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Full text of "History of Sabine Parish, Louisianna, by John G. Belisle;"

HISTORY OF 

SABINE PARISH, 

LOUISIANA 



BELISLE 



f 

317 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




THE WEYL BOOK FUND 

ESTABLISHED IN I935 
IN MEMORY OF 

JAMES SALLER WEYL 

OF THE CLASS OF I92.9 



^^. 



Cornell University Library 
F 377S115 B43 



History of Sabine Paf!?'jj,|i:,9f'S,'fn|?,f,|''y 



Clin 





3 1924 028 797 707 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924028797707 



HISTORY OF 

sabine: parish 



LOUISIANi%. 



♦♦ 



BY 



*♦ 



From tbe First Bxplorers and Settlers 
to tbe Present, 



THE SABINE BANNER PRESS 
1912 



^s 



COJVTi;jVTS. 



Page 

Preface 3 

Paradise of Lo 7 

Spirit of the Spaniards '. 13 

The French Explorers 21 

The French Settlers 81 

St. Denys and Natchitoches §9 

Shifting of the Flags 48 

Neutral Strip and Outlaws 56 

Neutral Strip and Pioneers 65 

Fort Jesup and the Frontier 79 

Creation of Sabine Parish 90 

Pioneer Customs and Society 93 

Parish Government • 102 

The"Unciyil" War 142 

Educational Progress 166 

The Press 195 

Towns and Villages 211 

Biographical Sketches 277 

The Churches 318 



PREFACE. 



In presenting this little volume to the 
public, the author has no intention of so- 
liciting applause or posing as a Gruizot or a 
Macauley, nor so much as lay claim to any 
literary honors. He was induced to publish 
the work for two reasons: First, he be- 
lieved that the book would result in some 
good to the parish ; and, secondly, he be- , 
lieved that the citizens of Sabine parish 
would appreciate the work. Disappoint- 
ment is not anticipated in either case. 

The annals of a single community are fre- 
quently as interesting, if not as important, 
as the history of a nation, yet the commun- 
ity is often neglected by the author of gen- 
eral history, and therefore the deeds of the 
pioneers are not recorded on the printed 
page. It requires the little parish to make 
the state just as much as it takes the separ- 
ate states to form our great republic. But, 
to our mind, the most important of all is the 
character of the citizenship which laid the 
foundation for the civilization o£ the par- 

3 



4 - PREFACE. 

ish, which has contributed to its progress, 
and takes a lively and unselfish interest in 
its advancement along all lines of peaceful 
and honest endeavor in the days to come. 
The real patriot is the man who is proud of 
the community in which he makes his 
home, and diligently strives to safeguard 
the welfare of his own neighborhood ; and 
this kind of a patriot may be depended up- 
on to rally to the defense of the entire na- 
tion whenever his services are required. 

The story of Sabine parish is a story of 
patriotism exemplified in the highest de- 
gree. From its beginning to the present 
time its real citizens have clung to those 
exalted ideals that go to make a splendid 
and a happy land. Many of their acts of 
devotion and sacrifice for their country 
will never be recorded in a book, but it is 
very proper that the things which have not 
yet been lost from memory should be pre- 
served for the inforfnation of the citizens 
of the future. 

Considerable space, in. the first part of 
this volume, is devoted to the relation of 
things which belong to the history of the 
state and the nation, and which are known 
to even the primary student of history, but 
we did not deem it inappropriate to begin 
at the beginning. The fact that the first 
permanent settlements in the present State 
of Louisiana, by both English and French, 



PREFACE. 5 

were made in Natchitoches parish, of which 
Sabine was formeHy a part, makes the sto- 
ries of the explorers, even in brief, very 
pertinent to this work. The data was 
gleaned from various authorities, but no 
attempt has been made to repeat details of 
questionable authenticity or to adorn the 
chronicles with flowery rhetoric. 

In compiling the history of th'i parish 
since its formation in '1843, we have re- 
ceived much valuable iLformation from 
good friends who have spent their lives in 
the parish, and they ar* given credit in the 
proper place in the book. The data per- 
taining to the government of the parish 
was taken from the records at the court 
house, but it was a difficult task to get this 
matter in order, and it is very possible that 
errors may be found, however earnest has 
been our endeavor to present everything 
accurately. We have omitted reference to 
events, especially in the annals of the par- 
ish courts, which might revive unpleasant 
memories in the minds of any of our citi- 
zens, and ha-ve endeavored to present every 
toi)ic in an unprejudiced manner. 

The work was not attempted for profit, 
and while its publication was a very expen- 
sive undertaking, its favorable reception by 
the public will repay The Author. 

Many, La., Nov. 1, 1912. 




CouBT House, Many, La. 



Xhe Paradise of Lo. 



Lio, the poor Indian! whose untutored mind 
Sees God in clouds, or hears Him in the wind; 
His soul, proud science never taught to stray 
Far as the solar walk or milky way; ' 
Yet simple nature to his hope has given 
Behind the cloud-topt hill an humbler heav'n; 
Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, 
Some happier island in the wat'ry waste. 
Where slaves once more their native land behold, 
No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold.. 
To Be, contents his natural desire, 
He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's flre; 
But thinks admitted to that equal sky, ) 
His faithful dog shall bear him company. 

Alexandeb Pope. 

"PJESPITE the labors and researches of 
-'-^ learned antiquarians and "owlish" 
scientists in their efforts to find the origin 
of the American Indian, the 
matter re tnf ins one of those 
profound secrets of the un- 
relenting' past which will be 
forever hidden. The line- 
ag*^ of Lois veiled in a mys- 
tery as stupendous as is the 
history of the wonderful country in which 
the discoverers from the old world found 
him. Roman history begins with the story 
of Romulus and Remus, that of Gieece with 
the legends of the gods and the Argonauts, 
and the people of every ancient nation fur- 




8 PARADISE OF LO 

nish some weird and romantic story of 
their beginning, but the first authentic 
chapter in the annals of the Indian prac- 
tically begins with the coming of Christo- 
pher Columbus to the western world (Oct. 
12, 1492). All which concerns the Red 
Man previous to that event rests on a foun- 
dation of uncertainty and conjecture. 

When the illustrious navigator anchored 
his little vessels on one of the Bahama Is- 
lands, he believed that be had arrived in 
the East Indies, and the copper-colored 
people who came to greet him were called 
Indians. By that name the remnant of the 
once famous race is still known, whether 
they are Piruans of the tropica or citizens of 
the State of Oklahoma. The news of the 
successful voyage of Columbus spread rap- 
idly over Europe and many adventurers 
flocked to the new found land. The In- 
dian everywhere greeted the strangers from 
the East. In the country now embraced in 
the United States and Canada there were 
many distinct tribes, but with the excep- 
tion of the Zuni and Pueblo tribes of New 
Mexico, and the Piruans and Aztecs, who 
were more advanced in civilization, all de- 
pended chiefly on hunting and fishing for 
their sustenauee ; but tribal wars seem to 
have occupied most of their attention. 
Historians place the" number oi Indians in 
North America at the time of the disco v- 



PARADISE OF LO 9 

ery at about 400,000, but as census taking 
at that period was not assisted by govern- 
ment bureaus, and as in many instances 
the explorers and early settlers were more 
interested in counting the dead than the 
live Indians, the statements as to their num- 
bers can be accepted as only casual guesses. 
It is not the purpose of the present writer 
to attempt to delve into the hazy past o£ 
the Indians, nor to speculate on the prob- 
able social and intellectual status of their 
supposed preldecessors, the Mound-Build- 
ers and the Cyclopean race. We leave this 
speculative field to ambitious scientists, ne- 
ologic naturalists and fossil hunters, who 
may furnish the world with a wealtK of 
wholesome thought, but, like the pursued 
har^, ^hej make countless paths over an 
expansive field and ultimately return to 
the point where the chase began. The 
only thing we know for a certainty of the 
Red Man is that the European discoverers 
found him here in a land of plenteous 
beauty, a land in harmony with his nature 
where our purposeful Creator had placed 
him. He was found in tented villages, on 
mountain and plain, and he freely trod the 
shady sylvan avenues of Louisiana and 
quenched his thirst at the refreshing 
springs of our own Sabine parishj breath- 
ing that air of freedom which knows no 
conqueror save the mighty messenger of 



10 PARADISE OF LO 

death. The noble fire of freedom whcih 
burned in the savage breast was apparently 
transmitted to his "pale-faced" successors, 
for America became the home of real free- 
dom, where the despot dare not intrude. 

It is probable that many of the disasters 
which befell the pathfinders were due to an 
improper understanding of the nature of 
the Indians. The Red Men were savages, 
but all that went to make up their charac- 
ters was not dross. Within their bronzed 
breasts there often beat hearts as humane 
and generous as could be found among peo- 
ple accredited with a higher civilization. 
They had no written language, no knowl- 
edge other than that gleaned from silent 
nature, but they had unwritten laws which 
were really democratic in character. They 
had no kings, but the supreme authority of 
the various tribes was vested in a chief and 
couhcilmen, which positions were elective, 
and all were subject to "recall" from their 
places of authority at the will of the mem- 
bers of their tribe. The Indians were in- 
deed cruel and revengeful, and the readers 
of history are appalled at the atrocities at- 
tributed to them, but as a whole we fail to 
see wherein they were more barbaric than 
the early European tribes or more revenge- 
ful than some of the more modern people 
who boast of a christian civilization. In 
their confiicts with the white man thev 



PARADISE OF LO 11 

were more often on the defense than the 
aggressors. They greeted the white strang- 
ers with friendship and the pipe of peace, 
but when they saw their lands and hunting 
grounds being appropriated by the intrud- 
ers, they resisted with the same vigor that 
the A.mericans today would put forth if a 
stronger nation should attempt to wrest their 
homes from them or menace their "pur- 
suits of happiness." "The Indian was 
moral in the highest degree and was never 
guilty of those weaker and meaner vices 
which stamped and destroyed the charac- 
ter of the ancient Roman and have left 
their deep impress upon modern France 
and the larger cities of our own civiliza- 
tion."* Never was a savage yet intellect- 
ual race placed in a country more harmo- 
nious with their natures than the American 
Indians. Their hunting expeditions were 
rewarded with abundant game, their culti- 
vated lands in tiuies of peace yielded corn, 
and some of the Southern tribes enjoyed 
fruits and vegetables. War was the cause of 
their worst woes, but it is a sad reflection 
that war has ever been the baneful heritage 
of the human race. 

It is a fact worthy of note that some of 
the most intelligent tribes of North Amer- 
ica lived m the South, among them being 
the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws and 

♦Hopkins' History of Canada. 



12 PARADISE OF LO 

Setninoles, and their descendants are to- 
day citizens of Oklahoma and splendid 
examples of th3 response of their race to 
the edicts of civilization. Many men, in 
whose veins flows Indian blood, have at- 
tained distinction and held exalted public 
positions, and at least two have served in 
the United States senate. With the excep- 
tion of a few Western tribes that still retain 
some of their ancient customs, all are now 
"citizens and self-supporting." The only 
evidence that the Indian once made his 
home in the forests of Sabine parish is the 
finding of flint arrow heads at various 
places, presumably his favorite hunting 
grounds. The race is rapidly losing its. 
weird and spectacular individuality, and in 
a few more decades the real American will 
have passed away. But he will live in story 
and song, and the names of many towns and 
rivers will ever be silent reminders of this 
primitive American people. 

The white man, with his stupendous and 
dazzling civilization, now occupies the Par- 
adise of Lo. 



Spirit of the Spani'atfdto!. 



Bl Conquistadob.* 
Bold wanderer, in burnished mail, 

Treading our new-found sphere, 
Opening to us our mystic vale, 

Deathless, forever dear, 
To memory is the hero's name; 

So haply shall b6 thine ; 
The conquests 'that exalt thy fame ' 

On Vega's page they shine. 
Thy soul" of -daring and the lance, 

Estefemed the pride of Spain, 
These that shall gladde;ji fair romance 

Let not the muse disdain. 
But' were thycoifiquesis but a dream. 

Thy name will deathless be,' 
Aye, Soto; while the Father Stream 

KblW o'er thee to the sea, 
Its billows shall'witheiidie^s dole' ■ 

Beoairthe explorer brave. 
And thou, apjproved of mighty soul, 

Can''st bbait a hero's gfaVe. 

T\/' HEN the Glreat Admiral wasprepar- 
^ ^' ing for his departure oii the mem- 
orable voyage which culminated in the 
discovert of tlie Westefawoi'ld, heexperi- 
en6ed much difficulty in procuring sailors 
to tia'ke his little fleet;' across the then un- 
mapped and unknown' Atlantic. But wlben 
he returned to' Spain with' his wonderful 
stories of discovery, hundreds of adventur- 

♦These lines are from an epic poem entitled "Lou- 
isia'hafs," published' by T. ' C. Armstrong, Esq/, of 
Pleasant Hill, La., in l9ok'.' 

13 



14 SPIRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 

ers, people from eveiy station in life, were 
anxious to go and share in the fruits of his 
years .of study and labpr. In the course of 
a few years many' expeditions were equip- 
ped by various-maritime nations of Europe 
to seek for the treasures which were sup- 
posed to be found in the new land, but the 
Spanish explorers, during the first half a 
century following the discovery, were most 
aggressive in the search for gold. It is a 
melancholy admission, but the acquire- 
ment of wealth has been the irrepressible 
passion and paramount aim of all civilized 
or even semi-civilized peoples. The down- 
fall of every great nation in ancient and 
medieval times may be attributed, directly 
or indirectly, to their greed for gold and 
madness for riches. Historians have been 
ever ready to point a finger of scornful re- 
buke at the ambitious Spaniards for covet - 
iting wealth and its potent power and haz- 
zarding their lives in the pursuit of con- 
quests, for apparently no other purpose 
than to satisfy their greed for gold. We 
would not attempt to apologize for the mis- 
deeds of the Spaniards, but justice demands 
that we accord them that honor and glory 
which are due them for the discovery of 
the Western Continent. Columbus, it is 
true, was an Italian, but to the indomitable 
sovereigns of Castile and Aragon is due the 
praise for aiding the discoverer in the ex- 



SPIRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 15 

ecution of his plan. The greed of the 
Spaniards could scarcely have been more 
formidable than the desire for opu- 
lence and the love for power mauifested 
among the people of the world's greatest 
nations today. Our present generation of 
Americans admit their love for money, and 
some, of both high and low repute, procure 
it by means that are anything but holy. 

At the time that Earope was startled by 
the story of the discovery of America, the 
Spanish sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, had just completed their conquest of 
Gi-anada and driven the Mohammedan 
power, which had long menaced their 
kingdoms, into Africa. These two events 
mark the passing of medieval Europe and 
the arrival of the time when Christian- 
ity should "measure the earth," when the" 
ligh t of civilization was to be lifted from 
"undpr the bushel." The spirit of the 
Spaniards in this age awakened the sleepy 
nations and inspired them with new life. 
The glory of Charlemagne's reign had been 
almost forgotten, and his magnificent em- 
pire had disintegrated umil nothing re- 
mained but petty kingdoms which con- 
stantly stood with unsheathed sword to 
maintain their existence, European civil- 
ization was at a standstill. The nations 
Still went to war on pretexts as trivial as 
did the savages in the wilds of America. 



16 SPIRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 

The spirit of Christianity was manifest on 
every hand, it is true, but the clannish 
greed of ambitious princes for temporal 
gain retarded religious as well as educa- 
tional progress. England, Germany and 
France, which later contributed to the 
greatest civilization the world has ever 
known, were yet little better than nations 
of clans. They had as yet no literature 
and their field for individual endeavor was 
confined to their own clan. The discovery 
of America at once revolutionized the gov- 
ernment and society of Europe. The sov- 
ereigns looked to the West for new em- 
pires and the individual ventured across 
the sea and risked his life among savages 
in quest of homes and fortunes. The spir- 
it -of the Spaniards opened this mighty 
realm of opportunity, but in the end their 
empire is no larger than before Columbus 
sailed from Palos on his first voyage. 

The year 1500 found Spain in possession 
of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and the mi- 
nor islands of the West Indies. The Cab- 
ots, who were Italians in the service of 
England, had explored the eastern coast of 
North America from Labrador to Florid'^. 
Amerigo Vespucci had visited South Amer- 
ica, and the entire new world had been 
named in his honar. But the Spaniards 
were yet in the lead in the work of explo- 
ration, promptly claiming for the King- 



SPIRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 17 

dom of Spain, all land in which they set up 
theii- flags, as well as immense territories 
which discoverers and conquerors pre- 
sumed to exist. 

The first attempt at Spanish exploration 
in North America was made in 1512. 
Ponce de Leon, who was a companion of 
Columbus on one of his voyages, sailed 
from Porto Kico and the land which he 
reached was called Florida. Ponce de 
Leon was an old man, a veteran of the 
wars in Granada. The voyage which re- 
1 11.1 ted in the discovery of Florida was in- 
spired by stories of a fountain which would 
restore youth to the aged said to be found 
there. The reports of this wonderful 
fountain were much like the advertisements 
of the modern patent medicines, quack 
doctors aud breakfast foods, yet many peo- 
ple who pin their faith to these. things are 
prone to smile at the credulity of the old 
Spaniards. Hostile Indians cornpelied 
Ponce de Leon's expedition to return to 
Porio Rico. Five years later, while again 
in quest of the "fountain of perpetual 
youth" in Florida, he was wound^ed by an 
arrow and died. Other unsuccessful at- 
tempts were made to conquer the natives 
of Florida, among them being the ex- 
pedition of Pineda, who discovered the 
mouth of the Mississippi River, and was 
the first explorer of Louisiana. About this 



18 SPIRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 

time (1521) Coi'tez had completed his eon- 
quest of Mexico and annexed that yast em- 
pire to the Spanish crown. 

In 1528, Narvarez organized an expedi- 
tion of five ships and three hundred men 
in Cuba and sailed for Florida to hunt for 
gold. Indian arrows reduced this army to 
three men, who, after roaming through 
wildernesses and among savages for nine 
years, finally reached Mexico. 

More than a decade elapsed ere the Span- 
ish conquerors essayed to exploit the ter- 
ritory embracing the Southern states. In 
1539, Hernando DeSoto, governor of Cuba, 
sailed from Havana with a splendid army 
of one thousand men with the intention of 
conquering the Indians of Florida and ex- 
ploring the unknown country in the inte- 
rior. DeSoto and many of his soldiers had 
assisted Pizaro in his spectacular conquest 
of Feru and were hardened veterans. Their 
equipment included horses, canon and the 
moat effective arms which the times af- 
forded. Never did a proud and confident 
army experience an end more humiliating 
or pathetic than that of DeSoto. He 
landed in Florida and after wandering for 
three years in a wilderness which now em- 
braces the states of ALlabama, Georgia and 
Mississippi, he arrived at the Great Kiver. 
His army had been reduced by conflicts 
with Indian^ and fevers to about five bun- 



SPIRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 19 

dred men. Rafts were constructed and the 
army crossed over to the west bank of the 
river at a point in what is now Arkansas. 
He then marched west and north as far as 
the mountains of Arkansas and Eastern 
Oklahoma. Turning: southward, at the end 
of a year, he again reached the Mississippi 
at the mouth of Red River Here, in May, 
1542, the conquerer became ill of fever and 
died, and his body was buried in the great 
river which he discovered. DeSoto had 
planned to build boats and return -to Mex- 
ico or Cuba for a fresh army with which to 
continue his conquest and search for gold. 
Sickness and the arrows and tomahawks 
of the savages had reduced the army to 
about one -third of the number which had 
«et forth on the expedition. Before his 
death DeSoto assigned the command of his 
army to his faithful lieutenant, Luis de 
Moscoso. The men were now weary of the 
hardships and privations which they had 
suffrtred, as well as the constant attacks of 
Indians which reduced their numbers, and 
were anxious to return to their hom^s. 
Moscoso according to their wishes decided 
to lead the army to Mexico and the march 
started., Tnis meant more disasters, more 
battles with Indians. They marched west- 
ward through Louisiana, fighting Indians 
as they went. It is recorded that Mosco- 
so's band first halted for a rest at the vil- 



20 SflRIT OF THE SPANIARDS 

lage of the Natchitoches Indiaos near the 
present city of Natchitoches. The band 
marched about five hundred miles west- 
ward into Texas, but becoming discouraged 
by the constant opposition of hostile In- 
dians, the unfortunate explorers decided to 
return to the Mississippi River and adopt 
the plan proposed by DeSoto to reach the 
habitation of their countrymen The men 
were ne'irly completely exhausted from in- 
cessant marches, without sufficient food 
to nourish their tired bodies, and many be- 
came ill and died. They finally reached 
the Missisissippi and, after three months' 
hard labor, the boats were completed and 
the voyage down the stream begun. Ar- 
riving at the mouth of the river, they sailed 
in their open boats along the coast of Lou- 
isiana and Texas and after fifty-three days, 
in the midst of a storm which threatened 
their destruction, they beached their fleet 
of rude sail boats on the coast of Mexico. 
Shortly afterward they reached the capital 
of the country which Cortez had conquered 
only a score of years before. 



The French E^xplovevs. 



And there beneath the pine he sees 
A vision of old memories ; 
At thought of realms he help'd to win, 
Of his sweet France, of kith and kin. 

— Theroulde. 

rpHE disastrous end of DoSoto's expedi- 
-*- tion forever discouraged the Span- 
iards from making exploits in the valley of 
the Misssissippi. They founded San Au- 




LaSALLE. 

guestine, Florida (1563), on a veritable 
field of blood and conquered the Indian 
tribes of New Mexico, but no more armies 

21 



22 THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 

from Spain came to meet the fierce Indian 
tribes of the Southern states. Spanish 
priests subsequently established missions 
in Texas and West Louisiana, but the con- 
querers were not in the vanguard; their 
swords were there unsheathed only in self- 
defense. A century had elapsed since the 
exploits of DeSoto ere a white man piloted 
a boat on the Mississippi or braved the 
pathlesb forests which extended from either 
bank. In that hundred years Canada had 
been settled by the Fretlch, English colo- 
nies dotted the entire Atlantic coast, the 
Spaniards had found their treasures of gold 
in Mexico and Peru, and their ffalleons (un- 
less overtaken by "Admiral" Drake or 
other English privateer* and gently relieved 
of their rich cargoes) peacefully ploughed 
through the waters of the ocean from 
America and the Orient to the ports of 
Spain. The Castilian dream of wealth and 
empire had become a reality and the foun- 
dation for our great republic was being laid 
on the Atlantic coast. 

During the last years of the seventeenth 
century French missionaries blazed paths 
through the country bordering on the Great 
Lakes westward nearly to the source of the 
Father of Waters, but Louisiana was yet 
unknown to civilization. The explorers 
who had reached the Great Lakes often 
heard stories of a great river further west 



THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 23 

and believed that it flowed into the Pacific 
Ocean. One of the early missionaries to 
arrive on the western shore of Lake Supe- 
rior was Father Marquette. He had heard 
of the stories about the Mississippi and in 
the sprinoj of 1673 set out on a voyage of 
discovery, accompanied by Louis Joliet, a 
valiant French fur trader. Grliding down 
the Wisconsin, they reached the Missis- 
sippi River. They continued their voyage 
as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas 
and returned to the North the same year. 
Joliet proeeede 1 to Canada to convey the 
news ol their discoveries, but the venerable 
priest remained at his mission and spent 
his last hours preaching to the Indians. 
The kindness and humility of Marquette 
won the savage heart, while the armed 
conquerors stirred up the spirit of reyenge. 
The calumet was Marquette's passport 
amx.ng the Indians and his pious instruc- 
tions were alivays welcomed by them. 

Joliet's report of his voyage with Mar- 
quette was spread throughout Canada. No 
one received the news more eagerly than 
Eobert Cavalier de LaSalle, a young fur 
trader and governor of Kingston, Canada. 
He had just returned from an expedition 
to Lakes Erie and Huron and the Ohio 
River. In his mind was evolved a vast 
plan to explore the Mississippi to its mouth 
and claim the country on the west side for 



24 THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 

France. He planned to erect forts at nec- 
essary intervals to protect the country from 
the influence of the English whose colonies 
had now extended westward to the Ohio 
K/iver. LaSalie went to France, submitted 
his plans to King Louis XIV. and secured 
the money necessary to proceed with the 
work of exploration. While in France he 
enlisted the services of Henri Tonti, a 
young Italian, whose loyal and faithful 
services were of much assistance to the 
great pathfinder and whose daring deeds 
adorn the annals oi Louisiana. 

Returning to Canada, LaSalle made two 
unsuccessful attempts to get his expedition 
under way. Desertions from his party 
caused repeated embarrassments and the 
loss of his boats and provisions exhausted 
his funds. But he was not the man who 
who would abandon a task once under- 
taken. The stories of his trials and priva- 
tions bear testimony to his wonderful de- 
termination and fortitude. The third 
expedition finally arrived at the Mississippi 
and, after experiencing many adventures, 
reached the village of the Kappas or Ark- 
ansas Indians, near Chickasay^ Bluffs, 
about twenty miles above the villages which 
Marquette had visited a few years before. 
Here, on March 13, 1682, LaSalle, with 
much pomp and ceremony, took possession 
of all the land through which flows the 



THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 25 

Mississippi and its tribut'iries for the King 
of France and erected a wooden pillar which 
contained the foUowina: inscription: 

"Louis the Great King of France and Na- 
varre, 13th March, 1682." 

This was the real biithday of Louisiana. 
The occasion was made a feast day by La- 
Idalle, and historians assure us that the In- 
dians joined in the celebration. The ban- 
quet may have served to stimulate the en- 
thusiasm of the Indians, but as their few 
hours' acquaintance with the French was 
scarcely sufficient to enable them to under- 
stand the language of the explorers, it is 
possible that the Kuppas joined in the real 
spirit of the occasion much as a Dahomey 
negro would at a modern political conven- 
tioL However, this was the biithday of 
Louisiana, and it is a sad commentary on 
our gratitude for the services of one of 
America's greatest pioneers that the anni- 
versary of the christening of one of the 
grandest countries on earth is apparently 
forgotten. LaSalle was, indeed, one of the 
greatest French explorers, and he lit the 
torch ot civilization in America's richest 
field. Departing from the Indian vill.tg ', 
he paddled toward the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi, which he reached April 9, 1682 
Here, with much ceremony, he again took 
possession of Louisiana in the name of the 
King of France. He then began his re- 



26 THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 

tura voyage to Canada. The following 
wiuter he built a fort on the site of an Il- 
linois Indian village which he named Fort 
St. Louis. The following spring he turned 
the fort over to the command of Tonti and 
went to Canada. la the autumn of 1683 he 
went to France, reported his discoveries in 
person to the king and unfolded his plans 
for colonizing the vast territory. LaSalle 
was received with much favor at the French 
Court and His Majesty readily consented to 
grant any favor that would aid in the ad- 
vancement of the enterprise. An expedi- 
tion consisting of one hundred' soldieris and 
as many colonists, with necessary equip- 
ment and two ships, were enlisted for the 
voyage to Louisiana. It was LaSalle's in- 
tention to steer directly for the mouth of 
the Mississippi River and thus avoid the 
long and weary journey by way of Canada 
and down the river. Among the members 
of the expedition were LaSalle's brother, 
Abbe Cavalier, and Henri Joutel, a priest. 
All went well with the voyagers until 
they reached Santo Domingo and started 
to sail across the Gulf of Mexico. Instead 
of steering to the mouth of the Mississippi 
they went westward, passing it, and were 
lost in the Galf. Land was finally reached 
at a point in Southeast Texas, but, believ- 
ing that they had only reached the coast of 
Florida, LaSalle ordered the vessels to con- 



THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 27 

tiiiue a westward course and they finally 
anchored In what is now known as Mata- 
gorda Bay. In crossing the gulf LaSaJle, 
lost one of his vessels and while engaged in 
the task of lauding the colonists an- 
other ship was sunk. And what made the 
situation extremely pathetic, many of the 
colonists were stricken with fever and died. 
In the face of dissensions in the colony 
and the attacks of hostile Indians, XjaSalle 
constructed, a fort. But he was anx- 
ious to find the Mississippi River and sev- 
eral expeditions were made in quest of it, 
on one of which the last ship was lost. 
There now remained less than half of, the 
colonists that had sailed from France, with 
hopes of finding fortunes in the New 
World, and these were on the verge of de- 
spair. The loss of clothing and such arti- 
cles as they needed to begin their pioneer 
life with, as well their provisions, made 
their condition a sad one. At last LaSalle, 
with seventeen companions started east in 
search of the Mississippi. He had planned 
to go to the river, build boats and proceed 
to Canada apd procure assistance for the 
remnant of his destitute colony. They 
underwent many hardships from the 
start and there was much dissatisfaction 
among the men They finally arrived at 
the Trinity River where lived the Cenis 
Indians. Here the great explorer was as- 



28 THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 

sassinated, in a most cowardly manner, by 
one of his men named Dehaiit. Following 
a quarrel, Dehaut and another man had 
murdered a companion the day before and 
killed LaSalle to avoid censure for their 
crime. Later the assassins quarreled at an 
Indian village and both were killed Father 
Jout^l and LaSalle's brother, with five 
other members of the party, started across 
the country and succeeded in reaching the 
Mississippi, then proceeded to Canada and 
France. LaSalle was buried near 
the scene of his tragic end and Texaus 
have marked the spot where his remains 
are supposed to rest. 

An effort was later made by the noble 
Tonti to lead an expedition to rescue the 
little band of colonists left at Matagorda 
Bay, biit when he arrived at the village of 
a tribe of Indians known as the Caddoda- 
quious-on Red River, all but one of his fol- 
lowers had deserted him, and hearing that 
the colonists had b>en killed by Indians- 
he abandoned his enterprise. While La- 
Salle's attempts to colonize the Louisiana 
country resulted in failure, his plans still 
liviid. King Louis XIV. had become dis' 
couraged by reason of the failure of La* 
Salle's expedition and had decided to at^ 
tempt to send no more colonists to Lou- 
isiana, but his chief advisers, Ponchartrain 
and Maurepas, induced him to proLect.the 



THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 29 

territory. The king had just concluded a 
treaty of pf ace with Great Britain, still the 
English colonists? were gradually pushing 
their settlements westward and had, in tsict, 
alreidy entered territory claimed by France. 
In 1699, a rumor that the English intended 
to send a flt^et to the mouth of the Missis- 
sisippi induced the French king to send an 
expedition to Louisiana in command of 
Charles LeMoyne Sieur do Iberville, who 
had won distinction as a commander in 
the French navy. Iberville was reared in 
Canada and was familiar with pioneer life. 
5e Was accompanedby his younger brother, 
Bienville, and both shared in the glories of 
Louisiana history. After exploring the 
country, he at last found the mouth of the 
Mississippi and proceeded up the stream as 
far as the villages of the Houma and Bay- 
ougoula Indians. Iberville then decided 
to go to France and left a gallant French- 
man, Souvole, and Bienville in command 
(if the fort. During Iberville's absence the 
commandants employed their time in j^m- 
proving the fort on Mobile Bay. 

In the winter of 1701 Iberville returned 
from France. A party of immigrants ac- 
C( mpanied him, includin-^ his brother, 
Chatpauguay, and Juchereau de feit. Denys, 
a gallant 30u,ng Canadian, who subsequently 
founded the toWu of Natchitoches and 
whose deeds added glory to the French 



30 THE FRENCH EXPLORERS 

regime in Louisiana Iberville now planned 
to build a fort on the Mississippi River, 
about fifty miles from its mouth, and it 
was named Fort Maurepas. Here he was 
visited by parties of Canadians who had 
come down the river, amomg them being 
Tonti, the former companion of LaSalle. 
The exploration of Red River was now un- 
dertaken, but after a visit to several In-, 
dian tribes along the Mississippi, Iberville 
became ill at a village of the Tensas In- 
dians and returned to Port Maurepas. Bi- 
enville assumed command of the Red River 
expedition and with a small party of" Ca.- 
nadians and Indians began the march. Af- 
ter swimming swollen streams, wading 
swamps aad enduring many privations, the 
party arrived at the village of the Natchi- 
toches Indians, near the aite of the present 
city of Natchitoches (March 28, 1701). 
From that place, going up the rivei', they 
passed through the villages of the Yataches 
and some time during the month of April 
reached the country of the Caddadaquious 
tribe in the section which embraces the 
present parish of Caddo. Beinville then 
returned to Fort Maurepas and later assisted 
Iberville in builing a fort on Mobile Bay. 
Iberville again went to France, leaving Bi- 
enville, in command of the colony. He 
never returned, having died in Cuba four 
yeurs later. 



The Fpench Settlers. 



Some men with swords may sweep the field, 

And plant fresh laurels where they kill; 
But their strong nerves at last must yield; 
They tame but one another still; 
Early or late 
They stoop to fate, 
And must give up their murmuring breath 
When they, pale captives, creep to death. 

—Shirley. 

/^N assuming command of the colonists, 
^^ Bienville endeavored to make their 
lot more chee»"f ill, and to keep peace with 
the various Indian tribes. War had again 
broken out between Prance and England, 
and colonists from the Carolinas were ac- 
tive among the Indians inciting them to 
hostilities against the French settlers. The 
French maintained a system of communi- 
cation with Canada by means of the Mis- 
issippi and the Great Lakes. Missions and 
trading posts were established along the 
river and lakes. Much of the credit for 
these enterprises belonged to the labors of 
Tonti, who was known as "the man with 
the iron hand." The war between Eng- 
land and Prance afforded ample excuse for 
the English colonists to harrass the French 
settlements. The real issue between the 
colonists of the two nations was trade su- 

31 



32 



THE FRENCH SETTLERS 



premaey with the Indians, and traders of 
neither nation had any scruples about in- 
citing the savages against the other. The 
incursions of the Alabama tribe induced 
Bienville to make war on them, and later 
against the strong Chickasaw tribes. In 
these campaigns he was assisted by Tonti 
and St. Denys, but desertions of Indian 
allies handicapped the French and perma- 
nent peace could not be secured For six 





■7 S.!* '-, 









BIENVILLE. 
years, by reason of the war in Europe, 
only two ships arrived from France with 
supplies for the colony. English priva- 
teers patrolled the West Indies and France 
was powerless to raise the blockade. Cha- 
tauguay inanaged to elude the British and 
go to Cuba and Santo Domingo and return 



THE FRENCH SETTLERS 33 

with food and clothing for the colonists, 
but these were soon exhausted. At last 
Bienville appealed to the home govern- 
ment. A new governor, DeMuys, was sent 
to take his place as governor, bat he died 
while on the voyage to America and M. 
Diron D'Artaguette arrived and assumed 
control of Louisiana. France had become 
bankrupt by incessant wars and the king 
now leased Louisiana to a banker named 
Antoine de Crozat and left the destitute st^t- 
tlers in charge of another governor, Lemon - 
the Cadillac. Bienville had been prevented 
from leaymg the colony and was retained 
to fight the Natchez Indians whose depre- 
dations were a source of constant horror to 
the settlers. The administration of Cadil- 
lac was conducted for the single purpose of 
yielding profit to the banker who was 
backing it. Merchandise of various kinds 
was sent from France and shrewd traders 
were sent to trade with the Indians. Bi- 
enville and St Denys made expeditions up 
Red River to checfe inroads of the Span- 
iards in French territory, in 1714, the ex- 
ploits of St. Denys being recorded in an- 
other chapter. On his return to Mobile, 
Bienville found that Governor Cadillac had 
been recalled, and he was left in charge of 
affairs until the arrival of the new gov- 
ernor, De le Epinay, The Crozat plan had 
proved unprofitable and the banker turned 



34 THE FRENCH SETTLERS 

the affairs of the colony back to the king. 
The km% now turned Louisiana over to a 
corporation known as the Mississippi Com- 
pany, which agreed to pay the expense of 
runninpj the government for the profits that 
would accrue through commercial pursuits. 
The new governor, with immigrants, ar- 
rived, but ere long he was recalled and Bi- 
enville was selected to administer the 
affairs of the corporation. The company 
sold vast tracts of land to immigrants and 
they began to arrive in large numbers at 
Dauphine Island. This company was the 
creation of a scheming Scotch lawyer 
named John Law, the champion real estate 
shark of the eighteenth century. He cir- 
culated wonderful stories of the riches that 
could be gathered from mines to be opened 
in Louisiana, in ihe short time it would 
take a settler to tip his hat. But the 
scheme failed. The mines never material- 
ized and if the settlers ever so much as 
prospected for oil there is no record that 
they ever struck a "gasser" as energetic as 
Law. After all, this resourceful promoter 
did not altogether misrepresent the possi- 
bilities of the country. Suppose that the 
early settlers were permitted to witness 
the fabulous wealth that is taken from be- 
neath the soil of Louisiana today ! 

Mobile was at last deemed inconveni- 
ent for the reception and transportation of 



THE FRENCH SETTLERS 35 

immigrants to their new homes, and Bien- 
ville proposed to establish a town on the 
Mississippi River. The commissioners 
representinst the company opposed the 
plan and decided to move to Iberville's old 
fort on Mobile Bay and lay out a town. In 
a short time the new town was destroyed 
by fire, accidentally started from a lighted 
pipe. The present; city of Biloxi was then 
founded. The company had objected to 
the townsite on the Mississippi because 
they did not believe that ships could pass 
through the mouth of the river. Bienville 
now demonstrated the fact that the mouth 
of the river was deep enough for the pas- 
sage of large vessels, and sent a report to 
that effect to France. The report reached 
Paris about the time the Mississippi Com- 
pany failed. The government of Louisiana 
by proprietors had been a losing proposi- 
tion, and the board of liquidation which 
now took charge of affairs looked with fa- 
vor on Bienville's plan and he was author- 
ized to establish a town on the Mississippi 
(1718). In June, 1722, De la Tour and 
Paugey, two engineers, laid out and made 
a plat of the new city, which was named 
New Orleans and became the capital of 
Louisiana and later the metropolis of the 
South. 

The real work of the colonization of 
Louisiana was now begun. Bienville had 



36 THE' FRENCH SETTLERS ' 

previously sent- men to take possession of 
LaSalle's old fort on the eoast of Texas in 
order to protect the country from Spanish 
agrgression. Under the administration of 
Cadillac immigrants had gone up Red Kiv3r 
to settle the country of the Caddo and 
Natchitoches Indians. At this time the 
territory embraced in the present state of 
Texas was claimed by both the French and 
the Spanish. The French claim was based 
on the settlement of LaSalle at Fort St. 
Louis on Matagorda Bay, while the Span- 
ish claims were based on the Mexican con- 
quest and the explorations of' Coronada in 
New Mexico in 1540. The fact is very ap- 
parent, however, that Spain had not at- 
tempted to colonize the territory until after 
LaSalle had set up the claim of France by 
establishing a colony- on Matagorda Bay, in 
1685. 

During the year following the founding 
of New Orleans, Bienville was involved in 
another war with the Natchez Indians, as 
a result of which the French arms did not 
gain any decisive victory. Owing to jeal- 
ousies in the colony Bienville was recalled 
as governor and ordered to France. This 
was the most humiliating reverse which he 
had ever suffered, as the order deprived him 
of his rank, and his family as well as rela- 
tives in Louisiana were made to suffer. 

Two years later (1727) the Natchez again 



THE FRENCH SETTLERS 37 

brought terror to the colonists by the mas- 
sacre of two hundred men, ninety women 
and fifty-five children at Fort Rosalie, and 
it is probable that all the French settlers 
would have met the same fate had it not 
been for the Choctaws and their kindred 
tribes which had always remained the 
faithful allies of the colonists. The Nat- 
chez were punished, but not conquered, 
and the continued depredations of the sav- 
ages dibgusted the directors who had charge 
of the affairs of the colony and they gave 
it back to the king. The settlers were dis- 
satisfied with the administration of Gov- 
ernor Perrier and he was recalled and Bien- 
ville, who was considered the only man who 
could wisely govern Louisiana aod keep 
peace with the Indians, was returned to his 
old post. When he arrived at New Orleans 
he at once resolved to make war on the 
Natchez as well as the Chickasaws for pro- 
tecting them. After a campaign lasting 
three years, in which he met severe reverses, 
returned with his army to New Orleans, re- 
sijirned his office and left Louisiana never 
to return. He died in France at the age of 
88 years. Bienville devoted forty-seven 
years of his life to Louisiana civllizatioa 
and is properly esteemed as one of our most 
illustrious pioneers. 

Jean Baptiste LeMoyne, Sieur de Bien- 
ville, came to the colony when only 18 years 



38 THE FRENCH SETTLE kS 

of age, and was chosen to preside over its 
destinies as governor when he had reached 
the age of 24. He spent his boyhood days 
among the Indians of Canada, and his ac- 
quaintance with the characteristics of the 
savages, his knowledge of the languages 
of the various tribes, enabled him to render 
services to the pioneers of Louisiaaa that 
few other men could supply. If he had an 
equal as a pioneer, it was in the person of 
St. Denys, a companion on his early expe- 
dition up Red River and faithful lieutenant 
in his conflict with savages. As the life 
and deeds of St. Denys are most pertinent 
to this history, we deyote the following 
chapter to a brief review of the same. 



St. Denys and Xatohitoches. 



'Mid the all-pervading gloom of that sad time, 
The second hero of our dual tale, 
Undaunted still, at his far post remained. 
Sieur de St. Denys by Sabloniere, 
On the dim border of our shadow-land, 
Had built a royal seat, and round it reared 
The basis of a forest kingdom wide . . . 

—Armstrong. 

"TN 1714, four years before the fouuding «»f 
-*- New Orleans, Cadillac, the goveruor 
during the administration of the Company, 
sent Juehereau St. Denys with thirty Can- 
adians and a number of Indians to estab- 
lish a trading post at Natchitoches, which 
is the oldest town in Louisiana, in order to 
discourage Spain's effort to establish set- 
tlements on French territory and to extend 
the trade of the colony with the Indians of 
Texas. The French had reasons for ap- 
prehension of the occupancy of their ter- 
ritory by the Spaniards. During the pre- 
ceeding fifty years, and as early as 1694, 
Spain had settled a colony of Canary Is- 
landers at Adayes, in the vicinity of the 
present town of Robeline (Natchitoches 
Parish). They had also planted missions 
on the Rio Grande and were establishing 
several in the neighborhood of Nacoydo- 

39 



40 ST. DENIS AND NATCHITOCHES 

ehes, Texas. The mission and post at Ad- 
ayes was finally destroyed by fire and the 
settlement subsequently abandoned. 

St. Peuys, after plauningc for the estab- 
lishment of the post, left a few Canadians 
there and went westward on a trading ex- 
pedition in Texas. Governor Cadillac en- 
deavored to open up commerce between 
the French and the Indians of Texas, but 
Spain had rejected the proposition, as she 
had established a rule forbidding any coun- 
try to trade with her colonies. Notwith- 
standing this rule, Father Hidalgo, who 
had.undertaken to establish missions among 
the Indians of East Texas, made a secret 
agreement with the French to assist them 
in carrying on commerce if in turn they 
would give aid to the Spanish missions. 

St. Denys carried a large stock of mer- 
chandise on his Texas expedition. His 
party marched across the great province to 
a mission on the Rio Grraade at a pomt 
near Eagle Pass. Here St. Denys was re- 
ceived kindly, but was promptly informed 
that he must answer to the. charge of trad- 
ing in Spanish territory. While he sub- 
mitted plausible excuses for leading an 
expedition to the Rio Grande, he was de- 
tained and carried to the City of Mexico 
for trial, the details of which are not re- 
corded. In 1716 he returned to Texas as 
an officer in a Spanish expedition in com- 



ST. DENYS AND NATCHITOCHES 41 

rnaild of Captain Diego Ramon. The ac- 
tion of St. Denys in accepting a commis- 
sion from the Spanish while he was still in 
the Service of the governor of Louisiana, is 
a topic for the speculative historians. It is 
sufficient to relate that while Captain Ra- 
mon was occupied with the temporal af- 
fairs of his government at the missions, St. 
Denys was JDUsy making love to the cap- 
tain's pretty and accomplished grand- 
daughter, Seuorita Mauuella de Navarre, 
who later became his wife 

St. Denys returned to Natchitoches and 
assumed command of the post, which po- 
sition he retainiBd for many years. The 
establishment of the Spanish missions in 
Texas, five of which were located in the vi^ 
cinity of Nacojsjdoches, practically marked 
the end of French influence west of the 
Sabine River. While the policy of St. 
Denys was, in a measure, responsible for 
the loss of Texas to the French, his astute 
diplomacy kept the Spaniards west of the 
Sabine, and while some of his official acts 
were apparently queer, he was withal a 
peacemaker. He was a shrewd trader and 
it was to his personal interest that peace 
should prevail between his people and the 
Spaniards and various Indian tribes. When 
he learned that Marquis de Grallio, the 
Spanish governor of Texas, was preparing 
to build a fort east of Sabine River, he ar- 



42 ST. DENIS AND NATCHITO€HES 

ranged a conference with the governor and 
induced him to abandon bis plans. And 
when the Spaniards returned to their East 
Texas missions, after having left them 
through fear of a French invasion, St. 
Denys went to greet the commander and 
assure him of his good v, ill. However, he 
was as brave as he was shrewd. During 
the war with the Natchez the warriors of 
that tribe marched against the fort under 
his command. By employment of diplo- 
macy he endeavored to dissuade them from 
making an attack. He had won and re- 
tained the friendship of the Tejas, Avoy- 
elles, Natchitoches, Attakapas and all other 
tribes with whi^h he came in contact, but 
the bloodthirsty Natchez refused to listen 
to his Overtures, The limit of his patience 
was reached when the savages approached 
and burned a French woman in sight of 
the fort. The real fighting spirit of St. 
Denys was aroused and he was determined 
to avenge the inhuman outrage which the 
Natchez had perpetrated, and with forty 
French soldiers, a score of settlers and a 
few warriors of the Natchitoches tribe, he 
rushed from the stockade and attacked the 
savages, killing sixty and wounding as 
many more of their number. The remain- 
der were put to flight. Refugees of this 
rapidly vanishing tribe again attacked the 
poet the following year (1731), but were so 



ST. DENYS AND NATCHITOCHES 43 

effectually repulsed that they never re- 
turned to molest the settlers. 

As previously stated, the Preach en- 
qountered little difficulty in keeping on 
f I'iendly terms with the many small Indian 
tribes. These included the Yattasees, 
Caddos and other minor tribes to the north 
and the Attakapas and other tribes to the 
south of Natchitoches. On his first trip 
to Texas, St. Denys won for the French 
the friendship of the Texas tribas. The 
idea of setting aside a reservation for the 
Indians does not appear to have occurred 
to the French settlers, nor to their Latin 
cousins across the Sabine, even after they 
had secured a foothold. The word segre- 
gation had not yet appeared in the lexicon 
of American political economy, and there 
were no sociologic upstarts who cultivate 
a desire to live in an exclusive atmosphere 
While the French dispossessed the Indians 
of their country, they evidently had a lofty 
purpose in doing so. They were not alto- 
gether inspired by the spirit of self ag- 
grandizement. It was the rule to pay the 
natives for tlieir lauds, and the early mis- 
sionaries zealously labored to christianize 
them and instruct tbem in the ways of ciy- 
ilization. Before the advent of the mis- 
sions many of the tribes often suffered 
from scarcity of food and lack of proper 
clothing and shelter. The missionaries. 



44 ST. DENYS AND NATCHITOCHES 

primarily, taught them the luxury and pro- 
priety of the use of clothiug for their bod- 
ies and of living in houses and producing 
more wholesome food by tilling the soil. 
They had wild meat, but there was often a 
famine of other necessary foods. A. report 
of the method of feeding the natives in the 
era of the missions says: "The corn crop 
is consumed by giving the Indians what 
they need for all purposes ; and they are 
also furnished beans, pumpkins, watermel- 
ons, pepper, salt, and sugar, which is made 
from the cane which they take care to 
plant at each mission annually, because 
this is tne best way to regale the Indians 
and the most pleasing to their appetites 
In the missions cotton and wool are used 
by making them into mantas, terlingas, 
rebozas, coarse cloths and blankets for their 
protection and covering. The Indians are 
assisted, when they ar-e sick, with medi- 
cines which this country furnishes, and 
some which are brought in for that pur- 
pose."* 

Many of the early settlers of Natchi- 
toches purchased their lands from the In- 
dians and the terms of the transfers are to 
be found in the real estate records of the 
parish. In 1769, while the inhabitants of 
the town did not number above half a 
thousand, it was the chief trading and dis- 

*Dr. Garrison's "Texas." 



ST. DENYS AND NATCHITOCHES 45 

tributing point for a vast territory. The 
population embraced some splendid 
French families whose descendants have 
rendered valuable services to their country, 
as citizens, soldiers and in public position. 
Many of the pioneers constructed beautiful 
homes and opened up large and fertile 
plantations. African slaves, which had 
been brought to Louisiana under the reg- 
ime of the Mississippi Company, were em- 
ployed in the cultivation of crops on the 
plantations. Trade with New Orleans was 
facilitated by small boats on Red River, as 
well as by carts overland, and with Texas 
by the opening up of a road from Natchi- 
toches via the present town of Many to 
Nacogdoches and San Antonio. 8t. Denys 
was the prime mover in the establishment 
of this road, which was known in Texas as 
the King's Highway, and was design9,ted 
by the people of Louisiana as the San An- 
tonio Road or Mexican Trail. In 1762 the 
colony at Natchitoches was enjoying a 
splendid measure of peace and prosperity. 
The forty-seven years of work and strug- 
gles of the indomitable pioneers had begun 
to bear fruit. Without aid from the home 
government, the colony had not only be- 
come self-supporting but was a producer of 
surplus wealth, which made for the com- 
fort and contentment of the people. The 
fertile lands yielded nearly all of their ne- 



46 ST. DENYS AND NATCHITOCHES 

cessities in the way of food, and the culti- 
vation of the cotton plant had already be- 
come the source of surplus wealth. But 
the star of hope often becomes visible only 
to be immediately dimmed by many vicis- 
situdes and resultant discouragements for 
her people, whose deeds are marked in the 
early history of Sabine parish, and whose 
posterity are still promiaent in the public 
and private life of .our state. 

St. Denys was for many years the faith- 
ful commandant at Natchitoches and his 
body found its last resting place there. 
Many stories of his long and active life 
are to be found in the more voluminous 
chronicles of Louisiana. Notabl.e among 
the events of his early life was a duel 
which he fought with a minor officer in the 
army while in France. He left the field of 
combat, believing that he had killed his 
opponent, and hastened to America. Sev- 
eral years later, while he was commandant 
at Natchitoches, an Attakapas Indian came 
to the post and offered for trade a small 
box which the commandant discerned had 
been the property of a white man. St. 
Denys bought the box and found that it 
contained the commission of an officer in 
the French army, and bis surprise was 
increased when he saw that it bore the 
name of the man whom he thought he had 
killed in a duel. On being assured that his 



ST. DENYS AND NATCHITOCHES 47 

former antagonist was living a prisoner of 
the Indians, he at once planned to go to 
his rescue. The man had been among the 
Indians several years. It is related that 
while his ship was anchored on the Gulf 
coast, he had gone on land and was cap- 
tured by the savages. His companions, 
believing him dead or lost, set sail. The 
man was deprived of his clothing aad com- 
pelled to follow their savage life. The 
Attakapas are said to have been cannibals 
and endeavored to induce their prisoner to 
eat human flesh. He was finally rescued 
by St. Denys, and the meeting of the men 
who had formerly faced each other in a 
duel is described as a most happy one. 

St. Denys, owing to his remarkable in- 
fluence with the Indians, was often called 
upon to settle disturbances among the 
minor tribes. It is said that on one occa- 
sion he sent a detachment of soldiers to 
quell an Indian not in the vicinity of the 
present town of Many. After a parley the 
chief informed the petty officer that he 
would treat with no one except the crippled 
white chief of Natchitoches — St. Denys — 
and peace was not arranged until he ar- 
rived at the village. 

In conclusion, it is proper to note that 
descendants of the Father of Natchitoches 
have occupied some of the most important 
public positions in the state. 



Shifting of the Flags. 



Through all the future and the coming years. 

As through all time, that's past, 

One law holds ever good, 

That nothing comes to life of man 

Uncathed throughout by woes. 

—Sophocles. 

THE war whicb had been waged inter- 
mittingly between France and Eng- 
land for a century was ended by the Treaty 
of Faris, February 10, 1763. The battle 
that decided which of the two nations 
should be predominant in America had 
been fought on the Heights of Quebec four 
years before. The French army of Gen- 
eral Montcalm was defeated by the English 
and their soldier- colonists commanded by 
General Wolfe. By the terms of the treaty 
France ceded to England all her territory 
in America except Louisiana and the Island 
and City of New Orleans. Canada and all 
the French territory east of the Mississippi 
passed to England who was now apparently 
master of North America. The real test of 
this presumption was yet to be made, and 
it was, indeed, a scorching one. "The 
victory of Wolfe at Quebec . . . reially 
contributed in an indirect way to the Iqss 
of the Thirteen Colonies. The bonfires 

48 



SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 49 

which then ilhimed the coasts and settle- 
ments of New England, and lit the market- 
places of New York and Philadelphia with 
the light of a great rejoieinar, were the last 
of their kind in American history, and, in 
the capture of the army of Cornwallis at 
Yorktown, France obtained revenge for the 
defeat of Montcalm on the Heights of 
Quebec."* 

At the beginning of this conflict, known 
as the Seven Years' War, England perpe- 
trated an outrage which will remain for all 
time a blot upon the history of her colonies 
in America The incident is referred to 
here for the reason that it is defiaitely 
linked to the annals of Louisiana. Before 
the settlement of Jamestown by the Eng- 
lish, and many years before the Puritans 
landed at Plymouth Rock, a colony of 
Breton peasants , settled Acadia. , In 1754, 
the descendants of those sturdy, and happy 
French pioneers were cruelly expatriated 
by the English, who had previously cap- 
tured the military defenses of Nova Scotia. 
"They were a simple, rural, Grod- fearing 
people, living in quiet happiness upon their 
well -cultivated farms. . . . When their 
sky seemed serenest, thei Acadians yvere 
suddenly seized to the number of seven 
thousand, deprived of their lands, flocks and 
other property, and at the point of a bay- 

*Hawthorne's Hist. U. S. 



50 SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 

onet hurried on board an English fleet. 
They, were then landed penuilests along the 
t^e coast , from Maine to Louisiana. No 
regard was paid to family ties. Parents 
were separated from children, wives from 
husbands, sistei"s from brothers. Thus in 
m^ery and , exile, thi« once happy people 
lingered out a sorrowful and weary exist- 
ence."* 

"In all the annals of Spanish brutality, 
there is nothing more disgraceful to hu- 
manity than the systematic and enjoined 
treatment of these iunoeeat Bretons by the 
English. ... No detail was wanting, 
from first to last, to make the crime of the 
Acadian deportation perfect, "t Many of 
the banished Aeadians found refuge in 
Louisiana. 

The people of Louisiana had not suffered 
to any great extent from the war, but their 
time tOK feel its direful effects had now 
come. King Louis XV., following his dis- 
astrous defeat by the English, harbored the 
fear than Great Britain would next at- 
tempt to occupy his remaining American 
possessions and secretly gave the province 
of Louisiana to his cousin, Charles III. of 
Spain. The people of Louisiana were 
much grieved by reason of thi3 action of 
their king and petitioned him to reconsider 

*aadlier's U. &. Hiat. 
tHawthorne'B Hist. U. S. 



SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 51 

his act coatinue to be their ruler. Their 
request was ignored, and, in 1765, UUoa, 
the first Spanish governor, arrived and 
raised the Spanish flag in their beloved 
country. The indignant French citizens 
made life so unpleasant for Ulloa that he 
left the province. He was succeeded by a 
tyrant named O'Reilly, who came with a 
large army and proceeded to cause the ar- 
rest of eleven men who were charged with 
being instrumental in. bringing about Ui- 
loa's departure They were tried by judges 
and found guilty. Five of them, Caresse, 
Lafraniere, Marquis, Noyan and Milhet, 
were condemned to be hanged, but later 
sentenced to be shot and the decree was 
executed near the old Ursuline convent in 
New Orleans, the men refusing to have 
th^ir eyes covered with bandages and he- 
roically faced the guns of the Spanish sol- 
dieifs. The six men who escaped the death 
sentence were sent to Havana and impris- 
onied. 

For many years now the lot of the colo- 
nists in every section of America was one 
of severe trials. The French of Louisiana 
were disheartened and made no progress 
under the government of Spain, and they 
had little hope for a change for the better. 
The English colonists were smarting under 
the oppressiye yoke of George II. He was 
succeeded by George III. who assiduously 



52 SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 

eontinued to systematically deprive them 
of their liberties and to bespatter their in- 
telligence with insult until their condition 
became intolerable. Within a depade after 
this royal bigot bad assumed his crown, the 
colonists had fought and won their first 
battles at Lexington and Concord, and a 
few years later the British army under 
Cornwallis made its last stand at York- 
town and surrendered to General Wash- 
ington and his army of patriots. By this 
blow the arrogant English wei'e completely 
humbled and the original Thirteen colonies 
were no longer subjects of Great Britain. 
Only the French colonists of Canada re- 
mained loyal to King George. A new na- 
tion (a republic that did, not belie its 
name) was born and was destined to be- 
come one of the most progressive and 
powerful governments known in the rec- 
ord of human affairs. The culmination of 
the war was not only a triumph for the col- 
onies, but it started the tires of liberty all 
over the world. 

The United States had but fairly entered 
on its career as a nation when events were 
happening in Europe which led to the 
struggle that shook the throne of every 
monarch on the continent. Louis XVL, a 
good man, but a densely ignorant king, was 
on the throne of France. His misgovern - 
ment of his subjects, through wooden min- 



SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 53 

isters, lost him his head as well as his 
crown. The monarchy was succeeded by a 
government by a mob, whose chief sflory 
was in the murders it committed and the 
army of Frenchmen it led to the guillotine. 
The reign of the mob was supplanted by 
the inglorious Directory. The i*evolution 
extended through the last dozen years of 
the eighteenth century, and at its culmin- 
ation France could boast of nothing gained 
from it more substantial than a despotic 
government, at the head of whicli was Na- 
poleon Bonaparte who bore the title of em- 
peror. In 1803 this arch -disturber was on 
the verge of beginning his mighty conflict 
wiih allied Europe. For twelve years the 
armies of France, under the direction of 
the, intrepid Corsican, had triumphed in 
practically every. battle in which they en- 
gaged and thrones were cast asunder and 
nations made subservient to his formidable 
will. In the course of his conquests, in 
1800, the kingdom of Spain was entangled 
in his powerful web. Charles IV., a hair- 
brained monarch, occupied the Spanish 
throne under the guardianship of his wife, 
Queen Maria Louise. Napoleon, who was 
desirous of regaining the possessions which 
France had lost in America, "persuaded" 
the Spanish king to cede Louisiana back to 
France. Charles reluctantly yielded to the 
"persuasion" of the French emperor, and 



54 SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 

by the treaty of Ildefonso, which was kept 
secret from the world for many moaths, 
Louisiana again passed under the flag of 
France. The wars of Napoleon had ex- 
tended through the administrations of 
George Washington and John Adams as 
presidents of the young American republic 
and (in 1803) Thomas Jefferson was presi- 
dent of the rapidly growing nation. The 
immense territory of the United States, 
which extended from the Atlantic to the 
Mississippi, was being occupied by thous- 
ands of progressive home -builders, and the 
occupancy of Louisiana by Spain, with her 
stringent trade laws, wa? considered by the 
United States an impediment to commerce 
on the Great River, and when the secret 
that Charles IIL had ceded Louisiana to 
Napoleon was finally divulged Jefferson 
was determined to at least acquire the 
Islaiid and City of New Orleans. Robert 
Livingston was the United States minister 
at the French capital, and James Moni'oe 
was sent to Pans to assist him in negotia- 
tions for the purchase of New Orleans. 
Napoleon at first declined to consider pro - 
posals for the sale of the key to the Mis- 
sissippi river, the highway for commerce in 
his American province, but just at 4;his 
time his warships, which had been sent on 
an expedition to bring Santo Domingo un- 
der his authority, were annihilated by the 



SHIFTING OF THE FLAGS 55 

English, and the remainder of the French 
navy being of no service to him, his hopes 
for retaining a foothold in America were 
suddenly and effectually vanished. ^ "Some 
who have studied ingeniously into the rid- 
dles of the Corsiean brain attribute to the 
French failure at Santo Domingo, more 
than any other cause, this sudden relin- 
quishment of Louisiana."* Napoleon also 
needed money to prosecute his continental 
war and he hastened to cede to the United 
States not only New Orleans, but all of his 
vast American empire, for a sum that to- 
day would not exceed the taxable property 
value of four Louisiana parishes. 

The United States assigned Ghovernor 
Claiborne to the government of the newly 
acquired territory, and with General Wilk- 
inson, who commanded the federal troops 
on the frontier, he took charge in January, 
1804. And the Stars and Stripes sup- 
planted the flag of France. 

*Henry Adams. 



N^eufval iStiflp and Outla-^^^s. 



For him they raise not the recording stone. 

His death yet dubious, deeds too widely known. . . - 

He passed — nor of his name and race 

Hath lelt a token or a trace. — Bybon. 

SPAIN was much displeased because of 
the sale of Louisiana to the United 
States and at once began to manifest her 
dissatisfaction by incursions on the front- 
iers. The Spanish offi- 
cials who had remained in 
New Orleans under the 
short regime of Napoleon 
were also reluctant to re- 
lease their authority. But 
when General Wilkinson, 
in command of ihe West- 
ern army, arrived wim 
instructions to install and. 
uphold the civil officers of 
the United States, the Spaniards "grace- 
fully bowed themselves out." With a few 
trivial exceptions the change of govern- 
ment at New Orleans and other points 
along the Mississippi was accomplished in 
a very peaceable manner, and in a few 
years the Latin citizens of the young re- 
public were happily reconciled to the new 
order, and subsequent history bears ample 
proof of their patriotic loyalty. But the 

56 




NEUTRAL STRIP AND OUTAWS 57 

westeru frontier of Louisiana was the scene 
of Spanish hostility to the United StateSj 
The boundary between French Louisiana 
and Spain's Mexican empire had never 
been definitely fixed, and at the tinae of 
Jefferson's great purchase Spain claimed all 
of Texas as well as a strip of land in Lou- 
isiana lying between the Sabine Kiver and 
the Arroyo Hondo, a tributary of Red 
River, seven miles west of Natchitoches, 
extending north along Red River and 
south, on an imaginary line, to the Gulf. 
Several years had elapsed, still no aofree - 
ment had been reached as to the western 
boundary, nor was the matter adjusted un- 
til 1820, when the United States acquired 
the Florida territory by purchase and by 
the terms of the same treaty relinquished 
to Spain all claims to Texas, the Sabine 
River being designated as the boundary. 

During the first three years following the 
occupation of Louisiana by the United 
States, Spain had exhausted many efforts to 
retain her sovereignty in the territory lying 
between the Arroyo Hondo and the Sabine, 
but the army kept a vigilant guard on every 
move made by the Spaniards. In 1806, 
Greneral Wilkinson and the Spanish general, 
Herrera, entered into an agreement which 
provided that this territory should be neu- 
tral until the matter could be adjusted by 
their respective governments. Thus, for 



58 NEUTRAL STRIP AND OUTAWS 

fourteeu years this section had no govern- 
ment of any kind, and as a consequence it 
became the rendezvous for outlaws from 
the United States, Mexico and other parts 
of the world. It was the home of robbers, 
murderers and plotters against the author- 
ity of constituted governments. The whole 
of Sabine parish was included in this tur- 
bulent "No Man's Laud" and all stories 
concerning it are therefore pertinent to 
these simple annals. Natchitoches became 
the chief army post on the frontier. That 
city had been, long before the purchase, 
headquarters for political plotters and 
"soldiers of fortune." 

In 1800, Phillip Nolan, an adventurer 
from the United States, conceived the idea 
of leading a filibustering expedition into 
Texas. Three years previously, with the 
consent of the Spanish governor of Louisi- 
ana, he went to Texas, ostensibly to pro- 
cure horses for the army, but he seems to 
have had plans of greater moment than 
coiraling bronchos. On this trip he made 
a map of the country as well as seeking the 
friendship and trade of the Indians of the 
plains. With a party of about twenty of 
his countrymen he returned to Texas and 
was gathering up some horses in the vicin- 
ity of the present city of Waco when his 
little band was surrounded by a large num- 
ber of Spaniards, who had become sus- 



NEUTRAL STRIP' AND OUTLA WS 59' 

picious of the Americans. N^oIaTi refused' 
to sui'render and a fiepce" battle ensued:. 
Early in the engagrf meat Nolan fell mor- 
tally wouuded. The fight was eonttnued 

by the Americans-, 
under the command 
of Feter Ellis Bean, 
until their ammani- 
lioa was exhausted, 
when, upon promise 
that they would be 
permitted to return to 
the United States, 
they surrendered to 
the Spaniards But 
Spanish officers on 
BEAN. the fi^ntiers were not 

very serupulotts when ft came to redeem- 
ing their promises, and this instance was 
no exception. The Americans were car- 
ried to Mexico, imprisoned and were con- 
stantly subjected to most cruiel treatment. 
The number was i-educed to nine, by bat- 
tles and deaths in prison, and in 1B07 one 
of them was hanged by order ot the vice- 
roy, after lots had leen cast to determine 
which of the nine Americans shouM be the 
victim of the executioner. With the ex- 
ception of Bean, there is no record 
as to the fate of the other members 
of the band. Bean managed to escape 
tiom. the prison, bat was recaptured and 




60 NEUTRAL STRIP AND OUTLAWS 

kept in chains until the breaking out of the 
Mexican revolution, when he was liberated, 
after giving his promise that he would fight 
for the king of Spain. He fought for a 
short time, but when the opportunity came 
he deserted and joined the army of the rev- 
olution which was fighting for independ- 
ence and a republican ffovernment. Bea-n 
distinguished himself in many battles for 
skill and bravery and endeared himself to 
the Mexican patriots. It is related that 
he married a rich Mexican lady and when 
Mexico gained her independence he was 
given a position as an officer in the army. 
While in the seryice of the republic he met 
the famous filibusterer, Lafitte, accompan- 
ied him to New Orleans and rendered 
splendid aid to General Jackson and his 
heroic army in the memorable defeat of 
the English in their last attempt to invade 
the United States. 

Pending the settlement of the Neutral 
Strip the army remained at Natchitoches, 
and in 1812 Augustus Magee, a young lieu- 
tenant who was stationed there, resigned 
his position in the army and began to or- 
ganize a regiment for the invasion of Texas 
in aid of Mexico in her fight to end Spanish 
rule. The Americans and the Mexican re- 
publicans were successful in two or three 
battles, but ultimately suffered a disastrous 
defeat at the battle of the Medina. Of the 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND OUTLA WS 01 

eight huudred Americans who marched to 
the war only about eighty escaped the tre- 
mendous slaughter inflicted by the Span- 
ish troops. 

A few years later Dr. James Long, in 
league with a Mexican commander named 
Gutierras, led two expeditions against the 
Spaniards which were characterized by 
many deeds of daring, but terminated in 
defeat for their arms and the death of the 
brave doctor. 

The exploits of these filibusterers took 
place in Texas, but their plots were hatched 
in the Neutral Strip, and it was here that 
the men engaged in the enterprises were 
assembled and tutored for their venturous 
campaigns. It was here that Aaron Burr, 
once vice president of the United States, 
expected to receive trusted recruits to put 
in execution his plan for the conquest of 
Mexico and Louisiana and the establish- 
ment of a Western empire over the des- 
tinies of which he should preside, but 
whose wild dream culminated in his in- 
dictment on a charge of treason, the dis- 
closure of the Blennerhassett scandal and 
his complete disgrace. 

There were two great avenues for travel 
through Sabine parish, the road from Nat- 
chitoches to San Antonio, opened by St. 
Denys, passing through Fort Jesup and the 
present town of Many, and the highway 



62 NEUTRAL STRIP AND OUTLA WS 

known as Nolan's Trace, blazed by the ill 
fated adventurer, Phillip Nolan, whieh ex- 
tended between Alexandria and Texas. 
Fallen Springs, four miles south of Many, 
was a popular camping ground for all who 
traveled the Nolan road, and in this vicin- 
ity many robberies and murders are 
alleged to have been perpetrated. Many 
stories are related about treasures of gold 
and silver which the robbers are supposed 
to have buried along these pioneer roads 
while hastening to escape the vengeance of 
their victims or the "regulators," and the 
wealth of travelers alleged to have been 
hidden to keep it from falling into the 
hands of the robbers. In later years many 
endeavors have been put forth to unearth 
these "wonderful treasures," but despite 
the aid of "mineral rods," and their re- 
puted unfailing virtues, and the impecuni- 
ous wayfarer who peddles "ancient" charts 
with directions for locating the long- hid- 
den "pots of gold," if any man has recov- 
ered an amount sufficient to pay his poll 
tax for a single fiscal year he has kept the 
matter a profound secret. 

Men like Nolan, Bean, Magee and Long 
are very kindly called filibusterers. They 
were not, indeed, desperadoes, but, no 
doubt, they enlisted, in their service men 
upon whose characters was stamped the 
brand of the bravo. In this age the Amer- 



NEUTRA L STRIP AND OUTLA WS 63 

lean bandit was at the zenith of his glory. 
The times and the manners were favorable 
to the pursuit of his unlawful vocation, 
Natchitoches was the great trade-center of 
West Louisiana and a large portion of 
Texas. Immense herds of wild cattle and 
horses roamed the great plains and there 
was a large traf&c in these animals. Trad- 
ers were constantly erUgaged in driving them 
through Louisiana to the states east of the 
Mississippi where they found a. market. 
Several months weie often consumed in 
driving the herds to their destination, and 
while passing through the Neutral Strip 
it was a frequent occuranee for many of 
the animals to be separated from the 
droves by thieves who took them to a mar- 
ket of their own selection. Merchants 
also passed to and from the Spanish terri- 
tory with their goods and were com- 
pelled to keep a vigilant watch for the 
nervy robbers. The country was ideal for 
the operations of the freebooter, as it was 
covered with heavy forests which were 
frequently made nearly impenetrable by 
magnificient brakes of wild cane and dense 
undergrowths. In these wild seclasioas 
the robbers found protection from their 
pursuers until they could finally escape 
with their stolen wares or livestock. The 
outlaws of Sabine were not unlike those 
who have infested other sections of our 



64 NEUTRAL STRIP AND OUTLAWS 

country during the early days of the nine- 
teenth century. It may be observed that 
in the vanguard of the armies which have 
marched, through all ages of tlie world, 
holding aloft the torch of civilization, the 
robber has ever lurked and assidously 
plied his trade, But he unusally flour- 
ished for only a brief period, and, if he es- 
caped death from violence, he at least 
passed from earth "unhonered and un- 
sung" — no loved ones come to drop a pity- 
ing tear upon his grave, and no simple 
marba stela marks his earthly goal. Many 
of these characters left good homes to seek 
their fortunes in the border wilds, others 
perchance were fugitiyes from justice, but 
their names are now forgotten and their 
deeds are remembered only in connection 
with the stories of the pioneers. 



Xeutral Strip and Pioneers. 



O resistless restless race I 
O beloved race ot all! O my breast aches with tender 

love for all ! 
O I mourn yet uxult, I am rapt with love for all, 
Pioneers, O Pioneers! 

—Walt Whitman. 

OEVERAL years before the boundary 
*^ between Louisiana and the Spanish 
province of Texas was settled, immigrants 
from the old states had settled iv West 
Louisiana, and no doubt the first English 
speaking settlers in this state located in 
the Neutral Stiip and within the present 
boui.dary of Sabine parish. ]n 1803a regi- 
ment of United States troops in command 
of Col. Gushing was sent up Ked River to 
repel Spanish aggression and Capt. Turner 
with a company of soldiers was left to gar- 
rison the Fort at Natchitoches. The Eng- 
lish-speaking homeseeker followed the sol- 
diers, coming from practically all parts of 
the United States. These settlers were 
representatives of the great race which has 
made the pioneers of America the most fa 
mous the world has ever known. While 
English was their language, there coursed 
through their veins the blood of the various 
races of Northern Europe, the German, thd 

65 



66 NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

Irish, the Scotch, the Dutch and the Anglo- 
Saxon, a blending of nationalities which 
has always added lustre and glory to the 
world's civilization. They sought the un- 
occupied lands, covered with magnificent 
forests, where they could build homes. 
Many of them brought their families, aud, 
despite the lawlessness which prevailed in 
the Neutral Strip, they cast their lots here, 
and with a few primitive tools erected 
houses and cleared land for cultivation of 
crops. A few came with slaves, but as a 
rule the pioneer of Sabine parish possessed 
only small means and depended upon his 
strong arm and determination to build his 
new home. He had an exalted idea of 
justice and a profound respect for law, but 
in "No Man's Land," where the law did 
not prevail, he frequently became identified 
with the "regulators and moderators" 
who brought terror to the thieves and 
bandits by the administration of a code of 
unwritten laws, by means of a rope or a 
fusillade of bullets. Some of the applica- 
tions of the unwritten laws would not be 
approved nowadays, but in those times 
probably had the effect of commanding 
more general respect for the law. 

In 1805 the territory of Louisiana was 
divided into twelve parishes, yia : Orleans, 
German Coast, Acadia, Lafourche, Iber- 
ville, Pointe Coupee, Attakapas, Opelousas, 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 67 

Concoidia, Rapides, Ouachita and Natchi- 
toches. The parish of Natchitoches corn- 
pi'itied all the territory in the old ecclesi- 
astical parish of St. Francis. The town of 
Natchitoches was the seat of the ecclesi- 
astical parish, which included the present 
parishes of Geiddo, Claiborne, Bossier, De- 
Soto, Webster, Bienville, Red River and 
Sabine and part of Winn, Grant and Lin- 
coln. The fiist grants of lands in Natchi- 
toches parish were made during the last 
htiif of the eighteenth century. "The 
Sanchez grant at Las Tres Lianas, where 
Louis Lai ham resided in the '20^, was one 
of the oldest grams by Governor Lavois, 
who resided at Adizes. Sanchez' son was 
89 ycais old in 1820 when District Judge 
V\ iiliam Murray took testimony in the 
case."* 

Later grants were made to Pierre and 
Julian Besson on the Ecore Rouge by 
Athanase Mazieres, commandant at Nat- 
chitoches (1770), and to Michael Crow on 
Sabine River. Crow's father (Isaat^) mar- 
ried. the Widow, ('habineau and [purchased 
land of Viciente Michele, who held a 
Si-,auish grant In 1769 St. Denys gave to 
to bis daughter, Marie de St. Denys, a 
tract of laud in this vicinity. The claim 
of Athanase Poisol for lands at Three 
Cabins, purchased from Chief Antoine of 

♦Memoirs of Northwest Louiglana. 



68 NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

tLe Hyatasses Indians, was approved, as 
was also the claim of Francois Grappe, 
who parchased lands from Indians of the 
Caddo tribe, and Pierre Gagnier and Hy- 
polite Bourdeliu, who had bought lauds 
from the Chesteur ludiaus at Natchitoches. 
Governor Mird made many grauts to set- 
tlers who theu (1799) lived within the 
boundaries of the present parish of Nat- 
chitoches. Under the Spanish regime, in 
1795, Jacinto Mora was granted 207,360 
acres on the ease side of the iSabiue River, 
"twenty-five leagues distant from the vil- 
lage of Our Lady of the Pillar of Nacogdo- 
ches, in Texas,'' which was known as the 
Las Ormegas grant. In 1805 Mora sold 
this land to Ed Murphy, William Burr, 
Samuel Davenport ahd L. Smith, and the 
tract was legally transferred to them under 
the name of the "grant of Santa Maria 
Adelaide Ormegas." The LaNaua grant 
to Ed Murphy was made in 1797. It em-, 
braced a territory twelve miles square aud 
included the present town of Many. The 
LaNana and Las Ormegas grants were not 
finally approved by the United States gov- 
ernment until 1847. 

Practically the entire Neutral Strip was 
parceled out in Spanish grauts, but some 
were of doubtful legality. The Spaniards 
very generously donated lands to persons 
who had rendered military and other valu- 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 69 

able services to the king. But grants were 
not approved by the United States until 
after abundant proof of their legality had 
been furnished. One method of establish- 
ing a Spanish claim consisted of pulling 
grass, throwing dust in the air and digging 
holes in the ground by the claimant. Many 
large tracts of land included in these 
grants were occupied by settlers who built 
homes and reared families on them long 
before a valid title was established. In 
the course of time many thousand acres 
reverted to the government and came into 
the possession of settlers under the pro- 
visions of ihe homestead laws. 

A large number of the first immigrants 
to Sabine parish settled on what was desig- 
nated, and still commonly known, as Rio 
Hondo lands, the original title to which 
was based on a Spanish grant to the set- 
tler, in return for some stipulated service 
to be or having been rendered, or other 
considerations. The residents on these 
lands in 1805 were Joe Leaky, John Wad- 
dell, Christopher Antony, Thomas Hicks, 
Jacob Winfree, Jose Rivers, Peter Patter- 
son, David Watterman, John Q-orJon, Ben- 
jamin Winfree, James Kirkham, Andries 
Galindo, Hugh McGuffy, Jose Maria Pro- 
cello (heirs of James Denney and Manuel 
Bustamento), Thomas Yokum, John Yo- 
kum (assignee of Jesse Yokum), Azer 



70 MUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

Matbias, Georsre Slaughter (assipjnee of 
Louis Warren) Remey Christy, William 
Davidson, Thos. Gray (assignee of James 
Bridges and John Maekay), Stephen Bas- 
cus, Jose Bascup, Domingo Gonzales, Fe- 
licien and Francisco Gonzales, Raymond 
Dally, Martin Dios, Dennis Dios, John 
Yokum, Matthias Yokum, James Wilson, 
Philip Winfree, Absalom J. Winfree, 
James Walker, Nicholas Jacks, Hugh Mc- 
Neely, Jacob Leahy, Thomas Arthur, 
Green Cook (assignee of Henry Charbi- 
neau), Edmund Quirk, William Quirk, 
Thomas Gray, Joseph Montgomery, Sam- 
uel Holmes, Benjamin Morris, Antoine 
Laroux, John Lum, John H. Th;!mpson, 
Benjamin Biles, Jose Antonio Mancbac, 
Jiacques Lepine, David Case, widow La 
Lena Padea, Manuel Gonzales, Jean Bip- 
tiste Parrot, Andrew Bassum, Thomas 
Wilson, Louis Latham, Antonio de La 
Sarda, Jose Estrader, John Cortinez, Rob- 
ert McDonald (assignee of Stephen Moore), 
widow Ganissieu Parried, Henry Quirk, 
Henry Stoker, Manuel Chei-ino, Maria 
Sanchez, Michael Early, John Litton, Asa 
Beckum, Francisco Rosalis, Jose Antonio 
Rodriguez, John Maximilian, the widow 
Interest Toval, Guilliam Bebee. These 
claimants presented evidences of their set- 
tlement on Rio Hondo lands in 1824, but 
after a new survey of the country had 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 71 

been made eight years later they filed new 
proof of their settlemeut and claims. The 
claims were for tracts of various size. One 
claimant, Antoiue Laroux, very modestly 
asked for title to one or two acre?, on 
which he had located his dwelling in the 
woods, explaining that he would not know 
what to do with more land. 

In 1831 the government survey of the 
territory within the present boundary of 
Sabine parish was completed, the lands be- 
ing laid out in townships and sections. 
No official survey was ever made by either 
the French or the Spanish, even the alleged 
marking of the Arroyo Hondo line defining 
the Neutral Strip being regarded as myth- 
ical. The survey of the United Slates 
made available for settlement thousands of 
acres of land which could be procured by a 
small cash payment per acre. The "five- 
year" entry or free homes law did not pre- 
vail until many years later. In Sabine 
parish, as in other sections, the liberality 
of the homestead laws and government 
grants to railway corporations resulted in 
diverting many thonsaTid acres from the 
the individuril home builder, to whom the 
public domain rightfully belonged. 

Settlers on government land in this par- 
ish between 1832 and 1860 were as follows: 

1832. — Alonza Barr (the land lying near 
Many, and was sold in 1834: to Domingo 



72 NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

Catriua who sold to F. Veulemaa in 1837), 
William Palmer. 

1833 — Eldred Parker. 

1835.— James Tyler, Sam Wiley, Richard 
Cherringtoa. 

1836.— Thomas Wilson, B. J. and Sam 
Thompson, Henry Hall, William J. Elam. 

1837. — Sarah G-reeniag. 

1838. — Spencer Gr. Adams, Sam West- 
fall, John Spiker, Reuben Oxley, P. H. 
Craiij, Carey Morris, James Cook. 

1839.— Sbadric Howard, Need ham J. Al- 
form, Couzie Biles (wife of Benjamin 
Biles), Silas Shellburne, John A. McClan- 
ahan, Zadock Turner, Asa Speights, John 
J. Francis, William Glallion, Cleri Grillet, 
Lydia Webb, Gora Munson, Lou Martha 
Moses, J. H. Crockett, Garrison Anderson, 
William Ferguson, John Lebo, Martha 
Wiley, Lindsey, B. and Benjamin B. Ray- 
burn, William D. Stephens, James F 
Murphy. 

1840. — Andrew Woods, Henry Ruggley, 
G. A. Sleet, Sarah Litton. 

1841— N. Croker, T. E. Woods, George 
W. Tate, S. A. Eason. 

1842.— Andrew Woods, T. Roberts. 

1843 —Sam Eldredge, C. R. Wimberly, 
Thomas J. Dandy, John Graham, Matthew 
Jones, John H. Thompson, Samuel W. 
Fellerton, Thomas G. G-odwin, John G-od- 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 73 

wiQ» Mary L. Branch, John Carroll, State 
to John Caldwell. 

1844 —Cornelius Wiley, William T. C. 
King, John Lapsley, Albert Jordan, M. L. 
Branch, Martha Bitlingsley. 

1845.— Mary L. Caldwell, William Cur- 
tis, John White, Stephen Wiley, John R. 
Yokum to P. A. Reagan. 

1846.— Redic Sibley, Joe R. Billingsley, 
Nathan Darling, Shelton James, Washing- 
ton and Bradley Deer, G. M Cook; Mary 
Provence bought land from Palmer. 

1847.— William L. Cobbs, Clay P. Wald- 
rop, John Jordan, Louis I. Wamsley, W- 
E Wood?, James M. Holt. 

1848.— William Cook, William Yarner, 
John PuUen, William F. Wood^, John 
Gillaspie, John H. Jenkins, J. M Gibbs, 
John C. Royston, James Hampton, Elijah 
Rembert, Prudent Slrother, William lies. 

1849 —Fletcher Rallins, Thomas Con- 
stable, Daniel P. Lockwood, James L. Wil- 
liams, J. J. Greening, John Vines, Jesse 
H.^Fincher. 

1850.— T. S. Stafford, John Callens. 

1851. — James I. Self, James A. Woods, 
John Self, Sam Webb, J. H. Armstrong, 
H. P. Hudson, R. M. Armstrong, Daniel 
R. Gaudy, William Antony, T. A. Arm- 
strong. 

1852.- J, J. Snell, Calvin Alston, John 



74 NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

A Gould, E. K. Baker, William H. Kil- 
loiiffb, James Walker. 

1853. —William Foote, James A. Ct-Hn- 
foid, Robert Lambert, Ben H. Crai^. 
, 1854.— William B. Wtsstfail, Robert Sib- 
ley. 

1855. — John Bolton, James Earls, James 
R. Phares, John Miller. 

1856— William Rhodes, Andrew Cut- 
right, J. Dove, J. Varner, J. P. Cam{)bell. 

1857.— Parish Sch( ol Board sold 1 md to 
R. Frances. No purchases from the gov- 
ernment appear dui'ing this year 

1858. — Lydia Godwiu, Charles Johns, 
Franklin Dutton, R. L. F. Sibley, W. W 
Sibley, *Hugh Dowdea, Geoijje W. Addi- 
son Allen Holland, Russell MiiUonald, 
Lavi Weldon, William Mosely, Joe T. 
Lynch, Robert F. Royston, Joseph Brew- 
ster, Max McGowan, William Crump, John 
L. Childers, William Fanley, Robert D 
Millei", John Hampton, James Fike, W. W. 
Campbell, Green Weldon, William Kirk- 
kam, John Putnam. 

1859. — James Owens, Daniel Britton, J. 
W. Kiikham, Napoleon Darnell, Sol Roy- 
ston, Thomas M Berry, Jeremiah Robin- 
son, Sam Johnson, William Vines, John 
Aten, R. L. Armstrong, William P. Glass, 
Daniel Cumilander, Isaac E. Robinson, 

♦Dowden settled ia the Kisatchie country, making 
JQrst entry in an entire township. 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 75 

John C. Duncan, Samuel G. Lucius, Joe 
G. Garlington, Isaac Dickinson, William 
Gook, James Gook, Temperance Gook, T. 
B. Conerly, Valentine Nash, Crawford G. 
Presley, "William Antony, Allen Arthur, 
William Parrott, Hosea B. Lewing, Major 
Hardy, Benjamin P. Norsworthy, Jjb Al- 
ford, Gt. W. Durritt, John Boswell, Samp- 
son Whatley, Ann Lester, Henry Gook, 
Jesse Wright, William H. Siroud, Thomas 
J. Arthur, Thomas Grace, William Miller, 
Moses Salter, Alfred Self, Enoc Davis. 

I860.— Bebee Michel, Robert Pavroll, 
William P. Smith, Gharles Darnell, H irris 
& Beck (merchants of Fort Jesup), Sim- 
eon Goodrow, Andrew M. Miller, W. W. 
Ghapman, G. It. Wamsley, J. G. Sibley, P. 
L. Gorley, Wm. Y, Weldon, Allen Gandy, 
Mary A. Beddenfield. 

Among the first land entries in 1832 was 
that of William A. Lecure for the north- 
east quarter of the northeast quarter of 
Section 33, Township 8, Range 11. After 
the entry was made no person ever 
came to claim or take possession of the 
land. The presumption is that Lecure was 
an attache of the government surveying 
corps which surveyed the parish and ac- 
quired the land thinking that it contained 
valuable mineral deposits of some kind, 
but never returned to do any ''prospect- 
ing." No improvements have ever been 



76 NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

made on the tract, which' was sold for 
taxes in .1879. 

In 1844 James Sepulvedo and others 
bougjht, in partnership, five acres of land 
on Sabine River in order to become qual- 
ified voters. 

After the creation of Sabine parish, sev- 
eral land speculators acquired title to old 
Spanish land grants. Yates <Sj Mclntyre 
were the first to buy, and between 1841 
and 1859 they sold land to the following 
persons: 

Thomas Ford, James Tynes, William 
Mains, John Scritchfield, Mary Langford, 

B. Dally, James Lesley, W. H. Edmund - 
son, Hosea Presley, William M. Polk, 
William and B. K. Ford, Henry Hall, N 
H. Bray, Samuel Eldredge, S. S. Eason, J. 

C. Sibley, W. G. Painter, Elizabeth Mc 
Donald, C. Cherrington, Peter Buvens, J. 
Anderson, John Graham, A. Arthur, D. G 
Etheredge, E. K.King, L, Hvimsby, Alfred 
Litton, Elizabeth Rembert, James Taylor, 
J. S. Childers, D. A. Blackshear, ^^sa 
Cherrington, -W. B. Scritchfield, Hiram 
Litton, John Vines, Lee Vines, William 
Latham, James B. Stewart, J. M. Latham, 
Thomas Chambless, W. B. Schavler, Al- 
fred Lout, William Lout, John Branch, 
James Latham, T. F. Harkins, James A. 
Lane, Elizabeth Latham, Samuel B. Paul, 
Henry Jordan, W. S, "Whatley. , 



NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 77 

During this period Thomas Patterson, 
who had acquired Spanish claims, sold 
lands to S. D. Bossier, John C. Garret, R. 
A. Patterson, W. M. McCullen. The Pat- 
terson lands were on the Las Orgemas and 
Lanana grants and were sold to Stone 
& Hamlin. Stone's interests in these lands 
were subsequently sold to Florien Giauque, 
Lehmer & Pfirrman and heirs of Patterson, 

Harvey Baldwin, another pioneer real 
estate dealer, sold lands to G. W. Waller, 
Robert McDonald, William Wihon, Jose 
Procella, Ephraham Bntler, T. E. Boyd, 
Jose Rock, James Oliver, Elizabeth Rob- 
erts, Alston Nabours, W. T. Quirk, John 
W. Eason, Robert B. and William B. Stille 
The Stilles also bought Waterman's Rio 
Hondo claim in 1853. 

Among those who purchased lands from 
the State were Thomas Hardin (1859), F. 
A. Fuller ('61), James W. Nettles ('60), 
L. Barbee (1859). 

Many citizens resided on lands to which 
they had no title. If such lands were a 
part of the public domain, patents were 
finally obtained from the government un- 
der the provisions of the homestead laws, 
Others settled on lands which were a part 
of recognized Spanish claims. The Crow 
claim, embracing a large tract of land 
on Sabine River, was not finally approved 
until the present century, although sev- 



78 NEUTRAL STRIP AND PIONEERS 

eral citizens had long been settlers on this 
tract. Squatters continued, to occupy land 
without procuring a title even after the 
•war between the states. However, that 
manner of settlement at this time was 
largely by ex-slaves or people who thought 
they were occupying public lands. 

Some of the American settlers bought 
their Rio Hondo claims from the Span- 
iards. Henry Stoker, who eame to the 
Fort Jesup community in 1818, acquired 
twelve hundred acres for a small amount 
of money and two or three "pack" ponies. 

Until after the civil war Many and Fort 
Jesup were the only towns in Sabine parish 
and these places were mere villages. The 
names of additional pioneer settlers appear 
in chapters devoted to the chronicles^ of 
these towns and of the parish government. 



Fort affesup and tlie Frontier. 



The old order ohangeth, giving plane to new, 
And God f ulfllls Himself in many ways. 

— Tennyson. 

TN 1823 Uiiitpd States troops began clear- 
-*- ing the land for buildinaj Port Jesup. 
Ir. was located in the center of a reserva- 
tion two miles sqinre^ and was named in 
honor Greneral Jesup of the United States 
army. The delay in erecting the fort in 
the Neutral Strip was due to the taidiuess 
of the Spanish king in giving his approval 
to the treaty of 1819 which made the dis- 
puted territory a part of Louisiana, thus 
extending the western frontier to the Sab- 
ine River. The site for the fort is one of 
the most commanding and picturesque that 
could have been selected ; situated oa one 
of the highest elevations in Louisiana and 
a surrounding country altogether beautiful. 
In the beginning the aim seems to have 
been to make Fort Jesup a permanent mil- 
itary post. The officers' quarters were 
substantially constructed and the barracks 
for the troops were built for convenience 
and comfort. The foundations of the 
principal buildings were made of stone 
which was quarried from neighboring hills, 

79 



80 FORT JTESUP AND THE FRONTIER 

and the lime used ia the masonry work 
was also the product of a rock found in 
the vicinity. While the stone was be\ug 
placed on the ground a kiln was turning 
out the lime, and the work executed by the 
builders of that period fui-nishes splendid 
testimony of their ingenuity and industry. 
The illustration on this page shows some 
stone pillars upon which the home 




Relies of Old Fort Jesup. 

of the officers once stood. The low 
wooden building at the lefc was the old 
kitchen, in one .end of which is a brick 
chimney, with an immense fireplace about 
ten feet wide on which all cooking was 
done. These are the most prominent and 
interesting relics, of the one time preten- 
tious fort, which now exist. The building 
is constructed of hand-made lumber, with 



FORT JESUP AND THE FRONTIER 81 

split boards for the roof and are yet iti a 
fair state o£ preservation. 

Two miles west from the fort, on the Sau 
Antonio road, Shawneetown was loaated 
to supply the evils which in those days 
were believed to be necessary to every 
frontier garrison. Here flourished the sa- 
loon, the gambling house and other auxili- 
aries of disorder. iSolJier and rowdy met 
at Shawneetown and the place became 
famous for its ruffian revelry. To this day 
those passing the spot where the "town"' 
once stood frequently recall the report that 
many men spent their last day on earth in 
that vicinity. A few years ago a small 
school house (erected in the '90$) stood on 
the site of Shawoeetown, but that was la- 
ter torn down, and the spot is covered with 
pines which have grown in recent years. 
Not a relic remains of the place which was 
once a popular resort for troops and row- 
dies, with their horse races, "gander puU- 
ings" and other contests; where the weary 
travelers indulged their appetites for a 
"to^dy" as they passed in either direction 
over the San Antonio road and which also 
supplied refreshments for the freighters 
and muleteers on whom the commerce of 
the country depended. Shawneetown is 
only a memory. 

Fort Jesup was occupied by federal 
troops in 1824. The United States had 



82 FORT J-ESUP AND THE FRONTIER 

two important objects in view in the es- 
tablishment of this military post. One 
was to afford protection to the settlers in 
the hitherto neutral territory, the names 
of many of whom appear among the Rio 
Hondo claimants, and assist in establishing 
law and order. The other obje^t'Wasto 
supply the necessary border fortification 
against incursions from Texas, which was 
yet under the Spanish crown. Thus, in 
order to strentben the military position of 
Fort Jesup, a Block House was erected 
near Sabine River, not far from where the 
San Antonio road crossed that stream, and 
the fortress supplied with troops. Many 
stirring events of pioneer life iran spired at 
this place, but, like Shawneetown, it dis- 
appeared, and in later years a church 
was'erected on or near the site. 

In August, 1821, the so-called Mexicaa 
republic was established, which was form- 
ally recognized by the United States, but 
this did not lessen the necessity for 
maintaining a strong garrison at Fort 
Jesup. Hundreds of filibusterers from the 
United States had aided the Mexican peo- 
ple in their struggle Spain, still the people 
of the South and particularly Louisianians, 
had long desired that Texas bedome a part 
of the Americas Union. Following the 
establishment of the Mexican republic, 
Texas became the Mecca for adventurers 



FORT JESVP AND THE FRONTIER 83 

and land speculators. Americans even 
busied themselves to create a sentiment fa- 
voring the annexation of all Mexico, G-en- 
eral Wilkinson, who had become a soldier 
of fortune, vras an aggressive advocate of 
this plan of empire expansion. Little 
confidence vpas entertained in the stability 
of the new Mexican government. A state 
of anarchy existed in Mexico, robber bands 
infested mountain and plain, and the peo- 
ple were at war among themselves. Texas 
was especially afflicted with bands of out- 
laws. The border garrison at Fort Jesup 
was of even more importance than during 
the Spanish regime* During the ten years 
following 1824, notwithstanding the turbu- 
lent state of affairs, many Americans had 
secured grants from the Mexican govern- 
ment for thousands of acres of land to be 
utilized for colonization purposes, and citi- 
zens from the United States, came in large 
numbers, to make their homes. Great cara- 
vans of emigrants and traders marched 
over the old highways from Natchitoches 
and Alexandria to Texas. By 1830 the 
English -speakin'g colonists had begun to 
wield a strong influence in the goyerament 
of the Texas province. Nacogdoches be- 
came headquarters for political adventur- 
ers, many of whom were men of strong 
personal character and splendid ability; 
others were adventurers at all titties ready 



84 FORT JESUP AND THE FRONTIER 

to embark in any enterprise. The colo- 
nists were now dissatisfied with the Mex- 
ican method of keepiogc promises and en - 
foi'cing the provisions of the constitution 
which they had fought to establish, and 
they were determined to demand their 
rights. The Texas revolution was started, 
and after the slaughter of Americans at the 
Alamo at San Antonio by General Santa 
Ana's soldiers, the pati'iots declared their 
independence of Mexico. Q-eneral Sam 
Houston was elected commander-in-chief, 
and his victory over the Mexicans at San 
Jacinto brought glory to himself and his 
army, avenged the Alamo and commanded 
recognition for the Texas republic (1836). 
While the revolution was going on United 
States troops were sent from Fort Jesup 
across the Sabine, commanded by General 
Gaines, under pretext of enforcing the ob- 
servance of the neutrality laws, but it is 
noted that the American commander, who 
favored annexation, gave material aid to 
the Texans. Andrew Jackson was presi- 
dent, and, in response to a popular disap- 
proval of this move, the troops were or- 
dered back on American soil. Texas an- 
nexation remained the "paramount issue" 
in the politics of the United States for the 
following ten years, the South favoring 
and the North opposing the proposition. 
That annexation would be the signal for 



FORT JESVP AND THE FRONTIER 85 

war with Mexico was generally recognized, 
and Fort Jesup was amply garrisoned to 
meet any contingency. Among the early 
oommandei's of this post was Colonel Zach- 
ary Taylor, famililarly known as "Old 
Rough and Ready," who in 1845 held the 
rank ot brigadier general by brevet. He 
came to Lonisiana directly after the Amer- 
ican occupation aad purchased a plantation 
near Baton Rouge, where he resided when 
not engaged in his military duties. He is 
accorded much of the credit for the con- 
struction work at Fort Jesup, the well 
which he had dug for the troops being still 
in existence. The members of his family 
were visitors and mingled in the society 
of the old fort. He was sixty-one years of 
age at the outbreak of the war with Mex- 
ico, but the command ©f the first army to 
go to the front was entrusted to him, and 
his successes were so pronounced that 
within two years he rose to the highest 
rank in the aimy, which was followed by 
his election as president of the United 
Slates. There served with him some of 
the most famous military men America 
has produced, many of whom had been 
stationed at Fort Jesup. Among the 
distinguished officers who accompanied 
G-eneral Taylor in his invasion of Mexico 
were (lenerals Twiggs, Worth and Williarn 
O. Butler, Captains Bragg, Ringgold and 



86 FORT JESUP AND THE FRONTIER 

May, as well as officers of lower ranks, 
Grant, ISheridan and Jefferson Davis, who 
later played prominent parts in the affairs 
of the nation. Col. Many was among the 
commandants at Fort Jesup in the 40;*. Sta- 
tioned there was the 3rd and 4th Infantry 
and Bragg's Artillery. These regiments 
anii battery were the first to cross the Mex- 
ican border. The infantry went on trans- 
ports from New Orleans to Corpus Christi, 
while other portions of the army went 
overland. The deeds of this heroic army 
of regulars, reinforced by regiments of pa- 
triotic volunteers from Louisiana, Missis- 
sipi, Tennessee and Missouri, have been 
recorded in history. From Polo Alto to the 
bloody field ol: Buena Vista the Americans 
were triumphant- As a result of the war 
the United States acquired a vast empire 
and the former humble commander at Port 
Jesup became the chief executive of the 
nation. Though a native of the Old Do- 
minion State, he was accredited as a citi- 
zen of Louisiana, and he gave to our state 
a son who rendered distinguished services to 
his country in the war between the states. 
With the conclusion ot the conflict with 
Mexico Fort Jesup ceased to be a military 
post, the old buildings and fort long ago 
disappeared and the spot transformed into 
a model rural village. 
Fort Jesup has always been a "social 



FORT JESDP AND THE FRONTIER 87 

center." When it was a military post the 
beaux and belles often assembled there for 
a social dance and various amusements. 
Kestimental bands for the entertainment 
of" visitors. The old fort was a popular 
stopping place for those who journeyed 
overland to and from Texas and many peo- 
ple prominent in pioneer American life 
were quests of the old hotel there. An 
advertisement of that hostlery is reproduced 

ju-jft FORT JESVP MOTEI'. 
fSBak A. W. p. URSERY has the plea- 
IHIiEy sure to inform his friends and the 
*""^^ public, that he has taken the Fort 
Jesvp Hotel, and is now ready to receive 
company. He has a commodious house and 
stable, and a delightful situation. 

In addition to the comforts of a well regu- 
lated house, the weary traveller will be. re- 
galed at ni^t and morning by the delightful 
music of the well known Military Band at 
the Fort, to listen to, which is a treat, which 
will doubtless be an inducement for many to 
call, 

A- W. P. U. requests the patronage of the 
travelling co.'nmunity. 

May 14, 1837. 50w4 

From the '"Bed River Gazette," published at Natchi- 
toches, August, 1837. 

on this page which reflects some customs 
of the old days. Even after the abandon- 
ment of Fort Jesup as a military post it was 
famous for its social gatherinajs and many 
of our good citizens recall the pleasant 
hours spent as guests of the people there. 

The cemetery of a community often fur- 
nishes much material for historical narra- 



88 FORT JESUP AND THE FRONTIER 

tive and the burying- ground at Fort Jesup 
is eminently worthy of notice. The cem- 
etery is not large, but is one of tbe best 
kept and preserved in this section of the 
state, and contains probably the oldest 
marked gi-ave in Sabine parish. Tbis 
grave was made nine years before the fort 
was built, and a stone slab contains the in- 
scription : 

"Viatoria, daughter of Alen and Viatoria 
Phillips; born March 15, 1815; died April 
19, 1815." 

During the "military days" slabs were 
erected to the memory of the following: 

"Ann Remsey, consort of Major George 
Birch, U. S. A.; died October 25, 1829; 
aged 48 years. " \ , 

"Elizabeth Clair, consort of Major L. Gr. 
DeKussy ; died August 30, 1836 ; aged 44 
years." 

"Gordon H. Irvine, died May 11, 1837; 
aged 26 years." 

"Lieut. Thomas Cutts, 3rd Regiment U. 
S. Infantry; died September 2, 1838; aged 
31 years. Erected by officers of the regi- 
ment."* 

Among the leading citizens of Sabine 
whose remains repose there are: Samuel 
Jackson MeCurdy, Rev. J. M Franklin, 
Kiley Stoker, W. W. McNeely, Leslie Bar- 

*This regiment won fame with General Taylor in the 
Mexican war. 



FORT JESVP AND THE FRONTIER 89 

bee, W- R. Chance, Mabra P. Hawkins. J. 
H. White, W H. Peters, Dr. J. R. Frank- 
lin, William E. McNeely, "William H. Bar- 
bee, and William Amos Ponder, who was 
also prominent in the history of Natchi- 
toches parish. 

The burying place for the private sol- 
diers is in the vicinity, but no efforts have 
been made to care for the graves. Rela- 
tives have come, at various times, and re- 
moved the remains of soldiers from this 
neglected cemetery, which should have re- 
ceived some attention by the government. 

In 1903 the military reservation was 
opened for settlement under the provisions 
of the federal homestead laws, fifty years 
after the fort had been abandoned. 

The parts that have been played in our 
parish life by tbe people of ITort Jesup are 
noted in other chapters, and it is sufficient 
to state here that they have ever been rep- 
resentative of all that makes for good gov- 
ernment and good society. 



Creation of Sabine Parish. 



^ABINE PARISH, which was formerly 
^ a part of Natchitoches, was created 
by an act of the legislatui'e signed by Gov- 
ernor Mouton, March 27, 1843. The par- 
ish was named for the river which forms 
its western boundary and which 'stands as 
the godfather for several towns, cities, 
lakes and counties — the Sabine river — or 
anciently the River of the Sabine. The 
Spaniards called it Rio Adays, after an In- 
dian tribe livina; on its banks, a name sur- 
viving in the village of Adays, in Natchi- 
toches parish, and recalls an old story. 
A party of Frenchmen landing on the 
shores of Lac de Lobos^ became very 
friendly with the natives. A large number 
of the savages were taken aboard the 
French boats, but the Frenchmen becom- 
ing intoxicated cast the male Indians 
ashore and made off with the best looking 
squaws, from which incident and its .re- 
semblance to the story in Roman history 
entitled "The^Rape of the Sabines" the 
lake and river received their name. 

The land area of Sabine parish is 1,008 
square miles, about the same as that of the 
state of Rhode Island. The first census 
(1850) after the creation of the parish re- 
ported a population ;^ of 3,347 whites and 

90 



CREATION OF SABINE PARISH 91 

1,168 slaves. The voting population did 
not exceed that of Ward Four in 1912. 

A large portion of the parish is what is 
known as piue hill?, but large bodies of 
bottom and hummock lands were found 
which were converted into rich farms, but 
which were ouce covered with heavy for- 
ests of pine, oak, hickory, gurfi, beech, 
holly and various other woods. Still an- 
other considerable area is now or was cov- 
ered with long leaf pine, the greater part 
of the land being level. 

The parish is drained by several large 
creeks, or bayous, most of which flow into 
the Sabine River, most prominent among 
these streams being Bayou LaNana, Bayou 
Scie, Bayou Toro, Bayou Negraet, Bayou 
San Patricio and Bayou San Miguel. 

Sabine parish was created at a period 
when America had entered upon a new era 
of progress. Immigrants from the older 
states were no longer compelled to make 
long and tiresome overland trips to reach 
this section of Louisiana. At the begin- 
ning of the century the operation of steam- 
boats was made practical and later the ge- 
nius of American inventors had so far per- 
fected that method of navigation that the 
whistle of the steamboat engine was heard 
on every river. In 1812 the first steam- 
boat to navigate Southern waters reached 
New Orleans from Pittsburg, Pa. In the 



92 CREATION OF SABINE PARISH. 

'30s Captain Henry M. Shreve brought the 
first steamboat up Red River as far as 
Natchitoches, and in a short time steamers 
were makins: regular trips bet wee a that 
city and New Orleans and other Missis- 
sippi River points. The steamboat also 
took its place on the Sabiue River and 
boats plied that sti'eam from Sabine Lake 
to points far up into Texas. In the '50s 
a large traffic was carried on, popular 
landing points in Sabine parish being Co- 
lumbus, East Pendleton and what is known 
as Carter's Ferry. The steamboat became 
the popular mode of travel as well as for 
the transportation of merchandise and sup- 
plies for the settlers. The new parish 
presented sufficient attractions for a goodly 
portion of the emigrants then seeking 
homes in the Great Southwest and each 
succeeding year found additions to its 
sturdy citizenship. 



Pioneer Customs and Society- 



The homely house that harbours quiet rest, 
The cottage that affords no pride nor care, 

The man that 'grees with courtly music best, 
The sweet consort of mirth and modest fare. 

Obscured by life sits down a type of bliss; 

A mind content both crown and kingdom is. 

— EoBEET Geeen. 

TT^VERY section of Sabine parish now 
-*-^ presented evidences of the labor of the 
settler. The dense woodlands were trans- 
formed into open fields for the cultivation 
of crops which furaish food, as well as for 
cotton, the great staple which brought the 
ready cash. In the early days the houses 
were constructed of pine logs. The re- 
mains of some of these structures are yet 
to be found. 'Manj'' of them were rudely 
built, while others were most elegant 
structures of the kind. The better houses 
were built on what is called the "double - 
pen" plan; that is, with one or more rooms 
in two separate enclosures under one roof, 
the two sections being divided by a wide 
open hall. A long gallery or porch usually 
extended the entire length of the front of 
the house, and chimneys or fire-places 
were erected at one or both gables The 
chimneys were sometimes of brick, but 
most commonly of mud. The old type of 
country house is used even in modern 

93 



9i PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 

day?, when the finished product of the 
sawmill has supplanted the pine los:?. and 
the cirpenter with effective tools has taken- 
the place of the woodsman with no tools 
more convenient than an adz and an auser. 




'X. 



1/ 



7^ ^ hW/ ^ 



^V tSi*^ '-■^ 







Split-Log Douhle-Pen Hoxise. 

If a planter owned slaves, he provided 
them with suitable cabins. Clearing the 
woodland plantation for the cultivation of 
crops was a hard labor, but the task that 
fell to the lot of the women of the house- 
hold was so strenuous that it was akin to 
drudgery. Pioneer stores were not filled 
with ready-made clothina;. The United 
States had not embarked very extensively 
into manufactures and the fabrics which 
were to be found upon the counters of the 
local merchant were, as a rule, importa- 
tions from Europe, comprising only broad- 



PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 95 

.cloths, calicoes and cottonades, and the 
^prices of these staples were very high. The 
greater portion of the cloths which went to 
make the clothing? of the pioneers was 
manufactured by the women. In even the 
unpretentious home was found the ancient 
spinning wh«el and loom. The women 
carded the cotton and wool into rolls which 
were spun into thread, and with the loom 
wove the thread into various fabrics. Many 
older people of today can remember the 
times when they were awakened at the 
midnight hour by the hum of the spinning 
wheel or the bumping of the loom. Those 
were the days when the women of the land 
were as much slaves as those blacks which 
were held as chattels. It is a happy re- 
flection, however, that the emancipation of 
the mothers and daughters from the drudg- 
ery of supplying the family with "home- 
spun" clothing was not accomplished by 
the shedding of blood, nor through the 
agency of the ballot, but by the ingenuity 
of the army of Amoricaii inventors whose 
creations of Inbor-savius^ machinery and 
methods for manufacturing the necessary 
articles for the comfort of humanity have 
done so much to make life's walk less bur- 
densome. Not only has woman's work 
bee^n made lighter in the home, but im- 
proved machinery enables the farmer to 
cultivate his field with a greater saving of 



96 PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 

labor. A wide field of industrial progress 
covers the few short years when farmers of 
Sabine used wooden jack -plows, still there 
is heard the wail of the agitator denounc- 
ing a system of government which has 
made progress possible and urging the re- 
peal of constitutions which leave the field 
free to individual endeavor and legitimate 
competition. The invention of the cotton 
gin, the steamboat, the railway, the tele- 
graph, the sewing machine, and the count- 
less labor-saving devices and conveniences 
made their advent during the past century, 
and nearly all are the product of American 
genius, made possible by our system of 
government. May that system never be 
repealed to satisfy the demands of Utopian 
dreamers and noisy communists. 

As there were no railroads in, Sabine 
parish prior to the civil war, the chief 
trading points were Natchitoches and 
Alexandria, both river towns. A great 
many people went to market only once or 
twice a year, taking cotton and other mar- 
ketable produce, and returned v/ith sup- 
plies for their homes and plantations. 
Ox teams were the ordinary means of 
rural transportation and several neighbors 
usually journeyed to market together, and 
as it frequently required several days for 
the Sabine farmers to make the trip they 
camped out on the road. 



PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 97 

The farmers of the old days produced 
many articles at home which they now 
buy >from stores, such as soap, sugar, and 
tobacco. The country had lanyards which 
made leather for the maniifactui-e of shoes. 
Salt and soda were frequently scarce, and 
it was necessary to go to the salt works to 
procure that article. In cases of emer- 
gency certain kinds o£ ashes were us6d as 
a substitute for baking soda. 

Sabine parish was a veritable paradise 
for hunters. Wild game, such as deer, 
bear, wild turkey and other animals which 
were sources of food supply, was to be 
found on every hand. These wild luxuries 
have rapidly diminished in numbers until 
they are practically extinct. The fort3Sts 
with their crops of nuts and acorns enabled 
the farmers to have fat hogs without feed- 
ing them his cultivated crops. The hogs 
were allowed to roam at will and soon be- 
came wild, and when their owners were 
• ready to lay in their supply of meat they 
were usually compelled to hunt the ani- 
mals with dogs and guns. Preyious to the 
civil war these wild hogs had become so 
numerous that the owner who had failed 
to mark his hogs was frequently unable to 
indentify them. 

The days of the pioneers of Sabine were 
not without their pleasures. The dealings 
and associations of neighbors were of the 



98 PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETf 

most happy character. Every good citizen 
was ever ready to render assistance to his 
fellow man when the call for aid was made, 
The harvest time was especially the sea- 
son for mutual aid and the giving of neigh- 
borly feasts. The men gathered for miles 
around to help gather ;i neighbor's crop, 
which was usually accomplished in one 
day, and the women came to assist in mak- 
ing quilts for the household. The day was 
one of jolly work, sumptuous dinners, and 
at night came the iueyi table dance, whi^E 
brought delight i.o the young people arid 
which continued into the morning hours. 
Every neighborhood boasted pf a "fiddleri^;" 
whose knowledge of the masters, poetic 
quadrilles aiid dreamy waltzes may haj^ 
been a trifl-^ limited, but his rustic ai<t's 
never failed tn inspire the dinicers- to enter 
into the spirit of the occasion. "Candy- 
I'reakings" and the "play party" we^e 
other sources of amusement for the pibneet 
youths, and when the country afforded 
places of pub!ic worship, those gatherings 
were also of a social nature. 

In pioneer days early marriages ,and llie 
rearing of large families were the rule, and 
the custom apparently has never been ab- 
rogated by the people of Sabine parish. 
The people were practically all engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and the newly wed 
couple, no matter how limited their fin- 



PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 99 

ances nitty have been, found waiting for 
them a tract of land, and by industry and 
frugality they were soon enabled to own a 
home. Up to 1840 the nuptial knots were 
usually tied by magistrates and judges, ex- 
cept among the Catholic popuiation where 
priests ofBiciated, but after that tinie min- 
isters of other denominational appear on , 
the records as celebrants of marriage cere- 
monies 

The first marriage to be officially recorded 
in Sabine parish was filed July Sih, 1846, 
the ceremony having been performed June 
5th by Justice Abuer Bradley. The con- 
tracting parties were Joseph Simpson and 
Hannah Self. 

In 1847, G. W. Johnson, who signs as a 
minister of the Gospel, united in marriage 
Lewis White and Mrs. Elizabeth J. Wood, 
the witnesses being Stephen Wiley and 
James Waldrop'. Other marriages recorded 
in 1847 were: Abram Holt and Miss Eliz- 
abeth Bloodsworth, James 1). Pate and 
Mrs. Martha Ann Wright (the witnesses of 
the later ceremony being S. (t. Lucius, A. 
Duckworth and Absalom Wright), Vincent 
A. Montgomery and Miss Mary Eliza 
Gandy, James Murphy and Miss iMatilda 
Shull, E. C. Davidson and Miss Elizabeth 
Baldwin (the witnesses being Daniel K. 
Gandy, Henry McCallen and P. H. Dillon), 
William R. McCollister and Miss Margaret 



100 PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 

Frances, Haney Curtis and Miss Elizabeth 
Sneed. The last weddinjr, except one, re- 
corded in 1847 was that of Alfred Litton 
and Miss Nancj'' Critchfleld. at which Jus- 
tice of the Peace R. K. McDonald offici- 
ated and James Brown, John Self and J. 
"W. Scritchfield signed as witnesses. 

The marriage of Mark McAlpin and Miss 
Emily Smart was recorded in 1848, John 
Carroll, Thomas Stephens and Amos C. 
Smart subscribing as wi messes. Other 
marriages during the same year were El- 
bert Mains and Miss Celia Ritchey, Hurry 
Rurr and Miss Mary Ann Magee, John 
Hendricks and Miss Eunicy Parrott. The 
latter wedding was celebrated at the home 
Mrs. Eliza Parrott, on Novomber 30th, the 
witnesses beinc W. B. Noal, Miss Mary 
Ann Martin and James H. Wordl On the 
13th of Elecember following tliat wedding 
the marriage of two of the witnesses, W. 
B. Neal and Miss Marlin is noted. William 
Self and Mary E. Boswell, Solomon Ar- 
thur and Miss Evilina Curtis ( W. C. South- 
well, Benjamin C. Arthur and John Car- 
roll being witnesses), Olivier Sanders and 
Mary Ann Vidler, Taylor Morris Cook 
and Miss R. Q. Hill, were also among those 
who were married in 1848. 

The following marriages were recorded 
in 1849: Thomas B. Stephens and Miss 
Blender Smart, John Outright and Amanda- 



PIONEER CUSTOMS AND SOCIETY 101 

Pate, John Forbis and Miss Martha E. 
Brown. 

lu 1852, John Vines and Miss lonah But- 
ler were united in marriage, Justice of the 
Peace J. C. AlEord officiating. During 
this year G-eorge West, minister of the 
Gospel, makes returns of marriage cere- 
monies which he had performed. 

From 1852 until after the ciril war there 
does not appear to have been any definite 
system of keeping the marria,ge records at 
the court-house. Other public records 
were scrupulously cared for, but the sys- 
tem of keeping a record of deaths, births 
and marriages which prevailed in many 
commonwealths, was apparently neglected 
to a large degree. In later years these mat- 
ters received better atiention, and the sys- 
tem of keeping the marriage records, in 
conformity with state laws, are especially 
good. 



Parisih Go^ernmeiita 



The Police Juky. 
A PTER the creation of Sabine, the work 
-^-^ of providing a government of the 
new parish was immediately begun. The 
first record of the Police Jury is dated 
June 19, 1843, when the board met in ad- 
journed session. John Lebo presided, and 
the following members were present: T. 
Arthur, B. P. Byles, W. Estes, Robert B. 
Stille, J. R. Smart and A. Savell. S. S. 
Eason, who was also clerk of the district, 
parish and probate courts, was secretary of 
the Police Jury and John Baldwin treas- 
urer. The establishment of some new 
roads and the adoption of rales governing 
the meetings of the board are noted in the 
proceedings, also a proposition to ask the 
state legislature to submit to the voters the 
question of a location for the parish site 
and the construction of public buildings. 
On motion of Mr. Arthur, the first estray 
laws for the parish were adopted.. After 
reciting the methods for estrayiug and 
branding livestock, the resolution provided 
that any person who was molested or 

102 



PARISH GOVERJ^MEMT 103 

"aggrieved" by any wild or uugovernable 
horse, cow, or hog, could make complaint 
to the nearest justice of the peace, and, 
after advertisement of the troublesome 
stock had been made for thirty days, if the 
owuer did not offer relief, the person mak- 
ing the complaint proceeded on a certain 
day to kill the animal. A uuique feature 
of the branding law was that "no person 
shall send or permit any slave or Indian to 
go into any of the woods or ranges in this 
parish to brand any horse, colt, mule, cat- 
tle, hogs or sheep, under any circumstances 
whatsoever, unless said slave, or Indian, 
be in company and under the direction of 
seme respectable white person." Violators 
of this law were compelled to pay twenty 
dollars for every animal thus branded, half 
of which amount went to the parish and 
half to the person giving the information 
and prosecuting the suit. At this meetiug 
the clerk was authorized to have "two win- 
dows inserted in the western end and one 
door in the eastern end of the building now 
occupied by the Police Jury. ' ' He was also 
authorized to purchase necessary chairs 
and a table for the use of the members at 
their meetings, which was to be done "in 
the cheapest and most economical manner." 
At the next meeting of the body one 
hundred dollars was appl'opriated for build- 
ing a bridge across Bayou Toro, near Mrs. 



104 PARISH GOVERJVMEJ^T 

Curtis' place. On motion of Mr. Siille, the 
following resolution was adopted: "Ue- 
solveii, that Major Fauntleroy be and is 
hereby authorized to change the Natchi- 
toches and the Alexandria road according 
to the diagram exhibited to this board, and, 
when completed, to close the Natchitoches 
road now running through the garrison at 
FortJesup." 

The board; elected the first parish admin- 
istrators of public schools, as follows: 
Thomas Ford, Hosea Presliey, Daniel R. 
Gandy, N. J. Alford and Valentine Nash. 

Mr. Stille offered the following resolu- 
tion, which was adopted: "Resolved, that 
it shall be unlawful for anyone to expose 
for sale within the bounds of this parish 
any slaughtered hog without the head and 
ears attached. And it shall be lawful for 
any free white person to seize any such 
slaufithtered hog exposed for sale contrary 
to the above section and give notice there- 
of to the nearest magistrate, who shall im- 
mediately offer it for sale, one half the 
proceeds to go to the informer and one-half 
to the parish." 

A resolution was adopted assessing an 
annual license to be paid by the pr\)prietors 
of ferries on the Sabine River. The fer- 
ries then in operation were Barr's, Had- 
den's, Gaine's, Patterson's, Kirk's, Haley's 
and Myrick's. 



PARISH GOVERMMEJ^T 105 

The board met in May, 1844, and re- 
elected the same officers for the ensuing 
year, with the exception that Hosea Pres- 
ley was elected treasurer. T. Arthur hav- 
ing resigned as a member of the jury, J, A. 
McLanahan was seated in his place. An 
ordinance was passed requiring "peddlers 
and hawkers of merchandise of any de- 
scription" to pay an annual license of ten 
dollars, and failure to pay same made the 
goods liable to seizure and to be sold for 
amount of the license. During this ses- 
sion a resolution was adopted instructing 
the surveyor, George W. Thompson, to run 
the line between Sabine and, Rapides par- 
ishes, in accordance with a decision of the 
supreme court defining said line. 

Tho president appointed the following 
standing committees for the. year 1844: 
Finance — Stille, Smart and McLaaahan. 
Claims — Byles, Estes and Save 11. Election 
— Stille, Byles and Smart. 

A motion to proceed with the matter of 
erecting suitable public buildings was lost 
by a tie vote. Mr. McLanahan, member 
from the Third Ward, was not present and 
the board proceeded to fine him for non- 
attendance. This meeting seems to have 
terminated in some dissatisfaction among 
the members. Messrs. Stille and Estes 
tendered their resignations as members and 
after that date the nuuu of the president, 



106 PARISH GOVERMMEJSTT 

Mr. Lebo, does not appear upon the 
minutes. 

On November lltb, John Ayers, B. P. 
Bilep, James Kinner and A. Brown were 
seated as members of the jury. Kinner 
was elected president^ The question of 
providing public buildings was again. taken 
up, and John Baldwin, M. Fulehrod, John 
Waterhouse and Alexander Biles were 
named as a committee to arrange to lay out 
in town lots a tract of laud (now occupied 
by the town of Many), title to which was 
vested in the Police Jury, and offer the 
lots for sale at public a.uction, for cash or 
terms, the proceeds of the sale of which to 
go to the public buildintr fund. It should 
be noted that the buildings were not erected 
until sevi'ral years later. The board di- 
rected that th(; secretary see to the repair 
of some chimneys in the buildings then in 
use,, and adjourned. 

At the next meeting of the board, May 
5, 184'5, Brown and Ayers were the only 
members at the previous session who were 
present. The new members who qualified 
were R. K. McDonald, M. Fulehrod, J. B. 
Elam, T. G, L. Godwin and A. H. Red- 
ding. A Brown was elected president. 
The only meeting during the remainder of 
the year was held' in September, and the 
business transacted was confined to minor 



PARISH GpVERJVMEJfT 107 

matters. The first parish aid to a pauper 
was recorded in the journal. 

On Juno I, 1846, the following members 
were present; R. K. McDonald, Q-. Man- 
son, J. B. Elam and T. G. S. Godwin. 
Mr. Elam was chosen president and G-eorge 
E. Ward secretary. Hosea Presley was 
allowed $5.25 for holding an inquest over 
the body of Joseph Neel, and Coroner Wil- 
liam Stoker $20.75 for holding inquests 
over the bodies of James Humphries and 
B. A. Stone. 

At this period agitators had begun to 
menance the good order that prevailed 
among the slaves by endeavoring to induce 
them to become disloyal to their masters. 
To discourage these attempts by designing 
interlopers to cause disturbances, Mr. God- 
win introduced the following resolution, 
which was adopfced: "Be it resolved, that 
hereafter there shall be captains of pa- 
trols in the parish of Sabine ; that is to 
say, captains for each Police Jury war4 as 
they now exist. J. R. Smart and Maftin 
Brock for the First ward, W. W, H. God- 
win and R. J. McLemore for the Second 
ward,*, Thadeus Montgomery and C, W. 
Elam for the Third ward, William Stoker 
and John Presley for the Fourth ward, H. 
Nabouvs and Samuel W^ebb for the Fifth 
ward, William E^tes and Jefferson Ander- 
son for the Sixth ward, C. F. Waldrop »nd 



108 PARISH GOVERJ^MEJVT 

W. G. Beddingfield for the Seventh ward. 
Be i| further resolved, that it shall be the 
duty of said captains oi patrols to call oitt 
all such persons as are. subject to military 
duty in their respective wards or beat", 
and that any person neglecting or failing 
to tttrn out after having been notified J^y 
said captains shall forfeit and pay one dol- 
lar for the use of the parish. Be it further 
resol|ed, that it shall be the duty of the 
capt?^ns of patrols to call out such persons 
at least once a month, and oftener if it be 
necessary in the discretion of the captains 
ol: pa|rols, or upon the written request of 
three freeholders. Be it further resolved, 
that it shall be the duty of said captains 
and patrols, when on duty, to visit and in- 
spect all negro quarters, and if in so doing 
they^!shall find any negroes gathered to- 
gether with the intent of causing a disturb- 
atice^^jimong the slaves of the neighborhood 
or parish ; or, further, if they shall find 
any *slave, or slaves, in said quarters not 
beloiiging to the owner, or owners, with- 
out a pass or verbal permit from his or her 
master, unless the captain is satisfied With 
the truth of said permit, it shall be his or 
their duty to chastise said slave, or slayes, 
by giving him, or them, not more than 
twenty stripes with au ordinary whip; and 
thaiythey shall have no right to inflict 
g^^er punishment, under the penalty of 



PARISH GOVERJ^MEJ^T * 109 

the law. The captains of the patrols, shall 
have a sjeneral supervisory control oylir the 
police of slaves in this parish in th^ir re- 
spective wards, not only when on dutV, but 
likewise at any time." 

The parish license for "keepers of ^rofj 
shops, tipUnsc houses and retailers of ;spir- 
itons liquors" was fixed at ten dolilirs per 
year. ' 

A resolution was adopted providing for 
the payment by the Police Jury of two 
dollarx for every wolf killed in the parish. 
On October 26, the board rented the Meth- 
odist church in which to hold sessions of 
the district court. 

At the June meeting ( 1847) the , board 
resolved to submit to the vqters of the par- 
ish a proposition to increase the tax levy 
for the purpose of erecting a public;|baild- 
ing at the parish site. 

The difficulty which thei young parish 
encountered in procuring public buildings 
is best explained by a glance at her' small 
finances. The parish, like many individ- 
uals in those days, started out with no cap- 
tal. In 1843 the taxes collected amounted 
to only $984.80, and in 1846 the taxes, ped- 
dlers' and ferries' license totaled only $1, - 
336.64 The taxes of Yates & Mclntyre, 
who owned considerable land in the parish, 
were unpaid and in controversy, the 
amount being $436.39. With the limited 



J.XW J. t/J.J.uj.uj.± uriy r -iV-tit/y t/rj.aj/i/1 -t 

fands available it is little woudt-r that the 
parish legislature was confronted with 
what plight be considered a heavy indebt- 
edness. 

On Decembev 20, 1847, the board met 
with the followiu}; members present : W. 
Bi Stille, Joseph McNeely, John Atea and 
W;. D. Stephen^, Mr. Aten was appointed 
president pro tetaa. The election to decide 
whether a public building should be erected 
had resulted in favor of the proposition 
and the board proceeded to appropriate 
$500 for that purpose. A proposition to 
provide a hou^e in which to hold court 
while the building was being constructed 
was lost. 

On June 6, 1848, 0. Munson was elected 
president aud G-eorge E. Ward secretary. 
J^lin K. Smart, chairman of the committee 
^pointed to investigate the sale of town 
loits in Many, reported that the gross sales 
aiiounted to $1,231.69, of which amount 
ohly $582.98 had been paid into thie treas- 
ury. At the October meeting, on motion 
of Mr. Smart, $200 was appropriated to the 
public schools for the tuition of indigent 
children. The board also reduced the 
amount to be used for building a court- 
house to $400. The following were mem- 
bers of the board at the December meet- 
ing: G. Munson, Joseph McNeely, E. 
Brown, G. W. Morris, Joseph Vaner, A. 



PARISH GOYERKMEJ^T 111 

Lout and Malen Holden. Joseph McNeely 
was elected president. The following June 
Mr. McNeely was succeeded by Daniel 
Richey. The payment of $25 to John For- 
bis for supporting two old slares is recorded 
in the journal. The board met in October 
and again postponed the building of a 
court house. The Methodist and Baptist 
churches were rented, one for a court house 
and one for a jury room. The commis- 
sioners of the town of Many were in- 
structed to close the mortgages on the lots 
which had been sold and on which final 
payment had not been made. The law al- 
lowing a bounty for wolf scalps was re- 
pealed. The estimate for parish expenses 
for the following year was fixed at $3,000. 
George E. Ward was allowed $29 for taking 
a census of the school childran for the year 
1849. In June, 1850, the following were 
members of the Police Jury: Daniel 
Richey, T. G. S. Godwin, James S. Wil- 
liams, Littleton Chambliss, N. P. Smart 
and N. H. Bray. George E. Ward was 
elected secretary and Daniel Richey con- 
tinued as president. Among the new 
roads authorized at the June meeting (1851) 
was one in accordance with the petition of 
Leslie Barbee and others, and defined as 
follows: "Running from big hill by Les- 
lie Barbee 's, to have its terminal at the 
Alexandria road near Polland's." "Wash- 



112 PARISH GOYERNMEMT 

ington Kirkham, John Dougherty, James 
Isgitt and William Stone were reviewers. 
At this meeting Henry S. White, a new 
member, was elected president and E. C. 
Davidson secretary. 

Matthew Jones was president in 1852, 
but was shortly succeeded by Moses K. 
Speight, and E. F. Presley was chosen 
secretary. No further changes in the mem- 
bership was noted during the next several 
years, nor any business of importance 
transacted. 

In July, 1859, Marion F. Carter turned 
over to the parish the new jail he had con- 
tracted to build at a cost of $1,500. In 
1860, J. A. Weeks, E. M. €assell, H. W. 
Scoggins and J. J, Horton were jurors, 
In March, 1861, President Speight was 
authorized to driaw on the State Treasurer 
for $30,000, Sabine's share of an appropri- 
ation for the relief of suffererers from 
floods and drouth. At a meeting in May 
provision was made for the distributien of 
corn from the depots at Grand Ecore and 
Cobble's Landing. In June, Allen Hol- 
land, G. G. Garner and Silas Roberts ap- 
peared 'as jurors. M. K. Speight was 
re-elected president; A. R. Mitchell, sec- 
retary, and E. C. Davidson, treasurer. The 
office of examiner of teachers was abol- 
ished, but restored the following day with 
A. K. Mitchell as exammer. 



PARISH GOVEFxKMEKT 113 

On August 13, 1861, thp board appropri- 
ated money for military purposes, the or- 
ganizations mentioned V)eiug the Sabine 
Volunteers, Captain J. T. Jordan's Com- 
pany, Sabine Rifles and Sabine Rebels. 
Five hundred dollars was paid to Captain 
McArthur's company then at the front. In 
January, 1862, the board authorized the 
employment of a drillmaster, and in April 
$7,500 in parish warrants were authorized. 
A grant of $7 per month was made to the 
wives and mothers of soldiers and each 
child of a soldier in the service was allowed 
$2 per month. At this meeting J. A. 
Weeks succeeded A. R. Mitchell as secre- 
tary, and Weeks, Sam Webb, Garner, 
Munson, Scoggins, Gibbs, Chambliss, Hi»l- 
lahd and Speight were members. In June, 
1862, the estimate of parish expenses for 
the year was fixed at $6,940. Isaac Wright 
became a member of the jury in August. 
The wari'ants issued to Captain Wright's 
Sabine Independents in 1861, amounting 
to $1,025, were canceled, and in October 
an issue of $10,000 in script was author- 
ized. The budget for 1863 called for $13,- 
940. Bounties and reliefs for families of 
volunteers were ordered paid. This was 
followed by another issue of $10,000 in 
script for equipment of militia and relief 
of families of volunteers. There was no 
meeting •f the board in 1864. In 1865. M. 



114 PARISH GOVERMMEJ^T 

K. Speight was again elected president, 
and James Fisher Smith, secretary. The 
other members were N. H. Bray, A. R. 
Mitchell, Leslie Barbee, William Ferguson, 
Benjamin Boyd, H. S. Kennedy, H. W. 
Scoggins, A. C. Leach, Samuel "Webb. E. 
C. Davidson was chosen treasurer but the 
election was set aside and N. H. Bray se- 
lected for that position. M. K. Speight, 
Jr., was chosen collector. 

in 1868 the members of the jury were 
Speight, Bray, Kennedy, Tyler, Harmon 
Carter, Edmund Duggan, John Jacobs, W- 
A. Youngblood and John Tynes. E. C. 
Davidson was elected parish attorney. 

In June, 1869, M P. Hawkins and J. M. 
Franklin qualified as members, and in Oc- 
tober A. K. Addison and C. B. Darnell 
also qualified. At the January meeting 
(1870) Jeff Salter was appointed collector 
and Alfred Lout and Thomas Wiley were 
new members. 

The Police Jury which was appointed by 
the State qualified in October, 1871, and 
organized by electing John Caldwell, pres- 
ident, and W. W. McNeely, secretary, the 
other members being Alfred Litton, M. P. 
Hawkins, D. W. Self and Thomas A. Arm- 
strong. J. Fisher Smith was elected 
treasurer, and E. F. Presley attorney. 

In December, 1872, Edmund Duggan was 
elected president. Other members were 



PARISH GOVERKMEKT 115 

John Carroll, J. H. Tynes, Alfred Litton 
and James M. Gibbs. K. W. Sibley was 
secretary. In July, 1873, J. H. Cg,ldwell 
was appointed treasurer. At this meeting 
the old question of building a court house 
was revived, after many years. In Octo - 
ber, 1873, a tax of ten mills on the assess- 
ment of the preceeding year was author- 
ized for building purposes, and R. B. Stille, 
W. H. Aldredge, John Davis, A. H. Hogue 
and A. Harris were appointed as a build- 
ing committee. In July, 1874, R. G. 
Brown qualified as a juror in place of John 
Carroll, who had died since the previous 
meeting, and in January, 1875, the follow- 
ing members composed a new board: M. 
K. Speight, Sr., Edmund Duggan, R. G. 
Brown, H. H-. Callens and S. T. Sibley. 
Mr. Speight was elected president, R. A. 
Forbis, treasurer, and James F, Garner, 
assessor and collector. Edmund Duggan 
was elected president in January, 1876, and 
at that meeting the tax levy was increased 
from 14 1-2 to 29 mills. The trustees of 
the Baptist church were paid $25 rent for 
their house for the yeai* 1875. 

The board, in 1877, was composed of R. 
M. Armstrong, president; Wade Ander- 
son, D. W- Carroll, G. W. Addison and J. 
M. Gibbs. The followmg June the Police 
Jury received a demand from the Parish 
Board of School Directors to levy a tax not 



116 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

exceeding two mills for public school pur- 
poses. E. P. Presley was elected treasurer 
and later was also chosen attorney. In 
July the parish was redistricted into eight 
wards, but the act did not become effective 
until January, 1879, when the jury was 
composed of the following members: W. 
W. Arthur, T. J. Stringer, D. "W- Carroll, 
Daniel Vaudegaer, W. H. Farmer, H. H. 
Callens, C. B. Darnell and W. L. Shull. 
This was the first jury after the "recon- 
struction" period. In August a 3-fnills 
.tax for three years was levied to build a 
court house, and, the voters sustaining the 
levy, plans for a building were received in 
December, at which meeting W. W. Mc- 
Neuly was elected treasurer. , P. P. Bridges 
qualified as juror in place of H. H. Cal- 
lens, deceased. - During this period two 
ncw:?[)apers were published at Many, the 
Sabine Index by J. H. Caldwell & Co., and 
the Sabine Southron- by E. F. Presley. The 
Index was awarded the parish printing on 
its bid to do the Work for nothing and pay 
the parish 30 cents additional. 

In May, 1880, W. W. Arthur was presi- 
dent, and J. H. Mitchell, secretary. J. T. 
Lunf was contracted with to erect a court 
house at a cost of $2,500. A. H. Hogue 
purchased the old jail and lot from the par- 
ish for $112.50. In August, 1881, D. W. 
Carroll was succeeded as a member by "W, 



PARISH GOVERKMEKT 117 

T. Alford, and in January, 1882, A. W. 
Estes was elected secretary. Plans for a 
new jail were adopted and the contract for 
building the same awarded to J. T. Lunt 
for $1,600. H. S. Kennedy qualified as a 
member from Ward 7 in 1882, but was sue - 
ceeded by J, M. Stoddard in June, 1883. 
Jasper DeLatin was police constable. 

In June, 1884, R. A. Forbis, president; 
T. J. Stringer, W. T. Alford, Henry Fer- 
guson, William Aten, H. H. Cassell and 
Jehu Graham formed the board. A. W. 
Estes was elected treasurer, and J. A. 
Small constable. In January, 1885, on 
motion of Jehu Grraham, the board passed 
a prohibition ordinance, and from that date 
to the present whisky has not been legally 
sold in Sabine parish. At the next meet- 
ing W. M. Webb appeared as a member in 
place of Henry Ferguson, deceased. W. 
T. Alford was elected president in place of 
Forbis, resigned. In 1886 J. C. Ryan was 
elected police constable. In January, 1887, 
an effort was made to abolish this office, 
but failed. M. B. Petty was elected con- 
stable. Two years later J. C. Ryan 
was elected and, with the exception of one 
year when C. M, Williams served, has held 
the position up to the present. 

In 1888 Jehu Grraham succeeded W. T. 
Alford as president, but in June of that 
year a new set of jurors qualified as fol- 



118 PARISH GOVEBKMEMT 

lows: R. A. Forbis, president, A. W. Es- 
tes, secretary and treasurer ; H. S. Ellzey, 
T. J. Stringer, H, M. Gandy, W. M. 
Webb, H. H. Cassel, J. M. Fuller and Wil- 
liana Tyler, 

In April, 1890, Mr. Ellzey, for a com- 
mittee, reported favorably on a petition of 
the tax -payers of the parish asking that 
election be ordered for the purpose of vot- 
ing on the proposition of levying a tax of 
5 mills on the property valuation for a pe- 
riod of ten years ia aid of the G-ulf , Sabine 
and Kansas City railroad, and recommended 
that said election be granted. An ordin- 
ance was drafted ordering the election and 
providing that the railroad should be built 
from the north end of Sabine parish, via 
the town of Many, to the south line of the 
parish, and that the road should conform 
to the standard of a trunk line and be com - 
pleted within three years from the date the 
tax was voted. The election was ordered 
to be held on the 15th day of May. 

In July, 1892, the members of the board 
were W. D. Hall, T. J. Stringer, H. M. 
Gandy, W. R. Alford, T. J. Cranford, H. 
H. Cassell, Jehu Grraham and W. C. Rai- 
ner. Jehu Graham was elected president 
and A, W. Estes, secretary. In Oetober 
the board ordered spread upon the minutes 
suitable resolutions in memory of R, A. 



PARISH GOVERJ^MEJ^T 119 

Forbis, deceased, who had long been pres- 
dent of the Police Jury. 

At the meeting in April, 1893, the jury 
gave its approval of the efforts being made 
looking to the construction of a railroad 
from Many to Marthaville. This road was 
chartered, but the building was only on 
paper. 

In January, 1894, H. M. Gandy was 
elected president, aad at a subsequent 
meeting an election was ordered to vote on 
the proposition of levying a tax of one- 
half mill on the taxable property valuation 
for a period of ten years in aid of a pro- 
posed railroad from Victoria, La., on the 
Texas and Pacific railroad, to Many. The 
citizens voted in favor of the tax, but the 
road was not built. 

On October 7, 1895, the board was pre- 
sented with a petition for an election to 
vote on the proposition to levy a 5 mills 
tax for a period of ten years in aid of the 
Kansas City, Pittsburg and 'Grulf railroad 
which proposed to build its line through 
Sabine parish in consideration of that sub- 
sidy. The petition was referred to a com- 
posed of Jehu Gri'aham, W. R. Alford and 
W. C, Rainer, who recommended ihat said 
election be granted, and every member 
voted to order the election. November 15 
was fixed as the date for holding the elec- 
tion, but was later changed to December 2, 



120 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

on which date elections for the same pur- 
pose had been ordered in DeSoto and Ver- 
■ non parishes. In January, 1896, the board 
canyassed the returns of the election and 
promulgated the result of the election, 
which was as follows: For the tax, 544 
votes ; against the tax, 438 votes. The road 
was to run through the parish on a north 
and south line, east or west of the town of 
Many not more than five miles. This road 
was constructed during the year, and an era 
of great progress in the parish was begun. 
H, U, Sally qualified as a jury in place of 
H. H. Cassell, 

On March 13, 1896, the jury met in called 
session to cnnsider plans for the suppres- 
sion of a threatened epidemic of smallpox 
in Many. Prior to this time no provision 
for a board of health in the parish is noted. 
The Police Jury at created a health board 
with Don E, SoRelle, president; Leo Yan- 
degaer, secretary; E. C. Dillon, treasurer, 
and Dr. W. J. Mobley health officer. Five 
hundred dollars was appropriated for the 
use of tne board and $100 for vaccine 
points, At the April meeting a new board 
of health was appointed, as follows : John 
S. Carroll, president; Leo Vandegaer, sec- 
retary, W. J. Davis, treasurer; Dr, T, M. 
Tramel, parish physician. Stringent reg- 
ulations were adopted, C. P. McDonald 



PARISH GOVERNMENT 121 

qualified as a member of the jury at this 
meeting. 

In July, 1896, the following were present 
as members of the jury: P, I. Cook, M. 
S. Antony. J. W. Nabours, W, R. Alford, 
T, J, Cranford, C. P. McDonald, Jehu 
Graham, S, M. Wiley and H, U, Sally. 
Jehu Graham was elected president. Cran- 
ford, Alford and Antony were designated 
as a committee to enter into a contract for 
building a new parish jail. Plans for a 
structure to cost $6,210 were accepted, to 
be paid for in four annual installments, 
and a 2 mills tax levy was made to liqui- 
date this indebtedness. 

In February, 1897, the Doard met to de- 
vise plans to aid drouth sufferers in the 
parish, crops during the previous season 
having been the shortest in the hiistory of 
the country. The surplus funds of the 
parish were tendered to the needy and 
meetings were ordered held in each ward 
to urge private aid. The railroads volun- 
teered to transport provisions to their sta- 
tions in Sabine parish free. In June the 
tax levy for the year was made as follows: 
Parish tax, 6 1-2 mills; school tax, 11-2 
mills; jail tax, .2 mills; railroad tax, 5 
mills. The new jail was received from 
the contractors. The assessor was in- 
structed to assess all long leaf pine lands at 
$4 per acre. 



122 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

Jehu Grraham was re-elected president 
at the January meeting (1898). In April 
the board met in special session, revised 
the road laws, and fixed the budget of par-' 
ish expenses for the year in compliance 
with a new law. In July an ordinance 
was adopted fixing the parish license for 
the sale of liquor at $2,000. This action 
was intended to discourage attempts to 
open saloons in any incorporated towns of 
the parish. 

The same officers were continued for the 
year 1899, and at the April meeting the 
matter of building a new court house was 
considered. The board decided to work 
parish convicts on the public roads and a 
superintendent of convicts was elected, 
At the June meeting a per capita tax of $1 
was assessed every man subject to road 
duty, and a tax of 50 cents on two -horse 
wagons and 25 cents on one-horse wagons 
and vehicles levied. The proposition to 
to build a new court house was again taken 
up at the July meeting and different plans 
and specifications were considered. The 
plans of a Louisville firm of contractors 
were accepted and 2 mills set aside for the 
construction of the building which was to 
be completed at a cost of $17,000. R, Gr. 
Bozeman became a member of the jury at 
this meeting. On motion of Mr, Wiley the 
old wooden court house was sold at public 



PARISH GOVERNMENT 123 

auction. In October the board adopted 
resolutions in memory of M, S. Antony, 
member of the board from Ward 2, 

In response to a petition of the citizens 
of Ward 6, that ward was diyided and 
Ward 10 created at the January meeting 
(1900). M. Gt. Antony qualified as juror 
at this meeting. The board met the fol- 
lowing month for the purpose of accepting 
the new court house from the contractors. 
President Graham's report as superintend- 
ent of the building was presented, declared 
correct and the building accepted. 

On May 14 a special meeting was held to 
elect a parish board of health. The fol- 
lowing were appointed members of that 
body for a term of four years : J. E. Lee, 
Lem Walters, Dr. S. H. Cade, Dr. J, R, 
Franklin, M. F, Webb, Dr. Mott, J. J, 
Brown, Dr, T, M, Tramel, J. E, Bullard 
and J, W. Ford, Three hundred dollars 
was appropriated for the smallpox sufferers 
of Wards 5 and 8, 

In June, 1900, (^. M. Addison, W, L, 
Speights, H'. M. Gandy, John J. McCollis- 
ter, T, Laroux, J. M. Paul, D. E, Steph- 
ens, W, L. ShuU, John Edmundson and 
J, T. Tanner comprised a new board, 
which organized by electing H, M, Gandy 
president. Plans were adopted for build- 
ing bridges throughout the parish. In Oc- 
tober the board adopte'd a memorial for W. 



124 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

L. Shull, deceased member, In January, 
1901, W, C. Mains appeared as a member 
from Mr, Shull's ward. I. D, Rains was 
awarded the contract for erecting an iron 
fence ai'ound the court house yard. Sur- 
veyor Dan Vandegaer wis employed to 
classify the piae timber of the parish, and 
the assessor instructed to assess same as 
follows: First -class at $4,50 per acre, sec- 
ond-class at $2 per acre, 

In January, 1903, H, M, Gandy was re- 
elected president, and D. M, Miller quali- 
fied as a member vice G. M. Addison re- 
signed. In October of this year the treas- 
urer was authorized to procure teams and 
tools to work convicts on the public roads. 
An ordinance was adopted which prohib- 
ited the importation to the parish from 
Texas of any unbaled cotton, cotton seed, 
hulls or aay other product that might con- 
vey cotton boll weevil, and providing for a 
fine not exceeding ^500 for violation of 
that act. 

In January, 1904, the officers which 
served the previous years were re-elected. 
The board at the following meeting in- 
structed the assessor to assess short leaf 
pine lands at $4 per acre and long leaf pine 
lands at $8 per acre. The president was 
authorized to contract for steel cages for 
the parish iail at a cost of $2,550. The 
board was composed of the following mem- 



PARISH GOVEllKMEMT 125 

bers: D. M, Miller, W, L. Speights, H, 
M. Gandy, J, J. McCollister, H. H. Fer- 
guson, E, F. Latham, W, R, Ross, T. F, 
Wiley, John Edmundson and J. T, Tanner, 
In October, 1905, owing to the prevalence 
of yellow fever in a neighboring parish,$500 
was appropriated to maintain a quarantine 
against the disease. 

During the present century the work of 
of the Police Jury has be.en largely along 
the line of public improvements. Good 
roads and bridges come in for their share 
of consideration. In January, 1907, the 
same ofl&cers were continued for the year. 
Dr. D. H. Dillon was elected president of 
the parish health board, but he resigned in 
July to accept a similar position on the 
state board, Dr. T, L. Abington was 
elected to the place and was also chosen 
coroner at the November meeting. 

In July. 1908, the board was composed 
of the following members: Dr, T, J, 
Satcher, T, W. Conerly, J. W. Nabours, 
A. F, Addison, T. Laroux, J. L, Latham, 
W, R. Ross. T. F. Wiley and J, T, Tan- 
ner, W, R. Ross was elected president. 
Messrs. Ponder & Ponder were chosen as 
attorneys, and Dr. W. E. Tatum was 
elected president of the board of health. 

The same officers were continued for the 
year 1910, J. B, Fuller appeared as a 
member from Ward 10 in place of Mr, Tan- 



126 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

ner. John H. Boone was employed as 
parish attorney. The board subscribed 
$500 for stock in the Parish Fair Associa- 
tion then being organized in Many, the 
motion being offered by J, W. Nabours, 
On November 8th an election was held 
throughout the parish to vote on the prop- 
osition to levy a special tax of 5 mills in 
aid of the public roads for a period of ten 
years, which resulted in favor of the prop- 
osition. 

In January, 1911, Dr. Tatura tendered 
his resignation as president of the board of 
health and was succeeded by Dr. W. E. 
Dillon. J. L. Latham was appointed a 
member of that body, vice Dr. Satcher, 
resigned, Miss Mattie Langford and Miss 
Florence Nabours were presented with 
scholarships in the State Normal School. 
On motion of Mr. Fuller, at the April 
liieeting, citizens of Wards 5, 6, and 10 
were granted permission to build telephone 
lines throughout the wards. 

In July, 1911, J, B. Fuller was elected 
president of the jury. Mr. R. E. Stoker 
was granted a scholarship in the State 
University. The treasurer was instructed 
t« pay all outstanding indebtedness. At 
the October meeting the matter of building 
a model road to connect with the roads of 
DeSoto and Natchitoches parishes was dis- 
cussed, and a committee composed of J. 



PARISH GOVERJ^MEJVT 127 

W. Nabours, J. A. Tramel, T. F. Wiley 
and W, R. Ross. In 1912, the budget of 
parish expenses called for, $32, 500, of which 
$20,000 was f»r public roads. At the June 
meeting $1,000 was set aside for the erec- 
tion of dipping vats for the eradication of 
the cattle tick in the different wards of the 
parish, provided that the patrons of said 
vats pay halt of the expense of erecting 
the same. On reconsideration, however, 
the matter was laid over to a future meet- 
ing. An ordinance defining vagrancy and 
providing punishment for the same was 
passed by the board. The report of the 
committee appointed to confer with com- 
mittees from DeSoto and Natchitoches 
parishes on the good roads proposition was 
set aside and the matter left for the consid- 
eration of the new board, 

In July (1912) the Police Jury was 
composed of the following members: R. 
S. G-andy, Ward 1; 8. J. Speights, Ward 
2: H. M. Gandy, WardS; J. A. Tramel, 
Ward 4; T. Laroux, Ward 5; John L. La- 
tham, Ward 6; W. R. Ross, Ward 7; D. J. 
Holmes, Ward 8; G. R. Pearce, Ward 9; 
J. B. Fuller, Ward 10. The board organ- 
ized by electing H. M. Gandy, president; 
A. W. Estes, secretary, and J. C. Ryan, 
police constable. On motion of Mr. Ross, 
the board decided to apply to the state for 
a convict CEimp to be employed in the con- 



128 PARISH GOYERKMIlKT 

struction of public roads, aud oa motion of 
Mr. Ross, certain roads between principal 
points in the parish were designated as 
state highways. Owing to stringency of 
state finances, the parish was given no en - 
couragement from that source for road 
building, and at the October meeting 
the application for a convict camp was 
withdrawn. The sheriff was ordered to 
to push collection of the per capita road 
tax levied by the board. The board met in 
in special session on November 18 to de- 
vise ways and means for the construction 
of state highways. By resolution 40 per 
of the special road tax for 1912 was set 
aside for the construction of state highway 
No. 1, from Many, via Fort Jesup, to the 
parish line near Robeline, and the presi- 
dent was authorized to co-operate with 
State Engineer Atkinson in making sur- 
veys and preliminary surveys, and to ad- 
vertise for bids for constructing the road. 
The engineer completed the survey of the 
road, the contract for building awarded, 
and Sabine's first highway, constructed by 
modern methods was commenced when 
this chapter was being concluded. 

On January 6, 1913, A. W. Estes ten- 
(iered his resignation as secretary of the 
board, after serving that body in that ca- 
pacity for a period of thirty- one years, the 



PARISH GOVERMMEJ^T 129 

longest record of any man except one* in 
public position in Sabine parish, William 
G, Caldwell was elected secretary for Mr. 
Estes' unexpired term. 

The membership of the Police Jury has 
always been composed of some the par- 
ish's best citizens, whose aim has been to 
work for the best interests of their coun- 
try. The present jury is devoting its en- 
ergies t« better highways, which are as im- 
portant in modern life as railroads, and 
with the construction of good roads the full 
development of the resources of the parish 
are certain to follow. 



The Courts. 
When Sabine parish was established the 
state constitution provided for what were 
known as parish courts. The first record 
of this court in Sabine is dated July 3, 
1843. William R. D, Speight wag judge, 
and S. S. Eason, clerk. 

This court had jurisdiction in probate 
matters. In 1851 Williamson Mains ap- 
plied to the court to be appointed adminis- 
tration of the estate of William Mains, de - 
ceased. John Davis and John Buvens 
were named as appraisers of the estate. In 

"'Hon. John B. Parrott. member «f the Parish Sehool 
Board. 



130 „ PARISH GOYERKMEMT 

1856 Samuel Webb was appoiated admin- 
istrator of the succession of James Webb, 
Mary Ann Beddingfield as administratrix 
for the succession of William Beddingfield, 
and Ann Pullen for the succession of John 
PuUen, The Pullen estate was appraised 
at $13,728 and embraced seven slaves val- 
at from $200 to $1,000 each, During this 
year Daniel R. Gandy was appointed ad- 
ministrator of the succession of Nancy 
(jandy, his deceased wife, the estate em- 
bracing 160 acres of land, mules, horses, 
cattle, hogs, sheep and nine slayes, L. J. 
Nash was administrator of the succession 
of L. B. &ay, and Elizabeth Gay was ap- 
pointed tutrix of the minor heirs, "William 
Hannibal. Mary EvelinC; Caroline Eliza- 
beth, Felix Crittenden, Victoria Lavina 
and Bennett Gay, In 1859 Silas Sandell 
was administrator of the succession of Da- 
rius and Louise Sandell. the appraisers of 
the estate being Dianiel Ball and W. W. 
Conerly. Marcellus Branch was adminis- 
trator of the estate of Julia Branch. In 
1862 Daniel R. Gandy was appointed ad- 
ministrator of the succession of his wife, 
Louise Janie, Bind tutor of their minor chil- 
dren, Nancy Jane, John "Wiley, Frances 
Eugenia and Bufus Sibley Gandy. Other 
successions recorded in the journal of the 
parish court in 1862 were those of Susan 
Vanshoebrook (Louis "Vanshoebrook, ad- 



PARISH GOTERKMEKT 131 

rainistrator), William Cook (Jesse Wright, 
administrator). 

Late in the '50s the parish court was 
abolished, and a short time afterwards 
Judge Speight was killed by G. Landrum 
on the streets of Many. The court was re- 
established in 1868 with M D. Edmunson 
judge. W- W. McNeely was judge froiu 
1871 to 1877. He was succeeded by J. C. 
Armstrong, who presided until 1880 when 
the court was abolished. 

The first session of district court in 
Sabine parish was held in December, 1843, 
with George R. King of the Tenth district 
presiding. The following citizens were 
members of the grand jury: Henry Hall, 
Kobert Brown, Nicholas Jacks, Thomas 
Ford, Daniel McNeely, John Martin, Red- 
mond Carter, Hosea Presley, Cornelius 
Dollarhide, Robert B. Stille, William 
Langton, Leslie Bar bee, George W. Ed- 
wards and Solomon Roy at on. 

Judge James G, Campbell of the Six- 
teenth district presided in 1844, and was 
succeeded in 1846 by Judge James Taylor, 
when the following grand jury was empan- 
nelled: R, A. Gay, D. S. D. Moore, John 
Caldwell, Daniel P. Lockwood, Charles W, 
Elam, Joseph Smith, Stedman Gordon, 
James Parrott, John Carroll, WilUiam Sto- 
ker, G. M. Cook, John S. Sibley, Thadeus 
T. Montgomery, S, Arthur, M. L. Branch, 



132 PARISH GQYEUKMEJ^T 

Edmuad Price, Aaron Savelle and Henry 
Earls. From 1847 to 1850 Judges E. R, 
Ollcut and James Taylor presided at alter- 
nate sessions of the court. Judges Charles 
A, Bullard and Roland Jones held court 
here the following three years.* In 1853 
Judge Chichester Chaplin presided, and 
the following year Judge Thomas T. Land 
held court. From 1855 to 1863 Judge 
Chaplin presided, and at the regular term 
of the latter year, during the civil war, the 
f olio \^ing grand jury was selected: H. S, 
Ramaey, H. Hartman, S. T. Thomas, N. 
Darnell, T. J. Arthur, N. P, Smart, Wil- 
liam Stoker, Sam Mitchell, Riley Stoker, 
Wade Anderson, James K. Phares, Eli- 
Smith, H. S. Kennedy. In 1866 Judge W. 
Bj Lewis presided and the large docket 
was cleared. There was no court from 
this year until 1873, when Judge John Os- 
born opened court and presided until 1875 
when Chichester Chaplin, Jr., appeared as 
as judge of the Seventeenth district. Judge 
Chaplin was succeeded by Judge David 
Pierson, in 1877. W. P. Hall was district 
attorney at this time, but was succeeded 
in 1880 by D. C. Scarborough. In 1881 
the grand jury investigated the ease where 
two prisoners were taken from the* jail at 

*In 1853 William T. Hamilton was district atttorney. 
He was succeeded by A. R. Mitchell, who served as 
prosecutor for several years. 



PARISH GOVERJfMEJ^T 133 

Many and killed, and the jury, of which 
William Slay was foreman, exonerated 
Sheriff Lout from any blame in the affair, 
as he was out of town at the time the 
lynching took place. In 1884 a commit- 
mittee, composed of D. C. Scarborough, J, 
F. Smith, R. W. Sibley and Leo Vande- 
gaer, was appointed to draftj resolutions 
in memory of Sheriff Alfred Lout, who was 
killed on the streets of Many, Resolutions 
were spread on the court minutes, in July, 
1890, in memory of J. Fisher Smith 
and William A. McNeely, two prom- 
inent serrants of the parish and state, 
whose deaths oceurred that year. B. F, 
Presley, D. C. Scarborough, Amos L. Pon- 
der, M. K, Speight and J. H, Caldwell 
comprised the committee which drafted 
the resolutions. In 1892 Judge W. P. Hall 
presided, Sabine being in the Ninth dis- 
trict, and contiued as jujdge until 1901. 
During this period J. B. Lee was district 
attorney. In 1901 J. B, Lee qualified as 
judge of the Twelfth district, composed of 
tlie parishes of DeSoto, Sabiae and Ver- 
non, and Amos L. Ponder as at- 
torney for the district. In 1905 Judge 
Lee was re-elected and James W, Parsons 
qualified as district attorney. Judge Don 
SoRelle presided as judge of the Twelfth 
district from 1909 to 1913 and James G. 
Palmer officiated as district attorney. In 



134 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

1913 Mr. Palmer was elected judge and 
William M, Lyles district attorney. It 
would require a large volume to give the 
records of the courts. The judiciary has 
through all past years been compelled to 
punish many crimes, characteristic of every 
country on earth. The law has demanded 
the life of only one person in satisfac- 
tion for crime, and, with few exceptions 
the spirit of the mob has not been manifest 
since the early days of the parish. Alto- 
gether the men who have presided over, the 
courts of the parish were known for their 
conscientiousness and integrity, they had 
the support of a citizenship which has 
stood for law and order and wliose labors 
have made regard for, the law in Sabine as 
thorough as can be found anywhere. 

The bar of Sabine has been composed of 
men of splendid ability, many of whom 
rendered distinguished services to their 
parish and state. Since 1843 the following 
lawyers have been members of the Sabine 
Parish bar: W, L. Toumey, Joseph B, 
Elam, Chichester Chaplin, W. T. Hamil- 
ton, S, H, Waples, E. C. Davidson, E. F, 
Presley, Geo. Head, K, A. Hunter, W. A. 
Seay, W. G, McDonald and Amos L, Pon- 
der. Mr. Ponder left in 1908 to take the 
position of attorney for the State Game 
and Fish Commission and is , at present a 
resident of Amite city. The bar for the 



PARISH aOVlUlKMEMT 135 

past several years has been composed of 
the following: T. C. Armstrong, Pleasant 
Hill; Silas D. Ponder, Don E. SoKelle, 
John H. Boone, William P. Good and 
Richard A. Praser. John H, Williams, 
Jr., was a member of the bar here in 1904, 
but after assuming the position of parish 
superintendent of public education he 
was required to giye up the practice of 
law, and after leaving that office he en- 
gaged in business pursuits. 



Paeish Oeficials. 

In 1843 William R. D. Speight, judge of 
the parish court, administered the oath of 
office to the following officials: Samuel 
S. Eason, clerk of parish, district and pro- 
bate courts; Silas Shelburne, sheriff; E, F. 
Presley, assessor; John Baldwin, treas- 
urer; William Stoker, coroner; Hosea 
Presley, John S. Wells, Robert K. Mc- 
Donald, Joseph McNeely, A. Bradley, P. 
Rogers and Joseph White, justices of the 
peace; John McDonald, Lewis McDonald, 
Bradley Dear, John Critchfield, James 
Curtis, James M. Gribbs, A, W. Rogers, 
John Carroll, S. A. Eason and Lawrence 
White, constables. 

In 1844 Daniel R. Gandy was sheriff and 
tax collector; Hosea Presley, treasurer; G, 
W. Thompson, surveyor; Charles Wag- 
goner and Nathaniel Porshee, constables. 



136 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

John R. Smart qualified as a notary public. 

In 1845 Charles W, Elam qualified as as- 
sessor; F. W. Godwin, F. Vines and Wil- 
liam Roberts, as constables, and P. H. 
Dillon as justice of the peace 

In 1846 P. H. Dillon, justice of the 
peace, administered the oath* of office to 
the following: Hosea Presley, clerk of 
the district court; K. J. McLemore, as- 
sessor; Henry P. Welch, coroner; John 
Baldwin, recorder; William E, Phillips, P. 
B. Reagan, Nathaniel Sanders, W. C. Bed- 
diugfiield, justices of the peace; Thomas 
Ford, auctioneer, 

In 1847 J. T. Sibley and Daniel Richie 
were justices of the peace, and George 
Mains and John D. Tucker constables. 

Id 1850 William D. Stephens qualified 
as superintendent of parish free schools; 
R. A. Gay, recorder; K. J. McLemore, 
sheriff; E. P. Presley, clerk; George E. 

*In 1846 the various officers of the parish were re- 
quired to make the following oath: "I ., do sol- 
emnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the 
United States and that I will faithfully and imparti- - 
ally discharge and perform the duties incumbent on me 
as.._ , according to the best of my ability and un- 
derstanding; and I do further solemnly swear that 
since the adoption of the present Constitution, I, being 
a citizen of this state, have not fought a duel with 
deadly weapons in this state nor omtof it with a citizen 
of this state; nor have I sent or accepted a challenge to 
light a duel with a citizen of this state, nor have I 
acted as second in carrying a challenge or aided, ad- 
vised or assisted any person thus offending. " 



PARISH GOVERNMENl 137 

Ward, assessor (succeeded by L. B. Gay) ; 
N, H. Bray, coroner ; John Baldwin, R. W. 
Peck, S. Sandford, John Caldwell, justices 
of the peace; Theodore Montgomery, Ho- 
sea Marine, D. C. Cumalander, constables. 
The following year "W. D. Stephens 
was treasurer; John Baldwin, recorder; R. 
W. Sibley, sheriff and collector; E. A. 
Campbell, school superintendent. 

In 1854 John C. Sibley was clerk of the 
district court. No further record of the 
administration of the oath to parish offi- 
cers appears until 1860, when the follow- 
ing officers qualified : Alex. Barr, sheriff; 
David W. Self, assessor; John J. Byles, 
surveyor; Isaiah Kirk, H. W- Scroggins, 
Elijah Cox, Allen Arthur, John Baldwin, 
James I. Horton, Moses K. Speight, Alfred 
Lout and Andrew J. Nors worthy, justices 
of the peace ; Albert Self, Felis Sharnac, 
Isaiah Curtis, Charles B, Burr, Isaac Ar- 
thur, Lorenzo Largent, William S. Liles 
and James H. Cobb, constables. 

In 1866 W. W. MaNeely was clerk of the 
district court. Moses K. Speight and 
Thomas Wiley qualified as justices of the 
peace, Thomas Mitchell and William ShuU 
were constables and John Davis recorder. 
Gf. W. Small took the oath as justice of 
the peace in 1871. The parish govern- 
ment had been disorganized since the war 
between the states and the methods em- 



138 PARISH GOVERNMENT 

ployed by the federal officials did not en- 
courage a revival of stable government by 
the white people. In 1872 the outlook be- 
gan to look brighter, and the folio mng 
qualified as parish officials : Alfred Lout, 
sherifE; R. W. Sibley, clerk; John B. 
Vandegaer, recorder. In 1877 A. W. Es- 
tes was recorder; F. D. Self, tax collector; 
J. H. Caldwell, assessor; John Mcllwain, 
H. H, Callens, W. R. Haynes, ,iustices of 
the peace; John H. Cobbs and J. B. i'ro- 
cello, constables. 

In 1879, Hiram Tynes, M. K. Speight, 
W. H. Sowell, J. H. Caldwell, John Me- 
Ilwain, C. B. Darnell, Isaac Best and H. 
H. Callens were justices of the peace. Dr. 
J. H. Word, coroner. 

Under the constitution of 1879, R. W. 
Sibley became ex-officio recorder in 1880. 
New officials qualified that year as follows: 
Alfred Lout, sheriff; W, W. McNeely, 
clerk, J. A. Caldwell assessor; W, W. Ar- 
thur, W. S. Brown, A. K. Addison, John 
Mcllwain, C. B. Darnell, J. J. Best, R. B. 
Middle ton and William Aten, justices of 
the peace; A. C. Leach, J. J, McNeely, 
Byron Bolton, Robert A, Forbis, J. B, 
Procella, Bailey Lout, Isaac Rains and C. 
W. Brooks, constables. 

The representatives of the parish from 
1843 to 1864 were W. B. Stille, C. Chaplin, 
J. H. Stephens, E. C, Davidson, John R. 



PARISH GOVERNMENl 139 

Smart and E. F. Presley, Mr. Davidson, 
as representative, signed the ordinance of 
secession in 1861. Since that period the 
followinof served as representatives: R. B. 
Stille, J. F. Smith, R. M. Armstrong, D. 
W. Self, J. E. Bullard, W. D, Hall, J. W. 
Conerly, Dr. D. H. Dillon and A. Litton, 

The parish surveyors since 1860 were 
John J. Byles (1862), J. P. Beddoe (1868), 
Peter Munson (1869), Carroll Miller (1875). 
Daniel 7'andegaer, the present surveyor, 
has occupied that position since 1878. 

The principal officers of the parish from 
1884 to 1901 were: 

Sheriffs— Bailey Lout (1883) Frank D. 
Self, D, W, Self, J, W. Conerly (1888 to 
1900). 

Treasurers — John B. Vandegaer, A. W. 
Estes. Mr, Estes has held the office con- 
tinously since that time and is the present 
treasurer. 

Assessors — J. H. Caldwell, Leo Vande- 
gaer, J. A. Tramel, W. H. Vandegaer, 

Coroners — Dr. J. C. Armstrong, Dr. John 
V. Nash. 

On the death of W, W. McNeely, clerk of 
the court, in 1890, his son W. E. McNeely, 
qualified and continued in that office until 
1909, when "W. H. Vandegaer, the present 
clerk, was elected. 

In 1901 H. Henderson was sheriff, but 
he was succeeded one year later by Thomas 



140 , PARISH GOVERNMENT 

J, Cranford, who is the present occupant 
of that position. 

In 1908 George L. JacJison succeeded 
W, H. Vandegaer as assessor and was re- 
elected to the position in 1912. Dr. T. L. 
Abington became coroner on the death of 
Dr, Nash in 1906 and has been elected 
to that office twice since tjiat time. 

In 1900 J. W. Pharis, S. J. Speight, J. S. 
Carroll. W, M. Prothro, T. C. Gaddis, H. 
H, Patrick, A, Hubier, A. P. Keene, J. J. 
Browne, E. A. Pierce and 11. W. Collier 
were justices of the peace, 

In 1904 J. E. Jordan, J. W, Phares, J. 
J, Whittaker, Morris G. Antony, B. B. 
Hardin, C. J. Law, L. G. Modlin, W. M. 
Bolton, Jebu Graham, A. S. Keelan, J. A, 
Armstrong and R, W. Collier were elected 
justices of the peace ; J, H. Skinner, G. W. 
Arnold, F. E, Self, Willie Gibson, H. V. 
Smith, J. J, Self, L. B. Farmer, C. T. 
Hight, J. B. Brown and T. H. Parrott, R. 
H, Gallons and J. E. Largent, constables. 

The present justices of the peace are J. 
E. Jordan, R. A. Sanders, J, J. Whittaker, 
Morrris G. Antony, "W. H, Armstrong, C, 
L. Hawkins, W. H. Pierce, J. A. Raimoad, 
J. W. Tatum, Jehu Graham, E. G. Sigler. 
A. F. Hatcher, A. R. Horn, John Wright. 
The following are constables: J, H. Skin- 
ner, L. W. Byrd, 'Smith Antony, F. E. 
Self, J. C. Ryan, Riley Stoker, C. W. Bat- 



PARISH GOVIJRJVMEJVT 141 

tan, G. C. Chesher, L. B. Farmer, J. H. 
Aten, W, T. Boring, R. H. McAUen, J. R. 
Sistrunk, S. W. Reed, 

Prom 1880 to 1903 sessions of the Court 
of Appeals, 1st circuit, were held at Many. 
J. C. Moncure and A. B. George were the 
first judges. Judges E. W. Sutherliu, J. 
C. Pugh and B. P. Edwards served as 
judges until the sittings of the court were 
discontinued at Many. 

Note. — The writer waa unable to procure a complete 
list of ward officers in some instances and regrats that 
it was necessary to omit them. 



The "'Uncivil War. 



Purl that Banner! True 'tis gory. 
Yet 'tig wreathed around with glory, 
And 'twill live in song and story, 

Though its folds are in the dust: 
For its fame on brightest pages. 
Penned by poets and by sages, 
Shall go sounding down the ages — 

Furl its lolds though now we must. 

— Fathbb Abb am J. Ryan. 

npHE war between the States (1861-65) 
-'- is most commonly referred to as the 
"Civil War," but some writer has given it 
a more appropriate designa- 
tion which is selected for 
the caption of this chapter. 
It was far from being a 
civil affair; it was a mortal 
combat between military 
giants and geniuses, with a 
million brave and loyal fol- 
lowers, and has had no 
equal in the history of man- 
kind and was conducted on a larger scale 
and has been more far-reaching in its ef- 
fect than any armed conflict sinoe the 
beginning of the Christian era. It is not 
important that an attempt at enumeration 
ol the many things which have been as- 
scribed as causes for the stupenduous com- 
bat should be made by the present writer. 

142 




THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 143 

Able historians (some favoring the North, 
some favoring the South, some measure- 
ably impartial) have furnished the world 
with many volumes setting forth sundry 
causes for the war, but after all the count- 
less opinions and discussions have been 
submitted, the whole cause might be ex- 
pressed in two words — African slavery. 
The cause was inherited. The people who 
lived and fought the battles in the sixth 
decade of the nineteenth century were no 
more responsible for the prevalence of sla- 
very than the present generation is for the 
existence of distilleries or other approxi- 
mate causes of universal evils. Long be- 
fore the establishment of the great Amer- 
ican republic was ever so much as dreamed 
of, trading vessels of the maritime nations 
of Europe were engaged in the slave traffic. 
The traders bought or kidnapped the na- 
tives and sailed from the African ports for 
America where a market was to be 
found for the ignorant slaves. In early 
days the cargoes of negroes were usually 
supplemented by stocks of rum or other 
intoxicants, which were sold to the colo- 
nists, who in turn traded the fire water to 
the Indians who evidenced their apprecia- 
tion of the liquors by inaugurating war 
dances and scalping the white settlers. 
The native home of the negro being in the 
tropics, he could not adapt himself to the 



144 THE "UMIVIL^^WAR 

rigorous Northern climate, and slaves 
proved a bad investment for the New Eng- 
land colonists. Furthermore, in the early 
days of the slave traffic, the Northern col- 
onists produced no crops more staple than 
navy beans, Indian corn and cabbages, 
while in the balmy, sunny South, cotton 
and tobacco, for which there was a world 
wide demand, were raised in abundance 
(besides yams, 'possums and watermelons, 
sources of delight for the slaves ! ). Cotton 
and tobacco were yielding more wealth to 
the planters in the nineteenth century 
than was being produced from the gold 
mines of the world. The campaign against 
slavery did not begin until after the Amer- 
ican colonies had won their independence 
from the British crown, and until millions 
of Africans had been unloaded in the 
South. The institution of human slavery 
was as old as the world and, up to the ad- 
vent of the nineteenth century abolition- 
ists, was considered as legitimate as the 
present relations between master and serv- 
ant. But the world saw the South pros- 
pering with her slaves, and, for half a cen- 
tury an abolitionist was born every minute ; 
for years the storm was gathering, for 
years the South labored and compromised 
to protect her States' rights and inherited 
property under the republican constitution, 
while her neighbors labored as assiduously 



TEE "JJKCIVIL" WAR 145 

to deprive her of these rights. The climax 
of the long mooted questions was 
reached with the election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the presidency of the United 
States in 1860, and the immediate with- 
drawal from the Union of the Southern 
states. Fate had decreed that the ques- 
tions should be settled on the battlefield, 
and the story of the mighty struggle is 
told in the four years' war between the 
states which followed, in which thousands 
of patriotic Americans gave up their liyes 
fighting for what they deemed the right. 

From the beginning the South was the 
greatest sufferer, for the reason that hos- 
tilities were, for the most part, confined to 
Southern soil. Pen will never be able to 
describe the privations endured in the 
South and the sacrifices made to keep her 
armies in the field; wo,rds could not de- 
scribe what the Southern women endured 
during those dark days, in lack of food and 
clothing and grief for fathers and sons who 
had fallen in battle. During those years 
the children knew no school except the 
field, where their labor was required to 
produce food, and while thus occupied per- 
haps they heard the roar of cannon or the 
discharge of musketry that told of a battle 
in which the ones they loved were engaged. 
In many instances faithful slaves remained 
at their masters' home and did loyal serv- 



146 TEE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

ice for their families. TJie negro was con- 
sidered more than mere property by the 
average slaveholder. ^ Brought from his 
African home an ignorant savage, in half a 
century he had not only been instructed in 
the work of civilization, but in the tenets 
of Christianity. Four -fifths of the slaves 
were members of some of the various relig- 
ous denominations, It is a matter of rec- 
ord that more than a hundred of the slaves 
of St. Denys, the founder of Natchitoches, 
were baptized in the Catholic faith, while 
the great number of negroes who are mem- 
bers of the Baptist, Methodist and other 
sects should sufi&ce to show that their 
former masters regarded them mora than 
mere chattels, African slavery is a thing 
of the past, and it has been asserted that 
the South would fight again rather than 
revive that ancient institution, but is an 
established fact that the Southern white 
man is still the negro's best friend. The 
social life of the two races must eyer re- 
main separated, but left free from the med- 
dling of political busybodieswho pass cur- 
rent as "statesmen," botli will work in 
harmony in the work of building up the 
best civilization the world has ever known. 
While the people of the North are strug- 
gling to solve the problem of industrial 
slavery, the rejuvenated South, no longer 
suffering from the woes with which 



THE "JJl^CiriV' WAU 147 

she was afflicted half a century ago, will 
jog happily and prosperously along, an in- 
terested but silent spectator. 

In 1860 the white population of Sabine 
parish nuinbered about four thousand, and 
there were less than two thousand slaves. 
There were few really wealthy people in 
the parish, and many owned not more 
than one or two slares. The owners of 
six or more in 1861 were: R. L. Arm- 
strong, S. L. and Allen Arthur, Wade An- 
derson, T. A. and Mary Armstrong, J. H. 
O. Antony, Minerva Allen, W. M. Antony, 
John Q-. and Francis Buvens, A. Barr, M. 
L. Branch, Theo. G. Boyd (sue), D. A. 
Blackshear, G. B, Burr, Beck & Harris, 
M. W. Burr, Willis Cooper, C. Carroll, 
Nathan and Mary Cook, James Cook, F. 
M. Carter, Maria Childers, W. W. Chap- 
man, Rebecca Conerly, A, M. Campbell, 
John Caldwell, John Carroll, Joseph C. 
Coleman, F. Dutton, E. C. Davidson, J. D. 
Estes, W, H, Edmunson, Milton Evans, L. 
P. Edrington,W. C. Faircloth, J. M. Gibbs, 
Daniel R. Gandy, Lydia Godwin, C. 
Hainsworth, Allen Holland, Matthew 
Jones, D. 0. Hay, John Kennedy, Isaac 
Kirk, S. G. Lucius, Bluford Lewing, Jo- 
seph Lynch, John Maximillian, Louis 
May, Joseph F. Montgomery, P. P. Mas- 
sey, Mark McAlpin, John MeGee, A. S. 
Neal, Valentine Nash, C. E, Nelson, R. 



148 THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

Oliphant, Care Palmer, Mary Provence, 
M. L. Price, Ann E. Pullen, John Presley, 
Mary Quirk, F, Rollins, Isaac Rains, Solo- 
mon Royston, John R, Smart, Y\ P. Smart, 
Mrs. Susan B. Smart, John I. Sibley, D, 
W. Self, R. B, Stille & Co., Joseph D. 
Stille, John H. Stephens, T. B. Stephens, 
M. K. Speight, Stephen Smith, Nancy 
Stoker, William Stoker, W. W. Sibley 
(administrator), R. L. F. Sibley, Mrs, 
Mattie Smith, John H. Thompson, M. B. 
Thompson, C. B, Thompson, John A. 
Thompson, B. R. Truly, Jesse Wright, E. 
A. Winfree, Nancy Williams, H. L. Wil- 
liams, L, G. Walters, Madison West, 
James A. Woods, C. P. Waldrup and C. 
Antony. 

The largest slareholder was W. W. Chap- 
man who owned sixty-five. The last as- 
sessment of the negro as personal property 
was made in 1864. 



The guns at Fort Sumpter, which an- 
nounced the real beginning of the war be- 
tween the States, had scarcely become si- 
lent and the last reverberant sounds died 
away when citizens of Sabine parish 
answered the first general call to arms, and 
throughout that memorable four years' 
conflict the parish never faltered in its 
aid, with men and money, of the cause of 
the Confederacy and state's rights. To 



THE "mCIYIL" WAR 149 

Ward Two belongs the distinction of furn- 
ishing the first troops to enlist in the con- 
flict from this parish. In April, 1861, Ar- 
thur McArthur,* a young citizen of the 
Bayou Toro community, organized a com- 
pany and they proceeded to Camp Moore 
to be mustered in the army of the South. 
This company was no sooner accepted for 
six months' service, the time stipulated in 
the call for troops, when orders came that 
enlistments, were not to be made for less 
than twelve months. This change in the 
period of enlistment was made to meet a 
similar action by the Washington^ govern- 
ment. "Many noble souls found in this 
substituted call their death warrant."! 
The Sabine company and two companies 
from Union parish refused to go for tkat 
length of time and the organizations were 
disbanded. McArthur then proceeded to 
the organization of a company, with men 
from the three disbanded companies, which 
was to serve twelve months. The new or- 
ganization was mustered into the Sixth 
Louisiana Infantry, being Company A of 
that regiment, and was named the "Sabine 
Rifles." The officers were: Arthur Mc- 
Arthur of Sabine, captain ; Captain Allen 

*The data lor Capt. McArthur' a Company was furn- 
ished by John J. Curtis, of whom a sketch is printed on 
another page. 

tSchoular's U. S. History. 



150 THE ''uj\rciviL":Wjn 

Calloway of Union parish, first lieutenant, 
J. F, Phillips of Union parish, second lieu- 
tenant; J, Fisher Smith* of Sabine parish, 
third lieutenant. The record of the serv- 
ice of the members of the company from 
Sabine parish is as follows: 

Isaiah Curtis, orderly sergeant, killed at 
the second battle of Manasses. 

Privates Reese Smart, James Davis, 
Shade Cook, Simon Weinberg, John J. 
Martin, R. A. Mains, T. J. Stringer and 
Tom Provence came home and died ; John 
Grodwin, killed at Fredricksburg ; Robert 
Caldwell and Taylor Cook, died of mesales ; 
K. Speight, lost arm at Three Forks, died ; 
William Law, died ia camp; Himan Bath, 
killed in battle; Theodore Montgomery, 
killed at Three Forks ; Reddick Sibley, lost 
leg at Winchester, came home and died; 
Valrey McLanahan died of measles, 

J. J. Curtis and C. C. Nash came home 
at the close of the war and are still living 
(1912), They are the only surviyors of 
the famous company which enlisted from 
Sabine parish. Mr. Curtis resides near 
Many, while Captain Nash, as he is famil- 
iarly known, is a resident of Natchitoches 
parish. Directly following the war Cap - 
tain Nash lived at Colfax and was sheriff 

*Mr. Smith was a member of the State Senate in 1890 
when he died. He was a prominent la wyer of Sabine 
parish. Through an oversight his name was omitted 
from the personnel of the Parish Bar. 



THE "UJ^CIYIL" WAR 151 

of Grant parish when the terrible race riot 
took place there, April 13, 1873, in which 
ninety-five negroes and several white citi- 
zens were killed, but which had the effect 
of checking the attempts to force goyern- 
ernment by negroes upon the people of 
Louisiana, 

The Sabine Rifles were sent for , service 
with the army in Virginia and were as- 
signed to Stonewall Jackson's brigade. 
They accompanied that illustrious com- 
mander on his famous campaigns and par- 
ticipated in some of the bloodiest engage- 
ments of the war. Mr. Curtis says the 
company was so badly depleted that when 
they marched to the battle of the Wilder- 
ness (May 5, 1864) only fourteen men were 
able to be in line. Mr. Curtis was seriously 
wounded during this battle and saw his 
comrade, Robert Runnels, killed by his 
side. This was the last battle in which the 
famous company participated, for all had 
been killed, wounded, died in camp or ta- 
ken prisoners. The survivors, as noted 
above, were later released and they re- 
turned to Louisiana, Captain Mc Arthur 
was a young man and came to Sabine par- 
ish frem the state of Maine in the '50s, 
He had been educated for the law, but 
after coming to Louisiana he engaged in 
teaching school. In view of the political 
complexion of his native state, it might 



152 THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

seem strange that the captain cast his lot 
with the Confederacy, but he was un- 
doubtedly loyal and brave and endeared 
himself to the people among whom 
he lived in Sabine parish. Following the 
early battles of the war he was promoted 
to the rank of major for distinguished 
services and bravery, and would probably 
have attained a higher position if his life 
had been spared. He was killed at the 
battle of Winchester, and his brother, an 
officer in the Union army, came and car- 
ried his remains to his old home in Maine 
for burial. 

The next military organization to leave 
Sabine for the front was the "Sabine 
Rebels," which was mustered in as Com- 
pany B of the 17th Louisiana Regiment 
in September, 1861, ' Colonel S, S. Heard 
commanded this regiment, which went to 
Gamp Moore immediately after its organ- 
ization, but returned to New Orleans in 
November, 1861. The following January 
the regiment proceeded to Corinth, thence 
to Shiloh and on April 6th and 7th (1862) 
participated in that memorable battle, after 
which they retired to Corinth. In May 
the army went to Vicksburg. The regi- 
ment was then assigned to patrol duty on 
the V- S. & P. Railway between Vicksburg 
and Jackson, at Edwards Station and la- 
ter did similar service along the Mississippi 



im "UNCIVIL" WAR 153 

River. While employed in patroling the 
river the Sabine Rebels participated in the 
battle of Port Q-ibson and took part in a 
number of minor engagements including 
the battle of Chickasaw Bayou. On May 
17, 1863, they retired within the fortifica- 
tions of Vicksburg which was invested by 
the Federal armies, who prosecuted one of 
the most famous sieges of the war. Pen- 
ned up on all sides, and without hope of 
relief, the Confederates capitulated on July 
4th (1863). The Confederates were pa- 
roled and the soldiers of the Sabine Com- 
any returned home. 

The original muster roll* of the Sabine 
Rebels and the records of the members fol- 
low: 

Captain D, W, Self, promoted to major, 
came home, served his parish as sheriff, 
dead; First Lieutenant L, J, Nash, now 
living at Many; Lieutenant Mat Thomp- 
son, came home and died; Lieutenant S. 
T. Sibley, living; Sergeant C, Bray, dead; 
Sergeant John Weeks, deserted ; Sergeant 
R. W. Arnett, died at home; Sergeant 
Henry Frances, died in camp; Sergeant T. 
T. Small, died at home ; Corporal V, Byles, 
Corporal W. J. Grarius, dead; Corporal 
S, B. Sanford, died at home; F. D. Self, 
died at home; S, S. Andrews, dead; W. H. 

*This roll was furnished by Mr. James A.Small,a Bur 
vivor ol the company, who in 1910, suffered the misfor- 
tune of becoming totally blind. 



154 THE ''UNCIVIL" WAR 

Addison, died at home; I. A. Addison, liv- 
ing; William Addison, killed at Vicksburg; 
Gin Arthur, living; Dave Bray, living; 
Joseph Brown, killed at Vicksbnrg; F. A, 
Barker, killed at Vicksburg; Archie Addi- 
son, killed at Vicksburg; W. L, Buzzle, 
died at home ; Dr. W, R. Curtis, regimental 
surgeon, died at home ; Taylor Curtis, came 
home, died in Texas; W. J. Cooper, liv- 
ing; James, Cooper, living; Archie Fitts, 
died at home ; M. M. Duggan, living ; J. S. 
Duggan, died at home ; W, J. Duggan, died 
at home; Fred Dupre, died at home; Toni 
Dixon, died at home ; G, W. Dixon, dead ; 
D. R. Gandy, living; D. P. Gandy, died at 
home; J, H. Gooch, dead; W. M, Harges, 
living ; Tom Herndon, killed at Vicksburg ; 
Tom Horton, dead ; Jack Luman, died at 
home; Glendy McLanahan, living; John 
J. McCollister, living; Thomas McCoUis- 
ter, died in camp; John McConathy, died 
at home : A. J. McConathy, dead ; G, W, 
Neal, died at home ; H. D. Pearce, living ; 
Levi Pruett, killed at Vicksburg ; P, P. 
Provence, dead; George Perkins, died at 
home; W. J, Powell, killed, at Port Gib- 
son; James A. Small, living; G. W. Small, 
died at home ; J. A, Stroud, died at home ; 
R. D. Sibley, living; T. B. Sibley, living; 
James Spears, dead ; J. C, Jordan, died at 
home; William Johnson, killed at Vicks- 
burg; S. B. Jackson, died at home; Sam 



im "UNCIVIL" WAR 155 

Lucius, died at home ; Dan Lucius, dead ; 
L.W. Knippers, living; Tom I^owe, killed at 
Port Gibson; Joe Kelley, dead; H. B. Mil- 
ler, died at home ; B. W. Miller, died at 
home; Charley Mayers, died at home; Sam 
Miller, Tom Miller, John Miller and Pay- 
ton Miller, died . at home ; W. B. Miller, 
dead; Dare Miller, living; Elijah Miller, 
dead ; Elisha Miller, died at home ; J. E. 
Miller, dead; Seabe Mains, dead; Felix 
McLanahan, dead; Noah Mains, living; 
William Roaton, died at home; Hard 
Stroud, died at home ; W. J. Salter, dead ; 
Se abe Speights, dead ; Moses Salter, died 
at home; Jehn Skinner, living; James 
Stone, died at home; Albert Self, dead; 
William Self, died at home; Maj Stroud, 
died in camp ; E, A. Salter, liying ; Frank 
Self, Jr., dead; James Whittaker, killed at 
Shiloh ; William Tastrick, died at home ; 
J, M.Wright, living; W. R. Wright, liv- 
ing; T. J. Williams, living; J. H. Wil- 
liams, Sr., living; Cris Whitley, living; T. 
A. Wheeler, living; Martin Williams, dead; 
Richard Lee, died at home; J. Fisher 
Smith, came home and died. 

While the army was at Vicksburg, Com- 
pany B was reorganized with D. W. Self, 
captain, C. W. Dixon, W^ill Duggan and 
F. D. Self, lieutenants. Later Captain 
Self was promoted to major and Lieutenant 
Frank D. Self was commissioned as cap- 



156 THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

tain and J, Fisher Smith as lieutenant. 
Lieutenant Lmith had preyiously resigned 
his commission as an officer in the Sabine 
Rifles ■ with the army of Virginia a ad re- 
turned home, but in a short time re -enlisted 
as a private with the Sabine Rebels, Lieu- 
tenant L, J, Nash, owing to ill health, left 
the company at Vicksburg, and his organ- 
ization had been surrendered and paroled 
before he was able to return. 

Lieutenant Nash saved the original flag 
of the Sabine Rebels and kept it in his 
possession until recently, when he pre- 
sented the relic to his niece. Miss McNeely. 

In 1862 Captain' Wright organized a com- 
pany in Sabine parish, but after proceed- 
ing to New Orleans it disbanded. The 
men went in all directions. One squad 
went to Edwards Station, Miss., and were 
mustered into Company B, 17th Louisiana 
Infantry, by Lieutenant L, J. Nash. Mea- 
sles and pneumonia were prevailing at this 
camp, and among those who died there 
of these diseases were *Joe and William 
White, recruits from Captain Wright's dis- 
banded company. 

Captain Holland organized a company 
in Sabine parish. W. M. McConathy of 
Hornbeck, a survivor of that organization, 
furnished the writer with the following 
named citizens who were also members of 
Holland's company: Jabes McConathy, 



THE "TJKCIYIL" WAR 157 

J. B. Prewitt, Tolivar Kay, W. M. Kay, 
"W. J, Langton, Sr., and Asa Langton. 

Many citizens of Sabine parish enlisted 
in companies organized at other places. 
In 1862 several from Ward One joined 
Company C of Natchitoches parish, which 
finally became a part of the Consolidated 
Crescent Kegiment and won distinction 
at the battle of Mansfield, April, 1864. 
Among those thus enlisting were : W- F. 
Leach, died in camp ; T. G, Coburn, liv- 
ingV'I. J. Leach, killed at Mansfield; W. 
M. Lyles, killed at Mansfield; W, Smith, 
died in camp ; W. M. Lester, died since the 
war ; H. J. Lester, living ; Malaohia Gandy, 
J, M. Andera, W, S. Ellzey, J. B. Ricks, 
died since the war; Adam Cole, living; 
Barry Boswell, living; John Isgitt and W. 
M. Isgitt, wounded at Mansfield and died 
since war. 

In 1864 the following citizens of Sab- 
ine parish enlisted in Capt, Works' cav- 
alry then bemg organized at Woodville, 
Texas, and which was assigned to Colonel 
Terry's Rangers: Abe Wrinkle, living; 
Silas Vanshoebrook, living; Will Thomp- 
son, dead; William Peace, dead; Wade 
Barr, dead; Joe Maxey, living. 

G. W. Cain, at present a citizen of Mena, 
served in Holland's and Wright's compan- 
ies, but later joined the famous Crescent 
Regiment. 



158 THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

John K, Parrott, John B. Vandegaer, 
Steve Martinez and John McCormic were 
also among the Sabine citizens who' were 
with the Crescent Regiment and partici- 
pated in the battles of Mansfield and 
Pleasant Hill. With the exception of Mr. 
Vandegaer, all the above named citizens 
are still living. 

A splendid detailed story of these great 
battles which took place near the border of 
Sabine parish, April 8th and 9th, 1864, has 
been furnished by John E, Hewitt, editor 
of the Mansfield Enterprise, and historians 
have told the story; hence a summary of 
those engagements will sufiBLce ,here. The 
battles were fought after the first soldiers 
to go from Sabine had finished their fight 
for the Confederacy, and those who did not 
die on the battlefields had returned home 
on paroles. In the early spring of 1864 
General Banks, in command of a Federal 
force of 31,000 troops, advanced from New 
Orleans with Shreveport as the, objective 
point and with the intention of threaten- 
ing an invasion of Texas, The Federals 
were supported in the marph up Red River 
by a fieet of gunboats under Admiral Por- 
ter. General Steele, who commanded a 
Federal force in Arkansas, was ordered to 
co-operate with Banks in the capture of 
Shreveport, which was occupied by a Con- 
federate army under command of General 



THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 159 

E. Kirby Smith, who was chief commander 
of the Confederate forces west of the Mis- 
sissippi. His principal lieutenant was 
Q-eneral "Dick" Taylor, a son of General 
Zachary Taylor, the hero of the Mexican 
war. In 1863 Generals Taylor, Thomas 
Green and Mouton, with small forces, kept 
the Federals from overrunning Louisiana, 
among the notable engagements being the 
battle of Berwick Bay on June 23 of that 
year. Following the reverses to the Con- 
federate arms at Vieksburg and Port Hud- 
son, Taylor was forced to turn his atten- 
tion to the defense of West Louisiana. He 
was reorganizing his army at Mansfield and 
Pleasant Hill when Banks' army was ad- 
vancing up the river to give him battle. 
Banks' army was divided in two divisions 
and General Taylor, whose entire force 
was about 11,000 men, decided to strike the 
army by crushing one division after an- 
other. The battle began at a place known 
as Honey cut Hill, three one -half miles 
from Mansfield, on the morning of April 8, 
where the Federal advance found a force of 
Confederate cavalry. General Green's 
cavalry occupied the attention of the Fed- 
erals while Taylor formed his line of 
battle on the opposite side of the Moss 
plantation from that on which the Federals 
were advancing, "Had the Federal ad- 
vance beeen resolutely pushed," relates 



160 TiiE "UJ{CIVIL"^WAR 

Mr. Hewitt, "they could have occupied 
Mansfield that morning without scarcely 
firing a gun." The Federals formed their 
line of battle just west of the old Sabine 
,Cross-iioads'and posted 11 pieces of artil- 
tillery to command Honeycut Hill, sup- 
ported by an Iowa brigade. At 1:30 a. m. 
General Banks ordered forward two brigades 
of infantry, passing the line of Iowa troops, 
and a brigade which comprised a Massa- 
chusetts regiment, the 18th Kentucky and 
ISOth'lllinois. Banks established his head- 
quarters at Antioch church and awaited an 
attack. "While General Green was detain- 
ing Banks at Honeycut Hill, General Tay- 
lor sent forward three regiments of in- 
fantry and posted six pieces of artillery 
on the Mansfield -Natchitoches road, which, 
with a part of the 2nd and 8th Louisiana 
cavalry, formed the Confederate left. In 
the afternoon, to prevent a flanking move- 
ment on the Confederate left, the Lousi- 
ana troops and General Polignac's Texas 
brigade shifted from the right to the left. 
The Federals replied to this move by open- 
ing up an artillery fire, which was met by 
tremendous fire from the Confederate guns. 
Captain Thigpen's company of the Cres- 
cent regiment were sent out as skirm- 
ishers, and at 3 : 30 p. m. General Mouton 
was ordered to support these sharpshooters. 
He ordered his brigade forward which was 



THE "UJ^CIYIL" WAlt 161 

shortly followed by an advance along the 
entire Confederate line. The Crescent 
Regiment was the first to reach the strongly 
entrenched Federals and the fight began at 
close range. A volley from the Illinois 
regiment killed 55 men in the Cresent, in- 
cluding every field officer, and wounded 
over 150. "This dreadful charge," says 
Mr, Hewitt, "staggered this gallant regi- 
ment; man after man grabbed the fallen 
colors and tried to bear them onward, only 
to fall as fast as they took it. Six had 
fallen, including the gallant Captain Rob- 
ert Seth Fields of New Orleans, when that 
peerless regiment, without colors and few 
soldiers, rushed forward, forced the line of 
the Federals, who were barricaded behind 
piles of rails, overwhelmed and captured 
the 130th Illinois regiment and threw into 
confusion the entire Federal line. The 
cost was terrible, for the 130th Illinois was 
a typical regiment of American farmers 
who|did not^shoot and] [run away,'^but who 
stoodjUp^manfully,' realizing that they held 
the key to the situation, and that victory 
or defeat depended upon their being able 
to hold their position. It looked like the 
immovable had been struck by the irresist- 
ible and that something had to happen. 
The Illinois regiment had suffered almost 
as much as had the Crescent, and Colonel 
Reed lay wounded on the field. In the 



162 THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

moment of furious fighting amd utter con- 
fusion, Q-eneral Mouton and staff rushed 
forward at the head of the leaderless, but 
furiously fighting Crescent, One of his 
staff brought forward the blood-stained 
regimental flag, when it was greeted with 
a volley from the stubbornly resisting Fed- 
erals and again . fell to the ground, this 
time stained with the life-blood of General 
Alfred Mouton, as game a man as erer laid 
down his life as a willing sacrifice upon the 
altar of his country, three balls having 
pierced his manly breast. The conflict 
was almost a hand to hand affair, but the 
Illinois regiment were soon all killed, 
wounded or taken prisoners. It was a 
soldier's fight, for neither regiment had an 
officer left to make or take a surrender." 

While this engagement was in progress, 
Q-eneral Green' s Texas cavalry routed the 
Kansas cavalry, and then,' dismounting, 
quickly defeated a line of Federal in- 
fantry. The 18th and 27th Louisiana 
Regiments met and defeated Massachusetts 
troops, General Polignac assaulted and 
captured the Federal artillery at Honeycut 
Hill and the entire line of the invaders 
was broken, and the army began a retreat. 
General Banks' army was completely de- 
moralized and defeated, and while retreating 
he was harrassed by Confederate cavalry, 
who captured large quantities of wagons. 



THE "UJ^CIVIV WAR 163 

horses and supplies. Banks made a stand 
at Chapman's Hill, and General Taylor 
sent a brigade of Texas infantry against 
him, but he held his position and darkness 
put a stop to the fight. , During the night 
Banks' entire army retreated in the direc- 
tion of Pleasant Hill. The Confederate 
loss was 450 killed and 1200 wounded. The 
Federal loss was as follows: Every regi- 
mental commander in the 13th Corps, either 
captured, killed or wounded; 385 men 
killed, 1100 wounded, 2800 prisoners; 20 
cannon, 400 loaded wagons and teams, and 
a large number of small arms, horses and 
supplies. The Federals engaged in the 
battle numbered 13,000 while the Confed- 
erates numbered less than 11,000, 

The next morning, April 9, General Tay- 
lor decided to complete his victory by 
again attacking Banks. The Federals, 
however, had now been reinforced and had 
about 18,000 men in line, Taylor waited 
for the arrival of some Arkansas and Mis- 
souri regiments under the command of 
General Churchill and his army now num- 
bered about 12,500 men. The battle be- 
gan about 3 o'clock in the afternoon when 
Churchill's men were ordered forward 
with a view of turning the Federal left. 
Here the Missouri troops made a brave 
fight, but, as was the case at Mansfield, it 
remained for Generals Green's and Polig- 



164 THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 

nac's cavalry to turn the tide of battle and 
when night came the Confederates were in 
possession of the field. During the night 
Banks retreated to Grand Ecore and later 
to Alexandria, laying waste the country as 
went. The battles of Mansfield and Pleas- 
ant Hill were among the bloodiest contests 
of the war. Some old citizens of Sabine 
who went over the battle fields immedi- 
ately after the engagements recall the 
scenes with horror. The dead were buried 
in pits and several days were spent m 
clearing the field of the carnage. The bul- 
let scarred trees there still bear evidence 
of that stubborn conflict. 



These were the last battles fought in 
Louisiana and a few months later the war 
was brought to end. Then came the pe- 
riod of "reconstruction" which extended 
over a dozen years or until the administra- 
tion of Francis T. Nichols as governor, 
The Southern men accepted the result of 
the four years' war in a spirit that charac- 
terizes true American manhood and re- 
turned to their dilapidated, if not devastated, 
homes and bravely undertook the work of 
rebuilding on the foundation of shattered 
hopes. This was, indeed, a greater battle 
than any in which they had participated on 
fields where clashing arms and the can- 
non's roar argued their cause. Deprived 



THE "UNCIVIL" WAR 165 

of their political rights, they were forced 
to renew their civil pursuits under the 
government of strangers, whose only aim 
was their personal gain. The "carpet- 
bagger" did not thrive in the "Free State 
of Sabine," which never surrendered to 
the domination of piebald officials, but in 
many sections of the state clashes between 
citizens and the interlopers and negroes 
were frequent. The cause of t,he white 
Southerners eventually triumphed and the 
country entered upon a new epoch of 
existence which was marked by an ad- 
vancement along all lines of endeavor that 
is unqualled by any people in the history 
of the world. And that chivalrous spirit 
which brought glory to the people of the 
South on the battlefield and led them 
through the humiliating period -which fol- 
lowed will inspire them in the peaceful 
pursuits of life and with an unfaltering 
loyalty to the constitution of the Old Re- 
public, 



Educational Progress. 



THEKE were no schools maintained by 
public funds in Sabine parish in 1843. 
In three or four communities private 
schools were conducted for terms not ex- 
ceeding three months, the patrons paying 
a fixed tuition for each scholar. Instruc- 
tion was rarely afforded in any branches 
except reading, writing, spelling and arith - 
metic, and it frequently happened that the 
teachers were hardly competent to teach 
these essentials of a primary education. 
Those who desired a common or academic 
education were compelled to attend the 
various private institutions of learning in 
Louisiana and the South. Many of the 
pioneer youths of Sabine never attended 
any school. If they were fortunate enough 
to be able to read and write, they received 
their instruction at home and pursued 
their studies by a pine -knot fire. Some of 
the men who began their education by the 
light of the fire in an old mud chimney 
became prominent in the public affairs of 
the parish and state. If the young citizens 
of Sabine in the 40s had been afforded the 
advantages given by. the schools of today, 
how different might the story of the parish 
be written. Until recent years the school 

166 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 167 

houses were rudely constructed of /pine 
logs, covered with clapboards. No glass 
adorned these primitive structures, the 
light beins admitted through openings 
over which swung board shutters. The 
floor, if any except Mother Earth, 
was of split logs, and the seats were 
of slabs with wooden pegs for legs, and 
frequently no desks of any kind were sup- 
plied. Later the box school houae sup- 
planted the log structure, but not until re- 
cent years did the model building with 
proper furniture and equipment supply the 
young ^ place for study and instruction. 
Today the demand for education is so en- 
thusiastic and insistent that elegant brick 
buildings are being erected, 

In 1850 a movement to provide public 
education in the parish was inaugurated. 
William D. Stephens was chosen superin- 
tendent. He was succeeded the following 
year by E. A. Campbell. There were no 
taxes to amount to anything for education, 
and the public school fund, until several 
years after the war, consisted only of small 
appropriations from the state which were 
used by the private schools. On one or 
two occasions the Police Jury supple- 
mented this fund by small appropriations 
for the benefit of those who were unable to 
pay tuition. In the ante-bellum days 
schools were maintained at Bayou Scie, 



168 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

Toro, Fort Jesup and Many; also 
at Sampson Whatley's on Middle Creek. 
Tke most popular school in Sabine, in the 
'50s was known as Bellwood Academy, lo- 
cated at old Sulphur Spring about one and 
one -half miles from Many. This institu- 
tion was established by Prof, C. C. Pres- 
ton, who came from Ohio, Neat and com- 
fortable buildings were erected for the ac- 
commodation of boarding and day pupils. 
Besides the regular branches which pro- 
yide a common school education, Prof. 
Preston gave instruction in Latin and the 
modern languages. Some of his old pupils 
are still living and refer to him as an edu- 
cator of rare ability. In 1861 the school 
was moved to New Bellwood in the Kis- 
atchie community. Two years later he 
moved to Harris County, Texas, and es- 
tablished a school about half way between 
Houston and Galveston, Mr. E. C. Dillon 
of Many, who was a pupil of Prof. Pres- 
ton, attended his school in Tex^.s, and re- 
calls that among the students ;it Bayland, 
as the school was known, was C. Anson 
Jones, a son of the first governor of Texas, 
and who after the war was a prominent 
lawyer and judge of Houston, Among 
those who attended Bellwood school near 
Many were: Bx-Q-overnor Newton C. 
Blanchard, Hugh Walmsley, Clarence 
Pierson, M. H. Carver, Louis Bordelon, 



WUCAIIONAL PROGRESS 169 

T. P. Chaplin, George Hubley, John Par- 
rott, John and Valmore Byles, Joe Ed- 
munson, J. Fisher Smith, Dr. Elliott 
Smith, John B. Dillon, Cobb Kachal, E. C. 
Dillon, Mrs. Caroline Hawkins, Mrs. Mary 
McNeely, Martha Self, Martha Stone, Emile 
Sompayrac, Emile Cloutier and several 
from Natchitoches and other parishes. 
Prof. Preston abandoned his Texas school, 
owing to poor health, and returned to his 
old home in Ohio. 

Among the schools established since the 
war, the Masonic Institute at Port Jesup 
occupied a prominent place. It was organ- 
ized in 1887 with T. R. Hardin, president 
of the faculty. Rev. J. M. Franklin was 
the prime mover ia the establishment of 
this school. The first board of directors 
were: J. Fisher Smith, president ; J. M. 
Franklin, vice president; Leslie Barbee, 
treasurer; T. J, Smith, W. D. Broughton 
and J. P, Vidler. Many young people of 
Sabine and other parishes received in- 
struction in this school which did so much 
to revive the spirit of education in Sabine 
parish. The Masonic Institute finally be- 
came the Sabine Central High School, ref- 
ferences to which are made on the follow- 
ing pages in connection with the history of 
the Parish School Board, which reflects 
the progress of public education in the 
parish during the past forty years. 



170 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

The first record of a Parish School 
Board is dated August 1, 1871, at which 
tho following members were present : John 
B, Vandegaer, William W. McNeely, J. 
Fisher Smith, Richard T. Walters and Wil- 
liam S. Summers, The board organized 
by electing John B. Vandegaer, president, 
and J, Fisher Smith, secretary and treas- 
urer. The board tendered their thanks to 
Hon. Thomas W. Conway, stat^ superin- 
tendent for their appointment. In No- 
vember following the board authorized ;the 
employment of teachers for the Many 
white and colored schools. At the April 
meeting (1872) the secretary was instructed 
to purchase a sufficient supply of books for 
the schools of the parish. In July, 1873, 
a new bo'ard was organized, A. Harris j be- 
came a member in place of McNeely. 
The meetings of the board dm-ing these 
years do not indicate the transaction of 
much business. In 1873 there were 29 
primary and intermediate schools in the 
parish. The enrollment for the year was 
1,321; value of school houses, $2,325. 
There were three private schools with an 
average attendance of 108 pupils. ;;, The 
text books used were McGuffy's Reader, 
Webster's Speller, Mitchell's Q-eography, 
Greenleaf's Arithmetic, Smith's Grammar, 
Wilson's History, Comstock's Philosophy 
and Robinson's Algebra. School land of 



EDUCAIIONAL PROGRESS 171 

the parish ^as valued at 50 cents per acre. 
No doubt the appraisers placed what they 
believed to be an honest value on the land, 
but it is man's constant regret that he cannot 
see into the future. In October, 1874, Miss 
Emma Pierson was allowed $25 per month 
for teaching a school at Pugh's Mill. The 
members of the board in July. 1875, were: 
J. B. Vandegaer, president; J. Fisher 
Smith, secretary; Robert B. Stille, Abra- 
ham Harris, James H. Caldwell and Wil- 
liam 8. Summers, S. T, Sibley declined 
to qualify as a member and Dan Vande- 
gaer was recommended in his place. No 
record of meetings of the board appears 
for 1876, 

In June, 1877, the following members 
qualiiaed: Eobert B. Stille, E, F. Pres- 
ley, L. J. Nash, A. S. Neal, P. P. Bridges, 
Charles Darnell, Valmore Biles, David 
Shelby, Elias Sibley. Robert B. Stille 
was elected president and E. F. Presley, 
secretary. At the July meeting the fol- 
lowing ward trustees were appointed: 
Ward 1— William S. Ellzey, J, S, Corley 
and J. H. Tynes. Ward 2.— William M, 
Antony, John H. McNeely and M. K. 
Speight, Ward 3, — J. J. Horton, William 
Salter and A. K. Addison. Ward 4- Ed- 
mund Duggan, Leslie Barbee and James 
M. Franklin. Ward 7— John Fike, Henry 
Barron and J. C. Skinner. Ward 8— 



172 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

James Tyler, Joseph Woods and John R. 
Parrott. The board was involved in a 
financial muddle extending over a year, 
and although the minutes do not so state, 
the matter was satisfactorily adjusted. In 
July, 1878, J. H. Caldwell was secretary 
of the board and E. F. Presley treasurer. 
Previous to 1879 the school funds of the 
parish did not amount to over $2,000 a 
year. In July of that year J. H. Caldwell 
was elected president and R. P. Hunter 
secretary, In April, 1880, W. W. Mc- 
Neely, parish treasurer, was treasurer for 
the school board, and the following July 
E. F. Presley was elected president and J, 
H. Caldwell secretary, the other members 
beinglW, M, Antony, D, W, Self, W, H. 
Carter, W. C. Mains, W. J. Salter and Al- 
fred Litton. Sub -directors for the yarious 
wards were appointed as follows: J, B. 
Ricks, J. S. Corley, W. 8, Ellzey, E. M, 
Miles, Asa Curtis,, W. S. Brown, D. P, 
Gandy, A, J. Montgomery, W. F. Sandel, 
Edmund Duggan, P, F. Rachal, C, Brown, 
C. B, Darnell, Henry Ferguson, Jack Pro-' 
cello, IW. H. Sherwood, H. H. Cassell, T. 
W. Abington, J. B. Skinner, John J. 
Pike, R, B. Middleton, John R. Parrott 
B. W. Barr and W. L. Shull. 

The next record of the Parish School 
Board is dated April 18, 1881. The mem- 
bers were appointed by the governor and 



JSDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 173 

seven members constituted the body. The 
wards not having a representative were in- 
vited to send citizens to the stated meet- 
ings to look after the interests of their sec- 
tions. The members of the board were as 
follows: E, F. Presley, president; W. A, 
Carter, secretary; J, H. Caldwell, William 
C. Mains, W, J, Salter, D. W. Self and 
William M. Antony. The treasurer was 
instructed to apportion the funds and a 
resolution was passed declaring the schools 
of the parish open and the secretary au- 
thrized to contract with teachers. The 
president's suggestion that the office of 
parish superintendent be abolished for the 
reason that "it was an .unnecessary ex- 
pense," was rejected. 

At the meeting in July Treasurer W- 
W. McNeely made his report to the board, 
the school fund balance on hand being 
$2,145.61. Each ward was provided with 
sub -directors appointed by the board. The 
maximum salary for teachers was fixed at 
$35 per month. At this meeting Leo Van - 
degaer was employed as teacher of school 
No. 1 (Many) for two months at a salary 
of $25 per month, the balance of his sti- 
pend being supplied by the patrons of the 
school. This method of contracting with 
teachers prevailed throughout the parish 
and the school term was consequently very 
short. The board adjourned until thereg- 



174 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

ular meeting in October, but a special ses- 
sion was called for August 15th, at which 
Mr. Presley resigned both as president and 
member of the board. Messrs. Carter and 
Antony also tendered their resignations. 
John B. Vandegaer, Alfred Litton and M. 
K. Speight were recomniended for appoint- 
ment to fill the vacancies. The salary of 
the secretary was fixed at $50 a year. At 
the regular meeting in October, John B. 
Vandegaer was elected president and J. H. 
Caldwell secretary. J, Fisher Smith was 
appointed a member of the board of exam- 
iners. The next meeting of the board was 
held April 1, 1882, five members being 
present, yiz: John B. Vandegaer, Alfred 
Litton, W. J. Salter, L. B, G-ay and J, H. 
Caldwell. The president and secretary 
were authorized to contract with teachers 
for not less than a three months' term of 
school, and, in case there was not sufficient 
public money to pay the teach p"s for that 
period, patrons the school^were required to 
supply the deficit. Miss Lizzie Rachal 
was allowed the balance on her salary as 
teacher of school No. 5 (Ward 4). At the 
July meeting, on motion of Mr. Salter, a 
school was granted to the citizens living in 
the vicinity of the old Block House, near 
Sabine River. In April, 1883, on motion 
of D. W, Self, Pleasant Hill school was 
established, with twenty -nine pupils. It 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 175 

being found that for two years certain 
schools had not made use of the money al- 
lotted to them, and it was ordered that if 
said money be not used by the following 
July it would revert to the general fund. 
The construction of a school building / for 
the Many district was authorized. At this 
session Messrs. Caldwell, Gay and Antony 
resigned as members o£ the board and Eli- 
jah Cox, R. B, Middleton and W. S. 
Brown were recommended as their suc- 
cessors. Leo Vandegaer was elected sec- 
retary pro tern at the October meeting. 
William Bunting, as teacher of school No. 
3 (Ward 3), was allowed his salary. 
The report of the sub -directors of the va- 
rious wards submitted to the board (April 
26, 1884), gives the schools in the parish 
as follows: "Ward 1 — Toro, Mt Carmel, 
Tynes, Middle Creek, Corley, Prospect, 
Ricks, Mt. Carmel (colored). Ward 2 did 
not report. Ward 3 — East Pendleton, Zi- 
on Hill, William Marshall (colored), Anti- 
och, Neal, Bolton, Four Forks, Ward 4 — 
Many, New Hope, Rocky Mount, Friend- 
ship, Armstrong, Bpeycher (col.). Union, 
Cator, Lewing, Many (colored). Fort 
Jesup(col.) Wards — -Sepulveda, Darnell, 
Ferguson, Blue Lake, Mrs. Young's, Cath- 
olic Church, Parea, Smithart. Ward 6 — 
Hicks Camp, Graham, Jacobs, Byles, 
Hatcher, Latham, Freedman's, Oak Grove, 



176 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

Sardis. Ward 7 — Union. Spring Ridge, 
Friendship, Clark, Arbor Spring, Pleasant 
Hill. Elizabeth (col.) Ward 8— Hardee, 
Parrott, Litton, Tyler. The pupils of 
school age, exclusiye of Wiard 2, numbered 
2,152. 

On September 20, 1884, the membership 
of the board was as follows: J. D, Stille, 
president ; John Blake, secretary ; John R. 
Parrott, W. T. Alford, Harry T. Cassell, 
D. W. Self, Henry Ferguson, J. H, Wil- 
liams. J. Fisher Smith, J, D. Stille and 
John Blake were designated as the board 
of examiners. In January, 1885, A. W. 
Estes signs as school treasurer. His re- 
port gives the amount on hand as $2,060. 
In October, Peter S. Gibson was elected 
secretary and T. C, Armstrong is named as 
a member of the board. W. R. Rutland 
was employed as attorney to collect the in- 
terest funds. H. H. Cassell qualified as a 
member of the board, January, 1886, and 
at the following meeting W. M. Webb was 
a member and J. W. Smithart was recom- 
mended for appointment for Ward 5, and 
Peter S. Gribson to supersede T. C. Arm- 
strong. At a special meeting in May, 
Amos L. Ponder was elected parish snper- 
intendent and ex -officio secretary. The 
sub- directors were instructed to visit the 
various schools and report at each quar- 
terly meeting the condition of school af - 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS lit 

fairs in their respective wards. In April, 
1887, the board asked the Police Jury to 
levy a reasonable tax for support of the 
public schools. 

The members ef the board in September, 
.1888, were W. S. Brown, A. C, Lamberth, 
Joseph D. Stille, J. W. Smithart, W. H. 
Sherwood, John Graham, John K. Par- 
rott, S. E. Self and Amos L. Ponder, The 
salary of the superintendent was :fixed at 
$150 per annum, and the sub -directors for 
the various wards were appointed, as fol- 
Ward 1— J, S. Corley, H. J. Lester, R. D. 
Sibley. Ward 2— M. K, Speight, Dr. J. 
M. Seever, Jonathan Curtis. Ward 3 — 
George Leach, B. K, Ford, Isaac N. Car- 
ter. Ward 4— Daniel Duggan, M. B. 
Petty, J. B. Brumley. Ward 5— J. M. 
Hardy, J. E. Sepulvedo, Steve Martinez. 
Ward 6— S. 8. Tatum, John Cates, Gran- 
ville Pugh, Ward 7— J. E. Bullard, W. T. 
Hopkins, W. M. Cobb, Ward 8— S, M, 
Wiley, John Leone, B. W. Barr, In Oc- 
tober, John Speycher and W, R. Outright 
were tendered the thanks of the board for 
the donation of two acres of land upon 
which to erect a public school house. In 
January, 1889, new schools were author- 
ized as follows: Lanana, Pine Flat (col.), 
Williams Spring, Bay Spring, Ebarbo, 
Patterson and Bayou Scie, and at the fol- 
lowing meeting Evergreen, Beech Spring 



178 ED VGA TIONA L PROGRESS 

and Pisgah schools were established. In 
July a resolution by Mr. Ponder, abolish- 
ing the sub -directors and entrusting their 
duties to local boards in each district, was 
adopted. In April, 1890, the board granted 
the petition to have a public school estab- 
lished at Fort Jesup. 'In July the school 
funds on hand amounted to $5,615. Sup- 
erintendent Ponder, in view of the short 
schoolfunds, voluntarily reduced his sal- 
ary one -half for the year 1891, at the Jan- 
uary meeting. The Sabine Southron and 
Sabine Banner presented their bids for 
publishing the proceedings of the board. 
The Banner's bid was $12, while the 
Southron offered to do the printing free, 
The board accepted the bids of both papers 
and both were instructed to do the printing 
accordingly. In July, 1891, "W. R. Alford, 
T. J. Franklin and T, J. Smith were ap- 
pointed truestees of the Fort Jesup school 
and authorized to make arrangements with 
the Masonic institute of that place to run a 
public school in connection with the col- 
lege. A new school, Sandy Ridge, was 
created with W. T. Mitchell, H. Knippers 
and L. W. Knippers as trustees. In re- 
sponse to a demand for a more rigid exam- 
ination for tieachers, all certificates were 
ordered annulled on January 1, 1892, and 
at this meeting the following new schools 
were created : Holly Spring, Little Flock, 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 179 

Red Lick (col,), Short Creek (col.), Mi- 
chel and Smitbfield. Don E. SoRelle, 
Profs. A. D. Garden and J. J. McFarland 
were named as the examining board. The 
salary of third grade teachers was in- 
creased from $15 to $20 per month. 

October 1, 1892, the new school board, 
appointed by Governor Foster, was com- 
posed of W. S, Brown, John S. Carroll, J. 
D. Stille, J. A. Cates, W, T. Hopkins, W. 
M. Webb, John R, Parrottt and Amos L. 
Ponder, . Mr. Stille was elected president 
and Amos L. Ponder secretary. A. D. 
Carden, J. J. McFarland, C, G. O'Connor 
and Leo Vandegaer were appointed to ex- 
amine teachers. In January, 1893, Kan- 
sas Springs, Elm, Barr Lake (col.). Cart 
Bayou and Bascus schools were created. 
J. W., Phares qualified as a member of the 
boarn. John S. Carroll was acting presi- 
dent, and resolutions were adopted in 
memory of Hon. Joseph D. Stille, the 
president, who had died since the former 
meeting. At a special meeting in May, J. 
M. Franklin became a member and was 
elected president. The McCormic school 
was created in October, 1893, and in Jan- 
uary, 1894, the Robinson, Victoria, Clear- 
water and Bolivar schools were established. 
At a call meeting the same month several 
schools were abolished and consolidated 
and the text books of the State Board were 



180 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

adopted. Many of the schools were re- 
established at the next regular meeting. 
In April, 1895, J. A. Gates tendered his 
resignation, but the board declined to ac- 
cept same and he remained a member. Mr. 
Ponder resigned his position as secretary 
in October and Prof. W. J. Davis was 
named as his successor. Mr. Ponder was 
tendered a yote of thanks for the efficient 
manner in which he had discharged the 
duties of the position. Dr. J. M. Middle - 
ton, "W, J. Daris and E, C. Dillon com- 
posed the examining committee at this 
lime. The board, at its meeting, January, 
1896, instructed the teachers of the parish 
to attend a summer normal, J. A. Tramel 
and A, J. Franklin, representing a com- 
mittee from the Sabine High School and 
the Fort Jesup Masonic Institute, presented 
a proposition to donate the unincumbered 
buildings and property of that institution 
to the board for the purpose of establishing 
a public Central High School, title to be 
held by the beard so long as the public 
high school should be maintained. The 
president appointed a committee to confer 
with the directors of the Masonic Institute 
and arrange for acceptance of the propo- 
sition. In July, Amos L, Ponder, chair- 
man of the committee for the parish board, 
reported that everything had been arranged 
for the legal transfer of the property to the 



EDUCdTIOJfAL PROGRESS 181 

board, and a motion to accept the same 
prevailed. Amos L. Ponder, John 8. Car- 
roll and W, T. Hopkins were appointed as 
a committee to draw up an ordinance cre- 
ating the Central High School, rules gov- 
erning same and to submit a list of names 
for a board of directors. The following di- 
rectors were appointed, to serve one year: 
T. J. Franklin, J. A. Tramel, C. C. For- 
bis, J. A. Bond, W. H. Barbee, George R. 
Pattison, E. C. Dillon, J. J, Brown, J. J. 
McCollister, A. C. Stoker, W. R. Alford, 
T. J. Smith and George "W. Lucius. The 
local board reported its organization, at the 
October meeting, with J. F, Lucius, chair- 
man, and W. H, Barbee. secretary, and 
that the following faculty had been em- 
ployed -for the ensuing school year : Prof. 
E. H. Smith of Missouri, principal; Miss 
Louvina Holliday, assistant; Mrs. F. V- 
Jackson, primary. The enrollment at the 
opening of the school was 153 pupils. Prof, 
Smith was again employed as principal for 
the year 1897, 

On May 1, 1897, the board met in ad- 
journed .session for the purpose of arrang- 
ing for summer schools, and the following 
teachers were selected to conduct the 
schools named : Miss Emma Glower, Toro ; 
Miss Mary McCollister, Mt. Carmel ; J. P, 
Glower, Tyne; Miss Lavonia McCollister, 
Corley; J. P. Edmundson, Ebenezev; J. D. 



182 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

Wilson, Union; Miss Maude Self, Holly 
Spring; J- H. McCollister, Whatley; J. D, 
Earle, Pisgah;[J. B. Fox,Toro; C, E. Rain- 
water, Clearwater; E. Brown, Elm; D. J. 
Holmes, Evergreen; J. W. Smith, Mar- 
shall; Wiley Miller, Antioch; W. C, Mid- 
dleton, Williams Spring; L, D. McCollis- 
ter, Arthur ; R. K. Nabours, Alliance ; Miss 
011a Tetts, Rocky Mount; Miss Judia 
Heard, Speycher; Miss Celeste Byles, 
Union; D. S. Strickland, Lewing; Miss 
Margaret McCollister, Miller Creek; Ed- 
mond Smith, Bay Spring; Miss Ola, Smith, 
McCormic ; Miss Ada Smith, New Castle ; 
Miss Bertie PuUen, Cutright ; T. J: Rains, 
Cherry Spring; J, P. Youngblood, Darnell; 
W. ,E. Tatum, Mitchell; W. R. Middleton, 
Vines; T. H, Latham, Hicks Camp; E. T. 
Fuller, Hatcher; L. E. Litton, Sardis; Mrs. 
Jennie Jackson, Patterson; R. B, Mat- 
thews, tFnion, Ward 7; M. L. Carter, 
Spring Ridge; Miss Nellie Berry, Bluff 
Spring; Mrs. L, M. Slay, Arbor Spring; 
W. H. Wagley, Pisgah; Miss ^ay Seever, 
Bayou Scie, J. H. Bonnett, Allen Spring; 
Mrs. E. T. Tyler, Tyler; Miss Florence 
Tanner, Smithfield; Mattie Branch, Eliza- 
beth (col. ) ; Lugenia Fox, Red Lick (col) ; 
A. R. Lewis, Negreet (col.) Dr. J. M. 
Seever was placed oh the local board of the 
Central High School in place of T. J, 
Franklin. 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 183 

In August, 1897, Prof. W. J. Daris re- 
signed as secretary and superintendent and 
E. H, Smith was elected to that position, 
but at the October meeting he was suc- 
ceeded by Don E. SoRelle. The board 
abolished the local board of the Many pub- 
lic school and appointed the following 
trustees: M. F. Buvens, A. L. Fonder, A, 
Dover, Don E. SoRelle, J. D. Stille, R. H. 
Buvensand E. C. Dillon. 

The years 1896-97 marked a new era in 
all lines of enterprise in Sabine parish. 
The Kansas City Southern railroad had 
been constructed through the center of the 
parish which added to taxable value of 
property and brought numerous sawmills 
to convert the immense pine forests into 
wealth. The time was favorable for edu- 
cational as well as industrial progress and 
henceforth every meeting of the board was 
characterized by splendid and rapid for- 
ward strides. The new superintendent at 
once recommended many changes in the 
system of conducting the publip schools, 
urged more taxes for^tneir maintenance, 
providing better houses and more conveni- 
ences in the way of furniture and appar- 
atus. He later saw his suggestions bear 
the desired fruit. It would require a vol- 
ume to note the great progress made in 
public schools from that period to the 
present in detail. 



184 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

The faculty of the Central High School 
for 1898 was as follows: C. C, Lewis, 
principal; Q-eorge F. Middleton, Mrs. Alice 
B, Morris and Miss Maggie Clark. The 
names of John Eitter, P. E. Peters, J. D. 
Wilson and W, S, Middleton were added 
on the local board, 

In January, 1899, J. M. Franklm re- 
signed as president and member of the 
Parish Board and John W. Taylor was 
recommended as his successor. Mr. Tay- 
lor qualified as member of the board at the 
subsequent meeting and was unanimously 
elected president. In June a resolution 
was adopted recommending that a five 
mills tax be voted in aid of the public 
schools of the parish. John L. Latham 
was recommended as a member for Ward 6 
at the meeting in January, 1900, that ward 
having been divided by the Police Jury in 
order to create Ward 10. In July, W. M, 
Cobb, William Jackson and K, E. Holli- 
day were appointed members of the Cen- 
tral High School board, and at the next 
meeting the following pupils from the va- 
rious wards of the parish were granted free 
scholarships in that school: Misses Rena 
Whatley, Texie Bolton, Lela Boswell, Eva 
McG-ee, Estelle Tatum. Arthur Henderson, 
Louis B. Gray, Jr., and James Andrews. 

On October 6, 1900, a new Parish Board 
qualified, as follows: Thomas Gr. Coburn, 



EDUCA2I0NAL PROGRESS 185 

John W. Taylor, W. M. "Webb, J. B. Ful- 
ler, Dan Phillips, John R. Parrott, John 
M. Ritter, J. H. Williams, George W. 
Heard, Mr, Taylor was elected president, 
and Don E. SoRelle, secretary and super- 
intendent. In January, 1901, Misses Ber- 
tha Addison, Maude Shull and Pearl Litton 
and Robert Shull were granted scholar- 
ships in the Central High, School, and at 
the June meeting J. E. Bullard was ap- 
pointed a trustee of that school. The fac- 
ulty for the year was as follows : M. H. 
Leeper, principal; S. I. Foster, assistant; 
Miss Clara Wood, primary; Miss Lucile 
Rogers, music. A vote of thanks was ten- 
dered to Prof, C. C. Lewis, the retiring 
principal, for his splendid services to the 
school. • Prof. Leeper later declined to 
take charge of the school and Prof, 8. R. 
Cummins was elected principal. 

In September, 1901, a special tax for ten 
years was voted in aid of the sphools of 
Ward 1. In January, 1902, John H. Wil- 
liams tendered his resignation as member 
of the board and at the following meeting 
E. P. Curtis qualified as his successor. The 
superintendent was authorized to corres- 
pond with various school supply houses for 
prices on desks and furniture. On July 5, 
1902, Prof, S. I, Foster was chosen, princi- 
pal of the Central High School and Q-. T. 
Rossen, assistant. During this year a 



186 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

special tax of five mills in aid of the public 
schools for ten years was voted throughout 
the parish, and at a special meeting in Au- 
gust a resolution prevailed favoring the re - 
duction in the number of schools and pa- 
trons urged to get together and effect con- 
solidation of districts. It was also decided 
to set aside a certain sum for providing 
better houses in the various districts. In 
1903, C.^L. Hawkins, C. J. Law and J. J. 
McCoUister were members of the High 
School board. An increased number of 
summer schools was awarded.* 

In October the directors of the Central 
High School donated the new building to 
the board. 

In September, 1904, a new board quali- 
fied. Superintendent SoRelle submitted 

♦The nataeB of the schools and teachers follow : En- 
terprise, Miss Ida Phares; Warren, Edward Bllzey; 
Mt. Carmel, J. K. Phares ; Whatley, Miss Lula Peters ; 
Pine Grove, W. D. M. Dowden; Lewing, J. H. Bonnett; 
Corley, Lovy HoUiday ; Union, Miss Viola Holliday ; 
Christie, Miss Nora Nash: Toro, Miss Kate Stoker; 
Miidle Creek, Elliott Smith: Toro (col.), Belle. Garner; 
Pleasant Hill, Lud Nash ; Carroll Miller, Albert Mil- 
ler; Williams Spring, Miss Maude Antony; Cedar 
Grove,K Miss Bertha Addison; Alliance, Dona Terry; 
Antioch,iM. F. Hall ; Arthur, Dan Strickland ; Spring 
Grove, Louis Vines ; Miller Creek, George JD. Cobba; 
Speycher, Walter Wilson ; Alf ord. Miss Mollie Wilson ; 
Aimwell, Miss Belle Heard: Ferguson, Joseph H. Ez- 
ernae ; Brown, Miss Alice Pugh ; Hicks Camp ; Mrs^ A. 
E. Read; Piney Woods, E. A. Wagley; Greening 
Springs, Miss Emily Fike ; Clark, Miss Alice Winn ; 
Arbor Springs, Miss Martha Strother;;Ba"you Seio, Miss 
Maggie Franks ; Sand Hill, Miss Meda Franks ; Pis- 
gah, T. A. KaiHS ; Sardis, Miss Bertha McCoUister. 



FDUCA2I0NAL PROGRESS 187 

his report reviewing edu«ational progress 
in the parish under the administration of 
the retiring board. Better houses had been 
constructed and equipped with good furni- 
ture ; a special tax had been voted, which 
had been supplemented by the voting of 
special district taxes in several districts 
in aid of their schools. The new board 
was composed of T. G. Coburn, A, J. Man- 
hein. W. S, Brown, Dr. W. P. Addison, J. 
F. Lucius, J. W. Taylor, C. L. Hawkins, 
T. Laroux, GI-. W, Pugh, John R. Parrott, 
C. B. Skinner, Alfred Litton and W. B. 
Adkins. Mr. Lucius was elected president, 
but declined the position, and the board 
then re-elected Hon. J. W. Taylor by ac- 
clamation. John H. Williams, Jr., was 
elected superintendent for one year at a 
salary of $600. Prof. Jenkins was elected 
principal of the Central High School, Miss 
E. L. Cochran, assistant; Miss Louvina 
Holliday, primary. Miss Pitts, music. 

In June, 1905, W. M, McFerren qualified 
as a member of the board in place of C. B. 
Skinner, whose death had occurred since 
the last meeting, and the board evinced 
their respect of the esteemed member by 
the adoption of fittting resolutions. The 
board, in a formal resolution, expressed its 
disapproval of an attempt to vote saloons 
in the town of Many, and pledged their 
I inoral support against the proposition. 



1S8 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

A committee from the Many High 
School, coinposed of J. H. Boone, Frank 
Hunter, S. S. Moore, S. D. Ponder and F. 
W. Davis, was authorized to proceed with 
the work of financing and erecting a school 
building. 

In April, 1906, the board, by order of 
the state superintendent, was ordered to 
elect a new parish superintendent. The 
names of J. H. Williams, Jr. ; T, E. 
Wright of Boyce, La., and W. C. Court- 
ney of Jennings, La., were presented as 
candidates. T, E, Wright was elected. 
The Parish Board at this time was ap- 
pointive and was obliged to serve the will 
of the governor and the State Board of Ed- 
ucation. Wright's election was probably 
not desired by any of the members of the 
parish board, although that gentleman was 
reputed to possess splendid qualifications 
for the position. The people of the parish 
were prompt to thunder their disapproval 
of the election of a man to the position 
who was not a citizen of Sabine, and Mr. 
Wright finally declined to serve. On the 
26th of the following month the board met 
in special session and elected J. H, Wil- 
liams, Jr. The other candidates were 
Profs. S. J. Davis and Crit Petty. The 
board, in an appropriate resolution, ex- 
tended praise to Mr. Williams for the able 
manner in which he administered the' 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 189 

school affairs of the parish. Later the 
board members were elected by the people, 
a move that has gone far towards removing 
the schools from the domination of the 
state politicians. 

The school fund of the parish had 
grown to be the largest in its history 
and substantial educational advancement 
was now manifest on every hand. Better 
school houses, better salaries, better teach- 
ers and more earnest efforts were put into 
general school work. 

In July, 1907, C, L. Hawkins reported 
to the board that the High School dormi- 
tory and Masonic hall had been destroyed 
by fire. 

In August, 1908, the board met in spec- 
ial session and seclected teachers for the 
school year,* 

*The names of the teachers and their schools fol- 
low: Toro, Ivy Miller; Mt. Camel, Mrs. AddieRead, 
Miss Pearl Brittain ; Corley', Miss Emily Curtis ; War- 
ren, Nolan Dees; Fisher, T>. L. Sharp; Pine Grove, 
Dennis Sirmon; Plorien, D. F. Turner; Gum Springs, 
S, G. KeadLe ; Carroll Miller, Miss May Patrick ; Vic- 
toria, Miss Julia Miller; Gravel Hill, Miss Lola 
Hughes; Evergreen, W. R. Pilcher; Zion Hill, Miss 
Nell Pierce; Antioch, Miss Marion Hess; Many, W. C. 
Boaten, .Miss Jennie Ford; Spring Grove, Miss Lou 
Self; New Hope, M. V. Petty; Rocky Mount, Miss Au- 
rie Sibley; Rooky Springs. Miss Amanda Duggan; 
Fort Jesup, C. R. Trotter, Miss Kate Stoker, jiiss Car- 
rah Beauchamp ; New Castle, John I. Carter; Shaw- 
neetown. Miss Carrah Bdmondson; Many (col), T. J. 
Simpson; Camp Creek (col.) S. R. Stephens; Sepul- 
vedo, R. C. Nesom; Ferguson, Miss Pearl Nabours ; 
Catholic Church (Zwolle), Miss Bvilina Hubley; 



190 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

The school tetm was increased to six 
months, and in districts which had special 
taxes an eight months' session was author- 
ized for the ensuing year, 

In January, 1909, the following citizens 
qualified as members of the board: J. W. 
Phares, J. W. Byrd, G. L. Nabours, John 
H. Boone, S. P. Thomas, G. W. Pugh, 
James McFerrin, John K. Parrott, W, F. 
Skinner and 8, S, Tatum. Mr, Boone 
was unanimously eledtedpresident. 

The superintendent's report at this time 
showed that there were 79 white and 26 
negro schools in the parish. Thirty of the 
white schools were to run for a term of 
eight months. All white schools, except 
three had been supplied with patent desks, 
blackboards, maps and 1121 volumes. The 
enrollment was 4,095 white and 1,218 col- 
ored, and the total school funds amounted 
to $59,357.30. 

In April, 1910, J. H. Williams, Jr., ten- 

Bbarbo, Miss Mattie Langford: Viues, Miss Alice 
Pugh; Hicks Camp, Miss .Tennie Fuller; Jacobs, Miss 
Anna Edwards! Byles, W. L. Patrick; Hatcher, A. S. 
Eains; Converse, Miss Mamie Furness; Brown, Miss 
Bertha Boyd; San Patricio (col.), R. E. Jacobs; Pleas- 
ant Hill, P. C. Fair, Mrs. P. C. Fair, Miss Inez Fur- 
ne'ss ; Spring Ridge, W. M. Dowell, Miss Lealma Fer- 
guson; Bayou Sole, Miss Birdie Clark; Hanalin, Miss 
Mayo Linder; Smithfield, Miss Meda Franks; ZwoUe; 
S. J. Davis, Miss Garrett, Miss Elizabeth Wilson ; Sand 
Hill, Miss Evvie Skinner; Oak Grove, Earnest Dees, 
Miss Gannie Partrick; Sardis, Miss S. L. Roach, Miss 
Helen Tatum; Mitchell, Miss Adele Nash, Miss Delia 
Edwards. 



EDUCATIOJ^AL PROGRESS 191 

dered his resignation as superintendent.- 
The following day the board elected Prof. 
Walter S. Mitchell to that position. Pro- 
vision was also made for an office assist- 
ant and Miss Lizzie Armstrong filled the 
place until it was discontinued the follow- 
ing year. Special taxes in aid of schools 
was voted in many districts in succeeding 
years. In 1911 special levies were made in 
thirty-seven districts and in 1912 other 
districts followed. 

In April, 1911, Hon. J, H. Boone re- 
signed as president and member of the 
board and Hon, G. W. Pugh was chosen 
president and Joe Smith qualified as mem- 
ber from "Ward 4. 

At a special session in May, the Oak 
Grove school was made a high school. 

In November the following were elected 
members of the board : A. B. Jordan, J. 
W. Byrd, J. S. Salter, Joe Smith, Pat Le - 
one, H. Harper, A. D. Ashby, S. H. Por- 
t-er, W. F. Skinner and S. S. Tatum. Mr. 
Tatum was elected president for a term of 
six years, and S. H. Porter, vice president. 
The board members were divided into 
three groups in order that their terms of 
office may expire on different years. The 
terms of the first group expire in two 
years, the second group in four years and 
the third group in six years. The board 
created the office of chaplain, and Rev. A. 



192 EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS 

D. Ashby, member from Ward 7. was se- 
lected for that position. 

The school funds of the parish for the 
fiscal year 1912-13 amounted to $89,847.66, 
including $27,260.25 in bonds of the Zwolle 
and Pleasant Hill districts. 

The teaching force of the parish has im- 
proyed as the finances have increased. At 
present the instructors in Sabine's schools 
will compare most favorably with those of 
any parish in the state,* and the people 
are manifesting real progressive ideas 
in public education by providing modern 
buildings and facilities and conforming to 
the principles of systematic instruction. 
The present Parish Board is also composed 
of some of the parish's most energetic and 
public -spirited citizens and education will 
continue to make progress under their ad- 
minist^ration. 

The day has vanished into the obscure 
past when the people of Sabine parish 
have reason to deplore their educational 
facilities. The failure of the youth to se- 
cure an adequate education to carry him 
or her along the ordinary highway of life 
is no longer the misfortune of the parish, 
but is the fault of the individual. 

*The teachers of the parish and the schools taught 
hy them in 1912-13 are as follows : Toro, A, C. Palmer, 
Miss Gene Stringer, Miss Nellie Cranford; Mount Car- 
mel, Miss Jewel Fincher, Miss Mary Lou Carroll; 
Middle Creek, B. B. Dees, Miss Jennie Buggan ; Cor- 
ley, J. G. Palmer, Miss Catherine Byrd; Warren, G. 



EDUCATIOJ^AL PROGRBSS 193 

W. Byrd; Fisher, R. B. Fargergon, Miss Willie So- 
Relle, Miss Kate LaCour ; Pine Grove, W. A. Johnson, 
Miss Nora Stringer; Enterprise, P. O. Cox ;_ Florien, 
Geo. A. Odom,,Mi»s Bertha Gandy, Miss Lebla Bodg- 
ers. Miss Sea Willow Carroll; Christie, R, A. Beze- 
man; Lewing, Mrs. Iva Dees; Gum Springs, 8. G. 
Keadle, Mrs. S. G. Keadle, J. C. Corley; Carroll -Mil- 
ler, Mrs. Pearl McCormic ; Caldvell, Dennis Sirman ; 
Pleasant Hill, Miss Georgie Willhite ; Victoria, Miss 
Pearl Peace; Gravel Hill, Miss Lola Sellers; Pisgah, J. 
Leon Palmer, Miss Ethel Palt«er ; Byrd, J. H. Arnold; 
Roberson, Leroy Miller; Ford, Miss Beulah McLeroy; 
Zion Hill, Miss Emma Salter ; Antioch, Henry Leach ; 
Liberty, Misa Alice Brewster; Spring Grove, Miss 
Blanche Self; Siloam, T. W. McKinnis; Alliance, Miss 
Nettie Parrott ; Pilgrim Rest, Miss Ivy Jordan ; Many, 
W. C. Roaten, R. V. Evans, Miss Clara Carnahan, 
Miss Irma Broadwell, Miss Pauline Armstrong, Miss 
Carrie Billingaley, Miss Hope Haupt, Miss Willie 
Ponder; Rocky Mount, Miss Aurie Sibley; Rocky 
Springs, Miss OUie Jacobs; Speycher, R. C. Nesom; 
Miller Creek, Miss Beulah Jones ; Fort Jesup, Grady 
Holloway, Miss Ruth Whitlow, Miss Bma Etheredge; 
Klondike, J. W. Miller, Miss Maude Duggan; Lanana, 
T. A. Armstrong, Miss Lizzie Armstrong; Cutright, 
Miss Lillie Gibbs ; Central Springs, Leon Law ; Hope- 
Castle, J, E. Harper, Miss Nettie Antony; Sepulveda, 
Mrs. H. H. Ferguson ; Clyde, Mrs. Ima Russell; Aim- 
well, Miss Myrtis Ford; Martinez, Leon Burnes; 
Ebarbo, O. J. Roberts; Vines, Louis Vines, Miss Mag- 
gie McFerren; Loring, Mrs. A. E. Hendrickson; No- 
ble, J. P. Clark, Miss Susie Ellis, Miss Winona Gill- 
ham, Miss Mayme Cowan, Miss Belle Nabours ; Byles, 
Miss Alice Stringer; Hatcher, O. M. Corley, Miss Hat- 
tie Skinner; Converse, Mrs. A. E. Read, Misa Frances 
Morris, Miss Texie Bolton ; Brown, Miss Mattie Vines ; 
Sulphur Springs, Miss Rena Skinner; Palmetto, W. M. 
Dowell, C. L. Carter, Mrs. Ada Middleton; Clark, 
Mrs. Sadie Butler, Miss Ranie Bozeman; Progress, 
Miaa Effle Wright; Red Oak, Miss Ethel Bumgardner; 
Pleasant Hill, J. C. Whitescarver, Miss Alice Petty, 
Miss Margaret McGee, Miss Hattie Champion, Miss 
Vinnie Boss, Miss Gertrude Waller, Miss Kathleen 
Moore ; Spring Ridge, T. C. Aubtey, E. L. Skinner, 
Miss Katie Abington; Bayou Seie, Miss Pearl Na- 



,494 J^dVfiATIOIfALJRQQRBSS 

boars; Hamlin, Mils Maude Shull; Smitbfield, E. E, 
Skinner; Zwolle, W. R. Middl6ton, Miiss Louvina Hol- 
liday; MiBB Nelle' if .' iPalmef, Miss eordelia Hart, Miss 
Teene Graves; Sand Hill, MlSs Victoria B«zeman; 
IJnion, Charles H; Trotter, 'Mrs. Charles R. Trotter, 
Miss Jennie Faller, Miss Arlirie Ponder ; Pisgah, "W-B. 
Hunter; Mitohell, Miss Kattirene Moore, Miss Mary 
Sloane, Miss ionla Tanner, Mrs Esther Williatason; 
Oak Grove; O. L', Sanders, E. A. Wagley, Miss Ozie 
Allen, Miss Margaret Crakford, Miss Pimnie Patrick; 
S»rdis,MiflB Mamie Best, Miss MaryCates; Spring 
Creek, Miss Bose A. Miller; SWloh, P, J. Spears. 



The Prestt. 



AT EWSPAPERS were, printed in tht 
-^^ French and the Spanish! languages 
at Natoliitoches at an ef&rly date^ projSabiy 
before the beginning of the uineteeth cen- 
tury,. When the ftrst English paper was 
prinited is opt definitely knotirji, according 
to the compilers of the Memoirs ofKorth- 
west Louisiana (published in 1890), w!h6 
fix the date at 1848, "vyhen Tiiomas C. Hunt 
published the Natchitoches Chroniele. 
However, the present writer had the. for- 
tune to have in ^bis possession a copy of 
•the Red Biver Ga?!!^tjte (Vol. li^ No. IQ), 
which bears the date August 12j 1837^, and 
aBd was pubUshed at Natchitoches by R. P. 
De8pallier...j, The paper is in possessipn of 
I^eo Vandegaer, proprietor of the Sabine 
Banner. It was found in the frame of ah 
old family picture of Kr. (J, W. Cain, 
whose people were pioneers of i%e 
parish, in 1905, and cont^ias much inform- 
ation which minutely reflects the 8|)irit of 
the old days and the writer jtfeenis it Va^- 
pjopriate to give a short reyiew of its con- 
tents. The Gazette was a .. seven - coluq^n 
folio, three puges being pr|nted in English 
and one in Frenchf and the subscri|ftion 
price was five dollars per annum. With 

195 



199 THE PRESS 

the exception of legal notices and adver- 
tisements, the paper contains nothing in 
the nature of what the newspapers of our 
time would consider local news. The first 
page begins with a poem, entitled "The 
Frairies," by William Cullen Bryant, and 
is followed with a story by that prince of 
early American literature, Washington 
Irying, The first lines of the narrative re- 
real the sublime optimism of the illustri- 
ous writer, whose work has lived and will 
never fail to delight the reader. He said : 
"The world is growing older and wiser. 
Its institutions vary with its years and 
mark its growing wisdom." 
. The editorial page of the Q-azette is 
characteristic of the time, and the literary 
efforts of the editor were, indeed, worthy 
of acclamation. One article, headed ''The 
Philosophy of Smoking," might not be re- 
ceived with generous applause by many 
people of the tw:entieth century, but when 
j^ we reject that Louisianains were just 
learning to smoke, it was, at least, a timely 
and ileter defense of the habit. A por- 
tion of the editor's "pipe dream" follows: 
"Just fancy to yourself the venerable Ho- 
mer, seated on a bench, reciting the sub- 
lime verses o,f the heavenly Iliad, with his 
sightless eyes turned toward , the firmament 
—how much would the beauty of the pict - 
ure be heightened by supposing a goodly 



THE PRESS 197 

Dutch pipe between the god- like lips! I 
once, indeed, seriously intended to trans- 
fer the idea to canvas, but desisted tkrough 
an unwillingness to give scandal to the 
learned by a sheer anachronism. Had to- 
bacco been introduced into Europe a few 
centuries sooner, the witty Horace would 
have written a. score of odes to his pipe^ 
and Virgil no doubt have had his Tytyrus 
and Melibceus reclining 'sub tegmine fagi' 
and regaling themselves with a comfortable 
smoke. Why, is it that we Louisianaians 
are the most active and enterprising people 
in the world? It is because nine -tenths of 
us are smokers. "Why is it that the coun- 
cils of the American Indians are the most 
solemn assemblies in the world, clothed 
with far more impressive dignity than the 
Congress of the United States or the Brit- 
ish Parliament? The aaswer is obvious, 
because in the two latter tobacco is ex- 
cluded. Why was it that the deliberations 
of the Dutch settlei's of Manhattan, so well 
described in Mynheer Knickerbocker, were 
conducted with such harmony and free- 
dom from party wrangling, which we 
should be glad to see imitated by modern 
legislators? It was because their fiercer 
passions were soothed into complacency by 
the irresistable power of that invaluable 
plant — tobacco ! ' ' 
What innumerable woes our people might 




198 THE Press 

have escaped if this morsel of "philoso- 
phy" had been generally disseminated in- 
stead of finding lodgement for three -quart- 
ers of an eventful century in the back of a 
picture which hung silently on the walls of 
a rural home in Sabine parish! "Sartor 
Resartus" (the Philosophy of Clothes) 
was given to the world in the same 

Reproduced from "Ked River Gazette," August, 1837. 

Svnaway IVegraes. 

RlflMAWAY on the 2l8t of June 
' -^!a9t, fA)m'4hft plantstipn of the sub- 
scriber, "residing thtee. miles be- 
low Cloutierville in this parish,'.the, 

bllowfflg negroes: ^ ,.»^ - 

fiSad very ji>Iack complexion, fiveifitetanda 
fenMncifaes }iigh, they speak English only." 

iPJlVtC^ alias Geo. Washington, a cam 
a&nit fire feet 6 or 10 inches high, has a bro- 
kentooth-infiwit^ complexion somiewhat red, 
and Bonie old scars of the whip <n>-his body,' 
iqieaks Efnglishonly. 

jTen doUara over the legaK reward "will be 
mat isr* each, to whoever will bring dieiD 
baiftit^my pfonlMtioD* or .lodge , them in any 
^il.«ithin this State. 

- SILV^TRE RACHAL. 

jDaDeRivpr,Steth July.' ., 8w6 

age, and covered the writer with glory to 
spare, while the "Philosophy of Smoking" 
barely escaped oblivion by filling the vac- 
uum in a picture frame from which it was 
ultimately recovered. But fame has ever 
been partial. 

Texas had just gained her independence, 
still the Gazette was apparently suspicious 



THE PRSSS 199 

concerning the movements of the Mexicans 
and submits the following advice: "Great 
preparations are said to be making in 
Mexico for the recovery of Texas. The 
president, Bustamente, having effectually 
quelled the insurrection of Moctezuma, is 
turning his attention with enthusiasm to- 
wards Texas, and adopting the most ener- 
getic methods in relation thereto. Our 
Texian brethren will do well to keep a vig- 
ilant eye upon him." 

The following paragraph was reprinted 
from the New Orleans Courier: "The 
loyal and loving subjects of the British 
Isles are in a most perplexing predicament : 
inconsolable grief for the loss of their king 
and traasported with joy at the accession 
of their queea, Victoria! Those who do not 
share in these transports deserve to be 
transported to Botany Bay." 

Another item reprinted from the Cour- 
ier says "Bennett of the New York Her- 
ald has the following paragraph in his 
synopsis of English news: 'A singular 
report prevailed at Portsmouth. It was 
that Mr. Martin Van Buren, president of 
the United States, had made a proposal of 
marriage to Victoria, the queen of Eng- 
land, through his minister, Mr. Stevenson. 
Mr. Van Buren is a little too slow on trig- 
ger for that matter.' We would recom- 
mend that Marty doff those claret colored 



200 THE PRESS 

whiskers of his aud wear a. wig, if he would 
hope to unite the ancient house of Kinder - 
,hook with the royal house of Hanover." 
An interesting feature of the G-azette is its 
advertising columns. Apparently every 
line of business is represented by adver- 
tisements, including cards of physicians 
and lawyers. Even the postmaster, Wil- 
liam P, Jones, announces that specie will 
be ''taken at par for quarterly accounts 
due the postoffice," and that "debtors in- 
clined to take advantage of the above are 
invited to call and settle," ' 

The minutes of a meeting of the Police 
Jury appear in this number of the Gazette, 
and is probably one of the oldest records in 
existence of a meeting of that body. B. 
B. Breazeale was president and F. Wil- 
liams, clerk. The following resolution 
was adopted at this meeting: "Kesolved, 
That Nicholas Jacks, Franklin Button, 
Hugh McNeely, Asa Speight, F. Curtis, 
John West and Q-ade West be and they are 
hereby appointed a jury to trace and lay 
out a road, commencing at F. Curtis' on 
Bayou Toro, and to intersect the road lead- 
ing to Natchitoches at the nearest and best 
point near the former residence of Asa 
Hickman." 

The newspapers of Natchitoches in early 
days seem to have had rough careers. In 
1860, Ernest LaO-endre published L' Union 



THE PRESS 201 

in English and French, In 1862, L. Du- 
plex was publisher, but the Federals took 
charge of his printing plant. After the 
war Mr. Duplex again equipped the oflfice 
and published the paper under the name of 
Natchitoches Times until 1872, when the 

Prom the "Red River Gazette." 
To Rev^olalioDary Pensioners. 

REVOLUTIONARY Pensioner's 
-■-■- blank accounts for receiving pen- 
sions, for sale at this ofHce. 

For iSale. 

■ A negro girl, good cook, ironer, 
■^^- washer and hruse servant: — For 
terms apply to BETSEY SOMPAY- 
RAC,/.,u;. c. 
Nat. Aug. 1837. 

mf R. D- ROC A begs leave to 
-^'-■- inform the inhabitants of the 
town and parish of Natchitoches that 
he intends teaching music, in all its 
various branches. 

Any person desirous of taking les- 
sons will please hand in their name 
and address to Mr. B, P. Despallier, 
at the office of the "Red River Ga- 
zette," on Jefferson Street. 

Terms of Teaching. 
Piano Forte, per quarter, 140.00 
Psalm riinging.per month, 2.00 
Clasdcal Singing, " 10.00. 

in advance. 
July 28, 1837. 8tf 

paper ceased to exist. In 1874, J. H, Cos- 
grove revived the paper under the title of 



202 TBE PRESS 

the People's Vindicator and conducted it 
until 1881, when it was sold to Phanor 
Breazeale, shortly after which time pub- 
lication was suspended. D. W. Hubley 

From the "Red River Gazette." 

g~fcN Hand and for sale. A good as- 
'-^ sortment of Groceriep, Brandy, 
Whiskey, Wine, Sugar, Uoffee, Salt, 
Molasses, &c. 

By D, H. VAIL & CO. 

Notice. 

/^ LL persons having claims against 
-*^^ the estate of Doctor John Sibley 
deceased will please present them to 
the subscriber without delay, and all 
those owing said estate will please 
come forward and make immediate 
payment to P. F. KIMBALL, 
July, 24, 1837, Admr. 



■NOTES of the banks of Misis- 
sissippi, Alabama and Tennessee will 
be received by the subscriber at par. 
for the purchase of goods or the pay- 
ment of store accounts. 

MARTIN, ME AR,^& Co. 
Natchitoches, May 25, 1837. ^ 

"■ SCtf^ Sacks Liverpool Salt, jiist 
-*- *^^^ received and for sale by 
inl7 MARTIN. MEARS & CO. 



was also among the early post-bellum pub- 
lishers at Natchitoches and at Robeline. 

The first newspaper published in Sabine 
parish, the Sabine Southron, was issued at 
Many, May 5, 1878, by E. F, Presley and 



THE PRESS 203 

Henry Potts. Mr. Potts retired in 1879* 
and Mr, Presley continued the publieation 
of the Southron until 1890, when he trans- 
ferred the plant to his sons, E. F. Presley, 

From "Red River Gazette." 
American Churches and Taverns.— '^he 
loftiest roofs of an American town 
are, invariably, its taverns; and. let 
metaphysics get over the matter as it 
may, I shall contend that such a thing; 
is, at least, unseemly to the eye. With 
us it is not Gog and Magog, but grog 
or no grog; we are either a tame plane 
of roofs, or a pyramid in honor of 
brandy and mint Juleps, When it 
comes to the worship of God, each 
man appears to wish himself a nut- 
shell to contain himself and his own 
shades of opinion; but whei-e there is 
a question of eating and drinking, the 
tent of PeriBanou would not be large 
enough to hold us,— Cooper. 

Jr., and H. M. Presley. In 1879, J. H. 
Caldwell, John Blake and Levi Stewart 
launched the Sabine Index as an opponent 
of the Southron. After two years the In- 
dex gave up the vocation of "molding pub- 
lie opinion," and following the anti- lottery 
campaign of 1892 the Southron also ceased 
publication. 

The Sabine Index, as was usually the 
case in those days when a newspaper was 
started, was launched as a political organ, 
and, in delivering its salutatory, Septem- 

* W. p. Hutchinson was also associated with Mr. 
Presley. 



204 THE PRESS 

ber 6, 1879, says: "It has already been 
said that this paper is started in the inter- 
est of the 'New Many Clique.' This ex- 
pression implies the pre -existence of an 
'Old Many Clique,' and if any charge 
were true it would go to prove that a 
'clique' may be made up of a very small 
number of persons, and that a population 
as small as this town is divided against 
itself. If ours is a 'new clique' and we can 
find that 'old clique,' we promise to fight it 
from the word go, as it would seem to be 
our duty to do, and we will not fail to 
claim the credit due for bursting it into 
'smithereens' if that should be the issue of 
the contest ; and if we should get 'bursted' 
instead, we will claim the credit for that, 
too, as then there will be one 'clique' less 
trying to '%Qi all the offices and running 
things to suit themselves." The editor 
vows to stand for the principles of the 
democratic party and "to see that the 
powers of the general government are ex- 
ercised in the interest of the people and as 
a necessary consequence to secure to the 
Seuthern states recognition of their rights 
and an acknowledgement of their claims 
to justice and fair play." During its ex- 
istence the Index participated in the great 
campaign of 1880. when General Winfield 
Scott Hancock was the standard-bearer of 
the democratic party for president, but 



THE PRESS 205 

was defeated by Genei'al James A. Gar- 
field. The editorial writing for the paper 
was done by James H. Caldwell, who was 
assisted by John Blake, a prominent mer- 
chant of Many. Mr. Caldwell, who was 
for many years a progressive citizen of 
Sabine parish and was identified with the 
interests of the parish, is at present the 
popular and ef&cient postmaster at Robel- 
ine, Natchitoches parish. Mr, Blake died 
in 1887. 

The local news of the Index was served 
according to the popular demands of those 
days. The citizen who paid his subscrip- 
tion with turnips, potatoes and wood was 
certain to find his name in the local col- 
umn and the personal mention was sprin- 
kled with that sort of near- wit which 
characterized the country weekly in the 
"days gone by. " Most prominent among 
the entertainments mentioned in the Index 
during its career was that given at the 
closing of the Many school, June 18, 1880. 
Prof. Grainger was^ the teacher. The 
numbers on the. program included the fol- 
lowing: Prologue, Master "Walter Stille; 
"The Candidate," Master Riley Buvens; 
"Man Was Made to Mourn," Miss Jennie 
Presley; "Little Folks," Lee Petty; "Some 
Girls," Miss Lula Hogue; "Suppose My 
Little Lady," Master Tom Small ; "The Boy 
Stood on His Little Sled," Master Tom 



206 THE PRESS 

DeLatin. Others who participated m the 
entertainmeut were Masters Leo Clanan, 
Henry DeLatin, Brodie Sibley, Joe Dug- 
gan, Louis B. Gay, E. A. Buddenbrock, 
William Stille, Corrie Lunt, Henry Bur- 
ens, William H. Vandegaer, Clarence 
Lunt, Elliott Stille, Edwin Hogue, Chris 
.Alford, Billy Armstrong, Walter Hawkins, 
Willie Gandy, Joe McNeeley, Eddie Mc- 
Neely, Willie Caldwell; Misses Ella Sum- 
mers, Lethie Smith, Lula Sibley, Belle and 
Jennie Presley, Anna dandy, MoUie Car- 
ter, Annie Armstrong, Beulah Stewart, 
Florence Byles, Ella Smith, Lizzie Byles, 
Mollie Carter, Ida Byles, Bettie Smith and 
Lotta Abington. An address by Hon. J. 
Fisher Smith concluded the entertainment. 

Besides the advertisements from home 
merchants, the Index received some pat- 
ronage from business and professional men 
of Natchitoches, Shreveport and New Or- 
leans. 

During the lottery campaign, Judge Don 
E, SoRelle, who had previously conducted 
a newspaper at Pelican, DeSoto parish, 
but had recently engaged in the practice of 
law in Many, established the Sabine Ban- 
ner. The paper has occupied the field ever 
since. In 1896, J. H. Williams, Jr., and 
C. P. Bolton launched the Sabine Demo- 
crat. They later acquired the Banner and 
discontinued the publication of the Demo- 



TEE PRESS 



207 



crat. During the later '90s J. A. Tetts, a 
veteran newspaper man, published the 
Sabine Free State in Many, but that paper 
ceased publication in 1901. 

In 1898, Judge W. R, Rutland, a law- 
yer, who had been prominent in politics in 
Grant parish during reconstruction days, 
purchased the Banner and conducted the 
paper until 1900, when he accepted a po- 
sition in the State Land Office at Baton 




"Sabine Banner" Building. 

Rouge, and the ownership of the Banner 
was transferred to J, D. Woods, who at 
the present time is assessor of Sabine 
County, Texas, The long and eventful life 
of Judge Rutland was ended in 1903, in 
Many, among his family and friends. 



208 



THE PRESS 



On September 1, 1901, Mr, Woods sold 
the Banner to Judge Don E. SoRelle and 
Leo Vandegaer. Judge SoRelle was edi- 
tor, Mr. Vandegaer, business manager and 
John G, Belisle was engaged as publishet. 

In 1903, Leo Vande- 
^1 gaer acquired the sole 
ownership of the pa- 
per and is the present 
proprietor, while J, 
Gr. Belisle has con- 
tinued to be the pub- 
lisher. The present 
mechanical equip- 
ment is complete in 
every detail, and the 
plant occupies a large 
and substantial two- 
story brick building, 
constructed in 1911 
on the lot formerly occupied by the store 
building of J. B. Vandegaer & Sons. Mr. 
Vandegaer being the postmaster, the frpnt 
half of the lower floor is used for the post- 
office. The present proprietor has endeav- 
ored to improve the paper whenever the 
times and the conditions would justify the 
same, and while local newspapers are not 
productive of much wealth to their owners 
(the Banner being no exception), he is 
proud of the record it has made under his 
charge in the way of standing for every- 




LEO VANDBGAEB. 



TRE PRSSS 



209 




thing which would count for the progress 
of the pacish. £A biographical sketch of 
Mr. Vandegaer is given in another chap- 
ter). Politically the Banner is neutral, 
and lender the present man- 
agement it has never espoused 
the cause of any partisan or- 
ganization or individual. At 
the same time its columns 
have been an open forum for 
the expression of opinions 
concerning all public matters, 
Alberts, cianan ^^^ particulaily where such 

expressions have had for their object the 
upbuilding of the country. The printers 
employed by the Banner in 
1912 are Daniel H. Vandegaer 
and Albert S. Cianan, both of 
whom have been in the service 
of the paper for more than 
five years. Miss Eula Vande- 
DanH.vandegaergaer, the accomplished daugh- 
of the editor, is the bookkeeper and, inci- 
dentally writes the society news. She is a 
member of tiie Louisiana Press Associa- 
tion and Second Vice President of that or- 
ganization. 

For a few years prior to 1902, W. C. Da- 
vis published the Sodus News at Pleasant 
Hill. He moved to El Paso, Texas, and 
the publication of the News was discon- 
tinued. Mr. Davis was a progressive citi- 




210 THE PRESS 

zen. He served as a member of the Lou- 
isiana Senate and occupied other positions. 
He still owns real estate in Sabine. 

Frequent attempts have been made to 
publish a newspaper at Zwolle, The Sab- 
ime Enterprise is now published there by 
B. F. Lusk. The Entisrpriie was estab- 
lished by H. A, Miner in 1910. 



To^vus and Villageii. 



MANY. 

"V^^HEN Sabine parish was organized in 
* * 1843, the question of a seat of par- 
ish goyernment was left to be settled. Fort 
Jesup was the most important point at that 
period, but it was a Federal militarj res- 
ervation, and lacked sereral miles of being 
a centrat location. A place known as 
Baldwin's Store was chosen as the parish 
site. It was located on the main Natchi- 
toches and San Antonio highway which 
was intersected at this point by other 
roads. The place was named Many, in 
honor of Colonel Many who commanded 
the garrison at Fort Jesup. It appears 
that, eyen after the site had been chosen, 
there was no land on which to locate it. 
To supply this deficiency, on May 17, 1843, 
Messrs. . W. R. D. Speight, I. W. Eason, 
G. W. Thompson and S. S. Eason donated 
to the parish forty acres of land adjoining 
the Peter Bavens plantation (now owned 
by E. C, Dillon), described as "beginning 
at the forks of the road east of Hosea 
Presley's old house and along the Speight 
road," On December 21, 1844, a plat of 
the town was made, by Surveyor Q. W, 

211 



212 TOWJ\rS AJ^D VILLAGES 

Thompson, which exhibited a public square 
and eight streets. ■' 

The first government of the town was 
vested in five commissioners, appointed by 
the Police Jury, asfelldws; John Bald- 
win, Alexander ByleSj^M'. Fdlchrbd^ Henry 
Earls and John -Watexhouse. The com- 
missioners were authorized to open a sale 
of lots in the new town; Among the e^rly 
purchasers of thesfe lots were Robert Par- 
rott, William Edmiindsoh, J, B. Stoddard, 
P. H. Dillon, William Taylor; S. S. Bason 
and John Baldwin^ and fa little later On 
L. Stevenson, L.' M. Kodgeris, B. K. Ford, 
C. Chaplin, T. McCarty, Taisitha Baldwin, 
J. B. Elam, G. E". Ward; The first pur- 
chasers of lots were citizens Who were in - 
terested directly or indirectly in the goy- 
ernment of the parish Or ideiatifidd vs^ith 
business pursuits. 

In 1847 another' transfer of lots was 
made, when Johh Baldwin, Robert St'ille 
and G. E. Ward, commissioners of -the 
town of Many, deeded to John Ca,ld well, 
John D. Tucker and Robert A. Gay, for 
use of the Masonic ;Society (known as 
Hamill Lodge), and to Abraham' >Rob6rts, 
William D. Stephens, RobeirtD. Wright, 
William Mains and Dr. Henry McCallen, 
trustees of the Methodist church, certain 
lots in consideration of the sum of $20. 
These societies jointly erected a two -story 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 213 

building, the upper floor of which was used 
for the lodge and the lower floor for relig- 
ious services. In 1852, Daniel R. Gandy 
donated to Antony McGee and Noah Mar- 
tin, trustees of the Baptist denomination, 
suitable lots on which to erect a church. 

Among other lot owners in the original 
town up to 1869 were Eli Self , J. F. Smith, 
K. G. McLemore, Wiley Weeks, G. C. De- 
Berry, James Garner, Job Hobbs, William 
Cook, G. G. Garner. B. Campbell, Little- 
ton Cook, Robert Parrott, George Dens- 
more, Louis Vanshoebrook, G, B, Stod-* 
dard, Louis Levison, John Waterhouse, 
G. W. Gibson, Isaac Rains, G. E. Jackson, 
Dr. E. Thigpen, James Brown, Abe Har- 
ris and J. B. Vandegaer. 

The first house in Many was erected by 
John Baldwin, a pioneer of the sturdy 
type, for whom the wilderness had no ter- 
rors and who rather sought the frontier 
life. The house was a large log structure, 
of the double-pen design ; it stood where 
Joseph D. Stille's residence now stands, 
and was known as a hotel or tavern, Mr. 
Baldwin also conducted a mercantile busi- 
ness. The country tavern in the old days 
in the South, while guests paid for their 
accommodations, was famous for its homely 
hospitality and sociability. The Bald win 
hostlery was no exception to the rule. The 
well-disposed stranger was given a cordial 



214 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

welcome, and the hotel was frequently 
the scene of neighborhood feasts and so- 
cial gatherings attended by the elite society 
of Fort Jesup and visiting military celeb- 
rities. Mr. Baldwin had two accomplished 
daughters. The eldest, Miss Jane, became 
the wife of P. H. Dillon, both dying 
before the war, Two of their children, 
still living, are E. 0. Dillon of Many and 
John B. Dillon of Mansfield. Mr, Bald- 
win's youngest daughter. Miss Elizabeth, 
married E, C. Davidson, for many years a 
prominent lawyer of Many. Baldwin was 
the first postmaster and his name was 
prominent in all the early progressive 
movements in the parish. The building 
which he used as a store house was still 
standing in 1912, when it was torn down 
by E. C. Dillon, who erected a brick struc- 
ture on the lot. 

Probably the first settler in the vicinity 
of Many was William Mains, who settled 
the plantation now owned by the heirs of 
of Louis and Frances Buvens. Mr. Mains 
was born m North Carolina and in early 
life was left an orphap. He was kidnap- 
ped by some traders and carried to the 
North and apprenticed to a carpenter 
and learned to be an expert woodworker. 
On reaching manhood he went to Pike 
County, Mississippi, where he was married, 
and, in 1830, moved with his family to 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 215 

Louisiana, near the present town of Many . 
Indians still roamed the woods, and wild 
animals were numerous, He was com- 
pelled to cut his way through a dense cane 
brake to make a clearing for the house 
which he constructed. Mr. Mains was the 
father of seven children, one of whom, 
Noah, is still living, being a resident of 
Pleasant Hill, William, the eldest son, 
who shared with his father the trials of 
pioneer life, was born in 1817, in Pike 
County, Mississippi, and died June 26, 
1904. During the Mexican war he moved 
army equipments from Fort Jesup to the 
old Block House on Sabine River. At 
his death he was survived by two sons W, 
C. and Rich Mains, and two daughters, 
Madames W. L. Shull and Asa Vines, 

Peter F. Buvens, an old settler of the 
neighborhood, came here in 1837 from Bel - 
ginm and settled on land adjoining the 
present town of Many. His family com- 
prised six children, Theodore, Henry (died 
in early life), John,Francis, Virginia (died 
in early life), Maria, who married John B. 
Vandegaer in 1859; and Mary, wife of John 
Davis, who also was owner of a large 
plantation near Many. 

Another pioneer was Hosea Presley, 
who came here before the parish was cre- 
ated and acquired title to his plantation 
lying west of the town limits. 



216 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

Previous to 1878 Many did not have a 
municipal government. At that time the 
town secured a charter under the new 
constitution. In May, 1878, G-. W. SmaU 
was elected mayor, John Blake, clerk, and 

A. H. Hogue, R. B. Stille and J. F. Smith, 
councilmen. In 1882, Dan Vandegaer was 
mayor. He was succeeded in 1884 by John 

B. Vandegaer, For several years after this 
time the council did not meet and the cor- 
poration government was abandoned. 

In 1898, A. C. Lamberth was mayor, H. 
Henderson, J. E. Wright, G. L. J8.ck8on 
and I. L. Pace, councilmen, and W, G. 
Caldwell, marshal. 

In 1900, A, C. Lamberth was mayor, the 
councilmen being I. L, Pace, secretary; J. 
G. Brown, E. C. Dillon, W. B, Cleveland 
and Dan Vandegaer. In 1901 Don E.So- 
Relle was mayor and the same board of al- 
derman commissioned. F. W. Davis was. 
marshal. 

In 1903, Don E. SoRelle was mayor, 
and C. L, Lunt, J. H. McNeely, Dan Van-, 
degaer, A. Dover and R. H. Buvens com- 
posed the council, and F. W. Davis, mar- 
shal. In 1905, John H. Boone was elected 
mayor and Dan Vandegaer, Dave Goldring, 
R, H. Buvens, A. C. Lamberth and J. J. 
Andries councilmen, F. W. Davis continu- 
ing as marshal. In 1907, Mr. Boone was 
re-elected mayor, and Dr. J. M. Middle- 



TOWJVS AJVD VILLdGES 217 

ton, Frank Hunter, W. T. Collier, J. J. 
Andries and Jesse Low, councilmen. 

In 1909, Silas D. Ponder was elected 
mayor, F. "W. Davis marshal; John Blake, 
O. E. Williams, Dr. J. M. Middleton, J. C. 
Ritter and P. C, Horn councilmen. Mr. 
Davis resigned as marshal the following 
year and J, J. Andries was elected to serve 
for his unexpired term, 

In 1911 E. C. Dillon was mayor, J. J. 
Andries, marshal; Dr. J. M. Middleton, 
John Blake, 0. E. Williams. S. L. Carroll, 
and Dr. W. M. Henry, councilmen. Mr. 
Oarrpll subsequently resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by J. E. Ross. 

Mr. Baldwin was succeeded as postmas- 
ter by Henry McCallen. The latter was 
succeeded by William B, Stille, who re- 
tained the office until 1870, when Robert 
B. Stille was appointed. Mr. Stille died 
while a member of the Constitutional con- 
vention of 1879 and John B. Vandegaer 
was commissioned postmaster, holding the 
the position until his death in 1895, when 
his son, Leo Vandegaer was continued in 
the office and has filled the positon since 
that time. 

Robert B, and William B. Stille were the 
first general merchants to locate in the 
new town of Many, They came from the 
East and established a mercantile house on 
Bayou Scie in 1837. The store was moved 



218 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

to Many and conducted under the name of 
R. B. Stille & Co. for more than half a 
century. 

Leo Vandegaer took the census of the 
town in 1880, when the population was 
147. Business houses were conducted by 
R. B. Stille & Co., A. H. Hogue, J. B, 
Vandegaer and John Blake. J. F. Smith, 
W. A. Carter and R. P, Hunter were law- 
yers here'y and Drs. Dallas and J. C, Arm- 
strong and J, H, Word were physicians 
and Dr. Hancock was the dentist. In 1880 
Q-ay Bros, conducted a general mercantile 
business in Many. Dan Vandegaer and 
John Davis run a saw mill near town, sup- 
plying the local trade with lumber. 

Among the tradesman and mechanics of 
the old days were the following: 

Louis Vanshoebrook ran a tanyard at the 
big spring on the old John Buvens place 
(now the Andries estate) in the '50s, He 
was an experienced hand at his trade, hav- 
ing learned the art of leather-making in his 
native country, Belgium. The tanyard 
was discontinued after the war, when the 
tanning of hides by hand was no longer 
profitable. John B. Vandegaer ran a 
blacksmith shop in Many before the war. 
In 1867 he embarked in the mer- 
cantile business and his brother, Dan Van- 
degaer, conducted the blacksmith shop. 
Albert Clanan catered to the needs of the 



TOWJ\rS AKB TILLAGES 219 

public as a shoemaker for many years after 
the war. Messrs. Clauau and John 6, 
Vaadegaer also learned their respective 
trades, of which they were thorough 
masters, in Belgium. , For many years af- 
ter the war J. T. Lunt was the principal 
building contractor here. The first court- 
house and other buildings in the town were 
erected under his supervision. The first 
recollection of a barber shop in Many was 
in 880, when an itinerant barber started a 
shop here, but, after remaining a short 
time, moved away. "Uncle" Mike Boltz 
was accorded the distinction of being the 
first citizen to be shaved in a barber shop 
in Many. 

The first power gin to be erected in Sab- 
ine parish was located on wh^t is now the 
farm of Mr. Snell, just outside the town 
limits. It was built by E. C, Davidson, the 
owner of that plantation, in the early ' 50s. 
The gin was run by horse power, and was 
run during the war, and after that period 
by R. W. Arnett, who came to Sabine 
parish as a school teacher and married 
Miss Duggan, daughter of Rev. Edmund 
Duggan, a pioneer Baptist preacher. Mr. 
Arnett died in the late '60s, and his wife 
married Seabe Alford, a prominent farmer. 
Other gins of the early days were run by 
Shade Eason, near Many ; by Mr. Darnell 
on San Miguel, Thomas Armstrong on Ba- 



220 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

you Scie, R. G. Brown on San Patricio 
and James A. Woods on Bayou Scie. The 
first steam gin in the parish was erected by 
John Buvens on his plantation adjoining 
the town of Many in , 1869. Dan Vande - 
gaer was associated with him in conducting 
the gin, and after Mr. Buvens' death, 
in 1873, acquired the entire busiaSss, 

Prior to 1885 the merchants of Many 
received most of their goods from New Or- 
leans by Red River steamboats to Grand 
Ecore, and from thence were transported 
by freight wagons. With the completion 
of the Texas and Pacific Railroad, goods . 
were receved at Robeline and hauled to 
Many- But with the construction of the 
Kansas City Southern Railway to Many in 
1896 freighting with wagons was discon- 
tinued. The river station at Grand Ecore' 
had for nearly two centuries enjoyed a 
merchandise traf&c with an immense ter- 
ritory. Cotton was hauled from East 
Texas to the old landing and shipped ; to 
New Orleans, and the wagons returned 
loaded with merchandise. In the '90s rail- 
roads were built in East Texas and thus 
the old system of transportion came into 
entire disuse. 

Before the building of the railroads in 
Sabine mail was received in Many not of - 
tener than ever other day. In 1879 mail 
was received from .Natchitoches three 



TOWNS Am VILLAGES 221 

times a week. A line from Many to Lake 
Charles and Orange furnished a weekly 
service and mail was received from Mans- 
field and other up-state points once a week 
and a similar service was furnished to 
Texas. The mail was usually carried by a 
horseback rider, but in early times the 
stage coach, drawn by four or more horses, 
was employed, and as the routes were 
long the coaches were run at night and 
horses changed at intervals in order to 
make the trips on time. 

In 1879 pork sold for 3 cents and beef at 
4 cents a pound. The market was abund- 
antly supplied with mutton and venison at 
50 cents per haunch. Prevailing prices for 
other commodities were cotton 10 cents, 
corn 50 cents per barrel, meal $5,00 and 
flour $5.50 to $6.50 per barrel. Dry goods 
were high as compared with the prices of 
the present time, calicoes selling as high as 
15 cents per yard. Small boxes of matches 
retailed at 10 cents. And while tariffs and 
trusts had not yet excited consumers and 
thrown politicians into paroxysms, sugar 
sold at more than 8 cents per pound, 
and coal oil retailed at 45 cents per gallon. 

The newspaper of Many, in September, 
1879, chronicled the death of Mrs.Eiizabeth 
Small, wife of Q-, W, Small, in the 68th 
year of her age ; also the demise of Mrs. 
John Daugherty, Samuel Paul and Buck 



222 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

Brown, and, in 1880, Sampson Whatley, a 
pioneer of Ward 1. 

In 1898 the principal merchants of Many 
were Stille Bros., J. B. Vandegaer & Sons, 
M. R, Shelton, R. H. Buvens, Dillon Drug 
Co., C, L, Lunt, Dr. J. M. Middleton, Si- 
mon Bros., A. Dover, H, Meehan, J. Q-. 
Brown & Co,, Dr, P. M, Perkins and W- 
B, Cleveland. M. "Weiss was in business 
in Many in 1900, and R. K. Franklin, P. 
E. Peters and Minnis & Dellinger in 1901. 
Mrs, W. G-, Caldwell condu'^ted a millinery 
store and in 1903 W. G. Caldwell was en- 
gaged in the mercantile business. 

In 1881, Florien Giauque, a well-known 
lawyer of Cincinnati, Ohio, acquired from 
Jack & Wahisley and heirs of Patterson 
title to their claims in what is known 
as Lanana Grant No. 1, the west line of 
which runs through the town at a point 
near the Sabine Banner building. Several 
citizens had built homes on lots here to 
which they had no title. However, Mr. 
Giauque's ownership of the lot.s was a ben- 
efit to the citizens as he sold them the 
lots at very reasonable prices and furnished 
thein with prpper titles, Giauque's addi- 
tion to Many was platted and town lots of- 
fered for sale, and several citizens bought 
them. Mr. Giauque first came to Many in 
1879, on business as a lawyer. He trav- 
from Cincinnati via St. Louis to Marshall, 



TOWMS AMD VILLAGES 223 

Texas, thence to Shreveport on a freight 
train; from Shreveport to Mansfield on a 
stage and from the latter town to Many on 
horseback. There were no railroads in 
West Louisiana at that time, While ful- 
filling the duties of his first business mis- 
sion to Sabine parish, Mr. Giauque became 
impressed with the many possibilities of 
the country. He saw what the people 
who had been born and reared here had not 
yet seen — that lands which were consid- 
ered dear at from $1 to $3.00 per acre would 
ere many years be sought at much higher 
prices. These lands, except where here 
and there a settler had cleared the forest 
for a farm, were covered with magnificent 
forests of pine, oak and other timbers and 
the soil was capable of producing every 
variety of crops raised in the temperate 
zone. Mr. Griauque, while a lawyer, had 
accumulated some real estate experience, 
and at once manifested his faith in the fu- 
ture development of the country by invest; 
ing in several thousand acres of Sabine 
parish lands, much of which had been held 
by doubtful title, and a portion was^occupied 
by "squatters," He spent much time and 
money in perfecting the titles and offered 
the lands for sale, urging the people to 
own their homes, and those who had set- 
tled on lands which had come into his pos- 
session were given an opportunity to buy 



224 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

for a low cash price or given a lon^ time 
to pay on generously small payments. His 
land, at first, did not sell as rapidly as the 
proverbial "Jiot cakes" (and some people 
laughed at him for making investments in 
what they termed "no 'count" dirt), but 
as the years sped by two railroads reached 
the parish, followed by saw mills and kin- 
dred industries, land values increased, as 
he had predicted they would, and the de- 
mand for homes became more urgent. 
A large part of his holdings embraced 
lands that were included in old Spanish 
grants, the owners of which in the early 
days of the parish had labored to induce 
settlers to occupy them, but with only 
a small measure of success. There have 
been many non-resident land -owners in 
Sabine parish, but none have shown a 
more earnest interest in the welfare of the 
people than Mr. Giauque. He made 
friends of all who had the pleasure of 
meeting or dealing with him, and his prac- 
tical advice and conservative counsel in- 
spired many thinking people to acquire 
their own homes, He donated, wherever 
required, lands for the use of schools and 
churches, and even after the paiish had 
fairly entered upon its real period of devel- 
opment in 1896, after railroads and saw- 
mills had been built, he sold land at less 
than its value, in 1902 he issued a circu- 



TOWiN'S AJ^D VILLAGES 225 

lar containing the following wholesome 
and timely advice to the people of Sabine 
parish: "G-et yourselves a home of your 
own, even if it be a modest one, if you 
haven't any. On it at all times, even if it 
be a small and poor farm, you can at least 
make a living. The factory operative, the 
clerk in the store, and every other em- 
ployee, is liable to be thrown out of em- 
ployment, either permanently or tempor- 
arily, by strikes, by lockouts, by panics, 
by the whims or misfortunes of his em- 
ployer. But when be is thrown out of 
employment, he, his wife and children 
must still be fed, must still be clothed, 
must still be sheltered by a roof, and 
money must be paid for rent, food, clothing 
and other necessaries, just as well under 
such circumstances as when he was em- 
ployed, or be must be dependent on public 
or priyate charity — a humiliating and poor 
dependence. The planter or farmer, even 
if he be a tenant, does not appreciate how 
well off he is in these respects. He ought 
to own the roof that shelters him and his 
and the ground that will feed and clothe 
them, and be at all times independent of 
financial disturbances and storms of the in- 
dustrial world. And the only person who 
can be thus independent is the one vjrho 
jl^ets his living directly from the ground." 
While Mr, G-iauque is not a citizen of Sab- 



226 TOWJVS AJVB VILLAGES 

ine parish, lie has been so promineDtly 
identified with the progress of the country, 
and has been, in the broadest sense, a ben- 
efactor, that his name and generous deeds 
will ever be held in grateful remembrance 
by the citizens. 

In 1901 the corporate limits of Many 
were extended and the territory occupied 
by the town increased to a mile square. 
No effort has ever been made to boom the 
town. Its growth has been of the plodding 
kind, yet the progress made in the past 
score of years has been of the substantial 
brand. Its location is most ideal for the 
building of a splendid town; situated on 
hills, of ample elevation to afford excellent 
natural drainage, which were formerly cov- 
ered with a forest of pine and other native 
trees; and removed from unhealthy 
swamps, is a desirable place of residence 
Many does not take second rank with any 
of the towns of equal pretentions in West 
Louisiana, even tho' others may have re- 
sorted to the expedient of booming and ex- 
ploiting their claims for a more numerous 
citizenship. 

Prior to 1901 there was not a brick busi- 
ness house in Many. In September of that 
year the Sabine Valley Bank, the first in- 
stitution of the kind in the parish, began 
business in a small brick building which 
had been just completed. At the same 



TOWKS AJy'D VILLAGES 227 

time Dr. J, M. Middleton erected a one- 
story brick structure, which subsequently 
became and is now the property of 0. E. 
Williams. 

The Sabine Valley Bank was organized 
with a capital of $12,500. The board of 
directors was composed of J. G, Brown, E. 
C. Dillon, A. L, Ponder, W. B, Cleveland, 
Dr. J, M, Middleton, Dan Vandegaer, P. 
E. Peters, A. B. Banks, A. W. Estes, H. 
M. Gandy and Frank Hunter. J. Gr, 
Brown was president. Dr. J. M. Middle - 
ton, vice president, and Frank Hunter, 
cashier. In 1904, the Many State Bank 
was chartered with a capital stock of $20,- 
000, and erected a neat two -story brick 
building on the lot now occupied by the 
Sabine State Bank, the first board of di- 
rectors being Silas D. Ponder, W, D. Stille, 
Dr, J. V, Nash, J. R, Buvens, George L. 
Jackson, W. H Powell, T, C. Wingate, A. 
Dover, Silas D. Ponder was president, A, 
Dover and W. D. Stille, vice presidents, 
and W. J. Powell, cashier. After serving 
a few months, Mr. Powell was succeeded as 
cashier by George E. Wycoff, In 1904, 
Leo Vandegaer succeeded J. G. Brown as 
president of the Sabine Valley Bank and 
the capital stock of that institution was in- 
creased to $25,000. In 1906 the two banks 
were consolidated and the new institution 
chartered as the Sabine State Bank. The 



228 



TOWJVS AJVn VILLAGES 



following composed the board of directors: 
A. B. Banks, Leo Vaudegaer, S. D, Pon- 
der, Dr. J. M. Middleton, E. C. Dillon, A. 
Dover, I. L, Pace and Frank Hunter. Mr. 
Hunter was chosen president, S. D. Pon- 
der, vice president and GTeorge E. "Wycoff, 
cashier. In 1898, Mr. Wycoff resigned to 




"Sabine State Bank. 

take a position at Baton Rouge, where he 
died a few months later. He was suc- 
ceeded as cashier ot the Sabine State Bank 
by W. M. Knott, who still retains the po- 
sition. This bank has enjoyed splendid 
prosperity. It has a capital stock of $25, - 



TOJJWS AJVD VILLAGES 229 

000, the major portion of which is owned 
by some of Sabine's most substantial citi- 
zens. Besides paying satisfactory divi- 
dends it has a surplus of nearly $10,000. 
The deposits have always totaled above the 
$200,000 mark. Its officers are public 
spirited and progressive and are ready at 
all times to extend to the people every 
courtesy and favor that should be expected 
of any safe and conservative banking; in- 
stitution. 

In 1906 fire destroyed three blocks of 
the principal business houses in Many, and 
two years later two more blocks were 
burned. Nearly the entire present busi- 
ness section of the town is new. Since 
these fires briek business structures have 
been erected by the Sabine State Bank, A, 
H. Hogu\ W. E. McNeely (deceased), A. 
R, Fetersoa, Mr^. Nash (wife of Dr. John 
V. Nash, deceased), L^o Vandegaer, E, C 
Dillon and the new People's State Bank. 
Sheet metal buildings have beeu erected by 
A. L. Ponder, A. R. Peterson, W. M. 
Phillip?, H. A. McFarland, G. W. Phil- 
lips and 0. E. Williams, The principal 
merchants of Many at present are noted as 
follows: 

Joseph D. Stille occupies Mrs. McNeely's 
building and carries a large stock of gen- 
eral merchandise. His father and uncles 
were among the first merchants of the par- 



230 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

ish, the house of R. B. Stilie & Co. having 
been established in 1837. Mr.Stille is a con- 
servative business man and he has a good 
trade. His store employees are Mrs. W. 
H, Peters, Joseph D. Williams and C, J. 
Hubley, who are efficient and courteous 
salespeople. 

VV. D. Stilie, a brother of J. D. Stilie, 
has a large mercantile establishment. He, 
too, has spent his entire life in selling 
goods in Many. His salespeople are Mrs. 
Lillian Stilie (wife of his brother, Elliot O. 
Stilie, deceased), Miss Mary Williams and 
Clarence L. Lunt, 

The J. H. McNeely Mercantile Co. have 
a large business house and have an im- 
mense trade. The company is composed 
of Joseph H. McNeely, William H, Van- 
degaer and John J. Blake. Mr. McNeely 
has been employed by stores or run a busi- 
ness in his own name for many years, Mr. 
Blake's father, John Blake was a promi- 
nent merchant of Many back in the '80s, 
while, as previously noted, Mr. Vande- 
gaer's father entered the mercantile busi- 
ness in Many soon after the civil war. 
Robert T. Hatcher, whose father was a 
merchant at Hatcher, this parish, for sev- 
eral years, is an efficient salesman with 
this company, 

The J. Gr, Brown Trading Co. is a mer- 
cantile corpation composed of J. Gr. 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 231 

Brown, J. C, Joyner and I. L. Pace and 
have a large trade. Mr. Brown, the man- 
ager, is a native of Scott County, Miss. 
He came to Many in 1896, erecting the 
large building which he now occupies, and 
conducted a business in the firm name of 
J. Gr. Brown & Co. for ten years, when he 
left Many to enter business in Texas. He 
returned to Many in 1911 and organized 
the present company. The business in his 
building during his absence was conducted 
by I. L. Pace and R, Pattison under the 
name of I. L. Pace & Co,, which he pur- 
chased when he returned. The J. G-, 
Brown Trading Co. enjoys a substantial 
trade, Miss Fannie Joyner, A. Gr, Dees 
and James Brown are popular clerks at 
this store. 

O. E. Williams has a large mercantile 
establishment which has a big trade. Mr. 
"Williams began his business career as a 
delivery boy for W, B, Cleveland in 1901, 
and his progress in his chosen vocation was 
so substantial and rapid that when Mr. 
Cleveland left Many five years later he ac- 
quired the business. Later he purchased 
the brick building which he now occupies. 
He has been very successful and is es- 
teemed as one of the towns substantial 
and enterprising merchants. His brother, 
BeWitt T. "Williams, is an energetic and 
valuable attache of the store, and Miss 



232 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

Pearl Stoker is also a popular clerk. Mr. 
Williams also owns a farm and is interested 
in raising livestock, 

H, W, Cofield has conducted a mercan- 
tile business in Many since 1908, making a 
specialty of groceries. He came to this 
state from Georgia. He is a good store- 
keeper, a pleasant business man and 
enjoys a nice trade. He is assisted in the 
store by Mrs. Cofield. 

H. A. McFarland has been .engaged in 
the grocery business in Many since 1904, 
when he became associated with W. Gr. 
Caldwell, the style of the firm being Cald- 
well & McFarland, but the firm was dis- 
solved after a few months. . Mr, Mc- 
Farland suffered losses in both of the big 
fires which swept the business section of 
Many, the first destroying his entire stock 
OQ which he carried no insurance. He has 
a good trade, and is assisted in his store - 
keeping by Mrs. McFarland and his accom- 
plished daughters, Misses Kena and Lola. 

W. B, Cleveland conducts a staple and 
fancy grocery business and at present ca- 
ters to the wants of gro3ery consumers ex- 
clusively. He is a native of Coosa County, 
Ala. He came with his family to Many in 
1898, and he and his son, L. D. Cleveland, 
engaged in the general merchantile busi- 
ness, the style of the firm being W. B. 
Cleveland & Son. They disposed of their 



TOWJ^S AMD VILLAGES 233 

store here in 1906 and moved to Texas. 
Mv. Cleveland returned to Many in 1912 
and purchased the stock of W. M. Jack- 
son, who ran a store at his present loca- 
tion. Mr. Cleveland is a clever gentleman, 
a ^ood merchant and enjoys the confidence 
and patronage of a large number of peo- 
ple. In his present business he has a ge- 
nial and polite assistant in the person of 
his son, Harvey Cleveland. 

At present the Many Drug Co. supplies 
the needs of Many and vicinity in the drug 
line. This company is incorporated, the 
stockholders being E. M. and Mrs. E. M. 
Fraser, Pearl C. Horn and Dr. W. M. 
Henry. Mr. Fraser is the manager. He 
is a registered pharmacist, has had many 
years' experience at his profession and is a 
genial gentleman. Nolan Dees and Mas- 
ter Willie Addison are courteous attaches 
of this store. 

In the latter '90s the Sabine Hotel here 
was run by A, B. Davis, now the proprie- 
tor of a popular hostelry at Mansfield. J. 
A. Bonds became proprietor in 1903, and 
after that time the hotel changed owners 
several times and in 1906 was destroyed by 
fire. In 1904, Mrs. M. J. Hubley built 
the Capitol Hotel, her daughter, Mrs. Ma- 
bel Fielder (now Mrs. C, W. Leary) and 
her son, C. J. Hubley, managed the busi- 
ness. In 1907, the property was acquired 



234 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

by F. W. Davis, the present owner. The 
Capitol has always been the popular hotel 
for the traveling public. Mr. Davis has 
greatly enlarged and improved the hotel, 
and for the convenience of his patrons he 
maintains a livery and transfer business. 

J, E. Ross has been a contractor and 
builder in Many since 1898. He is a na- 
tive of Mississippi. A large number of the 
buildings in Many have been constructed 
under his direction. He carries a stock of 
building material and has a workship on a 
lot adjoining his cozy home. 

In 1910, W, M. Phillips erected a large 
building for a hotel and boarding house 
just west of the court house. It is known 
as the Phillips House and has a good pat- 
ronage. Mr. Phillips is a native of Sabine 
parish and has lived in Many since 1896, 
He has a position as deputy sheriff and 
looks after the affairs of the parish jail, 

A, K. Peterson is a dealer in paints and 
building material and has a nice store. 
For several years he followed contracting 
and building, but for the past few years he 
has been in poor health. He was a hustler 
in the years when he was able to work and 
accumulated some nice real estate property 
in Many. 

Among the industrial enterprises is the 
Rust Lumber Co. The business of this 
company is conducted by John H. Rust 



TOWJVS AJVn VILLAGES 235 

and his sons, Milburu J. and Ralph. The 
past three years, however, the latter has 
been a student of Baker University in Kan- 
sas. The Rusts came to Sabine parish in 
1906 and bought the Hoagland & Cade saw 
mill near Recknor. Later they moved the 
mill to Many where they also built a planer 
of ample capacity to supply their needs, 
and the plant being destroyed by fire they 
rebuilt it. In 1912 a boiler explosion 
wrecked their saw mill which has been re- 
placed by a better plant. The company 
also owns another mill about eight miles 
southwest of town. The Rusts came from 
Labette County, Kansas, where they have 
extensive business and realty interests. 

For several years J. T. Sirmon ran a 
gin and grist mill near the railway station. 
He also owned a saw mill seven miles 
southeast of town, which was abandoned 
in 1904. Mr. Sirmon died in 1911, The 
gin property is now owned by John A. 
Hoagland, In 1910, an electric light com- 
pany was organized and power for running 
the system was procured from the Sirmon 
gin plant. The company failed. Mr, 
Hoagland will furnish the power for the 
electric lighting system, which has been 
revived. For the past several years^he has 
been associated with Dr. S. C, Cade in the 
saw mill business which was conducted 
under the name of Many Lumber Co, 



236 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

Their mill is located four miles east of 
town. Dr. Cade is a son of Dr. S, H. 
Cade, deceased, who was a prominent 
physician of the parish. Mr. Hoagland is 
a native of Missouri (his father was also a 
physician) and he is an experienced busi- 
ness man. 

The Pelican Stare Co. located a mill at 
Many in 1912, and it is a splendid addition 
to the industries of the town. The com- 
pany owns considerable timber, besides 
buying many cords of stave bolts from the 
farmers. J. B. McCollough is the man- 
ager of this enterprise. 

The owners of the principal farms in the 
immediate vicinity of Many are M. M. 
Buggan, Mrs. Hattie Addison, Jeff Peters, 
P. H. McGarrhan, Commodore and As- 
bury Byrd, "Warren and Wilson Cutrer, M, 
V. Petty, Mrs, Quayhaeghen, Henry, Ju- 
lian and Thomas Andries; Estate of Louis 
and Francis Buvens, 1. L. Pace and R. 
Pattison, W, H, Vandegaer, T. J. and 
Francis Davis, [J. W. Snell, W. F. Peterson, 
Daniel A. Robinson, C. B. Small, Jonathan 
C. Ryan, J. H. Maloney, H. W. Simpson, 
W. M, Cobbs, Ross C, Alford, John Van 
Hess, T. V. Small, J. B. Blackwell, Es- 
tate of N. A. Williams, F. DeKeyser, J. L. 
Dees and Charles Henry. 

The Many postoffice furnishes two rural 
free delivery routes and efforts are being 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 237 

ing made to secure others. G. L, Nabours 
and William E. Buvens are the courteous 
and efficient carriers. 

J. B. Hill is the popular agent of the 
Kansas City Southern Railway here, hav- 
ing occupied that position for the past four 
years. The Many station has a large busi- 
ness and Mr, Hill is always on duty, ren- 
dering the proper services to the public as 
well as the company. 

The Sabine Parish Fair Association was 
organized in 1910 and has held four very 
successful fairs. Business men of Many, 
the Louisiana Long Leaf Lumber Company 
of Fisher, the Sabine Lumber Company 
of ZwoUe, the Police Jury and progressive 
farmers contributed substantially to the or- 
ganization of the enterprise. The follow- 
ing are the directors: E, C. Dillon, W. C. 
Roaten, I. N, MeCollister, J. M, Ritter, W. 
E. Skinner, D. J. Holmes, Gr. L. Nabours, 
G. I. Paul, W. H. Vandegaer, J. H. Booue, 
H. M, Gandy, M V Petty, W. W. Warren, 
Wilson, Cutrer, J. W. Sistrunk,W. R. Koss, 
Frank Hunter, W. M. Cobbs, O. F. Moore, 
Louis Vines, P. H. Lester and G. L, Jack- 
son. For the firsctwo years Dr. J, M. See- 
ver was president; W. C. Roateu,vic8 pres- 
ident; Frank Hunter, treasurer; E, C. Dil- 
lon, manager, and J. G. Belisle, secretary. 
For the third fair G, L. Jackson was secre- 
tary. The present officers are E. C, Dil- 



238 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

Ion, president; W. C.Roaten, I, N.McCol- 
lister and W. H, Vandegaer, vice presi- 
dents; Frank Hunter, treasurer, and J. Gr, 
Belisle, secretary. The association owns 
a fine tract of land ^near the depot. Ad- 
equate buildings have been constructed 
and a splendid half-mile race track pro- 
vided. The fair has served its purpose 
of stimulating an interest in better farm- 
ing methods and the raising of more and 
better livestock, and now promises to be 
a permanent enterprise, from which many 
benefits to the entire parish will accrue. 

The physicians of Many are Drs. D. H. 
and W. E. Dillon, Dr, T. L, Abington, Dr. 
J. M. Middleton and Dr. W. D. Lester. 
Dr. W. M. Henry is the dentist. 

Pugh Bros. (Arthur and Tullos) own 
the City barber shop. They are splendid 
young men, have an elegant shop and en- 
joy a good patronage. 

The latest financial institution chartered 
in Many is the People's State Bank, which 
will open for business July 1st, 1913. The 
stockholders are composed of a large num- 
ber of farmers and business men of West 
Louisiana, as well as some business men of 
Southeast Texas. The first board of di- 
rectors is as follows: E.C.Dillon, J. H. 
Boone, P. H. Lester, O. O. Cleveland, J. 
G. Montgomery, George C. Addison, John 
A. Hoagland, Dr. S. C. Cade, J. E. 



TOWMS AJYD VILLAGES 239 

Phares, G. R. Aaron, Qc. B. Arrington, 
John F. Davis and W. K. Wingfield. The 
officers are : E, C. Dillon, president ; J. H. 
Boone, first vice president; P. H. Lester, 
second vice president, and O, 0. Cleve- 
land, cashier. The bank starts out with a 
capital stock of $16,300. An elegant two- 
story brick building has been erected as 
the home of this institution, and up-to- 
date banking house fixtures and a modern 
safe installed. The institution will begin 
business with bright prospects and will aim 
to take as large a part, as stable banking 
will permit, in the business and industrial 
life of the parish. 

The early history of the public school ia 
Many is, for the most part, like that of all 
other schools which had to meet and over- 
come many obstacles to maintain its ex- 
istence. For many years, owing to a lack 
of public funds, the school was run on the 
subscription plan and then only for short 
terms. In the '90s successful schools were 
taught by Prof. W. J, Davis and by Rev, 
George F. Middleton, the present pastor of 
the Many and Zwolle Baptist churches. 
In 1901-2, Prof. J. F. McClellan was prin- 
cipal, and the following two or three years 
other teachers had charge of the school. 
The building was an old dilapidated struc- 
ture, wholly unfit for the purpose intended. 
In 1906, a few of the patrons (mention of 



240 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

whom is made in a former chapter) met 
and devised plans for the erection of a 
buildinfij that would meet modern require- 
ments. During the year a neat building 
was erected at a cost of about $3,500, to 
which additions have been subsequently 
made, as well as a splendid and and com- 
modious auditorium, separate from the 
school building, at a cost of about $3,000. 
"With the completion of the new school 
buildings Prof. W, C. Roaten was em- 
ployed as principal, and in 1909, he and 
Parish Superintendent J. H. Williams, Jr., 
organized the Many High School, which 
was duly approved by the state in the fall 
of that year. From the first Prof. Roa- 
ten's efforts in school building produced 
results, and with the organization of the 
high school public education in Many was 
given an impetus never before experienced, 
and the progress of the school has been 
rapid and stable. The first board of 
trustees was composed of Dr. J M, Mid- 
dleton, president; E. C. Dillon, J. E. Ross, 
S. D. Ponder, Frank Hunter, J. H. Boone 
and W. H, Armstrong. The first faculty 
was as follows: W. C. Roaten, principal; 
Misses Jennie Ford, Annie DuBois, Mar- 
garet Herring, Dora Craig, Ethel Everett 
and Mrs. J. H. Williams, Jr., assistants. 
The faculty for 1912-13 was composed of 
W. C. Roaten, principal; R. V. Evans, as- 



TOW^S AJVD VILLAGES 241 

sistant in high school grades ; Miss Clara 
Carnahan, sixth and seventh grades ; Miss 
Irma Broadwell, third, fourth and fifth 
grades; Miss Hope Haupt, drawing and 
singing; Miss Carrie Belle Billiugsley, do- 
mestic science, and Miss Willie Ponder, 
instrumental music. The school has two 
buildings, both constructed of wood, but 




stsstp'^ssyia^ 



School Building Many High School Auditorium 

sufficiently large to accommodate the 
school. The auditorium is one of the best 
school auditoriums in this section of the 
state. The school is well supplied with li- 
braries, laboratories, pianos and cooking 
utensils, and the general equipment, in 
many ways, surpasses the requirements of 
the State Board of Education. At the be- 



242 TOWJVS AJVD VILLAGES 

ginning of Prof. Roaten's administration 
as principal, a School Improvement League 
was organized, and the organization has 
been a potent and happy factor in building 
up the school. The domestic science de- 
partment was installed at the first of the 
1911-12 session, and through the instru- 
mentality of the School Improvement 
League, sewing was added to the course, 
and cooking was added at the beginning of 
session of 1912-13. Interest in this de- 
partment had increased until at the latter 
session twenty-two girls were taking this 
work. The domestic science course covers 
the four years of the regular high school 
work and is optional, those taking it being 
permitted to omit Latin and higher math- 
ematics. Prom the first the attendance 
has increased every year, the high school 
department enroUmg during the session of 
1912-13 forty-nine pupils. The following 
are the graduates: 1909 -10, Miss Dora 
Currie. 1910-11, Misses Maude Duggan, 
Lena Jackson, Maudeola Presley, Messrs. 
S. D. Ponder, Jr., and Jimmie Etheredge. 
1911-12, Misses Willie and Katie Abington, 
Leone Addison, Josie Dillon, Rena Mc- 
Farland, Lilburne Middleton, Willie So- 
Relle, Messrs. William Ponder, Arthur 
Tramel and Van Vines. 1912-13, Misses 
Jessie Guile, Lola McFarland, Gertrude 
Moore, Bessie Ponder, Gladys Robs, Eula- 



TOWJ^S AJYD VILLAGES 243 

nee Presley, Delia Tramel, Messrs. Robert 
Jackson and Gilbert Pace. Definite aims 
and united support have been the two great 
elements which contributed to the success 
of the school. Eleven of the graduates 
, have been in attendance at higher institu- 
tions, including Ward's Seminary, the 
State Normal, and the Louisiana State 
University. Eight have taught in the pub- 
lic schools of the parish, and nearly all 
seem determined to secure a higher educa- 
tion and be worth something to the world. 
The Many High School is one of the town's 
best assets, and the fact is becoming more 
generally recognized ; and, by adhering to 
its present policy to furnish its students 
with a real, practical high school education 
the school is destined to enjoy a bright 
and prosperous future. 

St, John's School (Catholic) is another 
institution which has provided the 
youth of Many and elsewhere with an 
education. This school has few gradu- 
ates, but a large number of boys and girls 
who are honorable citizens and worthy 
members of society have received all or a 
part of their education there. This de- 
nominational school was established in 
1887, with Miss Emma Currie (now Mrs. 
Leo Vandegaer) as teacher. She was suc- 
ceeded by Miss Aimee Hertzog, who taught 
in 1890. During the subsequent eight 



244 TOWJVS AJVD VILLAGES 

years, the following teachers, in the order 
named, presided as teachers: Miss Annie 
Currie (now Mrs, W. T. Colquitt of Shreye- 
port), Miss Marie Burt (now Mrs, Henry 
Buvens), Miss Blanche Blake (now Mrs, 
J. J. Andries), Mrs. Baird and Prof, 
O'Connor. The school house was a one- 
room structure which stood near where the 
present buildina; stands. In 1898, 
the patrons of the school decided to turn 
the institution over to some regular teach- 
ing order of the denomination, and Rev. 
A. Anseeuw, who was at that time rector 
of St. John's church, arranged for the Sis- 
ters of Divine Providence to take charge 
of the school. The home of this order is 
at Sin Antonio, Texas, and these sisters 
have many parochial schools in Louisiana, 
Oklahoma and Texas. Sister Lucy was 
the first superior of St. John's School and 
two other teachers were installed as her 
assistants. The increased number of pu- 
pils at once made necessary the building of 
a larger and better house. Sister Lucy 
was succeed as superior in 1901 by Sister 
St. John, who served until 1906, when 
Sister Bonaventure, the present superior, 
assumed charge, Four teachers were now 
required to accommodate the pupils. The 
literary course of the public schools of the 
state of Texas is the course adopted and 
used, with slight variations, by the Sisters 



TOWJ^S AJ^D VILLAGES 245 

of Divine Providence. In addition they 
give instruction in musie, painting, elocu- 
tion, fancy work, as well as furniahine: a 
practical business course, embracing type- 
▼ritinjf, stenography, bookkeeping and 
penmanship, and several boys and girls 




St. John's School, 
who received their instruction in these es- 
sentials to a business vocation at this 
school are turning their knowledge to 
some account. While the school is de- 
nominational, religious instruction is given 
only to those pupils who desire it. Among 
the boarding and day students there has 
always been enrolled pupils of the various 
denominations and their religious belief* 
scrupulously respected. The graduates in 
the literary department of St. John's 
school are Miss Olive Buvens, 1905; Miss 
Ethel Armstrong (Mrs, Arthur Pugh), 
1911, and Miss Annie Clare Vandegaer, 
1913. On November 21, 1911, the school 



246 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

building and the sisters' house were de- 
stroyed by fire, and, unfortunately, the 
loss was not covered by insuramee. But 
through the efforts of the Catholic Knights 
of America, the substantial aid of flight 
Rev, Bishop Van de Ven and the contri- 
butions of citizens of Many, funds were 
soon raised for the erection of the present 
large and splendid structure, and the school 
promises to contiaue to occupy a more 
prominent place than ever in furnishing an 
education to the youths of the parish. 

Many Lod^e F. & A. M. was first organized in 
1850, and was a prosperous lodge until after the 
war when the charter was surrendered. Many 
Lodge No. 285 F. & A. M. was organized in 1904, 
The records and lodge hall were destroyed Decem- 
ber 24, 1909. The present officers are Don E. So- 
Relle, W. M.; W. C. Roaten, S, W.; F. VV. Hunter, 
J. W., and P C. Horn, secretary. 

Many Camp No, 171 W. 0. V\^ was organized 
inl903, with Don E, SoRelle, C. C, and John H. 
Boone, clerk. The camp has about 63 members. 
W. G Caldwell is C. C. and J. H. Boone, clerk. 

St, John's Branch No. 912 Catholic Knights of 
America was organized .luly 5, 1903, with Leo 
Vandegaer, president, anfl F. B. Blake, recording 
secretary. The following have served as presi- 
dent of the branch: Leo Vandegaer, J. R. Buveus, 
Rev. Q. Vanderburg, C. W. Leary John Blake and 
C. J. Hubley. Rev, A. Anseeuw was the first chap- 
lain. The present officers are: Rev. Q. Vander- 
burg, chapain; J. G. Belisle, president; Louis Da- 
vis, vice president; Dan Vandegaer, Jr., recording 
secretary; A, S. Clanan, financial secretary; J. J, 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 247 

Blake, treasurer; F. N. Buvens, sentinel; W. R. 
Robinson, escort; Leo Clanan, guard. 



PLBASAJSfT HILL. 

The above is the charter name of one of 
the most substantial of the small towns of 
Sabine parish. The original town of that 
name was across the boundary of DeSoto 
parish, but near the line of DeSoto and 
Sabine. It was settled somewhere about 
1840, and one tradition is to the effect that 
the first settlers hailed from a certain Pleas- 
ant Valley, in Alabama, and reyived 
old memories, as far as possible in their 
new surroundings, by naming their new 
home Pleasant Hill. It was here the noted 
battle of Pleasant Hill was fought during 
the Civil "War. This was a bloody and 
strongly contested battle between the Con- 
federates under General Dick Taylor and 
the Federals under General N. P. Banks. 
The Confederates, flushed with victory at 
Mansfield the previous day, were here con- 
fronted by Banks' army, reinforced and 
greatly strengthened by a division of har- 
dened troops under the veteran general, A. 
J. Smith. The result was one of the stern- 
est and bloodiest small battles of the Civil 
War. Not so very small, either, as Banks' 
army was supposed to number 40,000 men ; 
and Taylor's army, though smaller, was 
somewhat in proportion to its opponent. 



248 TOWNS Am VILLAGES 

One of the most stirring scenes of that batr 
tie, doubtless, was the charge of Tom 
Greene's Texas cavalry across the old race 
track field, their surprise and sudden re- 
pulse by Federal infantry concealed in the 
woods beyond ; and the second and more 
determined charge of the same cavalry, 
then dismounted, over the same ground, 
then strewn with dead men and horses; 
which last desperate effort was successful, 
though with heavy loss, while theii- oppo- 
nents paid for their temerity with the loss 
of half their commands. These events be- 
long to a former generation, and we con- 
clude reference to them with the following 
extract from a poem written in commemo- 
ration of one of the many gallant Louisi- 
anians who lost their lives among those 
then unpleasant hills, amid the forest flow- 
ers of that fateful spring : 

"No sounds but sounds of peace arouse 

The echoes of the forest now; 
The vales are furrowed by the plow, 

Upon the hills sleek cattle browse. 

The dogwood still, each spring, appears 
Clad as in spirit robes, with smiles 

Of snowy radiance lights the aisles 
Of pine, then drops its flowers like tears ' ' 

With the building of the Texas and Pa- 
cific railroad, in 1882, Pleasant Hill per- 
formed the unusual feat (for a town) of 
shifting its base and making Sabine, in- 
stead of DeSoto, its domicile from that 
time. Since moving to its new location it 



TOWNS AJ^D VILLAGES 249 

has enjoyed a steady and healthy growth. 
(The raih'oad station is called Sodus). 
While its population of less that 1,000 still 
makes it, strictly speaking, a Tillage instead 
of a town, it has sereral mercantile houses, 
a couple of banks, several nice churches, a 
promising high school, called, for courtesy, 
a college, recently installed in a new and 
magnificent brick college building; a cot- 
ton gin, and is surrounded by a good agri- 
cultural country that is being developed by 
some of the most progressive farmers in 
West Louisiana. On the reorganization of 
Pleasant Hill in Sabine parish, its first 
mayor was H. S. Kennedy, now deceased; 
a citizen, by the way, who is worthy of 
mere than passing notice.* The charter is 
dated February 28, 1893, when H. S. Ken- 
nedy was mayor, H. Youngblood, H. H. 
Kenndy, R. L. Armstrong, Jr., W. C. Da- 
vis and S. E. Galloway councilmen, and H, 
H. Parker, marshal. In 1894, S. E. Gal- 
loway was mayor, and H. L. Davis, R. L. 
Armstrong, Jr., J. M. Fuller, N. W. Par- 
ker, councilmen and H. H. Parker, mar- 
shal, J. M. Fuller was mayor in 1895 and 
W. B. Adkins in 1898. In 1904, George S. 
List was mayor and J. P. Edmondsou, 
clerk. In 1906, J. J, Browne was mayor 
and G. W. Browne, clerk, W. B. Adkins 
is the present mayor, having seryed since 

♦See "Biographical Sketches." 



250 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

1909, Frank H. Taryer, clerk, and other 
members of the council are T. W. Hardy, 
G. F. Keene and A, A. Hammond. W. H. 
Bartlett is marshal. 

The territory which furnishes trade for 
the merchants of Pleasant Hill embraces 
portions of Natchitoches, Sabine and De- 
Soto parishes and a large annual business 
is transacted, 

The Bank of Pleasant Hill was organ- 
ized in 1904, with a capital of $10,000. 
The directors are H. H. Kennedy, J. J. 
Browne, T. W. Hardee, P. M. Gaddis, S, 
Y, Jordan, J. W- Ramsey and W. B. Ad- 
kins. H. H. Kennedy is president and 
Frank H. Tarver, cashier. This bank has 
been very prosperous and besides paying 
good dividends to its stockholders, has 
earned and added to its resources a surplus 
of $11,000. It occupies a substantial brick 
building, and the equipment is fully in 
keeping with modern banking methods. 
The officers are .capable and courteous and 
are always anxious to serve their patrons 
with the accommodations customarily 
accorded by similar financial institutions. 
Frank H. Tarver, the popular cashier, is a 
a competent business man. He is a native 
of Bienville parish, acquired his education 
in the schools of that parish and came to 
Pleasant Hill in 1897 to take his present 
position. 



TOWJVS AJ^D VILLAGES 251 

The Citizens' Bank of Pleasant Hill was 
organized about four years ago with a cap- 
ital of $15,000, A, A. Hammond, a prom- 
inent and substantial business man, is pres- 
ident. The bank owns a neat brick build- 
ing which, with the fixtures, is valued at 
$5,000. C, E, Smith is the efficient book- 
keeper and acting cashier. 

One of the largest mercantile establish- 
ments in the town is that of T, "W- Hardee 
and P. M, G-addis, the style of the firm be- 
ing Hardee & G-addis. They entered busi- 
ness in 1907. Mr. Hardee is a native of 
of Alabama, while Mr. Graddis was born 
and reared in Sabine parish. Both are 
young men and acquired their education at 
the old Fort Jesup high school. They are 
wide-awake business men and as citizens 
are in line with every progressive movement 
in their town and parish. 

S. V. Jordan conducts an up-to-date 
mercantile house, and enjoys a good trade. 
He was born and reared in the Pleasant 
Hill community. Capt. J. T. Jordan, who 
served in the 12th Louisiana Infantry dur- 
ing the Civil War, was his father, and John 
Jordan, one of the first settlers of this sec- 
tion and who owned stores and land in De- 
Soto and Sabine parishes, was his grand- 
father. He was born December 23, 1866, 
and received his education at Old Pleasant 
Hill. For fourteen years he followed 



252 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

railroad work, spending several years as 
station agent in his home town, resigning 
that position about six years ago to enter 
the mercantile business. In 1906, Mr. 
Jordan married Miss Anna Davis, daugh- 
ter of H, J, Davis, a pioneer settler in the 
community. 

The Sodus Mercantile Co., Ltd., was or- 
ganized in August, 1910. This corpora- 
tion is composed of B. F. Ramsey, presi- 
dent ; E.. W. Lafitte, vice president, and 
J. A. Lafitte, All are young men. They 
were born and reared in DeSoto parish, 
where they acquired their education in the 
public schools and were engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits until they began their 
present business. This firm carries an im- 
mense stock of general merchandise and 
by their courtesy and splendid business 
methods have built up a good trade. 

The Mutual Mercantile Co., Ltd., has a 
large store and carries everything in 
general merchandise and does an immense 
business. This company began business in 
1910, the corporation being composed of 
Dr. J, C, Armstrong, president; H. H. 
Kennedy, vice president, and F. H, Tar- 
ver. S. C. Q-laspie, a competent business 
man, is the store manager. He was born 
and reared at Marthaville, where he attended 
the public schools, and acquired his knowl- 
edge of the mercantile business in the store 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 253 

of Eobinson & Kennedy. He has efficient 
assistants in the Mutual Mercantile Co.'s 
store In the persons D, L. and T. L. Dykes, 
who are proud to claim Sabine parish as 
the place of their nativity. 

J. M, Bridges, who is also interested in 
other enterprises, conducts a mercantile 
business in Pleasant Hill. T. A. Rains is 
tke courteous and genial salesman for this 
■tore ; he was born and reared in Sabine 
and his ancestors were among the pioneers 
of the parish. 

Jehu Q-raham runs a mercantile business 
here which was started in 1904, Mr. Gra- 
ham is also justice of the peace for his 
ward and during his life has taken a prom- 
inent part in the public affairs of the par- 
ish. He was born near Many, December 
25, 1840 (George W. Graham being his 
father). The family moved to Arkansas 
in his early life, but Jehu Graham later re- 
moved to Rapides parish and finally re- 
turned to Sabine after the war and was en- 
gaged in farming until he embarked in his 
present business. He served several years 
as a member of the Police Jury and was 
president of that body when the present 
jatl and court house were constructed. 
IgAmong the citizens who have taken an 
active part in the business life of the town, 
James B. Brown deserves mention. He 
has been identified with the lumber Indus- 



254 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

try of this section for thirty years, was the 
promoter of the Roberts - Brown Lumber 
Co., and is now interested in a mill in 
"Webster parish. Mr, Brown has been also 
engaged in farming and mercantile pur- 
suits. He was married in 1889 to Miss 
Lula Kennedy, and they have a pretty 
home and interesting family. 

One of the two recognized high schools of Sab- 
ine parish is located at Pleasant Hill. The erec- 
tion of a large modern school building has just 
been completed, which shows that the people are 
determined to keep awake in the matter of educa- 
tion. The faculty for 1912-13 was as follows: 
Pfof, J. C Whitescarver; principal; Miss Kathleen 
Moore, assistant; Miss Alice Petty, 6th and 7th 
grades; Miss Hattie Champion, 4th and 5th 
grades; Miss Verrie Ross, 2nd and 3rd grades; 
Miss Gertrude Waller, primary; Miss Margaret 
McGee, music and art. Prof. Whitescarver is au 
educator of splendid ability. He is a native of 
Missouri and a graduate of the University of Ne- 
braska. He has been instructor in the schools of 
four states and at the Meridian University. 

The physicians of Pleasant Hill are Drs. Mum- 
ford and Armstrong. 

Pleasant Hill Lodge No, 230 F. & A. M, was or- 
ganized at Old Pleasant Hill after the war, and 
was moved to the new town in the '80s. The 
present ofl3cers are P, M. Gaddis, W. M.; L. T. 
Dykes, S. W.; I. W. Jennings, J. W.; Jehu Gra- 
ham; treasurer; F. H. Tarver, secretary. 

The Texas and Pacific railroad maintains a lo- 
cal division at Pleasant Hill and the road does a 
large business at this point. 

Among the prominent farmers of the vicinity 



TOWJVS AJ^D VILLAGES 255 

are J. A.. Cranford,M.T.Bostick, Isaac Rains, James 
McFerren, A. D. Ashby, L. A. Horn, F. P. Cobbs, 
Robert James, L. S. McLeroy, Will Grantham, J. 
J. Fike, J. Grantham, C. J. Gaddis, Dan Phillips, 
D. E. Stephens, T, S. Ponder, J. C. Phillips, Henry 
Free and S. M. Bostick, many of whom have the 
convenience of free rural mail delivery. 



JSlOBL,E. 

Noble is a progressive little town on the 
Kansas City Southern railroad seven- 
teen miles north of Many, between Bayou 
San Patricio and Bayou San Miguel. It 
is surrounded by a fertile farming country 
of the sandy and alluvial soils which 
are especially adapted to trucking? as well 
as the production of the staple crops, A 
goodly number of thrifty farmers have 
homes there and among them some of the 
best citizens of the parish. The settle- 
ment of this section dates back to the '30s, 
but among the oldest of the English-speak- 
ing pioneers were the following: C, P. 
and Robert McDonald, Andrew Aaron, H. 
Litton, R. A.jRembert, Rev. J. B. Moore, 
Alfred Lout, John Jacobs (who lived at 
Brown's Bluff), The main road through 
that section ran from Grand Ecore via 
Pleasant Hill to Myrick's Perry, on Sabine 
River. San Patricio was the first postoffice 
in this section and Rev. J. B. Moore or- 
ganized the church (Baptist) there. The 
country was a wilderness, broken by a few 
farms, until the early '80s, when settlers 
began to come in, several hailing from De- 
Soto parish. At that time there were no 
ichools, Rev. J. M. Franklin, a Metho- 
dist preacher, held services once a month, 



256 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

and preachers of other denomiaations, oc- 
casionally, at a place known as the Four 
Dogwoods, on the road running from L. 
Riddiek's Store to Pleasant Hill. The 
meetings were held under a brush arbor. 
The four dogwoods were noted as a great 
deer stand. Hunters would go into the 
immense wildwoods between Bayous San 
Patricio and San Miguel with their dogs 
and would drive out the deer which would 
run across the ridge where stood four good- 
sized dogwood trees. Many of the settler* 
here during the '80s purchased their lands 
from W. H. Jack, and secured a deed to 
land on which to build a church, and a 
small box house was constructed im which 
both the Baptist and Methodist denomina- 
tions worshipped for several years. Talk 
of a railroad building through the country 
was first started in 1888, and created in- 
tense excitement, Some of the old citizens 
who had never seen a railway argued that 
it would be impossible to build such a road 
through the forests and hills of that local- 
ity. The early school was at Hicks' Camp, 
among the first teachers being B. Godfrey 
and A. Hubier. The to'^-n of Noble was 
started in 1896, when the K. C. S. railroad 
was completed through the parish, and the 
people who thought the building of the 
road an impossibility haye found it a great 
blessing. The timber industry has been 
developed by the Trigg aud the Prost- 
Johnson Lumber companies, and Noble 
has developed into a thifty little town, 
with a progressive, hospitable citizenship, 
and when more good farmers come there 
to help work the idle lands it will be one 



TOWJVS AKD VILLAGES 257 

of the wealthiest sections of Sabine parish. 
The town was chartered in March, 1905, when 
J.P.Youngblood was mayor. He was succeeded by 
John Tri2,'g who served until 1907, when A, Dean 
was elected, In 1909 W. C. Lay was mayor and 
in 1911 C. C. Sulhvan, the present incumbent, was 
elected to the position. The following citizens 
have seryed as councilmen: 0. A. Robinett, W. C. 
Lay, A, A.' Rodgers, J. B. Bicklay, J. T, Ballard, 
A. bean, J. H. Adger, W. W. Wynne and F. Mc- 
Williams. The following have served as marshal: 
Joe Barkman, Ba}ley Lout, Gene Barr, Walter 
Forest, «J. C Sullivan, i G. Brown, J. W. Robin- 
ette and F. M. Jacobs. C. W. Batton is the occu- 
pant of that position at this time. 

The first postmaster was Newton Lewis, but the 
office was discontinued and was not re-established 
until 1899 when W. W. Wynne was appointed. 
Mr. Wynne came from Mansfield and bought 
twenty-two acres of land on which a large portion 
of ihr^ towr, IS I'Tpn.toi HTii dividprj it into town 
lota. He btiii uccupiBS tho posicion of posLmatiter 
and has always taken an active interest in the de- 
velopment of the town. 

The R. L. Trigg Lumber Co., began the erection 
of a mill here in 1899. The interests of this com- 
pany Were subsequently transferred to the Noble 
Lumber Co., who in turn sold to the Frost-John- 
son Lumber Co. The latter company now oper- 
ates a well equipped mill with a daily sawing ca- 
pacity of 75,000 feet of lumber, and a planer with 
ample capacity to handle the output of the mill. 
The company also maintains a large general store 
which has a good patronage from the people of 
surrounding country as well as its employees. 
The efficient directors of the company's busmess 
are S. H. Adger, mill superintendent; W. L. Tom- 
ling, planer foreman, W. C, Lay, mill foreman; C. 
C. Hattaway, commissary manager; E. D. Trigg, 
bookkeeper. 

The Bank of Noble was organized October 6, 
1909, with a capital of $10,000. The officers and 



258 TOWJVS AJVD VILLAGES 

directors were as follows: Dr. S. E. Prince, presi- 
dent- J. E. Graham, vice president; E. D. Trig^. 
cashier; W, H. Vandegaer, Frank Hunter, J. G. 
Long, S. M. Lord, John R. Parrott, Perry Castle, 
Dr T. J. Tribble, A. J. Biirkett and G. R. Aaron. 
Several months after the organization of the bank 
Mr. Trigg resigned and J. G. Long served as cash- 
ier until 191 2, when D. B. Wardlow assumed the 
position. This bank' is one of the most prosper- 
ous financial institutions in the parish. It has 
paid in dividends 50 per cent of the amount of its 
capital stock and has surplus and undivided 
profits amounting to $3,500. The officers are 
courteous gentlemen who have great faith in the 
future of that section and are always ready to 
lend encouragement Co worthy enterprises and 
their patrons and friends, 

J. E. Graham conducts a large mercantile busi- 
ness here, and has been identified with the busi- 
ness life of Noble nearly from its beginning. He 
has always taken a vital interest in the industrial 
progress of that section, and made special efforts 
to encourage truck farming. He has handled the 
farmers' Irish potato crop for several years, 36 
cars being shipped from JSoble in a single season. 
He is a courteous merchant and good citizen. 

Bell & Payne are prosperous merchants here, 
The firm is composed of Leo Bell and R. V. Payne 
who have been in business four years, succeeding 
R. P. Bell (father of Leo) who opened the first 
mercantile house in Noble. Both are young men 
of splendid business ability, carry an immense 
stock of goods and enjoy a fine trade, 

S. L. Bison is another young merchant of Noble, 
beginning business here in 1906. His parents 
were Joe and Mary Biton, old settlers of this sec- 
tion. He is courteous to his customers, and while 
his stock is not large, he has a good patronage. 

Other mercantile establishments are conducted 
by E, E. Latham and Mc Williams & Malloy. Bell 
Bros, are the accommodating proprietors of the 
livery barn. The cotton gin is owned by Pugh 
& Lord, and the fact that 1500 bales of cotton 
has come to Noble in a season is suflScient evidence 



TOWJ^S AXD VILLAGES 259 

that they do good business. They also have a 
mill for grinding corn meal. 

J, A. Raimond is the efficient justice of the peace 
and a notary here. He is also proprietor of the 
Raimond Hotel, which caters to the needs of the 
traveling public, and is also the owner of an up- 
to-date barber shop. Mr. Raimond was born and 
reared in this community, his father being W. J. 
Raimond, an old tettler. He spent his life on a 
farm. He also served several years as deputy 
sheriff. He is a progressive citizen and is a boos- 
ter for the Noble community all the time. 

F. M. Jacobs, proprietor of the Jacobs Hotel, 
was born and reared in this section of the parish. 
His father, John Jacobs, was a well-known pio- 
neer, and his wife was Miss Aaron, daughter of A. 
J. Aaron, who was also an old settler. Besides 
the hotel business, he owns a good farm on San 
Miguel, 

Noble has a splendid graded school, Prof. G. A. 
Oioiu, an odacntor nf splendid ability, being the 
present principal. The progressive people have 
proviaed a large building which is located in one 
of the prettiest sections of the town. A splendid 
corps of teachers have charge of the school and 
students are assured the best instruction that 
it is possible to give. 

The Masonic Lodge at Noble was organized in 
1907. The following have served as Worshipful 
Masters: James R. Robinett, A Dean, Dr. S. E. 
Prince and Charles Robinett, C. C. Hathaway is 
the present master. 

Elm Camp No. 112, Woodmen of the World, is 
aloo a prosperous fraternal society here. 

The Baptist and Methodist denominations have 
houses of worship at Noble. Rev. J, C. Rousseaux 
is pastor of the Methodist c'^urch, while Rev. J, G. 
Mason is pastor of the Baptist congregation. 

A favorite resort of this section is the well of hot 
salt water just west of town. This well was de- 
veloped by the Long-Bell Lumber Co wkile pros- 
pecting for oil. A bath house has been provided 
at the well and many visitors go there, as the wa- 



260 TOWJVS AJVn VILLAGES 

ter is reputed to possess splendid medicinal value. 
Some of the prominent farmers of the Noble 
community are Bailey Lout, J. Vines, J, M. Kue- 
sell, John L. Latham, J. E, Lvnch, C. A. Wall, J. 
W. Moore.M. W. Henderson, W. M. Barton, T, F. 
Aaron. 



Zwolle is a live and growing town situ- 
ated twelve miles northwest of Many on the 
K, C. S. Ry. It was established in 1896 
and was named for a daughter of an of&cial 
of the railroad, Zwolle has always been 
one of the best sawmill towns of the par- 
ish and in recent years has enjoyed a rapid 
and substantial growth, both as a com - 
mercial center and and a place of residence. 
The town was incorporated in 1901 in 
order to furnish the needed municipal gov- 
ernment. No town can boast of a more 
hospitable and progressive citizenship nor 
better society. The people have just com- 
pleted a large modern brick public school 
building and that institutien will be made 
a high school, The Baptist, Methodist 
and Catholic denominations have neat 
houses of worship, and the Masons and 
other fraternal societies have lodges here. 
Electric lights, waterworks and an ice fac- 
tory are also among the conveniences of 
the town. Several large business houses 
are located here and have a large trade. 
Zwolle is surrounded by a country rich in 
agricultural possibilities, being especially 
adapted to truck growing and fruit raising, 
and the development of these industries is 
going gradually ahead. During the past 
few years the town has supported a Pro- 



TOWJVS AMD VILLAGES 261 

gressive League which has accomplished a 
great deal in the way of advertising the re- 
sources of that section. The leading in- 
dustries are the Sabine Lumber Company 
and the Progressive Lumber Company, the 
latter being a hardwood enterprise. Both 
companies employ a large number of men 
and furnish the town with good payrolls, 

The Bank of Zwolle was chartered in 1905 and 
reorganized in 1906 with the following board of 
directors: J. W. Reynolds, J. P. Towery, Frank 
Hunter, T. Laroax, A, S. Keel en and S. H. Porter. 
The capital stock is $25,000, It is one of the 
most substantial financial institutions in the 
parish and has enjoyed merited prosperity. The 
bank owns a neat brick building which is 
equipped with all necessary furniture and fixtures. 
It num"bprs among its stockholders some of the 
most substantial citizens of this and other sec- 
tions. The present officers are: J, P. Towery, 
president; S. H, Porter and A. S. Keelen, vice 
presidents; R. L. Gay, cashier; W, C. Webb, as- 
sistant cashier' 

The Sabme Lumbar Co. conducts an immense 
store here and does a large business, probably no 
other establishment in the parish enjoying a 
greater trade, 

Carroll & Stephens is a [)rogre3sive firm doing a 
general merchandise business. They are clever 
gentlemen and do a fine business. For several 
years Mr. S. L, Carroll, the senior member of the 
firm, was the » fficieat office deputy in the sheriff's 
office at Many, and previous to that time had 
been engaged in mercantile pursuits. 

A. S. Keelen is proprietor of the Pelican Drug 
Store. He has been a resident of Zwolle since the 
early days of the town, has held several public po- 
sitions aiid has been prominently fdentified with 
its growth and best interests. 

F. C. Mitchell i^ manager of the drug store of 
Peterson, Mitchell & Co., and also the popular 
postmaster. H is a splendid business man and a 



262 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

progressive citizen. Mr. Mitchell was born and 
reared in Sabine and began his business career in 
Many with the Dillon Drug Co. 

(Jther prominent merchants of Zwolle are S. H. 
Porter, Dover & Dover, Mrs. H. S. Mejers, M. J. 
Coolly and G. T. Brown. 

The Arlington Hotel, the leading hostelry, ia 
conducted by Mrs. Gaul. Tt is most pleasantly 
located, affords fine accommodations and is very 
popular with the traveling public. 

R. H. Mitchell conducts an up-to-date restau- 
rant and has a good patronage. He has spent 
many years in the restaurant and hotel business 
and knows how to serve his patrons. 

Zwolle has a rural free delivery route, among 
the patrons being W, J. Aten, J, B. Adair, J. J. 
Bains, H. H. Thomas, John Middleton, W. L. Dai- 
ley, B. W. Barr, John R. Parrott, S, T. Quarles, 
W. M, Aten, Jonn Tyler, Asa "Vines, P. V. Webb, 
J. 0. Wiley, T. F. Wiley, \V. C. Mains, T. 0. Phil- 
lips and D. A. Moses. 

The physicians of Zwolle are Dr. R. L. Parrott, 
Dr. M. Boring, Dr, R. I. Vines, Dr. T. M. Tramel 
and Dr. L. Vines. Dr. C. C. Woods is the dentist. 



FISHBR. 

Fisher is one of the most important saw- 
mill towns on the Kansas City Southern 
Railway, and is not only an excellent 
model of towns of that class, but is an ex- 
ample of thrift and systematic progress 
that any small city might profitably imi- 
tate. Fisher furnished Sabine parish with 
the first large sawmill plant and has per- 
haps done more for the prosperity of the 
people than any other other institution. The 
town is owned by the Louisiana Long 
Leaf Lumber Company, of which 0. W. 
Fisher is president, and W. W. Warren 
general superintendent. The company 



lOWNS AND VILLAGES 263 

began clearing the timber for the townsite 
in July, 1899 and in March, 1901, the mill 
was ready for operation. Besides the im- 
mense mill which turns out annually mil- 
lions of feet of pine lumber, a large mill 
was later erected for manufacturing hard- 
wood products. Large planing mills con- 
vert the products of these plants into the 
finest finished lumber. In addition to 
these industries the company operates a 
modern machine shop and over fifty miles 
of railroad. This road, the Victoria, 
Fisher and Western, connects Fisher with 
Victoria, where the company operates an- 
other modern plant. The town of Fisher 
was laid out with a view of making some- 
thing more substantial than the ordinary 
sawmill town. The townsite is among the 
prettiest in Sabine parish and was platted 
with uniform streets and avenues. Splen- 
did homes have been built for the employ- 
ees, and in numerous instances furnished 
with all conveniences of a city, including 
electric lights and waterworks. The rela- 
tions between the company and its em- 
ployees are the most amicable imaginable 
— karmony of interests is manifest in every 
department, which speaks well for a cor- 
poration that employs a thousand men. 
The town has a splendid public school for 
the benefit of children of employees, and 
religious services by different denomina- 
tions are held at stated periods. 

The town is noted for its orderly 
citizenship, and its society is as good as 
can be found anywhere, Although Fisher 
is a remarkably healthy town, the com- 



264 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

pany employs two capable physicians to 
supply the medical needs of its employees, 
and has completed at no little coat a neat 
and commodious building to be used as a 
sanitarium, for the convenience of those 
who may be in need of the services of such 
an institution, and it will be conducted 
along modern lines. An immense mer- 
cantile establishment is maintained as the 
supply store for the town, but it also has a 
large trade with the people of the sur- 
rounding country. Besides the staple sup- 
plies, the store furnishes the people with 
nearly every luxury which a city store or 
market could offer. Fisher is an open 
market for the farmer, and the rural citi- 
zens of that section find a ready and profit- 
able sale for their products. The com- 
pany contemplates the erection of a model 
store building in the near future in order to 
provide better facilities for its increasing 
trade. The structure will be of concrete, 
85x120 feet, the architecture of old colon- 
ial stvle, and the estimated cost between 
$15,000 and $20,000. The aim is to build 
one of the largest and most up-to-date 
commissaries in the state. The present 
structure will be occupied by the Young 
Men's Christian Association. 

The company owns many thousand acres 
of land in S.abine parish and has sufficient 
timber to run its mill for twenty or more 
years. They have never offered their 
"cut-over" lands for general sale, but have 
sold such lands to seyeral farmers for bom ah 
at reasonable prices, Miss Leona LaCuer 
is the capable postmistress at Fisher. 



TOWMS AMD VILLAGES 265 

W. W. Warren, the company's g:eneral superin- 
tendent, was born May 11, 1876, at Lincoln, Il- 
linois, moved to Thayer, Nebraska, in 1883, and 
in 1893 began learning the lumber business at a 
wholesale office in Omaha, Nebraska. Two years 
later he entered the employ ol the Missouri Lum- 
ber and Mining Company at Grandin, Missouri, 
remaining there until he came to Sabine parish in 
June, 1899. As superintendent of "4L" company 
he has commanded the esteem of the employees as 
well as everyone with whom he has business rela- 
tions. He is not interested solely in removing the 
timber wealth from the parish, but desires the 
country developed and has never declined to give 
moral and financial aid to any enterprise for the 
public good. He is considerate of the interests of 
his employes, regardless of the grade of their po- 
sition, and labors unceasingly to make Fisher an 
ideal town. 

The men who help to direct the affairs of this 
company at Fisher are as follows: P. A, Bloomer, 
assistant general manager; J, H. Vanlanding- 
ham, general sales agent; C, L, Krieger, book- 
keeper; F, C. Wheeler, cashier; H. W. Gardner, 
mill superintendent; E. W. Mitchell, foreman pine 
mill; S. E. Clark, foreman hardwood mill; W. J, 
Williams,, foreman planer No. 1; W. M. Kilborn, 
foreman planer No. 2; Perry Frost, chief engineer; 
T. J. Bunch, assistant; E. W. Lawson, engineer at 
hardwood mill; S. D. Anderson and M. J. Dibble, 
filers; J. N. Graham, engineer at pine mill; Eugene 
Lumpkin and Ira Thorla, sawyers; C. C, Stod- 
dard and Charles Suddles, filers. At machine 
shops — Frank Ruff, Sr., master mechanic; Leon 
Mitchell, machinist; Charles Hughes, assistant; 
Charles Coarser, blacksmith; K. A. Brown and 
Sydney Hendricks, car repairers. Fred McGee is 
woods superintendent and trainmaster; Tim 
Liddy, woods foreman. C. C. Carletonis surveyor 
and looks after the land and timber interests of 
the company. R A. Brown, of the car shops, 
has served the company longer than any other 
man now in the employ of the company, having 
begun work in 1900. He is general utility man 
and booster for local functions and always^ ready 



266 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

to give assistance where it is needed in tiie town. 

A. R. Brian is the genial and capable manager 
of the company's mercantile department. He has 
as his assistant S. Bragdon. A corps of fourteen 
courteous clerks also assist m transacting the 
business of this large establishment. Mr. Brian 
was born and reared in Claiborne parish and has 
been engaged in mercantile pursuits all his life. 
He entered the employ of this company as a clerk 
in 1901, and after a service of eighteen months 
was promoted to manager. He was married in 
1904 to Miss Valley Seever, the estiimable daugh- 
ter of Dr. J. M. Seever, and they have a pretty 
home at Fisher. 

H. E. Ellis is the popular manager of the Fisher 
Hotel, the principal hotel of the town. He came 
to Fisher in 1900 from Cape Girardeau, Mo., and 
is an experienced hotel-keeper as well as a courte- 
ous gentleman. The Fisher hotel is pleasantly 
situated and the manager takes pleasure in cater- 
ing to those who seek the best accommodations. 

Dr. T. B. Younger is the company's capable 
physician and is assisted by Dr, C, M. Petty. 

Fisher Camp W. 0. W. was organized in 1900 
with H, E. EUia, C. C. The charter was surren- 
dered, but was reorganized in 1900 and is now a 
proseprous camp with sixty members. The officers 
are R. A. Brown, C. C; William Kiince, clerk; w. 
J, Williams, banker; I. J. Prince, vice lieutenant; 
Lee Prmce, conductor; Ira Thorla, watchman; 
Emmett Peterson, inside sentinel; W. J. Williams, 
Dr. T. B. Younger and William Kunce, managers. 

Fisher Lodge No. 128 1. 0. 0. F. was instituted 
by Grand Master E. L. Dick, Sept. 14, 1907, with 
the following as charter members: R. I. Turner, 
Joe Dover, 1. L. Frazier, Tim Liddy, J. A. Goss, 
Dr. T. B. Younger and D. F. Turner, The first 
officers were: R. I. Turner, Noble Grand; J, D. 
Darby, vice grand; H. R. Crumpecker, secretary, 
and T, B. Younger, treasurer. Since the organiz- 
ation of this lodge the following have passed 
through the chair and are past grands of this 
lodge: James D. Darby, Dr. T B, Younger, C. C. 
Carlton, T. R. Malin, W. P. Hicks, William G. Kil- 



TOWJfS AKB VILLAGES 267 

born and B, H, Berry. The officers for the last 
half of the year 1913 are B. H. Berry, N. G.; Ira 
Thorla. V. G.; William G. Kilborn, secretary; J. W. 
Kunce, treasurer. The lodge has had a steady 
growth from the start •ind at present has a mem- 
bership of sixty-one in good standing. 

Sabine Encampment No. 31 I. 0. 0. F. was in- 
stituted Dy Grand Chief Patriarch J, F. Dennisoh 
on May 21, 1912, with W. P. Hicks, Dr. T. B. 
Younger, C. C. Carlton, T. R. Malin, Frank Ruff 
and William G. Kilb prn charter members. At the 
time of organizing the following officers were 
elected: W. P. Hicks, chief patriarch; Dr. T. B. 
Younger, senior warden; C. C. Carlton, junior war- 
den ; Frank Ruff, high priest; T. R. Malin, scribe, 
and William G. Kilborn, treasurer. Since that 
time, Dr. T. B. Younger and William G. Kilborn 
hare passed through the chairs and are past chief 
patriarcns of the order. The offcers eleated for 
the last half of the year 1913 are J. W. Kunce, 
0. P,; P. J. Palmer, S. W.; Frank Ruff, J. W.; 
James Aiken, high priest; T. B. Younger, scribe; 
Ira Thorla, treasurer. While this branch of the 
order has as yet a small membei ship, it is stead- 
ily growing. 



CONVERSE. 

This is the most northern town in Sab- 
ine parish on the K, C. S. R'y. It was 
named for Col. James Converse, who owned 
a large tract of land in that ricinity, in- 
cluding the townsite. The town was 
started after the railroad was built (1906), 
Dr, Q-. M. Mott and Wilt Morj?an erecting 
the first business house. Conrerse is sur- 
rounded by a fine farming country, and 
a large amount of cotton is ginned and 
marketed there every year. Rural tele- 
phone lines, owned by independent com- 
panies composed of citizens, connect Con- 
verse with the surrounding country, and a 
bank is soon to be established there. That 



268 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

section of Sabine is the first to vote a spec- 
ial tax to aid in the construction of a model 
road and the road will be bnilt soon. The 
people are progressive and are determined 
to develop their country. Converse has 
a good school, a church, several stores and 
a cotton gin. It is the chief trading and 
shipping point for a large territory. 

The principal business houses are conducted hv 
G. I. Paul, Tatum Bros. (N, R. and Dr. W. E.), A. 
J. Burkett, W, D. Gates, W. F. LedfoH, J. G. 
Burkett. The gin is owned by Jackson Bros, (C. 
L. and J. M.), 

The resident physicians are Dr. W. G. Allen, 
who was reared in this community, and Dr. E. K, 
Harris, a native o) Claiborne parish. 

Mrs. Ruthie Kay is the efficient postmistress. 

Among the prominent citizens and farmers of 
Converse are Burea Lout, J. W. Latham, W. M. 
Bolton, H. J., C. P. and Lee McDonald, J.M. Paul, 
Jal Ra;ymond, L. B. Farmer, C, C. Bazemore, R. 
G. Bossier. M. V. Flores, Henry Tatum, W. H. 
McPhearson, C. E. Pugh, S, A. Spillyards, R. S. 
Heard. 



This flourishing little town is located on 
the K. C. S. R'y, twelve miles south of 
Many. It was started in the latter part o£ 
the '90s and was named for Mr. Florien 
Q-iauque. Florien is surrounded by a fine 
agricultural country and is an important 
shipping and trading point. The town has 
a fine school, church and fraternal socie- 
ties, and several live business houses. 

The postofBce was established in 1908 with 
Willie Hall postmaster, Since that time the office 
has been held by A. J. Mahein, James M. Leach, 
W. G. Leach and D. S. Leach, the latter being the 
present postmaster. 

Joe Dover, a leading merchant, began business 
here in 1907. He is native of Germany. In 1902 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 269 

he came fromTensaa parish to Many where he was 
associated with his brother, A. Dover in business, 
and later was at Zwolle antil he located at Florien 
on his own account. He w is married in August, 
1911, to Miss Lizzie Williams of that place. Mr. 
Dover is a young man of good business ability, 
carries an immense stock of general merchandise 
and does a splendid business, 

Williams Bros, conduct a big mercantile busi- 
nefshere. The firm is composed of B. L. and S. 
K. Williams, and succeeded the firm of Corley & 
Williams which began ^usiueas there in 1907. 
They were born and reared in Sabine, are pro- 
gressive young business men, have an up-to-date 
mercantile establishment and a good patronage. 
They are always ready to give encouragement to 
every move to develop the resources of their 
country. 

A.C. Leach conducts a modern mercantile estab- 
lishment here and is assisted by his son, C. C. 
Leach. He is the oldest merchant in the town, 
having embarked in business here in 1897: He 
is a native of Alabama and on coming to Habine 
parish located in tho Middle Creek country and 
was engaged ic farming until he engaged in busi- 
ness at Florien. 

Newton F. Leach entered the mercantile business 
here in 1910. His parents were J. W." and Harah 
Leach who came to Sabine parish from Alabama 
in 1860 and settled in the Toro community- Mr. 
Leach was engaged in farming prior to his entry 
in mercantile pursuits. 

J. P, Simpson conducts a mercantile business 
here wiaich was commenced in 1906. He is a na- 
tive of Alabama, tbe oate ot his birth being Octo- 
ber 1, 1846. He came to this parish in 1883, lo- 
cating near Negreet where he engaged in farming 
which occupation he continued to follow until a 
few years a^o. 

Chance & Mahaffey, progressive young men op- 
erate a saw mill. Besides the product sawed for 
shipment, they supply the local lumber wants. 

The Wyatt Lumber Co. is erecting a large mod- 
ern mill south of Florien. This company has a 



270 TOWNS Am VILLAGES 

Prominent among the citizens and farmers of 
the community are H. D. Miller, I. H. Byrd, R. S. 
Gandy, George Z. Corley, Tom, Oonerly, J M. and 
L. F, Corley, T. M. Aldredge, M. W, Lockwood, E. 
A. Mothershed, James M, Leach, W, K. Holt, R. 
A. Sanders, M. V. Westbrook, J. L, McCormic, l\, 
R. Arrington, Walter Long, Dess Miller, Willie 
Miller, W. F. Salter, W. T. Cook, D. R. Price. Wil- 
son Pilcher, S, T, Salter, Asa Miller, L, W. Byrd, 
W. C. Vogel, A. R. Gentry, N, A. Miller, L, A. 
Pynes, M. M. Mahaffev, A. T. Arthur, W. C: l-ee, 
M. M. Leach, Dr. C, C. Conerly, J. M. Saadel, G. B. 
Arrington, J. D, Chance, 



PORT JTBSUJP. 

After Fort Jesup was abandoned as a 
military post it continued to be an impor- 
tant point. The surrounding country had 
been settled by a large number of progres- 
sive farmers, and in 1854 Surveyor Thomp- 
son made a plat of the town, title to, most 
of which had been acquired by Harris & 
Beck, who conducted a mercantile busi- 
ness there. Among the owners of lots at 
Fort Jesup in the '50s were M. B. Thomp- 
son, Mary Ann Cosgrove, Q-, H. Thomp- 
son, Chichester Chaplin, Susan Hart and 
G-. W. Small. Since that time a large 
number of people have owned real estate 
there, and the village and surrounding 
country numbers among its citizenship 
some of the leading people of Sabine par- 
ish. For many years Fort Jesup was the 
educational center of the parish and still 
has a good school as well as churches of 
the Baptist and Methodist denominations. 

The Masonic Lodge at Fort Jesup is one of the 
oldest m Louisiana. Sabine Lodge held its firsc 
meeting June 22, 1848, under dispensation from 
Louisiana Grand Lodge, and received its first 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 271 

charter, No, 11, January 16th, IStO, Jotin Ged}?e, 
R. W. Grand Master, Charter No. 75, dated 
March 4th, 1850, was issued to Sabine Lodge by 
the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, F, & A.. M., and 
charter No. 11 returned. In the year 1886, under 
the personal supervision of Rev. J. M. Franklin, 
Sabine Lodge founded a high scnool at Fort 
Jespp, and during its existence the lodge has edu- 
cated a number of children of deceased Master 
Masons, and has been liberal in her charities to 
those dependent on her protection. In 1899 the 
lodge celebrated its semi-centennial. Leslie Bar- 
bee, a life member, who was livintr at that time, 
was made a Mason in Sabine Lodge, initiated in 
1848, passed in 1849, raised in May, 1849, and 
had the distinction of filling all the stations in the 
lodge. The officers and members in 1899 were J. 
W. Tavlor, W. M.; T. J. Franklin, S. W; J. H. 
Caldwell, J. \V.; W. R. Alford. treasurer; J. A, 
Tramel, secretary; fj. M, Franklin, chaplain; Geo. 
R. Pattison, S. D.; J. L. Asbv, J. D,; F. V. Jack- 
son, tvjer, tJ. W. Arthur, tLeslie Barbee, fW. 0. 
Bates, tW. Y. Barnhill. fU, S. Beard.fA. S. Cassady, 
W, H, Cox, W. C. Cox,' A. W. Estes, fJ. R, Frank- 
lin, fJas- M. Gibbs, IE. W. Hamlin, A. A, Ham- 
mond. D, J, Horn. Harrv Houck, S. C. Flughes, 
Wm. F. Hyde, Wm. F. Jackscn, 0. W. Lilly, C. J, 
Law, fH. Manhein, J, M. Middleton. fW.S.Middle- 
ton, tJas. W. Mitchell, fWm. E. McNeely, fW. W. 
Moore, fJ, J. Mimes, I. (I OJen, P, M. Perkins, 
tWm. H. Peters, M. B. Petty, A. L. Ponder, J. C. 
Ryan, A. B. Rains, E, A. Snlter, J. M, Seever, Don 
E. SoRelle, tR. W. Stoker. J. B. Story, J. W. Tin- 
dall, T. M. Tramel, J. B. Wood and W, B, Wood. 
Honorary members: Robert H. Gage (dead), 
Curtis T, Hines (dead), L. E. Thomas and Rich- 
ard Lambert. The following mem bpr.« have served 
as Worshipful Master: J. B. Stoddard, K. J. Mc- 
Lemore, John L. Hamill, C. Beck. L. Barbee, J. C. 
Armstrong, R. A. Forbis, J. M. Franklin, J. H. 
Caldwell (living), G. Munson, T. rjpck. John Ken- 
nedy, C. Chaplin, A. w. Sullivan; S. Dove, J, W. 
Taylor (living), C. J. Law (livi'io:), A. B, Rains 
(living); W. G, Caldwell (living). Th'^ present of- 

tDeceased. 



272 TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

fleers of the lod^e are as follows: J. W". Taylor, 
W, M.; Chas. J. Law, S. W.; Marion Y. Petty. J. 
W.; W. R. Alford, treasurer; G. W. Lucius, secre- 
tary; W. G. Caldwell, S. D.; J. VV. Cutror, J. D,; F. 
V. Jackson, tyler. 

Clarence L. Hawkins conducts a merchandise 
business at Fort Jesup. Hio father was M. P. 
Hawkins, a pioneer of that section. He has held 
ward otflceii, tias taken a live interest in parish af- 
fairs, and is withal a progressive citizen. Miss- 
Carrie Hawkins has charge of the postofHce. 

George W. Lucius also conducts a merciintile 
business here. His father, yamuel G. Lucius, was 
an old settler in the western portion of the parish. 
Mr. Lucius is a good citizen and has always taken 
a lively interest in tne worK of advancement in his 
community. 

Among the prominent citizens of the commu- 
nity, many of whom are members of the oldest 
families in the pi rish, are: A. C. Stoker, W, M. 
Smith, Joe omith. Clyde Gibson, Henry Stoker, 
Riley Stoker, J. W. Beard, H. S. Varnell, R. E. 
Salter. J. \V. Taylor, Miles Parker, E. B. Lee, J. 
R. Stoker, W. U. Alford, A. .M. Salter, A. M. Miller, 
R. P. Tubb-i, J. L, Barbee, A. L. Landrum, W. H. 
Tyne.-). 



P)ELMONT. — This is oue (jf the thriving commu- 
nities of tlie parish. The postotf ce was started 
about 1879 with Dr. T. 11. Hardin postmaster. 
He w;is succeeded by L. A. Trailor. George W. 
Heard, the present postmaster, has had charge of 
the ofHce since 1892. Belmont has a Baptist 
church, which was organized in 1872; a good 
school, a .Masonic lodge, and two mercantile es- 
tablishments. G. W. Heard has conducted a busi- 
ness for many years. John E., Wm. F., and Joe 
P Skinner run a business there which was started 
in 1898 un ier the name of Skinner Bros. Many 
of th^ early settlers of the Belmont community 
came from Ijincoln and Union parishes, but in la- 
ter years a number of settlers came from Missis- 
sippi. Among the progressive citizens ot that 
section are the following: W. S. Haley, R. G. 



TOWJVS AMD VILLAGES 273 

Bozeman, E. T. Liader, T. F. Linder, J. L. Heard, 
J. E. Bullard, J. A. Armstrono;, G. L. Sebren, E. 
N. Halev, L. B. Horn, R. \V. Nesom, S. J. Kamsey, 
J. C. Wright, W. M. McFerren. J. A. Haley, W. W, 
Currie, Ben Skinner, J. P. Skinner, E. W. Tyler, 
D. J. Austin, C. H. Skinner, D. M. Currie, J. A. 
Salley, VV. F, Haley, L. VV. Salley. 

Tyne. — This postofRce was named for John 
Tynes, a pioneer of that section and was estab- 
lished aDout 1889. Abraham Kicks was the first 
postmaster, and was succeeded by John W. What- 
ley, and the latter by W. J. Norsworthy who is the 
present postmaster and conducts a mercantile 
business. His father was A. J. Norsworthy who 
came from Alabama in 1859 and whose family 
of ten children, seven of whom are livinj^, namely: 
George W. of Natchitoches parish; J. C, W. ¥., 
Mrs. G. W. Lockwood, Mrs. W. A. Montgomery, 
Mrs. G. N. Weldea and W. J. The latter's wife 
was Miss. Sarah Craig of Natchitoches parish and 
they have a family of ten children. J. V'. Canady 
was a prosperous merchant of Tyne for several 
^('.■i:>, !i;!l \\-- l,-ili-!v ri'tirn! l'i'(>;ii 1 usiiie.-s. Tlif-> pi 
oueer.< of this section w. re Ilmny Le-ter, Samp- 
son Whatley, A, J. Nors\vurtl)y, James Jsgirt, 
Sam Cole and Thomas Boswell. "Shake flat," 
which was located on the old Nnlan Trace or Alex- 
andria and Texas road near Tyne, was famous in 
early days as the headquarters for outlaws and 
rowdifs, and the place, which contained two 
stores and saloons, was given its name because it 
^as rcTiarked that the people there would '-fight 
at the shake of a hat." Prominent residents of 
Tyne at this time a,re J. W. Canadv, H. J. Lestar, 
J. T. and P, W. Tsgitt, J. C. Norsworthy. F, J. 
Byrd, E. Canady and Enoc Moss. 

Mill Creek.— Among the progressive citizens of 
this postoffice are J. C. Sibley, A. J. Withers, J. E. 
Withers, J. E. and A. B. Jordan, T. J. Dowden, 
A. M. Stewart, J. Strickland. G. J. Davis, Jr,, and 
J. Wiley Miller. A good school and a Baptist 
church are maintained at Mount Carmel. The 
church was constituted November 9, 1863. by the 
following presbytery: Elder Henry Simmons and 
Deacons Charles and Zack, Corley. S, Y. Addi 



274 TOWJVS AJVD VILLAGES 

son of Corleyville is the pres<^nb church clerk. 
Kisatchie Lodge No. 156, F. & A. M. is located 
here. It was chartered February 12, 1858, with 
the following members: W. P. Goings. M. G. Mc- 
Neely, Jacob Kile.J. T, McNeely, J. K. Phares, W. 
G. Norris and L. J, Nash. The lodge was first lo- 
cated at Kisatchie, in Natchitoches parish, but 
later moved to Mount Carmel, in Sabine, The 
present officers are as follows: J. Wiley Miller, 
w, M.; C. F, Knippers, S. W.; R. L. Tynes, J. W.; 

A. B. Jordan, treasurer; .]. E. ,Tordan. secretary; 
W. D. Stewart, S. D ; D. T. Knippers, J, D.; W. R. 
Hays, chaplain; L. E. Coburn, tyler. 

ToRO. — The first settlers of theToro community 
were William Curtis, Sr., William Curtis, Jr., and 
John .\JcCollister, who cnme in 1827. They cut 
down and burned the cane and made two crops 
before they fenced their fields, for there was noth- 
ing to fence against except wild animals. The 
next settlers to come were Eli Chance, Irom Mis- 
issippi, Fletcher Rollins, James Holt, W. C. 
Southwell, Valuetine Nash, T. J. Godwin, Charles 
Bennett, S. G. Lucius and John Caldwell. They 
erectedone of the first school honses in the parish 
which was built of pine poles and split log benches 
were used for seats. A church was established in 
later ^ ears and the church and school named 
Pleasant Hill. The first schools were taught by 
Ham Nash and S. G. Lucius, both gentlemen hav- 
ing come to Sabine parish from South Carolina. 
Pleasant Hill now has a splendid church and 
school building and the community is prosperous 
and progressive. Prominent citizens of Toro are 
J. M. Miller, J. S. Lucius, J. J. VVhittaker, W J. 
McMillan. A. Slav, W. C. Ford, John F. Koonce, 

B. B, McMillan, j. J. McNeely, C. W. Antony, W. 
L. Prewitt and J. H. Brewster. Rattan is another 
postoffice m this section, prominent among the 
residents there being B. C. McCollister, M. C. An- 
tony, J. M, Runvon, J. D. Miller, W. L. Arnold, J. 
W. Byrd, C, W. Westbrook and R. R. Arnold. Co- 
lumbus is an old postoffice located farther down 
in the lower corner of the parish on Sabine River. 
Among the residents there are C. C. Antony, J. A. 
Speight and S. J Speight, all good citizens. 



TOWJVS AJVD VILLAGES 275 

Clai!e. — This postoffice, c.-tablished ia 1908, 
was named in lionor of Miss Aunie Clare, youngest 
daughter of Leo Vandegaer. J. M. Ritter and 
son, Houston, who are erj gaged in merchandising 
at that point, started the postothce. J, M. Ritter 
is a substantial citizen of that community and 
a wide-awake farmer. Other prominent residents 
of this thriving section are John S. CaJdwell, ^V . 
L. Speights, VV. A. Stringer, W. A. Speight and W. 
Y. MeUonathy. 

CoBruN. — This postotfice wns started in 1903, 
and was named iti honor of T. G. Coburn, an old 
settler there. The names of the piouoers are men- 
tioned elsewhere. C. J. Law was the first post- 
master and was succeeded by W. M. Lester, who 
fills thatlposition at this time. Coburn is supplied 
with a good school, church and .Masonic lodge. 
Middle Creek Lodge No, 321 was organized here in 
1908, and the following members have served as 
worshipful masters: C. J. Law, J. VV, Phares, J. 
M. Dowden, P. J. Herrington, T. G, Coburn and 
,T. H RipWi. Mr ('n'-iir'-, i-' tTie pi'f^^i'^-'t '"npstrr 
i'lie foiiuvviag aie fii izi-L.s (li iiin c.^nuunuibj : L'. 
G. Coburn, Adam Cole, J. J. Alford, S. E. A. Dow- 
den, P. I. Cook. J. M. Britt. R. A. Dowdeu, W. D. 
Cobb, Rev. J. H. Ricks, C. C. Ah'ord, P, J Herring- 
ton, W, A. Ricks, O. R, Alford, A. J. and G. W. 
VVeldon and Alonzo Herrington. 

Negheet.— This community is about twelve 
miles southwest of Many, and its settlement dates 
baek to 1822, when Christopher Antony located 
there. It is a rich farming section. In recent 
years much prospecting for oil has been engaged 
in tljere, and the indications are that that com- 
modity will yet be found in paying quantities. 
This section has the conveniences of a telephone 
line from Many, a good school and church, and 
will soon have a model road to the parish seat. 
Little Flock Lodge F. & A. M., organized at 1867 
at old Wineburg, is located here and is a thriving 
lodge. Frank Button was an old settler of 
this place aud ran a tanyard in early times, 
coming from New York. R. J. Lucius, who was 
born and reared here and for many years was en- 
gaged with his brother, James F,, in farming and 



276 



TOWjyS AJVD VILLAGES 



merchandising, is postmaster. They are now in 
the real estate business. Promintnt citizens of 
Negreet are M. H. Addison, Hovt and E. P. Cur- 
tis, M. F. Gandy. H. M. Gandy;"j S., T. C. and J. 
C. Salter, W. T. Addison, C, D. Carroll, T. C, An- 
tony, W. R. McCormic, J. I. CooK, G. W. Miller, J. 
W. Phares. 




people's state bank, many, la. 

Mitchell.— This postofflce is located in one of 
the most progressive sections in the parish. 
It was named for Jack Mitchell who was inter- 
ested in sawmills. The first store was built by 
Wilt Morgan in 1895. Jack Mitchell was the first 
postmaster and was succeeded by J, L. jBckson. 
B. F, Moore & Son have conducted a sawmill and 
mercantile business there smce 1896. Mitchell is 
live agricultural section, has a good school, rural 
telephones and will soon have modern roads, 
Mitchell Lodge No. 252. F. & A. M., was chartered 
in 1896. The first officers were M, C. Geiger, W. 
M.; J. A. Gates, S. W.; W. F. Ledford, J. W.; J. F. 
Jackson, J. D.; P. L. Tatum, tyler; A. G. Kidd, 
chaplain. J. R. Barron is the present worshipful 
master. Among the citizens of this community 
are J. D. McLeroy, J. W. Sistrunk, T. H. Coplen, 
J, R. Barron, J. E. Largent, Jeff Tatum, W. H. 
Mains, A, E. Slav and R. L' Price. 



Biogi'aphieal iSketclies. 



Dr. J. C. Armstrong.— The subject of this sketch 
is entitled to honorable mention in any history of Sab- 
ine parish, for the reason that it can be said of him as 
truthfully as of any one that he lived and labored for 
the good, of its people rather than for wealth or per- 
sonal aggrandizement. He was born in Dallas County, 
Ala., and came to this parish on or about 1850, where 
he lived until his death in 1896. This parish was, con- 
sequently, the scene of his labors for over forty years. 
While he was a popular and successful physician, and 
always did a large practice, all he got, or wished to 
get. out of it, seemingly, was a very modest living. 
The poor and needy, especially, had cause to revere the 
name of Dr. Crit Armstrong, who guarded and fre- 
quently saved their lives, and did so, as often as other- 
wise, "without money and without price.". It was 
said of the knightly Bayard, the beau-ideal of the age 
of chivalry, that he always exhibited an utter disregard 
for money and financial matters. This was pretty 
much the case with Dr. Crit Armstrong, our good and 
true knight of the scalpel, whose tender heart was as 
well known as his majestic figure to the people of every 
section of this parish. At one time Dr. Armstrong had 
the remarkable experience of being elected Parish 
Judge, without having any special knowledge of law 
or of court proceedings. Being well supplied with 
sound sense, however, he filled the position to the sat- 
isfaction of the people. But on one occasion there was 
a great tumult in his court. Two^irate attorneys. were 
apparently thirsting for each other's gore; the crippled 
clerk was tossed aside and the sheriff was unable to 
quell the uproar, until the judge from the bench gave 
the remarkable order to "let 'em fight," which had 
the effect of quieting the disturbers, as fighting was re- 
ally the last thing the blustering attorneys wished to do. 
At this day and time, when love of money is properly 
regarded as the root of so many evils it is refreshing 
to contemplate a character with whom generosity and 
all kindly impulses were unaffected by sordid consid- 
erations, and whose moral and physical strength and 
breadth of brawn enabled him to exemplify such prin- 

277 



278 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 




ciples throughout his course. The grave of old Dr. 
Crit, in the cemetery at Many, is entitled to reverence 
as that of the kindliest fathers of our people and our 
parish. 

A. D. AsHBY.— Mr, Ashby is a member of the Par- 
ish School Board from Ward Seven. He was born in 

Itawamba County, Miss., 
and lived there until 18 years 
of age, receiving such edu- 
cation as the small rural 
schools afforded, which was 
very limited. He came to 
Sabine parish in 1899 and 
resided here ever since. On 
March 9, 1910, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Mattie Bruce. 
Mr. Ashby's principal occu- 
pation has been farming, 
but in 1910 he entered the 
ministry of the Congrega- 
tional Methiydist church, 
with which denomination 
A. D. ASHBY. he is prominently identified. 

His chief regret is that he was unable to finish his ed- 
ucation. In 1912 he was elected member of the Parish 
School Board and at the organization of the new board 
he was elected chaplain of that body, being the first 
man ever honored with that position. Mr. Ashby has 
always been an advocate of a inodern educational sys- 
tem that would thoroughly fit the youths of the parish 
for the battle of life and the attainment of a more ideal 
citizenship, and his influence will be ca&t with all pro- 
gressive movements for the publie weal, 

T. C. Armstrong (Attorney-at-Law). — This gen- 
tleman was born in Sabine parish on October 18, 18B7, 
and is consequently in the the 56th year of his age. His 
Dirthplace was in the San Miguel neighborhood, in the 
northern portion of the parish. His father was Wil- 
liam Hamilton Armstrong, who died when quite young 
and when Thomas, his only child, w/as a baby. Ham- 
ilton Armstrong, though young, was a teacher of high 
rapate, to whom some of our old citizens, his former 
pupils, still refer with much respect and pride. He 
was equally known as a marksman and hunter. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 279 

Thomas' grandfather, on his father's side, was James 
H. Armstrong, who came to this parish or its vicinity 
in 1847, from Kentucky, originally, byway of Alabama. 
His grandfather, on his mother's side, was William D. 
Stephens, who came to this section of the state in 1835, 
before the organization of this parish, from Virginia, 
originally, by way of Tennessee and Ohio. In his boy- 
hood "Little Thomas" attended the ordinary old-field 
schools of the San Miguel neighborhood, and the some- 
what superior one at Old Pleasant Hill. In 1875 he en- 
tered Emory and Henry College in Southwest Virginia, 
where he graduated in 1878. While at the old-fleld 
schools referred to, he exhibited considerable precocity, 
so to speak, and when he graduated at college he pock- 
eted the first honor of his class. He studied law at 
home in Sabine parish, and in New Orleans at the Law 
Department of the University of Louisiana, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1882. On beginning- his profes- 
sional life, instead of hunting a location more suitable 
for a lively career, he- remained at hom» without re- 
gard to consequences. Up to this time, these have not 
been as serious as might have been expected, He 
ranks well in our cotorie of able and conscientious at- 
torneys, has an interesting family, a pleasant home at 
Sodus and another residence at Many; and, at last ac- 
counts, a sufiiciency of the necessaries of life. While 
he has been rather slow about completing an ambitious 
and patriotic literary task, commenced some time ago, 
we would hesitate to call him "Le Faineaut," as we 
are not certain what he has up his sleeve. While he 
has not entered the arena of politics, he may do so (as 
this notice is not intended as his obituary), and may 
have good prospects in that direction. 

Marion S. Antony.— Tiie subject of this sketch is 
a citizen of Ward Two, and is now serving as consta- 
ble of that ward. His granlfather was Christopher An- 
tony, a pioneer of the Negieet community who came 
to this country in 1822 from Virginia by way of Ken- 
tucky and Texas. Christopher's father was Martin 
Antony, who was a native of Germany, 
and he and his eldest son, Jacob, were sol- 
diers in the American army during the revolutionary 
war. William M, Antony, father of Marion S., was 
born at Negreet in 1827, being the eldest of a family of 
eight sons and two daughters, and in 1851 was married 



280 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

to Mary Alice, daughter of Aaron L. and Penelope 
Neil, to which union were born ten children, those now 
living being Thomas B., George C, Marion S., Charles. 
W. and Mary E.,wife of J. C. Salter. William M. An- 
tony served his country in the war between the states, 
and his parish in various civil capacities and was a' 
well-to-do and esteemed citizen. 

Dr. Kezin Laurence ARMSTROKa was born in Dal- 
las County, Ala,, on December 30, 1821, and died at 
Pleasant Hill, this^parish, January 4, 1899. He was of 
Scotch-Irish descent, and a worthy son of sturdy and 
heroic sires. Tradition^ relates -that his great-grand- 
father was burned at the stake by savaees in some por- 
tion of what was thenlreferred to as "the wilderness of 
the West." His grandfather, Wil'iam Armstrong, was 
a pioneer 3,nd Indian fighter of Christian County, Ken- 
tucky, who made the savages pay dearly for the mur- 
der of his sire. The father of Dr. Laurence moved to 
Sabine parish in 1847, and from that time until his 
death the doctor practiced his profession in the vicin- 
ity of Pleasant Hill'and was a prominent figure in the 
community for more than half a century. In his 
youth, while.still a resident of Alabama, he graduated 
in^medicine at the New Orleans Medical College, a pro- 
totype of thcfcpresent Tulane University. Soon after- 
wards, on February 27, 1845, he married his first wife, 
Cynthia Reed. Of the several children of that mar- 
riage. Dr. R. L. Armstrong, Jr., of Pleasant Hill is the 
only survivor. On August 5, 1858, Dr. Armstrong mar- 
ried Virginia A. Pullen, his second wife and surviving 
widow. Too modest and unselfish for a politician, the 
only public^position that he ever occupied was that of 
state senator. Besides standing, as it were, a monu- 
ment of incorruptible integrity and spotless honor, he 
was equally distinguished for the greater and softer 
impulses of the heart, for open-handed liberality and 
above all his true charity. Upon his memorial shaft 
is inscribed, ■i"He Was, the Poor Man's Friend." He 
was buried at Pleasant Hill by the Masonic fraternity. 
Dr. R. L. Armstrong, Jr., wasjborn June 9,'1857, near 
Pleasant Hill. He^attended the Medical University of 
Louisiana in 1877-78>nd. graduated at the medical de- 
partment of Louisville University in 1879. Soon after 
graduating he married Miss Hattie O'Pry and located 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



281 



at Pleasant Hill, where he has beon a prominent phy- 
sician for over thirty years. Ho has a son, Dr. Ralph 
Armstrong, who is now a physician, thus making in 
the family three generations of pliyHJciaTis. 

Senator John H. Boonk.— The subject of this 
sketch was born at tlie old town of Sparta, in Bienville 

])arish, November 7, 1871. 
His parents were Judge J. 
T. and C. L. Boone, mem- 
bers of old and estimable 
families. His father was 
a prominent figure in the 
polities o" his parish and 
state for many years and 
occupied important public 
posiiioiis. The early years 
of Jolm H. Boone's life 
were spent on a farm. 
In 1888 the family moved 
to Mt. Lebanon where he 
attended Mt, Bebanon Col- 
lege, and being an earnest 
and hard-working student 
he secured an education 
sufficient to enable him to 
enter his chosen profession. 
After concluding his college 

public schools and at Mt. 

years. In 1899 he was ad- 






SenaAop Boone 



course he taught in the 
Lebanon College for two 
mitted to the bar and practiced law in Bienville parish 
until 1901 when he came to Many, forming a partner- 
ship with Judge Don B- SoEelle. Upon Mr. SoBelle's 
election as district judge in 1908, the firm was dissolved, 
but the partnership was resumed during the present 
year. Mr. Boone is not only a hard-working lawyer, 
but has always taken an active and patriotic interest in 
the material welfare of the parish, and is a firm expo- 
nent of every move for the uplift of the people morally 
and intellectually. His popularity among the people 
is amply attested by the fact that they have elected 
him to every position for which he has offered. He 
served several years as mayor of Many, and on being 
elected a member of the Parish School Board he was 
unanimously chosen as the presiding officer of that 



282 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



body, and filled these positions with honor. In 1912 he 
was elected a member of the State Senate from the dis- 
trict composed of the parishes of DeSoto, Sabine and 
Vernon and has rendered his district and state splen- 
did services. It is a safe prediction that among the 
young lawyers of West Louisiana no one has a more 
promising future, in any of the endeavors which a law- 
yer is privileged to maiie, than Senator Boone. He 
was married, December, 1899, to Miss Minnie D. King, 
an accomplished young lady of Mt. Lebanon, and they 
have a moat interesting family. Senator Boone is vice 
president of the People's State Bank of Many and owns 
a cozy home here. 

W. S. Bbown. — Few men have spent a more ex- 
tended and useful life as a citizen of the parish than 
W. Scott Brown. He was born in 1848 and spent his 

l,entire life in Sabine par- 
ish. His parents were 
pioneers of Ward Two, 
where some of the earli- 
est settlers of this section 
of the sta'"e located. Mr, 
Brown has served his 
parish and ward in vari- 
ous official capacities for 
many years, as may be 
seen by reference to the 
annals of the parish gov- 
ernment. He was an up- 
w. s. BKOWN, right and conscientious 

citizen and commanded 
the respect of all who knew him. Mr. Brown was en- 
gaged in the mercantile business for many years and 
a few months ago opened a store at Hornbeck. While 
these memoirs were being printed Mr. Brown died at 
the home of his son, Mr. Edward Brown, in Ward Two. 

J. W. Bybd.— This gentleman is a member of the 
Parish School Board from Ward Two. He was born in 
Winn parish, September 21, 1867, and when a small 
child came to Sabine parish, near Negreet. He was 
reared and has always resided in the southern part of 
the part of the parish. He attended the old school at 




BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 283 

Fort Jesup during tho first and third years of its exist- 
ence, when Prof. T. R. Hardin provided as principal of 
that institution, alter whicii hi' taught school for sev- 
eral years. IVfr. Byrd was married to Miss Bstelle 
Sanders, September 11, 1892, and to that union nine 
children have been bom, tive boys and four girls. He 
joined the Missionary Baptist church in 1892. He set- 
tled on a small farm after his marriage, and established 
Eattan postofflce in 1893, and was postmaster eight 
years. He was elected as a member of the School 
Board from his ward and was re-elected in 1912. He 
is a good citizen and stands for every move in the di- 
rection of parish progress. 

Leslie Barbee. — No history of this parish is in any 
manner complete without notice of Leslie Barbee, the 
most prominent pioneer of Port Jesuji, who came to 
this parish in 18i2 He was born in Wake County, N. 
C, January 16, 1812, and died in 1900, He was a son 
of Mark and Tempey (Garner) Barbee, who were of 
English and Scotch descent, respectively. When he 
came to this country he located at Fort Jesup and en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, although he was known 
as a "Jack of all trades," and could turn his hand to 
any useful employment. He engaged in the mercantile 
business in 1860, in which he continued for many years. 
He always took a prominent part in parish affairs and 
in 1878-79 represented the parish in the State Legisla- 
ture. Mr. Barbee was married in 1838 to Miss Arge- 
nene, a native of Georgia, and to them were borii six 
children: Caroline, wife of M, P. Hawkins (deceased) ; 
Mary J., wife of W. W. McNeely (deceased); William 
H. (deceased), Joseph L., Nellie, wife of W. A. Ponder 
(deceased), and Nettie, wife of Amos L. Ponder, Jo- 
seph L. Barbee is now a resident of Fort Jesup and 
has a pretty hbme there. He has a family of six chil- 
dren, Joseph L., Jr., being the eldest. He has been 
engaged in farming and mercantile pursuits all his life. 
William H. Barbee was during his lifetime engaged 
in the mercantile business at Fort Jesup, besides tak- 
ing a part in every move for the good of his parish and 
community, occupying at various times several public 
positions. He wife was Miss Emma Draughon. He died 
March 11, 1908,. his wife's death occurring a few years 



284 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



prior to that time. Five children were born to them : 
Leslie, Effle, wife of I. L. Pace ; Rena, wife of Reese 
Pattison; Wm. J., and Nona. 

Oscar O. Cleveland, cashier of the recently es- 
tablished People's State Bank of Many, was born in 

Leak County, Mis- 
sissippi, October 
9, 1876. He went 
to public schools 
and after coming 
to Many with his 
father, W. B. 
Cleveland, in 1898, 
he entered the 
station of the K. 
C. S. R'y to learn 
the railroad busi- 
ness remaining in 
the employ of that 
company until he 
engaged in busi- 
ness in partner- 
ship with J. H. 
McNeely in 1902. 
In 1905 he again 
entered the em- 
ploy of the railroad 
o. o. CLEVELAND as Station agent at 

Many, and after three years service he resigned and 
accepted a position with the Santa Fe Railway. He 
filled some important positions with that company in 
Louisiana and Texas. He resigned to become cashier 
of the People's State liank of Many, He is a conserv- 
ative business man and a genial gentlemen. Mr. Cleve- 
land was married in 1904 to Miss Claudia, eldest daugh- 
ter of Judge and Mrs. Don E. SoRelle. 

Julian Cubtis, M. D., was born at Negreet, Sabine 
parish, September 16, 1875, and Is the third son of Dr. 
William R. Curtis, a pioneer physician of Sabine and 
a surgeon in the Civil War, and Emily Francis Moore. 
His childhood days were speht at Hemphill, Texas. 
and at Negreet, in this parish. At the age of 15 he en- 
tered the Fort Jesup Masonic Institute while the school 
was under the supervision of Prof, A. D. Carden, one 
of the South's ablest instructors. Early in life he mar- 




BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 285 

ried Miss Nona Jaokson and resided at Negreet until 
his father's death in 1897. Being inspired to take up 
his father's profession where he laid it down, he en- 
tered the Alabama Medical College at Mobile, attend- 
ing one term in the fall and spring of 1897-98, and then 
spent two years at the Memphis Hospital Colloge, 
graduating in the spring of 1901 and passed the State 
Board of Louisiana in May of the same year. He lo- 
cated at Fort Jesup and practiced until October, 1904, 
when he accepted a position with the Rapides Lumber 
Co. at Woodworth, La., one of the Long-Bell plants, as 
physician and surgeon, resigning same in April, 1906, 
and moved to Many, where he continued the practice 
of his profession in partnership with Dr. D. H. Dillon 
until October of that year. The succeeding seven 
years have been delightfully spent in the service of the 
Brown Lumber Co. at Shamrock, La. 

John J. Oubtis was born in Sabine parish on June 
17, 1843, and is one of the oldest native citizens now 

living in the parish. His 
father was a pioneer of the 
Tore country, settling there 
in 1827. The subject of this 
sketch received what little 
education he was able to ob- 
tain in a log school house. 
In April, 1861, when only 18 
years of age, he enlisted in 
the first company which left 
Sabine parish to flght in the 
Civil War, under the com- 
j. J CURTIS. mand of Capt. Arthur Mo- 

Arthur. This command was assigned to the army In 
Virginia in Gen, Stonewall Jackson's brigade. Mr. 
Curtis was in the most memorable battles of the cam- 
paigns of that famous commander. When the battle 
of the Wilderness was begun on the 5th of May, 1864, 
only fourteen men of Mr. Curtis' company responded 
for service, and his leg was broken in this bloody 
conflict, and his friend Bob Runnels was killed by his 
side. After lying wounded on the field for three 
days, he was picked up by the Yankees and taken to 
their hospital, and he saw only two or three of his 
comrades after that time. He was taken prisoner by 






286 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Stev art's cavalry. He recovered from his wound sufQ- 
ciently to return home the following fall, and the war 
was ended a few months later, but, after more than 
half a century the scenes of that mighty conflict are 
still fresh in his memory. He was married and reared 
a family, all of whom have passed to their reward. 

Thomas Jefferson Cbanford, the present sheriff 
of Sabine parish, was born near Pleasant Hill, Sabine 
parish, October 3, 1863, his parents being William H. 
and Cynthia (Anderson) Cranford. His father, whose 
death oocuiTed while serving in the Civil War, May, 
1864, was a native of Alabama, while his mother was 
born and reared in Sabine parish, her father being 
Wade Anderson, a pioneer, whose son, Jeff Anderson, 
was sheriff of this parish in 1863 and died while an oc- 
cupant of that office, his father serving the unexpired 
term. When old enough to work Mr. Cranford fol- 
lowed the plow and helped to support his widowed 
mother. There were no schools in the country and he 
reached manhood with a very limited education. His 
mother, several years after the war, married C. 1). 
Carroll, to which union two children were born, S. JL. 
Carroll, who is now a prominent merchant of Zwolle, 
and Annie, who is the wife of John Paul and resides in 
Texas. Mr. Cranford followed the occupation offarm- 
ing until 1902. He served two terms as Police Juror in 
the '90s and was a member of that body from his old 
home ward (the Sixth) when the present courthouse 
and jail were constructed. In 1901 he moved to Many 
to accept a position as field deputy for Sheriff Hender- 
son, purchasing a farm just outside the corporate lim- 
its. Mr. Henderson resigned his office in November, 
1902, and Mr. Cranford was appointed sheriff by Gov- 
ernor Heard. He has occupied the position ever since, 
having been three times elected. As ex-officio tax 
collector, he has always collected the taxes and turned 
same into the parish treasury promptly on the first of 
July of each year, and has made it a rule to collect 
more than is charged. He is also proud of the fact 
that he has never found it necessary to seriously hurt 
a prisoner while in the discharge of his duties Mr. 
Cranford is a genial gentleman and courteous officer. 
In 1886 he was married to Miss Cora Hooker and to 
them have been born four children; Maggie, Eupert 
(died at the age of 7 years), Lola and Nellie. 




, BIOGRAPHTCAL SKETCHES 287 

Thomas G. Coburn, of Coburn postofflce, was born 
in Coflfey County, Alabama, April 23, 1844, and moved 
with his parents to Louisiana in February, 1852, arriv- 
ing in Many that 
year. The family 
was going to Texas, 
but after staying 
here two years 
procured land in 
the southeast cor- 
ner of the parish 
where the subject 
of this sketch now 
resides. Mr, Co- 
burn might thus be 
considered a pio- 
neer. He enlisted 
in the Confederate 
army in 1862, at the 
age of 18 years, un- 
T. G COBURN. der General Dick 

Taylor and served 
until the battle of Mansfield, April, 1864, when he was 
seriously wounded, and he has never fully recovered 
from the effects of the wound. After the war he re- 
turned to his home to start anew and to do battle 
against the outrages of reconstruction. On November 
19, 1868, he was married to Miss S. J. Phares, and to 
that union ten children were born, seven of them still 
living. Mrs. Coburn died on March 5, 1899, a:nd on 
January 1, 1890, he was married to Miss B. c'. Bolton. 
Six children were born to them, five still living. On 
June 19, 1910, she, too, passed to her reward. Mr. Co- 
burn served for a number of years as a member of the 
Parish School Board, and has been identified with all 
progressive movements in his community and parish. 
B. C, Dillon. — This gentleman enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the oldest citizen now living who was 
born in the town of Many, and whose life has been 
spent in this vicinity. It is not the portion of many 
men to live to. witness the many changes and wonder- 
ful transitions that have been seen by the sub- 
ject of this sketch. His maternal grandfather was 
John Baldwin, "the father of Many," who felled the 
first trees for a home here and contributed much to 



^68 BlOGiiAPilldAL skkTdS^S 



the work of the early development of the country. Mr. 
Dillon was born at September 10, 1849. His father was 
Patrick Henry Dillon, a native of Virginia, and his 
toother was Jane Baldwin, daughter of John Baldwin. 
To their marriage were born two boys, John Dillon, a 

prominent citizen 
of Mansfield, and 
E. C, the subject 
of this sketch. 
His mother died 
in 1860, and his 
father's death oc- 
curred a few years 
later. He was 
reared by his un- 
cle and aunt, Mr. 
and Mrs. E. C. 
Davidson. He is 
proud to recall 
that he received 
his instruction at 
old Bellwood Col- 
lege, near Many, 
under Prof. Pres- 
ton, and later in a 
school conducted 
by that learned 
teacher in Texas. 
In 1871 he was 
married to Miss Louisa Sibley, daughter of Major "Wil- 
liam W. Sibley, and to that union six children 
Were born: Daniel Harvey, W. Edward, Davidson, 
(deceased), Elizabeth (wife of A. B. Peterson), Lattie 
(wife>f Floyd C. Mitchell) and John P, Two of his 
sons, D. H. and W. E., are prominent members of the 
medical profession in this parish. After the death of 
Mrs. Dillon, he was married to Miss Billa Self, daugh- 
ter of Judge Elijah Self, a pioneer of Sabine and for 
many years an esteemed citizen and prominent in the 
political life of Vernon parish. Pour children were 
born to them, three now living: Percy, Josephine and 
Bertha. Death again claimed his wife and companion 
and in 1892 he married Miss Annie Goss of Pleasant 
Hill and they have a pretty and pleasant home. Mr. 
Dillon is brisk and active for a man of his advanced 




E. C. DILLON 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES 289 

age. He has always been a lover of his town and par- 
ish, has always stood for everything for their glory and 
and material welfare, and has an abiding faith in the 
future of his country. In battling with the adversities 
of his long life he has ever been in the vanguard of the 
optimists, never losing sight of that star of hope which 
is the beacon of the just on earth and in the after-while. 
His geniality and open-heartedness have made a him 
friends wherever he is known, and these traits of char- 
acter are manifest every day. For many years Mr. 
Dillon was engaged in farming, but in later years in 
business pursuits, and conducted a drug business under 
the nam.e of Dillon Drug Co, He served the past two 
years as mayor of Many, and was the prime mover in 
organization of the Parish Fair Association In 1909, 
and is the present president of that institution. Mr. 
Dillon is president of the People's State Bank of Many, 
and it was principally through his efforts that this bank 
was started. He remembers when there was not a 
cook stove or sewing machine to be found in the par- 
ish, observes that there has been great progress made 
since that time, but he hopes to see more. 

W. B. Dillon, M. D., was born January 15, 1877, in 
Sabine parish, his parents being B. C. and Louisa (Sib- 
ley Dillon. He attended parish schools and the Mem- 
phis Hospital Medical College, graduating from that 
institution on April 27, 1900. For the following six 
years he practiced at Fisher and Florien and for two 
years was located at Bon Ami. He returned to his old 
home at Many, where he is now engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession, about four years ago. In Decem- 
ber, 1901, he was married to Miss Zeta Brown of Can- 
ton, Miss., and to them three children have been born, 
two of whom, a boy and a girl, are living. Dr. Dillon 
has a pleasant home in Many and is an enterprising 
citizen. 

D, H. Dillon, M. D., was born in Sabine parish. 
May 12, 1873. being the eldest son of B. C. and Louisa 
(Sibley) Dillon. His early education was procured in 
the public schools and at Keaehie College. He entered 
Memphis Medical College from which he graduated in 
1898 and came to Sabine parish to practice his profes- 
sion. For some time he was located at Fisher as chief 
surgeon for the Louisiana Long Leaf Lumber Company 



290 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



and local surgeon of the Kansas City Southern Rail- 
way. In 1904 he was elected representative of Sabine 

parish in the State 
Legislature for a 
term of four years. 
During that time he 
also practiced med- 
icine at Many, one 
year in partnership 
with Dr. Julian Cur- 
tis. In 1908 Dr. Dil- 
lon was appointed 
president of the 
State Board of 
Health by Governor 
Sanders and occu- 
pied that position 
lor two years and 
left a clean record. 
Resigning his place 
on the board, he re- 
turned to Many and 
again took up the 
practice of his pro- 
fession. As a phy- 
sician he has been 
very successful, being a hard and untiring worker. 
At this time he has as his professional associate Dr. W. 
D, Lester and has an office in the People's State Bank 
Building. , Dr. Dillon was married in 1896 to Miss Net- 
tie Self, daughter of Judge Elijah Self, and to 
them has been born one son. The doctor has always 
been progressive in his ideas, has always been a con- 
spicuous figure in public affairs and is not ready to 
promise that he will keep out of the political game in 
the days to come. 

Richard A. Fbaser (Attorney-at-Law) was born in 
Mansfield, La., February 3, 1879, aud was reared and 
secured his education in that town. In 1904 he gradu- 
ated from the Law Department of Tulane University 
and returned to his home town and practiced his pro- 
fession until 1909, when he formed a partnership with 
Silas D. Ponder at Many, which was dissolved 1 in 
1912. Besides having a good law practice, he is asso- 




DR. D. H. DILLON. 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES 291 



ciated with Dan Vandegaer in t)ie abstract business, 
the style of tlie Arm being Vandcsaor & Fraser, and is 
secretary and treasurer of the Sabine Realty Co. He 
was married in 1910 to Miss Lula Peters, an estimable 
young lady of Many, and tliry have a nice home. 

Addison %y. Bstrs.— Sabine parish has never had a 
better citizen nor a more faithful public servant than 
Mr. Estes. He was born in this parish September 11, 

. 1817. While still a 

I young man he was 
crippled for life, but 
for many years there- 
after he followed 
farming and the sad- 
dle maker's trade. 
He reared a family of 
four girls and tv o 
boys, three of whom 
are still living. His 
wife died in 1902 and 
I he was later married 
jto Miss McDonald, 
•^ daughter of Robert 
McDonald, a pioneer 
of the parish, and to 
that union two chil- 
dren have been born. 
In July, 1884, Mr, Es- 
,tes was elected parish 
treasurer and has 
held that position 
ever since. In 1892 
he was elected clerk of the Police Jury and remained 
in that position until the present year, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by W. G. Caldwell. The es- 
teem in which he is. held by liis fellow citizens is best 
exemplified by his continuance in his public position. 

John B. Fuller was born at Shiloh, Union parish, 
November 22, 1851, and spent his boyhood days there. 
On May 27, 1871, he was married to Evie Sherwood and 
in August of that year moved to Catahoula parish, 
near Harrisonburg, and in 1875 came to Sabine parish 
and has resided here ever since. In 1886 he was elected 
constable of his ward, but resigned in 1889 and was ap- 
pointed postmaster at Mitchell and served in that po- 




A. W. ESTES.' 



292 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

sition for two years. He served one term as member of 
the Parish School Board. In 1910 he was elected as a 
member of the Police Jury, and for one term was pres- 
ident of that body. In 1912 he was re-elected Police 
Juror. Mr. Puller has always been a conservative ex- 
ponent of every proposition for the public good ajid ad- 
vancement, standing for the things that make for good 
citizenship, and has aimed to serve the people faith- 
fully and impartially, and is esteemed as a man of ster- 
ling integrity and splendid character. 

EuFus Sibley Gandy, member of the Police Jury 
from Ward One, was born on his father's esta'^e near 
Many, November 29, 1861. His father was Daniel 
R. Gandy, one of the early settlers of the parish, whose 
prominence in parish affairs is recalled on other pages 
of this book. Mr. Gaudy's parents died when he was 
quite young and he lived with his maternal grand- 
father, John I. Sibley, on Bayou Toro, this parish, un- 
til he was 14 years of agei He then lived with his un- 
cle, L. J. Nash, until 21 years of age. On December 
17, 1885, he married Ida R. McLanahan of this parish 
and settled on the estate where he now resides, near 
Florien. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity 
and is the popular representative from his ward on the 
Police Jury and is an enterprising and energetic 
citizen. His family consists of two daughters and 
one son. 

Harvey M. Gandy, a prominent farmer and presi- 
dent of the Police Jury, was born in Bibb County, Ala- 
bama, in 1847, and is a son of of Harvey M. and Mary 
Caroline (Martin), whose deaths occurred in 1847 and 
1854 respectively. His grandfather was John Gandy, a 
native of Georgia and his grandmother was the daugh- 
ter of John Martin, a planter, of North Carolina. He 
was reared by an unele, Wiley R. Gandy, but received 
only a limited education. When 14 years of age he 
joined Company B, Forty-fourth Alabama Infantry, 
which was assigned to the Army of Virginia, partici- 
ating in the greatest battles of that famous army. He 
was wounded at the battle of Chickamauga and inca- 
pacitated for duty for several months, and during his 
service he was twice made a prisoner, but each time 
was paroled and returned to his command and was a 
sergeant when General Lee surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House. After the war he returned to Alabama, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 293 

and In 1868 came to Sabine parish, being married in 
1872 to Mary J., a daughter of Elijah Self, she being 
born in this parish and dying eleven months after her 
marriage. Mr. Gandy's second union toolt place in 
1874, his wife being Mary Caroline Sibley, a daughter 
of William and Minerva Sibley, who were born in St. 
Helena Parish, Six children were born to them. Mr. 
Gandy's third marriage took place in 1888 to Winnie, 
daughter of T, A. and Matilda Addison, the former 
born in St. Helena and the later in Sabine parish. To 
Mr. Gandy's last marriage a sou and a daughter have 
been born. He owns a fine farm near Negreet and is 
one of the most progressive and substantial farmers of 
the parish. For more than twenty years he has served 
as a member of the Police Jury and a large portion of 
the time as president of the body, and has rendered 
his pariih most valuable services. He is held in the 
highest esteem by his fellow citizens for his conserva- 
tive judgment and counsel, unpeachable integrity and 
withal a most genial gentleman. Despite his ad- 
vanced age, he takes a live interest in the affairs in his 
community and parish. 

Flobien Giauque.— While the subject of this mem- 
oir is not in the real sense a citizen of Sabine parish, 
he has been prominently identified with the material 
progress of the parish for more than a third of a cen- 
tury and is worthy of special mention. At one time he 
was one of the largest individual land owners in this 
parish and still owns considerable real estate here. The 
data for the following sketch was gleaned from biogra- 
phies of Mr. Giauque which appear in histories of 
Wayne County, Ohio, "Alibono's Dictionary of Au- 
thors" and in "Who's Who in America," and from his 
old friends and acquaintances in Sabine parish. Flo- 
rien Giauque was born in Berlin, Ohio, May 11, 1843. 
His parents were Augustus and Sophia (Guillaume) 
Giauque, who were born of good families in the French- 
speaking Canton of Berne, Switzerland, and immi- 
grated to Holmes County, Ohio, where they were mar- 
ried. In 1849 they moved to Wayne County, Ohio, Mr. 
Giauque' s father dying soon afterward, leaving to his 
widow only means enough to buy a modest cottage 
hom« in Fredricksburg, where she began the work of 
rearing her children, sending them to the public school 



294 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCEI:S 

and to the Presbyterian Sunday school. In 1855 she 
married Mr. Jeanneret, also a native of Switzerland, 
who followed the trade of a jeweler. The stepfather, 
while providing for the wants of the family, did not 
encourage young Florien's ambition to secure an edu- 




^X.OKIEN GIAUQTJE. 



cation. One of Mr, Giauque's pleasantest as well as 
proudest recollections of his boyhood days was that, 
"prizing first of all good character, he would make of 
himself a man as well educated and cultured and well- 
to-do financially as his people had ever been in Swit- 
zerland (they having suffered fiuanoial losses by immi- 
grating to America), and to this end he determined 
to graduate at a good college, and, soon after, also de- 
termined to become a good lawyer." He never wav- 
ered from this determination, although his path was, at 
times stre\^n with trials. In 1861 his mother died of ty- 
phoid fever and a few days later his eldest sister, who 
had married, also succumbed to the same disease. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 295 

With $10 he had earned making ties, and with what he 
could earn while school was not In session, he attended 
a five months' session at Vermillion Institute, Hays- 
vlUe, Ohio, with a view of fitting himself for teaching. 
He worlced lor farmers that summer and secured a 
good school at Wooster, Ohio, for the following winter. 
But the Civil War was now going on and his state was 
calling lor volunteers and he enlisted in Co. H, 102nd 
Ohio Infantry. He served under Generals Grant, Bu- 
ell, Sherman, Rosecrans and Thomas. During his 
term of service in the army he never asked for nor re- 
ceived a furlough, and while he was in broken health 
when discharged at the end of the struggle, he has 
never applied for a pension and says he never intends 
to. He first came to Louisiana when the days of re- 
construction were yet dark, but never tried to conceal 
the fact that he had been a soldier in the Union army 
neither did be ever make his political views the subject 
of a conversation calculated to offend anyone ; his de- 
portment always has been that of a polished gentle- 
man, ever ready to extend kind words, good counsel 
and assistance and many citizens of Sabine parish are 
grateful for having formed his acquaintance. After 
the war Mr. Glauque resumed the work of completing 
his education by becoming a teacher-student at Vermil- 
lion Institute. In 1866 he entered Kenyon College at 
Gambler, Ohio, where he graduated with the highest 
honors in 1869, having won his way into the Phi Beta 
Kappa society by his high standing, the only way any 
person may become a member except by distinguished 
scientific or literary work. He wears the watch 
charm which was presented to him by that society and 
esteems it as one of his most valuable possessions. 
Though poor in the material things of the world, he 
won the respect and esteem of his wealthy classmates 
from the Eastern states, and in his senior year they 
elected him the class orator, the highest honor they 
could bestow. After teaching school for a while, he 
opened a law office in Cineinnati and has been practic- 
ing that profession ever since, and most of the time has 
had as a partner Henry B. McOlure, Esq., who is re- 
puted as an excellent gentleman, a finished scholar and 
an able lawyer. Mr. Giauque, besides being a hard- 
working lawyer, has been the editor of several legal 
works and has contributed articles to the leading peri- 



296 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

odicals of the country on request, principally on scien- 
tific subjects, and has occasionaliy delivered lectures. 
He has taken a keen interest in Araerican archaeology, 
and once had a splendid collection of stone and copper 
prehistoric implements, pottery^ etc.. which were ex; 
hibited and won medals at various expositions, includ- 
ing the World's Fair at Philaddphia in 1776. After be- 
ginning the practice of law Mr. Giauque gave seme at- 
tention to buying and selling real estate, which busi- 
ness has been so fascinating for him that he has con- 
tinued in this line and his ventures have been uni- 
formly successful. He has promoted additions to Cam- 
eron, Mo,, and Deshler, Ohio. When the Kansas City 
Southern Railroad built through Sabine parish he sold 
32,700 acres of land to promoters connected with that 
road, and they honored him by naming the town of 
Florjen in this parish for him. He still owns several 
thousand acres of land in several parishes in Louisiana, 
but he has disposed of a large part of his lands in Sab- 
ine. For many years he spent the month of December 
in Many, but in recent years his visits here have been 
brief and less regular. He still predicts a great future 
for the parish and that the Soilth will yet become 
the richest and grandest country in the world. 
Mr. Giauque was married Novei&ber 18, 1884, t« Mary, 
daughter of William H. Miller, a lawyer of Hamilton, 
Ohio, who was killed in action while serving as an offi- 
cer in the Union army. She was the grand-daughter 
on her mother's side of John Wbods, during his life- 
time a leading lawyer of Hamilton, a member of con- 
gress, auditor of the state of Ohio, and the promoter of 
several important public enterpriser. Five of her an- 
cestors did honorable service in the Revolutionary 
War, on the American side, afid others in the earlier 
colonial wars. Mrs. Giauque died during the winter 
of 1912. No children were born to Mr, and Mrs. 
Giauque. 

W. P. Good (Attorney-at-Law).— Of Scotch-Irish 
and English-Irish stock, the subject of this sketch 
came into being amid the hills of York County, S. C, 
was left an orphan at the age of 11 ; at 12 was taken by 
a wealthy uncle, a self-made naan, to live with him in 
Yorkville, where superior school advantages were en- 
joyed. With a scholarship purchased by his father be- 
fore the subject's birth, he attended Davidson College, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



297 



MeckelbergCo., N. C, and graduated in June, 1873, one 
year having intervened and been utilized to recuperato 

his finances by clerk- 
ing in a general mer- 
chandise store. In 
February, 1874, visit- 
ing relatives in Mis- 
sissippi, he secured a 
school and taught six- 
teen out of a possible 
18 months, and with 
the money saved stud- 
ied law under Camp- 
bell & Anderson of 
Kosciusko, and thence 
went to Lebanon Law 
School in Tenneisee — 
graduated and was 
licensed to practice 
law in that state; but 
his interests remaining 
in South Carolina, he 
returned thence and 
assisted in redeeming 
the state from repub- 
lican misrule, af- 
w. p. GOOD ter which he en- 

gaged in practice at Yorkville. Having accumulated 
considerable money by the judicious handling of capi- 
tal derived from land inherited, and thinking to find a 
better field for the pursuit of his profession, he re- 
moved to Texas in March, 1885, to meet with disap- 
pointment in finding the profession overcrowded, and, 
having invested his money in a speculative venture, he 
was compelled to await developments, which resulted 
in the loss of all by reason of the financial stringency 
of 1890. Presaging the tide of prosperity from Texas to 
Louisiana, in April, 1896, he preceded the railroad to 
Many, where he has since devoted himself to the hon- 
orable pursuit of his profession. 

David J. Holmes, member of the Police Jury from 
Ward Bight, was born on a farm in Bankin County, 
Miss., June 6, 1868, and was reared on a plantation in 
that state. In 1885 he was married to Miss Mollie 
Chapman, and after her death he came to Sabine par- 
ish in 1891. After attending school at Many three 




298 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



years, he taught in the public schools of the parish for 
three years and located at Zwolle in 1898 In 1899 he 
was married to Miss Nonle Youngblood. He was 
elected a member of the Police Jury in 1912, and is 
rendering splendid services to his ward and parish, 
and is especially active in all propositions for public 
improvements. 

Frank Hunter, president of the Sabine State 
Bank, was born in Marshall County, Tenn., Feb- 
ruary 28, 1875, and spent his boyhood days on 
a farm. He was jsriven fair opportunities for 
procuring an education and he took advantage 
of them, and was able to pursue the profession of 
teaching, but subsequently decided to enter upon 
a Dusiness career, for which his education fitted 

him. In 1901 he 
came to Many to 
become cashier of 
the Sabine Valley 
Bank, the first 
banking institu- 
tion which was 
organized in the 
parish. He re- 
mained in this po- 
sition until the 
Many State Bank 
and the Sabine ' 
Valley Bank were 
consolidated and 
rechartered under 
the name of Sab- 
ine State Bank 
when he was made 
president of that 
institution, which 
position he still 
occupies, He is a 
conservative and 
progressive business man, and besides atLending 
to bis duties as the head of the bank has given en- 
couragement and assistance to worthy enter- 
prises and has tilled several positions, honorary 
and political. He is a good citizen and as presi- 




FRANK HUNTER. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



299 



dent of the bank is always ready to extend favors 
when it is in the interest of safe banking to do so. 
In 1904 Mr. Hunter was married to Miss Persia 
Brown of Canton, Miss,, and they have an inter- 
esting family and pretty home. 

George L. Jackson, present occupant of the 
assessor's office in Sabine parish, was born in old 
Jackson (now Lincoln) parish, near Ruston, No- 
vember 21, 1851, his pa- 
rents being Fi ed and Si- 
lina (Shipp) Jackson. 
His grandfather was an 
old settler of Lincoln 
parish, having erected 
the first mill in that sec- 
tion. Fred Jackson's 
family consisted of six 
children: W. F. of Rap- 
ides parish, A, S. of Nat- 
chitoches parish, H. S. of 
New Orleans, Norma 
(wife of Dr. Curtis of 
Shamrock), Mrs. A. 
L. Stephens of Leesville, 
GEO L. JACKSON. and George L. The sub- 

ject of this sketch was enabled to secure only a 
very limited education the last school he attended 
being at Many in 1874 when Prof. Davies was tue 
teacher. His father's family came to Sabine par- 
ish in 1872 and located near Fort Jesup and 
he followed farming until 1876 when he entered 
the printing office of the Sabine Southron at Many 
to learn the "art preservative" at a salary of |4a 
month. After an extended experience at the 
printer's trade, however, he left it to accept a po- 
sition in the store of L. B. and F. C. Gay at Robel; 
ine, in which he remained four years. ' He was then 
employed by Caldwell & Hill, and later was mana- 
ger of the store of the Farmers' Co-Operative As- 
sociation at Fort Jesup for two years, after which 
he farmed two years and then worked for three 
years in A, Dover's store at Robeline. He then 
spent eight years as salesman and buyer for the 
mercantile nouse of Stille Bros, at Many, resign- 




300 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

in^ that position to make the race for assessor, to 
which afflce he was elected ia 1908, la 1912 he 
was re-elected without opposition, which is suffi- 
cient evidence of his personal popularity. He is a 
progressive citizen and efficient public official. In 
1888 Mr. Jackson was married to Miss Mary L. 
Presnall of Robeline and to them ten children 
have been born : Kate (wife of T. J. Chisholm), 
Lena, Robert B., Norma^ Daisy, Florence (died in 
l^ll), Fred, James, Carro and Mary Evelin. 

Geohge W. Heaed, merchant and prominent 
citizen of Belmont, was born in Perry County, Al- 
abama, April 11, 1854, his parents moving to 
Union parish in 1855, where he spent his boyhood 
days. In 1875 he was married to Miss Frances 
Goocher, and in 1876 he moved to Belmont where 
he engaged in farming and later in the mercantile 
business. He has been postmaster at that place 
for more than twenty years and has served as a 
member of the Parish School Board. He is es- 
teemed as a citizen of unquestionable integrity 
and splendid character and ha« always been found 
on the side of every move for the moral and ma- 
terial advancement of the parish. Six children 
were born to his marriage, three of whom are liv- 
ing: Mrs, Judia Uallens of Many, Mrs. Alma Ow- 
ens of Mississippi, and G. B. Heard, the popular 
agent of the Kansas City Southern Railway at 
Benson, La. 

Dr. William Marvin Henry was born in Union 
parish-, near Walnut Lane, on January 5, 1883, 
where he spent his early life. He attended school 
at Calhoun and Downsville, and in October, 1900, 
entered the Southern Dental College at Atlanta, 
Ga., from which institution he graduated a? 
D. D. S. on April 29. 1903. Returning to Louisi- 
ana, he practiced at various places for three 
years. In Octobsr 1906, he selected Many as his 
permanent location, bought property, and has 
been very successful. Besides practicing his pro- 
fession, he is interested in business ventures; he 
nas served as town councilman and is in line with 
progressive movements. On May 27, 1911, Dr. 
Henry was married to Miss Minnie Addison, one 
of Many's most estimable and accomplished young 



MGRAPHICAL sketches SOI 

ladies, and they hii,ve one of tbe prettiest homes 
in the town. 

A. B. Jordan, roember of the Parish School 
Board from Ward One, was born May 8, 1867, 
about two miles from tiie farm on which he now 
lives. His father, John H. Jordan, was born at 
Covington, Ala,, July 29, 1823, and was twice 
married, his first wife being Mildredge Watts, 
born in 1821, and his second wife Martha A, Par- 
ker, born April 24, 1832, who is still living. His 
first wife died July 1,5, 1846, one child was born, 
Margaret A. F,, born April 15, 1846, and to the 
second marriage the following births are recorded: 
Euphemie B., January 15, 1850 (died April 15, 
]#58); ubedience, Sept. 5, 1851 (died October, 
1864); William L„ April 17, 1853; Ophelia, Jan. 
21; 1855; Winnie, Sept. 26, 1857; 
Amanda, March 12, 1860; John 
Henry, July 6, 1862 (died June 
14. 1874); Martha Ann, Nov. 17, 
1864; Asberrv (A, B,). May 8, 
1867; Walter D., May 15, 1859, 
and James E., Sept. 24, 1871. 
He moved from Alabama to 
MiSBissippi in 1856, and in the 
latter part of 1857 he came to 
Louisiana, settling near the line 
of Sabine and Matchifcoches par- 
ishes in Ward One. He became 
a member of the Baptist church 
at Cedron in August, 1860, and 
took his Masonic degrees iu Kisatchie Lodge No. 
156 in 1864, and was an esteemed citizen of that 
section. His death occurred July 8, 1899. A. B. 
Jordan has always lived in the community where 
he now resides. Durins: his youth there were no 
public schools there and he went for brief terms to 
private schools taught by Abraham Eicks, Sam 
Sibley, Valmore Byles, Elias and Dave Sell at Mt. 
Carmel and Middle Creek, On December 1, 1892. 
h^ was married to Eunice Belle Coburn, who was 
born in Sabine parish, July 10, 1870, and to their 
union five children have been born: Pearlie, Sept. 
12, 1893 (raarrried George Mclnnis, Jr., died Dec. 




A. B. JORDAN. 



302 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



9, 1912); Ivry, March 8, 1895; J. Orange, Feb. 
27. 1897; Florence 0„ Nov. 7, 1899 (died June 
30, 1910); John T., Jan. 28, 1902. Miss Ivry is 
a popular teacher. Mr. Jordan has been always 
engaged in farming. He is a member of the Bap- 
tist congregation and Kisatchie TiOdge F. & A. M. 
at Mt. Carmel and is a splendid citizen, In 1912, 
he was elected a member ot the Parish School 
board, and is a consistent worker for educational 
progress along all lines. 

James E. Jordan, justice of the peace for Ward 
One, was born September 24, 1871, his parents 
being John H. and Martha A, (Parker) Jordan, 

early settlers in the 
southeast , part of 
thfc pari.^h. He was 
reared, and always 
lived, on a farm, and 
attended the public 
schools.- On Febru- 
ary 3, 1903, he was 
married to June A. 
Coburnjand to them 
has been born one 
child, Sarah Jane 
(.June 26, 1904). 
He served four years 
as constable of his 
ward and is serving 
his third term as 
justice ot the peace. 
He took his Masonic 
degrees in Kisatchie 
Lodge No, 156 in 
August, September 
and October, 1908, 
and since that time 
has occupied prominent places in lodge circles, 
was W. M. six years, besides at various times fill- 
ing other important offices. For the past five 
years he has served as D. D. G. M. for the Masonic 
order. On January 16, 1910, he was made a 
Royal Arch Mason in Vernon Chapter No. 51, R. 
A. M. Mr, Jordan has been an enthusiastic stu- 




J. E. JORDAN. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 303 

dent of vocal music and for several years has suc- 
cessfully taught vocal classes. 

H. S. Kennedy.— Mr. Kennedy (Uncle Hugh) was a 
citizen of Sabine parisli from about 1850 till his death a 
few years since. It was said of Uncle Hugh and an- 
other worthy old citizen of Pleaaant Hill that they 
were in the habit of sallying out of a morning and in- 
dulging in a little uproarous profanity before break- 
fast, as a consMtutional health measure. Aside from a 
few harmless eccentricities of this kind, that served to 
accentuate his individuality, he was a man of social 
disposition; and, possessing a remarkable memory, was 
full of interesting reminiscences of this section, extend- 
ing from the time that he met Sam Houston of Texas 
on the streets of Many to and including the latest hap- 
penning of local or national politics. He was of mark- 
able personal appearance, his head being almost en- 
tirely bald. It was full of sound sense, however, and 
with an Irishman's wit and knack of expression; but 
for lack of opportunity, he might have been a Grattan 
or a Curran in oratorical power. He was, besides, a 
man of high character, and the worthy ancestor of some 
of our best people. 

H. H. Kennedy, one of Pleasant Hill's most prom- 
inent and substantial citizens, ia a son of Uncle Hugh 
Kennedy, was born and reared in that neighborhood. 
He received his schooling at Old Pleasant Hill and 
worked with his father in his business enterprises. 
Mr. Kennedy has been uniformly successful in his en- 
deavors, is at presnt interested in business and other 
enterprises and is president of the Bank of Pleasant 
Hill, a prosperous financial institution. Anxious lor 
the development and prosperity of his country, he is 
ever ready to a#sist in progressive endeavors, and he is 
genial gentleiljan and energetic citizen. On October 
23, 1896, Mr. Kennedy was married to Miss Bettie, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. Fisher Smith of Many. 

John L. Latham, member of the Police Jury for 
Ward Six, was born in Webster County, Miss., Sep- 
tember 7, 1859, where he grew to manhood. In 1881 he 
came to Sabine parish and entered the employ of his 
uncle, James L/. Latham, on Bayou San Patricio, and 
remained with him two years, receiving $150 a year. 
He then worked for H. H. Cassell two years, 
after which he was in the employ of R. G. Brown for 
five years. On October 10, 1889, he started to farming 
on his own account, built the house where he now 
lives, and was married to Jennie Paul, sister of G. I. 
Paul of Converse, Rev. S. S. Holliday officiating at the 



S04 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

marriage. Pive children liave been born to them, three 
of whoni are now living- Mr. Latham is a splendid ex- 
ample of a man who has made a success by his own de- 
termination and industry. He owns 520 acres* of land 
near Noble as well as some property in that town, and 
he belives there is yet plenty of room in that section 
for energetic farmers to settle and soon be living under 
their "own vine and fig tree." Mr. Latham aided in 
the erection of the first school house at Noble and has 
always worked for better educational facilities. He is 
a member of the Baptist church and the Masonic or- 
der. As a member of the Police Jury he is naturally 
partial to the interests of the constituents of his own 
ward, yet there is not to be found a citizen who is a 
better booster for the entire parish and more ready to 
do something for the good of the country. 

William T. Latham was born September 7, 1859, in 
Webster County, Miss., being a brother of the subject 
of the foregoing sketch, and is a successful farmer and 
business man of Noble. He came to Sabine parish in 
1882 and engaged in farming on Bayou San Patricio, 
and continued to farm until 1903 when he entered the 
life insurance business with the Mutual of New York. 
When he first came to the parish the country lying 
between Bayous San Patricio and San Miguel was 
practically a wilderness and was still a fine hunting 
ground, abounding in deer and other wild game. In 
1903 Mr. Latham went to Noble and bought laad in the 
town which was divided into town lots and sold. Dur- 
ing that year he erected the first storehouse in the 
town which he leased to B. P. Bell. He has always 
believed that this section had a bright future and is an 
enthuastic advocate of every proposition to advance 
its interests. Besides attending to his own business 
affairs, he looks after the extensive land interests of 
the Long-Bell Lumber Co. On December 13, 1883, Mr. 
Latham was married to Miss Willie Cranford, who was 
a member of an old family of the parish, and they 
have a pleasaut home. 

W. M. Knott, cashier of the Sabine State Bank, 
was born in Natchitoches parish, near old Beulah 
Camp Ground, February 16, 1879. His father, George, 
was a native of Kentucky, came to Louisiana in the 
early days and was a successful farmer. W. M. Knott 
attended public schools and the Port Jesup High 
School. He learned telegraphy and for seyen years 
was in the employ of the K. C. S. and the Rock Island 
railroads, after which he entered the employ of the 
Thompson-Rithchie Co., wholesale grocers, at Ruston, 
where he remained three years. He came to Many in 
1909 to become cashier of the Sabine State Bank, in 
which position he has made a most creditable record. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 505 



Alfred Litton, Sabine's representative in the 
State Legislature, was born near Mitchell, in this par- 



ish, December 




His grandfather, John Lit- 
ton, settled on Bayou Wal- 
lace. Alfred Litton, Sr. , 
father of the svibject of this 
sketch was married three 
times and reared a family 
of fourteen children. Al- 
fred, Jr., was reared on a 
farm and attended public 
public schools In 1888 he 
was married to Miss Sallie, 
daughter of P. L. Tatum 
and to them seven children 
have been born. Mr. Lit- 
ton has always taken an 
active and patriotic inter- 
est in public affairs and is a 
zealous advocate of parish 
A. LITTON. progress. He was a mem- 

t'Cr of the Parish School Board for three years and is 
^^rving his second consecutive term as representative 
°f his parish in the State Legislature, and as a member 
of that body has made a clean record. Mr. Litton is a 
good citizen and is esteemed for his upright char- 
acter and genial personality, and has never received 
censure for any official act. He is a resident of Con- 
verse and is especially interested in the progress of 
that resourceful community. 

James F. Lucius.— Mr. Lucius is one of Sabine's 
most substantial and progresssive citizens, and he is a 
splendid example of a self-made made, whose success 
in life has been won by persistent effort and untiring 
energy. Ho was born in this parish in 1860 to Samuel 
G, and Martha (Moss) Lucius, who were born in South 
Carolina and Alabama in 1811 and 1830, respectively, 
his father being a man of good education and a 
pioneer of Sabine parish. J. P. Lucius was the fourth 
of seven children, three sons now living: George W., 
James P. and Robert J. James P. was reared on a 
farm, and besides going to the public schools attended 
a high school at Milam, Texas. His education has also 
been increased by reading and travel, his travels hav- 
ing extended all over America, as well as to Europe, 
Egypt and the Holy Land. In 1879 he and his brothers 
began rafting on the Sabine River and after three 
years opened a mercantile business at Columbus; In 



306 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

188B J. F. and R. J. Lucius moved to Negreet an opened 
a mercantile business which they continued for several 
years, and at the same time bought cotton and directed 
their farms. For the past ten years they have been 
nearly entirely engaged in real estate investments, es- 
pecially in timber lands, and have been very succesful. 
James F. has always been an ardent advocate of pro- 
gress and has never failed to serve his neighbors or his 
parish when his services were needed, is a genial gen- 
tleman and a high-class citizen. 

Pat Leone, member of the Parish School Board for 
Ward Five, was born in the community in which he 
now resides July 9, 1891. Being without the means oT 
opportunity to procure an education, he received his 
instruction in the common scheols, which was very 
limited, and the measure of success which has come to 
him has been largely due to his own efforts. He is a 
good citizen, has the best interests of his community 
at heart at all times and stands up for the advanoe- 
of education in the entire parish. The people of his 
ward expressed their confidence in his ability by elect- 
ing him a member of the parish School Board. 

Dr. James M. Middleton, prominent physician of 
Many, was born at Simpkinsville, Monroe County, Al- 
abama, September 2, 1866, and was reared on a farm. 
He chose the medical profession for his life's work and 
graduated at Vanderbilt Medical College in 1890 and 
located at Many. He took polyclinics at New Orleans 
in 1893, a post-graduate course at Tulane Medical Col- 
lege in 1896, a second course in polyclinics in 1899, and 
hks attended medical lectures since that time. He is 
a member of the Parish Medical Society, has held vari- 
ous offices in that society and assisted in its first or- 
ganization. Soon after locating in Many, Dr. Middle- 
ton was married to Miss Lee, daughter of Mr, and Mrs. 
J. F, Smith and to their union was born a most inter- 
esting family. Mrs. Middleton died in 1911. The doc- 
tor's eldest son is a graduate of the literary department 
of Vanderbilt University and is preparing himself for 
the bar by taking a law course at the State University. 
Besides being a hard-working physician. Dr. Middle- 
ton has always taken an active interest in public en- 
terprises, and is a splendid citizen. 

Rev. T. J. LiTES.— The subject of this sketch was 
born at Forest Park, Clayton County, Georgia, Janu- 
uary 17, 1859, and spent his boyhood days on a farm 
with his parents, Daniel and Sarah (Aikins) Lites. 
He lived one year in Alabama and went to Arkansas, 
la 1881, where he began teaching vocal music. In the. 
fall of 1883 he moved to Rockwall, Texas, and the fol- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCIII:8 307 



lowing year was married to Miss 




Mattie Atherton of 
ttiat place. To 
this union thirteen 
children have been 
born, twelve of 
whom are living. 
He moved to Co- 
lumbus, this par- 
ish in 1888, and 
has perhaps done 
more for the par- 
ish, in a musical 
way, than any 
other man; has 
taught vocal mu- 
sic in this state 
with splendid suc- 
cess. In 1894 he 
was ordained to 
the Gospel minis- 
try by authority 
of the Missoinary 
Baptist church at 
BEV. T. J. LiTES, Fort Jesup, and 

has been pastor of some of the best churchfs in the 
Sabine and North Sabine Associations. In 1909 he 
gave up pastoral work and became a missionary of the 
American Sunday School Union and has been very 
successful as a Sunday school evangelist. He has re- 
sided in Ward Four, about six miles from Many, for 22 
years and has been an untiring worker for the moral 
and m.aterial progress of the country. 

George Robebt Piebce, member of the Police Jury 
from Ward Eight, was born in Copiah County, Miss., 
July 18, 1866, and spent his boyhood there. He moved 
with his parents to Sabine parish in 1882, and has al- 
ways been engaged in farming and has been very suc- 
cessful. Mr. Pierce has always been a strong advocate 
of organization and co-operatiou among the farmers as 
a means of bringing prosperity to them and building 
up the agricultural interests of the country. He was 
elected a member of the Police Jury in 1912 and is in 
line with the progressive policy of that body ; he is a 
good citizen and a high-class gentleman. 

Walter S. Mitchbll, parish superintendent of 
public education, was born on a farm four miles south 



308 BIOGRAPHIC AL SKETCHES 




W. S. MITCHELL 

1904 when he entered 



of Fort Jesup, June 21, 1883. At 6 years of age he en- 
tered the school at New Hope, and with the exception 

of a part of two terms at Fort 
Jesup and three months at 
the New Castle school, he at- 
tended this school until 16 
years of age, when, resolving 
to prepare himself for the 
profession of a teacher, he 
entered the Fort Jesup High 
School. At 18 years of age 
he obtained a certificate 
and taught a three months' 
school in Vernon parish dur- 
ing the summer of 1901. He 
continued to attend school at 
Fort Jesup in winter and 
taught district schools during 
the summer months' until 
a military school at Meridian, 
Miss., from whieh he graduated on May 26, 1909, dur- 
ing which time he taught a summer session at his old 
home school at New Hope. After graduating he re- 
turned to Sabine and continued to pursue his profes- 
sion, teaching in turn the Whatley and New Castle 
schools. He attended the latter school when 7 years 
of age, and while teaching there, April 3, 1910, he was 
elected parish superintendent to fill the unexpired 
term of three years of J. H. Williams, Jr., resigned, 
and on April 5, 1913, was re-elected for a term of four 
years. Prof. Mitchell has a flattering college record, 
having filled with distinction the highest positions in 
his military company and in the various college soci- 
eties, and on his graduation received the degree of 
Bachelor of Science. As parish superintendent he has 
been a hard and conscientious worker, aad naarked 
and very creditable improvements have been made un- 
der his administration. He is a polished and courte- 
ous gentleman, and among our self-made men no bet- 
ter example can be cited. On March 18, 1911, Prof. 
Mitchell was married to Miss Hattle Gertrude Hart, an 
accomplished young lady of Ripley, Tenn. 

L.J. Nash was born at^Columbus, Lowndes Co., Miss. 
April 22, 1832, his parents being Valentine and Mary 
Nash, natives of South Carolina, who moved from 
Mississippi to Natchitoches parish in in 1838, and soon 
thereafter settled on Toro, Sabine parish. Valentine 
Nash died in 1894, at the age of 98 years. His family 
consisted of the following children: John, Abie, Eliz- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 309 

abeth (wife of L. B. Gay), Eveline (Mrs. Nicholas Mc- 
Neely), Ludlow J., (living), Leonora (Mrs. Mitchell 
Carnahan), America (Mrs. John Carnahan), Columbus 
C. (living), Isabella (died in infancy), Valentine, Jr. 
(living); Victoria (Mrs. A. H. Hogue, died 1880). L. 
J. Nash was first married to Caroline B. Sibley, eight 
children being born to them: Francis Marion (died in 
infancy), John V. (died in 1906), Virginia L. (wife of 
Dr. S. H. Cade), Samuel Adrain (deceased) (Coleman 
S. (deceased), Columbus C, Mary Jane (Mrs. W. E. 
McNeely), Elizabeth (Mrs. Joseph D. Stille). After 
Mrs. Nash's death he was married to Leonora Koontz 
and two children were born to them, Ludlow and Le- 
onora. Mrs. Nash and Leonora died in January, 1911, 
their deaths occurring the same week. L. J. Nash 
(familiarly known as captain) is now making his home 
in Many, and still retains much of the vigor of his 
youth. He is a splendid type of the old-time Southern 
gentleman. His father established the first postofflce 
(Nashboro) in the southern part of the par- 
ish, which was discontinued during the war, reopened 
after that period and continued until the railroad was 
built through the parish in 1906. The Nashes ran a 
store and plantation there for half a century. Captain 
Nash went to school to Samuel G. Lucius in 1841, stud- 
ied Walker's Dictionary and Smiley's Arithmetic, la- 
ter attended grammar school and took a course In 
penmanship and bookkeeping in New Orleans, and 
taught schools. He was a member of the Parish School 
Board in the '70s. He served in the Civil War as lieu- 
tenantof the Sabine RebBls,and brought home with him 
the company's flag. Captain Nash has been one of the 
parish's most useful citizens, defending the right and 
condemning the wrong. Everyone who knows him 
is his friend, and his kind heart and and unique gen- 
tlemanly manners will be ever rememberedby all who 
have had the pleasure of knowing him. 

Db. S. E. Peincb, prominent physician of Noble, 
was born in Bossier parish, August 8, 1869. He was 
reared o» a farm and received his education in the 
parish schools, and received his medical education at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, 
graduating at that institution in April, 1898 He then 
located at Yellow Pine, Webster parish, where he re- 
mained until December, 1900 when he moved to Sabine 
parish and engaged in a general practice at Noble, be- 
sides being the physician and surgeon for the Frost- 
Johnson Lumber Co. Dr. Prince has occupied a prom- 
nent place in the progress of the thriving town of No- 
ble. He organized the Noble State Bank and is the 



310 BIOGIUPHICAL SKETCHES 

president of that prosperous and growing institution. 
He is a past master of Noble Lodge No. 320, F' & A. 
M., and a member of Vernon Chapter No. 51, B, A. M., 
of Leesville. Dr. Prince was married in 1900 to Miss 
Pauline Trigg, three children having been born to 
them, and they have a pretty residence in Noble. 

John R. PABEOTT,a successful farmer of Zwolle,Tras 
born in the state of Alabama, March 11, 1839, and 
Bftoved with his father to Northeast Louisiana in the 
early '40s and from there to Sabine parish in 1854, where 
he has since resided. He served as a soldier in the 
Confederate army, was seriously wounded at the battle 
of Mansfield, April 8, 1864, after which he was konor- 
ably discharged. At the close of the war he married 
and reared a splendid family, three of his sons being 
successful physicians. While Mr. Parrott has been 
largely occupied in farming and stock raising, he has 
lent aid and encouragement to various enterprises and 
has been very instrumental in the development of the 
fine section in whieh he resides. For many years he 
was a member of- the Parish School Board, and 
held that public position longer than any official in the 
history of the parish, and has always been ready to 
answer the call of duty. His record as a citizen and 
official is ample testimony of the high esteem in which 
he is held by his fellow cittizens. 

G. W. PuGH, a progressive citizen of Noble, was 
born In DeSoto parish in 1859, moved with his father to 
Sabine, ten miles from the DeSoto parish line in 1872. 
His father built a sawmill with gin and corn mill at- 
tached, which was known as Pugh's Mill and for many 
years was a voting precinct. G. W. Pugh resided here 
until 1900, when he moved to Noble and engaged in the 
gin business which he still conducts. He has been 
twice married and has ten children. Mr. Pugh has ta- 
ken an active interest in local and parish affairs. He 
has served as a member of the Parish School Board 
and as president of that body. He is a genial gentle- 
man and good citizen. 

S. H. Porter, member of Parish School Board from 
Ward Eight and prominent business man of ZwoUe, 
was born in Natchitoches parish, Sept. 2, 1877, lived 
with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Porter, on 
Bayou Pierre, near Allen, La., until 14 years of age, 
when they moved to Marthaville, where he entered 
school, graduating from the Marthaville High School 
in the class of '95. On January 1st, 1897, he entered 
the employ of W. C. Davis of Pleasant Hill as sales- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 311 

man, remaining four years and was promoted each 
year, and on January 1, 1901, he became associated witli 
Mr. Davis in the mercantile business at Zwolle which 
was later incorporated as the Davis-Porter Co. In 1906 
Mr. Porter acquired all the stock in the company and 
since that time has conducted the business ia his own 
name. Aside from being a successfnl merchant, Mr. 
Porter is a booster for his town and parish. He has 
served as mayor of Zwolle one term and as councilman 
for several years. He is now a member of the Parish 
School Board and vice president of that body. 

W. B.. Ross, member of the Police Jury from Ward 
Seven, was born near old Vermilliouville, Lafayette 
parish, March 29, 1862. Shortly thereafter his parents 
moved to Rankin County, Miss., where he was reared 
and resided until November, 1892, when he came to 
Sabine parish, located near Pleasant Hill and engaged 
ia farming. Later he was employed as bookkeeper, in 
turn by Dr. H. L, Davis, Davis Bros, and H. H. Ken- 
nedy. He was married July 15, 1888, and has nine 
children living. Mr. Ross is at present engaged in the 
gin business at Pleasant Hill. In 1904 he was elected a 
member of the Police Jury and is serving his third 
term, and has served as president of that body. He is 
energetic and progressive and was prime mover in 
the present campaign of modern road building in this 
parish. 

S. J. Speight, member of the Police Jury from 
"Ward Two, was born in Sabine parish, Sept. 23, 1864, 
and was reared on a farm. In 1888 he went to school 
two sessions of ten month's each at Fort Jesup to Prof, 
T. B. Hardin, which embraces his schooling. On Sep- 
tember 18, 1890, he was married to Miss Emma Lewis 
of San Patricio, west of the present town of Noble, and 
to them seven children, five girls and two boys, were 
born, of whom four girls and one boy are living Mrs. 
Speight died in 1903. In 1900 Mr. Speight was elected 
justice of the peace of Ward Two, and declined to run 
again. In 1912 he was elected Police Juror for his 
ward. Mr. Speight is a successful farmer, a good cit- 
and is loy^l to the best interests of his parish. 

Prof. O. L. Sanders was born July 22, 1887, near 
Battau postoface, is a son of W. J. Sanders, and was 
reared on a farm in Sabine parish. He attended the 
public schools, principally at Florien, secured a first 
grade certificate and entered the teaching profession 
at the age of 17. Desiring to equip himself for a more 
useful life, he entered the Louisiana State Universsty 
in 1901, from which he graduated four years later. 



312 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

with the degree of Master of arts; he was senior cap- 
tain of the corps of cadets and president of his class. 
He then completed one year's work in law at the same 
institution. For the past three years he has been 
principal of the Sabine Literary and Agricultural 
High School at Oak Grove, three miles east of Con- 
verse, where he has rendered most satisfactory service, 
and has been re-elected principal for the session of 
1913-'14. 

Judge Don E. SoRelle was bora at Quitman, 
Wood County, Texas, August 1, 1857. His pa- 
rencs were Dr. Thiomas W, SoRelie, a native of 
Alabama, and Mildred Ford of Georgia, he being 
their fifth child. In 1850 he moved with his par- 
ents'ito Mississippi, where he remained until 1869, 
when they came to Louisiana, locating in Rapides, 
parish, near the town of Boyce. Judge SoRelle re- 
ceived most of his education under the instruction 
of his father and mother and studied law at home, 
In 1886 he graduated from the Law Department 
of Tulane University and located at Leesville for. 
the practice of his profession. He had formerly 
been associated witti John F, Smart in the news- 
paper business at that place. In 1890 he estab- 
lished a newspaper at Pelican, La , but moved to 
Many in August of that year and started the Sab- 
ine Banner as an anti-lottery organ, and took up 
the practice of law. His official record is noted 
in former pages of these annals. He has been an 
untiring and conscientious worker for an ideal, 
educational system and citizenship in the parish, 
and as the present mayor of Many hopes co do 
some good for the town. He is associated in the 
practice of law with Senator John H. Boone. On 
January 7, 1880, Judge SoRelle was married to 
Miss Mattie Self, daughter of Judge Elijah Self, 
they have reared a most estimable family, and 
they have one of the pettiest and most commo- 
dious residences in Many. 

S. S. Tatum, president of the Parish School 
Board, was born Dec. 12, 1853, in Jackson par- 
ish, and at the age of 10 moved to Catahoula and 
later to Union parish where he lived until 1875, 
when he came to Sabine parish. In September of 
that year he was married to Miss Sallie J. Tanner 
and to that union eleven children have been born, 
five boys and six girls, ten of whom are living. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 313 

Mr. Tatum is a prominent and progressive citizen 
of the Tenth Ward and is an enthusiastic sup- 
porter of improvements alcnjij all lines. He was 
elected a member of the Parish School Board in 
1908 and re-elected in 1912, and at present is the 
worthy and esteemed president of that body. 

John W. Taylor, a prominent and esteemed cit- 
izen of Fort Jesup, was born near Akron, Ohio, 
July 26, 1839; moved with his father's family to 
Kansas, and when the Civil War came on he en- 
listed in Company I, 32nd Regiment, Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry. At the close of that conflict he was 
married to Miss Mary M. Russell of Clyde, Ohio, 
^ho was at that time a member of the faculty of 
Baker University, Baldwin, Kansas, Until 1878 
he was engaii,ed in the mercantile business, when, 
for his wife's health, he moved to Colorado, where 
he spent three years in the cashier's office of theD. 
& R, G. Railway Co. In 1881 he came to Sabine 
parish and the following year bought a farm, on 
which he has since resided. Mr. Taylor has been 
identified with public affairs, serving as trustee 
of the Masonic Institute and High School at Fort 
Jesup, as representative of the paristi in the gen- 
eral assembly of 1892-94, as member and presi- 
dent of the Parish School Board, and is prominent 
in Masonic circles as a member of the pioneer 
lodge at Fort Jesup and as Deputy District Grand 
Master. Mr. Ta.ylor is an affable gentleman, loyal 
to the interests of country of his adoption, and 
bespeaks for it a glorious future. 

James A. Tramel, member of the Police Jury 
from Ward Four, was born in Sabine parish, No- 
vember 13, 1860, his parents moving here from 
Alabama in 1859. His father died in March, 1865, 
as a result of the Civil War, and he was reared by 
his widowed mother on a farm eight miles north 
of Many. His limited education was such as could 
be obtained in the common schools just after the 
war; yet his strict adherence to the principles of in- 
dustry won him confidence and esteem. He was 
married to Lula Lewis in 1886, to which union 
eight children have been born, six now living. He 
took a limited course in Soule' busmesss college in 
1888. Mr. Tramel has been a member of M. E. 



314 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Church South since 1885. besides serving as par- 
ish assessor, he has been constantly identified 
with the directorship of schools. He moved with 
his family to i ort Jesup in 1890 and for ten years 
was secretary of the board of directors of the Sab- 
ine Central High school; he made the first white 
enrollment in the parish for W. H. Vandegaer as 
suvervisor of the work. In March, 1911, he was 
elected Police Juror to fill the unexpired term of 
A. F. Addison; was re-elected in 1912 and was ap- 
pointed chairman of the ways and means commit- 
tee and is now assisting in doing pioneer work in 
model road building in Sabine peirish. Mr. Tramel 
is a faithful and conscientious public official and 
stands for a better and greater parish, 

William H. Vandegaer, clerk and recorder, 
wag born in the town of Many, December 2, 1865, 
being the second son of John B. and Maria (Bu- 
vens) Vandegaer. He has spent 
his entire life here, attended 
school in Many and at St. Charles 
College, Grand Coteau. In 1894 
he was married to Belle Buvens; 
after her death, which occurred 
in 1904, was married to Mrs. G. 
W. Hatcher. Two children were 
born to his first marriage, John 
B. and Saraii. Mr. Vandegaer 
was engaged in the mercantile 
business with his father until the 
latter's death. In 1893 he was 
appomted parish assessor by 
Governor Murphy J. Foster and held that posi- 
tion for twelve years. In 1909 he was elected 
clerk and recorder to fill the unexpired term of W. 
E, McNeely (deceased), and is the present occu- 
pant of that position. He is an efl3cientand cour- 
teous official and progressive citizen. Aside from 
his public duties he is interested in prosperous 
business enterprises. 

J. H. Williams, a prominent citizen of Florien, 
was born in DeSoto parish, March 6, 1847. His 
father was Lightfoot Williams, who settled near 
Many in 1857, where he owned a gin and a fine 




W. H. Vandegaer 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



315 



plantation, and hie mother before her marria|2:e 
was a Miss So:nerville. On March 29, 1866, J. H. 
Williams was maried to Miss Neomi Ford and to 
their union nine boys and two g^irls were born: 
John H,, B. L., Robert L., Samuel K., Lemuel L., 
Sydney J., Daniel S., Edward L,, Byron, Lizzie 
(Mrs. Joe Dover), and Mary. Mr, Williams' sec- 
ond marriage was to Susan Woodel, December, 
1891, and to them three children were born. Van, 
Jeff and Bessie. Mr. Wiliamslserved with the Sab- 
ine Rebels during: the Civil War. He has been en- 
gaged in farming and in later years was interested 
in saw mills. He is a good citizen and has con- 
tributed his part to local progress. 

W. C. RoATKN, principal of the Many High 
School, was born in Wayne County, Ky., August 
31, 1661, and was educated in the common 

schools of his native state 
and at the Southern Nor- 
mal School; took special 
work in the riummer 
Schrol of the South at 
Knoxville, Tenn., and in 
the Louisiana State Uni- 
versity summer schools. 
He has taug;ht every 
year, except one, s'nce be 
graduated in 1884. thir- 
teen years as principal of 
Tiouisiana high schools, 
the last seven years at 
Many. Prof. Roaten has 
always been a diligent 
w. c. EOATEN student of educational 

subjects, trying to find the best for the people 
around him; an untiring worker and painstaking 
instructor. He is an optimist by nature, an out- 
spoken exponent of what he thinks is right, and a 
mild but firm disciplinarian. Some of the results 
of his work are noted in the annals of the Many 
High School Prof. Roaten is a member of the 
Christian church. He was married in 1890 to 
Mollie Reed of Mississippi, and they have onechild, 
Stanley, born in 1904. 




316 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Silas D. Ponder (attorney-at-law) was born 
on a farm six miles east of Robeline, Natchitoches 
parish, January 15, 1860, His father, Wil- 
liam A. Ponder, was a highly esteemed 
citizen of that parish, and, besides being 
a successful farmer, was identified with progress- 
ive and public-spirited movements; was member 
of the constitutional convention, and assisted in 
the work of banishing carpet-bag rule from his 
parish after the war, Silas D. Ponder spent his boy- 
hood days on the farm, was educated at the Uni- 
versity of the South at Sewauee, Tenn., and sub- 
sequently graduated at law from Tulane Univer- 
sity and began the practice of law at Natchi- 
toches. On account of a severe attack of fever he 
removed to Texas, in 1886, where he lived for fif- 
teen years, and while a citizen of that state he 
filled several important positions of trust, among 
them being prosecuting attorney of Denton 
county. In 1901 he moved back to the beloved 
state of his nativity, located at Many, and for 
several years was associated with his brother, 
Amos L. Ponder, in law practice and for a short 
time with R. A. Fraser, but at present is practic- 
ing entirely on his own account. He is a success- 
ful lawyer, a genial gentleman and good citiien. 
Elected without opposition, be has satisfactorily 
served as mayor of Many. Mr. Ponder was mar- 
ried, in 1885, to Miss Cora Templeman of Shreve- 
port, and they have seven children now living — 
two boys and five girls. 

Amos L. Ponder, pou of William A. Ponder, 
was born on a farm six miles east of Robeline, in 
Natchitoches parish, in September, 1863, and was 
reared there. He graduated from Centenary Col- 
lege at Jackson, La., in 1883. In 1885, he was 
married to Miss Anita Barbee and to them four 
children, boys, have been born. After his mar- 
ried he kept books for the store of L, Barbee at 
Fort Jesup. At the same time he spent his leisure 
moments reading law and was admitted to the 
bar in 1887, after standing a brilliant examina- 
tion by the Supreme Court. He began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Many, where he resided 
until appointed attorney for the State Game and 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 317 

Fish Commission, whea he moved to New Orleans 
and later to Amite City, where he is at present en- 
gapjed in practicing law. While a citizen of Sab- 
ine parish he occupied several important public 
positions; was parish superintendent of public 
schools, represented Sabine in the constitutional 
convention of 1898, and was one of the most tal- 
ented aijd influential members of that body. He 
served four years as district attorney for the 12th 
Judicial District and rendered spend id services. 
Besides being an able lawyer, Mr, Ponder is a pro- 
gressive citizen and a pleasant gentleman. . 

Dan Vandegaer, parish surveyor, was born in 
the Province of Brabant, Belgium, December 26, 
1844, his parents being Jasper and Joanna 
(Broweer) Vandegaer, who immigrated to Amer- 
ica in the early '50s, settline in Rapides parish, 
where the subject of this sketch was reared. In 
1867 he came to Many and engaged in ginning 
and later in running a saw mill. For many 
years he has been parish surveyor and still per- 
forms the duties of that position and is also par- 
ish abstractor, having as his associate in the lat- 
ter business Attorney R. A. Fraser. Mr. Vande- 
gaer is esteemed as a gentleman of sterling integ- 
rity and splendid character, and is one of the 
parish's most useful citizens. He has been thrice 
married and has seven children living: Rev. N, F. 
Vandegaer of Monroe, Dan H., Nina, Thomas, 
Cecil, John and Theresa. 

Leo Vandegaer was born December 21, 1859, 
in the town of Many. His parents were John B, 
and Maria (Buvens) Vandegaer, natives of Bel- 
gium, who immigrated to America witb thtir pa- 
rents in the early '50s. Leo Vandegaer has lived 
in Many all his life, received his education at dt. 
Charles College, Grand Coteau, La. For several 
years he was engaged in the mercantile business 
with his father, and after the latter's death suc- 
ceeded him as postmaster at Many and still re- 
tains that position, and is also editor of the Sab- 
ine Banner. He has served in several public posi- 
tions, and has contributed as much as any one 
citizen to the upbuilding of the parish, On June 
3, 1886, he was married to Jennie, daughter of 



318 THE CHURCHES 

Dr. T. W. AbiQffton, one child being born to them, 
Maggie. His wife died in 1887, and on September 
4, 1889, he was married to Miss Emma Currie of 
Shreveport, and to their union four children were 
born, Eula, Mary, Annie Claire and Leo Jr., the 
young ladies having completed their education in 
splendid academies, while Leo Jr., is a student at 
nis father's alma mater, St. Charles College. 



The Clmirches.* 

Various religious denominations are repre- 
sented in Sabine parish and churches are to be 
found in the towns as well as in the leading com- 
munities. Besides the denominations mentioned 
below the Congregational Methodists, Presbyte- 
rians, Latter Day Saints and others have organ- 
ized churches. 

Missionary Baptist.— The oldest Baptist church 
west of Red River was organized on Toro in the 
'30s, and the Sabine Assotiation, with seven 
churches, was organized in 1846. .Among the 
early preachers were Elders William Cook, McAu- 
liff, E. A. Camobeil and B. R. Roberts. In the 
early '50c Elders VV. C. Southwell, "Billy" Sibley 
and N. H. Bray were members of the association. 
Rev. I. N. McCollister was ordained in 1852 and 
for many years was state missionary. He died in 
1879. Among other prominent preachers of that 
association in the old days were Revs. Edmund 
Duijjgan, Matthias Scarborough, Y, J. Prewett, 
and, later, G. W. Stringer, Hiram Brews Cer,J<ime8 
SavsU, Abraham Weldon, J, Gr. Bailey, Daniel 
Slay, W. M. Lilly and W. M. Bush, In 1878 the 
association was divided and Vernon association 
created. In 1896 Sabine Association had about 
65 churches and was again divided. North Sabine 
iissociation being created. Among the preachers 
belonging to the latter association are Elders J 
B, Wood, \V. M. Bush, Geo. F. Middleton, Jas. G. 
Mason, M. Smith, A. G, Kidd, J. M. Pate. W. R, 

*Owing to the inability ot the writer to secure satis- 
factory data, this part of the parish annals could only 
be presented briefly. 



THE CHUrxCHES 319 

Carroll. II. A. Phillips, A. R. Horn, T, Buckley, 11. 
W. Thervvood, II. D. Williams, VV. R. Law and J. 
H. Ricks. 

Methodist Episcopal (South). — This denom- 
ination has several chui dies iu the pjirish and a 
large number of prominent ministers have been 
assi2;ned to this field since 181:0, and that church 
numbers among its membership some of the lead- 
ing citizens oi the parish. W. D. Stephens, who 
came to the parish in 1835, was probably the first 
local Metodist preacher. He was also a mechanic 
and superintended the work of building Fort 
Jesup.was intimate with Gen. Zachary Tay!or,nnd 
declined a Federal position which the general of- 
fered him when he became president. Mr. Steph- 
ens was a member of the state constitutional con- 
vention in the '40s. Rev. W, F. Henderson is at 
present in charge of the Many circuit 

Roman Catholic— The church of LasCabezas,on 
Bayou Ssie, was established in about 1795, which 
was followed by another church known asNuestra 
Senora de-Guadeloupe. These old churches have 
passed into history, having been succeeded by the 
present church (St. Joseph's) at Zwolle, of which 
Kev. J. A, Aubree was the first rector. Rev. F. 
Van Haver was stationed there for several years. 
The church at Many was erected in 1870, Rev. 
Father Aubree serving as rector until his death 
in 1896. Rev. A. Anseeuw later took charge, re- 
maining until 1906, when Rev. Q. Vanderburg, 
present rector, came. Besides having charge of 
the church (St. John's) at Many, Father Vander- 
burg has as a mission the church at Spanish 
Lake, which succeeded the mission at Adais, estab- 
lished in the early part of tha eighteenth century.