Applications for Appointment. 1881-1887. Folio. 1 vol. 
Contains also "Applications for Pardon," same period. 

Portraits of Ex-Secketaries of State. 

Joseph Day Barron ( July 1, 1889-Dec. 1, 1894 ) . Crayon. 

Eufus King Boyd (1874-1878). Crayon. 

William Garrett (1840-1852). Original oil painting. 

J. Kirk Jackson (1894-1898). Original oil painting. 

Charles C. Langdon ( Sept. 15, 1885- June 8, 1889. ) Crayon. 

J. J. Parker (1870-1872.) Photograph. 

Ellis Phelan (1882-1885). Photograph. 

Neander H. Rice (1873). Crayon. 

Wm. W. Screws (Dec. 1, 1878-Dec. 1, 1882). Crayon. 

Miscellaneous Books. 

Record of Proclamations. Folio. 3 vols. 
Book A. 1860-1881. Contains War Proclamations. 
Book B. 1882-1898. 
Book C. 1898-1900. 

Register of Applications for Amnesty and Pardon. Folio. 
2 vols. 

Nos. 1-1197. Vol. 1. 
Nos. 1198-1787. Vol. 11. 

Record of Incorporations. Folio. 4 vols. 

Book A. 1868-1888. Book C. 1887-1899. 
Book B. 1882-1888. Book D. 1899-1900. 

Railroad Liens. 1882-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Board of Education, Julv. 
20, 1868-Dec. 14, 1872. Folio. 1 vol. 

Journal of the Board of Regents, Dec. 6, 1869-Dec. 8, 1871. 
Folio. 1 vol. 

List of Bonds Straight and Endorsed presented to the 
Board of Commissioners at Montgomery, Alabama, 1875. 
Folio. 1 vol. 

Census of 1885. Records by Counties. Each, thin Folio. 

Militia Orders. 1823-1834. ' Small Folio. 1 vol. 

In vol, with "University Lands." 1822. 

Paroles. 1865. 

In "Ledger of tlie Montgomery Land Office," 1834. 

Correspondence of the Militarv Secretary of the Governor. 

1883-1887. 4 to. Letter press book. 

Secretary of State. 


4 to. Several vols. 
to date. 

1 vol. 

also Letters of Adj; & Ins. 

Governor's Letter Books. Folio. 

Dec. 5^ 18bl-May 12, 1863. 1 vol. 
May 13, 1863-April 1, 1865. 1 vol. 
July 27, 1869-Feb. 13, 1870. 1 vol. 

Secretary of State's Letter Books. 

Letter press copy books. Circa, 1866 

Records Executive Office. Folio. 

Contains: Executive Orders, 1860-61 
Gen. July-Aug. 1863. 

Records and Letters [and Receipts] on Financial Matters . 
1873-77. Folio. 1 vol. 

Map I and | Profile | of part of the | Tuscumbia Court- 
land and Decatur | Railroad. | Explored and located | by 
order of the board | of Railroad Directors | David Deshler 
Engineer | Drawn hj F. M. Petrie | Civil Engineer. | 

Third and Fourth | annual reports | of the officers of the 

Railroad Company. | 
I 1836. I 8vo. pp. 27. 

I Tuscumbia, Courtland and Decatur 
Tuscumbia. | North Alabamian Office. 

Contains, pp. 25-7, brief history. 


The loose files of papers and documents of the Department 
extend irregularly from the admission of the State to the 
present time. They comprise several hundred packages, but 
how complete they are cannot be stated. There are compara- 
tively few files prior to the Confederate War. These files re- 
late principally to the following subjects : 

Oaths and Bonds. 
Election Returns. 
Book Receipts. 
Treasurer's Receipts. 
Rejected Bids. 
Commissioners of Deeds. 
Attorney General's Opinions. 
Mobile and Girard Lands. 
Current Letters, etc, etc. 

Appointments and Commissions. 
Original Legislative Papers. 
Applications for exemptions from 

Incorporation Papers. 
Contracts ana Bonds. 
Requisitions and Receipts. 
Appointments not Commissioned. 
Color Blind Examiners' Papers. 
Land Papers. 

Without attempting to give any approximately full lists of the files, 
it is deemed proper to present detail as to some of early date, in 
order to illustrate what may be found here of possible value, for both 
practical and historical purposes, viz: 

Land Files. 1821 et seq. See above. 

Mobile Branch Bank. Letters and Papers. 1839. 1 paoleage. 

State Bank and Branches. Letters and Papers. 1847. 1 package. 

Alabama Insane Hospital. 1856. 1 package. 

Pardons. 1856-1859. 3 packages. 

Miscellaneous Papers. 1855-1860. 2 packages. 

Miscellaneous Papers. 1860-1865. 1 package. 

Election Returns. 1855-1868. 16 packages. 

Army votes, 1861. 1 package. 

Muster rolls and election returns. Confederate Records. 

Report of Judges. No of Justices of the Peace. 1861. 

Confederate Records. 

1 package. 

1 package. 

Commissions and other Papers. 1861. 1 

104 lleport Alabama Etistory Commission. 

Confederate Records. Military appointments. 1861. 3 packages. 
Confederate Records. Commissions. 1862. 1 package. 
Reports of Hospital and Penitentiary Inspectors. 1 package. 
Papers relating to the University. 1862 . 1863 . 2 packages. 
Commissions. 1857-1866. 8 packages. 
Oaths and Bonds. 1855-1868. 15 packages. 
Registrars. 1865. 1 package. 

Miscellaneous Appointments. 1867-1868. 2 packages. 
Military appointments. 1 package. 
Letters to Gov. A. B. Moore. 1861. 3 hox files. 
Letters to Gov. J. G. Shorter. 1862-1863. 3 box files. 
Letters to Gov. T. H. Watts. 1864. 1 lox file. 

Copies of Letters from Governors of Alabama. 1861-1864, inclusive. 
1 box file. 
Secretary of State's flies of letters received. 1870-1900. 59 box files. 


Under the Constitution of 1819 a Comptroller of Public 
Accounts was provided, to be elected by a joint vote of both 
Houses of the General Assembly for one year. Bi-ennial 
elections were provided by the constitutions of 1861 and 1865. 
The name was changed to Auditor by the Constitution of 
1868, with a term of four years. In 1875, the present consti- 
tution limited the term to two years. 

Pbinted Reports. 

Bound files of printed Reports of the Auditor are complete, 
with a few exceptions from 1841 to date. 

Recced Books. 

It has been impossible to make up a complete statement of 
the books of record kept in this office, and therefore general 
designations only are given. The following are kept in cur- 
rent use. Several of them extend back to varying periods 
prior to 1860. 

Receipt Journal. 

General Ledger. 

Tax Ledger . 

State Bonds Issued and Paid. 

Railroad Assessments. 

Solicitor's Fees. 

Insurance Records. 

Warrant Books. 

Disbursement Ledger. 

Docket of Suits against Defaulters. 

Official Bond Record. 

Convict Contractor's Record. 

Deeds to Tax Lands. 

Consolidated Journal, Receipts and Disbursements. 

Consolidated Journal, Receipts and Disbursements, 

state Treasurer. 105 

Maimed Soldier's Records. Several volumes. 

Land Records. 1866-1900. "A" to "N." 13 volumes. 

The following old volumes are noted as of interest : 

Register of Certificates of Alabama State Stock issued for 
the banks of Mobile, Huntsville and Montgomery, Ala. Also 
State bonds issued under Acts of Jan. 16, 1850 and Feb. 9, 
1852. Folio. 1 vol. 

Alabama State Treasury Notes. Folio. 1 vol. 

AU dated Jan. 1, 1863. In Denominations of $1.00, 50 cents, 25 
cents, 10 cents, and 5 cents. 

Bank Note Register. Farmer's Bank of Alabama. 1863 . 
Folio. 1 vol. 

Register of 8 per cent, bonds under Act of Jan. 29, 1861, 
authorizing loan of |2,000,000.00. Folio. 1 vol. 

Register of Bonds of Assessors and Collectors. Folio. 1 

Register of city bonds of Selma. Folio. 1 vol. 

Agricultural College. Folio. 1 vol. 

Letteb Files. 

Letters sent out. Copy Press Books, Dec. 24, 1868 to 1900. 
4 to. 58 vols. 

General letters received are preserved in file boxes. 

Miscellaneous Files. 

The following files of original papers are preserved in the 
office. Generally speaking the files seem complete from 1850. 
Vouchers. Redemption of Lands Reports. 

Original Bonds. Cleric's Rep't, Solicitor's Fees. 

License Reports. Certificate of Land Redemptions. 

Tax Papers. Reports Hire of Convicts. 

Educational Papers. Monthly Reports Agricultural Dept. 

Files of Annual Statements of Guaranty Companies. 
Files of Papers in re Soldier's Pensions. 


A State Treasurer was provided by the Constitution of 
1819. He was charged with the same duties as had been 
performed by the Territorial Treasurer. He was elected by 
joint vote of the General Assembly, annually from 1819 to 
1861, and biennially from 1861 to 1868. From 1868 the elec- 
tion has been by the people for a term of two years. 

The Territorial records of the Treasurer's office were doubt- 
less destroyed when the dwelling and store house of the 
Treasurer, Jack F . Ross Avas destroyed by fire, in December, 
1818. The General Assembly, Dec. 18, 1820, indemnified him 
for the loss on this occasion of |606.35 of public moneys.* 

'Acts, 1820, p. 77. 

106 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

The records and files prior to 1882, are incomplete, and dif- 
ficult of any detailed description. 

Later Records. 

The following is a list of all the records since 1882, with 
a few of earlier date. It was prepared by the present incum- 
bent, George W. Ellis. 

Printed Reports. 

Files of the printed official Reports preserved in the office 
are incomplete, and date only from 1875. 

Official Letters. 

The office has complete files of official letters and corres- 
pondence from March 1, 1883, to the present time. 

Also complete files of copies of letters sent out, copies kept 
in copying books, dating from March 1, 1883, to the present. 

Manuscript Books. 

Collection Eegister. 

Vol 1. Feb. 2, 1893, to Jan. 26, 1895. 

VoL 2. Jan. 27, 1895 to July 11, 1896. 

VoL 3. July 12, 1896, to Dec. 31, 1897. 

Vol. 4. Jan. 1, 1898, to April 6, 1899. 

Vol. 5. April 7, 1899 to (current Vol.) 

Cash Book. 

Vol. 1. Feb. 8, 1883, to June 24, 1887. 

Vol. 2. June 25, 1887, to Aug. 9, 1890. 

Vol. 3. Aug. 10, 1890, to Dec. 31, 1892. 

Vol. 4. Jan. 3, 1893, to Dec. 31, 1894. 

Vol. 5. Jan. 1, 1895, to Aug. 31, 1896. 

Vol. 6. Sept. 1, 1896, to July 31, 1898. 

Vol. 7. Aug. 1, 1898, to June 30, 1900. 

Vol. 8. July 1, 1900, to (current Vol.) 

Receipt Journal. 

Vol. 1. Oct. 1, 1882, to Sept. 30, 1884. 

Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1884, to Sept. 30, 1887. 

Vol. 3. Oct. 1, 1887, to Sept. 30, 1889. 

Vol. 4. Oct. 1, 1889, to Sept. 30, 1891. 

Vol. 5. Oct. 1, 1891, to Sept. 30, 1893. 

Vol. 6. Oct. 1, 1893, to March 31, 1898. 

Vol. 7. April 1, 1898, to (curent Vol.) 

Disbursement Journal. 

Vol. 1. Oct. 1, 1882, to September 30, 1884. 

Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1884, to Sept. 30, 1886. 

Vol. 3. Oct. 1, 1886, to April 19, 1888. 

Vol. 4. April 20, 1888, to Sept. 30, 1890. 

Vol. 5. Oct. 1, 1890, to Sept. 30, 1892. 

Vol. 6. Oct. 1, 1892, to Sept. 30, 1893. 

Vol. 7. Oct. 1, 1893, to Sept. 30, 1895. 

Vol. 8. Oct. 1, 1895, to March 30, 1898. 

Vol. 9. April 1, 1898, to September 30, 1899. 

Vol. 10. Oct. 1, 1899, to (current Vol.) 

Receipt and Disbursement Ledger combined. 
Vol. 1. Oct. 1, 1882, to Sept. 30, 1884. 

Attorney-General. 107 

Keceipt Ledger. 

Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1884, to Sept. 30, 1890. 

Vol. 3. Oct. 1, 1890, to Sept. 30, 1893. 

Vol. 4. Oct. 1, 1893, to Sept. 30, 1896. 

Vol. 5. Oct. 1, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1899. 

Vol. 6. Oct. 1, 1899, to (current Vol.) 

Disbursement Ledger . 

Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1884, to Sept. 30, 1890. 

Vol. 3. Oct. 1, 1890, to Sept. 30, 1893. 

Vol. 4. Oct. 1, 1893, to Sept. 30, 1896. 

Vol. 5. Oct. 1, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1899. 

Vol. 6. Oct. 1, 1899, to (current Vol.) 

Tax Ledger. 

Vol. 1. Oct. 1, 1893, to Sept. 30, 1896. 
Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1899. 
Vol. 3. Oct. 1, 1899, to (current Vol.) 

Tax Journal . 

Vol. 1. Oct. 1, 1893, to Sept. 30, 1900. 
Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1900, to (current Vol.) 

Soldiers' Record. 

Vol. 1. Oct. 1, 1894, to Sept. 30, 1897. 
Vol. 2. Oct. 1, 1897, to Sept. 30, 1899. 
Vol. 3. Oct. 1, 1899, to (current Vol.) 

Registered Bond Record. 

Vol. 1. July 1, 1879, to June 15, 1898. 
Vol. 2. June 16, 1898, to (current Vol.) 

Record Cancelled Coupons. 

Vol. 1. Class A. Jan. 1, 1877 to (current Vol.) 

Vol. 2. Class B & C. Jan. 1, 1877 to (current Vol). 

Vol. 3. 6 per cent. July 1, 1880 to Jan. 1, 1890. 

Vol. 4. 4 per cent. July 1, 1890 to (current Vol.) 

Register of Securities. 

Vol. 1. June 10, 1897, to (current Vol.) 


Although the office of the Attorney General has existed 
since 1819, its official records are exceedingly meager. Its 
printed Bi-ennial Reports have only been published since 
1882. A file of these is in the office. 

The following represent all of the official manuscript rec- 
ords found on file : 

Opinions and Official Letters. May 17, 1889-1900. Vols. 
A, B, C and D. 

Letters Received. 1889-1900. 11 File boxes. 

Record of Sixteenth Section Notes. Folio. 1 vol. 

Involves business from about 1851. 

Attorney-General's Docket of Suits and Claims for Collec- 
tion. 1893-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 

108 Report Alabama History Commission. 


The public school system, of which the Superintendent of 
Education is the official head, waS created by the General 
Assembly I'eb. 15, 1854, by "An Act to establish and main- 
tain a system of free public schools in Alabama." Prior to 
this time matters connected with schools, school lands, etc., 
were committed to other branches of the State government. 
Prom time to time since its formation, the office of the Super- 
intendent has come into possession of such school records as 
were kept antedating its creation, as will appear below. In 
reference to the care and preservation of the official records, 
Superintendent John Ryan says in his Report for 1865 : "The 
Records, Books, Papers, etc., of this office were carted about 
the country in boxes, to keep them from the hands of spoilers, 
during most of the time after 1863. Their preservation is chief- 
ly, if not alone, due to the vigilance, zeal, and activity of my 
worthy predecessor, the Hon. John B. Taylor, to whom the 
friends of education in Alabama should ever feel grateful." 

John W. Abercrombie, the present State Superintendent 
of Education, has compiled the data as to the official records 
which follow herewith. 

Feinted Reports. 

Files of the printed official Reports preserved in the office 
are incomplete, and date only from 1873. 

Official Lettebs. 

Letters Received. Impossible to be ascertained, as no sys- 
tematic filing of correspondence has been attempted in this 
office so far as is known up to 1886. The files seem to be com- 
plete from that year to the present. 

Letters sent out from the office. There are 26 volumes of 
copy books extending from April, 1857 to March, 1899, with 
only one short break ; but it is not known how complete they 
are ; whether all letters were copied, or only the more import- 
ant ones. 

The method followed now is to make carbon copies of all 
letters, and if the letter is an answer to one received, the two 
are fastened together and filed in indexed box-files. 
Miscellaneous Books and Records. 

Day-Book. 1836-53. 

Collection Book of the Branch Bank at Decatur, 16th Sec- 
tion Notes. 1833-48. 

County Educational Fund. 1871-72. 

Daily Journal. 1870, 1871. 2 vols. 

Superintendent of Education , 109 

County Statistics. 1868-69. 

Dividend Boolts. 1854; 1855; 1856; 1857; 1858-59; 1860 
1861; 1862; 1863; 1864; 1865; 1866-67; 1868; 1870; 1871-78 
1879-83; 1884-87; 1888-91; 1892-93; 1894-96; 1897; 1898-99 
1899-1900. 23 vols. 

Journal. 1854-56 ; 1867. 2 vols. 

Journal. Township Accounts, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 1875-80. 

Journal. Receipts 16th Section Fund, "E." 1854-1900. 

Land Register; Comptroller's office. 1850. 

Ledger, County, (Marked "Autauga County") 1870. 

Ledger, County. 1856-70. 

Ledger, County. 1869-72. 

Ledger, County. (Marked "Franklin County") 1873. 

Ledger, County. (Marked "School Fund Ledger") 1871. 

Ledger, County. (Poll Tax) 1881-87. 

Ledger, County. 1871-82 . 

Ledger County. 1883-91. 

Ledger, County. "H." 1891-95. 

Ledger, County. "T." 1895-1900. 

Ledger, Township. 1833-47. 

Ledger, Township. No. 1 & 2. 1881-89. 

Ledger, Township. No. 3 & 4. 1890-91. 

Ledger, Township. No. 5 & 6. 1892-94. 

Ledger, Township. No. 7 & 8. 1895-1900. 

List of County Superintendents and list of newspapers pub- 
lished in Alabama in 1875. 

Memorandum of County and City Accounts. 1888-89. 

Patent Register, 16th Section Land, (Labeled "F." Reg- 
ister of Voucher;^. ) 1891-92. 

Poll Tax. 1871. 

Record, Amount Money Due each Township. 1871. 

Record, Board of Education and Register of Acts passed. 
1870-74; 1873. 2 vols. 

Record of Proceedings of the Executive and Building Com- 
mittee of the Universitv of Alabama (Marked "Record"). 

Record of Receipts for 16th Section Notes. 1858-1900. 

Register of Certificates. 1871. 

Register of Requisitions. 1872. 

Register of Requisitions Report. 1872-73. 

Register of Teachers. 1899-1900. 

Register of Vouchers. 1869. 

Requisition Book. 1874 . 

Report of 16th Sec. Notes at Branch Bank, Montgomery, 
Nov. l^t. 1851, 

110 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Sixteenth Section Account Book. 1849-54. 

Sixteenth Section Dividend. 1848-51. 

Sixteenth Section Doclvct. 1840-41. 

Sixteenth Section Fund (Marked Journal"). 

Sixteenth Section Fund ("Marked Huntsville" ) . 1836-50. 

Sixteenth Section Fund. 1854-59. 

Sixteenth Section Fund. 1856. 

Sixteenth Section Fund. 1860. 

Sixteenth Section Fund. 1861. 

Sixteenth Sections Interest Account, Comptroller's Oflfice. 

Sixteenth Sec. Journal (Marked "Day Book"). 1833-47. 

Sixteenth Section Ledger. 1831-41. 

Sixteenth Section "A." 1833-41. 

Sixteenth Section. "C." 1854-57. 

Sixteenth Section. 1 & 2. 1855-63 . 

Sixteenth Section, Branch Bank, Montgomery. 1842-54. 

Sixteenth Section, Branch Bank, Mobile. 1836-57. 

Sixteenth Section Record Book. 1833-50. 

Sixteenth Section Record Book of notes in suit. 1855-58. 

Sixteenth Section Register. "A." 1849-54. 

Sixteenth Section Register. "B." 1857-1900. 

Sixteenth Section Register. "C." 1851-1900. 

Sixteenth Section Register Notes Branch Bank of Ala. 

Sixteenth Section Register Notes in hands of Attorneys for 
collection. 1845-53. 

Sixteenth Section Notes sent Attorneys for Collection. 

Statement 16th Section notes at Branch Bank of Mont- 
gomery, Nov. 1, 1857. 


In order to present a short view of the printed sources 
for the State's educational history in connection with the 
above list of official manuscript records, the following biblio- 
graphic note by the editor is reproduced from the Transac- 
tions of the Alabama Historical Society, 1897-98, vol. ii, p. 27, 
viz : 

"The school system of the State, although the subject of 
almost continuous discussion since its adoption, has received 
meager historical treatment. The most extensive general 
treatment is contained in Willis G. Clark's Historif of Educa- 
tion in Alahama (1889), in the Chapters: "Educational 
Land Grants," pp. 217-219 ; "The Public Schools System of 
Mobile," pp. 220-239 ; and "Public Schools in Alabama, "pp. 

Commissioner of Agriculture. Ill 

239-253. These chapters are in the main correct, although 
there are some blunders and glaring omissions. 

"The 'School Law of Alabama' is reviewed anonymously in 
Ala. Ed. Jour., Dec, 1858, and April, 1859; andAla. Jour, of 
Education, April, 1871, contains an article on "Alabama Pub- 
lic Schools before the War.' In Barnard's American Jour- 
nal of Education, and in the Reports of the U. S. Com. of Edu- 
cation, there are numerous references passim. 

"Mr. Clark finds the origin of the present State system in 
the Mobile public school system which had its beginning in 
1826. A full review of all the legislation in relation to the 
latter from Jan. 10, 1826, is presented by Peter Hamilton, 
Esq., in his Brief for appellees inthe cases of the State of Ala- 
bama, e.r. rel G. L. Putman vs. Gustavus Horton, Judge of 
Probate ; the same vs. E. B. Lott, Tax Collector ; and W. G . 
Clark, et als. vs. E. P. Gaines, et. als. in Supreme Court of 
Alabama June term, 1870, (8vo. pp. 23.) 

"The source material is extensive, and is contained in Re- 
ports of the Superintendent of Education, the Journals of the 
Board of Education, the School Laws (separately printed), 
and Miscellaneous Legislative and Official documents. Full 
and classified lists of these are presented, under the title of 
'Schools,' in Owen's 'Bibliography of Alabama,' in Report 
of American Historical Association for 1897, pp. 1131-1136. 

"The Auditor's Reports contain financial statistics. 

"Statistics of the Sixteenth Section fund are found in the 
several Legislative reports, and in the Auditor's Reports. 

"For further bibliographical references see Owen's Bibliog- 
raphy of Alaha.uii under the titles — Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, Educational Association, et seq.. Schools, 
University of Alabama, and the names of particular educa- 
tional institutions, schools, or colleges." 


The Department of Agriculture was created Feb. 23, 1883. 
Its administrative head is a Commissioner, required, under 
the statute, to be "a practical and experienced agriculturist." 
The Department has published official Reports, Circulars, 
and Bulletins, copies of which are on file. 

Its manuscript records are generally complete from date of 
organization. Jesse C. Adams, chief clerk, has furnished the 
following particulars concerning the records kept. 

Crop Records. 1890-1900. Large folio. 4 vols. 

Guaranteed Analysis of Fertilizers, 1883-1900. Folio. 
5 vols, 

112 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Letters received. 1887-1900. Several file cases. 
Letters sent. 1887-1900. 

From 1887 to 1900, copies preserved in press copy books. At present 
carbon copies are preserved and filed with original communication. 

Business Administration. The following are kept: Cash 
book; Tag record; License register; Check book, etc. 

Museum. In the Department Museum will be found a full 
collection of soils, fruits, grains, grasses, domestic wines and 
liquors, and woods; besides a number of pictures of farm and 
industrial life. 


On Jan. 26, 1839, a "penitentiary and State prison for the 
reformation of criminals" was established. Wetumpka was 
selected as the location. Its managing head has been a 
board of inspectors, which has irregularly published official 
Reports. In connection with the administration of the 
Bureau, Laws and Regulations, Warden's Reports, and sun- 
dry Legislative Documents have been published. For full 
lists of these, so far as obtainable, see Owen's Bibliography of 
Alabama, pp. 1099-1103. 

Prior to 1868 the manuscript records are supposed to be 
wholly lost. From 1868 to 1883 they are irregular and in- 
complete. The following comprise generally the official rec- 
ords since the latter date. 

Eecord of Convicts. State. 1883-1900. Several volumes. 

Record of Convicts. County. 1883-1900. Several volumes. 

These contain the court history of each convict. 

Minutes of the meetings of the Inspectors. 
Order Book. 
Discharge Book. 

These two books are kept, the one for orders on officials to contrac- 
tors for convicts, while the other contains the order of discharge. 

Clerks' Transcripts. Filed and Indexed. 1883-1900. 
Contractors' Monthly Reports. Made on blank forms. 

Bound up every two years. 

Letters received. In file cases. 1883-1900. 
Letters sent out. Letter press books. 1883-1900. 
Financial Records of the Bureau consist of Cash Books, 
Prison Ledgers, Contractor's Ledgers, Journals, etc. 


The Medical Association of the State of Alabama is made 
by law the State Board of Health. The first appropriation 
made by the State, to enable it "to carry into effect the health 

Board of Health. 113 

laws of the State," was by act of Feb. 12, 1879. The records 
and files of the office appear to be approximately complete 
from the dates when first adopted. Statistical Reports, and 
Circulars have been published from time to time. 

The following are the records kept, details of which have 
been furnished by W. 11. Brassell, Chief Clerk, viz: 

Medical Directory. 1886-1900. 14 vols. 

Contains lists of physicians and midwives by counties and precincts; 
also statistics by counties and precincts of births and deaths. 

Quarantine Kecord Books. Folio. 

Contain proclamations and all other quarantine business. 

Examination Papers of Physicians. 1887-1900. Several 

Each set of papers is preserved and separately bound. 

Letters received. Filed in cases. 

Letters sent. Copies preserved in press books. 


The Railroad Commission, consisting of a president and 
two associates, was created by Act of Feb. 26, 1881. It 
organized Feb. 28, following ; and its first annual Report was 
issued covering the partial year ending June 30, 1881. Its 
annual Reports, of which 20 octavo volumes are now pub- 
lished, contain valuable historical, commercial and financial 
statistics in relation to railroads in Alabama. Full files of 
these are preserved. 

Its manuscript records are complete from date of organiza- 
tion. Virgil Griffin, Chief Clerk, has supplied the following 
detail, viz : 

Minutes of the meetings of the Commissioners, 1881-1900. 

Vol. 1.— Feb. 28, 1881-March 16, 1883. 
Vol. 2.— March 17, 1883-March 31, 1886. 
Vol. 3.— April 5, 1886-July 10, 1892. 
Vol. 4.— July 10, 1892-Oct. 4, 1898. 
Vol. 5.— Oct. 19, 1898-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Rate Indexes. 1890-1900. 3 vols. 
Rate Files. 1890-1900. 11 File cases. 
Docket of Complaints. 1881-1900. Several vols. 
Annual reports of Railroads to the Commissioners, show- 
ing business, statistics, etc. 1889-1900. 

Covers annual period, June 30 to June 30. These reports are made 
in blank volumes, supplied by the Commissioners; and appear in 
tabulated form in the printed annual Reports. 

Letters received. 1881-1900, Several file cases. 

Letters sent. 1881-1900. 

114 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

From 1881 to 1898, copies preserved in press copy books. From 
1898 to date, carbon copies are preserved and attached to original 
lette* for file. 


The current office records of the Clerk of the Supreme 
Court consist of appearance, trial, motion and execution 
dockets, and minutes of the terms of the Court. These are 
supposed to be approximately complete. No effort has been 
made to list them, because it would serve no particular pur- 

The official record of each case consists of the transcript 
of the record thereof in the trial court, a copy of all orders, 
and of the final judgment or decree and the manuscript opin- 
ion of the Supreme Court. At the end of each term all rec- 
ords of cases decided during said term are to be "bound in 
strong binding, and lettered so as to show the term at which 
the decisions were made." — Code, 1896; vol. i. Sections 

It is believed that these case records are complete from the 
first term of the Court, May, 1820. They are preserved in 
the office and file rooms of the Clerk, and can be conveniently 
consulted. Many of the old records contain interesting and 
valuable historical data. Kennedy's Executors vs. Kenne- 
dy's Heirs, 2 Alabama Reports, p. 571, is a case in point. 


For an account and detailed statement of the current office 
records, as well as the military archives of the office of the 
Adjutant General, see Part IV, War Records of Alabama, 



This chapter forms the principal part of volume ii, of the Report of the 
Commission. The extent of the data secured and its great value suggest- 
ed the advisability of grouping it in one volume, complete in itself. 


The functions and operations of municipal corporations, 
as local governmental agencies, are of such vital importance 
to the people grouped in city communities, that to the history 
of their growth and development is attached the very highest 
interest. It was therefore hoped that the official records of 
at least twenty of the principal cities and towns of the State 
could he described, with historical and comparative notes, 
thus placing before the student of municipal life, growth and 
reform, sufficient indications of source material for elaborate 
study. However, the absolute indifference of officials, to 
whom appeals for assistance were made, has prevented this, 
and it has only been possible to present a few of the larger 
cities. It will be seen that the records below are purely ad- 
ministrative in character. The municipal corporation in 
Alabama has never been charged with the duty of keeping 
registers of vital statistics, or of attention to a number of 
matters required of towns in the Eastern States. Town 
records here, therefore, are concerned chiefly with municipal 
routine, etc., and are only incidentally valuable for personal 

With reference to the manuscript official records of the 
larger number of cities and towns not described below, it 
can doubtless be safely stated that they are incomplete and 
imperfectly kept. 


On Dec. 19, 1871, the city of Birmingham was incorporated. 
The first meeting of the City Council was held Dec. 22, three 


116 Report Alabama History Commission. 

days later. The manuscript records and files are in excellent 

condition, their present orderly arrangement being due to 

the skillful attention of H. D. Wood, City Clerk. 

Minute Books. 

Vol. 1. Dec. 22, 1871-Nov. 5, 1873. Lost. 

Vol. 2. Nov. 19, 1873-Dec. 17, 1879. 

Vol. 3. Jan. 7, 1880-March 19, 1884. 

Vol. 4. April 2, 1884-Dec. 28, 1888. 

Vol. 5. Jan. 2, 1889-July 29, 1891. 

Vol. 6. Aug. 5, 1891-Dec. 30, 1895. 

Vol. 7. Jan. 15, 1896-May 3, 1899. 

Vol. 8. May 17, 1899- Aug. 17, 1900. 

Vol. 9. Sept. 5, 1900- (Current.) 

Minutes of the Town of Highlands. 

Jan. 18, 1887-Feb. 7, 1893. Folio. 1 vol. 


In the oflfice of the City Clerk are also preserved the books 
of the City Auditor, Tax Assessor, Tax Collector and Treas- 
urer. The records of these offices are practically complete 
from their institution. 

Among the miscellaneous books and papers kept by the 
Clerk are Improvement Ordinances, Records of Building 
Permits, Cemetery records. Election Records and papers, 
Dog tax records. Estimates, Fines and Fees, Inferior Court 
reports. Improvement ledger. Judicial reports. License rec- 
ords. Market records, Meat and Milk Inspector's records, 
Oaths of Office, Official reports, Petitions, Police reports. 
Poll and Street tax books and papers. Prison reports, Pound 
keeper's papers, etc., etc. 

There is also the original manuscript of the City Code, 
adopted by ordinance of Feb. 19, 1890. 


Eufaula was settled about 1833, and incorporated in 1837 
as "Irwinton." The name was changed to the present one 
six years later. No information has been obtained concern- 
ing its early records. A. A. Couric, city clerk, has furnished 
the following list of 

Manuscript Minutes. 

Record A. — Period unknown. Lost. 

Record B.— March 2, 1870, closing April 29, 1873. pp. 400. 
Record C— May 8, 1873, closing Dec. 31, 1878. pp. 588. 
Record D.— Jan. 7, 1878, closing Jan. 31, 1884. pp. 588. 
Record E.— Feb. 19, 1884, closing Dec. 10, 1889. pp. 588. 
Ilecord F.— Jan. 7, 1890, clQ^ing Dec. 5, 1900. pp. 598, 

Huntsviile. 11? 


The little village which grew up about the Big Spring, in 
Madison County, was called "Twickenham" by act of Dec. 23, 
1809, but on Nov. 25, 1811, the name Avas changed to Hunts- 
viile. On Dec. 9, 1811, the latter was incorporated, and since 
that time a municipal organization has been maintained. 
The location and condition of the early records, from 1811 to 
1828 has not been ascertained. 

No manuscript ordinance books are kept, all ordinances 
being entered at length in the minutes. 

The following list, prepared by H. C. Pollard, of Hunts- 
viile, represents the 

MAisruscRrPT Minutes. 

No. 1. Feb. 1, 1828, to Aug. 19, 1834, inclusive, pp. 348. 

No. 2. Aug. 19, 1834, to June 27, 1837. Missing. 

No. 3. June 27, 1837, to Dec. 26, 1843, inclusive, pp. 375. 

No. 4. Dec. 26, 1843, to Dec. 22, 1853. Missing. 

No. 5. Dec. 22, 1853, to Feb. 28, 1862, inclusive, pp. 502. 

No. 6. March 4 1862, to April 13, 1870, inclusive, pp. 540. 

No. 7. April 13, 1870, to Aug. 3, 1872, inclusive, pp. 438. 

No. 8 Sept. 17, 1872, "to April 9, 1877, inclusive, pp. 597. 

No. 9. April 9, 1877, to April 10, 1882, inclusive, pp. 546. 

No. 10. April 10, 1882, to Dec. 28, 1891, inclusive, pp. 579. 

No. 11. Jan. 5, 1892, up to and including Nov. 13, 1900. pp. 430. 


The city of Mobile has the longest continuous existence of 
any settlement on the Gulf coast. The source material of its 
annals is abundant. Its history has been excellently deline- 
ated by Peter J. Hamilton in Colonial Mobile (1897; 8vo. 
pp. 446), in which appear passim, critical estimates of all 
authorities published and in manuscript. In its preparation 
the author had access to material hitherto unused, and his 
work renders necessary the readjustment in many particu- 
lars of the narratives of the early history of the Gulf States 
For the later period, Owen's Blbliographj/ of Alabama con- 
tains full references to practically all printed material, as 
Directories, Codes, Maps, Schools, Histories, Churches, etc. 

In his Charter and Code of Ordinances (1897), Mr. Hamil- 
ton, among other things, presents full lists of "City Char- 
ters," "Maps of Mobile," "Streets," and "President and 
Mayors," 1814-1897. The official records are given as fol- 
lows, pp. 420-421, viz : 

"List of City Records. 

"Note — Guard house and other dockets, account books, etc., are of tem- 
porary value and are not included. The numbers, etc., are those marked 
on the books, so far as marked at all. 

ll^ Ileport Alabama Sistoty Commission. 

"A. — Minutes. 

"Commissioners of Town of Mobile, 1, 1814-1819. 

1. Mayor and Aldermen of City, 1820(?)-1824, (mutilated.) 

2. Mayor and Aldermen of City, 1824-1829, (mutilated.) 

3. Mayor and Aldermen of City, 1829-1832, (mutilated.) 

4. Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council, and each board, April 
5, 1839 to September 23, 1842, (mutilated.) 

5. Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council, 1839 (?) -Nov. 30, 1844, 

6. Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council, April 1, 1839-Sept. 5, 
1843, (mutilated. 

7. Board of Aldermen, Sept. 19, 1843-Sept. 2, 1847, (mutilated.) 

8. Board of Common Council, Dec. 5, 1844-1849, (mutilated.) 

9. Board of Aldermen, 1850-1855, (mutilated.) 

10. Board of Common Council, May 6, 1853-1859. 

11. Board of Aldermen, 1855-1857. 

12. Board of Aldermen, 1857-1861. 
A 1. Aldermen, Oct. 17, 1861-1866. 

A 2. Aldermen, Feb. 1867-1869, (mutilated.) 

A 3. Aldermen, Aug. 1, 1871-1874, (mutilated.) 

A 4. Aldermen, 1875-Marcli 14, 1879. 

C 1. Common Council, 1859-1866, (mutilated.) 

C 2. Common Council, 1866-1871. 

C3. Common Council, 1871-1878. 

C 4. Common Council, 1878-Marcli 13, 1879. 

1. Port Police Commissioners, March 15, 1879-1882. 

2. Port Police Board, March 20, 1882-1885. 

3. Port Police Board, 1885-1887. 

4. General Council, March 21, 1887-1890. 

5. General Council, 1890-1894. 

6. General Council, 1894-1897. 

7. General Council, 1897 — . 

15. Board of Councilmen, April 1, 1887-Feb. 10, 1897. 

16. Board of Aldermen, April 8, 1887-March 3, 1897. 

"B — MS. Ordinance Books. 

"Board of Commissioners, March 16, 1814-Aug. 14, 1821. 

Mayor and Aldermen, Dec. 19, 1821-March 3, 1825. 

Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council, Jan. 9, 1854-Oct. 10, 1863. 

Same, Aug. 9, 18ti6-Dec. 24, 1867. 

Same, Resolutions, Jan. 3, 1871-Feb. 14, 1879. 

Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council, April 1, 1870-Feb. 10, 1897. 

17. Mobile Police Board, March 15, 1879~Feb. 8, 1887. 

18. Mayor and General Council, March 21, 1887-April 6, 1895. 

19. Mayor and General Council, June 5, 1895 — ." 

"C. — Puhlished Ordinance Books. 

1835. A I collection of the ordinances I now in force I In the city 
of Mobile | and also, | the various Acts of the Legislature ] incorporat- 
ing said City, | with a copious index thereto. | Compiled by authority 
of the Corporation. | Mobile: | printed at the office of the Mercantile 
Advertiser. | 1835. | 

1843. Ordinances and Acts in force — By Jas. Y. Blocker, City Attor- 
ney, (pp. 205.) 

1859. Code of Ordinances and Charter in force 1858, — Alex Mc- 
Kinstry, (pp. 447.) 

1866. Charter and Code of Ordinances — Reuben A. Lewis, (pp. 274.) 

1869. Ordinances passed since July, 1866 — By order, (pamphlet, pp. 

1873. Ordinances passed from Sept. 1, 1869, to Feb. 5, 1873— By 

order, (pamphlet, pp. 70.) 



1890. Charter and Code of Ordinances — C. J. Torrey, City Attor- 
ney, (pp. 226.) 

1897. Charter and Code of Ordinances 1897 — P. J. Hamilton, ex- 
City Attorney, (pp. 470.)" 


Montgomery was incorporated by an act of Dec. 3, 1819, 
which consolidated the two villages of "New Philadelphia" 
and "East Alabama." M. P. Blue in 1878 prepared a His- 
tory of the City, "with a summary of events in that history, 
calendarically arranged." Recently Dr. George Petrie, of 
the Chair of History, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 
Auburn, has published a valuable sketch of the city in His- 
toric Towns of the Southern States (1900). Messages of the 
Mayor, with official Reports, have been published at least 
since 1876-7. For bibliography of directories and official 
publications, see Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, passim. 
Manusceipt Records. • 

Records of "the Corporation of Montgomery from 1820 to 1834. "A." 
Folio. 1 vol 

First entry is the Act of Incorporation, Dec. 3, 1819, and the first 
meeting of Jan. 3, 1820. 


"B." 1834-1838. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Records . 

"C." 1838-1846. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Records . 

"D." 1846-1850. 

Folio. 1 vol. 


"D2." 1850-1852. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Records . 


(Common Council.) Folio. 1 vol. 



(Mayor and Aldermen.) Folio. 1 vol. 


"G." 1856-1860. 

Folio. 1 vol. 


"H." 1860-1866. : 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Records . 



1 vol. 




1 vol. 

Records . 



1 vol. 




1 vol. 




1 vol. 




1 vol. 




1 vol. 




1 vol. 




1 vol. 

Records . 



1 vol. 

Records . 


Folio. 1 vol. 

ScBAP Book Minutes. 

The regular proceedings of the Council are required to be 
published in some newspaper of the city. These are pre- 
served in bound form as follows : 

1879-1884. Folio. 1vol. 1893-1900. Folio. 1vol. 
1884-1893. Folio. 1 vol. 1900. -(Current. ) Folio. 1 vol. 

Oedinance Books. 

Digest of Town Ordinances. 1820-1836. Folio. 1vol. 

Book, if any, 1836-38. Not found. 

"C." Ordinances. 1838 to 1850. Folio. 1 vol. 

120 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Books, if any, 1850-1875. Not found. 

Ordinances, 1875-1900. Folio. 1 vol. 

First ordinance bears the No. 234. 

Miscellaneous Official Records. 

In the office of the City Clerk are preserved the official 
records of the City Treasurer, City Tax Assessor, and the City 
Tax Collector, hut for what period, has not been ascertained. 


The Advertiser, Montgomery. 1870-1900. 


On the walls of the Mayor's office are portraits of the fol- 
lowing Mayors, viz : 
John H. Clisby, E. A. Graham, and Warren Reese. 


The true educational history of Alabama is yet to be writ- 
ten. In view of this it was hoped that an account of the 
manuscript official records of practically all Colleges and 
Academies could be secured. Owing, however, to the indif- 
ference of Presidents, principals and others only a very few 
have been reported. 

No manuscript, or other records have been found in the 
hands of school trustees as to local school management, or 

No manuscript, or other records, except in one or two in- 
stances, have been located of the old academies, which played 
such an important part in the educational life of the State.' 

Reference is here made to the manuscript records in the 
office of the State Superintendent of Education. In this 
connection it is proper to say that the County Superinten- 
dents of Education have been altogether indifferent to keep- 
ing a system of record books as to school affairs in the coun- 
ties, and in but few can any Superintendent's records be 


This school was organized at Huntsville in 1875, but in 
1891 was removed to Normal, three miles from the city. The 
following are its official records: 

Minutes of tlie Board of Trustees, April, 1891-1900. 2 vols. 
Minutes of the Faculty, 1886-1900. 2 vols. 

Since 1890, copies of all official letters sent and received 
have been preserved . 

Catalogues, Reports, and Circula/rs have been issued from 
time to time. Partial flies of these are to be found in the 
U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington. 


The Alabama Girls' Industrial School was established by 
Act of the General Assembly, 1892-93, located at Montevallo, 

'See Sims' Female Academy, in the Thomas M. Owen Collection of 
l^anuscripts, infra. 


122 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Shelby County, Jan. 1, 1896, and its first session opened Oct. 
12, 1896. 

The Trustees' Eeeords are as follows : 

Minutes, vol. 1. May 16, 1895-June 22, 1899. 
Minutes, -vol. 2. June, 1899-1900. (Current.) 

In the business administration of the institution, the usual 
Cash Book, Day Book, Ledger, etc., etc., are kept. 

A permanent Kecord is kept of grades and deportment of 


The several institutions of the Alabama Institute for the 
Deaf, the Alabama Academy for the Blind, and the Alabama 
School for Negro Deaf Mutes and Blind, are all under the 
control of one and the same Board of Trustees, and one and 
the same Principal. They are all the enlargement and out- 
growth of the Alabama Institute for the Education of the 
Deaf and Dumb, originally incorporated by Act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, Jan. 27, 1860. The official publications, con- 
sisting of Reports and Circulars, are listed in Owen's 
Bibliography of Alabama, pp. 896-897. 

The manuscript records of the Board of Trustees consist 
of one 

Minute Book. 1860-1900. 

It is in the custody of the Secretary of the Board, who is the 
Principal of the Institution. The date of the first meeting 
was Feb. 4, 1860. • 


The institution of which the Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute in a general sense may be called the successor, was the 
East Alabama Male College, founded at Auburn in 1856. 
From it classes were graduated in 1860, 1861, 1867, 1868, and 
1869. It suspended exercises from 1861 to 1867. In 1872 
its buildings and property became, by donation to the State, 
the property of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
which was then established. In 1898 the name was changed 
to the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 

Catalogues, Reports, Circulars, Students' publications and 
Experiment Station Bulletins, have been regularly issued. 

The manuscript records from 1856 to date appear to be 
singularly complete. The following detailed description 
has been prepared by Prof. Charles C. Thach, Professor of 
English at the Institute. 

Howard College . 123 

Trustees, (a) Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the East Alabama 
Male College; Presidents of Boards, Jno. B. Glenn, M. S. Andrews; Secre- 
taries, F. W. Dillard, Geo. C. Dillard, May 8, 1856-July 7, 1871. 

(b) Treasurer's Books of East Alabama Male College, 1857-1871. 

(c) Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute (1) 1872-1895; (2) 1895 . 

(d) Books of Treasurer of Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1872 . 

Faculty, (a) Minutes of the Faculty of the Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute; President, Rev. I. F. Tichenor, D. D., 1872-1882; Col D. F. Boyd, 
1883-84; Wm. LeRoy Broun, L. L. D., 1882-3, 1884— (to date.) Secretaries, 
Wm. C. Stubbs, 1872-1885; C. C. Thach, 1885 (to date); Books (1) 1872- 
1886; (2) 1886, (to date.) 

(b) A bound volume of catalogues showing officers, students, courses 
of study, etc. 

Students, (a) Book of Registration showing student's name, address, 
date of birth, parent or guardian, etc; (1) 1872-3 — 1897 — (to date.) 

(b) Record Book of Students' Grades (1) 1882-1889; (2) 1»99. 

Experiment Station. Minutes of the Board of Control; Directors, Dr. 
Wm. C. Stubbs, 1872-1885; C. C. Thach, 1885 (to date); Books (1) 1872- 
T. Anderson (1) March 15, 1888 — (to date.) 

A complete file of Bulletins issued by the Experiment Station of the 

An incomplete fiile of Reports from the President of the College to the 
Board of Trustees. 


The Alabama State Convention, which convened in 1841 
at Talladega, established Howard College at Marion. It 
was chartered Dec. 29, 1841, and opened for students in Janu- 
ary following. The College building was destroyed by fire 
in May, 1844. In 1887 the College was removed to East Lake, 
where it has remained. Owing to the hazards of removal 
some of the records have been mislaid or lost. 

It has so far been impossible to ascertain the completeness 
of the Catalogue issues. The U. S. Bureau of Education has 
a partial file from 1871 to date. In 1892 a Memorial Cata- 
logue was published, which contained a sketch of the Col- 
lege, and a roll of alumni, 1848-1892. 

Its existing records, so far as accessible are as follows : 

Trustees' Records, 1887-1900. 2 vols. 

Matriculation Record, vol. i. 1842-1886; vol. ii. 1887-1900. 

It has not been the practice in the past to keep copies of 
outgoing letters or to preserve letters received with care, but 
this is now strictly done. 

In the current business administration of the College, the 
books used consist of Blotter, Ledger, Cash, Check, Receipt 
books, etc. 


The papers and books of the Mobile Public School Com- 
missioners do not antedate the war, 1861. Those which exist 

124 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

for later dates are of a routine character. At present minutes 
of meetings are kept, and petitions, reports of committees, 
the Superintendent, and the teachers, and vouchers are kept 
on file. Rules and Regulations, and Reports are irregularly 
published. Peter Hamilton, Esq., in his Brief for appellee 
in the case of the State of Alabama, ex rel. G. L. Putnam vs. 
Gustavus Hor-ton, Judge of Probate, et als. in the Supreme 
Court of Alabama, June Term, 1870, (8vo. pp. 23), gives a 
full review of all legislation in relation to the "system" from 
Jan. 10, 1826.' 


The several books of records of the North Alabama Confer- 
ence College, at Owenton, near Birmingham, are complete 
from its establishment in 1897. 


"In the year 1869 the College buildings were burnt, and 
together with them were destroyed the records of preceding 
years. The history of the College and its students was thus 
lost."' The only records saved were those kept by the Vice 
President of the Institution. These records contain minutes 
of the daily happenings of the College, and with continua- 
tions, are as follows: 

Register, vol. 4. Oct. 3, 1888-1900. (Current.) 

Register, vol. 2. Dec. 1, 1849-May 15, 1859. 

Register, vol. 3. May 14, 1859-July, 1888. 

Register, vol. 4. Oct. 3, 1888—1900. (Current.) 

This College, founded in 1830, and chartered in 1836, is 
under the control of the "Society of Jesus." It has published 
Catalogues since its establishment, excepting a few years. 
The College has a complete set from 1847 to 1900. The U. 
S. Bureau of Education, Washington, has a partial file. The 
Spring Hill Review, which is now (1900) in its first volume, 
contains current data, and notes on College history. 


The Southern University, at Greensboro, was founded in 
1856, through the efforts of the Methodists of Alabama. It 
was the joint property of the Alabama and the North Ala- 
bama Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

'Prepared by Peter J. Hamilton. 

•Clark's Education in Alabama (1889), p. 190. A full sketch of the col- 
lege is given, pp. 185-193. 

University of Alabama. 125 

until 1897, when the latter transferred its rights to the former. 
A practically full file of its Catalogues is at the University. 
The Monthly, the student's periodical, was established in 
1884, and it now numbers sixteen volumes. 
The manuscript records of the University are as follows : 
Trustees' Record o. Proceedings, March 17, 1856-1900. 2 vols. 
Faculty Recoras: 
Minutes of Faculty Meetings. (Incomplete.) 
Students' Grade Book. (Incomplete.) 

Matriculation Record. Contains names of all students who have 
matriculated, with date, address of parents, etc. 1 vol. 


The State Normal College, at Florence, was established by 
the State Board of Education, Dec. 15, 1872, and opened Sept. 
1873. Catalogues have been published for each year, a par- 
tial file of which is in the U. S. Bureau of Education, Wash- 
ington. The college manuscript records consist of the fol- 
lowing : 

Minutes of the Directors, 1873-1900. 1 vol. 
Minutes of the Faculty, Sept. 2, 1873-1900. 1 vol. 


This institute, perhaps the most successful negro school in 
the South, was established by the General Assembly in 1880, 
and its first session opened July 4, 1881. Its Principal from 
the beginning has been Booker Washington, to whom its great 
success is due. He reports that its ofl&cial records are not 
full and complete from its establishment, but does not indi- 
cate the deficiency. Copies of official letters only in import- 
ant matters are preserved ; all letters received are preserved, 
dating from about 1884. Catalogues have been issued since 
1881; and a number of Reports, and special Circulars con- 
cerning its work have been published. The U. S. Bureau of 
Education, Washington, has many of these. 

With reference to its library work the Catalogue of 1899- 
1900 says: "An effort is being made now to collect in one 
division every pamphlet and book of value, whether of fic- 
tion, biography, autobiography, or history written by a 
negro author, ithe purpose being to make Tuskegee a centre 
of information regarding all matter bearing upon Negro 


The University of Alabama, as the "seminary of learning" 
contemplated by the Constitution of 1819, was established by 

1^6 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Act of the General Assembly, Dec. 18, 1820. The first meet- 
ing of the trustees was held April 6, 1822. The General As- 
sembly, Dec. 29, 1827, selected Tuscaloosa as the seat for the 
institution ; and on March 22, 1828, the trustees selected the 
present site for the erection of the buildings. Dr. Alva 
Woods, the first President, was inaugurated April 12, 1831, 
and on the 17th of the same month the University was opened 
for the admission of students. 

The printed material concerning it is voluminous. Its 
official publications consist of Catalogues, Laios, and Regula- 
tions, Reports to the Board of Regents, Trustees' Reports and 
Alumni Registers. There are also the University Monthly, 
1873-1887, 14 volumes; University Journal, 1891-1893, 4 
volumes; The Crimson-White, 1894-1900, 7 volumes; and the 
Corolla, 1893-1900, 8 volumes; besides many miscellaneous 
documents. Approximately full sets of these are on file in 
the University library. For full lists see Owen's Bibliog- 
raphy of Alabama, pp. 1213-1221. 

Dr. James K, Powers, the President, has supplied the data 
in part from which the following statement as to the official 
manuscript records is compiled. Each entry below repre- 
sents one volume. 


Ordinances and Resolutions of the Board of Trustees. 1822 to Dec. 41. 
Ordinances and Resolutions from 1842 to July, '49 and 1853 to 1855. 
to 1855. 

Trustees' Record, 1877-88. 
Trustees' Record, 1888-95 
Trustees' Record, 1895. 
Minutes of Executive Committee. 

President and Faculty. 

Faculty Minutes, 1878-86. 

Faculty Record, 1&.46-93. 

Faculty Record, 1893-99. 

Faculty Record, 1899. 

Students' Record, 1871-95. 

Students' Record, 1896. 

President's Reports, 1883-88. 

President's Ledger, 1898-99. 

List of Permits, March, 1898 to Feb. 1899. 

List of Permits, April 1897, to March 1898. 

Lands . 

Tract Book. 1vol. 

A copy of the Tract Descriptive Book of Lands of TJ. of A. (Act of 
Con. '84.) 
Lands of university of Alabama. (Act of Congress, 1884.) 
Account sales of Univ. Lands, containing separate acct. of each purchaser. 
Sales of Lots, Tuscumbla. 
Sales of Lots, Montevallo. 

University of Alabama. 127 

Land Sales. (Original Grant) . 

Agent's Accounts. 

Special Register of Land Department, U. of A., June 1896-97. 

Students . 

Matriculates, 1831-37; and Resolutions of Faculty, 1831-35. 
List of Graduates, 1831-62; and Roll of Stuuents, 1859-65. 
Matriculation Book, 1887-97. 
Applications for Matriculation, 1897-98. 
Applications for Matriculation, 1898-99, and i899-00. 


Reports of B. F. Porter (Agent of tne Trustees), 1835. 
Docket of Bank Cases sued by B. F. Porter, 1842. 
Treasurer's Ledger, 1819-22. 
Miscellaneous Ledger, 1883-91. 


Official representatives of the Holy Roman Church were 
with the first colonists in 1699 on the Gulf coast of what is 
now Alabama. In 1704 the Catholic Church at Mobile was 
instituted, from which time to the present it has had a con- 
tinuous existence. Contemporaneously with the advent of 
the Anglo-American pioneers into the borders of the State, 
Protestant Christian altars were reared, although not until 
about the beginning of the present century is there record of 
the appearance of ministers, and not until even later that 
congregations were gathered in churches. Thus early plant- 
ed, the growth and spread of religious thought has been 
marked. The history of the larger and more zealous denomi- 
nations, therefore, becomes of great significance in the con- 
sideration of the history of the State in its larger aspects. 
Many of these have elalborate histories, which treat fully of 
the planting of churches, expansion and growth, educational 
effort, schismatic disturbances, the work of the clergy, etc. 
However, much remains to be done in this special field, and 
it is proper to indicate unpublished sources for the use of the 
future student. See Ov,'en''S Bibliographp of Alabama (1897) 
passim, for printed works on church history. 

Only the records of the earliest established denominations 
have been explored and described. The following have 
organizations in the State, but no attempt has been made to 
determine the extent and condition of their records, etc., viz : 
the Christian Church, Lutherans, Universalists, Christian 
Scientists, Congregationalists, Theosophists, Seventh Day 
Adventists, the Peoples' Church, the Inter-denominational 
Holiness Association, the German Evangelical Church, and 
the Methodist Episcopal Church (North). 


The Baptists "were among the earliest whites who re- 
moved from the older States and established their homes in 
li'e primitive wilds of Alabama while it was yet the hunting 
ground of savages." Their first church in the State was 
Flint River Church, a few miles northeast of Huntsville, 
oi-ganized Oct. 2, 1808. Churches here and there sprang into 


Catholic Church. 129 

existence, and in Oct. 1823, the Baptist State Oonventiq^ 
(Missionary) was organized. Prior to this, several Asso- 
ciations of Churches had been formed. There were in ISyt) 
seventy-nine Associations in the State, with over seventeen 
iiundred churches, and over one hundred and twenty-seven 
thousand members. 

Convention and Association Records. 

The proceedings of the sessions of the State Convention, 
and of the seA^eral Associations are published as pamphlet 
Minutes. These usually contain statistics and reports in 
extenso. The Secretary of the Convention, W. A. Davis, of 
Anniston, has a practically full set of the Convention 
Minutes. The Samuel Colgate Baptist Historical Collec- 
tion, Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y., has the best kno^yii 
general collection of these publications." 


The work of individual churches is preserved in a church 
Record, kept by a local church clerk. This record embraces 
ell business of the church, as the call of pastors, administra- 
tion of the sacraments, church improvements, discipline, etc. 
Some of these Records have been examined and they appear 
to be exceptionally full and detailed. 


The Vicarate Apostolic of Alabama and Florida was 
created Aug. 26, 1825. On May 15, 1829, the present Dio- 
cese of Mobile was established. Prior to 1825, the territory 
embraced in Alabama had been in part under the Diocese of 
Louisiana and the Floridas, and under the jurisdiction of the 
Arch-Bishop of Baltimore. The Diocesan records are com- 
plete, and are in the custody of the Bishop at the Episcopal 
residence, near the Cathedral, at Mobile. These cover all 
of the business of the Diocese, such as parochial reports, etc. 


The records of the individual churches in the Diocese are 
kept with strict care and formality. They consist of a Birth 

'The library of the American Baptist Historical Society, rich in Baptist 
occasional and other literature, has recently been destroyed by fire. Much 
Baptist literature will be found in the library of Richmond College, Rich- 
mond, Va., and of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, 

^The libraries of the University of Notre Dame, Ind., and Georgetown 
University, Washington, D. C, have valuable collections of general and, 
local Catholic Church history. 

130 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Eegister, Baptismal Register, Death Register, and Confirma- 
tion Register, all of which are kept by the parish priest. He 
also preserves a detailed record of all financial affairs in the 
parish, and makes annual and special reports on its spiritual 
and business condition to the Bishop. He is also required to 
take and preserve a biennial census of the parish. 

No detailed descriptions of particular parish records have 
been sought, except as to those at Mobile. These are of the 
greatest historical value, and an account of them has been 
prepared by Mr. Hamilton, which is herewith given. 
Mobile Catholic Church Records.^ 

By far the longest continuous series of records in the State 
are the ecclesiastical records at Mobile. Except as far as 
used as a basis of Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, and more 
slightly for Shea's CatJiolic Church in Colonial Days, they 
have never been published. In addition to official church rec- 
ords proper, these consist of Baptismal Registers, and Death 

Taking up the French baptismal registers, we find there 
are several volumes extending from 1704 to 1764 inclusive. 
They are not large books several being bound together. They 
are on old and thin paper, in provincial French, bad hand- 
writing, and poor ink, with the result that they are often 
very difficult to read. The first volume starts off with the 
famous induction of De la Vente by Father Davion, by whom 
it is subscribed as well as by Bienville and Boisbriant on 
September 28, 1704. The oldest entry, however, is on the 
next page, being a statement or certificate by Davion Sep- 
tember 6, 1704, that, "There has been baptised a little Apa- 
lache child by me the undersigned apostolic missionary, Da- 

On the 18th of the same month was baptized a little Indian 
slave by De la Vente. The child died and was buried the 
same day. On the 19th another Indian slave was baptized 
by Alexander Huv^. These three priests took a large part 
in the early settlement of Mobile. 

Thence on were baptisms mainly of slaves, the first white 
child mentioned being on October 4, 1704. The entries in 
each case give the father's and mother's name, as well as date, 
are all at Ft. Louis, that is, at what is now called 27 Mile 
Bluff, and the occupation of the father, and the maiden 
name of the mother is often given, as well as the name of the 
priest officiating. These few hundred pages afford a very 

'Prepared by Peter J. Hamilton. 

Catholic Church. 131 

complete idea of the names and occupations, and family re- 
lations of the colonists, and frequently of the officers and 
soldiers also. There is apparently something for every year 
except 1706. The record is practically complete, although of 
course fuller for some years than others. The tribal names 
of the Indian slaves give a kind of running commentary on 
the ^n'ars waged by the French. 

There are some few entries of laws on various subjects, 
practically all ecclesiastical. The signatures of parents, 
sponsors, and witnesses are numerous as well as interesting. 
Occasionally an apostolic vicar passes through from Quebec 
or elsewhere and the different orders of priests and mission- 
aries from time to time throw light upon the ecclesiastical 
divisions of the country. After the first few years occur a 
great many marriage entries, and places of residence show 
the gradual growth of the colony. In fact, it would be diffi- 
cult to mention anything upon which light is not thrown by 
these records. There is, for instance, not infrequent men- 
tion of the practice of Ondoycr, that is, baptism administered 
in extremis by laymen. In 1741 there is recorded the dedi- 
cation of the church, which had been built completely anew. 
As it was on the date of the nativity of the Holy Virgin, it 
was dedicated to her, and during the French times ever after- 
wards called for her. 

Another ecclesiastical record, but much less elaborate is 
the death register, which begins regularly in 1728. This 
shows a good many of the same facts mentioned in connection 
with the baptismal register, and also sometimes the pall 
bearers, giving frequently the occupation of those concerned. 
Despite the jealousies of the other orders, once in a while we 
find in these records a Jesuit, for instance in 1733, Pierre 
Vitry supplying the place of Mathias, the regular Capuchin 

Sometimes it is mentioned that a person dying received the 
sacraments of the church. October 24, 1754, there is this 
mention in the death and burial of De Beauchamps, Cheva- 
lier, a Lieutenant of the King and Commandant of the de- 
partment of Mobile, who died the afternoon before after hav- 
ing received the sacraments of the church "with edification." 
At his funeral. Kerlerec, Governor of the Province, and all of 
the officers assisted, there being fourteen signatures of promi- 
nent men. There were French soldiers, Swiss, and those 
from other countries. Most of the companies are called by 
the name of their commanders, but sometimes spoken of as 
detached. They are occasionally spoken of as the Reformed 

132 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

faith, that is, Protestants. 

In British times the registers kept on but are less volumi- 
nous. The bulk of the population remained French and 
Catholic, but many of the leading citizens and people of 
wealth were of course Protestant. There were Episcopal 
ministers, but their church records have not survived. Janu- 
ary o, 1765, George Johnstone stood godfather at a baptism 
of the son of a merchant and signs his name with a great 
flourish in the Catholic register. Johnstone was at that time 
Captain General and Governor of the British Province of 
West Florida. A good many witnesses are British. 

The Spanish Eecords are similar in character arid are em- 
braced in several volumes. They are harder to read and are 
kept with much less care. Mobile at that time had not the 
same relative position that it had under the French and Brit- 
ish. The Spanish mortuary register begins March 12, 1780, 
its heading indicating that the name of the parish had been 
changed to that of the Purissima Conception, a name which 
translated into English it has ever since held. From 1793 
there is a separate Register for negroes. This had not been 
the case under the French, and would seem to be due to the 
fact that under the French all were slaves, while under the 
Spanish we have a great many free negroes. But many 
slaves are also mentioned in the registers. These Spanish 
records, like the French, give the names of people, with their 
occupations, and often their signatures, and the oflicers also 
appeared frequently. Of course the regular succession of 
priests can be readily made out. They are Spanish, with 
an occasional French in later times until the church was re- 
organized in 1822. The constitution effecting this is found 
at the end of one of the books. From about that time the 
records are kept regularly in English. 


The advent of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 
Alabama dates from 1808. The first Presbyterial Organiza- 
tion in the State dates from an order of the General Synod, 
of Oct. 18, 1821, constituting the Alabama Presbytery. It 
organized, but soon became defunct. In 1824 it was recon- 
stituted, and on April 1, 1825 its first session was held at the 
house of Alexander George in Perry County. This re- 
mained the only Presbytery in the State until the formation 
of Elyton in 1832, and Talladega in 1836, as it was also the 
chief local Presbyterial organization of the State until the 
Union Synod was constituted in 1836. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Cihurch. 133 

The 8th General Assembly on the 3rd Tuesday in May, 
1836, constituted the Union Synod, with the Alabama, Ely- 
ton and Talladega Presbyteries. It held its first session at 
Elyton, Nov. 17, 1S3G. Prior to this the records of the Church 
of a synodical nature are found with the Columbia Synod. 
It remained the Union Synod until 1865, when the name was 
changed to Alabama. 

There are three classes of records required to be kept in 
this Church : (1) Minutes of the Synod covering the State; 
(2) Minutes of each Presbytery ; and (3) Records or Minutes 
of the church Session, which is the record of all business of 
the individual churches. The two former have been irregu- 
larly printed. No attempt has been made to ascertain the 
condition of the third class. 

Records of Union and Alabama Synod. 

Minutes, Nov. 1/, 1836-Nov. 2, 1854. 1 vol. 
Minutes, 1855-1887. 1 vol. 
Minutes, 1888-1897. 1 vol. 
Minutes, 1898-1900. 1 vol. 

The originals of the two first named are in the hands of 
Rev. J. H. B. Hall, Birmingham. Copies of these, with the 
originals of the two last are in the custody of Rev. W. B. 
Witherspoon, Stated Clerk, Gadsden, Ala. 
Peesbyterial Records. 

1. Alabama (first) Presbytery, constituted Oct. 1821. 
Minutes presumably lost. 

Alabama (old) Presbytery, reconstituted in 1824, and first 
meeting held April 1, 1825 . 

Minutes, April 1, 1825-Oct. 3, 1867. 1 vol. 

Elyton Presbytery, constituted in 1831, and first meeting 
held April 12, 1832. 

Minutes, April 12, 1832-Feb. 12, 1866, also a part of 1869. 1 vol. 

Alabama (new) Presbytery, reorganized in 1883, by con- 
solidation of Alabama and Elyton Presbyteries. 

Minutes, April 2, 1868-Sept. 20, 1890. 1 vol. 

Minutes, April 23, 1891-1898. Same vol, also contains Minutes of 
Birmingham Presbytery, Oct. 10, 1898-Feb. 9, 1900. 1 vol. 

Birmingham (old) Presbytery, organized, 1896. 

Minutes, Nov. 5, 1896-June 1, 1897. 1 vol. 

Birmingham (new) Presbytery, reorganized in 1898, by 
consolidation of Birmingham and Alabama Presbyteries. 

Minutes, Oct. 10, 1898-Feb. 9, 1900. Included in second vol. of 
Minutes Alabama Presbytery, supra. 

All of the foregoing are in the custody of Rev. Luther B. 
Cross, Stated Clerk, Irondale, Ala., except the first above 
noted, which is in the hands of Rev. J. H. B. Hall, Birming- 

134 lieport Alabama History Commission. 

II. Talladega Presbytery, organized, 1836. 

Minutes, 1836 to 1867. 1vol. 

Minutes, 1867 to 1882. 1 vol. 

Minutes, ls82 to 1897. 1 vol. 

Minutes, 1897 to 1900. 1 vol. 

These are in the hands of Rev. W. B. Witherspoon, Stated 
Clerk, Gadsden, Ala. 

III. Springville Presbytery, organized 1880. 

Minutes, March 5, 1880-July 15, 1886. pp. 253. 
Minutes, Dec. 9, 1886-March 6, 1896. pp. 252. 
Minutes, Sept. 18, 1896-1900. (Current.) 

These are in the hands of Rev. R . P . Taylor, Stated Clerk, 
Leeds, Ala. 

IV. Robert Donnell Presbytery, organized 1890. 

Until the above date the churches composing this body 
were parts of the Jackson Presbytery and the Tennessee Pres- 
bytery. The whereabouts of the early manuscript Minutes 
is unknov.'n. Pamphlet minutes for 1891, 1892 and 1893 
have been issued. 

Minutes, March 31, 1893 to Aug. 4, 1897. 1 vol. 
Minutes, Sept. 1897 to 1900 (current. 1 vol. 

These are in the hands of Rev. Samuel Davis, Stated Clerk, 
New Market, Ala. 


The Episcopal Church had representatives among the very 
earliest British settlers in what is now Alabama. It was 
not, however, until 1825 that the first church in the State 
was organized at Mobile. On Jan. 25, 1830, the Primary 
Convention for the organization of the Diocese of Alabama 
was held, and in 1832 the Diocese Avas admitted into union 
with the General Convention. In the Transactions of the 
Alabama Historical Society, 1897-98, vol. ii, pp. 83-89, 
appears a paper giving the statistics of the Church in Ala- 
bama, with a bibliography of the Church, the Clergy, and the 
Parishes of the Diocese. Dr. R. H. Cobbs has supplied de- 
tail Avith reference to the several records required to be kept. 

The Diocese. 

A record is kept by its secretary, of everything done in the 
Diocesan Council, which embraces in detail all reports, com- 
mnnications, or business whatever, coming before that body. 
To the Council the Bishop is required to report his every 
official act, as, the number of confirmations, number of ser- 
mons preached, the number of ministers ordained, etc. Once 
a year at the meeting of the Council, each clergyman is re- 

The Jews. 135 

quired to make a report to the Bishop, to include a record of 
the births, baptisms, marriages, confirmations and burials in 
'he parish for the preceding period, the number of times he 
has celebrated Holy Communion, how many services he has 
held, how many sermons he has preached, and also the 
amount of money raised and expended in the parish for that 
year. Journals of the proceedings of the Council have been 
published since 1830, and several bound sets are in the State . 
The General Theological Seminary, New York, N. Y., also has 
a set, besides much other valuable Episcopal literature. 


Each Clergyman is required to keep with care for his 
parish a Register of all births, baptisms, confirmations, mar- 
riages, and burials occurring therein. A record is kept of 
all the transactions of the Vestry of each parish. These Reg- 
isters and Vestry Books contain many interesting and im- 
portant historical facts. In some of the parishes Year Books 
are published which contain local statistics, reports, etc., 
with other details of parish administration. 


While the Jews in limited numbers were among the earliest 
settlers of the State, they do not appear to have been for 
many years sufficiently strong to institute a Congregation. 
The first Congregation incorporated in the State was 
"Shaarai Shomayim," Jan. 25, 1844, at Mobile. Congrega- 
tions now flourish in Montgomery, Birmingham, Selma, 
Huntsville, Demopolis and Anniston. One organized at 
Claiborne in the early fifties is now disbanded. Rabbi To- 
bias Schanfarber, of Mobile, reports "that in the majority of 
instances the early records of the Congregations are either 
very imperfect or lost altogether." An excellent sketch of 
"Kahl Montgomery" is in Blue's Churches of the City of 
Montgomery (1878), pp. 60-63. On Nov. 17, 1846, at Mont- 
gomery, "Chefra Mefacker Cholim," a society for relieving 
the sick, was formed. 


The Methodist Church in Alabama as an organization dates 
from the erection of the settlements on the Tombigbee River 
into a Mission, by the South Carolina Conference in session 
at Charleston, Dec. 28, 1807- Jan. 2, 1808. Mathew P. Sturdi- 
yant was placed in charge of the work, which was attached to 

i36 Ueport Alabania History Commission. 

the Ocoaee District. From this time until Dec. 12, 1832, tlie 
churches of the State were in part at various times under the 
8outh Carolina, the Tennessee, the Mississippi and Georgia 
Conferences. On this date the Alabama Conference was 
organized. At its session, Nov. 25-Dec. 2, 1863, the Alabama 
Conference was divided into the Mobile and Montgomery 
Conferences. In Dec. 1869, these Conferences held their last 
sessions, and in 1870 the territory embraced in Alabama was 
divided into the Alabama and the North Alabama Confer- 

In accordance with the Discipline of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, the following official records are required 
'M be preserved, viz : 

(1) A record of the proceedings of the Annual Confer- 
ences. A copy of this record must be sent to the next ensu- 
ing General Conference. These records are usually pub- 
lished in pamphlet form, and designated as Minutes or Jour- 
nals. The Secretary is also required to keep a record and for- 
ward to the Book Editor, of the Church, "for insertion in the 
General Minutes" "full and correct answers" to certain forty- 
six quj'stions to be asked at the Annual Conference. — Discip- 
line (1898), Sections 63, 64. 

(2) Proceedings of District Conferences. These are kept 
in manuscript volumes, and are not printed. — Ibid, Sections 

(3) Proceedings of Quarterly Conferences. These are to 
be "recorded by the Recording Steward in a book kept by him 
for that purpose." This book should contain an account of 
iall business transacted year by year at the several Quarterly 
Conferences at churches embraced in the Circuit. These are 
not printed. — Ibid. 

(i) The Board of Stewards, charged particularly with the 
management of "the temporal business of the Church," in the 
Station or Circuit, comprising a pastoral charge, are required 
to keep, by the recording steward, "a full account of the acts" 
done by them. — Ibid, Sec. 194. 

( 5 ) Eecords of Individual Churches consist of the Proceed- 
ings of Church Conferences, and a Church Register . The 
former is to contain a record of all local church business 
transacted at congregational Conferences; and the fol- 
lowing provisions regulate the contents of the latter : The 
Secretary of the Church Conference "shall enter in chrono- 
logical order, in a permanent register, the full names of all 
who shall join the Church, with the time and manner of the 

Methodist Protestant Church. 137 

reception, and disposal of each, distinguishing between local 
eiders, deacons and preachers ; white persons, colored persons, 
and Indians; and shall make a permanent record of all the 
baptisms and marriages within the congregation; and shall 
furnish the pastor with an alphabetical roll of the church " 
Ibid^ Sees. 8«, 88. 

It is a much to be regretted condition that in Alabama the 
records above required have been very imperfectly kept. In 
the preparation of his valuable and encyclopaedic History of 
Methodism in Alabaiua (1893), Dr. Anson West experienced 
the greatest difficulty in locating the manuscript records. 
He notes only the folioAving as used by him : 

Quarterly Conference Kecords of the Franklin, Greene, Tal- 
ladega, LaFayette, Wills Valley, and Jasper Circuits, and 
Greensborough and Athens Stations ; and the Church Kegis- 
ters of the Tuscaloosa and Greensborough Stations. 

No effort to locate others has been made." 


On May 1, 1829, at Rocky Mount, Autauga County, the 
annual Conference of the Methodist Protestant Church in 
Alabama was organized. 

The early annual Conference Journal, in one volume, has 
been lost. Journals for the several sessions have probably 
been printed, but who has full sets is not known. The exist- 
ing manuscript Journal, 1 vol., the official correspondence 
such as exists, and all other official papers are in the hands of 
the Conference Secretary. 

The District Conferences, four in number, each have, or are 
supposed to keep a Manuscript Minute Book. 

The local Churches and Circuits have class books, church 
records. Quarterly Conference Journal, etc. 

Rev. J. T. Howell of Troy, has within the last few years, 
collected much interesting and valuable data and material for 
the purpose of preparing a history of this Church in Alabama. 
He is also the editor of the Methodist Protestant Telephone, 
devoted to the cause of the Church, published in Troy. In 
Anson West's History of Methodism in Alabama (1893), pp. 
404-427, 740-755, will be found Chapters on the History of the 
above church. 

*As of possible use to future students, the following collections may 
here be noted: The New England Methodist Historical Society, Boston, 
has many valuable manuscript histories of local Methodist Churches, and 
memoirs of Methodist Ministers and laymen; the Boston Public Library 
has the Methodist collection of Rev. Chester Field; and the Drew Theo- 
logical Seminary, Madison, N. J., has a fine collection of Methodist litera- 

138 Report Alabama History Commission. 


This church was first planted in Alabama by the establish- 
ment of a congregation at Huntsville June 15, 1818. On 
March 1, 1821, the Presbytery of Alabama was created, in 
ei-ciesiu.stical connection with the Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia. On Nov. 11, 1829, the Synod was divided, and 
t>.e Synod of Alabama created, with the South Alabama, Tom- 
beckbee and Tuscaloosa Presbyteries. The Presbyteries now 
comprising the Synod of Alabama are the North Alabama, 
South Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and East Alabama. 

The Book of Church Order of the Presbyterian Church re- 
quires records to be kept of the proceedings of the Synod, the 
Presbyteries, and of the individual churches. 

Minutes of the Synod and the Presbyteries. 

The Minutes of the Synod and Presbyteries are printed in 
pamphlet form. They are also preserved in manuscript, the 
latter being in the possession of the Stated Clerk. How com- 
plete these are is not known. 


Three classes of records are kept in and about the admin- 
istration of the individual churches. These are the minutes 
of the Church Session, the minutes of the Board of Deacons, 
and the minutes of the Congregational Meetings. In the 
majority of cases these records are well kept. No attempt 
has been made to obtain detailed information respecting 

'Reference is here made to the libraries o£ the Presbyterian Historical 
Society, ^ hiladelphia, Pa., and of the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 
Princeton, N. J., as possibly containing in their very comprehensive col- 
lections material pertinent to the history of Presbyterianism in Alabama. 



The records and source material for a history of benevolent 
institutions and charitable effort in Alabama have not been 
fully explored. They are, however, none the less important, 
and must ultimately be examined. Institutions of this char- 
acter have contributed in no small degree to the advancement 
and upbuilding of the State, and their influence must be 
taken into account in recounting its annals. The following 
have successful organizations, viz: the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
the Woodmen of the World, the Knights and Ladies of Honor, 
the B'Nai B'Rith, aad the Benevoleut Protective Order of 

The records of three other important institutions, viz : the 
Insane Hospital ; the Geological Survey, and the Mobile Cot- 
ton Exchange, are given. 


The several Masonic bodies in Alabama have an honorable 
history. The first lodge instituted in the State was Madison 
Lodge No. 21. On Aug. 29, 1811, the dispensation was granted 
by the Grand Master of Kentucky, and on Aug. 28, 1812, a 
charter issued. Subsequently eleven others were organized 
under six different Grand Lodges. Three became extinct, 
and with the remaining nine, the Grand Lodge of Alabama 
"was duly established" at Cahaba, June 14, 1821.' 

A Grand Chapter was organized at Mobile, May 21, 1823 ; 

The Grand Council was organized at Tuscaloosa, Dec. 13, 
1838; and 

The Grand Commandry was organized at Montgomery, 
Nov. 29, 1860. 

All of the foregoing have regularly published the Proceed- 
ings of their annual and other sessions, except the Grand 
Council which ceased publishing in 1893. 

'In the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Alabama, 1897, pp. 213-245, 
Is an historical table of all lodges ever Instituted in the State. 


140 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Mamusckipt Records. 
The account given herewith of tlie manuscript official and 
other records in the Grand Lodge was prepared by Wm. H . 
Dingley, Grand Treasurer, the best living authority on Ma- 
sonic history in the State : 

(1) The minutes of the first communication of the Grand 
Lodge in June 1821, with the Constitution signed by all of 
the delegates, also the proceedings from 1846 to 1856 in- 
clusive, are preserved, since which time the rough minutes 
only have been made. The original reports and papers are 
placed on file. 

The Treasurer's and Secretary's Account Books appear to 
be complete. 

All of the above are printed in full with the Proceedings. 

These Proceeding* have been printed and published since 
the organization of the Grand Lodge annually (except 1832 
and 1«35, when no communications were held.) These are 
all in the office except for the years 1829 and 1839. A manus- 
script copy from the organization to 1834 has been made from 
the printed copies. 

(2) Dispensations for new Lodges together with petitions 
for the same appear to be complete. 

(3) The annual reports of the Local Lodges to the Grand 
Lodges are all preserved from 1821 to the present time, to- 
gether with all letters, petitions, &c., &c. complete. 

(4) The record books of many Lodges, that are now dor- 
mant or extinct, are in the office. The records of local lodges 
are frequently destroyed by fire, how many and of what 
Lodges we have no means of ascertaining, as no record has 
been kept." 

The following Lodges have placed their old records here for 
safety ; viz : Rising Virtue, No. 4, Tuscaloosa ; Montgomery, 
No. 11, Montgomery; and Dale, No, 25, Camden, 

( 5 ) The Grand Lodge is now preparing a Register of all 
persons who have been connected with the Fraternity since its 


Masonic History. 

In 1869, Samuel H. Dixon, Masonic historian, deposited 
with the Grand Lodge, where it is now on file, a large amount 
a valuable Masonic historical data. Concerning his work, in 

■Prior to 1857, the records of Mobile Lodge No. 10, had been destroyed.- 
Proceedings Grand Lodge of Alabama, 1857, p. 11. On Nov. 25, 1858, the 
hall of Union Lodge No. 50, Unlontown, "was destroyed by fire," "including 
a total loss of the jewels, furniture ^.nd Chart-er of said Lodge." — IHd. 1858, 
p. 132. 

Masonic History. 141 

his report, Dec. 8, 1868, he says : 

"My investigations have disclosed that the lapse of time, 
the ruthless hand of war, and devastation by fire have de- 
stroyed most of our old records; but it is with pleasure I 
announce that, notwithstanding all these calamities, I have, 
in a great measure, been able to rescue from that oblivion to 
which all things earthly tend the early history of Masonry in 

"When I entered upon my duties as Historian of Masonry 
in Alabama, I determined to compile a full and complete his- 
torv of every Lodge in the State, (defunct or living), and the 
history of the Grand Lodge, with an abstract of its most im- 
portant proceedings. This I find to be a Herculean task ; but 
by diligence and perseverance I hope to accomplish the de- 
sired objects. 

"In addition to obtaining statistical information of the 
various Lodges, I have endeavored to collect interesting inci- 
dents connected with their history, and particularly to pre- 
serve the material necessary for biographical sketches of the 
fathers of Masonrv in Alabama, and other working, zealous 
Masons, who have illustrated and adorned the cardinal vir- 
tues, the tenets of our profession, and the general principles 
of our Order." 

In the Dixon Collection will be found histories of the fol- 
lowing Lodges, the list being taken from the Masonic Givide, 
Nov., 1893, pp. 362-363, viz : 

Friendship, (at Mobile,) No. 6 

Eureka, (a* Blakely,) No. ... 

Mobile No. 10 

Mobile No. 40 

Howard No. 69 

Magnolia No. 259 

Halo No. 5 

Montgomery No . 11 

Montgomery No . ... 

Georgiana No. 286 

Greening No. 53 

Bastaboga No. 155 

Mount Hilliard No. 180 

Srvin No. 257 

Orion No. m 

High Log NO. 193 

Pleasant Hill No. 321 

Sylacauga S°- ??? 

Bethel No. 141 

Fredonia No. ^9 

Zion No. 304 

Lineville No. 219 

Warren N°- ^^ 

El™.::.: no. m 

Bellville No. 260 

142 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Jonesboro . .• No. 315 

Gillespie No. 290 

Benton No. 59 

Selma Fraternal No. 27 

Central City No. 305 

Wetumpka No. 39 

Clinton No. 38 

Euphemia No . ... 

Fort Deposit No. 291 

Eureka No . 64 

Bowen No. 241 

Sycamore No. 328 

Norris No. 301 

Flat Cfeek No. 279 

Wiley No. 134 

Forkland No. 330 

Frankfort No. 275 

Daleville No. 144 

Liberty No . 65 

Amand No. 250 

Autauga No . 31 

Good Samaritan No . 104 

Harrison No . 246 

Philodorian No . 94 

Farrar No . 8 

Alabama No . 51 

New Lexington No . 317 

Hartwell No. 101 

Ramer No. 243 

"Western SUr No. 222 

Ebenezer No . 210 

Moscow No. 206 

Coffeeville No. 122 

Meridian No. 265 

Euclid No. 313 

Widow's Son No. 72 

Herndon No . 125 

Boligee No. 336 

Spring Hill No. 217 

Andrew Jackson No . 173 

Confederate No. 292 

St. Albans No. 22 

Pfister No. 90 

Lebanon No. 229 

Btam No. 150 

Hendrix No. 162 

Pine Level No . 202 

Camp Creek No . 251 

New Market No . 52 

Madison Station No . 329 

Crozier No. 78 

Marsball , No. 209 

Missouri No . 146 

Albert Pike No. 339 

Harmony No . 46 

Solomon's No . 74 

Vienna No. 48 

Demopolis No . 49 

Tombigbee No . 190 

Builders No. 215 

Twelfth Louisiana No. 313 

Odd Fellows. 143 

Shlloh ivr„ iftc 

Union ^J"- 10^ 

Brush Creek .■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■;;;:.■.■;.■;;. no' m 

Perryville i^"- H] 

Hampden Sidney Nn «? 

ciopton :::: ^o. e? 

Washington Nc l\ 

Holly Grove ;;; No' 323 

s«p"is- :::::::::::::::: no! 233 


The first lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 
Alabama was instituted April 22, 1837. The Grand Lodge of 
Alabama was organized Dec. 13, 1841. There are now in the 
State about one hundred and forty-five subordinate lodges, 
with a membership of about five thousand. The history of 
the order is to be found practically full and complete in the 
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, copies of which have 
appeared each year since its organization. A full set of these, 
m four bound volumes, is in the Custody of the Grand Secre- 
tary, H. C. Weaver, of Huntsville. This official is also the 
keeper of all of the records and papers of the Grand Lodge. 
The correspondence is only complete from the beginning of 
the term of the present incumbent. 

The condition of the books, records and papers of the Sub- 
ordinate Lodges has not been ascertained. Camden Lodge, 
No. 23, located at Paint Kock, lost its "charter, books, regalia, 
and other property by fire" during the year (1900.)' 

Doubtless a number of others also have been destroyed, no 
data of which, however, is at hand. 

In the State (here is one Grand Encampment, with subor- 
dinate encampments. There is also one Rebekah State 
Assembly, with local Rebekah lodges. The condition of their 
records has not been ascertained. Each publishes Proceed- 


The Knights of Pythias as a fraternal organization had its 
beginning in the State soon after the founding of the Order. 
The Grand Lodge of Alabama was instituted in 1872. Jour- 
nals of the annual sessions of the Grand Lodge have been 
printed, 1873-1900. On Aug. 15, 1899 the office of John H. 
Donahoo, Grand Keeper of Records and Seal, at Talladega, 
was destroyed by fire, with the entire official records, papers, 
letters, exchanges and other property of the Grand Lodge.* 

'Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, 1900, p. 1173. 

*8ee The Alabama Knight, Montgomery, Sept. 1899, p. 603 for an account 
of the fire. 

144 Report Alabama History Commission. 


The Alabama Insane Hospital was established by Act of the 
General Assembly, Feb. 6, 1852. It was located at Tusca- 
loosa, and opened on July 6, 1861. On Feb. 9, 1893 the name 
was cbanged to Alabama Bryce Insane Hospital, to honor Dr. 
Peter Bryce, the Superintendent, 1861-1892. Official Reports 
have been published for 1862, 1867, 1869, 1870, and 1871-1900, 
also a number of miscellaneous pamphlets relating to the in- 
stitution. For full list see Owen's Bihliocjra'phy of Alabama, 
pp. 992-993. 

A description of its official manuscript records is furnished 
by the present able Superintendent, Dr. James Thomas 
Searcy, the successor to Dr. Bryce, viz : 

Trustees. The records of the Board of Trustees are com- 
plete back to the first meeting, July 4, 1858. They have been 
kept in the 

Books of Proceedings. 1858-1900. 2 vols. 

The Resident Board has, also, its records since it was 
organized, Mav 12, 1893. 

Book of Proceedings. 1893-1900. 1 vol. 

Medical Department. The records relate altogether to 
the patients. They formerly were kept in large record books, 
and the commitment and other papers were filed separately in 
order, by the numbers belonging to each patient. Of late 
years each patient has a separate case-book, with the name 
and number on the end, filed in the cabinets. Each book con- 
tains the original commitment papers, bond, etc., with any 
other papers in a pocket, and the record pages of the book 
give the original examination notes of the physician, taken 
when the patient first entered, and the current history as it 
has been written at regular intervals. Every thing connected 
with the patient is kept in this case-book — retained letters, 
prescriptions, clinical charts, etc., out-going and incoming 
ccii'espondence when important, etc., etc. All incoming let- 
ters of late have been kept on file, and some of the out-going. 

Full daily records are kept of the movements of the popula- 
tion — patients received, furloughed, discharged, eloped, died, 
etc. ; of the patients from different counties; of the classifica- 
tions, according to age; married or not; occupations; na- 
tivity; color; form of insanity, etc., etc. Reports from the 
different departments are handed in and recorded every day, 
and summarized. 

Business (Steward^s) Department. Complete records 
are kept of all receipts and expenditures ; with files of incom- 

Geological Survey of Alabama. 145 

jng and out-going correspondence; also records of receipts 
and issues in the housekeeping and store-keeping depart- 

Out-Side Department. Complete records are kept of cost 
and products of gardens, and farm ; of the piggery, dairy, hen- 
nery, coal-mine, of the carpenter shops, black-smith shop, tin- 
shop, etc., etc. 

Museum. The pathological room has a large collection of 

Library. The library has about fifteen hundred volumes, 
literary, medical and scientific. 

The records of the Institution have increased in numbers 
and in variety graduallv since the first. There has been a 
gradual evolution in all the departments. Certain leading 
lines go back to the beginning ; others have been added from 
time to time to the present. 

Except those relating to private history of patients, all rec- 
ords are open to consultation. 


The headquarters of the Geological Survey of Alabama are 
located at the State University. Here its large and valuable 
collections are deposited, the museum forming one of the 
most valuable and attractive features of the institution. The 
first State Geologist was Prof. Michael Tuomey, who begun 
his first explorations Jnlj 13, 1847, although he was not 
officially named until Jan. 4, 1848. The reorganization of the 
Survey after the War was effected under the Act of April 
13, 1873, with Dr. Eugene Allen Smith as the second State 
Geologist. He still ably retains his position. Full lists of 
the publications of the Survey are noted in Owen's Bibliog- 
raphy of Alabama, as also those on geological and other sub- 
jects by Prof. Tuomey, Dr. Smith, T. H. Aldrich, Otto Meyer, 
Dr. Charles Mohr, Dr. Henry McCalley, Daniel W. Langdon 
and others. 

Dr. Smith has prepared an account of the collections of the 
Survey, which is here given. It has no manuscripts of value. 

(1) Mineral Collection. 1600 specimens in 7 glass 
cases, and some 1000 or more specimens for class purposes 
arranged in drawers below the show cases. 

(2)" General Geological Collection. 1. Educational 
series of rock specimens from the U. S. Geological Survey, 1 
glass case, 156 specimens. 2. 1 glass wall case with 1000 speci- 
mens of New Hampshire rocks and crystalline rocks from 



146 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

other localities. 3. 3 glass front wall cases containing about 
8000 specimens of fossils, sedimentary rocks, etc., illustrating 
the various geological formations of the U. S. and Europe. 4. 
1 glass front wall case with 800 specimens of concretions, and 
other illustrations of geological structures. 

(3) Collections Illustrating the Geology of Alabama. 
1 glass front wall case containing 50 specimens of Alabama 
Coal Plants. 1 glass case with Alabama clays, 20 varieties . 
350 drawers containing specimens of rocks, fossils, minerals, 
shells, etc., mainly from Alabama, though other localities are 
represented. 2000 cigar boxes, and pasteboard boxes filled 
with fossils, and other specimens, mainly from Alabama. It 
is impossible to estimate the number of species represented or 
the actual number of specimens, but they go into the thou- 

(4) Indian Eelics. 2 glass cases containing some 300 
specimens of pipes, bowls, arrow heads, stone axes, etc. 

(5) Zoological Collection. 1. 2 glass wall cases with 
specimens of fish, snakes, turtles, corals, marine shells, aggre- 
gating perhaps 2000 specimens. 2. 2 glass cases containing 
the Schowalter collection of marine, and fresh water shells, 
800 specimens. 3. Avery collection of the Birds of Ala- 
bama, 900 specimens representing some 300 species, contained 
in zinc-lined drawer cases, made moth proof. 

(6) Botanical Collections. 1. Mohr Herbarium of Ala- 
bama plants, 2500 species of fiowering plants and ferns ; 900 
species of fungi, lichens, and mosses, in a case of special con- 
struction; 150 specimens of the native woods of the State 
displayed in form of books, in glass show case ; 156 glass front 
deep frames with pressed specimens of the fruit, foliage and 
flowers of the timber trees of the State. 2. Peters Collec- 
tion, a. Alabama fungi, 550 specimens ; Alabama lichens, 110 
specimens; species of the genus carex, 200 specimens; b. 
General collection of fungi, 500 species ; mosses and algae, 133 
species ; lichens, 150 species. These were the gift of Judge T. 
M. Peters. 

(7) Collection of Soils, Marls, Phospahatbs, etc. in 
glass jars, 500 jars. 

(8) Large Show Specimens. Various articles as trunks 
of lepidodendron, sigillaria, calamites ; large masses of lime- 
stone, red and brown iron ores, petrifactions, etc., outside the 
museum, and arranged along the walls inside, including also 
large bones of dinosaurs, zeuglodon, etc. 

It might be safely estimated that the number of different 
/fpp.nip.9 m the above eight lists are one-third of the num- 
ber of specimens. 

Mobile Cotton Exchange. 147 


The Mobile Cotton Exchange, the outgrowth of a casual 
conference at a restaurant dinner, was organized Dec. 7, 1871. 
It is the third organized in the United States, those of New 
York and New Orleans antedating it. 

Its records and papers are in the custody of the Superin- 
tendent, R. H. Boiling. They relate to cotton movement and 
fluctuation, financial, commercial and industrial informa- 
tion. They number about 300 volumes and are of much 
value. They embrace 65 bound volumes of the New York 
Commercial and Financial Chronicle, 1871-1901. It has 
some data extending to 1819. 

A list of its Presidents, with other information, is given in 
the Mobile Register, Jan. 31, 1895. 

'Prepared by Peter J. Hamilton. 



At present there are only two United States Land Offices 
in Alabama, viz: at Huntsville and Montgomery. They 
have the records of defunct or discontinued offices, as indi- 
cated below. As will be seen, supra, many of the old land rec- 
ords are in the office of the Secretary of State, Montgomery. 
Others are in the General Land Office at Washington. The 
following is a list of all the land offices ever established in 
Alabama, with dates when formed, and when removed or 

Location . 
Saint Stephens, 

Huntsville, (originally 1 
established at Nash- | 
ville, Tenn., and after- J- 
ward located at Hunts- | 
ville). J 

Cahaba, (originally loca- 
ted at Milledgeville, 


Conecuh Oourt-House, ) 
Sparta, \ 


Montevallo, Mardisville, 






When Established. Removed or Discontinved. 

March 3, 1803. 

March 3, 1807. 

March 3, 1815. 

May II, 1820. 

May 11, 1820. 

July 10, 1332. 
July 10, 1832 
March 2, 1833. 
April 12, 1842. 
April 1, 1854 
June 16, 1856. 
From St. Stephens 


To Mobile, 1867. 

Now Active. 

To Greenville. 

To Montgomery, 1866. 

To Elba 

Now Active. 

To Lebanon. 

March 30, 1866 

To Huntsville. 

April 11, 1867. 

May 11,1866. 

To Montgomery, June 

25, 1879. 

The condition of the records and business of the Land 
Office, at Huntsville, has been indicated in a general way by 
Frank Coleman, Clerk in the office of the Register, as fol- 

"This is the oldest land office in the United States in active 
operation. The date of the Executive order authorizing the 
establishment of this land office is March 3, 1807. The date 
of opening is July 27, 1810. Covering as they do such a long 


Land Ofice. 149 

period, the records are by no means complete. The early 
methods were primitive and imperfect and in the course of 
ninety years many lapses have crept into the records. This 
is what is technically known as a 'consolidated' land office, 
that is to say, other land offices have been merged into this, 
viz : the one formerly at Lebanon, DeKalb County, and the 
one formerly at Centre, Cherokee County. Incomplete rec- 
ords were sent in from each of these offices, when they were 
merged into the Huntsville office. The last valid entry (a pur- 
chase) anterior to the war between the States, bears the date 
of Feb. 28, 1861. During the severe struggle of 1861-65, 
some records were mutilated, others were lost, but they are 
sufficiently sustained in connected form not to interfere, 
except at rare intervals, with current work. Formerly, up to 
1861, the business of this office consisted of straight out cash 
sales, graduation cash entries, and location of military land 
warrants. Since 1865 the homesteader has been the chief 
beneficiary, although most of the then still vacant, or unap- 
propriated public lands could still be bought also outright 
for cash, until this right was removed some eight or nine 
years ago. So now, vacant public lands in Alabama (as is 
the case in all the States with public lands, except Missouri ) 
can only be acquired through the process of homesteading. 
The exceptions in this District are : first, lands classed val- 
uable for coal and, therefore, withheld from the operations 
of the homestead act. The second exception is a residuum of 
about 4,000 acres of land in an original square of 12 miles, 
lying partly in Madison, partly in Jackson and, in small part, 
in Marshall county, belonging to the tribe of Cherokee In- 
dians, held by the Government in trust for them, and on the 
market at $1.25 per acre, cash, the proceeds to form a per- 
petual educational fund for this wealthy tribe. There is quite 
a large quantity of land in this District still open to the home- 

"Up to date 26,750 homestead entries have been registered 
at this office." 


The Land Office at Montgomery has been in continuous 
operation since its establishment July 10, 1832. It is now a 
consolidated office, the business of the following discontinued 
offices being thrown to it, viz : St. Stephens, Cahaba, Tusca- 
loosa, Conecuh, Demopolis, Mardisville, Greenville, Sparta, 
Elba, Mobile, and part of Lebanon. Through the courtesy of 
the Register, Robert Barber, and of his chief clerk, Henry 
Booth, the following lists of the records have been secured. 

150 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Record Boolcs. 
Tract Books. Folio. Vols. 1-47. 

Not by counties, but by township and ranges. Vols. 21 and 22 are 
kept in the Huntsville Land Office. 

Plat Books. Vols. 1-21. 

Register of Entries. Folio. Vols. 1-12. 

Homestead entries, Nos. 1-34151, May 26, 1866-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Register of Final Entries. Folio. Vols. 1-6. 

Homestead entries, Nos 1-18293, Jan. 16, 1872-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Register of Cash Certificates. Folio. Vols. 1-4. 

Nos. 15368-26724, May 15, 1866-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Patent Record. Folio. 1 vol. 

Aug. 2, 1884-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Contest Dockets. Folio. 6 vols. 

Dec. 18, 1879-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Abstract of Land Warrants. Folio. 1 vol. 

For lands to officers and soldiers in the War of 1812, the Indian, and 
the Mexican Wars. 

Official Correspondence. 

Abstracts of Communications from the General Land Of- 
fice. Folio. 7 vols. 

Contains briefs of 16,787 official letters from the General Land Office, 
Nov. 14, 1881-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Original Letters Received. Briefed and filed. 

These are complete from Nov. 14, 1881, and irregular back of that 

Letter Book. 4 to. 1 vol. 

Contains long hand copies of official letters sent out, viz: to General 
Land Office, Sept. 30, 1846-April 17, 1861; and to Commissioner of Pub- 
lic Lands, Montgomery, June 30, 1861-Dec. 31, 1864. 

Miscellaneous Letter Copying Books. 4 to. 

Vols. 1-35. July 7, 1877-1894. 

Vols. 1-42. Feb. 5, 1894-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Department Letter Copying Books. 4 to. 

Vols. 1-22. Sept. 2, 1889-Dec. 31, 1900. 

Old Land Office Records. 

In addition to the foregoing records in current use, with 
the volumes preceding them in this particular office, the early 
records and files of the now discontinued offices named above 
are to be found here. These number probably more than one 
hundred volumes, dating from the establishment of these 
several offices, but they appear to be irregular and not com- 
plete. There are also several thousand files of papers from 
these offices. 

Some of these old records, from their early date, and prob- 
able historical value are here noted, viz : 

United States Courts. 151 

Books of the Land Commissioners, appointed under Act of 
March 3, 1803, for receiving and adjusting claims, etc., in the 
District East of Pearl Eiver. Polio. 4 vols. 

Includes papers, etc., connected with land transactions from 1710 
to after 1800. 

Spanish Grants. Polio. 1 vol. 

Covers various grants, 1763-1803. Apparently similar to volume of 
same designation in the Secretary of State's office. The volume con- 
tains a certificate, dated Nov. 1, 1834, signed by Edwin Jay Osborne, 
stating that it was "copied and translated from the originals, which 
are now deposited in the office of the County Court of Mobile County." 

Translated Kecords. Nov. 12, 1715-Jan. 18, 1812. Folio. 


Similar to volume in Secretary of State's office. Made by Joseph 
B. Caro, under Act of Jan. 9, 1833. 

Journal of the Land Office East of Pearl River, at St. 

Stephens, Dec. 26, 1806-May 30, 1814. Polio. 1 vol. 

There are also later volumes of this series; besides many of other 

Journal of the Receiver's Office at Milledgeville, Ga., Aug., 

1817-Nov., 1818. Folio. 1 vol. 

Sales of lands in the vicinity of Montgomery. Contains names and 
residences of purchasers. Removed to Cahaba, Dec. 1818. 

Register of Receipts, Cash Entries, at the Tuscaloosa Land 

Office. July 2, 1821-Peb. 25, 1835. Folio. 1 vol. 

Contains list of purchasers of lots in the city of Tuscaloosa, places 
of residence, with prices paid. 



The condition and extent of the records and files of the 
Northern Division, Northern District, United States Court, 
at Huntsville, are described by Ed. E. Greenleaf, Deputy 
Clerk, as follows : 

The first record now in the District Court, of the United 
States for the District of Alabama, commences, the second 
Monday in July, 1824, Hon. Chas. Tait presiding judge. The 
next term appears to have been held October 2nd., 1826, Hon. 
William Crawford presiding, from which date I find records 
until the November Term, 1846, all held by Judge Crawford. 
I do not find further records until Nov., 1865, at which time 
Hon. Richard Busteed was presiding judge; and from that 
date the records are quite complete. There are no records or 
files, before July, 1824, nor from Nov., 1846, to Nov., 1865, 
and no records showing the holding of the Court at any other 

Minute Books, District Court. 8 vols. 
Minute Books, Circuit Court. 13 vols. 
Final Records, -district Court. 8 vols. 
Final Records, Circuit Court. 35 vols, 

152 Report Alabama History Commission. 


United States District Courts were first required to be held 
at Montgomery by Act of Congress . Terms of the United 
States Circuit Court were provided by Act of March 3, 1873. 
The counties grouped about Montgomery are known as the 
Middle District. The records of this court are reported by 
the clerk, J. W. Dimmick, as incomplete. Those now in the 
office are as follows : 

Minute Books, District Court. 7 vols. 
Minute Books, Circuit Court. 13 vols. 
Pinal Records. 53 vols. 


By Act of Congress, May % 1884, the Southern Division 
of the Northern District was created, and terms of the United 
States Circuit and District Courts were required to be held 
for the Division at Birmingham.' The various books, records 
and files of both courts are complete, and carefully arranged. 
The clerk, Charles J. Allison, furnished the following detail 
as to the principal records : 

Minute Books, Circuit Court, "A" to "K." 11 vols. 

Minute Books, District Court, "A" to "G." 7 vols. 

Final Records, Circuit Court, "A" to "Z." 26 vols. 

Final Records, District Court, "A" to "B." 2 vols. 


The earliest record of the U. S. Court, at Mobile, now to be 
found is a docket, extending from March 1, 1821, to 1824, the 
first entry being of Hallett & Butler vs. Lewis Judson. There 
has been seen a volume of minutes of 1819, but the earliest 
now to be located begins with the May Term, 1827, extending 
to December, 1830, District Court, for civil and criminal 
cases. Wm. Crawford was judge. A mandate of affirmance 
by the Supreme Court on the minutes is signed by John Mar- 

No files antedate the war. 

Records of both courts since 1865 are nearly complete. 

The District Court of the Confederate States, at Mobile, 
convened April 18, 1861, Wm. G. Jones, Judge, and John A. 
Cuthbert, clerk, both reappointed from the old court. On 
that day took the oath Geo. N. Stewart, R. H. Smith, and Wm. 
Boyles. Next day Peter Hamilton, Thos. A. Hamilton and 
others similarly qualified. The first case was on April 20, 
which stood on appeal to the old U. S. Circuit Court, and 

'23 U. S. Statutes at Large, p. 
-Prepared by Peter J. Hamilton. 

Mobile. 163 

after argument docketed in the Confederate Court; and af- 
firmed. Tliis was Wm. A. Freeborn & Co. v. Ship Protector. 
The first original case was Jas. K. Phelps vs. Schr. Smith 
Townsend, which was condemned. The last entry was Apr. 6^ 


An Account of Manuscripts, Papers and Docu- 
ments in Private Hands. 





Some of the most valuable manuscript historical material 
is of an unofficial character, and is not to be found in official 
repositories. These consist of the private and personal papers 
of distinguished or other public men, and of -the historical col- 
lections made by libraries or societies, and by private collec- 
tors or students. It often happens, too, that official docu- 
ments, or transcripts of them fall into the hands of libraries 
or collectors. 

The presentation here of an account of all known collec- 
tions of this character completes the consideration of avail- 
able manuscript material. 

Students have long since recognized the very great impor- 
tance and value of the papers, writings, etc., of prominent 
public men and actors in public affairs. Collections of this 
character form the most interesting and valuable items in the 
catalogues of many libraries. It is intended here to show as 
far as possible the location, ownership and present condition, 
Avith pertinent notes and comments, of all papers and docu- 
ments — "literary remains" — of such public characters as in- 
fluenced or took part in the history of the territory now em- 
braced in Alabama. The data furnished is largely tentative, 
but it is as complete as it has been practicable to make it after 
wide research and extensive correspondence. The following 
groups of persons are represented in the list, viz: the four 
Governors of Mississippi Territory, four Delegates in Con- 
gress from Mississippi Territory, Alabama Governors, Fed- 
eral Senators, Territorial Judges, Generals in the Civil War, 
credited to Alabama, and Miscellaneous. 

In any given case, where no information, or reference ap- 
pears, it may be understood that no data was at hand. 

Unfortunately no trace has been discovered of the "literary 
remains" of a large number of public men of prominence in 
State affairs. In many cases they have probably been 
destroyed, while in others inquiries have not been made in 
the proper direction. There are still other cases in which 


158 Report Alabama History Commission. 

the parties themselves failed to preserve their papers. Noth- 
ing has been ascertained as to the following : 

Alpheus Baker, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

Thomas Bibb, acting Governor; 

Michael J. Bulger, Brig.-Uen. C. S. A. ; 

Henry Chambers, U. S. Senator ; 

William Crawford, Federal Judge; 

John Crowell, Alabama Territorial delegate ; 

Benjamin Fitzpatrick, Governor; 

John Floyd, General in Creek War ; 

William Henry Forney, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

Birkett Davenport Fry, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

Isham Warren Garrott, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

George Goldthwaite, U. S. Senator; 

Josiah Gorgas, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

Archibald Gracie, Jr., Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

Thomas M. Greene, Territorial delegate ; 

Henry Hitchcock, Alabama Territorial Secretary ; 

James T. Holtzclaw, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

George S. Houston, Governor; 

Beverly Hughes, Superior Court Judge ; 

Dr. N. Hunter, Miss. Territorial delegate ; 

Obadiah Jones, Superior Court Judge; 

AVm. Giles Jones, Federal Judge ; 

John Herbert Kelly, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

William Kelly, U. S. Senator ; 

Joseph P. Kennedy, early public man ; 

David Ker, Miss. Superior Court Judge ; 

Wm . Lattimore, Miss. Territorial delegate ; 

Daniel Leadbetter, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

David P. Lewis, Governor; 

Dixon H. Lewis, U. S. Senator; 

Seth Lewis, Miss. Superior Court Judge; 

Francis Strother Lyon, financier and lawyer ; 

John McKinley, U. S. Senator, U. S. Supreme Court 

Cowles Mead, Miss. Territorial Secretary; 

Young Marshall Moody, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A. ; 

Andrew B. Moore, Governor. 

Gabriel Moore, Governor; 

Edward Asbury O'Neal, Governor ; 

Israel Pickens, Governor; 

Lewis Parsons, Governor; 

Robert Miller Patton, Governor; 

Philip Dale Roddv, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A.; 

Thomas Seay, Governor ; 

Papers of Public Men. 159 

John Gill Shorter, Governor; 

Wra. H. Smith, Governor; 

George E. Spencer, U. S. Senator ; 

James Innes Thornton, Secretary of State; 

Edward Dorr Tracy, Brig.-Gen. 0. S. A. ; 

LeRoy Pope Walker, Brig.-Gen. C. S. A., Conf. States 
Secretary of War ; 

Thomas Hill AVattS; Governor; 

James H. Weakley, Surveyor General ; 

Henry Young Webb, Superior Court Judge ; 

John Anthony Winston, Governor. 
It is presumed that the public and private papers preserved 
by the following public men, who are still living, are in their 
possession. They are Gov. Rufus W. Cobb, Gen. John H. For- 
ney, Gen. John B. Gordon, Hon. Hilary A. Herbert^ Gov. 
Joseph F. Johnston, Gov. Thomas G. Jones, Gen. George D. 
Johnston, Gen. E. M. Law, Gov. Robert Lindsay, Gen. James 
Longstreet, Gen. John T. Morgan, Gov. W. C. Gates, Gen. W. 
F. Perry, Gen. E. W. Pettus, Gen. Charles M. Shelley, Col. M. 
L. Stansel, and Gen. Joseph Wheeler. It is, however, undei^- 
stood that the military and other papers of Gen. John H. 
Forney, Gen. W. F. Perry and Gen. James Longstreet have 
been destroyed. 


The "War Papers" of Gen. W. W. Allen (1835-18 ) are in 
the Confederate Museum, at Richmond. They are entered as 
No. 118 of the Catalogue (1898), p. 130. Gen. Allen received 
his rank as Brigadier, Feb. 26, 1864, and as Major-General, 
March, 1865. 


Huriosco Austill, of Mobile, succeeded to all of the papers 
of his father, Jeremiah Austill (1794-1879). Of what they 
consist is not known. A manuscript account, prepared by 
Mr. Austill, of the "Canoe Fight," in which he participated, 
is in the collections of the Alabama Historical Society. 


In answer to an appeal from Mr. Pickett for data and ma- 
terial for use in his projected History of Alabama. Gov. A. P. 
Bagby, Washington, April 14, 1847, responded that "The un- 
fortunate destruction by fire, of my office and all my papers 

160 Keport Alabama History Gommission. 

connected with my early knowledge of Alabama, in the fall of 
1837, deprives me of the power of aiding you at all in that 
way. Nor is there any thing in the records at Claiborne as 
they were at an earlier period subjugated to the same fate." 
His daughter, Mrs. Joseph Beardslee, of Hattiesburg, 
Miss., has a few of his private letters, and a copy of his inau- 
gural address printed on satin, which was presented to Mrs. 
Bagby by the State Senate. Mr. Bagby was Governor of the 
State. 1837-1841, U. S. Senator from Alabama, 1841-1848, and 
later U. S. Minister to Eussia, besides holding a number of 
other public positions. 



From the "Prefatory Note" to the Memoirs (1896) of Dr. 
Frederick A. P.Barnard by John Fulton, it appears that after 
the death of Mrs. Barnard "many interesting letters and 
other documents" left by him, were not to be found. This 
made necessary the presentation of the career and views of 
Dr. Barnard principally from his published writings. It is 
not known that any of his papers have subsequently been 
found. From Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, pp. 811-813. 
may be obtained titles of his printed works of local interest. 


Miss Elizabeth Benagh, daughter of George Benagh, A. M., 
Professor of Mathematics at the State University, 18.52-1862, 
communicates the following facts with reference to the work 
of her father and of the loss of his papers : 

"Most of my father's papers, with several mathematical 
works which he had under way at the time of his death, and 
his entire library were destroyed by fire when our house was 
burned in 1873. We also lost the almanacs which he calcu- 
lated for the Southern States during the war, and gave to the 
Confederacy. This calculation took place at the University 
of Alabama. It seems strange now to think that in those 
times that the South could procure no almanacs, as our ports 
were blockaded by our foes, when now we can get them at 
every turn. I wrote to the house in Georgia which published 
these almanacs, but all their old papers, etc., of the War 
had been destroyed by fire a few years ago." 


The correspondence, papers, etc., of Gov. William W. Bibb 
(1781-1820) have been lost, a circumstance greatly to be de- 

Papers of Public Men. 161 

plored. Mr. Bibb, after a distinguished career in Georgia, 
came to Alabama as Territorial Governor, 1817-1819, after 
which he became the first chief executive of the State. He 
passed to an early grave in 1820, over twenty-five years before 
Mr. Pickett set about writing his History of A labama. In 
searching for his papers, Mr. Pickett received the following 
account of their destruction from George B. Bibb, dated Aug. 
5, 1847, which is introduced in its entirety, owing to the inter- 
esting nature of the subject : 

"I appreciate very highly your kind wishes, in the history 
you have commenced, to notice in a complimentary manner 
the character and services of my father. And I much regret 
that it is out of my power to afford you much light as regards 
my father's correspondence — his public acts are upon record 
and I suppose are accessable ( sic ) to you in the State records. 
There were many letters of great interest written by himself 
and replys (sic) from others in my possession some years 
ago — but in my frequent moving they have been lost. I had a 
large bag of copies of correspondence and replys when I left 
Mrs. Jackson's, which from your letter I presume are de- 
stroyed. Among them were many that would have been in- 
teresting for you to have seen and which if not lost I should 
be pleased for you to have. Among those letters were many 
from Messrs. Monroe, Crawford, Calhoun, Macon and other 
distinguished politicians and copies of his own to them. I 
cannot sufficiently express my regret to you that they are 
lost, and that it is out of my power to furnish you with them. 
And I know of no other mode to execute your complimentary 
notice of his history than to rely upon the records of the 
country. All of his correspondence and replys had been read 
by me and placed to themselves — and not calculating that 
they would be called for I have neglected too long as it ap- 
pears to remove them from Mrs. Jackson's." 

However, a feAv letters have survived, copies of which are 
now in the possession of the editor. He has also obtained 
copies of his correspondence as Territorial Governor to and 
from the State Department. The correspondence of his con- 
temporaries, if obtainable, would doubtless reveal a number 
of his letters. A practically exhaustive bibliography accom- 
panies a sketch of Mr. Bibb in the Transactions of the Ala- 
bama Historical Society, 1898-99, vol. iii, p. 132. 


The fate of the private papers of Bienville (1680-1768), as 
well as the official papers coming into his hands has never 

162 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

been ascertained. There are but "two unoflBicial documents" 
left by him in existence, so far as is now known — a letter to 
his brother, and his will. These have been published in 
Messrs. Alex Jodoin and T. L. Vincent's Histoire de Longue- 
uil et de la Famile de Longueuil (1889) ; and also in Miss 
Grace King's Sieur de Bienville (1893) . In the former work 
is given an account of the destruction of the accumulations 
of the Longueuil family papers in Montreal, "in order to clear 
out a garret needed for the quartering of troops during the 
affair of the 'Trent'." Miss King had resort in preparing her 
work to official documents preserved in French's Historical 
Collections, in Margry's Decouvertes, etc. (6 vols.), and in 
the MSS. collected by Margry and M. Magne, which are in the 
keeping of the Louisiana Historical Society. She had such 
sources in France, as seemed pertinent, searched for new 
data, but with very little result. Bienville's last residence in 
Paris is unknown; and his body rests in an unknown grave 
in Montmarte Cemetery. 


W. D. Stephens, Los Angeles, Cal., a great-grandson of 
William Blount (1747-1800) is the owner of the remnant of 
the latter's extensive manuscripts and papers. Mr. Blount 
was Governor of the Territory of the U. S. South of the Ohio 
Elver, 1790-1796, and later U. S. Senator from Tennessee. 
His papers throw much light on early affairs in the old South- 
west. Copies of them are in the manuscript collections of 
the editor. 


Willie Blount was Governor of Tennessee, 18097^1815. 
During his administration occurred the Creek War, in which 
the brave Tennesseeans played such a noble part. Gov. 
Blount did all in his power in behalf of the suffering settlers 
of South Alabama. Judge W. K. McAlister, of Nashville, 
whose wife is Gov. Blount's grand-daughter, states that the 
latter's papers were in the possession of Col. Wiley Johnson, 
of Clarksville, Tenn., until about the close of the war between 
the States, when they were all destroyed in the accidental 
burning of Col. Johnson's office. 


James Caller (17 — 1819) was one of the early settlers of 
South Alabama, He was locally prominent, A few of M% 

Papers of Public Men. 163 

letters and papers survive, and belong to a grand-daughter, 
Miss Mary A. Caller, of Tuskegee. Full copies of these are in 
the manuscript collections of the editor. 


The Secretary of the first Constitutional Convention, 1819, 
was John Campbell, Esq., a native of Virginia. Shortly after 
this date he returned to his native State, but what became 
of his accumulated private papers, as well as the separate 
papers of the Convention are not known. These would now 
be of extreme interest and value. From Abingdon, July 19, 
1847, he wrote Mr. Pickett : "I kept no other journal [than] 
that of the proceedings of the Convention which you will find 
of course among the records of the State Department."' 


The books, briefs, documents, papers, etc., left by John A. 
Campbell (1811-1889) are the property of his daughter, Mrs. 
Henrietta Campbell Lay, of Baltimore, Md. The documents 
and papers affecting the part of Mr. Campbell in the War be- 
tween the States have been presented to the Virginia Histori- 
cal Society, Richmond. Mr. Campbell was at the head of the 
Alabama bar when he was elevated to the U. S. Supreme 
Court bench, March 22, 1855. 


James Cantey (1818-187--) was commissioned Brigadier- 
General, Jan. 8, 1863. His widow, Mrs. M. E. Bellamy, re- 
ports that she has none of his military papers. She knows of 
no one who has any of them. His portrait hangs in the ro- 
tunda of the Capitol, at Montgomery. 


Gen. William Carroll (1788-1844) Avas in the Creek War, 
1813-14, from Tennessee. Wm. H. Carroll, a grandson, of 
Memphis, Tenn., to whom application was made for his pa- 
pers, reports that they are supposed to have been lost during 
the war between the States. He states that he has made every 
possible effort to locate and recover them, but unsuccessfully. 
A manuscript biography of Gen. Carroll has been prepared 
by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Emma Carroll Tucker, of Mem- 

^The original appears to be lost. See lists of records in the Secretary 
of State's office.swpro, 

.164 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 


The larger part of the correspondence, etc., of Gov. Reuben 
Chapman (1802-1882) was burned with his residence during 
the war. Of this occurrence Brewer's Alabama, p. 362, says : 
"During the war the federal troops burned his residence, deso- 
lated his possessions, imprisoned and harrassed him, and 
finally forced him out of their lines." The few papers that 
were saved are in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. Milton 
Humes, of Huntsville. Mr. Chapman was Governor, 1847 to 


Dr. J. W. Monette, in a letter to Mr. Pickett from Wash- 
ington, Miss., June 9, 1847, commenting on the papers of Gen. 
Ferdinand L. Claiborne said: "Of Gen. Claiborne's papers 
they M^ere numerous, confused without any order or arrange- 
ment, & it required immense time & labor to examine them; 
yet close research might disclose other particulars than those 
selected by me." 

Gen. Claiborne's papers were subsequently sent to Mr. 
Pickett by Mr. J. F. H. Claiborne, the son of the General. 
Mr. Pickett acknowledges his indebtedness in the preface to 

his History of Alabama, p. xiv : "I will name 

etc., etc., and particularly, John H. F. Claiborne (sic), of 
Mississippi, who placed in my hands the manuscript papers 
of his father. Gen. F. L. Claiborne, who commanded the 
Southern wing of the army, during the Creek war of 1813 and 
1814. The son has requested me to present the manuscript 
papers of his father, as a contribution from him, to the His- 
torical Society of Alabama. I shall comply with his request 
upon the first suitable occasion." 

These were evidently subsequently returned to Mr. Clai- 
borne, as they are now in the Library of the University of 
Mississippi. See that title infra, for description. 


N. H. Claiborne (1777-1859), the author of Notes on the 
War in the South (1819), in a letter to Mr. Pickett from 
Rocky Mountain, Va., Oct. 2, 1847, says : "All the documents 
I had, that would be interesting to you, I have parted with 
long since." 

Papers of Public Men. 165 


The second governor of Mississippi Territory was Wm. 0. 
0. Claiborne (1775-1817). Many of his papers are in the 
Claiborne Collection, in the State University, Oxford, Miss. 
In the Secretary of State's Office, Jackson, are several bulky 
"Executive Journals" covering his administration, 1801 to 
1803, as also some volumes covering his period of service as 
one of the U. S. Commissioners to receive the cession of 
Louisiana. His official communications to the State Depart- 
ment, Washington, are found both in the Mississippi and 
Louisiana Territorial papers. It has been recently ascer- 
tained that Armand Hawkins, an old book dealer, of New 
Orleans, has three folio volumes, containing copies of all offi- 
cial letters sent by Mr. Claiborne, during his first term as 
Governor of the Territory of Orleans, 1805 et seq. His purely 
private and personal papers have not been discovered. In 
Claiborne's Mississippi, is a likeness and sketch, pp. 250-257. 


In 1873 the 8elma Argus stated editorially that Col. Joseph 
Hodgson had in preparation a "Life and Times" of Gen. 
James Clanton (1827-1871) . The work was afterwards aban- 
doned, and the papers furnished by the family of Gen. Clan- 
ton returned to them. Whether they have been preserved is 
unknown. Gen. Clanton was a heroic figure in Alabama af- 
fairs during the days of Reconstruction. He was commis- 
sioned Brigadier-General, Nov. 16, 1863. An, oil portrait of 
him hangs over the Speaker's chair in the House of Represen- 
tatives, at Montgomery.' 


The papers of C. C. Clay, Jr., (1816-1882), consisting of let- 
ters, manuscripts, diaries, journals, etc., are all in the posses- 
sion of his surviving widow, Mrs. Virginia Clay-Clopton. She 
has also copies of all likenesses of Mr. Clay.' 


Such papers as were left by Clement C. Clay, Sr., (1798- 
1866) are supposed to be in possession of his grand children, 
W. L. Clay, Esq., and Misses Virginia and Susanna Clay, 

'Garrett's Public Men in Alabama, p. 714. 

'■See Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1897-98', vol. ii, pp. '(4-82. 

166 Report Alabama Sistory Commission. 

children of J. Withers Clay. Mr. Clay was one of the purest 
and strongest of the early public men of Alabama. He filled 
many public stations, being Grovernor of the State, 1835-1837. 
He also served many years in Congress. No detail is known 
as to the papers mentioned. On April 12, 1847, he wrote Mr. 

"In regard to the Creek War of 1836, however, I may as 
well apprize you of the fact, at once, that all the documents, 
and correspondence, relating to that subject, may be found in 
the Executive archives ; as they related to public affairs, I did 
not feel myself at liberty to retain possession of them, after I 
left that offlce. If you should not progress that far, in your 
history of Alabama, till the removal of the Seat of Govern- 
ment in November and I should hardly think you would — you 
can search those archives at leisure, and thoroughly." 


The papers of Gen. H. D. Clayton (1827-1889) belong to 
his daughter, Miss Mary Clayton, of Eufaula. Their extent is 
unknown. Copies of some of them are in the possession of 
the editor. He was appointed Brigadier-General, April 22, 
1863 ; and promoted Major-General, July 7, 1864. 


In the years which have passed since the death of Jeremiah 
Clemens (1815-1865), all of his papers have been destroyed 
except a few private letters. He left no unfinished literary 
manuscripts. His daughter, Mrs. W. W. Townsend, of the 
City of Mexico, has a manuscript volume containing copies 
of his correspondence with Gov. A. B. Moore and others at the 
beginning of the War, 1861, while he was in command of the 
State troops. Mr. Clemens was in three wars, was a U. S. 
Senator from Alabama, and the author of literary works of 


The first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of 
Alabama was Rev. Nicholas Hamner Cobbs, D. D. (1796- 
1861). See Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, p. 868, and 
Transactions Alabaina Historical Society, 1897-98, p. 87, for 
published writings, personal bibliography, etc. The fate of 
his library and manuscripts is described below by his son, 
Dr. R. H. Cobbs, of Greensboro, Ala. Such as were in the 
bands of the latter were used by Rev. Greenough White, of 

Papers of Public Men. 167 

Sewanee, Tenn., in his Saint of the Southern Church (1898j 
a valuable biography. 

"After my Father's death, his letters fell into the possession 
of my oldest Brother, Kev. K. A. Cobbs, who died in West 
Virginia some years ago. I do not think that any of them 
were preserved. From time to time I have given away my 
Father's letters to those who wished his autograph until I 
have only one or two left : & these would not help you at all. 
In moving from Cincinnati, Ohio, to Mobile, the boat on 
which we were traveling was sunk & my Father's entire Li- 
brary was lost. He collected afterwards a small number of 
books — ^^most of which are in my possession ; but they are only 
such works as are found in any ordinary Library. I have the 
Diary of his official Acts as Bishop ; but do not see how you 
could make any use of that. And besides every item of the 
Diary has been already published in the Journal of the 

No collection of the letters from Bishop Cobbs to others 
has been made. The University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn., 
has none of his papers. 


Gen. John Cocke, of Tennessee, commanded a division of 
Tennesseeans in the Creek War, 1813-14, and a search has 
been made for such of his papers as might fall in this period. 
None have, however, been found. A great-grand-daughter is 
the wife of Overton Lea, of Nashville, but none of the Gen- 
eral's papers .have come into the possession of her branch of 
the family. , 


The papers of Gen. John Coffee ( 1772-1833 ) are in exist- 
ence, but have been scattered. The principal part are, how- 
ever, in possession of Mrs. Mary Coffee Campbell, his grand- 
daughter, who gives the following account: 

"His papers are scattered amongst the heirs; but I know 
where they are, and could probably reach them as few others 
could. The papers in relation to Indian campaigns, and the 
war of 1812-15, were sent to Gen. Jackson, at his request, for 
the purpose of getting Francis P. Blair, to write a history, as 
he had requested Uncle Jackson to allow him to do. We sup- 
pose those papers are still in the hands of the Blair family, 
as young Andrew Jackson of the Hermitage tried to recover 
them, and they refused to give them up. 

IM Report Alabama History Commission. 

"There are several journals, but nothing printed or bound. 
A number of very interesting letters from prominent persons 
to him, and also letters by him to others, in sheets. He left a 
well selected library, but small. I have his Encyclopedia of 
forty odd volumes, in good preservation." 

Gen. Cotfee took part in the Creek War, and later became 
a citizen of the territory. He was appointed surveyor for the 
public lands in the Northern District of Mississippi Terri- 
tory, March 6, 1817. On April 20, 1818 the limits of the Dis- 
trict were restricted to Alabama. He was successively com- 
missioned for Alabama, Feb. 17, 1823, Jan. 10, 1827, and July 
9, 1831. He died in office July 7, 1833. "He was Gen. Jack- 
son's right arm through all his campaigns against the Creeks, 
and led the mounted Tennesseeans at the battle of New 


The wife of Henry W. Collier (1801-1855), some time be- 
fore her death, destroyed practically all of his public and 
private papers. These included among other things, his cor- 
respondence with Miss Dorothea L. Dix in reference to her 
efforts in behalf of the establishment of the Insane Asylum 
at Tuscaloosa. Mr. Collier was Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the State, 1837-1849, and Governor, 1849-1853. 


The following extract from a letter to Mr. Pickett, Nov. 1, 
1847, discloses all the information at hand concerning the 
papers of Rev. Lee Compere, an early missionary to the Creek 
Indians: "At this time my books & papers are all packed 
up — owing to want of room — in a very short time I expect to 
be situated so that I can open them — then whatever I can find 
that I think will be of service I will copy & furnish — I once 
had a partial history of the Creeks in manuscript taken from 
the Big Warrior — but am under some impression I have 
parted with it — perhaps to Col. McKenny once in the Indian 
Department at Washington."" 


On learning of Mr. Pickett's researches in the history of 
the State, Thomas P. Crawford, a lawyer of Carrollton, Ala., 

•Brewer's Alabama, pp. 296. See also Smith and DeLand's Northern Ala- 
bama (1888). pp. 298-306, for sketch and portrait. 
'See Owen's edition of Pickett's Alabama, (1900), p. 80, note. 

Papers of Public Men. 169 

Aug. 28, 1847, wrote him that "With the view of aiding you 
(Though it be ever so little) in the formation of some inci- 
dents in your contemplated history, 1 can furnish you with 
the Diary of my Father who was a captain in the Indian 
Wars and kept a sort of Log Book during the Time. There 
ai'e several matters related though of small importance prob- 
ably, that would be extremely interesting to persons residing 
in your part of the State; the papers of my father are how- 
ever not in my possession, but if you think they would in any 
way forward you in your laudable undertaking I can procure 
them for you." 

It is not known whether Mr. Pickett ever received the 
Diary. An unavailing inquiry has recently been made to 
ascertain its whereabouts. 


The papers of Antoine de Crozat, "the opulent merchant," 
to whom the King of France granted the colony of Louisana, 
and who held his grant from 1712 to 1717, have not been 

31. SAM DALE. 

, If Gen. Sam Dale left any papers, their whereabouts is 
unknown. He was never married. He died in Lauderdale 
County, Miss., north of Meridian, at old Daleville. Clai- 
borne's Life and Tmies of Dale ( I860 ) is said in the preface 
to be "condensed from authentic MSS. never yet published." 
Notes of his personal adventures "were taken down from his 
own lips" by Claiborne and others. 

32. ZACH G. DEAS. 

Zach C. Deas ( 1819-1882) was appointed a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, Dec. 13, 1862. His military papers, commissions, orders, 
and other papers have been entrusted to the editor for use in 
his historical work. 


The papers of Silas Dinsmore (1766-1847), one of the cul- 
trivated public men of the Southern country in pioneer days, 
were destroyed by fire. The following interesting extracts 
indicate how valuable the material kept by Mr. Dinsmore 
would have been to the historian. George S. Gaines, July 27, 
1847, wrote Mr. Pickett : 

•Owen's edition of Pickett'a Alobomo (1900), pp. 182-208. 

170 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

"I have just heard of the death of my old friend Silas Dins- 
more, Esq. He died recently at his late residence on the Ohio 
river (Kentucky side) a few miles below Cincinnati. He not 
only kept a journal of daily events interlarded with curious 
Indian traditions & historical sketches, during his Indian 
agency, but he had collected all the old books, treating of this 
quarter of the globe, within his reach, also statements of old 
white men, & manuscripts on the same subject. A visit to his 
widow would pay the Alabama and Mississippi historian well 
for the time he would lose." 

Again on Sept. 28, 1847 he wrote : "But if you can obtain 
the late Col. Dinsmore's papers from the widow, you will, I 
think, require but little more material for that period of time. 
It would be well I think for you to write to Mrs. Dinsmore 
first & make inquiry whether her late husband ever wrote 
any history of this section of the country, if not what has 
become of the materials he collected while in the public ser- 
vice, and whether she would dispose of them. I send inclosed 
a letter of introduction to her in your favor." 

Later Mr. Pickett wrote Mrs. Mary G. Dinsmore, Bellview, 
Boone County, Ky., and to him she replied in part : "I regret 
I am not able to furnish you with the documents desired. I 
believe my late husband had the books and papers you men- 
tioned, & also some notes of his own. When about to leave 
Mobile, to join him in the North I deposited his library & 
papers in the Bank for safe keeping, & they were all consumed 
in the great conflagration the following fall." 


The Claiborne Collection, at the University of Mississippi 
until recently, included the existing manuscripts of Sir Wil- 
liam Dunbar (1749-1810). By Act of the Legislature they 
were returned to the Dunbar descendants. Mr. Dunbar 
was one of the most cultured and influential settlers in the 
Southwest. His papers were used by Dr. J. W. Monette in 
his Y alley of the Mississippi (1848). Respecting them he 
wrote Mr. Pickett, June 9, 1847 : 

"Relative to the MS. papers of Sir William Dunbar, I infer 
you would be unable to derive any connected historical mat- 
ter. Mr. Dunbar published several important papers in the 
Transactions of the American Philosopl. Society in Philada. 
many years ago. Several years since Mann Butler, Esq., 
spent several days at the residence of his son examining 
papers, etc., and took with him such as he deemed useful & 

Papers of Public Men. 1?1 

iiince then nothing has been heard from them. On a visit, 
one year since no papers of importance were accessible." 
Sec Mississippi State University Library, infra. 


The books, papers, documents, etc., of Thomas Eastin 
(1788-1865), are reported by his grandson Dr. Dillon J. 
Spotswood, of Mobile, as destroyed when his residence, near 
Mt. Vernon, was burned about 1859. Mr. Eastin was the 
founder and editor of the Halcyon, at St. Stephens, one of the 
very first newspapers printed in Alabama. He was also the 
first territorial printer. 


The papers of Gen. John H. Eaton are perhaps lost beyond 
recovery. They were in the possession of his widow, the 
famous Peggy O'Neal, at the time of her death. Gen. Eaton 
was associated with Gen. Jackson in the years when the latter 
was achieving fame in the Southern country. He later be- 
came the biographer of the General. His papers would 
doubtless prove of much value. 


After the change of flags, in 17(54 Major Robert Farmer 
(1718-1778) was placed in command of Mobile by the British. 
He was a man of rank and of fine attainments. A few of 
his private papers are in the hands of descendants, copies 
being in the possession of the editor. In the Haldimand Col- 
lection, in the Canadian Archives, at Ottawa, will be found a 
number of papers in relation to his public career. 


Prior to the death of Thomas Flournoy, J. H. F. Claiborne 
applied for the use of his military papers, but was informed 
by him that they had been destroyed by fire. Mr. Flournoy 
was a Brigadier-General in the Creek War, 1813-14. 


A few letters of Gen. E. P. Gaines (1777-1864) to others, 
have been found in private hands. Numbers of his official re- 

'Dr. F. L. Riley has a valuable study on Mr. Dunbar, "the pioneer scien- 
tist of Mississippi," in the Publications of the Miss. Hist. Soc, vol. il, pp. 

172 Report Ala bama Hi story Commission. 

ports and communications to the War Department are print- 
ed in the Congressional Documents of the period. These 
can be located from the index to Poore's Descriptive Cata- 
logue of Government Publications. His private and other 
papers, ho\\ ever, are lost. Their destruction he explained in 
a letter to Mr. Picliett, Aug. 17, 1847 : 

"I will with great pleasure avail myself of an early occasion 
to comply Y\dth your request, as far as my memory, and the 
very few papers saved from the wreck of a boat in Mobile, 
in the year 1813, while in upper Canada, or upon the northern 
frontier ( where I served during the principal part of the war 
of that & the following year) . I am at this moment however 
without any papers, such as you desire ; — save a sketch drawn 
up by a young friend who did me the favor to arrange the few 
papers which remained from another ship, or Boat wreck. 
(That of Flint river 24, Feb. 1818 in which I had valuable 
papers. ) This sketch, however, contains but little regarding 
my services prior, or during the war, or subsequent to the war 
connected with the History of Alabama." 

He wrote further, Sept. 21, 1847: "The various public 
duties which require my attention, and which keep me on my 
feet, at my desk, from 9 to twelve hours, every day, leave me 
but little time to look into the few broken files of my old 
papers, to which I think myself in duty bound to refer, in 
preparing any thing for such a work as that which so laud- 
ably occupies your attention." 

It is not known that he ever furnished Mr. Pickett any 
data. The "broken files" referred to by him h^ve not been 
located. His son, who now resides in Washington, D. C, 
has none of them : 


The papers of George Strother Gaines (1784-1873) are the 
subject of a note, by the editor, in the Transactions of the Ala- 
bama Historical Society, 1898-99, vol. iii, pp. 184-185. It is 
here introduced as containing all that is known of them. 

Mr. George S. Gaines came to Alabama in the Spring of 
1805 and was in the government service as Indian factor at 
St. Stephens, and later in the present Sumter County, from 
this time until the admission of the State. He was thrown 
intimately with all of the leading characters of the South- 
west, and took an active part in all public affairs. Students 
have recognized the value of Mr. Gaines' recollections of 
events during this period of his life, and Mr. Pickett, Ala- 

Papers of Public Men. 173 

bama's leading historian, took notes of interviews with him, 
which are now in possession of the editor. Mr. Gaines' 
official papers seem to have been destroyed, as will appear 
from his letters to Mr. Pickett. 

On July 27, 1847, he wrote: "I write you now merely to 
say that I will with pleasure furnish you with such materials, 
as may be in my recollection, for your history of Alabama. I 
kept no journal of CA'ents ; and my correspondence whilst U. 
S. Factor, Avas turned over to my successor after my resigna- 

And again, Sept. 28, 1847, he wrote : "All the public 
Indian trading houses, then called U. S. Factories, were 
abolished by Act of Congress in 1821, and the books and 
papers of the Choctaw Factory fell into the hands of Col. W. 
Ward then Choctaw Agent and after the removal of the In- 
dians and (the first sales of lands thereabouts) the agency 
house became public property and I am told the books and 
papers of the trading house, left in it, have supplied bonnet 
paper and wrapping paper to the neighborhood ever since. 

"It would be accidental to find anything of value in such 
a wreck. 

"The public offices in Washington, if the papers were not 
burned, could furnish you much valuable material for your 
history on the correspondence of the U. S. Agent and Factors 
from 1800 to 1825." 

In Mr. Dillard's paper on the "Dancing Eabbit Creek 
Treaty," acknowledgment is made for valuable fa-cts fur- 
nished by Mr. Gaines. Mr. Gaines died in 1873 at State Line, 
Miss. In the summer of 1871, at the request of Percy Wal- 
ker, Esq., he prepared his "Reminiscences of Early Times in 
the Mississippi Territory," which were by Mr. Walker pre- 
sented to -the Franklin Society, of Mobile. These were pub- 
lished in the Mobile Register^ June 19, 27, July 3, 10, and 17, 
1872, and reprinted in part in the Alabama Historical Re- 
porter, Tuscaloosa, May, 1884, vol. ii. 

See Mississippi State University Library, infra, for refer- 
ence to other papers. 


The papers of George Galphin, the noted Indian trader, 
have doubtless been destroyed. The Rev. George Galphin 
Nowlan MacDowell, Dawson, Oa., who is a descendant, has 

•Owen's edition of Pickett's Alabama (1900), p. 21, note; also White's 
Bistorical Collections of Georgia, (1854). 

174 Kerport Alabama History Commission. 

been unable to trace them. A small volume of "Accounts" 
is, b'>wever, in the Georgia Historical Society, for mention 
of which see, infra. There are also Galphin papers in the 
office of the Secretary of State of South Carolina, at Colum- 


'J'lie library of Gov. John Gayle (1792-1859) was lost in 
Miibiie during the war, and with it probably a part at least of 
his paper;?. His widow stored a box containing many of his 
letters and papers at the home of Dr. Parish, at Mobile and 
just after the war these were consumed with the burning of 
his house. A daughter, Mrs. James W. Locke, of Greens- 
boro, has his commission as Federal Judge, and also several 
letters to her mother (the second wife) from him while he 
was in Washington. Mrs. Amelia G. Gorgas, another daugh- 
ter, of Tuscaloosa, has the private "Journal" of her mother 
( the first wife ) , covering many interesting events. The edi- 
tor has about fifty letters and documents to and from Gov. 
Gayle, connected with the controversy which arose between 
Alabama and the Federal Government in 1833. Mr. Gayle 
came to Alabama in 1813, and was in public and professional 
life in the State for over forty years. He was Governor, 1831 
to 1835. 


The "Letters and Papers" of Maj. Isaac Guion (17-1825), 
prominent in early Mississippi Territorial affairs, are in the 
Claiborne Collection, at the Mississippi State University. 
Bee that title, infra. 


The papers of Benjamin Hawkins (1754-1816) were the 
object of eager search on the part of Col. A. J. Pickett, for 
use in his History of Alabama. Mr. Hawkins, who had a 
distinguished public career, saw his first Indian service in 
1 785, as one of the Commissioners who negotiated the Hopewell 
treaty with the Cherokees. In 1796 he was appointed agent 
f( ]• all the Indians south of the Ohio, upon which he removed 
to the Creek country and established himself at what is noAy 
Hawkinsville, Ga. Here he remained until his death. 

Papers of Public Men. 175 

Gen. Thomas S. Woodward presents a high estimate of him 
ia a letter to Edward Hanrick, May 2, 1857, published in his 
Reminiscences, pp. 6-7 : "There is one thing I want, if it can 
be got hold of j and, if George Stiggins is living in your county 
h« has it. It is a manuscript given me by the widow of 
Col. Hawkins. It is in the hand writing of Christian Limbo, 
who. lived with Col. Hawkins many years. It was copied 
from Col. Hawkins' own manuscript, which was burned 
shortly after his death. I knew Col. Hawkins well. He 
knew more about Indians and Indian history and early set- 
tlements and expeditions of the several European nations 
that undertook to settle colonies in the South and Southwest, 
than all the men that ever have or will make a scrape of a 
pen upon the subject. The loss of his papers was certainly 
a very great loss to those who would wish to know things as 
they really were, and not as they wished them." 

The following extracts from Mr. Pickett's correspondence 
give an interesting account of the character of a part of the 
papers and of their loss : 

Thos. M. Ellis, Macon, Georgia, August 26th, 1847:— 
"There was a man living in Lowndes County, Ala. in 1840 by 
the name of Henry B. Wigginton who acted as Steward for 
Col. Hawkins during the war [of 1813-14] and was fre- 
quently with Col. Hawkins on public business he was with 
him when he died and if Wigginton is still living he can give 
the best evidence of Ms manuscripts and papers now living 
for he helped the Col. to pack them up in his trunk and locked 
it. The Col. observed at the time to Wigginton. This trunk 
contains all my A\ritings and labor for 11 years and is now 
ready for the press. I was at Col Hawkins' when the fire 
took place and every thing was consumed worth any note; 
his children and wife escaped with their lives and that was 
all, even their wearing clothes were burnt &c." 

Sterling Lanier, Macon, Georgia, April 29, 1847: — • 
"Col. Hawkins when residing at the agency on Flint River, 
had wrote a history of the habits & customs of the Creek 
Indians, and packed the manuscripts in a large trunk, ready 
for publishing, but unfortunately with his dwelling was 
burnt, Mr. Ellis being present at the time — all other papers, 
books, &c. left at his death, is now in the hands of his son 

While the loss is greatly to be deplored, it is fortunate that 
several volumes of his manuscripts have survived. They are 
preserved in the Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, and 
are filled with interesting historical material. For a full 
description of the collections of that Society, see infra. 

176 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

Sundry letters from and to Mr. Hawkins will be found' in 
the American State Papers : Indian Affairs (2 vols. ) ; in the 
Jefferson and Madison Papers, preserved in the State De- 
])artment, Washington; in the Territorial Papers, in the same 
Department ; in the correspondence of the War Department ; 
and also in the Office of Indian Affairs. A few letters 
from him are in the "McKee Papers," in the possession of 
the editor. 

In response to an inquiry, Gov. G. M. Troup, Valdosta, 
Aug. 13, 1847, wrote Mr. Pickett: — "Much of the corres- 
pondence of Col. Hawkins with the War Department may 
have been burnt. His private & confidential correspondence 
with Gen. Washington who appointed & esteemed him highly 
(whatever the value or extent of it) may have passed into 
the hands of Mr. Spark's for aught I know — -it must have 
been more interesting than any thing emanating from him 

No examination of the Washington Papers, or of the 
Sparks' Manuscripts, has been made in reference to this sug- 
gestion. * 


In the Claiborne Collection, at the State University, Ox- 
ford, Miss., are some papers and documents of David Holmes 
(1769-1832), fourth Governor of Mississippi Territory. 
Copies of many others are in the State Department, Wash- 
ington. During his administration occurred the Creek War, 
Indian Land cessions, expansion of population, etc. The 
"Executive Journals" for the period, 1809-1817, are in the 
office of the Secretary of State of Mississippi, Jackson. 
What became of his personal and private papers is unknown. 
His likeness is in Claiborne's Mississippi, which also contains 
a sketch, pp. 302-303. 

"'Here Colonel Hawkins died in 1816, and was buried on the wooded 
bluff overlooking the Flint river, a few hundred yards below the point of 
present crossing. No stone marks his grave. Among the scattered and 
almost obliterated mounds In this lonely and forsaken cemetery is one more 
prominent than the rest. It may designate the precise place of his 

"Tall trees and a tangled undergrowth hide the graves of the dead, and 
there is little else save silence and forgetfulness. Even the earth-mound 
which covers the bones of the famous Colonel Benjamin Hawkins is In- 
capable of positive recognition, and rests under the common oblivion which 
has overtaken all." Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr., Dead Tovms of G-eoraia 
(1878), pp. 243-244. 

Papers of Public Men. 177 


In 1882, the manuscripts and correspondence of President 
Andrew Jaclcson (1767-1845) long supposed to be lost, were 
found in "several large trunks," stored in the garret of the 
old Globe building in Washington. "The General preserved 
with care his njost voluminous correspondence. These papers 
were committed by him to Amos Kendall, for the preparation 
of hisjbiography. Kendall made little progress in the work, 
and that little, it is understood, not at all to the satisfaction 
of the subject, who quite peremptorily directed the transfer 
of the material to the elder Francis P. Blair."" The legal rep- 
resentatives of Gen. Jackson entered suit for their recovery. 
In response to an inquiry as to these papers, the result of the 
suit, etc., Woodbury Blair, Esq., Washington, D. C, gives the 
following information, from which it would appear that the 
papers are not so numerovis. It will at least be necessary to 
examine them to determine how far they illustrate or add 
detail to the campaigns of Jackson. 

"My family have some papers of a miscellaneous character 
which were given to my grandfather, the late Francis P. 
Blair, Sr., by Gen. Jackson, during his lifetime. My father, 
the late Montgomery Blair, at one time allowed a gentlemen, 
who was highly recommended to him, to examine his papers 
relating to Gen. Jackson's life, and I believe that said gentle- 
man availing himself of my father's courtesy appropriated 
some of the most valuable of these papers, which to date have 
not been returned. Gen. Jackson authorized my grandfather 
to receive from Amos Kendall what was supposed to be a full 
and complete set of papers, which he, Gen. Jackson, had lent 
Mr. Kendall for the purpose of writing his life. I have al- 
ways understood that the papers were never surrendered by 
Mr. Kendall, and though diligent search has been made by us, 
kindly assisted by Mr. Kendall's heirs, no one to this day has 
been able to find or account for the papers. The suit to which 
you refer could not exactly be called a friendly litigation. 
Many unfriendly averments and charges were made, not one 
of which was substantiated, and after considerable testimony 
had been taken, the suit was finally dismissed for want of 
prosecution, which was done on the motion of my counsel." 

The correspondence of Jackson and Maj. Wm. B. Lewis was 
sold in New York, June 3, 1884. It is now in the New York 
Public Library, having come to it in the Gordon L. Ford Ool- 

"Senator George P. Hoar in Proceedings American Antiquarian Society, 
Oct. 1882, p. 130. 

178 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

lection which was presented to the library by J. Pierpont 
Morgan. A calendar of the Collection, dating from 1806, and 
containing over two hundred and sixty letters, appears in the 
Bulletin of the N. Y. Public Library, Sept. 1900. 

The following abstracts, taken from the Bulletin, of three 
letters in this collection from Francis Preston Blair Sr., to 
Maj. Wm. B. Lewis, throw contemporary light on Mr. Blair's 
possession of the Jackson papers, and serve to confirm Mr. 
Woodbury Blair's statements : 

Washington, July 21, 1856. "Can not understand the ac- 
tions of Andrew Jackson, [Jr.] ; for years Blair has been 
been laboring to save him from ruin and now he reads that 
Jackson charges him with abusing the private papers of his 
father, which the President himself entrusted to Blair." 

Silver Spring, [Md.,] Oct. 25, 1859. "Acknowledges re- 
ceipt of his letter of 5 inst. ; he could not attend to Lewis's 
inquiries as to Gen. Jessup [Thomas Sidney Jesup] for the 
latter was sick; thinks his son, Montgomery Blair, may be 
able to make search in the war office, and Parton will receive 
the benefit of his search; Kendall retains all important 
papers of Jackson, having given Blair only the rubbish ; the 
Dickerson, Sevier, and Benton controversies are probably 
among Kendall's papers; if Blair survives Kendall he will 
obtain the papers by purchase or otherwise and will make 
[George] Bancroft the biographer of Jackson; Parton will 
make an interesting work ; Blair has talked with him and has 
offered to read his manuscript, but Parton wants a chapter of 
reminiscences to be incorporated in the work under Blair's 
name ; this he is not inclined to do ; begs Lewis to turn over 
to Bancroft all his papers ; is astonished that Parton talks of 
Jackson as having been born in North Carolina." 

Washington, May 26, 1864. "Requests him to read atten- 
tively Parton's life of Jackson and to put down any comments 
he may see fit to make, to enable Blair to do justice to Jackson 
and the great struggle that commenced between him and Cal- 
houn ; he means to do this himself and to leave Parton and 
Blair's consolations (?) to the care of his two sons who, when 
they get hold of the Jackson papers retained by Kendall and 
the false memoir he will attach to them, may be enabled to 
give a true picture of the illustrious man of our country." 

Letters from Jackson are to be found in other collections, 
some of which have appeared in the Magazine of American 
History, in the Publications of the Southern History Associa- 
tion, and in other publications." 

"See Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, vol. vll, pp. 
349-351, for exhaustive consideration of printed material covering Jack- 
son's career. 

Papers of Public Men. 179 


Notwithstanding the most earnest inquiries among his 
collateral relations none of the papers of William R. King 
( 1786-1853 ) have been located. Mr. King was one of the first 
U. S. Senators from Alabama, serving in that capacity with a 
short interruption until his death. He was appointed Minis- 
ter to France in 1844. In the presidential contest of 1852 he 
was elected Vice President of the United States. His long 
public career, and his intimate acquaintance with men and 
measures during the time, 1819-1853, indicate how valuable 
his papers and correspondence might be. It is believed by- 
some of his relatives that everything of this character left by 
him has been destroyed. The editor has a few letters from 
him, which form a part of the collection of Gayle papers men- 
tioned, supra. 

48. JOHN LAW. 

The "family papers" of John Law were, during the French 
Revolution, "for the most part lost or destroyed."'' After 
Antoine de Crozat surrendered his concessions, the Western, 
or India Company, was chartered to take control of the colo- 
nies of Louisiana. John Law, a Scotch financier, bnt at this 
time the Comptroller General of the Finances of the King- 
dom of France, was the central figure of the compaJny. It 
was in power from 1717 to 1731. But while his private 
papers appear to be lost, the gratifying discovery has been 
made that a large body of the records and papers of the com- 
pany have been found in the Archives at L'Orient, France. 
See supra, for account of their discovery." 


In Pickett's Alabama, passim, are a number of original let- 
ters of Gen. Alexander McGillivray (1746-1793), said to have 
been found in the original papers of the case of the Heirs of 
McGillivray vs. the Heirs of Panton in the District Court of 
Louisiana, at New Orleans. Others are printed in the 
American State Papers. There are a few papers of Daniel 
McGillivray in the Mississippi State University, in the Clai- 
borne Collection. If Alexander McGillivray left any private 
papers they have not been located. 

"See Memorial of the Heirs of Jolm Law, March 26, 1838 (Sen. Doc. No. 
334, 25th Cons. 2d sess. 8vo. pp. 6). 

'^Wlnsor, vol. v. pp. 75-77; and Owen's edition of Pickett's Alaiama, 
pp. 209-235. 

180 Report Alabama History Commission. 

50. JOHN McKEE. 

The "McKee Papers" form a part of the manuscript collec- 
tions of the editor. The public services of Col. John McKee 
(1767-1832) cover the long period from 1792 to 1829, ija the 
Southern country, or the Old South-West. He was a member 
of Congress from Alabama, 1823-1829. His papers comprise 
letters to and from all of the public men of the period, and 
cover almost every subject then engaging the public mind. 

51. HUGH McVAY. 

The papers of Hugh McVay (1778-1852) who was long in 
public life, and was acting governor of the State, from July to 
Nov. 1837, have not been found. His descendants think it 
altogether probable that they were destroyed during the Con- 
federate War. 


James Magoffin came to St. Stephens in 1809, and was for 
many years connected with public affairs. He explains the 
loss of his papers to Mr. Pickett, Aug. 2, 1847, in a letter from 
St. Stephens: 

"A most voluminous Journal from the day of my landing 
in the State, with a mass of notes memos, and some scientific 
correspondence was destroyed by the fire which consumed the 
Land Office in this place some years ago — among which I have 
to regret a Geological correspondence with the great and good 
Dr. S. Mitchell for whom I made collections of mineral petri- 
factions, &c." 


A memoir of Rev. Basil Manly, D. D. (1798-1868) has for 
sometime been in contemplation by his son Rev. Charles Man- 
ly, of Lexington, Mo., who has in his possession all of the 
known papers, etc., of the former. Dr. Manly was a distin- 
guished educator and divine. His name is inseparably linked 
with the history of the State University of which he was Pres- 
ident, 1837-1855. He was the founder of the Alabama His- 
torical Society. Eev. Charles Manly has prepared a detailed 
account of the papers in his possession, which is herewith 

(1) The papers are nearly all in my possession. 

(2) Aside from family letters, there are very few from 
others to him. A large number, from various persons, were 

Papers of Public Men. l8l 

destroyed near the close of the Confederate War. Those that 
now remain possess no public interest. 

(3) A large number of copies of letters written by him to 
others are in my possession — some in sheets, some in letter 
books. They are mainly of private nature. 

( 4 ) There are quite full diaries, of events mainly personal, 
from 1825-1865. Some of these, especially during his presi- 
dency of Univ. of Ala. are marked "private & confidential." 

(5) His library of several thousand vols., is in large part 
now the property of the Southern Bap. Theol. Seminary at 
Louisville, Ky. The rest is mainly in my possession. 

(6) He left a few addresses, reports, etc., printed & in Mss. 
as follows: 

Inaugural Address, as Prest. Univ. Ala., Dec. 6, 1837. 

Commencement Address, as Prest. Univ. Ala., Dec. 16, 

Eulogy on Gen. Robert Savage Foster, July 4, 1839. 

Address: Indispensable Importance of the Univ. to the 
State of Ala., Dec. 10, 1843. 

Address : Prepared to be delivered at re-interment in Tus- 
caloosa of remains of Lt. M. P. Inge, who fell at Resaca de la 
Palma May 9, 1846. The remains were on the Steamboat 
"Tuskaloosa" which was destroyed by explosion & fire, a few 
miles from Mobile, Jan. 28, 1847. The remains were never 
recovered ; and the address was not delivered. 

Report on Collegiate Education to Trustees of Univ. of 
Ala., 1852. 


The correspondence and public papers of Joshua L. Martin 
(1799-1866) which survive, form a part of the manuscript col- 
lections of the editor. Mr. Martin was Governor, 1845-1847, 
having previously served in Congress, and as Chancellor. 


After his service as acting governor, 1831, Samuel B. 
Moore, (1789-1846) located at Oarrollton, in Pickens County. 
He was never married. Col. M. L. Stansel, of Carrollton, 
who knew him well until his death, is authority for the state- 
ment that he left no books or papers. He lies in the Carroll- 
ton cemetery in an unmarked grave. 

182 Report Alabama History Commission. 


Nothing is known concerning the papers, public or private, 
of John Murphy (1785-1840), who was governor, 1825-29. 
His grand-daughter, Mrs. Annie D. McMillan, of Stockton, 
Ala., expresses the belief that they were destroyed during the 
War at the same time of the destruction of the property of his 
widow. Gov. Murphy lies in an unmarked grave in Clarke 


Nothing has been discovered in relation to the papers, 
books, correspondence, etc., of this influential firm of mer- 
chants and traders. Their value is thus indicated by J. F. H. 
Claiborne, the historian of Mississippi, in a letter to Mr. 
Pickett, Sept. 20, 1847 : 

"In Spanish times, as far back as 1790, perhaps still farther 
back, there was a great British House at Pensacola & Mobile, 
Panton, Laslie, (sic.) & Co., which had, by purchase from the 
King of Spain, the exclusive privilege of trading with the 
Choctaws, Creeks «& Seminoles. At Mobile the firm Avas Pan- 
ton, Forbes & Co. They were closely connected with political 
affairs from that time to the breaking out of the last war. 
These papers are doubtless, of great historical value, and are 
probably in possession of their partner or successor Mr. 
Inerarity, now of Pensacola, a very intelligent man. Thr'o 
some friend in Mobile, you might open a communication with 
him. Mr. J. Magoffin (who I believe still survives at St. 
Stephens) had during the last war some correspondence with 
a confidential clerk of Inerarity's & can probably be of ser- 
vice to you." 


Sometime after the incidents connected with the apprehen- 
sion of Aaron Burr, Maj. Nicholas Perkins, who was a lawyer, 
removed from South Alabama to Tennessee. Maj. Perkins' 
papers giving the facts of the capture, etc., are now in the 
Tennessee Historical Society, presented by Mrs. Wm. O'Neil 
Perkins, whose husband was the son of Major Perkins. In 
April 1896, they were published in the American Historical 
Magazine, Nashville, pp. 140-153. 


Gen. Andrew Pickens had a manuscript copy of Hawkins' 
"Sketch of the Creek Country," which was used by Mr. 

"See Claiborne's Mississippi, pp. 132-133, note, ~ ' 

Papers of Public Men. 183 

Pickett in his History of Alahatna.'' The following extracts 
from u letter of Prank Pickens to Mr. Pickett, Sept. 30, 1847, 
woiiJd indicate that his grandfather, the General, had him- 
self made and preserved notes concerning the Indians etc. 
What became of the three volumes referred to is unknown. 

"I find your letter amongst many others & hasten to say, 
that I have the Journal &c., to which you refer, & it contains 
the notes of Col. Hawkins & also many things of my grand- 
father's — Gen. Andrew Pickens. They were joint Commis- 
sioners appointed to hold treaties with almost all the Indians 
in the South & South West, & there is much in the notes re- 
lating to those treaties. I will loan them to you with great 
pleasure, provided you will return them by the first safe 
opportunity. I had an idea myself of preparing something in 
the shape of a history of the upper part of South Carolina 
connected also with a history of the Southern tribes of In- 
dians. I think the notes are too voluminous to be sent by 
mail, as they are in three vol." 


The private and family papers of Samuel Pickens (1790- 
1855), who was Comptroller of Public Accounts, 1819-1829, 
are in possession of his son, James Pickens, Sawyerville, Ala. 


The political and private papers of George Poindexter (17- 
1855) third delegate from Mississippi Territory, and so long 
in Mississippi public life, form a part of the Claiborne Col- 
lection, now in the University of Mississippi. "Some time 
after the death of Mr. Poindexter, I applied by letter to his 
representative for his papers, with a view of writing his 
biography, but a gentleman living in Jackson, who had been 
for the last twelve months very much with him, and pro- 
posed to write his memoirs, was prefered. During the war 
this gentleman came to my residence at Bay St. Louis, and 
informed me that he was going to Europe, and offered me the 
papers for $300 in gold. The terms were accepted. There are 
very many of these letters and other papers, referring to all 
his personal quarrels, and dealing very freely with the frail- 
ties of his contemporaries, during the whole of his public 

See Mississippi State University Library, infra. 

"Owen's edition of Pickett's Alabama, (1900), p. 117. ' 

"Claiborne's Mississippi, p. 414, note. 

184 ileport Alabama flistory Commission. 


Mrs. V. Hortense Rodes, the widow of Gen. R. E. Rodes 
( 1827-1864 ) , has the military and other papers of the latter 
which are in existence. Concerning them she says : 

"I have Gen. Rodes' Commissions: Col., Brig.-Gen., & 
Major-General, not Lt.-General as he was only acting in that 
capacity. These papers I would not loan — his private cor- 
respondence, save a (precious) few letters, I burned many 
years ago and also his correspondence with brother officers. 
I kept a few mementoes only. His reports of which I had 
copies, I loaned many, many years ago to Dr. Jones of Rich- 
mond. He still has them I suppose as he never returned 
them to me." 

Gen. Rodes was made a Brigadier-General, Oct. 21, 1861, 
and a Major-General, May 2, 1863. He was killed at Win- 
chester, Sept. 19, 1864. Brewer's Alabama, p. 568, says of 
him : "No man more assiduously devoted himself to the 
duties of a soldier than Gen. Rodes, and he was truly the 
trusted right arm of every corps commander under whom he 

Four of Gen. Rodes' papers were presented to the Ala- 
bama Historical Society, at the annual meeting, July 2, 1878, 
by Mrs. Rodes. 


No papers of Jack F. Ross (1791-1837), first Territorial 
and State Treasurer, are believed to be preserved, as none are 
in the possession of descendants. In Dec. 1818, his dwelling 
house at St. Stephens with all his papers, as well as some 
of the Territorial funds, was destroyed by fire. 


The papers of Judge Reuben Saffold (1788-1847) are be- 
lieved by the family to have been destroyed by the burning of 
his residence. Mr. Saffold, came to what is now Alabama in 
1813, and was almost continuously in the public service until 
ten years before his death. 


Dr. William H. Sanders, State Health officer, makes the 
following report on the papers of his brother : 

"Gen. Sanders left no papers of historical interest. At the 
breaking out of the War he was a College boy. [University 

Papers of Public Men. 186 

of Alabama.] His oflicial papers, as an officer, were largely 
destroyed just before the surrender of Lee's Army by the 
burning ot the brigade wagon train. Letters, written home 
fi*om the Army, were nearly all destroyed under the following 
circumstances: When Croxton's raiding command was 
known to be approaching, the home folks, appreciating the 
passion Federal soldiers had for ransacking houses for army 
letters, hurriedly gathered up all such letters, and secured 
them unaer the bluff of a small branch. That night rain fell 
in torrents, the branch rose uuprecedentedly, and washed the 
letters away. A few were recovered, but were so defaced as 
scarcely to be legible." 

Gen. Sander§ was one of the very youngest general officers 
in the Confederate Army. He was born April 4, 1840, in 
Tuscaloosa Co., Ala.; was commissioned Brigadier-General 
May 31, 1864 ; and was killed Aug. 21, 1864. "A neat marble 
tablet in Richmond marks his resting place."" 


The whereabouts of the papers of Winthrop Sargent ( 1753- 
1820 ) , first chief executive of Mississippi Territory have not 
been ascertained. He was in office from May 7, 1798 to early 
in 1801. Claiborne's Mississippi is unusually severe on the 
career of Gov. Sargent, using m the preparation of the work 
the papers of his principal contemporary antagonists. It is 
altogether probable that an unimpassioned study of his 
administration in the light of all material at present acces- 
sible, including his own papers, would modify the popular 
estimate. Fortunately, in 1801, soon after he went out of 
office, he published "by particular desire of his friends" cer- 
tain Papers in relation to the official conduct of Governor Sar- 
gent (8vo. pp. 64), which contains his side of the contro- 

In the State Department, Washington, will be found some 
official papers from him. The office of the Secretary of State 
of Mississippi, Jackson, has the "Executive Journals," con- 
taining his official acts, correspondence, etc. 


Charles Tait (1768-1835), who had a long public career in 
Georgia, became the first Federal Judge of Alabama, May 30, 
,1820. He resigned in 1826. His correspondence with public 

"Brewer's Alabama, pp. 268-269. 

"See Proceedings American Antiquarian Society, Oct. 1870, p. 16, 

i86 Report Alabama History Commission. 

men, and other papers, is preserved in bound form in the 
hands of descendants. He was a constant correspondent of 
John W. Walker, and his letters form a part of the papers of 
the latter, now the property of the editor. 


Probably the most influential and powerful figure in Ala- 
bama during the Territorial period was Harry Toulmin 
( 1766-1824) , who was the Judge of the Superior Court for the 
District of Washington from 1804 to 1819, compiler of the 
Mississippi Statutes, 1807, a member of the first Constitu- 
tional Convention of Alabama, 1819, and the compiler of the 
Alabama Digest, 1823. The papers of Judge Toulmin, if they 
could be discovered, would prove of extreme interest and im- 
portance to a knowledge of this period. James Magoffin says 
to Mr. Pickett, Aug. 2, 1847 : 

"The papers of Judge Toulmin would also be found inter- 
esting he being in the habit of keeping statistical, geological, 
as also other notes and journals of interesting facts relating 
to the country and carrying on almost daily a laborious cor- 
respondence with literary and scientific gentlemen of the 
States and in England & copies ( rough ) of which he has often 
exhibited to me and read to me." 

On application to the family for the use of the papers, Gen. 
Theophilus L. Toulmin, Aug. 24, 1847, wrote Mr. Pickett: 
"I have shown your last letter to my mother, after reading 
which, she informed me, that my Brother, Captain H.' Toul- 
min, (who is now at W. City, but will return in a few weeks) 
had selected many of my fathers old papers & put them safely 
away, & that among them, she was inclined to think, I would 
find some, that you desire to have the use off. I now write, 
to inform you, that as soon as my brother arrives at home, I 
will comply with your wishes, as far as it may be in my power 
to do so." 

So far as is known the promised assistance was never ren- 
dered; and vain search has been made among the numerous 
Toulmin descendants for the papers mentioned. The editor 
has collected from various sources copies of about fifty letters 
from Mr. Toulmin. 


Governor George M. Troup (1780-1856), apart from the 
interest attaching to the fact that he was born at Mcintosh's 
Bluff, in what is now Alabama, was the chief executive of 

Papers of Public Men. 187 

Georgia, 1823-1827, during an eventful period in the history 
of both that State and of Alabama. He it was also who in 
1816 defeated for re-election to the U. S. Senate, W. W. Bibb, 
who soon afterward became Governor of Alabama Terri- 
tory. The present location of his public and private papers 
has not been ascertained. His biographer, the late Judge Ed- 
\\ard J. Harden, had access to a large body of material in the 
preparation of his Life of Troup (1859; 8vo. pp. 536, xxii). 
In this work are set out in extenso a number of originals and 
extracts. The papers collected by Mr. Harden were returned 
to the owners after being used, except in the case of Dr. Wm. 
C. Daniell. About one hundred letters which he contributed 
consisting of letters from Gov. Troup to him from 1825 to 1856, 
are now in the possession of Judge Harden's son, William 
Harden, Secretary of the Georgia Historical Society. One 
Avould suspect the entire loss of Gov. Troup's papers from the 
f ollow^ing extract of a letter to Col. A. J. Pickett, Nov. 5, 1852, 
in Harden's Life, viz : 

"I have uniformly said to those who have appealed to me 
for facts connected with the history of persons and things in 
past time, and particularly such as relate to myself and 
family, that I have not a scrap of paper in the form of a 
record, memorial or authentic manuscript, that has been pre- 
served for the purpose, or, indeed, any whatever, to my 
knowledge, spared by time, or by those yet more active de- 
stroyers, rats and mice."" 


The first State Geologist was Michael Tuomey (1805-1857.) 
In 1850 he published his First Biennial Report on the Geology 
of Alabama. In 1858 his second Report appeared, arranged 
and edited by J. W. Mallet. Concerning Mr. Tuomey's 
papers Dr. Mallet, now of the University of Virginia, says : 

"All the papers used in my editorial work on the 2nd Geo- 
logical Report of the Alabama Survey by Prof. M. Tuomey 
were placed in a small building not far from that known as 
the 'Lyceum' of the University of Alabama, which building 
also contained the most important lithological and palaeon- 
tological collections of the Survey. It was, with its contents, 
destroyed by fire, set by the U. S. cavalry force under Gen. 

"Gov. Troup is buried at Rose Mount, Montgomery County, Ga. A suit- 
ably Inscribed granite monument marks the spot. A life size portrait, 
painted by order of the Georgia legislature, hangs on one side of the 
President's chair in the Senate Chamber of the State. — Harden's Life, pp. 
531, 536. , , 

188 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Croxton, just before the close of the Civil War. I saw its 
ashes soon after my return from service in the Confederate 
army in 1865. I doubt much whether any other papers of 
public interest were left by Prof. Tuomey." 


Dr. Henry Tutwiler (1807-1884) was one of the most emi- 
nent educators of Alabama. In 1878 a tornado swept over 
Greene Springs, in Hale County, the seat of his school, and 
destroyed practically all of his books and papers. He is 
known to have kept journals during his long and busy life, 
but they seem to have disappeared. Some few of his letters, 
which survive, are in the hands of his daughter. Miss Julia 
Tutwiler, and of Col. T. C. McCorvey, his son-in-law. 


John W. Walker (1783-1823) was a lawyer, the President 
of the Constitutional Convention of Alabama, 1819, and one 
of the first U. S. Senators from Alabama. Practically all of 
his correspondence and papers are preserved in the hands of 
his descendants. Full copies are in the manuscript collec- 
tions of the editor. 


Gen. James White was in the Creek War 1813-14, com- 
manding Tennessee troops. It has bee;n ascertained from 
John M. Lea, of Nashville, whose wife was the grand-daughter 
of Mr. White, that all of the General's papers went into the 
hands of his son Hugh Lawson White, and with the papers of 
the latter are now supposed to be lost. 


It is supposed by his descendants that the books and papers 
of Robert Williams (1768-1836), third Governor of Missis- 
sippi Territory, have been lost or destroyed, as practically 
none are in their possession. His official term covered the 
period from March 1, 1805 to 1809, during which time 
occurred the Burr excitement, arrest, etc. Claiborne's 
Mississippi deals with Gov. Williams with considerable as- 
perity, far more harshly indeed than was justifiable. The 
"Executive Journals" covering his term are in the Secretary 
of State's office, Jackson. A few official papers are in the 
State Department, Washington.- 

Papers of Public Men. 189 


The military papers, reports, orders, and private papers of 
Gen. J. M. Withers ( 1814-188- ) were stolen, and their recov- 
ery has never been eifeeted. Gen. Withers became success- 
ively Brigadier-General, July 10, 1861, and Major-General, 
April 6, 1862. 


Such military jiapers and others as were left by Gen. S. A. 
M. Wood (1823-1891) are in the possession of his son, S. A. 
Wood, of Birmingham. Gen. Wood became a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Jan. 7, 1862. 


The striking figure of William L. Yancey, more than any 
other, brings Alabama into the current of broad history. As 
a member of the Secession Convention of Alabama, 1861, it 
is said of him that he "was the master spirit, tov^'ering above 
all others, in the boldness of his conceptions, in the energy of 
his measures, and in the splendid gifts of argumentative 
eloquence." His successor in the Confederate Senate, Hon. 
Eobert Jemison, in his parting address to his colleagues in 
the Senate of Alabama, refers to him "as the lamented Yan- 
cey, whose eloquence and perseverance in the cause of South- 
ern rights, contributed more largely than the efforts of any 
other man to bring about our separation from the Federal 
Union." Mr. Yancey (son of Benjamin Cudworth Yancey 
and Caroline Bird) was born Aug. 10, 1814, near the Palls 
of Ogeechee, Warren County, Georgia. His collegiate 
training was received at Williams College in Massachusetts. 
In 1836 he came to Alabama, and was successively planter, 
editor, lawyer, member of the General Assembly and Senate 
of Alabama, member of Congress and political leader. His 
was an exceedingly active life, as the results hereinafter 
noted will show. In 1861 he went to England and France as 
Confederate States Commissioner, and in 1862, returned to 
Alabama and took his seat in the Confederate States Senate. 
His death occurred July 28, 1863. 

Fortunately for Mr. Yancey and for the cause which he so 
earnestly advocated, a fitting biographer and historian has 
been found in John Witherspoon DuBose. His Life and 
Times of Yanceif (1892), is not only a biography, but a vivid 
and thrilling picture of the times in which he lived and 

190 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

labored. In its preparation he has displayed remarkable 
philosophic insight, power of analysis, and a rare apprecia- 
tion of historical grouping and perspective. 

In the work Mr. DuBose had the use of Mr. Yancey's pri- 
vate papers, and many appear in his volume, which adds ma- 
terially to its interest and value. All of these papers have 
recently come into the possession of the editor for use in his 
historical studies. They consist of several large Scrap Books, 
filled with personal and political data for the whole period of 
his life; several bound files of newspapers, as hereinafter 
described; bound volumes of his pamphlet Addresses and 
Speeches ; and a number of manuscript letters and political 
documents. The collection is remarkable in fullness of de- 
tail respecting Mr. Yancey's career as a political leader, and 
the estimation in which both he and his views were held by 
the press and people. 

In order to present the essential features of the collection, 
which consists principally of printed material, a bibliog- 
raphy has been prepared and is introduced herewith. It will 
doubtless be gratifying to students. As stated, many of the 
important m.anuscripts appear in Mr. DuBose's work. The 
remainder are not at present so arranged as to be easily calen- 
dared. The bibliography is arranged under the topics of (1) 
Personal history, (2) Newspapers, and (3) Published writ- 

Personal History. 

The I life and times | of | William Lowndes Yancey. | A 
history of Political Parties in the United States, | |from 183-i 
to 1864 ; especially as to the origin | of the Confederate States. 
I By I John Witherspoon Dubose. | [Quotation 5 lines.] | 
Koberts & Son, Birmingham. | MDCCCXCII [1892.] | 

8vo. pp. xiv, 11, 752. 

Illustrations (steel plates): — W. L. Yancey, Frontispiece Benja- 
min Cudwortli Yancey (father) ; Nathan B. Whitfield; Joshua Lanier 
Martin; Henry Tutwiler; John T. Milner; "Gaineswood" (Demopolis, 
Ala.), the home of Nathan B. Whitfield; Thomas H. Watts, St.; and 
B. C. Yancey (hrother). 

"Mr. DuBose has made a most important contribution to the politi- 
cal and biographical literature of the country by his admirable work 
delineating the life and character of Yancey. It will be widely read 
by intelligent students of the political history of the last generation 
both North and South." — A. K. McClure, Philadelphia Times. 

"A very valuable book, which I shall study with great interest." 
— Lord Wolseley. 

"I am filled with enthusiasm when I read it." — Henry W. Hilliard. 

"I had mourned Yancey as a lost star; lost, because there were no 
observers to reach the height where he was last seen. Your work 
is a prose epic of rare and charming power. No chapter in our 
history will ever excel it." — Senator John T. Morgan. 

Papers of Public Men. 191 

"The volume is a biography, and as such will no doubt stand forever 
as an authority to which students may confidently refer for Infor- 
mation on matter not elsewhere to be found In such convenient shape." 
— Magazine of American History, Oct. 1892, p. 239. 

"In John W. DuBose's Life and Times of Yancey, just published, 
the best contribution of the Soutn to Southern history is made." — 
. Boston Globe. 

An account of the trial, on Oct. 24, 1838, of William L. 

Yancey for shooting Dr. Robinson M. Earle at Greenville, S. 

C, Sept. 7, 1838. 

In the Oreenviue Mountaineer, Nov. 9, 1838. 

^Message, Jan. 26, 1846, of Gov. Joshua L. Martin, vetoeing 
/ "An act for the relief of Wm. L. Yancey and Daniel Sayre," 
from the penalty of the dueling law. 

In the House Journal, 1845-46. 
Also in the papers of the period. 

See DuBose's Life and Times of Yancey, pp. 139-147 for an account 
of the duel .between Clingman and Yancey. 

Sketehes of. 

■^^n Brewer's Alaiam,a, pp. 461-464. 
\Also in Garrett's Puhnc Men in Alabama, pp. 681-706. 

Sketch, by William Garrott Brown. 

In the Ailantic Monthly, Boston, 1900. 

V^ccount of portraits of Yancey. 

In the Montgomery Mail, March 1, 1871. 

Sketch of Benjamin Cudworth Yancey. 

In O'Neall's Bench and Bar of South Carolina, vol. ii, pp. 32--324. 
Charleston, S. C, 1859. 8vo. 

See also DuBose's Life and Times of Yancey, for sketch and por- 
/ Father of Wm. L. Yancey. 

Bibliography of. 

In Owen's bibliography of Alabama, (1897), pp. 1239-1242. 

'• The Adelphi. | (Latin quotation, 2 lines.) | Vol. I. Wil- 
liam College, [Mass.] August 18, 1831. No. 1. | [R. Bannis- 
ter, printer.] 

8vo. Vol. I, Nos. 1-24, pp. 192. Double columns. 
/ Edited In part by Mr. Yancey. 

Greenville Mountaineer. | It is of infinite moment that you 

should properly estimate the immense value of your National 

Union. | Vol. 6, No. 6. Greenville, S. C. Saturday, June 21, 

1834. Whole No. 266. | 

Folio. June 21, 1834-Dec. 19, 1835. Vol. 6, No. 6,-Vol 7, No. 32. 
Mr. Yancey was editor from Nov. 22, 1834 to May 16, 1835. 

^ The Southern Democrat, Cahawba, Ala. 

Polio. .Tuly 13, 1838 to July 6, 1839. 

V\''illis Brewer, Esq., of Hayneville, has a file of this paper. 

He also edited the Cahaba Democrat, circa, same date. 

'■i The Southern Crisis. I To be issued weekly until after the 

192 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

election of electors of President. | Prince one Dollar. We- 
tumpka, May 16, 1840. Invariably in advance. [Published 

at office of the Wetnmpka Argus, iby W. L. & B. C. Yancey.] 

4to. Vol. i, Nos. 1-26. pp. 208. 3 columns. 

"The 'Crisis' will advocate the re-election of Martin Van Buren. 
We believe him to represent the great mass of the Democratic Party, 
and to embodv, in his political character, the Jeffersonian principles 
upon which that Party came into power, and by a strict adherence to 
which, it has been and ever will be sustained." — No. 1. 
J t^eased publication aicer the issue of Nov. 7, 1840, No. 26. 

Wetumpka Argus & Commercial Advertiser. | Knowledge 
is power. | Vol. iv. Wetumpka, Alabama, Wednesday, May 
15, 1839. No. 8. I [Edited and published by W. L. & B. C. 


May 15, 1839-Mareh 18, 1840. Vol. iv. Nos, 8-52. 

March 25, 1840-March 24, 1841. Vol v, Nos. 1-52. 

March 31, 1841-March 23, 1842. Vol. vi, Nos. 1-52. 

March 30, 1842-March 22, 1843. Vol. vii, Nos. 1-52.- 

March 29 1843-March 20, 1844. Vol. viii, Nos. 1-52. 

Name changed to "The Wetumpka Argus," Feb. 12, 1840. 

Mr. Yancey's connection with the paper commenced May 15, 1839, 
and ceased March 23, 1842. However, he did not actively assist in 
the editorial v/ork until after Feb. 5, 1840, about which time he per- 
manently located at Harrowgate Springs, one mile and a half from 

Miscellaneous newspapers. 1840-1863. 

Folio. 1 volume. 

These represent a large number of papers, published both in 
Alabama and in other States. They usually contain one of his 
speeches, or an account of some meeting of a political character. 

Published Writings. 

'* Extracts from Address delivered at Lodi, Abbeville Dis- 
trict, S. C, July 4, 1834, at an Anti-Calhoun meeting. 
In the Greenville Mountaineer, July 1_2, 1834. 

\ Speech at Greenville, S. C, to meeting of Union men, 

against Xullifiers "test oath," Sept. 27, 183-4. 
In the Greenville Mountaineer. Oct, 4, 1834. 

Letter, Oct. 27, 1834, in reply to Gen. Waddy Thompson, 

In the Greenville Mountaineer, Nov. 1, 1834. 

Account of Visit to Charleston, S. C. 

In the Greenville Mountaineer, March 28, 1835. 

Letter announcing his candidacy for the General Assembly 
from Coosa County, Ala. 

In the 'WetumpT<a Argus, April 7, 1841. 

He was elected. On Nov. 1, 1841, he entered actively upon the 
I practice of the law. 

■< Eemarks of Mr. Yancey, in the House of Representatives, 
Nov. 16, 1841, on the motion to print 1,000 copies of the Let- 

Papers of Public Men, 193 

ter of resignation of the Hon. 0. C. Clay from the U. S. 

Ibid. Dec. 1, 1841. 
■' Mr. Yancey's Speech on the Chancery Bill. 

IMd. Dec. 22, 1841. 

Favors enlargement and perfection of separate Chancery Courts. 

■'Speech of Mr. Yancey, of Ooosa. Delivered in the House 
of Representatives, on Dec. 10, 1841, on the Bill "to enable 
the joint examining committee more efficiently to investigate 
Bank frauds." 

Ibid. Dec. 29, 1841. 

Candidacy for the State Senate. 

Ibid. April 26, May 3, July 12, 1843. 

Letters on the "White Basis." 

Ibid. May 31 and June 14, 1843. 

Speech on constitutionality of office of Bank Marshall. 

Ibid. Dec. 27, 1843. 

Speech on Texas annexation. 
Ibid. Jan. 17, 1844. 

J Speech of William L. Yancey, | of Autauga, | in the Senate 
of the State of Alabama, | on the 4th of January, 1844; | 
upon a joint memorial to Congress in relation to the impris- 
onment of Amos Kendall, | Post Master General, on account 
of the claim of Stockton & Stokes; and in reply to | Mr. 
Dougherty of Macon county. | n. p. n. d. 

8vo. pp. 10. 

Favors relief by Congress. 
. Also in the Wetumpka Argus, Feb. 14, 1844. 

■^ Letter, June 6, 1844, accepting nomination to Congress in 
the Third Congressional District. 

In the Wetumplca Argus, June, 1844. 

Speech | of | Hon. Wm. Lowndes Yancey, | of Alabama, | 
on the I annexation of Texas to the United States. | Deliver- 
ed in the House of Eepresentatives, Jan. 7, 1845. | Printed 
by Harris & Heart, "Constitution" office. | n. d. 

8vo. pp. 14. 

Advocates annexation; contains also scathing attack on Mr. T. L. 
Clingman's (of N. C.) position. This speech led to the duel between 
Messrs. Yancey and Clingman, an account of which is given in 
DuBose's Life, pp. 139-147. 

Letter, Jan. 25, 1845, to John D. Kellog and others, in 

reply to an invitation to attend a mass meeting of Democrats 

in New York City. 

In the New York News, Jan., 1845. 

Communication from Mr. Yancey, Feb. 10, 1845 to the Ala- 
bama Baptist in reference to his duel with Thomas L. Cling- 

In the Alabama Baptist, Marion, Ala., Feb, 22, 1845, 


194 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Oration on life and character of Andrew Jackson. We- 
tumpka : Printed by B. B. Moore. 1845. 

8vo. pp. 16. 

Also In the Democrat, Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 27, 1845. 

Delivered by request of citizens at Wetumpka, Ala., July 11, 1845. 

Speech of | Mr. Yancey, of Alabama | on the | Oregon 
question. Delivered | in the House of Representatives, 
I January 7, 1846. | Washington: | Printed at the Union 
office. I 1846. I 

8vo. pp. 8. 

Also in the Democrat, Huntsville, .Ala., Feb. 4, 1846. 

Speech | of | Hon. W. L. Yancey, of Alabama, | on | the bill 
making appropriations for | harbors and rivers. | Deliverec 
I in the House of Representatives, Tuesday, March 10, 1846. 
Washington : | Printed at the office of Blair & Rives. | 1846. 

8vo. pp. 13. 

Also in the Democrat, Huntsville, Ala., Sept. 23, 1846. 

Remarks | of | Mr. Yancey, of Alabama, | on | Mr. 0. J. 
Ingersoll's resolutions of inquiry into | the conduct of Daniel 
Webster, in | expending the contingent fund | while Secre- 
tary of State. I Delivered in the House of Representatives, 
April 9 and 10, 1846. | Washington : | printed by John T . 
Towers. | 1846. | 

8vo. pp. 16. 

An address on the dignity and rights of women, delivered 
before the young ladies of Rev. Mr. Hamner's High School, 
at Baltimore, circa, April 3-29, 1846. 

Manuscript . 

See the Democrat, Huntsville, Ala., April 29, 1846, for account of. 

An oration | on the | life and character | of | Andrew Jack- 
son: I delivered before the | Jackson Monumental Conven- 
tion, I of the city of Baltimore, | by | Hon. William Lowndes 
Yancey, | of Alabama, | May 23, 1846, | Baltimore : ] Printed 
by James Lucas. | 1846. 

8vo. pp. 24. 

This address is remarkable In its variation from the Wetumpka 
address above. 

Remarks of Mr. Yancey of Alabama in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, June 16, 1846, on the Mexican War, and in reply 
to Mr. Stephens, of Georgia. 

In the Democrat, Huntsville, Ala., July 15, 1846. 
Also in Cong. Globe, Appendix. 1845-6. 

, Speech on reduction of Postage, Feb. 25, 1845. 

Speech on Naturalization Laws, Dec. 17, 1845. 
"'Second speech on Oregon question, Jan. 30, 1846. 
-^ Speech on Cumberland Bond bill, April 3, 1846. 

Speech on Mexican War, June 16, 1846. 

Speech on Taritf Bill, June 30, 1846. 
In thie CQri'grea'sional GldUe, AiJitenaiXJl'815-6. 



Papers of Public Men. 195 

Letter, July 6, 1846, to the Voters of the Third Congres- 
sional District, explaining his resignation from Congress. 

In the Marion News, July, 1846. 

•Speech delivered July 14, 1847, at a barbecue given to Hon. 
H. W. Hilliard and the County Candidates, at Mt. Meigs, 
Montgomery County, Ala. 

In the Flag <& Advertiser, Montgomery, July 22, 18t7. 

Address of Welcome to Gen. Shields, Dec. 10, 1847, on his 
return from the Mexican War. 

In the State Gazette, Montgomery, Dec. 11, 1847. 

Speech at the reception of Gen. John A. Quitman, Dec. 17, 
1847, on his return from the Mexican War. 

In the State Gazette, Montgomery, Dec. 18, 1847. 

Alabama Resolutions. 

In the Democrat. Huntsville, Ala., March 8, 1848. 
Prepared for and adopted by the Alabama Democratic Convention, 
Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 14 and 15, 1848. See DuBose's Life, p. 212. 
Also In pamphlet form, but no copies seen. 

Letter, April 14, 1848, on the Democratic Convention of 
1848 and "The Alabama Platform." 

In the State Gazette. Montgomery, April, 1848. 

^/ [Political speeches of 1848.] 
Not seen. 

Before Baltimore Convention. 

At Charleston, S. C, on his return from the Baltimore Convention. 
At Wetumpka in defense of his course in the Baltimore Convention. 

An I address | to | the people of Alabama, | by W. L. Yan- 
cey, I late a delegate, at large, for the State of Alabama, | to 
the I National Democratic Convention, | held at Baltimore, 
on 22d May, A. D. 1848. | Montgomery : | Printed at the Flag 

and Advertiser jpb office. | 1848. | 
8vo. pp. 78, ii. 

The 1 1. contains a statement, concurring with Mr. Yancey, from 
P. A. Wray, also a delegate. 
A later edition was issued with the following title: 

An I address | to the | people of Alabama, | by W. L. Yan- 
cey, I late a delegate, at large, from the State of Alabama, | 
to the I National Democratic Convention, | held at Baltimore, 
May 22d, 1848. | With a supplement, | containing | two letters 
from Mr. Buchanan, | and the late | letter of Martin Van 
Buren. | Montgomery: | Barrett & Wimbish, book and job 
printers. | 1856. | 

8vo. pp. 63. 

Contains Yancey's address, pp. 53; Letters from Mr. Buchanan, pp. 
54-57, and Mr. Van Buren's letter, pp. 57-63. 

Letter, July 24, 1848, to W. H. Lucas, declining to speak at 
Mt. Meiffs in the campaign of 1848. 

In the Flag & Advertiser, Mpntgomery, Jaly, 1848, 


196 Report Alabama History Commission. 

^ Speech at reception of ex-President, James K. Polk, March 

16, 1849 at Montgomery. 

In tlie Flag & Advertiser, Montgomery, March 17, 1849. 

\j Letter, May 20, 1849, declining to become a candidate for 

Congress in the Montgomery District. 

In the Flag & Advertiser, Montgomery, May, 1849. 

An address | on | the life and character | of | John -Cald- 
well Calhoun. | Delivered | before the citizens of Montgom- 
ery, Alabama, | on the | Fourth July, 1850 . | By William 
L. Yancey. | Montgomery : | Job office Advertiser and Gazette 
print. I 1850. J 

8vo. pp. 67. 

Referred to in Southern Quarterly Review, Charleston, S. C, Sept. 
1850, vol. ii, n. s., p. 269. 

i Letter, May 18, 1851, to George Williams, President of the 
Southern Rights Convention, declining nomination for Con- 
gress in the Second District. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, May, 1851. 

He was also importuned at this time to run for Governor, but he 
; persistently refused political office. 

^ Letter, Oct. 15, 1852, to George W. Gayle, giving reason for 
refusal to advise Alabama to vote against Pierce and King, 
candidates for President and Vice-President. 

. In the Advertiser, Montgomery, Oct., 1852. 

'• Letter, June 23, 1855, to Wm. H. Northington defining his ' 
position against Know-iSTothingism. 
In DuBose's Life, pp. 294-297. 

Mr. DuBose says, p. 267: "Mr. Yancey retired from general political 
discussion with the result of the compaign of 1851, consecrating him- 
self to his profession and to the study of science and literature;" and 
again, p. 294, thac the Northington letter indicates the "date and 
occasion of his return to political life, from which he never, for any 
{ considerable time thereafter, retired." 

^ Speech at Columbus, Ga., 1855, "on the great and inter- 
esting questions which the rise and progress of Know-Noth- 
ingism present for consideration." 

J In DuBose's Life, pp. 297-309. 

An appeal for the unity of Alabama, delivered before the 
Democratic and Anti-Know-Nothing Convention, Montgom-- 
ery, Ala., Jan. 8, 1856. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, Jan. 1856. 
, See the Democrat, Huntsville, Ala., Jan. 17, 1856, for full report of 
'/proceedings of convention, platform, etc. 

''Letter dated Tuskegee, Ala., Jan. 21, 1856, from W. F. 
Samford addressed to William L. Yancey asking him "for an 
expression of your views on the questions involved in the 
coming Presidential contest." Reply of Yancey, dated Mont- 
gomery, Feb. 6, 1856. 

In the DemQQrQt, Huntsville, Ala., March 14, 1856. 

tapers of Public Men'. l97 

' Abstract of speech delivered at the ratification meeting, 
Montgomery, 1856. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, June 28, 1856. 

•^ Extracts from a speech of the Hon. Wm. L. Yancey. De- 
livered at a barbecue in Chambers County, Ala., Aug. 1, 1857. 
/ In the Weekly Union, Washington, D. C, Oct. 10, 1857. 

' Speech at the unveiling of the Washington monument, at 
Kichmond, Va., Feb. 22, 1858. 

Reference from DuBose's Life, p. 325. 

V Speech of Mr. Yancey on receiving the spy glass of Gen. 
George Washington, presented him by the Mt. Vernon Memo- 
rial Association, at Richmond, Va., Feb. 23, 1858. 

In the Richmond Enquirer, Feb. 26, 1858. 
Also in the Cahaba Gazette, March 12, 1858. 

Speech on Congressional prohibition of the Slave Trade, 
delivered in the Southern Commercial Convention held in 
Montgomery, May, 1858. 

In the States and Union, Washington, D. C, Oct. 18, 20, 23, 1858. 
Debate with Roger A. Pryor, Henry W. Hilliard, and Wm. B. 
y Preston. 

Letter, May 24, 1858, to Thomas J. Orme, on the Slave 

In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, May 29, 1858. 
Also in DuBose's Life, pp. 366-375. 

The Slaughter Letter. Communication, June 15, 1858, to 
James S. Slaughter. 

In DuBose's Life, p. 376. 

This letter was copied everywhere, and became famous. In it oc- 
curred the expression "We can precipitate the cotton States into a 
^ revolution." 

Position of the South as affected by National Party neces- 
sities. Abstract of speech at a barbecue at Bethel Church, 
July 10, 1858. 

In the Cahaba Gazette, July 23, 1858 . 

►'The causes of the present position of the South in the 
Union. Substance of the argument of Mr. Y'ancey, at the 
Great Meeting, held at Benton, on July 17, 1858. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, July 21 and 28, 1858. 

V Formation of the Montgomery League of United Southern- 
ers, with speech of Mr. Yancey, July 20, 1858. 

. In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, July 23, 1858. 

'^ Constitution of the Montgomery League of United South- 
erners, prepared by Mr. Yancey, 1858. 

In DuBose's Life, pp. 377.-378. 

See also the Montgomery Confederation, Aug. 24, 1860, and the 
/ Weekly Advertiser, Aug. 29, 1860. 

^ Open letter, Aug. 9, 1858, to Roger A. Pryor, editor of the 
Richmond South, in defense and explanation of purposes of 

198 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

the League of United Southerners. 

In the Charleston Mercury, Sept. 6, 1858. 
/ Also in the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, Sept. 9, 1858. 

'Letter, Sept. 25, 1858, to the Richmond Enquirer, in reply 

to communication of Roger A. Pryor. 

In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, Oct. 7, 1858, reprinted from 
the Enquirer. 

i Letter of J. D. Meadows, of Dadeville, Ala., dated June 
16, 1859, on the fatal political course of Stephen A. Douglas. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, June, 1859. 
Also in DuBose's Life, pp. 382-392. 

4 Speech at Columbia, July 18, 1859, on political issues. 

In the Daily South Carolinian, Columbia, S. C, July 23, 1859. 
Also in the Daily Richmond Enquirer, July 23, 1859. 

Speech | of | Hon. W. L. Yancey, | delivered in the Demo- 
cratic State Convention, | of the State of Alabama, | held at 
Montgomery, on the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th of January, 
1860. I Montgomery: | Advertiser book and job steam press 

print. I 1860. | 
I 8vo. pp. 31. 

H Speech before a Democratic Meeting, Jan. 26, 1860, at 
Montgomery, on the admission of Kansas, personal vindica- 
tion of his public opinions, etc. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, Feb. 3, 1860. 

Speech of the Hon. William L. Yancey, of Alabama, deliv- 
ered in the National Democratic Convention, Charleston, 
April 28th, 1860. With the protest of the Alabama delega- 
tion. From the report of the "Charleston Mercury." 
{Colophon: Walker, Evans & Co., print, Charleston.] 

8vo. pp. 20. No title page. 

Substance of the speech made by Hon. Wm. L. Yancey, in 
the Democratic meeting at Marion, Perry County, [Ala.], 

May 19, 1860. n. p. n. d. 

8vo. pp. 24. No title page. 

Also in the Dauy Advertiser, Montgomery, May 25, 1860; and the 
Marion Weekly Commonwealth, May 25, 1860. 

/ Speech at Cahaba, May 21, 1860, on the political issues of 
^ the day. 

In The Slave-Holder, Cahaba, Ala., May 24, 1860. 

4 Letter, dated May 26, 1860, to J. Hamilton, M. 0. Gallaway 
and others, of Memphis, Tenn. On the Charleston Conven- 
tion, his Slaughter Letter and other political questions. 

In the Daily Locomotive, Atlanta, Ga., June 9, 1860. 

^ Speech in Baltimore National Convention, June 23, 1860, 
congratulating the Party on the nomination of Breckenridge 
as President. 

In the Constitution, Washington, D. C, June 27, 1860. 

Also in DuBose's Life, pp. 480-484. 

Papers of Public Men. 199 

/ Speech at Kingston, Autauga County, Ala., July 10, 1860, 
on the principles of the State Eights, Constitutional Democ- 

In the Southern Statesman, Prattvllle, Ala., July 14, 1860. 

/ "An address to the Democracy of Tennessee." Letter of 
Wm. L. Yancey, dated Montgomery, Ala., July 16, 1860. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, July 22, 1860. 
Also in the West Alabamian, Aug. 8, 1860. 

Wm. H. Carroll and H. M. Watterson had Issued an address, under 
above title to the Democracy of Tennessee, in which they misrepre- 
. sen ted Mr. "Vancey. This letter is a reply and vindication. 

''Abstract of ' Mr. Yan-cey's argument at a Democratic 
Mass Meeting, Huntsville, July 25, 1860. 

In the Democrat, Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 8, 1860. 

•Speech at Memphis, Tenn., Aug. 14, 1860, on the issues in- 
volved in the Presidential contest. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, Aug., 1860. 

This was the opening of a canvass which included the North. 

^Speech at Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 18, 1860, on the Presidential 

In the National American, Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 21, 1860. 
Commented upon unfavorably in the Daily Southern Confederacy, 
Atlanta, Aug. 24, 1860. 

^Speech at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 18, 1860. 

In the Knoxville Register, Sept. 20, 1860. 

*^Speech at the serenade given him in Washington, D. C, 
Sept. 21, 1860. 

In tiie Daily Richmond Enquirer, Sept. 25, 1860, reprinted from the 
Washington Constitution. 
y Also in the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, Oct. 2, 1860. 

Speech at Easton, Md., Sept., 1860. 

In -xie Baltimore Daily Exchange, Sept., 1860. 

The Presidency. Speech of Hon. Wm. L. Yancey, at the 
Cooper Institute, Oct. 10, 1860. 

In the New York Times, Oct. 11, 1860. 

Also in the New York Herald, and the New York World, on the same 

Speech in Faneuil Hall, Boston, Oct. 12, 1860, on the politi- 
cal issues of the day. 

In the Boston Press and Post, Oct. 15, 1860. 

This paper says: "No words can give an idea of the tones, the ges- 
ture, and the quick appreciation of the excited audience. It was a 
succession of triumphs, and at the conclusion the Hall rang with the 
wildest applause." 

Also in the Campaign Post, Boston, Oct. 19, 1860. 

Speech at Albany, N. Y., in the Hall of the State Capitol, 
Oct., 1860. 

In the Albany Evening Journal, Oct. 16, 1860. 

Constitutional Rights. | Speech | of the | Hon. William 
L, Yancey, | of Alabama, at Wieting Hall, Syracuse, N. Y., 

200 Keport Alabama History Cojnmission. 

Oct. 15tli, 1860. I Published by direction of the National 

Democratic State Committee. I 


8vo. pp. 16. No title page. Double column. 

Also In Central City Daily Courier, Syracuse, Oct. 19, 1860. 

Speech at Corinthian Hall, Eochester, Oct. 17, 1860. 

, In the Democrat and American, Rochester, N. Y., Oct. 20, 1860 . 

t/' Speech delivered at Florence, Ky., Oct. 19, 1860. 

In the Cincinnati Daily Courier, Oct. 19 and 20, 1860. 

Speech at Pike's Opera House, Cincinnati, O., Oct. 20, 1860. 

laCincinnati Daily Courier, Oct. 23, 1860. 
1 Also in the Daily Commercial, Cincinnati, Oct. 22, 1860. 

^Speech at Lexin^on, Ky., Oct. 22, 1860. 

In the Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, Oct. 23, 1860. 

Speech in the Court House, at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 23, 1860. 

In the Daily Courier, Louisville, Oct. 25, 1860. 

Speech at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 26, 1860. 

In the Nashville Union and American, Oct. 29, 1860. 
Also in the Constitution, Tuscumbia, Ala., Nov. 7, 1860. 

Speech before the New Orleans Democracy, Oct. 29, 1860. 

In the Daily Delta, New Orleans, La., Oct. 30, 1860. 

i Speech at Mobile, Nov., 1860. 

In the MoMle Daily Mercury, Nov. 2, 1860. 

V Speech before citizens of Montgomery, at Estelle Hall, Nov. 
10, 1860, on the news of the election of Abraham Lincoln. 

In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, Nov. 13, 1860. 

V Speeches in the Alabama "Secession" Convention, Jan 7-26, 
March 4-20, 1861. 

In Wm. R. Smith's History and Deiates of the Convention of the 
People of Alabama (1861), passim. 

Address to President Davis on his arrival in Montgom- 
ery, 1861. 

In the Advertiser, Montgomery, Feb., 1861. 

Communications from Confederate States Commissioners, 
W. L. Yancey, P. A. Rost, and A. Dudley Mann, dated Aug. 
14, 1861, addressed to Right Honorable Earl Russell, Her 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of Foreign Affairs, in explana- 
tion of the right of the Confederate government to recogni- 
tion by Her Majesty's government. 

f In DuBose's Life, pp. 609-621. 

"^ Letters, April 6 and 17, 1862, to President Jefferson Davis, 
on failure of the Confederate States War Department to buy 
arms in Europe, and on other subjects. 

In DuBose's Life, pp. 650-653. 

/joint letter, April 21, 1862, of Mr. Yancey and Senator C. 
C. Clay, on the appointment of Confederate Brigadier-Gen- 

In DuBose's Life, p. 667. 

Papers of Public Men. 201 

Letter, June 20, 1862, to Wm. P. Samford, on the evils of 
public assaults on President Davis. 

In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, July 11, 1862. 

^The conscription and exemption laws. An address before 

the Legislature of Alabama, Dec. 2, 1862. 

In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, Dec. 21, 1862; also in an 
"Extra" Jan. 1, 1863. 

In the Alabama Beacon, Greensboro, Feb. 6, 1863. 

Also in The Southern Recorder, Milledgeville, Ga., Feb. 3, 1863. 

Speeches | of | William L. Yancey, Esq., | Senator from | 
the State of Alabama, | made in the Senate of the Confeder- 
ate States, 1 during the session commencing on the 18th day 
of August, A. D. 1862. | Montgomery, Ala: | Montgomery 

Advertiser book and job office. | 1862. | 

8vo. ' pp. 

Retaliation, Aug. 21, 1862; Secret sessions, Aug. 22, 1862; Conscrip- 
tion, Sept. 4, x862; Exemptions of State Officers, Sept. 10, 1862; 
Appointment of Brigadier-Generals, Sept. 22, 1862; the pay of soldiers, 
Oct., 1862. 

v^peech on the proposition to repeal the 45th and 46th Sec- 
tions of the Judiciary Act of March, 1861, made in the Con- 
federate States Senate, Jan. 30, 1863. 

In the Daily Advertiser, Montgomery, Feb. 27, 28, 29, 1863. 
Also in part in DuBose's Life, pp. 702-704. 

i^peech in the Confederate States Senate, March 14, 1863, 
in reply to Senator B. H. Hill, on the "Judiciary Bill." 

In the Weekly Advertiser, Montgomery, May 6, 1863. 

It appears in part in the Daily Intelligencer, Atlanta, Ga., May 3, 
1863. This was probably the very last speech ever delivered by Mr. 
Yancey. Of it the Intelligencer, supra, says: "For its eloquence, 
clearness and force, it has rarely, if ever, been excelled in any delib- 
erative assembly in America." 
^ See iJuaose's Life, p, 706, et. seq. 

^Protest of Senator Wm. L. Yancey against the action of the 
Senate in reprimanding him for his part in a controversy 
with Senator B. H. Hill, of Georgia, in which the latter struck 
Mr. Yancey with a glass ink stand, Feb. 4, 1863. 

y In DuBose's Life, pp. 739-743. 

Letters, May 6, and July 11, 1863, to President Jefferson 
Davis, on the differences, personal and political, which had 
arisen between the latter and Mr. Yancey. 

In DuBose's Life, pp. 744, 747. 


No better service has been rendered the cause of historical 
work and research than the efforts of libraries and societies 
to collect manuscript material. Its acquisition by them 
insures its permanent preservation, and makes it available 
to students, either by publication in full, or in abstract, or by 
a system of card indexes. In the greater libraries are to be 
found hundreds of manuscript treasures. Stimulated by 
their example the smaller libraries are directing their efforts 
toward the preservation of similar material. Ultimately the 
"literary remains" of all public characters, and the collec- 
tions of special students, will drift into general libraries, 
or into the libraries of Societies. 

A liberal scope has been observed in presenting descrip- 
tions of available local material in libraries explored. It 
has been deemed best to include too much rather than too lit- 
tle. In many cases general indications when followed up 
will yield excellent results. It has not always been possible 
to give full detail. When possible, data has been obtained 
from official sources, in every case from what is believed to 
be an authoritative source. 

The following libraries have been explored, and are found 
to contain no Alabama manuscripts, papers, or unpublished 
documents : the Ghicago Historical Society, the Chicago Uni- 
versity libraries, the Newberry Library, Chicago, the Massa- 
chusetts State Library, Boston, the library of the University 
of Tennessee, Knoxville, the library of Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, the Tennessee State Library, Nashville, the library 
of the University of the South, Sewanee, and the Valentine 
Museum library, at Richmond, Va. It is not known that 
there are any manuscripts or documents in the Mobile Li- 
brary, the Montgomery Public Library, the Birmingham 
High School Library, or in the libraries of the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute, Southern University, Howard College, 
Florence Normal College, the Alabama Girls' Industrial 
School, or the North Alabama Conference College. 


The principal historical organization in the State is the 
Alabama Historical Society, founded July 8, 1850, in the city 


Alabama Historical Society 203 

of Tuscaloosa. Its constitution was prepared by Dr. Basil 
Manly, the chief promoter in the formation of the Society. 
Its first officials were: F resident, Alexander Bowie; First 
Vice Fresldent, A. J. Pickett; Second Vice F resident, E. D. 
King; Treasurer, Washington Moody; Secretary, Dr. Joshua 
Hill Foster; and Executive Committee, J. J. Ormond, Dr. 
Basil Manly, Michael Tuomey, L. C. Garland, and Bishop N. 
H. CobbB. 

As declared in the Constitution, "The object of the Society 
is to discover, procure, preserve, and diffuse whatever may 
relate to the natural, civil, literary and ecclesiastical history 
of the State of Alabama, and of the States in connection with 

"The plan of our operations is one of vast magnitude, and 
the materials to be collected of almost endless variety. No 
one department of human I'esearch confines our system. It 
covers every subject of the natural history of the State in the 
animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. It spreads its wide 
embrace to receive the record of every important event, either 
past, or now transpiring, in our civil, religious, social and 
individual history," etc., etc. (Executive Committee's Re- 
port, 1851.) 

The first annual meeting was held July 14, 1851, at the 
University of Alabama, and for about ten years, with more 
or less regularity, these meetings were heid chiefly during the 
commencements. On February 5, 1852, it was incorporated 
by Act of the General Assembiy. During the four years of 
the Confederate War all work was suspended, and many of 
the papers taken away, and lost or destroyed. It was not 
until 1874, under the inspiration of Dr. Joshua H. Foster, 
who had been the first Secretary, that a revival was effected. 
For some time there was considerable interest, and in this 
period the ALahama Historical Reporter, 1879-1885, had a 
brief existence. Enthusiasm, however, did not long con- 
tinue, and for several years only a nominal existence was 
maintained. At the annual meeting, June 21, 1898, there 
was a substantial revival of interest. On December 10, 1898, 
the General Assembly of the State made a small appropria- 
tion of $250.00 annually for two years, to assist in publishing 
the Transactions of the Society. With the assistance, sup- 
plemented by the Society, volumes ii and iii have been 
printed. From a nominal membership in 1897, the rolls now 
number over 375 names. At the annual meeting, June 18, 
1890, the Semi-Centennial of the formation of the Society was 
celebrated in connection with the usual annual exercises. At 

204 Report Alabama History Commission. 

this meeting there was a full discussion of work and pros- 
pects of the organization, and tha best means of accomplish- 
ing more gratifying work for the future. The result was 
that, by unanimous vote, the headquarters were removed to 
Birmingham, where they are now located and where the 
collections are stored. The Society is now exchanging publi- 
cations with kindred bodies, and is regularly receiving for 
permanent preservation the larger number of newspapers 
published in the State. 


Its old publications, issued prior to 1898, are out of print. 
They comprise the following : 

Constitution, (1850). 8vo. pp. 12. 

Transactions, July 14, 1851 (1852). 8vo. pp. 54. 

Transactions, July 9th and 10th, 1855 (1855) . 8vo. pp. 

Annual Address, July 13th, 1858, by N. L. Whitfield, 
(1858). 8vo.pp.19. 

Tuskaloosa; Origin of its Name, its History, etc., (1876). 
8vo. pp. 86. 

Session of the Alabama Legislature, 1847-1848, by J. L. M. 
Curry, ( 1892 ) . 8vo. pp. 15. 

Importance and Growth of Genealogical Work in the 
South (1895). 8vo. pp. 29. 

Alabama Historical Reporter. Tuscaloosa. 8 vo. 

Vol i, Nos. 1-10, Oct., 1879-July, 1880. 
Vol. ii, Nos. 1-12, Dec, 1883-Nov., 1884. 
Vol. ill, Nos. 1-7, Jan-July, 1885. 

The new publications consist of two volumes bound in 
durable blue cloth, as follows : 

Transactions, 1897-98, vol. ii, (1899). 8vo. pp. 204. 

Transactions, 1898-99, vol. iii (1899). 8vo. pp. 251. 

Vol i of the Transactions will embrace all of the previous 
issues, as well as unpublished manuscript matter from the 
date of organization in 1850 to 1897 ; and Vol. iv, the Proceed- 
ings of the year, 1899-1900. These will be printed when 
funds are available. 

The Report of the Alabama History Commission (this 
publication) is required to be issued as one of the publica- 
tions of the Society. It will form the initial number of a 
series of "Miscellaneous Collections." 


The library is small and fragmentary. During its exist- 
ence there have drifted into the collection occasional volumes 
of value, but sets are not complete. Since reorganization in 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 205 

1898, effort has been directed with partial success, to the 
accumulation of all current Alabama newspapers, all books 
relating to Alabama in any way, or by Alabama authors. 
Among general works of value, recently secured, are Mar- 
gry's Decouvertes, 6 vols.; Canadian Archives, 16 vols.; and 
the American Antiquarian, 25 vols. Current exchanges are 
received from all the principal Historical Societies of the 
United States. 

Its manuscripts are limited. They are not listed, because 
they have all been copied, and will appear in Vol. i of the 


The Library of The Alabama Polytechnic Institute at 
Auburn, now includes 14,906 bound volumes, besides a large 
number of pamphlets and bulletins, which, though not cata- 
logued and enumerated, are systematically filed for reference. 
This collection of books has been made almost entirely since 
the destruction of the main college building by fire in 1887, 
and is in many essential respects most excellent. The selec- 
tion has been made with care by the heads of the different 
departments of the college; and the books, as a rule, repre- 
sent most recent and authoritative opinions. Especially in 
the physical sciences is everything up to date; there is but 
little lumber ; and in many lines of science exceptional oppor- 
tunities are afforded for comprehensive reading. 

The following broad classifications will give an idea of the 
scope of the library : Technical and Scientific sections, 4,179 
volumes; General (History, Biography, Philosophy, Travel, 
Classics, Linguisties), 7, 677; Government Publications, 2, 

Quite noteworthy are the sections of Biology, Chemistry, 
Agriculture, Botany, Pharmacy, Civil, Electrical and Me- 
chanical Engineering, and Veterinary Science. In these 
particular departments, doubtless there is no better collec- 
tion of reading matter in the South. 

In the General Section, History is worthy of special men- 
tion. There are about one thousand historical volumes. 
The material is very complete in American History — particu- 
larly so on the period immediately preceding the Civil War. 

The departments of Biography, Poetry, Essays, Travel are 
also full and good. 

There are complete sets of many of the chief literary and 

'Prepared by Charles C. Thach. 

206 Report Alabama History Commission. 

scientific periodicals ; as, Chemical News, Century, Atlantic, 
Harper's, Forum, etc. 

In the Government section the publications of the De- 
partment of Agriculture are entire, and a complete card 
catalogue for them is issued by the Agricultural Department 
at Washington. A nearly complete set of Annals of Con- 
gress and The Globe affords valuable reference. The 
Books of this section are classified on the shelves according 
to subjects and are of easy access. The marked improvement 
in the Government Catalogues, renders much more avail- 
able the rich stores heretofore buried in these publications. 

Sixty-two magazines of general literature, and ninety-five 
on scientific and technical subjects are received by the Library 

There is a good Reference Library of Dictionaries, and of 
Encyclopaedias of Biography, Geography, Arts, Science, 

Every facility is offered readers for access to the books. 
There is a full card-catalogue, both of subjects and authors. 
A printed catalogue is also issued for the private use of 
students. Poole's Index and The Monthly Cumulative Index 
render the Periodicals of ready use. The Library is, indeed, 
a busy, working laboratory. The number of volumes circu- 
lated during the year 1900 per student averaged twenty-one ; 
the total being 7,012. 

The Library is housed in three large well-lighted rooms; 
the central one, the Reading Room, being furnished and orna- 
mented in an appropriate manner. 

Among others, there is a well executed bust in plaster of 
Senator Justin Morrill of Vermont, the father of the Land 
Grant Colleges of which Auburn is a type. There is also an 
oil portrait of Gen. H. D. Clayton, who was for years a 
prominent member of the Board of Trustees of the College. 

The control of the Library is administered by "The Super- 
intendent of the Library" (the Professor of English), and 
"The Assistant Librarian" who is directly in charge. The 
hours for opening are daily (Sunday excepted), from 9 a. 
m. until 5 p. m. 


The American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass., es- 
tablished in 1812, is rich in Americana, particularly early 
publications, newspaper files, manuscripts, and archaeologi- 
cal specimens. 

American Antiquarian Society. 207 

(1) Alabama Stone. Among other things of local interest 
it has the "Alabama Stone," found in Tuscaloosa County in 
1816, with the correspondence of Silas Dinsmore in reference 
thereto. See paper, by Henry W. Haynes, on this Stone in 
the Proceedings of the Society, vol. v, new series, 1887-1888 ; 
and also report of E. M. Barton, librarian, in vol. viii, 1892, 
pp. 220-221. 

(2) Trumbull Papers. The valuable collection of Indian 
linguistics made by Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, late of Hart- 
ford, Conn., have passed to this Society. While largely used 
already in the prolific writings of Dr. Trumbull, the collection 
is of great value. It contains many vocabularies, etc. Field 
says of his Best Method of Studying the American Languages 
(1871), "Mr. Trumbull writes upon a subject which he more 
fully comprehends, and can better illustrate, than any other 
scholar — perhaps in the world." No detailed account of 
these manuscripts has been obtained. 


The Society had in 1880, according to North's Newspaper 
and Periodical Press (Report, 10th Census), p. 429, "the 
most complete collection in existence of American news- 
papers and periodicals." From the list of its bound files, pp. 
429-436, is taken the following data as to Alabama and other 
Southern papers : 


Mobile. Miscellaneous newspapers, 1832-1868. 1 vol. 
The State. Miscellaneous newspapers, 1806-1868. vol. 


MiLLEDGBViLLE. Miscellaneous, 1808-1865. 1 vol. 
New Eohota. Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate, 
1828-1831. 2 vols. 

Savannah. Miscellaneous, 1766-1872. 1 vol. 

Advertiser, 1796-1802. 1 vol. 
The State. Miscellaneous, 1792-1868. 1 vol. 


Feankport. Miscellaneous, 1795-1842. 1 vol. 
Lexington. Miscellaneous, 1803-1868. 1 vol. 

Kentucky Gazette, 1794-1826. 1 vol. 

Reporter, 1808-1830. 2 vols. 

Western Monitor, 1820-1824. 2 vols. 
Louisville. Miscellaneous, 1801-1871. 1 vol. 

Courier-Journal, 1835-1870. 1 vol. 
The State. Miscellaneous, 1863-185^. 1 vol, 

208 Report Alabama History Commission. . 

Washington. Miscellaneous, 1803-1817. 1 vol. 
Winchester. Advertiser, 1814-1817. 1 vol. 


The State. Miscellaneous, 1803-1872. 1 vol. 


The State. Miscellaneous, 1803-1872. 1 vol. 


Carthage. Carthage Gazette, 1808-1817. 1 vol. 
The State. Miscellaneous, 1793-1867. 7 vols. 



In the library of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, Boston, are all the original letters, reports, 
etc., addressed to its Secretaries by its missionaries in all its 
Missions from the beginning in 1810. These are bound in 
volumes each containing the letters, etc., from each mission 
and missionary by itself in periods of ten years or there- 
abouts. The missions in the South, with period covered, are 
as follows, viz: the Cherokee Mission, established at Brai- 
nard, now in Georgia, 1817-1839; the Choctaw Mission, in 
Mississippi, 1818-1832 ; and the Chickasaw Mission, in Missis- 
sippi, established by the Presbyterian Synod of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, 1821 , and transferred to the American 
Board, 1827, and discontinued 1835.' 


The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, found- 
ed in 1743, has a miscellaneous collection of books, a large 
number of 18th Century pamphlets, a collection of coins, 
various interesting relics, and a number of valuable busts. 
Its manuscript collection is large. F. W. Hodge, of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, is authority for the statement that 
some of the Benjamin Hawkins' manuscripts are in the 
library of this society. The following volumes taken from 
the list in Lane and Bolton's Notes on Special Collections in 
American Libraries (1892), p. 52, appear to contain valuable 
local material. They are : 

(1) Indian Military Affairs, 1737. 

'Facts supplied by the librarian, C. A. Chapin, who also prepared for 
the eaiior a statement showing the names of all the missionaries of the 
Board east of the Mississippi River, with period of service, among the 
Cherokees, Choctaws, and Chlckasaws. There was no Creek mission east 
of the Mississippi. 

Charleston Library Society. 2C9 

(2) Louisiana Papers (Jefferson, etc.), and a Spanish 
Account of the Province. 

(3) A manuscript of La Harpe's Journal. 

(4) French War papers, like Army accounts, 1754-56; 
Military Journal, 1760-63; Regimental Book, 1754. 


The Charleston Library Society, Charleston, S. C, has an 
extensive collection of South Carolina Newspaper files. 
These include "The South Carolina Gazette," from the date 
of its establishment, 1732, to 1802, when it suspended; and 
also its successor the "Charleston Courier," Avhich is still in 
existence as the "'News and Courier." It has also many 
other South Carolina papers published in the latter part of 
the last and during the first part of this century. 


A Confederate Museum, Richmond, Va., for the collection 
and preservation of relics and records of the Confederacy, 
1861-1865, was inaugurated by the Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society, and on Feb. 22, 1896, it was formally 
opened. This date was the anniversary of the inauguration 
of President Jefferson Davis. The house in which the 
museum is located was occupied by Mr. Davis and family 
during the war. Departments of the Museum are represent- 
ed by the several original Confederate States, each being pre- 
sided over by a Regent, Vice Regent and Custodian, and Al- 

The Alabama Department, as shown by the Catalogue 
( 1898 ; 8vo. pp. 123-130 ) , and manuscript additions, is unusu- 
ally well filled, and contains one hundred and forty-nine 
items, which represent more than double the number of sep- 
arate articles. These embrace a multitude of subjects, as, 
books, flags, rolls, war papers, photographs. Confederate 
money, orders, personal ornaments, wearing apparel, cavalry 
equipment of all kinds, shot and shell, swords, guns, paint- 
ings, etc. 

It is greatly to be depiloried that these things should have 
been permitted to drift away from the State for the want of 
a suitable place of deposit, or for lack of interest to diriect 
them to the museum of the Alabama Historical Society. 

'For descriptions of the museum, see Publications Southern History- 
Association, Oct., 1897, vol. 1, pp. 326-328i and theOonfederate Feieran, 189§, 

210 Report Alabama History Oommission. 


It will readily occur to all students that the Library of 
Congress affords the best general collection for every char- 
acter of investigation. It is now installed in its magnificent 
new building, and the most approved library methods are in 
operation. On its removal from its old quarters, a "Manu- 
script Department" was organized for the care of the thou- 
sands of manuscripts and documents which have been for 
years accumulating in the library. Dr. Herbert Frieden- 
wald was appointed Superintendent, a position he now fills 
to the great satisfaction of all students. In the Report of 
the American Historical Association for 1898, pp. 37-45 he 
gave a brief summary" of the historical manuscripts in the 
Library, what was being done to preserve them, as well as to 
make them readily accessible to the public, etc. 

Mr. Friedenwaid says: "Access to the manuscripts is 
denied to no one who comes properly accredited, or who is 
known to the Superintendent of the department. Every 
facility that can be thought of will be placed at the investi- 
gator's disposal." 

The library contains the following documents and manu- 
script material, which may be of possible value to the Ala- 
bama Student. 

Flobida (East and West.) 

Smith^ Buckingham. Annals of Florida. 24-7 pp. 1 
vol. Fo. (Copy.) 

. Official Spanish Documents relating to Florida. 

( Photo-litho. copies.) 1 vol. Fo. 

Index to volumes relating to the history of Florida. 36 
pp. Quarto. 

DraytoN;, W. An inquiry into the present state and ad- 
ministration of affairs in the Province of East Florida. 65- 
XLIII pp. 1 vol. Qo. 

Farmer^ . Journal of the Siege of Pensacola. 

1781, March-June. 23 pp. Fo. 

GouRGES^ Capt. Dominique de. The recapture of Flori- 
da. 78 pp. Qo. (Copy.) 

Grant^ James. Governor of East Florida. Proclama- 

*The Librarian of Congress, Mr. Herbert Putman, the Assistant Libra- 
rian, Mr. A. R. Spofford, and Mr. Friedenwaid have all promptly responded 
to the call of the Commission for co-operation, for which thanks are 
hereby extended. 

'See also Winsor,, viii, p. 413; and Proceedings American Antiquarian 
Society, Oct. 21, 1882, pp. 124-128. 

Congressional Library, 211 

tion describing conditions on which lands are granted in 
East Florida. 1760. (Hazard Copy.) 

Laudonniere^ Capt. The notable History of Florida situ- 
ated in the Eastern Indies. 1586. 77 pp. Qo. ( Copy. ) 

TOYN, Patrick. Governor of East Florida. Proclama- 
tion of Aug. 21, 1775. (Copy.) 

Chester^ Peter. Governor of West Florida. The answer 
of the respondent in the ease of Adam Crystie et al. vs. Peter 
Chester, Gov. of the Province. 11 pp. 1 vol. Fo. 

Miscellaneous. Letter from a private soldier in — to 
Rouen describing the French experiences in the new world. 
1565. 14 pp. Qo. (Translation.) 

— . Papeles Relativos a la Florida. 1565-1714. vol. 2. 
1 vol. Fo. 

A Collection op Instructions, Orders and other Miscel- 
laneous Papers relating to the several Governments belong- 
ing to the Crown of Great Britain in North America. 

Contains the following: 

Letter from James Oglethrope. Georgia, Feb. 16, 1735. p. 159. 

Extract of a letter from the Governor of St. Augustine to Gov. 
Robert Johnson of South Carolina, April 27, 1755. p. 161. 

Letter from St. Augustine in Florida, May 13, 1735. p. 162. 

Letter from the Commander of Mobile, June 20, 1735. p. 162. 

Extract of Col. Moore's letter to the Lords Proprietors. Jan. 26, 
1730. (Appalachee Expedition.) p. 228. 

Copy of Col. Moore's letter to Sir Nathanfel Johnson. Jan 26, 
1730. p. 230. 

"A Genuine Account of the present state [of] the River 
Mississippi and of the land on its banks from the sea to the 
River Yasors." [1773?] 18 pp. Fo. 


BosoMWORTH Land Controversy. 1743. (Copy.) 
Proclamations by the Governor. 1754, Oct. 31 ; 1778, Jan. 
29. 1vol. Fo. 169 pp. (Copies.) 


Proceedings in regard to the treaty with France for the 
settlement of Louisiana. 1719-20. 1 p. Fo. 
Mississippi Tereitokt. 

W. C. C. Claiborne, near Natchez, Aug. 22, 1802, to John 
Pitchlyn, Choctaw Nation. Letter. 3 pp. Fo. 

Gov. Charles de Grand-Pr6, Bayou Sarah, April 22, 1805 
to Gov. Williams of Mississippi Territory. Letter. 2 pp. 
Fo. Copy in English. 

Gov. de Grand-Pr^, Baton Rouge, Nov. 13, 1805 to Gov. 
Williams of Mississippi Territory. Letter. 9 pp. Fo. 
Spanish . 

212 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Gen. James Wilkinson, Rapids of Red River, Sept. 19, 1806 
to Cowles Meade, Secretary of Mississippi Territory. Let- 
ter. 2 pp. Fo. 

Gen. James Wilkinson, New Orleans, Aug. 11, 1812, to 
Gov. Holmes of Mississippi Territory. Letter. 3 pp. Fo. 

Lt.-Col. Thomas H. Benton, Mt. Vernon, Mobile River, 
July 8, 1814, to Gov. Holmes of Mississippi Territory. Let- 
ter. 3 pp. Qo. 

W. C. C. Claiborne, New Orleans, Sept. 12, 1814 to Gov. 
Holmes of Mississippi Territory. Letter. 1 p. Fo. 


G^v. Thomas Bibb, Cahawba, Nov. 3, 1820 to Gov. Poindex- 
ter of Mississippi. Letter. 6 pp. Qo. 

Gov. G. M. Troup, Milledgeville, Georgia, March 10, 1826 
to Gov. John Murphy. Letter. 8 pp. Qo. 

Proclamation of Gov. 0. C. Clay, Tuskaloosa, May 13, 1837. 
2 pp. Qo. 

Hawkins' Manuscripts. 

In addition to the above there is a manuscript entitled : 

"A sketch of the Creek County in 1798-1799 by Colo. Haw- 
kins." 144 pp. Sm. Qo. 

Concerning this Manuscript, the Librarian says: 

"The quotations in Pickett's 'Alabama' from Col. Haw- 
kins' 'Sketch of the Creek Country' do not tally with exact- 
ness to the manuscript here. The variations are consider- 
able and numerous, there being hardly a sentence that is iden- 
tical in wording. 

The lists of towns and their situations are widely divergent. 
The manuscript list is full and explanatory, the derivation of 
the names and description of each settlement being given. 
The spelling of the Indian names differs quite frequently. 
Of course the pagination given by Pickett does not fit in any 

Our manuscript with but slight variations is identical with 
the 'Sketch of |;he Creek Country' by Col. Hawkins, printed 
by the Georgia Historical Society, Hodgson, Editor, N. Y. 
1848, the last three pages of which contain, however, a 'State 
of the War Party in September 1813' which is not found in 
the manuscript." 

There is also in the Library 

'A Veatory or Journal of distances and observations' 
[Through the Creek Country] 1797. by Col. Benjamin Haw- 
kins. 1 vol. 8vo. 

These two volumes were acquired by the Library, as was 

Newspapers of Alabama. 213 

ninety per cent, of the manuscript material here, from the 
collections of Peter Force, purchased by the Government in 
1867. Where and how Force obtained the single pieces of 
the vast collection it is impossible in most instances to say." 
In the library is a fine collection of 
Spanish Manuscripts. 

In reference to these Senator George F. Hoar in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Oct. 21, 1882, 
p. 127, says : 

"Among Spanish manuscripts there are beautiful copies 
of several unpublished works concerning America; as, Las 
Oasas Historia de Indios, four volumes folio, also of his 
Historia Apoligetica de los Indios Occidentales, four volumes. 
Duran's Historia Antiqua de Nueva Espana, three volumes 
folio, 1579. Teniente's Memorias d6 Nueva Espana. Eche- 
varria's Historia del Origen de los Gent^s Americanas, two 
volumes folio; and several others." 

Newspapers of Alabama. 

Birmingham Age-Herald. Dem. 1889. D. 

July 1, 1894 -Dec. 31, 1899. 11 vols. 

The Birmingham News. Dem. 1888. D. 

Jan. 3 -Dec. 31, 1899. 4 vols. 


Cahawba Press and Alabama State Intelligencer. W. 

Dec. 30, 1820 - July 22, 1826. 6 vols. 

The Gazette. W. 

May 19, 1849 - May 24, 1851. 1 vol. 


The Halcyon. W. 

April 24 - Dec. 20, 1823. 1 vol. 
See St. Stephens. 

The Huntsville Advocate. W. & S. W. 

May 6, 1825 - Dec. 24, 1828. 4 vols. 

Feb. 25, 1834 -March 7, 1837. 1 vol. Inc. 

April 6, 1849 - Nov. 5, 1851. 2 vols. 

Jan. 7, 1852 - Dec. 29, 1852. 1 vol. 

July 12, 1865 - Dec. 21, 1865. 1 vol. 

May 2, 1866 - Aug. 8, 1866. 

Jan. 3, 1868 - Dec. 29, 1868. 1 vol. 

The Democrat. Dem. 1823. W. 

July 31, 1829 - Dec. 4, 1829. 1 vol. 

Aug. 17, 1839 - March 29, 1848. s. n. 1 vol. 

March 10. 1853 - Dec. 29, 1853. 1 vol. 

214 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Huntsville Gazette. Eep. 1879. W. 

June 18, 1881 -Dec. 29, 1894. 4 vols. 

Alabama Eepublican. W . 

Jan. 9, 1819 -Dec. 25, 1819. 1 vol. 
Jan. 22, 1820 -Dec. 22, 1820. 1 vol. 
Jan. 5, 1819 - Dec. 20, 1822. 2 vols. 
Jan. 10, 1823 - Dec. 24, 1824. 2 vols. 
Jan. 21, 1825 - April 22, 1825. 1 vol. 
See Huntsville Advocate. 


Mobile Mercantile Advertiser. S. W. 

Jan. 1, -^ec. 15, 1824. 

Mobile Daily Advertiser. D. 

March 27, 1849 - Dec. 30, 1860. 13 vols. 
See Daily Register. 

Mobile Advertiser. (For Country.) S. W. 

Feb. 28, - Dec. 22, 1850. 1 vol. 
See Dally. 

• Tke Mobile Argus. S. W. 

Dec. 5, lii22 - Dec. 30, 1822. s. e. 1 vnl. 
Jan. 30, 1823 -Dec. 24, 1823. 

The Nationalist. W. 

Jan. 23, - Dec. 28, 18b8. 1 vol. 

The Daily Register. 

Feb. 18, 1825 - Dec. 21, 1826. 2 vols. 
Jan. 2, 1829 - Dec. 28, 1830. 2 vols. 
Jan. 1, 1833 -Dec. 31, 1837. 5 vols. 
March 2, 1838 - Dec. 31, 1840. 2 vols. 
Jan. 8, 1841 -Nov. 15, 1841. 1 vol. 
Dec. 2, 1841 - Dec. 31, 1848. 9 vols. 
May 5, 1857 -Dec. 31, 1857. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1, 1859 -Dec. 1, 1859. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1, 1869 - Dec. 31, 1899. 47 vols. 

The Mobile Weekly Register. W. 

Jan. 6, 1855 - Dec. 29, 1855. 1 vol. 
April 4, 1857 -May 2, 1857. 1 vol. 
See Daily. 

Alabama Tribune. D. 

March 18, - Oct. 7, 1849. 1 vol. 


Daily Confederation. D. 

May 1, 1858 - June 30, jl860. 3 vols. 

Tri-Weekly Flag and Advertiser. Dem. 1829 W & T W 

Jan. 12, 1847 -Dec. 25, 1847. 1 vol. 
June 24, 1848 - Dec. 12, 1848. 1 vol. 
Jan. 6, 1849 -May 18, 1849. 1 vol. 

Alabama Journal. W. 

Dec. 9, 1825 -June 7, 1826. s. n. 1 vol. 

Daily Alabama Journal. D. & T. W 

Feb. 19, 1850 -Dec. 31, 1853. 4 vols. 
See Weekly. 

Newspapers of Alabama. 215 

Alabama State Journal. D. 

Jan. 5, 1869 -Dec. 31, 1869. 1 vol. 
Feb. 18, 1870 -Dec. 31, 1876. 8 vols. 

St. Stephens. 
The Halcyon and Tombeekbe Public Advertiser. W. 

Jan. 9, 1819 - Dec. 20, a.819. 1 vol. 
Jan. 10, ISzJ- Nov. 27, 1820. 1vol. 
Feb. 12, 1821 - Dec. 22, 1821. 1 vol. 
Jan. 5, 1822 - Nov. 2, 1822. 1 vol. 
See Greensborough, supra. 

Alabama State Sentinel. T. W. 

Jan. 6, - Dec. 26, 1855. 1 vol. 

Alabama State Intelligencer. W. 

Jan. 1-Dec. 24. 1831. 1 vol. 

State Journal and Flag. W. 

March 20 - Dec. 25, 1846. 1 vol. 

Consolidation of Flag of the Union and State Journal. 

American Mirror. W. 

Jan. 3, 1824 - Dec. 11, 1824. 1 vol. 
Jan. 8, 1825 -Feb. 26, 1825. 

Independent Monitor. W. 

Feb. 11, 1858 - May 10 1861. 1 vol. 

Alabama Sentinel. W- 

Dec. 30, 1825. 


Tuscumbia Enquirer. W. 

Jan. 10 -Oct. 17, 1855. 1 vol. 


The State Guard. W. 

May 11, 1847 -Oct. 24, 1848. 1 vol. 

Newspapees or Othee States Prior to 1820. 
Augusta, Q-a. 

Augusta Chronicle and Georgia Advertiser. S. W. 

Jan. 2, 1819 -March 27, 1819. 

Augusta Chronicle and Georgia Advertiser. T. W. 

March 29, 1819 - Nov. 11, 1820. 


Georgia Journal. W. 

Jan. 12, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 


Georgia Republican and State Intelligencer. S. W. 

Jan. 12, 1803 -March 28, 1805. 

Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger. T. W. > 
March 10, 1807 -Dec. oO, 1812. 
Jan. 4, 1814- -Dec. 28, 1816. 

2l6 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Savannali Eepublican. T. W. 

June 18, 1816 -Dec. 31, 1816. 
July 18, 1817 -i^ec. 31, 1817. 
June 25, 1818 - Dec. 31, 1819. 

Savannah Daily Eepublican. D. 

June 2, 1817 - June 28, 1817. 
Jan. 2, 1818 -June 24, 1818. 
Jan. 2, 1819 -July 3, 1819. 
Oct. 19, 1818 - Dec. 31, 1819. 

Frankfort, Ky. 

The Frankfort Argus. W. 

Jan. 1, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 

The Commentator. W. 

Jan. 11, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 


The Kentucky Gazette. W. 
Jan. 1. 1819 - Dec. 31, 1819. 

The Western Monitor. W. 

Jan. 9, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 

The Kentucky Eeporter. W. 
Jan. 3, 1819 -Oct. 20, 1819. 

'New Orleans, La. 

Louisiana Courier. T. W. & D. 

Feb. 1, 1819 -Dec. 1, 1819. 

Courrier de la Louisiane. T. W. & D. 

Feb. 1, 1819 -Dec. 1, 1819. 

Orleans Gazette and Commercial Advertiser. D . 

Feb. 23, 1819 -Dec. 14, 1819. 

Natchez, Miss. 

The Mississippi Gazette. W. 
June 6, 1818 -July 18, 1818. ; 

The Natchez Gazette. S. W. 

Jan. 2, 1819 -Dec. 25, 1819. 

Mississippi Eepublic and Literary Register. W. 
Feb. 9, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 

Port CHhson. 

The Port Gibson Correspondent. W. 

March 27, 1819 - May 15, 1819. 
July 24, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 

Clarksville, Tenn. 

The Tennessee Weekly Chronicle. W. 

Feb. 18, 1818 -Sept. 16, 1818. 
Jan. 27, 1819 - June 28, 1819. 

Clarksville Gazette. W. 

July 5, 1819- Nov. 8, 1819. 

Newspapers of Other States. 217 

Knoxville Gazette. W. 

June 15 & June 1, 1793. 
March 10 - July 28, 1818. 

Knoxville Register. W. 

Feb. 3, 1818 -Dec. 31, 1819. 

The Hornet's Nest. W. 

Oct. 8, 1812 -July 22, 1813. 


The Clarion and Tennessee Gazette. W. 

Jan. 12, 1810 -Dec. 20, 1814. 
June 10, 1817 - Dec. 31, 1819. 

Tennessee Gazette. W. 

Feb. 25, 1800 -July 27, 1803. 

Tennessee Gazette and Mero-District Advertiser. W. 

Aug. 3, 1803 - March 27, 180t). 

Nashville Whig. W. 

Sept. 2, 1812 -July 25, 1815. 
Jan. 2, 1819 -Dec. 31, 1819. 


Tennessee Herald. W. 

Jan. 4, 1817 -Dec. 11, 1819. 

Washington, District of Columhia. 

The National Intelligencer. T. W. & D. 

Oct. 31, 1800 - 1869. 

The library of the Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing 
House, Nashville, Tenn., is said to contain much material 
bearing on the history of this denomination, including its 
annals in Alabama. This comprises printed matter princi- 
pally. Its extent and condition, however, have not been 
ascertained. It has no manuscripts as to the Church, or its 
ministers in Alabama. 

/See Cumberland University, infra, for account of Mss. left 
by Eev. W. B. McDonnold. 


In the Preface to his History of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church (1888), Dr. B. W. McDonnold gives a brief 
description of the manuscript material placed in his hands 
in the preparation of that work. Among other things, he 
states that he had access to sixty manuscript autobiographies. 

218 Report Alabama History Commission. 

eight thousand letters, and a considerable number of diaries. 
His collections, after use, were filed in the library of Cum- 
berland University, Lebanon, Tenn. An examination of 
them has been made by Rev. W. P. Bone, the librarian, who 
reports three manuscripts, which contain data in reference to 
individuals and to the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 
Alabama. These are : 

(1) A life of Rev. Hugh Bone Hill, by Rev. Mathew 
Houston Bone, D. D., of Maysvile, Ala. Circa, 300 pp. Polio. 

(2) Autobiography of Robt. D. King, with Supplementary 
notes by his daughter and son. Circa, 60 pp. 4to. Mr. King 
labored many years in Alabama as a minister of the above 

(3) Incidents, by Robt. D. King. Made up principally 
from his work in Alabama. 

See Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House, supra. 


The Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, has a splendid 
library of works, both general and special, bearing on its field 
of investigation and exploration. It is also the depository 
for the collections of the Anthropological Society 
of Washington, and of the Woman's Anthropological Society. 
It has also numerous photographs of Creek, Choctaw, Chero- 
kee Indians, etc. 

Linguistic Material. It is, however, in original linguistic 
material that the Bureau is incomparably rich. The follow- 
ing extract fi'om the Fifteenth Annual Report, 1893-94, p. 
Ixxxii, will serve to show the emphasis placed on this part 
of the work : 

"The languages of the American Indians have received a 
large share of the attention of the Bureau ever since its exist- 
ence. It has been the policy to collect texts and vocabularies 
and material for grammars as rapidly and extensively as pos- 
sible before the disappearance of the primitive languages. 
Only a small part of the material so collected has been pub- 
lished; but the vaults of the Bureau are rich in data pertain- 
ing to the languages of many tribes representing most of the 
linguistic stocks of the American Indians. Perhaps on no 
other Continent is the linguistic diversity of the primitive 
people wider than in Northern America, and the dialectic 
variability is eminently striking. The aboriginal languages 
of this continent accordingly give an admirable opportunity 
for the study of the facts and causes of linguistic develop- 

Bureau of Ethnology. 219 

ment; and from the beginning it was deemed important to 
collect the largest possible body of material for examination 
and discussion in its bearing on the general subject. Carry- 
ing out the general policy, only subordinate attention has 
been given to publication, and publication has been made 
only in cases in which the material seemed especially typical 
or exceptionally complete. Thus, while the amount of lin- 
guistic material published is not voluminous, the manu- 
scripts constantly accessible for study are abundant — richer, 
it is believed, than any other body of linguistic records of a 
primitive people." 

A Catalogue of the Linguistic manuscripts then on hand 
and which had largely been collected under the direction of 
the Smithsonian Institution prior to the creation of the Bu- 
reau, was prepared by James Pilling, and printed in the First 
Annual Report, 1879-80, pp. 553-577. 

Such material as is on tile in relation to the Indians former- 
ly residing in the limits of what is now Alabama is noted in 
Mr. Filling's Bibliographies of the Muskhogean, and of the 
Iroquoian languages, published as "Bulletins" of the Bureau. 
Since the publication of these Bulletins, however, much new 
material bearing on this field has been added. 

Cherokee Manuscripts. As indicating the strength of the 
collection, as well as to illustrate the importance of local ex- 
ploration an account of a part of James Mooney's Cherokee 
investigations is introduced from the Tenth Annual Report, 
1888-89, p. xvi : "The most important results of Mr. Mooney's 
investigations were the discovery of a large number of manu- 
scripts containing the varied formulas of the tribe, written 
in Cherokee characters by the shamans for their own secret 
use, and zealously guarded from the knowledge of all but the 
initiated. The existence of such manuscripts had been ascer- 
tained during a visit in 1887, and several of them had been 
procured. This discovery of genuine aboriginal material, 
written in an Indian language by shamans for their own use, 
is believed to be unique in the history of aboriginal investi- 
gation, and was only made possible through the invention of 
the Cherokee syllabary by Sequoia in 1821. Every effort was 
made by Mr. Mooney to obtain all the existing manuscripts, 
with the result of securing all of the material which was in 
the possession of the tribe. The whole number of formulas 
obtained is about six hundred. They consist of prayers and 
sacred songs, explanations of ceremonies, directions for medi- 
cal treatment, and underlying theories. They relate to 
medicine, love, war, hunting, fishing, self-protection, witcl|- 

220 Report Alabama History Commission. 

craft, agriculture, the ball play, and other similar subjects, 
thus forming a complete exposition of an aboriginal religion 
as set forth by its priests in their own language." 

See Scottish Eite Library, and also Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, infra. 


The collections of The Pilson Club, Louisville, Ky., the 
leading Historical organization of Kentucky, are understood 
to be in the possession of Col. Eeuben T. Durrett, its Presi- 
dent. No specific description is at hand, but the summary 
of Theodore Roosevelt, Esq., in his Winning of the West, vol. 
i,- will be found under the sketch of Col. Durrett's library, 


The library of Georgetown University, Washington, D. C, 
is in possession of the books, papers, etc., left by John Daw- 
son Gilmary Shea (1824-1892). These are known as the 
"Shea Collection." The printed books of the collection con- 
sist of works on (1) Indians, (2) Catholic Diocesan Records, 
(3) Catholic Reviews and Periodicals, and (4) United States 
Local Histories. 

The manuscripts are not numerous, and comprise gener- 
ally, transcripts from the Spanish Archives at Alcala de 
Henares, and from the Ecclesiastical Archives at Rome. 
There are also a number of Indian (West and South West) 
Vocabularies. There are also several maps of interest. No 
catalogue of the collection has been published. These ma- 
terials were all drawn upon by Dr. Shea in his valuable his- 
torical works. 

Dr. Shea was an eminent student. Of him Dr. George E. 
Ellis said : "He devoted his life and pen to researches and 
historical compositions largely relating to French explora: 
tions and the labors of Roman Catholic missionaries on this 
Continent. His published works are numerous; and his 
fidelity and painstaking in securing accuracy and thorough- 
ness in the wide field of his investigations placed him at the 
head of those esteemed by the church for zeal in her honor 
and service."' 

'See Winsor, viii, p. 458. 

''Proceedings Mass. Hist. Society, March, 1892, p. 331. 

Georgia Historical Society. 221 


The Georgia Historical Society, Savannali, organized in 
1837, and incorporated 1839, has enjoyed a greater degree of 
continuous activity, than any other Southern Historical So- 
ciety, excepting those of Virginia and Maryland. It has 
amassed a library of over 23,000 volumes; and has a great 
number of rare old documents and manuscripts. These were 
used by Bishop W. B. Stevens in the preparation of his His- 
torij of Georgia (2 vols.; 1847 and 1859), in the preface to 
which work he gives a brief description.' 

Hawkins' Manuscripts. 

Of these, the ones of value to Alabama history are the 
Hawkins' Manuscripts, consisting of ten volumes, which sur- 
vived the destruction of his house by fire. A list of these is 
taken from the manuscript Minutes of the Society, prepared 
by W. B. Hodgson, and submitted Feb. 12, 1848 : 

"These MSS. now in the possession of the Society are ten 
in number. In a brief synopsis the contents of these volumes 
may be presented. 

No. 1. A Topographical sketch of the Creek Country in the 
years 1798 and 1799. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are copies of the foregoing. 

No. 4. Journal of occurrences at Port Wilkinson in 1802, 
and ofllcial correspondence with the Secretary of War. Re- 
lations of the Spanish authorities at St. Marks and Pensa- 
cola with the Indian tribes and the United States. 

No. 5. Journal of proceedings at the Council of Took-au- 
batchee. Commissioners on the part of the United States, 
Col. Hawkins, General Meriwether, and others, from the 
State of Georgia. On the part of the Creek Indians Hopoie 
Micco and other Chiefs. The designs of Forbes and Wilkin- 
son in obtaining grants of land alluded to. 

No. 6. Official correspondence with the Hon. J. McHenry, 
Secretary of War. Talks to the Creeks, Chickasaws and 
Cherokees on the subject of running lines according to trea- 
ties between them and the United States. Boundary line of 
Ellicott from the St. Mary's to the Flint River, establishing 
the Northern Spanish line. 

No. 7. Continuation of the preceeding. 

No. 8. Journal of the Commissioners, Benjamin Haw- 
kins, General Wilkinson, and Andrew Pickens, appointed to 

'For partial list, see Publications of the Southern History Association, 
vol. iii, pp. 174-176. 

222 Report Alabama History Commission. 

hold conferences with several of the Indian tribes South of 
the Ohio. 

N. 9. Agency accounts. List of Indian stipends. Papers 
to individuals through the Indian nations. Registry of 
claims against them. 

No. 10. Journal of the Commissioners, B. Hawkins, A. 
Pickens, and James Wilkinson, appointed in 1797 to ascer- 
tain and mark the boundary lines between the Indian nations 
and the United States, in accordance with treaties. Con- 
tains field notes. Meeting at Fort Fidius on Oconee." 

These books during the present year ( 1900 ) have been care- 
fully examined by James Mooney, of the U. S. Bureau of Eth- 
nology, and extracts have been made by him of all matter 
pertinent to the history of the Cherokees. For use here, he 
has prepared a brief account of the more important items of 
the collection : 

"They are numbered consecutivelj^ on the outside, but are 
generally without title, paging or index and only partially 
filled, so that no close estimate can be made of their contents. 
The handwriting is generally good and in good preservation, 
and all but two appear to have been written by Hawkins him- 

"The first of these two is a duplicate of the 'Sketch of the 
Creek Country' of Hawkins , indorsed 'Copied by General 
John Floyd from the Journal of Colonel Hawkins, during 
the Creek war in 1813 and 14,' and the same volume is indors- 
ed inside the cover, 'To the Georgia Historical Society from 
Charles R. Floyd of Camden County, Georgia, Sept. 30th, 
1839.' This is probably the date of the presentation of the 
MSS. to the society, v^-hich was organized in 1837. In this 
duplicate the names are badly copied and changed, so as 
sometimes to distort the meaning. It contains also an appen- 
dix list of friendly Creek and Seminole towns in the Creek 
war, 'written by Charles Rinaldo Floyd in the Creek nation, 
at Fort Mitchell, Chatahouchee River, during the war of 1813 
and 14." Being only an incorrect copy, this volume, except- 
ing the appendix town list, has no value of its own. 

"The other volume not written by Hawkins is indorsed in- 
side the cover, 'R. Thomas his book, begun Nov. 28th, 1796,' 
and consists of letters and diary written at Cussitas (sic) in 
the Creek nation, by Richard Thomas, apparently a trader's 
clerk. It has a piquant flavor, and is of interest as showing 
the different lights in which the scholarly Senator and the 
uneducated trader regarded the same people. 

"Of those written by Hawkins himself the volume of first 

Georgia Historical Society. 22^ 

importance is probably his 'Journal,' begun in 1796 on start- 
ing for his appointed field of duty and continued for some 
time after his arrival among the Creeks. It is the largest of 
all the volumes in matter, and relates almost entirely to Ala- 
bama things. The first entry is: 'South Carolina, 19th Nov., 
1796 — This day arrived at Hopewell on the Keowee, the seat 
of Major-General Andrew Pickens, on my way to the Creeks, 
as principal temporary agent for Indian affairs south of the 
Ohio.' It contains nearly all the matter embodied in his 
'Sketch of the Creek Country,' together with several speeches 
in the Creek language, and he says much of his purpose to 
study the language in order to communicate directly with 
his Indians. 

"Next in importance, is the 'Sketch of the Creek Country 
in the years 1798 and 1799,' which has already been pub- 
lished by the Society, being, according to the statement of 
the librarian, the only one of the MSS. yet published. 

"The other Hawkins volumes contain records of various 
treaty conferences, a botanic list, personal memoranda, etc., 
nearly to the time of his death.' 

Galphin Manuscbipts. 

A small volume of "Accounts" kept by George Galphin, the 
Indian trader, at his store near Silver Bluff, at the period 
just prior to the Revolution, is in the possession of the Socie- 
ty, presented by Col. George R. Black, late of Sylvania, Ga. 
The volume named above doubtless contains interesting refer- 
ences to the Creek Indians. 

Yazoo Feattd Papers. 

In the collection is also a number of original papers in re- 
lation to the Yazoo land speculations. 


It has also the following invaluable files of early news- 
papers : 

The Georgia Gazette, Savannah, 1774-1802. 7 volumes. 

'An account of the loss of the Hawkins papers will be found, supra. 
Those in the possession of the Society are such as escaped destruc- 

The Library of Congress, supra, has a copy of the "Sketch of the Creek 
Country," and also of "A Veatory or Journal of distances and Obser- 
vations," 1797, both being acquired with the Force Papers. 

Gen. Andrew Pickens also had a copy of the "Sketch" etc., his copy 
being used by Mr. Pickett in his History of Alabama. See Owen's editior 
of Pickett, p. 117, note. 

A copy of the "Journal," Nov. 19, 1796-May 21, 1797 (Folio, pp. 250) 
has been made from the original for Dr. George W, Hamner, Washing 
ton, D. C. 

224 Report Alabama History Commission. 

The Augusta Chronicle and Gazette of the State, 1790-1798. 
3 volumes. 

Southern Centinel and Gazette of the State, Augusta, 1793- 
1799. 2 volumes. 

Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser, 1796-1807. 
10 volumes. 

The Georgian, 1818-1854. 


The chief value of the Georgia State Library, Atlanta, to 
historical students lies in the excellent and comparatively 
full collection of early State histories, pamphlets, laws, etc., 
known as "The Mary DeRenne Historical Collection." These 
canle by bequest from Everard DeRenne in 1894. It 
embraces among other things, the transcript procured 
by the father of Mr. DeRenne from the original record in 
England of the Colonial Acts of Georgia, 1755 to 1774, and 
ten printed copies of this manuscript. There are also eleven 
copies of the Journal of the Board of Trustees for establish- 
ing the colony of Georgia, etc., etc. A catalogue of the col- 
lection is given in the Communication from John Milledge, 
librarian, to the Governor ( 1894, pp. 20 ) . On the receipt of 
the donation, an historical room was set aside in the library 
for its reception, and in which were placed also all other his- 
torical books in the library. 


The wonderful collection of manuscripts — originals and 
copies — made by Jared Sparks during a long and honorable 
career, are the property of the library of Harvard University, 
Cambridge. In 1889, Justin Winsor published a Calendar 
of the Manuscripts, as No. 22 of the Bibliographical Contri- 
butions of Harvard University. This work forms an excel- 
lent key to the general contents of the collection. It contains 
a large number of papers of first importance to the student of 
Alabama history. No list has been obtained, and reference is 
made to the Bulletin, supra, for detail. 

The library has also an unusually fine collection of maps, 
numbering over 12,000 sheets, and 'over 700 bound volumes. 
To those have been added the collection of maps made by 
Francis Parkman." 

"See Bibliographical contributions, Harvard University, No. 25, "Notes 
on Special Collections in American Libraries," by W C Lane and C K 
Bolton ("192), p. 19. 

"Winsor, vol. iv, p. 201, and vol. viii, p. 434. 

Howard Memorial Library. 225 


4.n institution of value to the whole South, and particu- 
larly to Alabama and Louisiana, is the Howard Memorial 
Library at New Orleans. It is exclusively for reference, and 
its domed reading room, with alcoves, containing almost 40,- 
000 volupaes, in full view, is a delightful resort for students. 
It is on Howard Avenue at Lee Circle and communicates by 
several car lines with Canal Street and the hotels. The 
building is French Renaissance designed by Richardson, and 
while from without appearing rather low for its length, with- 
ip it is spacious and impressive. Silence reigns and one can 
study without interruptions, with encyclopedias, card cata- 
logues and other necessaries at hand, and obliging assistants 
awaiting a chance to get any book that is wanted. A sketch 
would be incomplete, however, that did not mention by name 
the librarian of this and the Fisk Free and Public Library, 
Mr. William Beer. 

Frequent trips to the East, to England and the Continent 
keep him in touch with the world of books and authors here 
and abroad. He knows the value of old book stores, and if 
the Howard by chance has no copy of Callot's maps, or some- 
thing else, the chances are that he knows who has, and a note 
to Mr. Cusachs, or some other collector, will show you the 
treasure and make you a charming acquaintance besides. It 
is not often the Howard has not the book, however, but if so 
he is sure to take the name and try and buy it if at all of gen- 
eral valiie. For Miss Annie T. Howard, the founder, not only 
established the library in 1889, but provided an endowment 
fund by which it is supported and steadily improved as time 
goes on. What the librarian knows he is glad to tell and 
what he does not, he is equally glad to put you in the way 
of finding out. 

For South Alabama the Howard is peculiarlv valuable. It 
makes a specialty of Old Louisiana, of which Mobile was the 
capital and practically the foundation — and probably no- 
where else in one place can be seen so much that concerns us. 
Many of the French pioneers came from Canada, and much 
of the work of the French librarians and societies of that do- 
minion can be found here. To one unused to the subject, by 
the way, the amount of this Canadian literature, mainly in 
French, is marvelous. All the standard books are on the 
shelves, from Gayarr^. Martin and Parkman down to Winsor 

"Prepared by Peter J. Hamilton. 

226 Report Alabama History Commission. 

and King, and all that numerous list of Louisiana local 
works, so unique and delightful — and often so naive in the 
idea that the history of Louisiana begins and ends in New 
Orleans or thereabouts ! Rare B. F. French is here complete 
in his famous Historical Collection, Margry of course. Shea, 
Bossu, Adair, Monette, besides Charlevoix and the fathers in 
the original Spanish times also receive attention, both for the 
epoch of exploration before and after DeSoto, and for that 
of Spanish rule after the Peace of Paris, and the transfer to 
the U. S. is marked by the volumes of Wilkinson, Clark and 
others. The valuable papers of historical societies are here 
collected and government publications, including State 
Papers and the inevitable "Rebellion" Records. 

Among the books of special value for Alabama history may 
be mentioned : 

Barcia, Don A. G. Ensayo Cronologico Para La Historia 
General De La Florida. Madrid. 1723. (This copy be- 
longed to Don Antonio de UUoa, first Spanish Governor of 
Louisiana and has his book plates.) 

Berquin-Duvallon. Travels in Louisiana and Floridas 
in 1802. New York : 1806. 

CoxB, D. A Description of the English Province of Caro- 
lana. London : 1741. ( The original edition. ) 

Harrisse, H. Discovery of North America. Paris: 1891. 

Thomassy^ M. J. R. Geologic Pratique de la Louisiane. 
N. O. & Paris : 1860. 

Jeffreys. Natural and Civil History of the French Do- 
minions in North and South America. London : 1761. 

Het Groote Tafereel Der Dwaasheid, Vertoonende de 
opkomst, voortgang en ondergang der Actie, Bubbel en Wind- 
negotie, in Vrankryk, Engeland, en de Nederlanden, geplecgt 
in den Jaare MDCCXX. Amsterdam, 1720. ( This remark- 
able work, which originally consisted of only 64 plates and 
received occasional additions .until some copies contained as 
many as 80, consisting of contemporary documents relating 
to Law's Mississippi Bubble, is illustrated by finely executed 
copper plates. A map of Louisiana is particularly interest- 
ing. ) 

The bibliography of Louisiana, which is in preparation by 
the librarian, will be of especial usefulness in bringing out the 
value of the historical collections in the library. 

Unique in interest and value is the collection of maps of 
America, and particularly of those showing the gradual in- 
crease of knov/ledge of the Gulf of Mexico and delta of the 
Mississippi. These were 6bt'aine<i all ctver Europe, anil HutcJh, 

Kansas State Historical Society. 227 

German, French and English imprints abound. The equal of 
this can hardly be found south of the government collections 
at Washington. 

A visit to the Howard Memorial Library will be a pleasure 
to any lover of literature, while for historical students of our 
section of the country it is almost a necessity. 


There is in the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, a 
file of 

The Nationalist, Mobile, 1865-1868. 3 vols. 


The Louisiana Historical Society, New Orleans, revived in 
the last decade, has been aroused to enviable activity in the 
work of collecting the materials for the history of the State 
from the earliest explorations. It is fortunately made the 
custodian of all historical material now the property of the 
State, excepting the usual published works retained in the 
State Library. The collections of the Society are kept at 
Tulane Universitv, owing to an absence of suitable quarters 
elsewhere. It numbers on its rolls the principal students and 
antiquarians of the State, all of whom appear to have joined 
forces to make the Society an institution of great usefulness 
and influence. 

To Miss Grace King and William Beer thanks are due for 
assistance in preparing this and the succeeding title. 


Its strength in manuscripts may be indicated by the fol- 
lowing statement : 

(1) French MSS., Mississippi Valley, 1679-1769. 

(2) LaHarpe, MS., Journal Mississippi Valley, 1698- 


(3) Spanish MSS., Mississippi Valley, 1765-1804. 

(4) Spanish MSS., Mississippi Valley, 1789-1802. 

(5) Spanish MSS., Mississippi Valley, 1788-1807. 

(6) Spanish MSS., Mississippi Valley, 1793 - 1808. 

(7) MS. Catalogue Miss. Valley. 

(8) Official French Orders, Laws, etc., Mississippi Val- 

ley, 1690-1719. 

"See Publication La. Hist. Society, vol i, part 1, 1895, p. 4 for account 
of MSS. 


228 Report Alajbama History Commission. 

(9) Official French Orders, Laws, etc., Mississippi Val- 

ley, 1720:i729. 

(10) Le Pere Leclercq. Establisement de la Foy dans 
la Nouvelle-France. (MS. from printed book;) 

(11) Miscellaneous papers and documents. 1 package. 

(12) Margry's Manuscripts. Documents sur la Louisi- 
ane, 1697 1737. 3 vols. Folio. 

This is one of the most prized treasures of the Society. It 
is in the handwriting of Pierre Margry, and was made by him 
in 1849. "It is made up of detailed abstracts of reports, 
letters, and papers passing between Bienville and other offi- 
cials and the French government."" 

The matter is greatly abridged, in some cases a mere title, 

in others a short abstract, and in some cases complete copies. 

These are documents not contained in his published volumes." 

(13) Notes et Documents sur I'Histoire de la Louisiane. 

1673-1720. Vol. 1. Folio. 

This is the volume collected in 1845 by Mr. Magne from the 
archives de la Marine, and which is described in the account 
of the Louisiana State Library, infra. It was carried away 
by Federal troops, but subsequently recovered. It is largely 
filled with documents copied m extenso, and is regarded as of 
great value. Vol II seems irrevocably lost; it covered a 
period from 1673 to 1826. 

Officiai, Archives. 

The Society is also the custodian of 109 boxes of miscel- 
laneous official papers, ranging over the period, 1756-1806, 
and consisting of notarial acts and deeds, judicial papers, 
wills, marriage contracts, etc. They are as yet uncatalogued, 
and only partial indications of their contents have been pub- 

Historical SocrEiy Exhibit. 

In order to stimulate interest and to bring together 
material, etc. for comparison, the Society arranged a Histori- 
cal Exhibit, which was opened Feb. 20, 1900, at the Fisk Free 
and Public Library. It embraced 5,000 items, many of them 

"Peter J. Hamilton in Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1898-99, 
vol. ill, p. 96, where he says also that "this collection is invaluable and 
deserves the closest study." 

^See French's Historical Collections for account of procuring these 
papers, vol. — p. — ; also Miss Grace King's Life of Bienville, where they 
were used. Sketches of Margry, (b. Dec. 8, 1818, d. March 27, 1894), will 
be found in Publications La. Hist. Society, vol i, 1896, pp. 10-16, and In the 
Tracts of the Western Reserve Historical Society, vol. , pp. 

"See Mr. Alc6e Fortier's "Old Papers of Colonial Times," in Publications 
La. Hist, society, vol 1, part 2, 1895; pp. 6-25; see also vol. i., part 1, p. 4. 

Louisiana State Library. 229 

exceeding rarity, and of absorbing interest. It included 
'traits, manuscripts and published material, the discovery 
which will be useful in the annals of Alabama. The ex- 
t of the exhibit precludes particular notice, and reference 
aade to the Catalogue (1900; 8vo. pp. 18) for details. 
ilr. P. J. Hamilton, who has examined the collections at 
w Orleans, says: 

■One would suppose, that, as New Orleans goes almost as 
back as Mobile and was the seat of Government longer, 
re would be much manuscript historical material 
re that would be of value for the Mobile district, 
t this is not so . It is true there are four manu- 
ipt volumes made by Margry himself and by 
Tre Magne for the State of Louisiana, at the insti- 
ion it is said of Charles Gayarr4, the eminent historian of 
iiisiana, who was at one time its Secretary of State. These 
)ks, and many, if not all, of the old French records disap- 
ired during General Butler's occupation of New Orleans, 
e a great many other things. In some way these four 
umes, but not the official records found their way back 
1 are now [deposited] at the Tulane University Library 
the custody of the Louisiana Historical Society. These 
>ks are only abstracts of the papers existing at that time 
Paris, but seem to contain the gist of the documents. They 
( invaluable and should by all means be published. Many 
the papers digested have now been lost and in case of their 
itruction by fire much injury would be done the cause of 
tory. Some of the documents are given in Margry's pub- 
ition above mentioned, but many of them are not. The 
ume by M. Magne is especially valuable as giving letters 
m Bienville and other French officers, priests and inhabit- 
:s, throwing much light upon the life of the settlers." 


Che state Library of Louisiana, which is located in the old 
Iding of Tulane University, New Orleans, has a limited 
tnber of manuscripts." 

iLmong these, which may contain a few items of interest 
regard to early Alabama affairs generally, are the "Execu- 
B Correspondence, 1805-06," of Governor W. 0. C. Clai- 
•ne ; some French "Manuscripts ;" and a volume of the Land 
pveys of West Feliciana, dating from 1797. 

Catalogue of the State Library of Louisiana (1886), pp. 182, 184, 219, 

230 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Lost Manuscripts. 

In the past, the State of Louisiana has been the possessor 
of some valuable collections of manuscripts. These were 
obtained from various sources, but were of primary value as 
original material. Charles Gayarr^, in a letter to Hon. Ean- 
dall L. Gibson, Jan. 13, 1880, gives an interesting account of 
three such collections, which came into the custody of the 

"Governor Mouton, when in office, bought, upon my recom- 
mendation, for the sum of |1,000, from Mr. Magne, one of the 
proprietors and editors of the New Orleans Bee, a valuable 
manuscript volume of documents which that gentleman had 
obtained permission to copy from the French archives at 

"Mr. Edmund Forstall, now dead, one of our public-spirited 
citizens, having sojourned some time in France, examined or 
caused to be examined the archives of that country in rela- 
tion to her former colony of Louisiana, and on his return pre- 
sented to the State an important collection of materials for 
the use of her future historians. 

"Hon. John Perkins, who was for several years one of the 
representatives of the State in Congress, also enriched the 
archives of Louisiana with two large manuscript volumes 
handsomely bound and treating of our former colonial rela- 
tions with France." 

It was through Mr. Gayarr6's influence that the Legisla- 
ture of Louisiana appropriated |2,000, with which a mass of 
copies of documents was made from the Archives of Spain." 

Unfortunately these and other documents and papers "were 
destroyed at Baton Rouge, or carried away, when that capital 
of the State was taken by the Federal troops in our late civil 
war."" Only a few have been recovered. 

Newspapers . 

The following newspaper files are noted also as in the 

Advertiser, 1840-1844. 1 vol. 
Bulletin, 1840. 1vol. 
Jeffersonian (Daily), 1846. 1 vol. 
Jeffersonian Republican, 1845. 1 vol. 

''See a document entitled "The Early History of Louisiana," (House 
Mis. Doc. No. 22, 46tli Cong. 2d sess.; 8vo. pp. 24), comprising the letter 
to Mr. Gibson, and a number of other interesting papers. Mr. Gayarre 
here gives a full account of these losses. 


"Catalogue of the State Library of Louisiana, p. 18». 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 231 

Louisiana Courier, 1842. 1 vol. 

National Intelligenceer, 1810, 1813 -1821, 1823-1824. 12 

New Orleans Bee, 1843. 1 vol. 

New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, 1841-1843. 3 vols. 
The Daily Telegraph, London, 1872-1873. 1 vol. 
Republican, New Orleans, 1873, 1874, 1875. 22 vols. 


It is stated in Lane and Bolton's Notes on Special Collec- 
tions in American Libraries, p. 9, that the library of the Mass- 
achusetts Historical Society, Boston, "contains probably the 
largest mass of historical MSS. possessed by any similar 
American society, going back to the earliest periods of Ameri- 
can history." The library was begun in 1791, and covers 
American history in general. It contains two valuable col- 
lections of local interest, viz : six volumes of Spanish Manu- 
scripts, and the Papers of Francis Parkman. Dr. Samuel 
A. Green has assisted in presenting a catalogue of these col- 

Spanish Manuscripts. 

The following list of six volumes comprises all of the 
Spanish manuscripts given the Society by Mr. Whitmore, and 
noted in the Proceedings, 1858-60, p. 10 : 

Coronica del Eey de Castilla Dn. Enrique qo. 1 vol. 

Tratado de Pazes en el Reynado de Carlos 2d. 1 vol. 

Historia en el Reynado de Carlos 2d. 1 vol. 

Nuevo Sistena de Gobierno para la Euerica obra Del Senor 
Dn. Joseph del Compillo y Cossio, Secunda parte. 1 vol. 

La Obra de el Duende mas Criticode Palazio, 1735 y 1736. 

Relacion de la Rebelion de el Reynode Granada. 1 vol. 
Pabkman Collection. 

The collection of original papers and copies formed by 
Francis Parkman in the pursuit of his historical researches 
were, from time to time, after use, presented to the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. In the Proceedings, 2nd series, 
vol. i, pp. 360-361, vol. iv, pp. 44-46, vol. vi, pp. 391-392, vol. 
vii, pp. 348-349, vol. viii, p. 171, will be found lists of the sev- 
eral donations. 

The titles of the volumes are as follows : 

Canada, 1674-1712. 8 vols. 

New France, 1741-1761 (unbound). 2 vols. 

282 Bep6rt Alabama flistory Oommisision. 

Copies from the Bouq'iret and Haldimand Patp6rs, 1756- 
1761. 1 vol. 

Copies from the Public Eecord Office, 1753-1760. 4 vols. 
Letters of Lieutenant-Governor Dinwiddle, 1751-1755. 5 

Letters of Montcalm to his Family, 1756-1759. 1 vol. 
Letters of Montcalm to Bourlamaque, 1756-1759. 1 vol. 
Letters of Vaudreuil and others to Bourlamaque. 1 vol. 
Copies from the Archives Rationales, 1666-1759. 1 vol. 
Historie de Montreal, par Dollier de Oasson, 1640-1672. 1 

Letters of Washington to Colonel Bouquet, 1758 (un- 
bound. ) 

Supplement to Papers from Public Record Office, (un- 

Nine volumes relating to the conspiracy of Pontiac, viz: 
Documents from the State Paper Office, London, 1762- 

1763. 1 vol. 
Documents from the Archives of the Marine and Colo- 
nies, Paris, 1 vol . 
Copies of the Bouquet papers in the British Museum, 

1759-1763, 1764-1765. 2 vols. 
Copies from Journals and Personal Narrative in various 

sources. 1 vol . 
Copies of papers from public and private coll6ctiolis in 
various parts of England and America, 1750-1762, 
1763, 1764, 1765-1778. 4 vols. 
Canada, Church and State, 1647 1704. 1 vol. 
Documents sur le Canada, consisting of papers from the 
archives Nationales, the Bibliotheque Rationale, arid othtr 
French sources, 1627-1702. 1 vol. 

Voyage, au Canada, 1751-1761. Copy of a manuscWpt 
book in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 1 vol. 
Seven Letters of Pedro Menendez. 
Lettre d'un Habitant de Louisbourg, 1745. 
Copies from Archives du Minist^re des Affaires Esferan^ 
g^res, 1629-1686. 1 vol. 

Copies from Archives du Minist^re des Affaires Estran- 
g^res, 1714-1755. 1 vol. 

Copies from Public Record Office, 1693-1711. 1 vbl. 
Copies from Public Record Office, 1711-1725; 1 vol. 
Copies from Public Record Office, 1744-1746. 1 vol. 
Copies from Public Record Office, 1746-1749. 1 vol. 
Copies from Correspondence Officielle, 2me. Serie, vkjls. 
IX.-XI. ' 

MaSSaciiris&tts Historical Society. 23^ 

CopfeiS from Correspondence Officielle, 3me Serie, vols. II. 
Copies from Correspondence Officielle, 3me. Serie, vols. 
Copies from CorreSpoiid6nce Officielle, Sme. Serie, vols. 


Copies from Arcliives de la Marine, 1660-1671. 
Copifes from Archives de la Marine, 1704-1709. 
Copies from Archives de la Marinfe, 1704-1709. 
Copies from Archives de la Marine, 1737-1759'. 
Copies from Archives Nationales, 1598-1759. 1 vol. 
Copies from Archives Nationales, Compagnie dii Castor. 
Dupuis, "Troubles du Canada, 1728." 1 vol. 
Documents relating to Acadia, the Abenaquis, etc. 3 
Journal de Jean Cavelier, brother of La Salle. MS. 1 l.^^-^^^ 


Journal of Kev. Stephen Williams, beginning at Louis- 

lourg, 18 July, 1745, and ending at , Jan. 1749. MS. l^^^ 

. vol. 

The Relation of Penicaut, 1698-1721. Contemporary 
Qanuscript of one of the most important documents on' the 
leginning of Louisiana. Charlevoix used it ; and I^rench, in i^y^ 
lis Louisiana Historical Gollections, printed a translation '^ 
\i pa:rts of it, from a very imperfect copy. 1 vol. 

Canada, Correspondence Officielle, 1621-1679. 1 vol. folio. 

Papers on the Canadian Jesuits. 1 vol. quarto. 

Jesuit Letters, 1683 to 1708. 1 vol. thin 4to. 

Documents and notes on the Jesuits, Frontenac, etc. 1 
Portfolio 4to. 

Galehdar of documents from the French Archives, rfilat- 
hg to the time of Frontenac, 1672-1698. 1 packet. 

Notes froih oi^iginal documents used in preparation of 
■The Old E^g^ime in Canada." 2 vols. 4to. 

Marquis de la Eoche, 1598. Rapport du Capitaine Fleury, 
613. Lettre de la: Sofeur de Ste. Croix, 1639. 

Calendar of French and English MSS. used in preparation 
if "A Half-Ceiitui^ of Conflict." 1 packet'. 

Calendar of French and English MSS. on the "Seven 
Tears' War," 1748-1763, (used for "Montcalm and Wolfe"). 
: portfolio. 

Notes and Extracts on Acadians, Abenakis, Father Sebas- 
'an Rale, etc. 1 portfolio. 

Relation sur le Canada 1695, 1696, and various papers on 
''reneh' Canada. 1 packet. 

234 ileport Alabama History Commission. 

Papers relating to Louisbourg, 1745, and extracts from 
Journal de Franquet, 1752. 1 portfolio. 

Papers relating to La V^rendrye, from originals in D^pot 
des Cartes de la Marine. Various autograph papers on 
Acadia, etc. I packet. 

Notes on the Indians, made in 1845. 3 vols. 

Acadian Affairs. Kelates especially to Charles Saint 

Etienne de la Tour and Charles de Menon D'Aulnay Char- 
nisay. 2 portfolios. 

Original Manuscript of Count Bene de Menou, the modern 
representative of the family of D'Aulnay Charnisay. 1 vol. 


In the archives of the State Department of Massachusetts, 
Boston, are a large number of French documents. Their 
special value to the historian of the South cannot here be 
stated, as no examination of them has been made. The fol- 
lowing description is from a Report of the Commissioners on 
the Eecords in the Secretary's Department (Boston, 1885), 
pp. 16-17, viz: 

"Mr. Ben : Perley Poore was appointed by the Governor in 
May, 1845, to copy such documents in the French Archives 
as bore upon the early history of Massachusetts, and his re- 
port of Dec. 28, 1847, accompanied by letters from John G. 
Palfrey and Jared Sparks, constitutes Senate Document No. 
9(1848). For this work, Mr. Poore was paid $2,960. The 
transcripts fill ten volumes in folio, and cover a period from 
the earliest times to 1780, but unfortunately, some of the 
papers are entered by title only, and the space left for their 
transcription has never been filled, though there is an index 
to the whole. Two large volumes of maps (mostly printed) 
and engravings, the whole not of much value, complete the 
series, which is known as the French Archives. They have 
been copied recently for the Archives of the Province of Que- 
bec, and that government is now printing them." 


Mississippi history owes more to John Francis Hamtranck 
(Maiborne (1809-1884) than to any other one individual.'' The 
son of Gen. F. L. Claiborne, and the nephew of Gov. Wm. C. 
C. Claiborne, he was early in touch with the leading spirits of 
the Territory and State. His wife was a granddaughter of 

..'Z?^ ^^®H^„°L^'"- Claiborne, see Lynch's Bench ana Bar of Mississippi 
(ISSl), pp. 516-529. 

Mississippi University Library, 235 

Ool. Anthony Hutcliins, one of the most prominent charac- 
ters of Territorial times, and one of the leaders of the oppo- 
sition to the administration of Gov. Wiuthrop Sargent. Mr. 
Ulaiborne was a journalist of much power; and served in 
Congress from 1835 to 1838. By inheritance from his own 
and his wife's family, he came into possession of many "time 
norn papers and documents." Conceiving the idea of pre- 
paring a "History of the Southwest," he secured the private 
papers of many of the public men of the State. The manu- 
script of this work was lost by the sinking of a steamer on 
the Mississippi liiver, and the venture was never again 
resumed.'' He then, after many delays from "the 
\icissiliides of war and the demands of every day 
life," in 1880 issued volume i of his Mississippi, as i^ 
a Province J Territory and State. While in an ad- 
vanced state of preparation, volume ii was destroyed by 
fire. Mr. Claiborne then donated his entire collection of 
manuscripts, pamphlets and newspapers to the State of Mis- 
sissippi, and on March 8, 1882, the Legislature passed an act 
placing them in the custody of the State University, at Ox- 
ford'" A manuscript Catalogue of the collection has been 
prepared and is kept in the State Library, at Jackson. There 
is no more important single collection to the student of Ala- 
bama history outside of the State, and the Catalogue is here- 
with presented. The lists here given have been rechecked 
with the originals through the courtes/ of Dr. F. L. Eiley, 
Secretary of the Mississippi State Historical Society, and 
Professor of History in the State University. 

The Claiborne Collection. 

Miscellaneous Letters arranged Alphabetically and Chro- 
nologically. Books "A," "B," and "C". 

Acee, B. L. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 17, 1839. 
Adams, D. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 19, 1845. 
Adams, S. R to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 1, 1843. 
iidams, S. R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 12, 1843. 
Adams, h.. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 15, 1828. 
Adams, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 20, 1828. 
Adams, Sprague to Geo. Poindexter, Marcli 30, 182 ^ 
Allen, M. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 4, 1834. 
Allen, M. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 26, 1834. 
Allen, M. to Geo. Poindexter, March 15, 1834. 
Alsbury, H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 5, 1837. 
Anderson, H. to H. Bennett, March 5, 1856. 
Anonymous, to A. Jackson, Sept. 5, 1828. 
Anonymous, to J. F. Brent, March 22, 1845. 

Anonymous to Geo. , Dec. 11, 1835. 

Anonymous, to Judge , Feb. 5, 1835. 

^'Claiborne's Life and Times of Dale (1860), Preface. 
"Lavos of Miss,, 1882, p. 135. 

Report Alabama History Commission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Aaonymous, to A Creditor, May 11, 183S. 

Backus, F. R., to Jno. A. Quitman, June 9, 1834. 
Backus, F. R., to Jno. A. Quitman, Sejt. 21, 1847. 
Backus, F. R., to Jno. A. Quitman Nov. 20, 1847. 
Bacon, A. B.,toJ. F. H. Ciaiborne, May 18, 1842. 
Bacon, A. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 22, 1842. 
Bacon A. B.,toJ. H. F. Claiborne, Oct. 4, 1842. 
Bailey, J. A.,toJ. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 3, 1877. 
Bainbridge, H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 24, 1846. 
Baker, D. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, -May 5, 1851. 
Baker, D. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 11, 1851. 
Barksdale, E. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 6, 1855. 
Barnwell, R. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 19, 1850. 
Barrett, Thos. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 20, 1845. 
Barrett, Thos to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 21, 1845. 
Barrett, Thos. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 4, 1845. 
Barrett, Thos. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 8, 1854. 
Barry, W. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 23, 1854. 
Bay, E. H. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 4, 1833. 
Beauregard, E. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 15, 1851. 
Beauregard, E. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 26, 1851. 
Beauregard, E. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 29, 1853. 
Beauregard, E. T. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 5, 1860. 
Beauregard, E. T. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 7, 1860. 
Beauregard, E. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 16, 1864. 
Beauregard and others to Jno. Quitman, June 19, 1856. 
Bell, Wm. to Geo. Poindexter, May 22, 1834. 
Benedict, K. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 11, 1830. 
Benhard, H. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 6, 1856. 
Benham, H. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 7, 1856. 
Benham, H. W . to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 9, 1856. 
Benton, J. G. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 25, 1856. 
Besancon, L. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 20, 1840. 
v^ickley, J. to Geo. Poindexter, Sept. 28, 1815. 
Biddle, N. to Prest. U. S. Banks, Natchez, Jan. 17, 1831. 
Biddle, N. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 28, 1832. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 19, 1832. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 23, 1833. 
biack, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 2, 1833. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 2, 1834. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 19, 1834. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 3, 1834. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 17, 1834. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 14, 1835. 
Black, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 15, 1835. 
Boone, R. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 31, 1851. 
Botto, P. A. to J. F.'. H. Claiborne, Sept. 20, 1870. 
uotto, P. A. to J. F. M. Claiborne, Oct. 2, 1870. 
Boyle, Jno. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 30, 1834. 
Bradford, A. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 8, 1846. 
Bradley, C. P. to Geo. Poindexter, May 8, 1834. 
Brandon, ... S. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 31, 1846. 
Brandon, M. N. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 2, 1829. 
Brandon, G. C. to Geo. Poindexter, July 27, 1828 
Brandon, G. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 23, 1828. 
Brandon, G. C. to Geo. Poindexter, Nov. 25, 1830. 
Brandon, G. C. to Geo. Poindexter, Nov. 29, 1830. 
Brandon, G. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 21, 1845. 

Mississippi University Library. 28-7 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Brandon, G. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 29, 1845. 

Brender, J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, , — ^—. 

Brent, J. i.^\ to Jno. A. Quitman, March 19, 1845. 
Brewer, Jas. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 30, 1851. 
Briclclen, J. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 21, 1831. 
Briglit, G. T. to J. P. H. Claiborne, June 20, lu56. 
Briscoe, P. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 20, 1829. 
Brown, P. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 19, 1846. 

Brown, A. G. to . 

Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 4, 1843. 
Brown, a. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 23, 1843. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 23, 1843. 
Brown, A. G. \.o J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 16, 1853. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 17, 1854. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, March 29, 1855. 
Brown A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 19, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, June 7, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Aug. 14, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 11, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 10, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 19, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 4, 1856. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, April 1, 1856. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 4, 1857. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 7, 1857. 
Brown, A. G. to J. H. F. Claiborne, April 5, 1857. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 13, 1857. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 30, 1857. 
Brown A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 27, 1858. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, March 15, 1860. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, July, 1876. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Sept. 26, 1851. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 7, 1853. 
Brown A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, March 11, 1853. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 29, 1853. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 6, 1853. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 15, 1853. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 15, 1853. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 1, 1854. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, April 4, 1854. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 17, 1854. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 29, 1854. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 22, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, April 27, 1855. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 14, 1856. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 3, 1856. 
Brown, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 4, 1857. 
Brown, A. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Nov. 16, 1857. 
Brown, A. G. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 13, 1851. 
Bush, S. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 3, 1839. 
Bryce, J. G. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 12, 1845. 
Buckner, R. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 9, 1828. 
Buckner, R. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 15, 1830. 
Buckner, R. H. to .Jno. A. Quitman, .Ian. 8, 1832. 
Buckner, R. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 25, 1834. 
Burnett, W. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 30, 1848. 
Burns, Wm. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 15, 1826. 
Burns, Wm. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 21, 1827. 
Burns, Wm. to Geo. Poindexter, March 20, 1830. 
Byrnes, Vf. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 5, 1832. 

238 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Cage, H. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 1, 1832. 

Caldwell, P. to Geo. Polndexter, . 

Caldwell, P. to Geo. Polndexter, Feb. 12, 1827. 
Caldwell, P. to Geo. Polndexter, Oct. 20, 1828. 
Caldwell, P. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 11. 1828. 
Caldwell, P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 19, 1829. 
Caldwell, J. H. to Wm. B. Griffith, Dec. 8, 1826. 
Calhoun, J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 27, 1856. 
Calhoun, Geo. to Fall & Marshall, Sept. 10, 1849. 
Campbell, A. to Geo. Polndexter, Jan. 1, 1834. 
Cannon, W. R. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 11, 1851. 

Carrell, to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 21, 1842. 

Carroll, Wm. to Geo. Polndexter, and 
Carroll, Wm. to Wm. Bullitt, Jan. 22, 1815. 
Carson, S. P. to Geo. Polndexter, May 7, 1832. 
Cartwright, S. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 27, 1839. 
Cartwright S. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 11, 1853. 
Cartwright, S. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 26, 1854. 
Cartwright, S. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 20, 1859. 
Cassedy, H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 27, 1854. 
Cassedy, H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 17, 1855. 
Cassedy, H. to ... F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 20, 1855. 
Carvajal, J. J. to C. R. Wheat, Jan. 9, 1853. 
Chalmers, J. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 29, 1846. 
Chandler, G .C. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 28, 1854. 
Chandler, G. C. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 23, 1872. 

Chase, W. H. to July 18, 1846. 

Chase, W. H. to , July 6, 1858. 

Chinn, A. H. to Geo. Polndexter, May 3, 1826. 
Chinn, A. H. to Geo. Polndexter, Aug. 23, 1826. 
Claiuorne, J. F. H. to Geo. Polndexter, March i, 1832. 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to Brander, McKenna & Wright, Oct. 21, 1836, 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to President of U. S., Aug. 23, 1842. 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to C. M. Price, Feb. 9, 1843. 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to A. S. Robinson, Aug. 6, 1846. 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to A. J. Pickett, April 19, 1849. 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to Gov. Walker, Nov. 21, 1850. 
Claiborne, J. F. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, 


Claiborne, F. L. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 11, 1843. 

Claiborne, R. to Geo. Polndexter, June 23, 1816. 
V^larke, J. C. to Geo. Polndexter, Dec. 15, 1820. 

Clay, Henry to Geo. Polndexter, Oct. 7, 1826. 

Clinton, J. G. to Claiborne, March 12, 1845. 

VCoalter, J. to David Holmes, March 14, 1808. 

Coalter, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 8, 1831. 

Cocke, S. 10 .ino. A. Quitman, Sept. 24, 1834. 

Cocke, S. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 15, 1841. 

Cocke, S. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 26, 1841. 

Cocke, b. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 8, 1843. 

Cocke, S. to ,Ino. A. Quitman, Dec. 11, 1843. 

Coffey, J. R. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 4, . 

Colt, M. to Geo. Polndexter, Jan. 22, 1834. 

Coleman, S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 28, 1860. 

Comfort, D. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 9, 1831. 

Compton, W. M. to , Dec. 13, 1877. 

oonrad, R. to D. H. Conrad, Feb. 16, 1859. 

Conrad, D. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 2, 1859. 

Cooper, D. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 23, 1847. 

Cooper, F. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 13, 1859. 

Cor'cbran, D. to J. F. H. ClalHafne, April 2Bi 186S. 

Mississippi University Library. 239 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Coxe, D. W. to Geo. Polndexter, March 7, 1834. 
Cralle, R. K. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 3, 1852. 
Crane, Wm. R,. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 14, 1843. 
Crozman, G. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 8, 1846. 
Curtis, E. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 14, i.842. 
Curtis, E. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Sept. 16, 1842. 

D. T. A. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 28, 1841. 
D. T. A. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 30, 1842. 
Dabney, F. to Geo. Poindexter, Sept. 20, 1830. 
Danley, C. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 26, 1851. 
Danley, C. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 21, 1852. 
Davis, J. E. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 12, 1833. 
Davis, Jefferson, to J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 24, 1852. 
Davis, Jefferson to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 24, 1878. 
Davis, M. to James Smylie, Sept. 4, 1817. 
Davis, E. M. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 18, 1878. 
Davidson, J. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 29, 1857. 
Deas, Fitzallen -o Jno. A. Quitman, April 16, 1847. 

Deason, J. B. to , March 19, 1879. 

DeBov?, J. D. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 12, 1845. 
Dedrick, "W . W. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 1, 1876. 
Desamping, J. M. to J. P. Dickinson, Aug. 15, 1847. 
Dickinson, J. P to Jno. A. Quitman, May 17, 1847. 
Dickinson, J. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 7, 1847. 
Dickinson, J. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, June — , 1847. 
Dickson, L. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 12, 1845. 
Dickson, D. to Geo. Polndexter, Oct. 18, 1831. 
Dickson, D. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 3, 1832. 
Dietz, Louis to Geo. Poindexter, May 17, 1834. 
Dill, B. P. to .Jno. A. Quitman, July 10, 1842. 
Dill, B. F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 18, 1845. 
Dill, B. F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 9, 1845. 
Dill, B. F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 19, 1845. 
Dill, B. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 7, 1847. 
Dill, B. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 24, 1853. 
Dill, B. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 14, 1853. 
Dorsey, Sarah, A. to J. P. H. Claiborne, June 13, 1877. 
Downs, S. W. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Aug. 10, 1845. 
Downs, S. W. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Sept. 24, 1851. 
Downs, S. W. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 8, 1851. 
Downs, S. W. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 3, 1852 
Downs, fa. W. 10 J. F. H. Claiborne, April 14, 1852. 
Downs, a. ,, . to J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 2, 1852. 
Downs, S. W. to J. H. F. Claitiorne, Jan. 11, 1853. 
Dunbar, Jos. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 22, 1826. 
Duncan, Jas to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 27, 1847. 
Duncan, Jas. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 26, 1847. 
Durant, T. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 17, 1846. 
Durant, T. J. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Aug. 5, 1852. 

Eastland, T. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, . 

Edwara, Jas. to J. P. H. Claiborne, March 11, 1848. 
Edward, Jas. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 30, 1849. 
Edwards, B. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 22, 1830. 
Elder, W. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 1, 1860. 
EUett, H. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 20, 1843. 
Elliott, J. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 12, 1847. 
Ellis, P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 9, 1831. 
Edward, R. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Nov. 14, 1852. 
Edward, R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 3, 1855. 

?40 Report Alatjama History Cpmniiis^ion. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Ely, A. W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 16, 1857. 
Estes, M. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 31, 1847. 
Everett, A. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 14, 1842. 
Everett, A. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 30, 1842. 
Everett, A. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 10, 1842. 
Everett, A. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 30, 1842. 

Falconer, T. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 2, 1828. 
Falconer, T. P. to .Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. — , 1836. 
Fall, G. R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 2, 1828. 
Fall. G. R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 30, 1^41. 
Farrar, P. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 26, 1837. 
Farrar, P. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 11, 1839. 
Farrar, P. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 22, 1840. 
s( kcFTcklin, J. H. to Geo. Poindexter, June 17, 1816. 

Fisher, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 17, 1852. 
Fitz, G. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 8, 1828. 
Flournoy, Thos. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 3, 1846. 
Foote, J. F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 7, 1847. 
Foote, H. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 19, 1844. 
loote, H. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 29, 1846. 
Forsyth, J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 26, 1857. 
Fowler, Jos. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 28, 1840. 
Fox, Arthur, to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 11, 1845. 
Freeman, J. D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 1, 1843. 
Freeman, J. u. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 14, 1869. 

Freeman, J. D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, . — , . 

Fyler, J. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 25, 1842. ' 

Gage, J. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 28, 1877. 

Gaines, J. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 27, 1847. 

Gallup, A. to u. P. H. Claiborne, March 8, 1845. 

Garnett, R. S. to S. Thomas, May 8, 1856. 

Garrett, R. S. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 12, 1856. 

Garrett, H. A. and others to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 15, 1858. 

Geary, J. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 25, 1847. 

Geuvis, J. W. to , July 25, 1856. 

Gerdes, F. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 26, 1855. 
Gholson, S. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 7, 1843. 
Gholson, S. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 14, 1845. 
Gibson, R. L. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 20, 1878. 
Gildart, J. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 12, 1830. 
Gillet, R. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 21, 1847. 
Glenn, D. C. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 13, 1861. 
Glenn, D. C. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 8, 1861. 
Glenn, D. C. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 24, 1862. 
Golightly, T. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 8, 1836 
Grayson, W. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 9, 1841. 
Green, C. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 18, 1823. 
Green, Thos. I. to Jesse Benton, April 4, 1836. 
Gregg, Maxey to Jno. A. Quitman, May 9, 1851. 
Gregg, Maxey, to Jno. 9. Quitman, May 15, 1851. 
Gregg, Maxey, to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 15, 1851. 
Gregg, Maxey, to ,Ino. A. Quitman, Sept. 19, 1857. 
Griffith, Jno. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 25, 1834. 
Grlmball, Jno. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 8, 1828. 
Guion, Jno. I to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 10, 1827. 
Guion, Jno. I to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 16, 1829. 
Guion, Jno. I to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 5, 1830. 
Guion, Jno. I. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 13, 1833. 
Guion, Jno. I. tb Jno. A. Quitman; Feb. 7, 18,40. 

Mississippi University Library. 


Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Guion, W. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 17, 1834. 
Guion, W. B. to W. M. Grayson, Oct. 12, 1835. 
Gwin, Sam'l to Geo. Poindexter, Oct. 14, 1831. 
Gwln, Sam'l to Geo. Poindexter, April 27, 1835. 
Gwin, W. M. to Daniel Low, Aug. 29, 1842. 

Hadley, T. B. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 19, 1834. 

Hadley, T. B. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 27, 1834. 

Hadley, T. B. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 13, 1837. 

Hadley, T. B. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 28, 1838. 

Hagan, James to Jno. A. Quitman, May 29, 1838. 

Hagan James to Jno. A. Quitman, July 3, 1838. 

Haile, Wm. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 30, 1837. '^ 

Haile, Wm. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 6, 1828. i-"' ^■ 

Haile, Wm. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 26, 1828. f 

Haile, Wm. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 25, 1834. 

Haile, Wm. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 9, 1835. ■'• 

Harmanson, J. A. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 24, 1848. 

Hamner, Gen'l, to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct 16, 1846. 

Hamilton, P. to Geo. Poindexter, April 13, 1810. 

Hancock, W. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 14, 1867. 

Harney, Thos. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 23, 1837. 

Harney, Thos. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 10, 1833. 

Harney, Thos. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 6, 1840. 

Harper, Bros, to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 20, 1860. 

Harper, Bros, to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 21, 1860. 

Harris, W. P. to , Aug. 27, 1853. 

Harris, W. P. to , June 3, 1854. 

Harris, W. P. to J. i . H. Claiborne, Dec. 8, 1854. 

Harris, W. P. to , Feb. 6, 1855. 

Harris, W. P. to , March 4, 1855. 

Harris, W. P. to , March 29, 1855. 

Harris, W. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 30, 1855. 

Harris, W. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 8, 1855. 

Harris, W. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 10, 1881. 

Harris, W. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 2, 182S. 

Harris, W. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 8, 1830. 

Hayden, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 7, 1844. 

Hayden, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 16, 1845. 

Hayden, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 7, 1845. 

Hayden, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 15, 1845. 

Hayden, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 21, 1846. 

Hayden, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 21, 1846. 

Hayne, R. Y. to Jno. A. Quitman, . 

Hebert, R. O. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 7, 1852. 

Henderson, J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 30, 1830. 

Henderson, J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 20, 1841. 

Herndon, G. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 16, 1877. 

Hewes, W. G. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 29, 1833. 

Hewes, W. G. to Geo. Poindexter, March 21, 1834. 

Hickey, W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 5, 1845. 

Higginbotham, D. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 1, 1831. 

Hillyer, T. M. to Craft Nevitt, . 

wHinds, Thos. to Geo. Poindexter, Mar. 26, 1817. 
^inds, Thos. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 18, 1819. 

historical Society, Wis. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Mar. 11, 1854. 

rfoUiman, G. H. to Jno. A Quitman, Aug. 12, 1830. 

Holliman, G. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 6, 1853 

Holliman, G. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 9, 1855. 

16 ' • 

242 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Holliman, G. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 6, 1855. 
Holliman, G. H. to J. F. H. Cliaborne, Aug. 27, 1855. 
v4loImes, D. to Geo. Poindexter, Aug. 12, 1820. 

Hooker, C. B. to , Mar. — , 1857. 

Hooker, C. E. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 22, 1881. 
Hone, E. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 13, 1840. 
Hoskins, B. to M. Lovell, Feb. 28, 1847. 
Howard, B. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 27, 1843. 
Howard, B. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, Got. 18, 1843. 
Howard, V. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 14, 1839. 
Howard, V. E. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 1, 1843. 
Howard V. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 26, 1845. 
Howry, J. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 26, 1846. 
Howry, J. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 19, 1860. 
Huglies, H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 16, 1858. 
Hugnes, H. to u . F. H. Claiborne, Marcli 23, 1860. 
Humphreys, B. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 25, 1878. 
Humphreys, T. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 12, 1855. 
Hunt, M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 23, 1845. 
Hunt, M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 14, 1846. 
Hurst, D. W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 18, 1859. 
Hurt, D. A. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 18, 1876. 
Hurt, D. A. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 27, 1877. 
Huston, F. to Geo. Poindexter, March 4, 1829. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 19, 1832. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 21, 1836. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 5, 1838. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 4, 1839. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 26, 1839. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 14, 1847. 
Huston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 19, 1850. 

Irish, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 17, 1830. 
Ives, T. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 9, 1845. 

Jackson, A. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 20, 1830. 

Jackson, H. ±i. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 6, 1867. 

Jandon, S. to Jas. M. Reynolds, Aug. 25, 1830. 

Jenkins, D. C. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 19, 1856. 

Johnson, W. P. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 13, 1832. 

Johnson, W. P. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 6, 1833. 

Johnson, H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 1, 1849. 

Johnson, J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 18, 1845. 

Jordan, A. W. and others to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 26, 1849. 

Kaufman, D. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 23, 1845. 
►temper, J. to Geo. Poindexter, March 19, 1817. 

Kendall, W. G. to , May 19, 1848. 

Kendall, W. G. to , Aug. 18, 1854. 

Kennedy, J. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 31, 1845. 
Kiegan, A. N. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 8, 1831. 
Kilpatrick, A. R. to J. F. Claiborne, March 21, 1859. 
Kilpatrick, A. R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 2, 1877. 
Kincannon, A. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 2, 1843. 
Kincannon, A. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 7, 1843. 
Kirby, E. to Mrs. M. S. Smith, Sept. 12, 1847. 
Knight, A. M. & others to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 25, 1840. 

Land, Thos. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 19, 1828. 
Langdon, J. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 7, 1845. 
^attimore W. to Geo. Poindexter, May 10, 1806 
Lay, G. W. to , Oct. 27, 1847. 

Mississippi University Library. 243 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Leake, W. to Geo. Polndexter, April 23, 1822. 
Leake, W. to Geo. Polndexter, Sept. 14, 1822. 
Le Due, H. to J. P. H. Claiborne, March 11, 1865. 
Lee, S. D. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 13, 1879. 
Leech, F. to J. P. H. Claiborne, July 12, 1845. 
Leech, P. to J. P. H. Claiborne, July 24, 1853. 
Leech, P. to J. P. H. Claiborne, July 22, 1857. 
Lern, Gustav, to J. P. H. Claiborne, March 13, 1850. 
Lewis, W. B. to Geo. Polndexter, Oct. 10, 1822. 
Locke, S. to John Slldell, Dec. 4, 1844. 
Locke, S. to J. P. H. Claiborne, July 15, 1856. 
Lossing, B. J. to J. P. H. Claiborne, March — , 1860. 
Lossing, B. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 10, 1860. 
Lossing, B. J. to J. P. H. Claiborne, April 23, 1860. 
Loucks, R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 1, 1845. 
l»Cowry, J. to Geo. Polndexter, July 4, 1815. 
Lyles, W. S. & others to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 27, 1851. 
Lynch, C. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 25, 1828. 
Lynch & others to Jno. A. Quitman, July 2, 1833. 

Magee, Eugene to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 10, 1830. 
Marmion, A. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 22, 1854. 
Marmion, A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 23, 1855. 
Marmion, A. to J. P. H. Claiborne, April 28, 1855. 
Marschalk, A. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 30, 1836. 
Marschalk, A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 3, 1838. 
Marsh, S. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 20, 1836. 
Marshall, Jno. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 11, 1848. 
Mason, J. S. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 1, 1878. 
Mason, J. S. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 9, 1878. 
Maury, J. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 24, 1826. 
Mayer, P. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 24, 1833. 
Mayerhoff, C. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 9, 1877. 
Mayson, C. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 13, 1833. 
Mayson, C. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 17, 1837. 
McAfee, M. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 15, 1853. 
McAfee, M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 31, 1855. 
McCaleb, J. P. to Mr. Pickett & Mr. Minton, Jan. 6, 1842. 
McCall, G. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 24, 1847. 
McCaughan, J. I. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 6, 1843. 
McClung, A. R. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 27, 1846. 
McCord, Jas. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 2, 1851. 
McDonald, J. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 9, 1851. 
McDonald, J. to Jno. A. Quitman April 3, 1851. 
DcDonald, J. W. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Dec. 27, 1855. 
McDonald, J. W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 16, 1856. 
McDonald, H. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 22, 1878. 
McParlane, J. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 20, 1845. 
McMurran, J. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 24, 1823. 
McMurran, J. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 24, 1823. 
McMurran, J. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 29, 1837. 
McMurran, J. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 7, 1846. 
McNutt, A. G. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 31, 1838. 
McRae, J. I. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 7, 1843. 
McRae, J. T. to J. P. H. Claiborne., Dec. 1, 1851. 
McRae, J. I. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Feb. 23, 1853. 
McRae, J. I. to J. P. H. Claiborne, June 14, 1854. 
MCRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 23, 1854. 
McRae, J. I. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Sept. 27, 1854. 
McRae, J. I. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Nov. 10, 1854. 

244 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

McRae, J. I. to J. H. F. Claiborne, Feb. 15, 1855. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 9, 1855. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 17, 1855. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 30, 1855. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 18, 1855. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 25, 1855. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 9, 1856. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 29, 1858. 

McRae, J. I. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 31, 1859. 

McRae, J. I. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 19, 1845. 

McRae, Kate to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 23, 1855. 

McRae, j. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 17, 1855. 

McRae, J. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 5, 1855. 

McRae, J. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 30, 1855. 

McTyeire, H. U. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 1, 1854. 
v^ead, Cowles to Geo. Poindexter, Sept. 23, 1806. r 
*l5fead, Cowles to Geo. Poindexter, Sept. 26, 1806. (^ 
HSIead, Cowler to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 14, 1808. ^ 
^ead, Cowle Geo. Poindexter, Sept. 1, 1809. "^ 

v«read, Cowlea " ., ^oindexter, Dec. 23, 1810. ^ 

k^ead, Cowles ic (. eo. Poindexter, Jan. 3, 1812. ^ 
V«*Kad, Cowles to Geo. Poindexter, Nov. 30, 1812. ^ 

Means, J. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 12, 1851. 

Medary, Jacob to W. Medill, Jan. 15, 1843. 

Medill, W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 22, 1842. 

Mellen, W. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 15, 1847. 

Merchants Exchange to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 25, 1847. 

Merrill, A. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 6, 1858. 

Metcalfe, B. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 26, 1822. 

Metcalfe, T. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 12, 1829. 

Michel, (Widow Sue) to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 20, 1862. 

Miller, W. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 9, 1859. 

Mitchell, J. C. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 7, 1837. 

Montgomery, C. P. to Geo. Poindexter, Aug. 1, 1833. 

Montgomery, E. to John A. Quitman, Jan. 24, 1842. 

Montgomery, J. F. & others to J. P. H. Claizome, Dec. 25, 1839. 

Moore, S. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 15, 1846. 

Morris, J. J. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 19, 1832. 

Morris, J. J. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, March- 19, 1834. 

Morris, J. J. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 27, 1834. 

Morris, J. J. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 30, 1835. 

Morse, J. o. to ■ , April 8, 1859. 

Muller, A. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 11, 1855. 

Muchison, S. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 24, 1838. 

Murry, J. to Jno. A. Mallory, Jan. 27, 1826. 

North, R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 29, 1878. 
Nutt, R. to , Jan. 14, 1859. 

Parker, C. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 26, 1830. 
Parker, C. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, July — . 1832. 
Patterson, R. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 5, 1847. 
Patterson, R. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 10, 1847. 
Patton, W. S. & others to Jno. A. Quitman, June 5, 1855. 
Patton, J. W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 16, 1855. 
Penn, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 27, 1832. 
Penn, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 25, 1832. 
Penn, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 19, 1845. 
Penn, A. G. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 4, 1852. 
Perkins, Jno. to J. P. H. Claiborne, May 14, 1853, 
Perkins, Jno. to ~ , Oct. 20. 1853. 

Mississippi TTniversity Library. '245 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Perkins, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 14, 1854. 

fhilllps, J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 23, 1828. 

Pickett, A. J. to J. F, H. Claiborne, June 28, 1847. *' 
V Hekett, A. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 24, 1847.1^ 

Pickett, A. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 6, 1847. •- 

Pickett, A. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 20, 1849. t^ 

Pierce, Jas. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 28, 1857. 

Pilcher, C. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 21, 1855. 

Pillow, G. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 28, 1847. 

Pitts, E. D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 29, 1854. 

Plummer, F. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 19, 1828. 

Plummer, F. E. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 6, 1831. 

Plummer, F. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 5, 1832. 

Plummer, F. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 4, 1833. 

Plummer, F. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 25, 1836. 

Plummer, F. E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 30, 1836. 

Plummer, F. E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 17, 1845. 
(^/fPoindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Dec. 26, 1808. ""n 
/ KPolndexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, April 20, 1810. \ 
cPoindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Feb. 25, 1811. \ 
^oindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Nov. 11, 1811. 
ir Poindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Dec. 12, 1811. 
r^oindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Jan. 25, 1812. 
KPoindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, April 10, 1812. 
^/1r Poindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, May 24, 1812. 

y'Poindexter, Geo. to , Nov. 15, 1812. ^/' 

k- Poindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Dec. 14, 1812. 
(•'Poindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Jan. 4, 1813. 
kPoIndexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Feb. 3, 1813. 
rPoindexter, Geo. to Cowles Mead, Feb. 22, 1813. , 
r Poindexter, Geo. to D. Holmes, Oct. 6, 1814. v 
V Poindexter, Geo. to D. Holmes, March 17, 1815. *^ 
l^oindexter, Geo. to Andrew Jackson, Oct. 25, 1820. .-V' 

Poindexter, Geo. toT. B. Read, May 16, 1821. """ 

Poindexter, Geo . to , May 21, 1821 . 

Poindexter, Geo. to J. P. Hampton, June 17, 1821. 

Poindexter Geo. to Com'r. Gen. Land Office, Sept. 26, 1821. 

Poindexter, Geo. to G. C. Brandon, Aug. 25, 1828. 

Poindexter, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 4, 1839. 

Poindexter, Geo. to J. T. McMurran, March 21, 1829. 

Poindexter, Geo. to Liddell, Sept. 26, 1829. 

Poindexter, Geo. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 25, 1829. 

Poindexter, Geo. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 10, 1832. 

Poindexter, Geo. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 26, 1832. 

Poindexter, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 7, 1837. 

Porter, D. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 9, 1837. 

Porter, A. to P. F. Smith, Feb. 4, 1856. 

Posey, S to Jno. A. Quitman, July 22, 1846. 

Powers, R. C. to F. Heiderhof, May 16, 1873. 

Pray, P. R. R. to Jno. A. Quitman, . 

Pray, P. R. R. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 7, 1831. 

Pray, P. R. R. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 9, 1832. 

Preston, Jno. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 9, 1832. 

Price, C. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 7, 1843. 

Price, C. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 12, 1843. 

Price, Wm. F. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 3, 1845. 

Prieur, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 28, 1846. 

Puckett, S. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 1, 1836. 

246 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Quackenboss, F. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 1, 1833. 
Quackenboss, F. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 13, 1837. 
Quackenboss, F. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 5, 1838. 
Quackenboss, P. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 30, 1840. 
Quackenboss, F. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 22, 1841. 
Quackenboss, F. W. .to Jno. A. Quitman, July 23, 1851. 
Quarles, G. M. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 9, 1834. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to J. T. McMurran, Feb. 9, 1828. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to Henry Clay, April 3, 1830. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to S. Gustine, April 28, 1835. 

Quitman, Jno. A. to Planter's Bank , 1840. 

Quitman, Jno. A. to B. D. Howard, Aug. 23, 1843. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to G. H. Grosman, Sept. 8, 1846. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to Major Gaines, Oct. 26, 1847. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to W. W. W. Wood, June 30, 1850. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to R. B. Rhett, Jan. 24, 1851. 
Quitman, Jno. A to Jas. D. Waddel, May 17, 1851. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to J. H. Means, May 25, 1851. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to G. R. Clifton, Nov. 18, 1853. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to C. J. Faulkner, July 31, 1856. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to W. W. Wood, April 3, 1858. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to W. Cannon & Col. Wood, May 30, 1858. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to W. W. W. Wood, June 22, 1858. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to Pharsalian Encampment, June 26, 1858. 
Quitman, Jno. A. to Jno. Marshall, Feb. 2, 1858. 

Randolph, P. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 27, 1829. 

Ratbbone & Bro, to Jno. A. Quitman, March 11, 1840. 

Rayburn, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 8, 1852. 

Reed, T. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 21, 1826. 

Reeder, Geo. W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 3, 1845. 

Reyburn, W. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 18, 1846. 

Rhett, R. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 22, 1851. 

Ricker, Sam'l to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 7, 1854. 

Rives, W. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 18, 1844. 

Roberts, W. J. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 1, 1852. 

Roberts, B. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 20, 1860. 

><Rodney, Thos. to Geo. Poindexter, Oct, 10, 1807. 

(-Rodney, Thos. to Geo. Poindexter, Nov. 20, 180V. 

i-^lodney, Thos. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 18, 1808. 

►■'Rodney, Thos, to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 25, 1808. 

k.«odney, Thos. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 3, 1808. 

Ross, Jno. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 18, 182-i. 

Royal Historical Society to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 17, 1880. 

Royal Historical Society to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 21, 1881. 

Royal Historical Society to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 28, 1881. 

Runnels, H. G. & others to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 21, 1828. 

Runnels, H. G. & others to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 31, 1829. 

Ross, Asa to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 5, 1855. 

Sanders, L. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 28, 1825. 
Sanders, L. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 4, 1847. 
Sanders, L. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 13, 1851. 
Saul, Jas. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 7, 1831. 
Scott, Winfleld, to Jno. A. Quitman, July 13, 1847. 
Scott, Jas. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 24, 1835. 
Scott, A. M. to Geo. Poindexter, July 25, 1828. 
Scott, A. M., to Jno. A. Quitman, April 30, 1832. 
Scott, A. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 12, 1833. 
Seabrook, W. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 20, 1850 
Seabrook. W. B. to Jeo. A. Quitman, Oct, 23, 1860, 


Mississippi University Library. 24*? 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Seabrook, W. B. (Telegram) to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 3, 1850. 

Seabrook, W. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 17, 1850. 

Seabrook, W. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 9, 1851. 

Seabrook, "W. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 15, 1851. 

Seal, R. to R. Egar, July 9, 1867. 

^ Sevier, A. H. to , April 14, 1846. 

Y Sharkey, W. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 9, 1830. 

Sharkey, W. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 12, 1830. 

Sharkey, W. T. to Geo. Poindexter, Dec. 4, 1830. 

Sharp, J. M. to J. A. Quitman, Oct. 29, 1846. 

Shaw, J. to Geo. Poindexter, Nov. 26, 1830. 

Shelton, W. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 15, 1843. 

Shepard, G. D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 1, 1859. 

Shaver, W. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 22, 1846. 

Simonson, J. S. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 10, 1856. 

Singleton, 0. R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 19, 1854. 

Slaughter, G. C. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 1, 1826. 

Slidell, Thos. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 3, 1853. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, [4 letters not dated.] 

Slidell, John to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 13, 1844. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 3, 1845. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 17, 1852. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, April 9, 1853. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 29, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 26, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 8, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 11, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 5, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 31, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 16, 1854. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claioorne, June 7, 1855. 

Slidell, Jonn to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 26, 1855. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 15, 1856. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 22, 1856. 

Slidell, Jno. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 21, 1857. 

Smith, C. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 27, 1837. 

Smith, C. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, , 1841. 

Smith, C. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 16, 1854. 
y«mith, Dan'l to David Holmes, Jan. 13, 1808. 

Smith, Rich'd to Geo. Poindexter, March 21, 1834. 

Smith F. to , Sept. 9, 1851. 

Smith, P. F. to Jno. A. Quitman, ■ . 

Smyth, W. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 12, 1839. 

Smyth, W. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 27, 1841. 

Smyth, W. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 3, 1842. 

Smyth, W. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 29, 1846. 

Smyth, M. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 1, 1845. 

Smyth, M. P. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 10, 1845. 

Smyth, H. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 3, 1857. 

Smyth, H. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Jan. 25, 1853. 

Snethen, W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 8, 1842. 

Snethen, W. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 5, 1842. 

Snow, S. W. to Lieut. Lovell, Feb. 28, 1847. 

Somerby, R. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 8, 1827. 

Soul4, Pierre to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 24, 1850. 

Soulg, Pierre to , Aug. 15, 1852. 

Soule, Pierre to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 13, 1852. 

Soul6, Pierre to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 29, 1853. 

Sparks, W. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 9, 1831. 

Sparks, W. H. to Juo, A. Quitman, May 6, 1831. 

248 Heport Alabama History Oommission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Speight, J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 5, 1844. 
Speight, J. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 10, 1846. 

Stanton, R. to , March 13, . 

Stanton, R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 10, 1853. 
Stanton, R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 9, 1853. 
Starke, T. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 11, 1846. 
Starke, T. J. to E. Van, Dorn, July 15, 1862. 
Starke, T. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 22, 1857. 
Sterling, T. S. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 18, 1830. 
Sterling, T. S. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 22, 1834. 
Stuart, T. H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 11, 1845. 
V^Stuart, Arcn, to David Holmes, Nov. 11, 1808. 
Stockton, R. to Robt. F. Stockton, May 17, 1825. 

Stone, F. D. to May 2, 1878. 

Stone, W. A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 15, 1842. 
Swan, G. T. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 18, 1851. 
Swain, D. L. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 13, 1860. 

Tallmadge, N. P. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 26, 1840. 

Tarpley, C. S. to , Aug. 3, 1855. 

Terrell, Lucretia, to Jno. A. Quitman, April 7, 1830. 

Thacher, J. S. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 16, 1839. 

Thacher, J. S. B. to J. F. H. Claiborne, July 31, 1845. 

Tharp, W. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 6, 1834. 

Thayer, C. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 5, 1836. 

Thomas, P. to Geo. Poindexter, April 23, 1821. 

Thompson, Jacob, to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 16, 1832. 

Thompson, Jacob, to , Sept. 2, 1850. 

Thompson, Jacob, to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 23, 1855. 

Thompson, Jacob to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 17, 1855. 

Thompson, Jacob, to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 23, 1859. 

Thompson, G. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 15, 1845. 

Thompson, Waddy to Jno. A. Quitman, June 22, 1856. 

Totten, J. G. to Jas. Shields, Jan. 31, 1854. 

Totten, J. G. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 23, 1856. 

Totten, J. G. to Chas. A. Henderson, March 10, 1856. 

Toulmin, T. S. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 3, 1845. 

Townsend, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, March 21, 1856. 

Trask, J. E. to Geo. Poindexter, April 3, 1826. 
>.^rist, H. B. to Geo. Poindexter, Sept. 28, 1804. 

Trist, N. P. to Geo. Poindexter, March 21, 1822. 

Trotter, Jas. F. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 17, 1829. 

Tucker, T. M. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Sept. 14, 1822. 

Turner, G. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 16, 1838. 
vTurner, E. to Geo. Poindexter, July 13, 1820. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 6, 1828. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 9, 1828. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 4, 1830. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 15, 1830. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 10, 1830. 

Turner, B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 14, 1831. 

Turner, E. to T. Henderson, Aug. 12, 1834. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 5, 1834. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 13, 1837. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 31, 1837. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 18, 1838. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 12, 1840. 

Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 27, 1840. 

.Turner, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 14, 1841. 

Twiggs, D. B. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 6, 1847. 

Mississippi University Library. S49 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Twiggs. D. E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 8, 1847. 

Van Dorn, P. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 23, 1827. 
Van Dorn, Earl to Mrs. Emma Miller, May 2, 1847. 
Van Evrle, J. H. to , Nov. 6, 1853. 

Vannerson, W. to Jno. A. Quitman, May — , 1830. 
Vannerson, W. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 13, 1842. 
Waddel, Jas. D. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 3, 1851. 
Waldo, P. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 26, 1847. 

Walker, Alex to , May 4, 1843. 

Walker, Alex to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 26, 1845.' 
Walker, S. R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 20, 1853. 
iJValker, J. W. to Geo. Polndexter, Dec. 23, 1812. 
Walker, Jas. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Oct. 22, 1844. 
Walker, Jas. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 8, 1845. 
Walker, Jas. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. 23, 1845. 
Walker D. S. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 16, 1829. 
Walker, D. S. and R. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 12, 1829. 
Walker, R. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 5, 1831. 
Walker, R. J. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Jan. 6, 1841. 
Walker, R. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 21, 1841. 
Walker, R. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 23, 1842. 
Walker, R. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 15, 1842. 
Walker, R. J. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Dec. 12, 1844. 
Walker, R. J. to T. J. Johnston, Feb. 3, 1843. 
Walker, W. W. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 28, 1827. 
Walker, D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, March 18, 1857. 
Warren, H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 18, 1845. 
Warren, H. to J. F. H. Claiborne, June 21, 1845. 
- ^'Washington, L. to Geo. Poindexter, Feb. 9, 1810.— 
Waskerhagen, A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 18, 1833. 
Webb, J. W. to J. F. H. Claiborne,' March 12, 1860. 
Welsh, C. H. to A. G. Brown, April 7, 1855. 
Wharton, T. J. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 9, 1851. 
Wilcox, J. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 25, 1846. 
vyfilcox, C. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, Feb. 18, 1848. 
Wilcox, C. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 5, 1849. 
Wlicox, C. M. to Jno. A. Poindexter, Jan. 10, 1854. 
■ Wilcox, C. M. ^o Jno. A. Poindexter, May 8, 1854. 
Wllklns, J. C. to Geo. Poindexter, March 14, 1834. 
Wilklns, C. E. to Geo. Poindexter, March 5, 1834. 
Wilkinson, E. to Jno. A. Quitman, Nov. 7, 1839. 
Williams, D. O. to Jno. A. Quitman, July 13, 1846. 
Williams, T. H. to Geo. Poindexter, March 12, 1822. 
Williams, T. H. to V. E. Howard, March 17, 1843. 
Williams, T. H. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 14, 1825. 
Williams, T. H. to Jno. A. Quitman, April 25, 1846. 
Williams, G. W to J. F. H. Claiborne, Aug. 30, 1845. 
Williams, A. J. & others to J. F. H. Claiborne, Oct. — , 1849. 
Willis, T. A. to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 2, 1847. 
Winchester, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Aug. 16, 1821. 
Winchester, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Sept. 24, 1832. 
Winchester, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Oct. 6, 1832. 
Winchester, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 24, 1836. 
Winchester, Geo. to Jno. A. Quitman, Dec. 17, 1838. 
Winn, R. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Feb. 5, 1840. 
Winston, F. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 30, 1827. 
Wltherspoon, T. D. to J. F. H. Claiborne, May 8, 1877. 
Woods, M. L. to J. F. H Claiborne, March 15, 1860. 
Woodward, T. S. to J. F. H, Claiborne, March 13, 1853. 




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250 Heport Alabama History Commission. 

Miscellaneous Letters, etc. — Continued. 

Worth, W. I. to Jno. A. Quitman, May 23, 1847. 
Worth, W. I. to J. F. Claiborne, Dec. 30, 1848. 
Wright, D. W. .o Jno. A. Quitman, Mar. 9, 1828. 
Wright, D. W. to Geo. Polndexter, July 28, 1829. 
Wynkoop, P. M. to Jno. A. Quitman, June 8, 1847. 
Watson, C. C. and Son to Jno. A. Quitman, Jan. 1, 1839. 

Yell, A. to J. P. H. Claiborne, July 25, 1846. 
Yell, A. to J. F. H. Claiborne, Nov. 9, 1846. 
Yell, A. to J. P. H. Claiborne, Nov. 17, 1846. 

Poindextei* Letters and Papers. Book "C." (Continued.) 

Two Letters to Geo. Poindexter from his Son. 

Fourteen Letters & Papers relating to his son. 

-.^Letter from Geo. f'oindexter to Thos. G. Percy. 

Pour Letters from Geo. Poindexter to Mrs. A. B. C. Poindexter. 

Letter to Geo. Poindexter from Mrs. A. B. C. Poindexter. 

Eight Letters to Geo. Poindexter from his brother. 

Letter to Geo. Poindexter from his sister. 

Pour Letters to Geo. Poindexter from his nieces. 

Letter to Geo. Poindexter from his nephew. 

Blve Letters to Geo. Poindexter from a cousin. 

Pour Letters to Geo. Poindexter from his other relatives. 

Thirty-seven miscellaneous Letters & Papers. 

Schedule of the Poindexter Estate in Wilkinson Co. 

Ten Papers relating to Duel with Abijah Hunt. 

Twelve Papers relating to difficulty with Col. Hamilton. 

Six Papers relating to diflaculty with Capt. Joor. 

Seven Papers Bonds. 

Newspaper Articles. 

Guion Letters and Papers. Book "D." 

Correspondence between Capt. Isaac Guion and Gen. James Wilkin- 
son, 1797-1801. 27 Letters & Papers. 

Correspondence between Capt. Isaac Guion and Hon. Jas. McHenry, 
1797-1798. 33 Letters & Papers. 

Correspondence between Capt. Isaac Guion and Genls. C. & T. Free- 
^ man, ±797-1799. 14 Letters. 

Receipt Rolls, Returns, Affidavits, &c. 21 Papers. 

Miscellaneous Letters & Papers relating to the Military Career of 
Capt. Isaac Guion. 49 Letters and Papers. 

Commission, Journal, Application for Judgeship, and Account of 
Capt. Guion for 18% years in the public service. 4 Papers. 

Sevier Letters and Papers. Book "D." (Continued.) 

Journal of Hon. Jno. Sevier, June, 1790 - Sept., 1815. 
Power of Attorney, Hon. Jno. Sevier, 1795. i 

— ^ Letter from Stokeley Donelson to Hon. John Sevier, July, 1795. 
/ Three Letters from Gen. James Wilkinson to Gen. George W. Sevier, 

Paper from Hon. Jno. Sevier to Geo. Rutledge, 1803. 
Twenty eight Military i^etters and Papers, 1804 - 1813. 
, Three Letters from Gen. G. W. Sevier to C. Mead, 1806. 

Six Letters and one Report from Gen. G. W. Sevier to Gen. Jas. 
Wilkinson, 1808. 

Correspondence between Gen. G. W. Sevier and Maj. A. W. Nicoll, 
1809-1812. 10 Letters & 1 Paper. 

Three Letters from Gen. G. W. Sevier to Gen. W. Hampton, 1812. 
Printed Circular of Jno. Rhea, Feb. 13, 1809. 

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Mississippi University Library. 


Four Letters from Hon. Jno. Sevier to his son, Gen. G. W. Sevier, 
Jan. 13 - June 15, 181:d. 

Printed Circular of Hon. Jno. Sevier, March 3, 1815. 

Address of King, Head-men and Warriors of Chicliasaw Nation to 
Secretary of War concerning Saltpeter caves. No date. 

Early Times in Niitcliez District and. Mississippi Territory. 
Book "E." 

Laws of early Mississippi Territory. 10 Papers. 

Spanish Papers, - Early Mississippi Territory. 17 Papers. 

Memorandum Books and Papers of Daniel McGillivray, 1779 - 1806. 
14 Papers. 

Papers and Letters connected with the history of Col. A. Hutchins 
and "Committee of Safety," Peter Walker, D. Clark, Andrew Elli- 
cott, Winthrop Sargent, Lieut. Pope, and other prominent characters. 
67 Papers. 

Muster Rolls, Receipt Rolls, General Orders and Letters pertaining 
to Military Affairs, 1797 - 1805. 

Hamtranck Papers, and the letters of Gov. Gayoso included. 43 

Thirteen miscellaneous Letters and Papers. 

Four French Letters. 

Newspaper Articles. 

Kemper Expedition. 

Biographical sketches of "Pushmataha," and "Weatherford." 2 

Conspiracy of Aaron Burr. 14 Papers and several Newspaper ar- 

Papers of J. B. Gaines. 20 sheets. 

^Letters and Papers Kelating to tlie Indian Wars. 1812- 
1816. Booh "F." 

Anonymous to Gen. Jas. Wilkinson, Oct. 6, 1813. 

Bowyer, J. W. to F. L. Claiborne, Sept. 20, 1813. 
Bowyer, J. W. to F. L. Claiborne, Sept. 23, 1813. 
Bowyer, J. W. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 26, 1813. 
Butler, T. L. to G. H. Nixon, Sept. 16, 1814. 

Caller, Jas. to F. L. Claiborne, Aug. 25, 1813. 
to Mr. Bates, 



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borne, F. L. 
borne, F. L. 
borne, F. L. 

borne, F. 
borne, F. 
borne, F. 
borne, F. 
borne, F. 
borne, F. 
borne, F. 

F. L. 
F. L. 
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F. L. 
F. L. 
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to Geo. Poindexter, Nov. 26, 1812. 

to D. Beasley (sic), Feb. 15, 1813. 

to S. Knight, Mar. 14, 1813. 

to Jas. "Wilkinson, Mar. 18, 1813. 

to Thos. Flournoy, July 8, 1813. 

. to Bailey, Tait & Moniac, July 31, 1813. 

to J. W- Bowyer, Aug. 9, 1813. 

to D. Holmes, Aug. 12, 1813. 

to Officer at Liberty, Aug. 13, 1813. 

to Governor of Georgia, Aug. 14, 1813. 

to Ben Hawkins, Aug. 14, 1813. 

to H. Toulmin, Sept. 12, 1813. 

to Thos. Flournoy, Oct. 22, 1813. 

to Peter Isler, Oct. 29, 1813. 

to Thos. Flournoy, Nov. 8, 1813. 

to A. Jackson, Nov. 12, 1813. 

to , Aug. 12, 1813. 

to Thos. Flournoy, Nov. 12, 1813. 

252 fieport Alabama History Commission. 

Claiborne, F. L. to D. Holmes, Nov. 21, 1813. 
Claiborne, F. L. to Peter Isler, Nov. 25, 1813. 
Claiborne, F. L. to Andrew Jackson, Nov. 29, 1813. 
Claiborne, F. L. to Secretary of War, Jan. 1, 1814. 

Claiborne, F. L. to Gen'l , Jan. 1, 1814. 

Claiborne, F. L. to Secretary of War, Jan. 24, 1814. 
Claiborne, W. C. C. to Geo. Poindexter, Jan. 6, 1812. 

Claiborne, Gen. (?) Unfinished Letter . 

Calvit, A. to F. L. Claiborne, Sept. 18, 1813. 

Dent, B. M. to F. L. Claiborne, 5, 1813. 

Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, June — , 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, July 22, 18la. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Oct. 28, 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 5, 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 6, 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 7, 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to Gen. A. Jackson, Nov. 9, 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 9, 1813. 
Flournoy, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 10, 1813. 

Gaines, Geo. S. to Wm. McGrew, July 20, 1813. 
Gaines, Geo. S. to F. L. Claiborne, Jan. 21, 1814. 
Gayle, J. to G. H. Nixon, Feb. 13, 1815. 
Gibson, Geo. to F. L. Claiborne, Sept. 18, 1813. 

Hinds, Thos. to F. L. Claiborne, Oct. 26, 1813. 
Holmes, David to G. H. Nixon, Oct. 18, 1816. 

Jones, R. to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 13, 1813. 

Kennedy, J. P. to F. L. Claiborne, July 24, 1813. 

Magoffin, Jas. to F. L. Claiborne, Dec. 3, 1813. 

Malone, Smoot & others to , Sept. — , 1813. 

Mounger, M. G. to J. B. Wilkinson, July 29, 1813. 
Mead, W. C. to F. L. Claiborne, Sept. 20, 1813. 
Moore, R. B. to F. L. Claiborne, Jan. 1, 1814. 

Pipkins, P. to G. H. Nixon, Sept. 22, 1814. 

Russell, G. C. to F. L. Claiborne, Jan. 5, 1814. 

Scott, A. M. to F. L. Claiborne, Aug. 9, 1813. 
Sewall, Lewis to F. L. Claiborne, Jan. 13, 1814. 

Toulmin, H. to F. L. Claiborne, July 2, 1813. 
Toulmin, H. to F. L. Claiborne, July 9, 1813. 
Toulmin, H. to F. L. Claiborne, July 31, 1813. 
Toulmin, H. to F. L. Claiborne, Aug. 12, 1813. 

Wilkinson, Jas. to F. L. Claiborne, Sept. 8, 1812. 
Wood, Jno. & others to F. L. Claiborne, Nov. 19, 1812. 
Wright, Jno. to G. H. Nixon, Jan. 20, 1815. 

Addresses, Orders, Depositions. 19 Papers. 

Letters and Papers relating to the Fort Mims' Massacre September 
13, 1813, and to the condition of that region of country, both before 
and after that event, June 12 - Nov. 18, 1813. 36 Letters & Papers. 

Callava Papers. Book "B\" (Continued.) 

Operations of Gen'l A. Jackson, as Governor of the Provinces of 
Florida, 1821 and 1822. 4 Papers. 

Mississippi University Library. 253 

Mexican War Papers. Book "F." (Continued.) 

Reports of Officers. 22 Papers. 

Spanish Paper. 

Reminiscences of the Campaign under Gen'l Winfleld Scott, by 
Maj. G. T. Beauregard. 

Original Drafts of Military Report of the Action of Chapultepec, 
and before the City of Mexico on September 12 and 13, 1847. 2 Papers 
by Gen'l J. A. Quitman. 

Statement about the first Flag raised In the City of Mexico. 2 Pa- 

Route to Mexico. Reports of Lieuts. Tower and Beauregard, Engi- 
neers, and Maj. Smith's Memorandum. 2 Papers. 

General Orders, Circulars, Letters, Maps, and other Miscellaneous 
Papers. 26 Papers. 

The Natchez Fencibles. Book "F." (Continued.) 

Address to the Natchez Fencibles, by Gen. J. A. Quitman, Jan. 31, 

Constitution of the Organization. 

Annual Circular of the Montezuma Society, also Circular of the 
Aztec Club. 

Mississippi call upon the Nation for the privilege of fighting her 
battles. Petition to Congress by Gen. J. A. Quitman, 1846. 6 Papers. 

Correspondence of Kev. J. Smylie, D. D. 1814-1837. 

Book"F." (Continued.) 

Nineteen Letters of Historical value. Two of these relate to the 
establishment of Oakland College. 

Rev. C. K. Marshall, D. D. Book "F." (Continued.) 

Papers showing the untiring efforts of Dr. C. K. Marshall to relieve 
sick and wounded soldiers, during the late Civil War. 

Eulogy by the Rev. C. B. Galloway, Vicksburg, Miss. 

Report of Capt. Jno. J. Hood. 

"Orphans of Our Soldiers and How to educate Them." Pamphlet by 
Dr. Marshall. 

"Help for the Wounded." Paper by Dr. Marshall. 

Brief Review of Plan and Operations of Association for relief of 
maimed Soldiers. Pamphlet. 

Several printed articles. 

William Henry Elder. Book "F." (Continued.) 

Papers and correspondence of W. H. Elder, Bishop of Natchez, re- 
lating to the Laws of Mississippi, with regard to Charitable and Re- 
ligious Bequests, 1859. 4 Letters and 2 Papers. 

Manuscripts of Sir William Dunbar." Book "F." (Con- 
tinued. ) 

Sketch of Life and Character. 

Papers upon Slavery. 

Geological character of our Country. 

Origin of Prairies. 

Mounds raised by Aborigines, &c. 18 Papers & Journal. 

Miscellaneous Documents. Book "G." 

In addition to the foregoing MS. Collection, there is a large number 
of rare, early pamphlets. The collection contains also the following. 

""Returned to the family of the writer, Sir Wm. Dunbar by special act of 
legislature, 1887, or 1888. 

254 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 


The Constitutionalist. 

Feb. 22, 1844 - Feb. 19, 1845. 

Louisiana Statesman. 

May 18, 1849 -May 15, 1850. 

Mississippi Free Trader. 

July l-Dec. 30, 1841. 
Jan. 1 - June 30, 1842. 

Southern Galaxy. 

May 22, 1828 - May 20, 1830. 

'. Washington Eepublican. 

May 14, 1813 - Feb. 16, 1814. 
ly June 8, 1814 -April 12, 1815. 


The New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 
possesses the most comprehensive collection in existence of 
genealogical material relating to American families. 

It is also owner of the valuable collection of "Knox Manu- 
scripts," comprising the papers of Gen. Henry Knox, which 
were received by donation in 1873. 

"They relate to a great number of subjects, treated in a 
familiar correspondence by a large number of distinguished 
persons, covering the most interesting and important period 
in the history of the United States." The collection has 
been superbly arranged in fifty-five massive folio volumes, 
green turkey morocco binding. The number of letters and 
documents in the collection is eleven thousand four hundred 
and sixty-four, of which a careful index has been madfe. Gen. 
Knox was Secretary of War and of the Navy, 1789-1794. In 
the collection has been found two items of much interest, viz : 
"Minutes taken from Gen. McGillivray respecting the 
Creeks;" and "Alexander McGillivray's Oath of Allegiance 
to the United States," dated at New York, Aug. 14, 1790. 
The presence of these papers would seem to indicate that an 
exhaustive search of the whole collection would reveal others 
of much value. For a good description of these Manuscripts 
see Proceedings of the N. E. Historic Genealogical Society, 
Jan. 5, 1881, pp. 27-36. 


The records of the Catholic Church, at New Orleans, dat- 
ing from 1721, are probably of much value for the history of 
the French period. James S. Zacharie has an excellent ac- 

New Orleans Cathedral Archives. 255 

ount of them in the Publications of the Louisiana Historical 
society, vol. ii, part 3, Feb. 1900, which is here reproduced. 

"In a gloomy little room, with an old-fashioned iron-barred 
I'indow on St. Anthony's alley, in New Orleans, and adjoin- 
ng the Roman Catholic Cathedral, is located the 'Bureau 
les Archives' of the old parish church of St. Louis, now the 
athedral of the archdiocese of New Orleans. 

"The first church building erected in Louisiana was on the 
ite of the present cathedral, and for many years it was the 
inly regular constituted parish in the colony, hence all the 
■colesiastic acts Mere entered on its records, and thus form a 
)art of the early history of Louisiana. Ai'ound the cathe- 
Iral, or the old parochial church of St. Louis, cluster many 
listorical events, and in its records are the births, marriages 
md burials of most of the important personages of our 
5tate, whose names are not only historical, but familiar in 
)ur own homes. 

"These cathedral archives consist of about 100 books, and 
ire under the care of the obliging 'archivist,' Mr. Philip 
^leunier. Some are bound in the old-fashioned vellum, oth- 
;rs in well-worn leather or in faded pasteboard, while the 
landwriting is clear, and nearly all these old books are in a 
?ood state of preservation. These records are kept first in 
iJ'rench, and then in Spanish, then again in French, and 
inally English appears at intervals, thus showing the transi- 
;ion of the sovereignty of the country and forming an almost 
;omplete record from 1721 to the present day. They com- 
jrise books recording the marriages, baptisms, burials, ex- 
senses of the church. 

"The burials always state if the deceased died fortified with 
;he sacraments of the holy church, and if not, the reason is 
fiven. In some books abjurations of heresy are minutely re- 
corded, and the special heresy is noted with preciseness. The 
)aptisms declare always the legitimacy of the baptized, with 
;he full names, hour of birth and residence of the parents and 
'ull sponsors, and often the names of the grandparents, 
ibout thirty books record the baptisms of persons of color 
md slaves, .giving the names of their owners and showing 
low well the priests looked after the salvation of these indi- 
aduals, but the books of marriages are not so numerous, and 
)ne record book of colored marriages commences about 1767 
md was used down to 1834 . 

"The Church of St. Louis was twice destroyed, once by a 
mrricane and once by fire, so that many record books are 

256 Report Alabama History Commission. 


The New York Historical Society, New York City, has 
about 100,000 volumes on subjects connected with American 
history. One of its most important special collections is the 
Phoenix collection of Genealogical works. Its manuscripts 
are numerous and important, including the Gates, Steuben 
and Stirling Papers. Its most valuable collection for South- 
ern students is seven volumes of copies in the original, of 
Spanish documents from the Archives in Madrid, bequeathed 
to the Society in 1871 by Buckingham Smith. Through the 
courtesy of Robert H. Kelby, the librarian, a calendar of 
these volumes is presented below : 

BtroKiNGHAM Smith Mss. 

(1) "Letters of Justis & Montiano." "Florida from 1737 to 
1741." Folio, pp. 358. 

Copied from Public Archives of East Florida, 1850. 

(2) "Vida de Menendez." MSS. Folio. Circa pp. 175. 

(3) "t Compendio Historico Delos Descrubrimentos con- 
questas y estableci mentos del Nuebo Mundo Escrivialo Dn. 
P>ernardo de Estrada Comisario Ordenador delos Rs. Ine- 
reitos Intendente dela Provincia de Valladolid y Oorregidor 
deni Capital. Ylo — Dedica Al Rey Nro. Sor. D. Carlos III." 
4to. pp. 497. 

(4) "Florida MSS." 1526-1743. 4to. pp. 777. 
Contains the following, viz: 

Discoveries of Ayllon & Martienzo. 
Petitions of Narvaez & grants to him 1526. 
Instructions to Factor 1526. 
Ayllon, with summary. 
Dote to Soto from wives mother. 
Will of Soto. 

Letter of Gayton, Anasco & Biedma, 1539. 
Petitions of Cabeza de Vaca (1546-1547 and 1552.) 
Petition of Narvaez for place in M. 1526. 
Tristan de Luna letter to K from Florida 1549. 
Petition of Grace Osorio 1560. 

Melendez Valdez as one of the men of Po. Melendez 1585. 
Jn. de Posada; position of the Fort of St. Helena 1586. 
Po. M. Marquez petitions to go to Spain 1583. 
Alonso Vasquez his evidence as a soldier of Soto 1560. 
Letter of E. de las Alas from St. Augustine, Fla. 1588. 
Letter of Po. M. Marquez at Sn. Matio to the Soldiers at St. Augus- 
tine in mutiny 1570. 

Letter of the Y.icar Mendozo to Po. M. de Aviles 1567. 

Letter of Prs. Sejura & Quiros with Don Louis 1570. 

Diego Lopex soldier of Po. Melendez & his testimony Ays. &c. 1571. 

Two cedulas issued to Bustinzury of Florida 1571. 

Diez & others on the condition of Florida 1573. 

Letter of Po. M. Marquez Sn. Matio, Elena & certain French 1580. 

Same, 1580. 

New York Historical Society. 257 

Same, 1580. 
Same, 1580. 

Letter of Po. M. Marquez 1583. 

Letter of Po. M. Marquez, discovery of Coquina 1583. 
Casualties Spaniards & Englishmen 1740 
Two Letters Po. M. Marquez 1586. 
Letter Po. M. Marquez 1588. 
Po. M. Marquez, distances of the country 1602. 
Gov. Canco on the condition & ability of Florida 1601. 
Aruelles coast distances & of the country 1602. 
Jno. M. Marquez, distances of the country 1602. 
Alonso de les Alas distances & of the country 1602. 
Gov. Canco letter to King from Florida 1602. 
Gov. Ybarra letter to King from Florida 1604. 
Extract from a letter of Gov. Ybarra 1609. 
Ecija on the ports of the eastern coast 1605. 
Ruttier of Mexia from Augustine to Ays. 1605. 
Letter of Pareja & Penaranda 1607. 
Letter of fr. Feo Alo de Jesus 1634. 
Letter of Ao. Sanchez 1635. 
Letter of Gov. Vega Castro y Pardo 1639. 
Letter of Gov. Rebolledo 1657. 
Letter of Gov. Vega 1644. 
Letter of fr. Gomez de Engraba 1657. 
Letter of Nicholas Ponce de Leon 1650. 
Letter of Gov. Rebolledo, 1657. 

Letter of Gov. Cendoya — fort at St. Augustine, 1670-2. 
Letter of Gabriel, Bishop of Cuba, 1675. 
Three letters from Gov. Hita y Salazar, 1675. 
Distances of missions & points of coast, E. & W. 
Letter of Hita Salazar, 1680. 

Letter of Salar with expedition of Apalaches Chicas, 1678. 
Letter of Gov. Quiroga y Losada to Colton, 1682. 
Letter of Gov. Cabrera, 1686. 
Corsarios en La Chua, 1682. 
Letter of Losada to Colton, 1687. 

Letter of Cabrera with account of Fort at St. Mark, 1682. 
Letter of Cabrera Corsairs at St. Marks & Lachua, 1682. 
Letter of Gov. Rocha attack of French & Engh. on Augustine, 1683. 
Letter of Gov. Losada, Indians from Mexico for Colton, 1689 . 
Meml. of Apalaches to the King — printed 1688. 
Letter of Matheas at Sn. Luis, 1686. 
Letter of Gov. Cabrera enclosing foregoing, 1686. 
Letter of Gov. Quiroga y Losado taking possession, 1687, with cer- 
tificate of Solana respecting fort. 

Letter of Quiroga advising settlement of Apalache, 1688. 
Letter of Bishop, concerning Indians and Missions, 1690. 
Letter of Gov. Mendez Causo condition of Augustine & Indians, 1598. 
Letter of Po. Contreras touching Calos & Mayaca, 1697. 
Letter of Po. Contreras touching Calos & Mayaca, 1691. 
Letter of Fray Feliciano from Bay of Calos, 1698. 
Letter of Po. Contreras with missionaries from Calos 1698. 
Note written on the foregoing, respecting the return of the mis- 
sionaries from Calos. 

Gov. Zuniga's account of Augustine and burning of Sta. Fe. by the 
Apalachicolis 1701. 

Gov. Zuniga asKS a fort for Ays. 1702. 

Pe. Sotolongo destruction of St. Aug. by English 1703. 

Limits of the Government 1726. 

Destruction of Ayabala 1705. 

PerrQ-Br?ivo, slaves & b3,r of silver 1718, 


258 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Destruction of Catholic Indians by English 1724. 
Reduction of Missions 1755. 
Letters from the Bishop of Tricali 1736. 
Horcasitas, Gov. of Cuba on the Calos Indians 1743. 

(5) "North America MSS." 1500-1560. Folio, pp.529. 

Contains the following, viz: 

Chronology of Portuguese enterprises: extract from the work of 
D. Feo del Luis, bishop of Coimbra; published 1841. 
Letter of Pascualigo, 19 Oct. 1501: translation. 
Another Translation, by Dn. Angel Calderon de la Barca. 
Royal License to the Pilots Yanez & Solis to sail northwest in 
search of the South Sea 1508. 

Royal License to Ponce de Leon to search for Bernini 1512. 
Second License granted to Ponce for the Islands of B. &. Florida. 

Royal License to Diego Valasquez: Yucatan 1518. 
Royal License to Estevan Gomez: 1523. 

Report of the Cosmographer Yelasco on the Discoveries of Florida 
from 1514 to 1565. 

Two letters of J. Ponce de Leon: 1521. 

Islario of Cosmographer ZSspedes (extract) : Nn. discoveries. 

Royal License to Narvaez to conquer Florida 1526. 

Ordinance placed in the License to Feo Montijo for the conquest 
of Yucatan 1526; afterward issued in all Licenses. 

Notification to the Indians of Florida to be read by Narvaez. 

Royal Instructions to C. de Vaca, treasurer 1527. 

Commission to Valasquez Salazar of rigidor in Florida 1527 (Nar- 
vaz. ) 

Commission to Catano Sandoval of rigidor in Florida 1538 (De 

Opinion of Zumaraga on the right to enslave Indians 1538. 

Report of Ayllon on a fleet he had in readiness for Florida 1528. 

Certificates of the taking possession of Nuna de Guzman of three 
Islands of his discovery in the South Sea 1532. 

Division of Spoil among followers of Pizarro (extract). 

Letter of Anayoya from Guatamala 1534. 

Two letters from Nuna de Guzman 1536. 

Letter of Hernando de Soto, without date. 

Letter ol Hernando de Soto, without date. (Duplicate). 

Letter of the Regidores to Ch. V. from Santiago de Cuba, 1538. 

Roll of the returned of Soto's army to Florida. 

Niza's report on his discovery of the Seven Cities. 

Letter of Soto to the Regidores of Santiago 1539. 

Letter of Mendoza 17 Ap. 1840. 

Relation of Vergara on La. Plata 1540. 

Of Pedro Dorantes & others in La Plata. 

Nuna de Guzman memorial to Col. of Ind. 1540. 

Mendoza's Instructions to Zuniga 1541. 

Letter from Coronado to Ch. V. at Tiguex 1541. 

Mendoza's instructions to Dovalle in Guatemala 1541. 

Memorial of Zurita for conquest of Florida 1540. 

Requirement addressed to Indians of N. Galieca, 1541. 

Ruttier of the Northern Atlantic Coast 1544. 

Relation of LaPlata & C. de Vaca. 1545. 

Matters of the Father Cancer, coast of Florida 1548-9. 

Prutas de Indias, 1551. 

Letter of Bernal Diaz to the King 1552. 

Relation of Margariegos of the taking of Havana by Soria 1555. 

Injuries to Havana by French corsairs 1555. 

Letter from Duarte, coast of Zahara, on vreck of fleet . ot Farfan 

New York Historical Society. 259 

Bazares report respecting Florida coasts to Viceroy of N. S. 1558. 

Accompanying tlie foregoing is ttie report of Aguirar 1561. 

Oath of Tnscan de Luna Gov. of Florida on receiving standards. 

Letter from Viceroy respecting defenses against French & men sent 
to Florida 1558. 

Armada of French, preparing for the west 1571. 

Devastation of shipping by French corsairs 1559-1571. 

Fray Ferla touching the colonization of St. Helena & Coza 1559. 

What occurred to Rasquin Gov. of La Plata 1559. 

Commission to Arellano to go to be the Gov. of Florida 1559. 

Account given by Lavezaris & Pilots of their reconnoisance of 
Florida 1559. 

Letter of the Viceroy Velasco to Arellano 1559. 

Field Marshall Ceron touching subsistance to Arellano 1560. 

Viceroy Velasco to Arellano — Letter, 1560. 

Viceroy Velasco to Arellano — Letter, 20 Aug. 1560. 

(6) "North America MSS." 1561 1593. Folio, pp. 579. 

Contains the following, viz: 

Ships taken by Frenchmen between 1559-1551. 

Reconnoisance of the Coast by Villafane 1561. 

Opinion of the Council of N. Spain as to the coast of Florida and 
that it is not worth while to increase the population. 

Description of Coast of Florida with French map of 15 — . 

Report of Villalane & others to Velasco, touching Coast of Florida 

Circumstances of the Taking of Florida, as given by soldiers 1562. 

Ayllon Papers respecting his charter to discover Florida 1563. 

Alonso Co. Maldonado, cedula 1563. 

Pedro Melendez complaint of the House of Contratacion and a state- 
ment of his services 1548-1564. 

Rojomontes account of French Settlement in Florida 1565. 

Gonzalo Penalosas report of assistance to Melendez 1565. 

Report of Feo. Pardo of two excursions from St. Elena (sic.) 1565. 

Observations on Florida by Posada (Distances) 1565. 

Stipulations with Melendez for the occupation of Florida 1565. 

Arcinega sent in command of fleet for relief of Mendez. 

Rt. cedula to Melendez with relief of 1500 infantry 1565. 

Hints of Menendez respecting what should be instructions. 

Memorial of Menendez for the expulsion of French and defence. 

Declaration of a captive taken to Florida by the French 1565. 

Opinion of Royal Council touching the French & Spanish occupa- 
tion 1565. 

Declaration of Juan Sanchez taken by French to Florida 1565. 

Leti-er of Noriega to the King touching Laudonier's Colony 1565. 

Relation of Meleneche deserter from Laudonier 1565. 

Letter from Dupont respecting "Matanzas." 

Mendoza-Graj ales' Relation of killing the French 1565. 

Seven Letters of Melendez 1565-6. 

Letter of Menendez respecting his armada & defences of W. Ind, 

Incidents in St. Domingo 1567-8. 

Opinion of the audience of New Spain in answer to the proposal of 
Melendez to colonize River Panuco 1569. 

Letter of Father Rogel from Orista 1569. 

Report on the places & state of things in Florida 1570 to 1580. 

Report on the fleet in preparation at Rochela 1571. 

Letter of P. Melendez from Jn. Felipe of Florida 1571. 

Vessels & Tonage in Spain 1572. 

Osorio respecting the success of Melendez in Florida 1572. 

Itinerary of Western navigation by Bscalante de Mendoza 1575. 

260 Keport Alabama History Commission 

Rodrlgo de Junco 1580. .. 

Rodrigo de Junco asks support & colonists for Florida porta 1&8U. 

Rodrigo asks to be dispatched 1579. 

Po. Melendez Marquez, Govn. asks salary 1580. 

R. de Junco asks for receivers of Provision in the Forts. 

Instruction of Mz. Marques to his agent 1579. 

Ro. de Junco asks that Florida be provisioned 1579. 

Cedula 1578. 

Cedula; payment of 150 soldiers in Florida 1570. 

Salaries of officers, soldiers, &c. in Florida. 

Various petitions of Miranda. 

Asiento made with Po. Melendez Aviles 1578. 

Junco: provisions necessary for Florida troops 1580. 

Barros respecting the fisheries 1574. 

Will of Pedro Melendez 1574. 

Memorial of Escalante Fontanedas (with fac-similes). 

English piracies from 1572 to 1575. 

English & French piracies from 1571 to 1575. 

Palacios account of the languages & people of Central America 1576. 

Petition of Po. Melendez Marquez to restore Sta. Helena; vessels, 
force, &c., French & Portuguese vessels trading among the Lucayo I's. 
by Torres 1577. 

Junta called by Eraso respecting the loss of the Sta. Helena by 
Indians 1577. 

Gesio recommending Luis Jorge Portuguese pilot to the King 1599. 

Gesio respecting a parchment map Cabot 1575. 

Gonzalez account of having coasted Florida (probably false). 

Po. Mz. Marquez account of taking Frenchman in Sn. Mateo 1580. 

Report on the same capture of the Catalan commander Gil 1580. 

Vessels captured by English corsairs & their values in 1585. 

Quinones, Govr. of Cuba, respecting the pirates & piracy 1585. 

Account given by Bourgouinon of Florida, from III Hakluyt 1586. 

Viceroy of Mexico respecting navigation on Pacific coast & to 
China 1585. 

The Pilot Arpide on the Whaling at Terranova & for Florida 1587. 

Po. Mz. Marquez, report on state & wants of Florida 1593. 

Mem. of Garcia's Manual for Texas & memo, from Morphi. 

(7) "North America MSS." 1607-1786." Folio, circa. 
pp. 600. 

Contains me following, viz: 

Official Report concerning discoveries in New Mexico by Onate 1601. 

Pe. Ascension report on California, as far as Mendocino 1603. 


Rutier of Mexia from St. Augustine to Ays. 1605. 

Reconnoisance of Ecija Northward from St. Augustine to Axacan, 

Rutier of Gonzalez, the pilot in the foregoing Reconnoisance 1609. 

Plat of Havana & one of Cape Florida by Capt. Cardona (Extract) 

Letters from el. Pedro de Valasco in Sinaloa 1615. 

Letcer from Same in Sinaloa 1614. 

j^etter from ihe D. of Medinasidonia with the statement of Dewees 

Discovery of Quivira by Penalosa, written by Pe. Freytas 1618. 

Discovery of Saldivar 1618. 

Helacion of New Mexico 1629. 

La Cruz Relacion No Onate. 

Death of Pie de Palo ("Letter from the D. of Mediansidonea) 1638. 

Letter of Agraz concerning tbe confessor of Qplpnel Pe Arenas 1648, 

New York Public Library. 261 

Military ana spiritual condition of Florida, posts & doctrlneros by 
La Colle 1657. 

Bishop 01 Cuba's visit to Florida 1675. 

Leon's reconnoisance of the Bay of Esp. Santo Texas 1690. 

Extract from Pulgar's History of Horida (& Heport of Slguenza 
Gongora 1693 . ) 

Diary of Kino 1694 . 

Another Itinerary of Kino 1697. 

Another Diary of Kino 1699. 

Letter of Nanhulu chuba, Dn. Patricio Chief of the Apalaches 1701. 

Letter of Gov. of Florida concerning Apalache 1704. 

Report of the Gov. of Florida touching his visit to Guale 1701. 

Letter of the Gov. giving account of the attack of Gov. Moore on 
bt. Aug. 1703. 

Letter of Gov. of Florida giving account of the destruction of Apa- 
lache 1704. 

Letter of Pe. Picola respecting his journey into Californlas 1716. 

Stations of Missionaries in Florida 1727. 

Letter of three caciques of Florida 1735. 

Condition of the Fort at St. Augustine F. del Valle 1729. 

Condition of the Religious establishments Del Valle 1729. 

Plan for the re-establishment of Apalache 1732. 

Report of Jesuits sent to Calos 1743. 

Of the Opata & Languages of Sonora 1744. 

Mission of Onapa 1744. 

Keller on the Mission of Pimeria Alta 1744. 

Pe Arze on the Mission of Onabas 1744. 

Pe. aegessen on the missions of Tecoripa 1744. 

Guerrero on the mission of Matape 1744 . 

Pe. Stigar on the missions of Alta Pimeria 1799. 

Expeditions to California from the earliest to 1769. 

Shawne vocabulary 1854. 

Extracts from De Brahm 1784. 

Extract: Spaniards issue a medallion of Chas. IV. 1789. 

Distances & altitudes from Labrador to Str. Magellanes. 


In 1895 a consolidation of the Astor, the Lenox and the 
Tilden libraries was effected under the name of The New 
York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations. 
The new building for the library, which is now in process of 
construction, is located on the former site of the reservoir on 
Fifth Avenue, between Fortieth and Forty-second Streets. 
On June 30, 1900, the total number of volumes on the shelves 
and available for use was 498,377, and of pamphlets about 
144,800. The collection is remarkably full in almost every 

Particulars of its manuscript collections generally are 
presented passim in the Bulletins of the Library, Jan. 1897- 
Oct. 1900, vols. i-iv. 

The Spanish manuscripts, the Chalmers Papers, and the, 
Bancroft Manuscripts in the Lenox branch of the library are 
of special interest to Southern students. The following 
description of the two former is taken from Lane and Bolton's 
Isotes on Special Collections in American Liiraries (1892) : 

262 Heport Alabama History Commission. 

Spanish Manuscripts. 

"Spanish manuscripts relating to America: about 200 vols. 
Among these are original autograph letters of Diego Colum- 
bus, the son of the discoverer, Francisco Roldan, Bobadilla, 
Juan de Trasierra, Nicolas de Ovando, and others, mostly 
written in America between the years 1500 and 1512; the 
original manuscripts of Castaneda's 'Relacion de la Jornada 
de Cibola,' of Muiioz's 'Historia del Nuevo Mundo,' and of 
other important documents, transcripts of historical works, 
partly unpublished, by Las Casas, Oviedo, Duran, Sahagun, 
Tezozomoc, Zurita, Yxtlylxochitl, Columbus, Cortez, and 
others; papers relating to California, Texas, New Mexico, 
Mexico, and Yucatan, Central and South America, the Pa- 
cific, etc. The greater part of this collection was formed by 
Don Antonio de Uguina, of Madrid. It comprises almost 
everything of any interest that was collected by his friend 
Munoz for the 'Historia del Nuevo Mundo,' of which only the 
first volume was published. Uguina was also the intimate 
friend of Navarrete, and furnished him with many of the ma- 
terials for his 'Coleccion de Viages de los Espailoles,' After 
his death the manuscripts were purchased by M. Ternaux 
Compans, of Paris, who translated and published some of 
them, and made some important additions to the collection. 
They passed next into the hands of Mr. O. Rich, who added 
several manuscripts, from the Kingsborough collection, and 
sold the entire lot to Mr. Lenox. 

Chalmees Papers. 

"Chalmers papers : comprising nearly 2000 documents, ori- 
ginal letters, extracts from State records, etc., bound in 21 
vols, folio. This collection was formed by Mr. George Chal- 
mers, the author of 'Political Annals of the United Colonies.' 
It is classified as follows : - 

Canada, 1692-1792, 1 vol. 
Connecticut, 1639-1757, 3 vols; 
West Florida, 1763-1782, 1 vol.; 
Indians, 1750-1775, 1 vol. 
Maryland, 1619-1812, 2 vols.; 
New York, 1608-1792, 4 vols.; 
Nova Scotia, 1745-1817, 1 vol.; 
Pennsylvania, 1620-1779, 2 vols.; 
Philadelphia, 1760-1(89, 2 vols.; 
Virginia, 1606-1775, 4 vols." 

There are also in the library five other volumes of the 
Chalmers papers which were received with the Brancroft 
library, purchased in 1893." 

"The Library of Congress has still other Chalmers Papers. — Report 
American Historical Association, 1898, p. 38, 

New York State Library. 263 

Banceoft Manuscuipts. 

The Director, Dr. J. S. Billings supplies the following 
notes with reference to the Manuscript collections left by- 
George Brancrof t, the historian : 

"With regard to the present condition, extent, and acces- 
sibility of the Brancroft MSS, I have to say that they consist 
of several hundred volumes at the Lenox Building, the 
greater part of which are bound. They consist of original 
papers relating to the history of America, especially in the 
Colonial and Revolutionary periods, and of a large number of 
transcripts made for Mr. Bancroft from European archives, 
State archives, and various collections of private individuals 
relating in the main to the same period as the original papers, 
but covering a greater extent in time. There is no special 
collection among them relating to the early history of the 
'old Southwest,' or the present Gulf region. Incidentally, 
however, there must be material of value for this purpose 
among the transcripts relating to the Carolinas, Georgia, and 
the Floridas in the Brancroft collection and in the Chalmers 
papers. A chronological index will enable one to refer to the 
materiar relating to any given period. The MSS. are acces- 
sible for reference to any serious student. Permission to 
make transcripts to any extent, however, must be obtained 
from the Board of Trustees. I regret to say that there is no 
printed description of the Bancroft Collection as a whole." 

The following particular Bancroft volumes are noted by 
him as of special interest : 

"Archives Francaises-Espagne, 1768-1783, in 10 volumes, 
containing transcripts of about 500 letters between Ver- 
gennes, Florida Blanca and others, relating to American 
and European public affairs, including those of Louisiana. 

"Archives Francaises-Louisianne^ 1754 - 1765, containing 
about 50 letters and documents, being the correspondence 
of d'Abbadie and Aubry with the French ministry, speeches 
to the Indians, etc. 

, "Transcript of a Descripcion De La Bahia De Santa 
Maria De Galve (antes Panzacola) db la MoviLLA_,etc.,by 
Siguenza y Gongora. The Descripcion was published in 
Mexico, 1694. 

"Journal des d^penses de la colonic de la Nouvelle Or- 
leans, 1766. 174 leaves. Fo." 


The State of New York, through an appropriation of fSOO 
by act of May 9, 1888, secured about 2000 folio pages of 

2ti4 Report Alabama History Commission. 

manuscripts from the "Bibliotheque Nationale" and the 
"Archives Nationales," at Paris. Each document is certified, 
and the source is mentioned, but no information appears as to 
whether the transcript is made from an original or a copy. 
Most if not all of them seem to have been made from copies. 

Mr. Arnold J. P. van Lear, the sub-librarian of the New 
York State Library, Albany, in charge of "Manuscripts," has 
generously prepared a brief calendar of these papers for the 
Report. While the documents are not all pertinent to the 
Southern field, the importance of the collection necessitates 
the preservation of the full list. 

They are as follows : 

French Papers. 

(Between 1610-21). Anonymous Memorial, without date, 
indicating measures to be taken to protect French trade 
against Spain & secure part of the trade in America. 20 pp. 

(Before 1689). Anon. Mem. without date, urging con- 
quest of Quivira & the Quaye by France (written by Fena- 
losa). 18 pp. 

1691. Anon. Mem. relative to the defense of 5 French isl- 
ands of the Lesser Antilles. 6 pp. 

7 Dec. 1698-1 Aug. 1701. De Beauchesne's Journal of his 
voyage through the Strait of Magellan to Valdivia, his re- 
turn, around the Horn & discovery of Beauchesne island. 
20 pp. 

. 2 Anon. Journals of same voyage. 36 pp. & 2 pp. 

1697. 2 Abstracts of Memoirs relating to filibustering ex- 
petion, under de Pointis to Cartagena. 4 & 2 pp. 

1699. Anon. Mem. setting forth right of Spain to province 
of Darien. 12 pp. 

Quebec 13 Oct. 1700. Abstract of a letter from Mr. de 
Conty (Alphonse de Tonti) & de Villermont. 3 pp. 

(New Rochelle, 28 Oct. 1700.) Abstract of Anon, letter. 
Writer has seen d'Iberville, who showed him some curios 
brought home from his voyage. 2 pp. 

Rochefort, 15 Nov. 1700. Anon, letter. (Partly pr. in 
Margry, 6 :177 ) . 2 pp. 

La Rochelle, 26 Dec. 1700. Anon, letter. News received 
from St. Domingo d'Iberville improves landing at Missis- 
sippi. 3 pp. 

Rouen, 2 June 1701. Anon, letter. Received letter from 
a friend who accompanied Bishop of Quebec on his voyage 
and met a missionary returning from the Miss. 2 pp. 

Mobile, 5 March, 1702. Abstracts of a letter from Mr. de 
Flie. 3 pp. 

New York State Library. 265 

Rochefort, 10 July 1702. Abstract of a letter containing 
answere to questions put to d'Iberville. 2 pp. 

6 Aug. 1702. Letter from Mr. Remonville (partly pr. in 
Margry, 6 : 89-90 & 6 : 179 ) . 4 pp. 

1701. Description of country around Detroit by one of 
Cadillac's party. 3 pp. 

1699-1722. Penicaut's journal (printed entire in Margry, 
5:375-580.) 176 pp. 

1698-99. Journal de la Badine et du Marin (printed in 
if arfifri/, 4:213-89.) 60 pp. 

26 June-29 July, 1699. 3 unsigned letters relating to the 
discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi. 3 pp. 

15 Oct. 1698-23 June 1699. Brief account of d'Iberville's 
first voyage to Miss, by somebody on board de Chateauma- 
rand's ship. 3 pp. 

26 June 1699. d'Iberville letter to the Minister de la Ma- 
rine (printed in Margry, 4: 116-28.) 8 pp. 

27 Mar. 1700. Anon, letter written at 45 leagues from the 
mouth of Mississippi. 6 pp. 

23 Aug. 1700. Anon, letter written on board the Renom- 
n^e (not de Ricouart's letter of same date, Margry, 4:386- 
91). 3 pp. 

Sept. 1700. De Ricouyart acc't. of voyage on the Renom- 
m6e (not in Margry). 4 pp. 

10 Sept. 1704. Anon, letter relating to the Mississippi. 
4 pp. 

1718-22. La Harpe, Bernard de. Journal, (the greater part 
of it printed in a scattered way in Margry, vol. 6 ) . 202 pp. 

1678. Memories de Mr. de la Salle sur le Canada (printed 
in Margry, 1 : 345-401 as Recit d'un ami de I'abbe de Galli- 
n^e.) 65 pp. 

(1718). Relation of Rev. M. A. Gaulin of his mission 
among the Mikmaks (substantially the same as Deliberations 
de Conseil in Le Canada Francais 1881, v. 1. Doc. inedits, pp. 
190-93). 11 pp. 

1720. Memorial by Rev. Rob6 regarding boundaries of 
Acadia. 48 pp. 

(1722). Letter without date fr. Francois Le Maire to the 
Royal Council complaining about the Jesuits in Louisiana. 
3 pp. 

7-8 June 1755. Account by an officer of the Alcide of the 
encounter between the Alcide, the Lys and the Dauphin 
Royal with English fleet under Boscamer (not the same as 
those given in Qentleman's Magazine, 25 : 330-31. 4 pp. 

266 Eeport Alabama History €pinmission. 

21 Oct. 1755. Anon, letter sent to France from England 
regarding naval aifairs. 2 pp. 

1758. Account of ceremonies at the Deum in honor of 
Montcalm's victory. 18 pp. 

17-? Anon, paper containing brief geographical descrip- 
tion of principal colonies in N. & S. America. 4 pp. 

No date. 2 papers, without name or date giving general 
summary of early voyages and discoveries in America. 3 pp. 
& 4 pp. 

No date. Anon, account, without date, of the voyage of 
Slave ship Sirene from Albreda (coast of Senagambia) to 
Tortuga and back to Amsterdam (Holland). 4 ( ?) pp. 

(1778?) Anon, document giving a resume of the knowl- 
edge of the N. W. of U. S. as found in early voyages. Appar- 
ently written by careful cartographer to serve as a preface 
to a new map published after Cook's journal.) 10 pp. 

Dec. 1775-16 Oct. 1787. Journal of Paul Jones (printed 
entire as "Memories de Paul Jones," Paris 1798. 18mo.) 

13 April 1778-2 July '79. Journal of the operations the 
squadron under the Comte d'Estaign. 95 pp. 

11 Sept. 1777. Translation of Washington's report to 
Congress drafted by J. Pickering (Sparks' writings of G. 
W., 5:57-59.) 4 (?) pp. 

8 Oct. 1775. Washington, George. Letter to Hancock 
(not printed in the various collections of writings & biog- 
raphies of Washington.) 3 pp. 

25 Sept. 1780. Washington George. TransF of letter. 
(Sparks', 8: 163-67). 5 pp. 

17 Sept. 1787. Transl. of Washington's letter Transmit- 
ting the constitution of the Continental Congress, with 
transl. of text, (original in Journal of Am. Congress, 4: 776- 
82 ; other Pr. transl. in Cornells de Witt. Hist, de Washing- 
ton.) 18 (?) pp. 

23 Oct. 1777. Letter from Lafayette (to the Comte de 
Broglie?) ( not printed it seems ) . 4 pp. 

1777-78. 4 letters from de Kalb to de Broglie, one to 
Gerard and one to Henry Lawrence (all in B. F. Stevens' 
f ac-sim. ) 

. 5 letters fr. de Kalb to de Broglie and one to du 

Bois Martin (not printed). 

. One to the Vicomte de Mauray. 28 pp. 

1777-78. Memoir of Vicomte de Mauray, setting forth his 
services in America ; 2 letters to de Broglie with copy of let- 
ter to de Kalb, one to Pres. John Hancock and 1 letter from 

Pennsylvania Historical Society. 267 

James Lovell to de Mauray (not printed apparently). 60 pp. 
1777-81. 5 letters to de Broglie from Chev. deRafelis 
Brove ; Mr. de Beville, Chev. de Lameth & 2 from Mr. Fleury. 
28 pp. ^ 

11 May '76. Brief statement of strength & composition of 
English army in America ; total, 28, 268 men. 1 p. 

:No date. 2 memoirs, without date, addressed to B. Frank- 
lin & J. Adams on the part of Philippe Wallez of Ghent, pro- 
posing direct trade between Flanders & U. S. 50 pp. 

1777. Account of voyage of a French citizen to America 
(a copy of this Journal is referred to in Harvard Bibl. con- 
tributions No. 22: Calendar of Spariis' MSS. p. 81 No. 94). 
118 pp. 

6 Feb. 1778. Treaty of amity and commerce between 
France and U. S. (printed in various works, see Justin Win- 
sor Nar. & Grit. Hist., 7 : 45) . 12 (?) pp. 

Dec. 1776-Aug. 1777. Kicard, de. Observations on the 
political and military situation of France and England at 
the outbreak of revolutionary war. 136 pp. 

1 Jan. 1778. Kicard, de. Memorial on the commercial 
relations between France and U. S. 152 pp. 

12 Apr. 1782-3 Apr. '83. Broglie, Prince Victor Claude de. 
Account of his voyage to U. S. 20 pp. 

25 Nov. 1781. Letter from Louis 16 to Marquis d'Osson, 
Lt. Gen. of Comte de Foit, announcing surrender of Corn- 
wallis & ordering Te Deum. 2 pp. 

26 Nov. 1781. Account of Te Deum at Notre Dame, by 
Etienne Jean G. de la Salle Conseller-Maitre. 4 pp. 

3 Jan. 1803. Letters credential to Robert R. Livingston 
& James Monroe. 2 pp. 


The Historical Society of Pennsylvania,^ has, among a 
large number of original papers, the following : 

(1) The Bartram MSS., 1739-1818. 4 vols. 

These embrace botanical and miscellaneous matters. See 
Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, pp. 813-815. 

(2) The Papers of Thomas Hutchins, Geographer General 
U. S., 1774-1784. 1 vol. 

They include various maps. Mr. Hutchins was the 
brother of Col. Anthony Hutchins, a prominent pioneer of 
Mississippi Territory. He was also the author of accounts 
pf Louisiana and West Florida, incorporated in Imlay's 

268 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Topographical Description of the Western Country (3d edi- 
tion; London, 1797 j."" 


The work of Dr. Daniel Garrison Brinton ( 1837-1899 )_ in 
Southern archaeology and early history is not only extensive, 
but of exceptional value. No detailed description of his col- 
lection has been secured. It is in charge of the Department 
of Archaeology and Palaeontology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. "He died on July 81st, 1899, at Atlantic 
City, only a few weeks after he had presented to the Univer- 
sity of Pennslyvania his magnificent library, a collection un- 
equaled, perhaps unapproached, of rare and valuable books 
and papers relating to the work of his life. In making this 
splendid gift he also promised his own personal service in 
completing the catalogue and supervising the arrangement 
of the Collection. This pledge was never to be fulfilled, but 
the University has determined to commemorate his work by 
the establishment of a special chair of American Archaeology 
which shall bear his name."" 



The St. Augustine Institute of Science and Historical So- 
ciety is a newly formed organization, which promises to do 
substantial work in early Florida history. Its president. 
Dr. DeWitt Webb makes the following statements in refer- 
ence to its plans : 

"We have a valuable collection of old maps and are doing 
what we can in the way of further investigation. The So- 
ciety has not many unpublished Manuscripts. One of the 
members of the Society [Miss A. M. Brooks] who spent some 
time in Seville, Spain in the collection of MSS., has had a 
translation made of her work and is now negotiating for its 
publication. It will be of great value." 


The St. Louis Mercantile Library possesses a large num- 
ber of Missouri and Illinois newspaper files, published during 
1808, 1812, 1816, 1817, 1818, 1819, 1820, and later years. It 
has also several rare manuscripts. An examination will be 

"Claiborne's Mississippi (1880), p. 203, note. 

"Proceedings American Antiquarian bociety, 1900, vol. xiil, N. S., p. 304. 

Scottish Rite Library. 269 

necessary to determine how far these may be of local value 
and importance. They are described in Reference List, No. 1, 
issued by the Library in 1898. (8vo. pp. 22.) 


The papers of Gen. Albert Pike, late of Arkansas, are in 
the library of the Supreme Council of the 33d Degree of 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry, Wash- 
ington. These embrace among other things, a number of 
manuscript vocabularies of the Muscoki and other Indians. 
No detail has been obtained except in reference to the three 
following manuscripts, which are in the collection. Copies 
of them are also in the library of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
and in the Trumbull collection in the library of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society. An examination would probably 
disclose others of importance. These are : 

(1) Verbal forms in the Muscoki language. 20 leaves. 
Folio. Seven verbs run through various tenses and modes. 

(2) Verbal forms of the Muscoki and Hichitathli. 27 
leaves. Folio. 

(3) Vocabularies of the Creek or Muscogee, Uchee, Hitch- 
ita, Natchez, Co-os-au-da or Co-as-sat-te, Alabama, and 
Shawnee. 56 leaves. Folio. These vocabularies are ar- 
ranged in parallel columns for comparative purposes, and 
contain from 1,500 to 1,700 words each.'' 


In the library of the Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, incorporated Aug. 10, 1846, are several special collec- 
tions of printed works of great importance, as, of archaeol- 
ogy, zoology, geology, and anthropology. The relics, etc., of 
the National Museum are numerous and varied, and are of 
wide general interest. 

In response to an inquiry as to the local value of the col- 
lection, Dr. Otis T. Mason, curator of the Division of Ethno- 

■•r. made an interesting communication of which the fol- 
lowing is an extract : 

"The Smithsonian Institution has no original manuscripts, 
or papers, or documents, or original material relating to the 
'Old Southwest.' It is more than probable, however, that 
material of this kind may be found in the files of the War De- 
partment and at the Congressional Library. 

"In replv to the second question, regarding original por- 
traits, or likenesses, or relics of the great Indian tribes occu- 

88geB First Annual Report of the Bureau of EthMlogy, 1879-80, p, 573, 

270 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

pying the Gulf region, we have printed, in the Smithsonian 
Report, for 1885, part 2, a full account of the Oatlin collec- 
tion; the original portraits are for the Muskhogean and 
Cherokee people of the South. 

"With regard to the archaeology of that region, Mr. Owen 
should have a copy of No. 421 'Index to Papers on Anthro- 
pology.' In this will be found references to Mr. Cunning- 
ham, on the 'Shell Heaps on Mobile River ;' Dr. Joseph Jones. 
'Antiquities of Tennessee ;' Col. Charles C. Jones, 'Aboriginal 
Structures in Georgia;' Gaines, 'Shell Heaps on the Mobile 
River;' and other papers of great interest. 

"Mr. Owen should also be informed of the explorations in 
Florida by Mr. Clarence B. Moore of Philadelphia, and by 
Frank Hamilton Cushing, of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology. Do not fail to call Mr. Owen's attention to Mr. W. 
H. Holmes' paper on 'Carib Influence in the Southern States.' 
Reference to this same subject will be found in my paper on 
'The Antiquities of Porto Rico and the Guesde Collection 
from Guadeloupe.' This will form a starting point for some 
very interesting studies. The families of Col. Jones in 
Augusta and Dr. Jones in New Orleans are still in possession 
of enormous collections made by these two gentlemen." 


All official reports, documents, etc., in the collections of the 
Southern Historical Society, Richmond, have been copied, 
and have appeared, or will appear, in the Official War Rec- 
ords, issued by the general Government. All other matter 
which has come into possession of the Society pertaining to 
Alabama troops, etc., during the War, 1861-1865, have cur- 
rently appeared in its publications. The Papers of the So- 
ciety which have now reached 26 volumes form a superb 
library of valuable historical material. The Society was 

organized , 1873, and its headquarters located in 

New Orleans. In 187 — the headquarters were removed to 


The library of the State, and the Supreme Court library 
form one collection, which is in charge of the marshal of the 
Court, as librarian.— OofZe, 1896, vol. i, Sections 3845 - 3855. 
It is located in the capitol at Montgomery. It may be of 
interest to note that the present excellent library owes its 
origin to the consolidation of the small collection of miscel- 

Supreme Court Library. 271 

laneous books of the old State library, with the collection of 
law books made by the old Library Society. One of the in- 
teresting treasures in the keeping of the librarian is a small 
folio volume, entitled : 

"Minutes of the Library Society of the Bench and Bar of 
the Supreme Court of Alabama." 

It contains the Minutes from the meeting of the organiza- 
tion, Jan. 19, 1828 to Jan. 20, 1838, also the roll, constitution, 
by-laws, and accounts to 1846. On the roll is found the 
names of many of the most distinguished men of those times. 
Acts and Journals. 

While the collection of legal works is large and constantly 
increasing, to the student the most important sets of books 
in the library are the Acts or Session laivs of the General 
Assembly, and the Journals of the House of Representatives 
and of the Senate of Alabama. The latter comprises the 
only approximately complete set known to be in existence. 


Through the indefatigable efforts of the present efficient 
librarian, Junius M. Riggs, an almost complete collection of 
likenesses of the Governors, and of the Chief Justices of the 
Supreme Court of the State, has been gathered together. 
They constitute one of the most attractive features of the 
Capitol. The former hang on the walls of the library, while 
the latter are in the Supreme Court room. His correspond- 
ence in forming the collection has been preserved by Mr. 
Riggs. They consist of the following : 


Thomas Bibb. (1820-21.) Original oil painting. Pre- 
sented by Thomas Hopkins. 

John Murphy. (1825-29.) Crayon. Executed by order 
of the Court. 

Gabriel Mooke. (1829-31.) Crayon. Executed by order 
of the Court. 

John Gayle. (1831-35.) Oil painting, copied from the 
original in the hands of Hugh L. Bayne, presented by Col. 
Thomas L. Bayne, late of New Orleans. 

Clement C. Clay, Sr. (1835-37.) Original oil painting. 
Presented by Mrs. Virginia Clay-Clopton. 

A. P. Bagby. ( 1837-1841. ) Photograph, from a minature. 
Executed bv order of the Court. 

Benjamin Fitzpatbick. (1841-45). Crwi/on. Presented 
by Benjamin Fitzpatrick, late of Wetumpka. 

272 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Joshua L. Martin. (1845-47). Crayon. Executed and 
presented by Miss Sarah Martin, a granddaughter. 

Eetjben Chapman. (1847-49). Original oil painting. 
Presented by Mrs. Milton Humes. 

Henry W. Collier. ( 1849-53 ) . Oil painting. Presented 
by his daughters, Mrs. Mary Benagh and Mrs. E. H. King. 

John A. Winston. (1853-57). Crayon. Executed by 
order of the Court. 

Andrew B . Mooee. ( 1857-61 ) . Oil painting, by Miss 
Fannie Lockett. Executed by order of the Court. 

John Gill Shorter. (1861-63). Crayon. Presented by 
the late Maj. H. R. Shorter. 

Thomas H. Watts. (1863-65). Crayon. Presented by 

Robert B. Lindsay. (1870-72). Photograph. Presented 
by himself. 

George S. Houston. (1874-78). (1) Crayon. Presented 
by his family. (2) Oil painting, by Massalon. Procured 
by volunteer subscriptions; 

E. A. O'Neal. (1882-86). Photograph. Presented by S. 
R. Tresslar, artist. 

Thomas Seay. (1886-90). Photograph. Presented by S. 
R. Tresslar, artist. 

Thomas G. Jones. (1890-94). Photograph. 

Wm. C. Gates. (1894-96). Original oil painting, by 
Samuel Hoffman. Presented by himself. 

Joseph F. Johnston. (1896-1900). PasieZ. Presented by 

Supreme Court Judges. 

Clement C. Clay, Sr. Bee Governors, supra. 

Abner S. Lipscomb. Oil painting. Copy. Presented by 
Judge George Goldthwaite, of Texas. 

Reuben Saffold. Pastel. Executed by order of the 

Henry Hitchcock. Crayon, copied from an original 
painting in the hands of H. Hitchcock, of St. Louis. Executed 
by order of the Court. 

A. F. Hopkins. Pastel, copied from a minature. Exe- 
cuted by order of the Court. 

H. W. Collier. See Governors, stipra. 

E. S. Dargan. Crayon, copied from photograph. Exe- 
cuted by order of the Court. 

Wm. p. Chilton. Original oil painting. Presented by 
John M. Ohilton, 

Supreme Court Library. 273 

George Goldthwaite. Crayon. Presented by Robert 

Samuel F. Rice. Crayon. Presented by Col. A. A. Wiley. 

A. J. Walker. Crayon. Executed by order of the Court. 

Thomas M. Peters. Crayon. Executed by order of tlie 

Robert 0. Brickell. Crayon. Presented by his family. 

George W. Stone. Crayon. Presented by himself. 

Wm. M. Byrd. Original oil painting. Presented by his 

Silas Parsons. Original oil painting. Presented by his 

John D. Phelan. Crayon. Presented by his family. 

Group of Photographs in large frame. Comprise : Judges 
G. W. Stone, H. M. Somerville, David Clopton, Thomas N. 
McClellan, Sup. Ct. Clerk, John W. A. Sanford, Librarian, 
Junius M. Riggs, and Reporter, Phares Coleman. 


The following miscellaneous pictures are in the library : 

William Lowndes Yancey. Oil painting. Copied from 
original. Procured by volunteer subscriptions. 

M. A. Baldwin. Crayon. Presented by his daughters. 

John A. Elmore. Photograph. 

Jefferson Davis. Photograph. Executed by order of 
the Court. 

. Bronze Bust. By Alexander Gait. "Copyright 

June 23, 1860." Purchased from Miss Mary Gait, of Va. 

. Inauguration of Jefferson Davis, 1861. Lithograph. 

Shows him taking oath on steps of present State Capitol 
building ,at Montgomery. 

Gov. A. B. Moore. 1860. Plaster Bust. By Henry Dex- 
ter, and presented by his daughter, Mrs. A. E. Douglass, of 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Senator James L. Pugh. Original oil painting. 

Ordinance of Secession, 1861. Lithograph. 


The library has the following small collection of bound 
newspapers : 

New Orleans. 

New Orleans Weekly Delta. W. 

Oct. 19, 1846 -Sept ^l, 1847. (Vol. II, No. 1.) 1 vol. 

Oct. 19, 1846 - Oct. 9, 1848. 1 vol. 

Oct. 16, 1848 -June 18, 1849. 1 vol. 

Oct. 29, 1849 -Oct. 7, 1850. 1 vol. 


274 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Oct. 14, 1850 -Oct. 6, 1851. 1vol. 

Oct. 13, 1851 - Oct. 3, 1852. 1 vol. 

Oct. 10, 1852 - Oct. 9, 1853. 1 vol. 

Oct. 16, 1853 -Oct. 8, 1854. 1 vol. 

Oct. 15, li>o4-Aug. 3, 1856. (Vols, x-xi.) 1 vol. 

Weekly Picayune. W. 

Aug. 7, 1854 -Aug. 4, 1856. 1 vol. 


Montgomery Weekly Advertiser. W. 

May 31, 1854 - April 9, 1856. 1 vol. 
Deo. 12, 1855 -March 5, 1856. Sundry Nos. 1vol. 
May 8, 1866 - Feb. 26, 1867. Sundry Nos. 1 vol. 
April 14, 1868 - March 8, 1870. 1 vol. 

Montgomery Daily Mail. D. 

Nov. 24, 185? -Oct. 25, 1860. (Daily.) 1 vol. 
Jan. 2, 1860 -Dec. 31, 1860. paily.) 1 vol. 
March 21, 1867 -April 29, 1868. (Weekly.) 1vol. 
May 6, 1868 -May 3, 1869. (Weekly.) 1 vol. 
Nov. 24, 1869 -.Nov. 16, 1870. (Weekly.) 1 vol. 

Washington, D. G. 
Semi- Weekly Constitution. 

April 23, 1859 -Aug. 1, 1860. (Vol. I, No. 3.) 1 vol. 

Daily American Organ. D. 

April 6, 1855 -Nov. 12, 1855. (Vol. I. No. 121.) 1 vol. 
Nov. 13, 1855 -Aug. 1, 1856. 1 vol. 


The Campaign Post. W. 

3 Nos.: May 11, 26, June 30, 1860. (Vol. 4, Nos. 1, 2, 3.) 
Bound at end of Semi-Weekly Constitution, supra. 

New York, N. Y. 
The Weekly Herald. W. 

June 20, 1846 - March 27, 1847. 1 vol. 
Aug. 19, 1854 - July 26, 1856. 1 vol. 

New York Weekly Times. W. 

Aug. 12, 1854 -Nov. 4, 1854. 

Scientific American. W. 

Sept. 20, 1851 -Aug. 28, 1852. 


The Historical Society of Tennessee was organized in 1849, 
suspended energies in 1861, and was reorganized in 1874. In 
1875 it was chartered as the "Tennessee Historical Society," 
and it has since maintained an active existence. 

In the Society rooms in the Watkins Building, on Church 
Street, Nashville, are gathered many articles of historic 
value, rare historical books long since out of print, bearing 
on American and Tennessee History, from the earliest set- 

Tennessee Historical Society. 275 

tlement of Kentucky and Tennessee, also many works of 
great value relating to other States and Territories. Of 
pamphlets and bound newspapers there are many of local 
and national interest. 

The collection of manuscripts is of great historical import- 
ance, covering from 1776 to the present time, much of which 
has never been published. The American Historical Maga- 
zine, published at Nashville, is now printing, for the first time, 
some of these interesting papers. Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey had 
ready for publication a second volume of his Annals of Ten- 
nessee, but his manuscripts along with much other historical 
matter, was burned during the war between the States. 
Much of his data was obtained from the archives of the So- 
ciety. Fortunately many of the original manuscripts re- 
main in the collection. 

Rare and valuable collections of the Mound-Builders' art 
are to be found here ; two of the largest stone images yet dis- 
covered; rare specimens of pottery in many forms; flints 
ranging from the ceremonials to the lance head; discoidal 
stones, stone axes, celts, and the largest lance head yet lo- 
cated. Many beautiful pipes are in the collection. All of 
these are from the stone graves of the Cumberland Valley. 
The relics of the early settlers are numerous, ranging from 
the old flint lock rifles, which did such good service in the 
early Indian wars and at King's Mountain, to those which 
were used in the Mexican war. Swords worn by great sol- 
diers from this State, from John Sevier to the late war, in 
fact a history of these cases would be the military history of 
the State for over a hundred years. The walls of the Society 
rooms are adorned with oil paintings of the great men of 
the State, Jackson, Polk, Johnson, and the Governors of the 
State, eminent Jurists, scholars. Divines, artists, doctors, 
pioneers and soldiers, making one of the finest collections of 
distinguished men and women to be found in any society col- 

There are very many rare things in the pioneer collection 
of curios; iron cups used before china found its way to this 
settlement, stone bullet moulds, and moulds used for making 
pewter spoons, continental money, state and confederate 
money, "silver cut money," and copper coin. Maps of the 
State at a very early, date, maps showing sites of towns long 
since abandoned, or which have been re-christened. Early 
surveys of lands in the state showing how the titles were ob- 
tained from the Indians, and the lands given to the soldiers 
of the Revolutionary War for military service, are also 

276 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

among the articles of interest. Among the rare curios may 
be mentioned an Egyptian mummy. The archives of the So- 
ciety are made easy of access to the members of the Society 
by a card catalogue recently compiled by the Corresponding 
Secretary, R. T. Quarles, who has supplied the foregoing 
facts. This Society is maintained by its members, and is in 
no way connected with the State. 


The Society has the following valuable files of early news- 


Knoxville Register. W. 

Nov. 5, 1791 -July 31, 1795. 


Impartial Review and Cumberland Repository. 

Feb. 1805 -Dec, 1808. 

The Nashville Whig. W. 

Nov. 1, 1814 -Nov. 20, 1815. 
Nov. 21, 1815 -Aug. 15, 1818. 
Jan. 1, 1823 -Dec. 29, 1824. 

The Nashville G-azette. 

May 26, 1819 -July 2, 1821. 

The Clarion and Tennessee Gazette. 

Sept. 19, 1820 -Aug. 29, 1821. 


The State Library of Texas, Austin, contains a number of 
manuscripts, which are described by Judge C. W. Raines in 
his Bibliography of Texas (1896), p. 247. These are not yet 
classified, but it is believed they contain some material of 
interest in elucidating the history of the old Southwest. 
They are as follows : 

"More than 5000 MSS., turned over by the Department 
of State in 1878. Consisting of the Archives of Nacogdoches, 
and those of Bexar and La Bahia in part. Begin about 1740, 
and continue in Spanish up to 1835. In the eighteenth cen- 
tury mostly instructions from viceroys, reports of the Visi- 
tadors on the state of the country, and papers relating spe- 
cially to the missions and presidios. Also many papers on 
the events of the Mexican Revolution, and later on, the col- 
onization of Texas under Mexican authority, together with 
many interesting letters from Stephen F. Austin. 

"For practically full list of newspapers in the library of the Society, see 
Phelan's History of Tennessee (1889), pp. 460-461. 

Texas State Library. 211 

In English, the W. D. Miller papers, a fine historical col- 
lection, 1833-60." 


The library also has the following old newspapers. These 
doubtless contain much data in reference to the part played 
by Alabama companies, as well as by the bold and adventur- 
ous spirits who rushed to the frontier in the exciting years 
of our early history. At least it is worth noting their exist- 
ence and place of custody. They are listed by Mr. Eaines in 
the following manner : 

The Brazoria Advertiser. 1832. 

Telegraph and Texas Register. 1835-42. 

Matagorda Bulletin. 1837-39. 

Austin City Gazette. 1839-42. 

Richmond Telescope. 1839-40. 

Journal and Advertiser. 1840-41. 

Texas Sentinel (Oentinel). 1840-41. 

Daily Texan and Daily Bulletin. 1842. 

The "True Blue," a MS. periodical issued by two of the 
Santa F^ prisoners in City of Mexico. 1842. 

The Eed-Lander. 1841-45. 

Colorado Gazette. 1839-42. 

The Morning Star. 1843-45. 

La Grange Intelligencer. 1844-46. 

Laraca Journal. 1847-48. 

The Far West. 1847. 

Nacogdoches Times. 1848-49. 

The Texas Union and Rusk Pioneer. 1849. 

Texas State Gazette. 1849-51. 

The Texas Democrat. 1846-48. 

Colorado Tribune. 1849-52. 

Galveston News. 1850-54. 

The Texas Monument. 1850-54. 

Texas Republican. 1849-69. 

Texas State Times. 1855-56. 

Texas State Gazette. 1856-58. 

La Grange Paper. 1855 . 

New Braunfels Zeitung. 1859-60 . 

The True Issue. 1858-59. 

El Bejareno. 1855. 

Tri- Weekly Telegraph. 1861-64. 

278 Report Alabama History Commission. 


While nothing can be stated as to their direct connection, 
or bearing, on the Alabama field, except in a general way on 
the Colonial period of the Gulf States' history, it is still 
proper to note that "The Archives of Bexar" in 1899 came 
permanently into the possession of the University of Texas 
at Austin. Until that time they were in the office of the 
County Clerk, at San Antonio, Bexar County. These com- 
prise the official papers of the Department of Bexar, which 
covered during its existence nearly all of the present State 
of Texas. The collection is estimated to embrace between 
three and four hundred thousand pages, and covers generally 
the period from 1734 to 1835."° 

Ckadle of the Conpedeeacy Chapteb. 

In a tall book case in the Governor's office are deposited 
the relics collected by the Cradle of the Confederacy Chap- 
ter, U. D. C, of Montgomery. It is not extensive, but con- 
tains a number of unique and interesting items. The book 
case is one which belonged to Gov. Thomas H. Watts during 
the War. 

Sophie Bibb Chapter. 

The collections formed by the Sophie Bibb Chapter, Mont- 
gomery, are on exhibition in the rotunda of the capitol. These 
consist of four large wall cases, in which are preserved 
valuable and cherished memorials, comprising flags, swords, 
guns, pistols, canes, bullets, belts, canteens, flowers, books, 
pieces of money, pictures, uniforms, etc. Over the top of 
each case on a silver plate are the words: "Sophie Bibb 
Chapter U. D. C. May 11, 1896." Near by, on the floor, are 
some large cannon balls. 

On the walls, over the cases, are the following likenesses: 

Mrs. Sophie Bibb. Pastel. 

Bkig.-Gen. James Cantey. Crayon. 

Brig.-Gen. George P. Harrison. Photograph. 

Brig.-Gen. J. T. HOLTZCLAW. Crayon. 

Brig. -Gen. Tennent Lomax. Crayon. 

Brig.-Gen. P. D. Roddy. Crayon. 

"°Mr. Lester G. Bugbee, who is doing so mucb valuable work in Texas 
history, has a full description of these archives in the University Record, 
Austin, Oct. 1899 (8vo. pp. 6.) 



United States Military Academy. 279 


The "General Orders" of General James Wilkinson, Dee. 
15, 1795- Aug. 25, 1797, vols, ix to x, 2 vols., are preserved in 
the U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. Informa- 
tion, however, as to the special character of these papers is 
not at hand. „ , 


The strength and value of the library of the University of 
Alabama, Tuscaloosa, can be best understood from the de- 
scription in the Catalogue for 1899-1900. 

"The Library contains 15,000 bound volumes, and a large 
number of useful and valuable pamphlets. The books, by 
means of a card catalogue, are easily accessible to the stu- 
dents. Several hundred carefully selected volumes are pur- 
chased each year. In this way, the Library is kept, as far as 
possible, abreast of the literature of the day. 

"The University has been designated as a depository of the 
publications of the Federal Government. Such publications 
have been withdrawn from the general Library and placed in 
a separate room provided for the purpose. They are 
arranged and numbered according to the government check 
list, and are therefore accessible for consultation or reference. 
The Document Room now contains about 10,000 volumes, in- 
cluding nearly a complete list of the publications issued 
since the close of the War between the States. It is hoped 
that this valuable collection will be increased through pri- 
vate contributions. The Document Room is supplied with 
the leading Scientific Journals and serves as a Scientific 
Reading Room. 

"In addition to the general collections above referred to, 
each school is supplied with reference books, periodicals, and 
charts relating to its work. Some of these Departmental Li- 
braries are extensive and valuable, and it is the purpose of 
the Trustees to add to them as rapidly as the means at their 
disposal will admit." 

Details respecting a number of important and rare items 
known to be in the library, have not been obtained. How- 
ever, it should be mentioned that it has several valuable 
printed volumes from the Historical Collection of Col. Albert 
J. Pickett, acquired by purchase from his family. 


The library contains the following newspaper files. De- 
tails were supplied by Prof. T. W. Palmer, of the University. 

280 iteport Alabama fli story Commission. 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Flag of the Union. W. 

Vol. iv, Nos. 55-57, June 14 -June 28, 1837. 
Vol. V. Nos. 1-52, July 5, 1837 -June 27, 1838. 1 vol. 
Vol. vi. Nos. 1-52, July 4, 1838 - June 26, 1839. 1 vol. 
Vol. vil, Nos. 1-52, July 3, 1839 -June 24, 1840. 1 vol. 
Vol. viil, Nos. 1-52, July 1, 1840 -June 23, 1841. 1 vol. 
Vol. ix, Nos. 1-52, June 30, 1841 -June 22, 1842. 1 vol. 
Vol. X, Nos. 1-52, June 29, 1842 -June 21, 1843. 1 vol. 
Vol. xl, Nos. 1-23, June 28, Nov. 29, 1843. 1 vol. 

Democratic Gazette. W. 

Vol, 1, Nos. 2-52, Dec. 21, 1843 - Dec. 12, 1844. 
vol. ii. No. 1, Dec. 19, ;1844. 
Bound with vol. xl. Flag of the Union, supra. 

The Clarion. W. 

Vol. i. No. 1-Vol. li. No. 36, Oct. 14, 187-9 -June 27, 1882. 1 vol. 

The Crimson White. University, Ala. S. M. 

Vol. iv. Oct. 27, 1896 -June 21, 1897. (Complete.) 1 vol. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

National Gazette and Literary Register. T. W. 

Aug. 5, 1823 -July 29, 1824. 1 vol. 

Washington, D. C. 

National Intelligencer. D. & T. W. 

■ Dec. 1, 1825 - Feb. 19, 1827. (Daily.) 

June 1, 1826 -Dec. 14, 1826. (Tri-Weekly.) 1 vol. 
Dec. 1, 1827 -June 2, 1828. (Daily.) 1 vol. 

National Journal. 

Nov. U, 1823 -Sept. 2, 1824. (Tri-Weekly.) 
bept. 3, 1824 -May 2, 1825. (Daily.) 1 vol. 

The United States Telegraph. D. 

July 1, 1830 -Nov. 30, 1830. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1, 1831 -June 30, 1831. 1 vol. 
July 1, 1831 - March 19, 1832. 1 vol. 

The Globe. S. W. 

Jan. 4, 1840 - Dec. 5, 1842. 1 vol. 
Dec. 8, 1842 - Dec. 28, 1843. 1 vol. 


The War Department Library, Washington, contains prob- 
ably the largest collection of military literature available for 
students in the United States, and through wise direction its 
value is being increased. With a view to ready reference 
and for the benefit of historical students, the Department has 
issued a series of subject Catalogues. The titles of these 
given below, indicate the strength of the library, viz : • 

No. 1. Additions to War Department Library from May, 
1894, to October, 1894. pp. 30. 

No. 2. Index of Periodicals, Annuals, and Serialis in the 
War Department Library. (1895). pp.37. 

Wisconsin Historical Society. 281 

No. 3. Index of Literature relating to Mexico in the War 
Department Library. (1896). pp.21. 

No. 4. Finding List of Military Biographies and other 
Personal Literature in the War Department Library. 
(1897). pp. 93. 

No. 5. List of the Photographs and Photographic Nega- 
tives relating to the War for the Union, now in the War De- 
partment Library. (1897). pp.219. 

No. 6. Military Literature in the War Department Li- 
brary relating chiefly to the Participation of the Individual 
States in the War for the Union. ( 1899 ) . pp. 266. 

No. 7. Military Literature in the War Department Li- 
brary relating to the Campaign against Chattanooga, ( etc. ) , 
Aug. 1863, to Dec, 1863. (1898). pp. 75. 


In the several hundred volumes of bound manuscripts in 
the library of the Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, 
Wis., will be found a number containing Alabama material. 
One volume in the collection is designated as "Alabama," 
while there are several for other of the Southern States. 

A perfunctory examination only has been made with refer- 
ence to details, but it is known that it contains the "Stiggins 
Manuscript," a History of the Creek Indians, by George Stig- 
gins, hitherto supposed to be lost. A careful examination of 
the collection must be made in order to determine just what 
special and pertinent material is to be found there. Later 
it is hoped to secure a complete calendar. 


The following memoranda as to the Alabama newspapers 
in the Society is taken from its Annotated Catalogue of News- 
paper Files (1898), pp. 1, 209, viz: 


Blakely Sun (S-W). May 17, 1819. 

With Southern Local Newspapers, 1811-20. 


Alabama Watchman (W.) Aug. 3, 1820. 
With Southern Local Newspapers, 1811-20. 


Daily Post. Feb. 11, 12, 18, 1861. 

with Middle and Southern Newspapers, 1861-66. 


Alabama State Intelligencer (W.) March 2, 1833. 
With Middle and Western Newspapers, 1831-40. 


Labor Advocate (W.) May, 1897- June, 1898, 


The number of special students of the general history of the 
State has been comparatively small. The pioneers were A. 
B . Meek- and A. J. Pickett. These were followed by William 
Garrett, William R. Smith, and a number of others who have 
devoted themselves to the restricted fields of church, local 
Indian, or political history. In the majority of cases stu- 
dents and writers have been concerned only with the execu- 
tion of a given historical task, and have not been in any 
sense "collectors." Hence they have made no considerable 
collections of books, manuscripts, relics, or manuscript notes, 
and the few things they have brought together have usually 
been scattered or destroyed as rubbish after use. .The result 
is deplorable. The State has now no conspicuous collection 
made at a time when, with proper attention, it could have 
been done with facility. 

The accounts presented below are not as complete as desir- 
able, although an effort was made to secure greater fullness. 
Notwithstanding extensive inquiry was instituted, nothing 
has been ascertained concerning the collections and papers, 
if any, of A. H. Chappeli, Esq., of Georgia, John Hardy, of 
Selma, Rev. Hosea Holcombe, of Jefferson County, Hugh Mc- 
Call of Georgia, Dr. John W. Monette, of Natchez, George 
Powell, of Blount County, Samuel Townes, of Marion, and 
Rev. George F. White, of Georgia. 

A few collections are described which embrace the local 
field, although not made by Alabama students. 

1. W. L. ANDREWS. 

Mr. W. L. Andrews is a local student of Southeast Ala- 
bama, residing at Ozark. His labors in this field are de- 
scribed by him in a communication to the editor. It is 
hoped his work will soon be completed. He writes : 

"In 1885 I set out to write a history of this county [Dale], 
and since then have gathered complete information of its his- 
tory from De Soto's landing at Tampa Bay, 1539. Of course 
jiothing much of importance attaches to this section prior to 


Collectors and Students. 283 

the territorial period of the State, except the settlement be- 
tween foreign powers of the questions of jurisdiction, and 
finally the settlement of disputes which placed this section 
under the jurisdiction of Georgia. Up to this time, however, 
the facts are all of public record. Since that time none of 
its history has been published in book form. While my work 
has been directed more especially towards getting out a his- 
tory of Dale County, that could not be done without involving 
the history of Henry, Geneva, Coffee, Pike and Barbour, be- 
cause the first three, together with Dale were organized in 
1824 as "Henry County." 

Last summer [1899] I traveled all over these counties by 
private conveyance to gather such authentic information as 
I might find in the hands of the people. Of this I found 
much in the form of letters, documents, various records, and 
statements of persons who either took part in the events, or 
whose parents had. In this way I secured a complete list of 
ail the county officers from 1824, the organization of the 
militia and its history, the first settlements, customs of the 
people, material development. Church and temperance his- 
tory, Indian war, Indian Massacres, with names of persons 
and j)articulars of their barbarities, capture of Indians, 
their disposal, Jackson's march through the county, where 
he crossed the streams, first settler, and settlers, first house 
and houses, first mill, who raised firt cotton: War period, 
— Invasion by the enemy, battles with them, people murdered 
by deserters, killing of Lieut. Spears, and the whole detail — 
Days of reconstruction and their horrors. Else of the Popu- 
lites, especially with reference to the fight of 1892 — subse- 
quent history to date. Burning of court houses, fights over 
county seats, questions affecting the early settlers on the 
subject. And much more." 


The antiquarian and historian of Montgomery was M. P. 
Blue, who has left a valuable History of the city, as well as 
a sketch of its Churches. In the Montgomery Advertiser, 
July 12, 1854, he has an advertisement in which it is stated 
that he has in preparation "Historical Sketches and Statis- 
tics of Alabama," and asks for the co-operation of the public. 
In his History of Pickens County, Nelson F. Smith refers to 
circulars received from Mr. Blue on the subject, and sets out 
his inquiries in full. He supplied him with data as to Pick- 
ens County. How far Mr. Blue advanced with his work is 
not known. 

284 Report Alabama History Oommission. 


The collection made by Willis Brewer in the preparation 
of his Alabama; her history, resources, war record, and pub- 
lic men (1872) is still in his possession. This is doubtless 
large, although no particulars are at hand. Mr. Brewer has 
the very valuable file of the Democrat, Oahaba, 1838-40, edited 
by William L. Yancey. A full list of his published writings 
will be found in Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, pp. 841- 



Miss A. M. Brooks, of St. Augustine, Fla., has made ex- 
tensive researches in the Spanish side of the history of Flori- 
da, 1520 to 1808. She has copied and translated many 
ancient Spanish documents, which it is hoped will be pub- 
lished soon. 


William Garrott Brown, an Alabamian, who is now resi- 
dent at Cambridge, Mass., is the archivist of Harvard Uni- 
versity. He is the author of a School History of Alabama 
(1900). He has undertaken no special collection of Ala- 
bama books or manuscripts. 


Probably the largest and most valuable private library of 
general and miscellaneous literature in Alabama is the prop- 
erty of A. E. Caffee, now of Birmingham. In the ancient 
classics, philosophy, science, fiction, poetry, religious works, 
and European history it is remarkably complete. It con- 
tains scores of works not elsewhere found in the State. It 
has also a large number of encyclopedias and other reference 
books. In American and Alabama history it embraces many 
rare and unusual items. Its very fullness precludes the pos- 
sibility of presenting its character in other than the most 
general terms. 


In addition to a general library of Alabamana, Francis G. 
Caffey, of Montgomery, has made a special collection of 
works bearing on the reconstruction period of the State. This 
collection is made up of manuscripts, notes of interviews, 
etc., as well as of printed books. Mr. Oaffey is an intelligent 

Collectors and Students. 285 

and enthusiastic student, and has collected notes on other 
subjects with a view to elaboration into monographs. 


John M. Caldwell, Esq., of Anniston, Ala., has formed a 
collection of autographs, the basis of which is the accumu- 
lation of private papers, correspondence, etc., of his father, 
John H. Caldwell, Esq., of Jacksonville. These comprise 
letters from distinguished men in all parts of the United 
States prior and subsequent to the War between the States. 


The historical work of Richard L. Campbell, late a prac- 
ticing lawver at the Pensacola bar, did not extend beyond the 
preparation of his valuable work, Historical Sketches of 
Colonial Florida (1892). A short while after its publica- 
tion, he wrote the editor of this Report that he had made no 
local Florida collection, and that he had gathered only the 
material for this particular study. He has since died, and 
in response to an inquiry, his daughter, Mrs. E. C. Smith of 
Pensacola, says that he left no papers or collections which 
are of historical interest. 


Thomas H. Clark is a student of Alabama history, who 
has evinced a lively interest in its promotion. His published 
work appears in Northern Alabama Illustrated (1888), and 
in the Memorial Record of Alabama (1893). It is not 
known that he has made any manuscript collections. He is 
now in the Library of Congress, as Superintendent of the 
Law Library, Washington, D. C. 


In the fifties, James M. Cleveland, of Huntsville, appears 
from contemporary references and extracts in the news- 
papers of the period, to have been engaged in the prepara- 
tion of an Alabama Eegister, and also a work on the Gover- 
nors of the States of the Union. Why they were never pub- 
lished, or what became of his manuscripts, has not been as- 


The antiquities and history of Tuscaloosa County is being 
explored by Thomas P. Clinton, a student of the city of Tus- 

286 Report Alabama History Commission. 

caloosa. He has notes of interviews with a number of old 
inhabitants, also extracts from records, letters, etc., besides 
a large number of printed works of local interest. He has 
in preparation a map of the county, to accompany his work 
when published. He Las a number of specimens of Indian 
pottery, hatchets, arrowheads, and bones washed up by the 
Warrior river. He has also some relics from old "Black 
Warrior Town" burned during the Creek War. 


One of the most prolific writers of the State, and one who 
has had a distinguished career, is Dr. J. L. M. Curry, (1825-) 
now resident in Washington, D. C, as the Agent of the Pea- 
body and Slater Funds. His literary activity covers a wide 
range of thought and study, including valuable papers on 
philanthropy, education, diplomacy, the race problem, agri- 
culture, constitutional, revolutionary and local history, 
finance, etc. Its chief and special value, however, consists 
in the more than one hundred large bound volumes of pam- 
phlets. This collection represents the accumulation of an ac- 
tive public life, beginning prior to 1850, with many extremely 
rare items dating from the early years of the century. There 
is probably no other collection of as much variety in selec- 
tion, or of as much value, in the hands of a Southern student. 
Reference is made to Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, where 
specific mention is made of the very large number of titles 
examined by the compiler in the library of Dr. Curry. 


At New Orleans Gaspard Cusachs has an invaluable col- 
lection of ancient material in the quaint basement of his 
residence in the French quarter. It is largely confined to 
Louisiana, but much side light is thrown on our part of the 
country. Amongst other things is a Journal Historique 
dated April 5th, 1722, by Sieur Bouqu6s. It relates to the 
time when Biloxi had just succeeded Mobile as the French 
capital, but looks backward to Mobile and also forward to 
New Orleans, which soon in its turn succeeded Biloxi. Mr. 
Cusachs is an indefatigable antiquarian and has many books, 
letters, seals, and souvenirs of French and Spanish officials 
and citizens of Mobile and New Orleans. His collection 
should be explored and catalogued. 

•Prepared by P. J. Hamilton, who personally examined the collection. 

Collectors and Students. 287 


Among the students whose work promises much for the 
State is Prof. Joel 0. DuBose, of Birmingham. He is re- 
cently the author of a series of "Sketches of Alabama His- 
tory." Its plan is unique, and presents the principal facts of 
the State's annals in a graphic way, which must do much to- 
ward popularizing the work. Prof. DuBose has in view other 
important historical publications. He has collected a num- 
ber of interesting documents; and has several manuscript 
note books representing his studies in Alabama history. 


The collections, notes, and letters made by John W. Du- 
Bose in the preparation of his masterly Life and Times of 
William Lowndes Yancey (1892), are in his possession. 
Among these are lengthy communications from Gov. Thomas 
H. Watts, Gen. H. D. Clayton, R. Barnwell Rhett and others. 
Mr. DuBose has been an active student of Southern history 
for a number of years, and his manuscript gleanings in this 
field are extensive. He has also a large accumulation of data, 
notes, letters, interviews', and family papers, etc., in reference 
to the Canebrake region of Alabama, a History of which he 
has in preparation for the Transactions of the Alabama His- 
torical Society. 


The leading spirit in historical work in Kentucky is Col. 
Reuben T. Durrett, the founder of the "Filson Club," of 
Louisville, Ky. This organization is the principal historical 
Society of that State. Mr. Durrett's library is unusually 
rich in materials pertaining to the West, both published and 
unpublished, but what special local material, if any, it con- 
tains cannot be stated. No catalogue of the collection has 
ever been made, but Theodore Roosevelt, who used the li- 
brary in his Winning of the West (4 vols.) has given in the 
preface to that work a brief description of his manuscripts : 

"Among other matter, he possesses the Shelby MSS., con- 
taining a number of letters to and from, and a dictated auto- 
biography of, Isaac Shelby; MS. journals of Rev. James 
Smith, during two tours in the western country in 1785 and 
'95 ; early files of the 'Kentucke Gazette'; books owned by the 
early settlers ; papers of Boon, and George Rogers Clark ; MS. 
notes on Kentucky by George Bradford, who settled there in _ 
1779; MS. copy of the record book of Col. John Todd, the 

288 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

first governor of the Illinois country after Clark's conquest ; 
the McAfee MSS., consisting of an account of the First Set- 
tlement of Salt Eiver, the Autobiography of Robert McAfee, 
and a Brief Memorandum of the Civil and Natural History 
of Kentucky; MS. autobiography of Rev. William Hickman, 
who visited Kentucky in 1776, etc., etc." 


The entire correspondence and papers of William Garrett, 
accumulated through a long and active public and official life, 
also the original manuscript copy of his Reminiscences of 
Public Men in Alabama (1872), with notes for a subsequent 
edition, were all burned soon after his death. 

19. J. H. B. HALL. 

While his library is large and assorted, the strength of the 
collection of Rev. J. H. B. Hall, of Birmingham, lies in its 
Cumberland Presbyterian publications. He has practically 
full sets of the 8abbath School Gem, Nashville; the Zelos- 
ophian Casket; the Ladies Pearl, Nashville; the Theological 
Medium, Louisville, Lebanon and Nashville; the St. Louis 
Observer; the Cumberland Presbyterian, Nashville; the Ala- 
bama Cumberland Presbyterian; and the Educational 
Worker. He has also files almost complete of the 
Minutes of the General Assembly of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, the Alabama Synod, and 
the Alabama, Talladega, Elyton, Springville, and Bir- 
mingham Presbyteries. He has also a file of the 
Iron Age, 1886-1887, containing Miss Mary Gordon Duffee's 
"Sketches of Jones' Valley." Mr. Hall has for twenty years 
been collecting data for the history of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church in Alabama, and his collection is incompar- 
ably rich in all that bears upon the subject. The following is 
a partial and incomplete list of his 


(1) Manuscript Minutes of the Union and Alabama 

1836-1854. Folio. 1 vol. 

1855-1887. Folio. 1 vol. 

See Cumberland Presbyterian church, supra. 

(2), Manuscript Minutes of the Alabama Presbytery. 

18^5-1667. Folio. 1 vol. 

(3) Manuscript Minutes of the Session of Pleasant Vale 
Church (now Shady Grove), in Cherokee County. 1 vol. 

(4) "Robert Oldham's book. Containing Skeletons of 

Collectors and Students. 289 

Sermons, Thoughts, and ideas on Divinity. Tuscaloosa 
County, Alabama. January the 5th, 1836." 4to. 1 vol. 

(5) Wm. H. Meredith (1813-1885). Book of Sermons, 
Letters and Obituary Notes. Folio. 1 vol. 

(6) Rev. Thomas McCluney. Sermons, Correspondence^ 
Notes and Newspaper Clippings. Circa, 250 items. 

(7) William McKee Wallace, C. E. (a.) Level Notes of 
the following Railroad lines: Stickney to Akron, the depot 
line at Greensboro, and Marion Junction to Marion. 1 vol. 
12mo. (b.) Diaries. 1860-1884. 16 mo. 12 vols. 

(8) Constitution and Roll Book of Helena Lodge No. 15, 
Independent Order Good Templars. 1874. 4to. 1 vol. 

(9) Cumberland Presbyterian Church Notes. Historical 
and Biographical. 4to. 5 vols. 16 mo. 10 vols. 

Also a mass of unassorted notes, and newspaper clippings. 

(10) Miscellaneous Books (Personal) : Sermons, Corre- 
spondence, and writings. Folio. 20 vols. 


The labors of Peter J. Hamilton, Esq., Mobile, in the field 
of history have been conspicuous. He has also done other 
literary work of value. His Colonial Mobile (1897) is a 
book of great research, and easily first among the historical 
writings pertaining to the State. A catalogue of his writings 
is in Owen's Bibliography' of Alabama, pp. 962-964. His 
library has many rare books relating to the Southern coun- 
try, and is particularly rich in local matter pertaining to 
South Alabama. His papers and manuscripts may be classi- 
fied as: 1. Extracts; 2. Copies; 3. Photographs; 4. Miscel- 
laneous; and, 5. Papers of Peter Hamilton. Each item 
named constitutes one volume or package. The more impor- 
tant papers are as follows : 


(1) Extracts from Mobile Catholic Baptismal Register, 
1704 - 1764. 

(2) Extracts from Mobile Catholic Death Register, 1726 - 

(3) Extracts from Mobile Catholic Baptismal Register, 
1763 - 8. 

(4) Digest of all records in British Colonial Ofiices rela- 
tive to Mobile, and Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers during 
time of the British province of W. Florida, 1763 - 1779. 

(5) Digest of all items as to Mobile in Magne's collection 
at Tulane University, New Orleans. (In process of forma- 
tion. ) 


290 Report Alabama History Commission. 

(6) Digest of early cases in Washington County. (In 
process of formation. ) 

(7) Extracts from Bartram's Travels. 

(8) Extracts Latour's War in West Florida and Louisi- 

(9) Extracts Gatschet's Creeh Migration Legend. 

(10) Extracts French's Historical Collections of Louisi- 

(11) Extracts Margry's Decouvertes, etc. 
Extracts Adair's American Indians (1775). 
Extracts Shea's Early French Voyages (1861). 
Extracts Shea's Catholic Missions (1857.) 
Extracts Charlevoix' Travels (1720). 

(12) Extracts Mobile Translated Eecords. Contains also 
First Draft "Colonial Mobile," and sundry interviews and 

(13) Extracts, Minutes of Mobile, 1814 - 19, etc. 

(14) Extracts as to Street Railway franchises in Mobile. 


(15) Romans' West Florida. 

(16) Bossu's TraveZs (1781). 

(17) Parts of Mobile Translated Records, Vol. 1. 

(18) Haldimand Index, arranged chronologically. 

( 19 ) Sundry Haldimand papers of importance. 

(20) Journal Historique, par Sr. Bouques (1722). 

(21) Extracts of Penicaut's Relation, chronologically ar- 

(22) Mobile Minutes, 1813 - 1818. 2 bound volumes. 

(23) Ordinance Book of Mobile, 1814-1821. 


(24) Photographs of six early Spanish maps of the Gulf 
of Mexico. 


(25) Photographs of historic places in Mobile, Old Maps, 

(26) List of Mobile City officials. 

(27) Manuscripts of his books, essays, etc., (all since pub- 

(28) List of Mobile local acts. 

Papebs of Peter Hamilton. 

(29) Journal, private. From Mobile to Virginia, 1839. 

(30) Journal of public and private matters, almost con- 
tinuous, 1866 until his death, 1888, in a series of volumes. 

Collectors and Students. 291 

The part relating to the legislature of 1874-5 is of special in- 

(31) A large collection of miscellaneous law, political and 
private papers. 


Dr. George W. Hamner, a collector of Alabamana, and an 
historical student (temporarily resident in Washington, D. 
C.) has an unusually full library of books on the Southern 
Indians, Spanish and French Occupation of Louisiana and 
the Floridas, Travels, and Southern local history. He has 
also many special Alabama titles, some newspaper files, with 
a large collection of pamphlets. Specific mention of many is 
made in Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, as having been ex- 
amined by the compiler of that work. 

He has a copy of a Journal of a Tour through the Creek 
Country, November 19, 1796, to May 21, 1797, by Benjamin 
Hawkins. Folio, pp. 200. The original of this manuscript 
is in the Georgia Historical Society, Savannah. 

Dr. Hamner in 1896, for his degree of Ph.D., submitted to 
the Columbian University, Washington, a thesis on "Re- 
searches upon the Government of the Creek Indians," accom- 
panied by a bibliography. This is a valuable monograph. It 
is deposited in the archives of the University; and no plans 
have been arranged for its publication. 


The library of Col. Sam'l Will John, of Birmingham, con- 
tains more than four thousand books, pamphlets, and manu- 
scripts. While in its general features it forms almost a com- 
plete working collection, it is particularly full in 
works on Constitutional law, history and government, politi- 
cal economy, theology, Jeffersoniana, Confederate history, 
the local history of Alabama and adjacent States. Among 
other rare and important items, the following are worthy of 
special note, viz : 

(1) Elliott's Debates on the Constitution and Secret Pro- 
ceedings, etc. ; the Federalist; Calhoun on the Constitution; 
Bledsoe's Is Davis a Traitor; Curry's Southern States; 
Centz's Republic of Republics; the Madison Papers; Bryce's 
American Commonwealth; Stephens' War between the 

(2) Memoirs of Jefferson, 4 vols. ; Jefferson's Complete 
Works, 9 vols. ; Jefferson's Notes on Virginia; Jefferson's 

292 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Original Report on Weights, Measures and Coins ; Jefferson's 
Manual; Kandall's Jefferson ; Rayner's Jefferson; Jefferson's 
Public Education; Lee's Observations on Writings of Jeffer- 
son; T.hompkins' Bibliotheca Jeffersoniana, besides a number 
of others. 

(3) Official Records Union and Confederate Armies 
(complete) ; Official Records Union and Confederate Navies 
(complete) ; Southern Historical Society Papers; Pollard's 
Works; Scharf's Confederate Navy; Confederate Military 
History^ 12 vols. ; Davis's Works on the Confederate States ; 
the several narratives and historical works of Generals John- 
ston, Hood, Taylor, Beauregard ; several Lives of Davis, Lee, 
Jackson, and others ; Semmes' Service Afloat; the Crimes of 
the Civil War; the American Bastile; Swinton's Decisive 
Battles of the War, etc., etc. 

(4) The works of Meek, Pickett, Brewer, Garrett, Saun- 
ders, Woodward, Hamilton, DuBose, Hilliard, Baldwin, 
Clemens, Hooper, and others. Also a complete set of the 
novels of Augusta Evans Wilson, including the Confederate 
edition of "Macaria." 

(5) The following general histories: Winsor's Narrative 
and Critical History of America; Bancroft's, Ellis',. Steph- 
ens' and Gregg's Histories of the United States. 

The collection of pamphlets embraces almost every topic, 
and is in several volumes. 

The manuscripts embrace letters from public men for 
many years, rosters of troops, war notes, etc. The following 
manuscript volume is of unusual interest: 

"Records of the Selma Town Company." March 19, 1819 - 
1831. Folio. 

It contains minutes, records of sales of lots, persons to 
whom sold, prices paid, the accounts of the Company, and 
an account of its dissolution. Accompanying the volume, but 
separate, is a 

"Map of the Town of Selma." Circa, 14x16 inches. 

It has the following endorsement: "Copied by Reddick 
Sims in 1828." 


To no one does Southern archaeology and history owe more 
than to the late Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr., whose works in 
these departments of research, gave him a European reputa- 

Tor a sketch of Mr. Jones see Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 
1898-99, vol. iii, p. 128. " 

Collectors and Students, 293 

tion. His history writing was, however, directed primarily to 
Georgia. A valuable bibliography of his published work will 
be found in the Report of the American Historical Associa- 
tion for 1889, pp. 287-293. His library and collection was 
unusually full and complete. It passed on his death to his 
family, and is now in the custody of his son, Charles Edge- 
worth Jones, of Augusta, Ga., who is himself a collector, and 
an historical student of ability. Mr. Jones has furnished the 
following notes showing the character of the collection. Al- 
though apparently confined to Georgia, it doubtless has 
items, not noted by him, bearing on Alabama, a part of whose 
history is so intimately interwoven with that of the former 
State. He writes: 

"We have in our library no papers, letters or documents 
pertaining to the pioneers of Western Georgia, or of the ter- 
ritory now embraced within the States of Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi. Above all, we have no original letters or papers 
whatever of Alex. McGillivray, Benj. Hawkins, George Gal- 
phin or James Seagrove. You must remember that my hon- 
ored father's archaeological interest was- connected exclu- 
sively with the Aboriginal Indians who were in possession of 
the soil at the time or anterior to the arrival of General Ogle- 
thorpe in the Colony of Georgia. He made no effort to make 
collections along [the] line you suggest, [pioneer and later 
Indian period] and his interest so far as history and archae- 
ological matters are concerned took a different direction. 
The chief strength of our Library is found in the documents 
and books relating to Georgia's development as a Colony, and 
in the Revolution and in books relative to the antiquities of 
the Southern Indians, and to a history of their customs pre- 
vious to and soon after the advent of Europeans." 


It is understood that John B. Little, of Forest Home, has 
in manuscript a History of Marengo County, Alabama. In 
1895, his Map of that County was published. His History of 
Butler County, Alabama, appeared in 1885. 


The distinction of being the pioneer historical writer in 
Alabama belongs to Alexander Beaufort Meek (1814-1865. ) 
He was one of the earliest students of the State University; 
and before his majority , developed that love for literature 
which was so much to engage him in after years. He was at 

294 Report Alabama History Commission. 

the same time eminent as a lawyer, as a journalist, and a 
literateur. To the Southron, a literary venture established 
in the State, he contributed in 1839 a number of sketches on 
the history of Alabama. These were subsequently collected 
and revised, and with additions, issued as Romantic Passages 
in Southwestern History (1857), They had previously re- 
ceived the commendation of Bancroft, Irving, Simms, and 

Having been the first to explore the subject, it was but 
natural that he should contemplate the preparation of a gen- 
eral work on the history of the State. To this task he set 
himself, and with access to material almost without limit he 
completed the work from a consideration of the "Aboriginal 
Inhabitants" to the year 1800. The Manuscript of this work, 
as well as the remainder of Mr. Meek's unpublished material, 
etc., is now in the custody of Samuel M. Meek, Esq., of Co- 
lumbus, Miss. The latter has prepared a summary as fol- 
lows of the several chapters of the 


Chapteb 1. "Aboriginal Inhabitants." 

Chapter 2. "Spanish discoveries & Explorations." A. D. 1528-15S6. 

Chapteb 3. Not found. 

Chapter 4. "The Path of fire and conquest." A. D. 1536-1543. 

Chapter 5. "Dawn of European Occupancy." A. D. 1565-1701. 

Chapter 6. "First Settlement of Alabama." A. D. 1702-1711. 

Chapter 7. "The French at Mobile, under Crozat's Charter." A. 
D. 1712-1717. 

Chapter 8. "Dominion of John Law and the Mississippi Com- 
pany." A. D. 1718-1732. 

Chapter 9. "Homes in the wilderness." A. D. 1714-1745. 

Chapter 10. "Close of Bienville's Career." A. D. 1743-1763. 

Chapter 11. "Last years of French Rule." A. D. 1743-1763. 

Chapter 12. "British Possession of Alabama." A. D. 1763-1783. 

Chapter 13. "Spanish Dominion at Mobile." A. D. 1783-1800. 

"These chapters are beautifully written ( I mean the hand 
writing) evidently for the printers as they are written on half 
sheets of 'Fools-cap' paper. These are all the chapters, that 
I could find, prepared — yet there is a large pile of the origi- 
nal manuscripts, written on both sides of the paper, and 
from what I could gather, it brings the history up to the close 
of the civil war — war between the States. Judge Meek died 
Nov. 1, 1865 - and his widow, now [1900] near 82 years old, 
says, that the day before he died, she thinks he was writing 
the closing chapters of the Civil War." 
Unpublished Poems. 

"Besides the historical manuscript. Judge Meek left a large 
'Preface to Romantic Passages, etc 

Collectors and Students. 295 

number of poems, in blank books, which if published, would 
make, I think, a volume as large as his "Songs and Poems 
of the South," published before his death. Pardon me for 
saying, that many of them equal any of those in the book 

Journals, Diabieb and. Letters. 

Mr. Meek left some journals, diaries and letters, which are 
in the possession of his brother. One of these, a Journal, the 
editor has examined. It is a small quarto, of probably 100 
to 200 pp., and covers the period from Jan. 1 to July 1, 1834. 
It is neatly written, and chronicles many interesting events 
in the early history of Tuscaloosa, then his home. The others 
have not been examined. 

A bibliography of the published writings of Mr. Meek is in 
Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, pp. 1050-1053. 


At his death in 1899, Dr. B. P. Meek ranked among the 
leading English scholars of the South. He was not a writer 
of history, but he took an intelligent interest in the encour- 
agement of historical studies, and served as President of the 
Alabama Historical Society. His special English collection 
of 654 volumes was left by will to the State University, with 
which he was so long connected. Dr. Meek left a number of 
unpublished manuscripts, which are in the hands of his wife 
Mrs. Nettie H. Meek, Tuscaloosa. They are as follows : 
' (1) Conversation as a Fine Art. Lecture. 45 pp. 

(2) The Bible: Its attractions apart from its Inspiration. 
Lecture delivered before the Y. M. C. A. of the University of 
Alabama, 1882. 

(3) The Five Greatest English Poets? Why so ranked. 

(4) Baccalaureate Address, Huntsville Female College. 
(5) The Sunday School Cause. Address Delivered to the 

Methodist Church at Florence, Alabama, January 30, 1890. 

(6) The True Woman and The New Woman. Address to 
the Graduates of the Alabama Central Female College, May 
28, 1895. 

(7) Oration before the East Mississippi Female College, 
Meridian, Miss., June 2, 1897. 

(8) Oration, Delivered to the Graduates of the Medical 
College of Alabama, Mobile, Ala., March 28, 1890. 

(9) Books and Reading. Lecture. 34 pp. 

(10) The Two Alfreds. Lecture. 

(11) Address delivered at the Laying of the Corner Stone 

^96 Report Alabama History Commission. 

of the East Lake Atheneum, Solomon Palmer President. 
September 1,1892. 

(12) Baccalaureate Address Delivered to the Graduating 
Class of the Tuscaloosa Female College, June 8, 1885. 

(13) Alumni Address. Forty- first Anniversary. 

(14) Address. To the Graduates of the High School, Bir- 
mingham, Ala. May 29, 1890 . 

(15) Address. Delivered at the Laying of the Memorial 
Stone of the New University Buildings, May 5, 1884. 


It is greatly to be regretted that the papers and docu- 
ments collected by Major S. F. Miller appear to be lost. It 
is said that they were destroyed while stored at Oglethorpe, 
Ga. His descendants report that none are in their posses- 
sion. Mr. Miller edited the Monitor^ at Tuscaloosa, from 
March, 1840 to Oct. 1847. About 1849 he removed to Geor- 
gia. He assisted William Garrett in the compilation of his 
Reminiscences of Public Men in Alabama (1872), and the ac- 
knowledgment in the preface refers to the "large collection 
of documents and pamphlets which have been preserved by 
Major Miller in bound volumes, now forming a part of his 
library." These constituted in part the "Library of Pamph- 
lets," in fifty volumes, described in his Bench and Bar of 
Georgia, vol. ii, pp. 441-446. 


Since 1890, Thomas M. Owen, of Birmingham, has been 
interested in the formation of a collection of Southern 
Americana, and also of books, papers and documents, relat- 
ing to Alabama, its history, and antiquities. His library 
has increased until it now contains most of the principal his- 
torical and biographical works of all the Southern States, 
with their early compilations of laws. In general historical 
works it contains the American State Papers, 38 vols. 
American Archives, 9 vols. ; American State Papers, 12 vols. 
Annals of Congress, 42 vols. ; Register of Debates, 29 vols. 
Congressional Globe, 98 vols. ; and the Congressional Record 
all Reconstruction, Freedman's Bureau, and Secession Docu- 
ments, published by the U. S. Government; Alabama Con 
tested Election Cases, 24 vols. ; Public Lands, 8 vols. ; Pen- 
sion Records, 4 vols. ; Bulletins of the Bureau of Rolls and 
Library, State Department, 9 vols. ; Government Indexes, 9 
vols. ; all Government Documents relating to affairs in Ala- 

Collectors and Students. 297 

bama, several volumes; all Government Documents relating 
to the Southern Indians, several volumes; Canadian Ar- 
chives, 16 vols. ; Margry's Decoiivertes, etc., 6 vols. ; North 
Carolina Colonial llecords, 10 vols. ; the Charleston Year 
Books, 11 vols. ; Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of 
America, 8 vols. ; sets of the Reports of the U. B. Bureau of 
of Ethnology, the U. S. Geological Survey, U. S. Bureau of 
Education, and the Smithsonian Institution; sets of the 
Magazine of American History, Publications of the Southern 
History Association, the Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography, and the William and Mary College Quarterly, 
etc., etc., etc. 

The particular strength of his library, however, lies in its 
practically complete collection of Alabama books and pam- 
phlets. The former comprise history, biography, poetry, fic- 
tion and all miscellaneous writings. The pamphlets embrace 
almost full sets of the Repor-ts and papers of the Auditor, 
Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, Adjutant General, 
Raih'oad Commissioners, Penitentiary, Attorney-General, 
Board of Health, State Examiner, Agricultural Department, 
and Governor's Messages. Also the catalogues and other 
publications of the University of Alabama, the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute, Howard College, Southern University, 
St. Joseph's College, and numbers of other schools. Also the 
publications of the Geological Survey, the Insane Asylum, 
the Deaf and Dumb schools, the city of Mobile, the city of 
Montgomery, the Bar Association, the Medical Association, 
the Educational Association, the Bankers' Association, the 
Pharmaceutical Association, the Industrial and Scientific 
Society, and of various improvement and industrial conven- 
tions. Also the Proceedings of the Baptist State Convention 
and the Presbyterian Synods and Presbyteries, Diocesan 
Convention Journals, etc. Also documents relating to the 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias, State Pairs, 
Swamp and Overflowed Lands, and Pardons. Also full sets 
of the Acts of the General Assembly, the House and Senate 
Journals, 1841 to 1900, with sets of all Alabama legislative 
and ofl&cial documents ever authorized to be collected and 
bound. In addition to the foregoing there are several hun- 
dred of a miscellaneous character. 

The manuscripts and historical gleanings, newspapers and 
periodicals are of sufficient importance to be described in de- 
tail. They have been brought together from various sources, 
and the copies mentioned have been made at considerable ex- 
pense and trouble. 

298 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Adair, John. History of the American Indians. 1775. 

4to. 4 vols. 

This is a typewritten copy, made for use in annotating a proposed 
new edition, by Mr. Owen, of this interesting and valuable work. 

Alabama History. Monograplis and Papers. 

folio. 2 vols. 

Papers contributed by others on various topics in the history of 
the State. 

Alabama History. Miscellaneous Notes and Papers. 

4to. 2 vols. 
Individual gleanings. 

Alabama History. Studies. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Embraces papers in preparation. 

Alabama History. Analyses, Outlines, Bibliographical, 
and Chronological Notes. 1512-1900. 

Folio. 2 vols. 

Alabama History. Index Rerum. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Alphabetical Index for notes and references. 

Albums. Alabama Albums. 

4to. 2 vols. 

Vol. i. — Likenesses of Alabamians. 

Vol. 11. — Alabama Scenes. 

Anonymous. Book of Religious Reflections, June 12, 1860, 
to Oct. 25, 1860. 

Folio. 1 vol. pp. 112. 

Contains some references to political matters of the period, but 
principally devoted to questions of the inner life. 

Bibb, Gov. William Wyatt. Memoir, Letters and Papers 

of Governor William Wyatt Bibb. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Collected materials for the projected Memoir, etc. 

Consists of such of his personal and official correspondence as has 
survived, copies of his public papers, a genealogy of his family, etc., 

Blount MSS. Manuscripts of Governor William Blount 
( 1747 1800 ) , of Tennessee. 
Polio. 1 vol. 

Compared copies of the entire collection of originals, which are re- 
ferred to in Roosevelt's Winning of the West, vol. i. These embrace 
the remnant on an extensive accumulation. 

In the McKee Papers are over fifty Blount letters to Col. John 

Broadsides. Miscellaneous Alabama Broadsides. Sundry 

Folio. 2 vols. 

Caller Papers. Papers of Col. James Caller. 1800 - 1813. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Compared copies of the originals. 

Isolate to affairs in South Alabama for the period. 

Collectors and Students. 299 

Capitol Commissioners. Journal and Papers of the Com- 
missioners for Superintending the Erection of the State 

Folio. 2 vols. 

Vol. i. Journal, Jan. 20, 1827 to Nov. 8, 1833; and Vouchers, April 
13, 1827 to Nov. 18, 1835. 

Vol. 11. Papers. These comprise the loose papers, etc., collected 
and bound up. 

Commissioners appointed under act of the General Assembly of Jan. 
3. 1827. 

Confederate War. Miscellaneous Notes, Eeports, Ros- 
ters, etc. Alabama Troops in the Confederate War. 
Folio. 1 vol. 
See also Scrap Books and Thirty-Sixth Alabama Regiment 

Correspondence. Miscellaneous Alabama Historical Cor- 
respondence of Thomas M. Owen, 1890 - 1900. 
Folio. 5 vols. 

General correspondence, not susceptible of classification, arranged 
alphabetically and chronologically. 

Dead Towns of Alabama. Historical Notes on the Dead 

Towns of Alabama. 
Folio. 1 vol. 
History In preparation. 

Fayette County. Notes on the History and Genealogies 
of Fayette County, Alabama. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

History in preparation. 

Florida. A Bibliography of Florida. 
1 Portfolio. 
In Preparation. 

Consists of title entries on cards, with notes, of Florida books and 
literature. Similar to bibliographies of Alabama and Mississippi 
already prepared. 

Genealogy. Alabama Genealogies. 

Folio. 2 vols. 

Includes manuscript material for genealogies of the Gayle, Toulmin, 
Walker, Pope, Pickens, Tait, Bibb, Dexter, and many other families 
of Alabama. 

Grant, Thomas. "The Experience of Thomas Grant, set- 
ting forth the dealings of the Lord with him from his infancy 
until the age of seventy, and with several passages that hap- 
pened during that period." 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Covers the period, 1757-1828. 

He was born in Hanover County, Va., removed to Granville County, 
N. C, and served in the Revolutionary War, and later removed to 
Georgia, where he died. Contains much of historical value. 

Granville County, North Carolina. Notes on the His- 
tory and Genealogies of Old Granville County, North Caro- 

800 Report Alabama History Commission. 

4to. 4 vols. 

Comprises abstracts oi wills, administrations, guardianships, and 
miscellaneous papers from the county records, 1746-1800; also his- 
tories of the prominent early families of this section of N. C. 

Collection increasing. 

Greenville County, South Carolina. Notes on the His- 
tory and Genealogies of Greenville County, South Carolina. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Comprises, among other things, abstracts of wills, administrations 
and guardianships, 1785-1820. 
Collection increasing. 

Hearn, Rev. Ebenezer. Autobiography of Rev. Ebenezer 

Hearn. 1794-1862. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Compared copy of the original. 

Mr. Hearn was a Methodist preacher whose ministerial life was 
spent in Alabama. 

Jefferson County. Notes on the History and Genealogies 
of Jefferson County, Alabama. 

Folio. 8 vols. 

History in preparation. 

Represents ten years of painstaking collection of data for a full and 
exhaustive history. Contains many documents, and full abstracts 
from many of the old county records. It contains also interviews 
with a number of old settlers who have since passed away; and gene- 
alogies of all the old families of the county. 

Jonesboro Temperance Society. Constitution, Roll of 
Members, and proceedings of the Jonesboro Temperance So- 
ciety. 1845. 

i<'ound in Thomas McAdory's "Account Book," infra. 
Contains Constitution, Pledge with signers, and the proceedings of 
the meetings, June 7, July 4, and Aug. 3, 1845. 

Law (The) and Lawyers in Alabama. Historical and 
Biographical Notes on the Law and Lawyers in Alabama. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

History in preparation. 

Local History. Alabama Counties and Towns. 

4to. Several vols. 

This collection represents and embraces copies and clippings of his- 
torical articles and reminiscences, from newspapers, etc. They are 
among others: 

Madison County, by Thomas J. Taylor. 

Limestone County, by Robert A. McClellan. 

Mississippi Territory, by George S. Gaines. ■ '' " 

Athens, by John T. Tanner. 

Chambers County, by E. G. Richards. 

Tuscaloosa, uy Dr. W. S. Wyman. 

Mobile, by Peter J. Hamilton. 

Demopolis, by J. W. Beeson. 

Talladega County, by Abner Williams. 

West Aiaoama, by B. A. Powell. 

Jefferson County, by B. E. Grace, Sr. 

Wilcox County, by Zo. Cook. 

Jones Valley, by Miss Mary Gordon DufEee. 

Sumter County, by A. W. Dillard. 

St, Clair County, by Wm. H, Cather. 

Collectors and Students. 301 

McAdory, Thomas. (1817-1879., Account Book, 1849- 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Miscellaneous personal accounts, ages of negroes, etc. 

McAdory, Thomas, Jr., (1837-1862). Journal, 1858-1860. 

4to. 1 vol. 

He was in the University during 1858. 
Contains his accounts as teacher in 1860. 
Son of Thomas McAdory, Sr. supra. 

McKee Manuscripts. The manuscripts of Col. John Mc- 
Kee. 1792-1830. 

Folio. 10 vols. 

These embrace the entire public and private papers of Col. John 
McKee (1767-1832), who was in public life in the old Southwest and 
Alabama for forty years. They consist of letters to him, drafts of his 
letters to others, his Indian accounts and vouchers, his diaries 
and journals, etc., and are of much historical value. They number 
over 1200 items, and are in good condition. 

Madison County. Documents and Notes on the History 
of Madison County, Alabama. 

rolio. 1 vol. 

Contains the following: 

Miscellaneous historical and genealogical notes. 

Abstract of the Marriage Register, 1809-1819. 

Abstract of Minutes Orphans Court, 1810-1817. 

Abstract of Minutes Superior Court, 1810-1819. 

Abstract of Final Record Superior Court, 1810-1819. 

Manuscripts. Manuscripts of Alabama Public Charac- 

4to. 1 vol. 

Includes a number of copies, or original manuscripts, of Dr. Neal 
Smith, Dr. Basil Manly, Sir Robert Farmer, Judge Charles Tait, 
Gov. John Gayle, and others, of various dates. 

Manuscripts. Miscellaneous Alabama Manuscripts un- 
classified. Various dates. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Marion County. Notes on the History and Genealogies of 
Marion County, Alabama. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

History in preparation. 

Maps. Miscellaneous Alabama Maps. 

Elephant Folio. 1 vol. 

Maps. Bibliography of Alabama Maps. . 
1 Portfolio. 
In preparation. Consists of title entries on cards, with notes. 

Montgomery County. Documents and Notes on the His- 
tory of Montgomery County, Alabama. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Contains the following: 

Miscellaneous historical and genealogical notes. 

Compared copy of "Minutes of Court of Revenue and Roads," 1818- 
1826, with notes, 1826-1837. 

Compared copy of Minutes Orphan's Court, June 1817, to Oct, 10, 

302 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Newspapek Press. Bibliography of the Newspaper Press 
of Alabama. 

1 Portfolio. 

In preparation. Consists of title entries on cards, with notes. 

OwEN^ HoPSON. Hopson Owen's Almanac. 1834 - 1852. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Compared copy of th.e original, which is a small quarto. 
Full of interesting notes about Tuscaloosa persons and events. Mr. 
Owen lived and died there. 

Owen, Rev. John (1786-1848). Journal. Sept. 9, 1813, 

to Feb. 7, 1848. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Compared copy of original in 2 vols. Folio. 

At the head of the first page is the endorsement: "A desultory his- 
tory of Events of any importance." 

After a page of short entries, it gives the account of his removal 
from 'Virginia to Tuscaloosa in 1818, which has been printed In the 
Publications of the Southern History Association, April, 1897. The 
Journal contains many references to the local history of Tuscaloosa. 

Owen, Thomas (1789-1849). "Thomas Owen's Docket 
Book for the Year A. D. 1824. 16th February, 1824." 

Folio. 1 vol. 

He was one of the earliest settlers in Jefferson County, and was a 
Justice of the Peace in 1824. 

The book also contains his personal and store accounts, ages of 
negroes, etc., 1825-1835. 

Owen, Thomas (1892-1859), Lawyer. "Memorandum of 
Weather, &c." Feb. 26 ,1850, to Jan. 18, 1859. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Compared copy of original, a long Folio. 

This is an almost daily record of the weather for nine years. It 
also contains many personal references, notices of deaths, etc. He 
came to Tuscaloosa in 1818, and spent the remainder of his life there. 

Account of State Bank collections, 1839-1842. 

4to. 1 vol. pp. 250. 

Contains names of debtors, amount of notes, interest, partial pay- 
ments, etc. 

Pickens County. Notes on the History and Genealogies 
of Pickens County, Alabama. 

Folio. 4 vols. 

History in preparation. 

Contains genealogies of almost all of the old families of the county. 

Pickens (The) Republican. Account Book, 1850. 

8vo. 1 vol. ■ 

Pickett Manuscripts. Manuscripts of Col. A. J. Pickett. 

Folio. 3 vols. 

Compared copies of the originals. 

Contains the following: 

Notes for memoir; bibliography; and copies of his miscellaneous 
uncollected writings. From Mr. Pickett's "Scrap Book." 1 vol. 

"Interesting Notes upon the History of Alabama from various relia- 
ble and intelligent parsons who were participators in the scenes, de- 
scribed." Folio. 1 vol. 

Collectors and Students. 303 

"Letters from various distinguished and well Informed persons 
answering enquiries made of them by Albert J. Pickett of Montgom- 
ery, Ala., In relation to the History of Alabama, Books. MS. &c. *c." 
Folio. 1 vol. 

It is the Intention of the editor to Issue a memoir of Col. Pickett, 
after the manuscripts have been fully and satisfactorily edited. 

No higher tribute could be paia the memory of this distinguished 
historian than the publication of these volumes. 

Scrap Books. Alabama History. Miscellaneous. 


— Alabama Biographies. 
Folio. Arranged alphabetically. 

— Alabama in the Confederate War. 

Folio. 2 vols. 

— Alabama Politics. 

Folio. 2 vols. 

— The General Assembly of Alabama, 1892 - 1893. 
4to. 1 vol. 

— General Literature. 
*i.o. 5 vols. 

SiMS^ Female Academy. "Treasurer's Book. Sims' Fe- 
male Academy commenced 23d March, 1829. Miss Eliza Bell 
first teacher. B. B. Fontaine, Treasurer." 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Covers 1st, 2nd and 3rd sessions, March 23, 1829 to July 31, 1830; 
and contains rosters of pupils and patrons, amount of tuition, etc. 

Sons of Veterans. Correspondence and Papers of. Thomas 
M. Owen, Commander Alabama Division, United Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans, 1898 - 1900. 
4to. 1 vol. 

Souvenirs and Badges. Miscellaneous Alabama Souv- 
enirs, Badges, etc. 
Folio. 1 vol. 

Stone, Levtis M. Miscellaneous Books. 

9 vols. 

Political Scrap Books, 1868-1880. 8vo. 4 vols. 

Law Scrap Books. Folio. 2 vols. 

Pickens County Land Notes. 4to. 1 vol. 

Brief Book. 4to. 1 vol. 

Brief in the Petty Will case. Folio. 1 vol. 

Thirty-Sixth Alabama Regiment. Historical Notes on 
the Thirty-sixth Alabama Regiment, C. S. A. 
Folio. 1 vol. 
History In preparation. 

TouLMiN^ Judge Harry. Life and Letters of Judge Harry 


4to. 1 vol. 

Collected materials for the projected Life, etc. 

Judge Toulmin s public life In Alabama covers the period from 
1804 to 1819. He was a prominent character, perhaps the leading 
figure in Alaoama during these eventful years. His .correspondence, 
which was voluminous, throws much light on men and events. 

304 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Tuscaloosa Watee Company. Minutes. 1848. 

J<'olio. 2 vols. 

Contains lists of subscribers. 

Virginia. Historical Notes. 

4to. 1 vol. 

Sundry notes and data extracted from Virginia records and other 

Walker, John Williams. The John W. Walker Papers. 
1810 - 1823. 

4to. 2 vols. 

Compared copy of tbe originals. 

Embraces letters to and from Mr. Walker (1783-1823), who was one 
of the first U. S. Senators from Alabama, 1819-1822. In the collec- 
tion are other Walker family and business papers, 1798-1833. 

Washington County. Documents and Notes on the His- 
tory of Washington County, Alabama. 
4to. 1 vol. 

Copies of documents, and copious notes from and abstracts of the 
following manuscript records of the county, viz: 
Minutes of the Superior Court, vol. A. 1802-i807. 
■Minutes of the Superior Court, vol. B. 1807-1811. 
Minutes of the Superior Court, vol. C. 1812-1818. 
Minutes of the Superior Court, vol. D. 1818-1819. 
Minutes of the Circuit Court, 1819-1821. 
Book of Old Bonds, 1801-1806. 

Minutes of Superior and Circuit Court, sitting in Chancery, 1805- 
Abstracts of Washington County Wills, 1800-1889. 

West (The) Alabamian. Account Books. 1867 1874. 

Folio. 2 vols. 

This paper was published in Carrollton, by Andrew Henry. 

West Florida. Documentary History of West Florida. 
1810 - 1813. 

4to. 1 vol. 

A collection, as far as possible, of copies of all documents and 
papers bearing on the effort of the people of what is now Eastern 
Louisiana to throw off the Spanish yoke, and form an independent 

Windham Springs, Ala. Account Book, 1846-1874. 

Folio. 1 vol. 

Proprietor's account book, with names of guests and customers. 

Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek, or Muscogee In- 
dians. 18.59. 

4tO. 1 vol. 

A typewritten copy of this rare book, annotated by Mr. Owen, with 
a view to its republication in a new edition. 

Newspapers and Periodicals. 
Alabama. (Q-eneral.) 

Miscellaneous Newspapers. 1811 1829. 1 vol. 
Miscellaneous Newspapers. 1830 - 1834. 1 vol. 

Tuscaloosa Inquirer. 1830-1833. 
The Mobile Patriot. l»31-1832. 

Collectors and Students 305 

Alabama State Intelligencer, Tuscaloosa. 18S1'1832. 

Alabama Republican, Cahawba. 1833. 

Alabama Republican, Cahawba (different). 1831-1833. 

Flag of the Union, Tuscaloosa. 1833-1834. 

Green County Sentinel, Greensborough. 1834. 

State Rights Expositor, Tuscaloosa, 1834. 

Miscellaneous Newspapers. 1835-1865. 1 vol. 
Miscellaneous Newspapers. 1866 - 1900. 5 vols. 

A thens. 
The Alabama Courier, w. 

March 3, 1892 -April 13, 1893. 1 vol. 

The Bessemer Weekly, w. 

June 18, 1887 -Nov. 9, 1889. (vol. 1, et. seq.) 1 vol. 
Nov. 16, 1889 -June 27, 1891. 1 vol. 
July 4, 1891 -Dec. 31, 1892. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1893 -Aug. 1894. 1 vol. 
1898-1899. 1vol. 

The Bessemer Journal, w. 

Dec. 20, 1888 -April 7, 1892, (vol. 1, No. 7-Vol Iv, No. 23.) 1 vol. 
April 14, 1892 -May, 1894. 1 vol. 
1898. 1 vol. 

The Daily Bessemer, d. 

June 1- Oct. 13, 1891. (Vol. 1, Nos. 1-101.) 1vol. 

The Daily Pig. d. 

June 2, 1891 -May 31, 1892. (Vol. i, Nos. 1-263.) 1 vol. 

The Alabama Cumberland Presbyterian, w. 

1893-1894. 1 vol. 


Birmingham Age-Herald, d. 

Nov. 1887 -Dec. 1890. 1 vol. 
Sept. -Dec. 1890. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1 - Dec. 31, 1891. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1. -Dec. 31, 1892. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1893. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1894. 3 Vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1895. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1896. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1897. 3 vols. 
Jan 1-Dec. 31, 1898. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1899. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1900. 3 vols. 

The Daily News. d. 

March 4, 1891 - March 14, 1892. 1vol. 
March 14 - July 14, 1892. 1 vol. 
July 15 -Nov. 14, 1892. 1 vol. 
Nov. 15, 1892 - March 30, 1893. 1 vol. 
1899-1900. 4 vols. 

The Birmingham Ledger, w. 

Aug. 20, 1892 - Dec. 23, 1893. 1vol. 

306 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Pythian Council, m. i 

May -Nov., 1892. 1 vol. ■ ' '* 

Birmingham State Herald, d. 

1897. Irregular. 1 vol. 

Birmingham Iron Age. 

Feb. 12, 1874 -Feb. 4, 1875. (Vol. i, Nos. 1-52). 
Feb. 18 -Aug. 17, 1875. (Vol. ii, Nos. 2-28). 1 vol. 

The Daily Ledger, d. 

March 30- June 21, 1898. (-Vol. 11, No. 110, et seq.) 1 vol. 

Alabama Christian Advocate, w. 

1898-1900. 1 vol. 

The New Era. 

April 16, 1699 - Oct. 1, 1899. (Vol. i. No. 35- Vol. II, No. 7). 1 vol. 
Oct. 7, 1899 - Dec. 31, 1899. (Vol. 11, Nos. 8-20). 1vol. 

The Southern Musician. 

June -Oct., 1899. Vol. ii, Nos. 1-5. 

The Dallas Gazette, w. 

Jan. 5-Dec. 26, *854. 1vol. 
Jan. 12 - Dec. 21, 1855. 1 vol. 
Jan. 4 -Dec. 23, 1856. 1vol. 
Jan. 2 -Dec. 22, 1857. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1858. 1 vol. 
Jan. 7 -Dec. 30, 1859. 1vol. 


The West Alabamian. w. 

July 4, 1855 -Dec. 23, 1861. 2 books. 

May 23, 1866-1891. (Except 1888). 25 books. 

May 5, 1897 - Dec. 1900. 2 books. 

The Pickens Republican, w. 

Oct. 1, 1857 - Oct. 3, 1861. 1 vol. 

The Alliance News. w. 

July 13, 1897 -April 3, 1900. 1vol. 
See also "PickensvlUe." 


Shelby County Guide, w. 

April 30, 1868 -May 13, 1869. (Vol. i, Nos. 1-52.) 
May 27, 1869 -May 24, 1870. (Vol. ii, Nos. 2-51) 
June 14, 1870 -June 8, 1871. (Vol. iii, Nos. 2-52.) 
June 22, 1871 -June 11, 1872. (Vol. iv, Nos. 2-52 ) 
June 25, 1872 - June 5, 1873. (Vol. v. Nos. 2-51 ) 
July 3, 1873 -June 11, 1874. (Vol. vl, Nos. 4-52 ) 
June 25, 1874 -May 27, 1875. (Vol vii, Nos 2-48 ) 
June 24, 1875 - Sept. 2, 1875. (Vol. viil, Nos. 1-11.) 
Ceased publication with Sept. 2, 1875. 


The Payette Tribune, w. 

1899-1900. 1 vol. 

The Independent, w. 


n°7- ^\ IkI^ 'J""]^ B' }^^^- ('^o'- 5. No. 16-Vol, iv., No. 52 ) . 1 vol. 
Oct. 9, 1858 - Sept. 23, 1865. 1 vol. 

Collectors and Students 307 

The Gordo Enterprise, w. 

Aug. 12, 1899 - March 20, 1900. 1 vol. 

Alabama Beacon, w. 

May 23, 1840 - Dec. 30, 1843. (Vol. 1, No. 1-Vol. Iv, No. 34). 1 vc'. 

Ctrove Hill. 
Clarke County Democrat, w. 

Dec. 2, 1897 - Oct. 19, 1899. 1 vol. 
The Democrat, w. 

Oct. 7, 1823 - Oct. 9, 1856. Vol. 1, No. 1-Vol. xxxiii. 33 vols. 
Practically complete; o file of great value. 

Huntsville Daily Independent, d. 

Jan. 16 -June 30, 1866. (Vol. i, Nos. 1-142.) 1 vol. 

Our Southern Home. w. 

1899-1900. 1 vol. 


The Marion Commonwealth, w. 

1854-1855. 2 vols. 


Mobile Commercial Register, w. 

Nov. 17, 1827 - Dec. 5, 1828. 1 vol. 
Dec. 26, 1828 - June 5, 1830. 1 vol. 
INOV. 25, 1831 -May 24, 1834. 1 vol. 

The Floral and Family Magazine, m. 

Feb. -Dec. 1899. CVol"!, Nos. 1-11.) 1 vol. 
The Masonic Signet. (Also at St. Louis.) m. 

March, 1850 -April, 1854. Vols. ii-x. 9 vols. 

The American Cotton Planter, m. 

Jan, 1853 - June, 1861. Vols, i-ix. 

The Advertiser, d. s-w. w. 

1865-1885. 3 vols. 
Nov. 1885 -June, 1886. 1 vol. 
July -Dec, 1886. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1891. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1892. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1893. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1894. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1895. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1 - Dec. 31, 1896. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1897. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1 - Dec. 31, 1898. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1899. 3 vols. 
Jan. 1-June 30, 1900. 2 vols. 

308 Report' Alabama History Oommission. 

Southern Law Journal and Reporter, d. 

Dec, 1879 - Nov., 1881. Vols. 1, No. 1 - Vol. li, No. 12. 2 vols. 

The Alabama Law Journal, m. 

April, 1882 -April, 1885. Vol. i-iv. 3 vols. 

The Masonic Guide, m. 

1890-1897. Vol. i-viii. 8 vols. 

Woman's Work. m. 

Sept., 1898 -Aug. 1899. (Vol. i, Nos. 1-12.) 1 vol. 
Sept. 1899 -June, 1900. (Vol. 11, Nos. 1-10.) 1vol. 

Pickensville Register, w. 

Marcli 6, 1841 -Feb. 26, 1842. (Vol. il, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 
March 5, 1842 -Feb. 25, 1843. (Vol. iil, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 
March 4, 1843 -Nov. 5, 1843. ("Vol. iv, Nos. 1-26.) 1 vol. 

The Riverside Press, w. 

Dec, 1881 -Aug. 14, 1883. 1 vol. 

The Reform Progress, w. 

Oct. 5 -Dec 22, 1898. (Vol. 1, Nos. 1-16; all.) 1 vol. 

The Morning Times, d. 

Dec 2, 1865 - July 3, 1866. (Vol. 1, Nos. 131-297.) 1 vol. 
Feb. 10 -July 3, 1866. (Vol. i, Nos. 178-297.) 1 vol. 
Sept. 6, 1868 - March 4, 1869. 1 vol. 

The Selma Weekly Messenger, w. 

Nov. 10, 1866 -Nov. 23, 1867. (Vol. I, Nos. 1-49.) 1 vol. 

The Selma Daily Messenger, d. 

Nov. 1, 1866 -June 5, 1867. (Vol. ii, Nos. 132-311). 1 vol. 
June 6, 1867 -Jan. 29, 1868. (Vol. iii, Nos. 2-205). 1 vol. 

The Selma Times and Messenger, d. 

Jan. 30 -May 9, 1868. (Vol. ill, Nos. 206-291.) 1 vol. 

May 10 -Sept. 5, 1868. (Vol. iii. No. 292-Vol. iv. No. 78.) 1 vol. 

The Southern Argus, w. 

June 16, 1869 -Dec 29 1871. (Vol. i. No. 1-Vol. iii, No. 52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 5 -Dec 27, 1872. CVol. iv. Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 3 -Dec 26, 1873. (Vol. v. Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 2 -Dec 25, 1874. (Vol. vi, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 1-Deo. 31, 1875. (Vol. vii, Nos. 1-53.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 7 -Dec. 29, 1876. (Vol. vili, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 5 -Dec 28, 1877. (Vol. ix, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 4 -Dec. 27, 1878. (Vol. x, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 

Jan. 3 -Dec 26, 1879. (Vol. xi, Nos. 1-52.) 1 vol. 


Tuscaloosa Newspapers. University Commencement Edi- 
tions. Includes the following: 

The Commencement Daily, June, 1878. 
Commencement Daily, June, 1886. 
The Daily Gazette, June, 1887. 
The University Daily, June, 1887. 
The Evening Times, June, 1892. 

Collectors and Students 809 

The Dally Gazette, June, 1892. 
The Evening Times, June, 1895. 
The Dally Gazette, June, 1896. 
The Evening Times, June, 1896. 
The Dally Gazette, June, 1897. 
The Evening Times, June, 1897. 
The Dally Gazette, June 1898. 
The Evening Times, June, 1898. 
The Daily Gazette, June, 1899. 
The Tuscaloosa Times, June, 1899. 

The Meteor. Insane Hospital. Irregular. 

July 4, 1872 -Dec. 24, 1881. (Vol. i. No. 1-Vol. lii). 1 vol. 

The Alabama University Monthly. University, Ala. m. 
Dec. 1873 -June, 1887. Vols, i-xiv. 8vo. 

The Southern Law Journal, m. 

. Jan. 1878 - Nov., 1879. Vols. 1, No. 1-Vol. 11, No. 11. 2 vols. 

The Journal. University, Ala. m. 

Jan. 1891 -Nov. j.893. Vols. 1-lv. 8vo. 3 vols. 

The Tuskaloosa (sic.) Gazette, w. 

June 30, 1892 - Dec 1900. 9 vols. 

Alabama Historical Reporter, m. 

Oct., 1879 -July, 1880. Vol. 1, Nos. 1-10. 
Dec, 1883 -Nov., 1884. Vol. 11, Nos. 1-12. 
Jan. -July, 1885. Vol. Hi, Nos. 1-7. 

The Crimson- White. University, Ala. bi-m. 

Jan. 11 -May 4, 1894. Vol. 1. 
Nov. 23, 1894 - June 18, 1895. \ oi. 11. 
Oct. 25, 1895 -June 15, 1896. Vol. ill. 
Oct. 27, 1896 - June 21, 1897. Vol. Iv. 
Nov. 5, 1897 -June — , 1898. Vol. v. 
Oct. 18, 1898 -June 21, 1899. v^ol. vi. 
Oct. 17, 1899 - June 1, 1900. Vol. vli. 
Oct. 5, 1900. Current. Vol. vlll. 

Flag of the Union, w. 

Jan. 5 -Dec. 29, 1841. 1 vol. 

State Journal and Flag. w. 

Jan.. 9 -Nov. 27, 1846. 1 vol. 


The Elmore Standard, w. 

Kay 8 - Dec. 20, 1867. (Vol. 11, Nos. 4-25.) 1vol.' 

Atlanta, Q-a. 

The Atlanta Constitution, d. 

Sept. - Dec, 1895. 2 vols. 

Charleston, 8. G. 

The Sunday News, w. 

July, 1897 -April, 1898. 1 vol. 

Milton, Pa. 

The Miltonian. w. 

March 17, 1832 -Aug. 2, 1834. 

BIO Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Democracy, w. 

Oct. 22, 18i)i>-T>ec. 23, 1899. 1 vnl. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Aurora, d. 

Feb. 27 -Dec. 23, 1807. 1 vol. 
Jan. z-Dec. 27, 1809. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 11, 1811. 1 vol. 
Jan. 2, 1812 -March 5, 1813. 1 vcl. 

Pulaski, Tenn. 

The Pulaski Citizen, w. 

May 13, 1897 - Dec. 29, 1898. 1 vol. 

Washington, D. 0. 

National Intelligencer, t. w. 

Jan. 1, 1810 - Dec. 29, 1810. 1 vol. 
Jan. 2, 1813 -Jan. 22, 1814. 1 vol. 
Nov. 24, 1818 - Dec. 30, 1819. 1 vol. 

United States' Telegraph, t. w. 

Feb. 28, 1828 - Sept. 1, 1829. 1 vol. 
Sept. 8, lo^9 - Oct. 18, 1831. 1 vol. 

The Washington Post. d. 

1898 - 1899. 10 vols. 

Miscellaneous Newspapers. (Not Alabama.) 

1890 - 1900. 1 vol. 


Dr. George Petrie, who has the Chair of History at the 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, has inaugurated a 
movement, which promises to be of great value in his College 
work, and of far-reaching benefit to the institution with 
which he is connected. Through the co-operation of the four 
hundred students of the Institute, who hail from all parts of 
the State, and whose enthusiastic sympathy he has enlisted, 
he is collecting for the use of his Department, all Alabama 
books, pamphlets, newspapers and documents, that can be 
located. Although in operation only a short time, the re- 
sults have exceeded expectations. A number of rare and val- 
uable items have been brought in, and many others will follow 
as the collecting spirit in the student is developed. 

In another very significant way. Dr. Petrie is stimulat- 
ing interest in historical work. In his class exercises the 
value of original investigation is emphasized, and in all grad- 
uate work it is required. In this way he has not only devel- 
oped in many of his students the faculty of independent re- 
search, but has also caused the preparation of many chapters 
in the history of the State, the results of which in finished 

Collectors and Students 311 

studies will appear in the Publications of the Alabama His- 
torical Society and other places. 

While engaged in the preparation of the very excellent 
sketch of Montgomery for "Historic Towns in the Southern 
States," he made a special collection of books, papers, docu- 
ments, and notes on the history of the city. These he has pre- 

He has a collection of photographs of historic houses, as 
well as various pictures of scenery in the State. 


While investigation in the history of Alabama had its be- 
ginning with the studies of A. B. Meek in 1839, it was not 
until 1851 that it attained its full expression in the work 
of Col. A. J. Pickett. His History of Alabama, in two vol- 
umes, which appeared in that year, subject to a few correc- 
tions and additions, must ever be regarded as the leading au- 
thority on the early history of the territory now included in 
Alabama. Preparatory to its compilation, Mr. Pickett spent 
years in collecting the printed works bearing upon the several 
subjects treated, and in securing data from eye witnesses of 
and actors in the scenes described. It also involved a liberal 
financial outlay. The value and importance of his researches 
have been acknowledged by leading critics and historians. 

After Mr. Pickett's death, the books comprising his collec- 
tion were disposed of to various purchasers. Some of them 
were secured for the library of the State University by Dr. 
W. S. Wyman, but the larger part went into hands not now 

The manuscript collections were divided among the differ- 
ent members of his family, and their full extent cannot be 
satisfactorily stated. 

A large "Scrap Book," strongly bound and neatly kept, 
containing various communications from Mr. Pickett to the 
newspapers and periodicals of the day, as well as sundry clip- 
pings of a personal nature, from about 1835 to 1850, has been 

The rough draft of a part of his History of Alabama, in 
several thin quarto volumes, has also been preserved. 

But the manuscripts of most value which have survived, 
are the two volumes described below. They have been placed 
in the hands of the editor for publication, with notes, in con- 
nection with a Memoir of Mr. Pickett which he has in prepa- 
ration. The first of these volumes possesses the very highest 

$1^ Report Alabama History dompiissioii. 

historical value, as it consists almost solely of original ma- 
terial, only a small part of which Mr. Pickett was able, 
within the limits of his work, to use. In this Report various 
extracts are introduced from communications to Mr. Pickett, 
to be found in full in these volumes. Their designations, 
taken from the books themselves, are as follows, viz ; 

"Interesting Notes upon the History of Alabama from 
various reliable and intelligent persons who were participa- 
tors in the scenes described." Folio. 

"Letters from various distinguished and well informed per- 
sons answering inquiries made of them by Albert J. Pickett, 
of Montgomery, Ala., in relation to the History of Alabama, 
Books, MS., &c., &c." Folio. 


Dr. B. F. Kiley, Houston, Texas, has for a long time been 
an active student of Alabama history. His work appears in 
the substantial form of a History of Conecuh County (1881)^ 
Alabama as it is (1887), and a History of the Baptists of 
Alabama (1895). During recent years, however, his work 
as a teacher, and minister of the Baptist Church have largely 
absorbed his energies. He has no Alabama manuscripts, or 
rare printed books. 


Dr. Eugene Allen Smith, University, has been at the head 
of the State Geological Survey since its revival by act of 
April 18, 1873. His collections have been made principally 
for the cabinets of the survey. His private library, however, 
is one of the richest in the State, not only in technical, but in 
general works. It numbers approximately 4,000 bound books, 
and 4,000 pamphlets. The books include complete sets of the 
Century Magazine, Scribner's Magazine, Nature, the Ameri- 
can Naturalist, Science, the University Monthly, the Unwer- 
sity Journal, Crimson-White, etc. He has also a large col- 
lection of maps. His private cabinet contains many relics 
and antiquities. A list of his numerous writings is embraced 
in Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, pp. 1154 - 1157. 


Judge William Russell Smith (1815-1896) was a writer 
of great versatility, and a lawyer of ability. In 1833 he pub- 
lished College Musings, or Tivigs from Parnassus, probably 
the first literary production, as such, issued in the State. 

■ Collectors and Students . 313 

From that time until his death, his pen was never idle. His 
literary work ranges over the fields of poetry, fiction, the 
drapia, oratory, journalism, and the law. Practically a full 
list of his publications is in Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, 
pp. 1160 - 1166. Mr. Smith's library, with the accumulations 
of three quarters of a century, is in the hands of his family. 
It has many Alabama titles. From a number of volumes of 
notes, scrap books, etc., the following list of unpublished 
manuscripts is compiled. 


(1) Reminiscences of a Long Life. Notes for the second 
volume of this work, the first of which appeared in 1889. 

(2) The Legacy. A collection of Sonnets and Poems. 
Dedicated to his wife. 

(3) Poems. Based on mythological subjects. 

(4) A Serial Novel. Extracts have been published. 

(5) Essays; Political, Historical and Poetical. 

(6) Historical Parallelisms. 

(7) Notes on Ingersoll. In 1889 he delivered the Alumni 
address at the University of Alabama, his theme being Inger- 
sollism and Better Brains. 


After Bishop W. B. Stephens' death, the historical papers 
and manuscripts collected and used by him in the prepara- 
tion of his History of Georgia, were turned over to the Geor- 
gia Historical Society, where they may now be found. 


Few students of local history have amassed so large and 
interesting a collection of valuable works as O. D. Street, of 
Guntersville. In Southern Americana, and aboriginal litera^ 
ture his collection is especially strong, as well as in local 
pamphlets. His collection of manuscripts possesses much 
local interest, a description of which is given herewith. Each 
number represents a volume, package, or item, 


(1) Information Relating to Homicides committed in 
Marshall County since its Organization, Jan. 9, 1836. 

(2) Tabulated statement by Precincts, of elections held in 
Marshall County from 1853 to 1866. Containing also list of 

S14 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

persons voting at Guntersville at Election held Nov. 5, 1865. 

(3) Tabulated statement of elections by Precincts held in 
Marshall County since 1885, including primary elections held 
since 1890. 

(4) Some Reminiscences of Dr. John B. McFerrin, con- 
cerning the early Days in Marshall County. 

Contains account of his ministerial work among the Cherokee In- 
dians upon the "Creek Path Mission," (which included Marshall 
County) in the years 1827-1829. 

(5) Judge Louis Wyeth's unfinished "History of Marshall 
County," published in Guntersville Democrat, 1883. 

Contains many interesting facts relating to the early history of the 

(6) Common Place and Account Book of Maj. Arthur C. 
Beard, one of the pioneer settlers of Marshall County. 

Contains many items of local and personal Interest. 

(7) Information Relating to Indian Reservations in Mar- 
shall County. 

(8) Local Laws affecting Marshall County; Sketch of Col. 
Arthur Campbell, of Virginia; Information concerning John 
Gunter and family, the first white settler in Marshall county. 

( 9 ) Information relating to the Tennessee and Coosa Rail 
Road Company. 

(10) Gen. S. K. Rayburn's Incomplete History of the Ten- 
nessee and Coosa Railroad Company. 

This project which grew out of the early idea of connecting the 
waters of the Tennessee with those of the Gulf has greatly affected 
the material interests of Marshall County. 

(11) Names of persons first entering or purchasing lands 
in Marshall County. 

An approximate list of the first settlers of the county. 

(12) The Old Register of Rayburn's Hotel, Guntersville, 

Kept during the Civil War. 

(13) Lot of miscellaneous Documents relating to sundry 
matters of Local Interest in Marshall County. 

(14) A collection of the Political, Masonic, and Confeder 
ate Memorial addresses of the late Col. James L. Sheffield, of 
Marshall County. 

(15) An account of the 48th Alabama Regiment in the 
Civil War, by John D. Taylor, of Guntersville, Ala. 

(16) Information relating to the old Town at Gunter's 
Landing on the south bank of Tennessee River. 

Now entirely abandoned. 

(17) Invoice of a bill of merchandise bought by a mer- 
chant of Marshall county, June 27, 1836. 

Shows the prevailing prices and character of goods carried by coun- 
try merohanta at that day, 

Collectors and Students 315 

(18) Some Papers Relating to the Old Tennessee Com- 
pany purchase in North Alabama. 

They have the autograph signatures of 'Valentme Sevier, Samuel 
May and of Zachariah Cox, the chief promoter of that 111 favored 

(19) Information relating to the Proposed Perry of Man- 
chester, on the site of Jackson's old "Fort Deposit," on the 
Tennessee Eiver. 

(20) Information concerning Localities of interest in 
Marshall County. 

(21) Copy of Minutes of Commissioners' Court of Mar- 
shall County from Feb., 1837, to May, 1841. 

(22) A list of volunteers in Confederate armies from 
Marshall county whose families were assisted under the act 
of Nov. 11, 1861, providing a fund for the relief of indigent 
families of volunteers. 

(23) Statistics relating to Marshall County. 

(24) A small Scrap-Book kept by Col. James L. Sheffield 
during the Presidential Campaign of 1860. 

Shows the Douglass, Breckenrldge and Bell votes in Marshall Coun- 
ty by beats. Douglass, 763; Breckenrldge, 440; Bell, 164. 

(25) Large Scrap-Book kept by Col. James L. Sheffield 
during the Civil War and Reconstruction periods. 

Contains among other things the original draft of the minutes of a 
mass meeting of the citizens of Marshall county instructing her dele- 
gates James L. Sheffield and Arthur 0. Beard to sign the ordinance 
of secession. 

(26) Information Relating to the Virginia Branch of the 
Street family. 

(27) Information Relating to the Genealogy of the Family 
of Thomas Beard, of Rockbridge Co., Va., a soldier of the 

(28) Information containing the Genealogy of the Camp- 
bell family of Virginia. 

(29) Sketch of Col. John B. Campbell, a soldier of the 
War of 1812. 

(30) Conversations wdth old citizens and other data relat- 
ing to the history of Marshall county. 

Consists of correspondence, extracts from the county records, etc. 

(31) Information concerning Benjamin Atkins of Laurens 
District, S. C, (a soldier of the Revolution), and his descend- 

(32) Sundry documents, papers, scrap books, etc., in rela- 
tion to Alabama politics. 

TJiese comprise a large number of Interesting items. 

316 Report Alabama History CommissioB. 


( 1 ) Map of Marshall county showing public land divisions, 
drainage, public roads, earliest settlements, and points of 
interest. Drawn by O. D. Street. 

(2) Map of Tennessee Valley. Prepared with special ref- 
erence to its aboriginal history. Drawn by O. D. Street, 

(3) Two maps of the Proposed Town of "Manchester," on 
Tennessee River on the site of Jackson's "Old Fort Deposit." 
Drawn by William Daly. 

(4) Map of Warrenton, Ala., former county site of Mar- 
shall County. Drawn by O. D. Street. 

(5) Map of the Western Continent. From the Universal 
Traveller^ London, 1759. Curious. 


Mr. Israel K. Tefft, who resided at Savannah, Ga., was one 
of the most distinguished and successful autograph and man- 
uscript collectors in thiii country. His collections must have 
been of great value, as acknowledgments for valuable aid are 
made to him, by many historical students. His entire manu- 
script collection was dispersed by auction sale at New York, 
March 4, and the following days, 1867. The sale Catalogue 
numbers 264 pages, octavo, and describes many Southern 


Henri Vignaud, a local collector of Paris, France, "has 
many valuable documents in his library connected with the 
history of Louisiana."* This means in the wider sense of 
Louisiana in the 18th century. William Beer, Librarian of 
the Howard Memorial Library, New Orleans, who has visited 
his library says that its value however, is mainly for printed 
books and maps. 


The principal materials, both printed and manuscript, col- 
lected by Rev. Anson West, D. D., of Decatur, in the prepara- 
tion of his History of Methodism in Alabama (1893) are still 
in his hands. These are summarized in the "Preface," pp. 
4-5, of that work. They consist of general church historical 
and biographical works, official Journals and Minutes of Con- 
ferences, Church newspapers and periodicals, manuscript lo- 

'■Proceedings Louisiana Historical Society, vol. 1, part 3, p. 8, 

Collectors and Students Si? 

cal church records, and manuscript journals, diaries and let- 
ters of ministers. The latter embrace the following : 

(1) Manuscript Journal of the Rev. A. 0. Ramsey. 

(2) Manuscript Journal of the Rev. Ebenezer Hearn. 

(3) Manuscript Journal of the Rev. William Wier. 

(4) Manuscript Journal of the Rev. Joseph T. Curry. 

(5) Manuscript "History of Methodism in Florence," by 
W. B. Wood, Esq. 

He has also his own note books of gleanings, which com- 
prise personal interviews, inscriptions from tombstones, etc. 

He had access also to a number of personal papers, loaned 
by families of deceased ministers and laymen, which have 
been restored to their owners. It is hoped that this collec- 
tion will ultimately be placed in the library of the Alabama 
Historical Society, as the basis of a special collection on 
Methodist Church history. 

39. E. T. WOOD. 

E . T . Wood was a resident of Mobile, and evidently an en- 
thusiastic local collector. He wrote "A Historical Sketch 
from the First Settlement of Mobile, and the adjoining coun- 
try to the present time," which appeared in his Mobile Direc- 
tory and Register, 1844. He was of much assistance to Mr. 
Pickett in his work, for which formal acknowledgment was 
made. Bee Owen's edition of Pickett's Alabama, pp. 486, 507 
and 509, notes, for reference to MSS. in Mr. Wood's hands. 
Nothing has been ascertained respecting the life of Mr. Wood, 
or as to the whereabouts of his papers, if in existence. 


Dr. W. S. Wyman, of the University of Alabama, is the 
veteran historical student, collector, and antiquarian of Ala- 
bama. His personal familiarity with everything bearing 
upon the history of the State is perhaps more intimate and 
extensive than that of any other person. He has made a 
specialty of early exploration and settlement, and the his- 
tory of the aboriginal and Indian inhabitants of the State. 
He has always been prodigal of his knowledge, and to him 
all other Alabama students are indebted for inspiration and 
assistance. For years a finished work by him on State his- 
tory has been expected, and it is hoped that he may yet em- 
body the results of his wide research and ripe scholarship. 

His collection embraces practically all early French, Span- 
ish, and other works, either in originals or translations, bear- 

318 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

ing on the Southern country and the Indians, and includes a 
number now out of print and exceedingly rare. He has also 
a large number of early printed Alabama books and pam- 
phlets. His numerous note books represent years of careful 
gleaning, locally and in Foreign libraries. 


War Records of Alabama. 





The two official repositories, as is well known, for data in 
reference to "the records of Alabama troops in all wars in 
which they have participated," are the War Department, in 
Washing-ton, D. C, and the office of the Adjutant-General, at 
Montgomery. Other official records, as well as private papers 
of a valuable character, are in the hands of survivors or of 
their descendants. Before a compilation of the records of 
Alabama soldiers can be published a detailed exploration and 
examination of these two repositories must be made, and a 
systematic search must be instituted for the recovery of all 
pertinent material that may exist in private hands. The 
plan of the Commission, as originally projected, was to give 
detailed lists of existing material in the War Department, 
but owing to the peculiar regulations of the office this has 
been impossible, and before it can ever be done, even for an 
official publication of its records by the State, an Act of Con- 
gress will doubtless be required to open them up, or provide 
for their transcription. In the absence of detail, therefore, a 
general statement only as to the records is given. The records 
and papers in the office of the Adjutant-General of Alabama, 
such as survive, are in fair condition. They are so arranged 
as to be easily consulted. They are being constantly hand- 
led, and it is feared that this use will soon destroy them 
unless some effort is made to preserve them. As their use 
appears a necessity, it is all the more urgent that the War 
Records of the State should be published, as recommended by 
the Commission, supra. Owing to the lack of means and for 
want of time, only a limited inquiry has been possible as to 
what exists in private hands. 

The Record and Pension Office of the War Department, is 
the custodian of a vast body of data in relation to the ser- 

'In tlie preparation of this Part, acknowledgment for valuable assist- 
ance is made to Thomas M. Owen, Chairman of the Commission and 
editor of this Report. Due acknowledgment is also made to the work 
of W. S. Ford in listing the records in the Adjutant-General's office, as 
found in the Report of the latter for 1892-94. 

21 (321) 

322 Report Alabama History Commission. 

vices of troops from Alabama in all wars. This office was 
originally a "Division" of the Surgeon-General's Office. The 
following brief description has been supplied by Col. P. . 
Ainsworth, Chief of the Office : 


"This office has the custody of such military records as are 
in the possession of the War Department relating to the per- 
sonnel of the volunteer forces in the various wars in which 
the United States has been engaged. The records of this 
class relating to volunteers from Alabama in the Indian wars 
and the war with Mexico consist principally, for the Indian 
wars, of muster rolls of the organizations employed, and, for 
the Mexican war, of muster rolls and returns. The muster 
rolls in this office of Alabama volunteers in the Indian wars 
are confined to those of the Seminole or Florida war ( 1835 to 
1842), the Creek War (1836 to 1837), and the Cherokee war 
(1836 to 1839). 

"It is understood, however, that there are in the office of 
the Auditor for the War Department (an official of the 
Treasury Department) some muster rolls of volunteers from 
Alabama in the Seminole war of 1817 and 1818. 

"There is also on file a considerable collection of orders, 
correspondence and reports relating to the operations of the 
volunteer forces in the various wars, but this collection is by 
no means complete." 


Col. Ainsworth gives also the following facts concerning 
the Confederate Archives, all of which, that from any rea- 
son, have been brought together in the War Department, ap- 
pear to be now in the Eecord and Pension Office. 

"All of the Confederate archives in the possession of the 
War Department are in the custody of this office. They oc- 
cupy six rooms in the State, War and Navy Building, some 
of them being packed in boxes and other are arranged in file 
cases. Owing to the limited space available for filing these 
records, and because of the necessity for handling them with 
great care, they are only accessible to specially trained em- 
ployees of this Department who are thoroughly informed 
with regard to them and who are held responsible for their 
safe preservation. All of the Confederate records that per- 
tain to military affairs and that are of general historical 
interest have been published in the War Records. 

It is uiiderstood that comparatively small collections of 

Record and Pension Office, 323 

Confederate records are to be found in the Post Office and 
Treasury Departments, but the War Department has no 
definite information with regard to them." 


The conditions under which information from the records 
of this office will be furnished are set forth in the following 
orders of the War Department, dated February 23, 1897 : 

"The muster rolls and other records' of individual officers, 
enlisted men and organizations, which are on file in the Rec- 
ord Office of this Department and which pertain to the War 
of the Rebellion, the Mexican War, the various Indian wars, 
the War of 1812 and the War of the Revolution, have become 
so dilapidated through years of constant handling, or other 
causes, that it has been found necessary to adopt stringent 
measures for their preservation, and to restrict reference to 
them to cases in which such reference is absolutely necessary. 
Many of the most important of those records have been repro- 
duced by the index record card system, but the handling of 
these cards, as well as the original records which they repre- 
sent, by persons not thoroughly instructed in their use and 
not under the control of this Department, involves a great 
danger of the loss, through misfiling or otherwise, of cards 
or other records which cannot be replaced. For these rea- 
sons, as well as for others equally cogent, the Department is 
compelled to restrict access both to the original records and 
the index-record cards exclusively to persons who are in the 
employ of the Department and are laAvfully subject to its 

The Department will furnish at any time such information 
relative to any individual officer or enlisted man as its rec- 
ords afford, and as may be actually necessari/ to enable 
the proper officials of any State, or any relief association, 
patriotic society or other kindred organization, to pass upon 
anjr application that may have been made in good faith for 
aid, relief or membership, and that may properly come with- 
in the jurisdiction of such officials or organization. But re- 
quests for information relative to individual officers or en- 
listed men, or for the compilation of statistics or other data 
relative to particular organizations, to be used for historical 
or memorial purposes or for publication cannot be entertain- 
ed, because the limited clerical force allowed by law is insuffi- 
cient to enable the Department to comply with such requests 
without serious interference with more important current 

S24 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

The records of general historical value pertaining to the 
late war have either been published, or soon will be published, 
in the "Official Kecords of the Union and Confederate Ar- 
mies," so as to render them accessible to all who may be in- 
terested in them. Should Congress provide in future for a 
similar publication of the records relating especially to indi- 
vidual officers, enlisted men and organizations of that war 
and prior wars, the historical data which these records con- 
tain will also become available for general use, but until 
such publication shall have been authorized, or other legis- 
lation enacted, it will be impracticable for the Department 
to furnish compilations or statements from those records 
for historical, memorial purposes, or for publication. 

For the reasons set forth above, the following rules have 
been adopted relative to the subject of furnishing statements 
or extracts from the records of the personnel of the volun- 
teer armies and other similar records on file in the Eecord 
and Pension Office of this Department, and are hereby an- 
nounced for the information and guidance of all concerned : 

1. All requests, made by persons other than officials of the 
United States, for information from the official records must, 
to receive favorable consideration, set forth the specific pur- 
pose for lohich they are made, and must he sufflcienthj in de- 
tail to enable this Department to determine for itself how 
much, if any, of the information ashed for is necessary for 
the purpose indicated and can properly he furnished. 

2. Any such request that may be made with a view to de- 
termining merits of an application for State or other aid or 
relief must be made, over his own signature, by the State or 
other official who may be authorized by law to decide whether 
such aid or relief shall be furnished ; or, in case the decision 
rests with a board, commission or association, the request 
must be made, over his or her oion signature, by the chief of- 
ficer of the board or other organization which is empowered 
to decide the case. All such requests must, to receive favor- 
able consideration, meet the following requirements : 

(a) The character of the relief or aid for which application 
has been made must be fully and specifically set forth. 

(b) If the application is to be decided under a law of any 
State, that law must be definitely cited. 

(c) If the application is pending before any board or asso- 
ciation, not created by or acting under any law, the source 
from which such board or association derives its authority to 
act must be stated, 

Record and Pension Office. S25 

(d) If the pending application is that of some person 
other than the one whose record is desired, the relationship 
of the applicant to the person whose record is desired must 
be set forth. 

(e) The full name of the person whose record is requested, 
the rank held by him, and the designation of the organization 
in which it is claimed that he served, must invariably be 

. 3. Any request that may be made for the purpose of en- 
abling a society or association to decide as to the eligibility 
or non-eligibility of an applicant for admission thereto must 
be made by the chief officer, over his or her oion signature, of 
that branch of the society or association in which the applica- 
fon is to be voted upon or otherwise decided, and must meet 
the following requirements : 

(a) The title or designation, and the location, of the 
branch to which the application for membership has been 
made must be given. 

(b) The full name and residence of the applicant, and the 
date on which the application was made, must be stated. 

( c ) The relationship of the applicant to the person whose 
record is desired if the application for membership was not 
made by such person himself, must be set forth. 

(d) If the record of any other person has been requested 
of, or furnished by, the War Department in connection with 
the pending application, a statement to that effect, including 
the name of the person whose record has been requested or 
furnished, must be made. 

(e) The full name and rank of the person whose record is 
desired, and the designation of the company and regiment, if 
any, in which he served, must be invariably stated in all cases 
in which service during the War of the Rebellion is claimed. 

(f) The full name of the person whose record is desired, 
and the State from which he entered service or of which he 
was resident at the time of his entry into service, must be in- 
variably stated in all cases in which service during the Revo- 
lution or the War of 1812 is claimed. His rank and the desig- 
nation of the organization in which he served, if known, 
should also be stated. 

(g) Requests for the record of a man whose surname only 
is known, or for information relative to all the men bearing a 
certain name, will not be entertained. 

4. Requests emanating from a post or other subsidiary or- 
ganization of the Grand Army of the Republic must be for- 

320 Report Alabama History Commission. 

warded through, and must be authenticated by the signature 
of, the Department Commander. Requests emanating from 
the subdivisions of other associations founded on military 
service during the War of the Rebellion must be forwarded 
and authenticated as follows: Union Veterans' Union, 
through department commanders; Union Veteran Legion, 
through the National Commander; Sons of Veterans, 
through division commanders. 

5. The information that will be furnished for use in connec- 
tion with any application for membership in any society or 
association, or for State or other aid or relief, will be strictly 
limited to that which is actually necessary to enable a de- 
cision upon the pending application to be made, and wall 
in no case comprise items that may be desired for any other 
purpose, such as to complete the records of a society, to make 
some other and different application, or to be used in the 
prosecution of a claim against the United States. 

6. Concise statements of the military histories, so far as 
shown by the records on file, of men who served in the Revo- 
lution or in the War of 1812, will be furnished upon the ap- 
plication of descendants of those men, under the following 
conditions : 

(a) The relationship of the applicant to each person whose 
record is desired must be stated. 

(b) The full Christian name as well as the surname of 
such person must invariably be given, and the rank which 
he held and the designation of the organization in which he 
served, if those are known, must be stated. 

(c) The place, or at least the State, from which he entered 
service, or of which he was resident at the time of his entry 
into service, must be designated. 

(d) If the name of the person whose record is desired is a 
common one, the designation of the organization in which he 
served, or the names of some of the regimental officers under 
whom he served, must be stated. 

(e) Requests for information relative to all the men bear- 
ing a certain name will not be entertained, nor will any other 
request involving an unreasonable expenditure of time and 
labor be considered. 

(f) There will not be furnished to or for any one descend- 
ant the record of service of more than two ancestors in the 
Revolution, or of more than two in the War of 1812. 

7. Each request for the record of an officer or enlisted man 
of any war should be made on a separate sheet of paper, 
should be complete in itself, and should fully meet all the re- 

Record and Pension Office. 327 

quirements of this order. In no case should requests for the 
records of two or more men be combined in one communica- 

8. Compilations or statements relative to individual offi- 
cers, enlisted men or organizations will not be furnished, 
from the records on file in the Record and Pension Office, for 
historical, memorial or statistical purposes, or for publica- 
tion, or to complete the records of States, societies or associa- 

9. Because of the great danger of the destruction, loss or 
misfiling, through handling by inexperienced persons or 
those not under the control of this Department, of the muster 
rolls and other regimental or company records, index-record 
cards, and all other similar records, which are on file in the 
Record and Pension Office, and which pertain wholly or 
chieflly to the personnel of the armies of the various wars, the 
handling of those records will be restricted exclusively to 
the specially trained employes of that office, and no informa- 
tion will be furnished from them except as hereinbefore pro- 
vided, or as may be otherwise required by law. 


The Adjutant-General is Chief of Staff to the Governor, 
who is the commander-in-chief of "the active volunteer or- 
ganized military forces of the State." The former is charged 
with a number of duties in the administration of the mili- 
tary department. Among other things he is required to "keep 
a roster of all the officers of the Alabama National Guard 
and keep on file in his office all reports made to him." In the 
administration of the office the books kept are the following : 


Letters Received Book. Contains briefs or abstracts of all 
letters received. 

Letter Press Copy Book. Contains impressions of all let- 
ters mailed. 

General Order Book. 

Special Order Book. Consists of impression copies. 

Endorsement Book. Contains entry of all endorsements 
made on correspondence, reports, etc. 

Roster of Officers, Alabama National Guard. 

Official letters, reports, rosters, etc., are all briefed and 
filed by years. 

The current official records and papers of the office are ap- 
parently in existence from 1871. 

The importance of this office, however, lies in the fact that 
it is made the depository of the old records of the State in its 
Indian Wars, the Mexican War, the Confederate War, and 
the Spanish American War, which will now be described. 


The old militia records of the State are apparently quite 
full and complete, consisting of books and papers, as follows, 

Military Register. 1820 - 1832. Folio. 1 vol. 

Contains names of Division, Brigade, Regimental and 

Company officers. 
Military Register. 
Military Register. 

1832 - 1844. 



1844 - 1861. 



Indiau War Records. 329 

Military Returns. 1818 - 1861. 42 packages. 
Reports of Strength and Equipment of Militia. 1822 to 
1832. 1 package. 

Military Reports of Officers. 1839 to 1844. 1 package. 


Military Correspondence in relation to the Creek Indian 
War. 1836 - 1839. 8 packages. 

These papers comprise letters, orders, &c., from the War Depart- 
ment at Washington, correspondence of Governors Clay and Bagby 
with the several commandants, organization of troops, consultations 
with friendly Indians, letters from citizens claiming protection and 
detailing accounts of citizens killed by hostile Indians, and the de- 
struction of property. 
There are also Muster Rolls of the following companies: 
Capt. W. R. Smith's company of mounted volunteers, from Greene 

Capt. J. McAdory's company of mounted volunteers, from Jefferson 

Capt. George W. Patrick's company of mounted volunteers, from 

St. Clair County. 
Capt. O. B. Harris' company of mounted volunteers, from Shelby 

Capt. Cornelius Carmack's company of mounted volunteers, from 

Lauderdale County. 
Capt. Samuel Finch's company of mounted volunteers, from Lime- 
stone county. 
Capt. John Abbott's company of mounted volunteers, from Perry 

No special company name given for any of the above. 
Selma Guards, Capt. J. F. Conoley. 
Tallassee Guards, Capt. John H. Brodnax. 
True Blues of Montgomery, Capt. W. Chisholm. 
Wilcox Guard of Cavalry, Capt. W. H. Pledger, 
l^ontgomery Invincibles, Capt. John W. Bonham. 

The letter notifying Gov. Clay of the organization of this com- 
pany gives only the officers' names. 
i>.s to the above named Muster Rolls, they only give the names of 
the members, as at first organized and filed with the Governor, there 
were many who afterwards joined these commands whose names do 
not appear. 


Papers relating to the Mexican War. Correspondence. 
1846 to 1848. 3 packages. 

Papers relating to the Mexican War. Muster Rolls. 1 

From 1846, to 1848, the correspondence of Governors J. L. Martin 
and R. H. Chapman in relation to the Mexican war, comprises letters 
and papers as to raising, organizing and equipment of companies 
tendered to the Governor for twelve months' service. In response to 
his proclamation calling for volunteers. 

Many more companies were offered than needed, as the United 
States only called on the State of Alabama for fifteen companies, 

330 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

that is to say, one regiment and one battalion. General Gaines had 
already organized two regiments of Alabama State troops. 

These records ao not show which companies were received and mus- 
tered into service, but mention is made of the following as belonging 
to the regiment: 

Sumter Guards Captain J. A. Winston 

Pintlala Guards Captain J. M. Curtis 

Macon Guards Captain R. F. Ligon. 

Wilcox Guards Captain Thomas K. Beck. 

Marshall Blues Captain James M. Gee. 

Hayneville Volunteers Captain E. W. Martin. 

Eutaw Rangers Captain Sydenham Moore. 

Tallapoosa Volunteers Captain Mathev.^ Lyle. 

Martin Guards Captain Alexander Morton. 

Talladega Rangers Captain H. M. Cunningham. 

Benton Guards Captain R. G. Earle. 

Jackson Guards Captain B. F. Chisholm. 

True Blues Captain Rush Elmore. 

And the following would seem to comprise the Battalion which was 
commanded by Major J. J. Seibles. Only the Captains' names are 
given : 

Tennent Lomax Captain. 

Daniel Gibbs Captain. 

B. M. McAlpine Captain. 

John G. Barr Captain. 

Thomas Irby Captain. 

There is a large correspondence as to this Battalion, as to the rank 
of the officer commanding, and also as to a stand of colors presented 
to the Battalion. Letters from the officers of the United States army, 
who mustered in the troops, show that all muster rolls were at once 
forwarded by them to the Secretary of War at Washington. 

The following is a list of the original muster rolls of companies 
organized and tendered to the Governor for service, which are among 
the letters: 

Autauga County Company Captain John H. Sutherlins. 

Eutaw Rangers Captain Sydenham Moore. 

Greensboro Volunteers Captain A . L . Pickens. 

Morgan Martins Captain C. P. M. Dancy. 

Patriots Capcain L. G. Garrett. 

Jefferson Volunteers Captain Moses Kelly. 

Sumter Rangers Captain Daniel Gibbs. 

Sumter Guards Captain John A. Winston. 

True Blues Captain Rush Elmore. 

'xailadega Guards Captain Jacob D. Shelly. 

This last namea company only gives commissioned and non-com- 
missioned officers. No privates. 

jLhe correspondence also shows that the following named companies 
were organized and tendered to the Governor for service, but only 
giving the names of the commissioned or elected officers. 

A King, Captain Perry County. 

; John M. Langf ord. Captain DeKalb County. 

Charles S. Jones, Captain Jackson County. 

B. King, Captain no data. 

R. W. Jones, Captain Jackson County. 

George W. Lawrence, Captain no data. 

S. A. McMeans, Captain Lowndes County. 

I James Lamar, Captain DeKalb County. 

i B. S. Griffin, Captain Coosa County. 

O. B. Harris, Captain Shelby County. 

H. H. Higgins, Captain Limestone County. 

J. B, Harrison, Captain Selma Rangers. 

Mexicau War" Records . 331 

:Jach Thomason, Captain DeKalb County. 

A. B. Moore, Captain Perry County. 

W. C. McBroome, Captain Independent Volunteers. 

Wm. Kerr, Captain Greensboro Cavalry. 

B. F. Hammond, Captain Madison County. 

Oliver Miller, Captain Cherokee County. 

Andrew Ingle, Captain Walker County. 

J. D. Parks, Captain Pike County. 

Porter King, Captain Perry County. 

Thos. M. Peters, Captain Lawrence County. 

John i^angham. Captain Lawrence County. 

Thos. A. Walker, Captain Lowndes County. 

Wm. Wilson, Captain Alabama Volunteers. 

W. G. Coleman, Captain Perry County. 

Jno. C. Hanna, Captain Randolph County. 

Stephen W. i;j.arris. Captain Lawrence County. 

Jno. W. Fletcher, Captain Jefferson County. 

Enoch Aldridge, captain Blount County. 

Uanl. Coggin, Captain Fayette County. 

Jas. M. Edwards, Captain St. Clair County. 

Sam'l. Davis, Captain Tallapoosa County. 

James Bishop, Captain Jackson County. 

Wm. Baker, Captain Lauderdale County. 

From a paper among the correspondence, it would appear that a 

Regiment was organized, as follows: 

Jones M. Withers Colonel. 

Phillip M. Raiford Lieutenant Colonel. 

John A. Winston Major. 

with the companies commanded as follows: 

Daniel Gibbs Captain. 

R. F. Ligon Captain. 

Jno. J. Seibles Captain. 

Wm. B. Preston, vice John A. Winston Captain. 

E. W. Martin Captain. 

R. L. Downman Captain. 

John B. Todd Captain. 

John M. Curtis Captain. 

Jno. L. Mumford Captain. 

Jas. Crawford Captain. 

A letter dated June 6, 1846, states that C. A. Ogden, Major Engineer 
Corps, mustered into service, companies commanded by Capts. Drury 
B. Baldwin, Samuel Dennis, Jacob D. Shelly and Henry W. Cox, and 
that Maj.-General E. P. Gaines mustered into the service, under orders 
from the War Department, before the Governor's proclamation calling 
for volunteers, the following companies commanded by 

Jno. B. Todd Captain. 

Jno. G. Barr Captain. 

Thos. B. Irby Captain. 

Robt. L. Downman Captain. 

Wm. H. Piatt Captain. 

Robert Desha Captain. 

Jno. L. Mumford Captain. 

H. W. Cox Captain. 

James Crawford Captain. 

J. P. Youngblood Captain. 

In addition to the foregoing data, tliere is also on file, a 
large folio volume, entitled 

Muster Rolls Alabama Volunteers Mexican War. 1846 - 47. 
It was transmitted by the U. S. War Department, office of 

332 Report Alabama History Commission. 


the Adjutant General, with a communication dated April 27, 
1887. It shows all who actually served. 

Contains the following: 

Roll of 1st Regt., six months service, Go's. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, 
K, L, M. 

Roll of 1st. Regt., twelve months service, Go's. A, B, C, D. E, F, 
G, H, I, K. 

Roll of Inf. Batallion,, six months service, Go's. A, B, C, D. 

Roll of Inf. Batallion, six months service, Cos. A, B, C, D. 

Roll of four Companies, six month service. 


While there are a number of papers for the war period in 
the offices of the Governor, Secretary of State, and Auditor, 
{see supra), the Confederate military records preserved by 
the State are in the office of the Adjutant General. These 
were principally gathered through the efforts of William H. 
Fowler, Superintendent of Army Records for Alabama. He 
was commissioned to the work Dec. 9, 1863, and until the 
close of the war labored steadily to gather data as to Alabama 
troops in the Confederate service. In a report to Gov. Lewis 
E. Parsons, Dec. 4, 1865, Transactions Alabama Historical 
Society, 1897 - 98, vol. ii, p. 187, he thus describes his work, 
and at the same time gives an explanation of the gaps in the 
records which appear below, viz : 

"In the discharge of the duties of that office, I collected a 
large and interesting mass of records, comprising returns 
from the greater portion of the troops in the field from this 
State ; being carefully prepared rolls of company, regimental 
and brigade organizations, showing the names and service of 
men and officers; deaths and other casualties; names, dates 
and reports of battles; personal incidents worthy to be pre- 
served ; and very complete histories in full of many regiments 
and special companies. And, upon a plan adopted in accord- 
ance with the directions of the law, I was in a fair way to 
speedily complete the work contemplated. The events, how- 
ever, of April and May, 1865, brought it to an abrupt termina- 
tion in consequent confusion ; and much of the material that I 
had accumulated, having been deposited by me in the State 
Capitol at Montgomery, was lost or misplaced in the evacua- 
tion of this city, at the date named. These missing records 
pertain principally to the Army of Tennessee and the troops 
serving South of Virginia, and I have some hope that they 
may yet be reclaimed. I was at Richmond at the time named, 
endeavoring to get the records of the Alabamians in the army 
of Northern Virginia ; in which effort I succeeded most hap- 

Confederate War Records. 333 

pily, and have preserved them almost entire— only wanting 
the addition of some small organizations which I was 
estopped from obtaining, by the casualties and events of the 
memorable closing scenes immediately preceding and at the 
time of the surrender of General Lee." 

It appars that the following Confederate papers are se- 
curely packed in boxes in the vault, and marked "Confederate 
Records," viz : 

Statements, accounts and vouchers of Duff C. Green, Quar- 
termaster General, and of W. R. Pickett, B. M. Woolsey and 
W. P. Vandiver, Asst. Quartermasters, arranged year by year 
from 1861 to 1865, together with expense accounts of soldiers 
homes, at Montgomery, Mobile, Florence and Richmond; or- 
ders for arms and equipments for companies in 1861; pay 
rolls for negroes hired to work on public defenses, at Choctaw 
and Oven's Bluff; expenses incurred for indigent families; 
papers relating to the constitutional convention of 1861 ; final 
statements of accounts of deceased soldiers; accounts for 
clothing; applications for exemptions from service in the 
army; oaths of allegiance to the Confederate States; and 
resignation of officers. 

As nearly as complete and detailed a description of the 
Confederate records in the Adjutant-General's Office as it 
has been possible to secure will now be given. 

The data herein given is simply intended to indicate what 
is on file in the office of the Adjutant-General. It makes no 
pretension to fullness. It is not a history in any sense. It is 
a descriptive list. The errors, if any, are the errors of the 
records as they appear. In case nothing appears as to a par- 
ticular command, it may he understood that no data was 
found on file, a fact which only serves to emphasize the im- 
portance of the creation of an active agency for the purpose 
of cotnpleting and publishing them. 

Register of Officers. 1861. Folio. 1vol. 

Shows the organization of the State by counties, Into Divisions, 
Brigades and Regiments, with names of Division, Brigade, Regimen- 
tal and Company officers. 

Register of Volunteer Corps. 1862 - 1865. Folio. 1 vol. 

Contains: "General Officers in Confederate Service from Ala- 

"Lists by Counties, Autauga to Winston, of Commissioned Officers. 
"90 Days Volunteers for Mobile Service." 1862. By Counties. 
Lists by counties, of "30 day Volunteers." 1862. Served at Pen- 
Lists by Counties, of 30 day Volunteers who served at Gainesville. 

334 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

List of "Volunteers" under Executive Proclamation, Dec. 22, 1862. 
County Military (Commissioned) Officers, 1863, 1864, 1865. 

Register of the Sick and Wounded of tlie 17th Regt. Ala. 
Vols. Dec. 1863 - 1864. Polio. 1 vol. 

A list of General Officers and Aids appointed during the 
War. 1 package. 

Papers of Col. W. H. Fowler, relating to his collection of 
Army Records. 1 package. 

Original copies of the ordinances of the Secession Conven- 
tion. 1 package. 

Enlistments in 1861, by Captain Wm. Walker and others. 
1 package. 

Papers relating to military operations at Pensacola in 1861. 
1 package. 

Appointments of Brigade, F. and S. officers in 1861 and 
1862. 1 package. 

Regimental and Company officers appointed in 1861 and 
1862. 2 packages. 

Papers relating to the cost of construction of the gun boat 
Baltic, at Mobile in 1862. 1 package. 

Papers relating to the protection of the University of Ala- 
bama. 1 package. 

Muster rolls of State Guards, organized under the "Gover- 
nor's Proclamation," by counties, in 1862 and 1863. 1 pack- 

Muster rolls of companies for 30 and 90 days service in 
1862. 1 package. 

Reports by counties of companies enlisted for the war, in 
1862. 1 package. 

Returns of the strength and equipment of the 2d, 4th and 
11th Divisions in 1862. 1 package. 

Reports of the strength and equipments of the 9th, 12th, 
13th, 15th, 17th, 21st, 22d, 23rd, 41st, 46th, 47th, 48th, 52d, 
53rd, 55th, 58th, 61st, 63rd, 65th, 68th, 69th, 73rd, 78th, 79th, 
80th, 83rd, 84th, 86th, 89th, 90th, 91st, 96th, 101st, 105th 
and 108th regiments, in 1862. 1 package. 

Recommendations of Special Aids for the enrollment of 
militia, in 1863. 1 package. 

Muster rolls of the employes of the Montgomery and West 
Point, the Alabama and Florida, and the South and North 
railroads, in 1864. 1 package. 

Muster Rolls of Militia for local defense, in 1864 and 1865. 
4 packages. 

Confederate War Records. 335 

Muster rolls of Companies organized in 1860. 1 package. 

Alabama Rifles Captain Joseph H. Johnson. 

Andalusia Volunteers Captain James T. Cumbie. 

Auburn Guards Captain George W. Dixon. 

Asheville Guards Captain John H. Caldwell. 

Barbour Greys Captain Eugene Blackford. 

Brundidge Guards Captain Ben H. i>ewis. .— 

Cahaba Rifles Captain Thos. H. Lewis. 

Calhoun Guards Captain Daniel P. Forney. 

Calhoun Guards Captain Samuel H. Vanzant. 

Canebrake Legion Captain J. W. Tayloe. 

Cantey Rifles Captain A. A. Lowther. 

Carrollton Guards Captain F. McDowell. 

Central Institute Cavalry Captain Michael Peevy. 

Clayton Guards Captain M. B. Fenn. 

Clopton Reserves Captain John W; Simmons. 

Coffee County Cavalry Captain John C. Brown. 

Columbia Blues Captain T. T. Smith. 

Dallas Light Dragoons Captain L. M. Hunter. 

Eutaw Rifles Captain S. F. Hale. 

Fayette Guards Captain N. R. Dannelley. 

Fort Browder Roughs Captain Moses Worthlngton. 

Fort William Cavalry Captain William Wallis. 

Hayneville Guards Captain Thos. S. Herbert. 

Highland Dragoons Captain J. B. Gordon. 

Independent Blues Captain Ira H. Lewis. 

Independent Blues Captain N. H. R. Dawson. 

Jackson Rifles Captain H. C. Bradford. 

Jones^oro Volunteers Captain B. W. Smithson. 

LaFayette Guards Captain J. W. Jackson. 

Limestone Troopers Captain Thos. H. Hobbs. 

Line Creek Guards Captain D. T. Blakey. 

Macon County Commissioners Captain P. V. Guerry. 

Madison Rifles Captain J. G. Coltart. 

Marion Rifles Captain R. T. Royston. 

Midway Guards Captain J. B. Feagan. 

Midway Southern Guards Cajitain J. W. L. Daniel. 

Minnie Musketry Captain A. J. Pou. 

Mountain P angers Captain Andrew W. Bowie. 

Opelika True Volunteers Captain R. J. Thornton. 

Pea River Volunteers Captain Jas. K. Turner. 

Pleasant Hill Cavalry Captain S. W. Catts. 

Pioneer Guards Captain Wm. H. Chambers. 

Quitman Guards Captain Benjamin Gardner. 

Pickensville Blues Captain L. D. Henley. 

Rough and Ready Volunteers Captain T. A. Tatham. 

Russell Volunteers Captain B. H. Baker. 

Shelby Guards Captain E. B. MoClellen. 

Silver Run Guards Captain J. C. Lewis. 

Sumter Rifle Guards Captain Robt. T. Blount. 

Sumter Mounted Guards Captain B. T. Sturdivant. 

Talladega Artillery Captain P. Morgan. 

Uchee Hussars Captain J. R. Leonard. 

Warrior Guards •' ■ Captain R. B. Rodes. 

Wedowee Volunteers Captain James Aikm. 

Wetumpka Light Dragoons Captain L. Bryan. 

Wetumpka Light Guards Captain John Q. Loomis. 

Wesobulga Pioneers Captain Jas. P. Moorfleld. 

Yancey Rangers Captain Rufus H. Jones. 

Muster Rolls of Companies organized in 1861. 1 package, 
Andrew Jackson Guards Captain B, B, McCraw, 

336 Eeport Alabama History Comlnission. 

Ashville Artillery Captain A. W. Nickson. 

Andy Moore Guards Captain Joshua Morse. 

Alabama Morgan Cavalry Captain Jas. J. Dinsmore. 

Billy Gilmore Greys Captain M. P. Ferrill. 

Baldwin Star Rangers Captain not stated. 

Bullock Guards Captain not stated. 

Cherokees Captain J. L. Cunningham. 

Calhoun Guards Daniel P. Forney. 

Coosa Volunteers Captain Hy. W .Cox. 

Cherokee Mountaineers Captain Jackson Mlllsap. 

Cahaba Valley Rangers Captain not stated. 

Covington Hunters Captain J. P. Brady. 

Coosa Farmers Captain Gay Smith. 

Cusseta Greys Captain W. D. Harrington. 

Chambers Rifles Captain J. A. Jones. 

Cherokee Davis Guards Captain J. M. Clifton. 

Coffee County Guards Captain Ethel Tucker. 

Cherokee Beauregards Captain S. R. Hood. 

Cherokee Guards Captain W. E. Kirkpatrick. 

Dale County Volunteers Captain D. B. Creech. 

Duck Springs Sharpshooters Captain A. B. Smith. 

Dowdell Rangers Captain Wiley B. White. 

Eufaula City Guard Captain Henry C. Hart. 

Butaw Rifles Captain tj. F. Nunnelee. 

Florence Guards Captain S. A. M. Wood. 

Fire Guards Captain Samuel J. Pickett. 

Glennville Guards Captain W. N. Richardson. 

Governor's Guard Captain Thoma,s J. Goldsby. 

Gilmore Guards Captain W. C. Allen. 

Griffin Rifles Captain Jonas Griffin. 

Henry Pioneers Captain Wm. C. Dates. 

Hillabee True Blues Captain Henry Brooks. 

Independent Rangers Captain P. M. Musgrove. 

Jefferson Warriors Captain W. F. Hanby. 

Jeff Davis Guards Captain Isaac Henry. 

Jackson Avengers Captain Wm. W. Tilman. 

Jabe Curry Guards Captain W. P. Hollingsworth. 

Jackson Hornets Captain John Snodgrass. 

Louina Guards Captain A. C. Wood. 

Magnolia Cadets Captain N. H. R. Dawson. 

Moore Guards Captain Jas. S. Williamson. 

North bumter Minute Men Captain A. D. Hall. 

Pickens Roughs ana Readys Captain Geo. R. Kimbrough. 

Princeton Guards Captain Francisco Rice. 

Prattville Dragoons Captain S. D. Oliver. 

Randolph Beauregards Captain Willis Bobo. 

Richmond Greys Captain John F. Womack. 

Sam Rice Guards Captain Wm. S. Rowe. 

Sumter Rifle Guards Captain Robert P. Blount. 

Southern Guards Captain F. S. Ferguson. 

Southern Guards Captain D. Nail. 

Southern Rifles Captain H. B. Powell. 

Tallapoosa Light Infantry Captain not stated. 

Tom Watts Grays .- Captain D. H. McCoy. 

Talladega Hillabee Rifles Captain John T. Bell. 

White Plains Rangers Captain E. T. Smyth. 

Yancey Rangers Captain James Haughey. 

Yancey Guards Captain Abner A. Hughes. 

Yancey Greys Captain James Braame. 

Morgan County Captain F. M. Windes. 

Cqnfederate War Records. 337 

Muster and Pay Rolls of Companies in 1861. 2 packages. 

Ca^°"n Greys Captain Robert W. Draper 

Calhoun Guards Captain D. P. Forney. 

Camden Rifles v^aptaln Robert Talt. 

Cherokee Greys Captain W. Clare. 

?;, , ^^°^ 1 • •;, Captain William Cottrell. 

Clarke County Rangers Captain S. B. Cleveland. 

Coosa Volunteers . . ., Captain H. W. Cox. 

Dickinson Guards Captain Daniel McLeod. 

Independent Rifles Captain A. Stikes. 

LaFayette Guards Captain A. Belloe. 

German Fusileers Captain H. Steinberg. 

Grove HUl Guards Captain J. M. Hall. 

Governor's Guard Captain T. J. Gpldsby. 

Greensboro L,ight Artillery Captain A. C. Jones. 

Greenville Guards Captain T. G. Pou. 

Gulf City Guards Captain Wm. A. Buck. 

Independent Blues Captain James Kent. 

Independent Rifles Captain Robert C. Fariss. 

Marion Rifles Captain R. T. Royston. 

Metropolitan Guards Captain J. S. Winter 

Mobile Cadets Captain R. M. Sands. 

Mobile French Guards Captain Aug. Poitevin. 

Mobile Rifles Captain L. T. Woodruff. 

Monroe Guards Captain Giles Goode. 

Montgomery Rifles Captain J. B. Bibb. 

Montgomery True Blues Captain W. G. Andrews. 

Mountain Rangers Captain A. W. Bowie. 

Rough and Ready Pioneers Captain A. H. Owen. 

Suggsville Greys Captain S. B. Cleveland. 

South Alabama Rangers Captain Fitz Henry Ripley. 

South Alabama Rangers Captain William S. Taylor. 

Talladega Artillery Captain C. M. Shelley. 

Tuskegee Zouaves .' Captain E. M. Law. 

Tuskegee Light Infantry Captain W. G. Swanson. 

Warrior Guards Captain R. E. Rodes. 

Washington Light Infantry Captain A. Grade. 

Wetumpka Light Guards Captain John Q. Loomls. 


The following lists and references show the muster rolls 
on file, arranged by Regiments and Companies, according to 
the regularly numbered organizations, with a statement as to 
the organization, whether data is complete or incomplete, 
and whether there is historical memoranda. 

First Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized under an act of the Legislature, January, 1861, 
for tw^elve months service and ordered to Pensacola, where 
the organization was completed in March, 1861. 

The subsequent history of the services rendered by this regiment 
Is on file with the Muster Rolls, which show the following oflicers and 
companies, viz: 

Henry D. Clayton Colonel. 

I. G. W. Steadman Lieutenant Colonel. 

Jerry N. Williams Major. 

S. H. Dent Adjutant, 


338 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Leroy F. Johnson ^- Q- ^• 

J. D. Caldwell Surgeon. 

Walker Curry Assistant Surgeon. 

John W. Purifoy Sergeant Major. 

Co. A. John W. Clark Captain. 

Co. B. Alpheus Baker Captain. 

Co. C. George W. Dawson Captain. 

Co. D. . .Ben Lane Posey Captain. 

Co. B. Augustus H. Owens Captain. 

Co. F. James D. Meadows Captain. 

Co. G. Robert H. Isbeil Captain. 

Co. H. James W. Mabrey Captain. 

Co. 1. D. Wardlaw Ramsey Captain. 

Co. K. John T. Stubbs Captain. 

Second Regiment, Infantry. 

There seems to be a conflict as to the organization of this 
regiment, as shown by the papers on file. 

One muster roll of field and staff is dated January 9th, 
1861, as follows : 

Tennent Lomax Colonel. 

C. A. Battle Lieutenant Colonel. 

S. B. Marks Major. 

George Sayre A. Q. M. 

C. R. Jnansford A. C. S. 

J. F. Johnson Surgeon. 

E. B. Johnson Assistant Surgeon. 

A. Burrows Adjutant. 

W. B. Hughes Sergeant Major. 

Another muster roll, known from extraneous facts to be the correct 
one, states that the regiment was organized at Fort Morgan in March, 
1861, with the following field ana staff: 

Harry Maury Colonel. 

John T. Coltart Lieutenant Colonel. 

H. C. Bradford Lieutenant Colonel, resigned. 

P. Morgan Major, resigned. 

Daniel P. Forney Major. 

J. B. McClung Adjutant. 

John Ryan A. Q. M. 

George H. Forney A. C. S. 

William S. Taylor Surgeon. 

J. M. Lewis Assistant Surgeon. 

David M. Anderson Sergeant Major. 

The following are the original companies forming the regiment: 

Co. A. Daniel P. Forney Captain. 

Thomas C. Lanier Captain. 

G. W. Foster Captain. 

A. R. Lankf ord Captain. 

John Goodwin Captain. 

John B. V. Lafever Captain. 

W. C. Fergus Captain. 

B. H. McDonald Captain. 

G. G. Watson Captain. 

A. M. Saxon Captain. 

There is also on file a muster roll of Company F, with a history of 
the company from its organization to the surrender. 



















Confederate War Records. 339 

Third Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Montgomery, April, 1861. Colonels, Jones 
M. Withers and Tennent Lomax. 

The only muster rolls of this regiment on file are as fol- 

Co. A. Robert M. Sands Captain. 

Co. B. William Hartwell Captain. 

Co. E. A. Oracle Captain! 

Co. t\ P. W. Hunter Captain. 

Co. G. M. F. Bonham Captain. 

Fourth Regiment Infantry. 

Organized at Dalton, Ga., May 2, 1861. 

The muster rolls are complete, with a history from organi- 
zation to surrender, but by reason of age are fast becoming 
illegible, viz: 

Egbert J. Jones Colonel. 

Evander Mclvor Law Lieutenant Colonel. 

Charles L. Scott Major. 

Joseph Hardie Adjutant. 

Robert T. Coles Sergeant Major. 

George W. Jones A. Q. M. 

Arthur C. Beard A. C. S. 

Co. A. Thomas J. Goldsby Captain. 

Co. J. E. Mclvor Law Captain. 

Co. C. N. H. R. Dawson Captain. 

Co. D. Richard Clarke Captain. 

Co. E. P. D. Bowles Captain. 

Co. F. E. J. Jones Captain. 

Co. G. Porter King Captain. 

Co. H. R. McParland Captain. 

Co. I . Edward D. Tracey Captain. 

Co. K. Lewis E. Lindsey Captain. 

Fifth Alabama Battalion, Infantry. 

This battalion was composed of three companies, the mus- 
ter rolls of which are on file with historical memoranda. The 
battalion was organized in June, 1862, and Captain A. S. 
Van deGraff promoted Major and placed in command. 

Co. A. A. S. Van deGrafE Captain. 

Co. B. Thomas Bush Captain. 

Co. C. Elijah T. Smith Captain. 

Sixth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Montgomery, May 6, 1861. 

The only muster roll on file has been donated by J. M. 
Thompson, of Autaugaville, Ala. 

It is the original of Company G, formerly Company M., 
Capt. Thomas A. Davis. 

Seventh Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Camp Walker, near Pensacola, May 18, 1861. 
All of the muster rolls of this regiment are the originals, 
with no history. 

340 Report Alabama History Commission. 

sterling A. M. Wood Colonel. 

J. G. Coltart Lieutenant Colonel. 

A. A. Russell :■' Major. 

Simon Dean Adjutant. , 

T. A. Jones A. Q. M. 

J. H. Coleman A. C. S. 

W. Taylor Surgeon. 

E. R. Scruggs Sgt. Major. 

D. A. Bucker Qr. Mr. Sgt. 

Co. A. J. M. Jackson Captain. 

. Co. A. J. W. Jackson Captain. 

Co. B. R. W. Draper Captain. 

Co. C. William Clare Captain. 

Co. D. O. B. Gaston Captain. 

Co. E. Patrick Bloodworth Captain. 

Co. P. W. T. McCall Captain. 

Co. G. F. J. Graham Captain. 

Co. H. T. F. Jenkins Captain. 

(JO. I . J. J. Cox Captain. 

Co. K. Wm. H. Price Captain^ 

Eighth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Mobile, June, 1861. 

The papers on file consist of a recapitulation of the 
strength and casualties of the regiment during the war, and 
the following muster rolls mith historical memoranda. Field 
and Staff, and companies A, B, C, E, H and I, the others be- 
ing missing. All of these muster rolls, by reason of bad usage 
and age, are almost illegible. They are as follows : 

Jolin A. Winston ; Colonel. 

. J. W. Frazer Lieutenant Colonel. 

Thomas Irby Major. 

R. T. Royston \ Surgeon. 

Daniel Parker Asst. Surgeon. 

J. A. Robbing A. Q. M. 

George T. Shorter ; A. C. S. 

Thoihas Phelan Adjutant. 

Wm. M. Byrd, Jr Sgt. Major. 

M. S. Cleveland Qr. M. Sgt. 

Co. A. Young L. Royston Captain. 

Co. B. T. W. W. Davies Captain. 

Co. C. Chas. T. Ketchum Captain. 

Co. E. W. T. Smith Captain. 

Co. H. W. F. Cleveland, Jr Captain. 

Co. I . Patrick Loughry Captain. 

Ninth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Richmond, Va., June, 1861. 
The muster rolls on file are complete with historical mem- 
oranda, as first organized, as follows : 

Cadmus M. Wilcox Colonel. 

Samuel Henry Lieutenant Colonel. 

E. A. O'Neal Major. 

J. R. B. Burtwell Adjutant. 

L. H. Anderson Surgeon. 

John M. Hay^ , , , , , ..,,,.,. . Asat. Surgeon. 

Confederate War Records. 34i 

A. B. Burleson A. Q. M. 

Solomon Stephens A. C. S. 

Thomas J. Eubanks Sgt. Major. 

A. B. Newson Qr. Mr. Sgt. 

Co. A. Fitz H. Ripley Captain. 

Co. B. J. H. J. Williams Captain. 

Co. C. James M. Warren Captain. 

Co. D. J. Butler Houston Captain. 

Co. E. J. Horace King Captain. 

Co. F. Thomas H. Hobbs Captain. 

Co. G. E. Y. Hill Captain. 

Co. H. Bavid Houston Captain. 

Co. I. E. A. O'Neal Captain. 

Co. K. Samuel Henry Captain. 

Tenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Montgomery, Ala., June 4, 1861. 
The muster rolls of the regiment are complete, tcith histori- 
cal memoranda from organization to surrender. 

John H. Forney Colonel. 

James B. Martin Lieutenant Colonel. 

Taul Bradford Major. 

George P. Brown Adjutant. 

C. J. Clark Surgeon. 

■• Levi Lioyd Asst. Surgeon. 

Will McMinn A. Q. M. 

Thos. W. Francis .A. C. S. 

Go. A. John H. Caldwell Captain. 

Co. B. Alberto iviartiu Captain. 

Co. C. Rufus W. Cobb Captain. 

Co. D. Franklin Woodruff Captain. 

Co. E. J. J. Woodward Captain. 

Co. F. Jas. D. Truss Captain. 

Co. G. Wm. H. Forney Captain. 

Co. H. Woodford R. Hanna . , Captain. 

Co. I . Abner A. Hughes Captain. 

Co. K. John C. McKenzie Captain. 

Eleventh Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1861. 
The muster rolls are complete, icitli historical memoranda, 
from organization to surrender. 

Sydenham Moore Colonel. 

Stephen F. Hale Lieutenant- Colonel. 

Archibald Grade .Major. 

Wm. C. Ashe Surgeon. 

John G. Fierce A. Q. M. 

R. M. Robertson A. C. S. 

Thos. S. Holcombe Adjutant. 

J. P. Clarke Sergt. Major. 

Jason Wilson ' .Qr. Master Sergeant. 

Thos. Donelly Ord. Sergeant. 

Co. A. Y. M. Moody Captain. 

Co. B. George Fields Captain. 

Co. C. John C. C. banders Captain. 

Co. D. Geo. E. Tayloe Captain. 

Co. E. Richard J. Fletcher .-. . Captain. 

Co. F. Jas. L. Davidson Captain. 

S42 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Co. G. Jas. H. McMath Captain. 

Co. H. Reuben Chapman Captain. 

Co. I . Geo. Trawick Captain. 

Co. K. Henry Talbird Captain. 

Twelfth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Richmond, Va., July, 1861. Colonel, Robert 

T. Jones. 

The only record of this regiment on file is the muster roll 


Co. I. W. T. Walthall Captain. 

Thirteenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Montgomery, Ala., June, 1861. 
The muster rolls of the regiment on file are com-plete,with 
historical memoranda, from organization to surrender. 

B. D. Fry Colonel. 

J. B. Mitchell Lieutenant Colonel. 

Samuel B. Marks Major. 

Jas. M. Williams .Surgeon. 

John W. Rentz Adjutant. 

J. A. Moore A. Q. M. 

Mike L. Woods A. C. S. 

Geo. C. Storrs Sergeant Major. 

Co. A. Reginald H. Dawson Captain. 

Co. B. Wm. H. Betts Captain. 

Co. C. Osceola Kyle Captain. 

Co. D. James Aiken Captain. 

Co. E. Manoah D. Robinson Captain. 

Co. F. Solomon T. Strickland Captain. 

Co. G. John Glasgow Captain. 

Co. H. Ellis Logan Captain. 

Co. I . John T. Smith Captain. 

Co. K. Elijah B. Smith , Captain. 

Fourteenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Auburn, Ala., Aug. 1, 1861. 
The muster roll of the field and staff is complete, toith his- 
torical memoranda, from organization to surrender. 

The muster rolls of the companies are complete, but are 
the originals only, without historical memoranda. 

Thomas J. Judge Colonel. 

D. W. Baine Lieutenant Colonel. 

O. K. McLemore Major. 

Jas. S. Williamson, Jr Adjutant. 

David W. Hinkle A. Q. M. 

H. F. Dunson A. C. S. 

J. B. Gaston Surgeon. 

Geo. F. Taylor Assistant Surgeon. 

Co. A. Wm. D. Harrington Captain. 

Co. B. Jas. S .Williamson Captain. 

Co. C. D. H. McCoy Captain. 

Co. D. J. A. Broome Captain. 

Co. E. Wm. C. Allen Captain. 

Co. F. M. P. Ferrell Captain. 

Confederate War Records. 34S 

Co. G. Henry Brooks Captain. 

Co. H. W. W. Selman Captain. 

Co. I. Jno. T. Bell Captain. 

Co. K. A. C. Wood Captain. 

Sixteenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Courtland, Aug. 6, 1861. Colonel, Wm. B. 

The muster rolls on file of seven companies said to belong 
to this regiment, are copies of the names taken from the ori- 
ginal. There is a recapitulation of the strength and casual- 
ties of the regiment from organization to surrender, on file. 

Alex D. Coffee Captain. 

J. W. Harris, Jr Captain. 

Wm. M. Weatherf ord Captain. 

Wm. Hodges Captain. 

John B. Powers Captain. 

Wm. S. Bankhead Captain. 

A. H. Helvenston Captain. 

Seventeenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Montgomery, Sept., 1861. Colonel, Thomas 
H. Watts. 
The only muster rolls of this regiment on file are copies. 

The following are the companies: 

Co. A. E. P. Holcombe Captain. 

Co. B. Jeptha J. Dean Captain. 

Co. C. Walter D. Perryman Captain. 

Co. D. Thomas E. Bragg Captain. 

Co. E. Wiley E. White Captain. 

Co. K. Thomas J. Burnett Captain. 

Eighteenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Auburn, Sept. 4, 1861. Colonel, E. C. Bul- 

It would seem that a regimental roll was made, alphabeti- 
cally arranged. The papers on file only give the names from 

Nineteenth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 14, 1861. Colonel, 
Joseph Wheeler. 

The muster rolls of companies on file are copies of the 
original, without history. 

Co. A. George R. KImbrough Captain. 

Co. B. Wm. R. D. McKenzie Captain. 

Co. C. Wm. F. Hanby Captain. 

Co. D. Wm. P. Hollingsworth Captain. 

Co. E. Rufus B. Rhea Captain. 

Co. P. No roll on file. 

Co. G. Jackson Millsaps Captain. 

Co. H. J. L. Cunningham Captain. 

Co. I. James H. Savage Captain. 

Co. K. James H. Skinner Captain. 

§44 Report Alabama flistory Commission. 

Twentieth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Montgomery, Sept. 16, 1861. 
The only muster rolls of this regiment on file are copies 
without data or history. 

James M. Dedman Captain. 

M. T. Porter Captain. 

R. E. Watkins Captain. 

Lucius J. Lockett Captain. 

John W. Davis Captain. 

John P. Peterson : Captain. 

Twenty-fourth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Mobile, Aug., 1861. Colonel, Wm. A. Buck. 
The only record on file is the muster roll of the 

Jabe Curry Rifles, Benj. F. Sawyer Captain. 

Twenty-fifth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Mobile, August, 1862. Colonel, J. Q. Loomis. 
These rolls are copies of the originals, without history, as 
follows : 

Co. A. Charles Corege Captain. 

Co. B. N. B. Rouse Captain. 

Co. C. Wilie H. Pope Captain. 

Co. D. H. L. Morris Captain. 

Co. E. D. M. Richards Captain. 

Co. F. W. A. Handley Captain. 

Co. G. A. A. Patterson Captain. 

Co. H. Edwin C. Turner Captain. 

Co. I . W. B. Howell Captain. 

Co. K. Pierre D. Costello Captain. 

Twenty-ninth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Pensacola, Fla., Feb., 1862. Colonel J. R. F. 

Of this company there is only one company muster roll on 
file, viz : 

Co. D. Alfred V. Gardner Captain. 

Thirtieth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Talladega, April 16, 1862. Col. Charles M, 

The muster rolls on file are copies of the originals without 
data or history, as follows : 

W. C. Patterson Captain. 

J. B. Smith Captain. 

Thomas H. Patterson Captain. 

E. P. Woodward Captain. 

W. T. Wood Captain. 

John Sawyer Captain. 

Henry McBee Captain. 

C. G. Samuel Captain. 

D. M. Anderson , Captain. 

John C. Francis , . .Captain. 

Confederate War Ilecords. S46 

Thirty-first Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Camp Goldthwaite, March, 1862. Colonel 
D. R. Hundley. 

The muster rolls are copies of the originals, without his- 
tory, as follows : 

Co. A. Isaac P. Moragne Captain. 

Co. B. M. J. Alexander Captain. 

Co. C. N. P. Reeves Captain. 

Co. D. E. T. Thompson Captain. 

Co. E. James Cobbs Captain. 

Co. F. A. Carter Captain. 

Co. G. A. A. West Captain. 

Co. H. Robert McKibben Captain. 

Co. I. W. S. Chapman Captain. 

Co. K. John M. Shields Captain. 

Thirty-third Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Greenville, March, 1862. Col. Samuel Adams. 
The muster rolls on file are of companies, without history 
or letter, as follows : 

M. C. Kinney Captain. 

R. E. Ward. Captain. 

David McKee Captain. 

A. H. Justice Captain. 

R. J. Cooper Captain. 

T. G. Pou Captain. 

Needham Hughes Captain. 

H. H. Norman Captain. 

James H. Dunklin Captain. 

William J. Lee Captain. 

Thirty-fourth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Loachapoka, Ala., May, 1862. Colonel J . C . 
B. Mitchell. 

The muster rolls of companies on file are without history, 
as follows : 

Co. A. Thomas J. Mitchell Captain. 

Co. B. J. N. Slaughter Captain. 

Co. C. J. M. Willis Captain. 

Co. D. H. R. McCoy Captain. 

Co. E. M. L. Fielder Captain. 

Co. F. J. F. Ashurst Captain. 

Co. G. None on file. 

Co. H. John C. Carter Captain. 

Co. I. W. J. Bickerstaff Captain. 

Co. K. H. M. Crowder Captain. 

Thirty-sixth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Mt. Vernon Arsenal, May 12, 1862. Colonel, 
R. H. Smith. 

The company muster rolls on file are copies of the originals, 
without history. There are also on file the muster rolls of 
Companies C, G and H, with historical memoranda. The 
comipanies are as follows : 

^46 Keport Alabama Sistory Commission. 

Co. A. Charles S. Henegan Captain. 

Co. B. N. M. Carpenter Captain. 

Co. C. James A. Wemyss Captain. 

Co. D. John C. Adams Captain. 

Co. E. John G. Cleveland Captain. 

Co. F. John DeLoach Captain. 

Co. G. M. Patterson Captain. 

Co. H. J. W. A. Wright Captain. 

Co. I. Matt Calvert Captain. 

Co. K. A. J. Derby Captain. 

Thirty-seventh Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Auburn, Ala., April, 1862. Colonel, James 
F. Dowdell. 

The muster rolls of the companies on file are originals, 
without history, as follows : 

L. p. Hamner Captain. 

J. C. Kendrick Captain. 

William P. Slaton Captain. 

J. L. Skipper Captain. 

Uriah Dunn Captain. 

W. H. Meadows Captain. 

Marion Searcy Captain. 

James F. Talbot Captain. 

J. P. W. Amerine Captain. 

M. B. Green Captain. 

Thirty-eighth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Camp Holt, near Mobile, June, 1862. Col. 
Charles T. Ketehum. 

The company muster rolls on file are original, without his- 
tory, as follows : 

Co. A. W. J. Hearin Captain. 

Co. B. William R. Weigh Captain. 

Co. C. James L. Lenoir Captain. 

Co. D. George W. Files Captain. 

Co. E. B. W. Martin Captain. 

Co. F. John F. Winston Captain. 

Co. G. J. B. Perkins Captain. 

Co. H. John A. Jackson , . . . . Captain. 

Co. I. Charles B. Bussey Captain. 

Co. K. Ben Lane Posey Captain. 

Thirty-ninth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Opelika, May, 1862. Col. H. D. Clayton. 
The company muster rolls on file are original, without his- 
tory, as follows : 

Co. A. John W. W. Jackson Captain. 

Co. B. Lemuel Hargrove Captain. 

Co. C. Colin McSwean Captain. 

Co. D. Lee A. Jennings Captain. 

Co. E. W. C. Clifton Captain. 

Co. F. Abner H. Flewellen Captain. 

Co. G. T. Q. Stanford Captain. 

Co. H. JosepTi C. Clayton Captain. 

Co. L Drewry H. Smith Captain. 

Co. K. -Julius C. Mitchell Captain. 

Confederate War Kecords. 347 

Fortieth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Mobile, May, 1862. Col. A. A. Coleman. 
There are six company muster rolls on file, without history, 
as follows : 

B. S. Gulley Captain. 

W. A. C. Jones Captain. 

A. G. CampbeU Captain. 

Hugh SummerviUe Captain. 

A. M. Moore Captain. 

E. D. Willett Captain. 

Forty-first Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Tuscaloosa, May, 1862. Colonel, Henry 

The muster- rolls on file are the originals of the companies, 
without history as follows : 

Co. A. T. G. Tremmier Captain. 

Co. B. J. C. Kirkland Captain. 

Co. C. J. G. Nash Captain. 

Co. D. Robert H. McCord Captain. 

Co. E. William G. England Captain. 

Co. F. B. F. Eddins Captain. 

Co. G. L. T. Hudglns Captain. 

Co. H. Frank Ogden Captain. 

Co. I. Thomas S. Abernethy Captain. 

Co. K. J. N. Craddock Captain. 

Forty-second Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Columbus, Miss., May, 1862. Colonel, John 
W. Portis. 

The muster rolls on file are the originals, without history, 
as follows : : 

Co. A. G. W. Foster Captain. 

Co. B. R. T. Best Captain. 

Co. C. William D. McNeil Captain. 

Co. D. T.C.Mitchell Captain. 

Co. E. J. H. Fields Captain. 

Co. F. J. B. Perkins Captain. 

Co. G. A. B. Knox Captain. 

Co. H. W. B. Kemp Captain. 

Co. I. Charles Briggs Captain. 

Co. K. C. F. Condrey Captain. 

Forty-third Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Mobile, Ala., June, 1862. 
The muster rolls on file are complete with historical memo- 
randa from organization to surrender, for the following, viz : 

A. Gracie, Jr ; r ■;•••• 1-^°1°''®}- 

Y M Moody Lieutenant Colonel. 

John J. Jolly. ■■.■ ^. Major. 

M. A. Jolly ... .Surgeon. 

J. J. A. Smith Assistant Surgeon. 

A.Q.Houston a n «' 

Charles A. Latrobe .a. u. o. 

348 Report Alabama History Cjommission. 

R. H. Henley Adjutant. 

Co. A. James R. Jones Captain. 

Co. B. R. D. Hart Captain.- 

Co. C. John J. Jolly Captain. 

Co. K. Joel S. Jones Captain. . 

Co. F. Ernest H. Buck Captain. 

Co. H. William H. Lawrence Captain. 

Co. K. James W. Shepherd Captain. 

Forty-fourth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Selma, Ala., March, 1862. 

The muster rolls of this regiment are all on file, complete 
with historical memoranda from organization to surrender, 
as follows : 

James Kent _. ... .Colonel. 

Charles A. Derby Lieutenant Colonel. 

William F. Perry Major. 

Ben F. Watkins Surgeon. 

J ohn F. Blevins ^' Assistant Surgeaon. 

G. M. McCornico A. Q. M. 

Robert Lapsley A. C. S. 

Thomas A. NicoU Adjutant. 

Co. A. R. J. Dudley Captain. 

Co. B. John A. Jones Captain. 

Co. C. John W. Purifoy Captain. 

Co. D. W. T. King Captain. 

Co. E. G. W. Gary Captain. 

Co. F. H. G. Snead Captain. 

Co. G. T. C. Daniel Captain. 

Co. H. F. M. Goode Captain. 

Co. I. A. W. Denman Captain. 

Co. K. P. P. Riddle Captain. 

Forty-fifth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Auburn, May, 1862. Colonel, W. A. Goodwin. 

Muster rolls of three companies, the originals without his- 
tory or anything to show where or when the regiment was 
organized or by whom commanded, as follows : 

N.Tucker Captain. 

W. J. Lee Captain. 

G.W.Carter Captain. 

Forty-sixth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Loachapoka, Ala., May, 1862. 

The muster rolls on file of this regiment are complete with 
historical memoranda from organization to surrender. The 
rolls of companies B, E, F and I, are missing. 

Mike L. Woods Colonel, 

Osceola Kyle Lieutenant Colonel. 

James M. Handley Major. 

Charles A. Redd A. Q. M. 

John W. Durr A. C. S. 

James Woods Surgeon. 

Z. Murphy Assistant Surgeon. 

W. S. Turner Adjutant. 

Confederate War Records. 349 

Co. A. ' George E. Brewer Captain. 

Co. C. N. G. Oattls Captain. 

Co. D. C. L. Croft Captain. 

Co. G. James M. Handley Captain. 

Co. H. J. W. McGulre Captain. 

Op. |C. |j. Stephens Captain. 

Forty-seventh. Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Loachapoka, Ala., May, 1862. 

The muster rolls on file of this regiment, with historical 
memoranda, are the Field and Staff and companies E, F, G, 
U, I, and K. There are also on file a complete set of the 
original company muster rolls. 

James M. Oliver Colonel. 

James W. Jackson Lieutenant Colonel. 

John Y. Johnston Major. 

J. B. Burton Surgeon. 

M. A. Ridgeway Assistant Surgeon. 

L. Dawson A. Q. M. 

W. A. Herrln A. C. S. 

H. A. Garrett Adjutant. 

Co. A. Michael J. Bulger Captain. 

Co. B. Joseph Johnston, Jr Captain. 

Co. C. Joseph T. Russell Captain. 

Co. D. Albert Menef ee Captain. 

Co. E. James M. Campbell Captain. 

Co. F. Eli D. Clowers Captain. 

Co. G. John V. McKee Captain. 

Co. H. John T. Fargason Captain. 

Co. I. James W. Kellam Captain. 

Co. K. James W. Herrln Captain. 

Forty-eighth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Auburn, Ala., June, 1862. 

The muster rolls of the regiment on file are complete ( with 
the exception rf Company K missing), with historical mem- 
oranda from organization until the surrender. 

James L. Sheffield. . : Colonel. 

A. A. Hughes Lieutenant Colonel. 

Enoch Aldridge.- Major. 

J. B. Harris Adjtautn. 

James Penn Surgeon. 

D. C. Turrentlne A. Q. M. 

W. P. Robblns A. C. S. 

Co. A- A. J. Aldridge Captain. 

Co. B. T. J. Burgess Captain. 

Co. C. W. S. Walker Captain. 

Co. D. Samuel A. Cox Captain. 

Co. E. Samuel K. Rayburn Captain. 

Co. F. Reuben Ellis Captain. 

Co. G. John S. Moragne Captain. 

Co. H. R. C. Golightly Captain. 

Co. I. J. W. Wlggington Captain. 

Fifty-fourth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Jackson, Miss., Oct., 1862. Col. Alpheus 

350 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Only one paper on file, the muster roll of 

Co. C. C. C. McCall Captain. 

Sixtieth Regiment, Infantry. 

Organized at Charleston, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1863. Col. John 
W. A. Sanford. 

Of this regiment there is but one muster roll, that of Com- 
pany F., Daniel S. Troy, Captain. 

There is a list of casualties of this regiment while serving 
in the trenches in front of Petersburg from July 12, to De- 
cember 31, 1864 . 

Sixty-first Regiment, Infantry. 

The only paper on file relating to this regiment, is a re- 
capitulation of the strength and casualties of the regiment 
from organization to surrender. 

Hilliard's Legion. 

The following named records and muster rolls are on file : 

Henry W. Hilliard Colonel. 

Wm. P. Hilliard Adjutant. 

Wm. Fowler A. Q. M. 

K. H. Sommerville A. C. S. 


Jack Thorington Lieutenant Colonel. 

John H. Holt Major. 

And companies: 

Co. A. Daniel S. Troy Captain. 

Co. B. M. A. Ridgeway Captain. 

Co. C. G. W. Huguley Captain. 

Co. D. R.N. Moon Captain. 

Co. E. J. W. L. Daniel Captain. 

Co. jf\ Nick Stallworth Captain. 

Co. G. W. A. Middleton Captain. 


Boiling Hall, Jr Lieutenant Colonel. 

W. T. Stubblefield Major. 

And companies: 

Co. A. John M. Hendricks Captain. 

Co. B. W. D. Walden Captain. 

Co. C. John H. Dillard Captain. 

Co. D. Edward L. Mclntyre Captain. 

Co. E. Boiling Hall, Jr Captain. 

Co. F. Lewis H. Grumpier Captain. 


Jno. W. A. Sanford Lieutenant Colonel. 

Hatch Cook Major. 

And companies: 

Co. A. J.W.Perry Captain. 

Co. B. Geo. F. Boatwright Captain. 

Co. C. T. H. Smith Captain. 

Co. D. Hatch Cook Captain. 

Co. B. W. R. Head Captain. 

Confederate War Records. 351 


John M. McKleroy Adjutant. 

And companies: 

Peter M. Rowland Captain. 

M. G. Slaughter Captain. 

W. T. Smith Captain. 

N. S. Barnes Captain. 


P. Manley Adjutant. 

And batteries: 

J. D. McLennan Captain. 

R. P. Kolb Captain. 

First Regiment, Cavalry. 

The only record on file of this regiment is an official roll at 
the surrender. 

David T. Blakey Colonel. 

A. H. Johnson Lieutenant Colonel. 

Vincent M. Elmore Major. 

John C. Nicholson Surgeon. 

Geo. A. Abercrombie Assistant Surgeon. 

B. L. Wyman Adjutant. 

Second Regiment, Cavalry. 

Organized at Montgomery, Ala., in March, 1862. 

p. W. Hunter Colonel. 

And the following companies: 

R. G. Earle Captain. 

J. N. Carpenter Captain. 

Jno. P. West Captain. 

J. J. Pegues Captain. 

R. W. Carter Captain. 

Wm. Allen Captain. 

T. P. Ashley Captain. 

F. Glackmeyer Captain. 

H. B. Thompson Captain. 

T. R. Stacy Captain. 

Jas. T. Dye Captain. 

Jas. H. McCreary Captain. 

Seventh Regiment, Cavalry. 

The only muster roll of this regiment is that of 

Co. K. H. J. Livingston Captain. 

Fifty-Sixth Regiment, Cavalry. 

The only muster roll on file of this regiment is that of 
Co. E. F. D. N. Riley Captain. 

352 Report Alabama History Commission. 

First Regiment Artillery. 

Organized at Mount Vernon, Ala., in April, 1861, The 
following muster and pay rolls are on file : 

S. p. Winston Captain. 

J. A. Law Captain. 

• Carey Captain. 

Ed Wallace Captain. 

James T. Gee Captain. 

J. Q. Loomis Captain. 

Wm. Walker Captain. 


The following muster rolls are on file without any data to 
show to what regiment or command they belonged. 

John A. Averett Captain. 

W. C. Bacot Captain. 

A. W. Bowie .' Captain. 

M. J. Fagg Captain. 

T. L. Falkner Captain. 

A. J. Guttery Captain. 

J. P. Jackson Captain. 

Freeman Johnson Captain. 

John A. Minter Captain. 

Benjamin Morris Captain. 

Elijah J. Rice ' Captain. 

Miles M. Slaughter Captain. 

J. W. Tayloe Captain. 

John vv . Thompson Captain. 

G. G. Wetmore Captain. 


The records of volunteers from the State in the Spanish- 
American War of 1898 have been preserved with much care, 
as well as the correspondence for the period. The former 
consists of bound books as follows : 

First Regiment, Alabama Volunteer Infantry. Folio. 1 vol. 
Second Regiment, Alabama Volunteer Infantry. Folio. 1 vol. 
Third Regiment, Alabama Volunteer Infantry. Folio. 1 vol. 

In addition, the Adjutant-General, in General Orders, No. 
14, dated Montgomery, July 15, 1899, has published the com- 
plete Muster Rolls of the three Regiments. 


In addition to the records and documents preserved in the 
official repositories named, it is evident that there must be 
a large number of papers of importance, and of miscella- 
neous character, in the hands of survivors, and of their de- 
scendants, or of museums, libraries and other collectors. That 
such is the case will become apparent from a slight examina- 
tion. These papers are necessarily of value, and the annalist 
of Alabama's part in the war must gather them together be- 
fore he can safely make up the history of the great struggle. 
They are scattered, however, in a thousand different hands, 
and with the limited means and time allowed it has been im- 
possible to attempt even in a tentative way to compile a list 
of the holders of such papers and documents. 

In order, however, to show their character and what may 
be unearthed in case a proper search is prosecuted, the follow- 
ing notes are appended, showing the possession of a few such 

Dr. J. P. Cannon, McKensie Tenn., has a 

Holl of the Lauderdale Rifles, Co. D, 9th Regt. Ala. Inf., also 
Roll of Co. "C," 27th Regiment. Ala. Inf. 

Col. J. Robins, Lower Peachtree, Ala. : 

Roll of Co. "C," 3rd Regiment Alabama Cavalry. 

Sam'l Will John, Birmingham, Ala. : 

Roll of Co. "F," 3rd Regiment Alabama Cavalry. 

Rev. C. M. Hutton, Pilot Point, Texas : 

Rolls of the companies of the 36th Regiment Alabama Infantry. 

Thomas McAdory Owen, Esq., Birmingham, Ala. : 

Copies of a large number of rolls, reports and papers, found in pri- 
vate hands, relating to Alabama troops. 

Randle D. Berry, Esq., Selma, Ala. : 

Rolls of the companies of the 28th Regiment Alabama Infantry. 

The Confederate Museum, Richmond, Va. : 

RoU of the Field, Staff and Band of the 38th Regi 

Regiment Alabama In- 


Original Roll of the Clayton Guards. 

War papers of Lieutenant Wm. A. Dexter, of Selma. 

War papers of Gen. W. W. Allen. 

Commission of Lt.-Col. John Pelham. 

Capt. Dudley C. Williamson, Montgomery, Ala. 
Roll of the old Montgomery Greys. 
23 (353) 


Aboriginal and Indian Remains in Alabama. 



By Thomas M. Owen. 

The life, history and evidences of the former occupation of 
the prehistoric inhahitants and of the modern red Indians 
of Alajbama, are subjects of ever increasing interest and im- 
portance to students of comparative philology, the ethnolo- 
gist, and, the archaeologist. The old chronicles are gleaned 
for references, and mounds are explored for subjects of study 
Jind: comparison. The modern representatives of the Indians, 
i^pw in, the West, have been studied and their traditions 
opted and examined. In the South, and particularly 
in Alabama, these investigations are largely pioneer, 
and it is with a view to facilitate the labors of 
future students that an effort has been made to 
group here such references to these subjects as will be of 
m'aterial assistance to them. And yet it must in a sense be 
largely tentative, because field work, or an extensive knowl- 
edge of local topography, is necessary to fulness and perfect, 
accuracy. First is given: a bibliography of Prehistoric 
■Works, or pi^inted references to such objects. This is fol- 
lowed by a discussion of the divisional lines, so far as they 
affect Alabama, of the territory of the four great Nations of 
Cherokees, Creeks, Chickasaws and Choctaws. Their local 
tei^ritorial sub-divisions receive incidental treatment in the 
Chapters on Towns, etc. Lists of Town and Village sites, 
with their location, as nearly complete as possible, are given ; 
with, lists also of their Trails and Roads, with locatioQS. In 
the preparation of the various Chapters the Commission has 
been very fortunate in, securing the helpful, and invaluable 
co-operation of Messrs. A. S. Gatschet, Henry S. Halbert, 
and O. D. Street. 

Mr, Hamilton says, Colonial Mobile, p. 101: "Beyond 
mounds, which mark the Choctaw rather than the Creek 

'Chapters involving a discussion of the general subject of Indian tribal 
boundaries, and also on Choctaw Towns and Chickasaw Towns in the 
State have been In preparation, and were expected to be in readiness 
for use. They have not, however, been completed. It is in contemplation 
to U8e them in the second volume of this Report. 


368' Report Alabama History Commission 

races, Indians leave few permanent memorials. As with 
their tracks through the forest, which the last warrior con- 
ceals, the next coming civilization obliterates the traces of 
the red men. Where they fished and hunted are still the same 
waters, trees, and landscape, but the natives have gone, and 
only an occasional name survives to recall the first occu- 


Mound investigation in Alabama has heretofore been prac- 
tically "limited to ignorant search for treasure or to the spas- 
modic digging of the seeker after relics." While the repre- 
sentatives of the Smithsonian Institution have reported an 
examination here and there, and its printed Reports contain 
a number of references, the only systematic archaeological 
explorations yet made have been the work of Clarence B, 
Moore. The result of his researches has been embodied in 
a paper on "Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Alabama 
River," published in the Journal of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. xi, pp. 287-384. While further 
exploration is desirable, that it should be done by Alabama 
students and the objects and specimens found retained in 
Alabama repositories is still more to be desired. To facili- 
tate such effort the following tentative bibliography or cata- 
logue of prehistoric objects is prepared, showing as nearly as 
possible the location by counties of all known works, etc., in 
the State, Avith references to all printed sources of informa- 
tion. The catalogue is simply an enlargement of the lists 
given in Cyrus Thomas's Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky 
Mountains (1891), published by the Bureau of Ethnology. 
James Mooney, of this Bureau, P.J. Hamilton, Mobile, and 
O. D. Street, Guntersville, have rendered valuable aid to- 
ward the completeness of the lists. 

Baldwin County. 

Mound on Perdido Bay, near Josephine post-office, contain- 
ing a large amount of pottery in fragments. 

±veported by Francis H. Parsons, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 

Shell heaps on the Mobile River at its mouth, especially on 
Simpson Island, from which human remains, bone imple- 
ments, and pottery have been obtained. 

Described by A. S. Gaines and K. M. Cunningliam, in Smithsonian 
Report, 1877, pp. 290-291 and Peter J. Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, 
(1897), p. 71. Tbese are different from most others in being largely of 
clam shells. They have been much drawn on for paving purposes in 
Mobile, and many of them are thus much reduced. 

"(See Mr. Gatschet's paper, infra,, for other references to nouads, 

Prehistoric Works, 369 

Shell banks on the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, one mile 
from Point Clear. 

Reported by Cornelius Cadle, in Smithosian Report, 1879, p. 442. 

Mound on the extremity of Bear Point, Peninsula, in Per- 
dido Bay, in whi^li human bones and a number of earthen 
pots — some containinji,- portions of skulls were found. 

Examined and described by G. M. Sternberg, in Proceedings Ameri- 
can Association Advancement of Science, 1875, vol. 24, pp. 287-290. 

Mounds and other works on the Tensaw River near where 

Battle River leaves it, in one of which broken pottery was 


Described and figured by A. Bigelow, in American Journal Science 
and Art, 2nd series, 1853, vol. 15, pp. 186-192. 

Shell bank near old Blakeley, east bank of Tensaw River, 
in T. 3, S., R. 1 E. 

In Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv; and 
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, p. 5. 

Mounds and shell banks. 

Noted by Mrs. W. E. Sorsby, in Transactions Alabama Historical 
Society, 1898-99, vol. iii, pp. 50-51. 

Mound on creek about 8 miles inland from Stockton, per- 
haps 40ft. Mgh, 40 wide and 100 long, on McMillan lands. 

Shell Banks high and extensive on Bon Secour Bay, near 
Gasque P. O. These are used for market gardens and pro- 
duce watermelons and vegetables famous for their early dafte 
and fine quality. 

Mound half mile inland, about one mile from mouth of Per- 
dido Bay, not so high as last but larger. Scrub oaks and 
other trees are growing on it. It has been dug into more 
than once. A handsome clay head, pitcher handle and other 
articles from it are in the Y. M. C. A. Museum at Mobile. 

Reported by Peter J. Hamilton, Mobile, Ala. 

Mounds on Tensaw at and above Stockton, the former resi^ 
dence of Maj. Robert Parmer. 

Described by Bartram, 1777. See also Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, 
p. 238. 

Canal connecting Bay John with lagoon east of Fort Mor- 

Now almost obliterated. 

Mound on island at Battle Creek, described as 50ft. high 
and perhaps the largest of this section. 
In Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, p. 42. 


Mounds near Eufaula. 

Noticed by J. M. McElroy, in Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 444. 

$$»0; Report AlgJbfwa, ffistory Commission. 

5ieift#ips, of an, old Creek town, 3 miles northeast of Eu- 
faula, on the St! Francis bend of the Chattahoochee River. 

In. Twelfth Annual Report. Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 289. 

Cache of seventeen, chipped implements, spear heads, etc., 
in a field near Blountsville. 

Reported by Frank Burns, in Smithsonian Report, 1882, p. 826. 

Burial cave, known as "Camp's Cave," 15 miles south of 
Blountsville, in which skeletons, wooden trough, bark mat- 
ting, copper articles, etc., have been found. 

Ibid. p. 826. 

See also Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 

Brewer's Alabama, p. 139; and 

Tuomey's Second Biennial Report on the Geology of Alabama, p.- 

Mounds in Murphree's valley, also in the trough of the 
Locust Pork of the Warrior, in Blountsville valley, in 
Brown's valley, and northwest of the Mulberry Fork. 

In George Powell's "History of BiOunt County," In Transactions Ala- 
bama Historical /society, 1855, .pp. 58-59. 

Old fortification near the junction of the Little Warrior 

and Locust Fork- 



Mound on plantation of J. H. Fielder, ten miles from 
Union Springs. 

In Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. ly, 

Ancient mounds in this county. 

In John B. Little's History of Butler, County. (1885), pp. 143-145. 

Large isolated mound about 3 miles southwest of Oxford 
on the -Carver place, near Choccolocco Creek. 

Noticed by Elston Luttrell, in Smithsonian Report, 1882, p. 827. 
Also, reported by J, P. Rogan. 


Ancient parallel ditches at the falls of Little River,, in the 
northwest corner of the county, near the DeKalb County 
line. Also rock houses, or caves in the vicinity. 

In Prekett's AZaftama /1st ed.), vol. 1, pp. 175-176; Owen's edition 
(1900), pp. 155-157. 
See also Brewer's Alabam,a, pp. 166, 236. 


Mounds at Varna, on the South and North Alabama Rail- 
road, ( L. S^ N. ) , near the old Repito "(>old Mine/' on Sec i6, 
T. 21 N., R. 16 E. 

Reported by Dr. Eugene A, Smith. 

Prehistoric Works. 361 

Stone heaps in T. 23 N., K. 14 E., of St. Stephens' Meri- 
dian, 3 1-2 miles northeast of Jemison Station, South and 

Nor1}h Alabama Eailroad (L. & N.) 

Described uy William Gesner, in Smithsonian Report, 1881, pp. 


Burying ground and mound on the site of old Fort Mau- 
vila (the latter now obliterated), 4 1-2 miles east of Gaines- 
town on the bank of Alabama liiver, in Sec. 2, T. 5 N., II. 4. E. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 289. 

Morrisette mound, near Marshall's Bluff landing, Alabama 


Described by C.arence B. Moore, in Journal Academy of Natural 
Sciences, PhiladelpMa, 1899, vol. xi, p. 296. 

Group of mounds, with Indian bail ground, and burial 
ground, five miles north of Wood's bluff, and one-half mile 
ipom Alabama River. 

In T. H. Ball's Clarke County, and its Surroundings (1882), pp. 

Stone mound: in Sec. 26, T. 19 S., R. 7. E. , 

Briefly described by William Gesner, in Smithsonian Report, 1879, 
p. 382. 

Ancient mica quarry in Sec. 26, T. 19 S., R. 7 E. 


Mound in T. 6, R. 19 W. 

In Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 


Turk's cave, near Brooklyn. 
In Brewer's Alabama, p. 194. 


Three mounds on Conecuh River. 
In Brewer's Alabama, p. 202. 

Cave on Yellow River, of vast extent. 



Andent ditches at Cahaba. 

Incidental mention in Pickett's Alabama (1st. ed.), vol. i, p. 172. 
Owen's edition (1900), p. 155. 
See al^o Brewer's. Alabama, p. 209. 

Mound on the Joel Mathew's place, Alabama River, about 
one mile below Cahaba on the right bank. 

M&uiid= on the amnter place, Alabama River, about four 
miles below Selma on the right bank. 

362 Eeiwrt Alabama History Commission. 

Aboriginal Cemetery, Durand's Bend, Alabama River, 
about 13 miles above Selma by water. 

Described by Clarence B. Moore, in Journal Academy Natural 
Sciences, Phlladelpliia, 1899, vol. xi, pp. 302-319; figures. 


"Old Fort Jackson Works," mounds and house-sites, and 
remains of old French Fort Toulouse and United States Fort 
Jackson, near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 180-91, pp. 288-289. 
See also Brewer's Alabama, p. 239. 

Mound at Yv^etumpka. 

Reported by James D. Middleton. 

Mounds and house remains on the west bank of the Coosa 
liiver, about a mile above where it is joined by the Talla- 

Mound on an island in Jackson's lake, 6 miles north of 

The "Parker Mound" on the Coosa River, near its junction 
with the Tallapoosa. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, pp. 286-288. 

Mound near Horse- Shoe bend about 5 miles below Mont- 
gomerj^, on the right bank of Alabama River. 

Mound at Jackson's Bend, on the Coosa River. 

Described by Clarence B. Moore, in Journal Academy Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, 1899, vol. xii. pp. 333, 346. 


A group of mounds on the Black Warrior River, near Knox- 
ville, in the Northeast corner of the County. 

Reported by B. A. Smith. 

Mound on Warrior River, about a half mile below Steph- 
ens' Bluff. 

Lamberth's mound, on the roadside, about three miles 
southeast of Forkland. 

Old Fortification on the Tombigbee River, three miles 
southwest of Forkland. 

In V. Gayle Sneaicor's Directory of Green County (1856), pp. 71-73. 
Indian burial ground near Sardis Church. 

In Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 


A group of flat-topped, square and conical mounds known 
as the "Prince Mounds," about half a mile from Carthage, in 
the north-western part of the County. 

Noticed in Pickett's Alabama (1st ed.)', vol. i, p. 168; Owen's edition 
(1900), p. 151. 

Prehistoric Works. 363 

See also Thruston's Antiquities of Tennessee (1897), pp. 186-187. 
333-334, and 
Brewer's Alabama, p. 271. 

MoundjT miles below Carthage. 
Reported by James D. Middleton. 


Mound on west bank of Tennessee River, one mile above 

Three small mounds on west bank of Tennessee River, 3 
miles below Bridgeport. 

Two mounds on west bank of Tennessee River just above 
Widow's Creek. 

Mound on west bank of Tennessee River due east of Steven- 

Mound on east bank of Tennessee River nearly opposite 
last, below the mouth of Morgan's Creek. 

Three small mounds on west bank of Tennessee River, at 
Sublette ferry, near Bellefpnte. 

All reported by James Mooney, Bureau of Ethnology. 


Group of mounds in T. 17 S., R. 1 W., about 4 miles north 
of Birmingham and west of the South and North Alabama 
Railroad (L. & N.) 

Described by William Gesner, in Smithsonian Report, 1881, p. 616. 

Large quadrangular mound a few miles from Elyton. 

Mentioned in Pickett's Alabama (1st. ed), vol. i, p. 178; Owen's 
edition (1900), p. 159. 

Mounds and "furnaces" on Village Creek. 

General mention by G. McKinley. 

The Talley mounds near old Jonesborough (south-west 
from Bessemer), on Sec. 8, T. 19, S., R. 4 W. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, pp. 290- 
292; figures. 

An Indian grave beside an old trail on a small ridge near 
Bullard's shoals on Valley Creek. It is covered with stones, 
and around it in a crescent or half moon shape is a rude stone 

Several graves on Red mountain near Red Gap, in Sec. 21, 
T. 19 S. R. 4, W., East and opposite the Thomas McAdory 


Reportea by Thomas M. Owen. 


The "Douglass Mounds" near lock No. 10 of the Muscle 

Shoals Canal, 12 miles east of Florence. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91 pp. 284-285, 

364 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Hexagonal mound surrounded by a wall, on the bank of 
the Tennessee near Florence. 

Figured and described in Squier and Davis's Ancient Monuments of 
the Mississippi Valley (1848), pp. 109-110. 

See also Pickett's Alabama (1st. ed.), vol. i, pp. 168; Owen's edition 
(1900), p. 151; and 

Thruston's Antiquities of Tennessee (1897), p. 274. 

"Stafford Mound" (or shell heap), a mile south of Flor- 
ence on the bank of the Tennessee Eiver. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, pp. 283-284. 
See also Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 


Workshop, east of Youngsborough, on the Western Rail- 
road, at the foot of Storey's Mountain, T. 19, N., R. 27, E. 

Brief notice by William Gesner, in Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 443. 

Village site, or burial ground, in the Northeastern corner 
of the county, on the South bank of the Alabama River, at 
the junction of Pintlala Creek with the river, in which human 
bones inclosed in double pots, and ashes, have been found. 

Mound in the southern part of tha county, on Mussel 
Creek, on land of Fisher Merritt, in T. 12 N., R. 14 E. 

Mound on Big Swamp Creek, in the centre of the county, 
in T. 14 N., R. 14 E. 

Mound in the northern part, on the Alabama River, be- 
tween Whitehall and Benton. 

Brief mention of tlie three mounds by W. M. Garrett, in Smithsonian 
Report, 1879, p. 443. 

"Workshops," near Mount Willing, one on Mr. Hartley's 
plantation. Sec. 36, T. 13 N., R. 13 E.. and one on Mr. Lee's 
plantation. Sec. 32, T. 13 N.,R. 14 E. 



Group of three mounds, 10 miles below Little Tallassee, on 
the Alabama River. 

In Schoolcraft's History Indian Tribes, (1856), vol. 5, p. 282. 

Mounds on Jones's plantation, near Newmarket. 
Mounds at Hazel Green, on the old Jeffries place. 

Reported by Gilbert Thompson, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Shell heaps at Huntsville. 

Keported by Dr. B. Palmer, Smithsonian Institution. 

Large shell heap on the North bank of the Tennessee River, 
near Whitesburg. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 285. 

Prehistoric Works. 365 

Huntsville Cave, a short distance from the Spring, "a great 

natural curiosity, and affords the mineralogical student a 

rich harvest in limestone formations and fossil remains." 
la William's Huntsville Directory, 1859, p. 19. 


Choctaw cemetery in the north central part of the county. 
Described by H. s'. Halbert, In American Antiquarian, 1896, vol. xvill, 
p. 3'6^. 

Indian burial ground near Prairieville. 

In Transactions AlaT)ama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. Iv. 


Burial cave, known as "Hampton Cave," about one mile 
west of Guntersville. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 285. 
See also Brewer's Alaiama, p. 333; and 

0. D. Street, in Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, 
vol. iv. 

Camping ground of the Cherokee Indians at Gunter's 
Xanding, one mile east of Guntersville. 

Dr. E. Palmer's field notes, 1883. 

Mounds on the Tennessee River. 

Mentioned in Brewer's Alal)ama, p. 383. 

See also 0. D. Street in Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 
1899-1900, vol. iv. 

Burial cave on the north bank of Tennessee River, just 
above the mouth of Paint Rock River on the farm of John 
H. West. 

Referred to by O. D. Street, in Transactions Alaliama Historical So- 
ciety, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 

Shell Depos'ts occurring frequently along the Tennessee 
River and its larger tributaries, in which are sometime found 
human skeletons. 


Small Mound on farm of M. M. Downey on Paint Rock 
River, about 10ft. in diameter and two feet high ; said to cover 
Indian graves. 

Three graves at the "Old Missionary" inclosed with stones; 
said to be the graves of Indians buried there in the early part 
of this century. 

Group of three mounds on the farm of Thomas M. Patter- 
son two miles south of Guntersville in South-East portion 
Sec'. 15, T. 8 R. 3 E. The largest is about 40 feet in diameter 
and at 'present 6 or 8 feet high; the two smaller stand close 
together about 50 yards north of the first, and have been par- 
tially explored, lumps of galena, beads and bones being found. 
The largest has never been opened. All have been plowed over 

366 Report Alabama History Commission. 

for years which has considerably reduced their height. They 
stand on the first bend above the Brown's Creek bottom. 

Group of four or five mounds in the south bend of Tennes- 
see River on the farm of R. M. Reives about three miles above 
Guntersville. AIJ have been plowed over for years and occa- 
sionally human bones are turned up. 

Reported by O. D. Street, Guntersville, Ala. 


Large shell heap at the south end of the county on the north 
side of Bayou Coq d'Inde, near its mouth, a few miles from 
Bayou la Batre. 

Described by Maj. W. T. Walthall, in Mobile Tribune, Aug. 11, 1859. 
Reprinted in ietli Report Peabody Museum, pp. 186-189. Also report- 
ed by Charles Mohr, in Smithsonian Report, 1881, p. 619. 

This, the next and other mounds on the Portersville coast have 
been much reduced by being used to make local shell roads. In them 
have been found muca pottery, clay heads, ducks and other ornaments, 
and sometimes human bones. 

Shell heaps along the coast, one of them at the mouth of 
Bayou Como. 


An earth mound surrounded by a shell mound near Mobile. 

Mentioned by W. S. McNeil. 

A burial ground, near Mount Vernon, about 30 miles from 

Mobile and 3 miles from the Alabama River. 

Reported by Cnarles Mohr,. in Smithsonian Report, 1881, p. 619. 

Shell banks on the north side of Dauphine Island at the 
landing, over grown with cedars. From here was obtained, 
by burning, much of the lime for building Forts Morgan and 

Nannahubba Bluff was an Indian burying ground, and 
there and in what is now a cotton field, near the county line 
have been found many arrow heads and other Indian re- 

Shell mounds at Shell Beach on Fowl River about a mile 
south of the county bridge to Mon Louis Island. 

Reported by Peter J. Hamilton, Mobile, Ala. 

Piles of human bones gave the first name of Massacre Is- 
land to what is now known as Dauphine; but they cannot now 
be identified. This was at the S. W. extremity, which is 
much exposed to storms and has probably been washed away. 

In Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, p. 30. 

Mound at Twenty-One-Mile Bluff, Mobile River, about 300 
yards west of the landing. 

Prehistoric Works. 367 

Mound near Twenty-Foiir-Mile Bend, Mobile River, about 
three-quarters of a mile in a westerly direction from the 

Described by Clarence B. Moore, in Journal Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, 1899, vol. xl, p. 291. 

Shell banks and Indian Remains in the County, passim. 

In Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, pp. 92, 152, 384, 715, 6, 340. 


Mound about one-half mile from the mouth of Little River, 
on the left hand side going up, in which human bones, pot- 
tery, shells, etc., have been found. 

Mound about one mile in a southerly direction from Pott's 
landing, Alabama River. 

Cemetery at Nancy Harris Landing, Alabama River. 

Described by Clarence B. Moore, in Journal Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, 1899, vol. xi, pp. 291-296; figures. 


Group of five mounds, 9 miles southwest of Montgomery, 
on the bank of the Alabama River. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, pp. 289-290. 

Four Mounds on the Charlotte Thomson place, about six 
miles below Montgomery on the left side of the Alabama 

Mound on the Rogers' place, Alabama River, about one 
mile east from the Charlotte Thomson mounds. 

Two mounds in Thirty-Acre Field, Alabama River, about 
one mile below the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa 
Rivers . 

Mound on Bi?; Eddy, Alabama River, about one-half mile 
southwesterly from mound in Thirty-Acre Field. 

Described by Clarence B. Moore, in Journal Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, 1899, vol. xi, pp. 319-346; figures. 

Two mounds originally on Alabama River "just below and 
adjoining Montgomery," but now removed. 

In Blue's History of Montgomery (1878), p. 4. 

See also reference to by Dr. W. S. Wyman in Transactions Alabama 
Historical Society, 1897-98, vol. ii, p. 31. 

Old Augusta Mound. 

Referred to by Dr. W. S. Wyman in Transactions Alabama Histori- 
cal Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 


Mound at Oarrollton. 

In Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 
St. Claib. 

Old Indian fortification on the S. E. 1-4 Sec. 16, T. 17 S., 

R. IE. 

Reported by Hiram Haines, in Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 443. 

36'8 Keport Alabama History Commission. 


>Storie teap, about 1 mile east of Siluria, on the South and 
North Alabama Eailroad (L. & N.), in T. 21 S., K. 3 W. 

Noted by William Gesner, in Smithsonian Report, 1881, p. 617. 

the "Cedar Hammock Group," situated on Sec. 5, T. 17 N. 
R. 1 E., consisting of some small mounds. 

In Twelfth A.nnual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 286. 


Old Creek settlement on the bank of Talladega Creek, 4 
miles southeast of Talladega, at Cragsdale, at which bones, 
shell ornaments and pottery have been found. 

In Twelfth Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-91, p. 290. 

Mounds and Indian cemetery in the vicinity of Talladega. 

Reported by John P. Rogan and Dr. B. Palmer. 

Ancient mica quarry in Sec. 12, T. 20 S., R, 6 E. 

Noted by William Gesner, in Smithsonian Report, 1879, pp. 382, 443. 

Workshops in T. 18 S., R. 7 E., on the headwaters of Talla- 
dega Creek, at the eastern end of Cedar ridge. 

lUd. 1881, p. 617. 

A group of mounds "orderly arranged," 15 miles southwest 
of Oxford, on south bank of Choccoloco Creek. 

Noted oy Elston Luttrell, in Smithsonian Report, 1882, p. 827. 

A shell bed at Fort Williams on the Coosa River, Sec. 6 or 

7, T. 22 S., R. 2 E. 

Mentioned in Michael Tuomey's Second Biennial Report on the 
Geology of Alal)ama (1858), p. 157. 

Indian village On Tallasahatchie Creek, bordering on the 
Sycamore aid Childersburg road, and 13 miles south- west of 

In Transactions Alahama Historical Society, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 
Aboriginal soapstone quarry, not definitely located. 

Mentioned by Cuanes Mohr, iii Smithsonian Report, 18S1, pp. 617-618. 

Mounds, Indian Remains, the "Alabama Stone." 

In Thomas Maxwell's Tuscaloosa, (Alabama Historical Society), 
1876, passim. Figures. 

Indian graves on H. Wynn's plantation. 

In Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1899-1900, Vol. iV. 

Indian camps on the Warrior River. 

Mentioned in Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 1850-1897, 
vol. 1. 

Prehistoric Works. 369 

Old fortification in Tuscaloosa County. 

Described by R. S. Owen, In Transactions Alabama Historical So- 
ciety, 1899-1900, vol. iv. 


Mounds near Webb's landing, Alabama River, about three- 
quarters of a mile in a northwesterly direction. 

Mound near Burford's landing, Alabama River, 15 miles in 
a southerly direction. 

Mound on Burford's Plantation, on right bank of Alabama 
River, one half mile below Holly Perry. 

Four mounds near Mathew's Landing from one of which 
23 burials are noted. 

Described by Clarence B. Moore, in Journal Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, 1899, vol. xi, pp. 296-302 ; figures. 





By O. D. Street, of Gxjntebsville. 

In attempting to locate ancient Indian boundaries, it is 
• necessary to bear in mind that prior to the Revolutionary 
period, and in most cases for many years subsequent thereto, 
no effort was made either by the Indians themselvs or by 
the whites to settle definitely the lines between the different 
tribes. Usually their actual habitats were far removed from 
each other with vast intervening stretches of unoccupied 
forests or prairies, used more or less in common as hunting 
grounds. And such was peculiarly the case with the Chero- 
kees, Chickasaws and Creeks. When we first learn of these 
tribes, the Chickasaws were living in north central Missis- 
sippi in what is now Pontotoc County, the Creeks were about 
two hundred miles to their east on the Coosa and Alabama 
rivers, and the Cherokees on the headwaters of the Tennessee 
nearly two hundred miles to the north of the Creeks. A situ- 
ation like this did not call for accurately defined limits be- 
tween peoples engaged chiefly in hunting, yet in a general 
way each understood what was its own and what its neigh- 
bor's territory, lakes, rivers, hills, valleys, and mountain 
chains serving to define their limits with sufficient accuracy.' 

The southern boundary of the Cherokees, east of the Coosa, 
has been quite clearly traced, and though often the subject 
of dispute between the Cherokees on the one hand, and the 
Creeks and Georgia on the other, may in the light of all the 
evidence now be fairly regarded as the true historical boun- 
dary. It began at the most westerly bend of the Santee river 
near the line between Orangeburg and Charleston districts, 
S. C, and ran thence a direct course to the junction of the 
North and South Edisto rivers, thence up the latter stream 
to the source of Shaw's Creek, thence with the ridge in a 
southwestwardly direction to the mouth of Stevens Creek, a 

'Royce in 5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, pp. 140-141, 150, 205; 
Owen's edition of Pickett's History of Alabama (1900), pp. 47, 133, 137, 


Cherokee Soutiiern Boundary. 371 

tributary of the Savannah, thence up this stream to the 
mouth of Broad River and up Dry Fork of the same to the 
"Buffalo Lick," thence in a direct line to where a tree marked 
by the Cherokees formerly stood near the head of Shoal 
Greek, a tributary of the Oconee, and about eight miles south- 
east of Athens, Ga., thence in a direct line to the High Shoals 
of the Appalachee, thence with the old "High Town path" 
to the lower Shallow Ford of the Chattahoochee twelve miles 
due north of Atlanta in the bend of the river, thence west 
to the ridge dividing the waters of the Etowah from those 
of the Chattahoochee and Tallapoosa Rivers, and 'westwardly 
with said ridge to its intersection with the line fixed by the 
treaty of 1820 between the Creeks and Cherokees, and thence 
with the latter line to the Coosa River opposite the mouth of 
Will's Creek." 

There is evidence that at a very remote period the Chero- 
kee boundary w^as much further south,' but at the beginning 
of our acquaintance with these tribes it was approximately as 
above described. 

West of the Coosa, I believe there never was any line agreed 
upon by the Cherokees with either the Creeks or the Chicka- 
saws. On Feb. 21st, 1806, the Secretary of War wrote Maj. 
George Colbert, the principal chief of the Chickasaws, in ex- 
planation of the purchase by the United States from the 
Cherokees of certain territory also claimed by the Chicka- 
saws, that "being persuaded no actual boundary had ever been 
agreed on between the Chickasaws and the Cherokees," it was 
thought advisable to purchase the claim of the Cherokees so 
that when the Chickasaws should be disposed to convey their 
title there shoiild be no dispute with the Cherokees. On June 
7th, 1816, Wm. Barnett, one of the boundary Commissioners, 
reported that the Cherokees and Chickasaws, after attempt- 
ing to do so, could come to no understanding as to their divis- 
ional line.* In August 1814, at the treaty of Ft. Jackson, the 
Cherokees and Creeks endeavored for three or four days to 
agree on their dividing line but could not. In Sept. 1815, 
the Tustenugge Thlucco was asked where their boundary was 
west of the Coosa, and he replied that there never was any 
boundary fixed and known as such between the parties ; that 

^Royce in 5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, pp. 141, 148, 26G, 271 and 
plate 8. Gatschet's Migration Legend of the Greelc Indians, pp. 151-2, 196. 
The line of this treaty of 1820 ran directly from "Buzzard Roost" on the 
east side of Chattahoochee river to the Coosa opposite the mouth of "Will's 

'Gatschet's Migration Legend of the Creek Indians, pp. 120, 195-6. 

*Royce in 5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, pp. 196, 208, 

372 Report Alabama History Commission. 

he did not believe and had never heard that there was any 
boundary agreed upon between them.° We are, therefore, to 
inquire what was in fact the actual boundary west of the 
Coosa, none apparently having ever been agreed upon be- 
tween them. To do this we must first determine as accurate- 
ly as possible the point of departure from the Coosa of this 
line toward the west. In 1827, the War Department had ex- 
pressed to D. B. Mitchell, the Creek agent, the "impression" 
that the western terminus of that portion of the boundary 
east of the Coosa was either Turkey Town, or Ten Islands.' 
That Ten Islands was the proper terminus seems to have been 
generally agreed among both the Creeks and the Cherokees. 
It had been the Cherokee claim from before the Revolution- 
ary War that all the waters of the Coosa down to Ten Islands • 
had been given up to them by the Creeks, and at a treaty con- 
cluded between the two nations on Dec. 11th, 1820, at the 
residence of Gen. William Mcintosh, in the Creek Country, 
it was agreed that the portion of the boundary east of the 
Coosa, after striking that stream opposite the mouth of Will's 
Creek, would extend down that river to a point opposite Ft. 
Strother at the lower end of the Ten Islands, and this boun- 
dary was reaffirmed in a subsequent treaty concluded Oct. 
30th, 1822.' Of course, the westward extension of this boun- 
dary departed from the Coosa at this point, because it is not 
supposable that after running down the river it was to run 
back up the river. Now as imaginary lines were at that date 
a conception little understood by the Indian mind, and as 
such lines among all peoples are the result of agreement and 
there having been as we have seen no agreement between the 
two nations on this part of their boundary, we may safely 
assume that from this point, viz: the lower end of Ten Is- 
lands, the line followed some natural landmark. If as 
claimed by the Cherokees, the Creeks had given up to them all 
the waters of the Coosa down to Ten Islands, a claim which 
seems to have been conceded in the two treaties above men- 
tioned, all the waters of Big Canoe Creek were within the 
Cherokee boundary. Consequently we may 'conclude in a 
general way that from the lower end of Ten Islands the line 
followed the most prominent dividing ridge butting on the 
river in that vicinity, around the headwaters of Canoe Creek, 
until it reached the height of Blount Mountain, thence north- 
ward with said mountain along the ridge dividing the waters 

'Ibid. p. 271. 
'lUd. p. 269. 
'ma. pp. 268, 271, 

Cherokee Southern Boundary. B7^ 

of the Coosafrom those of the Black Warrior to the top of 
Eaccoon or Sand Mountain near the town of Boaz in Mar- 
shall County. From this point westward to the Chickasaw 
boundary, wherever that lay, it is quite clear that the line 
was the ridge dividing the waters of the Tennessee from those 
of the Black Warrior. Gov. Blount in 1794, writing to the 
chiefs and headmen of the Creeks said : "iH the original 
division of land amongst the red people, it is well known that 
the Creek lands were bounded on the north by the ridge 
which divides the waters of the Mobile and the Tennessee."' 
Judge Haywood, criticising a Mr. Barnard for some erron- 
eous statements the latter had made to the Governor of Geor- 
gia in 1793, says, "And he (Barnard) ought to have known 
that the Creek claim to lands was bounded by the ridge which 
divides the waters of the Tennessee and Mobile."" 

The question then, and one fraught with much difficulty is, 
where did this ridge intersect the Chickasaw eastern boun- 
dary. This necessitates an examination somewhat into the 
respective claims of the Oherokees and Chickasaws. The 
former claimed all the country between this ridge and the 
Tennessee as far westward as Big Bear Creek :" on the other 
hand the Chickasaws, as early as 1792, at a Conference at 
Nashville, defined their eastern boundary south of the Ten- 
nessee as commencing at a point opposite the "Chickasaw Old 
Field," thence across a neck of land to Tenehucunda (evi- 
dently Ootaco) Creek, a southern branch of the Tennessee, 
and up this creek to its source, thence to the waters of the 
Tombigbee,"^ thence to the west fork of Longleaf Pine Creek, 
and down it to the "line of the Choctaw and Chickasaws." 
Two years later ( 1794 ) , President Washington gave them a 
written instrument recognizing this as their line." It is 
clear, however, that this extreme claim on the part of the 
Chickasaws is untenable, because the Oherokees had as early 
as 1779 formed settlements on both sides of the Tennessee as 

"Haywood's Civil and Political History of Tenn. (Reprint, 1891), p. 326. 

nua, p. 387. 

"J6i(j. p. 351. See also an articls by the writer in vol. iv. of Transactions 
of the Alabama Historical Society; Royee, hth Annual Report Bureau Eth- 
nology, pp. 141, 268. 

"This was a place on the north bank of the Tennessee river (where the 
Chickasaws had formerly had a settlement) at the upper end of Chicka- 
saw (now Hobbs) Island, about three miles above the present village of 
Whitesburg in Madison county. 

"The waters of the Black Warrior are meant here. Royce, in ZtU An- 
nual Report Bureau Ethnology, pp. 207, 208. 

"Haywood's Civil and Political History of Tennessee. (Reprint 1891), 
pp. 350 and 425. Royce in 5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, p. 208. 

374 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

low down as Caney Creek in Colbert County." On the other 
hand, the Chickasaws about the same time formed settle- 
ments below Caney Creek along the shores and about the 
mouth of Big Bear Creek, where they maintained themselves 
until their final cession to the United States and removal 
west of the Mississippi. It would appeal, therefore, that the 
true boundary was somewhere in the neighborhood of Caney 
Creek. Of the truth of this conclusion, there is a clear recog- 
nition by both the United States Commissioners and the 
Cherokees in the Cherokee treaty of Jan. 7th, 1806, whereby 
the United States agreed to urge the Chickasaws to consent 
to the following as their eastern boundary, viz : Caney Creek 
from its mouth to its source, thence in a direct line to "Flat- 
rock" on Bear Creek.'° While I do not for reasons mentioned 
in the note below consider this Plat Rock as ever having been 
a point on the true southern boundary of the Cherokees, yet 
the suggestion of this line, by the treaty of 1806 (though never 
actually agreed to), is corroborative of the conclusion that 
the true boundary was somewhere in the vicinity of Caney 
Creek. I should say, therefore, that in a general way the 
true Cherokee southern boundary, after following the ridge 
separating the waters of the Tennessee and Black Warrior 
to the headwaters of Caney Creek, ran thence down said 
creek to the Tennessee River. 

"Haywood's Civil and Political History of Tennessee. (Reprint 1891), 
pp. 103, 230, 350. 

Royce in 5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, pp. 194, 272, note. 

'°As to the origin, location, and purpose of the true "Plat Rock corner," 
historians have been unable to learn with certainty. In a communication 
from the Secretary of Vv''ar to Maj. Cocke, the Chickasaw agent, dated April 
16, 1816, it is stated tnat from an examination of the Chickasaw treaty of 
1786, it appeared that a point called Flat Rock was considered a corner 
of tlie lands belonging to them, and that it had since been considered 
as the corner to the Creek, Cherokee, and Chickasaw hunting grounds. 
The Chickasaws, however, professed ignorance of any place on Bear Creek 
called "Flat Rock," but claimed there was a "Flat Rock" on theLongleaf 
Pine, a branch of the Black Warrior, which was a corner of their terri- 
tory. — 5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, pp. 207-8, 271. The earliest 
reference I find to any place called Flat Rock is in this Chickasaw treaty 
of 1786, and it would seem but fair that they be allowed- to define it. 
They always defined it as being on the Longleaf Pine. This location fits 
the description of it as being "where the Choctaw line joined with the 
Chickasaws," better than does that on Bear Creek. I conclude that the 
"Flat Rock" on Bear creek was never a corner between any Indian tribes 
until it was arbitrarily, or by misapprehension, made such by the Chero- 
kee treaty of March 22, 1816. It is clear that the commissioners sent out 
in 1815 prior to this treaty to establish this line according to the true 
historical facts, did not consider it a land mark in the southern boundary 
of the Cherokees. — Ibid. p. 207. Unfortunately for the cause of history 
before they had proceeded far with the work of establishing this line^:hey 
were recalled because of the agreement upon, the arbitrary line from Ten 
Islands to Flat Rock on Bear creek. 


By H. S. Hai^ebt, of Ceawfobd, Miss. 

During, at least, the last one-third of a century of the 
existence of the Choctaw Nation in Mississippi, it was divid- 
ed into three districts, each district governed by its own 
mingo. These districts were the western district, the, north- 
eastern district, and the south-eastern district. The mingoes 
were independent of each other and sovereign in their respec- 
tive districts, and only acted in concert in national affairs 
when the whole nation assembled in council to decide upon 
questions of peace and war. In each district there were a 
number of subordinate mingoes or captains, who managed 
and directed the local affairs of their respective towns.' 

Among the Indian Nations boundary lines between tribes 
and divisions of tribes were dividing ridges or water sheds, 
water courses, and sometimes a trail connecting two well 
known towns. Either water or a ridge with no water was a 
boundary line easily understood by the aboriginal mind. 
Many of the noted Choctaw towns were well populated, and 
doubtless of great antiquity. Trails connecting two such 
towns would of course be well known everywhere to the peo- 


The native name of this district was "Okla falaya," the 
long people, the adjective "falaya," long, having reference to 
the length of the district. The boundary line separating this 
from the north-eastern district began in the vicinity of the 
present little town of Cumberland, in Webster County, thence 
run south-westerly on the dividing ridge separating the head 
waters of Tibbee (Oktibbeha) on the east from the Big Black 
waters on the west down to the vicinity of Dido in Choctaw 
County, thence in a zigzag course on the dividing ridge be- 
tween the Noxubee and the Yokenookeny waters to the vicini- 

'In Dr. F. L. Riley's School History of Mississippi (1900), is a map, 
showing the three districts. 


3 % Report Alabama History Commission. 

ty of New Prospect, thence it zigzaged more or less easterly 
between the head waters of Pearl River and the Noxubee 
waters to a point on the ridge not far south of Old Singleton, 
(not the present Singleton), thence southerly on the ridge 
between the Pearl River waters on the west and the Noxubee 
and Sukenatcha waters on the east, thence somewhat wester- 
ly by Yazoo Town in Neshoba County, thence more or less 
southerly on the ridge between the headwaters of Talasha and 
the headwaters of Oktibbeha (there are two Oktibbeha 
Creeks in Mississippi), to the ancient town of Kunshak 
bolukta, which was situated in the southwestern part of 
Kemper County, some two miles from the Neshoba, and about 
a mile and a half from the Lauderdale County line. Kun- 
shak, or Kunsha, bolukta was considered the corner of the 
three Choctaw districts. The name means Round reed-irake, 
so named from a large circular reed brake on the west side 
of Oktibbeha Creek, near which the town stood. The town 
can be seen on Danville's map of East Mississippi, 1732, in 
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, p. 158, there spelled "Concha,?' 
the French orthography. The adjective "bolukta," round, 
was doubtless appended to the name of the town subsequent 
to 1732, to distinguish it from other towns of the same name 
in the Choctaw Country. Kunsha bolukta belonged to the 
north-eastern district, though, as stated, it was considered 
the corner of the three districts. The military road made by 
General Jackson, in 1815, passed through the town. Traces 
of this road can still be seen in the vicinity. 

The line just described as running from the vicinity of 
Cumberland to Kunsha bolukta separated the western from 
the north-eastern district. The line separating the western 
district from the south-eastern began at Kunsha bolukta, first 
going a short distJance north-westerly between the Talasha 
and Oktibbeha waters, thence it zigzaged more or less south- 
westerly on the dividing ridge between the Pearl and the 
Chickasahay waters until it came to the vicinity of Lake Sta- 
tion in Soott County. Mokalusha Town, (Impklasha) situ- 
ated on the head waters of Talasha Creek in Neshoba County, 
though somewhat south of the regular line, belonged to the 
western district. From the vicinity of Lake Station the line 
ran southward on the dividing ridge between West Tallyhaly 
and Leaf River down to the confluence of these two streams. 
Leaf River from this confluence down to where it struck the 
Choctaw boundary line formed the remainder of the line 
separating the western district from the south-eastern. 

District Divisions of the Choctaws. 377 

The first mingo of the western district in the nineteenth 
century was Puckshenubbee, who died in 1824, while on his 
yvdj to \^"ashington City. 

For a short period after Puclcshenubbee's death Robert 
(3ole exercised the functions of Mingo of the western district. 
He was a half-breed, the son of a white man and Shemahka, 
who was a Chocchuma woman, one of the survivors of the 
Massacre that occurred in Webster County, six miles west of 
Belief ontaine. She was still living, a very old woman, in 
1838, in Yalobusha County. Robert, or Bob Cole, served 
in the Creek war of 1813-14. He brought back with him 
from that war a Creek girl whom he adopted into his family. 
Cole died in Yalobusha County, Mississippi, at some time 
prior to 1850.' 

After a brief rule, Robert Cole was deposed from some 
cause, and his nephew Greenwood Leflore was elected mingo 
of the western district. Leflore was mainly instrumental in 
■making the treaty of Dancing Rabbit in 1830. He was 
alloT\^ed a large reservation by the treaty. He became a citi- 
zen of Mississippi, and represented Carroll County as State 
Senator in 1840-44. He died some years after the Confed- 
erate War. 

The people of the western parts of the western district 
lived in thin scattering settlements, thus forming a striking 
contrast with the people living in the eastern parts of the 
Choctaw country, who were generally massed in numerous 
towns and forts, built as barriers against the ever aggressive 
and hostile movements of the Creeks. The great Mississippi 
River was considered ample protection to the western Choc- 
taws against the inroads of their Trans-Mississippi enemies, 
rendering the building of forts, and towns, in that quarter, 
in a great measure, unnecessarj'. It is true that small preda- 
tory bands of Osages occasionally crossed the Mississippi, but 
these Indians, in Choctaw estimation, were feeble enemies in 
comparison with the dreaded Muscogees living beyond their 
eastern borders. 


The native name of this district was "Ahepat Okla," which 
means Potato-eating People. The word "ahe" in this name 

Tor the statements embodied in the above paragraph, see the case of 
the Choctaw Nation vs. the United States, No. 12,742, U. S. Court of Claims, 
pp. 844, 1036, 1037. See supra, p. 54. Also Claiborne's Mississippi, p. 485. 
Coleman Cole, mentioned in the last work, was a young man in 1830, and 
was the son of Robert Cole. He was still living, 1881, in the Choctaw Na- 

3 78 Report Alabama History Commission. 

refers to the native hog potato, which in ancient times, was 
a common article of food among the Southern Indians. To 
make a palatable diet these wild potatoes were first hung up in 
the sun for a few days until they became well dried. After 
this, they were boiled thoroughly done in a pot and then 
eaten. The Choctaws of the present day generally call the 
hog potato, "lukchuk ahe," mud potato, to distinguish it 
from the sweet and the Irish potato. In addition to "Ahepat 
Okla," the word "ahe" occurs in the name of two Mississippi 
rivers, Chickasahay (Chikashahe) and Oakahay (Okahe). 
The corrupt spelling of the name of the north-eastern dis- 
trict, "Oypat Oocoola," can be seen in Pickett's Alabama, 
vol. i, p. 137, and Gatschet's Migration Legend, vol. i, p. 100, 
both writers apparently accepting Romans' mistranslation, 
^niall nation. 

A noted town in the Potato-eating district was "Yanub- 
bee," which was situated on Yanubbee Creek, about a mile 
and a half above its mouth and about eight miles south-west 
of DeKalb, Kemper County. This town can be seen on Dan- 
ville's map, in Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, p. 158; also on 
Bernard Romans' Map of 1772. There was a trail that led 
southwest from Yanubbee Town to Kunsha bolukta. This 
trail, also laid down on Danville's map, in its course, crossed 
the most north-eastern prong of the Chickasahay waters. 
For about nine miles this trail formed a boundary line be- 
tween the north-eastern and the south-eastern district, from 
Kunsha bolukta north-east to the dividing ridge between the 
north-eastern prong of Chickasahay and Yanubbee Greek, 
about a mile from Yanubbee Town. From this point in the 
trail on the dividing ridge, the line ran southerly on the ridge 
some three miles until it struck the "divide" between Petickfa 
and Black Water. It kept this divide easterly down to the 
confluence of these two creeks. 

There was a trail that led from the Old Choctaw Factory 
in Sumter County, Alabama, somewhat south-westerly to the 
house of Little Leader, which stood upon the east bank of 
Sukenatcha, about two hundred and fifty yards north-west 
of the present Narketa Station on the Mobile and Ohio Rail- 
road. The trail crossed Sukenatcha at Little Leader's house, 
thence running south-westerly and crossing Petickfa just be- 
low the mouth of Black Water, still continuing its south- 
western course, it crossed Ponta and a few miles beyond ter- 
minated at Coosha Town, which was situated on Lost Horse 
Creek, about four miles south-east of Old Daleville. This 
trail from the crossing on Petickfa to the crossing on Ponta 

District Divisions of the Choctaws. 379 

was a continuation of the boundary line that terminated at 
the confluence of Petickfa and Black Water. Ponta Creek 
from the trail-crossing, downward and eastward, constituted 
the remainder of the line separating the two districts. 

Homastubbee was mingo of the northeastern district in the 
early years of the nineteenth century. His name, here spelled 
according to the usual English method, is doubtless worn 
down from "Hommachitabi," "hommachi," to make red, i. e. 
to shed blood, "t," the connective and "abi" to kill, and may 
be translated. The one who makes red and kills. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1809 by his son, Mo-shu-li-tubbe ( Amoshulitabi. ) 
Moshulitubee was mingo over his district for more than twen- 
ty years. He was a war chief of note in early life, leading 
several expeditions across the Mississippi against the Osages. 
He served in the Creek war of 1813-14. At the time of the 
treaty of Dancing Rabbit, he owned ten negro slaves and cul- 
tivated thirty acres. He was allowed under the treaty two 
sections of land, both of which he sold August 2, 1832, to Col. 
Thomas G. Blewet for $1,100.00, emigrated west and died 
about 1849, in Sans Bois County, Choctaw Nation. 

The large prairie region in the north-eastern district now 
embraced in Oktibbeha, Lowndes and Noxubee Counties, was 
the hunting ground of the Potato-eating people. If the tra- 
dition is reliable, they were very jealous of the encroachments 
of other tribes upon this, their favorite hunting range. 


There are some obscurities in the ancient history of the 
south-eastern district which may never be cleared up. This 
district, as it existed in the nineteenth century, was evidently 
formed by the consolidation of several districts, the old origi- 
nal Okla hannali, or Six Towns people, the Chickasahay dis- 
trict, the Yowanni people, the Coosha towns, and perhaps 
some small divisions of which we have no knowledge . In 
some manner, it seems that the Okla hannali gained the 
ascendancy or sovereignty over all these divisions, so thiat, in 
course of time, the name Okla hannali was practically ex- 
tended and accepted as the name of the consolidated district. 
The information is ample in regard to Okla hannali proper . 
But it is otherwise with the other divisions. All the faqts, 
however, that can be gleaned about them from Bernard 
mans' map, supplemented by tradition will here be given. 

The District of Chickasahay was situated between Chicka- 
sahay and Buckatunna Rivers. Chickasahay Town, which 

380 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

may be considered the capital of the district, stood about 
three miles below the present Enterprise. There is no infor- 
mation, how far north of this town between Oktibbeha and 
Buckatunna Elvers, the territory of the Ohickasahays ex- 
tended, nor is there any information as to the Southern limit 
of their district. It is perhaps a reasonable conjecture to 
state that their territory extended as far south as the coun- 
try opposite the mouth of Shubuta Creek, as here, between 
Chickasahay and Buckatunna Elvers, lay the northern border 
of the territory of the Haiowanni or Yowanni people. 
Whether the Yowanni territory lying east of the Chickasahay 
was ever at any time included in the Chickasahay district can 
not be known. Looking at the Choctaw settlement marked 
"57," on Eomans' map, it can be seen that the Chickasahays 
also lived on both sides of Chunky Elver, just above the con- 
fluence of this river with Oktibbeha. There is no informa- 
tion, nor even a clue to any information, as to how far north- 
ward their settlements extended on the east side of Chunky. 
But on the west side of Chunky it seems certain that the 
Chickasahay territory embraced all the lands lying between 
this stream and Sooenlovie, going up Sooenlovie to the mouth 
of lasunla iskuna, or Dvas' Creek, thence up this creek to 
its head. It. is a reasonable conjecture that from the head 
of Dyas' Creek the boundary line followed the dividing ridge 
easterly until it struck Chunky Eiver. "Sooenlovie" is 
spelled "Osham lowey," on Eomans' map ; and "Sonlahoue" 
on Danville's. All three forms are corruptions of "Hasun- 
lawi," which the best informed Choctaws say is itself a cor- 
ruption of "lasunlabi," which means Leech killer. 

To recapitulate somewhat — it is almost a demonstration 
that the Chickasahays claimed the territory bounded on the 
west by Dyas' Creek and on the south by Sooenlovie from the 
fact that the Inkillis Tamaha Choctaws never claimed any 
territory north of Sooenlovie except that which lay west of 
Dyas' Creek. Dyas' Creek was, in fact, the north-eastern 
boundary line of the Inkillis Tamaha people. 

The Haiowanni, or Yowanni people, claimed all the coun- 
try extending from Pachuta Creek on the north to the Choc- 
taw boundary line on the South. Pachuta Creek separated 
the Yowannis from the Inkillis Tamaha people. The Yowan- 
ni western boundary was the eastern dividing ridge of Bogue 
Homa in Jasper County, which ridge separated the Yowanni 
from the Nashwaiya territory. (There are several Bogue 
Homas in Mississippi : the Creek of that name in Jasper 
County is the one here referred to.) The southern limit of 

District Divisions of the Ohoctaws. 381 

that portion of the Yowanni territory lying between Ohiclia- 
sahay and Bucltatunna liivers, prior to the treaty of Mount 
Dexter, in 1805, can not be linown. Perhaps it may have 
extended as far southward as the confluence of the two rivers. 
The boundary lines of the Haiowanni lieservation of later 
times can be seen on La Tourrette's map. The old tan'n or 
capital of Yosvanni, also called Yowanni, stood on the east 
side of Chickasahay River, as can be seen on Romans' map, 
there spelled Ewany. It was visited by Adair, who calls it 
"the out houses of YoAvanni."' 

The name Yowanni is spelled in various ways: Youane, 
Hewanni, etc. It was perhaps in 1764 that a large band of 
the YmVannis separated from the main clan and emigrated to 
Louisiana. All the remaining Yowannis, except two fami- 
lies, left Mississippi in the second emigration, in 1832. 

The Coosha towns were located on Ponta and Lost Horse 
Creeks in Lauderdale County. The main Coosha tOAvn, as 
has been already stated, was situated on Lost Horse Creek, 
about four miles south-east of Old Daleville. There is no in- 
formation about the extent and boundary lines of the Coosha 

As to the boundary lines of the original Okla Hannali, or 
Six Towns people, our information is full and accurate, being 
derived from the late Hon. F. M. Loper of Jasper County, 
Mississippi AA-ho was a man of strong mind and remarkable 
memory. Mr. Loper stated that in the early '30's he had 
questioned the Indians of his acquaintance closely in regard 
to the boundary lines of the Six Towns people. All the facts 
he heard from them are embodied in this paper. 

The names of the towns or divisions of the original Six 
Tow^ns people were, Tala, Chinakbi, Bishkun, Inkillis Tama- 
ha, Nashwaiya and Oka Talaia. 

The territory of Tala Tamaha (Palmetto Town) was 
nearly all in Newton County, embracing the land lying be- 
tween Tarlow (Tala) and Bogue Felamma ("Bok Filammi," 
Greek "Prong) creeks from the water shed connecting the head 
waters of these tw^o creeks down to the confluence of each with 
Pottok chito creek. Tala Town was a thickly settled com- 
munity. Nearly all its people went off in the second emigra- 
tion, in the fall of 1832. 

Chinakbi Town Was situated on the north side of Sooen- 
lovie Creek, extending down this creek to its confluence with 
Kachahlipa Creek, thence up Kachahlipa to its head and 

•Adair's American Indians, p. 268. 

S82 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

thence along the crest of the dividing ridge connecting the 
head waters of this creels with the headwaters of Sooenlovie. 
Chinakbi lay partly in Newton and partly in Jasper County. 
The present village of Garlandsville occupies the site of its 
main town or capital, also called Chinakbi, and stands nearly 
in the center of the Chinakbi territory. 

Bishkun Tamaha, Bishkun Town, was wholly in Jasper 
County. Its northern boundary was the dividing ridge sep- 
arating the head waters of East Tallyhaly from Sooenlovie, 
extending easterly to the head Avaters of McVay's Creek, (Iti- 
homi hikia bok, Sourioood Creek), thence south-westerly 
down this creek to its confluence with East Tallyhaly, thence 
down the west bank of East Tallyhaly to where it joins Luk- 
flippa; ("Lukfi apa," eat dirt there, i. e. deer lick) thence up 
Lukflippa to its head or the ridge separating it from Tally ho- 
ma, thence northerly along this ridge until it connects with 
the water shed separating East Tallyhaly from Sooenlovie. 
Bishkun hill, situated about three miles south-easterly from 
Garlandsville, was the council ground of the Bishkun people. 

The territory of Inkillis Tamaha, English Town, was of 
very irregular shape. The extreme western part embraced the 
country lying on the south side of Sooenlovie, extending 
southward to the ridge separating Sooenlovie from the head 
waters of East Tallyhaly. This dividing ridge, as will be 
seen, was the boundary between Bishkun and Inkillis Tama- 
ha. The Inkillis Tamaha territory continued down Sooen- 
lovie to where it united with Kachahlipa Creek. Here it 
crossed Sooenlovie and embraced all the territory lying be- 
tween Kachahlipa and Dyas' Creek northerly to the dividing 
ridge separating the heads of these two creeks from Pottok 
chitto. The upper or northern part of this projection of In- 
killis Tamaha territory lay in Newton County. Eeturning 
again to the south side of Sooenlovie, the territory still con- 
tinued down this creek to where it ran into Ohickasahay, 
thence down Chickasahay to its confluence with Pachuta 
Creek, which creek formed the Southern boundary of Inkillis 
Tamaha, thence up Pachuta to its head, striking the crest of 
the Avater shed separating the Pachuta from the East Tally- 
haly waters at a point about four miles northerly from Pauld- 
ing. Thence the line continued more or less northerly along 
the Avater shed between McVay's Creek and the waters of 
Twist Wood, and Penantla until it terminated on the water- 
shed betwoen the head of the East Tallyhaly Avaters and 
Sooenlovie — the point of our beginning in describing the, In- 
killis boundaries. Twist wood (Iti Shana) and Penantla 

District Divisions of tlie Choctawa. 383 

(Penaiontala), boat landing, were tlie principal streams in 
the Inkillis Tamaha territory. 

The origin of the name Inkillis Tamaha is involved in some 
obscurity. The only information the writer has ever received 
on the subject is the statement of a Six Towns' Indian, that 
on one occasion, at some period in the past — how far back 
my informant could not tell — the English distributed some 
goods and other presents among the Indians living in this 
particular region or locality. Hence it received the name 
of Inkillis Tamaha, or English Town. 

The territory of Nashwaiya on the east extended from the 
eastern watershed of Bogue Homa westerly to the dividing 
ridge between Tally homa and West Tallyhaly. In this 
scope of country, as can be seen, was included the eastern 
side of East Tallyhaly and its tributary McVay's Creek, 
which creek separated Nashwaiya from Bishkun. The Nash- 
waiya limit on the South was the Choctaw boundary' line. 

Oka Talaia, Spreading Water. The people of this division 
lived principally on Oka Talaia Creek. The Southern boun- 
dary of Oka Talaia was the Choctaw boundary line. The 
eastern boundary was the dividing ridge between West Tally- 
haly and Tallyhoma Creeks. The western boundary has 
already been given as being the dividing ridge extending from 
Lake Station southward between West Tallyhaly and Leaf 
Eiver down to the confluence of these two streams. From 
the confluence south to the Choctaw boundary line Leaf River 
formed the remainder of the boundary, that separated the 
Oka Talaia, the most western division of the Six Towns people 
from the territory of the Okla falaia, or Western district. 

A large portion of the "Six Tov\'ns people, especially those 
living on the Bogue Homa and West Tallyhaly waters, emi- 
grated in 1832, in the second emigration. The fork of Sooen- 
lovie and Kachahlipa was the rendezvous of the Choctaws for 
this emigration. About ten thousand went west on this 
occasion. Not manv Six Towns Indians went west in the 
third emigration in 1833. The last most important emigra- 
tion was Bosto's, in February, 1846. Nearly all the remain- 
ing Six Towns Choctaws, with the exception of the Inkillis 
Tamaha, rendezvoused at Kelly's Hill, three miles west of 
Garlandsville and emigrated west at this time. But few of 
the Inkillis Tamaha ever emigrated. We can not give the 
reason. Nearly all the Choctaws now living in Jasper Coun- 
ty are Inkillis Tamaha Choctaws, and are generally called 
Six Towns. Many of the Choctaws living on the Gulf Coast 
and in the vinicity of New Orleans are seceders from the Six 

384 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Towns. Likewise several Indian communities in Louisiana 
are said to be of Six Towns lineage and to have separated 
from their people long prior to the treaty of Dancing Rabbit. 

There are many dialectic words peculiar to the Six Towns 
Choctaws^ — words which are not heard among Choctaws of 
other localities. A Kemper or Neshoba County Choctaw in 
conversing with a Six Towns Indian not unfrequently has to 
ask the latter the meaing of some words that he hears him 
use. "lasunla" is a case in point. This word means a leech, 
corresponding to "yalus," the word used for leech by Choq- 
taws of other localities. There are also some French words in 
tlie Six Towns dialect. Instead of "takon" the usual ChoctaAv 
word for apple, a Six Towns Indian says "lipon," which is 
somewhat corrupted from "le pomme." It has been demon- 
strated that the speech of some of the small tribes that once 
lived on the Mississippi Gulf Coast was not Choctaw. The 
Biloxis have been proved to be a people of the Dakota stock, 
as was, in all probability, the case with the Pascagoulas. The 
Six Towns Choctaws came much in contact with these allo- 
phyllic tribes of the Gulf coast, and in one case, according to 
Six Towns tradition, they absorbed one tribe, the Chatos. 
It would be an interesting task to the curious student to 
study these dialectic Six Towns words and determine whether 
their origin can be traced back to the Biloxi or even the 
Tunica language. 

Pushmataha was the first mingo, in the nineteenth century, 
of the consolidated South-eastern district. He was succeeded 
by his nephew, Oklahoma, who, however, was soon deposed on 
account of his dissipated habits. Oklahoma died, about 1846, 
in Coosha Town. 

After the deposing of Oklahoma, the South-eastern district 
elected Nittakechi as their mingo. The name of this chief is 
derived from "nittak," day. It is a kind of causative name, 
The one who makes day, or, an equivalent and concise render- 
ing, Day-prolonger. It is said that he could do so much busi- 
ness in a day, that he seemed, as it were, to prolong or 
lengthen out the day for his work. Another form of his 
name was Nittakachi, by which he was sometimes called. Nit- 
t.ikachi and Nittakechi have the same meaning. The vowels 
in both have the Continental sound. At the time of the trea- 
ty of 1830, Nittakechi lived on Patkachi Creek, in Lauder- 
dale County, where he worked thirty-five acres of land. He 
was a tall, erect, well formed man, and of a very light com- 
plexion for an Indian. Col. George S. Gaines had a high re- 

District Division of the Ohoctaws. 385 

sard for Nittakechi, wliom he described as a brave, honor- 
able, upright man; as warmly attached to his friends and 
generous and forbearing even to his enemies. Just after the 
treaty of Dancing Rabbit, Col. Gaines was commissioned to 
take an exploring delegation of prominent Choctaws west to 
examine their new country. In this delegation Avas mingo 
Nittakechi. They spent several months in the wilderness, 
exploring and examining the country in every direction. In 
this exploration, Nittakechi was very zealous in doing every 
thing to promote Col. Gaines' comfort. Nearly every day he 
sent out his most skillful hunters, -who were so successful 
that they kept Col. Gaines constantly supplied with the finest 
and fattest venison and turkey. This exploration reconciled 
many of the Choctaws to the treaty. Nittakechi sold, his 
reservation in Mississippi, November 24, 1831, for |5,000.00 
and then emigrated west in the first emigration. He died on 
Ked River, Choctaw Nation, in Kiamichi County in 1836 
or '37. 

In giving the district boundaries of the Choctaw people, 
many facts, more or less germane to the subject, have been 
omitted. It is hoped that the historical student will receive 
this contribution as at least adding something to our knowl- 
edge of an interesting race of red people. 





Bt Albeet S. Gatschet, of Washington, D. C. 

The towns and villages of tbe Creeks were in the eighteenth 
century built along the banks of rivers and their smaller 
tributaries, often in places subject to inundation during large 
freshets, which occurred once in about fifteen years. The 
smallest of them contained from twenty to thirty cabins, 
some of the larger ones up to two hundred, and in 1832 Tuka- 
batchi, then the largest of all the Creek settlements, harbored 
386 families. Many towns appeared rather compactly built, 
although they were composed of irregular clusters of four to 
eight houses standing together; each of these clusters con 
tained a gens ("clan or family of relations;" C. Swan), eat- 
ing and living in common. The huts and cabins of the LoAver 
Creeks resembled, from a distance, clusters of newly-burned 
brick kilns, from the high color of the clay. At 
the time of the conquest of Mexico by Cortez, many of the 
interior towns of that country were whitewashed in the same 
manner, by means of a shining white clay coating. 

It will be found appropriate to distinguish betAveen Creek 
towns and villages. By towns are indicated the settlements 
which had a public square, by villages those which had none. 
The square occupied the central part of the town, and was 
reserved for the celebration of festivals, especially the annual 
busk or fast (puskita), for the meetings of chiefs, headmen 
"beloved men," and for the performance of daily dances. 
Upon this central area stood the "great house," tchuka 'lako, 
and the council-house; attached to it was a play-ground, 
called by traders the "chunkey-yard." 


Another thoroughgoing distinction in the settlements of 
the Creek nation was that of the red or tear toions and the 
white or peace towns. 

'Revised and largely supplemented from the list in the authors* "A 
Creek Migration Legend," ^Philadelphia, 1884), Vol. I, pp. 120-151, 


Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 387 

The red or kipaya towns, to which 0. Swan in 1791 refers 
as being already a thing of the past, were governed by war- 
riors only. The term red refers to the warlike disposition of 
these towns, but does not correspond to our adjective bloody ; 
it depicts the wrath or anger animating the warriors when 
out on the war-path. The posts of their cabin in the public 
square were painted red on one side. 

The present Creeks still keep up formally this ancient dis- 
tinction between the towns, and count the following among 
the kipaya towns : 

Kawita, Tukabatchi, 'Lap 'lako, Atasi, Ka-ilaidshi, Chiaha, 
Usudshi, Hutali-huyilaa, Alibamu, Yufala, Yufala hupayi, 
Hilapi, Kitcha-pat^ki. 

The white towns, also called peace towns, conservative 
towns, were governed by civil officers or mikalgi, and, as some 
of the earlier authors allege, were considered as places of 
refuge and safety to individuals who had left their tribes in 
dread of punishment or revenge at the hand of their pursuers. 
The modern Creeks count among the peace towns, called 
talua mikagi towns, the following settlements : 

Hitchiti, Okfuski, Kasixta, Abi'hka, Abixkudshi, Talisi, 
Oktchayi, Odshi-apofa, Lutchapoka, Taskigi, Assi-lanapi or 
Green Leaf, Wiwuxka . 

Quite different from the above list is the one of the white 
towns given by Col. Benj. Hawkins in 1799, which refers to 
the Upper Creeks only: Okfuski and its branch villages 
(viz: Niuyaxa, Tukabatchi, Talahassi, Imiikfa, Tutokagi, 
Atchinalgi, Okfuskudshi, Suka-ispoga, Ipisogi) ; then Talisi, 
Atasi, Pus'hatchi, Kulumi. For this list and that of the 
kipaya towns, cf. his "Sketch," p. 51, 52. 

The Creek name for the war party, with color red, was 
aldmpalgi, that for the peace party: hat'h^ka the "white 
ones," or ita'lwalgi mikagi, contracted into it^walgi : "peace 
towns." Both were called itikapagi hok61i "the two divis- 
ions;" each of them was headed by one totemic clan, the 
wind clan or hutalgalgi, and the bear clan or nokosalgi. The 
animals, from which the gentes took their totemic names were 
classified also ; the pund'kta or wild animals give their names 
to the gentes of the bear, wild cat, panther, fox, wolf, raccoon, 
beaver, etc., while the animals naming the halpad^lgi or 
alligator gentes and others passed under another general 
designation, which was not remembered by my informants. 

Besides the phratries mentioned in the Migration Legend, 
1, 155, 156, there were (1) that of the takusalgi, "moles" with 
that of the Tchukotalgi ; (2) the tchulalgi "foxes," the 

388 Report Alabama History Commission. 

wutkalgi "raccoons," and the ahalaxdlgi, who were called so 
from "hoeing in the water for bog-potatoes" (ahi) . The bog- 
potato is the long root or rhizoma of the arrow-leaf plant or 

The ancient distinction between red and white towns be- 
gan to fall into disuse with the approach of the white colon- 
ists, which entailed the spread of agricultural pursuits 
among these Indians ; nevertheless frequent reference is made 
to it by the modern Creeks. 

Segmentation of villages is frequently observed in Indian 
tribes, and the list below will give many striking instances . 
It was brought about by over-population, as in the case of 
Okfuski ; and it is probable that then only certain gentes, not 
a promiscuous lot of citizens, emigrated from a town. Other 
causes for emigration were the exhaustion of the cultivated 
lands by many successive crops, as well as the need of new 
and extensive hunting grounds. These they could not obtain 
in their nearest neighborhood without warring with their 
proprietors, and therefore often repaired to distant countries 
to seek new homes ( Bartram, Travels, p, 389 ) . The frequent 
removals of towns to new sites, lying at short distances only, 
may be easily explained by the unhealthiness of the old site, 
produced by the constant accumulation of refuse and filth 
around the towns, which never had anything like sewers or 
efficient regulations of sanitary police. Some towns were 
consolidated with other towns, whenever they had largely de- 
creased in population. 

The distinction between Muscogulge and Stincard towns, 
explicitly spoken of in Wm. Bartram's Travels (see Appen- 
dices), refers merely to the form of speech used by the tribes 
of the confederacy. This epithet {Puants in French) may 
have had an opprobrious meaning in the beginning, but not 
in later times, when it simply served to distinguish the prin- 
cipal people from the accessory tribes. We find it also used 
formerly as a current term in the Naktche villages. 

Bartram does not designate as Stincards the tribes speak- 
ing languages of another stock than Maskoki, the Yuchi, for 
instance ; not even all of those that speak dialects of Maskoki 
other than the Creek. He calls by this savorous name the 
Muklasa, Witumka, Koassati, Chiaha, Hitchiti, Okoni, both 
Sawokli and a part of the Seminoles. He mentions the 
totvns only, and omits all the villages which have branched 
off from the towns. 

The present Creeks know nothing of such a distinction. 
Although I do not know the Creek term which corresponded 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 389 

to it in tlie eighteenth century, it is not improbable that such 
a designation was in vogue ; tor we find many similar oppro- 
brious epithets among other Indians, as Ouitlateca or "excre- 
menters" in Mexico ; Puants or Metsmetskop among the 
Naktch^ ( Dumont, M6m. histor. de la Louisiane, I, 181 ) ; In- 
kalik, "sons of louse-eggs" among the Eskimo ; Mold or Muki, 
"cadaverous, stinking," an epithet originally given to one of 
the Shinumo tribes only, for lack of bravery, and belonging 
to the Shinumo language: muki dead. 

The plural forms: tchilokoga and tchilokogalgi designate 
in Creek persons speaking another than the Creek language ; 
tchilokas / speak an alien language. "Stincards" would be 
expressed in Creek by isti fambagi. Of all the gentes of the 
C'.iicasa that of the skunk or hushkoni was held in the lowest 
esteem, some of the lowest officials, as runners, etc., being 
appointed from it ; therefore it can be conjectured that from 
the Chicasa tribe a term like "skunks," "stinkards," may 
have been transferred and applied to the less esteemed gentes 
of other nations. 

The languages and dialects spoken by the towns of the 
Creek confederacy from a study of paramount importance to 
those who want to obtain a more profound ethnological in- 
sight into their peculiarities. These dialects belonged to 
four linguistic families or stocks, of which only one, the 
Maskoki stock, was of absorbing interest. 

1. The Natche or Naktchi was spoken in the town of the 
same name, near Abikudshi. 

2. The Cheroki, which forms a part of the Iroquois family 
was once spoken in some towns along the Chatahuchi river 
aud in Georgia, which have Cheroki names — though we do not 
know to what extent and how long in time. 

3. The Yuchi people, whose ancient seats were on middle 
Savannah river, spread out in a western direction in the 18th 
century, especially after the Tuskarora war of 1712-1713, 
which brought on a profound commotion to all the Indian 
communities of the southeast. Yuchi town was founded in 
or about 1729. Intatchka'lgi, Patsi-lai'ki, Tokog^lgi were 
Yuchi colonies in Georgia, and one Yuchi town lay on lower 
Tallapoosa river. The Creek Indians always nurtured a 
clandestine aversion towards the Yuchi and call them slaves 
(salafki) even at the present epoch. 

4. The Maskoki language was the great medium of collo- 
quial and commercial interchange between the tribes of the 
confederacy and is still so. The Creek dialect is the official 
language in all the law transactions ; it is the language of the 

390 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Creek national press, oratory and ehurcli service. The 
Hitchiti or Mikasuki dialect was once heard along the lower 
Chatahuchi river and far into Georgia and northern Florida. 
The Alibamu dialect was in use in some villages around the 
junction of Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, as was also Koassa- 
ti ; cf . Vreek Migration Legend, Vol. I, pp. 88-90. The Apa- 
latchi dialect was still in vigor in and after 1800, but at pres- 
ent all traces of it appear to be lost. 


In this alphabetic list of ancient Creek towns and villages 
I have included all the names of inhabited places which I 
have found recorded before the emigration of the people to 
the Indian Territory. The description of their sites is chief- 
ly taken from Hawkins' "Sketch," one of the most instructive 
books which we possess on the Creeks in their earlier homes. 
Some of these town names are still existing in Alabama and 
Georgia, although the site has not unf requently changed . I 
have interspersed into the list a few names of the larger 
rivers. The etj^mologies added to the names contain the opin- 
ions of the Creek delegates visiting Washington every year, 
and they seldom differed among each other on any name. 
The local names are written according to my scientific system 
of phonetics, the only change introduced being that of the 
palatal tch for ch. The letter x stands for the German ch. in 
lachen, '1 for thl (or a sound quite close to thl) ; a is the 
vowel heard in hat, rat. 

Abi^hka, one of the oldest among the Upper Creek towns; 
the oldest chiefs were in the habit of naming the Creek nation 
after it. Hawkins speaks of Abikudshi only, not of Abi'hka. 
It certainly lay somewhere close to Upper Coosa river, where 
some old maps have it. Emanuel Bowen, "A new map of 
Georgia," has only "Abacouse," and this in the wrong place, 
below Kusa and above Great Talasse, on the western side of 
Coosa Eiver. A town Abi'hka now exists in the Indian Ter- 
ritory. The name of the ancient town was pronounced Abi'- 
hka, Apixka and written Obika, Abeka, Abeicas, Abecka, Bei- 
cas, Becaes, etc. ; its people are called Apixkanagi. Some 
writers have identified them with the Kusa and also 
with the Conshacs, e. g. du Pratz. The map appended 
to the French edition of Bartram identifies them with 
the Kusa: "Abikas ou Ooussas." D. Coxe, Carolana, p. 
25, states that "the Becaes or Abecaes have thirteen towns, 
and the Ewemalas, between the Beeaes and the Chattas, can 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 391 

raise five hundred fighting men'' ( 1741 ) . A part of the most 
ancient Creek customs originated liere, as, for instance, the 
law for regulating marriages and for punishing adultery. 
The Creek term abi'hka signifies "pile at the base, heap at the 
roof (abi stem, pole), and was imparted to this tribe, "be- 
cause in the conlest for supremacy' its warriors heaped up a 
pile of scalps, co\ ering the base of the war-pole only. Before 
this achievement the tribe was called sak'hutga door, shutter, 
or simat'hutga italua shutter, door of towns or tribes." Cf. 
ak'hutiis, / close a door, sak'hutga hawidshas / oj^en a door. 
The Abi'hka people, after being transferred to the Indian Ter- 
ritory, have segmentated into five townships : two called Abi'- 
hka, one Kantchati, one Tchaxki 'la'ko or "Big Shoal," and 
one called Kayomalgi. 

Abiku^dshi, an Upper Creek town on the right bank of 
Natche (now Tallahatchi) creek, five miles east of Coosa 
river, on a small plain. Settled from Abika, Okfuski, and by 
some Indians from Natche. Bartram (1775) states, that 
they spoke a dialect of Chicasa ; which can be true of a part 
of the inhabitants only. A spacious cave exists in the neigh- 

Ahiki Ckeek^ Hitchiti name of the upper course of Hitchiti 
creek, an eastern tributary of Chatahuchi river. Hawkins 
(p. 60) writes it Ouhe-gee creek. The name signifies "sweet 
potato-mother" (ahi, iki), from the circumstance that when 
planting sweet potatoes (ahi), the fruit sown remains in the 
ground until the new crop comes to maturity. 

Alabama Eiver is formed by the junction of Coosa and 
Tallapoosa rivers; pursues a winding course between banks 
about fifty feet high, and joins Tombigbee river about thirty 
miles above Mobile bay, when it assumes the name of Mobile 
river. Its waters are pure, its current gentle ; it runs about 
two miles an hour, and has 15-18 feet depth in the driest sea- 
son of the year. Boats travel from the junction to Mobile 
bay in about nine days, through a fertile country, with high, 
cleared fields and romantic landscapes (Hawkins). The 
hunting grounds of the Creeks extended to the water-shed be- 
tween the Tombigbee and the Coosa and Alabama rivers. 

Alibamu, a group of towns near the site of Montgomery. 
See Migration Legend, I, pp. 85-89. 

Alkohatchi was an upper Creek town on Tallapoosa river 
upon the Alko hatchi, or "Alko stream" which joins Talla- 
poosa from the west, four miles above Okfuski. 

392 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Amakalli, Lower C eek town, planted by Ohiaha Indians 
on a creek of that name which is the main water-course of 
Kitchofuni creek, a northern alfluent of Flint river, Georgia. 
Inhabited by sixty men in 1799. The name is not Creek; it 
is Cheroki and seems identical with Amacalola creek, a north- 
ern affluent of Etowa river, Dawson county, Georgia. The 
derivation given for it is : ama water, kalola sliding, tumbling. 

Anati tchapko or "Long Swamp," a Hillabi village, ten 
miles above that town, on a northern tributary of Hillabi 
creek. A battle occurred there during the Creek or Red Stick 
war, January 24th, 1814. Usually written Enotochopko. 
The Creek term anati means a brushy, swampy place, where 
persons can secrete themselves. 

Apalatchukla, a Lower Creek town on the west bank of 
Chatahuchi river, 1^ miles below Chiaha. In Hawkins' time 
it was in a state of decay, but in former times had been a 
white or peace town, called (even now) Talua 'lako, "large 
town," and the principal community among the Lower Creek 
settlements. The name was abbreviated into Palatchukla, 
and has also been transferred to the Chatahuchi river; that 
river is now called Apalachicola below its confluence with the 
Flint river. Cf.Sawokli-udshi. Bartram (Travels, p. 522) 
states: The Indians have a tradition that the vast four- 
square terraces, chunkey yards, etc, at Apalachucla, old town, 
were "the ruins of an ancient Indian town and fortress." 
This "old town" lay one mile and a half down the river from 
the new town, and was abandoned about 1750 on account of 
unhealthy location. Bartram viewed the "terraces, on which 
formerly stood their town-house or rotunda and square or 
areopagus," and gives a lucid description of them. About 
fifty years before his visit a general killing of the white tra- 
ders occurred in this town, though these had placed them- 
selves under the protection of the chiefs (Travels, pp. 288- 
390). Concerning the former importance of this "white" 
town, W. Bartram (Travels, p. 387) states that "this town 
is esteemed the mother town or capital of the Creek confed- 
eracy; sacred to peace; no captives are put to death or 
human blood spilt there; deputies from all Creek towns 
assemble there when a general peace is proposed." He refers 
to the town existing at the time of his visit, but implicitly also 
to the "old Apalachucla town." The ancient and correct form 
of this name is Apalaxtchukla, and of the extinct tribe east 
of it, on Apalache bay, Apalaxtchi. Judge G. W. Stidham 
heard of the following etymology of the name; In cleaning 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 38S 

the ground for the town square and making it even, the 
ground and sweeping finally formed a ridge on the outside 
of the chunk-yara or play-ground; from this ridge the town 
was called Apalaxteh -ukla. More upon this subject and 
upon the "Apalachicola i^'ort" on Savannah river will be 
found in Migration Legend, Vol. I, 20. 

Apata-Ij a village of the Lower Creeks, settled by Kasi'hta 
people on Big creek or Hatchi 'lako, twenty miles east of 
Ohatahuchi river, in Georgia. The name refers to a sheet- 
like covering, from apataytis / cover ; cf . patakas / sjjread out ; 
the Creek word apata-i signifies a.ny. aooeriny comparable to 
wall-papers, carpets, etc. ' The town Of Upotoy now lies on 
Upotoy creek, in 32^^ 38' Lat. 

Assi-LANAPij an Upper Creek town, called Oselanopy in the 
Census list of 1832. It probably lay on \ellow Leaf creek, 
which joins Coosa river from the west about five miles below 
Talladega creek. From it sprang Creen leaf Town in the 
Indian Territory, since lani means yellow and green at the 
same time. Green is now more frequently expressed by pahi- 
lani, "grass-green." 

Atap^halgi^ usually spelt Attapulgas, from atap'ha dog- 
icood, was a Seminole town on Little Kiver, a branch of Oklo- 
koni river. Attapulgas village is now in Decatur Co., Geor- 

Atasi^ or Atassi, an Upper Creek town, twenty miles above 
the mouth of Coosa river on the east side of Tal- 
lapoosa river, below and adjoining Kalibi hatchi creek. 
It was a miserable-looking place in Hawkins' time, 
with about 43 warriors in 1766. Like that of all the other 
towns built on Tallapoosa river, below its falls, the site was 
low and unhealthy. The name is derived from the war-club 
(atassi), and was written Autossee, Ottossee, Otassee, Ot-tis- 
se, etc. Battle on November 29th, 1813. A toAvn in the 
Indian Territory is called after it A'tesi, its inhabitants 
Atesalgi. Bartram states that the town was inhabited by one 
gens only; this was the snake gens. "A post or column of 
pine, forty feet high, stood in the town of Autassee, on a low, 
circular, artificial hill." — Bartram, Travels, p. 456. Cf. 
Hu'li Wa'hli. 

Atchina-algi^ or "Cedar Grove," the northernmost of all 
the Creek settlements near the Hillabi-Etowa trail, on a side 
creek of Tallapoosa river and forty miles above Niuyaxa, 

S94 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Settled from Lutchapoga. Was destroyed Nov. 13, 1813, with 
Little Okfuski by Gen. White. Also spelt "Genalga." 

Atchina hatchi, or "Cedar creek," a village settled by 
Indians from Ka-iliiidshi, q. v. on a creek of the same name. 

Burgess^ Tov^^n was the name of tico towns, the sites of 
which are uncertain. Burgess was a white man and trader, 
who belonged to Yufala of the Lower Creeks and had a large 
number of slaves. 

Chatahuchi^ a former town of the Lower Creeks, on the 
headwaters of Chatahuchi river. Probably abandoned in 
Hawkins' time ; he calls it "old tawn Chatahuchi ;" cf . Chat- 
ahuchi river. Called Chata Uche by Bartram (1775), Chata- 
hoosie by Swan (1791). 

Chatahuchi river is the water-course dividing, in its 
lower portion, the State of Alabama from that of Georgia. 
On its banks were settled the towns and villages of the Lower 
Creeks. Its name is composed of tchatu rock, stone and 
hutchi marked, provided with signs, and hence means : "Pic- 
tured Rocks." Kocks of this description are in the bed of the 
river, at the "old town Chatahuchi," above Hu' li taika (Haw- 
kins, p. 52.) Other names for this river were; Apalachukla 
river (Wm. Bartram), Cahouita or Apalachoocoly river 
(Jelfreys' map in John Bartram's report). 

Chatoksofke was an Upper Creek town and had in 1832: 
143 heads of families. The name is tchdtu aksu'fki "rock 
precipitous," rock bluff. From tchatu rock, aksufki deep downh 
into (sufki alone is deep.) A few of their old inhabitanti 
are living at Eufaula, in the Creek Nation, Ind. Ty. 

They and the Abikudshi, Niuyaxa and Akfaski (Okfuski) 
were regarded as one town (township!) and in the busks 
"came together;" anciently they were the most famous ball 
players in the Creek Nation. 

Chattuckchufaule was a town destroyed in the war of 
1813 (August) by Creeks friendly to the government, and 
the home of Peter McQueen, one of the insurgent leaders. 
The Chatocchefaula Indians were a branch of the "Tallasees," 
who in 1812 murdered Arthur Lott near the "Warriors' 
Stand," which act brought on the Bed Stick war. Wood- 
ward, Eeminiscences, p. 35. This was probably Tallisee near 

Chu'^lako nini, or "Horse trail," a Lower Creek town on 
the headwaters of Chatahuchi river, settled by Okfuski In- 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 395 

dians. Mentioned in 1832 as Chelucconinny. Probably iden- 
tical with Okf uski-nini ; see Okf uskudshi. 

Chiaha^ or Tcliialia, Cliehaw, a Lower Creek town just be- 
low Osotclii town and contiguous to it, on western bank of 
Chatahuclii river. The Chiaha Indians had in 1799 spread 
out in villages on the Flinc river, of which Hawkins names 
Amakalli, Hotali-huyana ; and at Chiahudshi. Here a trail 
crossed the Chatahuchi river (Swan, 1791.) A town of the 
same name, "where otters live,"existed among the Cheroki. 
An Upper Creek town of this name, with twenty-nine heads 
of families, is mentioned in the Census list of 1832 : ( School- 
craft IV, 578) . 

Chiahu^dshi^ or "Little Chiaha," a Lower Creek town 
planted by Chiaha Indians in a pine forest one mile and a 
half west of Hitchiti town. Cf. Hitchiti. 

Chinnaby's Fort. In 1813 a friendly Creek chief named 
Chinnaby had a kind of fort at Ten Islands on the Coosa 
river, known as Chinnaby's Fort. — Drake, Book of Indians 
(1848) IV. p. 55. 

Chiska talofa^ a Lower Creek town on the west side of 
(Jliatahuchi river. Morse, Eeport, p. 364, refers to it under 
the name of "Cheskitalowas" as belonging to the Seminole 
villages. Is it Chisca, or "Chisi provincia," visited by the 
army of H. de Soto in 1540? Hawkins states that Chiska 
talofa hatche was the name given to Savannah river (from 
tchiska base of tree.) Inhabited by 580 Seminoles in 1820; 
it lay four miles below the Wikai 'lako village. Drake, Book 
of Indians (1848) pp. VII. XII. 

Coosa Kivee^ (1) an affluent of Alabama river in Eastern 
Alabama, in Creek Kusahatchi, runs through the roughest 
and most hilly district formerly held by the Creek Indians. 
"It is rapid, and so full of rocks and shoals that it is hardly 
navigable even for canoes:" Swan, in Schoolcraft V, 257. 

(2) A water-course of the same name, Coosawhatchi, 
passes southwest of Savannah City, South Carolina, into the 
Atlantic ocean. For the etymology, see Kusa. 

CusAWATi is a tributary of Upper Coosa river, in north- 
western Georgia. A town of the same name is built upon it, 
pronounced Kusa-wetiyi by the Cheroki, which means: 
"where Creeks formerly lived." A Creek Indian is called in 
Cheroki language Kusa or Agusa, the Creek people Ani-gusa 
or Anikusa. 

396 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Fin'halui^ a town of the Lower Creeks or Seminoles. The 
name signifies a high bridge, or a high foot-log, and the 
traders' name was "High Log" (1832) . 

A swamp having the same name, Finholoway Swamp, lies 
in Wayne county, between the lower Altamaha and Satilla 
rivers, Georgia. 

Fish-Ponds^ or Fish-Pond Town; cf. 'La'lo-kalka. 

Flint Eiver^ in Creek 'Lonotiska hatchi, an eastern Geor- 
gian affluent of Chatahuchi river, and almost of the same 
length. Creek, Yuchi and Seminole Indians were settled on 
it and on its numerous tributaries, one of which is 'Lonoto 
creek, called Indian creek, Dooley county, Georgia. From 
'lonoto flint. Philippeaux in his "Map of English Colonies" 
1781, calls Flint river "Kiviere au Caillou." 

FoET Toulouse; cf. Taskigi. This fort was also called, 
from the tribe settled around it. Fort Alibamu, Fort Albamo, 
Fort Alebahmah, Forteresse des Alibamons. Abandoned by 
the French in 1762. 

FuLEMMY^s Town, a Seminole settlement inhabited by 
Chiaha Indians; was also called Pinder-Town, pinder being 
dialectic for "peanut." "Phillimees on or near Suane river" 
in 1817. Drake, Book of Indians (1848) p. X. 

Fusi-HATCHi, Fus^-HATCHi, or "Bii'dcreek," a town of the 
Upper Creeks, built on the right or northern bank of Talla- 
poosa river, two miles below Hu'li Wa'hli. Kemains of a 
walled town on the opposite shore. 

Haihagi^ a Lower Creek town no longer known at present. 
Designates "the groaners," from the Creek hai'hkas, / groan, 
haihagis, we groan. 

Hatchi tchapa, or "Half-way Creek," (1) a small upper 
Creek village settled in a pine forest by Ka-i-laidshi Indians, 
q. V. ; it was destroyed by fire by the hostile Creeks in 1813 . 
Hawkins, in American State Papers, (1832) IV, 847. 

(2) a Lower Creek village of the same name had been set- 
tled from Sa'wokli and counted thirty families in 1832; cf. 
Schoolcraft, Indians IV, 578. Spelt there Hatch-chi-chubba. 

Hickory Ground; cf. Odshi-apofa. 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 397 

HiLLABi, pronounced Hi'lapi, an Upper Creek town on Ko- 
ufadi creek, which runs into Hillabi creek one mile from the 
village. Hillabi creek is a western tributary of Tallapoosa 
river, and joins it eight miles below Niuyaxa. The majority 
of the Hillabi people had settled in four villages of the vici- 
nity in 1799, which were : 'Lanudshi apala, Anati tchapko, 
Istudshi laiki, Uktalia sasi. A battle took place in the 
vicinity on November 18th, 1813. Though the name is of dif- 
ficult analysis, it is said to refer to quickness, velocity (of the 

HiTCHiTi, a Lower Creek town with branch villages. Hitch- 
iti town Avas, in Hawkins' time, established on the eastern 
bank of Chatahuchi river, four miles below Chiaha. The 
natives possessed a narrow strip of good land bordering on 
the river, and had the reputation of being honest and indus- 
trious. They obtained their name from Hitchiti Creek, so 
called at its junction with Chatahuchi river, and in its upper 
course Ahiki. It is derived from Creek: ahitchita "to 
look up (the stream) ." They had spread out into two branch 
settlements : Hitchitudshi or Little Hitchiti, on both sides of 
Flint river, below the junction of Kitchofuni creek, which 
passes through a county named after it; and Tutalosi on 
Tutalosi creek, a branch of Kitchofuni creek, twenty miles 
west of Hitchitudshi (Hawkins, p. 60, 65) . The existence of 
several Hitchiti towns is mentioned by C. Swan in 1791 ; and 
Wm. Bartram states that they "speak the Stincard language." 
There is a popular saying among the Creeks, that the ancient 
name of the tribe was Atchik'hade, a Hitchiti word which sig- 
nifies white heap (of ashes.) The inhabitants of this town- 
ship were called bv the Koassati Indians : "mean people ;" 
at pasha shli'ha. 

Hitchitu'dshi; cf. Hitchiti. 

HoTALi-HUYANA, a Lower Creek town, planted by Chiaha 
Indians on the eastern bank of Flint river, six miles below 
the Kitchofuni creek junction. Osotchi settlers had mingled 
with the twenty families of the village. The name means : 
"Hurricane Town," for hutali in Creek is toind, huyana pass- 
ififj; it therefore marks a locality once devastated by a pass- 
ing hurricane. Called Tallewheanas in an old lirft of Semi- 
nole settlements. 

Hu''li taiga a Lower Creek village on Chatahuchi river, 
planted by Okfuski Indians. Bartram calls it Hothtetoga, 

398 Report Alabama History Commission. 

C. Swan: Hohtatoga ( Sclioolcraf t, Indians Y, 262) ; tlie 
name signifies war-ford, military river-passage. 

Hu'^Li Wa^hli^ an Upper Creek town on the right bank of 
Tallapoosa river, five miles below Atasi. This town obtained 
its name from the privilege of declaring war (hu'li war, 
awa'hlita to share out, dividej the declaration was first sent 
to Tukabatchi, and from there among the other tribes. The 
town bordered west on Atas'-hatchi creek. The name is writ- 
ten Clewauley (1791), Ho-ithle-Wau-lee (Hawkins), Cleu- 
wath-ta (1832), Cluale, Clewulla, etc. 

Ikan atchaka^ or "Holy Ground," a town on the southern 
side of Alabama river, built on holy ground, and therefore 
believed to be exempt from any possible inroads of the white 
people. Weatherford, the leader of the insurgent Creeks, 
and their prophet Hilis'hako resided there ; the forces gather- 
ed at this place by them were defeated December 23d, 1813 . 
From ikana ground, atchaka beloved, sacred. For a descrip- 
tion of this town, its site and battlefield see A. B. Meek, Ro- 
mantic passages in Southwestern history, (New York and 
Mobile, 1857) pp. 278-280. Drake, Book of Indians, IV, 58, 
states it had 200 houses when destroyed in the war of 1813. 

Ikan' hatki, or "White Ground," a Shawano town just be- 
low Kulumi, and on the same side of Tallapoosa river. "Cun- 
hutki speaks the Muscogulge tongue;" W. Bartram (1775). 

Imukfa, an Upper Creek town on Imukfa creek, west of 
Tallapoosa river. Near this place, in a bend or peninsula 
formed by the Tallapoosa river, called Horseshoe by the 
whites, the' American troops achieved a decisive victory over 
the Red Stick party of the Creek Indians on March 25th, 1814, 
which resulted in the surrender of Weatherford, their leader, 
and put an end to this bloody campaign. Not less than five 
hundred and fifty-seven Creek warriors lost their lives in this 
battle. The term imukfa is Hitchiti, for (1) shell; (2) me- 
tallic ornament of concave shape; Hawkins interprets the 
name by "gorget made of a conch." In Hitchiti, bend of river 
is hatchi paxutchki; ha'htchafashki, hatsafaski is river- 
bend in Creek. Tohopeka is another name for this battle- 
field ; in Creek this is itu hiipki, viz : "wooden fence," a term 
formerly applied to all fortifications or retrenchments. The 
Horseshoe bend is known in Creek as Cholocco Litabixee or 
in scientific notation: tchu'lako ili-tapiksi; "of the great deer 
its flat-foot," which stands for "of the horse the sole." 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 399 

Intatchkalgi^ or "collection of beaver dams," a Yuchi 
town of Georgia settled twenty-eight miles up Opil-'lako 
creek, a tributary of Flint river. A square was built by the 
fourteen families of this town in 1798. Tatchki means any- 
thing straight, as a dam, beaver dam, line, boundary line, etc., 
ikan' tatchka survey-line; the above creek was probably 
Beaver-dam creek, an eastern tributary of Flint river, joining 
it about 32° 15' Lat. 

Ipisogi^ an Upper Creek town upon Ipisogi crei)£, a large 
eastern tributary of Tallapoosa river, joining ft opposite 
Okfuski. The town was settled from Okfuskf; it had forty 
settlers in 1799. Cf. Pin-hoti. 

ISTAPOGA^ an Upper Creek settlement not recorded in the 
earlier documents; a place of this name exists now east of 
Coosa river, Talladega county, Alabama. The name, usually 
written Eastaboga, signifies: "where people reside" (isti peo- 
ple; apokita, to reside. 

ISTUDSHi Laiki, or "child lying there," a Hillabi village, on 
Hillabi creek, four miles below Hillabi town. It owes its 
name to the circumstance that a child was once found on its 

Ka-ilaidshi, an Upper Creek town, on a creek of the same 
name, which joins Oktchoyi creek, a western tributary of Tal- 
lapoosa river, joining it fifteen miles above Tukabatchi. The 
two villages, Atchina hatchi and Hatchi tchapa, branced off 
from this town. The name was variously written Ki-a-lige, 
Kiliga, Killeegko, Kiolege, and probably referred to a war- 
rior's head dress: ika his head; ilaidshas I kill. During the 
war of 1813 Ka-ilaidshi was destroyed by a party of hostile 

Kan^-tchati, Kanshade, "Red dirt," "Red earth," an Upper 
Creek town, mentioned in 1835 as "Con-chan-ti." Conchar- 
dee is a place a few miles northwest of Talladega, and fre- 
quently occurs as a local name. From ikana ground, tchati 

Kasi^hta, a Lower Creek town on the eastern bank of Chat- 
ahuchi river, two and a half miles below Kawita Talahassi ; 
Kasi'hta once claimed the lands above the falls of the Chata- 
huchi river on its eastern bank. In this town and tribe our 
Migration legend has taken its origin. Its branch settle- 
ments spread out on the right side of the river, the number 

400 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

of the warriors of the town and branches being estimated as 
180 in 1799 ; it was considered the largest among the Lower 
Creeks. One of its branch villages was Apatai ; another, Sid- 
sha'-lidsha or "under black-jack trees," which was not a "regu- 
lar town;" another one was named Tusilgis tcho'ko or "clap 
board hoiise;" from the verb silas, I split into thin sheets, tu, 
abbreviation of itu wood, tcho'ko house. The honorary title 
of Kasihta was 'la'ko "the great one" — of Kawita it was 
ma'hma'yi. The natives were friendly to the whites and fond 
of visiting them; the old chiefs were orderly men, desirous 
and active in restraining the young "braves" from the licen- 
tiousness which they had contracted through their inter- 
course with the scum of the white colonists. Hawkins makes 
some strictiires at their incompetency for farming; "they do 
not know the season for planting; or, if they do, they never 
avail themselves of what they know, as they always plant one 
month too late." (p 59.) A large conical mound is described 
by him as standing on the Kasi'hta fields, forty-five yards in 
diameter at its base, and flat on the top. Below the town was 
the "old Cussetuh town," on a high flat, and afterwards "a 
Chicasaw town" occupied this site (p. 58.) A branch village 
of Kasi'hta is Apata-i, q.v. The name Kasi-hta, Kasixta, is 
popularly explained as "coming from the sun" (ha'si) and 
being identical with hasi'hta. The Creeks infer, from the 
parallel Creek form hasoti, "sunshine," that Kasi'hta really 
meant "light," or "bright splendor of the sun;" anciently 
this term was used for the sun himself, "as the old people 
say." The inhabitants of the town believed that they came 
from the sun. A place Cusseta is now in Chatahuchi county, 
Georgia, 32° 20' Lat. 

Kawaiki, a town of the Lower Creeks, having forty-five 
heads of families in 1832. Kawaiki Creek is named after 

Kawita, a Lower Creek town on the high western bank of 
Chatahuchi river, three miles below its falls. The fishery in 
the western channel of the river, below the falls, belonged to 
Kawita, that in the eastern channel to Kasi'hta . In Haw- 
kins' time (1799) many Indians had settled on streams in 
the vicinity, as at Hatchi ika, "Creek-Head." Probably a 
colony of Kawita Talahassi. 

Kawita Talahassi, "old Kawita Town," a Lower Creek 
town tn-o miles and a half below Kawita, on the western side 
of the river, and half a mile from it. Old Kawita town was 
the "public establishment" of the Lower Creeks, and in 1799 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 401 

could raise sixty-five warriors; it was also the seat of the 
United States agent. Kawita Talahassi had branched off by 
segmentation from Kasi'hta, as shown in the Migration 
Legend, and itself has given origin to a village called Witum- 
ka, on Big Yuchi creek. The town was a political centre for 
the nation, and is referred to by the traveler Wm. Bartram 
(1775), pp. 389, 463. in the following terms: "The great 
Coweta town, on Chatahuchi or Apalachucly river, twelve 
miles above Apalachucla town, is called the bloody town, 
where the micos, chiefs and warriors assemble, when a gen- 
eral war is proposed, and here captives and state malefactors 
are put to death. Coweta speaks the Muscogulgee tongue." 
Colden, Five Nations, p. 5, mentions an alliance concluded 
between the Iroquois of New York and the Cowetas ; but here 
the name Cowetas is used, as it often was, in the wider sense 
of Creek Indians or Lower Creek Indians. The Creek form 
is Kawitalgi, or isti Kawitalgi. Written Caouita by French 
authors. Cf . Apalatchukla. 

KiTCHO-PATAKi, an Upper Creek town, now name of a 
Creek settlement in the Indian Territory. From kitchu 
"maize-pounding block of loooclf pataki "spread-out." Kit- 
chopataki creek joins Tallapoosa river from the west a few 
miles below Okfuskee, in Eandolph county, Alabama. 

KoHA-MUTKi Katska, or "place where blow-gun canes are 
broken," was an Upper Creek town, which had 123 heads of 
families in 1832, (Census list in Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes IV 
578. ) From ko'ha long cane, motas or mudas, / cut off, in 
the frequentative form mutmoy^s — ^and katska, to which may 
be compared : 'Le'-katska. 

KOASSATi^ an Upper Creek people. Special mention is 
made of this town and tribe in Migration Legend, I, pp. 89, 90. 

KuLUMi, Upper Creek town on right side of Tallapoosa 
river, small and compact, below Fusi-hatchi and contiguous to 
it. A conical mound, thirty feet in diameter, was seen by 
Hawkins, opposite the "town-house." A part of the inhabit- 
ants had settled on Likasa creek. The signification of the 
name is unknown, but it may have connection with a'hkolu- 
mas I clinch (prefix a for ani, I). Of the "old Coolome town," 
Avhich stood on the opposite shore of Tallapoosa river, a few 
houses were left at the time of Bartram's visit, c. 1775. ( Trav- 
el s, p. 395. ) After the war of 1813-14 the Kulumi people, (or 
Kulu'malgi) went straight to Florida and became Seminpleg, 


402 Report Alabama History Commission. 

KusA, (1) an old capital of the Creek people, referred to 
as Oo§a by the historians of de Soto's expedition, on the 
eastern bank of Coosa river, between Yufala and Natche 
creeks, which join Coosa river from the east, a quarter of a 
mile apart and are now called Talladega and Tallahachi 
creeks. The town stood on a high hill in the midst of a rich 
limestone country, forty miles above Pakan-Talahassi and six- 
ty above Taskigi, q. v. Bartram saw it (1775), half deserted 
and in ruins. "The great and old beloved town of refuge 
Koosah, w^hich stands high on the eastern side of a bold river, 
about two hundred and fifty yards broad, that runs by the 
late dangerous Alebahma fort, down to the black poisoning 
Mobille, and so into the Gulph of Mexico :" Adair, History, 
p. 395. This town, which was also, as it seems, the sojourn- 
ing place of Tristan de Luna's expedition (1559), must have 
been one of the earliest centres of the Maskoki people, though 
it does not appear among its "four leading towns." Its in- 
habitants may at one time have been comprised under the 
people of the neighboring Abi'hka town, q.v. Kosa is the 
name of a small forest-bird, resembling a sparrow; but the 
name of the town and river could possibly be an ancient form 
of o'sa,osa, 'osa poke or poke-weed, a plant with red berries, 
which grows plentifully and to an enormous height through- 
out the South. Cf. Coosa river. It is more probable, how- 
ever, that the name is of Cha'hta origin; cf. (3). In the 
Alibamu dialect Kusa is a species of reed with rough leaves 
growing throughout Alabama as tall as nine feet. Much 
taller than that is the i'la'ni-reed, which serves to make blow- 
guns from. 

(2) A town, "Old Kusa," or "Coussas old village," is re- 
ported a short distance below Fort Toulouse, on the northern 
shore of Alabama river, between Taskigi and Koassati. It 
was, perhaps, from this place that the Alabama river was, in 
earlier times, called Coosa or Coussa river, but since Hawkins 
and others make no mention of this town, I surmise that it 
was identical with Koassati, the name being an abbreviation 
from the latter. 

(3) The Kusa, Cusha or Coosa towns, on the Kusa Creeks, 
formed a group of the eastern Cha'hta settlements. From 
Cha'hta kush reed, cane which corresponds to the koa, koe of 

'La'^lo-kalka, "Fish-Pond Town," or "Fish-Ponds,'-' an 
Upper Creek town on a small creek forming ponds, fourteen 
miles above its junction with Alko hatchi, a stream ruining 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 403 

into Tallapoosa river from the west, four miles above Okfuski. 
The name is abbreviated from 'la'lo'akalka fish separated, 
placed apart; from 'la'lo fish, akalgas / am separated from. 
This was a colony plant-^d by Oktchayi Indians, q.v. Hon. G. 
W. Stidham said concerning this local name: it probably 
originated from the circumstance, that the Old Creeks had 
some method of catching the fish besides fishing for them, 
perhaps a contrivance for dipping them up with nets. 

'Lanl'dshi apala, or "on the side of a little mountain," a 
Hillabi place fifteen miles from that town and on the north- 
west branch of Hillabi creek ; had a "town-house" or public 

'Lap' lako, or "Tall Cane," "Big Reed," the name of two 
villages of the Upper Creeks, mentioned in 1832 Ld,wa is 
a tall cane, from which sarbacanes or blow-guns are made. 

*Lb-katchka^ 'Li-i-katchka, or "Broken Arrow,'-' a Lower 
Creek town on a ford of the southern trail, which crossed 
Chatahuchi river at this point, twelve miles below Kasi'hta 
and Kawita (Swan, 1791). Bartram calls it Tukauska, 
Swan : Chalagatsca. Called so because reeds were obtained 
there for manufacturing arrow shafts. 


LiTAFATCHi, a village on Canoe Creek, in northern parts 
of the Creek Territory. The name is said to refer to the 
manufacture of arrows ( 'li) . It was taken and destroyed by 
Col. Dyer, 1813, and then stood at the head of Canoe Creek. 
Cf. Flint, Indian Wars 1833, p. 175. 

LuTCHAPOGA^ or "Terrapin-Resort," an Upper Creek town, 
probably near Tallapoosa river. The village Atchina-algi 
was settled by natives of this town (Hawkins, p. 47), but 
afterwards incorporated with Okfuski; also mentioned in 
the Census list of 1832. A place called Loachapoka is now in 
Lee county, Alabama, about half way between Montgomery 
and West Point. Prom lutcha terrapin, poka gathering 
place; occurs only in f'ompound words and is derived from 
poyas, / f/athcr up. At present the Creeks call the terrapin 
turtle not lu'tcha only, but lu'tcha taxut ski. Probably this 
adjective was left out from the compound name. H. S. Tan- 
ner's map (1827) marks an Indian town Luchepoga on west 
bank of Tallapoosa river, about ten miles above Tukabatchi 
Talahassi ; also Luchanpogan creek, as a western tributary of 
Qhatahu^hi riyer, in 33° 8' Lat., just below Chatahuchi town. 

404 Report Alabama History Commission. 

MuKLASA, a small Upper Creek town one mile below Sa- 
wanogi and on the same side of Tallapoosa river. In times 
of freshet the river spreads here nearly eight miles from bank 
to bank. Bartram states, that Mucclasse speaks the "Stin- 
card tongue," and the list of 1832 writes "Muckeleses." They 
are Alibamu, and a town of that name is in the Indian Terri- 
tory. "The Wolf-King, our old, steady friend of the Amook- 
lasah Town, near the late Alebahma." (Adair, History, p. 
277 ) . The name points to the Imuklasha, a division of the 
Cha'hta people ; imukla is the "opposite people," referring to 
the two iksa, Kashap-ukla and Ukla inhula'hta. 

Natche (better Naktche), on "Natche creek, five miles 
above Abiku'dshi, scattering for two miles on a rich flat be- 
low the fork of the creek, which is an eastern tributary of 
Upper Coosa river." Now called Tallahatchi creek. Peo- 
pled by the remainder of the Naktche tribe on Mississippi 
river, and containing from fifty to one hundred warriors in 
1799. The root talua was dug by them in this vicinity. Bar- 
tram states, that "Natchez speak Muscogee and Chicasaw" 

NiuYAXA, village of the Upper Creeks, settled by Tukpafka 
Indians in 1777, twenty miles above Okfuski, on the east bank 
of Tallapoosa river. It lay above the Horseshoe bend, and 
not distant from it. It was called so after the Treaty of New 
York, concluded between the United States Government and 
the Creek confederacy, at a date posterior to the settlement 
of this town, August 7th, 1790. 

NoFAPi Creek, an affluent of Yufabi creek. Cf. Yufabi. 

Odshi-apopa, or "Hickory Ground," an Upper Creek town 
on the eastern bank of Coosa river, two miles above the fork 
of the river ; from o'dshi hickory, api tree, stem, trunk, ofa, 
within, suffix pointing to locality. The falls of Coosa river, 
one mile above the town, can be easily passed in canoes, either 
up or down. The town had forty warriors at the time of 
Hawldns' visit ( 1799 ) . Identical with Little Talisi ; Milf ort, 
p. 27 : "le petit Talessy ou village des Noyers." A map of this 
section will be found in Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, V. 225. 
Literally : "in the hickory grove." Ifa ha'dsho, when head 
chief of the Creeks, gave in July or August 1802, his home 
to Hopoyi miko, transferring the national council-place from 
Tukabatchi to Odshiapo'fa, where Hopoyi miko lived, Ameri- 
can State Papers, IV. 620, 681, 854. 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages, 405 

Okfuski (better Akfaski), an Upper Creek town, erected 
on both sides of Tallapoosa river, about tliirty-flve miles above 
Tukabatchi. The Indians settled on the eastern side came 
from Chatahuchi river, and had founded on it three villages, 
Ohu'lako-nini, Hu'li-tiiiga,. Tchuka'lako, q. v. In 1799 Okfuski 
(one hundred and eighty warriors) with its seven branch 
villages on Tallapoosa river (two hundred and seventy war- 
riors) was considered the largest community of the confed- 
eracy. The shrub Ilex cassine was growing there in clumps. 
These seven villages were : Niuyaxa, Tukabatchi Talahassi, 
Imukfa, Tuxtukagi, Atchina-algi, Ipisogi, Suka-ispoka. The 
Creek term akfaski, akfuski signifies point, tongue of a con- 
fluence; from ak dozen in, faski sharp, pointed. Tallapoosa 
river was also called Okfuski river. 

Okfusku^dshi, or "Little Okfuski," portion of a small vil- 
lage four miles above Niuyaxa. Some of these people former- 
ly inhabited Okfuski-nini, on Chatahuchi river, but were 
driven from there by Georgian volunteers in 1793. Cf. 

Oki-tiyakni, a Lower Creek village on the eastern bank of 
Chatahuchi river, eight miles below Yufala. Hawkins writes 
it 0-ke-teyoc-en-ni, and Morse, Report, p. 364, mentions 
among the Seminole settlements, "Okatiokinans, near Fort 
Gaines." Oki-tiyakni, a Hitchiti term, means either whirl- 
pool, or river-bend. 

Okmulgi (1), a Lower Creek town on the east side of 
Flint river, Georgia, near Hotali huyana. The name signifies 
"bubbling, boiling water" from Hitchiti oki water; mulgis 
it is boiling, in Creek and Hitchiti. 

(2) East of Flint river is Okmulgi river, Georgia, which, 
after joining Little Okmulgi and Okoni rivers, form Altama- 
ha river. 

Okoni^ a small Lower Creek town, six miles below Apala- 
chukla, on the western bank of Chatahuchi river ; settled by 
immigrants from a locality below the Eock Landing on Okoni 
river, Georgia. They spoke the "Stincard tongue," and prob- 
ably were Apalachians of the Hitchiti-Mikasuki dialect. 
The name is the Cheroki term ekwoni river, from ekwa 
great, large, viz: "great water." Bartram, who en- 
camped on the site of the old Okoni town on Okoni 
river, states (Travels, p. 378), that the Indians aban- 
doned that place about 1710, on account of the 

406 Report Alabama History Commission. 

vicinity of tlie white colonists, and built a town among the 
Upper Creeks. Their roving disposition impelled them to 
leave this settlement also, and to migrate to the fertile Ala- 
chua plains, where they built Cuscowilla on the banks of a 
lake, and had to defend it against the attacks of the Tomocos, 
Utinas, Calloosas (?), Yamases and other remnant tribes of 
Florida, and the more northern refugees from Carolina, all 
of whom were helped by the Spaniards. Being reinforced by 
other Indians from the Upper Creek towns, "their uncles," 
they repulsed the aggressors and destroyed their villages, as 
well as those of the Spaniards. This notice probably refers 
to the Indian troubles with the Yamassi, which occurred long 
before 1710, since inroads are recorded as early as 1687. Haw- 
kins, p. 65, states that the town they formerly occupied on 
Okoni river stood just below the Kock Landing, once the site 
of a British post about four miles below Milledgeville, Geor- 

Oktchayi, an Upper Creek town built along Oktchayi 
creek, a western tributary of Tallapoosa river. The town, 
mentioned as Oak-tchoy in 1791, lay three miles below Ka- 
lai dshi , in the central district. Cf . 'La'lo-kalka. Milfort, 
M^moire, p. 266, 267, calls the tribe : les Oxiailles. 

Oktchayu'dshi, a "little compact town" of the Upper 
Creek Indians, on the eastern bank of Coosa river, between 
Otchi-apofa and Taskigi, its cabins joining those of the latter 
town. Their maize fields lay on the same side of the river 
on the Sambelo grounds, below Sambelo creek. They re- 
moved their village to the eastern side of Tallapoosa river on 
account of former Chicasa raids. The name of the town, 
"Little Oktchayi," proves it to be a colony or branch of 
Oktchayi, q.v. ; Pleasant Porter says it is a branch of Okf uski. 

Opil^-'^lako, or "Big Swamp," from opilua swamp, 'lako 
large. (1) An Upper Creek town on a stream of the same 
name, which joins Pakan'-Talahassi creek on its left side. 
The town was twenty miles from Coosa river ; its tribe is 
called Pinclatchas by C. Swan (1791.) 

(2) A locality west of Kasi'hta; cf. Talisi. 

(3) A stream running into Flint river, Georgia. Cf. In- 

OsoTCHi, OsuTCHi, OsuDSHi, OR UsuTCHi, a Lower Creek 
town about two miles below Yuchi town, on the western bank 
of Chatahuchi river, whose inhabitants migrated to this place 
in 1794, from Flint river. The town adjoins that of Chiaha; 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 407 

Bartram calls it Hoositchi. The descendants of it and of 
Chiaha have consolidated into one town in the Creek Nation, 
Indian Territory. Cf. Hawkins, p. 63. 

Otchisi^ Oushisi^ a Seminole or Lower Creek town on west 
shore of Chatahuchi river, seven miles below Tama'li town, 
on what was called Ocheese Bluff. By the Hitchiti-speaking 
people this name was often used to designate tlie Upper Creek 
Indians as a political body, and speaking a dialect differing 
from theirs. The Creek language was by them called Otchisi 
apu'ngi, "word language of Otchisi." The name of the town 
is Creek and means "hickory leaf," odshi-isi. 

Oti pa^lin, or "Ten Islands." This town was situated on 
Coosa river just below the junction of Canoe Creek from the 
west. Just below it, and on west side of Coosa river lay Fort 
Strother, which was also opposite the influx of Tallahassi 
hatchi, upon which stood two old Creek villages. 

Oti tut^tchina, or "Three Islands," an Upper Creek town 
which stood in 1791 either between Kusa and Pakan' Talahas- 
si or between Kusa and OpiP 'lako. 8ee Schoolcrafts' Creek 
Town list in his Indian Tribes, Vol. V, p. 262. 

Padshilaika or "Pigeon Roost," (1) a Yuchi town on the 
junction of Padshilaika creek with Flint river, Macon county, 
Georgia, about 32° 38' Lat. The village suffered heavily by 
the loss of sixteen warriors, who were murdered by Benjamin 
Harrison and his associates ; cf . Hawkins, p. 62, sq. 

(2) Patsilaika river was the name of the western branch 
of Conecuh river, in Southern Alabama, Covington County, 
which runs into Escambia river and Pensacola Bay. From 
padshi pigeon, and laikas / sit down, am sitting. 

Pakan^-Talahassi^ Upper Creek town on a creek of the 
same name, which joins Coosa river from the east, forty miles 
below Kusa town. From ipakana, mayapple, talua toion, 
ahassi ancient, in the sense of waste. G. W. Stidham inter- 
prets the name : "Old Peach Orchard Town." 

PiN^-HOTi^ or "Turkey Home," an Upper Creek town on the 
right side of a small tributary of Ipisogi creek; cf. Ipisogi. 
The trail from Niuyaxa to Kawita Talahassi passed through 
this settlement. From pinua turkey, huti, hoti home. 

POTCHUS^-HATOHi, Upper Creek town in the central dis- 
trict, on a stream of the same name, which joins Coosa river 
from the northeast, four miles below Pakan'-Talahassi. The 
town was in Coosa or Talladega county, Alabama, forty miles 
above the junction; the name signifies "Hatchet- Stream" : 
potchusua hatchet, aw; hatchi water-oourse. 

4Q8 Heport Alabama History Ooinmission. 

Sakapatayi^ Upper Creek town in tlie central district, now 
Socopatoy, on a small eastern tributary of Potchus'-hatchi, .or 
Hatchet stream, Coosa county; pronounced also Saka- 
pato-i by Creek Indians. Probably refers to water-lilies cov- 
ering the surface of a pond, the seeds of them being eaten by 
the natives ; from sakpatagas / lie inside of a covering, blan- 
ket, etc. ) A legend, which evidently originated from the name 
already existing, relates that wayfarers passing there had left 
a large provision-basket (saka) at this locality, which was 
upset and left rotting, so that finally it became flattened out. 
From pataidshas / spread out something; patayi, partic. pass., 
shaken out. 

Sauga hatchi, Upper Creek town on a stream of the same 
name, which runs into Tallapoosa river from the east, ten 
miles below Yufala. In 1799 the thirty young men of this 
place had joined Talisi town. Hawkins, p. 49, renders the 
name by "cymbal creek." Sauga is a hard-shelled fruit or 
gourd, similar to a cocoanut, used for making rattles ; saukas, 
/ am rattling. 

Sawanogi, or "Shawanos," a town settled by Shawano-Al- 
gonkins, but belonging to the Creek confederacy. It stood 
on the left or southern side of Tallapoosa river, three miles 
below Likasa creek. The inhabitants ( in 1799 ) retained the 
customs and language of their countrymen in the northwest, 
and had joined them in their late war against the United 
States. Some Yuchi Indians lived among them. The "town- 
house" was an oblong square cabin, roof "eight feet pitch," 
sides and roof covered with pine-bark. Cf . Ikan'-hatki. 

Sawokli, or Great Sawokli, Sa-ukli, Chewakala, Swaglaw, 
etc., a Lower Creek town, six miles below Okoni, on the west 
bank of the Chatahuchi river, and four miles and a half above 
Wilani ("Yellow Water") creek junction. The Hitchiti 
word sawi means raccoon, ukli toum; and both Sawokli towns 
spoke the "Stincard tongue." (Bartram). Among the 
Sawokli the mikalgi were appointed from the raccoon gens 
only. Sawokli is called Swaggles Town in American State 
Papers, iv, 383 ; and Souikilas in Bouquet, p. 70. 

Sawokli-u'dshi, or "Little Sawokli," a Lower Creek town 
on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi river, four miles below 
Okoni town ; contained about twenty families in 1799. About 
1865 both Sawokli towns in the Indian Territory have dis- 
banded into the Talua 'lako ; cf . Apalatchukla. 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 409 

SiJKA-isPOKA, or SuKA-iSHPOGi, called "Hog Kange" by the 
traders, a small Upper Creek village situated on the western 
bank of Upper Tallapoosa river, twelve miles above Okf uski ; 
its inhabitants had in 1799 moved, for the larger part, to 
Imukfa. It is the place called elsewhere Soguspogus, Sokas- 
poge, Hog Kesort, the name meaning literally : "hog-gather- 
ing place." Cf. Lutchapoga. 

Talatigi, now Talladega, an Upper Creek settlement in the 
central district east of Coosa river. A battle was fought 
there November 7th, 1813. The name signifies "border 
town," from talua town and atigi at the end, on the border; 
cf atigis "it is the last one, it forms the extremity." Cf. Kusa 
(1). About thirty miles below Oti-palin there was at Tala- 
tigi a fort occupied by Creeks. Drake, Book of the Indians, 
p. 56. 

Talipsehogy_, (better Talip-sihoki) "two taliwa weeds 
standing together" was an Upper Creek town, which had nine- 
teen heads of families in 1832 (Census list) . Some Creeks liv- 
ing now never heard of this town, a circumstance testifying 
for its smallness. Sihoki is dual of hui'las, I am standing ; the 
plural is sabaklis, we are standing. The taliwa is a weed 
not over 2 feet tall, yellow flower, grows on sandy ground; 
when its roots are fried in oil they yield a brilliant red sub- 
stance (of a claret wine red) which is used to color hair-oil. 

Talisi^ abbrev. Talsi, or : "Old Town," a contraction of the 
term talua ahassi; town of the Upper Creeks on the eastern 
bank of Tallapoosa river, opposite Tukabatchi, in the fork of 
Yufabi creek. In Hawkins' time the natives of this place 
had for the larger part left the town and settled up Yufabi 
creek, and the chief Hobo-i'li mike was at variance with the 
United States and Spanish colonial authorities. The traders' 
trail from Kasi'hta to the Upper Creek settlements crossed 
Yufabi creek twice at the "Big Swamp," Opil'-'lako . The 
Census of 1832 calls Talisi: "Big Tallassi or the Halfway 
House." It was at the public square of this place that 
Tecumseh met the Creeks in council. Cf. Woodward, Remin- 
iscences, p. 84. 

Talisi, Little, a town of the Upper Creeks, identical with 
Odshi-apofa, q. v. 

Tallapoosa River, a considerable tributary of Alabama 
river, full of rocks, shoals and falls down to Tukabatchi town ; 
for thirty miles from here to its junction with the Coosa, ii 

410 Report Alabama History Commission. 

becomes deep and quiet. The Hitchiti form of the name is 
Talapusi ; cf . Okfuski. A little village named Tallapoosa lies 
on the headwaters of Tallapoosa river, from which the river 
perhaps received its name; cf. talepu 'li stranger (in Creek.) 

Ta^lua hadsho^ or "Crazy Town," was an Upper Creek 
town built on Cahawba river, far out to the northwest of the 
other Upper Creek towns. Above it there were other Creek 
settlements, of which the ruins were visible in Hawkins' 

Talua 'lako, "the Great Town," the popular name of 
Apala-tchukla, q.v., the latter being no longer heard at the 
present time. 

Talua mutchasi^ (1) the new name for Tukabatchi Tala- 
hassi, q.v. It is commonly abbreviated into Talmodshasi 
"Newtown." Prom talua town, mutchasi new. 

(2) A Lower Creek town, on west shore of Chatahuchi 
river, mentioned by Morse ( 1822 ) , among the Seminole towns 
as: Telmocresses. 

Tama'^li, a Lower Creek town on Chatahuchi river, seven 
miles above Odshisi. (Morse, Report, p. 364). Hawkins 
writes it Tum-mult-lau, and makes it a Seminole town. Its 
name is the Hitchiti form of itama'lgi, name of a Creek totem- 
clan. There was on the southern shore of Tennessee river, 
between Ballplay creek and Toskegee, a settlement called 
Tommotley town in early maps; cf. Jeffery's Atlas of N. 
America (map of 1762). It was named so after Tama'li 
Creeks who had emigrated there. 

Taskigi or TusKiKi, a little, ancient Upper Creek town, 
built near the site of the former French Fort Toulouse, at the 
confluence of Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers. It stood on the 
high shore of Coosa river, forty-six feet above its waters, 
where the two rivers approach each other within a quarter 
of a mile, to curve out again. On this bluff are also five 
conic mounds, the largest thirty yards in diameter at the 
base. The town, of 35 warriors had lost its ancient language, 
and spoke Creek (1799). The noted A. MacGillivray, 
head chief of the Creeks in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, or as he was styled, "Emperor of the Creek Nation," 
lived at Taskigi, where he owned a house and property along 
Coosa river, half a league from Fort Toulouse; Milfort, 
M^moire, p. 27. On the immigration of the tribe, cf . Milfort, 
pp. 266, 267. The name of the town may be explained as: 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 411 


"jumping men, jumpers, "from Cr. taskii-is, ta'skas / jump 
(tulupkalis in Hitcliiti) ; or be considered an abbreviated 
form of taskiaigi loarrions; of. taskaya citizen (Creek) ; and 
Hawkins, iSketeli, p. 70. Linguistically identical with it is 
"Toskegee," a Cheroki town on Great Tennessee river, south- 
ern shore, mentioned by several authors, and apjjearing on 
Lieutenant H. Timberlake's map in his memoir, reproduced 
in Jefferys' Topography (Atlas) of North America, (1762) . 
This town-name testifies to another Creek emigration to 
northern parts, like Tommotley. 

TcHANA^NAGi, the name of an Upper Creek village; the 
name refers to its being built upon a long ridye; (tchana'ksi 
is a ridge simply.) A village of this name is now northeast 
of Montgomery, in liussell county. Woodward, Keminis- 
cences p. 37, states that a Hickory Ground Indian, the "Little 
Warrior," in the war of 1813-14 set the Coosa Indians at vari- 
ance with the "Big Warrior," (head chief at Tukabatchi) . 
After this the Tuckabatchies, the Nini-pask-algi or iload In- 
dians, the "Chunnanuggees" and the Conaligas all forted in 
at Tukabatchi, to defend themselves from those that had 
turned hostile. 

TcHUKO '^LAKO, or "Great Cabin" of the public square, (1) 
A Lower Creek town on Chatahuchi river, settled by Okfuski 

(2) A place of the same name is mentioned in the Census 
of 1832 as an Upper Creek town. 

ToKOGALGi, or "tadpole place," a small Yuchi settlement on 
Kitchofuni creek, a northern aflluent of Flint river, Georgia, 
which joins it about 31° 40' Lat. Beaver dams existed on 
branches of Kitchofuni creek ; cf . Hawkins, p. 63. The pres- 
ent Creeks call a tadpole tokiulga. 

Tukabatchi, an Upper Creek town built upon the western 
bank of Tallapoosa river, and two miles and a half below its 
falls, which are forty feet in fifty yards. Opposite was Talisi 
town, q.v. Tuckabatchi was an ancient capital, decreasing 
in population in Hawkins' time, but still able to raise one 
hundred and sixteen warriors. The town suffered much in 
its later wars with the Chicasa. Cf. Hu'li-Wa'hli. One 
traders' trail crossed the Tallapoosa river at this place. 
Bartram (1775) states that "Tuccabatche spoke Musco- 
.culge," and the Census of 1832 considers it the largest town 
among the Creeks, with three hundred and eighty-six houses. 
Here, as at a national centre, the Shawano leader, Tecumseh, 

412 Eeport Alabama History Oommission. 

held his exciting orations against the United States Grovern- 
ment, which prompted the Upper Creeks to rise in arms 
( 1813 ) . Tugibaxtchi, Tukipa'htchi, and Tukipaxtchi are the 
ancient forms of the name (Stidham), which is of uncertain 
origin. The inhabitants believe that their ancestors fell from 
the sky, or according to others, came from the sun. Another 
tale is, that they did not originate on this continent; that 
when they arrived from their country they landed at the 
"Jagged Rock," tchato tchaxaxa 'lako, and brought the metal- 
lic plates with them, which they preserve to the present day 
with anxious care. In Adair's time (cf. Adair, History, pp, 
178, 179, in Note) they consisted of five copper and two brass 
plates, and were, according to Old Bracket's account, pre- 
served under the "beloved cabbin in Tuccabatchey Square." 
(A. D. 1759.) Bracket's forefathers told him that they were 
given to the tribe "by the man we call God," and that the 
Tukabatchi were a people different from the Creeks. The 
plates are mentioned in Schoolcraft's Indians, V, 283 (C. 
Swan's account), and rough sketches of them are given in 
Adair, loco laudato. They appear to be of Spanish origin, and 
are produced at the busk. The town anciently was known un- 
der two other names: Talua, fatcha-sigo, incorrect town, 
town deviating from strictness : Ispokogi, or Talua ispokogi, 
said to mean "town of survivors," or "surviving town, rem- 
nant of a town." This epithet is derived from isipoko'kas, a 
Creek verb for "I put a wrap, blanket, etc. around myself" (G. 
W. Stidham). With this last appellation we may compare 
the Spanish village-name Villa Viciosa. 

On national councils held there, c. Hawkins, Sketch, p. 
51 (in the year 1799) and Milfort, p. 40 (in the year 1780), 
and p. 266. 

Tukabatchi Talahassi, or "old town of Tukabatchi," an 
Upper Creek town on west side of Tallapoosa river, four miles 
above Niuyaxa. Since 1797 it received a second name, that 
of Talua mutchasi or "New town." The Census list of 1832 
calls it Talamachussa, Swan in 1791: Tuckabatchee Tee- 

Tukpafka, "Spunk-knot," a village on Chatahuchi river, 
Toapafki in 1832, from which was settled the town of Niu- 
yaxa, q.v. A creek of the same name is a tributary of Pot- 
chus'-Hatchi, q.v. Tukpafka, not Tutpafka, is the correct 
form ; it means punky wood, spunk, rotten wood, tinder. 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 413 

TuxTU-KAGi, or "Corn cribs set up" by the Okfuski natives 
to support themselves during the hunting season, was an 
Upper Creek town on the western bank of Tallapoosa River, 
twenty miles above Niuyaxa. The trail from Hillabi to 
Etowa in the Chcroki country passed this town, which is near 
a spur of mountains. Mentioned as "Corn House" in the 
Census list of 1832, as Totokaga in 1791. Tuxtu means a 
crib; kagi is the past participle of kakis, q.v. 

Turkey Tov^n, an Upper Creek village, is marked on 
Royce's map ( 1884 ) on the western shore of Coosa river oppo- 
site the influx of Terrapin Creek, from the southeast) and 
also opposite the recent town of Centre. 

TuTALOSi, or Fowl Towns, which sent out many Seminole 
colonies. (1) One lay twelve miles east of Fort Scott; it 
Avas burnt by Col. Twiggs in 1817, but had 300 inhabitants 
in 1820 ; Drake Ind. Chron. 1836 p. 200. When the Tutalosi 
people moved west of Chatahuchi river, they became known 
as Hitchitis, but spoke Creek. In 1817 (beginning of the 
war) Homathli miko resided at Fowl Town; driven from 
thence he repaired to Mikasuki. ( Drake. ) 

(2) An anonymous source states that at the transfer about 
1820 there existed six Fowl Towns, all west of Suwanee river 
and Lake Mikasuki : (1) Cahalli hatchi ; (2) old Tallahas- 
si; (3) Atap'halgi or "dogwood grove"; (4) Allik hadshi; 
(5) Etatulga; (6) Mikasuki. These towns were among the 
main centres of Seminole resistance against the northern 

Uktaha-sa'si, or "Sand Heap" lay on "Oktasa'ssi river" 
(v. Brahm), two miles from Hillabi town, of which it was a 
branch or colony. 

U-i-UKUFKi, Uyukufki, an Upper Creek town, on a creek 
of the same name, a tributary of Hatchet creek (Hawkins, p. 
42) ; Wiogufka (1882). The name points to muddy water: 
u-iwa water, ukufki muddy; and is also the Creek name for 
the Mississippi river. Exists now in Indian Territory. Cf. 

Wako-kayi, Waxoka-i, or "Blow-horn Nest," an Upper 
Creek town on Tukpafka creek, a branch of Potchus'-hatchi, 
a water-course which joins Coosa river from the east. Also 
written Wolkukay by cartographers; Wacacoys, in Census 
List of 1832; Wiccakaw by Bartram (1775). Wako is a 
species of heron, bluish-grey 2' high; kayi breeding place. 

414 Keport Alabama History Commission. 

Another "Wacacoys," is mentioned in 1832, as situated on 
Lower Coosa river, below Witumka. 

Watxjla Hoka hatchi. Tlie location of this stream 
is marked by Watoola village, which is situated on a 
run joining Big Yuchi creek in a southern course, about eigh- 
teen miles west of Chatahuchi river, on the road leading from 
Columbus, Ga., to Montgomery, Ala. 

Wi-KAi "^LAKO, or "Large Spring," a Lower Creek or Semi- 
nole town, referred to by Morse under the name Wekivas. 
I'rom u-iwa, abbrev. u-i water, kaya rising, 'lako great, large. 
A Creek town in the Indian Territory bears the same name. 

Witumka, (1) Upper Creek town on a waterfall of Coosa 
river, east side, near its junction with Tallapoosa. Hawkins 
cloes not mention this old settlement, but Bartram, who trav- 
eh:d from 1773 to 1778, quotes Whittumke among the Upper 
Cretk towns speaking the "Stincard tongue," which in this 
instance was the Koassati dialect. 

(2) A branch town of Kawita Talahassi, and twelve miles 
from it, on Witumpka creek, the main fork of Yuchi creek. 
The place had a town-house, and extended for three miles up 
the creek. The name signifies "rumbling water;" from u-i, 
abbrev. from u-iwa "water," and tumkis "it rumbles, makes 

Witumka Creek, called Owatunka river in the Migration 
Legend, is the northern and main branch of Yuchi creek, 
which runs into the Chatahuchi river from the northwest, and 
joins it about 32° 18' Lat. The other branch was Little 
Yuchi creek or Hosapo-laiki ; cf . Note to Hawkins, p. 61. 

Wiwuxka, or Wiwoka, Upper Creek, town on Wiwoka 
creek, an eastern tributary of Coosa river, joining it about ten 
miles above Witumka. The town was fifteen miles above 
Odshi-apofa, and in 1799 numbered forty warriors. Called 
Weeokee in 1791; it means, "water roaring": u-i water, 
woxkis it is roaring. 

WoKSOYU^DSHi, an Upper Creek town, mentioned in the 
Census List of 1832 as "Waksoyochees, on Lower Coosa river, 
below Wetumka." 

Yu'-'.iii, a town of foreign extraction belonging to the Lower 
Creeks ; had branched out into three villages. A special men- 
tion of it in Creek Migr. Legend I, 21, 

Creek Indian Towns and Villages. 415 

YuFABi CEEEK^ an eastern tributary of Tallapoosa river, 
joining it a short distance from Tukabatchi. Nofapi creek, 
mentioned in the Legend is now Naufaba creek, an upper 
branch of "Ufaupee creek," joining it in a southwestern direc- 

YuFALA. (1) Y. or Yufala hatchi. Upper Creek town on 
Yufala creek, fifteen miles above its confluence with Coosa 
River. Called Upper Ufala in 1791. (2) Upper Creek town 
on the west bank of Tallapoosa river, two miles below Okfuski 
in the air line. ( 3 ) town of the Lower Creeks, fifteen miles 
below Sawokli, on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi river . In 
1799 the natives had spread out down to the forks of the river 
in several villages, and many had negro slaves, taken during 
the Revolutionary war. The Census of 1832 counted 229 
heads of families. This name, of unknown signification, is 
written Eufaula. 

Y'UFALA HATCHI is mentioned as an Upper Creek town in 
Pickett's Alabama, Vol. i, p. 341. 


By O. D. Stkbkt. 

The Cherokee settlements in Alabama were never very 
numerous nor very populous. It is probable that at no time 
did the total number of that tribe residing within the present 
limits of this State exceed 2,000 souls. In 1835, they num- 
bered by actual count only 1,424, but it is likely that at that 
date they had been reduced several hundred by the migration 
niovenient which had begun in 1818. ' Another fact not gen- 
erally known is that not until about 1770 did the Oherokees 
have any permanent settlement in Alabama." 

Bear Creek Villages. There were several Indian towns 
and villages on Big Bear Creek as early as the first part of the 
eighteenth century, and, though believed by some to have 
been Cherokees, their tribal relation is not known with cer- 

Brown^s Village. Founded about 1790, was situated on 
the west side of Brown's, or Thompson's Creek in Marshall 
County, near the site of the present village of Red Hill, 
named for its chief, Richard Brown, who was a man of note 
in the old Cherokee Nation, and commanded a company of 
friendly Cherokees under Gen. Andrew Jackson in the Creek 
war of 1813. This village was situated in a beautiful and 
fertile valley, now luiown as Brown's Valley, a name also de- 
rived from the same family. It was reached by two import- 
ant Indian trials, one leading from Ditto's Landing (now 
Whitesburg) across Brindley Mountain, the other being the 
"Creek Path," a noted Indian trail leading from the Coosa, 
near Ten Islands, across Raccoon, or Sand Mountain and 
down Brown's Valley to the shoals, in Tennessee River, on the 
farm of Judge Street and two miles below Guntersville ; 
thence it extended into Middle Tennessee. About 15 miles 

'Royce .Ith Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, p. 289. 

"Royce in ■'jth Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, p. 136; voL Iv. Trans- 
actions Alabama Historical Society; and J. W. Powell in 7th Annual Re- 
port Bureau Ethnology, pp. 78, 79. 


Cherokee Towns and Villages. 417 

south of this village a branch of this trail turned off and led 
to the Creek settlement of Middle Alabama. — See Transac- 
tions Alabama Historical Society, vol. iv; Foster's Life of 
Sequoyah, p. 173; Ellis' Life of David Grockett, pp. 30-3(i; 
Abbott's Life of David Crockett, pp. 98-107 ; and Anderson's 
Memoir of Catherine Brown ( 1825 ) . 

CoLDWATER. Established about 1780, on the western bank 
of Coldwater, or Spring Creek, at its confluence with the Ten- 
nessee. It was a short distance west of where the city of 
Tuscumbia now stands. Resorted to extensively by the 
neighboring tribes for the purpose of trading with the French 
from the Wabash, it soon proved a source of great vexation 
to the white settlers on the Cumberland. It was the scene 
of a bloody encounter in 1787, between these settlers, under 
Col. James Robertson, and some hostile Creeks. — See Hay- 
wood's Civil History of Tennessee (Reprint 1891), pp. 232- 

CoosADA. A small mixed settlement of Creeks and Chero- 
kees, established about 1784, and situated on the south bank 
of Tennessee River at what is now called Larkin's Landing 
in Jackson County. — See 5th Annual Report Bureau Eth- 
nology, plate 8. From this village to the point where Gun- 
tersville now stands there was an Indian trail pursuing the 
same general course now followed by the public road. This 
trail constituted the first mail route ever established in Mar- 
shall County and continued such until 1837. Helicon P. O. 
(now Guntersville) was the southern terminus of this route, 
and over it passed one mail per week each way. 

CoRNSiLK^s Village. Situated at the Old Cornsilk pond 
on the farm of Judge T. A. Street, near Warrenton, in Mar- 
shall County. Named for its Headman, "Cornsilk." A small 
unimportant settlement. 

Creek Path. Established about 1785, and located at the 
old Russell place on the east side of Brown's Creek where the 
present road from Warrenton to Albertville crosses the 
same. Derived its name from the fact that it was situated 
on the "Creek Path" {See Brown's village, supra), leading 
from the Coosa and Alabama Rivers to the hunting grounds 
of Middle Tennessee and Kentucky. The place is now best 
known as the "Old Missionary," from the fact that in 1820 
the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions 
established there a mission school and church under the 


418 Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

superintendence of the Rev. William Potter. This mission 
was maintained nntil the final emigration to the west and 
many of its pupils have had distinguished careers in the New 
Cherokee Nation. The establishment and maintainance of 
this mission in the Creek Path village finally led to the entire 
group of villages lying in what is now Marshall County, viz : 
Brown's, Comsilk's, Creek Path, Gunter's, GrifBu, Melton's, 
and Wasasa's, ( See below for last four ) ,being known under 
the general appellation of "Creek Path." — See 5th Annual 
Report Bureau Ethnology p. 144 ; Fitzgerald's Life of John 
B. McFerrin, p. 64; Foster's Life of Sequoyah, p. 117; and 
Transactions Alabama Historical Society, Vol. iv. 

This larger "Creek Path" constituted a very important 
Cherokee community, consisting of betAveen 400 and 500 
souls, or about one-third of the entire Cherokee population of 
Alabama, among them being headmen of the Cherokees. Of 
these we mention John, Samuel, and Edward Gunter, Rich- 
ard Riley and Richard Brown. 

Crowtown. One of the "Five Lower Towns on the Ten- 
nessee" so often mentioned in the histories, was situated on 
Crow Creek in Jackson County, one-half mile from its con- 
fluence with the Tennessee. lit was settled about 178.2 by a 
portion of the Chicamauga Cherokees under their chief, 
"The Crow." One of the most considerable Cherokee Towns 
in Alabama. The Chicamaugas were inveterate enemies of 
the whites, and from these "Five Lower Towns" originated 
many of the bloody incursions upon the white settlers of 
Tennessee and Kentucky. An important trail led from this 
town to Long Island Towns, (See below) in one direction, 
and to Sauta, {See below) and Coosada in the other. — See 
Pickett's History of Alabama, Vol. i, p. 163; 5th Annual Re- 
port Bureau Ethnology, pp. 144, 151; and Transactions Ala- 
bama Historical Society, Vol. iv. 

Doublehead's Village. Settled about 1790, by chief 
"Doublehead" and forty other freebooting Creeks and Chero- 
kees. It was situated on the south side of Tennessee River 
a short distance above Colbert's ferry. A large spring known 
as Doublehead's Spring still marks the spot. This village 
really stood on Chickasaw territory. — See Haywood's Civil 
History of Tennessee (Reprint, 1891), p. 350. 

Geiffin Village. ( So called by the writer for want of a 
better name. ) It was a small and unimportant community 
settled by friendly Creeks by permission of the Cherokees 

Cherokee Towns and Villages. 419 

about the time of the Creek war of 1813. It stood west of 
Brown's Creek on the old "Bill Griflfln" place, about two and 
one-half miles south of Warrenton and four miles north of 
Browm's Village, in Marshall County. If it had any name 
the writer has never heard it. — 8ee Transactions Alabama 
Historical Society, Vol. iv. 

GUiNTER's Village. Established about 1784, stood on the 
sites of the present towns of Guntersville and Wyeth City in 
Marshall County. Its headman was John Gunter, a full- 
blooded Scotchman, who had been adopted into the tribe. 
Gunter married a Cherokee woman and raised a large family 
of sons and daughters. His sons, John, Samuel, and Ed- 
ward, were conspicuous figures in the Old Cherokee Nation, 
and west of the Mississippi their descendants have continued 
such even to the present day. An Indian trail led from this 
village across Sand Mountain to Wills town and Turkey 
town, another as we have seen to Coosada, Sauta, and Crow- 
town, a third intersected with the "Creek Path" and led 
thence to the Coosa and Alabama Rivers. This was an im- 
portant settlement and included some very intelligent Chero- 
kees. — Transactions Alabama Historical Society, Vol. iv. 

Long Island Town. A small village settled in 1783 and 
situated on Long Island in Tennessee River, at Bridgeport, 
Ala. The second and only other of the "Five Lower Towns 
on the Tennessee" situated in Alabama. Was one of the 
"crossings" of the Tennessee used by the Creeks in their wars 
against the white settlers of Tennessee and Kentucky. — Bee 
5th Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, p. 151 ; Pickett's His- 
tory of Alabama, Vol. i, p. 163; and Haywood's Natural and 
Aboriginal History of Tennessee, p. 237. 

Melton^s Village. A small Creek settlement established 
about the time of the Creek war of 1813 by leave of the Chero- 
kees.. It stood on Town Creek in Marshall County at the 
spot still known as the "Old Village Ford." It was so called 
after its headman, an old Indian named Charles Melton. 
The trail from Gunter's Village to Coosada led to this place. 
The postoflfice of Meltonsville near by, is a perpetuation of 
the name. — See Transactions Alabama Historical Society, 
Vol. iv. 

Muscle Shoals Villages. (1) One in 1780, stood a few 
miles above the head of Muscle Shoals, on the south side of 
Tennessee River. — See Haywood's Civil History of Tennessee 
(Reprint, 1891), p. 103. 

'420 Report Alabama History Oommission. 

(2) One in 1787, stood at the foot of the Shoals on same 
side of river. It consisted of only a few cabins. — Ibid, p. 231. 

(3) One in 1798, of considerable size, stood at the shoals 
on the south side of the river about the shores and mouth of 
Town Creek. It extended southwardly from the shoals about 
a mile and a half and for some distance up and down the 
river. Doublehead and Katagiskee were its chiefs. — 8ee 5th 
Annual Report Bureau Ethnology, p. 272. 

Sauta. Established about 1784, was situated on North 
Sauta Creek, in Jackson County, a short distance from its 
mouth. Here it is said Sequoyah first made known his in- 
vention of the Cherokee alphabet. It was a small village and 
of little importance. The trail from the Lower Creek cross- 
ing for Middle Tennessee led by it. Another as we have seen 
led to Coosada. — See Foster's Life of Sequoyah, p. 93. 

Turkey Town. Founded about 1770, and situated in the 
bend of Coosa River opposite the town of Centre in Cherokee 
County. It -was a place of great importance in the Nation 
and was named for one of its most noted chiefs "The Turkey." 
Here under this chief's lead originated many of the hostile 
expeditions against the white settlers of Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky. — See Pickett's History of Alabama, Vol. i, p. 163. 

Wasasa^s Village. Mixed Creek and Cherokee settlement 
in Brown's Valley ; was near the present line between Blount 
and Marshall Counties. It stood at the junction of two trails 
both leading to Ditto's Landing, one via Brown's Village, and 
the other by a course bending further to the west. — See 5th 
Annual Report Bureau Ethnology; Plate 8. 

Willis Town. Founded about 1770, situated on Big Will's 
Creek just above the present village of Lebanon, in DeKalb 
County, named after a half breed chief called Red-Headed 
Will. A place of importance in Cherokee history. Here be- 
fore and during the Revolution resided Col. Alexander Camp- 
bell, the famous British agent for the Cherokees. — See 
Pickett's History of Alabama, Vol. i. p. 163. 

There also stood about 20 miles from BroTvn's Village on 
in the direction of the Coosa, and near the line of the Creek 
Nation, another Cherokee Village, concerning which the 
whites had been able to learn neither the name nor exact lo- 
cation. — Ellis' Life of David Crockett pp. 30-36 ; and Abbott's 
Life of David Crockett, pp. 98-107. 

Cherokee Towns and Villages. 421 

It is, perhaps, proper to state further that as the pursuit of 
agriculture continued to gain headway among the Ohero- 
kees, the old town and village system began to fall into dis- 
use, and before the removal to the west many, if not most 
of them, were residing on farms like the white men. 


By Peteb J. Hamilton. 

Roads made Roman history, and witli the development of 
roads everywhere comes the evolution of a country. A 
wagon road in the settlement of Alabama counted for more 
than a nickle plate railway does at the present time, because 
the railway is simply an improvement while the wagon road 
was the essential beginning. Back of them were the Indian 
trails, which w^e are now to consider. 


The Chickasaws and Choctaws were generally hostile and 
no regular roads were to be found between them. The Oher- 
okees were not sufficiently identified with the Gulf history to 
leave much trace in our section. But the Choctaws seem to 
have had a path which crossed the Bigbee at or near Mc- 
Grew's Shoals, ran thence along the Alabama, and about 
Cahaba crossed this river to the Upper Creeks, while the 
Creeks themselves had quite a system of roads. The routes 
of the Spanish explorers followed these lines also. 

Roughly, we may say the Creeks extended from somewhat 
east of the Tombigbee eastwardly to the Ocmulgee or Oconee. 
So we might expect that there would be a trail from the east 
Georgia region northwestwardly to the Cherokees, another 
toTrvards the famous towns of Cosa, or Coosa, commanding 
the Upper Coosa River, "an old beloved town" or city of 
refuge, and a third westwardly to Coweta on the Chatta- 
hooche and the capital Tookabatcha on the Tallapoosa. The 
trails we would expect to concentrate in what is now east 
Georgia and pass eastwardly to the Atlantic coast tribes. 
The lower Creeks again might be expected to have a route 
of their own to St. Mary's River and the coast. 

And these seem to have been the actual routes. The first 
was called the High Town Path, and started from High 
Shoals on a branch of the Oconee, crossing the Chattahooche 
at Shallow Ford north of the present city of Atlanta, whence 

'Based largely on the paper by the author on a similar subject in the 
Transactions of the Alabama Historical Society, vol. ii, p. 39, et. seq. 


Indian Trails and Early Roads. 423 

it went to High Town or Etowah, Turkey Town, and the 
other villages nearest the Cherokees, continuing ultimately 
to the Ohickasaws. The second, or upper trail, crossed the 
same river considerably further down. The third, or south- 
ern trail, came from Kock Landing on the Oconee, (below our 
Milledgeville), and proceeded westwardly, crossing the Ohat- 
tahooche in canoes about Cusseta and Coweta, (below Co- 
lumbus). After reaching Tookabatcha, it turned north on 
the west side of the Coosa liiver to Coosa Town. On or near 
this route were subsequently established Ft. Hawkins, Macon 
and the Flint River Creek agency in Georgia, and it was 
varied afterwai'ds on the Alabama side to connect both with 
the British at Okfuskee and the French at Ft. Toulouse, be- 
low our Wetumpka. The fourth route ( that from the Lower 
Creeks) fell into disuse as the whites appropriated the At- 
lantic coast of Georgia. 

The Creek trails to the southwest were less numerous, but 
we know there was one south of the Alabama River, which, 
as above noted, branched across that river to the west to 
reach the Choctaws, while another branch continued south- 
westwardly towards the Mobile and Pensacola country, pur- 
suing ridge routes where possible. 


French trade from Mobile was principally by the river, but 
there was a land route to Fort Toulouse, which doubtless 
joined the one from Pensacola, running through thick forests 
south of the Alabama to the same place, and in Bartram's 
time the great trading path for West Florida. This was at 
a distance from the river and to some extent a ridge road. 
On it was Dead Man's Creek, so named from the corpse of a 
white man found murdered. West of the Tombigbee and 
Mobile Rivers the three divisions of the Choctaws lived and 
traded largely to Mobile by a good road running not far 
from the river about the St. Stephens region. Thence it went 
westwardly via the village Youane (near modern Shubuta) 
through the Nation to the Mississippi. In English times a 
lower branch ran almost directly from Mobile to Youane, 
and the neighboring village of Chickasahay. Bartram in 
1778 found no real "highways" between the Ocmulgee and 
Mobile, but that from Mobile to the Choctaws became perma- 
nent enough to be the boundary of three American counties. 
In 1809 Wayne was created west of it, between the Choctaw 
boundary and the Spanish line of 31°, and Baldwin was con- 

424 Report Alabama History Commission, 

stituted out of so much of Washington County as lay east 
of the trading road and south of the fifth township line. The 
road left Mobile at a ford on Bayou Chateaugu^, (or Three 
Mile Creek), which was apparently called the Portage, long 
known as near the northwest corner of the American City, 
and its course in the present limits w^as somewhat that of 
Spring Hill Avenue. 

The portage system cut less figure in our section than, where 
the head waters of the Mississippi River interlock with those 
of the great lakes, less even than between the bayous of the 
lower Mississippi. There was one at Pascagoula, and an- 
other used by Spanish traders from Mobile, over the three 
miles separating the source of the Tombigbee from a tribu- 
tary of the Tennessee. But the country was rougher and the 
trade less than in the other quarters. 

The traders generally went in companies of fifteen to 
twenty men, with perhaps seventy to eighty pack and other 
horses. The horses were permitted to graze at night and the 
start in the morning was after the sun was high. The loaded 
animals fell into single file, and were urged on with whip and 
whoop at a lively pace. 


The French made few roads, except within their own set- 
tlements. To reach the Indians they used the rivers and the 
old Indian trails. A military way was projected by the Brit- 
ish from Mobile to Natchez, which would have been of value 
in the control of the West by the Mississippi River, and in 
preventing the dispatch of supplies by the Spaniards to the 
Kentuckians and other rebels; but nothing actually came of 
it. The only road certainly opened was one from Mobile to 
Pensacola, the capital, at the instance and largely at the ex- 
pense of the Mobile merchants. The object was to receive 
sooner their English mail and freight. This was by ferry 
over the Bay to the village near Bay Minette, and thence by 
land to Pensacola, with a short ferry over the upper Perdido 
River. The government assisted in maintaining this route. 
It would be interesting to know more of this post road and of 
the postal connections with Europe; but little is available. 
We do knoT\' that English traders were everywhere, and Bar- 
tram mentions meeting emigrants for the banks of the lower 

Indian Trails and Early Eoads. 425 


In course of time after the Revolution various roads con- 
nected the Atlantic States with the country west of the AUe- 
ghanies, and are to be thought of as superseding or at least 
supplementing the river routes. But Natchez and St. 
Stephens, making up the best part of Mississippi Territory, 
long remained isolated advance guards of civilization. 
Natchez communicated with the world by the Mississippi 
River, while the Tombigbee settlement was separated by the 
Choctaws from the Mississippi, by the .Creeks from Georgia, 
by the Cherokees and their mountains from Tennessee, and 
by the Spaniards from the Gulf, 

The United States made peace with these Southern Indiana 
at the close of the Revolution, defining their boundaries, and 
in 1801 Brigadier General James Wilkinson, Benjamin Haw- 
kins of North Carolina, and Andrew Pickens of South Caro- 
lina, as United States commissioners, concluded further 
treaties with the Chickasaws and Choctaws providing for a 
wagon road from the Nashville country to the Natchez dis- 
trict, crossing the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals. This 
was also the line of an old trail. 

The road was duly laid out and its importance to the 
Southwest, and especially to Mississippi, can hardly be over- 
estimated. It brought a population and civilization which 
not only filled up the old bounds but gradually overflowed 
them and finally led to the removal of the Southern Indians 
west of the great river. 

On this road was Doak's Stand, famous in treaty annals. 
On it also the cultivated Silas Dinsmore as agent long cared 
for Choctaw interests, once defying Andrew Jackson ; and at 
the Muscle Shoals ferry lived the Chickasaw Colberts, for 
whom a county has been named. South of the Tennessee it 
was in general a ridge road between the Big Black River and 
the rivers flowing to the Gulf. 

If immigrants should wish to travel by land from Colum- 
bus, Georgia, to Mobile River in those days before railroads 
and towns, they would pursue a different route. They would 
naturally go west to a point shortly below the junction of the 
(."ioosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, so as to keep in touch with the 
country drained by these, and thence southwest, following 
the water shed between the streams flowing into the Alabama 
and those emptying into the Gulf. And if one should take up 
a good map of our State, like Dr. E. A. Smith's, and run a 
finger along this route, he will find on or near it Fort Mitchell, 

426 Report Alabama History Commission. 

Fort Bainbridge, Fort Hull, Mount Meigs, Fort Deposit, 
Burnt Corn, and. Fort Montgomery. 

He would in a manner be pursuing the old Federal Road, 
opened by the United States authorities from the Ocmulgee 
River in Georgia to Mims' Ferry for St. Stephens in Missis- 
sippi Territory, along the route of the Southern and South- 
western Creek trails. This was done under article II of the 
convention at Washington of November 14, 1805, made by 
Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War, as United States com- 
missioner, with William Mcintosh and other chiefs. 

TSvo years later Harry Toulmin, James Caller and Lemuel 
Henry as territorial commissioners westwardly 
from St. Stephens to the capital at Natchez, opening also a 
ferry across the Alabama above .Little River and across the 
Tombigbee above Fort St. Stephen. There was an older and 
more used ferry at Nannahubba Island lower down, dating 
from 1797. A road across ran from Mims' Ferry on the Ala- 
bama River to Hollinger's over the Tombigbee, but it was 
one continuous ferry, at high water. Coffee's army is said 
to have used this lower route in marching from west of the - 
Bigbee to Benton's new fort at Montgomery Hill on the way 
to Jackson's capture of Pensacola. 

Causeways were laid over "boggy, guts and branches" of the 
new roads and its alternate name of "Three Chopped Way" 
came from the triple blaze marking it from Natchez to Geor- 
gia. While it was a bridle path, it was used principally for 
horseman and packhorses, but one of the oddest vehicles ■ 
brought by immigrants was the rolling hogshead. Goods were 
packed in a hogshead, trunions or the equivalent put. in the 
ends, and to them were attached shafts. . We may suppose 
horses were generally hitched to this novel affair, but in- one 
instance at least it was an ox, and. in this manner the Coates 
family in 1800 and others later moved to Clarke and other 
southern counties. By 1812 Josiah . Blakeley writes that it 
had become a wagon road and also ran to Baton Rouge, al- 
though even as late as 1817 the Greggs had to widen the way 
at some places for their wagons. This rough highway, at first 
not more than a blazed path, played for Alabama the part 
which the stone Via Appia did for the country south of Rome. 
But for the Federal Road, with its forts, there had been no 
Alabama as we know it. The road itself can now be traced 
only with difficulty, but it is the east boundary of Monroe 
County, and the original north line of Mobile County seems 
to have been the Fort Stoddert Baton Rouge extension, 

Indian Trails and Early Roads. 427 

There were other highways in course of time, such as Jack- 
son's military road, cut southwardly from the Tennessee 
River, which was serviceable in subjugating the Creeks, and 
the "great Tennessee road" to Jones' Valley, and another cut 
via the High Town trail and Attalla from the east. There 
were others in South-East Alabama in the first Seminole war, 
and the different Indian cessions also necessitated corre- 
sponding highways. But these were chiefly developments, 
and not of the same creative importance as the Federal and 
Natchez routes. 

An instance of the difference between travelling before and 
after the Federal Road was cut may be found in the life of the 
eccentric but earnest Methodist preacher Lorenzo Dow. In 
1803 he was in Georgia and set out for Tombigbee, by way of 
the agency of Hawkins, who "treated them cool." In thirteen 
and a half days after leaving the Georgia settlements they 
reached the first house in the Tensaw district. His only notice 
of the "road or rather Indian path" was that they lost it once 
and then it took a good woodsman to find it again. He 
preached at Tensaw on a Sunday, and kept also a string of 
appointments across the swamp and the rivers. This was at 
a thick settlement, which must have been about Mcintosh 
Bluff, and a scattered one above, seventy miles long. It then 
took him six and a half days to reach the Natchez settlement. 
At the end of December, 1804, he returned, but the only road 
he mentions is the trading road from the Chickasaws to Mo- 
bile, near Dinsmore's agency and Fort St. Stephen. At St. 
Stephens he found but one family. He seems to have tarried 
six days in the Tensaw settlement, holding meetings, and in 
early January traveled on to Georgia. In the Creek nation 
there were so many by-paths as to make it difficult to find 
their way. Charges for entertainment were high. On the 
first trip near Tensaw he paid |1.50 for a night's lodging, 
and now at Hawkins' eleven shillings, "although not worth 
the half." 

Later Peggy Do^v recounts a similar trip east by way of 
the Bigbee settlement in December, but does not give the 
year. It was Lorenzo's tenth passage, however, to and from 
Natchez. There seems to have been an Indian path, crossing 
a slough called a "Hell Hole," and they went over a river by 
night. They staid two or three days in the St. Stephens 
neighborhood, and she notes the Tombigbee there as beauti- 
ful, with water clear as crystal. St. Stephens was small but 
made a handsome appearance. They crossed by a ferry and 
in a day and a half passed over the Alabama too, a beautiful 

428 Report Alabama History Commission. 

river, "almost beyond description." This was probably at or 
near what is now Claiborne. They then struck the road cut 
by order of the president from Georgia to Fort Stoddard 
(sic.) They frequently met people on it removing to the 
Tombigbee and other parts of Mississippi Territory. The 
road having been newly cut out, the fresh marked trees 
served for a guide ; there was a moon but it was shut by 

The troubles of immigrants on these routes can well be. pic- 
tured from the journal of Eev. John Owen, describing the re- 
moval of his family in 1818 by wagon from near Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, to Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The roads in old settled Vir- 
ginia he declares bad enough, but, after he passed through 
JBeauford's Gap of the Alleghanies and descended the Hols- 
ton Valley via Knoxville, sickness, upsets, breakages and dis- 
couragements were their daily experience. Even before he 
reached East Tennessee he wished that he had not been born. 
Between "infernal roads" and straying horses, he declared 
"the Devil turned loose" in good earnest. He seems, to have 
gone down the Sequatchee Valley to the Tennessee River. 
Exactly Where he crossed into Alabama Territory in the 
Cherokee boundaries does not appear, and the only definite 
point named in the eight days between there and his destina- 
tion is Jones' Valley, near modern Birmingham. Possibly 
he crossed at Nickajack and from the Georgia road went 
down Wills' Valley, along the route of the present Alabama 
Great Southern Railroad. 

In Alabama he found the smiths lazy, meal scarce, corn 
and fodder high, and people rough and "shuffling," but he 
does make one of his few entries of "roads good," and he does 
not mention as many accidents at this end of his route as be- 
fore crossing our line. May be he had become used to them. 
The day after Christmas he makes the entry, "past broken 
roads and got to Tuscaloosa and feel thankful to kind Heaven 
that after nine weeks' traveling and exposed to every danger 
that we arrived safe and in good health." 

It would be a mistake, however, to think of these early 
roads as used only by the military and by immigrants. The 
general government employed them for post routes also. The 
early Mobile newspapers, and the corporation minutes before 
them, have a good deal to say about the mails. Human na- 
ture being mucb the same as now, we are not surprised to 
learn that it was often in the way of complaint. In February, 
1816, the town commissioners addressed an official "mon- 

Indian Trails and Early Roads. 429 

strance" to Postmaster General E. J. Meigs, stating, that, 
despite good roads and weather, the failures of the contrac- 
tor of the Georgia (Federal Road) route were beyond all 
precedent, and that merchants had to make private arrange- 
ments for communication with Fort Stoddard and St. 
Stephens, as there had been but two mails received thence 
since the first of the year. 

Between then and LaTourrette's beautiful map of 1835 the 
country had greatly developed, but several main roads of the 
older time could be distinguished from the network of high- 
ways about Tuscaloosa, Oahawba and other growing towns. 
There was still the thoroughfare up Wills' Valley, continu- 
ing over the divide southwardly through the Cahawba Valley 
to the cotton lands of the Alabama River. About the divide 
it connected across the mountains by means of the old routes 
from Georgia with the Jonesboro road to Tuscaloosa traveled 
by Owen, and about Elyton came in the well known Stout's 
Road from Somerville and the Tennessee Valley. Another 
north and south road was Cheatham's, from Moulton to Tus- 
caloosa, then the capital, and somewhat further west Byler's 
Road ran by way of Northport from Tuscaloosa to Florence. 
But with this map we reach modern ground; for on it we 
find the railroad from Decatur to Tuscumbia, and also the 
one from West Point to Montgomery. 

The aboriginal trails were the paths of white explorers, 
from Spanish discoverers and French coureurs de hois to the 
American pioneers like Boone and Dale, and, between these 
extremes, competing British and French merchants carried 
their wares over the same routes to reach the native tribes. 
The colonial governments in building roads also followed 
some of the trails, and the later American military and ter- 
ritorial authorities with their more important highways kept 
the same general course. Even our railroads sometimes pur- 
sue them, because they offer the least natural ohstacles, al- 
though the gro^^th of cities has made railways sometimes 
seek directions unknown to earlier roads. But as the trails, 
trade routes and early roads sought the ridges, the directions 
of all are analogous and sometimes identical, and they con- 
stitute but one historical development. 


By H. S. Haxbert. 

The Choctaws had many crossing places on the Tombigbee. 
Records and traditions of some of these have been preserved, 
but others have disappeared completely and no trace remains, 
either on the face of nature or in the memory of men. Even 
clear and full details of those that are known to have existed, 
cannot now be secured, and the fragmentary facts below are 
only offered as a suggestive basis for further investigation. 
Ten crossings are noted. Trails from all of these extended 
eastward from the Tombigbee toward the Creek-Choctaw 
boundary. Some of them entered the Creek territory, and 
formed channels of inter-communication for both the Indians 
and traders. 

1. St. Stephens' crossing. It is shown on Carey's Map, 
(1816). It was of importance in the life of the Indians in 
passing east and west in this region. The 'bluff at St. 
Stephens was known as Hobuckintopa, and on it, or in the 
vicinity, was a Choctaw village. 

2. Black Bluff, Sakti lusa. It is noted on Carey's Map 
(1816) ; also in H. S. Tanner's Ifew Atlas (1836). See Ham- 
ilton's Colonial Mobile, p. — , for special notice, based on Ber- 
nard Romans' Florida. 

3. A crossing on the river due South from the present 
Forkland, Greene County. The trail to this crossing, entitled 
"Path to the Creek Nation," is noted on Bernard Romans' 
Map (1775). 

4. Fort Tombeckbee crossing. This was of course a neces- 
sity for commercial and social reasons. Doubtless several 
trails converged here on both sides of the river. 

5. A crossing at or near Warsaw, in Sumter County. Choc- 
taw tradition emphasizes this point. It was probably the 
crossing of the trail laid down on Guthrie's Map, as extend- 
ing from the mouth of the Yazoo River easterly entirely 
across the State of Mississippi. It is probably the same for 
the trail, on Adair's Map, in the same latitude. 


Choctaw Crossing Places on Tombigbee. 431 

6. A crossing near Memphis in Pickens County. The state- 
ment is based on tradition. 

7. A crossing a short distance below Picliensville, in Pick- 
ens county. Information dei'ived from Indian countrymen. 

8. Ten Mile Shoals Crossing. The present name is derived 
from the fact that the shoals are ten miles below Columbus, 
Miss. In low water the river at this point can easily be 

9. Columbus Crossing. This was just below the railroad 
bridge. Columbus occupies the site of an old Indian village 
called 8hiikhata Tamaha, "Opossum Town." 

10. Lincacum Shoals Crossing. The following interesting 
references are taken from Claiborne's Mississippi, p. 5 : 

"The country between the Warrior and Tombigbee was oc- 
cupied by the Choctaws, but they were much more numerous 
west of that river. DeSoto probably entered the present 
State of Mississippi at Columbus, and folloAved an Indian 
trail or buffalo path some five miles up to Lincacum's shoals, 
just above the mouth of the Tibbee and a little below the pres- 
ent town of Waverly. The Tombigbee here is bifurcated by 
an island, the fixst obstruction below Butahatchie. The 
gravel discharged from this stream lodged against the island 
and rendered both channels fordable a great part of the year, 
and this is the only point where the Spaniards could have 
forded in December. It was the crossing used by the Choc- 
taws when going to their villages and hunting ground east 
of the Tombigbee. The trail struck here a stretch of prairie, 
between Tibbee and Hanging Kettle creeks, and crossed the 
present Mobile & Ohio Railroad at Lookhattan, thence a little 
west of the railroad by Mulden, Prairie Station and Egypt. 

"The early settlers of this portion of Mississippi remember 
the well worn, beaten trail, long disused but distinctly de- 
fined, and can to this day trace it from plantation to planta- 


Note. In this Index the Individual names in the Claiborne Collection, 
pp. 235-253, the county names in the Chapter on Prehistoric Works, and 
the town names in the Chapters by Mr. Gatschet and Mr. Street, are not 
entered, because they bear an original alphabetical arrangement. Neither 
are the individual names in the Regimental and other organizations on 
file in the Adjutant-General's OflBce. This was thought to be impracti- 
cable as tending to unduly swell the extent of the index, and also from 
the fact that any particular name can be readily located from the numeri- 
cal arrangement of the commands. 

Abercromble John \/., 108. 
Aboriginal remains in Ala., 355. 
Acts of Legislature, originals, 98. 

Set in Sup. Ct. library, 271. 
Adams, Jesse C, 111. 
Adelphi, file of, 191. 
Adjutant-General, official records, 
114, 328. 

Ala. war records in, 328. 
A. & M. College. See Ala. Pol. In- 
A. & M. College for Negroes, 25. 

Records of, 121. 
Agriculture, Com'r. of, official rec- 
ords, 111. 
Agricultural Department of Ala., 

Official records. 111. 
Agricultural Dept., Washington, 

publications, 53. 
Agricultural Schools, 22, 25, l21, 

122, 125, 205. 
Agricultural specimens, 112. 
Aiasworth, Col. F. C.^ 328. 

Burning of Capitol, 89. 

Capitals, 87-88. 

Census, original, 60. 

Dept. ^^isiory proposed, 37. 

Executive records, 87. 

Historical Societies, 18. 

Historical work in, 18. 

Libraries and museums, 19. 

Mounds, 357. 

Patriotic organizations, 19, 278. 

Soldiers in Confederate War, 

State records, 87-94. 

Territorial development. 78-9. 

Territorial records, 76, 87. 

War records, 321-353. 
Alabama Baptist Historical So- 
ciety, 18. 

Alabama Central Female College, 

Alabama Conference Female Col- 
lege, 25. 
Alabama Girls' Industrial School, 
44, 94. 
History work in, 25. 
Library of, 19. 
Records of, 121. 
Alabama Historical Reporter, file 

of, 309. 
Alabama Historical Society, 18, 37, 
Library, 204. 
Publications 204. 
Appropriations for, 28, 40, 203. 
Alabama His..ory Commission, Act 
creating, 7. 
Members appointed, 13. 
itleetings of, 14. 
Circular to public, 14. 
Tentative outline of report. 16. 
Administrative report, 11-44. 
Recommendations, 36. 
Conduct of work, 17. 
Appropriation for, 28. 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 20. 
History work In, 22, 210. 
Library and Museum, 205. 
Records of, 122, 105. 
Alabama Presbytery, 133. 
Alabama Stone, 207. 
Allen, Gen. W. W., 159. 
Alliance News, file of, 306. 
Allison, Charles J., 152. 
Almanacs, Confederate, 160. 
American Antiquarian Society, col- 
lections, 206. 
American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, official 
archives. 208. 
American Philosophical Society, 
collections, 208. 



Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Andrews, W. L., 26. 

Collections of, 282. 
Anthropological collections, 218. 
Appointments and Commissions, 

101, 203. 
Archaeology, 292. 

Mounds in Ala., 357-369. 

Dr. Brinton's collection, 268. 

Col. C. C. Jones' collection, 270. 
Arkansas, history work in, 28. 
Army Records, Supt. of, 28, 91, 92. 
Artillery, command from Ala., 352. 
Assessmeiit, State Board of, 92. 
Athens Courier, file of, 305. 
Athens' Ffemale College, 25. 
Athens History, 300. 
Atkins, Benjamin, 315. 
Attorney-General, official records, 

Attorney-ueneral of U. S., official 

records of, 61. 
Auditor, official records of, 104. 
Aurora, Philadelphia, 310. 
Austin, Jere., 89, 159. 
Ausun, Stephen P., letters, 276. 

Bagby, A. P., papers, 159. 

Portrait, 271. 
Baldwin, M. A., portrait, 273. 
Baltic, Gunboat, 334. 
Bancroft, George, manuscripts and 

papers, 263. 
Band Commissioners, 92, 103. 
Bankhead, John H., 64. 
Banks, 92, 103, 105, 126-7. 
Baptist Church, official records, 

Howard College, 24, 123. 

Historical literature, 129. 

Judson Institute, 24. 

Ala. Central Female College, 24. 
Barber, Robert, 149. 
Barcia's Ensayo Gronologico, 226. 
Barnard, F. A. P., papers, 160. 
Bartram MSS, 267. 
Beard, Thomas, 315. 
Beer, Wm., 227, 316. 

Description British Record Of- 
fice, 51. 

Discovers Papers of Law's Com- 
pany, 50. 

Librarian of Howard Memorial 
Library, 225. 
Beeson, J. W., 300. 
Benagh, George, 160; Miss Eliza- 
beth. 160. 
Benton, Col. Thomas H., 212, 426. 
Berquin-Duvallon's Travels, 226. 
Berry, R. D., 353. 
Bessemer Daily Bessemer, file of, 

Bessemer Daily Pig, file of, 305. 
Bessemer Journal, file of, 305. 
Bessemer Weekly, file of, 305. 
Bexar, Archives of, 276, 278. 
Bibb, Gov. Thomas, 212. 

Portrait, 2/1. 
Bibb, Wm. W., Territorial Gov., 87, 

94, 298. 
Papers of, 160. 
Bienville, 130; papers, 161. 
Billings, Dr. J. S., 263. 
Birmingham Age-Herald, files of, 

213, 305. 
Birmingham Iron Age, file of, 306. 
Birmingham Labor Advocate, file 

of, 281. 
Birmingham Ledger, files of, 305, 

JBirmingham News, files of, 213, 

Birmingham State Herald, file of, 

Birmingham, official records, 115. 
Birmingham Presbytery, 133. 
Birmingham, U. S. Court records, 

Birth registers, 113. 
Bishkun Tamaha, town, 382. 
Black bluff crossing, 430. 
Blair, Francis P., 177. 
Blakeley Sun, 281. 
Blandin, Mrs. Belle, 26. 
Blount, Wm., papers, 162, 298. 
biount, Willie, papers, 162. 
Blue. M. P., 119, 135; collections, 

Board of Education, records, 102, 

Board of Health, official records, 

Papers in Governor's office, 94. 
Boisbriant, 130. 
Boiling, R. H., 147. 
Bonds, State, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 

Bone, Rev. M. H., 218; Rev. W. 

P., 218. 
Booth, Henry, 149. 
uoston, newspapers, 274. 
Botanical collections, 146. 
Boundaries, Creeks and Ga., 221-2. 
Boundaries, Indian, 370, 391, 402, 

410, 413. 
Boundary records, 64, 78, 80, 81. 
Bowie, Alexander, 203. 
Brassell, W. R., 113. 
Brewer, Willis, 27. 

Collections of, 284. 
Brickell, R. C, portrait, 273. 
Bright, Capt. John, surveyor, 81. 
Brinton, Dr. D. G., collections, 268. 



British MSS. in Mass. Hist. Soc, 

British Colonial Documents in 
Congressional library, 211. 
In Hamilton's collection, 289. 

British Arcnives, 50, 262. 

Broadsides, Alabama, 298. 

Brooks, Miss A. M., 268, 284. 

Btown, Richard, 416.. 

Brown, Wm. Garrott, 26. 
Collections of, 285. 
Sketch ol Yancey, 191. 

Bryce, Dr. j.^eter, 144. 

Bureau of Education, U. S., docu- 
ments as to Ala. schools in, 

Burr, Aaron, conspiracy of, 182, 

Busteed, Judge Richard, 151. 

Byrd, Wm. M., portrait, 273. 

Cabeza, de Vaca, documents as to, 

Caffee, A- E., library, 284. 
Caffey, Francis G., collections, 284. 
Cahaba, capital at, 87. 

Land Office at, 99, 148. 

Sale of lots, 100-1. 
Cahaba Democrat, files of, 191. 
Cahaba Gazette, file of, 213, 306. 
Cahawba Republican, file of, 305. 
Cahawba Watchman, 281. 
Caldwell, John M., autograph col- 
lection, 285. 
Callava papers, 252. 
Caller, James, papers, 162, 298; 

Miss May A., 163. 
Camden lodge records, 140. 
Campbell, Col. Alexander, 420. 
Campbell, John, 163. 
Campbell, John A., 76, 163. 
Campbell, Col. John B., 315. 
Campbeli, Richard L., Florida, 285. 
Canadian Archives, 52, 205 ; papers 

from, 232, 234. 
Cannon, Dr. J. P., 353. 
Cantey, James, papers, 163. 

Portrait of, 278. 
Carroll, Wm., papers, 163. 
Carrollton West Alabamian, file of, 

Castaneda's Relacion, 262. 
Gather, Wm. H., 300. 
Catholic Church, official records in 
Ala., 129-132. 

Cathedral at Mobile 130. 

Spring Hill College, 24, 125. 

tot. Bernard College, 24. 

Historical literature, 129. 

Georgetown UniTrersity, Wash- 
ington, D. C., 220. 

New Orleans Cathedral Archives, 

Bishop Wm. H. Elder, papers, 
Cavalry, command from Ala., 351. 
Census, original papers, 60-61; 

Htate of, 1855, 102. 
Cities, records of, 115. 
City schools, documents, 57. 
Chalmers, George, papers, 261, 262. 
Chapman, Reuben, papers, 184. 

Portrait, 272. 
Charleston Courier, 209. 
Chefra Mefacker Cholim, 135. 
Cherokee Indians, data as to, 55. 

Southern boundary, 370. 

Towns and villages, 416. 

Manuscripts, 219. 

Missions, 208. 

Reservation, 149. 
Chester, Gov. Peter, 211. 
Chlokasahay, town, 379. 
Chickasaw Mission, 208. 

Boundary, 373. 

Habitat, 370. 
Chilton, W. P., portrait, 272. 
Chinakbl, town, 381. 
Choctaw Indians, data as to, 54. 

District Divisions, 375. 

Crossing places on Tombigbee, 

Factory, 378. 

Missions, 208. 
Christian Advocate, file of, 306. 
Church organizations, 128. 
Claiborne, Gen. F. L., papers, 164, 

Claiborne, John F. H., historical 
collections of, 234. 

{Items of; not indexed). 
Claiborne, N. H., papers, 164. 
Claiborne, W. C. C, 75, 81, 211, 212. 

Papers of, 165, 229. 
Clanton, Gen. James, papers, 165. 
Clark, Thomas H., 27. 

Collections of, 285. 
Clay, C. C, Jr., papers, 165. 
Clay, C. C, Sr., papers, 94, 165, 212. 

Portrait, 271. 
Clay, W. L., 165, J. W., 166. 
Clayton, H. D., 287, papers, 166. 

Portrait, 207. 
Clemens, Jere., papers, 166. 
Cleveland. James M., 285. 
Clinton, Thomas P., 26. 

Collections of, 285. 
Clisby, John H., 120. 
Clopton, David, portrait, 273. 
Cobbs, Bishop N. H., 166; Rev. R. 
A., 167; Rev, R. H., 134, 166, 


Eeport Alabama History Commission. 

Cocke, John, papers, 167. 
Codes, original MSS. of, 96. 
.Coffee, Col. John, 65, 98. 

Papers of, 167. 
Cole, Robert, 377. 
Cole, T. L., 78. 
Coleman, Frank, 148. 
Collier, Henry W., papers, 168. 

Portrait, 272. 
■Colonial Dames in Alabama, 19. 
Color Blind Examiner's reports, 

Columbus crossing, 431. 
Columbus, documents, 262. 
Commissions and appointments, 

101, 103. 
Compendio Historico, 256. 
Compere, Lee, papers, 168. 
Conecuh Historical Society, 19. 
Confederate Military literature in 

War Department, 280. 
Confederate Museum, 209, 353. 
Confederate Veterans, the United, 

Sons of, 19. 
Confederate War Records in U. S. 
War Dept, 322. 

Adjutant-General's oflSce, Ala., 

Infantry, 337. 

Cavalry, 351. 

Artillery, 352. 

Governor's letters, 94, 103, 104. 

Commissions, 103. 

Financial records, 105. 

Pension records, 105, 107. 

Owen's collection, 299, 304, 353. 

Records in private hands, 353. 

U. S. Court at Mobile, 153. 

Jnuntsville Land office records, 
Congressional Library, collections, 

Constitutions of Alabama, origi- 
nals, 96. 
Conventions, Constitutional in 

Ala., original records, 96. 
Convict Bureau, official records, 

Cook, Zo., 300. 
Coosha, town, 378, 381. 
Cortez, documents, 262. 
Cocton Exchange, Mobile, 147. 
Cotton Planter, file of, 307. 
Counties and County records, 115. 

School records, 109. 

Educational Institutions, 121. 

Supts. of Ed. in 1875. 109. 
Counties, mounds in, 357-369. 
Couric, A. A., 116. 
Court of Claims, records of, 54. 
Courts, tr. S., recpras, 151-3. 

Coxe's Carolana, 226. 

Crawford, T. P., 168. 

Crawford, Judge Wm., 151, 152, 

Creek Controversy, 1833, 174. 

Creek Country, Sketch, 182, 212, 

Creek MSS. in Ga. Hist. Soc, 221. 

Creek Towns and Villages, alpha- 
betically arranged, 386-415. 

Creek vocabularies, 269. 

ureek War, 162, 163, 164, 167, 168, 
171, 188. 
Papers, 251. 

Criminal Administration, Ala., 97. 

Vrimson-White, files of, 280, 309, 

Crop records. 111. 

Cross, Rev. L. B., 133. 

Croxton's raid, 185. 

Crozat papers, 50, 169. 

Cumherland Presbyterian, file of, 
288, 305. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
Records in Alabama, 132. 
Periodicals of, 288. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Histori- 
cal Society, 18. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Pub. 
house, collections, 217. 

Cumberland University library, 
collections, 217. 

Curry, Dr. J. L. M., 27. 
Collections of, 286. 

Curry, Rev. Joseph T., MS. Jour- 
nal, 317. 

Cusachs, Gaspard, collections, 286. 

Customs port at Fort Stoddert, 76. 

Dale Co., 282. 
Dale, Sam, papers, 169. 
Daleville, 378. 
Dallas Qazette, file of, 306. 
Dargan, E. S., portrait, 272. 
Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution in Ala., 19. 
Daughters of txie Confederacy, the 
United, 19. 

Cradle of the Confederacy Chap- 
ter, 278. 

Sophie Bibb Chapter, 278. 
Davion, Father, 130. 
Davis, Jefferson, 209. 

Portrait and bust, 273. 
Davis, W. A., 129. 
Dead Towns of Ala., 299. 
Deaf, Institute for, official rec- 
ords, 122. 
Deas, Gen. Zach C, papers, 169, 
Death registers, 113. 
Debt Commission, 92, 



Dela Vente, 130. 

DeLeon, Ponce, 258. 

DeRenne collection of Georgia 

books, 224. 
Demopolls, History, 300. 
Dental Examiners, Board of, 93. 
Department of Archives and His- 
tory, 37. 
Dillard, A. W., 300. 
Dlmmick, J. W., 152. 
Dingley, Wm. H., 140. 
Dinsmore, Silas, 99, 169, 425. 
Dixon, Samuel H., Masonic his- 
torian, 140-143. 
Donahoo, J. H., 143. 
Donnell (Robert) Presbytery, 134. 
Dow, Lorenzo, travels, 427. 
Drayton, W. 210. 
DuBose, Joel C, 26. 

Collections of, 287. 
DuBose, John W., 26. 

Collections of, 287. 

Life of Yancey, 189. 
Duffee, Miss Mary Gordon, 300. 
Dunbar, Sir Wm., papers, 170. 
Duran's Historia, 213. 
Durrett, Reuben T., 287. 

East Alabama Presbytery, 138. 
Eastin, Thomas, papers, 171. 
Eaton, Gen. John H., papers, 171. 
Echevarria's Historia, 213. 
Education in Ala., bibliography of, 

Education, documents, 55-58. 

Records of Supt. Ed., 108. 

History in Schools, 21. 

OflBcial records of, 121. 
Education, Supt. of, official re- 
ports, 55. 

Official records of, 108. 
Education, U. S. Bureau of, 121, 

123, 124, 125. 
Elder, Bishop Wm. H., 253. 
Elections in Ala., documents in 

State Dept., 97. 
Ellis, George W., 106. 
Ellis, Thomas, 175. 
Elmore Standard, file of, 309. 
Elyton Presbytery, 133. 
Embalming, State Board of, 94. 
Emigration, 425. 
Engineers, U. S. Chief of, official 

records, 59. 
Episcopal Church In Ala., 134. 

Noble Institute, 25. 

Bisnop Cobbs, 166. 
Ethnology, Bureau of, collections 

of, 218. 
Eufaula, official records, 116. 

Indian name, 415. 
Eufaula riot, 95. . 

Examiner of Public Accounts, 92, 

Experiment Station, official rec- 
ords, 123. 

Farmer, John T., 300. 
Farmer, Robert, papers, 171. 
Farmer's Bank ot Ala., 105. 
Fayette Tribune, file of, 306. 
rederal Government, State aid to 

historical work, 35. 
Federal road, 426. 
Fertilizer analyses. 111. 
F-ijon Club, collections, 220. 
Financial Chronicle, hie of, 147. 
Financial records of Ala., 104-7. 
Fires, State House burned, 89., 
Treasurer's records, 105. 
Howard College, 123. 
Knights of Pythias, records, 143. 
Odd Fellows, records, 143. 
Hawkins' (B) house, 175. 
Chapman's (R) house, 164. 
Steamboat Tuscaloosa, 181. 
University of Ala., 187. 
Fish Culture, Com'r. of, 92. 
Fitzpatriok, Gov. Benj., 271. 
Flat rock corner, 374. 
Flint river church, 128. 
Floral Magazine, file of, 307. 
Florence, Methodism in, 317. 
Florence Q-azette, file of, 213. 
Florida, Alabama annexation, 95. 
Bibliography, 299. 
Docs, in Cong. Lib., 210. 
Historical docs., 80. 
Historical literature,. 226. 
Historical work in, 28. 
Jackson's Administration, 25. 
Official records, 80. 
Pensacola, 80. 
Records in State Dept., 75. 
St. ivugustlne Institute, 268. 
bmith (B) ivxoS., 256. 
Floyd, Charles R., 222. 
Flournoy, Gen. Thomas, papers, 

Forstall, Edmund, 49, 230. 
Fort Louis, 130. 
Fort Tombeckbee crossing, 430. 
Fortier, Dr. AlcSe, 49. 
Fossil Collections, 146. 
Foster, Dr. J. H., 203. 
Foster, Gen. R. S., 181. 
Fourth District Agricultural 

School, 25. 
Fowler, Wm. H., Collection of Ala- 
bama (jonf. War records, 28, 
91, 92, 332, 334. 
tranklin County, school ledger, 


Report Alabama History Commission. 

Franklin Quarterly Conference 
records, 137. 

French, B. F., Historical Collec- 
tions, 47, 49, 228. 

French archives, 48, 227, 231, 263, 

French MSS. as to La., 227. 

French MSS. in Mass. Hist. Soc, 
Parkman collection, 231. 

French MSS. in Mass. State De- 
partment, 234. 

trench MSS. in N. Y. Public Li- 
brary, 263, 264. 

Fungi, collection of, 146. 

Gaines, Gen. B. P., papers, 171. 
Gaines, George S., papers, 172, 300. 
Gaines, J. E., papers, 2ol. 
Gainesville Independent, file of 

Galphin, George, papers, 173, 223. 
Garland, Dr. L. C, 203. 
Garrett, William, on State rec- 
ords, 87-90, 282. 
Papers of, 282, 288, 296. 
Gatschet, Albert S., 357. 

Creek Towns and Villages in 
Ala., 386-415. 
Gayarrg, Charles, 229, 230. 
Gayle, Gov. John, papers, 174. 

Portrait, 271. 
Genealogy, 254, 256, 299. 
General Assembly, original jour- 
nals and acts, 98. 
General Land Office, official rec- 
ords, 62. 
Geological Survey of Alabama, 20. 

Museum and Collections, 145. 
Geological Survey, tJ. S., publica- 
tions of, 59. 
Georgetown University, collec- 
tions, 220. 
Georgia Colonial laws, 224. 

Documents In Congressional li- 
brary, 211. 
Historical Society, collections, 

Newspapers, 207, 215, 223, 309. 
Official records, 80. 
State Library, collections, 224. 
State aid to historical work, 28. 
Georgiana (Ala.) murder In, 95. 
Goldthwalte, George, portrait, 273. 
Gongora's Descripcion de la Bahia, 

Gordo Enterprise, file of, 307. 
Gourges, Capt. Dominique de, 210. 
Government Publications, indexes 

to, 53. 
Governor of Ala., War Correspond- 
ence, 103, 104. 

Records of office, 94. 

Grace, B. E., St., 300. 

Graham, E. A., 120. 

Grand Chapter records, 139. 

Grand Commandry records, 139. 

Grand Council records, 139. 

Grand Lodge records, 140. 

Grand Pre, Gov. Charles, 211. 

Grant, Gov. James, 210. 

Grant, Thomas, MS. journal, 299. 

Granville County, N. C, History, 

Green, Dr. Samuel A., 231. 

Greenleaf, Ed. E., 151. 

Greensborough Beacon, file of, 307. 

Greensborough, Methodist Church 
register, 137. 
Station records, 137. 

Greenville Co., S. O., History, 300. 

Greenville (S. U.) Mountaineer, 
file of, 191. 

Greene County Sentinel, file of, 

Greene Quarterly Conference rec- 
ords, 137. 

Griffin, Virgil, 113. 

Grove Hill Democrat, file of, 307. 

Guaranty Company, records, 105. 

Guion, Maj. Isaac, papers, 174, 250. 

Gunter, Edward, John, Samuel, 

Gunter's Landing, 314. 

Guntersville, 314. 

Halbert, Henry Sale, -357. 

District Divisions of the Choc- 
taws, 375. 

Choctaw Crossing places on 
Tombigbee, 430. 
Halcyon, files of, 213, 215. 
Haldimand papers, 52. 
Hall, Rev. J. H. B., 19, 133. 

Library of, 288-289. 
Hamilton, Peter, 111. 

r-apers of, 290. 
Hamilton, Peter J., appointed 
member of Hist. Comn., 13, 14, 

Catholic church of Mobile, 
Sketch, 130. 

Gaspard Gusachs, Sketch, 286. 

History work by, 26. 

Howard Memorial Library, 225. 

Library and collections, 289. 

Mobile, City Code, 119. 

Mobile records, 117. 

Mobile Schools, 123. 

Mounds, 357, 358. 

Mobile Cotton Exchange, 147. 

Mobile pictures and maps, 300 

Pensacola records, 80. 



Report on Foreign archives, 47. 

Spring Hill College records, 124. 

Trails and Roads, 422. 

U. S. Courts in Mobile, 152. 
Hamner, George W.. 26, 223. 

Collections of, 291. 
Hanrick, Edward, 175. 
Harrisse's Discovery of N. Am., 

Harvard College library, collec- 
tions, 224. 
Havana, archives, 48, 80. 
Hawkins, Benj., papers, 174, 208, 

212, 221, 291. 
Hearn, Rev. Ebenezer, Journal, 

Hill, Benj. H., 201. 
Hill, Rev. Hugh Bone, MS. life of, 

Historic Spots, 41. 
Historical Societies in Alabama, 

See also names of Societies. 
Historical Societies, data in, 202. 
Historical Work in Alabama, 18. 

In other States, 7, 27. 

See also names of Societies. 
Hitchcock, Henry, portrait, 272. 
Hodge, F. W., 208. 
Holmes' Carib Influence, 270. 
Holmes, David, 75, 81, 242, 252. 

Papers of, 176, 212. 
Homastubbee, 379. 
Hopkins, A. F., portrait, 272. 
House of Rep., U. S., oflBcial rec- 
ords, 73. 
Houston, Gov. George S., portrait, 

Howard College. 

History work in, 24. 

Records of, 123. 
Howard, Miss Annie T., 225. 
Howard Memorial Library, collec- 
tions, 225. 
Howell, Rev. J. T., 27, 137. 
Huntsville Advocate, file of, 213. 
Huntsville Democrat, files of, 21.3. 

Huntsville Gazette, file of, 214. 
Huntsville Repuilican, file of, 214. 
Huntsville, stock certificates, 105. 

Cave, 365. 

OiBcial records, 117. 

Temporary seat of gov't., 87. 
Huntsville, land oflice records, 148. 

U. S. Court records, 151. 
Hutchins, Anthony, 235. 
Hutchins, Thomas, papers, 267. 
Hutton, C. M., 353. 
Huve, Alexander, 130. 

Iberville, letters, 264, 265. 
Immigration, Commissioner of, 92, 

Indian Affairs, office of, official rec- 
ords of, S9. 
Indian documents, Chalmers' pa- 
pers, 262. 
Indian linguistics, 269. 
Indian relics, 146. 
Indian military affairs, papers, 

Indian remains in Ala., '355. 
Indian trading house records, 173. 
Indian trails, 422. 
Indians, Cherokee towns, 416. 

Creek towns, 386. 

War party, 387, 386. 

Peace party, 387. 

Gentes, 387. 

Tribal divisions, 386. 

^hoctaw districts, 375. 
Indians, historical material, in of- 
fice of -ndian Affairs, 59. 

War records, 329, 251. 

Correspondence, 94. 
Industrial Resources, Com'r. of, 92. 
Infantry, commands from Ala., 

Inkillis Tamaha, town, 382. 
Insane hospital, 103, papers, 94. 

Records of, 144. 
Insane Hospijtal, the Meteor, file of, 

Insurance Department, 93. 

Records, 93, 104. 
Interior Department, official rec- 
ords, 60. 
Iowa, State aid to historical work, 

Jackson, Gen. A., 171, 252, papers, 

Jasper Circuit records, 137. 

Jefferson County, History, 300. 

Jeffreys' French Dominions, 226. 

Jesuits, 261, 265. 

Jews, official Congregational rec- 
ords, 135. 

Jones Valley, History, 300, 428. 

Jones, Charles C, collections, 292. 

Jones, Gov. Thos. G., portrait, 272. 

Jones, Wm. G., 152, 158. 

Jonesboro Temperance Society, 

Journals, House and Senate, origi- 
nals, 98. 
Set in Sup. Court, 271. 

John, Sam'l. Will, 14, 44, 27. 
Member of the Hist. Commis- 
sion, 13. 
Report on War Records of Ala- 
bama, 319. 
Library and collections, 291, 353. 

Johnston, Gov. Joseph F., 13. 

Judsoa luBtUute, 24. 


Seport Alabama llistory (jommission. 

Justice, Department of, official rec- 
ords, 61. 
Justis, letters of, 256. 

Kansas Historical Society, collec- 
tions, 227. 

Kansas State aid to historical 
work, 28. 

Kelby, R. H., 256. 

Kendall, Amos, 177. 

Kentucky, historical data, 287. 
Newspapers, 207, 208. 

Kerlerec, 181. 

King, B. D., 203. 

King, Miss Grace, 162, 227. 

King, Robert D., MS. autobiog- 
raphy of, 218. 

King, Wm. R., papers, 179. 

Klngsborough collection of MSS., 

Kohl, collection of maps, 75. 

Knights of Pythias, official rec- 
ords, 143. 

Knox, Gen, Henry, papers, 254. 

Kunsha bolukta, town, 376. 

L'Orient, archives at, 50, 179. 
Lafayette Quarterly Conference 

records, 139. 
Laliarpe's Journal, 209, 227. 
Lands, Federal offices in Ala., rec- 
orus, 148. 

Defunct offices, 149. 

University Lands, 126. 

School lands, 100, 109. 

Records in Sec. of State's office, 

Records In Auditor's' office, 105. 

Records in Governor's office, 94. 

Redemption records, 104-105. 
Languages, Indian, 389. 
Lanier, Sterling, 175. 
Las Casas, Historia, 213, 262. 
Laudonniere, Capt., 211, 259. 
Law and Lawyers in Ala., 300. 
Law Journals, files of, 308, 309. 
Law, John, family papers, 179. 
Law's Company, recoras of, 49, 179, 

Lay, Mrs. H. C, 163. 
Leflore, Greenwrod, 377. 
Legislature, original journals and 

acts, 98. 
Lewis, Maj. Wm. B., 177. 
Libraries in Alabama, 19. 

Ala. Pol. Institute, 205. 

Geological Survey, 145. 

Insane Hospital, 145. 

Supreme Court Library, 270. 

State Library, 270. 

University Library, 279. 

Y. M. C. A. of Mobile, 20, 

Ala. Hist. Soc. 202. 
Libraries, historical data in, 202. 
Limestone Co., History, 300. 
Lincacum Shoals crossing, 431. 
Lindsay, Gov. Robert, portrait, 272. 
Linguistic materials, 218. 
Lipscomb, Abner S., portrait, 272. 
Literary remains of public charac- 
ters, 157. 
Little, John B., 293. 
Little Leader, 3(8. 
Livingston Normal College for 

Girls, 25. 
Lodges, Masonic, histories, 141-143. 
Louisiana Historical Society, col- 
lections, 227. 
Relics, 228. 
Louisiana, historical literature, 

Louisiana, Papers, in Am. Phil. 
Soc, 209. 
In Congressional library, 211. 
Louisiana State aid to historical 
work, 29. 
Official records, 81. 
State library, 229. 
Newspapers, 208, ^16, 230, 254, 

McAdory, 'Inomas, Jr. and Sr., 301. 
McClellan, Robert A., 300. 
McCluney, Rev. Thomas, manu- 
scripts, 289. 
McCorvey, T. C, 27. 

History at State University, 21. 
McDavid, Robert P., 96. 
McDonnold, Rev. W. B., 217. 
McPerrin, Dr. John B., 314. 
McGilllvray, A., papers in N. E. 
Gen., 254. 

Personal papers, 179. 
McGilllvray, Daniel, 179, 251. 
McGrew's Shoals crossing, 422. 
McKee, John, 76, 158. 
McKinley, Jonn, 76, 158. 
McVay, Gov. Hugh, papers, 180. 
Madison County, History, 300, 301. 
Magoffin, James, papers, 180. 
Magne, Pierre, 49, 228, 229, 230. 
Mallett, J. "W., 187. 
Mails, 73, 417. 
Manchester, town of, 315. 
Manly, Dr. Basil, papers, 180. 
IVxanly, Dr. Charles, 180. 
Manly, Miss Louise, 26. 
Maps, Kohl collection, 75. 

Lands, 64. 'J' 

Parkman collection, 224. 

Howard collection, 224. 

Smith's collection, 312. 

Owen's collection, 301. 

Ga,-Ala. boundary, 81, 



Map of Selma, 291. 
In Sec. of States' office, 99. 
In St. Augustine Society, 268. 
Hamilton's Collection, 290. 
Street's collection, 290. 
Boundary, 65-b6. 
Margry, 49, 205; MSS. in La. Hist. 

SOC, 2'i^, ZZiJ. 

Marengo Co., history in manu- 
script, 293. 
Marion Co., History, 301. 
Marion (Perry Co.) Common- 
wealth, file of, 307. 
Marshall Co., History, 313, et. seq. 

In Confederate War, 315. 
Mar-shall, Rev. C. K., papers, 253. 
Martin, Gov. Joshua L., 191, pa- 
pers, 181. 

Portrait, 272. 
Maryland State aid to historical 

work, 29. 
Mason, Dr. Otis T., 269. 
Masonic Guide, file of, 308. 
Masonic Signet, file of, 307. 
Masons in Ala., ouicial records, 

Masonic local history, 140. 

Lodge records, 141. 
Liassachusetts Historical Society, 

collections, 231. 
Massachusetts State aid to histori- 
cal wotV I, 29. 
Meade, Cowles, 212. 
Medical Association of Ala., 112. 
Meek, A. B., 50, 311. 

Collections, 293. 
Meek, Benj. P., collections, 295. 
Melton, Charles, 419. 
Menendez, Yida, 256. 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Ala., official records, 135-6. 

Historical literature, 137. 

Southern University, 23. 

North Ala. Conf. College, 24. 

Tuscaloosa Female College, 25. 

Collections of Anson West, 316. 
Meredith, Wm. H., manuscripts, 

Methodist Protestant Church, offi- 
cial records, 137. 
Mexican "War records, 28, 329-32. 

Correspondence, 94. 
Mexican War, Miss, papers, 253. 
Mexico, archives, 48. 
Military literature In War Dept., 

Militia records, 328. 
Miller, L. D., 26. 

Miller, Stephen P., collections, 296. 
Mineral collections, 145. 
Mining Inspector, 93, 94. 

Mississippi, newspapers, 208, 216, 

inississlppl, State aid to historical 

work, 32. 
Mississippi State University, Clai- 
borne historical collections, 
Mississippi country, account of, 

Mississippi Territory, records in 
U. S. btate Dept., 75-7. 
Territorial development, 78-9. 
Official records, 81. 
Governors of, 165, 176, 185, 188. 
Census, 60. 

Claiborne papers, 251. 
Documents, 211. 
Mississippi Valley, MSS. as to, 227. 
Mobile and Girard Lands, 103. 
Mobile Advertiser, files of, 214. 
Mobile Argus, file of, 214. 
Mobile Branch bank, 103. 
Stock certificates, 105. 
Sixteenth Sec. account, Branch 
bank, 110. 
Mobile Nationalist, file of, 214, 227. 
Mobile Patriot, file of, 304. 
Mobile Register, files of, 214, 307. 
Mobile, Spanish records at, 48. 
Mobile Tribune, file of, 214. 
Mobile, public school records, 123. 
Catholic Church records, 130. 
Cotton Exchange records, 147. 
Land office, 148. 
U. S. Court records, 152. 
Official records, 117. 
City Codes, 118. 
Newspaper files, 207. 
Moka lusha, town, 376. 
Montgomery Advertiser, files of, 

120, 214, 274, 307. 
Montgomery, Alabama Journal, 

file of, 214. 
Montgomery Confederation, file of, 


Montgomery County, History, 301. 
Montgomery, land office records, 
99, 149. 

U. S. Court records, 152. 
Montgomery League of United 

Southerners, 197. 
Montgomery lodge records, 140. 
Montgomery Mail, file of, 274. 
Montgomery Post, 281. 
Montgomery, State capital, 88. 

State records removed to, 88. 

Burning of Capitol, 89. 

Newspaper files, 120. 

Sixteenth Sec. notes at Branch 
bank, 109. 

Stock certificates, 105. 


Report Alabama, HistQry Commission. 

Official records, 119. 
History, 119, 283. 
Portraits of Mayors, 120. 

Montiano, letters of, 256. 

Moody, Washington, 203. 

Mooney, James, description of 
Hawkins' papers, 222. 

Moore, Gov. A. B., letters, 103, 104, 
158; papers, 181. 
Portrait, 272. 

IVioore, Gov. Gabriel, portrait, 271, 

Moore, Gov.S. B., papers, 181. 

Morse, Rev. Jedediah, 60. 

Moshulitubbee, 379. 

Mounds in Ala., by counties, 357- 

Mount Vernon Papers, 94. 

Municipal records, 115. 

Munoz, 47, 262. 

Murphy, Gov. John, papers, 182, 
Portrait, 271. 

Museums in Alabama, 19-20. 
Ala. Pol, Institute, 205. 
Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Geological Survey, 145. 
Insane Hospital, 145. 
Of Com'r. of Agriculture, 112. 

Museum, Confederate; at Rich- 
mond, 209. 

Muster rolls, confederate soldiers, 

Nacogdoches, Archives of, 276. 

Nashwaiya, town, 383. 

Natchez Fencibles, 253. 

Natchez, historical papers, 251. 

iNatchez trace, 425. 

National Intelligencer, flies of, 217, 
231, 280, 310. 

Navarrette, 47, 262. 

Navy Department, official records, 

Nebraska, State aid to historical 
work, 32. 

Negro Institutions, 19, 25, 121, 125. 

Negro literature, 19-20, 125. 

New Eng. Historic Genealogical 
Soc, collections, 254. 

New Era, file of, 306. 

New Hampshire, State aid to his- 
torical work 32. 

New Jersey, State aid to historical 
work, 33. 

New York Historical Society, col- 
lections, 256. 

New York, newspapers, 274. 

New York public library, 177, col- 
lections, 261. 

New York State aid to historical 
work, 33. 

New York State Library, collec- 
tions, 263. 
Newspapers in Alabama, mem. of 

• list of in 1875, 109. 

City Clerk's office, Montg., 120. 

Mobile Cotton Exchange files, 

Am; Antiquarian Soc, files, 207. 

Cong, library, files, 213. 

Georgia Hisc. Soc, files, 223. 

Miss. State Ijniv. files, 254. 

Owen's' files, 304. 

St. Louis Mer. lib. files, 268. 

Sup. Ct. "Ala.,' files, 273. 

Tenn. Hist. Soc, files, 276. 

Bibliography of Ala. papers, 302. 

See also under names of States, 
places, and name of paper. 
Nittakechi, 384. 
Noble Institute, 25. 
Normal College, Florence, history 
work in, 24. 

Record of, 125. 
Normal College, Troy, 24. 
North Ala. Conference College. 

History work in, 24. 

Records of, 124. 
North Alabama Presbytery, 138. 
North Carolina, State aid to his- 
torical work, 33. 

Oaths and bonds, 103. 
Gates, Gov. Wm. C, portrait, 272. 
Odd Fellows, official records, 143. 
Officers, Confederate, 333. 
Official documents, 42. 
Officials, Registers in office pt Sec- 
retary of State, 101. 
Official Register, publicati o n 

recommended, 42. 
Ohio, State aid to historical work, 

Oka Talala, district, 383. 
Oklahoma, 384. 

Oldham, Robert, manuscripts, 288. 
Old Missionary, Marshall Co., 417. 
O'Neal, Gov. B. A., portrait, 272. 
Ordinance of Secession, 96, 273. 
Ormond, J. J., 203. 
Oriedo, 262. 
Owen, Hopson, 302. 
Owen, John, 302, 42s. 
Owen, Thomas, 302. 
Owen, Thomas M., 27, 44. 

Member Ala. Hist. Commission, 

Chairman of, 14. 

Editor of Report, 14. 

Administrative report, by, 13-44. 

Adjacent States, records, 78-83. 

Benevolent Institutions, 139. 

, Index. 


Church organizations, 128. 

Collectors and students, 282. 

Counties and county records, 

Educational instliutions, 121. 

Federal offices, 53. 

Federal offices in Ala., 148. 

History work of, 27. 

Liibraries and Societies, 202. 

Library of, 296. 

Literary remains of public char- 
acters, 157. 

Manusoripts of, 298-304. 

Municipalises, 115. 

Newspaper files of, 304-310. 

Prehistoric Works, 357. 

Records of Law's Co., 49. 

Preface to this vol., 5. 

State offices, records reported, 

War Records, 299, 304, 321, 353. 

Palfrey, John G., 234. 
Palmer, T. W., 279. 
Panton, Leslie & Co., papers, 182. 
Pardons, 94, 97. 
Paroles, 102. 

Parkman, Francis, manuscript col- 
lections, 223. 
Parsons, Silas, portrait, 273. 
Patent Office, official records, 68. 
Patriotic Organizations in Ala., 

See also particular names. 
Penicaut's Relation, 233, 265. 
Pensions, Alabama. 

Maimed soldiers, 105. 

Soldier's record, 107. 
Pensions, Bureau of, official rec- 
ords, 69. 

Who entitled to, 69. 

How to obtain proof, 69, 323. 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, 

collections, 267. 
Pennsylvania, newspapers, 309-10. 
Pennsylvania, State aid to histori- 
cal work, 34. 
Pennsylvania University, collec- 
tions, 268. 
Perkins, Nicholas, papers, 182. 
Peters, Thomas M., portrait, 273. 

Botanical collection, 146. 
Petrie, George, 22, 310. 

History work of, 26. 

History of Montgomery, 119. 
Pharmacy, Board of, 93. 
Pnelan, John D., portrait, 273. 
Philadelphia Gazette, file of, 280. 
Physicians, directory, 113. 
Pickens, Gen. Andrew, papers, 182, 

221, 223. 
Pickens, Gov. Israel, 94. 
Pickens, Samuel, papers, 183. 

I Pickens Co., History, 302. 
I Jrickans Republican, file of, 306. 
Piokensville Register, file of, 308. 
Pickett, Albert J., History of Ala., 
28, 203. 

Books at Univ. of Ala., 279. 

MSS. collection, 302, 312. 

MSS. cited, 88, 159, 161, 163, 164, 
166, 168, 169, 172, 173, 175, 186. 

Secretaries of State, 102. 

Mayors of Montgomery, 120. 

Yancey portraits, 191. 

A. P. I. Lib., 206. 

In Sup. Ct. library, 271. 

Hamilton's collection, 290. 

Owen's collection, 298. 
Pike, Gen. Albert, collections, 269. 
Fillings' Bibliographies, 219. 
Pitohlyn, John, 211. 
Poems, Meek's unpublished, 294. 

Smith's unpublished, 312. 
Poindexter, George, papers, 183, 

Pollard, H. C, 117. 
Poore, Ben: Perley, 53, 234. 
Porter, B. F., 127. 
Portraits of Alabamians, 43. 
Postmasters, records of, 73. 
Post Office Department, official rec- 
ords, 71. 
Powell, E. A., 300. 
Prehistoric Works in Ala., by 

counties, 357-369. 
Presbyterian Church in Ala., of- 
ficial records, 138. 

Historical literature, 138. 
Printing, Territorial, 171. 
Prison records, 97, 112. 
Private land claims, 64. 
Proclamations, record of, 97, 102. 
Provisional government, papers of, 

Public lands, records, 148. 
Public Record Office, London, 50. 
Puckshenubbee, 377. 
Pugh, James L., portrait, 273. 
Pushmataha, sketch of, 251, 384. 
Putnam, Herbert, 21u. 
Pythian Council, file of, 306. 

Quarantine records, 113. 

Accounts, 94. 
Quarles, R. T., 276. 
Quitman, Gen. John A., papers, 

235, et. seq. 
Quivira, 260, 264. 

Raines, C. W., 276. 
! Railroad Commissioners, officir.l 
I records, 113, 


Report Alabama History Commission. 

Railroad lands, 99. 

Ramsey, Rev. A. C, MSS. journal, 

Rate indexes. Railroad, 113. 
Rayburn, Gen. S. K., 314. 
Reconstruction, papers as to, 94, 

Record and Pension Office, war 

records in, 321. 
Red headed Will, 420. 
Reese, Warren, 120. 
Requisitions, 97, 103. 
Rhode Island, State aid to histori- 
cal work, 34. 
Rice, Samuel F., portrait, 273. 
Rich, O., collections, 262. 
Richards, E. G., 300. 
Riggs, Junius, 271. 
Riley, B. F., 18, 19, 26; collections, 

Riley, Dr. F. L., 171, 235, 375. 
Roads, Colonial, 424, American, 

Robins, Col. J., 353. 
Rodes, Gen. R. E., papers, 184. 
Ross., Jack F., 105, 184. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 220, 287. 
Rosters of Confederate soldiers 

from Ala., 332-3o3. 
Ryan, John, 108. 

St. Augustine, Pla-., 256. 

St. Augustine Institute, collec- 
tions, 268. 

St. Bernard College, 24. 

St. Clair Co., History, 300. 

St. Joseph's College. 
History work in, 24. 
Records of, 124. 

St. Louis Mercantile Library, col- 
lections, 268. 

St. Stephens crossing, 430. 

St. Stephens Halcyon, file of, 215. 

St. Stephens Historical Society, 19. 

St. Stephens Territorial capital, 

Saffold, Judge Reuben, papers, 184. 
Portrait, 272. 

Sahagun, documents, 262. 

Salt Springs and Salt hands, Supt. 
of, 93, 95. 

Samforu, Wm. P., 196, 201. 

Sanders, Gen. Jno. C. C, papers, 
Sanders, Dr. W. H., 184. 

Sanford, John W. A., portrait, 273. 

Sargent, Wlnthrop, 75, 81, 235, 251. 
Papers of, 185. 

Schanfarber, RabM Tobias, 135. 

School histories of Alabama, 26, 
284, 287. 

School documents, 55-58. 
Records of Supt. Ed., 108. 

History in schools, 21. 
Official records of, 121-127. 
Lands, 100, 109. 
School system, 108. 
Teachers, 109. 

Educational institutions, 121. 
Schowalter colleccion of shells, 146. 
Scottish Rite Library, collections, 

Screws, W. W., 26. 
Searcy, Dr. J. T., 144. 
Seay, Gov. Thomas, portrait, 272. 
Secretaries of State, portraits of, 

Secretary of State, Alabama, offi- 
cial records, 95-104. 
Seed, W. D'., 27. 
Selma city bond register, 105. 
Town Co. records, 292. 
Map, 292. 

Educational literature, 58. 
Selma Argus, file of, 308. 
Selma Messenger, file of, 308. 
Selma Times, file of, 308. 
Selma Sentinel, file of, 215. 
Senate of U. S., official records, 73. 
Sequoyah, inventor of Cherokee 

alphabet, 420. 
Seventh District Agricultural 

School, 25. 
Sevier, Gov. John, letters and pa- 
pers, 250. 
bevllle, archives at, 48, 268. 
Shea, John G., collections of, 220, 

Sheffield, Col. J. L., 314, 315. 
Shelby County Guide, 'file of, 308. 
Shells, collection of, 146. 
Shorter, Gov. John G., letters, 103, 
104, 159. 
Portrait, 272. 
Simancas, archives at, 48. 
Sims' Female Academy, 303. 
Six Towns District, Choctaw, 379. 
Sixteenth section records, 100, 101, 

107, 109, 111. 
Slaughter letter, 197. 
Smith, Buckingham, collections, 

210, 256. 
Smith, Dr. E. A., 26, 145. 

Library and collections, 312. 
Smith, Wm. R., collections, 282, 

Smithsonian Institution, collec- 
tions, 269. 
Smylle, Rev. J., correspondence, 

Societies, historical, data In, 202. 
Soil specimens, 112, 146. 
Soldier's records, 321, 328, 353. 
Somerset House, England, ar- 
chives at, 50, 



Spmervllle, H. M., portrait, 273. 
Sons of the Revolution In Ala., 19. 
Soto, documents as to, 256. 
South Alabama Presbytery, 138. 
South Carolina, newspapers, 209, 

Official records, 82. 
State aid to historical work, 34. 
Southern Crisis, file of, 191. 
Southern Democrat, file of, 191. 
Southern Historical Society, Con- 
federate collections, 270. 
Southern Home, file of, 307. 
Southern Musician, file of, 306. 
Southern University. 
Historical work in, 23. 
Records of, 124. 
Spanish-American Wa r of 1898, 

rolls of Ala. troops In, 352. 
Spanish archives, 47 227, 231, 256, 

262, 263, 268. 
Spanish explorations, documents 

as to, 256. 
Letters of explorers, 262. 
Spanish grants, 98, 151. 
Spanish MSS. as to La., 227. 
Spanish MSS. in Cong. Library, 

210, 213. 
Spanish MSS., in Mass. Hist. Soc, 

Spanish MSS. in N. Y. Pub. Lib. 

262, 263. 
Spanish MSS., John G. Shea, 220. 
Sparks, Jared, manuscripts, 224, 

Spirltu Santo Bay, 47. 
Spofford, A. R., 210. 
Spring Hill College. 

See St. Joseph's College. 
Springville Pre=bytery, 134. 
Stansel, M. L., 159, 181. 
State Bank, papers, 103. 
State Department, U. S., ofHclal 

records, 73. 
Historical material, 74. 
Appointments and Commissions, 

State papers, series of Alabama 

proposed, 38. 
State offices, Alabama, 87. 
State records, 87-94. 
States Rights Expositor, file of 305. 
Statistics, cotton, 147. 
Stephens, Rev. Wm. Bacon, collec- 
tions, 313. 
Stiggins MSS., 281. 
Stincards, 388. 

Stone, George W., portrait, 273. 
Stone, Lewis M., papers, 303. 
Street, O. D., 357-8; collections, 

Cherokee Southern boundary, 


Cherokee Towns and villages, 


Historical work, 26. 

Sturdivant, Rev. M. P., 135. 

Sumter Co., History, 300. 

Superintendent of Education, offi- 
cial records, 108. 

Supreme Council records, 50. 

Supreme Court of Ala., official rec- 
ords, 114. 

Supreme Court Library, collec 
tions, 270. 

Supreme Court, U. S., official rec- 
ords, 76. 

Surveys of Ala. lands, 98, 151. 

Swamp and overflowed lands, 92. 
94, 100, 101. 

Synod, Cumb. Pres., 133. 

Tait, Judge Charles, 151, papers, 

Tala Tamana town, 381. 
Talladega Co., xiistory, 300. 
Talladega Presbytery, 134. 
Talladega Quarterly Conference, 

records, 137. 
Taylor, Hannis, 48. 
Taylor, John B., cares for records, 

90-91, 108. 
Taylor, John D., 314. _ 
Taylor, Robt, P.. 134. 
Taylor, Thos. J., 300. 
Tax Commissioner, the State, 93. 
Tax records, 104, 107. 
Teachers, records of, 109, 121. 
Tefft, Israel K., collections, 316, 
Templars, the Good, 289. 
Tenlente's Memorias, 213. 
Ten Miles Shoals crossing, 431. 
Tennessee Company (old), 315. 
Tennessee Historical Society, col- 
lection, 274. 
Tennessee, newspapers, 208, 216, 

276, 310. 
Tennessee, official records, 82. 
Tennessee, State aid to historical 

work, 34. 
Temaux-Compans, 47, 262. 
Territorial Documents, 75-6. 

in Owen's collection. 
Texas, State aid to historical 

work, 34. 
Texas State Library, collections, 

Texas University, collections, 278. 
Tezozomoc, documents, 262. 
Thach, Charles C, 14. 27, 44; ap- 

poinment as a member of the 

Commission, 13. 
Sketch of A. P. I. library, 205. 
Sketch of A. P. I. records, 122. 
Report on Georgia archives, 81. 


Report Alabama History Commission. 

Thomas, Richard, letters and 

diary, 222. 
Thomassy's G-eologie Pratique, 

Thiriy-sixth Ala. Reg., 303, 345. 
Three Chopped Way, 426. 
Tombigbee settlements, 135. 
Toulmin, Judge ±iarry, papers, 186, 

Toulmin, Gen. T. L., and Harry, 

'iowns, recorus of, 115. 
Townships, school records, 109, 

Toyn, Gov. Patrick, 211. 
Trade routes, 423. 
Trails, Indian discussed, 422. 
Cherokee, 418, 419. 
Choctaw, 378, 430. 
Trans. Ala. Hist. Soc, 204. 
Translated records, 98, 151. 
Ireasurer or Ala., ofiBcial records, 

War records, 299, 304, 321, 353. 
Treasury Department, U. S., ofB- 

cial records, 76. 
Treasury Notes, Ala. State, 105. 
Troup, Gov. G. M., papers, 186, 212. 
Trumbull, J. H., 207, 269. 
Tuomey, Michael, 145, papers, 187. 
Tuscaloosa, American Mirror, file 

of, 215. 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama Sentinel, file 

of, 215. 
Tuscaloosa, capital at, 87. 
Tuscaloosa Clarion, file of, 280. 
Tuscaloosa Democratic Gazette, 

file of, 280. 
Tuscaloosa Female College, 25. 
Tuscaloosa Flag of the Union, file 

of, 280, 309, 305. 
Tuscaloosa Gazette, file of, 309. 
Tuscaloosa, Independent Monitor, 

file of, 215. 
Tuscaloosa Inquirer, file of, 304. 
Tuscaloosa Methodist Church reg- 
ister, 137. 
Station records. 137. 
Tuscaloosa Presbytery, 138. 
Tuscaloosa, records of sales of lots, 

Tuscaloosa, Rising Virtue lodge 

records, 140. 
Tuscaloosa State Intelligencer, file 

of, 215, 281, 305. 
Tuscaloosa State Journal and 

Flag, file of, 215, 309. 
Tuscaloosa, TJniv. records, 125. 
Tuscaloosa Water Co., 304. 
Tuscumbia Enquirer, file of, 215. 

Tuskegee Normail and Industrial 
Institute, 19. 

History work in, 25. 

Library of, 125. 

Records of, 125. 
Tutwiler, Dr. Henry, papers, 188. 
Twenty-seven Mile bluff, 130. 
Twickenham (Huntsville), 117. 

Uguina, Don iyntonio, collections 

by, 262. 
United States Courts in Ala., 151-3. 
United States Military Adacemy, 

collections, 279. 
University of Alabama, history 
work in, 21. 
Geological Survey, 145. 
Library of, 279. 
Records of, 125. 
Papers in Governor's office, 94. 
j^ands, 99. 

Papers in Supt. Education's of- 
fice, 109. 
Conf. patters in office of Adj. 

Gen., 334. 
Di. Manly's papers, 180. 
University Journal, files of, 309, 

University Monthly, files of, 309, 

Van Lear, A. J., 264. 

Vermont, State aid to historical 

work, 35. 
Vignaud, Henri_ collections, 316. 
"Virginia, State aid to historical 

work, 35. 
Volunteers, Confederate, 332. 

Wallace, Wm. McKee, manu- 
scripts, 289. 

Walker, A. J., portraits, 273. 

Walker, .John W.. papers, 188, 304. 

Walker, Percy, 173. 

War Department, records as to 
Ala. soldiers in, 321-323. 
How to obtain data from, 323. 
Official records, 77. 

War Department Library, collec- 
tions. 280. 

War of 1812, record of troops In, 
80, 81, 82, 83. 

War records in private hands, 353. 

Ward, Wm., 173. 

Warrenton, town of, 316. 

Warsaw crossing, 430. 

Washington Co., History, 304. 

Washington, D. C. newspapers, 
217, 231, 274, 280, 310. 



Washington Constitution, 274. 

Washington Daily American Or- 
gan, 274. 

Washington O-lobe, file of, 280. 

Washington Journal, file of, 280. 

Washington, U. 8. Telegraph, 280, 

Watts, Thomas H., 103, 104, 159, 
Portrait, 2(2. 

Weatherford, Wm., sketch, 251. 

Weaver, H. C, 143. 

Vvebb, Dr. DeWitt, 268. 

Weeks, Dr. S. B., 35. 

West, Dr. Anson, 26, 137. 
Collections of, 316. 

West Florida records, 50-52, 267. 
Owen's Collection, 304. 
(jhalmers papers, 262. 

Wetumpka Argus, file of, 192. 

Wetumpka State Guard, file of, 

Whitaker, Rev. W. C, 26. 

White, Gen. James, papers, 188. 

White's Recopilacion, 80. 

Whitfield, G. W., Jr., 26. 

Wier, Rev. Wm., ]Vj.d. Journal, 317. 

Wilkinson, Gen. James, 212, 221, 

Williams, Abner, 300. 

Williams, Robert, 75, 81, 211. 
Papers of, 176. 

Williamson, Capt. Dudley C, 353. 

Wills Valley Quarterly Conference 
records, 137. 

Winsor, Justin, 224. 

Winston, Gov. John A., portrait, 

Wisconsin, State aid to historical 

work, 35. 
Witherspoon, Rev. W. B., 133, 134. 
"Withers, Gen. J. M., papers, 189. 
Woman's Work, file of, 308. 
Wood, E. T., MSS., 317. 
Wood, H. D., llu. 
Wood, S. A., 189. 
Wood, Gen. S. A. M., papers, 189. 
Wood, W. B., 317. 
Woodward, Gen. Thomas, 175, 304. 
Wyeth, Judge Louis, 314. 
Wyman, William S., 14, 44, 26; ap- 
pointment as a member of the 
Commission, 13. 

Liorary ant. collections, 317. 

Sketches of Tuscaloosa, 300. 

Yancey, William L., 26, 273. 

Papers and Manuscripts, 189. 

Newspapers, 191. 

Bibliography, 192. 
Yanubbee, town, 378. 
Yazoo Fraud, papers, 223. 
Yowanni, 380. 
YuchI Indians, 389. 
Yxtlylxochitl, documents, 262. 

Zacharie, James S., 254. 
Zoological collections, 146. 
Zurita, documents, 262. 


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