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Full text of "History of Bath and environs, Sagadahoc County, Maine. 1607-1894 .."










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HISTORY 



OF 



Bath and Environs, 



SAGADAHOC COUNTY, MAINE. 



1607=1894. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 



BY 




PARKER McCOBB REED. 


PORTLAND, 


ME: 


Lakeside Press, 


Printers, 


1894 




T& • 




M 


v 



A. \MVi' 

Copyright, 1894, 
By Parker McCobb Reed. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



PREFACE, 



The author has devoted much time and labor for some years to 
the object of placing on permanent record, so far as he has been 
enabled to do so, the important history of this city of commerce 
and navigation.' In preparing this work for the press, the truths of 
history have been sought for, official record's, and researches have 
been patiently and perseveringly instituted among the voluminous 
documents in the Massachusetts and the Maine archives, as also 
among the records of -Old York and Old Lincoln Counties, the 
Maine Historical Society, and the Sagadahoc Society. Valuable 
assistance has also been courteously rendered by such historians of 
repute as the Rev. S. F. Dike, D. D., the Rev. H. O. Thayer, also 
from Gen. Thomas W. Hyde, Hon. John Hayden; the Hon. J. P. 
Baxter and the Hon. H. W. Bryant of Portland, in the tender of 
invaluable maps, papers, and other documents. The " Dates " of 
Mr. Levi P. Lemont, the brief historical sketch of Gen. Joseph 
Smith of 1833, and the newspaper writings of Judge Nathaniel 
Groton have been of much value, and there have been many others 
who have rendered courtesies that have been appreciated. Special 
acknowledgments are due to Mr. John O. Patten and Capt. Charles 
E. Patten for valuable assistance. 

It has also been the pleasure of the author to record traditions 
given him by the few aged people now living, and their number is 



6 HISTORY OF BATH. 

growing less year by year, who have remembrance of local events 
and historic men of the past. 

As in all historical works errors are found, it is not claimed that 
this history will be faultless in this respect; there has been no end 
to difficulties found in verifying names, dates, and data which were 
not matters of official record, within reach of patient and perse- 
vering research. 

P. M. R. 

Bath, Maine, 1894. 



CORRECTIONS 



Schools. — The list of principals of the high school, as given on pages 
206 and 221, was from the recollection of high authority, the city records 
not giving a full list of teachers. All records of the High street academy 
and the earlier years of the high school have been lost, and the memories 
of those who were students in those schools in years past differ as to their 
recollection of the full list of teachers. Some of these old pupils confound 
the principals of the academy and high school on the basis that as the 
academy was merged into the high school they were essentially one and the 
same. Combining the principals of both schools, verbal authorities give 
the list as Jonas Burnham, F. Yeaton, Hawes, Granger, Blanchard, A. B. 
Wiggin, J. T. Huston, J. L. Newton, L. Dunton, S. B. Goodnow, Wood- 
bury, Crosby, Galen Allen, George E. Hughes, H. E. Cole, which, as far 
as can be gathered, includes all those who have been the teachers without 
regard to order of dates of their employment or in which school they 
taught. The most reliable list of principals of the high school alone, as 
obtained from the recollection of several who have been students, is: 
Goodnow, Woodbury, Wiggin, Crosby, Newton, Dunton, Allen, Hughes, 
Cole. 

In 1892 a fifth grade was instituted in the grammar department, making 
one year's additional drill and adding book-keeping and geometry, to the 
better prepare pupils to enter the high school. 

Ship-builders. — In the list of prominent builders, on pages 177-8, 
should have been added William D. Crocker, Charles Crocker (C. & W. D. 
Crocker, 1826 to 1854), Stephen Larrabee, James Hall, John Lowell, Har- 
rison Springer. 

In this book, where appears the name of G. C. Deering, it should be G. 
G. Deering. 

Page 12, third line from bottom of the page, fifteen acres should be 
fifteen miles. 

Page 20, sixth line from top, it was Simon Lines from whom "Lines 
Islands " at North Bath takes its name. 

Page 34, fifth line from top, at the battle of Arrowsic of Sept. 10, 1722, 
there were eighty soldiers and men, instead of seventy, that left the fort to 
attack the Indians encamped a short distance to the north. 



8 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Page 37, in the account of the supposed formation of a town of " George- 
town on Arrowsic Island " in 1716, and the record book of the town having 
been lost, documentary evidence has since come to light from Massachusetts 
archives that an organized town did exist at that period which comprised 
only the island of Arrowsic, "Georgetown on Arrowsic Island." The 
re-organization of the town, in 1738, was for the purpose of comprising in 
its territory what afterwards became Georgetown (Parkers Island), Phips- 
burg, Bath, West Bath, and Woolwich. These documents show that there 
were town officers of the town that was incorporated in 1716, and that 
Samuel Denny had been one of its selectmen. It has been the belief of his 
descendants that Samuel Denny came to ancient Georgetown in 1719, 
whereas there has been found in Massachusetts archives a document signed 
and testified to by Denny that he was living at Arrowsic in 1717. 

Pages 120 and 121, Chandiere should be Chaudiere. 

Page 156, 2,500 tons burden should read 1,500 tons burden. 

Page 182, Collector Snow should be Berry. 

Page 204, High street academy should read North street academy, in 
connection with Anderson, who was not a professor. 

Page 205, Martin Anderson did not teach in the High street academy, 
and it was his son, Martin B. Anderson, who became president of Rochester 
University. 

Page 208, J. W. Hayes should be J. M. Hayes. 

Page 209, Charles O. Bryant should read Curtis Bryant; Thomas T. Moses 
should be Thomas F. Moses. 

Page 257, Mayor Putnam should read Mayor Bailey. 

Page 273, Governor Strong should be Governor Brooks. 

Page 285, John W. McLellan should be James A. McLellan. 

Page 376, Olive Moses should be Oliver Moses. 

Page 383, Samuel Eaton Duncan should be Samuel Duncan. 

Page 384, Josiah Prescott should be Benjamin Prescott. 

Page 487, Pastors, F. Winter settled 1767 instead of 1766. 



BATH AND ITS ENVIRONS. 



Many years ago the city of Bristol, situated on the river Avon, 
was the great sea-port town of England. Long Reach, then as now 
active in the shipping interest, sent her vessels constantly to that 
mart of trade and commerce. 

Bath, twelve miles from Bristol, was a favorite resort for the bene- 
fit of its medicinal waters, healthful climate, and fine scenery. Its 
fame was carried to the banks of the Kennebec by its sea-faring cit- 
izens, and when the " Reach " was to be incorported as a town and 
a name more acceptable to the inhabitants was sought, Bath was 
suggested and accepted as most desirable and appropriate, and was 
adopted. 

The city is situated on the west bank of the Kennebec River, 
twelve miles from the Atlantic Ocean and two miles south of Merry 
Meeting Bay, fronting a two-mile, direct stretch of water, termed by 
the Indians a Long Reach over which to paddle their canoes. 

There are few if any towns or cities in the entire width and 
length of New England, of the like number of inhabitants, whose 
men of business have acquired larger estates in the same length of 
time than those who have made Bath the scene of their .operations ; 
and their best acquisitions have been not in lines of speculative 
ventures, but notably in legitimate undertakings. The basis of this 
prosperity has been the building and sailing of vessels, and these of 
all descriptions from a yacht to the largest wood constructed ship 
afloat, and which has led to the building of United States govern- 
ment naval vessels. 

Absent Natives. — Bath has been a place from which many 
young men have believed it their interest to leave on their out-start 
in life for broader fields, in which to achieve fame and fortune. As 
a general rule these absent sons of this pleasant city have met with 
the success they sought, and the exceptions are few wherein these 



IO HISTORY OF BATH. 

sons of noble ancestry have not made careers creditable to them- 
selves and reflecting honor upon the place of their nativity. And 
yet it is only justice to believe that these sons and daughters of 
Bath cherish fond memories of the place of their birth and early 
manhood and womanhood. Many of them may say with the poets: 

Often I think of the dear old town 

That is seated near the sea ; 
Often in thought go up and down 
The pleasant streets of that dear old town, 

And my youth comes back to me. 

Where'er I roam, whatever realms to see, 
My heart untraveled fondly turns to thee. 

Bath can be said to be a good city in which to live, as well as 
from which to emigrate. There are those who, long absent, have 
returned to it to pass their later life, while others seek it as a most 
desirable place to pass a summer. It is a place of great longevity; 
it is not unusual for its residents of both sexes to live from eighty to 
ninety, and in some instances over one hundred years. 

Immediately after the discovery of the mainland of the New 
World, England, France, Spain, and Holland became rivals for the 
establishment of title to this unexplored dominion. To accomplish 
their purposes each sent exploring expeditions to our coast, which 
set up crosses at prominent points to indicate possession by the as- 
sumed right of discovery. 

Of these early voyages that of Waymouth is distinctive as relating 
to the subject matter of this volume. In 1605, some noblemen of 
England fitted out the ship Archangel of sixty tons, placing in com- 
mand George Waymouth, the most notable navigator of that 
day. Taking his departure from Bristol he took his course direct to 
the shores of Maine, with orders to find a place " fit for any man to 
inhabit." 

Anchoring his ship among the islands of Booth Bay, he manned a 
boat for exploration and came into the Kennebec through the Sasa- 
noa River. Believing that he had then found the sought-for Eldora- 
do, he returned to the ship and reported that he had discovered a 
great river trending along into the main forty miles, and by the 



HISTORY OF BATH. II 

breadth, depth, and strong tide he believed it to run far up into the 
land. He then brought his ship by the outward passage into the 
Kennebec and anchored in the long reach of water fronting the 
coming city of Bath. 

First Footsteps on Bath Territory. — He immediately sent 
a boat ashore with seventeen men to explore the adjacent territory, 
the description of which, as given by them, quite exactly corre- 
sponds to the little stream (at Bath) they entered and the territory 
they traversed as far to the north as the Whizgig River (whizzgigg, 
a whirling stream). It was in, the month of June, when nature was 
at its best, and they were charmed with the view of the land in its 
primeval beauty, pronouncing it equal in attractiveness to the 
" stately parks " of England, with arable land, magnificent trees, 
and "runs of fresh water at the foot of every hill." 

Captive Natives. — Before leaving his anchorage in Booth Bay, 
Waymouth had abducted five natives, together with their canoes 
and bows and arrows, to carry in his vessel to England as vouchers 
for the truth of the report he should render of his discoveries. Con- 
sequently, just before leaving this river for home, Waymouth was 
confronted with the appearance of an Indian canoe that had come 
up through the Sasanoa passage from the " Islands " to attempt the 
recovery of their captive brethren. 

It contained a body of savages gorgeous in all the glory of new 
paint and gaudy mantles, with the white-feathered skin of some wild 
fowl bound around their heads. They approached the ship with be- 
coming dignity, and earnestly entreated that their people be released, 
begging that, at least, one of the ship's company be surrendered to 
their keeping as a pawn for the assured safety and return of their 
brethren. 

Waymouth Home. — But Captain Waymouth was inexorable, 
refused the request, and the savages had no recourse but to return 
to their tribes in sadness. He then set sail for home. 

Waymouth called the river he had discovered the Sagadahoc. 
He gave a glowing account of it. By his report it wanted nothing 



12 HISTORY OF BATH. 

to render it a most desirable place to settle a colony. A bold coast, 
a harbor in which the royal navy might safely ride, fresh water 
springs, fine timber trees, fish and game in great abundance, with a 
navigable river stretching a highway for commerce with the natives 
far into the interior, were the features of Sagadahoc as Waymouth 
described them. 

Upon his return to England and making such glowing accounts of 
this region of country, vouched for by his captive natives and sub- 
sequent explorers, induced Sir Ferdinand Gorges to organize a com- 
pany to plant a colony upon the shore of Sagadahoc, which resulted 
in securing to the English crown title by possession of the New- 
World. 

Bath is identified with the early settlements of the Lower Kenne- 
bec, as at 1607 its territory was comprised within that of the an- 
cient Sagadahoc. The first attempt to make a settlement on this 
river was by the famous Popham Colony that came from England 
and made a landing in August, 1607, at Hunniwells Point, occupy- 
ing Horse-catch Point on the south side of Atkins Bay. They came 
in the ships Mary and John, Captain Raleigh Gilbert, and the Gift, 
Captain George Popham, and comprised one hundred men strong. 
Their settlement was included in a palisaded and intrenched fort 
which they named St. George. Here they built the ship Virginia of 
thirty tons, which was the first English vessel that was built in 
America. At that time any deep sea-going vessel was termed a 
ship. Popham, who was president of the colony, died the next win- 
ter, and other misfortunes following this event, the colonists became 
disheartened, broke up, and returned to England the next season, 
1608. 

The Plymouth Company. — After the departure of the Pop- 
ham Colony, the next attempt at settlement on the Kennebec 
River was on the southwest extremity of Arrowsic Island. A com- 
pany formed from the Plymouth Colony procured a grant on the 
Kennebec in 1630 that secured the valuable trade of the river in 
fish and furs with the Indians. This grant covered fifteen acres on 
both sides of the river to the distance of one hundred and twenty 
miles inland from its mouth as was claimed. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 3 

In 1633, the company selected the southwesterly section of this 
island as the chief point for their business, which was prosecuted 
some years, and were succeeded by the historic firm of Clark & 
Lake, who established a vast business for the time over the entire 
island, in trade, mills, building and running vessels, with its nucleus 
at " Rowsick Town." In 1670, there were thirty families on the 
east side and twenty on the west side of the Sagadahoc, not count- 
ing Woolwich. When the Indians first became openly hostile to the 
white settlers in 1676, their first attack entirely destroyed this set- 
tlement, as they did subsequently " New Town " the first town or- 
ganized on the Kennebec River in 1679. 

The first titles to the territory on which Bath stands were ob- 
tained from the aboriginal inhabitants. The great sachem whose 
rule extended over many tribes of Indians inhabiting the region of 
country on and adjacent to the Lower Kennebec was Robin Hood, 
whose residence was at Nequasset. From him and subordinate 
sagamores Robert Gutch obtained title to territory that mainly 
comprised what is now the city of Bath, as is shown in the following 
deed: 

The Gutch Deed. — " This Indenture made this twenty ninth 
of May 1660 Between Robin Hoode alias Rawmeagon Terrumquin 
Wescomonascoa Seawque Abumheanencon y e one party & Robert 
Gutch alias Rawmeagon Wesomonascoe & Terumquin Sagamores 
and we j* Rest above mentioned for divers consideration to their- 
unto moveing have given granted & delivered over & by these pres- 
ents Do give grant & deliver over & forever alinese quit Claime 
from unto y e s d Robert Gutch his heirs Exec : administrators & as- 
signes to ourselves — our heirs Exec administrators & assignes all 
y 1 tract of Land lying and being in Kenebecke River and Right over 
against tuessicke y e Beginning of y c Lower part of y e Bounds 
Thereof. Being a Cove Running by y e upper Side of a point hav- 
ing Som Rocks lying a little from y e s d point into y e s d River & 
from y e s d Cove to run upwards by y e waters Side — towards James 
Smiths unto a point and Being Right over against Winslows Rock 
Commonly known and called by y name together with all y e woods 
underwood & all other previledges their unto beloning as also y e one 



14 HISTORY OF BATH. 

half of all y e meadow y' Either is on may be made and lyeth within 
y e Land from y e waters side part behind ) c aboves tract of Land & 
a part Behind a tract of Land granted unto Alexander Thwait & 
lyeth near a Little pond & further y* aboves Sagamores and we y« 
meadow y' is and may be made by y" River Sides commonly known 
and called by y e name of Wennigansege all w ch aboves tract of Land 
to Run into y e Land Three Miles. To Iuitc & To hold Xo him y* s d 
Robert Gutch his heirs Exec" & administrators & assignes y* aboves 
tract of Land with y c privileges aboves as also all hawking hunting 
fishing &c. forever without any mollestations or futer demand what- 
soever and hereby do bind ourselves our heirs Exec rs Administrators 
& assignes forever any more from this day forward to make any 
more Claime Challinge or pretence of tittle unto y* aboves Tract of 
Land and to maintain this against all other Claimes Tittles Chal- 
linges and Interests whatsoever. In witness whereof we y c aboves d 
parties Sagamores and we y* rest of y* aboves d Indians have here- 
unto set our hands & Seals y e day above written. 

" Sealed signed & Delivered in 
y e presence of us Alexander Thwat X 
Mary Webber X John Verine X 
Alexander Tressell. 

" The Marke X Robin Hoode 
" The Marke X Terrumquin 
"The Marke X Weasomanascoe 
" The Marke X Scawque 
" The Marke X Abunhamen 
"Robin Hoode and Terrumquin acknowledged this to be their 
Act and Deed before me Nicholas Rewallds Jus. Peace. 

A true copy of this deede above written transcribed out of y* orig- 
inal and therewith compared this 27 October 67 P Edw: Richworth 
Recorder. 

"Vera Copia as of Record Exm: Jos. Hammond Reg." 

In various deeds of land the name of the above grantee is written 
Gutch, Gouch, and Goutch; the former seems to have been the most 
correct. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 5 

Boundaries Of the Gutch Tract. — Like all Indian deeds 
the boundaries of the Gutch deed of the territory largely compris- 
ing Bath are loosely defined. The starting bound as described 
would indicate at or near some rocks, that have sometimes been 
termed the "Jiggles," that exist in the river near the western shore, 
opposite the foot of Pine Street. 

There is no " cove " as named in the deed now in sight touching 
these "rocks," whatever cove there may have been nearly two and 
a half centuries since. There is, however, a cove immediately 
above these rocks, into which Trufants Creek empties — now the 
Ropewalk Creek — which may comport with the indefinite wording 
of the deed in locating bounds. But the "rocks" are there and 
possibly define the southern extremity of the "cove" as named in 
the deed. 

" From this lower part of the bounds " the line " runs upwards by 
the water's side " to what is undoubtedly the "point" on which 
stands the old Peterson house, which is " right over against Wins- 
lows rock " that lies in the river nearest the eastern shore. This 
would make Harward Street the north boundary of the Gutch tract. 
This streert is the dividing line between the Peterson and the Har- 
ward farms. 

The James Smith named in the deed in connection with the north- 
ern limit of the tract owned land on the Woolwich side of the river 
and lived at or near the locality known as Days Ferry of later years. 

The south boundary apparently connects with Alexander Thwaits' 
territory, wherever that may have been, he having had two Indian 
deeds. It seems to touch Winnegance Creek somewhere, apparent- 
ly south of Hospital Point, and there is no pond to which the deed 
alludes now in existence but the Lilly Pond; if another pond is 
meant it may have filled up by the operations of nature in the 
course of 230 years. This entire tract, as stated in the deed, runs 
westerly from the Kennebec River three miles, which it was evi- 
dently calculated, would extend to the New Meadows River. 

Titles to lands composing the heart of the city of Bath are found- 
ed upon the Gutch deed. Thwaits claimed to have had an Indian 



1 6 HISTORY OF BATH. 

deed covering about the same territory, but it appears that the 
dutch title took precedence. 

Glitch. — The Keverend Robert Cutch was the first white man 
who settled the central portion of what became the city of Bath. 
He was the first clergyman subsequent to the Popham Colony, who 
preached on the Kennebec and its contiguous territory, of which 
there is definite account. His antecedents trace his coming to this 
country from Wincanto, England, where there is a Church of Eng- 
land, to Salem, where he became a member of the first Congre- 
gational church of that town March 21, 1641. As was the rule 
at those days, a man must be admitted a freeman to be allowed to 
vote, and he was admitted as such the following year. It is stated 
that becoming involved in debt induced him to come down to this 
then wilderness country to locate. He seems to have entered upon 
missionary work, but under what ecclesiastical auspices is not 
known. 

The location of his residence has been placed by Lemont as the 
present site of the second house on the west side of Washington 
Street, immediately south of the railroad track, now the residence of 
Dr. A. J. Fuller, formerly the George Marston house. Joseph 
Sewall names the Levi Houghton homestead as the spot where 
Gutch planted his dwelling. He little thought, probably, that com- 
ing down to the Kennebec was to bring him fame, if not wealth. 

There is nothing on record to show to what localities his mission- 
ary duties extended. Traditions hand down the stories that he 
preached somewhere on Merry Meeting Bay, at Prebles Point, and 
Spring Cove, where Clark & Lake had a settlement. As this firm 
had, also, a settlement on the lower extremity of Arrowsic it may, in 
reason, be inferred that he preached at that locality. Together, 
these places would compose a round of ministerial duties. 

Traditional accounts state that he was accustomed to cross the 
Kennebec in a canoe to Prebles Point to preach. Some people 
have believed that there was a church building there in which Gutch 
preached. " There is evidence in black and white that there was a 
church somewhere on Long Reach in Gutch's day, and good tradi- 
tion tells where " (iw'ifc Thayer). 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 7 

At the Jeffries-Donnell trial in 1766 to determine the ownership 
of the land composing the larger part of Bath, as detailed in Vol. I. 
of Williamson's History of Maine : — " It was testified by old Mr. 
Preble, living on the eastern bank of the river opposite, that he 
' could remember to have seen Mr. Gutch's meeting-house ' and that 
he was often told ' he was a preacher to the fishermen and drowned 
nearly 100 years ago.' " 

It is generally conceded that there was a garrison house at 
Prebles Point occupied by the elder Jonathan Preble, " who died 
therein about the year 1769" (vide Sullivan). Documentary evi- 
dence showing where it was built is quoted by Sullivan as in 
" Preble's deposition, on supreme court files, and Dunning's evi- 
dence." Lemont records in his profuse manuscript books that the 
Preble garrison house was occupied as late as 1800, and that it was 
sold to a Mr. Wiggins in 1804 or 1805, and that it was taken down 
and its materials of wood and bricks transported to Abagadasset, 
where they were utilized, the timbers proving to be perfectly sound. 
In connection with this account there is a pen drawing purporting 
to be that of this old garrison house with two stories, not showing 
the two flankers originally attached to it. Williamson says that 
Preble Garrison was built contemporaneous with that of the Watts 
house, which was in 1714 or 1715. 

According to statements of past historians, this clergyman lost his 
life by drowning in 1666 or 1667 (vide Mr. Thayer). One account 
places the scene of this fatality in the Kennebec River while he was 
crossing in a canoe to preach at Prebles Point (vide Lemont and J. " 
Sewall). Another story relates that the accident occurred while he 
was attempting to cross the lower Back River from Spring Cove on 
horseback, where, getting into quicksands, the rush of the tide 
swamped him. This last version comes down, it has been said, 
from Jonathan Preble and the White family, both early residents of 
Arrowsic. This is the most reliable account. 

He was a man of family, having one son and #fac daughters. This ■&•*&-*&* 
son was named John and was the eldest of the children. It is stated 
that a portion of the Gutch farm was given to this son by his father 



IS HISTORY OF BATH. 

in 1663, at which time he was about twenty-five years of age; and 
that the daughter Lydia married William Rogers; Magdalen, John 

* Tilman; and Sarah, Thomas Elkins; the other daughters were Eliza, 

&> Deborah, and Patience 

Mr. Gutch was evidently a thrifty man. He seems to have culti- 
vated a few acres of land and had a comfortable home. After his 
death his estate was administered upon, and as a part of the invent- 
ory of the property there were entered: — Six acres of land, dwelling 
house and out-buildings valued at thirty pounds sterling, four cows, 
one bull, two steers, two pigs, one chair, one table, two milk pans, 
and one kettle. These with many other articles were valued in 
total at ,£51. Mrs. Lydia Gutch administered upon the estate. 
Sept. 25, 1667, Mr. Gutch was authorized to administer oaths and 
sell whiskey. It is on record that he served on a jury at Casco in 
July, 1666. 

Christopher Lawson. — The first settler of North Bath was this 
Lawson, who came from Boston and purchased of the natives one 
thousand acres of land bordering north on Merry Meeting Bay and 
known as the Lawson Plantation. He also purchased land on Swan 
Island {vide Thayer). His deed was from •• Kennebis and Abbaga- 
dasset in 1667 '' {vide Mass. Archives) and Lawson to Humphrey 
Davis in 1668. 

At the same time Thomas Purchas owned territory and lived west 
of Lawson's possessions at the head of New Meadows River. To- 
gether these men engaged in fisheries on the New Meadows and 
Androscoggin Rivers, which was a leading industry at their time; 
packing the fish for distant markets. He met with financial troubles, 
as is shown by the fact that on November 1, 1665, he was arrested 
for debt under the laws then existing in Sagadahoc County, which 
was under the jurisdiction of the Duke of York. He was placed 
under bonds of ,£120 for his personal appearance at a special court 
to be held at "Arrowsike before Nicholas Raynal, Justice Peace." 
His family relations were also unhappy, both himself and his wife 
being put under bonds to keep the peace. They had parted and he 
subsequently desired to come back to live with her, which she re- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 9 

fused, saying she " hoped God would consume him." Finally he 
left for England in 1670, where he sued for divorce, with what result 
is not known. " He died in 1697 '' (vide J. Sewall). 

North Bath had the local name of Ireland in common parlance 
before the designation of North Bath was given it. The origin of 
the name has been a matter of doubt, but the best evidence goes to 
show that at an early day a settlement from Ireland inhabited 
that locality, and it is known that " one of the men had the name 
of Bean. As he belonged to the ' training band ' he would appear 
on parade with an enormously long barreled gun, which he was 
allowed to carry, for the militia law did not specify the style of 
gun every enrolled soldier was compelled to be armed with at his 
own cost " {vide Hayden). Cork, that years ago was spoken of as an 
appellation of North Bath, has since been ascertained to apply to 
territory on the east side of the Kennebec above the Chops, where 
Robert Temple established a colony from Ireland soon after 17 17 
(vide Thayer). 

" Christopher Lawson was one, among others, who considered 
himself persecuted by the government of Massachusetts. There- 
fore he left Exeter, N. H., with John Wheelwright in 1643, and' after 
a short stay at Wells, moved to Sagadahoc. On account of his con- 
tinued hostility and speaking disrespectful of Massachusetts as a 
persecutor and usurper, he was arrested and tried in 1669 for con- 
tempt and sentenced to sit an hour in the stocks " (vide Williamson). 

Whizgig. — The locality is also called Whizgig for the reason 
that there is a stream there of that name. According to ancient 
accounts, whizz means rapidly running water and gigg a stream. In 
ancient documents the manner of spelling words greatly differed 
often in the same document, and some of the Indian deeds spell the 
word "geag"; hence the most accepted way of spelling the word at 
the present day is Whizgeag. From time immemorial there has 
been a saw mill on the Whizgig stream and is in operation to the 
present day. 

The people early inhabiting this section were few and dwelt far 
apart. Edward Cammel (Campbell) lived it is stated at Whizgig in 



20 HISTORY OF BATH. 

1679 (vide Lemont). Lawrence Dennis, one of the "New Town" 
corporators under Governor Andros, purchased of the Indians in 
August, 1685, a tract in Woolwich opposite Bath, and also a large 
tract at North Bath of Durumkin, the " Sagamore west of the Ken- 
nebec River" (vide Thayer). Lyndes Island derives its name from 
Simon or Joseph Lynde, a merchant of Boston, who purchased the 
island of Edward Camer, the title of the latter having been de- 
rived from Christopher Lawson in about 1661. Camer occupied it 
until 1676, when he was driven off by the Indians (vide Lemont). 

South Bath. — From Lemont Street and Hospital Point, that 
portion of the city bordering upon Winnegance Creek is locally de- 
nominated Winnegance. In ancient documents the name is various- 
ly written Winnegansege in 1665, Winganssek, Winnigans, Winne- 
ganseek, Winegans in 1650, and Winnegance, the Indian meaning 
of which is a river boundary of lands, for which it was used in 
many ancient deeds, and has always been the boundary line between 
Bath and Phipsburg. This small stream was much used by the In- 
dians for a short route between the Sagadahoc River and Casco 
Bay, the distance between the two waters being about half a mile, 
and known as "the old Indian carrying place." There was also an- 
other Indian carrying place between the Whizgig Stream and the 
head of New Meadows River of longer distance than that at Win- 
negance. There is authority for the statement that when in May, 
1690, a force of 500 Indians with French leaders met at Merry- 
meeting Bay to plan an attack upon the important Fort Loyal at 
Casco, which they took and massacred its defenders, the route they 
took to reach their destination with their canoes was by the way of 
the Winnegance carrying place. 

Its Early Settlers. — The house of Alexander Thwaits stood 
near Winnegance. The accounts of his coming to this country are 
that a man of the same name, about twenty years of age, arrived in 
the ship Hopewell, commanded by a Captain Burdict from London 
in 1635. His first settlement was at or near North Bath, and in 
1660 he purchased of Mox Dorumby, an Indian, a tract of land at 
Winnegance, having been a squatter on it since about 1656 (vide 



HISTORY OF BATH. 21, 

Sewall). This land comprised the territory from the south bounda- 
ry of the Gutch estate down to Winnegance Creek, including both 
sides of the stream. In different ancient documents this name is 
written Thwait, Thwayt, Thoyt, Thoit, Thwaits, Thwat. 

He became involved in debt to Richard Patishall of the island of 
that name, now Lees Island, to the amount of ^ioo. In Decem- 
ber, 1665, Patishall came up to Winnegance Creek in his sloop and 
attached all the property owned by Thwaits, who, in his anger at the 
■ summary proceedings, at once made over to his creditor his land, 
house, barn, two oxen, four cows, and one male animal. He then 
purchased a farm near Abagadasset Pond, making the deed run to 
his wife. His family comprised nine children. It is understood 
that the Indian deed to Thwaits has not been found. 

From Mass. " Book of Claims "of 17 18: — 

" Widow of Rich d Patishall claims on behalf of herself Mrs Hum- 
phrey Davis and Robert Patishall, Land lying in Kennebeck the 
upper part of the bounds beginning at the cove w ch is the lower 
Part of Robert Goods (Hood undoubtedly) bounds, to run down 
along the Water-side to the River called Winneganseek with Marsh 
and meadows, said Land bought of Alexander Thwaits, Deeds dated 
the 7 Dec 1665 & half the whole belonged to Humphrey Davis, the 
rest equally between said Rob't Patishall & Rich'd Patishall. 

" Rich'd Patishall claims a Tract of Land in Kennebeck called 
Thwaites Plantation being in the Long Reach, and on both sides of 
Winnegansetts River, the Winnegans on the South & winslows 
Rocks to the North & from thence to extend six miles back into the 
country, and thence South & by west to the Winnegans, bought of 
Moses Didramby, Weeguinquiet & Wegenemit Deed dated 3 Aug. 
1685." 

As Thwaits' purchase from the Indians is stated to he in 1660 by 
prior historians, and that of Gutch the same year, it is obvious that 
their titles overlapped each other more or less. This may be -ac- 
counted for by the fact that Indian conveyances at • that early day 
often duplicated the same territory, and it is well understood that 
the Indians in these deeds believed they were disposing of the right 



2 2 HISTORY OF BATH. 

of occupancy only, in common with themselves, not intending to 
convey fee simple title to the land. Yet their deeds did convey the 
land. 

The two deeds to Patishall, given at different dates by Thwaits, 
were based upon the title conveyed in the Indian deeds to him. It 
will be noticed that the deed of Thwaits to Patishall of 1685 cov- 
ered the identical tract that the Indians conveyed to Gutch. The 
deed of 1665 of Thwaits to Patishall evidently overlaps the south- 
ern portion of the Gutch estate. The writer has found no recorded 
dividing line between the Gutch and the Thwaits-Patishall claim. 
The destroying of records by the Indian raids during and after 
1676 may account for this failure. 

The question might arise why the chief part of Bath has been 
held under the title derived from the Indian deed to Gutch, and not 
under the Thwaits Indian deed, and may be solved in the believed 
fact that the Thwaits deeds have never been found, while the Gutch 
deed is in existence, and the property named in it claimed and title 
legally held by his heirs. 

Nor has there been found any record of what became of the Pat- 
ishall titles derived from Thwaits, while those from Gutch were 
held valid. Some historical writer has said that " squatters ' sub- 
sequently settled on the Thwaits-Patishall tract and held title by 
virtue of "possession and improvement." This version may, in 
part, be sustained by the fact that no deed to Edward Pettengill of 
the large farm he occupied — now the McHutchin — is found in the 
records of old York deeds (t/\/c Register of Deeds, Dec, 1892). 
Patishall was killed at Pemaquid in battle with the Indians. 

Relations With the Indians. — Until 1676 the white settlers 
and the natives lived in apparent harmony, excepting perhaps some 
isolated cases, and there was considerable trade between them the 
Indians having abundance of fish and furs to exchange for goods 
furnished by the settlers. 

When King Philip's war broke out the Norridgewock Indians in 
1676 came down the river in a fleet of canoes and massacred in- 
mates of the Hammond and the Clark & Lake forts on Arrowsic 



HISTORY OF BATH. 23 

Island. How much those living at Long Reach suffered at the 
period of these hostilities we have no specific account. The Rev- 
erend Gutch having died some years previously, his family, if still 
remaining at the homestead, may have been spared molestation; for, 
according to historian Penhallow: "It was remarkably observable 
that, among all the settlements and towns of figure and distinction, 
not one of them has been utterly destroyed wherever a church was 
gathered." Possibly all the other settlers were driven off and re- 
turned after apparent danger was past, after 17 13. 

After the first hostile attack of the savages upon the English set- 
tlements on the Sagadahoc in 1676, breaking them up, there were 
frequent attempts to inhabit the territory, relying upon various treat- 
ies with the Indians, which invariably proved worthless, the returned 
inhabitants finding neither peace nor safety in their habitations for 
many years. 

A scrap of written history may indicate the thinness of inhabit- 
ants of Bath at the date named below. It is well known that the 
Plymouth Company claimed territory on the Kennebec that covered 
Bath, and (vide Me. His. Soc. Cols., Vol. 2) " from depositions pre- 
served in the company's records it appears that in 1728 there was 
only one family remaining at Long Reach, and in 1749 there were 
but two families above the Chops of Merry Meeting Bay; all the 
rest had been driven off by the Indians." Thomas Williams lived 
at Winnegance in 1729, and remaining there became the first per- 
manent settler of Bath {vide Thayer). 

Ancient Georgetown. — The coming generations, if not the 
younger of the present day, may with good reason wonder what 
municipal connection Bath could ever have had with old George- 
town. Upon the "Re-settlement" on the lower Kennebec in 17 14, 
the southwest extremity of Arrowsic Island was chosen as the chief 
point, which position it held for half a century. According to au- 
thorities, the name of this notable island was written Arroseag; 
according to Sullivan's History of the Province of Maine, it was 
written Arrowsicke; an ancient deed records it Arrozeek; also writ- 
ten Arroseg, Arrosic, Arrowsick, Rowsic, Rowsik, and Rowsick. 



24 HISTORY OF BATH. 

This point on Arrowsic Island was, for that early day, well situ- 
ated for trade, as it was near the ocean and in close proximity to 
the best anchoring grounds on the lower Kennebec — that of Par- 
kers Flats and at Jones Eddy immediately above. It was believed 
that it would not be safe to attempt to sail vessels of sixty tons up 
through Fiddlers Reach. When Arnold's expedition to Quebec 
passed up the river in 1775, the conspicuousness and attractive- 
ness of this elevated location were remarked upon. From the time 
when a town was incorporated as " Georgetown on Arrowsic 
Island " to that when Long Reach was severed from the parent 
stem and became the town of Bath, the Kennebec side of that 
island was the center of population and business of the Sagadahoc. 
Hence there are given in these pages a brief relation of important 
public events and town-meeting proceedings in which the people of 
Long Reach participated, and which comport with the scope of this 
work. 

Permanent Re-settlement of Georgetown. — From 1690 to 

1/14, the settlers on the section of Maine east of Portland had been 
either massacred or driven off by hostile natives, and the whole ter- 
ritory along the coast for one hundred miles was during that time in 
a state of desolation in the hands of the savages. Finally, at the 
close of Queen Anne's war in 17 13, a treaty of peace was made 
with the Indians at Portsmouth. Then commenced the era of re- 
settlement of the deserted country. The General Court of Massa- 
chusetts enacted that settlements should be compact, a garrison 
house constructed for mutual safety, and a specified quantity of land 
allotted to each settler, according to his needs. 

Under the auspices of the Pejepscot proprietors, who claimed a 
tract covering this section, John Watts, a member of the company, 
established in 17 14 a settlement on the lower Kennebec at Arrow- 
sic Island, an important, central point for the valuable trade in fish 
and furs for which that river was notable at that day. He made a 
commencement with twenty families, which were rapidly augmented. 
It was here that the first permanent settlement on the Sagadahoc 
River was made. In 17 17, the Indians having become troublesome 
Governor Shute of Massachusetts came down to Arrowsic in the 




SAMUEL DENNY RESIDENCE. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 25 

government ship Squirrel, and after many difficulties succeeded in 
renewing the Indian treaty of 1713. This ship got ashore on a 
point south of " Butlers Cove," which gave it the name of Squirrel 
Point. 

When the Watts settlement became permanently established, by 
1720, there was an accession of fifteen families to the settlers, prin- 
cipally of the Scotch Irish class. The ten-acre lots into which the 
land had been laid out for the distance of nearly two miles had a 
house upon them to the number of twenty-six. They were arranged 
on each side of the main road trending northerly. There was one 
man above all others who was identified with this locality, who for 
fifty years devoted himself to the interests of church and state, and 
made " Butlers Cove " a center of interest to the surrounding 
towns. This was 

Samuel Denny. — No one perhaps contributed more to the 
peace, prosperity, and safety of the lower Kennebec during the 
eighteenth century than Major Samuel Denny. He was descended 
from an English family that had figured conspicuously in cabinet 
and field. The original home of the Denny family was in Hunting- 
donshire, England, where the historian Fuller says: "I find the 
name very ancient and where the heir-general was long since mar- 
ried into the worshipful and ancient family of Bevils." 

John Denny served in France under Henry V., and he and one 
son were slain at the battle of Agincourt and were buried in the 
chapel of St. Dionys. Fuller says: "Their interment in so noble 
a place speaks of their worthy performances." 

Sir Anthony Denny, a grandson of John, was a friend and Privy 
Councillor to Henry VIII. and was a man of extraordinary learning 
and discretion; a valiant man and the only one of the courtiers who 
dared apprise the King of his approaching death. King Henry 
left him a legacy of ^1,500 and made him one of the executors of 
his will and guardian of his son, Edward VI. Sir Edward Denny, 
his son, received the Castle Tralee, county of Kerry, Ireland, and 
40,000 acres of land for a brave act in the reign of Elizabeth, while 
the Queen herself gave him a beautiful scarf embroidered with gold 



26 HISTORY OF BATH. 

and pearls and a pair of gloves taken from her own hands. He 
founded the Irish branch of the family. 

Samuel Dennv was descended from John Denny, who came from 
Huntingdonshire to Combs, Suffolk County, in 1495, whSre he built 
a manor house which still stands and is in possession of the English 
branch. Samuel was the third son of Thomas and Grace Denny 
and was born in this house in 1689. He and his sister Deborah 
came to this country in 17 17, to Boston, with Rev. Thomas Prince, 
who had pursued his theological studies in England and preached 
some years in Combs. Samuel and Deborah went directly to Leices- 
ter, where their brother Daniel had settled two years previously, and 
had assigned land to Samuel as a homestead, but on the marriage of 
Deborah to Rev. Mr. Prince in 17 19, Samuel came to Arrowsic, 
where Mr. and Mrs. Robinson, also from Combs, had already made 
a home at Newtown, opposite the present village of Phipsburg. They 
came over in the same vessel. 

The tenacity and perseverance of these early settlers, who were 
continually undergoing deprivations and in constant danger from 
hostile Indians, are well illustrated in the case of Major Denny, 
who left a comfortable English home and who also rejected the ear- 
nest solicitations of his relations in Massachusetts to relinquish his 
hazardous life and come to live with them where he would be free 
from anxiety, but who turned a deaf ear to all their entreaties and 
preferred to throw in his lot with the hardy pioneers of this the ex- 
treme frontier. 

Newtown, like all frontier settlements, had experienced many 
vicissitudes, and the first care of a new settler was to build for him- 
self a fortified house. Mr. Robinson and Samuel Denny entered 
into business partnership and built a block-house consisting of two 
stories, one projecting over the other and surmounted by a watch 
tower. While a man was shingling the roof, an Indian came up in 
the rear, shot him, and his body fell to the ground. 

His house was of great usefulness in the attacks of the Indians 
which were frequent during the earliest years of the occupancy of 
land by Denny. Having completed this work of defence, they 



HISTORY OF BATH. 27 

next built a wind grist mill, which was the first and only one of the 
kind in that section of the country, and people came from long dis- 
tances to avail themselves of its usefulness. 

The principal business of the firm, like that of most of the set- 
tlers in those early days, was the salmon fisheries, which combined 
with trading in furs with the Indians they pursued with great suc- 
cess. After Mr. Robinson's early decease Mr. Denny married his 
widow, Sarah, and carried on the business alone. Mrs. Denny died 
in 1750, and in 1751 he married Mrs. Rachel Loring White at the 
house of her brother, the Rev. Nicholas Loring of North Yarmouth. 
She was born in Hull in 17 17 and died in 1752, leaving an infant 
daughter, Major Denny's only child, who afterwards, in 1768, mar- 
ried Gen. Samuel McCobb of subsequent Revolutionary fame. 

Though Major Denny married a third time, this child remained 
his only heir, and having no son to continue his name, he was large- 
ly known in after years through his daughter and her posterity. At 
the time of Major Denny's second marriage his wife had one son, 
John White, the eldest and only surviving of four by her former 
husband. This lad became a member of the Denny household, and 
here remained until his manhood. 

Upon the marriage of his daughter Rachel to Samuel McCobb, he 
gave her a farm lying near Jones Eddy, upon which he built a house 
for her, and when she became a widow this John White came into 
possession of this farm in 181 2, lived on it, his descendants occupy- 
ing it to the present day. 

Rachel, the daughter of Major Denny, was a lady well educated 
and of some literary taste; sketches of the products of her pen may 
be found in the Panoplist and some other periodicals of her time. 
She had the misfortune of being a cripple during the latter portion 
of her life. She had dressed, of a Sabbath morning, to go to 
church. Very high-heeled shoes of English make were the style, 
and as she was coming down stairs she tripped and fell to the bot- 
tom of the stairs, breaking her hip-bone. Confined to her room the 
rest of her life, her big Bible was her constant companion. Besides 
reading it through time and again, she whiled away the monotony of 



28 HISTORY OK BATH. 

her time by counting and noting the number of books, chapters, 
verses, words, and letters contained in it, computing the words in 
each chapter, and making other statistics. There were no circulating 
libraries within her reach and books of all kinds were scarce. The 
last years of her life were passed at the house of her son-in-law, 
Deacon Andrew Reed, Phipsburg, in every possible comfort, dying 
in 1825. She was interred at Arrowsic by the side of her husband. 

As was the custom of that day Major Denny owned a few slaves, 
which he treated with every kindness. Among these was a boy 
Richard whom he gave in 1752 to his brother Daniel in Leicester 
by written contract, carefully securing the right of the boy until 
thirty years of age, when he reverted back to Major Denny, speci- 
fying that he " deal kindly with the boy, to look upon him as an 
orphan, to bring him up in the fear of the Lord, as possessor of a 
soul as well as we." The young negro died before the expiration of 
the thirty years. 

Sewall in his Ancient Dominions says: " Samuel Denny was an 
English immigrant distinguished for his remarkable decision of char- 
acter and the superiorty of his attainments. He was a magistrate 
and the stocks in which were executed many of his own sentences, 
perhaps by his own hand, were long remembered as a terror to evil- 
doers." Another historical writer describes Samuel Denny as " tall, 
straight, dignified, and a strong Calvinist"; that "education could 
not make nor unmake such a man " (ride Thayer). 

His family had been non-conformists in England and he was im- 
bued with all the religious fervor of the period. His letters to rela- 
tives in England and Massachusetts abound not only in graphic de- 
scriptions of his life on the Kennebec and detailed accounts of pub- 
lic events, but a large space was given to religious exhortations 
which strike rather monotonously on the dulled ear of the present 
generation. In the absence of a regular minister, Major Denny 
wrote and delivered his own sermons at Sabbath meetings. His 
tombstone records that "he lived a pious and useful life," and his 
Bible, his greatest treasure, is still in existence with the Apocrypha 
tied up by his own hand. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 29 

His name on the Kennebec died with him. The church which he 
helped to build, which was a prominent object on the river bank 
and remarked by Arnold's expedition for its beautiful situation, has 
left no trace behind. The garrisons, the timber houses and other 
dwellings have passed away, until two houses and rows of grave- 
stones are all that are left to mark a spot which was a center of in- 
terest to a wide-spreading district during the whole of the eight- 
eenth century. 

He was in command of the militia. To be in the " training 
bands " at that feudal time was no " pride, pomp, and circumstance " 
of dress parade. It meant business. High and low, rich and poor, 
were in the ranks, and those worthy to be chiefs only were in com- 
mand. From the date of the legal organization of the town of 
Georgetown in 1738 to his extreme old age, to near his demise, 
Samuel Denny was town clerk and treasurer, and he often read 
legal notices at the head of his military company. A book is ex- 
tant in which his own hand recorded his own " intentions of mar- 
riage " to three different women whom he successively married, all 
widows. 

Samuel Denny filled many and sometimes all the important offices 
in Georgetown, which then comprised a much larger district than at 
present. For many years he was surveyor in the District of Maine. 
He was appointed chief justice of the court of common pleas and 
president of the court of sessions for Lincoln County, which com- 
prised the section east of Cumberland. He continued to hold these 
offices until his death. 

Major Denny was a thrifty man, having acquired extensive real 
estate on both sides of the river, as well as much personal property, 
all of which he left to his wife and his only child, Mrs. Rachel Den- 
ny McCobb, then living at Arrowsic. He died at the ripe old age 
of eighty-three years, June 2, 1772, in the full possession of all his 
faculties, and is buried alongside of his wives in the " old George- 
town cemetery " on Arrowsic Island. 

Reminiscences of the Settlement. — Mrs. Susan Spinney of 

Georgetown, now eighty years old, lived on Arrowsic Island until 



30 HISTORY OF BATH. 

her eighteenth year with an aged couple whose parents had also 
lived there; consequently her traditions come down from two pre- 
ceding generations. She says: "The old gentleman with whom I 
lived would relate the events he remembered in his childhood, youth, 
and early manhood. He was seven years old when the French and 
Indian war broke out. His family at that time lived on the south 
end of Arrowsic, his father having one of the ten-acre lots originally 
laid out there. Major Denny lived there at the same time, their lot 
joining his. There were many Indians living then near the white 
settlers, and they came in and out among the whites familiarly and 
peaceably until the war broke out, when they went east to join the 
other tribes. He said they knew of the war long before the white 
people did. It seems that they had a sort of telegraphic communi- 
cation from the head of one river to another, that the white people 
of that generation never knew about. 

" There was one Indian that was particularly friendly with his 
father's family, who came in and out and told his mother that he 
was going away not to come back, but did not tell her where he was 
going. He brought some birch-bark boxes (small ones) and gave 
each of the children one for a present or keepsake. The old gentle- 
man kept his as long as he lived. After the Indians had been gone 
some time, news came of their uprising. Then came the dreadful 
events of that savage war. 

" Major Denny was a prominent character; he had the adminis- 
tration of all the law and gospel in those days in town. As inci- 
dental to new settled places, disputes and quarrels were many and 
varied, which were all brought up to be settled before the Major. 
This was so habitual, and such a terror had he become to them, that 
in their disputes they would threaten to have each other up before 
the Major even after he was dead. The original settlers on Arrow- 
sic^ who were nearly all from the north of Ireland and Scotland, 
observed the keeping of the Sabbath strictly, and tithing men were 
appointed here and there to enforce obedience to the Sunday laws. 
And woe to the unlucky wight who should be caught walking out on 
the Sabbath, except he was going to meeting or to care for the sick. 




SAMUEL DENNY BLOCK HOUSE. 




JUDGE SAMITE1 DENN'S STOCKS 



HISTORY OF BATH. 31 

If for anything else, he was arraigned before the Major, who put 
him in the stocks for so long or short a time as he saw fit. I believe 
they considered the punishment of sitting in the stocks rather more 
of ignominy and disgrace than painful, though I don't know but 
what it was also painful. 

" Swearing was another thing punishable in the stocks. It seemed 
that somebody, out of ill-will, as was often the case when complaints 
were entered, had accused a young sailor of swearing. He stoutly 
denied it, saying he could prove he never was in the habit of using 
profane language; but he could not prove that he did not swear at 
that particular time, so the Major put him in the stocks, from which 
he was afterwards released and returned to his vessel. The next 
mprning the vessel that the young fellow belonged to sailed away 
out of the Kennebec River with a fair wind, carrying the Major's 
stocks at the mast head in triumph " in full view of the justice. 

" The Major owned slaves, and he had a slave by the name of 
Sandy Hill who was married; his wife's name was Peggy, and they 
had quite a large family of children. The Major, who was a kind 
master, bought a pew in the Congregationalist meeting-house on 
Arrowsic for Sandy, where the Major and his family also worshiped. 
Sandy was always in his pew on the Sabbath, looking around on his 
family with smiling satisfaction to see them all in the house of God. 
The Major and Sandy were both members of the church." The in- 
stitution of slavery was not abolished in the state of Massachusetts 
until eleven years after the death of Samuel Denny. 

Attacking Savages. — Notwithstanding their treaty of peace, 
the Indians continued hostile and the Denny block-house was often 
attacked by them. On one of these occasions, when the settlers 
had fled to his garrison for safety, a party of savages surrounded 
the building and the chief called out, " We got you now," when at 
that instant the boom of a cannon was heard down the river, at 
which the savages fled in terror. It proved to be the signal of a 
vessel arriving with supplies for the settlers {vide Andrew Reed). 



32 HISTORY OF BATH. 

From Massachusetts Archives: — 

(iKorcktown, July 4, 1722. 

May it please your Excellency. 

I reed. yr. Ex c y» Letter of Ivx press of ye 20th ult. but last night, 
this morning f Dispatched away my whale boat up the river & 
Called in the Inhabitants. I also order'd ye Boat to Richmond to 
direct the officer there to keep good Guards inasmuch as I had but 
just heard of Capt. Wecstbrooks being attacked at St. Georges & 
the Damage that was done there, but as soon as the Boat had got as 
far as Merrymeeting Bay they saw about 30 of the Indians, who as 
soon as they found themselves Discovered man'd out their Canoos 
in chase of the Boat w ch was then obliged to return & soon got 
Clear of them, the Houses in the Bay were Just then Sat on fire, & 
after the Boat returned to me, w th the above ac* , we observed 
smokes to rise in Long Reach & m r , Allen ye bearer being at his 
own House about three mile of, I was willing to try to Save him, & 
Immediately man'd out ye Boat w th fresh hands & releaved him, 
who had been in defence of his House about two hours, it happened 
we did not Loose a man, tho they fought the Indians about half an 
hour before they could get m r , Allen away, it's probable our men 
wounded if not killed Some of the Indians. 

There is five Garrisons in this Town but can keep but three \v ch 
will Defend one another & we are in a good Posture of Defence. 

I am further strengthening in according to y r Ex 1 ^ , order, they 
are within Shot of one another & some good Houses between that 
we are able to receive and Entertain a good number of men. Mr. 
Allen who now comes up will give your Ex"^, a more particular ac' , 
of his Loss & what happened to him this day. I have divided my 
half Com", that are here, among the three Garrisons for their better 
Defence, am fortifying for the Security of the Stores, would pray y r 
Ex c y to order me two Swivil Guns to fix in the flankers for the Secu- 
rity of the Same, there and here Several Smart Lusty Young men 
that have been robbed of all they had by the indians, who would be 
glad to be in the Service if y Ex<=y would be pleased to admit of it, 
they Cannot possibly Subsist here without, I have detained em till 



HISTORY OF BATH. 33 

yr. Excy, order inasmuch as their going oft now will weaken the 
Coutry. 

I am yr. Excy. most Dutiful & most Obt. Servt. 
(signed) John Penhallow's 

Letter to His Excy, 
July 4, 1722. 
Penhallow commanded at the forts on lower end of Arrowsic. 
July 4, 1722, the inhabitants had left their dwellings to attend 
public worship in Denny's fort, when the Indians surprised the fort 
but were repulsed, the only casualty being their killing a child. On 
their retreat they burned twenty-six houses and killed fifty head of 
cattle. The houses were never rebuilt. This author, as well as 
other people now living, has distinctly seen the old cellars on either 
side of the road, fifty or more years ago, and at this day one only of 
them is indistinctly seen by the road side. " Seventy years ago there 
were also to be seen vestiges of potato beds on the farm then owned 
by Judge Mark L. Hill, together with fifteen of the old cellars." 
(vide M. L. Hill, 18 19). 

Battle of Arrowsic. — At the time of the Watts settlement at 
Butlers Cove, the garrison and its forces were made the command 
of Penhallow. In 1720, there were twenty dwelling-houses occupied 
by farmers. On Sept. 10, 1722, at dawn of day, an armed force 
was sent out from the garrison to protect the farmers in gathering 
their crops. This escort discovered a large number of Indians 
prowling about in the adjoining woods. They immediately attacked 
the Indians, killing one and wounding three. The whites then re- 
treated to the fort. The villagers, alarmed at the firing, fled at once 
to the garrison-house, taking with them all they could carry. The 
savages surrounded the house and with hideous cries poured shot 
from every possible approach, but the fort proved impregnable and 
the only casualty to the defenders was the killing of Samuel Broaking 
through a port-hole. Defeated in their undertaking, the foe with- 
drew and encamped in the woods. Tidings of the battle spread and 
reinforcements arrived from other settlements. Colonel Walton and 
Captain Harmon arrived in whale boats with thirty men, and Col. 



34 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Robert Temple at his settlement on the river above Bath heard the 
report of the guns below and hastened with a force to render ser- 
vice. Colonel Temple, who had seen active service in the Irish 
army, proved himself very serviceable on this occasion. He and 
Penhallow formed a party of seventy men and made a night attack 
upon the savages around their camp-fires, but they were driven back 
to the garrison overpowered by the numbers of the foe. The Indi- 
ans, however, took to their canoes and returned to Norridgewock. 
On their passage they captured a government sloop, mortally wound- 
ing the captain. Thus, after six years of prosperity, this portion of 
Georgetown was again made desolate; but the inhabitants, notwith- 
standing all these adverse influences, rebuilt their homes, and But- 
lers Cove continued to be prominent to the close of the eighteenth 
century (vide Williamson). 

Sullivan says that in 1756 "a strong party of Indians appeared 
before the fort on the lower end of Arrowsike Island, but could not 
take it. The people within were not able to go out of the garrison 
to attack the enemy. This gave the savages an opportunity to kill 
all the cattle on the island and to enjoy the spoil at pleasure." 

Under the guidance of Father Ralle, the Jesuit priest who had a 
mission settlement at Norridgewock, the Indians continued very 
troublesome to the English settlers until in 1724. when a military 
expedition was organized under the command of Colonel Moulton 
and Major Harmon, who surprised Norridgewock, killed Ralle, mas- 
sacred the Indians, and destroyed the settlement. The tribe was so 
badly crippled that they ever after ceased to be formidable. 

Formation of a Town. — When the settlement had become 
sufficiently strong, the matter of incorporating a town was under- 
taken, as the under-written documents will show. Long Reach was 
identified with the formation of a town, its people joined in the 
movement to effect this desirable object, and continued to compose 
a portion of old Georgetown, taking part in its organized proceed- 
ings until set off in 1781 to form the town of Bath. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 35 

Mass. Gen. Court Records, Vol. IX, page 426: — 

Friday Oct. 29, 17 14. 

Upon reading a petition of John Higginson Esq. & John Watts in 
behalf of themselves & Sir Biby Lake Barronet, Proposing to settle 
or cause to be settled a town in a regular manner according to the 
directions of this Court upon arrowsic Island at the mouth of the 
Kennebeck River, Praying the assistance of this Court in allowing 
them a company of men to be a security for the people in their set- 
tlement of a Town of Forty Families there the next summer in a 
defensible manner &c. 

Voted: a concurrence with the vote passed thereon by the Repre- 
sentatives. That is to say that the town proposed in this Petition 
to be settled being in the place the furthest of the Five directed by 
this Court & so will in some measure be a Barrier & security to the 
other Four when they shall be brought forward. 

Voted: that his Excellency the Governor be humbly requested to 
order a Sergeant with nineteen centinels from the Fort at Casco Bay 
to Arrowsic Island to continue there for the space of six months to 
cover and defend the designed settlement, when the undertakers 
shall have provided convenient Barracks for their entertainment & 
ten families or more shall offer to proceed with them thither; which 
it is supposed may be now done with safety to the Fort, Peace being 
now happily established. 
Extract from the Records of the General Court of Mass., Vol. X: — 

June 13, 1 7 16. 

" The following order passed in the house of Representatives, 

" read & concurred. Upon reading a Petition of Edward Hutchin- 

" son Esq., John Gerrish and others, the first settlers on Arrowsic 

" Island, praying that an addition may be made to their number of 

" men, or at least to continue the twenty six men now there, for fur- 

" ther time as the Court shall see meet, to cover the new settlements, 

" and that the Island of Arrowsic may be granted and made in a 

" township and have the privelege of a town by the name of George- 

" town. 

Consented to, William Tailer. 



36 HISTORY OF BATH. 

" The Board are of opinion that it will be much for his Majesty's 
" service, the intirest of this Goverment & for promoting the new 
" settlements (which is of great consequence). That a suitable num- 
" ber of men be continued at Arrowsick for some time and desire 
" the house would reconsider it ". 

The following order passed in the House of Representatives, viz: 
Upon further consideration of this Petition, Ordered, that sixteen 
men in the publick pay be allowed to cover the Settlement at Arrow- 
sic Island now denominated Georgetown for the space of six months 
& no longer. Agreed to by the Councill. 

Consented to Wm. Tailer. 

No record of such organization of a town has been found to the 
knowledge of this author. There is, however, in the records of the 
town which was organized in 1738 this vote: — "That James McFad- 
den be an agent to demand, require, and recover the town book 
from any person or persons with whom the same may found"; but 
no report was made of his success or the want of it. 

Old Georgetown Records. — The records of the town organized 
in 1738 have been preserved as kept in three books of large size in 
the office of the town clerk of Georgetown. One of these books 
contains the proceedings of town meetings, with supplementary en- 
tries of the accounts of town treasurer while Samuel Denny held 
that office, from 1738 to his death in 1772, and reports of laying out 
of highways. Another book contains family records, and the third 
volume records the legal marks of cattle, sheep, and swine. These 
books are in good condition, the entries perfectly legible, and the 
penmanship of a large portion of them in plain handwriting. 

The Town Comprised what is now Arrowsic, Georgetown, 
Phipsburg, Bath, Woolwich, and West Bath. Town meetings were 
held at the dwelling-house of Samuel Denny until they were held in 
the "meeting-house at Pleasant Cove," which was at the Noble and 
afterwards Lithgow and later the Morse farm, immediately south of 
Fiddlers Reach, March 8, 1742. When the meeting-house on Ar- 
rowsic Island was built and completed in 1763, the town meetings 
were held in that house. If meetings were called in winter, there 



HISTORY OF BATH. T>7 

being no heating apparatus in the meeting-house, the meetings were 
often adjourned to the house of William Butler, who kept something 
like an inn. 

Town Records. — The scope of this work can only admit a tran- 
script of the records of old Georgetown and confined to proceedings 
that relate to the history of Bath while comprising a part of the 
town. Following are some of the quaint and interesting entries to 
be found therein. 

"At a grate and general Court or assembly for the province of the 
massachusets bay held at Boston the 30th day of may 17 16 the fol- 
lowing order passed in the Hous of Representatives Red and Con- 
cured vix upon Reading a petition of Edward Hutchinson Esq r , 
John Watts and others first settlers of arousick Island praying that 
an addition may be made to their number of men or at least comprise 
the twenty men now there for farther time as this court shall see meat 
to cover the new inhabitant and that the Island of arousick may be 
granted and made a township and have the privileges of a town by 
the name of georgetown 

Ordered that the prayer of the petition be so far granted that the 
Island of arowsick be constituted a town by the name of george- 
town. Consented to W m tailer Copy examied pr simon frost Dept 
secretary, A true entry attest Samuell Denny Town Clerk of George- 
ton" 

" In the hous of Representatives June 16, 1738, voted that samuel 
Denny Esq r a princepal Inhabitant of the Island of arowsick alias 
georgetown so called in the county of york be and hereby is fully 
authorised and directed to call a meeting of the Inhabitants there 
as soon as may be with convenience for the chosing select men con- 
stables collectors and other ordinary town officers who shall stand 
till the time of anaversary meeting by Law for the choice of town 
officers in March next and that the said collectors be and hereby are 
as fully authorised and Impowered to gather and collect all rates 
and taxes to them committed with warrant therefor any of the 
collectors within any of the towns of this province are by Law im- 
poured unto and to pay the same according to directions in the war- 



38 HISTORY OF BATH. 

rant annexed to the sales conformable to the law in such Cases 
made and provided, sent up for concerrance I quinsey sp k In coun- 
sel June 16, 1738 Red and concured I willard secry Consented to I 
Belcher secy Examined I willard secy A true entry Samuel Denny 
T" Clk." 

Whereas the Honorable House of Representatives on June 16, 
1738 passed a vote, and on the 17 th of the same was concurred in 
by his Majesty's Council and which was consented to by his Eycel- 
lency the Governor, a paragraph of which is in the words following 
viz. : Voted that Samuel Denny Esq. a principal inhabitant of the 
Island of Arowsick alias Georgetown, so called, in the County of 
York, be and hereby is fully authorized and directed to call a meet- 
ing of the inhabitants thereof as soon as may be with convenience, 
for the choosing selectmen, constables, collectors, and other ordinary 
town officers, who shall stand till the time of the anniversary meet- 
ing in March next &c, 

These are therefore to warn the above mentioned inhabitants to 
meet at my dwelling house in Georgetown aforesaid on Tuesday the 
twenty-sixth day of this instant December, at ten of the clock be- 
fore noon, for the ends and purposes aforesaid. Dated at George- 
town December 8, 1738. Samuel Dexny. 

Georgetown December 8. 1738 

I warned the within mentioned inhabitants to meet according to 
the tenure of the within instrument by reading the same publicly at 
the head of the company whereof I am Captain, at said Georgetown 
on the day of the date hereof. Samuel Denny 

December 26, 1738 
At a meeting of the inhabitants of Georgetown so called, legally 
warned by virtue of a vote of the General Assembly, for the choice 
of selectmen, constables, collectors and other ordinary town officers 
to stand till the anniversary meeting in March next: 

1. Voted that Samuel Denny be moderator, 

2. Voted Johnathin Treble, Michael Malcom, Arthur Noble, Daniel 

Farnham, Patrick Drummond selectmen. 

3. Voted Samuel Denny Town Clerk. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 39 

4. Voted the above mentioned selectmen to be assessors till the an- 

niversary meeting in March next. 

5. Voted, no surveyors till March next. 

6. Voted John Parker, Thomas Stinson, constables. 

7. Voted Benjamin Pattee, David Gilmore, Fence Viewers. 

8. Voted, John Parker, Thomas Stinson be collectors. 

9. Voted James Stinson Sen r , and Thomas Mothewell, Tithingmen. 

December 26, 1738 as attest Samuel Denny Moderator. 

A true entry Samuel Denny Town Clerk. 

The second town meeting was called for the twenty-second day of 
March 1739 to be held at the house of Samuel Denny on the war- 
rant of the selectmen and served by the constables, John Parker 
and Thomas Stinson within their respective " wards or districts." 

As John Parker lived on the west side of the Kennebec and 
Thomas Stinson on the east side, their districts were probably di- 
vided by the river. 

At this meeting Samuel Denny was made moderator, town clerk 
and treasurer. Jonathan Preble, Daniel Farnham, Michael Malcom, 
Patrick Drummond, and Thomas Motherwell, selectmen. Samuel 
Denny, Jonathan Preble, and James Stinson were chosen a committee 
to procure a minister or ministers; and " that the persons that paid 
money for supplies " (ministry) " since the twenty-sixth of December 
last be re-embursed"; "that the above committee procure a school- 
master to teach the children of said town to read, write, and cipher "; 
" that James McFadden be an agent to demand, require, and recover 
the town book from any person or persons with whom the same may 
be found." 

1744. Voted address to the General Court to erect a breastwork 
at Hunniwells Point instead of Arrowsick Island, for which purpose 
$400 had been appropriated by the General Court. 

1745. Address to the Governor and General Court to take off 
the province tax of this year and exempt the town from further tax 
during the present war, and that Edward Hutchinson be employed 
to prosecute the objects mentioned in the address. 



40 HISTORY OF BATH. 

1746. James McCobb was empowered to obtain from the Gener- 
al Court men for garrison duty and guards to the inhabitants while 
getting lumber. 

1745. The General Court was petitioned to grant the one hun- 
dred pounds formally voted by them for a breastwork to be laid out 
in ammunition for a town stock or otherwise for the benefit of the 
town, also for " supplies of men to cover us." 

Samuel Denny was requested and empowered to procure from the 
governor and council some cover and defence against the enemy ; 
also that he labor to procure a minister, conforming to former in- 
structions given him except the requiring the recommendations of 
six ministers. 

1756. A road three rods wide was made from Small Point to 
Capt. McCobb's, and the road from Bryant Robinson's to Sandy 
Cove be altered and approbated according to a plan made by James 
Springer, Jonathan Philbrook, and Isaiah Crocker. [This was at 
South Bath undoubtedly.] 

1759. The town voted not to object to Nequasset being organized 
into a town. 

1760. Road made from Daniel Brown's house to the landing at 
the New Meadows river, opposite the house of Captain James 
Thompson, three perches wide. The roads were part bridle and part 
open roads, and where gates were necessary persons owning the 
property must put up gates and keep them in repair. 

1761. Road three perches wide "approbated" from Sheepscot 
River across Arrowsick Island to a landing at Long Reach. 

1762. That Samuel Denny be allowed to keep gates and bars 
across a road leading through his premises. 

1764. That road on Rousick Island, and that from the Basin to 
Small Point, and that from David Oliver's to the grist mill at Robin 
Hoods Cove be " approbated." 

1765. Road on eastern side of Robin Hoods Cove, three perches 
wide, be approbated. 

1767. Road " approbated " from Long Reach meeting-house to 



HISTORY OF BATH. 4 1 

Browns Ferry. [Browns'Ferry was about where is now Bull Bridge. 
Bull Bridge takes its name from a rock in the river there called Bull 
rock.J 

1762. Last town meeting in the " old meeting-house in George- 
town at Pleasant Cove." 

1763. First town meeting in the "new meeting-house on Arrow- 
sick." 

Formation of the Second Parish, Long Reach. — More set- 
tlers came to the Reach, obtained land, and the population soon be- 
came sufficiently numerous to ask to be incorporated into a parish 
by the General Court at Boston. At a town meeting of Georgetown, 
July 10, 1753, "Voted to make no objection against the inhabitants 
on the west side of the Long Reach being taken off, persuiant to 
their petition to y e General Court." When Long Reach became the 
Second Parish of Georgetown it contained twenty families represent- 
ing a population of two hundred people {vide Lemont). 

PETITION TO FORM A SECOND PARISH. 

Province of the Massachusetts Bay 

To the Honourable Spencer Phipps Esq Lieut Govern r & Com- 
mander in chief of his Majesty's Province of the Mass' 5 Bay afore- 
said, The Hon ble His Majesty's Council, and the Hon ble House of 
Representatives in Gener 1 Court assembled May 30 th 1753. The 
Subscribers most humbly Shew 

That they are Inhabitants of those Lands on Kennebeck River 
bounded Southerly on Winniganie River, Easterly on Kennebeck, 
Westerly on Steven's Riv r and Northerly on Merry Meeting Bay, in 
length about nine Miles and in breadth about Three; which about 
Fourteen Years since being Inhabited but by about Six or Seven 
Families, were annex'd by this Court to George town, since which 
they have increased to the Num r of about Forty Families and made 
very considerable Improvements. That they Labour under the 
Greatest Difficulties in attending the Publick Worship of God at 
George Town, in that they not only Live remote from thence but are 
obliged to cross Winniganee River at least three quarters of a Mile 



42 HISTORY OF BATH. 

where the Tide is very rapid and the Ice in cold season's in very 
Large quantities by means whereof the Ancient People, Women & 
Children can scarce ever Attend the Publick Worship of God so 
necessary to their wellbeing. 

Wherefore Your Petitioners most humbly pray this Honourable 
Court to take the Premises into Consideration and of their wonted 
goodness and Paternal care for such infant settlements Grant and 
order them a Distinct Precinct or Parish to be set off by the afore- 
said bounds and Grant them such Powers and Priviledges as have 
been usual for such or provide such other ways and Methods for 
the redress of their Inconveniences aforesaid as this Court in their 
Wisdom shall Judge most fit and reasonable. 

And Your Petitioners as in duty bound shall ever pray. 

Jonathon Philbrook, Seig n , John Wise, Joseph Berry, Phillip 
Hodgkins, John Lammon, Humphrey Purinton, Benjamin Thomp- 
son, Shubel Hinkley, John Tarp, James Thomson, William Johnson, 
William Philbrook, Benja. Ring, Job Philbrook, Moses Hodgkins, 
Joshua Philbrook, Abel Eaten, Josear Weber, Joseph Gray, Benja- 
min Brown, Hezekiah Purinton, Humphrey Purinton, jun r , Mikel 
Thornton, Jonathon Philbrook, jun r , Thomas Joy, Bryant Robert- 
son, Samuel Brown, Daniel Brown, James Brown, Thomas Foot, 
Simon Burton, David Purinton, James Mecib, Benj. Lemons, 
Ebenezer Hinkley, Isaiah Crooker, John Soliven, William Marshall, 
N. Donnell, George Williams, Joshua Coomes, John O'Neal, Samuel 
Meloon, jun r , Nathanel Berrey, David trufant, Samuel Meloon, 
Sene r . 
In the House of Rep ves , June 12, 1753. 

Read and Ordered that the Pet re serve the Town Clerk of the 

Town of George Town with a copy of this Petn that so the said 

Town shew cause if any they have on the Second Wednesday of 

the next Sitting of this Court why the Prayer thereof should not be 

Granted. 

Sent up for concurrence. 

T. Hubbard, Spk r . 
In Council, June 12, 1753. 

Read and Concur'd. 

Tho s Clarke, Dp'? Secry. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 43 

In Council, Sept. 7, 1753. 

Read again with a copy of the vote of the Inhabitants of George 
Town passed at a Meeting held the 10th of July last And it 
appearing that they had no Objections to make thereunto. 

Ordered that the Petitioners & their Lands as bounded in the 
Petition be set off as a separate & distinct Parish or Precinct, And 
that the Inhabitants enjoy & be vested with the Powers & Privileges 
of other Precincts in this Province. 

Sent down for Concurrence. 



In the House of Repves, Sept. 7, 1753. 
Read and Concurd. 



I. Willard, Secry. 



T. Hubbard, Spk r . 



Consented to. 

W. Shirley. 

The Act. — Anno Regni Regis George II Viressimo Septimo 
an act for erecting Part of Georgetown in the County of york into 
A Presinct whereas it hath been represented to this Court, that the 
rest of the Inhabatants of Georg Town aforesaid, living on the 
Westerly side of Long reach in s d Town, Labor under Difficulties 
by reason of their not being set off as a Sepperate Presinct. Be it 
Enacted by the Governore, Council and House of Representatives, 
that part of the Said George Town with the inhabitants thereon be 
and hereby is Erected into A Presinct. 

Bounding of following, Southerly on winnigance River, Easterly 
on Kenebeck River, westerly on Stevens River, and Northerly on 
merrymeeting Bay, in Length about Nine miles, and in Breadth 
about three miles, and that the Said Presinct, be and hereby is 
inested with all Privilidges, Powers and immunities that Presincts 
in this Province by Law do or may enjoy. 
In the House of Representatives, September 10, 1753. 

Read a first, Second & Third Time & passed to be Engrossed. 

T. Hubbard, Spk r . 
In Council, September n, 1753. 

Read a first and second time & Pased a Currince to be Engrossed. 

Tho s Cearke, Dp'y Secry. 



44 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Organization. — Samuel Denny, a magistrate of Georgetown, 
was empowered to call a meeting of the inhabitants of the new 
parish, which was held April 2, 1754, at the residence of Jonathan 
Philbrook, Jr. Humphrey Purrington was chosen Moderator; 
Samuel Brown, Clerk; Jonathan Philbrook, Sen., John Lemont, and 
James Springer, Parish Committee; and Jonathan Philbrook, Jr., a 
committee to obtain a minister, for whose support it was voted to 
raise £26, 18s. 4d. Jonathan Philbrook, Sen., John Lemont, 
Nathaniel Donnell, and Joseph Berry were chosen as committee to 
select a place for the meeting-house which it was voted to build. 
In 1759, the assessors were Joseph Berry, Samuel Brown, and 
Joshua Philbrook; the treasurer was Benjamin Thompson; consta- 
ble, Joseph White. This year there were sixty ratable polls (vide 
Lemont). 

Prior to the construction of the first meeting-house, the parish 
meetings were held in the dwelling-houses of the Philbrooks, James 
Springer, Isaiah Crooker, and Joseph Berry at Mill Cove. The 
organization of this parish was for municipal purposes only; it still 
comprising a part of the town of Georgetown, with a voice in its 
public affairs, until the parish became an incorporated town in 1781. 
In the second parish tax of personal property were twenty cows; 
hence it was called the "twenty cow parish." The cows corresponded 
with the number of families. At that date the parish took in "West 
Bath, where in fact lived the larger portion of its inhabitants; on 
the New Meadows the greater business was pursued in building 
vessels and running mills. 

Revolutionary Era. — When this country became agitated over 
the persistent acts of British oppression, the people of old George- 
town promptly arrayed themselves solidly on the side of resistance, 
and mantained their patriotism throughout the long contest that 
followed. There was not a known tory in all the town. When the 
authorities of the state issued a call to all the towns within its 
jurisdiction to respond to the aggressive step that had been taken, 
the citizens of the town enthusiastically adopted the patriotic senti- 
ments that had been boldly avowed by the authorities at Boston. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 45 

At a town meeting, March 16, 1773, Samuel McCobb, John 
Stinson, William Swanton, Dummer Sewall, and Thomas Moulton 
were appointed a committee to take into consideration a letter of 
correspondence from the town of Boston and prepare an answer to 
the same. Attest Samuel McCobb, Town Clerk. The answer was: 

We have considered the rights of the colonies with the list of 
infringements and violations of those rights as exhibited to us by 
you. We think the rights of the colonies justly stated, and the 
violations and infringements really alarming and bode the most 
shaking consequences to ourselves and posterity. It is but a few 
years since we have felt the effects of the most inhuman cruelty 
from the savage natives of this country. We have had many of 
our friends and relatives cruelly slain by them. The idea is shock- 
ing, but of losing our freedom and becoming slaves is much more 
so. We are situated on the banks of the river Sagadahock, where 
some of our forefathers who left their native country for the sake of 
their liberty first landed, many of whom fell a sacrifice to savage 
barbarity rather than endure oppression; their graves are with us 
and we would by no means affront their relics by a tame submission 
to oppression and slavery. We are embarked on the same bottom 
with you and are proportionably concerned in the event, and are, 
therefore, willing to join with you and the other towns in this 
Province in adopting such measures as shall be most proper for our 
peaceably having and enjoying our invaluable rights and privileges. 

The Committee. 

Georgetown, March 16, 1773. 

It was voted that the thanks of this town be returned to the 
town of Boston for their vigilant care of the public rights and 
liberties, and that the aforesaid committee transmit a copy of their 
letter, which is agreeable to the minds of this town, to the commit- 
tee of correspondence for the town of Boston, and that the same be 
recorded in the records of this town. 

1774, December 6, William Butler and John White were appointed 
a committee to examine into the town stock of ammunition and 
make return of their doings at the next annual meeting. 



46 HISTORY OF BATH. 

In 1775, John Wood, Philip Higgins, Theophilus Batchelder, Elijah 
Drummond, Samuel McCobb, Jordan Parker, John Stinson were 
appointed a committee to see that the resolves of the Continental 
Congress be complied with. [ This was in relation to resistance to 
the " Force Act " of the English parliament.] 

At the same meeting it was voted " That the inhabitants of 
Georgetown have leave to join with Brunswick in building a bridge 
over Stephens River somewhere against Dr. Duncan's land." 

As town clerk, Samuel McCobb certified to the call for the annual 
town meeting of March, 1775, and did not make record in the town 
book of the proceedings of that meeting until August 2, 1775. In 
the interum he had been to the Provincial Congress as a delegate 
and at the battle of Bunker Hill; and was at home in August 
raising men to join Arnold's expedition in September. He was not 
town clerk again, as he was in the military service during the entire 
Revolutionary war. Dummer Sewall was moderator of the March 
town meeting of 1775, which was prior to his entering the public 
service, civil and military; yet during the war both he and Samuel 
McCobb appear on record as taking part in town meetings at times 
during the war, especially as selectmen and in war measures. 

In 1776, James McCobb, John Stinson, and John Wood were 
chosen in March a committee of correspondence in connection with 
war measures; and on July 8th, same year, James McCobb, William 
Butler, Samuel McCobb, Philip Higgins, and Benjamin Lemont 
were appointed " a committee of safety, inspection, and correspond- 
ence." 

Some of the earlier town meetings had been called in the name 
of His Majesty, but in November, 1776, one was called in the 
name of the United States of America; in subsequent years of the 
State of Massachusetts Bay. 

In 1776 and 1777 there was provision made for a town stock of 
ammunition, which was distributed by localities: "Thirty-three 
pounds of powder and thirty-three ditto of ball be left with John 
Wood, and thirty-three pounds of powder and thirty-three ditto of 
ball be left with James Lemont at Long Reach; forty-four pounds 



HISTORY OF BATH. 47 

of powder and forty-four ditto of ball be left with William Butler; 
forty-four pounds of powder and forty-four ditto of ball be left with 
David Oliver; and forty-four pounds of powder and forty-four ditto 
of ball be left with James McCobb, and the flints be divided 
according to the above proportion. Money was hired to pay for the 
same." 

" John Stinson and Samuel McCobb are the persons appointed 
to fetch the said powder, balls, and flints from Samuel Nichols, to 
pay him for the same, and deliver them to William Butler." 

" James McCobb, Benjamin Lemont, William Butler, Samuel 
McCobb, and Dummer Sewall were chosen a committee of inspec- 
tion, safety, and correspondence." 

Nathaniel Wyman was authorized to " recall the money he 
borrowed for ammunition, and return the same to those he hired of." 

" The town of Georgetown allow the selectmen to give Colonel 
Samuel McCobb an order on the town treasurer for the sum of nine 
pounds, five shillings, for travel and attendance twenty days to 
represent the town at the Provincial Congress held at Watertown 
in May and June, 1775." 

At the same meeting there was a vote on " the form of constitu- 
tion, forty-five voters present. After having read distinctly and 
then by paragraphs, debated on every article, unanimously rejected " 
four articles, one of which was for the reason that " a man being 
born in Africa, India, or ancient America, or even being much 
sunburnt, deprived him of having a vote for representative"; and 
another was because " a foundation is laid for persecution, and 
the rights of conscience destroyed"; other objections were the 
inequaliy in voting for choice of senators, and of " civil and field 
officers not being nominated by the corporations in which they are 
to serve." 

The men that went to Fish Kill and staid their time out were 
allowed the rebate of "their poll taxes for the last three years." 
[These men went as soldiers.] 

1780, May 23. "Voted that the town is willing that the second 
parish in Georgetown, which is now a part of said town, may be 



48 HISTORY OF BATH. 

set off into a separate town by itself, said second parish being 
bounded southerly on Winnegance Creek, and from said creek by 
the carrying place as said path goes to Casco Bay." 

June 13. On a vote on the adoption of "the new form of a 
constitution proposed by the honorable convention of this state," it 
was " voted unanimously that the frame of government in general 
be established, and that the word Protestant be in the stead of 
Christian in the specification, for the same reasons made use of in 
the address; against any man of the Popish religion holding any 
office; that the Protestant churches be instead of Congregational 
churches, for the reasons that are mentioned in the Bill of Rights; 
that no subordination of any one sect or denomination to another." 

September 4, the votes for Governor were twenty-four for John 
Hancock, and twenty-two for James Warren for Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor; for Senator, James McCobb, eight votes, Nathaniel Thwing, 
six votes, William Lithgow, one vote. 

November 29. "Voted that Capt. Jordan Parker be agent for 
the town to purchase eight thousand, seven hundred and fifty pound 
weight of beef for the use of the state on account of said town." 

" That the town treasurer be empowered to hire the sum of eleven 
thousand pounds for the use of the town." 

1781, March 13. "Voted that the town of Bath be allowed to 
raise their quota of men that the whole town of Georgetown was, 
by the order of the General Court, to raise in said Georgetown." 

April 2. "Voted that the sum of fourteen thousand pounds be 
assessed upon the polls and estates of the inhabitants of the towns 
of Georgetown and Bath to pay the debts contracted by them when 
one town.'' 

August 13. " Voted that the assessors of Georgetown shall call 
on one of the assessors of Bath town to assist in making rates 
to supply the clothing for the Continental army." 



HISTORY OF BATH. 49 



TOWN OFFICERS. 



Moderators. — Samuel Denny, from the organization of the 
town in 1738 to 1771 (the year before his death), presided at annual 
and special meetings excepting at one meeting each; James McCobb, 
William Lithgow, James Farnham, Dummer Sewall, six times; Jona- 
than Philbrook, Thomas Stinson, once each at special meetings; 
also John White, Daniel McFadden, William Butler, William 
Lithgow, Jr. After Samuel Denny's time, James McCobb many 
times; Francis Wyman, William Lithgow, Jr., Jordan Parker, several 
times; William Lee, Lewis Thorp, Greenleaf Snow, Mark L. Hill, 
many times; Andrew Reed, Benjamin Riggs, Gideon Snow, James 
N. Lithgow. 

Town Clerks. — Samuel Denny, from 1738 to 177 1; Thomas 
Moulton, 1772; Samuel McCobb, 1773 to 1775; Jordan Parker, 
1776 to 1777; William Butler, 1778 to 1789; William Lee, Jr., 1790 
to 1791; Denny McCobb, 1792 to 1805; John Pattee, 1806 to 181 1; 
Nathaniel S. Todd, John Hinkley, William G. Emmons, William 
Lithgow, Jr. 

Town Treasurers. — Samuel Denny, 1738 to 1772; William 
Lithgow, 1772 to 1777; Samuel McCobb, 1778 to 1779; William 
Butler, 1780 to 1787; Nathaniel Wyman, 1788; John White, 1789 
to 1792; William Lee, Jr., 1794; William Lee, 1795 to 1806; Benja- 
min Riggs, 1807 to 1808; William Butler, 1809 to 181 1. 

Selectmen and other Important Offices held by : James 
McCobb, Dummer Sewall, Thomas Moulton, William Lithgow, 
David Trufant, Henry Sewall, Samuel McCobb, John Rogers, 
John Parker, Jacob Parker, Joshua Coombs, Isaiah Crooker, Joseph 
Berry, William Swanton, Jr., Jonathan Philbrook, John Stinson, 
William Butler, Thomas Percy, John Lemont, Daniel Morse, William 
Lee, Francis Winter, Alexander Drummond, Francis Wyman, Mark 



50 HISTORY OF BATH. 

L. Hill, Andrew Reed, Benjamin Emmons, Benjamin Riggs, John 
Lee, Michael Fisher, Gordon Snipe, Noah Webber, Andrew 
Whifmore, James Lemont, < !harles Couillard, Elisha Shaw, Joseph 
Bowker, William Swanton, Theophilus Batchelder, John White, 
Thomas Williams, John Hinkley, Nathaniel Wyman, John Fisher, 
Seth Tarr, Jonathan Preble, Joseph Preble, Philip Higgins, Charles 
Snype, Benjamin Pattee, Timothy Batchelder, John Carleton, 
Alexander Nichols, Solomon Page, Hugh Rogers, David Ring, John 
Kelley, Patrick Drummond, Daniel McFadden, Michael Malcom, 
Samuel Hinkley, George Rogers, David Gilmore, Benjamin Ring, 
Edward Pettengill, James Springer, William Campbell, Benjamin 
Lemont, Hosea Morrison, Lawrence Humphreys, Francis Wyman, 
Jr., John Parker, Jr., Nathaniel Sprague, Elijah Drummond, James 
Drummond, Jordan Parker, Benjamin Brown, Arthur Percy, Robin 
Hood, Ebenezer Holbrook, Moses Hodgkins, Samuel Harnden, 
James Savage, Samuel Brown, Thomas Motherwell, Edmund 
Hinkley, William Lee, Jr., John Watts, William Stinson, Alexander 
Clary, Alexander Drummond, Jr., Parker McCobb, Robert P. 
Manson, Jonathan Morse, Henry Cutting, Collins Pattee, John 
Snipe, John Parsons, Levi Leathers, James Riggs, Ezekiel Cushing, 
Isaiah Wyman, James Bowker, Thomas Lennan, Silas Lee, Jacob 
Powers, Lazarus Bowker, Daniel Morse. 

Samuel Denny was yearly chosen town treasurer from the organi- 
zation of the town to the year of his death, making out his final 
account in his own handwriting in the town records when eighty- 
three years of age. 

1794. Andrew Reed excused from acting as constable. 

The King's Timber Ships. — An incident in the action the 
men of Bath took, when Massachusetts sounded the tocsin of war 
m !77S> g° es t0 show tnat they were inspired with a double portion 
of the spirit of patriotism and opposition to the King and Parlia- 
ment and all their officers and agents. At the parish meeting that 
was immediately called at their meeting-house at Witch Spring they 
by acclamation decided to stand by their countrymen in resisting 
the power of England; and resolved that all his Majesty's officers 



HISTORY OF BATH. 5 1 

and agents within their reach were enemies and that they would 
arrest them and send them out of the country. At this time two of 
the King's ships lay in the river, waiting for cargoes of masts. 
About forty of his Majesty's carpenters and men were at work 
hewing and preparing masts and spars for these ships at what was 
then called the King's dock, afterwards the Petersons dock. 

The inhabitants, at this meeting, unanimously voted that the 
spars and masts should not be carried away. They chose Dummer 
Sewall a committee of one to wait on the King's agent, with whom 
he was acquainted, announce to him their determination, and at 
once put a stop to their further proceedings. Years afterwards 
Sewall said that this was a trying time to him. The people assured 
him that they would sustain him, and immediately about fifty of 
them, armed, proceeded to near the scene of action by a back route, 
and hid themselves in the thicket on the bank of the dock. The 
leader went by the highway, " solitary and alone." He said he was 
perplexed as to what language to use in the discharge of his mission 
as our independence had not been declared. He still advanced 
within speaking distance to the agent and men who were all engaged 
with their axes in hewing. He entertained no fears for his safety, 
as his sharp-shooters, then within gunshot, were his guaranty. He 
stood up on a mast, and at once, with a loud voice, proclaimed 
to them: " In the name of the people of America, I command you 
not to strike another blow! " He said they all seemed amazed and 
dropped their axes and tools and immediately retreated to their 
ships. He said this gave him great relief, for had they disobeyed 
his orders or offered any insult or violence to him they would have 
atoned for it with their lives, as the guns of his men were loaded 
with powder and ball, and willing and ready to let slip the dogs of 
war. These citizens having successfully finished this day's work, 
and that too without the shedding of blood (vide Groton). 

Among those who formed a company to drive away the English 
carpenters were Dummer Sewall, David Trufant, John Lemont, 
Capt. Wood, Isaiah Crooker, Sen., Joshua Shaw, William Swanton, 
H. Foster, Joshua Philbrook, Ed. H. Page, Patrick Grace, T. Craw- 



52 HISTORY OF BATH. 

ford, J. Osgood, David Lemont, J. Sergant, John Weeks, Joseph 
White, J. M. Mitchell, Nathaniel Donnell, S. Turner, Luke Lambert, 
Sen., Nathaniel Springer, and Joseph Lambert. They were all 
powerful men. 

Arrest of the King's Agent. — The British carpenters, enter- 
ing their boats, joined their ships that lay at Jones Eddy, which 
immediately joined the fleet then on the coast under the Mowatt 
who bombarded and destroyed Falmouth. Mr. Parry, the King's 
agent, immediately surrendered himself prisoner of war. The 
committee of safety for the district, at the head of which was 
Brigadier General Samuel Thompson of Topsham, was immedi- 
ately notified of these proceedings, and they convened at the tavern 
of Joseph Lambert for the trial of the prisoner. This house is 
still in existence and occupied, at the north end of High Street. 

Of the five members of the committee no one appeared to doubt 
their authority to take action on the case. Two of them were in 
favor of having the prisoner dealt with as a spy, but the majority 
came to the conclusion to send him to the Provincial Congress then 
in session at Watertown. He was kept in custody in a room in the 
tavern a few days, when Luke Lambert, a son of Joseph above 
named, conducted him to Watertown, where he was ordered to jail. 
While in custody in Bath, Dummer Sewall and Jordan Parker gave 
their bond of $10,000 for his good behavior, and when he was 
removed to Watertown they asked to be released from their respon- 
sibility on the ground that the Provincial authorities had taken him 
in charge. 

To the Honourable Congress now setting for the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay. 

The petition of Timothy Langdon humbly sheweth: That upon 
the second day of May instant a committee of safety for ten towns 
in the County of Lincoln met at Pownalborough, and amongst other 
matters took under consideration the expediency of removing the 
King's masts, being in the dock in Georgetown, when it was unani. 
mously voted that it was inexpedient to remove them. 

That on the fourth day of May instant a meeting of the commit- 
tee of inspection for a number of towns in the County of Lincoln 



HISTORY OF BATH. 53 

was held in Georgetown, and after duly considering of all matter 
respecting the King's masts were of opinion that all persons be 
forbid to work upon said masts, or aid in any manner in fitting them 
for the King's use. That Edw. Parry, Esq., who had procured 
those masts more than a year since, had promised the committee 
that no person should ship those masts for him, but that they should 
remain in the dock in Georgetown. The committee of inspection 
were then of opinion that it was inexpedient to remove the masts 
from the dock. 

That while the committee of inspection were met, Col. Samuel 
Thompson of Brunswick, in the County of Cumberland, appeared 
with twenty armed men, and when he had heard of the result of the 
committee he seized on the body of Edw. Parry, Esq., and kept him 
in custody till he gave bonds in ^2,000 to tarry in the town till the 
pleasure of the Congress shall be known respecting him, and also 
obliged said Edw. Parry to pay for the victuals and drink of him, 
the said Thompson, and his men, amounting to the sum of 42 s. Lm. 
That the said Parry has ever behaved himself as a peaceable mem- 
ber of society, and he declared to the committee that had he have 
known there was an order of Congress respecting the matter he 
would not have concerned himself with them. Wherefore your 
petitioner, at the request of and as clerk to the committee of inspec- 
tion, humbly prays the Honorable Congress that they would take 
the matter of fact above stated under consideration, and that orders 
be sent to Messrs. Dummer Sewall and Jordan Parker, the bonds- 
men of Parry, that the said Parry may be released from his 
confinement, and the said Dummer and Jordan released from their 
bonds, and your petitioner as in duty bound shall ever pray, etc. 

Timo. Langdon. 

Georgetown, May 5, 1778. 

Parry also petitioned for release. He remained in jail a year, 
when he was released on exchange and immediately returned to 
England. 

Preparations for the War. — The Provincial Congress of 
Massachusetts was in session at Watertown in May, 1775, in a 



54 HISTORY OF BATH. 

meeting-house, and of which John Hancock was president. It 
issued an appeal to the patriotism of the men of this Province, and 
to adopt measures to aid the cause of liberty, resolving that " the 
preservation of our country depends, under God, on an effectual 
execution of continental and provincial measures for that purpose." 
This vigorous action of Congress was immediately transmitted by 
letter to all the towns and parishes of the Province. 

Upon receiving a copy, the Second Parish, comprising Bath, 
immediately assembled at the meeting-house to take the subject into 
consideration, and in the simple but strong language of the times, it 
was unanimously " voted to abide by the resolves of Congress now 
before us." 

They forthwith divided the parish into two wards and elected 
military officers: for the west ward, Benjamin Lemont, Captain, 
Stephen Coombs, Lieutenant, and Jesse Holbrook, Ensign; for the 
east ward, Dummer Sewall, Captain, John Berry, Lieutenant, and 
John Wood, Ensign. They also chose a committee to unite with 
Woolwich and Bowdoinham to elect a member to represent these 
three precincts in the Provincial Congress. The committee of the 
parish were John Lemont, Jonathan Mitchel, John Wood, Henry 
Sewall, William Swanton, and Dummer Sewall. At the same meeting 
a committee of safety, consisting of Philip Higgins, Zodack Lincoln, 
William Swanton, James Lemont, and David Ring, was chosen. 
The two militia companies were immediately organized and armed 
for service. They assembled every week for drill and discipline, 
and as often as a draft was required for the continental army or a 
detachment ordered for guard duty, the detailed men were marched 
to the point required. The coast was soon infested with the cruisers 
and privateers of the enemy, but the British troops did not land on 
the coast at any place near the Kennebec. Occasional depredations, 
however, were committed on the property of the inhabitants by 
crews of privateers, which required guard duty from the soldiery. 

Samuel McCobb was chosen delegate to the Provincial Congress 
from Arrowsic, and Dummer Sewall from Bath. They traveled to 
Watertown on horseback with saddle bags for,their baggage, and in 



HISTORY OF BATH. 55 

six days reached their destination. They had no stated pay for 
either travel or attendance, but subsequently the parishes provided 
for their compensation {vide Groton). 

A Detachment Sent to the Army. — News of the battle of 

Lexington on April 19, 1775, reached Bath in eight days, and 
immediate steps were taken to raise a volunteer company to proceed 
to the scene of hostilities. In this movement Samuel McCobb of 
Georgetown took the lead, aided by the " committee of safety." 
Seventy men from Long Reach, Georgetown, Newcastle, Winthrop, 
Pownalboro, Haverhill, Hallowell, Bristol, Pleasant Point, St. 
Georges, and Winslow were speedily obtained. Without commission 
McCobb led them by forced marches to Cambridge, arriving there, 
it is said, in six days, the route then being very circuitous to what it 
is now. 

A petition was forwarded to the Provincial Congress, then in ses- 
sion at Watertown, to commission officers of the company, and 
Samuel McCobb of Georgetown was commissioned captain May 17, 
1775; Benjamin Pattee of Georgetown and John Riggs of Falmouth, 
lieutenants, May 19, 1775. These names and dates are taken from 
the original pay-roll of the company in the Massachusetts archives. 
The date of the enlistment of the rank and file was commenced 
June 1. They were eight months' men. 

The company was assigned to Colonel John Nixon's Vermont 
regiment, of General Putnam's Brigade, and was in the battle of 
Bunker Hill at the rail fence. After this they were encamped 
during the summer on Winter Hill, which is north of Bunker Hill. 
The pay-roll of this company is made up from May to August 1, 
1775, allowing the captain two months and nineteen days service, 
and the men a few days less. 



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HISTORY OF BATH. 57 

Arnold's Quebec Expedition. — Captain McCobb's company . 
was detailed to join Arnold's expedition to Quebec, which left early 
in September. As each company detailed on that expedition was 
to be constituted of sixty-four men, Capt. McCobb must have raised 
the additional number of twenty men at Georgetown, for it was 
known for a certainty that when the transports passed up the Ken- 
nebec Capt. McCobb joined the fleet with a company of soldiers 
{vide Col. Andrew Reed ). As he was in Col. Enos' command he 
returned to Cambridge with that officer, arriving prior to Oct. 30, 
as at that date it is recorded that steps were taken for the payment 
of these troops ( Mass. Archives ). 

Militia Join General Washington. — The troops of Long 

Reach were attached to a regiment of the brigade commanded by 
Brigadier General Charles Cushing of Pownalboro. One regiment 
was detached from this brigade with orders to join the American 
army then under General Washington at Cambridge. The regiment 
was commanded by Col. Samuel McCobb, Lieut. Col. Dummer Sew- 
all of Bath, and Major George White of Topsham, commissioned 
Feb. 14, 1776, and arrived at the headquarters of the commander- 
in-chief in 1776, and was immediately ordered to Rhode Island, 
where Lieut. Col. Sewall was appointed muster master for the 
province of Maine, returned to perform the duties of that appoint- 
ment, and was engaged in this service during the remainder of the 
war. 

The regiment operated with the army during the campaign, and 
when the time of service of the detachment expired many enlisted 
in the Continental army. Of the officers, Capt. Benjamin Lemont 
and Capt. John Lemont of Bath were among those who remained. 

Of the soldiers who re-enlisted and were living in Bath in 1833 
were: William Brown, John Sampson, John Farrin, Joseph White, 
Thomas Crawford, John Holbrook, Philip Higgins, David Lemont, 
David Clifford, James M. Mitchell, and Thomas Lemont (vide Gen. 
Sewall). 

Attached to this regiment was an artillery company commanded 
by Jordan Parker, Phipsburg, Captain; James Pattee, Arrowsic, 1st 



58 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



Lieut.; Theophilus Batchelder, Phipsburg, 2d Lieut.; commissioned 
Aug. 21, 1777. There was a total enrollment in the regiment of 
701 men and officers, of which 129 were in the Continental army in 
active service together with one major, three captains, and three 
subalterns; there were two of the men in the navy and twenty-one 
in private vessels serving as Lettres of Marque. On Aug. 1, 1777, 
420 men are borne on the train — band left in Georgetown. 

Regimental Muster Roll, Georgetown, Nov. 19, 1778. 
Colonel, Samuel McCobb, com'd Feb. 14, 1776, Georgetown. 

Lieut. Colonel, Dummer Sewall, 



First Major, John Hews, 
Second Major, James Hunter, 
1 st Co., Captain, John White, 
" 1st Lieut., John Potter, 
" 2d Lt, Jas. Drummond, 
2d Co., Captain, Jas. Mustard, 
" 1st Lieut., David Reed, 
" 2d Lieut., Robert Hunter, 
3d Co., Captain, John Perry, 
" 1st Lieut, (vacancy). 

" 2d Lieut, Hetherly Foster 
4th Co., Captain, James McCobb, 
" 1st Lieut., Wm. Sprague, 
2d Lieut., Wm. Lee, 
5th Co., Captain, Elijah Grant, 
" 1 st Lieut., Nath'l Tibbets, 
" 2d Lieut., Elemuel Trot, 
6th Co., Captain (vacancy). 

1st Lt., Gab'l Hambleton, 
" 2d Lieut., John Hilton, 
7th Co., Captain (vacancy). 

" 1st Lt., Thos. McFadden, 
" 2d Lieut., Seth Tarr, 



July 



Pownalboro. 

Topsham. 

Georgetown. 



Topsham. 



Georgetown. 



Woolwich. 



Pownalboro. 



Georgetown. 



First Regiment Militia, County of Lincoln, August 1771. Colonel, William Lithgow; Lieut. 
Colonel, Charles Cushing; Major, Samuel Goodwin. First Company, Georgetown, Captain, John 
Parker; Lieut., Thomas Williams; Ensign, George Rogers. Second Company, Captain, Thomas 
Moulton; Lieut., Samuel McCobb; Ensign, John White. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 59 

8th Co., Captain, Actor Patten, com'd July 1, 1776, Topsham. 
" 1st Lieut., Jas. Purington, " 
2d Lieut., Sam'l Tibbets, " 

9th Co., Captain, Benj. Lemont, " " " Georgetown. 

" 1st Lieut., Benj. Ham, " " " " 

2d Lieut., John Mereen, " " " " 

10th Co., Captain, Robert Patten, " " " Bowdoinham. 

1st Lieut., Geo. Thomas, " " 

2d Lieut., Alex. Potter, " " " " 

nth Co., Captain, Solomon , " Sept. 17, 1776, Woolwich. 

" 1st Lieut, Moses Hilton, " " " Pownalboro. 

2d Lt, Sam'l Sylvester, " " 

Capt., Jordan Parker, of Artillery Staff, Aug. 21, 1777, Georgetown. 

1 st Lieut., James Pettee, " " " " 

2d Lt, Theophilus Batchelder, " " " " 

Field and Staff Officers of Col. Sam'l McCobb's Regiment. 

Gen. Lovell's Brigade, Sept. 17, 1779. 
Lieut. Col, William Howard, Adjutant, William Stinson, 
1 st Major, James Hunter, Quartermaster, Arthur Lithgow. 

2d Major, Ezekiel Pattee, Surgeon, Zacheus Flitner. 

(vide Mass. Archives.) 
At Siege Of Castine. — In June, 1779, an expedition was 
ordered by the General Court of Massachusetts to dislodge the 
enemy from Castine, or as it was then called " Biguyduce." In this 
campaign we again find Col. Samuel McCobb at the head of his 
regiment, from which were detached for the attack on Biguyduce 
one hundred and twenty men, who were to rendezvous at Townsend 
and join the army under Gen. Lovell, the transports having been 
ordered to touch there to receive the Kennebec forces. The balance 
of men to fill up the regiment were raised at towns east of the 
Kennebec while the troops were on their way to Castine. Of Col. 
McCobb's detachment there were killed in the attack Capt. John 
Hinkley of Georgetown and Miller Hinkley of Bath. The troops 
detailed from the Kennebec for this expedition were transported by 
Capt. Benjamin Donnel in his own vessel from Bath to Boothbay. 



60 HISTORY OF BATH. 

It is well known by historians that the siege of Castine proved a 
failure from obvious causes: — the commodore of the fleet acting in 
conjunction with the land forces did not promptly co-operate, and 
the delay enabled a reinforcement from Halifax of armed vessels of 
the enemy to arrive in sufficient force to destroy our transports and 
break up the siege. 

At an early stage of the siege if the general in command had 
demanded surrender of the enemy's fort, it would have been 
accepted, according to a statement made by the British commander 
subsequent to the battle. 

Upon the breaking up of the siege the soldiers had to find their 
way home the best they could, through forests and swamps and 
across rivers, because their transports were in the hands of the 
enemy. 

While at his own home at Thomaston, after the retreat of his 
forces, General Wadsworth_was surprised, while in bed in the night, 
and captured by a party of the enemy after valiantly defending 
himself with his sword, musket, and other weapons until wounded. 
Subsequently, Col. Samuel McCobb was appointed in his place 
Brigadier General for the Eastern Division of the District of Maine. 

Subsequent to the return of the army from Castine, a court mar- 
tial was held upon the conduct of Col. Paul Revere in the attack 
upon the fort at Biguyduce, and the testimony at the trial given by 
Col. Samuel McCobb is of sufficient interest to print it in full as 
below, as Bath officers and men took part in the expedition. 

A true relation of facts concerning the Penobscot expedition: 
July 23, 1779, by order of Gen. Lovell, I embarked my regiment on 
board the transport detailed to convey us to Penobscot, and the 
next morning set sail for that place. 

July 24. Arrived at Fox Islands in the bay of Penobscot, where 
we remained that night without any particular annoyances. 

July 25. Arrived off Majabagaduce ; attempted to land, but 
the wind blowing hard it could not be effected. 

July 26. The marines took a -battery on Banks Island and landed 
two eighteen pound cannon, which caused the enemy's ships to 
move farther up the river. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 6l 

July 28. We landed early in the morning in opposition to a 
severe firing of musketry from the enemy, where some were killed 
and wounded on both sides. The remainder of the day was spent 
in throwing up a breastwork and getting up cannon. 

July 29. This day was passed in fortifying and reconnoitering. 

July 30. This day opened a battery of two eighteen pounders, 
one twelve, also one howitz. 

July 31. Continued cannonading all this day. 

Aug. 1. At three o'clock in the morning stormed a battery, 
bunting three six pounders on the left of the enemy's main fort, 
bordering on Majabagaduce River, supposed to have had fifty men 
in it; found five of the enemy dead and took fourteen prisoners. 
This was effected by a detachment of militia and marines under 
command of Gen. Wadsworth. 

Aug. 2. Nothing remarkable. 

Aug. 3. This day began a battery on the main to annoy the 
enemy's shipping. Next day opened said battery, but to no great 
purpose, being too great a distance. 

Aug. 5. A party was ordered on the left of the enemy's main 
fort in order to draw them out; at the same time a party lay in 
ambush to cut them off from their fort, which took, agreeable to 
the general expectation, but the party ambushed not pushing with 
vigor failed in the attempt. 

Aug. 6. A council of war held to inquire if it would be expedi- 
ent to storm the enemy's main fort, the result of which lays before 
the court. 

Aug. 7. Held a council of war with the officers of the navy, 
the result of which is also before the council. 

Aug. 8, 9, 10. Frequent skirmishing in order to bring the enemy 
to general action, which they carefully avoided. 

Aug. 11. Two hundred men under the command of Majors 
Brown and Branville were ordered to take post on the enemy's left, 
near the battery we had stormed. Aug. 1, there to remain until a 
signal, for retreat was made; said order was punctually obeyed, a 



62 HISTORY OF BATH. 

party of the enemy lying concealed behind a barn, not daring to 
appear until our troops were on their retreat, then rushing into 
the battery began a smart fire which caused our troops to retreat 
in some confusion, notwithstanding the activity of the officers to 
keep them in good order. 

Aug. 12. A council of war was held, the purport of which is 
before the court. 

Aug. 13. The General declared that this day he would take post in 
rear of the enemy and endeavor to bring them to a general action, 
for that he would rather die in the attempt than raise the siege or 
leave the Commodore any further excuse not to co-operate with him, 
for which purpose he drew up his troops, and after taking necessary 
measures he marched off at the head of two hundred men and took 
the rear of the enemy's main fort. Capt. Burke then being with 
him, he requested him to go on board of the Commodore and 
inform him that he had taken post in the rear of the enemy, and 
also to request him to come up the river and destroy or take the 
enemy's shipping. This desire of the General to Capt. Burke he 
told me of soon after he was gone off the ground. Immediately 
after a signal appeared on board the Commodore for the shipping to 
get under way, which being complied with gave us to hope the 
Commodore intended to comply with the General's request; but the 
enemy's fleet appearing in sight at the same time prevented any- 
thing being done. At about sunset the General marched in with 
his troops. At 12 o'clock at night the General sent for me and 
gave me orders to have my regiment in readiness to leave the post 
at a minute's warning. At three in the morning I marched down to 
the water side with my regiment, carrying all the shot and every 
other article with us that then remained on the ground. At five the 
whole of the troops were embarked on board the transports, which 
immediately began to tow off from the shore, it being eight when I 
went on board the General's sloop and received orders to go up the 
river, for there he intended to erect a fort to cover the shipping. A 
small breeze of wind springing up, the transports got under way 
and stood up the river till the ebb tide met them opposite Fort 



HISTORY OF BATH. 63 

Point, when the whole of them came to anchor. Our ships at this 
time lay below in a line of battle, waiting for the enemy to come up. 
About one o'clock I saw to my great surprise the whole of our ships 
bear away before the wind and stand up the river, the enemy's ships 
following them. A small breeze springing up to the southward, the 
whole of the transports were ordered under way and proceeded up 
river. But before our transports got up the river as far as the 
ledge, so called, a very rapid place of tide, some of the armed ves- 
sels began to pass them, hailing to the transports as they came 
up with them to clear the way and let them pass, by which means 
many of the transports were run ashore, and the whole of the 
armed vessels got past. Finding ourselves in this situation with 
the enemy's ships within shot, we began to land our troops about 6 
p.m., and at 7 had the whole of them on shore, the enemy's ships at 
this time being within reach of us with grape shot. While we were 
in this scene of confusion, I saw a sloop not far from me with some 
men on board her very busy cutting off her sails and heaving them 
into a flat-bottomed boat. At the same time two sloops who lay 
nearest the enemy had on board two companies of men each, and 
no boat to either of them, the men crying out for assistance. I 
hailed the sloop and ordered them to send the boat off or I would 
fire on them, but they paid no regard to it until they got off their 
sails. By inquiry for the master of her, I found that one Drink- 
water commanded her, and Col. Mitchell was aboard, but gave no 
order to the master of the sloop to send off the boat to the assist- 
ance of the troops, though exposed to the enemy's shot. 

Samuel McCobb, Colonel. 

Question. Whether there was any general order given at the 
time of retreat, and what place to retreat to ? 

Answer. I saw no general orders, but received a verbal order to 
repair to the General's tent, where he gave me verbal order to get 
my men ready to march at a minute's warning, and afterward to 
embark and go up the river, where he said he intended to fortify 
and secure the ships. Accordingly I proceeded up the river till the 
enemy came within point blank shot before I landed my men. 

Samuel McCobb, Colonel. 



64 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The above deposition with the answers to the above questions 
sworn to in court Sept. 28, 1779. 

Attest, O. Peabody, Clerk. 

I remember receiving the order I issued on the 30th of July, 

contained in the adjutant general's copy before the court, in which 

Col. Revere and his corps are particularly ordered to encamp on 

shore. 

Samuel McCobb, Colonel. 

Sworn to as above, O. Peabody, Clerk. 

Field and Staff Officers of Eastern Department. 
Discharged Dec. i, 1781. 
Colonel, Samuel McCobb, Adjutant, George Ulmer, 

Surgeon, Samuel Duncan, Quartermaster, George White. 

Surgeonjs Mate, Moses Wing, Colonel's Clerk, Joseph Beath. 

Deprivations During the War. — During the continuance of 
the Revolutionary war, the people were compelled to sacrifice not 
only ordinary comforts, but often the necessities of life. This was 
done cheerfuly and hopefully. Multitudes of people who had lived 
in affluence were at times destitute of bread, and many of them 
would flock from a distance of twenty miles to the clam banks of 
the sea coast to obtain food for their families. So large a number 
of the able bodied men were in the army, that farms could be culti- 
vated only to a limited extent. Their absence bore heavily upon 
the women at home. These sacrifices were borne with cheerful- 
ness. Their patriotism never wavered; they encouraged their hus- 
bands, sons, and brothers to answer to the calls of their country, 
fitted them out with necessary clothing, helped them " run bullets," 
and filled their knapsacks with provisions for their march to the 
front. All through the long war, the American soldier felt that he 
had this powerful backing. In fine the women were the power 
behind the patriot cause. 

At the time of the Revolutionary war, and for a quarter of a 
century after, "cocked hats" were worn to some extent by civilians 
as well as soldiers. The idea of the shape was to have three side 
flaps to turn up and tied together at the apex to turn down to protect 



HISTORY OF BATH. 65 

the neck and shoulders in rainy weather. The military chapeaus of 
officers of the militia were similar in shape, with two turned up flaps 
and ornamented with a round feather of considerable height; usually 
for the infantry feather of white tipped with red, and artillery black; 
the flaps not to let down. The " independent " company officers 
had a different style of hat, such as suited the taste of those 
wearing them. 

The soldier of the militia companies wore on duty his ordinary 
clothing, of dark jacket and trousers, and the independent compa- 
nies had each their own showy style of dress uniform. 

The uniforms and trappings of the horses of field officers, espec- 
ially of the generals and their staffs, were very much more showy 
and glittering than is the style of this day. 

With light colored buckskin breeches, shiny red top boots, gold 
laced coat, glittering epaulets, white buckskin gloves, gold enamelled 
sword, handle and sheath, red sash around the waist, and a magni- 
ficent beaver chapeau with a flowing feather waving in the air, 
mounted on a richly caparisoned and spirited charger with 
gilded bits, the general officer was a conspicuous figure on dress 
parade and review with his equally gay staff behind him — ■ riding 
down the front of the line, chapeau in hand, returning in its rear, 
taking positions on a rise of ground at the front and center of the 
line, while the regiment or brigade marched in column of platoons 
before him and his staff. The muster field was in those days the 
scene of magnificent display, greatly enjoyed by a crowd of lookers 
on. The grounds were invariably surrounded by booths and tents 
furnishing refreshment supplies for the multitude. 

The pay the soldiers and officers received for yearly military 
duties was a half dollar on muster day to buy his dinner, the 
money furnished by the treasurer of the towns to which each com- 
pany belonged. 

Bath Men Active in the Revolution. — Francis Winter, 

Dummer Sewall, Capt. Nath'l Springer, John Weeks, John Lemont, 
Joseph White, David Trufant, Nath'l Donnell, Capt. Jacob Low, 
Simeon Turner, Capt. J. M. Mitchell, Luke Lambert, Sr., Capt. 



66 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Joseph Stockbridge, Capt. Benjamin Lemont, Joseph Lambert, 
Capt. James Lemont, Dummer Sewall, Jr., Capt. John Wood, George 
Philbrook, Major E. H. Page, Elisha Shaw, Major Joshua Shaw, 
John Sanford, Capt. Wm. Swanton, Samuel Bean, Isaiah Crocker, 
Sr., John D. Sewall, Hatherly Foster, Wm. Brown, Joshua Philbrook, 
John Farrier, Patrick Grace, John Holbrook, Thos. Crawford, Philip 
Higgins, Jesse Osgood, David Clifford, David Lemont, David Ring, 
Samuel Lemont (first man killed at Saratoga), Joshua Raynes, Jesse 
Holbrook, Thos. Lemont, John Berry, Mr. Jones, Jonathan Sargent, 
( vide Lemont.) 

Among the citizens of the town who served in the war of the 
Revolution at different periods were William Swanton, Joshua Shaw, 
Isaiah Crocker, Jr., Luke Lambert, Patrick Grace, Joshua Raynes, 
Edward H. Page, Nathaniel Springer, Joseph Stockbridge, John 
Holbrook. Joseph Stockbridge was at the siege of Yorktown and 
served as sergeant in the corps of light infantry, under General La 
Fayette. 

Peleg Tallman was a sailor of the Revolution, having served in 
several privateers, and was first taken prisoner by the British at 
the age of 1 1 years, from the second vessel in which he served. 
Capt. Tallman afterward lost an arm at the shoulder in the action 
between the privateer Trumbull and the English letter-of-marque 
Watt. Later he was captured again by the British and confined 
about two years in English prisons, until peace was declared, when 
he made his way to the United States where he accumulated a com- 
fortable fortune, serving meanwhile in the Legislatures of Massachu- 
setts and Maine, and Representative to Congress. He died at 
Bath, March 8, 1841, at the age of 77. 

Privateers cruising along our coasts during the war of the Rev- 
olution entered harbors, rivers, and even coves, committing all kinds 
of depreciations on the land, burning vessels found in port, and out 
to sea capturing coasters as prizes. In these expeditions they were 
often aided by tories on shore. The most annoying of these pri- 
vateers were the Nova Scotia craft, termed shaving mills, having 
open decks, with sails and sweeps, and manned by six or eight armed 



HISTORY OF BATH. 6j 

men. With their light draught they could easily dodge in and out 
of a creek or river, capture coasters and fishing craft. They were 
difficult to provide against or capture. 

Incidents of the War. — In 1775 there lived in Wiscasset a 
radical tory, also an officer of the British army under the patronage 
of this tory; both very arrogant and obnoxious to "Young America." 
The young men of Bath and Wiscasset joined forces to humiliate 
these individuals by giving the officer a coat of " tar and feathers " 
and a night airing on a rail through the streets of Wiscasset. The 
Bath boys took advantage of the excitement and were active in 
confiscating a quantity of the lead pumps and hawse-pipes that had 
been brought from England for a ship of the aforesaid tory, and 
before daylight they had seen the result of their work under the 
brush and bushes at the head of Philbrook's Cove. This lead was 
contributed to every new recruit for the army, a pound and a half to 
each man. This supposed 700 pounds of lead was an item for the 
good cause, as lead was scarce and high. Many a hugh pewter 
platter on which baked beans and brown bread were served had 
been melted and cast into balls for the use of the army in defend- 
ing the country. 

In August 1770, two British private armed vessels came up the 
Kennebec as far as Jones Eddy, in pursuit of an American schooner 
that they had chased into the river, and outsailing the privates 
passed up to Bath. They anchored in the Eddy at night, and the 
alarm was immediately given. A detachment from Long Reach 
companies, under command of Capt. Nathaniel Springer, took post 
on Bluff Head, and with two field pieces, one of which was com- 
manded by Sergt. Edward H. Page, cannonaded and, severely 
annoyed the enemy during the night. Several on board the ship 
were killed, and at daylight the next morning they slipped their 
cables and went to sea. On their way down the river they were 
pursued by the Americans in boats, in one of which was Capt. 
Springer. On the point at Butlers Cove, some of the Georgetown 
soldiers, supposing the pursuers to be a part of the enemy, fired 
on them, and killed Capt. Springer. 



68 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Arnold in the Kennebec. — In September, 1775, when Gen. 
Arnold with 11 00 men passed up the Kennebec on their expedition 
to Canada, his flotilla came to anchor at Parkers Flats. It was 
told by the deacon himself that Parson Emerson with Deacon 
Parker went on board Arnold's vessel and the parson prayed one 
hour and three-quarters for the success of the expedition. Parker 
was a captain during the Revolutionary war; a lion to the enemies 
of liberty, a lamb in the church. The deacon gave a particular 
description of Colonel Daniel Morgan, with whom at that time he 
had some conversation. He said that he was a giant in size and of 
great physical strength. He had the motto on his cocked hat in 
large letters, " Liberty or Death." 

John Parker. — During the war of the Revolution, British men 
of war often came into the Kennebec and anchored at Parkers Flats 
opposite Captain John Parker's farm, and would send boats ashore 
and carry off cattle and sheep. They would also obtain supplies of 
dairy products from the house, promising to pay for them, which 
they usually did do. It is related that, on one occasion, sailors 
from one of these ships having made some purchases of the kind 
went away without paying, but promising to return in the morning 
and make payment. But the next morning the old gentleman dis- 
covered the ship getting " under weigh " to go to sea. He imme- 
diately proceeded to the shore, mounted a high ledge, and angrily 
hailed the ship, loudly calling out, "You Englishmen, you! 
You Englishmen, you ! Come ashore and pay what you owe me. 
The man of war replied by sending a cannon ball at the enraged 
man. It struck a smooth, perpendicular ledge immediately below 
where he was standing, and the round print of the ball remains in 
the rock to this day. The ball was afterwards picked up on the 
flats at low tide, and was kept in the old timber house of John 
Parker until it was taken down and the ball lost. In his youthful 
days this author often saw this ball in this house and the indenture 
in the ledge. 

Philbrook. — In May, 1766, Job Philbrook and an Irishman by 
the name of Maloon were at work plowing where John Shaw's 



HISTORY OF BATH. 69 

garden afterwards was, and both were captured by Indians and 
marched off towards Canada, leaving their yoke of oxen hitched to 
the plow. As they moved away and had crossed Whizgig and were 
hurried on by the Indians, Maloon exclaimed to Philbrook, "And 
who do you think will take care of the oxen to-night ? " The owner 
of the oxen was so incensed at the Irishman's levity that he was 
about to strike him, when Pat quickly added, " Never mind, I'll 
soon do it myself," which was nearly verified. Reaching the St. 
Lawrence, Maloon was sold to a gentleman just embarking for 
Europe, and when near the mouth of that river the ship was cap- 
tured and taken to Boston, where Maloon was released, and returned 
to Bath after an absence of six weeks. In October following Phil- 
brook was exchanged and returned home. 



0r6api^abior> o£ bt>e To^wr) o£ Babi). 



Petition to the General Court. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Court Assembled. 

The petition of the second parish of Georgetown, in the County 
of Lincoln, by their committee duly appointed for the purpose here- 
after mentioned, humbly showeth that the second parish is situated 
on the western side of the Kennebec River, a place called Long 
Reach, and forms the upper division of said town of Georgetown, 
and is bounded as follows, viz. : Northwesterly by New Meadows 
River, so called; northerly and easterly by Merrymeeting Bay; 
southerly by Kennebec River; and southerly and westerly by a 
large creek called Winnegance; and by said creek by an old Indian 
camping place in the line which separates the second parish. 

The committee flatter themselves that your honors will easily per- 
ceive its detached situation from the lower division of said town, 
which, together with the badness of traveling in this part of the 



JO HISTORY OF BATH. 

country, and the great distance the said parish is from the center o"f 
said town, where public town meetings are usually held, conspire to 
prevent the inhabitants from attending said meetings, however nec- 
essary or important the occasion may be, unless with the greatest 
difficulty, fatigue, and loss of time, the consequence of which is 
that a large portion of said inhabitants, discouraged by such com- 
plicated difficulties, seldom give their attendance at all, and town 
meetings are frequently held and affairs of the greatest public 
importance usually transacted and decided upon without the said 
inhabitants having any voice in the matter; and the people of the 
lower part of the town, sensible of the peculiar hardships which the 
inhabitants of said second parish labor under on other accounts, at 
a meeting of said town, legally held on the 23d day of May last, a 
unanimous vote of the said town was passed, signifying its consent 
that the said second parish might be incorporated into a separate 
town by itself. A copy of which vote the committee beg leave to 
lay before your honors. 

The said inhabitants, influenced by motives of public utility and 

an ardent wish to be supported in the enjoyment of those privileges 

which every freeman ought to hold sacred, the privilege of having a 

vote in all matters which concern themselves or the communities of 

which they are a part, humbly pray ( by the communities aforesaid ) 

that your honors will be pleased to take the case into consideration 

and grant that the said second parish may be set off into a separate 

town by the name of Bath, with all the powers, privileges, and im 

munities of incorporated towns, and your petitioners will ever pray. 

dummer sewall, 

Benj. Lemont, 

Jno. Wood. 
Georgetown, 29th October, 1780. 

At this date there were forty families in the parish. 

The Act of Incorporation. — An act for incorporating the 
second parish in Georgetown, in the County of Lincoln, into a 
separate town by the name of Bath. 

Whereas, The inhabitants of the second parish of Georgetown, 
in the County of Lincoln, have petitioned the legislature of this 



HISTORY OF BATH. 7 1 

commonwealth, setting forth that great inconvenience accrues to 
them by their being continued a part of said town, on account of 
the detached situation of the said second parish from the lower 
division of said town; and whereas it appears that the representa- 
tion of the said inhabitants as stated in their petition is founded on 
facts; Therefore, 

Section i. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the 
same, that the said second parish be, and it hereby is, incorporated 
into a separate town by the name of Bath, with all the powers, 
privileges, and immunities of incorporated towns. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid 
that the bounds of the said town of Bath be, and they are hereby, 
as follows, viz.: Northwardly and westwardly by New Meadows 
River, so called; northwardly and eastwardly by Merrymeeting Bay; 
southwardly by Kennebec River; southwardly and westwardly by 
Winnegance Creek, so called; and from said creek by a path, which 
was formerly an Indian carrying place, as said path runs to the 
nearest part of Casco Bay. 

Provided, notwithstanding, that the said inhabitants be held to 
pay their proportion of the public tax, which is now assessed on 
said Georgetown and remaining unpaid; and also that they be held 
to comply with all other requisitions of government on the said 
town of Georgetown prior to this act, as though the same had never 
been made. 

Section 3. And be it further enacted, that Samuel Harnden, 
Esq., be, and he is hereby, empowered and directed to issue his 
warrant to some principal inhabitant of said town, requiring him to 
warn the inhabitants thereof to meet at such time and place as he 
shall therein set forth, to choose all such officers as towns are by 
law required and empowered to choose in the month of March 
annually; at which meeting all the then present male inhabitants 
upwards of twenty-one years of age shall be admitted to vote. 

This act was passed February 17, 1781. 



72 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The people petitioned to have the town named Reach; but it was 
finally decided to adopt the name of Bath. 

March 19, 1781, Samuel Harnden of Woolwich called the first 
town meeting, at which he presided, in the old meeting-house. John 
Wood was chosen town clerk; William Swanton, Benjamin Lemont, 
and Joseph Berry, selectmen. Ten thousand dollars were raised to 
pay for the enlistment of soldiers for the Continental army. This 
being in the depreciated Continental paper money, it would be only 
equal to five hundred dollars of coin. For current expenses of the 
town, the sum of four thousand dollars was voted. William Lith- 
gow was chosen representative to General Court, and his pay was 
two shillings and sixpence a day, sterling money. 

Bath was the first town incorporated under the constitution of the 
State of Maine after the organization of its government in 1820. 

Town Clerks. — 1781, John Wood; 1782, Dummer Sewall was 
chosen and held the office until 1793; when Francis Winter was 
chosen and served until Christopher Cushing was elected in 1801; 
and the next year Francis Winter was again elected; Major David 
Shaw was elected in 1803 and was continued in the office forty 
years. 

Upon the organization of the town no representative was sent to 
the General Court for the first three years. Francis Winter was 
elected to the office in 1784, and re-elected until 1799, when David 
Shaw was chosen by a majority of two votes over James Davidson. 
The town voted not to send in 1800. Joshua Shaw was elected for 
1801 and 1802; Samuel Davis for 1803; William King for 1804 and 
1805; William King and Peleg Tallman for 1806, the representation 
having been increased to two members from Bath {vide Joseph 
Sewall). 

In 1787, Bath sent Dummer Sewall a delegate to the convention 
held at Boston to act upon the constitution submitted to the states 
for ratification, and the delegate voted for its acceptance. 

In 1792 and 1793 small pox raged in Bath to the extent that a 
special hospital was built at DonnelFs Pond in which to place vic- 
tims to its ravages. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 73 

In the earliest days of its business career Bath had a formidable 
rival as a mart of trade and commerce for the Kennebec in a point 
farther down the river. 

Jones Eddy. — About four miles below Bath Bluff Head juts 
out as the south point of the narrows on the east side of the river, 
where the waters suddenly expand, forming a wide cove. With 
either the flood or ebb tide there is always slack water for a consid- 
erable distance. The early settlers used this cove for booming 
timber designed for shipment. At the Eddy is good anchoring 
ground. Trading craft on the river in ancient times often made it 
their trading point. Before the war of the Revolution, English 
ships coming into the river to load with timber usually came up as 
far as the Eddy and remained there to load. It was considered the 
head of navigation on the river, as the sharp bend of Fiddlers 
Reach was difficult to navigate. Besides, Bath was then a place of 
inconsiderable importance; the lower end of Arrowsic was more so. 

The Eddy was brought into prominence by Charles Vaughn, of 
Boston, who was a merchant of wealth and a brother of Dr. Benj. 
Vaughn, of Hallowell, the founder of the large Vaughn estate there. 
His attention seems to have been called to the business capabilities 
of the Kennebec from the circumstance that he had some collateral 
interest in the famous Kennebec Purchase. In 1793, Bath had not 
become a commercial center, and Wiscasset was the metropolis for 
all this section of country. It was the great maratime port. The 
export and import of merchandise of Bath and the entire river was 
through Wiscasset. Mr. Vaughn, in connection with some English 
merchants, undertook to make Hallowell the central point for the 
Upper Kennebec and Jones Eddy for the Lower Kennebec. The 
Jones map was prepared at Vaughn's expense and designed for the 
use of navigators of the numerous vessels that might frequent the 
river. Vaughn employed a salaried agent from Boston to conduct 
the business, built a house, a store, a large wharf, a close dock and 
booms for masts and spars, with other conveniences for trade. But 
the ships never came; the enterprise failed and so did Mr. Vaughn. 
Yet the tide ebbs and flows at Jones Eddy all the same. It had 
been found that ships could safely sail to Long Reach, that the 



74 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Eddy was on the wrong side of the river for country trade, and that 
Bath was the natural center for the commercial business of the 
Kennebec River and Valley. Energetic and able men saw this, 
settled at Bath, and made it the commercial mart of the river. 

This Eddy derived its name from John Jones. From a peculiarity 
in his complexion he was denominated Mahogany Jones. He made 
a map of the river in 1793 from Seguin up through Fiddlers Reach. 
That the map contains a minute description of the Eddy is the 
possible reason that it took the name of Jones. He did not reside 
nor have any interest there, but lived at Pownalboro, where he had 
been in the employ of the Plymouth Company as surveyor, and 
finally became a resident of Augusta. At the time of the Revolu- 
tion he was a violent tory, and was one of a small party who seized 
Brigadier General Cushing in his house at Pownalboro, while in his 
bed, and delivered him to the British forces at Castine. 

Fiddlers Reach is an elbow bend in the Kennebec at the lower 
extremity of Long Reach, and, according to well-authenticated 
tradition, derives its name from the drowning of a fiddler from a 
sloop sailing up the river at an early date. When she was passing 
through the bend of the river, the people on board of her on coming 
in view of a reach of water four miles long became greatly elated, 
and a fiddler who was on board went out on the bowsprit to play 
a tune, when just at that time the wind slat the jib and knocked him 
overboard and he was drowned. 

The northeastern bend of the two reaches is termed Doubling 
Point, for the reason that upon entering or leaving the reach this 
point has to be doubled. 

Reminiscences. — The Hon. Jonathan Hyde, who first came to 
Bath in 1792 as a trader during the summer months, returning 
to his home in Connecticut in the fall, and permanently 
located here as a merchant in general trade in 1799, wrote out in 
1846, for the use of his children, some of his early experiences in 
this section, of which the under-written extracts may be of general 
interest in this volume, as showing the state of society and business 
and the appearance of the country in its state of nature. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 75 

" In 1792, all below Bath on the river and seaboard, the islands, 
were all covered with trees; Seguin was like a dark forest standing 
high in the ocean, and as we first approached it from the sea, it 
being a little hollow in the middle, always appeared like a very great 
saddle; Wood Island was thickly covered, but there is not a tree 
remaining on it; and the same of Stag and Pond Islands. There 
were but few houses; they were scattered along on the banks of the 
river in little green openings; could see a good many single deck 
schooners and sloops passing up and down, deeply loaded with 
lumber, all which, on coming in from sea, had a very romantic 
appearance. Bath did not appear much like a village; a few stores 
and a very few houses were near the river, and a few houses were 
scattered along on the country road which is now High Street; there 
were no roads, streets, or buildings between that road and the river; 
it was chiefly pasture where the city now is, considerably covered 
with trees and bushes. 

I was present at a review of a regiment of infantry; two officers 
were present, I believe as spectators, who had been in the Revolu- 
tionary service. The colonel who commanded the regiment seemed 
to be very much vexed at the awkwardness of his men, and the 
distinguished gentlemen and other spectators were much amused 
with his awkwardness; he was mounted on a black steed that had 
survived many hard winters; he was in no danger from enemies; 
the crows would not peck his bones, for he had no flesh on them. 
The brave colonel had on a black coat made in a peculiar style, an 
old cocked hat, small clothes coming down to his knees or nearly 
so, blue yarn stockings, cowhide shoes, and great iron spurs not 
very bright; had a great broadsword which may have been the one 
formerly used by Goliath; if it was so, its age will account for its 
being very rusty. He would frequently get very angry with his 
soldiers and would attempt to ride in among them to chastise them, 
but before he could get his nag to move he had to put in his spurs, 
making his legs and arms go, flourishing his sword, yerking his 
bridle, using very great words, but before the horse would carry him 
to where he could cut off heads his wrath would abate and no one 
was killed. [ Muster at that time was a little south of where is now 
the Phoenix Hotel.] 



76 HISTORY OF BATH. 

There were a number of log forts on the banks of the river; one 
on the southern end of Arrowsic Island, and one at the northern 
end opposite Bath. There were but three wharves at Bath. The 
meeting-house was one and a half miles back from the river; meet- 
ings were not very frequent; we sometimes went to Georgetown to 
hear the Rev. Ezekiel Emerson. I frequently saw old Sabattis, the 
Indian who piloted Arnold and his men through the wilderness to 
Quebec; also saw Capt. Coburn, who built the bateaux at Pittston 
to carry them up the river. 

The appearance along on the main river above Bath and also on 
the Eastern river was quite interesting. A few farms having been 
cleared, mills and vessels were building; several villages were begin- 
ning to grow; and then on the eastern bank of the Kennebec was 
the Pownalboro court house, the seat of justice for this region of 
country comprising Lincoln county, which was all east of Cumber- 
land county. 

The great store owned by the elder Jonathan Davis (now Levi 
Houghton's, 1849,) had been lately built, and a large trade was 
carried on by him and his sons, Jonathan and Samuel. I occupied 
a store near there. 

The inhabitants at and near Bath were generally industrious, 
rather rough in their manners, though kind, civil, and hospitable, 
fond of getting together and having a row; a great proportion would 
work hard through the day and be drunk at night; a few were 
reputable, and some were very pious. The females were civil to 
strangers; were kind and somewhat agreeable; not generally very 
handsome and not overstocked with neatness;, a few were quite 
accomplished; such were generally from other parts. There were 
but few schools and little preaching, mostly Methodist.'' 

The Great Embargo. — When the war between Napoleon and 
England was in progress, it marked an important era in the business 
interests of Bath. France, England, and the West Indies were 
more important to us than all the rest of the world. Pine and hard 
wood, lumber, provisions, and fish were our staple products. The 
immediate neighborhood had little agriculture, and the town no 



HISTORY OF BATH. 77 

manufactories. Merchants were largely engaged in the West India 
trade with brigs and topsail schooners, doing carrying trade for both 
belligerent nations. Bath had never seen such days of prosperity 
as those at the opening of this nineteenth century. Real estate 
rose in value in all parts of the town. The building of vessels and 
its collateral industries were in full activity and profit. 

In building vessels no ready money was required except to pay 
for labor. Materials could be had on easy credit. Frequently one 
voyage of a vessel would pay its entire cost. The bulk of outward 
cargoes was lumber. This was bought here for $8.00 a thousand 
and sold in the West Indies for $60.00. The return cargoes would 
chiefly consist of rum, sugar, and molasses, on which the profits 
would equal those of the outward cargo. They brought also bags 
of specie. People grew rich and extravagant. 

All at once this prosperity was struck dead by the embargo act. 
Many merchants, heretofore of high standing, failed. ' Improve- 
ments in progress in the town then ceased. The embargo, as will 
be remembered, was during the Jefferson administration. Napoleon 
and England were in deadly conflict. The former issued his famous 
Berlin and Milan decrees, declaring that vessels of neutral nations 
trading with the ports of Great Britain, or carrying English goods, 
would be subject to seizure and confiscation. England retaliated 
with Orders in Council against neutral vessels trading with .French 
ports or loaded with French merchandise. Thus our foreign com- 
merce was between two fires. 

Dec. 22, 1807, authorized by act of Congress, President Jefferson 
issued an embargo proclamation, shutting up our foreign going 
shipping in every port in the country. The object of this act was 
twofold: First, to coerce both of the belligerent powers by retalia- 
tion; and second, apprehension that the persistency of our vessels 
in keeping up trade to the interdicted ports would involve this 
country in war. 

Vessels Laid Up. — Forthwith in January, 1808, there were 
hauled up at the wharves in Bath sixteen ships, twenty-seven brigs, 
of a total of 9,070 tons, besides some fore and aft schooners and 



78 HISTORY OF BATH. 

sloops. There was also prospect of war with either France or 
England, and commercial affairs presented a gloomy aspect. A 
meeting of citizens passed spirited resolutions " condemning the 
insolent manner in which the embargo was enforced." "The reso- 
lutions were highly applauded in Boston." Thus crushed between 
foreign and our own government, can it be wondered at that owners 
of American shipping should feel themselves justified in endeavoring 
to save themselves from absolute ruin by sending their ships to sea 
and taking their chances in illegal trade ? Consequently it was 
attempted. 

Hazardous Yoyages. — The ship Sally of 380 tons, owned by 
John Richardson, sailed from Bath in February, 1809, with two 
commanders, Captain Rowe, of Bath, and Captain Mackey, a 
Scotchman. She was laden with lumber for London. William 
Richardson, a brother of the owner, went in her as supercargo. She 
was compelled to run the fort at the mouth of the Kennebec, from 
which she was fired upon. Some of her rigging was cut away and 
a cannon ball went through a topsail, but she got safely to sea. The 
voyage to London was made successfully and her cargo was sold 
there at great profit. This was the beginning of the successful 
career of William Richardson, who subsequently became one of 
Bath's prominent and wealthy ship-builders and owners. 

On the voyage out this ship had an adventure. The crew be- 
longed to Bath and vicinity and were intelligent men compared with 
what sailors are at the present day. When fairly at sea, knowing 
the ship had no papers and was in illicit trade, they calculated that 
they could take charge and did so, confining the officers below. 
Finally a compromise was entered into by which notes were given to 
the men for fifty dollars each, payable when the vessel shall have 
arrived at the port of her destination. When arriving, however, on 
the English coast William Richardson, on the pretext of being sick 
or for some other plausible reason, was set ashore at a remote place 
and was landed at some peril in the high surf. From thence he 
made his way to London, and when the ship arrived he was all 
ready with officers of the law to arrest the crew for mutiny, which 



HISTORY OF BATH. 79 

could be done under a special English law applying to vessels com- 
ing from a foreign port without legal papers. The men were let off 
by giving up the notes; some of them, after returning to Bath, did 
not relish being jeered about their unsuccessful escapade. ^ 

Brig Mary Jane. — Mark Langdon Hill and Thomas McCobb 
were partners under the firm of Hill & McCobb, doing business at 
Phipsburg Center, keeping a store, building and sailing ships. Hill 
married a sister of McCobb, and lived at their house while he 
was a single man and went to sea, commanding ships owned by the 
firm. They built at Hallowell and owned the brig Mary Jane. She 
was a low-decked vessel, square-rigged, and 156 tons burthen. She | 
was built expressly for the West India trade, to carry out boards, 
shingles, and scantling, and in exchange to bring back molasses, 
sugar, and rum. When the embargo law went into operation, the 
latter part of December, 1807, the Mary Jane was absent at sea and 
did not return till the spring of 1808, when she was put in full 
repair. She had brought home a West India cargo, was met by 
the embargo, and was laid up all that season. In November, 1808, 
Capt. McCobb made up his mind that the Mary Jane should go to 
sea. He communicated this to Judge Hill, who owned one-half of 
the brig. The Judge left the whole matter to Capt. McCobb. He 
proceeded to load the Mary Jane with a cargo for the West India 
market, and fitted her for sea. 

To command her needed a man of nerve and activity. He knew 
the sea captains of Bristol; his eldest sister was married to Capt. 
William Nichols and was living there. He sent for Capt. Thomas 
H. Nelson of that town and he came. He was about thirty years 
of age, sharp and quick of action. The firm of Hill & McCobb 
transferred to him the vessel and cargo for $5,500, for which Nelson 
gave two notes, and the bill of sale was filed in the custom house 
in presence of Capt. Rowe and Parker McCobb, nephew of Thomas 
McCobb. Capt. Nelson took immediate command of the brig, had 
her sails brought from the warehouse and bent, and shipped a crew 
of home men. James Percy was mate, and James Cushing, Jr., 
second mate; both of these men afterwards became masters of West 



80 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Indiamen. Capt. Robert P. Manson, Sr., of Parkers Island, was 
engaged as pilot, for which service he was paid fifty dollars, ten 
times the regular fee. 

McCobb directed everything on shore. William Owen, a boat 
maker, made the gun carriages for her four cannon, and Joseph 
Morse, the village blacksmith, made the bolts for them. Six or 
eight pitchforks, gathered up in the neighborhood, were put on 
board to be used in case an attempt should be made to board the 
brig as she moved down the river. At that time towns were, by 
law, compelled to keep a certain amount of ammunition in store to 
be used in case of emergency. In Phipsburg it was stored in the 
basement of the meeting-house at the Center. It is in tradition that 
a supply for the brig was taken from this deposit. 

The brick store at tfee Center at this day is the same that was 
built by McCobb in 1806 and occupied by Hill & McCobb. 
The brig was moored at the end of the wharf that stood where is 
the present wharf. Although effort was made to keep the movement 
secret, it became known, and at night-fall there was quite a gather- 
ing of people at the store. To prevent the curious from going on 
board the vessel, guards were stationed at the head of the wharf. 
Parker McCobb afterwards said that as many as thirty men stood 
ready to aid and assist if called upon. 

As there was universal dissatisfaction all along the New England 
coast at the restrictions of the embargo act, the general government 
had made preparations to enforce it. Accordingly special officers 
were employed by the collector at Bath to prevent breaches of the 
law during the embargo and non-intercourse, and particularly at the 
time the Mary Jane sailed. Among these officers was Col. Andrew 
Reed, whose residence was about a mile below the Center. He had 
in use a custom house boat, which was lying at his wharf on that 
eventful night, and men were sent down to cut a hole in her bottom 
to prevent her being used against the movements of the brig. 

After the fort had failed in preventing the ship Sally from going 
to sea, Gen. Wingate, the collector of Bath, had fitted up a cutter, 
mounting six 6 pounders. He appointed Capt. John Lane, a Bath 



HISTORY OF BATH. 8 1 

man, commander of this vessel, who with necessary officers and 
twenty-nine men had taken charge of the same and anchored her in 
a position to command the passage of the river, at the upper end of 
Parkers Flats on the west side and opposite the house of Custom 
House Officer Andrew Reed, about one mile below the place where 
the Mary Jane lay at the wharf. Capt. Lane being acquainted with 
Capt. McCobb, and knowing his intrepidity and daring, kept a sharp 
lookout for the Mary Jane should she attempt to go to sea. 

In December, 1808, the Mary Jane was loaded. Capt. McCobb 
asked for no clearance at the custom house. He armed the brig 
with four four pounders, two on each side. He also fitted up small 
spars on each quarter and along the sides and bows of the brig to 
obstruct boarders. He enlisted twelve daring and bold men, in addi- 
tion to the crew, to convey the brig to sea. Capt. McCobb was the 
chief and leader. Parker McCobb was second in command. The 
men were all residents of the town. Not one of them weighed less 
than two hundred pounds. They were armed with guns and bayonets. 

When these men arrived at the Center, according to appointment, 
they proceeded to the house of M. L. Hill, where McCobb boarded, 
and were invited to go in and take "something to drink," according 
to the custom of the times, and to eat supper, to which all sat down. 

It had been arranged that as soon as the Mary Jane had got 
outside, the twelve men were to leave her and land, and for this 
purpose a reach boat, pulled by six oars, had been provided to make 
their way from the brig to the land. 

It was determined that the brig should pass down the river to the 
sea at night, and everything was got in readiness. The extra crew, 
before they went on board, disguised themselves by blacking their 
faces, with the exception of Peter Carey, who was a mulatto of 
gigantic size and strength. Capt. McCobb said to Peter that he 
need not use the blacking brush on his face, as his natural color 
needed no paint. The night on which the Mary Jane left the wharf 
for sea was dark and gloomy, the wind blowing heavily from the 
north. Every man was on board and at his quarters. The guns 
were loaded and shotted. 



82 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The account of the passage of the brig down the river is given in 
the language of men on board of her: "At midnight, on January 2, 
1809, the brig was cast off from the wharf, made sail, every man at 
his post, and passed down the river. As the brig came near the 
cutter, an officer hailed the brig, and receiving no answer fired 
across her bows without effect. The cutter then opened fire on the 
brig. Capt. McCobb returned the fire, and so for a mile or more 
the two vessels kept up a running fire with their great guns, the brig 
firing two shot to the cutter's one. No small arms were used on 
either side, and no attempt was made to board the Mary Jane by 
the crew of the cutter. Capt. Parker McCobb said afterwards that 
it was his opinion that no fifty men could have carried the Mary 
Jane, on her passage to sea. Notwithstanding the efforts of Capt. 
Lane, the brig safely passed down the river without any material 
injury. One of her round shot struck the cutter. No one was 
killed or wounded on either side." 

When the brig came opposite the fort, the cannon not being in 
position, she was fired into with small arms, which did no damage 
excepting a little to sails and rigging. The brig returned the fire 
with cannon and muskets. The brig took passage between Seguin 
and Parkers Island, hauled her wind as near the land as was con- 
venient, and Capt. McCobb, with his gallant volunteers, took to their 
boat, with their arms, and landed safely below Harmons Harbor, in 
Georgetown, early in the morning. Here the volunteers partially 
washed their faced at the house of James Williams. They crossed 
the island on foot to Butlers Cove, opposite the residence of Judge 
Hill, where boats were ready to receive them and carry them over 
the river. When they arrived, it took much warm water to restore 
their faces to their natural color. A warm breakfast awaited them 
at the house, and they were paid for their services. 

The brig arrived safely at Demerara, where the vessel and cargo 
were sold at a high price. Capt. Nelson died there. 

Ever after this event the McCobbs freely acknowledged the 
running of the Mary Jane out of the river as an illicit voyage, and 
believed themselves justified in the act, on the ground that the gov- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 83 

ernment had no right to institute a measure that, in its effect, would 
sequester their property without just compensation. 

The Sloop Adoniram. — During the summer of 1808, while 
the embargo was in force, Mark L. Hill and Thomas McCobb char- 
tered of Benjamin Emmons of Parkers Island the fifty ton sloop 
Adoniram for a voyage to the West Indies, and Thomas Oliver of 
Phipsburg was placed in command. A quantity of cured fish was 
sent across the river from the warehouse of Hill & McCobb to 
where the sloop lay at Emmons wharf, and placed on flakes there 
to be thoroughly aired before being put on board the vessel. 

The small schooner Washington was employed to take one hun- 
dred barrels of flour from the store of Hill & McCobb, in the night 
time, and proceed to the mouth of the river on a Sunday morning, 
where she lay off and on until the succeeding Sunday, when the 
Adoniram, having taken the fish aboard at Emmons' Wharf, came 
out of the river, and lying alongside of the schooner the flour was 
transferred on board of her. The sloop lay off and on at the mouth 
of the river, waiting for the schooner Washington to bring out to 
her additional freight, but there was such an excitement on shore 
that it was rendered difficult to bring anything more to the sloop, 
and the effort was abandoned. Capt. Oliver then received a letter 
from his employers, directing " me to lay off south five leagues from 
the island of Monhegan, and wear an ensign at the peak, in order 
that the Adoniram might be known by those who were to bring out 
to her in boats from Boothbay the remainder of the cargo. We 
accordingly lay there about one week, and in the course of that 
time about two hundred quintals of fish were brought to us in two 
small vessels, when we sailed for Demerara. We accordingly 
arrived at that port and sold both vessel and cargo for cash, and 
after remaining there thirty days, I received the pay in British and 
other gold," which was brought home by the captain in a bag, 
delivered to its owners, and weighed at Hill & McCobb's store 
(Capt. Oliver's affidavit). 

The Schooner Three Friends. — During the winter of 18 10 

and 181 1, the non-intercourse act then being in force, Capt. John 



84 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Mereen of Phipsburg was employed by Hill & McCobb to take 
command of the schooner Three Friends, which had been chartered 
of Gilmore Percy and others, and " take a cargo of lumber to 
Demerara, dispose of it there, and collect the proceeds of the sales 
of the brig Mary Jane and her cargo, which had been sold in that 
port in 1809." Having received verbal orders and instructions, 
Capt. Mereen sailed on the voyage, sold his cargo, and made the 
collection required, and returned with a cargo of rum and molasses, 
which was entered at the custom house as from an unprohibited 
port, and landed at Hill & McCobb's wharf in Phipsburg Center in 
May, 181 1 (Mereen's affidavit). 

It appears that Nathaniel Green, managing owner, with Simeon 
Colby, Humphrey Purington, William Frost, and Daniel Baker, all 
of Topsham, the other owners of the schooner Tobias, William 
Farrin, captain, was on a voyage from Bath to Bermuda, ostensibly 
cleared for St. Bartholomew's, a neutral port.> . 

Joseph F. Wingate was collector of the port of Bath from 1820 
to 1824. He appears to have been interested in a voyage of the 
schooner Abigail, James Merryman, captain, in company with 
Abraham Hammett, chartered from Thomas Skolfield of Harpswell, 
in November, 1813, to take a cargo of merchandise from Bath to 
the West Indies and return. The port made having been Bermuda, 
it was an enemy's port and was illicit trade. The schooner made a 
successful voyage, and on her arrival home must have been entered 
as coming from a neutral port (vide Wm. King). 

Joseph F. Wingate was also interested with others in a voyage of 
the brig Leander on an illicit West India voyage in 1813, going to 
Antiqua, a British port. On her arrival home she was made to hail 
from a neutral Spanish port. 

Feb. 14, 1814. "A number of vessels were complained of for 
having traded at Bermuda, an English port, they having recently 
arrived with sugars; Messrs. Green, J. F. Wingate, Benjamin Ames, 
Robinson, K — g, and others interested " {vide Zina Hyde). 

The Adjustment. — "Jan. 16, 1809. News of a law requiring 
bonds for every loaded vessel, coastwise as well as foreign voyages. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 85 

March 15. News of the partial repeal of the embargo, and vessels 
begin to sail for foreign ports, England and France excepted " (vide 
Zina Hyde). 

April 27, 1809. News of the amicable adjustment of differences 
between this country and England and France, giving us the same 
advantages we might have had before the commencement of the 
seventeen months' embargo. But in July of the same year a vessel 
arrived at Boston, bringing the news that the English government 
had repudiated that adjustment, declaring that her Orders in Coun- 
cil were to be in force as before, with the understanding that 
American vessels that had sailed on voyages relying upon the 
certainty of the adjustment would not be molested. To this trouble 
with England there was added the persistent impressment of Amer- 
ican seamen by Great Britain for use in its navy. 

Then followed the Non-Intercourse Act of May, 1809, of 
Congress, interdicting all commercial relations with English ports. 
As trade with the West India ports of that nation was of vital 
importance to our commercial marine, this restriction bore heavily 
upon the owners of Bath vessels. It continued until the com- 
mencement of the war with Great Britain, June 2, 18 12. 

"July 13, 1812. This day receive a decree of Napoleon Bona- 
parte that the Berlin and Milan decrees are repealed, which decree 
is dated 181 1, but has never before come to the public knowledge; 
at the same time have a rumor of a change of the British ministry 
and the repeal of the Orders in Council " (vide Zina Hyde). 

To the disadvantage of having all legitimate trade with English 
ports cut off during the war, were added two embargoes of limited 
duration placed upon not only foreign but coastwise vessels. 

King and Ames Controversy. — In connection with illicit 
voyages of Bath vessels during the existence of restriction measures 
put in force by the general government, a notable controversy took 
place in 1824 between some leading men of Bath. Nathan Ames 
and Joseph F. Wingate were nominated to the United States Senate 
for appointment to government offices by President Monroe in 1823. 
They calculated upon the aid of General King to secure their 



86 HISTORY OF BATH. 

confirmations, but failed to obtain his influence. The rejection of 
Ames by the Senate was unanimous. Wingate received only one 
vote. It was said by General King that their defeat was occasioned 
"for their having been engaged in trade with the enemy during the 
war, as well as for other reasons." 

Ames determined on revenge upon King, and was seconded by 
Wingate. Soon after reaching home from Washington they entered 
upon the crusade. It was the age of pamphlets; newspapers were 
few and small in size. In 1824, an anonymous pamphlet appeared 
that was known to be the joint work of Ames and Wingate. In it 
King was charged with having been concerned in illicit trade during 
the time of the embargo, non-intercourse, and war of 18 12. These 
men had obtained affidavits from captains who had sailed on these 
voyages in vessels belonging in whole or part to King. These 
documents strongly implicated King as having been engaged in 
illegitimate trade. These were printed together with copies of 
letters to his captains, and consequently gave color to the state- 
ments of the captains. It was charged that vessels would clear for 
a neutral port, but went direct to a prohibited port, when, having 
sold and discharged cargo, proceeded to one of these neutral ports 
and took out clearance papers for Bath, or in some instances pur- 
chase at the port of discharge clearance papers purporting to have 
been granted at a port not interdicted. In some instances a vessel 
would have on board Swedish papers and flags of different nations 
to use in emergencies. 

On these voyages the vessels took out cargoes of boards, spars, 
staves, shingles, potatoes, and live stock, returning with West India 
products and coin. Boards were bought at Bath for about $8.00 a 
thousand and sold at the West Indies for from $60 to $100 a thou- 
sand, and potatoes about $7.50 a barrel; large quantities of these 
latter were raised on the King farm, 450 barrels being shipped at 
one time. The rum and molasses brought the high prices prevailing 
during the embargo, non-intercourse, and war. 

The pamphlet stated that one of the vessels was the brig Two 
Sisters, owned by Samuel Veazie, Humphrey Purington, Daniel 



HISTORY OF BATH. 87 

Baker, Jonathan Baker, and Nathaniel Green of Topsham, Peter H. 
Green of Bath, and Clement Martin of Harpswell, loaded at Kings 
wharf, and took on board a large quantity of potatoes in 18 13 for 
a West India port. These potatoes came from Gen. King's farm, 
and as he assisted in putting them on board the vessel, as well as 
the other portions of her cargo, and directing matters generally, it 
was charged that the vessel was loaded on his account. The brig 
cleared for a neutral port, but according to testimony of her captain 
sold her cargo at a British port. 

General King rejoined in 1825 with a pamphlet that was both 
vigorous and plausible. In this he proceeded to show the unrelia- 
bility of the statements made by masters who had been in his 
employ, two of whom, he averred, stole both vessels and cargoes, 
having sold them and kept the proceeds. He made a point in the 
fact that the captains of these vessels took oath at the custom house 
on arrival home that the vessels had been to neutral ports, and in 
their affidavits testified that their voyages had been to interdicted 
ports, and that, if their employer was guilty, they were equally or 
more so, as it was they who took the false oaths. A number of 
these captains, whose affidavits, criminating Gen. King, had been 
published in the Ames pamphlet, gave subsequently affidavits to 
King retracting their previous statements. 

General King in his pamphlet states that: "Among his other 
enterprises during the war Nathan Ames, his accuser, made a 
voyage to Bermuda in the schooner Ovarian; on his return, his ves- 
sel and part of the cargo were seized. Ames stated that Joseph F. 
Wingate and Samuel Winter were equally interested with him. 
Ames obtained witnesses to swear that he went to St. Bartholomew's, 
and on this evidence the vessel was restored. Years subsequently, 
during the investigation of this business, Harold and others testified 
that they saw Ames at Bermuda on this same voyage." 

General King states in his rejoinder that: "For several months 
previous to the embargo, presuming that the country would be en- 
gaged in war either with France or Great Britain, I did not send 
any of my vessels to sea, so that when the embargo commenced I 



88 HISTORY OF BATH. 

had at the port of Bath, loaded for foreign voyages, the following 
vessels: Ships, Reserve, Resolution, Vigilant, Reunion, United 
States; brigs, Ann, Huron, Valerius (not loaded), Harmony; in all, 
2,475 torus- These vessels remained in port during the whole of 
the embargo, as it was a measure of our government to coerce the 
several nations of Europe who were violating our neutral rights; no 
one ever heard any complaint from me, although the actual loss, at 
the most moderate calculation of charter, was $5,558 per month, 
being more than $185 a day, exclusive of interest on money on the 
amount of cargoes from Dec. 22, 1807, to May, 1809. 

" When the war commenced in June, 1812, between the United 
States and Great Britain, I had at the port of Bath, and which 
arrived there within sixty days of that time, four ships and three 
brigs. These were all the vessels which I had at the time, and they 
all remained in port during the war, with the exception of the brigs 
Huron and Valerius, and they were all the vessels which I was 
owner of during the war." 

General King's general defence was : " In conducting my 
mercantile business I was influenced, by the advice of the best 
informed political men, that, as soon as Congress assembled, the 
non-intercourse system would be abandoned by a declaration of war 
against France or England, or by adopting some other measure. 
Availing myself of this information, I gave my vessels a direction 
accordingly. The information in regard to a declaration of war 
proved correct, with the exception of its not having been declared 
as soon as was contemplated. The Reunion, which returned before 
the war, was seized and condemned for having been to a prohibited 
port; no claim was made on my part; the vessel was sold and I was 
the purchaser." 

That the General was not injured by these assaults upon his con- 
spicuous career is shown in that, four years later, he was appointed 
collector of customs for the port of Bath, which office he held the 
regular term of four years, to 1834. 

In Ames' pamphlet a like assault was made on the then collector, 
M. L. Hill, as was that upon General King, to which he replied in 



HISTORY OF BATH. 89 

about the same manner as did King. Ames published affidavits of 
captains who had been in Hill & McCobb's employ, implicating Hill 
as having been engaged in illicit voyages of the ships of the firm, to 
which Hill rejoined, publishing affidavits of retraction by these 
captains, together with explanations. But he was then collector of 
the port, and his enemies succeeded in inducing the United States 
government to order an investigation, which was held at the Bath 
hotel, resulting in his losing his office and the appointment of John 
B. Swanton. The change in no way affected the standing of Judge 
Hill in the community in which he was always a conspicuous and 
esteemed member. 

The subsequent career of Nathan Ames proved him unworthy of 
the government office he sought to obtain, and that he was capable 
of resorting to crooked ways to compass his ends, for it is on 
reliable record that it was only the high esteem in which his accom- 
plished wife was held by all who knew her that saved him from 
state prison. It was he who recklessly shot Lieut. Baker on " Meet- 
ing-house Hill " when aiding in the inspection of a company of 
cavalry during the war of 18 12, and there were not a few in Bath 
who at the time believed him guilty of something more than mere 
carelessness. 



90 HISTORY OF BATH. 



BATH IN THE WAR OF 1812. 



When the war with Great Britain commenced in June, 1812, the 
military composing the Bath contingent was in a state of good 
efficiency. There were two companies of infantry, an independent 
light infantry, a rifle company, and one of artillery. They were not 
called into actual service until early in 18 14, when movements of 
English cruisers began to threaten the seacoast of Maine. Fortifi- 
cations at the salient points were not plentiful. At the mouth of the 
Kennebec River there was a small fort garrisoned by a company of 
United States troops. 

The first war ship which appeared off the mouth of the Kennebec 
was the Bulwark, afterwards replaced by the La Hogue, both of 
large armament. Bath was justly alarmed. These large ships I 
could not ascend the river, but they might land troops to march on \ 
the town, or send armed barges up the river. In undertaking either 
mode of attack they would have met with a warm reception. Eng- 
lish war ships made a rendezvous at Castine, and some of them had 
been sent up the Penobscot, destroyed the village of Hampden, and 
sacked Bangor; had molested Machias and given battle to one of 
our armed vessels off that port, and had threatened Wiscasset with 
bombardment. 

Along in the first weeks of June, 18 14, Major General William 
King was on an official tour to the east, and learned that seven of 
the English fleet had sailed from Castine, heading along shore to 
the westward. He hastened to Bath, and, anticipating danger from 
these ships, immediately ordered out an entire brigade of 1500 men 
to assemble at Bath on the 20th of June. According to the best 
information attainable, two companies of the Bath regiment were 
stationed at the mouth of the river under Col. Andrew Reed. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 9 1 

The Great Alarm. — It was then that what has been termed 
"the great alarm" took place at Bath and along the lower Kennebec. 
The cause was that, during the night, the Bulwark had arrived off 
Seguin. Early in the morning it was seen from the shore that 
barges were at her side, into which armed men were placed. They 
soon put off from the ship, heading towards the river. But instead 
of entering it, they suddenly turned and made for Sheepscot and 
Arrowsic. Samuel Sewall, then the Phipsburg Congregational min- 
ister, thus speaks of their movements in his diary: 

"June 20, 1814. From Stage Island I saw a British ship of war 
at anchor off Seguin; send seven boats with men; take two sloops 
and six boats; went up Sheepscot River. 

June 22. Great alarm by the British and some skirmishing. 

June 23. Strong wind from the N. E. ; many small boats a fish- 
ing; understand have gone to sea; mercy on them." 

At this time the colonel of the regiment happened to be at 
Phipsburg Center. He was entirely destitute of field officers. A 
supply of new muskets had arrived in a vessel from Boston at a 
wharf in that village, and he rode up there in the night time to 
receive and give a receipt for them, as officially obliged to do; and 
while thus engaged, early in the morning, a courier came up from 
Cox's Head notifying him that the Bulwark had anchored off Seguin 
and was sending barges into the river. Col. Reed ordered an alarm 
to be fired by the cannon on " Meeting-house Hill" at the Center, 
in doing which one of the hands of Peter Carey, a mulatto, was 
badly wounded while ramming home a charge, and for which he was 
afterwards allowed a pension by the Massachusetts government. 
The colonel immediately dispatched John Langdon Hill, then a 
youth, on horseback to Bath to notify Gen. King of the word 
that had been received from the mouth of the river. On his way to 
Bath, young Hill, obeying instructions, notified all at home on the 
line of the road, capable of firing a gun, to come at once to the 
front, and they came, young men and old. 

The courier found Gen. King in his office. As related by Col. 
Reed in after years, upon reading the dispatch, the general put his 



92 HISTORY OF BATH. 

head out of a window and called out in his stentorian voice, " The 
enemy is coming, every man arm and to his alarm post instantly." 
Col. Reed mounted his horse and rode rapidly down to the " seat of 
war." In haste to have his troops in every possible readiness for 
action, he did not stop at his headquarters to put on his uniform, so 
that when Gen. King and his staff, who immediately came down, 
arrived, the general said to him, " What ! not yet in uniform ? " 
" It will not take long to do that," was the reply, and the uniform 
was quickly donned. 

Major Zina Hyde, then adjutant of the Bath regiment, records 
the situation in Bath on that memorable day in his diary, and 
extracts from it speak for itself: 

" Monday, May 9, 1814. Colonel McCobb's men stationed at this 
place, having received their uniforms, were mustered to a consider- 
able number for inspection, and marched about town. 

Tuesday, June 7, 18 14. A part of Colonel McCobb's regiment 
encamped for a few days past near the South meeting-house com- 
menced their march for Burlington, Vt. 

Wednesday, June 15. Issued order for a meeting of officers at 
General King's to consult on measures of defence in case of the 
appearance of an enemy on our waters. 

Friday, 17. Spent from half-past to 1 o'clock at General King's 
deliberating and agreeing on alarm posts, signals, &c, for the several 
companies of the regiment. 

Afternoon. The citizens met at Captain Stockbridge's, when the 
exempts agreed to form themselves into a company for the defence 
of the town. Much engaged on Saturday in preparing orders for 
the commanding officers of the regiment. 

Monday, June 20, 18 14. The company of" exempts, having on 
Saturday night elected Capt. H. G. Allen for their captain, Capt. 
James McLellan, lieutenant, and Capt. C. Waterman, ensign, met 
at 8 o'clock for the first time under them, and while in the act of 
choosing their corporals, an express arrived from Phipsburg to Gen. 
King with information that a British ship of war was at the mouth 
of the river, and that a number of barges were on their way up the 



HISTORY OP BATH. 93 

river. I was in the act of delivering some artillery ammunition to 
Capt. Sprague and Lieut. Noble when the message arrived. Capt. 
S. and myself proceeded to Center Street, while Mr. Noble went to 
the gun house to be prepared to give the alarm guns. Here met 
Gen. King, who ordered me mounted and every man to his alarm 
post, the report being that a number of barges had passed the fort 
from a British ship for this place; was mounted on the first horse to 
be found and vigorously engaged in seeing to the preparation of 
munitions of war for the defence of the town. Gen. King pro- 
ceeded almost immediately to Phipsburg, leaving Gen. McCobb in 
command here. 

About noon received information that the barges had gone up 
Sheepscot Bay, not having attempted to enter the Kennebec, from 
which fact Gen. McCobb sent a boat through the gut to give us the 
alarm in case of enemy's approach in that direction. 

Evening, hearing that the barges had returned to the ship, which 
proved to be the Bulwark, 74 guns, having attempted nothing but a 
landing on Squam, from which they were driven by the militia after 
a small stay, and having met with a sharp fire from the militia on 
Pond Island. It was considered necessary to be no less on the 
guard during the night than for the day. Colonels Merrill and 
Thomas with about 600 men, including those of Col. Reed's regi- 
ment, had now assembled. Called on by Major Clap for return of 
troops for the purpose of detaching guard, making requisition for 
rations, which having been made, I made the necessary detachments 
for the night. 

Tuesday, 2 1 . Obtained an order for dismissing the companies of 
our regiment for a short time. Troops mustered for inspection. 
Gen. King departed for Phipsburg. On his return he discharged 
Colonels Thomas and Merrill's regiments; detached guards for the 
night. 

Wednesday, 22. By orders, discharged troops from 1st regiment 
(Col. Reed's); much engaged copying and distributing orders. 

Friday morning, 24. At 9 o'clock a number of citizens met at 
the Lincoln Bank and petitioned Gen. King to detach 100 militia 
for the defence of the place, which he accordingly did. 



94 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Monday, June 27, 1814. A court of inquiry held in consequence 
of a scandalous petition to Gen. King for an inquiry into the cir- 
cumstances of Mr. Jenks and others having prepared to go to the 
British with a flag of truce, &c, on Monday last. The real fact 
being this: Mr. Jenks having been consulted by some private 
gentlemen as to the expediency of having preparations made for 
sending a flag of truce in case of the British appearing in force, 
decided by sufficient vote to bear down all opposition, that by giving 
up the vessels would save the effusion of blood and destruction of 
the town. Towards which Mr. Jenks expressed his approbation and 
willingness to assist in so far as his services might be of use, and 
also the pleasure it would afford him to be made a messenger of 
peace, not considering his situation as an officer. The petition was 
from Weld, Robinson, Boynton, and others, and the result was 
honorable to Mr. Jenks." 

" The Rev. William Jenks, pastor of the South church and regi- 
mental chaplain, procured a boat to proceed down river, and with a 
white flag flying attempt to make terms with the enemy and prevent 
the effusion of blood. He was arrested before he was out of sight 
by a force sent after him, and came near being court martialed for 
such a gross violation of the laws of war in sending to treat with 
the enemy without any order from his commanding officer. So 
nearly was the fright universal that it was, for a long time afterwards, 
remarked that the only two men who appeared to have their wits 
about them were Gen. Denny McCobb and Capt. Horatio G. Allen. 
Gen. McCobb resided on the southeast corner of Washington and 
Union Streets, in the house since removed east to Front Street, on 
the southwest corner of Union Street, in order to make room for a 
more modern mansion " ( Jno. Hayden). 

Other Account of the Alarm. — It may be of interest to 
insert what was written fifty years after the event by a citizen who 
participated in those stirring scenes of June 20, 1814, that are des- 
tined to be ever memorable to the people of Bath. In this personal 
narrative there are errors, some of which this author has corrected 
in the copy, while others have been allowed to remain to add 



HISTORY OF BATH. 95 

piquancy to the story. Gen. King did not ride through the streets 
calling to arms; it was Adjutant Zina Hyde who did this alarm duty 
by request of Gen. King, as named in the account of Maj. Hyde 
himself elsewhere in this volume. No such word was officially sent 
to Gen. King on the morning of the alarm as named in this story. 
The general did not start for Brunswick, but did for the mouth of 
the river at once, as was told by the commanding officer there to 
this author. This sketch thus reads: — 

" During the first half of the war the seaboard defences of New 
England were sadly, if not purposely, neglected by the national 
administration. There was a fort at Hunniwells Point at the mouth 
of the Kennebec; it had, however, but a few guns, and these were 
manned only by a handful of men. Bath was an important town, 
fifteen miles above the fort. Much shipping, as now, was built and 
owned there ; but the ships were rotting at the wharves, or had been 
taken by British cruisers. The business of the place, of course, was 
prostrate; and the enemy, if he could not take all their vessels at 
sea, was resolved to burn them up in port, and if possible, burn the 
town with them. The fort was only a temptation — no terror — to 
the foe. The Bath people were aware of their exposed situation; 
and their military companies, consisting of an artillery, a light 
infantry, and three of militia, were tolerably drilled and kept in 
readiness. There was no knowing the day when the avowed design 
of the enemy would be attempted upon the town; but that the 
assault would ere long come, all believed. To be prepared for the 
emergency, and to increase the requisite force to the greatest extent 
possible, an exempt company was formed and put, voluntarily, on 
duty. By the law of Massachusetts, none were obliged to bear 
arms but able bodied men between the ages of eighteen and forty- 
five who had not held military commissions and been honorably 
discharged. All such, together with men above forty-five and young 
men under eighteen, were exempt from duty. The company alluded 
to was formed of such men, and it was a very large one, almost a 
regiment of itself, embracing, indeed, nearly every man or boy 
capable of defending his home and- fireside with a musket. All 
wore citizen's dress, the officers being distinguished from their 



96 HISTORY OF BATH. 

" fellow soldiers " only by a cockade on the hat, an epaulette upon 
the shoulder, and a crimson sash about the waist. The command 
of this excellent and truly patriotic company was given to Capt. 
Horatio G. Allen, who had formerly commanded the Bath Light 
Infantry and been honorably discharged. He was an admirable 
officer, calm, ready, active, and thoroughly skilled in military tactics. 
The lieutenant was William Torrey, and the ensign J. McLellan. 
We recollect the officers and many of the company well; for we 
were, at that time, clerk in a store at the " Corner," where the 
company met almost daily for parade and drill, and, of course, we 
were in the midst. Indeed, at the order of our uncle, the captain, 
we must needs join the company ourself, as we did, in the last 
emergency, and "went to war" with them. We suppose this com- 
pany never was known to the government, as such, it being purely a 
volunteer corps, and that, therefore, no records may now be in 
existence of its proceedings. It asked no compensation; it drew 
no pay; no Land Warrant ever turned up for the benefit of one of 
its members. 

Did you ever hear an alarm of fire ! fire ! given by a hundred 
voices in the dead hour of midnight, when the wild winds of heaven, 
in hurricane fury, were threatening to envelope whole ranges of 
buildings in flame ? But what was that, pray, to the more deadly 
shriek, threatening the massacre of men, women, and children, 
which suddenly rang through the streets of Bath, as the awful roar 
of cannon, peal upon peal, was heard below, and the war cry was 
loud before every man's door, — To Arms ! To Arms 1 The enemy is 
coming! Everyman to his alarm-post!! Every man to his alarm- 
post, instantly ! ! ! 

In the " Bath Alarm " the conscious terrors of a deadly strife 
were as real to those who armed themselves for the defence of home 
as ever they were to the more highly disciplined ranks upon the 
Canadian lines. 

It was early on the morning of a summer's day in 18 14, whilst 
many of the villagers were yet locked in the peaceful arms of sleep, 
that the reports of heavy cannonading, broadside upon broadside, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 97 

suddenly broke the spell, and aroused the people of Bath to a 
consciousness of impending danger. The heavens were calm, and 
the earth was still; and the gentle airs that drew up river' with the 
flowing tide brought the fearful reverberations with great distinct- 
ness, and rendered it certain that the enemy was attempting to pass 
the fort, in which case no doubt could remain that he would proceed 
to execute his long threatened work of demolishing the town and 
destroying its extensive and valuable shipping in port. 

Anon, a courier on the line that had for some time been kept up 
between Bath and Phipsburg came running into town upon a fleet 
horse, and proceeded directly to the mansion of Maj. Gen. William 
King (afterwards Maine's first governor), and reported to these 
head-quarters that the British had engaged and silenced the fort and 
were advancing up river in force. The news flew like lightning. 
Forthwith the general himself, mounted on horseback, in citizen's 
dress, was seen galloping through the streets, flourishing a drawn 
broadsword, and exclaiming, at the top of his voice, the fearful 
words, " Every man to his alarm-post ! Every man to his alarm-post, 
instantly ! ! " It was an awful cry. Instantly the whole population 
were in commotion; the streets were full of people — children 
crying, women screaming, men running to and fro, and not a few 
looking as if the day of doom had fully come. The most frightful 
alarm of "fire ! " that we ever heard was nothing to it; in that case, 
property alone is generally endangered; in this, life, dear life itself, 
was imperiled. The prospect was, that some who left their houses 
that morning would return no more alive. Meanwhile, families were 
engaged in removing their effects into the woods; and some, that 
had not been into the country for years, found themselves under 
special engagements, just at this time, to visit their friends in 
Brunswick and elsewhere. Gen. Wingate, who was collector of the 
port and district, a wealthy gentleman, was the owner of valuable 
services of silver plate, and this, it was said, at the happy sugges- 
tion of his accomplished lady, was thrown into the well. The 
treasure of other families was concealed in equally safe depositories. 
The business of the old turnpike was good that day, and Sewall's 
woods were honored with larger whortleberry parties than usual. 



98 HISTORY OF BATH. 

I n a short time the major-general, having made his first circuit in 
citizen's dress, appeared in more dignity, mounted in military 
costume, and visited the several alarm-posts, where the military 
companies were rapidly assembling. We dare say, his directions 
were judicious; but soon he disappeared, and it was said had 
proceeded to Brunswick to call out the troops in that and the neigh- 
boring towns and send them in to the point of danger as soon as 
possible. We heard the suggestion made that he should rather 
have sent his aid-de-camp on this business and remained at home 
himself as the head in command; we know not how this is, but as 
it happened during his absence the command fell upon one who 
had been in actual service — the best officer we ever saw without 
exception — Gen. Denny McCobb, who, at that time, sustained the 
offices of brigadier-general of the local militia and the colonelcy of 
a regiment of United States infantry, which he was then raising for 
the Canadian frontier, and which, happily, he had quartered then on 
the hill near the South meeting-house. Gen. McCobb had recently 
returned from the main army on the lines, where he had commanded 
a regiment in the bloody battle of Shattagee Woods. He manifested 
no excitement; on the contrary, he quieted it wherever he went. 
He was cool and calm as if at his every day's work. The people 
and the troops he inspired with confidence and courage. A friendly 
pat upon the shoulder of this one, a smile in the face of another, a 
cheering word in the ear of a third, and his perfect self-command in 
the presence of all, soon made the gathering troops feel that if they 
were to fight and die under the lead of any one, his was the pres- 
ence in which they would prefer to stand or fall. He passed rapidly 
from company to company, gave directions as to what must be done 
and how to do it; nay, we recollect how he set even our young 
hands at work making ball cartridges for the cartouches of the 
exempt company that had its head-quarters at our store. We have 
said above, and have often told him so to his face, and we insist 
upon it now, that Gen. Denny McCobb was the most perfect officer, 
for actual service, we ever saw. His regiment of United States 
troops was not yet quite full; but it was in town and ready for 
service. Gen. McCobb had, therefore, rightfully a double command 



HISTORY OF BATH. 99 

— one as colonel of the United States army, and the other as 
brigadier-general of the Massachusetts militia. We knew several 
of his subordinate officers, one of whom, we believe, is yet living in 
Bath, good Orderly Sergeant Hayes, who served faithfully through 
the war, returned to Bath, where he has long lived in the affections 
of his fellow citizens, and has done more good as the apostle of 
temperance than perhaps any other man on the Kennebec River. 
He will recollect the scenes of which we speak; we should be right 
glad to have a long " sit down " with the old apostle, and revive the 
history of his battles with King George and King Alcohol. 

Never did firemen gather at their engine houses at an alarm of 
" fire ! " more rapidly than did the members of the several military 
companies of Bath assemble at their usual places of parade. It 
seemed hardly half an hour before troops were marching through 
the streets to the spirit-stirring music of fife and drum, all ready for 
action. The corps to which we, though but a youth of sixteen 
years, belonged was the exempt company, and which had its rendez- 
vous at the store in which we were clerk. On the first alarm, we 
hastened to the spot, where we found our own company assembling, 
and saw the soldiers of other corps also hastening through that 
central point to their several armories. Our company was the 
largest, and being volunteer was entitled to the special gratitude 
and attention of Gen. McCobb, though really he had no right of 
command over it, farther than as this was most cheerfully and gladly 
accorded to him. We recollect he came into our store, which was 
opened for convenience on the occasion, and on his own responsi- 
bility purchased every keg and pound of powder in it, furnished the 
balls himself, and set our nimble hands, with others, to the work of 
making cartridges as fast as possible. Meanwhile, with Col. Reed 
of Georgetown or Phipsburg, who commanded the home regiment, 
and other officers, he was planning the scheme of defence. If we 
recollect aright, Capt. Noble's company of artillery was to take 
position on King's wharf, and all the old cannon and swivels that 
could be found in town were to be brought to the docks and placed 
upon the decks of certain ships that were dismantled. The exempt 
company and light infantry were to be marched to the lowest point 



IOO HISTORY OF BATH. 

of defence, on the shore, towards Winnegance, and near an old 
windmill; the United States regiment was to support these com- 
panies; the militia were to have other stations above us, on the shore, 
and the troops from adjacent towns, as fast as they should arrive, 
were to complete the arrangements for the battle. Meanwhile the 
English were advancing. They had but fifteen miles to come, and 
no time was to be lost. 

We do not think it was much over an hour, from the time the first 
alarm rang through the streets, before the exempt company, which 
had its head-quarters at our store, was ready to march to the post 
assigned it. When we had finished off the last cartridges, and the 
soldiers had stuffed their cartouches with them, and made them- 
selves otherwise ready for the patriotic duties before them, the 
drums beat " to arms ! " the roll was called, and our uncle, Capt. 
Allen, who had command, stepped into the store where our duties 
hitherto had kept us at work for the company, and gently placing 
his hand upon our shoulder said, in his usually paternal mode of 
address to us, but not without some emotions of anxiety, " Come, 
William, we must go; God only knows the result, we must do our 
duty and leave events to him; are you ready?" "All ready, uncle." 
"Well, then," said he, putting the gun into our hands, "step into 
the ranks." We did so. He gave orders, "Mi/sic: come in time! 
Company ! — forward march!" and we were on the way to what was, 
to us, the supposed scene of action. Nor were we alone. The 
sounds of martial music came up from the streets, and other 
companies were crossing our path for their allotted posts of duty. 
Meanwhile Gen. McCobb met us on the march, complimented us 
for our activity in preparation, and inspired us with his own calm 
and fearless spirit. 

In less, we should think, than two hours, there were five com- 
panies of home troops, and what there was of a regiment of United 
States infantry, in position to receive the enemy. And it was 
wonderful with what alacrity the troops came in from Brunswick 
and the adjacent towns. They came, it seemed to us, sooner than 
fire companies would have collected had Bath been in flames. 
Before noon, our ears and eyes were cheered with the sound and 



HISTORY OF BATH. IOI 

sight of co-patriot forces marching over the hill to our assistance. 
In such time, one feels the benefit of a common government, a 
common brotherhood, and a common cause. 

Our position was the lowest on the river, and must be the first to 
salute the enemy when he should appear. Word, from time to time, 
was received by boats and persons from below that the British, 
after passing the fort, had embarked in a great number of barges, 
and in this shape would approach for a landing in the town. How 
much truth there was in the varying reports that reached us we do 
not now know, but we do recollect very well that there was no 
moment after we reached our station in which we were not looking 
with strained eyes for the fleet of barges to round the point and 
become the objects of our sharp shooting. It is said that a Yankee 
in battle has no fear if he can fire through the crevices of a board 
fence. We were better protected than that. Fortunately a large 
mill log laid upon the shore, abreast of where we stood, and after 
reconnoitering that to advantage, we found how securely we could 
crouch behind that fortunate bulwark, and, resting our gun over the 
upper surface of it long enough to take sight and pull trigger, dodge 
down again to prime and load, and then take new sight and give the 
enemy " a little more grape." Our courage was more in the log, 
however, than in our heart, for that, at times, we confess, was 
inclined to be faint. At one moment — we have no concealment 
now to make — we looked over the plain very wishfully, and if no 
eye but God's had seen us, most probably we should have fulfilled 
our desire to leave the open ranks and take a better position in the 
old windmill not far hence. 

The alarm of that day spread through the country and the state, 
whereupon Gov. Strong ordered out the militia by heavy drafts. 
The troops of Gen. King's and Gen. SewalPs divisions were ordered 
to Bath and Wiscasset, and were on duty fortifying Cox's Head and 
Edgecomb Point all that autumn. The events of that campaign are 
now matters of history." 

By John Hayden. 

Our military force took a position on Davis wharf, now owned by 
Houghton Brothers, where they placed some old cannon, which they 



102 HISTORY OF BATH. 

found lying on the wharf, on a pile of timber and calmly awaited 
the enemy. The supply of muskets proving short, the colonel 
called for volunteers to go and search for more, which was readily 
responded to and by " one in particular " who obtained an unen- 
viable notoriety by his part of the performance, but who shall be 
nameless as he has long since gone to rest. Peace to his ashes ! 
Being firmly convinced, no doubt, that the better part of valor was 
discretion, he placed himself in the attic of Robert Lemont's house, 
afterwards owned and occupied by John Smith, where he could 
descry the enemy on his emergence from Fiddlers Reach and be in 
a good position himself to notify his fellow citizens of that event, or 
to remove still further from danger. His whereabouts was made 
known, and a corporal's guard sent to arrest the deserter, which 
they accordingly did and brought him to head-quarters. Luckily for 
him the scare was over (it was late in the afternoon), and he was let 
off by standing treat all round, which he responded to by procuring 
a barrel of rum, soon making lively times among the brave 
defenders. 

I well remember being at Miss Henrietta Holmes' school on the 
forenoon of that day, in the old conference rooms of the North 
church, which was in the second story of the house now occupied 
by Capt. Work, then owned and occupied by Deacon Nicholas L. 
Mitchell, when Thomas Marsh, son of Deacon Caleb Marsh, rushed 
in hastily, informed Miss Holmes that the enemy might be upon us 
at any moment, and advised the immediate dismissal of the school 
that the children might be under the care of their parents. Some 
of the six-year-olds made valorous remarks on that occasion, declar- 
ing they would shoot all the Britishers that came near them ! 

Many of the inhabitants left Bath at that time, taking their most 
valuable effects with them away from the sea-board, out of reach of 
the enemy. Some companies of militia were quartered here for a 
time, part occupying a long store-house which stood on King's wharf 
where the landing of Knox & Lincoln Railroad now is; another 
party being quartered in a house on Western Avenue which long 
retained the appellation of Barracks. 

In that year the fort on Cocks Head was built — an earthwork — 



HISTORY OF BATH. 103 

the earth for which was carried up on hand-barrows. I well remem- 
ber the sad complaints of a neighbor's son, several years my senior, 
who was employed there, of the hardness of the task ascending that 
steep hill with a load of dirt. A large part of that earth has since 
been washed down the hill through neglect, it not having been 
deemed of sufficient importance; but as that hill dominates all 
around, and guns have a long range in these modern times, the 
possession of that hill may be of great importance at some future 
time. 

During the war of 18 12, the sufferings of the people in this 
vicinity were very severe. Not only was our foreign commerce 
annihilated, but our coastwise trade was almost completely sus- 
pended by the constant blockade kept up by English cruisers, which 
entailed great hardship on the inhabitants by cutting off their 
supplies, and also kept them in constant fear of a descent by the 
enemy on our coast and the plundering and burning of our towns. 

When that cruel war was over and the news of peace arrived, the 
people were wild with joy. On the afternoon of that day, February 
15, 1815, — a bright and beautiful, day but very cold, — the citizens 
marched through the principal streets with a white flag, on which 
the word " Peace '' was displayed in large letters, while everything 
indicative of war was discarded. The bells on the old North and 
South rang out a merry peal. Everybody was elated; some of the 
boys who had been promised a new hat when peace came, so much 
so that they immediately tore their old hats to pieces and threw 
them away, going bare-headed the rest of the day notwithstanding 
the inclemency of the weather. In the entry of the North meeting- 
house (and the South may have been the same for aught I know) a 
table was placed near one end, a board resting on two barrels at the 
other, over which liquors were passed in a lively manner to thirsty 
souls. When I arrived there, sundry of those souls were in an 
oblivious state, lying rolled up against the partition dead drunk; the 
rest were fast coming to that state, but in the meantime constituted 
the most boisterous and noisy crowd I have ever been in the vicinity 
of, far exceeding that at Davis wharf on Alarm day. The noise in 
the entry of the North meeting-house was so tremendous that the 



104 HISTORY OF BATH. 

bell could not be heard, notwithstanding one of the doors was 
constantly open; this circumstance gave rise to a question which 
was much debated by the boys the ensuing week. The question 
was, " Can the bell on a meeting-house ever be heard inside the 
building?" Opinions were strung in the negative, and several of 
us made it a point the next Sunday to get inside before the ringing 
of the bell ceased; the result was most satisfactory and decisive. 

On the day of the "great alarm" several cannon were in the 
town, but there were no carriages attached to them; consequently 
they were taken to Davis wharf and mounted on a pile of boards 
that happened to be on the wharf at the time, and pointed towards 
the entrance to Fiddlers Reach, all shotted to sink the English 
barges when they should emerge into Long Reach. After the war 
these cannon remained many years on Houghton wharf, which was 
formerly Davis wharf. After all alarm was over, a barrel of liquor 
was taken to the wharf and a grand good time was indulged in by 
the brave defenders." 

Military Oil Duty. — The brigade was called out again Sept. 
10, 1814, on account of the British war ship La Hogue anchoring 
off Seguin. The full Bath regiment was stationed at Cocks Head, 
Col. Andrew Reed in command, from Sept. 10 to Oct. 1. It was 
the harvest season of the year, making it very inconvenient for 
farmers on military duty to be away from home. The officers of 
companies and the men became restive. The colonel in command 
was greatly annoyed by applications for furloughs, which he was 
unable to grant by orders from the general officers that only one- 
tenth of a company should be off on furlough at the same time. 
The companies were from Bath, Woolwich, Arrowsic, Georgetown, 
and Phipsburg. The selectmen of each town were required to 
supply commissaries for the men from their respective towns 

Maj.-Gen. William King and Brig.-Gen. Denny McCobb, who 
had returned on furlough from the United States army, had their 
head-quarters at Bath, and only occasionally visited this regiment, 
as other regiments were out on duty at Bath and at eastern towns, 
thus imposing greater responsibilities upon the colonel in command 



HISTORY OF BATH. 105 

at the mouth of the river. In the fort at Hunniwells Point, Capt. 
Wilson was in command of a company of United States troops. 
Capt. Wilson was very unpopular with the militia. 

The Fort. — It was built of brick, on a solid ledge, on the 
extreme of Hunniwells Point, exactly the site of the present fort. 
It was mounted with a few cannon of no great consequence, Pond 
Island being barely within range of the cannon that were mounted 
at its port-holes. Four cannon were taken from this fort and 
mounted on Cocks Head when a fortification was built there in 18 14. 

The highest field officers of a regiment were a " lieutenant-colonel 
commanding " with two majors. The only major on duty was 
William Burke of Bath, and while on parade his horse reared and 
plunged, throwing him to the ground, when he was so badly injured 
that he was afterwards unable to be on duty, thus leaving the 
colonel increased field duties. It was no small matter for an officer 
having the entire responsibility of the situation, in face of an enemy 
that might attempt a landing at any time, to conform to all of the 
strict rules of war with which he could not be expected to be 
familiar, and an investigation held after the close of the war into 
the military management of the Cocks Head campaign unanimously 
sanctioned everything done by the colonel in command, and his 
course was fully approved by the governor of Massachusetts, under 
whose orders the militia was called out, and that officer was subse- 
quently promoted to a higher grade. Maj.-Gen. King and Brig.- 
Gen. McCobb united in testimony approving the manner in which 
the colonel commanding had acquitted himself in performance of 
the duties that devolved upon him. 

Some fifty years later Congress conferred pensions on the surviv- 
ing officers and soldiers, or their widows, of the war of 18 12, which 
proved a boon to many worthy people. 

"Andrew Reed was promoted to fwll colonel by commission of 
Governor Strong of Massachusetts in 1816.'' 

One Sunday while at Cocks Head, no vessel of the enemy being 
in sight, the colonel, leaving a rear guard, marched the regiment to 



106 HISTORY OF BATH. 

the Center to attend church, the distance being about three miles. 
It gave a change for the men whose life in camp had become 
irksome. 

Battle with the Barges. — One clear day, about eight o'clock 
in the morning, some large barges put out from the La Hogue 
loaded with armed men and rowed directly for Sheepscot River. 
They made a landing on Sprout's Point, where our people had four 
guns, which the enemy seized and spiked. It is said they took 
some sheep. This point is on the inside of Bartols Island. Col. 
Andrew Reed, in command at Cocks Head, detailed one Phipsburg 
company and the Parkers Island company, the latter under com- 
mand of Capt. Richard Hagan, the former under Capt. Ellis Percy, 
to cross the river to the island. The troops crossed in gondolas. 
The two companies landed at Rogers Point; the tide was down and 
the men waded across the flats to Parkers Island, across which they 
immediately proceeded. When the military force reached the east 
shore of Parkers Island, the barges had commenced their return 
voyage as far as Sand Beach Cove, a strong south-east wind driving 
them near the shore. An advance of twenty men reached the cove 
to reconnoiter. Finding the barges, they immediately commenced 
firing, while the main body of troops was stationed farther south. 
The barges were within 200 or 300 yards of the shore where the 
main body had concealed themselves behind what is termed " high 
rock." As soon as they were abreast this point, the men arose and 
gave them a sharp volley. This caused the barges to shove off, the 
rowers pulling to their utmost, while the men on shore loaded and 
fired as fast as possible. The barges replied with small arms, the 
balls whizzing over the heads of our men. One barge had a swivel 
cannon on board, which was put in action as soon as practicable, 
but the shots did no damage, going over the heads of our men, 
being aimed too high. A musket ball struck the barrel of a musket 
held by John Hunt, shattered it, and glancing upwards went through 
his hat. No man on shore was injured. During the contest the 
colonel finding one detachment missing, and having no aid, went 
himself and quickly brought them under fire while the enemy was 
within range. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 107 

Cannon balls that had been fired from the barges were afterwards 
picked up, and one of them was kept a long time in the dwelling- 
house of Capt. Geo. F. Manson at Bath. His early days were 
passed near where the battle took place. It is a tradition that 
when the barges were aiming for the Sheepscot River they were kept 
close in shore, and a voice could be heard on shore giving direc- 
tions for steering, which led those hearing it to say, " Tories on 
board." It is also said that the British ships in the offing were 
supplied with mutton and provisions from Wiscasset, where there 
was at the time a lively demand for sheep. 

As Gen. King was not that day with the regiment, the colonel 
took the responsibility of detailing these companies for the service 
without orders, and his action was afterwards approved by the 
major-general. 

More Barges. — A detachment of militia of Georgetown was 
stationed near Riggsville while the old La Hogue lay off Seguin 
and was sending barges to the Sheepscot for supplies. At one time 
a barge landed at a cove near Fire Islands, and while there and the 
men on shore depredating, the tide ran out and left the barge 
aground. The detachment became aware of the enemy's presence 
and made a movement to capture them, but before they reached the 
vicinity of the barge the tide had risen and floated her off, when 
with her crew aboard she was headed for the ship. The militia, 
however, got near enough to give her one full volley, and before the 
muskets could be reloaded the barge had been rowed beyond range. 
They were certain that a number of the English were killed, and 
drums and fifes on board the barge struck up apparently to drown 
the cries of the wounded. Cannon shot were fired from the barge, 
one of which was picked up on the land and was kept for years in 
the house of a Mr. McKinney. At one subsequent time, when a 
barge had been up and was returning from the Little Sheepscot, 
Mr. McKinney being alone and in ambush had three well-aimed 
shots at the barge, picking out a lieutenant who was walking back 
and forth on the barge, and as he suddenly disappeared there was 
reason to infer he had been struck by one of these shots. 



108 HISTORY OF BATH. 

There were several alarms. One was occasioned at Bath by the 
coming up ship, Mount Hope, belonging to Hill & McCobb, which 
had been lying at their wharf in Phipsburg, but which they sent up 
the river for s:.fety, the appearance of which alarmed the Bath 
people. 

Major Harward was a private in a cavalry company, afterwards 
promoted to major. He says: "When the English men of war 
were stationed off the mouth of the river, the Bowdoinham com- 
panies were ordered to Bath, and his company detached to reconnoitre 
at Hunniwells Point. They approached the fort by the way of the 
beach. Their plumes were seen before the horses came in sight, 
and a cannon was pointed towards them, shotted, and match ready 
to fire, fearing they were from the war ship, but the sight of the 
horses soon dispelled that idea. Returning to Bath, the cavalry 
detachment were ordered to keep their horses ready to mount at a 
moment's notice, though it seemed ridiculous to suppose that the 
enemy would face so large an opposing force." 

The colonel commanding at Cocks Head had his headquarters at 
the large, two-story, square house of Capt. Ellis Percy. His orderly 
was his second son, Samuel Denny Reed, who at one time was 
acting adjutant. The companies were encamped apart for want of 
a convenient place to camp as a regiment. In building the fortifica- 
tions on Cocks Head, a large portion of the sods were brought in 
gondolas from the foot of Reed's Neck, taken from the property 
owned by the colonel, for which he never received pay. The troops 
disliked their labor, especially carrying the sods on hand-barrows to 
the top of the Head, which is very steep on the river side. It was 
impossible for their officers to keep them under discipline, as they 
insisted that they were called out to handle muskets, and not to do 
such work. Desertions were frequent, and subordinate officers were 
continually detailed to bring them back. The rules of war made 
desertion punishable with death, but these delinquents were only 
kept in a dark room for a time. Capt. Patrick Drummond, living 
near the Center Village, had several sons in the ranks. Finding 
them one day all at home, he asked if they had leave of absence; 



HISTORY OF BATH. 109 

when they said they had not, he exclaimed, " Run back, boys, run 
for your lives," and they ran. 

The stationing of this regiment at the entrance to the river saved 
Bath from pillage and the destruction of the large amount of ship- 
ping then lying at this port. The British war vessels that at times 
anchored off Seguin, threatening Bath, were provided with large 1 
barges for sending into rivers on this coast, each capable of carrying 
a company of armed men and a swivel cannon, to go where war 
ships could not enter. These barges had done great damage in 
rivers east of the Kennebec. With a regiment occupying so advan- 
tageous a position as was that of Cocks Head, commanding as it 
does the entrance of the river, a narrow passage of it at the Head 
and an extended stretch of the river on the north, no flotilla of 
barges could have passed or re-passed that strategetical point 
without entire destruction of the men on board of them. This 
condition of the situation the commanders of the English war ships 
well knew. Besides, the improvised fort that was constructed on 
the summit of Cocks Head, and on which cannon were mounted, 
gave them full range of the mouth of the river and a long reach 
above. At the same time the natural elevation of the Head itself 
was a natural fortress, so elevated that shots from an approaching 
foe discharged from the water would either be embedded in the 
earth of its sides or go far over the heads of the artillery men 
stationed on its top. Thus it was that the service these soldiers 
rendered was not in repelling invasion of hostile forces by actual 
conflict, but their presence in front of the enemy prevented the 
possible shedding of blood, the sacking of a town, and the burning 
of its valuable shipping. 

The men who composed the rank and file of this regiment may 
have been, and afterwards were, jeered at as mere " soldiering " 
down there. They were mostly farmers, who had to leave their 
unprotected families, their flocks and their herds, and their fields, 
at the harvest season of the year, and that on the small pay of eight 
dollars a month receivable in the distant future. Instead of making 
a series of holidays of their encampment, they seriously grumbled 
at the personal sacrifices they were compelled to make, and largely 



IIO HISTORY OF BATH. 

rebelled at their enforced retention for duty when no fighting was to 
be done, but no end of the drudgery of carrying sods up a long 
ascent in the heat of dog days, when they had supposed to have 
been called out to handle muskets and not sods. Consequently, 
strict military discipline was impossible to be enforced with men 
who had been all their lives accustomed to the largest individual 
liberty of action, and were the neighbors and friends of the officers, 
and many of whom believed themselves their equals in social life. 
The officers and soldiers were simply citizens, unused to military 
discipline in actual service, yet there were, even at such a time as 
this, lookers-on, chiefly young men disappointed in their ambitious 
aspirations, who became self-appointed critics of this hastily gath- 
ered little army on the Kennebec. They were not there! 

Major Zina Hyde's Record of War Times. — Perhaps the 
readiest means of relating the part that Bath took in this contest 
with Great Britain is to insert extracts from a diary kept by Major 
Zina Hyde, relating the events in which he had a very active and 
prominent part, at first as adjutant of the Bath regiment, and later 
as brigade-major, to which office he was appointed Sept. 9, 1814, by 
Brig.-Gen. Denny McCobb. 

"Aug. 28, 181 1. Was called on by Maj. Andrew Reed to know if 
I will accept the appointment of adjutant of the 1st Reg., 1st Brig., 
nth Div. At first my feelings very strongly opposed the idea of 
leaving the Bath Light Infantry, which impowers me almost to make 
a positive refusal, and in the afternoon of the same day Maj. Clap 
called and proposed the same subject, at which I agreed to take it 
into consideration. ( He was sergeant in the light infantry.) In a 
few days Col. Denny McCobb proposed the subject to me, when I 
agreed to take upon me the adjutancy as above. 

Sept. 13. Maj. Jos. F. Wingate newly appointed aid-de-camp to 
Gen. King. His uniform and equipments are truly elegant. 

Oct. 28. Zina Hyde became adjutant of 1st Reg., 1st Brig., nth 
Div., and on duty on that day of muster for first time. The regi- 
ment is reviewed by Maj.-Gen. King, Col. McCobb acting as briga- 



HISTORY OF BATH. Ill 

dier-general, and Maj. Nath'l Coffin as inspector. ( Maj. Reed in 
command of the regiment.) The day being uncommonly fine, we 
got through and dismissed in good season, after which the officers 
were all invited to partake of a generous entertainment at Gen. 
King's, where about forty of us met and spent a part of the evening 
very pleasantly. 

Oct. 29. Very pleasant. Accompanied Gen. King, Col. McCobb, 
and about fourteen other officers to Brunswick, where we attended 
the reviewing of one regiment of infantry, one battalion of cavalry, 
and one battalion of artillery, after which forty officers partook, at 
Washington Hall, of a sumptuous entertainment provided by Gen. 
King, and returned to Bath between 8 and 9 o'clock. 

Dec. 25. During the past year had my military situation changed 
from that of sergeant in light infantry to the adjutancy of the regi- 
ment, a berth which was unsought by me, but urged upon me by 
the field officers of the regiment. 

July 4, 181 2. Capt. Clap elected major. 

July 25, H. G. Allen elected captain of Bath Light Infantry in 
room of Capt. Clap, promoted to major; Wm. Stevens, 1st lieu- 
tenant, and Wm. Torrey, ensign. 

Sept. 3. Major Andrew Reed promoted to the command of the 
first regiment of the first brigade and eleventh division, and Capt. 
William Bouck and Capt. Joseph Trott elected majors. 

Oct. 5. Regimental muster was at Arrowsic, opposite Phipsburg 
Center. 

Thursday, Sept. 16, 1813. Collected the companies of the 
regiment with artillery and band at the South meeting-house and 
marched them out to the common, where paraded and formed the 
regiment after going through the inspection (Col. A. Reed com- 
manding); great improvement having been made in the equipment 
of the regiment since the last year. Gen. Dearborn appeared on 
the parade on foot. The regiment marched down town, where they 
were dismissed; after which accompanied the field officers to Gen. 



112 HISTORY OF BATH. 

King's, where we partook of an excellent dinner with the general 
officers, Gen. Dearborn, Mr. Jenks, and a number of other officers 
and private gentlemen. 

Jan. 19, 1814. Dined at Maj. Joseph F. Wingate's with Brig.- 
Gen. Denny McCobb, lately returned from the Northern army. 
Maj. Clap and Capt. Wm. Torry consulted on the subject of uniting 
the two militia companies in this town for the purpose of preserving 
the independent companies. 

Thursday. Conversed with Capt. Low on the subject of uniting 
his company with Capt. Davenport's company, with regard to which 
he appeared very accommodating and expressed a willingness to 
take a lieutenant's commission under Capt. Davenport should the 
thing be effected and he be chosen. 

Sept. 9, 1814. Inspecting troops. P.M. called on Maj. Clap, 
who proposed the subject of my being appointed brigade-major and 
inspector, to which proposition, after some hesitation, I consented. 
Evening. Employed in packing a part of our goods to send them 
to the back part of the town out of the way of the British should 
they land. ( Major Hyde kept a store.) 

Sept. 10. Received an order from Gen. McCobb, at 10 o'clock, 
to be distributed to the several colonels of his brigade, containing 
my appointment as acting brigade-major, which duty I continued to 
perform with increased interest; Capt. Nathan Ames also appointed 
aid to Gen. McCobb. At 1 o'clock Gen. King returned from the 
east with intelligence that the British had left Castine with seven 
ships and were proceeding westward. Continued packing and send- 
ing off goods. Gen. Denny McCobb, who had been in the regular 
army under Gen. Hampton, was determined to have the troops, 
about 1500, under complete duty and order, and had now brought it 
about; and the notions of our duty being once settled and under- 
stood became pleasant, though laborious for some officers. 

19th. Maj. Clap returned partly to his duty; informed of some 
dissatisfaction expressed by Col. Thomas Merrill and Maj. Esta- 
brook on account of it. 




?. '6 \ /Z <P*#ezz, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



"3 



Saturday, Sept. 11, 18 14. On the return of Gen. King (from 
Wiscasset), he ordered out the entire brigade, which being now 
arriving I was occupied the whole day most actively in viewing, 
inspecting, and ordering to their quarters the different corps of 
militia as they arrived. 

Killing of Lieut. Baker. 

Monday. Completed the inspection of Col. Thomas' regiment 
and attended to other military duty. P.M. An alarm having re- 
quired the cavalry to be ordered to the mouth of the Kennebec 
before being inspected and they having returned, ordered to proceed 
in the inspection of this corps under command of Maj. Benj. Ames; 
and Aid-de-camp N. Ames ordered to assist me for dispatch, he 
having once commanded a company of cavalry. The battalion was 
accordingly paraded near the South meeting-house, and with the 
rolls of the two respective companies in my hand, I took a stand 
with Mr. Ames in front of the line and a little to the left of the 
commanding officers, lieutenants, &c. On calling the individual 
troopers, they advanced to us for inspection, when I thought the 
pistols were charged, but on my objecting to inspect them in that 
condition was informed that, having returned with them so, they 
had orders not to discharge them, and that the captains had just 
inspected them in that condition; concluded to proceed. In exam- 
ining the pistols I turned the muzzle to the ground, but Capt. Ames 
turned those he took in hand up. In this way we had nearly com- 
pleted the inspection when one of the pistols in Capt. Ames' hands 
went off and the ball passed through the head of Lieut. Baker, who 
was seated on his horse behind Capt. Ames. This was an awful 
moment. On turning I saw one of our finest officers and a highly 
valued citizen fall upon the ground with no sign of life but a slight 
muscular quivering. I was hardly more than conscious of the report 
when all was over, and nothing to be done but to remove the body 
lifeless from the parade, which was done by the other officers, N. 
Ames accompanying them in deep distress to the house of C. A. 
Green, brother-in-law of Lieut. Baker. My duty requiring me not 
to leave my post until the completion of the inspection, which done 



114 HISTORY OF BATH. 

all, retired in silent gloom, more depressed than if many had fallen 
from an attack of the enemy. On leaving the ground for the Gen- 
eral's quarters I met Maj. Ames and Capt. Winter, his adjutant, in 
a state of agitation, and both were struck dumb on knowing that 
Capt. Ames was the unfortunate medium of the accident. 

Wednesday. Attended funeral of Lieut. Baker at Topsham, an 
affecting duty and scene. A widow and two little children left. 

17 th. Meeting of officers at Gen. King's, and it appeared that 
no blame was to be attached to any one for the death of Lieut. 
Baker." 

Lieut. Baker had been major in an infantry regiment; was young 
and highly esteemed as a man and officer. He was father of Daniel 
F. Baker, who was for many years cashier of the Sagadahoc Bank. 
Opinions differed in regard to the innocence of Capt. Ames. He 
had at the time a standing in the community, and it was believed 
that he and Lieut. Baker were on friendly terms. The matter was 
brought into a court of investigation at Gen. King's house, where it 
was decided that the act was done "through carelessness." Ames 
put on the semblance of sorrow, appearing on the streets in a new 
suit of black, with his head down, handkerchief to eyes red with 
weeping, which led to the belief of the greater portion of the people 
that he was a sincere mourner; but the boys one and all declared 
he was " shamming it all, the old hypocrite." Ames' subsequent 
career proved that the boys were not far from right, for he became 
so despicable by dishonesty and crooked ways that he was, as it was 
said at the time, only kept out of prison by the high esteem in 
which his accomplished wife was held. 

Maj. Hyde Continues. — "Gen. King and Maj. Clap return 
with alarming news from Wiscasset; the major sick. 

25 th. By orders the troops attend worship, and continue to do 
so on Sundays. 

Sept. 20, 18 1 4. Maj. Clap went to Wiscasset, having informed 
Capt. N. Ames that he must return the uniform which he borrowed 
of Maj. Clap. Maj. Clap returned in the evening and brought 
news of the appearing of seven ships off Booth Bay, which induced 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



115 



the expectation of an immediate attack. Many severe remarks 
made on Maj. Clap, both on account of his leaving his duty at the 
time he did and on account of his returning to his office. This 
circumstance drew forth many remarks highly flattering to myself, 
particularly from Cols. Thomas and Merrill and Maj. Eastabrook, 
who expressed themselves perfectly satisfied with my proceedings 
and regret at Clap's returning. 

Assisted Capt. Ames in turning off the guards at 9 o'clock a.m., 
which is a very pleasant performance when well executed. Accom- 
panied Gen. McCobb on the drill of infantry in the forenoon and 
cavalry in the afternoon. Mr. Marsh arrived from Coxs Head with 
his report as acting adjutant. Mr. M. declined continuing in his 
present capacity, alleging that his pay in the lines would not sup- 
port him. Gen. McCobb, however, requested me to endeavor to 
conciliate Mr. M.'s feelings and induce him to return to the regi- 
mental duty, assuring me that he expected that Maj. Clap would 
resign on the close of the campaign, in which event the adjutancy 
would be vacant and he might depend on a recommendation to the 
office. Accordingly Capt. Ames and myself waited on friend 
Marsh and induced him to consent to return to the duty of adjutant. 
On returning to Gen. McCobb alone, met Quartermaster Clap, who 
stopped me for the purpose of inquiring with regard to Maj. Clap's 
wishes in returning to his office and to express his conviction of his 
cowardice. On my arrival at Gen. McCobb's, he received a despatch 
from Gen. King at Wiscasset, informing that seven ships were off 
Boothbay about 2 o'clock. Therefore was ordered to procure 
dragoons to send to Gen. Richardson at Portland and to Col. Reed 
at Coxs Head, to call in the guards, to have the regiments and 
brigade in readiness to be assembled at a given point at the shortest 
notice, and send for those officers who were on furlough from Phips- 
burg to join their regiment. 

Wednesday, Sept. 21, 18 14. Inspected and turned off the guards 
to Maj. Eastabrook (off of duty) for the first time, in which suc- 

Cocks Head was originally owned by John Cocks and was written in ancient documents "Cocks 
High Head." The modern spelling of Coxs Head is adopted in this volume, and when otherwise 
written is an inadvertency. 



Il6 HISTORY OF BATH. 

ceeded much to my satisfaction; Capt. Ames assisted me. Gen. 
McCobb ordered a general court martial, which was immediately 
organized with Col. Thomas, president; Maj. Ames, judge advocate, 
and Adjutant Winter, marshal. Maj. R. K. Porter came by order 
into our department to assist in writing, which relieved me consid- 
erably. Dispensed with the drilling on account of rain. Received 
information that two regiments embarked from Castine day before 
yesterday. The artillery and cavalry with the 3d regiment attended 
prayers for the first time on a week day, for which we assembled at 
the hotel at 5 o'clock and the procession proceeded to the South 
meeting-house marshaled by myself. In the evening a countryman 
reported to Gen. McCobb that he met about fifteen soldiers on the 
turnpike after dark going west, which the General presumed to be 
deserters, there not having been any furloughs granted in the after 
part of the day; he, therefore, ordered the companies all mustered 
and rolls called, and nine men were found to have left a Harpswell 
company and four or five from some other companies. 

Thursday, Sept. 22, 18 14. A detachment sent off after the de- 
serters of last night, to which was promised as a reward the whole 
amount of wages due to those deserted and the first furloughs 
granted if they secured the deserters. Dispensed with the drills. 
Gen. King returned from Wiscasset, having left here on Monday 
with Col. Sumner, aid to Gov. Strong and agent for the committees 
of defence." 

" Turning off the guards " was considerable of a performance. 
There was a large company of them on duty during the night time. 
In the morning they would be mustered on Meeting-house hill, and 
in discharging them a military ceremony had to be gone through 
with, which was somewhat imposing, at which time numerous spec- 
tators were usually present. Maj. Hyde was chief of staff and 
officer of the day on nearly all these occasions. 

"Friday, 23, 1814. Turned off the guards. Lieut. S. H. Rogers 
of Phipsburg, having been arrested, ordered to be reported to Gen. 
McCobb on Saturday at 9 o'clock a.m. Capt. Ames marshaled the 
procession to prayers. Attended court martial on Lieut. Randall. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 117 

Saturday, 24. Went to the office before breakfast and made an 
order for reconnoissance of the dwellings and restraining the men 
from depredating on the citizens. After breakfast requested by 
Maj. J. F. Wingate to attend Gen. King and others to the forts on 
Coxs Head and on Hunniwells Point. After consulting Gen. 
McCobb, set out from Gen. King's wharf with very pleasant 
weather. Our party consisted of Gen. King, Maj. Wingate, Mr. 
Greenwood, Maj. Clap, Mr. C. Clap. Mr. Wm. K. Porter, and my- 
self. Stopped a short time to view the work on Coxs Head, where 
CoL Reed's regiment was on fatigue duty under Lieut. Eastman 
acting as engineer. Col. Reed had got one 24 pounder almost 
mounted. During our stop sent the boat down to Capt. Wilson, 
commanding at the Point, to have him prepare a chowder for us. 
After a short stop at Coxs Head proceeded to the Point, where we 
partook of a very fine chowder. Inspected the works. Capt. Wilson 
fired a 1 2 pounder elevated to an angle of about four degrees, which 
sent a ball within a few feet of Pond Island, two miles distant, 
without striking. Gen. King also fired a 24 pounder, which did not 
carry so well, nor did he make so good a shot. Returned to Coxs 
Head. After spending a short time at the works and firing the first 
gun mounted for the first time, we embarked for Bath, sun about 
half an hour high, and arrived at 8 o'clock. Maj. Carleton accom- 
panied us from the Head. 

Sunday, Sept. 25, 1814. Made and promulgated an order for the 
troops to assemble (officers and men) at the hotel at 10 o'clock a.m. 
and by the bells ringing- in the afternoon for attending meeting. 
Capt. Ames and myself divided the brigade in taking one-half to the 
South in the forenoon and to the North in the afternoon, while I 
attended at the North, then at the South. Mr. Ellingwood's text 
was, 'And it came to pass that when Moses held up his hand Israel 
prevailed.' Afternoon. Mr. Jenks' text was, ' Now they do it to 
obtain a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible.' Evening. 
Received an order for parading the brigade to review and discipline 
at 9 o'clock Monday morning. Two companies came into town 
from Wiscasset. 



Il8 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Monday, Sept. 26, 181 4. At 9 o'clock assisted in forming the 
brigade. Gen. King passed in review and then we marched in 
review and returned to the original ground; dismissed to form again 
at half-past one; called at Gen. King's; received an order for 
attending a court of inquiry, as marshal, at Brunswick on Lieut. R. 
T. Dunlap. After dinner formed lines and marched to the common, 
where Gen. McCobb gave the troops a very thorough drilling. In 
consequence of the arrival of a part of Col. Sweet's regiment from 
Gen. Sewall's division at Wiscasset, Col. Merrill's regiment mus- 
tered this day for pay and were discharged. 

Wednesday. Col. Thomas' regiment, with most of the battalions 
of cavalry and artillery, also mustered for pay and discharged. 

Thursday. Col. Sweet's regiment inspected by Maj. Clap. 

Friday, 29. Maj. Clap, Maj. Coffin, Capt. Ames, and myself 
accompanied Gen. McCobb to Coxs Head. Assisted Maj. Clap in 
inspecting the regiment, and while he was engaged in mustering the 
companies for pay that they might be dismissed, Capt. Ames and 
myself accompanied by Lieut. Eastman walked to Coxs Head to 
view the battery. On our return to Capt. Ellis Percy's (regimental 
head-quarters) took a bite prepared by Gen. McCobb, and then 
accompanied him on parade, where we spent some time in drilling, 
and returned home about dusk. 

Saturday, Oct. 1. Gen. McCobb showed me a letter, which 
arrived during his absence yesterday, from Gen. Dearborn, appoint- 
ing him to the command of all the U. S. troops east of Portland, 
and 1800 militia to be detached for the service of the U. S. in this 
quarter. A brigade order issued for discharging from any further 
services, for the present, the whole of the brigade staff, and the 
command of the brigade to devolve on Lieut.-Col. Thomas. 

Sabbath day, Oct. 2. Pleasant. Called on Col. Sweet and pro- 
posed arrangements for the troops under his command to attend 
meeting at one of the Congregational places of worship; and conse- 
quently Col. S., his officers, and three companies attended at the 
North meeting-house. Rev. Mr. Appleton preached. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 119 

Nov. 5, 18 14. Received an order from Gen. McCobb to examine 
and certify the muster rolls of service lately rendered by the 1st 
brigade, nth division, Maj. Clap, having left town without attending 
to it. Became acquainted for the first time with Col. Sumner, aid 
to Gov. Strong, now in the service of the commonwealth attending 
to payment of the troops from Gen. Sewall's division. 

Dec. 3, 1814. Received by hand of Maj. Chas. Clapp about $91 
as pay for my services while on constant duty during the last 
summer and fall. 

Oct. 26, 18 1 5. Inspected 1st regiment under Col. Andrew Reed 
and Capt. Sprague's company of artillery in Bath. Dined at Gen. 
King's; Rev. Mr. Jenks, Col. Reed and a number of officers, and 
Judge M. L. Hill present. Gen. King took occasion to remark that 
" during all the danger and alarm which the war occasioned in this 
quarter, and under all the sacrifices which he had known it to 
require of individuals in this part of the country, he had never been 
able to perceive any difference in the conduct of persons of different 
political sentiments." 

[End of Maj. Hyde's account of Bath in the war of 18 12.] 

As major general in command of this military division, which 
then comprised old Lincoln county and east to Castine, William 
King displayed great ability in guarding the coast within the 
limits of his jurisdiction, and not a town was molested, a man 
injured, or a vessel destroyed that was lying in the rivers, bays, or 
harbors accessible to the enemy. His head-quarters were at his 
dwelling-house, which, he afterwards stated, was thronged for a year 
by officers and men engaged in military affairs. 

The troops of the eighth and eleventh divisions, comprising a 
small part of Cumberland and the counties of Lincoln, Kennebec, 
Franklin, and Somerset, including what is now a part of Waldo 
and Knox counties, were stationed at the sea-coast towns extending 
from Bath to Wiscasset, Thomaston, and Camden. Troops were 
stationed at Bath and vicinity from June 20 to June 22, and from 
Sept. 10, to Oct. 1, 1814 (Me. Archives). 



120 HISTORY OF BATH. 

OFFICERS OF THE WAR. 

Division and Brigade Staff Roll Eleventh Division. 

William King, Major-General, Bath. 
Moses Carleton, Jr., Aid-de-camp, Wiscasset. 
Joseph F. VVingate, Aid-de-camp, Bath. 
John Merrill, Jr., Judge Advocate, Wiscasset. 
Denny McCobb, Brigadier-General, ist Brigade, Bath. 
Ebenezer Clapp, Brigade Major, Bath. 
Nathaniel Coffin, Brigade Quartermaster, Bath. 
Nathan Ames, Aid-de-camp, Bath. 
Brigade Band was in the service from 14th to 28th Sept., 1814 
(Me. Archives). 

Roll of the Field and Staff of Lieut. Col. Andrew Reed, 
of the 11th Division, 1st Brigade, 1st Regiment, in Service 
at Bath 20th to 22d June, and 10th Sept. to 1st Oct, 1814. 

Andrew Reed, Lieut.-Col., commanding, Georgetown. 

William Burke, Major, Bath. 

Zina Hyde, Adjutant, Bath. 

Charles Clapp, Quartermaster, Bath. 

Thomas D. Robinson, Pay-master, Bath. 

William Jenks, Chaplain, Bath. 

Timothy W. Waldron, Surgeon, Bath. 

Nathaniel Weld, Jr., Surgeon's Mate, Bath. 

Seth Hathorn, Sergeant Major. 

Charles D. Loring, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Thomas B. Seavey, Fife Major. ( Me. Archives.) 

Col. Denny McCobb was commissioned as colonel of Maine and 
New Hampshire Volunteers, Dec. 23. 18 12, and March 26, 1814, 
appointed colonel of the 37th Infantry; April 14, transferred to the 
45th Regiment U. S. Infantry, which was disbanded June 15, 1815. 
Was in the army under Maj.-Gen. Henry Dearborn and in Brigadier 
Wade Hampton's division operation on the northern frontier against 
Canada; was in several battles, the last in the Chandiere Woods. 



HISTORY OF BATH. * 121 

He held at the same time the commission of brigadier-general in 
the Massachusetts — District of Maine — Militia. His regiment of 
United States troops was recruited at Bath by Maj.-Gen. William 
King during May and June, 1814, and marched to join the army at 
Burlington, Vt. ; and was in the battle of Plattsburg, N. Y., and in 
that of the Chandiere Woods, and was called the bravest officer in 
the army. Col. McCobb's regiment of United States Volunteers 
was recruited at Bath, Gen. King being United States recruiting 
officer under United States commission as colonel of the regular 
army. The camp of the regiment was on Western avenue near 
High street. Mr. Joseph Hayes of Bath was one of the recruiting 
sergeants. A portion of the regiment was at Bath during the 
"great alarm" in June, 1814; a portion had marched to join the 
United States forces in western New York. 

Bath, March 26, 18 13. 
Major- General William King : 

Sir. — Having entered into the service of the United States, and 
being ordered out of the district of my command in the Militia, 
permit me to solicit you to grant me leave of absence from my 
brigade for one year from the first day of April next. 

Very respectfully, 
I am, Sir, with high esteem your obedient servant, 

Denny McCobb, 
B. G. 1 £., 1 1 D. 
This request was granted. 

Regimental Orders, May 1, 1812. 

Pursuant to Division and Brigade orders for detaching 62 men, 
officers included, from this regiment, Major Andrew Reed, Capt. 
Richard Hagan, Lieut. Nathaniel Todd, Ensign Gamaliel Crooker, 
Quartermaster Clapp, Ensign Timothy W. Waldern, Rev. William 
Jenks are detached as officers for the battalion to be composed of the 
detachment from this Brigade; they will hold themselves in readiness 
to assemble and march at a moment's notice. The commanding 
officers of companies in this regiment will detach by lot from the 



122 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



5 


men, 


5 


6 


men, 


6 


i serg't, i musician, io 


men, 


10 


6 


men, 


6 


i serg't, 6 


men, 


7 


i serg't, i musician, 2 


men, 


4 


1 serg't, 5 


men, 


6 


6 


men, 


6 


1 serg't, 1 musician, 2 


men, 


4 



rolls of their companies the number of non-commissioned officers and 

privates set against their names in the annexed schedule, viz. : 

Capt. Richard Hagan, 

Capt. William Burke, 

Capt. Josiah Trott, 

Capt. Henry Cutting, . 

Capt. Benjamin Davenport, 

Capt. Ho— G. Allen, . 

Capt. Ellis Percy, 

Capt. Jeremiah Fisher, 

Ensign Timothy Williams, 

5° 

The commanding officers of companies aforesaid will make their 
detachment without delay and order the men so detached to be 
armed and equipped according to law and held in readiness to assem- 
ble and march at a moment's notice. Agreeably to the General 
Orders herewith transmitted, they will also make their returns on 
the printed forms herewith furnished without delay. Adjutant Hyde 
will transmit those orders to each of the officers detailed and to 
the commanding officers of the companies without delay and furnish 
such blank forms as are necessary to effect the aforesaid detachment; 
he will also use diligence to collect the returns of the detachment 
and transmit them in an orderly manner to the commanding officer 
of the Brigade. 

Denny McCobb, Lt.-Col. i R. i B. 

1812. 



Roster of Officers 1st Regiment, 1st Brigade, 11th Division. 

Name. Rank. Date. Residence. 

Denny McCobb, Lt-Col. Comd., May io, 1798, Georgetown. 

Promoted Brigader-General. 

Andrew Reed, Major, June n, 1804, " 

Promoted. 

Lewis Thorp, Major, July 4, 1809, " 

Discharged May 31, 1811. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



123 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date. Residence. 


Thos. Cushing, 


Adj., 

Removed locally. 


June 23, 1810, Bath. 


Chas. Clapp, 


Qr. -Master, 

Promoted. 


Feb. 2, 1810, 


Chas. Shaw, 


Pay Master, 

Rem. locally 


June 23, 1810, " 


Timothy Waldron, 


Surgeon, 


April 3, 1808, " 


Nath'l Weld, 


Surg. Mate, 


June 22, 1808, " 


Wm. Jenks, 


Chaplain, 


April 1, 1806, 


Ebenz. Clapp, 


Major, 


July 4, 1811, " 




Promoted Brig.-Major. 


Zina Hyde, 


Adj., 

Promoted. 


Aug. 31, 1811, " 


Thos. D. Robinson, 


Pay-Master, 


June 10, 1812, " 



Subsequent Roster Same Regiment. 

Andrew Reed, Lt.-Col. Comd., Sept. 3, 1812, Gorgetown. 

Josiah Trott, Major, Sept. 3. 1812, Woolwich. 

Discharged March 31, 1814. 

Wm. Burke, Major, Sept. 3, 1812, Bath. 

Dwelly Turner, Major, Sept. 3, 1812, " 

John Parker, Captain, June 11, 1801, Georgetown. 

Discharged Dec. 10, 1810. 

Benj. Foster, " Nov. 11, 1803, Bath. 

Discharged July 15, 1811. 

David Gilmore, April 3, 1804, Woolwich. 

Discharged Dec. 10, 1810. 

George Rogers, April 3, 1804, Georgetown. 

Discharged Dec. ro, 1810. 

Jethro Sprague, " July 4, 1804, " 

Discharged April 24, 1811. 

Ebenz. Clapp, " May 2, 1809, Bath Lt. Inf. 

Promoted. 

Benj. Bailey, " May 2, 1809, Woolwich. 

Discharged March 30, 1812. 

Richard Hagan, Aug. 19, 1809, Georgetown. 

Promoted. 

Wm. Burke, " May i, 1810, Bath. 

Promoted. 

Josiah Trott, " Feb. 4, 1811, Woolwich. 

Promoted. 



124 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



Name. 

Benj. Swett, 
Henry Cutting, 

Ellis Percy, 
Horatio G. Allen, 

Benj. Davenport, 

Jeremiah Fisher, 
Jas. Williams, 

Samuel Low, 

Thos. Motherwell, 
Wm. Torrey, 
Farris Da Toster, 

John Pettes, 
Dwelly Turner, 

Francis Cushman, 
Jas. Bowker, 
Benj. Swett, 

Benj. Davenport, 

Henry Preble, 

Jas. B. Oliver, 

Henry Cutting, 

Horatio G. Allen, 

John J. Gould, 

Wm. Flitner, 

Sam'l Low, 



Rank. Date. Residence. 

Captain, Feb. 5, 181 1. Georgetown. 

Discharged Jan. 27, 1812. 

Feb. 6, 1811, 

Discharged March 28, 1814. 

July 1, 1811, 

July 23, 181 1, Bath Lt. Inf. 

Discharged March 10, 1813. 

Aug. 22, 181 1, Bath Lt. Inf. 

Discharged Dec. 23. 1814. 

" March 26, 1812, Georgetown. 

" May 6, 1812, Woolwich. 

Discharged April 21. 1815. 

Sept. 26, 1812, Bath. 

Discharged April 4, 1814. 

" Sept. 26, 181 2, Woolwich. 

May 15, 1813, Bath Lt. Inf. 
May 23, 1814, Phipsburg. 

Discharged April 21, 1815. 

May 23, 1814, Bath. 

" March 27, 1815, " 

Promoted. 

" June 8, 1815, Wool. Lt. Inf. 

June 9, 1815, Phipsburg. 

Lieut., June n, 1803, Georgetown. 

Promoted. 

" Nov. 11, 1803, Bath. 

Promoted. 

April 3, 1804, Woolwich. 

Discharged Feb. 21, 1810. 

July 4, 1804. Georgetown. 

Discharged Dec. 10, 1810, 

" April I, 1806, " 

Promoted. 

May 2, 1809, Bath Lt. Inf. 

Promoted. 

May 2, 1809, Woolwich. 

Discharged March 30, 1812. 

June 10, 1803, Georgetown. 

Discharged Dec. 10, 1810. 

July 12, 1810, Bath. 

Promoted. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



125 



Name. 

Josiah Trott, 

Jere'h Fisher, 

Sam'l H. Rogers, 

Ellis Percy, 

Nath'l S. Todd, 
Thos. Motherwell, 

Wm. Stevens, 

Hezekiah Wyman, 

Jas. Cushing, Jr., 
Jas. C. Whitmore, 
Francis Cushman, 

John Pettes, 

Wm. D. Leonard, 
Thomas Agry, Jr., 
Alden Winter, 
Enoch Foote, 
Ric'd Mitchell, 
Alex. Drummond, Jr., 
John Swett, 

Gamaliel Crooker, 

John Gilmore, 

John McCarthy, 

Ellis Percy, 

Wm. Stevens, 

Timothy Williams, 



Rank. Date. 

Lieut., Sept. 7. 1810, 

Promoted. 

(i Feb. 5, 1811, 

Promoted. 

Feb. 5, 1811, 

Discharged April 20, 1815, 

Feb. 8, 1811, 

Promoted. 

Feb. 8, 1811, 
" Feb. 4, 1811, 

Promoted. 

" July 25, 1811, 

Discharged May 31, 1813. 

" Aug. 22, 181 r, 

Discharged Feb. z, 1814. 

Oct. IO, 1811, 
" March 26, 1812, 

" May 5, 181 2, 

Promoted. 
" Sept. 26, 1 8l 2, 

Promoted. 

" Sept. 26, 181 2, 

" May 15. 1813, 

" May 23, 1814, 

May 23, 1814, 
June 8, 1815, 
June 9, 181 5, 
Ensign, April 7, 1804, 

Discharged Dec. 16, 1811. 

Sept. 30, 1805, 

Discharged April 4, 1814. 

" April 3, 1804, 

Discharged Jan. 24. 1811. 



Residence. 
Woolwich. 

Georgetown. 



Removed locally. 



Promoted. 



Promoted. 



March 30, 1807, 
May 2, 1809, 
Aug. 9, 1809, 



" May 2, 1809, 

Discharged Sept. 17, 1812. 



Woolwich. 

Bath Lt. Inf. 

Bath. 

Georgetown. 

Wool. Lt. Inf. 

Bath. 

Woolwich. 

Bath Lt. Inf. 

Bath. 

it 

Wool. Lt. Inf. 

Phipsburg. 

Georgetown. 

Bath. 

Woolwich. 

Georgetown. 

Bath Lt. Inf. 
Wool. Lt. Inf. 



126 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date. 


Residence. 


Samuel H. Rogers, 


Ensign, 

Promoted. 


May 11, 1809, 


Georgetown. 


John Pettes, 


Promoted. 


July 12, 1810, 


Bath. 


Wm. D. Leonard, 


Promoted. 


Feb. 4, 181 1, 


Woolwich. 


Wm. Davis, 


t( 


Feb. 6, 181 1, 


Georgetown. 


Joseph Blithen, 


Removed locally 


Feb. 8, 1811, 


(< 


Wm. Torrey, 


Promoted. 


July 25, 1811, 


Bath Lt. Inf. 


Jotham Crosby, 


(< 


Oct. 10, 1811, 


Georgetown. 


Chas. Potter, 


" 


March 26, 1812, 


. c< 


David Oliver, 8th, 


" 


July 9, 1812, 


" 


Oliver Trivett, 


i < 


Sept. 26, 181 2, 


Bath. 




Removed and discharged May 23, 1814 




John W. Stinson, 


" 


Sept. 26, 1812, 


Woolwich. 


Ezekiel Walker, 


" 


May 15,18:3, 


Wool. Lt. Inf. 


Wm. Emerson, 


it 


May 15, 1813, 


Bath Lt. Inf. 


Sam'l D. Crooker, 


(< 


May 24, 1813, 


a 


Thos. P. Stetson, 


a 


May 23, 1814, 


i< 



Roster of Officers 1st Regiment, 1st Brigade, 11th Division, 
Mass. Militia at Coxs Head from Sept. 10, to Oct. I, 1814. 



Name. 


Rank, Infantrv. 


Date of Com. 


Residence. 


Andrew Reed, 


Colonel, 


Sept. 3, 181 2, 


Phipsburg. 


Wm. Burke, 


Major, 


Sept. 3, 1812, 


Bath. 


Zina Hyde, 


Adj., 


Aug. 31, 1811, 


If 


Chas. Clapp, 


Qr. -Master, 


Feb. 2, 1810, 


it 


Wm. Jenks, 


Clap lain, 


April 1, 1806, 


" 


Thos. D. Robinson, 


Pay Master, 


June 10, 1S12, 


ft 


Tim. W. Waldron, 


Surgeon, 


Dec. 25, 1806, 


" 


Nath'l Weld, Jr., 


Surg. Mate, 


Jan. 22, 1808, 


" 


Richard Hagan, 


Captain, 


Aug. 19, 1809, 


Georgetown. 


Ellis Percy, 


1 i 


July 19, 181 1, 


Phipsburg. 


Benj. Davenport, 


" 


Aug. 22, 181 1, 


Bath. 


Jeremiah Fisher, 


" 


March io, 1812, 


Georgetown, 


Joseph. Williams, 


■■ 


May 5, 1812, 


Woolwich 


Thos. Motherwell, 


u 


Sept. 20, 1812, 


K 


Wm. Torrey, 


1 < 


May 25, 1813, 


Bath 


John Pettes, 


" 


May 23, 1814, 


(< 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



127 



Name. 


Rank, Infantry, 


Mathew Todd, 


Lieut. , 


F. D. A. Foster, 


Captain, 


Samuel H. Rogers, 


Lieut., 


Jas. Cushing, Sr., 


" 


Jas. C. Whitmore, 


" 


Francis Cushman, 


" 


Wm. D. Leonard, 


(1 


Thos. Agry, 


" 


A. Winter, 


" 


Wm. Davis, 


Ensign, 


Jotham Crosby, 


" 


Chas. Potter, 


ft 


David Oliver 8th, 


K 


John W. Stinson, 


« < 


Ezekiel Walker, 


" 


Samuel D. Crooker, 


" 



Date of Com. 
Feb. 8, 1810, 

Feb. 6, 181 1, 
Oct. 10, 181 1, 
March 10, 1812, 
May 5, 1812, 
Sept. 20, 181 2, 
May 15, 1813, 
May 23, 1814, 
Feb. 7, 1811, 
Oct. 10, 1812, 
March 10, 1812, 
June 18, 1812, 
Sept. 20, 1812, 
May 15, 1813, 
May 23, 1813, 



Residence. 

Georgetown. 
Phipsburg. 



Georgetown. 
Woolwich. 

Bath. 

Phipsburg. 
it 

Georgetown. 
Woolwich. 



Bath. 

, 1814. Attest 
Regiment, 1st 



This is a true copy from the original roster of September 26 
Z. Hyde, late Adjutant, having custody of the papers , of 1st 
Brigade, 1 ith Division at this time. 

Phipsburg, September 26, 1814 

Signed, JAS. M. MARSH, Act. Adj 



INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

It was a source of annoyance to some of the clergy that Sundays 
were used as days of military parade. Rev. Mr. Eaton of 
Harpswell, on the 4th of September, 18 14, at the request of 
President Appleton of Bowdoin College, preached to the students 
and congregation at Brunswick. It was at the opening of divine 
service in the morning, while Mr. Eaton was engaged in prayer, 
that two companies of militia marched by the meeting-house 
armed and equipped, with drum beating and fifes playing, en route 
for Bath, to reinforce the troops at that place. This excited the 
passions and feelings of Mr. Eaton and added fuel to his excited 
imagination. " He prayed the Lord that our ears might not be 
stunned in the sanctuary by the sound of musical instruments excit- 
ing men to deeds of death; for every battle of the warrior is with 
confused noise and garments rolled in blood." 



128 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The privateer ship America of Salem came into the river during 
the war and anchored off Hyde's wharf. She thought she was 
pursued by a British frigate at sea, and in order to make her escape 
she put away for the Kennebec. The ship that was in chase proved 
to be the " Peace and Plenty" of New York. She sprang a leak, was 
obliged to make a harbor, and ran on the flats below Union wharf. 
She was afterwards hauled to Clapp's wharf and repaired. The 
America was a fine ship and mounted twenty long-nines, was 
formerly an East Indian, and belonged to the Crowninshields of 
Salem. She had her deck taken out when they fitted her for a 
privateer. She came into Bath the second time. She also sent in 
several prize ships; one of them was loaded with English goods and 
was very valuable. Luke Lambert contracted with the owners for 
ten thousand dollars to haul them to Boston by land to avoid the 
cruisers in the bay. At the same time there came in a Letter of 
Marque schooner for a harbor, and the two armed vessels made 
something of a war-like appearance on the river. 

During the war all kinds of goods were exceedingly high in price, 
more especially imported goods. The following list of prices is 
recorded in diary of Zina Hyde, then in mercantile business with 
Jonathan Hyde. Their store was a brick one on Water street, 
immediately north of the Houghtons' office, and was demolished in 
1885 or thereabouts. " W. I. rum, $1.40 to $1.60; molasses, .80 in 
Bath, .85 in Boston; sugar, .16 to .18 in Bath, .19 to .21 in Boston; 
coffee, .20; S. tea, $1.20 to $1.25 in Boston and rising fast; corn, 
$2 in Boston, more in Bath; flour, $13 in Boston, $16 in Bath." 

During the war of 18 12 there were those who entered into the 
speculation of supplying the British with provisions. Parties drove 
cattle to sell in Canada. Wiscasset was a depot from which British 
war vessels cruising off the Maine coast obtained supplies of fresh 
mutton, sheep being sent there for that purpose, in which trade it 
is said by good authority that know that sheep were sent from Bath. 

The Kilgore Robbery. — During the war of 1812 the general 
government levied a direct tax, which was especially unpopular 
with the Federal party, which opposed the war. Mr. Kilgore 
of Topsham was appointed to collect the tax in Phipsburg, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 29 

which having completed he was in the night on his way home on 
horseback, when a man came out from a clump of bushes about 
where is now the Dromore guide-board with a gun in his hand and 
taking the horse by the bits, demanded the tax money, which was 
delivered to him, when the collector was permitted to pass along in 
safety. A prominent man living in Topsham was arrested for the 
act, and at the trial Kilgore positively identified the prisoner as the 
man who robbed him. On the defence the prisoner clearly proved 
an alibi and was acquitted. He mistook his man in this way: the 
prisoner had a brother residing in Phipsburg, closely resembling 
him, and he was the man who did the act, as it was afterwards 
universally known. He could not be touched, however, because the 
collector had sworn that the other brother, when on trial, was the 
guilty man. 

A Nautical Adventure. — Some forty years since a writer thus 
relates his reminiscences in a newspaper of the day: " In our last, 
we gave a little incident of our nautical experience, in which we 
were captured by the enemy in the last war with England and made 
a brief prisoner on board of one of his Majesty's ships-of-the-line. 
In the present paper we shall relate another incident of our young 
experience, in which we were not taken by the enemy. It was 
whilst on our first voyage to the District of Maine, in September, 
1 8 13. Circumstances of a domestic nature, induced by the war 
itself, rendered it expedient, if not necessary, that we should 
remove from the land of our fathers in the Old Colony to the 
abode of contemporary relatives in Bath. In these times, when, 
if a man has not been around the world, he has been nowhere, 
and when he may be almost everywhere in the same day, it is 
no more to go to Europe than it formerly was to cross a mill 
pond; but forty years ago it "was a great and venturesome thing, 
especially in war time, to make a sea voyage from Plymouth 
to the Kennebec. It was not the day of steamboats or railroads; 
such things were not so much hoped for as a means of locomo- 
tion as the idea is now entertained of navigating the atmosphere 
under a convoy of eagles. Indeed, by post-coaches, if they had 



130 HISTORY OF BATH. 

been established on the entire line, the journey from Boston to 
Bath was accomplished only in the better part of two weeks, and at 
a cost that would now carry a passenger by steam power from 
lloston to Wisconsin. Maine merchants must procure their goods 
in Boston, and these goods must be conveyed by water, notwith- 
standing the British cruisers constituted a cordon investing the 
coast from Cape Cod to Eastport. Coasters must attempt the 
'run,' though at fearful risks. Many, very many, of them fell into 
the hands of the enemy; but a few by watching their opportunities? 
and especially by running in the night time, had the good fortune to 
make their trips with success. Amongst these lucky ones was a 
large schooner, rigged in the old-fashioned style of two topsails, 
very brig-like, belonging in Bath and commanded by a daring old 
salt, Capt. McKown of Woolwich ( Robert ). He belonged to 
the war party, was zealous for ' sailors' rights ' ; fearless himself, 
he had a most ravenous appetite for ' the blood of an English- 
man.' His formidable craft lay at the T wharf in Boston, watching 
her opportunity to put out of the harbor when the weather had forced 
the cruisers temporarily to withdraw from the coast, and make her 
run without detection to the Kennebec. In a swift ' shaving mill,' 
like that in which we had been captured three months before, we 
proceeded to Boston and took passage in Capt. McKown's great 
schooner for Bath. She was c'eeply laden with merchandise, and 
several of the merchants of B.ith and adjacent towns were on boar.d 
with their goods. Some ladies were of the party. 

The first part of the voyage was made between two days, pro- 
tected from observation by the cover of darkness. Morning found 
us within a few leagues of Portsmouth, which, by help of a fair 
wind, our captain hoped to reach in season to lie by, till another 
night should afford a second opportunity to run eastward. But 
soon an armed brig was discovered in the southern horizon making 
for the coast; and by the time she had become clearly visible to the 
naked eye, a ship was also seen in the same direction, lying off and 
on, as if to support the brig in her adventures. The ship, we 
afterwards learned, was the La Hogue, which was commanded by an 
Englishman who, when he was drunk, — and that was most of the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 131 

time, — disgraced the British navy by his savage cruelties to his 
captured Americans. The brig had evidently got a sight of our 
noble looking schooner, and was pressing all her canvas to cut us 
off before Capt. McKown could reach Portsmouth; and so rapidly 
did she gain upon us, that it became quite certain she would cut our 
line before we could reach the point of safety. A consultation was 
had, and the resolution formed to run the schooner on shore and 
beach her rather than give her up to the enemy. Suddenly, how- 
ever, we noticed that the brig hove about and shaped her course for 
the La Hogue. This was, indeed, a happy change for us, but it 
was altogether inexplicable, till shortly the mystery was explained 
by our noticing two United States brigantines, — the Enterprise and 
Rattlesnake, — an armed schooner, and several gun-boats, coming 
out of Portsmouth, by the fort that defends the harbor, and pro- 
ceeding in the direction of our pursuer and the La Hogue whose 
protection she was seeking. Our schooner joined the American 
fleet shortly after the fort had been passed, and our vali nt captain, 
burning with a patriotic zeal, put up his helm and steered in the 
same direction. We fell in by the side of the Enterprise, which 
near the mouth of the Kennebec had had the battle with the Boxer, 
and took her and brought the slain captains of both vessels into 
Portland, where their bodies now lie side by side. In vain did our 
passengers protest against Capt. McKown's temerity in going out 
to participate in the hazards of a naval engagement. Argument 
was lost upon him; his throat breathed vengeance; his very eyes 
flashed fire; he was an old 'war-hawk' and could not be restrained. 
We recollect how one of the passengers, a merchant who had goods 
on board, Hon. David C. Magoun, a most respectable gentleman of 
Bath, protested to Capt. McKown against his perilling his vessel, 
the property committed to his charge, and even the liberty and 
perhaps lives of us all, by the daring venture of accompanying the 
fleet to the forthcoming sea-fight. — ' You are entirely unarmed and 
cannot possibly be of any service in the engagement.' ' No matter 
for that,' asserverated the old 'war-hawk,' 'the British do not know 
that; they don't know but we are half full of arms and men; at 
least we shall add one to the number; I have one old shooting 



132 HISTORY OF BATH. 

iron down below, and I know I can make a hole with it in some 
d — d red coat before we quit. 

Really he was bent on his purpose. He was fully determined to 
see (lie battle, whether he could participate in it or not, and did not 
doubt that his presence might, in some fortunate circumstances, be 
of service to the American belligerents. They were going out to 
give battle to the ship and brig, which by this time had joined com- 
pany and were laid to, waiting to receive our approaching fleet. We 
shall never forget the appearance of the Enterprise and Rattlesnake 
as we moved along side of them, especially of the first, which was 
so near us that her captain and ours could converse with great 
facility. The decks were all cleared for action and, just out of port, 
were exceedingly clean and glistening. The boats were hauled up 
in the rigging, the port-holes were opened, every gun was manned, 
all was still except as the boatswain's whistle was heard, or the 
American captain held conversation with our schooner. ' Where 
are you going ? ' asked he of Capt. McKown. ' Don't you see,' 
exclaimed he, pointing to the two British cruisers that were waiting 
our approach; 'we are going wherever you go, if that's to Davy's 
locker ! ' ' My friend,' rejoined he, ' let me advise you to put back; 
you can be of no possible service to us, and you may see bloody 
work before you return.' ' That's just what I want to see,' replied 
our captain, and he refused to return. It was really a fearful hour 
to us all. Men going into battle never could feel differently from 
what we felt. Thus we sailed outward until with our glasses we 
could see the enemy's port-holes and witness the movement of his 
men on board. Almost were we within gunshot. Directly, without 
our knowing the cause, the whole American fleet ' about ship ' and 
took the back tracks for Portsmouth ! This was in obedience to a 
signal from the fort on shore. Never did our young heart beat with 
a readier joy than when our captain concluded not to go and fight 
the ship and brig alone, but to return and make a port with the 
brigantines. On coming to anchor in Piscataqua, we learned the 
cause of recall. It seems that Com. Hull, who commanded on 
shore, had reason to believe there was a 74 gun ship, the Tenedos, 
in the offing within hearing of the guns, should an engagement be 



HISTORY OF BATH. 133 

hazarded, and that she would come to the relief of the vessels our 
fleet was in pursuit of; and as night would shut in before the con- 
troversy could be decided, he thought it prudent, on the whole, to 
recall the force to port, which he did by the signals before alluded 
to. If any of our readers ever came nearer being in a sea-fight 
than we did, without being really involved in it, and experienced 
anything more of the sensations preceding such a conflict, we shall 
be very happy to hear from them." 

Opposers of the War. — At the commencement of the war of 
18 1 2 the Federalists opposed the enlistment of men and sent out 
circulars and employed men to ride through the country to dis- 
courage enlistments. Republicans ardently supported the war. In 
times of local danger, however, those of both parties rallied for 
defence. 

Its Effects. — When this war ended in 18 15, it required several 
years to restore the crippled commerce to anything like prosperity. 
During the embargo, non-intercourse, and war, vessels in course of 
construction at Bath crumbled on. the stocks and others rotted at 
the wharves. At the time the embargo was declared, William King 
had five ships and four brigs, all but one loaded for sea, anchored 
in the river, stringing from shore to shore. Merchants who had 
amassed independent fortunes were reduced to penury, as the 
embargo cut off our trade also with neutral nations. 



134 HISTORY OF BATH. 



SHIP- BUILDING. 



The most prominent feature in the history of Bath and con- 
spicuously identified with its business and growth is that which is 
connected with the construction and sailing of vessels. The history 
of the building of vessels on the Kennebec dates back nearly three | 
centuries. Before the Pilgrim fathers had landed at Plymouth, 
before settlers had permanently established themselves in the New 
World, before any industry had set up its standands on this side of 
the Atlantic, the great business of building ships had begun on the 
Kennebec in the construction of the Virginia by the Popham colony. 
None of the undertakings that came afterwards were so strongly 
and lastingly established as the business of building ships. It has 
been identified with the country's growth and greatness from the 
very first, and its fluctuations have been the sure thermometer of 
the country's varying fortunes. 

In times of peace and plenty, the ships of the Kennebec have 
carried the country's products to every sea and every clime, and 
brought back in trade the choicest products of every nation. In 
times of war, the sailors trained on American merchant-men have 
been the bulwark of the nation against the invading navies of her 
foes. Great is the glory that has come to our country by the brave 
deeds of our sailor-men in the war of 1812, and great the prosperity 
that has come to our country by the achievements of our merchant 
marine in times of peace before and since that event. 

At the time when Bristol was the chief port of commerce in 
England, the ships hailing from there were considered models in 
build and rig; consequently when an American ship was rigged in a 
notably rakish style, it was remarked by seafaring men that she was 
" taut-rigged and Bristol fashion." 



HISTORY OF BATH. 135 

Centuries ago the term ship had a wide significance. During 
the reign of William the fourth, of England, a statute enacted that 
the term ship comprehended every description of vessel navigating 
the ocean. 

First Vessel Built on the Kennebec. — The name of 
"Virginia of Sagadahock" of 160^ was given in honor of the 
designation of New England as North Virginia. When the Popham 
colony broke up its settlement and returned to England, the Virginia 
sailed in company with the other vessel that took the members of the 
colony home. Her arrival at the port of Falmouth was a sensation; 
a wonder at the triumph of ship-carpentry in the distant wilds of 
the New World. This little craft was the forerunner of the great 
American industry that eventually arrived to the distinction of 
beating the world in the model wooden ship. 

Interesting is the history of the ship-building on the Kennebec 
traced from the quaint little thirty ton ship, that was builded in the 
wilderness at the river's mouth almost three hundred years ago, 
through the centuries to the huge leviathans of peace and war that 
at this later day are rearing their giant frames in the ship-yards of 
this ship-building city. Imagination, alone can speculate upon 
the methods of construction used by the master builder, " one 
Digby of London," as to whether he, with ship-building afore- 
thought, brought with him from England the spikes for the 
planking, or whether, Robinson Crusoe like, his men fashioned 
the nails out of whatever iron they happened to have at hand; 
whether the Indians helped them or hindered them, and what 
these natives thought of the strange pale faces who had come into 
their midst to build a huge canoe. But whatever the Indians 
thought of the settlers there is no question as to what the settlers 
thought of the land of the Indians, for soon after they had finished 
their ship, launched her upon the smooth waters of Atkins Bay, and 
fitted her for an ocean voyage, they availed themselves of the 
opportunity to leave these inhospitable shores and sail back to • the 
mother country in their new vessel and the Mary and John, the 
supply ship. Neither the colonists nor the ship ever came back to 



136 HISTORY OF BATH. 

the Kennebec, but the new ship was used in transporting colonists 
to the South Virginia settlement. 

The Second Build. — It was sixty-eight years later when 
another vessel was built on the Kennebec shores. When the 
famous firm of Clark & Lakh came into possession of the island 
of Arrowsic and established vast business enterprises, they built 
vessels on the island and sailed them in transporting the products 
of their trade with return cargoes of supplies. Their yards were on 
the Kennebec side of the island and on the eastern side at or 
near Spring Cove. Across the bay from the latter locality, on the 
Woolwich shore, lived the father of William Phips. The natural 
tendency of the times being for vessels, the youthful ambition of 
this subsequent famous man seems to have led him to become a 
shipwright as the basis of the future eminent career which he early 
mapped out for himself. 

SIR WILLIAM PHIPS. 

James Phips, the father of Sir William, emigrated 
to this country in i6^r and settled on the Kennebec 
at Butlers Cove {fide 'Fathers of New England"). 
Afterwards he purchased the land known as Phips 
Point in Woolwich bordering on the Sheepscot River. 
phippk. He settled there as a farmer, at the same time pur- 

suing his trade of gunsmith. He had a family by one wife of 
twenty-one sons and five daughters. His tenth child was William, 
born Feb. 2, 165/, on Arrowsic Island, and while a child was taken 
by his parents to Woolwich. He learned the trade of shipwright by 
a four years' apprenticeship in the yards of Clark & Lake at Arrowsic. 
Upon the end of his apprenticeship, at the age of twenty-two, he went 
to Boston to work in ship-yards in 1673. There were no schools in 
his town, and he received no education. While working at his 
trade in Boston he married the widow of John Hull, daughter of 
John Richards, the original proprietor of Arrowsic, who brought him 
some property and taught him to read and write. He returned to 
his old home. in Woolwich in 1674, where he built a ship for Boston 




HISTORY OF BATH. 137 

parties which he completed in 1676. This proved a very fortunate 
circumstance to the settlers in that vicinity, for on the completion 
of the vessel the first Indian war broke out and savage depredations 
began. The settlers on the Sheepscot, terrified by the tidings of 
the massacres at Hammonds Fort and at the garrison-house of 
Clark & Lake, fled to the islands in Booth Bay, when William Phips 
took them on board his vessel and sailed for Boston, although he 
was obliged to abandon a portion of his cargo of lumber that was 
ready for shipment. He continued building and sailing vessels at 
Boston for some years until he engaged with the Duke of Albemarle 
to proceed in one of the king's ships in search of a sunken Spanish 
treasure ship that was lost off the Bahamas. On the second voyage 
in this enterprise he was sucsessful in finding the wreck in some 
fifty feet of water. From this wreck they obtained $1,350,000 in 
gold, silver, and jewels. Phips' part amounted to $80,000 and for 
this great service he was knighted. He had the generosity and the 
justice to divide with his sailors a fair proportion of the treasure 
recovered. 

On his return to this country from England he resided in Boston 
and was given public employment. In 1690 he commanded the 
colonial fleet that captured Fort Royal in Nova Scotia., He sailed 
from Boston in May with a fleet of nine vessels. He had the rank 
and title of commodore, his flag ship carrying forty guns. He 
completed the conquest of Acadia and brought back enough of the 
enemy's merchandise to pay the expenses of the undertaking. The 
next August he commanded an expedition against Quebec. The 
land forces were to proceed by the way of Lake Champlain, uniting 
with the fleet for the reduction of that place. Phips was repulsed 
in this undertaking, not having receiving the expected aid. A 
severe storm destroyed a portion of his fleet, and the expenses, 
which they anticipated would be paid from the spoils, fell upon the 
colonies, and money being scarce, bills of credit and paper money 
were issued, the first instance in our history. He subsequently 
rebuilt the destroyed fort at Pemaquid and named it Fort William 
Henry. 

Sir William went to England to obtain from the Crown a new 



138 HISTORY OF BATH. 

charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and returned with it 
as governor in 1692. This office he ably administered until 1694, 
when, as had been the fate of all previous governors of the colony, 
he encountered opposition which culminated in his recall to England 
to answer to complaints against his methods of administration. 
This he did successfully and remained for some time in London. 
He died there in the year 1695 at the early age of forty-four years. 
This country lost an able, enterprising, patriotic, and good citizen. 

William Phips by his own force of character rose from a poor 
and uneducated youth to wealth, power, and distinction. In personal 
appearance he was tall and commanding; of comely and symmet- 
rical features; courtly and dignified in manner; of amiable and 
generous disposition. On his first return to this country, loaded 
with wealth and honor, he tendered a splendid feast to the ship- 
carpenters of Boston in consideration of his having commenced 
active life pursuing that honorable avocation. 



* £d£/'?"J ~~ 




The York Records of 1727 show that "John Lane of Boston 
recites that his mother, Sarah, was daughter of John White, and 
conveys land at Kennebec inherited from her, purchased by John 
White and James Phips from Edward Bateman. Good authority 
states that James Phips and John White were born about the same 
time." William M. Sargent, Portland, wrote that he had evidence 
that James Phips died and John White, his business partner, 
married Phips' widow and she had several children by him (vide S. 
Richards, South Paris). 

Early Building at Bath. — The continued hostilities of the 
savages prevented vessel building to any great extent on the Ken- 
nebec as well as elsewhere on these shores until keels were laid at 
the " Reach " sixty-five years after Phips' Woolwich ship. The 
inception of the business as connected with this locality was the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 39 

building of sloops and schooners on the banks of the New Meadows 
River, which at an early day was the mart of commerce for this 
section. 

In due time, however, the entire business became transferred to 
the Kennebec, where Bath has, for more than a century, held thej 
lead in ship-building on this river and tributary waters, and eventu- 
ally has become the largest wood ship-building city in the world. 
Its rise and growth is a matter of general interest. It is the earliest 
of Bath industries and has continued paramount to all others. Its 
establishment and prosecution have brought into being many collat- 
eral industries indispensable to the building and sailing of ships. 
I This location was well chosen. The country around was covered 
with forests of the best oak timber in the world to put into vessels, 
with tall, straight spruce for masts and spars, while the shore on 
this west side of the long stretch of deep water was well adapted, 
in its sloping trend, for placing a hull and sliding it into its des- 
tined element. 

Bath skirts the shore for three miles on what was known as Longi 
Reach, a broad, straight section of the river which forms a perfect 
harbor for vessels of the largest tonnage. This port is ample for 
the navies of the world, and if a harbor were the measure of a 
city's commercial importance, Bath would be second to none. These 
advantages have been utilized by Bath in the pursuit chiefly of her 
principal industry, for which she is known in every part of the 
maritime world. She has built ships upon its banks and launched 
them into its waters until the tonnage which bears her name out- 
numbers that of any other wood ship-building community in the j 
world. Indeed, this industry, first located here on account of the 
accessibility of ship timber, grew to such large proportions and 
became so firmly established that when the supply of material near 
at hand became somewhat exhausted and it was necessary to resort 
to the pineries of the South and West, it did not decrease in volume 
or in any way was affected by this fact; on the contrary, the history 
of ship-building in Bath perfectly demonstrates the theory that the 
prime factor of success lies in the skill of the ship mechanic and 
the home ownership of a large portion of the tonnage produced. 



140 HISTORY OF BATH. 

She is so advantageously located that she is destined to become a 
very much larger city than she is now, and of greater importance 
as a ship-building point. 

The Pioneer Builders. — In 1741, Jonathan Philbrook 
came to Long Reach and settled on the site of the present city of 
Bath. He was its pioneer ship-builder. In 1743, this Jonathan 
Philbrook and his two sons built a schooner on the banks of the 
river south-east of the present custom-house. This vessel must 
have been a success, for these builders followed a few years later 
with another schooner. 

But the first man to establish ship-building in Bath as a per- 
manent business was Capt. William Swanton. In the year 1762, 
this ship-builder put up the first full-rigged ship built in Bath. 
It was called the Earle of Bute; the succeeding year he built a 
ship, also on contract, for an English merchant named Jenness, and 
the following year filled a like contract with a Mr. Ayles for a ship 
which was called the Rising Sun, a name prophetic perhaps of the 
rising glory of Bath-built ships. In 1765, he built a small ship and 
named her the Moore. He continued building a merchant vessel 
every year until the commencement of the Revolutionary war. In 
1776, he built a ship to be used for a privateer for a Salem company. 
She was considered of superior model for sailing; was mounted with 
eighteen guns; was named the Black Prince and fitted out at Bath. 
Soon after leaving the Kennebec she had a severe battle with an 
English ship of the same size, took her and sent her into port. 
She joined the famous expedition against Castine in 1779. It is 
thus seen that at an^early day vessels were built at Bath for outside 
parties, as is the business of building them on contract so largely 
the custom at the present day. 

William Swanton was by birth an Englishman. He came to 
Boston at an early age and lived there many years. In consequence 
of the disturbed state of the country on the sea-board, caused by 
the French war, he removed to Haverhill in the interior, where he 
was enrolled in a company of the militia; served as captain in the 
French war and was at the reduction of Louisburg in 1758. He 



HISTORY OF BATH. 141 

was by trade a shipwright, and was remarkable for skill and indus- 
try. About the year 1760, he came to the river Kennebec where 
Bath now stands, locating his first ship-yard at the foot of Summer 
street, and afterwards at the foot of South street after the Revolu- 
tion. He was a constant ship-builder during the active years of 
his life, and when he died in 18 10 was ninety-nine years of age. 
Capt. Swanton was the ancestor of the several familes of Swantons 
of Bath, some of whom have been for a long series of years 
notable ship-owners and ship-masters. 

With the commencement of ship-building by Capt. Swanton was 
the advent of Joshua Raynes, who in 1762 built a sloop at Bath 
called the Union and which had other owners. Going on a West 
India voyage at the period of the Revolution, she was on her return 
to Bath with a cargo of molasses when she was captured off Seguin 
by a British cruiser. It is stated that in 1722 Joshua Raynes built 
a sloop of one hundred and forty tons at the South End, but the 
date is not verified. At the close of the Revolutionary war Joshua 
Raynes built a schooner which was owned by ten persons, among 
whom were Dummer Sewall, Joshua Philbrook, E. H. Page, and 
others. This was a great undertaking for that period and many 
people attended the launching of the vessel. She was about 
100 tons burden, cost something like $3,000, and was profitably 
employed in the coasting business. 

Vessels built at West Bath at an early date will be recorded in 
the history of that town. 

The first vessel built by the Patten family was in Topsham. 
In 1772, the schooner Industry was built by the elder John Patten 
and his son Robert and owned by them and Robert Fulton, Mr. 
Jameson, Mr. Harward, and James Maxwell. The latter went 
captain of her. She was one of the first vessels that went to the 
West Indies from the Kennebec. She was sold during the Revo- 
lutionary war for paper money which was not of par value. In 
1776 or 1777, John Patten, Senior, built at Topsham the schooner 
Orange, which went to the West Indies and was taken by a French 
cruiser which confiscated vessel and cargo. This John Patten was 



142 HISTORY OF BATH. 

the great grandfather of the noted ship-builders of Bath, George F. 
Patten, John Patten, and James F. Patten. 

In 1780, a sloop of ninety tons was built on the bank of Fiddlers 
Peach, north of '■ Rowsic mills," facing south. Her owners were 
Alexander Drummond and Thomas Williams. She was com- 
manded by Drummond and was run as a packet between Bath and 
Boston; his crew were Patrick Williams and .Andrew McFadden. 
Ultimately she encountered a gale while at anchor at Heals Eddy 
at the mouth of the river, dragged her anchors, went ashore and 
was lost. 

After the Revolution. — The inception of peace following the 
war of the Revolution having made investments in navigation safe 
and prospectively profitable, the business of building vessels on 
these waters was largely entered into, gradually changing from 
sloops to schooners, hermaphrodite and full-rigged brigs, and later 
ships. At this day brigantines are rarely seen on the Kennebec, 
these and brigs having largely given place to the three and four 
masted schooners of heavy tonnage. The latter are chiefly confined 
to the coasting trade, while square-rigged vessels are considered 
preferable for long ocean voyages. The ships were chiefly employed 
in the European carrying trade, the brigs and larger schooners 
in West India voyages; the smaller schooners and sloops employed 
coastwise. 

The first ship built at Bath after the Revolution of which there is 
record was the Atlantic of 235 tons by Jonathan Davis, Jr., in 
1790, whose yard was what is now that of the Houghton Brothers. 
Forty or fifty years ago work in the ship-yards was usually suspended 
during the winter season, and later carpenters headed by the 
master workman were sent South to cut timber, the first crew going 
in 1850. Models of vessels in the building of which the timber 
was to be used were taken along, the timber prepared on the spot 
where cut, each piece numbered ready to fit into its place when 
the vessel for which it was designed was set up, with the exception 
of a little trimming. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 143 

Chebacco Boats. — Chebacco boats for fishermen's use were 
universally in use for many years. The name was derived from the 
place where they were first built in Essex County, Massachusetts; 
many of them were afterwards built in this district. The sterns camei 
out to a peak, hence they became denominated " Pink-sterned." 
As the planks came together at the stern the cost of their construc- 
tion was much less than those of the same tonnage with square 
sterns. They could be built for from $700 to $800. They had also 
the advantage of being superior sea boats as the high and sharp 
stern prevented the shipping of heavy seas and they rode lightly on 
the waves. The high peak of the stern served as a rest for fishing 
nets. They gradually went out of use and scarcely one is now to 
be seen. 

The tradition is that the first one that was built was by a man in 
a barn, and when it was ready to be put on the water he found that 
there was no way to get his craft out without cutting away one end 
of the building, which he accordingly did. This style of boats 
became gradually enlarged to the extent that some of them were as 
large as any craft then in use for fishing purposes. They averaged 
about fifteen tons and carried three men each. Early in the present 
century about two hundred of these boats were owned in Gloucester. 
The Chebacco boat had two masts, but no bowsprit. The foremast 
was placed well forward and the mainmast in about the center of 
the craft. 

In 1810, the Chebacco boat gave place to the "jigger," 
a class of vessels twice the size of the Chebacco boat. These 
had a bowsprit, full forward but very sharp aft, the stem terminat- 
ing at a point curling gracefully upward. The main-boom rested 
in the crotch of the peak. They steered with a long tiller or 
" cart tongue," as some of the fishermen were wonted to call 
it. There never was a safer or more substantial class of vessels 
built than this old-time craft. Notwithstanding the full bow they 
were fast sailors and would ride the sea like a gull. The peak 
gave way to the square-sterned, and finally the present graceful and 
yacht-like fleet of fishermen were substituted. But while the modern 
fishing vessels are much handsomer than the old pinkey, the latter 



144 HISTORY OF BATH. 

was a belter sea boat than the clipper built craft of to-day. The 
reason the present generation have not seen a pinkey is because 
none have been built for many years. They were built of oak 
frame, planking, and ceiling, and consequently lasted many years. 
Tile pinkey Senator, built in Essex in 1831, was afloat a few years 
ago. 

SHOWS. — In 1792, '95, '96, there were three craft built here 
called Snows, — one of 193, one of 174, and one of 164 tons. A 
Snow was a vessel of two masts corresponding to the main and 
foremasts of a ship and a third small mast just abaft the mainmast 
carrying a sail similar to a ship's mizzen sail. This style of vessel 
went entirely out of use, none having been built in this district after 
those already mentioned, and it is not known in what special trade 
they were employed. 

Former Mode Of Building. — In former years it generally 
required a year to build a ship. All the materials were prepared 
by hand with the broad-axe, the whipsaw, the adze, and the pod 
auger. This style of auger was straight, grooved on one side 
through which the chips came up, to clear which the auger had to 
be often withdrawn. The timbers, planks, and ceiling had all to be 
carried to place on the shoulders of the workmen instead of moved 
as at present by oxen or horse with a tackle. But the timbers were 
vastly larger than those now used for the same size of vessel. In- 
stead of sawed in the yard mill, the planks were sawed by whipsaw 
in the saw-pit. Less iron fastenings were in use and treenails * were 
utilized for that purpose. These were made by hand with the 
broad-axe from pieces rifted from white oak blocks. This light work 
was mostly done during stormy days under cover. An incident has 
been related that when a crowd was gathered at a launching a 
dandy young man came along while some trunnels were being made 
by worknren; he stepped up to help, took off his kid gloves, lay 
them down on a block, placed one end of an unshaped trunnel on 
the gloves, took the broad-axe and hewed out a perfect trunnel, the 
tapering end and all, without cutting the gloves a particle, to the 
admiration and wonderment of the many by-standers. 

♦Commonly pronounced "trunnels." 



HISTORY OP BATH. 145 

In building vessels at an early day the bolts and spikes were 
made by hand. The blacksmith would heat the end of a flat bar of 
iron, which he would split the length of a required bolt, cut off the 
pieces and shape the bolt on the anvil. Spikes were made in a 
similar manner. When bolts were to be fastened by nuts, the screw 
on the small end of the bolt would be made by hand, as likewise 
was the nut. Vessels were not, as now, constructed by models; the 
master workman lined out each piece to fit the place it was to fill; 
the stern and stern posts were first set up, framing was begun at 
mid-ships and filled in with the timbers working in the direction of 
fore and aft. 

Supply Of Wood Material. — At an early day vessels were 
built with timber cut from the forests in the vicinity of the yard, 
and when the supply grew less, resort was had to other parts of the 
state. The timber and knees were selected with the natural bend 
or sweep, and were hewed only on two sides, the other sides left in 
their natural condition. The timbers were set as much as two and 
one-half feet apart; in latter days they are only a few inches 
apart. The planks were cut with the whipsaw. The stern was so 
flaring that the keel only extended aft so far as to permit the foot 
of the mizzen mast of a ship to rest upon it. The cabin was 
entirely below and lighted by a " bull's eye " set in the deck, and 
the seamen lodged in the forecastle under the forward deck. 

Southern Timber. — In 1818, '19, '20, and '21, John Bosworth 
was employed by Green & Emerson of Bath to take one hundred 
men to Florida and Georgia and cut live-oak timber, which they had 
contracted to furnish the United States government- for naval use. 
Mr. Bosworth, with Mr. Drew for his partner, loaded a brig and a 
schooner at Bath with the workmen, provisions, oxen, carts, and all 
necessary supplies for the work, which they landed at Darien. They 
had the molds for timber for three ships; one of these, the Pennsyl- 
vania, built at Philadelphia, was a 144 gun ship, the largest then 
in the fleet. They also landed at Philadelphia frames for three 
frigates. Mr. Bosworth was rated a superior mechanic and had 
built a large number of vessels for himself and others at Bath. He 
died in Florida in 1828 at the age of fifty years (per Lemont). 



146 HISTORY OF BATH. 

-> Native timber to put into the construction of vessels having 
finally become scarce in Maine, attention was called to the advant- 
age of using timber from the South for merchant vessels. About the 
year 1837, George F. Patten and William D. Sewall went together 
to Philadelphia and contracted for a supply ( per Capt. John Patten). 
Southern timber was found to be of superior quality when grown 
near the sea-board, from where at first it was cut; it is now obtained 
chiefly from the interior. The first vessel built with southern timber ' 
was the ship Delaware in 1838 by the Pattens and Charles Dav- 
enport. The same year W. D. Sewall built a ship of southern 
timber, and the use of this kind of timber was continued by these 
builders while in the business. During the war of the Rebellion, 
the supply of timber from the South was cut off, and its place was 
supplied with timber from Canada, Northern Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, and Vermont. Considerable supply of timber for frames and 
knees is still derived from those sources. 

The mode of launching vessels at an early day was to cut awaj 
the after blocks the last. The present method of cutting away the 
forward blocks last has proved the safest way to put a craft into the 
water. The time was when at a launching a man would set astride 
the farther end of the bowsprit and when the vessel was sliding 
from the ways would call out the name that had been given her, at 
the same time breaking a bottle of rum over the bowsprit, first 
drinking from the bottle. This custom has long since been dis- 
pensed with, except in some special cases, when the bottle is 
broken on the bow from below. Formerly vessels while on the 
stocks did not- have their lower masts set; now the most of them 
have all the lower masts up. Many of the schooners are fully 
rigged, and a few all fitted for sea, rigging, sails bent, water and 
provisions aboard, with little to do but ship the crew in order to 
sail on her voyage. The fashion had been to place carved and 
gilded " figure heads " on the bows of ships under the bowsprit, 
usually representing the name of the vessel. It is rarely done now. 
Billet heads came later into use and are not common at this day. 

, Carpenters and Sailors. — The carpenters worked from sun to 
sun, going into the yard before breakfast during the longer days, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 147 

,-and they "knocked off" at night for a late supper; they were 
I boarded by their employers and lodged by them often in their own 
i dwellings. One dollar a day was round wages. Yet many of the 
workmen laid up money and some of them owned farms in the 
vicinity of their employment. There was little if any imported 
labor. The steering apparatus was simply a helm with a tackle 
fastened to either side of the upper works of the quarter-deck, and 
the wheelsman had no shelter when handling the tiller. When 
all hands were called to go aloft the captain often " took the helm." 

The chief food on board the vessel was salt beef, pork and beans, 
rice, hardjbread, coffee, and duff (a flour pudding) twice a week. 
There was a regular allowance of "grog " both to the ship-carpenters 
and seamen, served out to them in New England rum at eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon and four o'clock in the afternoon. When 
the temperance reform became an accepted fact, this allowance was 
cut off from the workmen, and for a while the sailors in the navy 
had a money allowance instead of the liquor, and in time this 
custom was abolished also. 

When a seaman had signed the shipping papers he was entitled 
to and was paid a " month's advance " to use in purchasing his 
"sailor's outfit"; of later years the vessel carries a "slop chest" 
supplied with such clothing as would meet the need of the sailors at 
sea, which is dealt out to them as wanted and charged against their 
wages. 

The smallest ship that has been built in Bath was the Ann of 
132 tons in 1802 for Charles Bradford of Boston, who commanded 
her. When the size increased to that of the Rappahannock of ^133 
tons in 1841, owned by Clark & Sewall, Thomas M. Reed, and 
others, she was considered a monster, and in comparison with other 
vessels loomed up magnificently on the river. Before going to sea 
a large party was entertained aboard of her. She was partly owned 
in New York, to which city she sailed, when another large party 
was given on board; proceeding thence to New Orleans she had 
another ovation. William Drummond was her commander. She 
was the largest merchant ship in the world, and was put into the 



148 HISTORY OF BATH. 

cotton trade. Originally she had two decks, and eventually a third 
was added. 

With the business of the merchant marine there have been at 
intervals seasons of depression of longer or shorter duration. 
One of these seasons commenced in about 1883 and continued 
until far into 1889. The building of full-rigged ships in this country 
had ceased altogether, and those afloat were generally run at a loss. 
Many of the ships of smaller tonnage were sold in California to go 
into the Pacific coast trade, and others disposed of at Atlantic ports 
and converted into coal barges. 

Business for ships having at length in a measure revived, the 
building of ships again commenced at Bath. January, 1890, the 
Rappahannock of 3,000 tons, in November the Shenandoah of 3,258 
tons, in 1892 the Roanoke of 3,400 tons were all launched from the 
same yard; in 1890 Houghton Brothers built the Parthia of 2,378 
tons, — these the largest and latest of Bath wood ships. In 1892 
the greatest depression commenced and continues to the present 
date, 1893. While Bath has built the larger part of the vessels 
constructed in this district, other towns on the river and contiguous 
waters, notably at Phipsburg, Richmond, Hallowell, Arrowsic, and 
Georgetown, have added many to the Kennebec fleet. At one time 
the district took in Harpswell and a portion of Brunswick, and 
many ships and smaller vessels were built on that portion of the 
Casco Bay waters. 

Steamboat building was commenced in Bath in 1865 by A. M. 
Sampson, who built one of about 64 tons for use on the Pacific 
coast. She was called the Lookout. The same year Geo. F. Patten 
built the steamer Montana of 1,000 tons. John R. Kelly became 
captain, and took her around Cape Horn to go into the California 
coast trade. These were followed in 1866 by G. F. and J. Patten 
building the steamship Idaho of 1,077 tons - Jarvis Patten was the 
captain, and she was taken to the Pacific coast. These steamship 
ventures did not prove remunerative, and the building of that class 
of vessels ceased for about ten years, when Goss & Sawyer com- 
menced building them on contract, mostly to be sent to the Pacific 
coast, followed by others to be placed on regular steamship lines on 



, "■* 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 49 

the Atlantic coast. The establishment of the Goss Marine Iron 
Works in connection with the New England Company's vessel 
building enabled the builders to fit steamers built at Bath with 
required machinery and fully equipped for service. 

Restrictions On Commerce. — Prior to 1806 the commercial 
prosperity of the country was beyond example, and a large portion 
of our ships were employed in transporting timber and other Ameri- 
can productions to the dominions of Great Britain, but near the 
close of that period the English government imposed such heavy 
duties on American timber, and so greatly favored the introduction 
into that country of that article from the north of Europe, that it 
amounted to prohibition of our trade and commerce in that com- 
modity. This unfavorable change in its transportation business bore 
heavily upon a large amount of Bath capital invested in shipping. 
Immediately after this disastrous condition of the shipping interests 
came the still more depressing Embargo of Dec. 22, 1807, followed 
in 1809 by the Non-intercourse act and war of 1812, which caused 
a period of depression lasting eight years. 

Our war of 181 2 and the Napoleonic wars having ended, 
universal peace ensued. Consequently all other commercial nations 
came in to share the carrying trade of the world, making formidable 
rivals to such of our shipping as had survived capture and decay 
during the troublesome times just passed. To this was added the 
great failure of crops in 18 16, causing excessive stagnation of 
business lasting two years. The great staple for bread in this sec- 
tion of country was Indian corn, which commanded the price of two 
dollars and fifty cents a bushel, and in Bath was difficult to be 
obtained at any price. 

Commercial Prosperity. — Good crops finally prevailing de- 
pression ceased, and in 1820 and 182 1 flour was only four dollars 
and a half a barrel to the consumer. An extensive trade with the 
West Indies commenced about this time, which employed a large 
fleet of brigs and schooners, taking out cargoes chiefly of lumber 
and bringing back cargoes of rum, molasses, and sugar. Bath 
became a mart for wholesale trade in West India goods. There was 



150 HISTORY OF BATH. 

a distillery in town, and this consumed large quantities of the 
imported molasses, especially of the inferior grades. 

Besides long lumber, shooks, headings, and hoop poles for cooper- 
age, these vessels carried out dried fish, pork, beef, and among the 
return cargoes were raisins, oranges, lemons, and fruits of West 
India growth and salt. Vessels were constantly going out and 
coming into the river, and employment was given men and youths 
who chose the sea for a vocation. Sailors of foreign birth were rare. 
So lively was commercial business that vessels were at times com- 
pelled to anchor in the stream for weeks waiting to procure berths 
at the wharves. 

A custom-house office was then no sinecure. Inspectors, 
weighers, guagers, and measurers were kept constantly busy attend- 
ing to the discharge of cargoes. During the winter season, before 
the advent of railroads, large quantities of goods were conveyed by 
teams to the up river towns and in other directions. These were 
not only goods from the West Indies, but as well from Boston and 
elsewhere, being landed in Bath as the head of winter navigation. 

The English West India Ports. — In 1826, the English gov- 
ernment closed its West India ports against trade with the people of 
the United States. This bore disastrously upon Bath, where vessel 
building ceased, and business became depressed. Ship-carpenters 
were glad to obtain work at fifty and seventy-five cents a day, 
getting occasional work on old vessels undergoing repairs, taking 
store pay at that, and working from daylight till dark. In those 
days, however, workmen were boarded by their employers, making a 
saving at home. This interdiction by England continued until the 
fall of 1830, when the West India ports of that power were again 
opened to American vessels. On the day the news reached Bath, all 
the vessels in port displayed every piece of bunting they possessed, 
presenting a gay scene at the wharves where numerous vessels were 
lying, as well as in the stream where vessels were riding at anchor. 

The opening of the English West India ports was brought about 
during the first term of President Jackson. England had closed 
these ports to the commerce of the United States for the reason 



HISTORY OF BATH. 15 1 

that vessels of that country were virtually excluded from our ports, 
our maritime laws discriminating against them. As Secretary of 
State in Jackson's administration, Martin Van Buren instructed 
Mr. Dallas, our minister in London, to make a treaty conceding to 
vessels of Great Britain the right to enter our ports on the same 
terms that American vessels were admitted to her West India 
ports, England having secured a proviso that regulations of this 
commerce were left with the authorities of those islands. Our 
diplomats failed to see the trap set for us. The consequence was 
that a duty of six dollars a thousand was placed upon lumber 
brought from American ports and none on that from English ports, 
and we were left. Our export trade to these islands was chiefly in 
lumber and the English controlled the markets there. And what 
operated more to our disadvantage was that English ships bound 
to our southern ports took in coal at Newcastle sufficient for ballast, 
loading with lumber, which would be discharged at British West 
India ports on their route, effectively costing nothing for transpor- 
tation. 

The Cotton Carrying Trade. — The first vessel sent to New 
Orleans from Bath or the State of Maine was in 1802, and was the 
brig Androscoggin, under the command of Nehemiah Harding 
and owned by William King. On ordering the brig to New Orleans 
the captain asked Gen. King where New Orleans was. He was 
informed vaguely that it was somewhere on the Gulf of Mexico. 
Capt. Harding fortunately found an old Spanish chart by which he 
safely found the mouth of the Mississippi River. This was the 
beginning of the immense cotton carrying trade in Bath vessels 
from that and other southern ports. This auspicious event, thought 
but little of at the time, illustrates possibly the far-seeing business 
enterprises for which William King was notable and in which he 
was almost if not always successful. 

Of the cotton carrying trade across the ocean, Bath ships had for 
succeeding years almost a monopoly, with New Orleans as the great 
shipping point. They were constructed with adaptation for going 
over the sand bars at the mouth of the Mississippi River. This 
large trade was lost in consequence of the construction of the 



152 HISTORY OF BATH. 

jetties by Eades proving a success in deepening the channel that 
let in the large, deep English steamers, and thus cut off the freight- 
ing business of New Oi; leans from sailing ships. It was a blow 
from which our deep sea shipping interests have never fully recov- 
ered. East India, China, Japan, the Guano Islands, and the 
California freighting business took the place of that of cotton, but 
never with like security of continuous remuneration. 

When California came into prominence, navigating around Cape 
Horn and the Pacific Ocean business required fast sailing ships of 
large tonnage. Then came the era of 

THE CLIPPER SHIP. 

No doubt this was the proudest and most picturesque period of our 
commercial and maritime career. The clipper ship was sharp, 
keen, and high sparred, carrying a tremendous crowd of sail, with 
royals and sky-sails and all manner of devices for increasing 
speed, which was then regarded as the great desideratum. 

The annals of Bath teem with the marvelous achievements of 
these great commercial yachts, and poets and authors in all parts of 
the world have made the clipper ship famous in song and story. 
But she was not a good carrier, and soon her place was taken 
by vessels of wider lines and sturdier proportions. There are but 
few of the old-time clipper ships in existence, but the love the 
people bore for them has never died away, and to-day the advent of 
an old clipper in an American port awakens a thrill of patriotism in 
the hearts of both old and young America; the newspapers recall 
the clipper's former glory, old sailors spin anew yarns of the clip- 
per's mighty speed that grows ever greater as the years roll by, and 
boys of Bath of sea-faring ancestry feel their bosoms swell with 
pride as they read in history and nickel library the deeds their 
fathers did in the swift clipper ships that distanced the fleets of all 
the world in the halcyon days of the early Pacific trade. 

Poetry pictures the gallant clipper laden with golden grain, speed- 
ing over the deep blue sea with flowing sheets and bellowing canvas, 
young America at the wheel, her proud commander pacing the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 153 

quarter-deck, each sailor American born, skilled and brave, a hero 
of the sea, such as manned the victorious Yankee frigates in the 
war of 1812. 

Prose places the survivor of the clipper fleet in the coal barge 
business, dismantled of her tapering spars and snowy canvas, loaded 
down to the water's edge, drearily dragging her blackened hulk from 
port to port along the coast, not even sailing under her own canvas 
but tamely towed by some smoky tug, her wheel tended and her 
deck in command of foreign born seamen. 

Probably some one has gained by the downfall of the clipper 
ship, and mayhap our country is more prosperous with her com- 
merce in the hands of England and safer with her merchant marine 
manned by foreign sailors, and probably the going out of the clipper 
ship had nothing to do with the case; but it still remains that our 
ships no longer inspire poets or invite young America, and there 
are many things to deplore which the building of a few big ships 
and the establishing of iron ship-yards do not entirely offset. 

But it is not the fault of Bath. Bravely she has struggled to 
maintain the supremacy of America on the sea, and heroically has 
she striven to retain for our country our country's commerce. That 
the government has done little to aid her efforts is apparent, 
although it has awakened from its long sleep and begun to build a 
new navy and take steps to recover its lost prestige on the ocean. 

The Bath ship in herself is the finest sailing craft that floats. 
She is perfect in model, staunch in construction, capable of with- 
standing the severest storms, possessed of great speed, and is 
altogether a specimen of marine architecture of which our country 
may well be proud. In comparison with the finest of English iron 
ships, the Bath ships do not suffer. They are built just as they 
should be built to meet the requirements of the foreign carry- 
ing trade. They are capable of conveying across the sea, safely, 
swiftly and in good condition, whatever cargo they may be called 
upon to transport. Of these ships Bath has a large and well- 
manned fleet, which has cost many millions of dollars. 

The Guano Trade. — When the cotton carrying trade began to 
decline, the freighting of guano from the Chincha Islands became a 



154 HISTORY OF BATH. 

very acceptable source of business for Bath ships. This lasted sev- 
eral years, carrying that valuable fertilizer from the Peru Islands to 
our southern ports and to Europe. The final decrease of the supply 
and the control of these islands falling into the hands of England 
operated to cut off this branch of freighting from our shipping. 
This trade with these Islands was extremely profitable, transporting 
their fertilizing products to market. 

When the Mexican war was in progress, which commenced in 
11846, there was a lively demand for vessel transportation, and Bath 
shipping had paying employment for a number of years in this 
service. 
I It was in the days of the clipper ship just before the late war, that 
' Bath reached the zenith of her glory and prosperity. Not only 
did the demand for the guano and that of the California trade em- 
ploy a large number of ships, but England was buying Bath built 
ships for-- her commerce, and thus the Bath yards were crowded 
beyond their utmost capacity for a number of years. 

This period of activity began with the Mexican war, when many 
ships were required in transporting troops and supplies. From 
1837 to 1856 inclusive there were built 255 ships, 36 barks, 36 
brigs, and 35 schooners, the height of this prosperity having been 
in 1854, when ninety-one vessels were built, aggregating a total of 
64,927 tons; fifty-nine of them were full-rigged ships, seven were 
barks, eighteen were brigs, and three schooners. These schooners 
were of about 400 tons burden, about one-fifth of the average ton- 
nage of the schooner of to-day. There was a notable decline in 
Bath's building activity when the late war brought disaster to 
shipping properties. 

Schooners. — While in years long since passed the spreading 
canvas of the Bath foreign-going ships annually whitened the waters 
of the Kennebec with their return to the port of their departure, 
they come back no more to these placid waters, finding the calls of 
business to be elsewhere, and their places are supplied by the going 
and coming of the schooners plying on less distant voyages, and 
whose dimensions far exceed those of the largest ships of former 



HISTORY OF BATH. 155 

days. In the construction of this grade of vessels the Bath yards 
have a wide-spread fame that brings contracts from far-away locali- 
ties. For models of beauty, capacity, strength, and fleetness, the 
Bath built schooner stands without a peer. 

Years ago the fore-and-aft schooner rig was supposed to be 
suitable to none except comparatively small vessels, and the limit 
was fixed at two masts. But as later requirements of coasting trade 
forced the building of larger vessels, it was found that the corre- 
sponding increase of sail area involved the use of taller masts than 
could be conveniently or even safely carried at sea, and so the 
experiment of tlrree jmasts was tried. The experiment succeeded, 
and in the course of time " three-masters " swarmed up and down 
the coast from Maine to Texas, while " two-masters " were relegated 
to river and in-shore traffic. It had been found that a small vessel 
could not earn pay on long trips, while a large vessel would give a 
a fair profit to her owners. This fact has trebled the size of schoon- 
ers in the last decade. A schooner that could carry 800 to 1,000 
tons of freight was a large vessel ten years ago, while one is seldom 
built to-day to carry less than 2,500 to 3,000 tons. And along with 
the increase of size has come an addition to the number of masts, 
so that the " three-master " is giving place to the " four-master," and 
-already there is afloat the experimental " five-master." In the Bath 
yards these large schooners are yearly built, as also steamers both 
for freight and passenger service, whose models are not excelled at 
any other building point. 

Schooners of the largest class of coasting tonnage are built with 
one main deck, supplemented by a spar deck, are framed in oak, 
braced with heavy hackmetack knees, planked with southern pine, 
fastened with locust treenails, decked with white pine and con- 
structed throughout with an eye to strength, carrying capacity, speed 
and sea-worthiness. The sails, cargo and anchor are handled by \ 
hoisting engines of the noiseless friction gear type. All modern 
appliances in the way of electric bells, speaking tubes, patent steer- 
ing gear, windlasses and capstans are furnished these vessels. The 
many labor-saving appliances on board these schooners render a 
small crew amply able to accomplish the work of a large crew un- 



J S6 HISTORY OF BATH. 

aided by mechanical appliances. A crew of six men before the 
mast is sufficient for a schooner of 2,500 tons burden fitted with 
Miachinrry. 

EFFECT OF THE REBELLION. 

In various ways this war crippled our ocean commerce from which 
it has never recovered. Some, vessels continued to be built, as 
some builders could not well forego their life-long business, preferring 
to take their chances on the ocean during those perilous times. 
Many ships were kept at sea and some were sailed under foreign 
flags. Marine insurance was exorbitant. Yet some of the voyages 
resulted in profit, while other vessels were captured by rebel cruisers. 

After the close of the war the general government obtained from 
England a large sum as damages to our commerce on account of the 
destruction of American ships by the rebel armed ship Alabama, on 
the ground that England aided and abetted by having allowed 
her construction and equipment within her borders. To appropriate 
this money rightfully, Congress instituted a board which took the 
popular name of Alabama Claims Commission. Bath came in for 
a share in the distribution of the fund, both for loss sustained in 
the destruction of its vessels and also for the extra rate of insur- 
ance that had to be paid on vessel property during hostilities. 

IRON AND STEEL SHIP- BUILDING. 

The year 1890 marked a new era in the construction of vessels 
in Bath. Since the close of the late war, the English and other 
maritime nations of Europe having been engaged in building ships 
of iron and steel, the demand for deep sea-going vessels of wood 
material has been decreasing year by year. Consequently the build- 
ing of iron vessels in the United States has been undertaken in 
some of the more southern states, and the builders of Bath have 
long felt that in time they would be compelled to resort to iron and 
steel in the construction of their ships. With this end in view 
( apt. G. C. (loss founded in iSSj the Goss Iron Works to build 
marine engines, but these works proving unsuccessful they were sold 



HISTORY OF BATH. 157 

in 1889 to the Bath Iron Works, of which Gen. Thomas W. Hyde 
is principal owner. In the winter of 1890, he was successful 
in a bid for the construction of two cruisers of about one thousand 
tons each, to duplicate each other, for the use of the United States 
government. The place for their construction was selected by 
appropriating the extensive, unoccupied dock south and contiguous 
to the Bath Iron Works, and the work of preparing it for occu- 
pancy was immediately commenced. The contract called for their 
completion within two years at the total cost of about $700,000. 
The preparation of the yard cost about $50,000. Subsequently 
Gen. Hyde secured the contract for the construction of the Ammen 
ram for the government, thus having three war vessels on the 
stocks at the same time. The two cruisers were successfully 
launched in the summer of 1892, one named the Machias, the 
other the Castine, thus honoring two of Maine's historical localities. 
The ram was successfully launched in February, 1893, and named 
Katahdin, after a Maine mountain. She is of 2,182 tons and 
the cost of her construction was $1,500,000 to the government. 

This plant is fully equipped for the building of iron and steel I 
ships for the merchant marine service, having now a contract for a 
passenger vessel of large tonnage. Its capacity has been increased 
by men and improved machinery sufficient to construct the largest 
vessel the government may hereafter require. 

Another plant for building iron ships is established in the city 
by a firm that has been largely engaged in the building of wood 
ships and schooners for many years past. The first invoice of 
material for this plant was a cargo direct from England brought by 
an iron English steamer. There is no duty on imported material to 
be used in building vessels. The Bath Iron Works have used 
American iron and steel exclusively. 

The Bath Ship. — Dirigo (I lead) of the Pine Tree State 
has been verified in the great and important industry of ship-build- 
ing, of which Bath is the center. For many years Bath has been 
called the great American ship-yard, and her finely built ships 
have floated upon every sea of the known world. She has led the 



158 HISTORY OF BATH. 

world for the last half century in both the amount and quality of 
the tonnage that has come from her yards. 

The interior appointments of the ships are luxurious, and supe- 
rior to anything ever seen in a clipper ship of the past. The 
captain's cabin is finished in hard woods of different kinds and 
furnished with rich carpets, raw silk and plush furniture. The 
sleeping apartments combine beauty with utility. Books, pictures, 
and a piano are sometimes added when the captain's wife accom- 
panies him, as she frequently does. 

The clipper period did not meet the exigences and demands of 
trade — speed with capacity — and since that time those desirable 
qualities have been fully met by improved models. We often hear 
of " the palmy days of shipping " before the war, when as many as 
fifty-nine full-rigged ships have been built in one year and sailed 
away from the port of Bath. It has been said by good authority 
that the average life of a wood ship is from twelve to fourteen 
years, thus making it necessary to rebuild the merchant fleets of the 
world every twenty-five years, and it is safe to say that the ships 
now carrying the freights from port to port will gradually disappear 
and must be replaced by other ships meeting the wants of a new 
navigation. This may necessitate the construction of the iron and 
steel ship. 

Marine Hospital. — In 1792, a seamen's hospital was estab- 
lished on Hospital Point. Quarantine was in the river adjacent. 
The building was of two stories and square, and has not been there 
for many years. Accommodations for seamen on the sick list have, 
of late years, been provided in other parts of the city, with physi- 
cians in necessary attendance. 

The French Spoliation Claims. — At an important crisis in 
the Revolutionary war France came to the aid of this country. By 
the treaties of 1778 the United States agreed to aid France in 
defending her West India possessions, and in case France should 
be at war with any other nation, to receive French vessels in 
American ports and exclude the vessels of her enemy. But the 
French Revolution alarmed American statesmen, and they hastened 





'^)n/l£c^ 






HISTORY OF BATH. 159 

to conclude the treaty of 1795 with England, whereby English 
vessels were admitted to American ports and French vessels 
excluded. 

The treaty of 1795 with England gave to France great offense, 
and resulted in a decree of the French government proscribing all 
vessels carrying British goods. Two thousand American sails were 
swept from the ocean^ Three envoys sent to France could gain no 
satisfaction, and were treated with contempt. In those times orig- 
inated Pinckney's famous expression, "Millions for defence; not a 
cent for tribute.'' An army was formed, and Washington was called 
to its command. Of this army Maine's share was 26,000 men who 
were raised with alacrity. When the United States demanded 
indemnity of France for the American vessels which had been 
destroyed, Napoleon replied that the United States owed France 
indemnity for failing to protect the West India possessions as 
agreed by the treaty of 1778. Private claims were offset by a pub- 
lic claim, and the United States was thus left to settle with its own 
citizens for the losses which they had sustained at the hands of 
France. But when Louisiana was purchased from Napoleon, 
$10,000,000 were reserved for the settlement of the private claims 
of United States citizens against France. The claims were paid as 
presented, and when the money was exhausted many claims were 
still unsettled. They were just as sound as those which were set- 
tled, and remain to this day as the French spoliation claims. 

By the treaty between the United States and France, the United 
States became the debtor in the place of France to all who suffered 
from French spoliation. The legality of these claims has been 
indorsed by eminent statesmen and the appeal of the claimants has 
been made to many Congresses. In March, 189 1, a bill passed 
Congress appropriating $1,500,000 in liquidation of these claims. 
The legal heirs of the owners of vessels destroyed by the French, 
as above related, are the claimants. At this remote day it will be 
difficult to prove claims. Their adjustment is in the hands of the 
United States Commission on Claims at Washington. 

Alabama Claims. — During the war of the Rebellion, some of 
the owners of Bath ships had them registered in England and they 



160 HISTORY OF BATH. 

sailed under English colors, thus avoiding capture by confederate 
cruisers; they did a profitable business. When the war was 
ended the registry of these vessels could not be changed to sail 
under the American flag. Yet there were those owning and manag- 
ing Bath ships who kept them at sea during the war, taking their 
chances of capture, insuring them at a heavy premium. More 
or less of these vessels were destroyed by confederate cruisers, the 
most active and aggressive of which was the ship Alabama, com- 
manded by Capt. Semmes. 

When the war of the Rebellion was over, the United States gov- 
ernment claimed that the Alabama and other confederate cruisers 
were built in English yards, fitted for sea by Englishmen, and in 
consequence demanded damages from the government of Great 
Britain. This demand was finally adjusted on the payment by 
England of $15,500,000 to cover these losses, which was paid to 
owners of vessels who could prove losses from capture by confed- 
erate cruisers before a board of commissioners appointed by 
Congress for the purpose. Others obtained redress for exorbitant 
rates of insurance they had paid on account of the depredations of 
these piratical cruisers, so long as the money drawn from the 
English government held out. Bath ship owners came in for a 
share of this money, while many claims remain unadjusted. 

Reminiscences. — The Bath captains did not " come in through 
the cabin windows." It was soon after the commencement of the\ 
last century that a few captains took their wives to sea with them, ' 
and then usually at the time when they were newly married. Some 
of them became almost heroines. William Drummond married 
Miss Mary Fisher of Arrowsic. She was an elegant lady, whose 
modest and retiring demeanor suggested the thought that her nature 
would shrink from encountering danger; but going to sea with her 
husband on a voyage and on nearing the coast of New York the ship 
became in such great danger that the captain had to lend a hand at 
the ropes, and his wife took the helm and stuck to it till the ship 
was out of danger, which heroic feat was much praised. This was 
in 1831. 



HISTORY OF BATH. l6l 

Capt. William P. Larrabee, whose wife was on board, on near- 
ing the coast to go into New York in one of the Houghton ships in 
the winter season was several times driven off by the force of 
adverse gales; the cold was so intense that the sailors had difficulty 
in handling the sails; to help them, Mrs. Larrabee, who had a stove 
in the cabin, occupied herself in drying their mittens and other 
clothing so far as the facilities for doing so permitted. She 
was a fine specimen of a woman, both in physique and mind, her 
courage and heroism inspired the men to their arduous duties, and 
the ship was brought to her haven in safety. The companies having 
insurance risks on this ship and her valuable cargo presented Mrs. 
Larrabee a valuable testimonial for her heroic services. 

Some smuggling in a quiet and shrewd way would be indulged 
in. When a vessel from the West Indies with a cargo of molasses 
and sugar . arrived, a custom-house officer would be detailed to see 
that the goods landed corresponded with the " manifest " of the 
cargo, which was an account of the cargo written out and certified 
by the captain of the vessel and filed in the custom-house. There 
were cases where the document failed to contain the whole of the 
cargo. To get this surplus landed without detection by the custom- 
house officers was the enigma. The drive upon the inspector over- 
seeing the discharging would be that while this officer had gone to 
dinner and "all hands" to their "grub" the men would hurry 
through their meal and hoist some hogsheads of molasses or some 
boxes of sugar from the hold and hurry them into the warehouse, 
keeping an eye upon the return of the officer, who was probably 
dining with the owner who did not hurry much. For this service 
the men would be entitled to some extra drinks of "grog" together 
with the satisfaction of having beaten the custom-house out of the 
duties. 

It must be confessed that in early voyages to the West Indies 
the c aptain s of vessels made a good thing in the delivering of lum- 
ber in Spanish ports. The boards were run out of the vessel on a 
raft. The account of the quantities discharged was kept by the 
mate and a clerk who was sent down from the office of the purchaser 
and who knew nothing of the measure of the lumber. Accordingly 



162 HISTORY OF BATH. 

when the seamen ran out a board on the raft he could call out any 
number of feet in excess of the marked measurement that he chose; 
the Spanish clerk would be none the wiser, and settlement was had 
as all right. Finally, however, the Spaniards came to suspect this 
ruse and had the lumber regularly surveyed. 

" Capt. John Whitmore, for many years well known as a respect- 
able sea-captain and afterwards pilot for this port, went out in the 
brig Susanna and Mary on the 29th ultimo, and has not since been 
heard from. He was known to have left the brig in a small boat, 
and was afterwards seen, in appearance nearly exhausted, drifting to 
sea; but in consequence of the severity of the weather, no assist- 
ance could be rendered. Tne only hope is that some fortunate 
vessel has fallen in with him at sea." — Maine Gazette, Dec. 6, 1820. 
A snow storm drove him off and his wherry was subsequently picked 
up at sea, but it did not have his body on board. 

Era of Pirating. — In about 182 l. '22, and '23, piratical vessels 
swarmed in the neighborhood of the West India Islands, and 
numbers of Bath vessels in the West India trade suffered by their 
depredations. It was believed that these piratical adventurers were 
countenanced by the Cuban authorities, and in some instances aided 
in fitting them out. 

At a date not given a ship was hauled in at the north side of 
Davis' now Houghton's wharf and was found to be deserted. She 
was supposed to have been engaged in the slave trade. In that 
business so large were the profits of a successful voyage, that after 
discharging her cargo of slaves the owners of the vessel could well 
afford to lose her, and often did so by abandonment. She was 
finally sold to pay for her wharfage. It is also in tradition that the 
captain of this craft was arrested and taken before a magistrate to 
answer for the crime of slave-trading, but no evidence was brought 
against him and he was discharged. 

In 182 1, the 11RIG Mary Jane was robbed by pirates on the coast 
of Cuba; she was owned by Hill & McCobb, Phipsburg. 

Schooner Evergreen, Capt. Pool, arrived at Bath, having been 
robbed and ill-treated by pirates, and having retaken his vessel. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 163 

Schooner Milo, Capt. Cushing, arrived in the river safely after 
having been robbed by pirates off the West India coast. She was 
owned by Parker McCobb. 

Sept. 10, 182 1, the schooner Despatch of this port was taken by 
pirates and was retaken by a vessel fitted out from Trinidad. The 
captain of the pirate vessel was condemned to be hanged and the 
crew to work in chains in the streets for two years. 

On Oct. 8, 182 1, the brig Cobbeseconte, Capt. Jackson, of this 
port was robbed by pirates in an armed boat four miles out from the 
Moro Castle, Havana. They first gave the captain and the mate a 
severe beating, then hanged the mate and stabbed the captain 
through the thigh, when they took what they wanted and left. 

Disasters to Bath Ships. — Bath having built and owned so 
many ships, it naturally follows that the story of the sea recounts 
each year loss of life and vessels that greatly interest her, but so 
numerous are these disasters, mention can be made of only the most 
memorable. 

In about 1795, there was a prospect of war between France and 
the United States. France was belligerent on the ocean aud unlaw- 
fully captured some merchant vessels belonging to the United States. 
During this state of things William King had a ship at sea of 
which Capt. Redmond was commander, and Capt. Lane, mate. She 
was captured by a French cruiser and a prize crew put on board of 
her, but the officers and a portion of the crew were permitted to 
remain. They concerted a plan to retake the ship, and while the 
French crew were aloft reefing sails the captain secured the French 
commander, the mate the man at the wheel, and the crew stood by 
with handspikes and captured the French sailors as they came down 
from aloft, giving the Americans full control of the ship. They took 
her into port and the court awarded them $10,000 salvage, which 
the owner of the ship had to pay. It gave Gen. King a claim 
against the United States government. 

Jan. 19, 185 1, Capt. William P. Larrabee had retired from a 
sea-faring life for a rest, and was part owner of the ship Moro that 
was built by William Hall at the South End. She was loaded with 



164 HISTORY OF BATH. 

coal at Philadelphia for Havana. She was destitute of a captain, 
and Capt. Larrabee was induced to go on and take charge of her as 
his last voyage. He took with him two of his young daughters. 
The vessel was never heard from after she had sailed, Jan. 19, 1851. 
The only account relating to her fate was given by another ship in 
company with her on a portion of the voyage. Early one morning, 
when near the island of Cuba, the captain of this ship discerned 
the Moro in the dim distance low in the water. On coming on deck 
after breakfast he found the Moro missing and remarked : " If that 
ship does not reach her port of destination I shall think that she 
has gone down." He was bound to the same port and the Moro 
never arrived there. 

A Total Wreck. — In 1865, James T. Morse was in command 
of the schooner Engina, and while on a passage from Bath to 
Mobile the vessel was struck by a hurricane while lying to, when 
one of the tremendous waves which plunged along mast-high 
" tripped " the vessel and she was instantly turned bottom up. 
Capt. Morse and a companion were in the cabin at the time, and as 
the deck was several feet below the surface of the sea they were 
imprisoned. They were in absolute darkness, standing in water 
up to their waists, seemingly helpless and doomed. But Capt. 
Morse and his companion were not the kind of men to surrender to 
the seemingly inevitable until forced to do so. Groping about they 
found a hatchet and decided to hew their way to the upper air. 
Knowing that as soon as an opening was made the air, which was 
then shut in by the arch of the inverted hull, would escape and the 
water take its place, they were obliged to work with the greatest cau- 
tion lest they should make a fatal leak before there was a hole large 
enough to permit of their escape and so be drowned like imprisoned 
rats. For days they worked, cutting away the ceiling and 
planks until they could catch the gleam of light through the thin 
wood in one place, then cutting again until another part was simi- 
larly cleared, and so on until the light, passing through the slight 
surface, marked the lines of a square place large enough to admit 
the free passage of a man's body. Then, when every possible 
preparation had been made and there seemed to be nothing more 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 65 

that they could do to assure the success of the final move, they 
knocked out the obstructing square and crawled into the daylight as 
the water, freed from the opposition of the compressed air, followed 
them, and the vessel sank lower into the water until the natural 
buoyancy of the timber checked her. 

There they were, perched on the curved surface of a capsized 
wreck, drifting at the mercy of the seas. But they had no idea of 
surrender. Having escaped to the light, they at once set to work to 
build up a sort of signal station to attract the attention of any vessel 
that might chance to come that way, and upon the top they fixed a 
staff from which fluttered a shirt for a signal. Fortunately a brick- 
laden schooner, passing that way, sighted the signal of distress, 
bore down and rescued the men, who were almost exhausted by 
days of suffering, their torn hands showing how they had labored 
in the terrible darkness; but they soon recovered. No one talking 
with the captain to-day would ever suspect that he had once dug 
his way out of a sepulcher of the sea. The schooner was owned 
by Capt. Morse and Bath parties. 

Somewhat similar to that of Capt. Morse was the experience of 
Capt. Trimmons of the schooner Clermont of this port. The vessel, 
lumber-laden, was capsized off the Bermudas. The one survivor of 
the crew crawled upon the bottom of the over-turned craft and clung 
there for thirty-one days, living upon the drowned rats and apples 
that floated from the hold until rescued by a passing vessel. 

The Great Gale of 1839. — On Saturday, Dec. 14, 1839, from 
one to two hours past meridian, fifteen vessels passed out by Seguin, 
with a light wind from the north-west and a very smooth sea. The 
weather continued beautiful that day, and there was a cheering 
prospect of having a good run off the coast, for when the passengers 
"turned in," past ten o'clock, the moon shone forth serenely placid 
in the south-east enlivening the charming picture. 

But what a change was wrought in a few hours ! In less than six 
hours from that time, at four o'clock Sunday morning, the ship was 
laboring heavily under close reefed top sails, close hauled on the 
port tack, trying to proceed on her proper course by the south 



1 66 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



channel; but the increasing gale and north-east snow storm with a 
tremendous sua forbade that hope, and the wind having changed from 
east by south no chance remained but to wear ship and stand back, 
that she might possibly weather Cape Cod and have a little sea room 
in the bay. The sea did not abate that day, however, and at six p.m. 
the main-top-gallant mast went by the board, broken short off at the 
cap, rolled away, and the ship made the remainder of the passage 
without any. 

There were on board at the time, as passengers, Thomas D. Rob- 
inson and son, Gardner Green and wife of Topsham, Mr. Green, his 
nephew, Rufus K. Page, Jr., of Hallowell, Louis O. Cowan and 
sister of Sidney, Edward K. Harding, and John Hayden of Bath. 
The captain was Samuel Swanton, a true man in all things and a 
thorough seaman. An excellent chief mate was William Sprague of 
Phipsburg, and the second mate was Mr. Crooker of North Bath. 

The other vessels were lumber laden for ports in the West 
Indies and along the coast. Of the fleet was the brig Alice, of 
Bath, in command of Capt. Given of Brunswick, and as seamen 
from Bath, Daniel Blair and Warren Mains; brig Rideout, built in 
Bath and owned by Mr. Frost of Topsham, and in command of 
Capt. Purington of Bowdoinham; brig Democrat, on board of which 
was Zebulon Reed, for a number of years since a master rigger in 
this city; brig Austin, of Bath, John Walston, master; Henry E. 
Jenks, mate; Elbridge G. Parshley, Frank Roach, Daniel McCloud 
and Charles Bisbee, all of Bath, seamen; schooner Margaret, Capt. 
Aaron Williams, of Bath, father of Leonard and Aaron F. Williams 
of this city. This vessel was afterwards saved. 

Of the fifteen vessels that sailed from Bath two days before, only 
one, the ship United States, weathered Cape Cod, the rest of the 
fleet being driven ashore on the rocky and dangerous coast of Cape 
Cod. The brigs Rideout and Austin went ashore on Peaked Hill 
liar, a short distance from each other. The crew of the Rideout 
were all lost, while those of the Austin reached the shore in safety. 
Winter Haines was the only man on the Rideout known to have 
been a resident of Bath. He left a young wife, having been married 
but a few weeks. The brig Democrat went ashore in Barnstable 



HISTORY OP BATH. 167 

Bay; the crew were saved. Schooner Margaret struck on Scituate 
Beach, the crew reaching shore safely. All of the vessels that 
struck were totally wrecked and the loss to Bath was heavy. 

The two hermaphrodite brigs, Austin and Rideout, cast off from 
the wharf at Bath at the same moment on Saturday, Dec. 14, 1839, 
lumber loaded, bound to Matanzas. All went well until about two 
o'clock Sunday morning, when a gale from the south-east was 
encountered, and the Austin was " hove to." All day long it blew a 
hurricane and her deck load was thrown overboard; she could not 
carry a stitch of canvas; it would be blown away quick as lightning. 
Finally the wind came round to north-east and drove the vessels 
directly on to Peaked Hill Bar, Cape Cod. These brigs kept near 
together, the Rideout striking about fifteen minutes before the Aus- 
tin. She had her deck load on, rolled over and over, and all on 
board were lost. Capt. Purington's brother and son were on board 
and went under. When the Austin struck she was thrown on her 
beam ends and was driven up on the beach. Seeing rescuers on 
shore, a box was got out, a line fastened to it and sent ashore; 
a hawser was attached to the line which was drawn ashore, upon 
which the men reached the land by going along the hawser hand 
over hand. The brig went to pieces. 

Captain Swanton saved his ship — the United States — by his 
skill and courage in carrying a great press of canvas, enabling the 
ship to " claw off " the shores of Cape Cod that dreadful night. 
The great anxiety of Bath people over the unknown fate of this 
ship was greatly heightened when later there was picked up on the 
beach of Cape Cod a " head board " on which was painted the name 
" United States." To keep off shore the ship had to tack several 
times; the ropes were new and slackened by the strain upon them 
and when the ship would be put upon the other tack all hands were 
put to work tightening the shrouds to leeward, thus saving the masts 
when she went round on the other tack. Men had to be kept in the 
rigging knocking off the fast-forming ice. 

During the gale Mr. Robinson, who was a large owner in the 
ship, asked the captain to run her into Boston harbor, but it was 



1 68 HISTORY OF BATH. 

very thick and foggy, and Capt. Swanton said there would be only 
one chance in a thousand to run in safely, and declined to take the 
risk. A reliable account says that the ship was running under 
double reefed top sails with the yards let down to the caps, from 
whence the sails " bagged out," the crew being unable to close reef 
them. What aided in saving the ship was, besides being new, she 
had on board 300 tons of ballast and 600 tons of paving stones that 
kept her on her bottom. Considering the number of prominent 
men on board of her, the possibility of her loss created great excite- 
ment in Bath when news came that the head board had been washed 
ashore. Nothing was heard from the ship unitl the announcement 
of her arrival at New Orleans, which was necessarily slow in 
reaching here as no telegraph was in operation at that day. 

Loss of the Hanover at the Mouth of the Kennebec. — 

The old ship Hanover of the Houghton fleet was commanded by 
Capt. George Rogers, and his first officer was Ballard Bartlett, Jr., 
both of the Basin, Phipsburg. The ship had been on a voyage to 
Europe with cotton from a southern port, and was on her homeward 
voyage to Bath. She was laden with a cargo of salt for her owners. 
She made Seguin in the afternoon of Nov. 10, 1849. I* was blow- 
ing a gale with a south-east wind and heavy sea running. The ship 
had sagged quite close into the western bay, and to fetch by Pond 
Island had to "close haul " on the starboard tack, and when nearly 
up to Pond Island the wind suddenly veered to the east, just enough 
to " shake her sails " and prevent her weathering the island. The 
only course possible was to go in west of Pond Island, which was 
attempted ; when going over the bar there the trough of a sea settled 
her stern on to it which carried away her rudder, leaving her to the 
mercy of the wind and waxes. She backed right on to the bar that 
lies between Pond and Wood Islands; the second sea that thumped 
her on the sand stove her all to pieces and every soul on board was 
lost ! They were obviously killed by the floating wreckage tossed 
about by the angry waves. The wreckage was washed ashore and 
strewed along Popham Beach, bringing with it a few only of the 
dead bodies of the crew. Although many of them belonged to 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 69 

towns on the Lower Kennebec, particularly Phipsburg, none ceuld 
be recognized but that of the captain. His appearance indicated 
that he had recently prepared himself to go ashore by shaving, 
dressing in a newly laundered shirt and his "best suit of clothes." 
The sad news spread rapidly and quickly; a crowd rushed to the 
beach, but all was over with the ship and her crew. The unknown 
bodies of the victims of the disaster were buried on the banks of 
Morse River, where a solitary head-stone marks the place where 
they lie, in a cemetery which is so ancient that conjecture fails to 
account for it in that secluded spot, as no ancient stone there with 
inscription on it exists. 

Rebellion Episode. — In 1861, Capt. Andrew Tarbox, when 
master of the bark Samuel Tarbox, which was owned by Alfred 
Lemont and William M. Reed, was with his vessel at Charleston, 
South Carolina, and was the last American ship that sailed from 
that port before the bombardment of Fort Sumpter, the captain 
witnessed the first secession gun that was fired. At its report the 
custom-house flag of stars and stripes was hauled down and the 
Palmetto flag run up on the same staff. The gun was fired near 
the custom-house, and in anticipation of the occurrence a large 
concourse of people had gathered and the street was quite blocked 
with cotton drays driven by slaves, and at the report of the gun 
there was a stampede among the mules causing collisions and cap- 
sizing. 

There was a captain from Brunswick who was not allowed to 
bring his ship over the bar, but to communicate with his owners and 
then leave the city, and as a natural result' was not in good temper. 
Being in a group where the excitement was great the captain jumped 
up, swung his hat, and cried out: "Hold your mules, boys, that is 
the death knell, sure as fate!" This prophecy proved true. 

Capt. Tarbox succeeded in getting clear of the excited city with a 
valuable cargo of Sea Island cotton, clearing under the seal of 
South Carolina for Liverpool, where he arrived in safety. Capt. 
Tarbox was father of Capt. H. C. Tarbox of Bath and lived on the 
old Phips farm at Phips Point, Woolwich. 



170 HISTORY OF BATH. 

LOSS of the Rilllier. — The wreck of the Ranier is one of the 
most notable disasters, creating wide-spread interest at the time on 
account of the unusual circumstances attending the rescue of the 
captain and crew. The Ranier was built at Bath by the Sewalls in 
the year 1883, and was a fine ship of 2,000 tons burden. Soon after 
launching she went to Philadelphia to take on her first cargo to the 
port of Kobe in Japan. She sailed from Philadelphia Aug. 12, 1883. 
On the night of Jan. 3, 1884, when within two weeks' sail of her 
destined port, the ship having passed several islands of the Marshall 
group was sailing before a favoring wind and the captain supposed 
they were clear of the islands, when suddenly there was a cry from 
the lookout of "breakers ahead! breakers ahead!" The officers 
sprang and let go all the port braces, but it was too late! The ship 
was instantly in the midst of the breakers and, with a heavy crash, 
struck on a coral reef. The heavy seas commenced to break the 
ship up aft very fast. The next morning the shipwrecked mariners 
were rescued by the natives of an island not far distant called the 
Ujea. They lived among these South Sea Islanders on this 
lonely isle of the sea five months. The crew numbered thirty- 
two men including the officers, besides the captain's daughter. 
After passing through much suffering and peril they were rescued 
by the American man-of-war Essex, sent by the United States gov- 
ernment from Hong Kong. 

The ship Thomas M. Reed, of 1,987 tons, built by A. Sewall & 
Co., T. M. Reed, A. E. Work, and others in 1880, was burned at 
the clock at Liverpool, Feb. 3, 1888, to the water's edge; was nearly 
loaded with coal for San Francisco and had hauled off into the 
middle of the dock to go to another wharf to finish loading. 
The coal was highly ignitible, and candles stuck on the pitch-pine 
beams were used by the stevedores to light the hold. It is believed 
that the fire originated from the gas made by the coal. Little was 
saved from her and there was little insurance on her hull. Captain 
Abel E. Work had taken command of her only a few days prior to 
the disaster. 



■J \J 



HISTORY OF BATH. 171 

Iron Ships. — " The fact that iron as a constructive material in 
ship-building has practically superseded wood is one which Bath, in 
her position as the greatest ship-building port in the world, has been 
unable to overlook. She has seen the iron ship grow rapidly into 
favor and take from the wood ship a large portion of her business. 
She has noted the fact that those who have cargoes to send across 
the ocean prefer to intrust them to iron-built_vessels rather than to 
those constructed of wood. She sees that insurance companies will 
underwrite iron ships at lower figures than they will wood ships, and 
that in all parts of the mercantile world the opinion commonly pre- 
vails that iron has superseded wood in much the same way in which 
steam has displaced sail and the railroad the stage-coach, but 
notwithstanding this, Bath has clung to her wood ships; she has 
continued to build them and sail them in competition with both iron 
and steam. She thoroughly believes that the wood ship is less 
liable to total loss than the iron ship, that life and property are 
safer when intrusted to her staunch oak frame and hard pine plank- 
ing than when placed in the slender ribs and brittle plates of the 
iron vessel. She knows that statistics show this to be a fact, and 
she knows that it is a matter of much question whether grain or any 
other cargo can be carried in such perfect condition in iron as in 
wood. She is aware that the wood ship costs no more to build, will 
last fully as long, and can be sailed with no greater expense than 
the iron ship. However, in view of the fact that the iron ship is at 
present the favorite, and secures a cargo when the wood ship can 
get none, and always at rates_ f rom £Y.e^per_jcent. to fifteen per cent, 
in advance of those offered to wood ships, and because she can 
insure at lower premium, Bath ship-owners and builders have been 
forced to the conclusion that to build longer in wood is folly. They 
do not feel that it is demanded of them to build ships of either 
material at the present time, and hence to discuss the question as 
far as it has any bearing on ship-building of the present is useless. 
But Bath looks forward to a future in ship-building, and feels con- 
vinced that the constructive material at that future time will be iron. 

Those who have carefully studied the subject in its various 
phases see no reason why she should not meet with as great success 



172 HISTORY OF BATH. 

in building ships of this new material as she has in building them 
of the old. The cost of transporting coal and iron from the mines 
of Pennsylvania to the Kennebec has been urged as an objection to 
Bath's competing in iron ship-building with the yards of the Dela- 
ware. Everything which enters into the construction of a wood 
ship, from keel to truck, is brought from a distance, and Bath's 
superiority as a wood ship-building port is in no degree dependent 
upon adjacent forests. In short, it will cost less to bring iron to 
Bath than it does to bring wood, owing to the fact that both bulk 
and weight, as well as the distance to be traversed, are considerably 
less. In fact, the difference in transportation between the Delaware 
and Bath is only a small fraction. It has been urged that Bath has 
no mechanics skilled in working this new material. This also is a 
trifling consideration, for her mechanics know how to build a ship, 
and can without difficulty learn to construct her of iron. In fact, 
there are a number of workmen here already who are proficient in 
iron ship-building. 

Thus it is seen that the objections ordinarily urged have but little 
weight, and it follows as a consequence that when the ship-owners 
and builders of Bath see any profit either in building or owning 
ships of iron, they will establish an iron ship-yard. Much has been 
done even now in that direction. Capital has been expended and 
plans matured by the New England Ship-building Company with a 
view to embarking in the near future in the construction of iron 
sailing vessels and steamers. It was partly with this object that the 
Iron Works Department was supplemented to the firm's already 
extensive plant. A fine wharf adjacent to the Marine Engine 
Works was also purchased with this end in view. While at present 
Bath capitalists are not prepared to enter into iron ship-building 
with no hope of finding profitable employment for the ships when 
completed, it is certain that they will be fully prepared, when there 
is a demand, to furnish for our merchant marine iron ships which 
will rank as high in the navies of the world as have the wood ships 
which have made her name famous on every sea and in every port" 
{vide Albert A. Reed in Report of Bath Board of Trade, 1887). 

SI lipping Notes. — Years since when Bath had a large fleet of 



HISTORY OF BATH. 173 

ships in the cotton-carrying trade, so large a number of them would 
often be at Liverpool at the same time that Englishmen were known 
to make the remark that " Bath must be a very large city judging by 
the large number of ships that had " Bath " on their sterns. 

In the iron ship-yards the heavy work is done by steam power, as 
is likewise the sawing and planing of planks, and also the timber 
and knees sawed into any shape required for wood vessels. 

At a former day it was believed that the building of vessels solely 
on contract did not prove remunerative. In this mode of doing 
business the chief man engaged in it was Johnson Rideout who had 
a yard at the North End. He built a large number of ships, com- 
prised in a long series of years, without adequate profit according to 
general belief. Of later years a large number of schooners, steam- 
ers and other vessels have been built for outside parties on contract 
with remunerative success. 

With many builders the custom of late years has been for the , 
builder to induce other persons, both at home and abroad, to join 
him in investment in his proposed building, making the aggregate, 
amount sufficient to cover the cost of the vessel. Investors of this 
class have preferred to own only a comparatively small amount in 
any one vessel, believing it better to own a small piece in different 
vessels, or as they term it, " not to put their eggs all into one 
basket"; and this has generally proved the most remunerative 
method of vessel investments, especially of the schooner class. 

The various collateral industries that furnish material and fittings 
for vessels are usually required to take an interest in the vessels for 
wuich they furnish supplies such as iron, cordage, sails, blocks) 
smiths' work, chandlery, cooking apparatus, carpets, bedding and 
furniture for cabins, and some who are foremen in the yards often 
take small pieces in the vessels they help construct. The captains 
of deep sea going ships frequently own a share in the ships they 
command. Nearly all of the early builders kept a store of general 
merchandise and the wages of their workmen were largely paid in 
goods and termed " store pay." 

When the demand for sjdhng_j^p_s_jajgejy_ decreased, after. 1880, 
the building of schooners increased in Bath yards, as well as that of 



\ 



174 HISTORY OF BATH. 

steamers and yachts. The large ice transportation from the river 
has, especially in favorable seasons, given considerable employment 
for schooners. After 1890 the experiment was undertaken of send- 
ing schooners around the Horn to be placed in the Pacific coast 
trade, which was discontinued after a few voyages had been made. 
While the larger ships prove more profitable in long voyages, the 
smaller ones are more useful in being enabled to go into ports that 
ships of greater draft cannot enter. 

From experiments instituted in former years, it has been found 
that filling the spaces between the planking and ceiling with salt 
aids greatly in preservation of the wood, and is termed " salting the 
ship." Frames for the most important class of vessels are now 
brought from Virginia and Maryland; planking and ceiling from 
Georgia and the Carolinas; knees and other curly and knotty pieces 
largely from Canada, and great spars from Oregon. Of the cost in 
the construction of a vessel, ninety_per cent, is for labor. Although 
not formerly done, ships are metaled on the stocks. Wire ropes for 
standing rigging and chain cables, formerly brought from Europe, 
are now made in America, also are anchors. Hemp cables were 
in universal use until about fifty years since, when ships began 
to be supplied with iron ones in England. Studding-sails have 
gone out of use on ships of this country. Contracts are sometimes 
let to parties to complete different parts of a ship such as " tim- 
bering out," planking, ceiling, joiner and cabin work, and rigging. 

Of late years very few vessels of small size sail either up or down 
the river, depending upon steam tugs for their river navigation, as 
expeditious, safe, not costly, and saving pilotage. Up to 1884 the 
total value of shipping constructed at Bath has been estimated to 
be 154,000,000, and up to 1893 largely in excess of that figure. 
Safety in navigating the Kennebec has a direct bearing upon its 
depth of water. The tide at Bath has a rise and fall of an average 
of ten_feet, and a depth of from fifty to eighty feet at low tide. 
The inflow of the water from the ocean is so salt that it does not 
readily freeze at Bath, while the current at half tide is so swift and 
strong that any skimming over at slack water is readily broken up. 
According to government survey, the lowest depth of water at low 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 75 

water between Bath and the mouth of the river is twenty-four feet, 
making thirty feet at high water. When the large United States 
steamship Baltimore was brought into the river in 1890, she tested 
the capacity of the channel by coming in and going out with abun- 
dance of water. 

As has been said on a previous page, the pressure of the embargo 
times proved too much for some of the Bath merchants. At that 
time Samuel Davis had been one of the great men in business. 
He went under, and was glad of the position of cashier of Lincoln 
Bank. Among the ship-owners who were enabled to pull through 
were William King, James McLellan, John and Levi Peterson, 
Peleg Tallman, Charles Clapp, the Moodys, John Richardson, and 
David Trufant of Bath; Benjamin Riggs of Georgetown; Mark L.j 
Hill and Thomas McCobb of Phipsburg, and the Pattens, then of 
Topsham. 

New England Company. — Two hundred and twenty-four ; 
vessels were built by the New England Ship-building Company and I 
the firms to which it was a successor, Goss & Sawyer, and Goss,| 
Sawyer & Packard. The period covered was twenty years, or about 
ten vessels per year. The list embraces twenty-six full rigged ships, ! 
thirty-four barks, seven brigs, twenty-two steamers, one hundred 
and twelve schooners, the remainder being yachts, barges, and bark- ; 
entines. 

This company having gone out of existence, the plant came 
into the possession of a new company under the name of the New 
England Company. Its yard is equipped with all the modern 
machinery and labor-saving appliances utilized in building vessels of 
every kind, and is acknowledged to be the largest wood ship-building 
concern in the world. It sometimes has as many as six vessels 
under construction at the same time. It has, likewise, a marine 
railway of ample capacity for all requirements, and is the only one 
within the limits of this port. 

Strikes of Ship-Carpenters. — Upon the organization of 
Knights of Labor at Bath, its members who were employed on ship 
work struck several times for higher wages and less time for a day's 



176 HISTORY OF BATH. 

work, which finally resulted in the agreement that they should work 
by the hour, computing the pay per hour at the rate of a fair day's 
wages. At one of the iron plants the piece work system has been 
adopted with favorable results. 

Packets. — Before the era of steam navigation between the 
Kennebec River and Boston, freighting was done by lumber schoon- 
ers, and schooner packets were engaged in that business and 
carrying passengers hailing from Bath, Gardiner and Hallowell, 
carrying freight and passengers. They were generally top-sail 
schooners and of a style more rakish, and faster sailers than those 
employed in the coasting trade simply. Packets ran also to south- 
ern ports. The first that are to be found on record in Bath were 
the Volant, Capt. Pattee, owned by Wood & Donnell; the schooner 
Neptune, of which F. Bailey was master, managed and probably 
owned by the firm of Wood & Bailey. She was advertised for a 
voyage to Wilmington, North Carolina, with freight and passengers. 
This was in December, 1820, to "sail in all next week." The same 
firm ran the schooner Boston, E. Wood, master, as a regular packet 
from Bath to Boston in January, 1821, advertised to "sail in all this 
month." On Dec. 29, 182 1, "the ship Clio, Caleb Heath, master, 
lying at Stinson's wharf, would sail for Savannah, Georgia, about 
the middle of January, having good accommodations for passengers." 
May 10, 182 1 : "For Boston, the regular and fast-sailing sloop 
Ruby, Isaac Crooker, master, having good accommodations ; Noah 
Crooker, agent, head of Crooker's wharf." 

Passing down to later date, the schooner Climax, James Wake- 
field, ran to Boston. She was built by Wakefield and Johnson 
Williams near where the railroad round house now is. Then there 
was the staunch, fast-sailing packet, schooner Planet, Capt. J. D. 
Robinson, running to Boston prior to the year 1836. Capt. Robin- 
son had some previous experience in this line as supercargo in his 
earlier day of the schooner Comet. In the Planet were transported 
between Bath and Boston some notable passengers. Among these 
were Mrs. Swanton and child, Mrs. Rogers, mother of Win. M. 
Rogers, an elderly lady, ('apt. Patten, John Elliot, Asa B. Robinson, 
Samuel D., Thomas M-. and Nath. C. Reed, Miss Sarah Hyde and 



HISTORY OF BATH. 177 

Miss Augusta Hyde. Records of the trips of the Planet show that 
the fare was, each way, three dollars for men and two dollars for 
ladies. 

Packets would sometimes start on a trip, and meeting stress of 
weather before getting out of the river, lay at anchor at the Lower 
Kennebec even for a week. The fare named above included board, 
and how the sum of two and three dollars could leave any dividend 
to the vessel can only be accounted for by the fact that, at that day, 
the chief commodities for ship stores were fish and potatoes and 
bivalves taken from the down river clam banks. 

When passenger steamers had commenced running regular trips 
from the Kennebec to Boston, sailing packets lost their passenger 
patronage and relied wholly upon freight for their business, taking 
chiefly lumber to Boston with return cargoes of general merchandise. 
Later steamboats and railroads have carried about all the freight 
and passengers to and from Boston. 

PROMINENT SHIP -BUILDERS. 

Jonathan Philbrook was the first Bath builder; Samuel Swanton, 
Sr., built before the Revolutionary war at McLellan's wharf, and 
one ship a year • after its close at foot of Shepard street, until he 
became aged; William King, commencing at Topsham and Bruns- 
wick, transferred his building to Bath, building immediately south 
of the custom-house; John Peterson built first on the New Meadows 
River and finally moved to Bath and built at the North End; Peleg 
Tallman built in front of the Park; Levi Houghton at the foot of 
South street, where Jonathan and Jonathan Davis, Sr., and Samuel 
Davis previously built; William M. Rogers, Nathaniel and William 
Sprague at South End; James McLellan and Dwelly Turner, east of 
Public Library building; Joshua, Samuel and John M. Moody; 
Johnson Rideout, Thomas P. Stetson, North End; Major Harward; 
George F. Patten, John Patten — George F. built the vessels and 
John and James F. sailed in them; later, John and Gilbert E. R. 
Patten built together at North End; Clark & Sewall began by 
William D. Sewall furnishing the timber from land he owned at 
North End, and Freeman Clark, keeping a store, paid the workmen 



178 HISTORY OF BATH. 

largely in goods; later, Thomas M. Reed built with this firm and 
continued to do so with their successors, E. and A. Sewall, after- 
wards Arthur Sewall & Co., which includes Samuel S. Sewall. 
Charles Davenport, who built with the Pattens and with other 
builders; William M. Reed and Son — Franklin Reed and later F. 
and E. Reed at South End; L. Warren Houghton, John R. Hough- 
ton, Henry L. Houghton as Houghton Brothers at foot of South 
street; William and James Drummond and Gilbert C. Trufant as 
Trufant, Drummond & Co., North End; Oliver Moses and William 
V. Moses; W. V. Moses & Sons; Albert Hathorn; Goss & Sawyer 
and Goss, Sawyer & Packard; John R. Kelley, E. F. Sawyer and G. 
J. Spear as Kelley, Spear & Co.; Charles E. Moody; Jenks & 
Harding — C. J. Jenks and Ed. K. Harding; William Rogers, North 
End; J. P. Morse, B. W. Morse, Charles W. Morse; Willard Hall 
and Samuel Snow as Hall & Snow; Arnold & Curtis — Augustus 
Arnold and Curtis; John Henry; Alexander Robinson; John Mc- 
Donald, Wm. T. Donnell, G. C. Deering; George Hawley; C. B. 
Harrington; Joseph Berry and George Richardson as Berry & 
Richardson; Hall, Cornish & Co.; Adams & Hitchcock, South End; 
James H. McLellan; P. M. Whitmore; B. C. and S. D. Bailey; D. 
C. Magoun; William Richardson; J. H. Kimball; John Richardson; 
G. C. Deering; W. T. Donnell. At Georgetown, Benjamin Riggs; 
Joseph Berry. Phipsburg, Mark L. Hill, Thomas McCobb, Parker 
McCobb, C. V. Minot; Richard, Alden and John G. Morse; Pier- 
son Morrison, Samuel H. Morrison. Richmond, T. J. Southard, 
Marshall S. Hagar, James M. Hagar. Bowdoinham, John Harward. 

Names of other builders within the port are not accessible. 
There were and are now citizens of prominence who have invested 
with builders in their ship-building but can not consistently be 
classed as actual ship-builders. 

Thomas W. Hyde, as president and chief owner of the Bath Iron 
Works, commenced building steel government vessels in 1890, and 
early in 1893 had launched two gun-boats and later a harbor de- 
fence ram, with a large iron passenger steamer in process of con- 
struction. This success of the Iron Works inaugurates the era of 
iron and steel ship-building at Bath. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 79 

BUILD OF VESSELS. 

According to a " Schedule " of vessels built in the Bath district, 
published in 1878, it appears that from 1781 to 1878 inclusive there 
were built at the city of Bath, 24 steamers, comprising 5,355.68 
tons; 519 ships, of 437,675.88 tons; 118 barks, of 73,875.17 tons; 
192 brigs, of 39,276.28 tons; 330 schooners, of 50,060.58 tons; one 
snow, of 163.67 tons; 43 sloops, of 2,477.42 tons; 3 barges, of 
736.96 tons. Total, 609,621.64 tons. 

In this district, up to 1888 inclusive, the build was, including 
" Schedule: 

Steamers, 88 ; tonnage, 26,682.22. Schooners, 1,262 ; tonnage, 224,493.29. 
Ships, 890 ; tonnage, 741,091.30. Sloops, 155 ; tonnage, 8,340.87. 

Barks, 853 ; tonnage, 132,218.85. Barges, 7 ; tonnage, 1,520.45. 

Brigs, 673 ; tonnage, 128,089.61. Vessels, 3,528. 

Grand total, 1,261,436.59 tons. 

1889. Two ships, 5,000 tons ; two steamers, 3,500 tons ; one bark, 1,028 
tons; twenty-eight schooners, 23,000 tons; one barge, 2,253 tons; four 
sloops, 60 tons. Total, 34,841 tons. 

1890. Three ships, 8,254.22 tons ; three barks, 2,580.13 tons ; thirty-five 
schooners, 21,453.25 tons ; two steamers, 2,498 tons ; one sloop, 22.85 tons. 
Total, 34,809.45 tons. 

1891. There were built at the city of Bath, one ship, 2,628.84 tons ; one 
bark, 1,585.36 tons ; twenty-two schooners, 17,961.85 tons ; one steamer, 
982.34 tons. Total, 23, 158.39 tons. 

1892. Build at Bath, Phipsburg, and Woolwich, one ship, 3,400.43 tons ; 
one bark, 1,402.30 tons; one barkentine, 1,133.01 tons; one steam bark, 
254.21 tons; four steamers, 2,066.90 tons; seven schooners, 3,360.32 tons; 
three sloops, 43.44 tons. Total, 11,660.70 tons. 

From 1781 to 1892 inclusive, the total build of vessels has been 
897 ships; 858 barks and barkentines; 673 brigs; 1,352 schooners; 
166 sloops; 96 steamers; 9 other vessels, comprising a grand total 
of 1,350,138 tons. 

The cost of vessels built up to 1880 was $54,375,809. The records 
in the custom-house do not show the full amount of tonnage owned 
in Bath for the reason that, in many instances, a small portion of a 
vessel only is registered as owned in Bath, while the bulk of owner- 
ship is represented as belonging to persons in Massachusetts, New 
York, California, and other localities. 



l8o HISTORY OF BATH. 

COLLECTION OF CUSTOMS. 

In 1677, a custom-house was established at Pemaquid, and 
vessels coming into the Sagadahoc were required to enter and clear 
at that port, and in 1685 "an office was established at Sagadahoc 
for entering and clearing, as considerable trade was carried on in 
masts and lumber." By virtue of a grant from the crown of 
England, the Duke of York, who had assumed jurisdiction of this 
section of country, decreed " that all vessels, not of the Ducal state, 
should pay into the public revenue, if a decked vessel four quintals, 
and if an open boat two quintals, of merchantable fish." 

The prosperous condition of the settlements along the coast of 
Maine contiguous to the Sagadahoc region was interrupted by the 
French and Indian war, and during its progress the settlers were 
driven off, their improvements devastated, and trade and com- 
merce entirely suspended until the resettlement of 17 14. 
Notwithstanding a ^z<w/-peace with the Indians in 17 13, they con- 
tinued troublesome until the English triumphed over their French 
allies at Quebec in 1759, and but little customs regulations were 
necessary for the scattered shipping of the Kennebec and adjacent 
coast. In the meantime Massachusetts had come into the posses- 
sion of the Sagadahoc territory, and custom laws became established 
at Boston in 1677. 

Prior to the Revolution, Falmouth was the only customs district 
in the Province of Maine, where it was established in 1758. The 
first custom-house on the Kennebec was located at Abagadasset 
Point and was a branch of the central Portland office, with David 
Trufant of Bath, deputy collector, who held the office from 1780 to 
1789. 

The Collection District of Bath was established by United 
States statute July 31, 1789, with William Webb, collector. The 
first registry of a vessel was made Oct. 21, 1789. At a subsequent 
date there were added to the Bath district all the towns incorporated 
on the Upper Kennebec, together with Topsham, Brunswick, and a 
portion of Harpswell. Some years later, Brunswick and Harpswell 
were detached from the Bath district and incorporated into the 
Portland district, 







J1 ^B m 







HISTORY OF BATH. 181 

Before the advent of railroads, water transportation was a neces- 
sity to general commerce, and the Kennebec, with the resources of 
its many branches, was a river of vast importance. The large fleets 
of brigs and schooners constantly employed in the West India and 
other foreign trade, returning to this port with full cargoes of the 
products of other nations, required a larger force in the custom- 
house than has been needed since the rail has greatly displaced 
canvas. 

The deep sea going ships, after having made a round voyage, 
almost invariably returned into the river to repair and refit for 
another departure, which was usually in the fall, especially when 
engaged in the cotton carrying trade. In time this business ceased, 
ships did not return yearly, the West India trade became less, and 
the duties of the custom-house have required a smaller force to 
the present time. 

Outlying Custom-house Officers. — An officer supplied with a 

government boat has been stationed for a great many years on the 
Lower Kennebec, whose chief duty is to board vessels arriving in 
the river from a foreign port to see that she is made to comply with 
customs regulations. He is to take a duplicate " manifest " of her 
cargo and place a lock on her hatches to remain till the time comes 
to discharge cargo. When the embargo of 1807 went into opera- 
tion, the duties of this officer were enlarged to the watching of 
vessels that might be attempting to go to sea on illicit voyages con- 
trary to the embargo restrictions. 

Before the war of the Rebellion, when fishing vessels were 
drawing a yearly bounty from the general government, the duty of 
looking after "bounty catchers," who might be spending unnecessary 
time in harbor instead of being on the fishing grounds, imposed 
additional duties upon this officer, and in some years an extra officer 
was employed in this duty. This bounty was discontinued soon 
after 1861. Besides the custom-house officer stationed at the Lower 
Kennebec, there is one at Richmond and one at the Forks of the 
river at the Upper Kennebec. 

Custom - Houses. — When William Webb was collector, the 
custom-house was immediately east of his dwelling-house, which 



1 82 HISTORY OF BATH. 

stood where is now the Public Library building. The site of the 
custom-house is jtow occupied by a livery stable; one story fronted 
west, and on the east fronting the river there were two stories, into 
which was*- the main entrance, and a portion was used for a store. 

When D. I). Hobart was collector, the room on the north-east 
corner of Centre and Washington streets, known as Music Hall, 
was occupied as the. custom-house. 

During the term of John B. Swanton, he occupied the brick 
building on the north side of Broad street, second east of Front 
street, which was built by Nicholas L. and Ammi R. Mitchell. 

William King, when collector, had his office in the second story 
of the old Bath bank building at the south-west corner of Front and 
Centre streets. 

During the term of Collector Snow, the present custom-house and 
post-office edifice, built by the United States government, was com- 
pleted and occupied in 1858, the cost of which was $105,891.25. 
Of this sum $12,800 was for site, foundation, grading, and other 
contingencies, and $93,091.25 for the structure of stone. To make 
room for this edifice, the old mansion of William King was sold to 
James D. Robinson, who removed it directly south to Vine street 
and it was converted into a hotel. When this government building 
became occupied, the north end of the lower floor was devoted to 
the use of the post-office, and the south end was occupied by the 
Board of Trade for a Merchants Exchange. After a few years it 
became necessary to enlarge the capacity of the post-office, the 
Merchants Exchange was removed to other quarters, and the post- 
office has since that time occupied the entire lower floor. The 
customs departments occupy the upper floor. The edifice is sur- 
rounded by extensive and well kept grounds. 

The Collectors. — William Webb, 1779-1S04; Dudley B. Hobart, 
1805-1806; Joshua Wingate, Jr., 1806-1819; Joseph F. Wingate, 
1820-1824; Mark L. Hill, 1824-1825; John B. Swanton, 1825- 
1829; William King, 1829-1834; Joseph Sewall, 1834-1841; Parker 
Sheldon, 1841-1844; A. J. Stone, ICS45; Amos Nourse, 1845-1846; 
J. C. -Humphreys, 1846-1849; Benjamin Randall, 1849-1850; David 



HISTORY OF BATH. 183 

Bronson, 1850-1853; Charles N. Bodfish, 1853—1857 ; Joseph Berry, 
1857-1860; James H. Nichols, 1860^861; Roland Fisher, 1861- 
1866; E. S. J. Nealley, 1866-1881; James W.Wakefield, 1882-1885; 
Francis B. Torrey, 1885-1889; James W. Wakefield, 1889-1893; 
Charles W. Larrabee, 1893. 

Their History. — William Webb was a prominent man of his 
day, lived in a historic house that was removed in 1889 to give place 
to the Public Library building. He had a family of children of 
whom one of his daughters married the distinguished citizen, David 
C. Magoun. Mr. Webb was collector from 1779 to 1804. 

Dudley B. Hobart is not known by record or tradition to any of 
the present generations of the inhabitants of Bath. He was collec- 
tor from 1805 to 1806. 

Joshua Wingate, Jr., was appointed by President Jefferson in 1806 
and continued in the office until 18 19. The duties of the office must 
have been attended with greater labor and responsibility during his 
term than before or since, covering as it did the years of the embargo, 
non-intercourse and war with England, when great ability, firmness, 
decision and ceaseless vigilance were imperiously demanded of a 
collector of customs for this important port, where so large an 
amount of shipping in the foreign trade was owned. That Gen- 
eral Wingate was equal to the demands of his office during those 
trying times, is amply proved by the fact of his being continued in the 
office for the long period of thirteen years; six years after the close of 
the war. The career of General Wingate was distinguished. He 
was an educated man to start with, having graduated from Harvard 
College in 1797, and entered upon the practice of law at Hallowell, 
where his father, Joshua Wingate, resided. He did not practice the 
profession long, but entered public life. 

GesTkral Henry Dearborn of Revolutionary renown was liv- 
ing at that period in Gardiner, and, becoming acquainted with the 
young lawyer, thought highly of his capabilities and character. When 
Jefferson became President of the United States in 1801, he called 
General Dearborn to his cabinet as Secretary of War. On going to 
Washington he induced Mr. Wingate to accompany him and accept 
a position in his department. From thence he came to this custom- 



184 HISTORY OF BATH. 

house. His fortunes were advanced by his marrying a daughter of 
the Secretary. He was a man of thrift and acquired wealth. On 
coming to Bath he occupied what was afterwards denominated the 
Thomas D. Robinson house on the summit of the hill on the east 
side of Washington street north of Centre street. He kept a house 
of open and generous hospitality, the resort of people of distinction 
from abroad and at home. It is in tradition that Mrs. Wingate was 
a lady of rare accomplishments, unexcelled in doing the honors in- 
cumbent upon the high position she then occupied, was of universal 
benevolence and a liberal supporter of the Baptist church, her hus- 
band giving generous aid to the building of the brick edifice of that 
society in 18 16. They had daughters who were admired for their 
beauty and accomplishments. 

A notable wedding took place in this mansion in 182 1. Charles 
Q. Clapp, at that time and since resident of Portland, was a man of 
distinction. He came to Bath to wed a daughter of General 
Wingate. It was a notable occasion. Distinguished men were pres- 
ent : General Henry Dearborn with his wife, Commodore Jesse D. 
Elliot, General Simon Benard of France who had been with Napoleon 
at Waterloo as one of his staff, William King and Mrs. King and 
many others from out of town and in town. The Reverend Mr. 
Stearns had the honor of officiating at the ceremonies. Eventually 
General Wingate moved from Bath to Portland, and died in 1843. 

During the war of 18 12, when Bath was threatened with attack 
by forces from English men of war stationed off the mouth of the river, 
Gen. Wingate had a large, long chest made with trucks under it in 
which to place the books and papers of the custom-house offices and 
drawn to a place of safety should occasion make it necessary. The 
chest has been preserved, and is now in the possession of the Saga- 
dahoc Historical Society as a relic of early war times. 

A Valuable Prize. — It has been related on good authority, 
that, during the war of 1812-15, a vessel laden with a very valu- 
able cargo was brought into this port, vessel and cargo confiscated, 
that the fees of the collector amounted to $72,000; and that 
subsequently the general government restored the value of the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 85 

property to its former owners, but that the collector did not relin- 
quish the portion he had received (per Hayden). 

Joseph F. Wingate was appointed collector by President Monroe 
in 1820 and occupied the office until 1824. He was afterward 
member of the United States House of Representatives for the 
Lincoln district the last year of President J. Q. Adams' administra- 
tion and the first two years of that of Andrew Jackson. He was 
brother to General Joshua Wingate, and was a conspicuous man of 
his day. His later life was passed in the town of Windsor in this 
state. 

Mark Langdon Hill came into the office under President 
Monroe in 1824. He had been a large ship-builder, owner, and 
merchant at Phipsburg during his earlier life, meeting with success. 
He was at one time judge of the court of sessions, postmaster at 
Phipsburg, chairman of the board of selectmen many years, held 
other town offices and was a prominent member of the Congrega- 
tional church. He was always a conspicuous man; served in the 
General Court of Massachusetts and in the United States House of 
Representatives. He was notably condescending, affable, and 
courteous, which were natural traits in his character. 

Judge Groton wrote: "In 1824, Judge Hill was appointed by 
Mr. Adams collector of Bath. Although a good officer, and a man 
of excellent moral and religious character, he had enemies, who 
preferred charges against him for the agency he had in getting the 
brig Mary Jane to sea, fourteen years before. Mr. Adams, upon the 
charges, appointed a special court consisting of Judge Whitman, 
Judge Ware, and Mr. Burley, member of Congress, to take evidence 
and report to him. This court sat at the Bath hotel and lasted 
some days." Bath wanted the office, Judge Hill was removed, and 
J. B. Swanton, Sr., received the appointment to succeed Judge Hill. 

John Barnard Swanton received his appointment from Presi- 
dent J. Q. Adams in 1825, and held the office until 1829. He was 
a prominent man and a member of the Swedenborgian church, 
having previously belonged to that of the Calvinist Baptist. John 
Bosworth Swanton, his son, was his deputy collector. 



1 86 HISTORY OF BATH. 

William King was appointed by Andrew Jackson in 1829, and 
held the office to the spring of 1834. As the history of his career is 
given elsewhere in this volume it would be tautology to recount the 
life and services of General King in this connection, the mention of 
his distinguished name being sufficient. It is also unnecessary to 
say that his administration of the duties of the office was able and 
honest. There is a little incident related of him while collector. 
Some man presented to him a bill for services rendered the govern- 
ment in connection with the custom-house; Mr. King looked it over 
when he loudly exclaimed: "Here is a man who wants thirty-five 
days' pay for one month's work." He did not get pay for his extra 
or rather extraordinary days. 

Joseph Sewall succeeded William King, appointed by President 
Jackson in 1834, reappointed by President Van Buren 1838, retiring 
in 1841. He had graduated from Bowdoin College in 1812, read law 
with Benjamin Ames, admitted to the bar when 21 years of age, 
was adjutant-general of Maine, was several years county commis- 
sioner and selectman of the town; attending to law practice when not 
conflicting with his official duties during the business years of his 
life. 

He took an active part in political matters, and was a life long 
Democrat. He was a well informed antiquarian and in 1833 deliv- 
ered an address on the History of Bath, which was afterwards pub- 
lished in book form. General Sewall was of distinguished presence, 
and notably a gentleman in his intercourse with the world. 

Parker Sheldon came into the office under President Harrison 
in 1 841, appointed chiefly by the influence of U. S. Senator George 
Evans. Mr. Sheldon resided in Gardiner and did not move his 
family to Bath. At the time of the appointment of Mr. Sheldon 
there were two "cliques" among leading Whigs of Bath each wanting 
the subordinate offices, and when the collector came to Bath to 
assume the duties of the office and make his appointments his re- 
ception was notably cool on the part of those who had not " stood 
in" with his canvass for the collectorship. He had been an active 
worker in the Whig party, and did efficient service for that cause in 
the notable presidential campaign of 1840. His term ended in 1844. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 87 

A. J. Stone of Brunswick was appointed by President Tyler in 
1845 and held the position less than one year. He was a merchant 
in Brunswick and did not come to Bath to reside during his term of 
office. 

Amos Nourse was appointed by President Polk in 1845. He was 
then residing in Bath, having come from Hallowell a few years previ- 
ously where he had been postmaster and in the practice of medi- 
cine, and was of much repute as a man of considerable literary at- 
tainments. He had been practicing his profession in Bath prior to 
his taking this office. He held the collectorship until 1846, and died 
in Bath while in office. 

John Campbell Humphreys. — The American ancestor of the 
Humphreys family was Lawrence Humphreys, whose nativity was 
Queenstown, Great Britain, where he was born in 1757. When 
beginning his business life he went to Jamaica as the manager of . 
the estate of the widow of a planter who had died wealthy. From 
thence he came as supercargo of a vessel that was laden with a 
cargo of molasses for the Kennebec soon after the close of the 
Revolutionary war. Arriving in the river she went ashore on the 
rocks of Parkers Island and was totally wrecked. Mr. Humphreys 
was left in a strange land entirely destitute of means. He had the 
lucky fortune, however, to fall among good men, among whom were 
the Parkers, the McCobbs, the Percys, and the Drummonds, who 
must have seen in him a person of native worth, for he acquired 
real estate in Phipsburg which was contiguous to what was the John 
Parker and subsequently the Andrew Reed estate, and married into 
the Drummond and Campbell families, by the espousal in 1788 of a 
daughter of John Campbell whose mother was Frances Drummond, 
who came over with her father, Alexander Drummond, the ancestor 
of all the Kennebec Drummonds, who came over in 1729 and lived 
at Chops Point. Mr. Humphreys subsequently moved to Topsham. 
His son, John Campbell Humphreys, was born in Phipsburg, Feb. 
22, 1798; lived in Brunswick; became prominent as senator, sheriff, 
merchant, lumber manufacturer, ship-builder, major-general of the 
militia, high in the Masonic order, and collector of the port of Bath 
during the Polk administration. He was appointed by President 



l88 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Polk in 1846. He resided in Brunswick and did not bring his 
family to live in Bath. 

Benjamin Randall was collector from 1849 to 1850. He was 
the son of William Randall, a respectable and wealthy farmer and 
one of the early settlers of the town of Topsham, where Benjamin 
was born in 1789. In his childhood his father discovered that he 
had more than common talents, and determined to give him an 
education suited to his abilities. He was graduated at Bowdoin 
College in 1809 and took his degree at the head of his class, and 
then entered the office of Benjamin Hasey of Topsham, where he 
pursued the study of the law; in 18 12 was admitted a member of 
the Lincoln County bar and commenced practice in Bath, where he 
resided forty-five years. Like others of the profession, he took an 
active interest in political matters, identifying himself with the Whig 
party during its continuance. In 1833, he was elected from Lincoln 
district a member of the state senate; in 1838, member of Congress, 
and appointed by President Taylor, 1849, collector of the port of 
Bath. When nominated for congressman by the Whig party, it was 
at a convention in Wiscasset, without solicitation or expectation on 
his part. 

He was twice married, and his second wife was a daughter of 
Kilborn Whitman of Pembroke, Mass. Mr. Randall was of a mild 
temper, had a well balanced mind, and through all the strong contests 
of his profession was never known to show passion or discourtesy 
to his opponents. He was a man of learning in his profession and 
a fine classical scholar. In some respects he resembled his legal 
instructor, Benjamin Hasey, who was deeply learned in the law. In 
the many good qualities of Mr. Randall, he was an honest lawyer, 
an honest man, and amiable and pleasing in his demeanor. 

David Bronson of Hallowell was appointed collector by Presi- 
dent Fillmore in 1850. He was a lawyer of wide reputation and 
alive in politics. He came to Bath to live, and went out of office 
in 1853. 

Charles N. Bodfish of Gardiner became collector in 1853. He 
was umarried and during his term made his home in Bath. He had 



HISTORY OF BATH. 189 

been a major in the Mexican war and upon his return engaged in 
the manufacture of lumber at Parkers Head. His term of office ex- 
pired in 1857. 

Joseph Berry was appointed in 1857 by President Buchanan. He 
resided in Georgetown and commenced life as a stone mason; had a 
start in life by obtaining government contracts for building light- 
houses on the coast of Maine, became a ship-builder in Bath and at 
other points on the Kennebec as well as at Robin Hood's Cove on 
Parkers Island. He had an extensive and widely spread business in 
lumber, ship-building and trade. He had been a member of the state 
legislature for several sessions, and major-general of militia to which 
he was elected by the legislature in 1839 at the time of the notable 
"Aroostook War.'' He died while in office in i860. 

James H. Nichols was a native of Phipsburg, son of Joseph 
Nichols, a shoemaker. He started in life as a shoemaker and kept 
a store in Bath where he married and had a family. Later in life 
he entered into politics as an ardent Democrat and received the ap- 
pointment of weigher and gauger under collectors Humphreys and 
Bodfish, and of collector from President Buchanan, serving out the 
unexpired term of General Joseph Berry upon the death of the 
latter. Upon the advent of the Washingtonian temperance reform 
Mr. Nichols became an active worker in the cause, exercising a 
strong influence in its promotion. 

He served as collector during i860 and 1861. He died in Bath. 
His son, Joseph Nichols, became a boot and shoe dealer in Bath and 
is unmarried. 

Roland Fisher succeeded to the office of collector when the 
Republican party came into power in 1861, receiving his commission 
from President Lincoln. Mr. Fisher was a native of Arrowsic, where 
his ancestors were early settlers and prominent men. Receiving 
such education as the public schools afforded, his early and middle 
life was passed in the lumbering business, becoming the owner of a 
part of what has been known as the ancient " Rowsick Mills," since 
as " Potter's Mills," situated at the foot of Fiddlers Reach on 
Arrowsic Island. Later he removed to Bath, where he engaged in 



190 HISTORY OF BATH. 

other business and held public offices. He was twice married and 
had a numerous family by his second wife. Mr. Fisher was a man 
of excellent character, was active in all the pursuits of life in which 
he engaged, and accumulated a comfortable fortune. He held the 
office to the time of his death in 1866. 

Edward St. John Nealley was born in Lee, N. H., Dec. 16, 
1 8 1 1 . He was the second son of Edward B. Nealley and was one 
of ten children. He was a member of the class of 1835 of Bowdoin 
College, but left before graduating. Subsequently the college con- 
ferred on him the degree of Bachelor of Arts out of course. After 
leaving college he went to Thomaston and studied law with his 
cousin, Jonathan Cilley, who was afterwards member of Congress and 
subsequently killed in a duel. He was admitted to the bar and 
practiced at Thomaston. He was clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives at Augusta, and there his character and good penmanship 
brought him to the notice of Joseph Sewall, the collector of customs 
in Bath, who, during Van Buren's administration, appointed him 
inspector of customs and afterward deputy collector. This latter 
office he held until in February, 1866, when he was promoted to the 
collectorship, which office he held till his death in 1881, a period 
longer than any other collector of customs in the United States. He 
had served the government in the custom-house in Bath for more 
than forty-four years. 

He was an officer of the Patten Library Association from the 
time of its organization, and was president of that association for 
many years. It was largely through his instrumentality that the 
library was founded. He was trustee of the Kelley fund for the 
distribution of fuel among the needy widows of the city. Mr. 
Nealley was a member of the city council during several years. He 
married Lucy Prince of Thomaston, a sister of Mrs. Jonathan Cilley, 
July 5, 1836, by whom he had five children, of whom four are now 
living : Edward B., now living in Bangor; Henrietta P., who mar- 
ried Rev. John Gregson, formerly rector of the Episcopal church in 
this city, now rector at Wilkinsonville, Mass. ; Greenleaf C, who 
has been in the employ of the government in Texas as botanist, and 



HISTORY OF BATH. 191 

Susan M., wife of Geo. E. Hughes, attorney in Bath. His wife 
Lucy died in Bath, Jan. 17, 1853, and he married, Dec. 1, 1859, 
Sarah A. Pope of Spencer, Mass. They had two children, William 
P. and Henry A. Mr. Nealley was a prominent Mason and Odd 
Fellow and was twice state delegate to the national convention of 
the Odd Fellows. Mr. Nealley was one of the most pleasant of 
gentlemen, universally popular, and a useful and benevolent citizen 
of the highest standing. 

James W. Wakefied, born in this city in January, 1833, son 
of James Wakefield, who died some years ago and was one of 
the leading merchants and business men of this city where he 
carried on successfully for a long term of years the business of a 
grocer. He was also managing owner of a packet line between the 
Kennebec and Boston. At the age of fourteen years James W. went 
into business with his father. This was about the year 1847, and he 
continued in business with him seven years. In 1854 he entered the 
office of Kendall & Richardson, ship-chandlers, where he filled the 
position of book-keeper about two years. In 1856 he again went into 
the grocery business as a partner with his father, and carried on a 
large trade until the breaking out of the rebellion, when he joined 
the army. After two years' service he returned to Bath. In 1869 
he was appointed postmaster of this city, a position which he 
filled till near the end of the year 188 1, when he received the 
appointment of collector of customs for the District of Bath. 
He held that office until Cleveland became President, when he re- 
signed. For a number of years he was a member of the Republican 
State Committee. He first became a member of the city council in 
1861, served that year in the lower branch, and also in 1862 and 
1867. In 187 1 he was elected alderman and was a member of that 
board in 1872 and 1880. He was elected mayor in 1885, 1886, 
1887, 1888, 1889, and 1890. In the legislature of 1885 he repre- 
sented this city in the House. He was again appointed collector in 
1889 by President Harrison; has been superintendent of the Water 
Supply Company of Bath, resigning in 1893. Upon a change of 
administration and the term of collector expiring, his successor was 
appointed, attaining the office on May 1, 1893. 



192 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Francis B. Torrey is a native of Bath, a descendant of the 
earlier Torrey families, who were prominent citizens in their day. 
Mr. Torrey has been engaged in navigation and is proprietor of ex- 
tensive manufacturing business in the city. He always affiliates 
with the Democratic party, and when Mr. Cleveland became president 
in 1885 he received the appointment of collector and filled the office 
with acceptance until the administration of President Harrison re- 
appointed a Republican to fill the office, the duties of which Mr. 
Torrey was desirous to relinquish to devote his labors to the more 
profitable and congenial business in which he is now engaged. 

THE POST-OFFICE. 

Prior to 1760, the regular eastern terminus of the mail route in 
New England was Portsmouth, N. H. In 1775, the first post-office 
in Maine was established, and there were only post-offices at Ken- 
nebunk, Falmouth, and Bath. The number of letters coming to 
each office did not average five each week. Few people could afford 
to pay the high rates of postage of that day, excepting on matters 
of business. Common epistolary letters were largely sent by private 
hands at long intervals, and this continued so long as the rates of 
postage were six and a quarter, twelve and a half, eighteen and 
three-quarters, twenty-five, and thirty-seven and a half cents, ac- 
cording to the distance, and double rate when the letter contained 
more than one piece of paper. 

The earliest record there is of the establishment of regular 
mail facilities was about the year 1780, at which time it was carried 
to and from Portland once a fortnight by Richard Kimball on foot. 
Luke Lambert carried the mail between Boston and the Kennebec, 
for a short period prior to the Revolution, once a fortnight on horse- 
back, the mail pouch strapped on behind the saddle. Then Capt. 
Joseph Stockbridge carried the mail between Bath and Portland, 
making the round trip once a week. In 1791, the most eastern 
post-office in the state was at Wiscasset, to which mail was carried 
from Portland through Bath twice a week on horseback, and in 1793 
continued from Wiscasset to Castine- once a fortnight by a man on 
foot. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 193 

At that early day the roads were little more than foot paths or 
trod by single horse. The mails were sometimes delayed or de- 
tained by inclement weather and bad condition of the roads, which 
was particularly the case in the winter season when snow blockades 
had to be encountered. As an instance, it is related that in 1766 
the southern and western mails due at Boston Dec. 27, did not 
arrive until Jan. 10, 1767, on account of bad traveling. 

August 25, 1791, Dummer Sewall was appointed by the United 
States goverment the first postmaster of Bath, and for a time the 
office was kept at his dwelling-house on High street, the house now 
standing next north of the railroad bridge. It was afterward moved 
to the one story building recently standing near the corner of Front 
and Summer streets, reached by a flight of stairs from Summer 
street. Mr. Sewall held the office about fifteen years ; living a long 
distance from the post-office, and in the office only when the mail 
came in, the business men became dissatisfied and, without dis- 
tinction of party, signed a petition to general government, asking 
for a change of postmaster. 

In answer to this request, David Stinson was appointed post- 
master July 1, 1806, by President Jefferson, which office he held 
twenty-seven years. During his term the office was removed to the 
building on the south-east corner of Front and Arch streets, now 
occupied for a store. It was the custom to write off a list of the 
letters received by each mail and hang it in the window, so that it 
could be read by the people outside. The drivers of mail stages 
were in the habit of blowing a tin horn when coming into town to 
announce their arrival. The population of Bath at the time of Mr. 
Stinson's appointment was 1,000. 

On the death of Mr. Stinson, Thomas Eaton was appointed by 
President Jackson, April 24, 1833, and the office was removed to 
rooms in the old Lincoln Bank building, which stood upon the site 
now occupied by the Sagadahoc House. Private boxes were first 
used here. Upon the taking down of the bank building in 1848 for 
the erection of the Sagadahoc House, the office was kept in the 
south-east room under the Hatch House, on the north side of 



194 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Center street. After the completion of the Sagadahoc House, the 
south-west corner in the basement on Center street was fitted up 
with lower drawers for the use of the people and the office was re- 
moved to that locality, where it remained until the custom-house 
building was ready for occupancy in 1858. At this time and for sev- 
eral years previously, mails were received daily from the West and 
forwarded thither in two and four horse coaches. Upon the comple- 
tion of the Kennebec & Portland Railroad — now Maine Central — 
in 1849, three daily mails were transported to and from Bath on this 
road. 

Upon the accession of President Fillmore, William Pitt Fes- 
senden wrote to Messrs. Kendall and Richardson, inquiring if the 
Whigs of Bath wished to fill the place with one of their own party, 
and as the result of correspondence that ensued David Y. Kendall 
was appointed to succeed Mr. Eaton. He held the office, however, 
but eight days, from the 18th of November, 1850, to the 26th of 
the same month. 

Rufus R. Haines, publisher of The Mirror, was appointed Nov. 
26, 1850. 

Joseph C. Snow received the appointment from President Pierce 
April 1, 1853, and during his term the office was moved into the 
new custom-house building. 

Charles T. Greenleaf was appointed by President Lincoln 
April 8, 1 86 1. 

James W. Wakefield was appointed by President Grant April 
6, 1869. 

William E. Hogan received his appointment from President 
Arthur Jan. 17, 1882, and was succeeded at the end of four years 
by George H. Nichols, appointed by President Cleveland Jan. 17, 
1886, Mr. Hogan having served out the full term of his commission 
of four years, notwithstanding the change of administration nearly 
a year previous. Win. E. Hogan having been re-appointed by Pres- 
ident Harrison, resumed the office Nov. 1, 1889, which he occupies 
to this time, 





Q>. siEjaJu^ 



ARTOTVPE, t. B1ERSTAOT, H, ■i 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 95 

For many years the mail was carried to Phipsburg on horseback, 
at first twice, then three times a week, and then daily by stage. 
When not carried daily, the postmaster would often give an order to 
a reputable citizen coming to Bath to deliver him the Phipsburg 
mail, and this particularly on Sundays, and the writer of this has 
often taken it down in a pocket handkerchief, and more often it was 
delivered to him without an order. In no case was this trust betrayed 
or carelessness indulged in. Woolwich, Arrowsic, Georgetown, and 
other suburban towns receive their mails through the Bath office. 

For mailing letters in former years there were no envelopes; 
the sheet was ingeniously folded so that it could be sealed with a 
wafer. Wafers are scarcely known to the present generation. They 
were mostly red, hard, mucilaginous substances, of the shape and 
size of a ten-cent piece, which to be used would be softened by 
placing one of them between the moist lips a few moments, when 
applying it to paper it stuck fast by spontaneous hardening. The 
more elegant way was to use sealing wax, which was customary for 
public documents. A singular regulation in the rules of the post- 
office department was that a letter containing more than one piece 
of paper was liable to be charged double postage. The enigma 
would seem to be how postmasters could know whether a letter 
covered one or more pieces of paper. 

Incidents Connected with the Postal Service at Bath. — 

A Boston man by the name of Thorndike owned a large tract of 
land at Thomaston, and David Fales was his agent. Two men who 
afterward became notable public men kept the post-office — Hezekiah 
Prince, postmaster, and John Ruggles, his assistant. Prince became 
member of Congress and Ruggles, United States Senator. Fales 
had occasion to transmit the sum of $700 to his principal in Boston. 
To do this he enclosed seven bills of one hundred dollars each, 
and mailed it in the Thomaston post-office. This failed to reach its 
destination. In consequence, he brought suit against Postmaster 
Prince to recover the amount of money lost. At about the same 
time, a letter in which money was enclosed was mailed at Thomas- 
ton for Portland, which did not reach the person to whom it was 
addressed. 



196 HISTORY OF BATH. 

At the suit, all of the postmasters on the route over which the 
Boston letter must pass were examined in court, and their testimony 
showed that it was evident that the leak was in the Bath office. 
Postmaster Stinson was somewhat of an easy going man, and a fast 
young man was accustomed to be familiar in his office, as he was an 
intimate of the family. Suspicion pointed to him as the purloiner 
of the letters, and he was arrested. His name was Robert Lam- 
berr, a son of Luke Lambert. His father became his sole bonds- 
man, and before the next session of court the son fled and never 
returned. It was believed that he died not long afterwards at 
Demarara, a dissipated army soldier. The bonds that had been 
given by his father, which were for a heavy amount, were afterwards 
remitted by the legislature through the influence of friends. 

The Decoy Letter. — In the fall of 1833 Thomas Eaton was 
postmaster at Bath. At that time, letters containing money had 
been missed from the mails between Bath and Belfast. It was a 
stage route. A post-office official was placed on this line to detect, 
if possible, the delinquent postmaster. He placed in the Belfast 
office a decoy letter directed to Gen. James McLellan, Bath. Tak- 
ing a chaise, he followed the mail coach. It was in the night. The 
mail was carried through, as was the custom, in one large bag, and 
at each office on the line the postmaster emptied the bag and 
selected such of the contents as were addressed to his office. On 
this occasion the detective took the bag from the stage when at a 
proper distance from an office, and emptying its contents into the 
bottom of his own carriage searched for the decoy letter. The 
post-office at Lincolnville, where Albert Reed, a former resident of 
Bath, was postmaster, was passed all right, and Camden came next. 
Here Ephraim K. Smart, a prominent Democratic politician, was 
postmaster. After leaving this office, the decoy letter was found to 
be missing. The detective immediately returned and had Mr. Smart 
arrested. It was necessarily a sensation. 

In due course of mail the identical letter arrived at the Bath 
office. Mr. Eaton, in his usual habit of accommodation in taking 
letters not immediately called for to business men within easy 
reach, took this letter with others to the store of Gen. McLellan 










% 



^Az^i C^z 'O??^ 




HISTORY OF BATH. 1 97 

and delivered it directly to him. Of course this vindicated Mr. 
Smart, and the inference could be none other than that the detective 
had made a grave mistake in overlooking the letter when assorting 
the mail after leaving Camden. It was a long talked about affair. 

MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. 

The city is organized into seven wards, from which there are 
elected seven aldermen and twenty-one councilmen, who with the 
mayor comprise the city government. The city officers are a treas- 
urer, collector (in 1893 united in one), marshal, street commissioner, 
municipal judge, a solicitor, and city clerk. 

Having received a charter in 1847, Bath was organized into a city 
in 1848 with David C. Magoun, mayor, who held the office one year, 
when he declined re-election. The successive mayors were Free- 
man H. Morse, 1850; John Patten, 185 1, 1852; Barnard C. Bailey, 
1853, 1854; Freeman H. Morse, 1855; William Rice, 1856, 1857, 
1858; Israel Putnam, 1859, i860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865 ; 
John Hayden, 1866 ; Israel Putnam, 1867 ; James T. Patten, 1868, 
1869; Samuel D. Bailey, 1870; James D. Robinson, 1871, 1872; 
William Rice, 1873, 1874, 1875 ; Edwin Reed, 1876, 1877 ; J. Green 
Richardson, 1878, 1879; Thomas W. Hyde, 1880, 1881; James C. 
Ledyard, 1882, 1883; George H. Nichols, 1884; James W. Wake- 
field, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888; George Moulton, Jr , 1889; Charles 
E. Patten, 1890; Fritz H. Twitchell, 1891, 1892 ; Charles E. Patten, 
1893, who resigned without qualifying, and John O. Shaw was 
elected for 1893. 

Destruction of the Town Records. — In the winter of 1838, 

a fire on Center street, nearly opposite the present town hall, con- 
sumed all the town records, which were kept in a wood building on 
that side of the street ; consequently, data of public acts of the town 
up to that date were entirely lost, leaving an irreparable vacancy 
detrimental to the completeness of the records transcribed in this 
volume. 

After the organization of the town in 1781, no representative was 
sent to the General Court at Boston until 1784, when Francis Winter 



198 HISTORY OF BATH. 

was elected to that office, in which he was continued until Major 
Joshua Shaw was chosen in 1799, 1801, and 1802; Samuel Davis in 
1803; William King in 1804 and 1805, and Peleg Tallman in 1806 
{per James Sewall). 

The appropriations to pay troops furnished by the town during 
the closing years of the Revolutionary war were $500 annually. 
For the support of highways, the town raised the first year $500. 

Court-house. — The territory comprising the District of Maine 
originally formed one county, which was first Yorkshire, then York, 
with the town of York the county seat. In 1760, the counties of 
Cumberland and Lincoln were set off from York. The town of 
Georgetown, which included Bath, was in the county of Lincoln, 
and Pownalborough was the shire town. In 1761, the proprietors 
of the " Kennebec Purchase " built and donated to the county the 
courtrhouse which is still in existence and in good condition. In 
setting off, subsequently, other counties from Lincoln, the county 
seat of Lincoln was transferred to Wiscasset, where a court-house 
was built, and later a court-house was also built at Topsham. 

In 1854, the county of Sagadahoc was formed from a portion of 
Lincoln, and Bath made the county seat. To build a court-house, to 
include lot, fence and bell, the county issued bonds to the amount 
of $70,000, and the building was completed in 1869. In the mean- 
time, courts were held in the old town hall, and the county offices 
were in the same building. When the building was ready for occu- 
pancy it was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, at which Chief 
Justice Jonathan G. Dickinson delivered the address. In the earlier 
days of this eminent jurist he was principal of the Bath Academy, 
and was at one time a contributor to the newspapers of Bath. 

SCHOOLS. 

Even after the Indian wars were over and the inhabitants had 
settled down to cultivate their farms, they still had hard times. 
There were no school-houses and their dwelling-houses were 
so far apart that they could scarcely be formed into districts. 
They had school three months, and sometimes less, once in two or 



HISTORY OF BATH. 1 99 

three years. It was held in private houses. They had good 
teachers; one particularly, Master O'Brien, who was educated in 
Edinburgh, Scotland, was a gentleman and an excellent teacher. 
He afterwards settled in Brunswick. There were families in remote 
districts who could neither read nor write. The settlers who came 
from England were better educated than those born and brought up 
in this country, having had better advantages for education in the 
old country. 

Years ago sturdy men and women, who were not afraid to meet 
the hardships and discouragements attendant upon frontier life, 
came to Maine and took up farms in the unbroken forest. 
They cleared land along the rivers and on the back ridges, built 
houses and made roads, and as soon as a community was strong 
enough, they built school-houses and churches, and raised large 
families of boys and girls to fill them. We well remember the old 
school-house where, in boyhood days, we studied Noah Webster's 
spelling book, Murray's grammar, and ciphered in Walch's arithme- 
tic. The long seats were arranged on opposite sides of the house, 
the large boys and girls occupied the back seats, and the smaller 
ones the front. The room was warmed from a large open fire-place 
at one end. The teachers boarded round to lengthen out the school, 
and wood was furnished by the several familes while they boarded 
the master. For about ten weeks in the winter sixty scholars came 
together, some with whole books, and some with books whose leaves 
were half gone, especially the lower halves. To-day, scholars with 
all the modern improvements in school-houses, in text books, in 
teaching and discipline, find their scholarship far below that of 
fifty or sixty years ago. In those days the school-houses in the out- 
lying districts served also as churches. 

From the formation of the Second Parish in 1754 to 1775, no 
public school had been established at Bath, and the expense of 
maintaining the instruction of youth was raised by subscription. In 
the year last named the parish voted an appropriation of about 
twenty dollars for school purposes. When the parish became 
incorporated into a town in 1781, an appropriation of two hundred 
dollars was made for the support of public schools, which amount 



200 HISTORY OF BATH. 

was continued yearly until 1795; this sum was increased the next 
year to four hundred dollars and continued until 1800. 

On the west side of High street, a little south of the dwelling of 
Gen. T. W. Hyde, stood the first school-house in ancient Long 
Reach of which there is any reliable account. As near as can be 
ascertained, it was built in 1785. The building was known to be 
there in 1790 and occupied as a school-house. The teacher is said 
to have been a Master Patch, who was lame, went on crutches, 
and was also humpbacked. He had a unique method of punishing 
the scholars that partook of barbarism. He had a wooden shoe 
made with sharp pegs on the bottom, and in this he compelled 
obdurate boys to stand on one foot. 

The High street school-house has been described as of about 
twenty feet square, sharp roof, outside window shutters, and regular 
seats and benches. After it was abandoned, the old building was 
removed to the south end, where it was used as a dwelling and 
ultimately disappeared. 

Subsequently, this old Master Patch taught school at Berry's 
Mills, West Bath, at which time the school-house in which he kept 
was burned, it was supposed, by the boys on account of the old 
man's severity. This was in 1803. 

Employing Teachers. — From 1638, when Harvard College 
was established, every town of fifty householders was ordered by 
law to hire a teacher the year round, and a town of one hundred 
householders had its school where children were taught the rudi- 
ments of learning and where the boys could be fitted for college. 
Probably none of our well trained boys and girls ever heard such 
buzzing as they had in these ancient schools all the time. The 
country in those times seemed so large that most families talked 
loud, having no fear that they would be overheard by any neighbors 
excepting the bears and wolves, while the children had no idea that 
they could study without pronouncing the words at least in whispers, 
so when they buzzed the liveliest, the teacher looked for the best 
lessons. Often two or three would be seen studying from the same 
volume, as one book of a kind frequently answered for a whole 



HISTORY OF BATH. 201 

family. Classes were very few but large. There were other 
sounds in the room besides the smothered tones of the student; the 
" spat " of the broad ruler, which was sometimes pierced with holes 
for the kindly purpose of raising blisters; while over all arose the 
sob of the sensitive, the whine of the base, or the groan of the 
plucky. But there were busy fingers as well as lips, with the rustle 
of sheets and pillow cases and patchwork, for the girls were taught 
sewing afternoons. 

Among the things taught in school were "manners." In entering 
or leaving the school-room every pupil was required to turn towards 
the teacher, the boys to make a bow and the girls a courtesy, and 
when a class was in line on the floor they were required to " make 
your manners." The boys were instructed that when meeting an 
elderly person on the road they should take off their hats and make 
a bow to him. These habits were salutary by inculcating deference 
due to age and to those placed over them as teachers. 

There were no blackboards or other appliances for teaching 
made easy, nor taking a package of books home for evening 
study. Six hours were considered a good day's work in the school- 
room; what was learned was learned for good and lasted through 
life. Learning was acquired by hard, individual study, without 
being boosted too much over knotty places. 

A wood school-house stood on the north-west corner of North 
and Middle streets. Christopher Cushing owned much of the 
land in that vicinity, and it appears on record that June 9, 1805, 
Mr. Cushing deeded to " Peleg Tallman, Caleb Marsh, Laban 
Loring, Joseph Trott, Joseph Sewall, and others who may hereafter 
join," a lot of land, three by four rods, for the sum of one hundred 
dollars, conditioned that the house to be erected upon it should not 
be less than twenty feet front. The building was accordingly 
constructed. 

A large lot of ground was comprised in its site, which was covered 
with white oak trees and grassy verdure, and being on elevated 
ground open to the river, it presented from the water a very beauti- 
ful appearance; in consequence of these attractions it was termed 



202 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Paradise. It had a vane in the form of a man wearing a bobtail 
coat with a pen behind his ear. The building was usually called 
the " Cummings school-house," taking this name from the notable 
Abraham Cummings, d.d., a man of much learning, who often kept 
school in it during winter months, when in the summer season he 
preached as a missionary on the shores and islands along the coast, 
sailing in a schooner boat for the purpose. While engaged in teach- 
ing he often supplied a vacant pulpit of an orthodox church. 

In this " seat of learning " Mr. Weston taught, also Isaac Page, 
both of whom were severe disciplinarians, and such were accounted 
"the best schoolmasters" of that generation, the school-boys of 
that day requiring the rod, that beat manhood into them and grad- 
uated them into solid citizens. Mr. Weston's favorite discipline was 
to scare his unruly scholars into obedience to good order; throw his 
heavy ruler, which was the emblem of authority in those days, with 
all his force, over the boys' heads, to the wall at the back end of the 
room, making a great commotion. At times he would, in like man- 
ner, throw an inkstand. He was said to be an awful thrasher of 
the unruly boys of his school. 

Mr. Page kept school in that house in 1820. His custom was to 
" open school " with prayers, during which the scholars took advan- 
tage to become noisy, whereupon he would open his eyes, and look- 
ing around the room, seize his great ruler or green cowhide, and 
" go through " the entire school, striking the pupils over the head, 
thrashing their bodies and limbs, until order was restored, when he 
would return to his desk and finish his prayer. This contempt of 
the master's devotion may have arisen from the well-known habits 
of the master to be addicted to the too free use of intoxicating 
drink. This Mr. Page was in no way related to the popular Master 
Joshua Page of " Erudition " memory. 

In this same school-house John Reed of Phipsburg taught. He 
was the eldest son of Col. Andrew Reed of Phipsburg, and made a 
profession of teaching, in which vocation he was prominent in his 
day and generation. In his school in this old school-house he had 




EURIDITION SCHOOL-HOUSE, 1794. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 203 

scholars who afterwards became distinguished men in business and 
in public life. Probably not one of them is now alive, the last 
having been the venerable and respected citizen, the Hon. John 
Hayden. About two weeks before the end of his term, the house 
was so badly damaged by fire that the school was closed. Mr. Reed 
made teaching the business of his life and was for many years, till 
his death, the head of the school committee of his native town. 

Old "Erudition." — On "North Hill," near the north-east 
junction of Center and High streets, is a notable school building, 
an ancient landmark, in a good state of preservation. Within its 
walls many of the prominent citizens of Bath of past generations 
obtained all the education that aided their success in the business 
of their lives. This school-house was made famous by the pre- 
eminent teaching of Joshua Page, remembered as Master Page, who 
taught in this building from the year 1806, consecutively, for the 
period of not far from half a century. He was eminently fitted for 
the teaching adapted to those days. He had a magnificent pres- 
ence, stern but pleasant countenance, positive in his ways and of 
commanding demeanor, a trait necessary to control the rude young 
spirits of those days who became his pupils. He was a strict 
disciplinarian, without undue harshness, and was a man of unusual 
literary attainments, fully competent to teach all the branches 
that the times demanded. He also gave private instruction in navi- 
gation to young seamen whose earlier education had been limited. 
Master Page was a useful citizen, taking active part in public affairs 
and holding prominent offices in the town. 

An incident has been related of this esteemed gentleman. He 
had a young man scholar whom it became necessary to "whip," a 
mode of punishment in vogue in olden time in the public schools. 
The boy " swore vengeance " upon his teacher to be put into execu- 
tion in after years. He "went to sea," and when he was grown up 
he met Master Page one day on the street, and stopping him 
remarked that he was going to give him a flogging, whereupon his 
old teacher knocked his old pupil down and left him sprawling in 
the street. 



204 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The lot on which to erect this school-house was donated by 
Joshua Shaw. It is a solid ledge. The building was constructed 
by Joseph S. Sewall at the expense of the town in 1794. It was 
his idea that placed over its door the word " Erudition," which 
remains to this date together with the year of its completion. It is 
a notable landmark. The first to teach school in it was a Mr. 
Hobby. It was at an early day used by different denominations for 
holding religious services and for public meetings. The old-time 
sloping floor on which were the usual long seats were allowed to 
remain until 1886, when they were removed and the interior remod- 
eled in accordance with modern style of seating. It is now in use 
for a primary school-room of the graded system. 

The North Street Academy. — In course of years the Cum- 
mings school-house was converted into an academy. This author 
can well recollect that in the winter of 1835-6 the Bath Lyceum 
held debates in its room in which General Joseph Sewall, Benjamin 
Randall, Professor Anderson, who was principal of the High street 
academy at the time, and others took part. At an early day a Mr. 
Morse taught in this academy; as also did John Y. Scammon, who 
married in Maine, went to Chicago as a lawyer, was at one time a 
millionaire, and in 1872 established the present great journal, the 
Chicago Ifiter Ocean. The late chief justice of Maine, J. G. Dick- 
inson, at a later day taught a grammar school in this building. 
Master Weston also taught there in 1818, and at the same time 
Miss Jacques had a female school in the second story of the build- 
ing. Eventually this building, having outlived its usefulness as a 
school-room, was moved to the north side of Chestnut street, where 
it is now occupied for a dwelling. . On the original lot of this mem- 
orable edifice a grammar school building has been erected, but 
placed north of the spot on which the ancient school-house stood. 

The High Street Academy. — Among the land grants by the 
legislature of Massachusetts while this state was a District was a 
half township of land that fell by lot towards the building of a new 
Academy in Bath, and additional funds were raised by an associa- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 205 

tion. Consequently, in 1824, a brick building of two stories was 
undertaken and completed. The contractors were Samuel Evans, 
William Lemont, and Benjamin Davenport. The school was estab- 
lished in 1828. As high schools were unknown at that time, an 
institution in which the youth of Bath could acquire a higher edu- 
cation than could be obtained in the district schools, was demanded 
to fit them for business, for professions or for college. There was one 
school-room below and one above. Jonas Burnham was for several 
years principal of the boys' department, and among his successors, 
in 1855-6, was Professor Martin Anderson, who subsequently 
became president of Rochester University, New York. This author 
was a pupil under Jonas Burnham. 

When the city adopted the graded system of schools in 1841 and 
a high school was established, an academy became no longer a 
necessity, and this building has since been utilized for city schools, 
for which purpose it was enlarged by an addition on the west end; 
in 1 86 1, another western addition was added and formally dedicated 
in December of that year. In making the change, the city at first 
hired the building of the association, with the agreement that a 
school should be kept up in it that should be equal to the instruction 
that had been given in the academy, and to admit scholars from out 
of town on the same terms as had been the practice of the academy. 
The newly instituted High school was kept in the building until 
the completion of the High school edifice in 1861, since which time 
it has been occupied for primary schools. 

The Female Department. — For many years a Miss Jacques 
was a notable educator in the higher branches of study for young 
ladies in Bath. Having previously taught private classes, elsewhere 
mentioned, this lady conducted a female seminary in the upper 
story of this building for several years. 

When the High school was built, in 1861, the building committee 
were John Hayden, John Patten, and William Rice. The building 
is located on the west side of High street, opposite the Swedenborg 
church, and south of Green street; is of brick and three stories. 



206 HISTORY OF BATH. 

William P. Ledyard built a school-house on School street in 
1820 for $450.00, which was at first used for private schools and 
afterward for town schools. Mary Ledyard taught there in both the 
private and public schools. The site for this school building was 
deeded for $24.00 by Edward Hall Page to William P. Ledyard and 
sixteen other prominent citizens. Of later years this building has 
been used as a tool house by the commissioner of streets. 

The Graded Schools. — A full account of the public schools 
must necessarily be imperfect in this volume, from the circumstance 
that records pertaining to their institution and progress are virtually 
unobtainable. Dr. S. F. Dike, then superintendent, prepared a 
bound volume of the yearly reports of the schools for the Philadel- 
phia Centennial Exposition of 1876. It was placed in the custody 
of the secretary of the state at Augusta, and the book was never 
returned. The loss is irreparable. Dr. Dike had also prepared a 
large written volume, comprising an account of the Bath Academy, 
and for security deposited it in a safe in a store on Front street in 
the care of a member of the school board, and that was also lost. 

The young men pupils of the High school form a " Phi-Rho 
Society" for debate and other literary performances and publish a 
monthly paper taking the name of the Phi-Rhonian. For several 
years they organized themselves into a military company, and in 
the drill of military tactics often became proficient. During some 
of the school years they form a base-ball club, and at times indulge 
in professional contests. 

The principals have been Burnham, Anderson, Woodbury, Wig- 
gins, Dunton, Allen, Hughes, Cole. 

The superintendents of the public schools have been S. F. Dike, 
d.d., twenty-four years; Edwin Reed, two years; Rev. Mr. Hart; 
J. C. Phillips, now in office. 

In 1 88 1, Dr. Dike resigned his office of superintendent, and the 
committee system was adopted in the interest of economy, three 
comprising the board. The committee divided their work. This 
system continued until 189 1, when resort was had to the superin- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 20J 

tendency plan, and Mr. J. C. Phillips of Framingham was called to 
fill the position at $1,400 annual compensation. In this plan a 
committee of two from each ward was elected as an advisory board 
with power to appoint the superintendents. Of this committee 
there was a woman elected from each ward. 

Dr. Dike, before the board of aldermen, about in 1888, at a time 
when the subject of improving the city school was under considera- 
tion, said : — " In 1841 the graded system of schools was introduced 
into Bath. We were one of the first to introduce it in New England. 
It was an important step and a very decided one. I had been some 
years taking pupils at my study, and some were fitting for college. 
That fact, I think, led this city to put me on the school committee 
in 1847. At that time there were ten on the school board. We had 
a salary of $100 for managing the schools. Benjamin Randall was 
chosen to do the outside work, and I was chosen superintendent. 
I undertook the work with a will, and being a young man, I could 
work. There had been some complaints made that the former com- 
mittee could not take time to visit the schools. Well, I went into 
the work of supervision of the schools, visiting every school-house 
and school-room twice every term during the year. I gave a good 
deal of time to the work. The more I labored, the more I became 
interested. The pay that I received was not large. It was J50 a 
year. I put in one hundred days visiting the schools, which made 
the pay about thirty-five cents a day for the work. I always held to 
the doctrine that if one accepted an office, he should attend to its 
duties. I worked faithfully and did see that there was an upward 
movement in the schools. You cannot bestow too much time in the 
interest of the schools and city. You may find that there is not 
much money got out of it. For five years I went on at the same 
rate of pay. Then a change was made, but matters did not run 
smoothly. Then they came to me to take it again; they asked me 
if I would go on again at $500 a year. From that time I was con- 
nected with the schools till about ten years ago. Then they began 
to cut down salaries. While other cities in the state were paying 
their supervisor $1,500 a year — Augusta paid that sum — Bath was 



208 HISTORY OF BATH. 

paying but a small salary. Augusta had a man who was educated 
and fitted for the work. We have had good schools. Good teachers 
have gone from Bath." 

Center Street School-house. — At the time when John Turner 
had a brick-yard where is now the railroad track, immediately south 
of Center street, to which point the water flowed up from the river, 
he built a brick school-house that stood on the south side of Center 
street, the second building from High street. In this his married 
daughter, Mrs. Cotton, taught a private school. Subsequently the 
building was rented for the use of one of the public schools, with 
Mrs. Cotton, teacher. This building was purchased by the town in 
1837 f° r tne central district school. The building was taken down 
when J. W. Hayes erected his present dwelling upon its site. 

There are sixteen public schools, divided into three grades, of 
which eleven are primary, four grammar, and a High school. In 
the High school pupils are prepared for college. 

In 1893, scholars of the city schools prepared specimens of their 
compositions and other studies which were sent to the Columbian 
Exposition at Chicago. 

In the fall of 1892, the teaching of vocal music was resumed in 
the public schools and has proved a success. 

Private Schools. — In the Maine Gazette of 182 1 are found 
some advertisements of the teaching of private classes : — 

March 8, 182 1. "Mrs. Ames opens a school for youths at her 
dwelling on High street." 

May 9. "A young man opens a school at the Academy, and ad- 
mits gratis two boys and one girl unable to pay the tuition of thirty 
cents a week; also, "will attend two evenings in the week to instruct 
apprentices and young hired men in the elementary branches 
gratuitously." 

" Mrs. Eaton's school for young misses at her dwelling-house on 
High street. $2.00 to $2.25 quarterly." 

"Private school. F. Nealy over Dr. Welds' store," 1821. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 209 



GRADUATES OF THE HIGH SCHOOL. 



1844. — George H. Elsworth, Edward Randall, George L. Rich- 
ardson, John H. Rogers, George Stinson. 

1845. — No graduates. 

1846. — No graduates. 

1847. — Julia C. Mitchell, Anna B. Randall, Anna E. J. Rodbird, 
Julia M. Tallman. 

1848. — Albert W. Smith, Nancy M. Gove, Marcia E. Stock- 
bridge, Ella C. Tallman, Mary E. Weeks. 

1849. — Mary E. Robbins, Hannah C. Rogers. 
1850. — William L. Putnam, Henry W. Swanton. 

1851. — Emeline S. Bright, Emily F. Mitchell. 

1852. — Charles O. Bryant, Galen C. Moses. 

1853. — Thomas T. Moses, Edwin Reed, John W. Weeks, Jane 
Randall, Adelia Wadsworth. 

1854. — Frank Sewall, Edward B. Nealley, Nancy E. Anderson, 
H. Anna Putman, Victoria Reed. 

1855. — S. Theresa Moses, M. Ella Patten, Jane H. Shaw, Har- 
riet S. Moses, Eliza D. Fisher, Anna K. Swanton. 

1856. — Allen C. Cobb, Horatio A. Duncan, Thomas W. Hyde, 
Augustus M. Oliver, Moses Owen, Josephine Huston, Syrene B. 
Hughes, Mary A. Lewis, Susan N. Philbrook, H. Augusta Rogers, 
Susan T. Trevett. 

1857. — Charles H. Robinson, Walter S. Swanton, Addie L. 
Crocker, Mary C. Foley, C. Maria Morse, Harriet Norris, Fannie 
Snipe. 

1858. — Frederick Cobb, Samuel Donnell, E. R. Drake, George 
A. Wadsworth, William R. Woodside, Nancy J. Brown, Maria P. 
Eaton, Eliza A. Lemont, Lizzie F. Nichols, Fannie E. S. Shaw, 



2IO HISTORY OF BATH. 

Frederickene S. Swanton, Lizzie D. Trufant, Jane R. Sheldon, 
Medora E. Roberts. 

1859. — Emeline R. Brooks, Sarah E. Eaton, Jane A. Fisher, 
Ellen S. Haley, Hannah A. Hatch, Annie E. Hayden, Susan M. 
Knight, Abbie A. Morse, Alice W. Sewall, R. Alonzo Friend. 

1860. — Sanford O. Frye, Charles E. Gibbs, Charles H. Green- 
leaf, Edward H. Morse, Julia A. Fuller, Mary F. Marr, Ellen M. 
Moses, Annie E. Moses, Fannie E. Moses, Annie M. Parker, Sarah 
J. Purington, Mary S. Small, M. Augusta Swanton. 

1861. — George T. Eaton, J. Elsworth Fullerton, W. H. Keene, 
William H. Oliver, A. H. Snow, Charles E. Sprague, Henry Russell, 
Annie G. Desilva, Bessie Dike, Priscilla B. Drake, Fannie A. Dun- 
ham, Rachel S. Farnham, Lydia N. Fogg, Margie R. Kimball, Lydia 
N. Linscott, Nettie P. Nealley, Emma F. Nutter, Lizzie S. Oliver, 
Ella A. Parker, Mary E. Roberts, Mary H. Small. 

1862. — Julia L. Baker, Mary E. Campbell, Susie A. Crocker, 
Eliza B. Cutler, Mary H. Deering, Sarah M. Drake, Emma J. Eaton, 
Eliza J. Kelly, Clara Manson, Anna Putnam, Octavia M. Putnam, 
Emma F. Robinson, Sarah J. Legeberg, C. S. Walker, Cora E. 
Rouse, Thomas B. Child. 

1863. — S. Isaac Curtis, George P. Davenport, C. Rodney Don- 
nell, A. Bradford Farnham, George Place, William J. Rouse, Orlando 
Sheldon, Frank T. Stinson, Kate Blethen, Addie Boynton, Maria F. 
Higgins, Clara E. Kimball, J. McLellan, Maria Page, May Sparks, 
Maria E. Upton, Fred Upton, E. Winslow. 

1864. — Henry Gannett, Isadore H. Boynton, Martha F. Per- 
kins, Clara E. Sanford. 

1865. — Arden W. Coombs, James Dike, Henry T. Eaton, John 
L. Ramsey, Georgiana Brown, Ellen M. Dinsmore, Ella M. Everett, 
Flora E. Hawthorn, Margaret T. Kelley, Eliza N. Percy, Georgie 
Purrington, Ann M. Robinson, Lizzie C. Sewall, L. Josephine 
Swanton, Ora F. Weeks. 

1866. — Charles W.Taylor, M. Fannie Drummond, Clara M. 
Frost, Sarah A. Hunt, Louisa M. Lee, E. Maria Small, Sarah S. 
Small, S. Lizzie Wall. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 211 

1867. — William H. Davenport, Frank E. Duncan, James C. 
Gannett, John L. Harris, William E. Hogan, Walter F. Marston, 
Clara A. Hawthorne, Lilla M. Hill, May F. Huston, Carrie H. 
Kendall, Ella A. Libby, Abbie L. Rogers, May C. Shaw. 

1868.— John M. Cushing, William L. Cushing, William P. Hill, 
Abbie T. Auld, Laura A. Ballard, Nettie M. Delano, Mattie F. 
Gannett, Margie J. Gilbert, Julie M. Simpson, George E. Hughes. 

1869. — Charles L. White, Equality; Julia A. Brown, Mysteries 
of Nature; Lillian W. Dunton, "There is no night so dark but 
morning doth appear"; Fannie D. Totman, Music; May Fisher, 
Little Things; Alice H. Morse, The Voyage of Life; Wealthy C. 
Moses, Thoughts; Hattie E. Palmer, "Lang Syne"; William G. 
Reed, Human Inventions; Lillie E. Tucker, The Idols of America; 
Mary Payne, Over the Sea; Ida H. Hawks, Voices that Speak to 
me; Abbie F. Mitchell, "And this shall be the reward: the ideal 
shall be, to thee, the real"; Kate S. Gannett, Class History; Clara 
L. Preble, Class Prophecy; Frank W. Hawthorne, Valedictory. 

1870. — Henry Wilson Chandler, Levi Houghton Kimball, 
Joseph McCobb Trott, Mary Ann Abbott, Lena Tyler Berry, Attie 
Annie Curtis, Mae Francina Davis, Anna Hay Everett, Helen 
Caroline Foster, Clara Elizabeth Hodgkins, Jennie Thomas Hodg- 
kins, Kate Woodward Huston, Ada Manson, Marcia Elizabeth 
Payne, Ella Lowe Turner. 

1871. — George Croswell Cressey, Samuel Dayton Cushing, 
William Payne Gannett, Fred Allison Greenleaf, Henry McLellan 
Harding, Byron Brooks Moulton, William Drummond Page, William 
Bartlett Palmer, William Edgar Rice, Henry Rose, Augustus Clarke 
Sprague, Louise Helen Abbott, Sarah Storer Coombs, Mary Cros- 
well Cressey, Mary Elizabeth Harding, Georgette Somers Hall, 
Hattie Ella Hayes, Viola Greenleaf Hogan, Jennie Rodbird Morse, 
Annie Maria Snow, Elizabeth Flora Tucker. 

1872. — John Winthrop Fiske, John Howard Payne, Allura 
Emma Bibber, Martha Jane Brown, Frances Almira Delano, Anna 
Dike, Mary Ella Harrington, Carrie Trull Hastings, Mary Delia 
Hodgkins, Fannie Margaret Simpson. 



212 HISTORY OP BATH. 

1873. — Edward Henry Oliver, Steam as a Motor; Ernestine 
Houghton, "Do Noble Things, not Dream Them"; Clara Adelaide 
Libby, Evening Musings; Charles Wyman Morse, National Purity; 
Ada Rebecca Sawyer, Silent Influences; Elizabeth M. Payne, All 
Things are Beautiful; Ella Carrie Haggett, Love of Fame; Charles 
Henry Mallett, Music; Annie Louisa Withington, Moonlight to the 
Prisoner; Mary Agnes Frazier, Wonders of the Universe; Arvesta 
Sophia Hill, Our Life Work; Fred Bosworth Percy, Perseverance; 
Clara A. Libby, Class History; Elizabeth M. Payne, Class Prophecy. 

1874. — Charles Davenport Clarke, James Gardner Dunning, 
Edward Huvey, Edward Watts Larrabee, Frederic Thomas Simp- 
son, Clara Augusta Abbott, Nellie Blair, Mary Ann Burke, Allie 
Estelle Clarke, Eliza Philbrook Cushing, Mary Louisa Harding, 
Frances Sarah Harrington, Annie Catherine Manion, Elizabeth 
Jane Owen, Mary Bella Page, Hortense Charlotte Patten, Margaret 
Robinson Welch. 

1875. — Mary J. Baker, Isabel B. Cromwell, Harriet S. Jenks, 
Marcia B. Jenks, Alice N. Magoun, Lizzie R. Moses, Anna M. R. 
Palmer, Annie L. Palmer, Nellie Purington, Abbie T. Rairden, Alice 
M. Skilling, Alice G. Swett, Alice C. Watson, Charles B. Torrey. 

1876. — Isabel Annie Harrington, Accomplishments; Samuel 
Swanton Sewall, Free High Schools; Lelia Owen Foye, A Fair 
Chance; John Swanton Jameson, Centennial; Hannah Emma Ma- 
goun, Extravagant Expressions; Lucy Grant Rogers, Manners of 
1776; George Otis Mitchell, "Lives of great men all remind us we 
may make our lives sublime"; Hannah Emma Magoun, Class His- 
tory; George Otis Mitchell, Class Prophecy. 

1877. — John Dike, Salutatory; Annie Florence Foye, Dare to 
be what you are; Hattie Elizabeth Brown, The Purest Pearl Lies 
Deepest; Mary Patten Stinson, Creation Full of Active Life; Alice 
Maude Colburn, Noble Deeds; William Moses Brown, Our Mother 
State; Edward McAuliffe, Napoleon Bonaparte; Emma Pedrick 
Moses, Nature and Art; Mary Emma Snell, Music; Julia Augusta 
Watson, Michael Angelo; George Herman Patten, Singleness of 
Purpose; Mary Abbie Wiggin, A Visionary Journey; Benjamin 



HISTORY OF BATH. 213 

Tupper Newman, Talent and Genius; George Francis Manson, Im- 
portance of Historical Knowledge; Jennie Sheldon Walston, Influ- 
ences of Home; Katharine West Tallman, Freedom of Thought 
and Action; Edward Everett Briry, The Past Century; Emma Jane 
Winslow, The first stroke is half the battle; Annie Melville Han- 
scom, "The Marble stands waiting"; Arthur Glenwood Staples, 
Great Ideas; Ralph Samuel Baker, America the Birthplace of Great 
Men; Mary Caroline Simpson, Ancient and Modern Chivalry; Flora 
Crafts, Not Dreaming but Working; Frostena Elizabeth Marston, 
Ambitious Men; Edmund Sylvester Wellington, "As a man thinketh 
so is he"; Caroline Mitchell Ring, Class History; George Francis 
Manson, Class Prophecy; Samuel Ford Blair, Valedictory. 

1878. — Frederick Henry Eames, A Benefactor; Lizzie Low, 
"What is it all when all is done"; Clara Sewall Morse, The Seven 
Wonders; Angelina Frances Rich, Mary, Queen of Scots; Sarah 
Lambard Lincoln, The Deceit of Appearances; Harold Marsh Sew- 
all, The Spectre of the Commune; Clara Ellen Jackson, Night 
brings out the Stars; Annie Goss Riggs, "This one thing I do"; 
Hattie Annie Morrison, Unwritten History; George Parker Rich- 
ardson, Vivere est Agere ; Oscar Trufant Sewall, Progress in Crime; 
Mary Elizabeth Upton, Popular Shams; Lizzie Emma Marr, True 
Courage; Annie Baker Patten, Halloween; Georgie Anna Brown, 
Love of Praise; Frank Edward Page, Magna Charta; Alice Kendall 
Robbins, Progress of the Age; Flora Belle Blair, Class History; 
Mary Jane Davis, Class Prophecy. 

1879. — Allan Stacey Duncan, Salutatory; Winnie Brown Camp- 
bell, Man does not live for himself alone; Alice Mary Hunt, Life is 
what we make it; Helen Marr Eaton, Vanity of Fame; Charlotte 
Blake Minott, Love of the Beautiful; Helen Gertrude Harris, 
Honor; Samuel Stinson Gannett, The Future Government of 
Europe; Annie Emma Cox, True Greatness; Emma Adelle Nichols, 
Abuses of the Power of Thought; Lizzie Maria Allen, Results of 
Small Undertakings; Nellie Amanda Gowell, Motives to Intellectual 
Culture; Charles Alvah Corliss, Free Thought; Ruth Mary Tabor, 
Thaddeus of Warsaw; Ada Lizzie Brown, Goethe; Philena Sprague 
Rich, Music; Ernest Francis Kelley, King Alfred to the Saxons; 



214 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Emily Harris Ring, Through Difficulties to the Stars; William 
Henry Allen Shaw, Jr., Henry Wilson; Harriet Esther Strout, Gems 
of Thought; Evelyn Wheelock Hawks, Trial by Ordeal; Charles 
Granville Lemont, Love of Distinction; Cora Ada M'Kay, Home; 
Ella Florence Eames, Education — a means or an end; Zina Hyde 
Blair, Jr., Rise and Fall of the English Drama; Josephine White 
Dunton, "Christmas; Sarah Asenath Sawyer, "They say"; Miriam 
Worcester Dike, Class History; Annie Barker Torrey, Class Proph- 
ecy; Edwin Ames Preble, Valedictory. 

1880. — Frederic Humphreys Kimball, Salutatory; Helen Len- 
nox Campbell, Hobbies; Margaret Clifford Eaton, The Secret of 
Success; Annie Blanche Harris, Ramblings; Abbie Josephine 
Eibell, Character and Reputation; Mary Sewall Ropes, Wisdom the 
Result of Experience; Edward Percy Bosworth, Prophecies of 
America; Ella Jane Douglass, Heraldry; Annie Etta Frazier, Cour- 
age; Charles William Fisher, Odds and Ends; Nellie Kinley Grin- 
nell, Hindrances; Annie Torrey, Advertisements; Harry Grant 
DeSilva, The Sciences; Nellie Cora Greenwood, "Much Study is a 
Weariness of the Flesh"; Emma Jane Harris, On the Threshold; 
Fannie Perkins Hodgkins, Chivalry; William Rogers Kimball, Rise 
of the Saracens; Clara Ellen Packard, Public and Private Life; 
George Francheville Lincoln, Progress of Crime; Delia Tibbetts, 
The End not Yet; Ella Gertrude Soule, As we Sow we Reap; Nellie 
Jane Watson, Public Libraries; Harriet Jordan Coombs, First Im- 
pressions; Frederick Preston Allen, The Course of the Empire; 
Mary Grace Clark, Divorce of Josephine; Flora Delia Collins, Self- 
Made Men; Ellen Susan Donnell, "A Man's a Man for a' that"; 
Mattie Alice Allen, "Much Ado about Nothing"; Robert Louis 
Manson, Fifty Years of the Drama; Charles Cobb Low, The Will, 
the Way; Rosa Harvey Douglas, " Don't give up the Ship "; Amy 
Louise Hawthorne, Charles Dickens; Bertha Louise Hawthorne, 
Language the Medium of Thought; Cassie Reed, Boys; May Patten 
Welch, Commonplace; Cornelius Sumner Tarbox, Prejudice; Ida 
Jane Totman, What Next; Fannie Amelia Pendexter, Class History; 
Robert Louis Manson, Class Prophecy; James Otis Lincoln, Vale- 
dictory. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 215 

1881. — William Morse Eames, Latin Salutatory; Alice Mehit- 
abel Hogan, Silent Influences; Lena Blendell Ham, The Value of 
Time; George Delano Hughes, Emigration; Annie Rogers Lord, 
Early Impressions ; George Andrew Blair, Crossing of the Rubicon ; 
Nannie Fogg McDonald, Noble Deeds; Aylmer Lawrence Rogers, 
Liberty and Law; Henry Albert Magoun, Electricity; Millie Mary 
Bradbury, Trifles; William Bevier Mussenden, Enterprise; Chris- 
tiana Scott Snow, Rieu pas Morities ; Stella Abbie Purington, 
Translations from the JSneid; Clara Parker Riggs, Fanaticism; 
Freeman Lincoln Hogan, Reflections on War; Fanny Rachel 
Grassy, The Companionship of Books; Reuben French Sawyer, 
Government; Charles Elbridge Cushing, Troas; Mary Stover 
Patten, William the Silent; McKendree Harris, Idols and Idolatry; 
John McKinstrey Kimball, Great Ideas; Nellie Carter, Character 
and Characteristic Men; Flora Adelia Cushing, Beauty; William 
Pope Nealley, Progress of Invention; Clara Ida Emmons, Wood 
Ramblings ; Sydney Johnson Meeker, American Tonnage ; Mary 
Andrus Watson, Class History ; Alice Libby Farrar, Class Prophecy ; 
Marshall Hagar Purington, Valedictory. 

1882. — Fred Norris Sewall, Salutatory; Georgietta Farrar, Su- 
perstitions; Annie Leighton Soule, Civilization; Ella DeShon Stin- 
son, Cheerfulness; Gertrude Hannah Frank, The Art of Music; 
James Henry McLellan, Electricity and its Uses; Arthur Sewall 
Percy, Vices of our Country; Nannie Bonn Coombs, Happiness; 
Annie Augusta Davenport, Beauties of Nature; Lulie Elizabeth 
Mooers, Perseverance; Mary Ellen Briry, Woman: her Position and 
Influence; Harry Banks Sawyer, Emulation; John Larrabee Puring- 
ton, Our Navy in the Revolution; Emma Leona Oliver, Sympathetic 
Imitations; Minnie Sarah Preble, By the Fireside; Lillie Clapp 
Moses, Appearances are Deceitful; Rosa Fowles Jackson, Lost 
Opportunities; Walter Emery Chase, Our Country; Fred Norris 
Sewall, Treason of Benedict Arnold; Richard Wolston, Ireland; 
Nellie May Chadbourne, Pride; Ella May Paine, "Let there be 
Light"; Carrie Margaret Percy, Man's Master Motives; Clara 
Eastman Pendexter, ^stheticism; Augustus Arnold Percy, Daniel 
Webster; Thomas Worcester Dike, Liberty of Thought; Ruby 



2l6 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Rogers Fisher, Education; Thomas Edward Connolly, Earth's Bene- 
factors; Mary Louise Lincoln, To-day; John Alden Morse, DeLong 
and his Fate; Margaret Harlowe Harrington, Class History; Lottie 
Nell Swett, Class Prophecy; Frank Sumner Tarbox, Valedictory. 

1883. — Henry Ward Howard, Salutatory; Addie Victoria Sad- 
ler, Poetry; Carrie Tucker Hagget, Influence; Helen Augusta Har- 
ris, Angelica Kaufman; Florence Isabelle Turner, Expectations; 
■Herbert Lincoln Nichols, New England's Heroes; Nellie Tukey 
Campbell, Extremes; Laura Belle Palmer, Air Castles; Kate May 
Hawthorne, Luck; Mabel Fletcher, "Noblesse Oblige "; George 
Frederic Moulton, Daniel Webster; Lillius Barrows Humphreys, 
Cultivation of the Memory; Mary Ellis Pray, Motives; Jennie Stew- 
art Foster, " Count that day lost whose low, descending sun views 
from thy hand no worthy action done "; Mary A. B. Blaisdell, The 
Ways of the World; Jesse Bailey, Education; Henrianna Campbell, 
Girls; Florence Maria Jordan, Going Out into the World; Alice 
Edgecombe Rogers, Peter Cooper; Annie May Chapman, Success 
and Failure; Ida May McDonald, Life is What we Make it; William 
Wentworth Robinson, Character; Carrie Reed Page, Heights Be- 
yond; Margaret Jane Melcher, Power of Music; Susan Arabella 
Allen, Books; Henry Wentworth Kimball, Value of Time; Albert 
Alfred Reed, Ireland; Harriet Magoun Watson, Class History; 
Flora Miranda McDonald, Class Prophecy; William Rice Ballou, 
Valedictory. 

1884. — John Franklin Briry, Salutatory; Lucy Harriman Riggs, 
" Room at the Top "; Lena Frances Spinney, Society; Mary Augusta 
Silsby, Spare Moments; Alice Harriet Jackson, Pleasures of the 
Imagination; Edward Brooks Marston, Napoleon Bonaparte; Agnes 
Whitmore Humphreys, Summer Resorts; Emma Haines Deering, 
Improvements; Lucy Ellen Sewall, Ruins; Sarah Edgarton Cutler, 
Richard III.; Frank Albion Small, Lord Bacon; Charles Frederick 
Hughes, Philosophy; Kittie Kezia Patten, My Picture Gallery; 
Clara Ellen Tibbetts, Ambition; Mary Elinor Robertson, Intellectual 
Character; Grace Zuella Soiett, Hypocrisy; James Lawrence Mc- 
Quarrie, The Age of Elizabeth; Lida Slater Coombs, Home; Carrie 
Helen Varney, Earth's Benefactors; Alice Lowell Upton, Rainy 



HISTORY OF BATH. 217 

Days; Mary Milnes Moulton, Echo; Frederick Charles Cox, Patriots 
of America; Frank Snowman Luce, "Be True to Thyself"; Etta 
Tucker McNeil, Time; Alice May Douglas, Life in the Country; 
Angie May Dunton, Beyond the Alps lies our Italy; George Herbert 
Weeks, Opportunity; Carrie Helen Parks, Class History; Nellie 
Gibbs, Class Prophecy; Charles Monroe Lincoln, Valedictory. 

1885. — Arthur Sewall Bosworth, Salutatory; May Frances Field, 
Woman's Work; Georgia Louise Drake, Photographs; Roswell 
Sherman Harris, General Grant; Alice May Cobb, Elements of 
Success; Abbie Fullerton Carter, Mothers; Langdon Trufant Snipe, 
The Ideal; Carrie Melville Moses, Our Saxon Ancestors; Andrew 
Tarbox Lowell, Journalism; Aline Bliss Colton, Crooked Sticks; 
Mary Jane Klippel, Fashion; Oliver Moses, John Brown; Jennie 
Mendora Purington, Our Life; Lewis Blackmer Swett, Our Tariff 
Laws; Grace Marian Akers, Commonplace Victories; Emma Ger- 
trude Small, Tramps; Frank Edward Donnell, The Assassination of 
Rulers; Mary Louise Klippel, Wants and Wishes; David Thomas 
Percy, Jr., Progress of Civilization; Steadman Fisher, Causes of our 
Civil War ; Harriet Louise Whitmore, Popular Songs ; Fred Walter 
Getchell, The Inventions of the Nineteenth Century; Jennie Delia 
Cushing, The Fates ; Nehemiah Harnden Campbell, Napoleon 
Bonaparte ; Charlotte Buck Stinson, Unknown Heroes; Nellie Par- 
ker Stinson, Keats ; John Robert Weeks, Silent Influences ; Frank 
Lightbody, William of Orange; Ruth Pierce Tarbox, Class History; 
Lillian Emma Ryder, Class Prophecy; John Sedgewick Hyde, 
Valedictory. 

1886. — Angus Martin McDonald, Salutatory; Margaret Jane 
Adams, Microscopic Wonders; Wilford Waldron Dennett, The 
American Indian; Harriet Lee Purington, Reading; Clare Adela 
Varney, Rome Was Not Built in a Day; Grace Cornelia Baker, 
Mary, Queen of Scots; Lizzie Merryman Stover, The Formation of 
Character; Fred. Chester Coombs, Relation of Capital to Labor; 
Myra West Spear, Charlotte Corday; Daniel Thomas Dougherty, 
Accidents ; Maude Ellenora Emery, The Ancestral Home ; Fred. 
Worcester Swanton, The Telephone; Sarah Augusta Minott, Ameri- 
can Humorists; Frank Walter Deloche, Dr. Salem Town; Mary 



2l8 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Pelham Hill, Delusions, a poem ; J. Edward Hugees, Early Arctic 
Explorations; Maude Abbie Hanscom, The Rise of the Opera; 
John Theodore Purrington, Lessons from Monuments ; Edith Maude 
Chase, What's in a Name; Silas Hyde Duncan, The Telescope; 
Fred Dayton Hill, What Next; Clara Louisa Lord, Class History; 
Hortense Gilman Emmons, Class Prophecy; Frank Emory Dennett, 
Valedictory. 

1887. — Bernard Andrew Bailey, Salutatory; Alice Gertrude 
Blasland, Friendship; Annie May Harris, Living in Earnest; Sarah 
Angeline Adams, The Power of Music; Rosa Helen Brown, One 
Great Lesson; Mabel Cora Mayo, We Can if we Think we Can; 
Martha Allen Foote, Small Beginnings — Large Results; Fred 
Payne Shaw, The Economy of Time; Ruth Ella Moulton, Unpainted 
Pictures; Lizzie Lemont Hamm, Day Dreams; Madge Lillian Reed, 
The Influence of Woman; Mary Ella Pratt, By the Road of By and 
By One Arrives at the House of Never; Orraville St. Clair Swain, 
A High Aim; Vilera Ann Sutton, Etiquette; Angie Estella Hunter, 
Boys; Carrie Belle Hodgkins, Old Maids; Blanche Mabel Dockendorff, 
Memory's Wild Wood; Sarah Jane Hitchcock, Visions of Ambition; 
Emma Frances Hooper, Home; Grace Leone Bartlett, A Bright 
Face; Arietta Lindsey Spinney, The Mystic Number Seven; Lizzie 
Mabel Fogg, Class History; Jennie Day Moulton, Class Prophecy; 
Hubert Houghton McCarty, Valedictory. 

1888. — Edward Clarence Purington, Salutatory; Margaret Julia 
McPhail, Affectation; Frank Bowen Torrey, Jr., President Cleve- 
land's Administration; Kate Dupuy Mussenden, The Narcissus; 
Fred Joseph Huse, The Frozen North; May Abbie Spinney, The 
Last of the Saxon Kings; Louise Hortense Lowell, Louise May 
Alcott; William Perow, The First Century of our Republic; Henri- 
etta Belle Palmer, Duty; Charles Frederic Magoun, Progressive 
Journalism; Mabel Susnn Cobb, The Puritans; Benjamin Herbert 
Woodside, William of Germany; Lillian Johnson Welch, The Comic 
Side; Belle Marion Shaw, Character Building; Charles Henry 
Cahill, Two American Traits of Character; Joan Merritt Hamm, 
Firelight Fancies ; Edwin Henry Lowell, The Development of the 
Printing Press; Clara Belle McDonald, Greek Mythology; Ella 



HISTORY OF BATH. 219 

Mae Work, A Human Garden; Hortense Fogg, Curiosity; Lois 
Julia Palmer, Novels and Novel Reading; Edna Maud Hunt, Scenes 
from the Life of Christ; Martha Josephine Hodgkins, One View of 
Life; Donald McPhail, The World's Heroes; Mary Warren Ballou, 
Class History; Annie Palmer Fisher, Class Prophecy; Arthur 
Eugene Harris, Valedictory. 

1889. — Fred Emerson Hooper, Salutatory; Lizzie Brown Hodg- 
kins, Occupations of Women of the Present Time; Mary Imogene 
McCurdy, Oliver Goldsmith; Winifred Hunt Bruce, Stepping Stones; 
John Crosby Gilmore, A Lesson from History; Cleora Bell Jackson, 
Words of Kindness; Edith Morse Potter, June; Alice Maria Mc- 
Donald, The History of a Noble Work; Nettie Blanche Hunter, 
Indirect Influence; Nellie Florence Douglas, Spun from Facts; 
William Story Briry, John Ericsson; Henrietta Bancroft Taylor, 
Flower Legends; Affie Ellen Jordan, Dreams and Dreamers; Evelyn 
Sherwood Eagle, The Development of Women; Frank John Dough- 
erty, Seven Centuries of Oppression; Ann Eliza Dodge, Life Without 
an Aim; Katherine Louise Conley, The Power of a Great Example; 
James Edward Drake, Good Luck and Bad Luck; Jennie May Whit- 
more, Belief in Signs; Jennie Delano Hughes, Umbrellas; Sadie 
Myrtilla Clark, Lady Jane Grey; Lectina Dunning, Beacon Lights; 
Arthur James Dunton, The United States in 1789 and 1889; Annie 
Mortimer Thayer, National Hymns; Lucie Frances Higgins, The 
Romance of the Hudson ; Byron Fuller Barker, The Study of the 
Ancient Classics; Flora May Randall, A Story of a Famine; Jennie 
Frances Gould, True Politeness; Mary Read Nichols, The Penal- 
ties of Eminence; Eben Jordan Marston, Charles Sumner; Clara 
Augusta Adams, The Ocean; Lida Helen Tarbox, Class History; 
Gertrude Clifford Greenleaf, Class Prophecy; Harry Clark Webber, 
Valedictory. 

1890. — John Ernest Quimby, Salutatory; Elinor Frances Hunt, 
Our State ; Lillian Grace Wescott, Woman's Influence ; Mattie 
Aurelia Montgomery, Madame Roland; Jennie Williams, Lessons 
from the Rocks; Amy Reed Morse, Unintended Influence; Ernest 
Lin wood Stinson, The American Navy; Emma Victoria Matson, 
Recollections; Hattie Maria Brown, The Magnetism of Words; 



220 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Katherine Theresa Maiden, July; Herbert Langdon Spinney, The 
Demands of the Age; Mary Norcross Gilmore, Living for Some- 
thing; Cynthia Grafton Worth, A Leaf from Memory's Tablet; 
Llewellyn Drew Rogers, A National Hero; Mary Augusta Blasland, 
Knots ; Fannie May Moulton, All Right ; John Parks Chase, Henry 
M. Stanley; Maud Carleton Worth, My Bouquet of Life; Margaret 
Florence Farrell, Self Praise; Lillian Augusta Soiett, Old Letters; 
Fred Fuller Blaisdell, India; Christena Hanson, "She hath done 
what she could"; Annie Turner McDonald, Class History; Jessie 
Christine Carter, Class Prophecy; Henry Francis Palmer, Vale- 
dictory. 

1891. — Arthur Henry Brown, Salutatory; Alice May Lilly, 
The Early Homes of New England ; Olivia Alberteen Kennerson, 
The Nebular Hypothesis; Edna Alberta Savage, Our National Flag; 
Bessie Clapp Dunning, The Stage ; Grace Louise Coombs, The 
Jewish People, Past and Present; Arthur Caseley Passmore, Popu- 
larity ; Isabelle Edgcombe Carter, Virgil and his Poetry ; Clara May 
Coombs, Eva Drummond Mitchell, The Territory of Alaska; 
Mary Helen Shaughnessy, Westminster Abbey; Hattie Gertrude 
Tarbox, 'Twixt Scylla and Charybdis; John Camp Swanton, Reci- 
procity; Sarah Almy Smith, Sketches from the Lives of the Great 
Composers; Livia Harrison Foye, Roumania's Poet Queen; Harriet 
Crommett Ledyard, The Story of Portia; Sarah Regenia Dunbar, 
A Bunch of Wild Flowers; Jennie Storer Harvey, Madame DeStael; 
Mary Florence Merrill, Women's Work in the Civil War; Lily Saw- 
yer Pray, The Golden Calf; Alice Eugenia Greenleaf, Class History; 
Frances Warren Morse, Class Prophecy; Arthur Harvey Stetson, 
Valedictory. 

1892. — Robert Fred Dyer, Salutatory; Milton Herbert Doug- 
lass, Essay, The Columbian Exposition; Charles Dearborn McDon- 
ald, Declamation, The First Predicted Eclipse, Gen. O. M. Mitchell; 
Edith Langdon Palmer, Reading, Herve Riel, Robert Browning; 
Mary Louise Dodge, Essay, The Mississippi and the Nile; Grace 
Thompson Humphreys, Reading, from the French, Des Djinns, 
Victor Hugo; Herbert Fayne Harris, Essay, William Ewart Glad- 
stone; Belle Dunning Williams, Essay, Women as Educators; Harry 



HISTORY OF BATH. 221 

William Dunton, Declamation, The Crisis at Waterloo, Victor Hugo; 
William Sanford Shorey, Essay, The Immigration Problem; Mildred 
Clara Palmer, Reading, The Death of Charles IX., Maud Moore; 
Percy Elmer Barbour, Class Oration, Maine's Great Men; Lillian 
May Bryant, Class History; Hattie Ellen Reed, Class Prophecy; 
Henry Wilson Owen, Jr., Valedictory. 

1893. — Charles Day Moulton, Salutatory; Florence Ella Don- 
nell, Essay, A Visit to Starland; Grace Duncan, Essay, The Secret 
of Genius; William Garvie McPhail, Declamation, Reply to Walpole, 
Chatham; Alice Gertrude Shorey, French Composition, Histoire 
d' une Sonnette d' Ecole; Aramede Lemont Lowell, Essay, Twilight; 
Carlotta Blair McDonough, Reading, King Robert of Sicily, Long- 
fellow; Ida Maria Dunning, Essay, Life in Colonial Times; Nellie 
Maria Ward, Essay, " Learn to Labor and to Wait "; Adelbert Wes- 
ley Bailey, Address to the Soldiers, Latin Version from the Greek 
of Xenophon; Katherine Fulton Patten, Essay, Oliver Goldsmith; 
Ella Sarah Cameron, Essay, An Ideal Life; Alice Mayo Morse, 
Reading, Scotland's Maiden Martyr, Anon.; Martha Ella Hooper, 
Essay, Amusements; Mabel Florence Lewis, Essay, The Elements 
of Success; John Hinckley Morse, Class Oration, Notoriety not 
Fame; Ellen Ridley Turner, Class History; Nellie Pomeroy Clark, 
Class Prophecy; Fred Elmer Taylor, Oration, The Columbian Year, 
with Valedictory. 

The full names of some of those who have been principals of the 
High school are: J. L. Newton, Jonas Burnham, J. T. Huston, 
Albert B. Wiggin, Galen Allen, A. G. Ham, L. Dutton, George E. 
Hughes, H. E. Cole. The city records do not give the full names 
of other principals. Some omissions of titles of themes of graduates 
have been occasioned for want of records of them. 



222 HISTORY OF BATH. 



LIBRARIES. 



The first library known to have existed in Bath was a small " cir- 
culating library " that was kept in a case or closet in the apothecary 
store of Dr. Nathaniel Weld on Center street. Tradition carries 
the date back to 1826, with the probability that books were kept 
there prior to that time. In the collection were all the volumes of 
the old English Encyclopedia. Books were loaned to be retained 
three weeks. It is not known what became of this library. 

In 1836 the Mechanic Association established a library, the 
members contributing books from their own collections or by pur- 
chase. 

Henry Hyde kept a " circulating library " in his bookstore on 
Front, head of Center street, on the corner immediately opposite 
Lincoln Bank. 

Ammi R. White also kept a library for the loan of books in his 
store on the west side of Front street, where now is the Granite 
block. The books were chiefly those of fiction. Mr. White kept 
dry goods at the north side of his store and books and stationery at 
the south side. 

Later, Thomas H. Knight kept a book and stationery store in 
Bank block, in which he had a circulating library comprising some 
one thousand volumes. When he closed out his business the library 
ceased to exist and the books became scattered. 

The Patten Library Association. — A paper was signed Oct. 

9, 1847, by one hundred and thirty-two leading citizens, headed by 
George F. Patten and John Patten, agreeing to become subscribers 
to a "joint stock library." The subscribers met at the office of Dr. 
Israel Putnam on Nov. 8, 1847. Dr. Putnam presided and E. S. J. 
Nealley was elected secretary, which office he held until 1876; C. B. 
Lemont succeeded to the office until his removal from the city, since 
which time James S. Lowell has been secretary. John Patten, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 223 

Amos Nourse, C. S. Jenks, Reuben Sawyer, Gershom Hyde, and 
M. F. Gannett were appointed a committee of organization. The 
subscriptions amounted to $470.00. The institution was named the 
Patten Library Association, of which George F. Patten was chosen 
president, which office he held until 1857; Caleb S. Jenks was pres- 
ident to 1862; Amos Nourse to 1865; S. F. Dike to 1870; Israel 
Putnam to 1876; E. S. J. Nealley to 1882; John Patten to 1887; 
Galen C. Moses to date, 1893. The library was located in a room 
on a second story on Front street, west side, over the "archway" ; 
the room owned by W. V. and O. Moses. On Aug. 6, 1852, the 
secretary of the association received the following letter: — 

" Having purchased the library, cases, maps, 'and globes which 
were the property of Gen. King, we present the same to the Patten 
Library Association of Bath, on the condition that the same revert 
to the donors should the association ever be dissolved, and on the 
further condition that a suitable room be procured for the whole 
library. G. F. and J. Patten." 

This donation was accepted by the association with suitable 
thanks. It had been purchased at auction sale for $300.00 The 
King Library was large and well selected for his time. The greater 
number of the books are such as a public man and statesman to be 
well informed would need, containing as they do the proceedings of 
Congress and the Massachusetts and Maine legislatures. There are 
many volumes of standard literary works, although he was not a 
man of culture. There are some works that have been long out of 
print and of rare merit. The books are all substantially bound and 
in a good state of preservation. It is an excellent collection of 
books for' reference in certain classes of works. 

The legal organization of the association was effected at a 
meeting on Nov. 16, 1852. The available funds of the association 
were realized by annual assessments, varying from one to two 
dollars, together with the amounts received from loans of books at 
$2\5o a year to those not proprietors, and the life membership fees 
of $25.00 without annual assessments. 

At a meeting on Nov. 21, 1857, it was voted to request the presi- 



224 HISTORY OF BATH. 

dent, George F. Patten, to furnish a bust of himself to place in the 
library room in recognition of his having been " one of the principal 
founders of the association and for a series of years its presiding 
officer and liberal patron." But there is no record to show that a 
favorable response had been made to this proposition. 

The Center Street Boom. — On May 6, 1879, John Patten 
executed to the association a deed of trust of a house and lot on 
Center street, to be occupied for library purposes, with the provision 
that the property shall be transferred to the city of Bath "whenever 
said city shall institute a public library and appropriate funds for its 
support " to be not less than three hundred dollars annually. This 
trust was accepted by the association May 14, 1879. The associa- 
tion commenced occupancy of the building early in January, 1880, 
which was continued until the books were moved into the new 
Public Library Building in the winter of 1890-1891. 

During the last year of the life of John Patten he expressed a 
purpose to give a fee simple title to the association of this library 
property, but he died before the writings were executed. Subse- 
quently, his heirs, John O. Patten and Clara Patten Goodwin, 
conveyed to the association the premises in accordance with the 
design of their grandfather. The association holds the property for 
revenue by rentals. 

The Patten Free Library. 

At a special meeting of the association, Feb. 21, 1837, G. C. 
Moses delivered to the association a deed of a gift of ten thousand 
dollars " for the purpose of establishing, maintaining, and increasing 
a free library in Bath for the use of its citizens," and . providing 
" that the name of the association be changed to Patten Free 
Library," and to utilize this fund it was necessary to secure a suit- 
able building. For a site the "Torrey property," on the south-east 
corner of Summer and Front streets, was selected. This was pur- 
chased at a cost of $3,500, which sum was raised by subscription. 
The grading cost $1,000, which was also obtained by subscription. 

At the solicitation of Mr. Moses, George E. Harding, a native 
of Bath and architect at New York, drew a plan of the building, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 225 

the work of which, worth several hundred dollars, he donated to 
the object. The details of the erection of the building were solely 
under the direction of Mr. Moses, who paid all the bills, amounting 
to a much larger sum than originally given by him for the purpose. 
The edifice is a model in style of architecture, interior arrangement, 
and finish, and is an ornament to the city. Mr. Moses set apart a 
room in the library building for the gratuitous use of the Sagadahoc 
Historical Society, which was finished and fitted in the elegant style 
of the rest of the structure. 

The city government appropriated aid to the library to the extent 
of fifty cents' assessment as a poll tax yearly. The association 
voted $500 for the purchase of new books in 1890, and by the 
efforts of Dr. R. D. Bibber $700 were raised for the same purpose 
by subscription among citizens of the city. In the fall of 1892, 
$1,500 were raised for the library by a Kirmess entertainment. 
Mrs. Edward K. Harding made a gift to the building of an oil 
painting of George Washington by Stuart, that had been the prop- 
erty of William King. 

At a meeting of the association in the reading room in the new 
library building, on Dec. 29, 1890, G. C. Moses, the president of 
the association, handed over to Mayor Charles E. Patten the trans- 
fer of the building to the city of Bath. The books in the old library 
building were removed to the new building and a new catalogue 
made. On Jan. 1, 1891, the library was opened to the citizens 
of Bath with a librarian and assistant librarian in charge, the rooms 
to be kept open every afternoon and evening of week days. There 
is a large and well lighted reading room, which is equipped with 
maps, charts, periodicals, and bound volumes of newspapers. 

The membership of the library association is limited to one hun- 
dred and fifteen, and on Jan. 1, 1891, it consisted of one hundred 
and thirteen. In January, 1892, the election of officers resulted as 
follows: Galen C. Moses, President; James S. Lowell, Secretary; 
M. D. Newman, Librarian; H. Emmons, Assistant Librarian; John 
G. Richardson, Superintendent of Library. Charles E. Hyde was 
elected a trustee for seven years. Dr. R. D. Bibber, Mrs. G. E. R. 



226 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Patten, and Mrs. C. W. Larrabee were chosen a committee to act 
with the trustees for raising funds for books the ensuing year. 

Ex-Mayor Charles E. Patten presented to the association a $1,000 
bond as the nucleus of a permanent fund, the income to be used 
exclusively for the purchase of reading matter. President G. C. 
Moses promised to give an additional amount, provided the fund 
could be increased to $5,000. Ex-Mayor Patten then started a 
subscription list for purchase of books for the ensuing year, giving 
$20.00. He was followed by George E. Hughes, Ernest F. Kelley, 
John G. Richardson, Charles E. Hyde, F. H. Twitchell, John O. 
Shaw, and Joseph W. Trott with subscriptions of $10.00 each. It 
was voted that the magazines, which it has heretofore been neces- 
sary to call for, be placed on the table in the reading room for 
easier access. 

From the president's and treasurer's reports the following facts 
and figures are taken: The old library as moved contained 3,880 
volumes. There have been added by gift 519, by purchase 772, 
making a present total of 5,171, an increase of nearly 33^- per cent. 
The city appropriation for maintaining the library was $1,250. 
Receipts from other sources have been: Sundry subscriptions 
collected, $753-85; bequest from Mrs. Charles Clapp, $200; gift by 
Charles E. Patten, $100; total, $1,053.85, from which has been 
expended for books $823.05, leaving unexpended $230.80. Received 
from non-residents, $3.00; from rent of building on Center street, 
$187.08; from fines and damages, $76.73: from sale of catalogues, 
$19.10. Total, $576.71. Balance city appropriation unexpended, 
$38.54. Received from city account, spring of 1S92, $200. Total, 
$755.25 for books and running expenses until the next city appro- 
priation shall be available. 

For 1893, the old board of officers was re-elected. Miss Marion 
D. Newman resigned her position of librarian, and Miss Veturia 
Manson was appointed to the place, with Miss M. Foote, assistant. 

The number of books composing the library is 7,956, of which 
148 were donated in 1892; there has been a total issue of 2,138 
cards since January, 189 1 ; the average number of books taken out 



HISTORY OF BATH. 227 

daily is 98; the total receipts for 1892 were $2,536 and the surplus 
in the treasury, $1,978. 

Other Libraries. — The Winter Street society has a pastor's 
library comprising 2,500 volumes, each of the churches has a 
Sunday-school library, and the High school has a library. 



THE SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' ORPHANS' HOME. 



During the war of the rebellion, soldiers of the several military 
companies when enlisted for service were tendered pledges that 
their families should be taken care of. When the war was ended, 
these pledges were not forgotten, at least by the women of Bath. 
Consequently, this generous sentiment utilized in the movement, in 
the spring of 1866, to found a Soldiers' Orphans' Home. Lady 
members of the religious societies took the initiatory steps by hold- 
ing a meeting, composed of two ladies from each society, at which 
they formed a " Soldiers' Orphans' Home Association." Interest 
in the undertaking became awakened and other towns joined in the 
movement. An efficient committee of ladies to obtain donations 
were eminently successful in their efforts, commencing with one 
thousand dollar donations from John Patten and J. Parker Morse, 
which was followed by others in smaller sums, some of which came 
from other portions of the state and in all amounted to $6,686.34. 
Up to and inclusive of the year 1868, there were twenty seven man 
and women who became life members by the payment of twenty-five 
dollars; three hundred and twenty-one honorary members by the 
payment of one dollar, and two hundred and twenty-three became 
enrolled as members by the agreement to pay fifty cents annually. 

At the legislature of 1 866, application was made for an act 
incorporating the Home. This was granted Feb. 23, 1866, of which 
the following is the first two sections : " John Patten, George F. 
Patten, Charles Davenport, Oliver Moses, and J. P. Morse, their 



228 HISTORY OF BATH. 

associates, successors, and assigns, are hereby constituted a body 
politic and corporate, by the name of the Trustees of Bath Military 
and Naval Orphan Asylum, for the purpose of rearing and educat- 
ing gratuitously, in the common branches of learning and ordinary 
industrial pursuits, the orphans and half orphans of officers and 
soldiers, seamen and marines, who have entered the service of the 
government from Maine during the war for the suppression of the 
rebellion, and have died in said service, or subsequently from 
wounds received or injuries or disease contracted while in said ser- 
vice; and shall have all the powers and be subject to all the duties 
and liabilities of like corporations in this state." 

To make this enactment effective, the corporators were to raise 
twenty thousand dollars within two years; this accomplished, the 
governor was authorized to draw his warrant on the treasury of the 
state annually for six thousand dollars in favor of the corporation, 
and the money was raised as stipulated. The Home was opened 
Nov. 19, 1866. 

At the legislature of 1870, an effort was made to obtain an in- 
creased appropriation for the institution, in which Mrs. Sampson 
took the lead. This lady took the orphans, then numbering fifteen, 
to Augusta and introduced them to the members of both houses by 
the Rev. A. F. Beard, pastor of the Central church. An act appro- 
priating $15,000 to the Home was passed, the institution was 
taken in charge by the state, and the next year the same amount 
was appropriated. When it became under the state authorities, the 
governor appointed as trustees : John Patten, J. P. Morse, and T. 
W. Hyde of Bath and N. A. Farwell of Rockland; the association 
appointed Charles Davenport, Samuel F. Dike, E. S. J. Nealley. 
The lady managers then were appointed: Mrs. H. F. Gannett, 
Mrs. A. J. Fuller, Mrs. J. T. Howland, Mrs. S. F. Dike, Mrs. G. C. 
Goss, Mrs. T. G. Stockbridge, Mrs. James Bailey, Mrs. John O. 
Shaw, Mrs. J. T. Patten, Mrs. C. A. L. Sampson. Charles Daven- 
port was appointed treasurer. 

In December a Fair was held from which was realized $2,000. 

Having secured sufficient means to enable the association to 
establish the Home, a house for the purpose was rented on Walker 



HISTORY OF BATH. 229 

street at a low rent, yet of sufficient capacity to accommodate the 
few at first requiring admission. They were placed under the care 
of Miss Sarah Farnham. An efficient worker in the cause of the 
Home was Mrs. Sarah Sampson, who had been in Washington and 
Virginia at a time during the war, rendering assistance to sick and 
wounded soldiers. Her husband, Col. C. A. L. Sampson, was in 
the army from Bath. In a very few years the orphans of the Home 
had so greatly increased that a larger house became necessary. 

The Present Building. — In 1870 a purchase for $10,000 was 
made of the spacious mansion corner of High and South streets 
that was built in 1800 by Samuel Davis. The building has since 
been enlarged to room one hundred children and modern conven- 
iences added. The grounds are capacious, comprising six acres, 
well improved and attractive. Fire escapes were put on in 1865. 
It has the city water, lighted by gas and heated by steam. 

By the will of Horatio Ward of London, who was formerly a 
citizen of this country, the Home received a legacy of $13,000, 
which has been placed on interest for the benefit of the institution. 
The legislature of the state makes an annual appropriation gov- 
erned by the wants of the institution, averaging about eight thou- 
sand dollars. There are also occasional individual donations. 

Mrs. Mayhew of Rockland became associated with Miss Farn- 
ham in the management of the children. These ladies were 
succeeded by Mrs. Partridge, who became the matron Nov. 4, 
1875. After many changes of those occupying this position, Mrs. 
A. Stetson entered upon the duties of the office in 188 1, is still 
in charge of the Home, and according to the annual reports of the 
Board of Visitors the internal domestic management under Mrs. 
Stetson has been uniformly well nigh perfect. 

Much attention is given by the matron to the instruction of the 
children in both vocal and instrumental music, in which some of the 
pupils become quite proficient. The institution has a fine piano, 
presented by the state Grand Army of the Republic. 

The Presidents have been John Patten, elected in 1868; Nelson 
Dingley, Jr., in 1872; Nathan A. Farwell, in 1873; William E. 



230 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Payne, in 1874; J. T. Patten, in 1877; J. W. Spaulding, in 1878; 
F. B. Torrey, in 1880; William G. Haskell, in 1883; Charles B. 
Merrill in 1884; Seth T. Snipe, in 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893. 

The Secretaries have been Thomas W. Hyde, to 1875; George 
E. Morse, to 1882 ; G. W. Preble, for 1882; W. H. Watson, since 
1883. 

Treasurers; Charles Davenport, to 1872; Gershom H. Palmer, 
to 1875; Michael F, Gannett, to 1878; H. A. Duncan, to the pres- 
ent date. 

Chief Managers. Those who have had the chief management 
of the institution for many years are S. T. Snipe, W. H. Watson, 
David R. Wylie, H. A. Duncan, and J. G. Richardson who has 
supervision of the children's department. 

Some of the children are indentured to the institution, while the 
parents of the others have a right to withdraw their children at any 
time. The children are received with great care and discrimination, 
none being admitted who would be a detriment to the discipline of 
the house. 

The average cost of maintaining an inmate of the Home is about 
$115 annually. The average total expenditures of the institution 
differ according to the number of its occupants. 

When Mrs. Stetson became matron there were twenty-five chil- 
dren in the Home. In that year (1881) a new board of trustees 
was elected, and under its management the number increased 
within a year to eighty. There are more children there in the 
winter than in the summer, as needing more care- in the inclement 
season. Since the present matron has been in charge the highest 
number in the Home at any one time was eighty; the smallest, 
twenty-one; the average, sixty-seven. For 1892 there were sixty- 
two children. 

The evening of every New Year's Day is a festive one for the 
children. In the double parlors are evergreen trees loaded with 
presents for the little ones. These have been donated by the large 
dry goods firms of Boston, R. H. White & Co., Jordan & Marsh, 
Miss S. H. Snow of Boston, and many generous merchants of 



HISTORY OF BATH. 231 

Bath. On the occasion of the distribution of these gifts, the doors 
of the Home are thrown wide open and the rooms become filled 
with an assemblage of the best people of the city and from out of 
town. They are entertained by recitations, music, and other pleas- 
ing performances by the children, often followed by brief remarks 
from distinguished gentlemen present. 

All of the children regularly attend church and Sunday-school, 
to which they go attended by the matron and her assistants, 
appearing on the street neatly and appropriately dressed, walking in 
regular order and with perfect propriety. There are no more be- 
comingly dressed children nor better behaved anywhere else. At 
no time are they allowed to play on the streets, but have ample 
grounds for recreation. Under such salutary discipline are they 
that no neighbor ever has cause to complain of them. They are 
well behaved everywhere. The boys are taught industry by helping 
in the work on the grounds and garden, and the girls in housework 
and sewing. By the generosity of railway and steamboat managers, 
they enjoy many excursions by land and water. 

As this is eminently a Bath institution, nearly all the business 
and oversight of the Home are performed year after year by citi- 
zens of this city. In addition to this, the children are accorded 
the advantages and benefits in common with the children of 
citizens of all the city schools, and some of the children pass 
through all the school grades and graduate from the high school. 
Many of these children as scholars rank with the best in the regular 
reports of their instructors, and two of the girls have since gradu- 
ated at colleges. 

When the children become of suitable age, places are found for 
them among farmers and other ways, frequent applications being 
made by those desiring to adopt them. Care is. taken that the 
disposition of the boys and girls in this particular be judicious, and 
the results are looked after with solicitude. In some instances the 
children, at the close of their terms in the institution, are returned 
to their parents. 

Children who have graduated from the Home have in some cases 



232 HISTORY OF BATH. 

become ministers, teachers, book-keepers, civil engineers, machin- 
ists, ship-masters, farmers without number, and all sorts and grades 
of employment, there having been very few instances of any turning 
out bad. 

In over one thousand children who have been inmates of the 
Home in thirteen years, there have been only three deaths, of which 
two were consumptives who had been admitted while such in order 
to keep them out of the poor-house. 

Mr. J. Green Richardson took charge of the children twelve years 
since, has had the general management of this department and 
entire control of the reception and disposal of the children. 

Gov. Henry B. Cleaves has publicly said that so well have the 
children of the Home turned out, that the state has been amply 
repaid for all the appropriations that it has made for the benefit of 
this well conducted institution. 



THE OLD LADIES' HOME. 



The subject of establishing a home for aged and worthy women 
in this city having interested leading gentlemen and ladies to a 
sufficient number, a largely attended meeting was held in the City 
Hall, April 8, 1875, which was presided over by Barnard C. Bailey. 
An earnest endeavor was inaugurated to take steps for the forma- 
tion of a society for the purpose in view by the appointment of a 
committee to report at another meeting the advisability of the pro- 
posed undertaking, and of the form of organization if the decision 
should be to proceed. 

At a meeting of this committee on the succeeding day, it was 
resolved to organize a society. Consequently a meeting was called 
for April 12th, which appointed a committee of twelve to take the 
necessary measures for the incorporation of a society. This com- 
mittee held a meeting on the 17 th, and by petition obtained from 



HISTORY OF BATH. 233 

Henry Tallman, a justice of the peace, a legal warrant, by virtue of 
which a general meeting was holden on May 5 th; subsequently, a 
constitution was adopted as prepared by B. C. Bailey, J. W. Wake- 
field, and S. F. Dike, under which B. C. Bailey was chosen Presi- 
dent; Mrs. John S. Elliot, Vice-President ; John Gregson, Secretary; 
Mrs. T. G. Stockbridge, Treasurer, and a Board of Managers. 

A fund was immediately raised by voluntary donations, headed 
by John Patten & Son with $3,000, and $1,000 each from Rodney 
Hyde, Thomas Harward, Thomas M. Reed, William D. Sewall, 
Barnard C. Bailey, Franklin Reed, Oliver Moses, William 
V. Moses, Goss & Sawyer, John H. Kimball, Galen C. Moses, 
James F. Patten, and the addition of lesser sums resulted in a 
total of $19,122. Subsequently, John Patten made money donations 
to the amount of $5,000 and other very liberal contributions. 

To commence operations the house on the north-east corner of 
High and Granite streets was leased and inmates admitted. The 
formal opening, however, did not take place until November 1st, 
when the house was filled with friends of the Home and dedicatory 
services were held. 

The number of inmates of the Home having increased, and the 
funds of the society being sufficient to warrant the undertaking, the 
present Home on High street was purchased, and on Oct. 9, 1877, 
the house was dedicated by the presence of its friends, the offering 
of prayer, addresses, and quartette singing. 

Mrs. Mary J. Ledyard of the city, having taken a lively interest 
in the welfare of the Home for a ■ number of years, left by will an 
endowment fund in trust with the city government of $14,000, 
which yields a yearly income of $840. Mrs. Caleb S. Jenks, who 
also had constantly interested herself in promoting the success of 
the Home, donated by her will two thousand dollars for its benefit. 
There have been other liberal donations from various sources, in- 
cluding a considerable sum that has been realized by pound parties. 

Inmates are admitted at the discretion of the board of managers, 
which comprise both ladies and gentlemen; the applicant must 
furnish her room, pay in cash one hundred dollars upon entrance, 



234 HISTORY OF BATH. 

and if she is possessed of any property it must be made over to 
authorities of the Home in fee simple. So far twenty-seven aged 
ladies have found a home in this institution. When a room becomes 
vacant a new occupant is immediately admitted. The aged ladies 
do not lose respectability on account of living in the Home. 

From the date of the organization of the society B. C. Bailey 
was president until his death in 1876, since which time G. C. Moses 
has been the president; the secretaries have been John Gregson, 
Mrs. Michael F. Gannett, and Veturia Manson; treasurers, Mrs. 
T. G. Stockbridge, Charles Davenport, and Franklin Reed since 
1877; auditors, S. D. Bailey, J. H. Kimball; the matrons, Mrs. L. 
A. Huston, Mrs. M. Stinson, Mrs. Henry Tallman, Mrs. F. P. Hogan. 

The Home Edifice. — The house that is used for the Home 
is situated on a conspicuous and central site on High street; is of 
two large stories with out-buildings, and surrounded by extensive, 
well kept and handsomely adorned grounds. This is a favorite 
and favored institution of the benevolently inclined among the 
leaders of society, who take a constant and personal oversight of 
its welfare. This Home is notable for the longevity of those who 
have passed their later lives within its precincts, which affords 
worthy ladies truly a home. One lady lived to be over 101 years. 

Public Beneficent Bequests. — Denny Kelley, a native of Ire- 
land, found his way to Bath in his early life. The first three nights 
he spent in the place he slept under a board pile on Gove's wharf. 
Among the first jobs of work he obtained was hod carrier to masons 
who were at work on the building that is now occupied by the Twen- 
ty-five Cent Savings Bank. In time he purchased the same building, 
in which he kept a dry goods and carpet store, his wife assistant. 
They had no children, and when he died he left by will the sum of 
two thousand dollars in trust, the income to be used in aid of de- 
serving poor of the city. The first trustee was Mr. E. S. J. Nealley, 
and he was succeeded by Mr. J. M. Hayes, now acting as such, who 
reports that this fund has been the means of doing a vast amount 
of good; the money is loaned to the city at six per cent, interest. 
Mrs. Caleb S. Jenks left in her will one thousand dollars, the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 235 

income to be used for the same purpose, and it was united with 
the Kelley fund, both together making one hundred and eighty 
dollars yearly to bless the poor, who in turn bless the generous 
donors and perpetuate their memories to all future time. In 1892, 
Mrs. L. M. Perkins, a native of Bath, living elsewhere after her 
marriage, bequeathed one thousand dollars in trust to this city, the 
income derived from it to be applied to the benefit of its poor. Mr. 
Rodney Hyde donated fifty dollars to the same purpose. 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



At a period anterior to the early temperance reform which reached 
this city about the year of 1830, the use of liquors of all kinds as a 
beverage was universal, was considered generally to be a necessity, 
was kept in decanters on every sideboard to be set before every 
visitor of social importance, to neglect which would be a slight, was 
indispensable on the occasion of the installation of clergymen, at 
raisings, huskings, chopping bees, trainings, town meetings, fur- 
nished by candidates, dancing and social parties, on the dinner 
tables when guests were present, and at every formal or festive 
gathering. It was a legitimate article of trade, the stock of no 
store was complete without it; was brought as part of the cargo of 
every vessel arriving from a foreign port, on board of which 
the sailors were entitled to their twice daily allowance of "grog," 
while the cabin was supplied with cases of a choicer grade; work- 
men employed on shore must have the regular " eleven o'clock '' 
and " four o'clock '' drinks and " bitters " before breakfast when the 
day's work commenced, as was often, with the sun. The best 
profits in trade were made by the dealing in liquors, and men of 
the first class were in the business. 

It was not until about the year of 18 12 that thinking men of 
broad views and philanthropic impulses began to agitate the neces- 
sity of temperance reform in New England. In this movement 



236 HISTORY OF BATH. 

men of Massachusetts and Connecticut led, and the American 
Temperance Society was instituted Feb. 13, 1826. It met with 
serious opposition, not only from the lovers of liquor, but from its 
importers and dealers. It was upon this question that the 
celebrated Lyman Beecher came into conspicuous notice. He 
delivered a series of lectures upon the subject that were replete 
with logic and comprehensive eloquence. They became printed in 
pamphlet form and scattered gratuitously throughout the New 
England towns. This opened the eyes of the community. 

DeaCOll Giles' Distillery. — About that time a great sensation 
connected with the incipient era of temperance reform had its origin 
in Salem. That sea-port was, at that day, an important one for 
trade with the 'West Indies, and large quantities of molasses were 
imported into the place Hence it was a good place for a distillery, 
and Mr. Giles, who was a deacon of an Orthodox church, established 
one. A minister of some distinction of the place, Dr. George B. 
Cheever, wrote and had published an exceedingly able and sarcastic 
communication in a leading newspaper of the town, in which he 
illustrated the iniquity of a deacon ef a church operating " the worm 
of the still." It was headed " Enquire at Deacon Giles' Distillery." 
Its appearance created an intense excitement; as the subject was 
new and the story startling, the whole thing shook New England 
from center to circumference. The avaricious sanctimony of its 
owner and the picture which Dr. Cheever drew of the midnight 
fire that consumed the distillery building, in the midst of the 
ascending smoke of which the devil was seen carrying the writhing 
form of the miserable hypocrite away, were intensely sensational. 
For this he was prosecuted, tried, and imprisoned for thirty days in 
Salem jail; but it did as much for the cause of temperance as Uncle 
Tom's Cabin did to bring about the abolition of slavery. 

The Bath Distillery- — 1° tne a & e of tne universal use of 
liquors, and when the large fleet of vessels in the West India trade 
brought to this port cargoes of molasses, a demand was created for 
it in the establishment of a distillery by Samuel Winter for making 
New England rum. It occupied the ground immediately south of 
the present gas house, in connection with which was the distillery 



HISTORY OF BATH. 237 

wharf. The business was run for many years with apparent profit 
until Mr. Winter indulged in an unfortunate speculation in molasses, 
in the fear of disaster from which operation he drowned himself 
one dark night off the end of this wharf. His distillery then 
suspended operations, the temperance reformers soon after bought 
the building, and this put an end in Bath to the distilling of 
molasses into rum. 

Parson Ellingwood made the remark in his latter days that 
" on the occasion of his ordination the largest bill he had to pay 
was for liquor for the ministers' entertainment." This was in 1812. 
Ministers took it with noon luncheon on the Sabbath, and in some 
well known instances took it into the pulpit with them. With sin- 
gular inconsistency the boys were not allowed to drink, and yet with 
potent examples before them and the opportunies to indulge, it 
is likewise singular that more of them did not become drunkards; 
and it is also a singular fact that neither those who retailed the 
tempting article nor their young clerks were often known to be even 
habitual drinkers. An old Bath paper of those days has this couplet: 

"A man who saw his son quite handy 
Toi-s off a glass of strong French brandy ; 
' Neddy,' cried he, 'Ah don't do so, 
For liquor is our greatest foe.' 
' But we are taught to love our foes,' 
Quoth Ned, 'so father — here goes.-' " 

During the war of 18 12, ship-loads of liquor were brought into 
Castine. Traders from Bath went there for the purchase of large 
quantities. The files of old newspapers display advertisements of 
all kinds of liquors, wholesale and retail, by merchants of the high- 
est repute in Bath. 

No two men in town swayed more influence in their days of 
activity than John W. Ellingwood and William King, and there were 
none who were more temperate in drinking, yet they were the most 
strenuous in not having wine and beer included in the list of pro- 
hibited beverages. 

"Jan. 16, 1813. Retailers met at the Baptist Hall in the evening 
together with the ' Society for suppressing vice ' and the ' Tything- 



238 HISTORY OF BATH. 

men.' Rev. Mr. Ellingwood, Rev. Mr. Jenks, and some other 
persons spoke considerably in favor of suppressing the use of 
ardent spirits. Mr. McLellan, Mr. Magoun, Mr. Crombie, and a 
few other retailers said a number of things " {per Zina Hyde). 

At a subsequent meeting of the retailers a resolution was adopted 
" expressive of a disposition to afford their influence to prevent the 
intemperate use of ardent spirits, under a sense of the evils result- 
ing therefrom." 

Retailers. — In December, 1814, the Rev. Mr. Ellingwood and 
Zina Hyde united in efforts in behalf of the temperance cause, and 
in the diary of the latter he writes that they were strongly opposed 
by the retailers and their object misrepresented " as being warmly 
engaged to suppress the retailing of ardent spirits to be drank in 
shops," and this opposition "took effect among the most respectable 
part of the retailers." Major Hyde circulated a paper to be signed 
by young men, which had been drawn up by Mr. Ellingwood, to 
pledge themselves to aid in the suppression of the vice of drinking, 
but obtained no signatures. 

" Jan. 23. Attended an adjourned meeting of the retailers, at 
which a number of resolutions expressing a disposition to afford 
their influence to prevent the intemperate use of ardent spirits were 
adopted, and Miss S. Bowman and myself requested to furnish each 
retailer in town with a copy of the resolutions " (J>cr Zina Hyde). 

The foreign imports of liquor into this collection district for the 
year 1820 were 93,222 gallons of rum, 22,376 gallons of wine, 
besides a quantity of brandy. 

Samuel Winter advertises July 13, 1821, at his store in Bath, 
fifty hhds. St. Johns Rum, superior quality; five hhds. St. Croix 
Rum, superior quality; twenty hhds. Windward Island Rum, supe- 
rior quality; four hhds. New England Rrm, superior quality; five 
pipes Cognac (Outard) Brandy; five pipes Pico Madeira Wine, in 
one-half and one-quarter pipes; eight and one-quarter pipes Wine; 
five casks Angelica Cordial; forty hhds. St. Johns Rum; Holland 
and American Gin. There were other similar advertisements in the 
old Bath papers. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 239 

First Reform Movement. — The reform movement developed 
slowly into the formation of temperance societies. To sign a pledge 
was a great bugbear to the conservative element, while the intem- 
perate declared it was " signing away their liberties." Yet the 
reform moved on. Dealers of the better class let their stocks run 
out and did not replenish. Treating either at the counter or at the 
house became less common, and few of the religious class but felt 
compelled to ignore it as a beverage. The first temperance society 
formed in Bath was in 1816, at a meeting held in the old "Erudi- 
tion " school-house on Meeting-house Hill. Not all of those who 
took a prominent part in its proceedings were total abstinence men. 
The man who presided was a temperate drinker. 

Wine at the Communion Table. — In the broad light of 
temperance reform, the consistency of using wine at communions by 
the churches in this city was a serious question. Discussions were 
endless, resulting in the use of unfermented juice of the grape by 
some churches, while others adopted the use of raisin water or some 
harmless substitute. 

The First Washillgtonian Society was formed in Baltimore in 
about 1840, and was composed of reformed drunkards only. The 
idea took astonishingly and spread rapidly. The movement reached 
Bath in about a year, when a society was formed in 1841 and styled 
the Washingtonian Teetotal Society. The prominent leader in the 
movement was Joseph Hayes. Being a ready talker, he was em- 
ployed by the state Washingtonian Society at Portland for state 
lecturer in 1841, and he traveled throughout the state, awakening 
interest in the new cause. He was widely known as Father Hayes. 
In Bath rousing meetings were held every night for many months, 
at which reformed drunkards would relate their experiences to great 
effect. The enthusiasm thus aroused was contagious. The Wash- 
ingtonian idea "applied to reformed drunkards only — none others 
need apply." 

Newer and younger drinkers came into the movement, and a 
reorganization of the society took place. The officers were Samuel 



240 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Crowell, President; J. H. Nichols, Vice-President; John P. Flint, 
Recording Secretary; Edward C. Allen, Corresponding Secretary; 
William S. Pettingill, Treasurer. 

The society resolved: "That the person who drinks rum, gin, 
brandy, whiskey, wine, or even cider or beer in any quantities, 
drinks too much and we will do all in our power to persuade those 
who partake not to make use of it as a drink any longer." 

Article first of the constitution was, "Any person may become a 
member of this society who has been in the habit of drinking any 
intoxicating spirit since the first of November last by signing the 
pledge." Article tenth, " No person shall be allowed at the regular 
meetings of this society who has not drank liquors since November 
last." 

The signers numbered 158. Among the number were Jesse Dus- 
ton, James H. Nichols, Samuel C. Bovey, Henry E. Jenks, Benjamin 
Fogg, Stephen B. Penny, Eben Colson, John W. Todd, William 
Hodgdon, Joseph Hayes, Stephen C. Sawyer, Jesse Totman, F. A. 
Newcomb, Peter Knight, David Owen, George Barton, Abner 
McFadden, Washburn Calden, Nathaniel Longley, Joshua P. Le- 
mont, John Parshley, 2d, Albert Parshley, John Foote, James R. 
Hinkley, Stephen Crooker, Samuel Anderson, Nathaniel Jennings, 
Samuel G. Stinson, Samuel Parker, George Vaughn, Warren Mains, 
David W. Standish, John E. Brown, Stephen T. Berry, James Wake- 
field, John B. Trull, Levi Chadbourne, Johnson Rideout, Joseph 
Rideout, Isaac Crocker, Farnham Cole. 

Martha Washington Society. — The Washingtonian move- 
ment was supplemented by Martha Washington Societies, composed 
chiefly at first of the wives and women relatives of the Washingto- 
nians. It accomplished much good. The Washingtonian Total 
Abstinence Society held their first anniversary May 12, 1843 or 
1844. James H. Nichols was president. The Martha Washingtons, 
Young Men's Temperance Society, and the Father Mathew Total 
Abstinence Society and a large line of citizens with a band from 
Brunswick made up the largest procession ever in Bath before that 
time. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 24 1 

In the days of the Sons of Temperance, Bath Division, No. 7, 
and Long Reach Division, No. 9 (upwards of fifty years ago), all 
classes of people were interested, and these two lodges had a united 
membership of nearly a thousand, with a strong and healthy 
influence upon society. Now there are but 175 identified with the 
two Good Templar lodges, the only temperance societies now in 
Bath. 

There were those who were truly reformed and became not only 
good citizens but members of churches, of which some of them 
became deacons, while others held responsible public offices and 
brought up sons now an honor to the city. 

All Old-Time Raising. — An old-time citizen said: "At the 
first barn ever raised in Bath without liquor I was there. It was 
the talk for days ahead. The owner had announced his determina- 
tion not to have any liquor. ' He can't raise it,' said nearly every- 
body, and crowds gathered to see if he could. Some of the old 
topers felt as though it was the life or death of a traditional princi- 
ple. They had been used to rum at raisings from time immemorial. 
I was a boy then and was full of interest. Over a hundred men 
stood around that day — hands in pockets and wouldn't lift. They 
used to pin the whole side of the barn together then and lift it at 
once — different, you see, from to-day. I helped lift. Some of the 
women folks lifted. The old topers jeered and laughed, but we 
raised the barn and it stands." 

The Maine Law. — Finally the Maine law became enacted, and 
to make it inoperative there were ways invented to circumvent it, 
especially by small retailers, who would term the drink some milder 
beverage. The " striped pig " was a humorous term for illegal 
drinks. It originated with a circus traveling through the state, one 
of whose side shows had up the sign of a striped pig on exhibition 
inside the tent, but what turned out to be liquor dealt out free to 
those who had paid the admission fee. For years the illicit traffic 
in drinks of liquor was termed " seeing the striped pig." Then 
came the era of the sale of " patent bitters," composed chiefly of 
ardent spirits and an infusion of harmless roots and herbs, and 



242 HISTORY OF BATH. 

used by those who had difficulty in obtaining anything else to satisfy 
their cravings for stimulants. 

Prohibitory Law. — When the statutes enacting total "prohibi- 
tion " became operative, the majority of the people of Bath cheer- 
fully acquiesced, and when a vote on constitutional prohibition was 
placed before the people of the state, Bath went strongly with the 
majority in favor of the proposition, and sporadic efforts have 
yearly been made by the city authorities to enforce the law against 
the liquor traffic. 



CENTENNIAL. 



The one hundredth anniversary of Bath's first town meeting 
occurred on March 19, 1881. A large number of citizens were 
enrolled on the committee of arrangements and a gratifying success 
attended all the exercises. Many former residents returned for the 
celebration, while numerous letters of regret testified to the interest 
felt in the town of their birth by those unable to attend. The 
president and vice-presidents on this occasion were, President, Hon. 
John Patten, Ex-Mayor; Vice-Presidents, Hon. Freeman H. Morse, 
Ex-Mayor; Hon. William Rice, Ex-Mayor; Hon. John Hayden, 
Ex-Mayor; Hon. James T. Patten, Ex-Mayor; Hon. S. D. Bailey, 
Ex-Mayor; Hon. J. D. Robinson, Ex-Mayor; Hon. Edwin Reed, 
Ex-Mayor; Hon. John G. Richardson, Ex-Mayor. 

The morning of Bath's centennial anniversary opened with a 
serene sky and a balmy atmosphere. Prompt as the sun came to 
the horizon, the bells in all the steeples raised their voices, an. 
nouncing to the people that to-day they enter upon a new century 
of corporate existence. 

Wesley church, where the exercises were held, was beautifully 
decorated with bunting, and on the walls were hung handsome 
banners with the following names of mark in town history: 
Hinckley, Johnson, Lambert, Robinson, Higgins, Mitchell, Crooker, 
Swanton, Lemont, Turner, Sewall, Trufant, Patten, Hyde, Donnell, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 243 

Philbrook, Houghton, Richardson, Coombs, Lowell, Magoun, Rog- 
ers, Standish, Cushing, Ledyard, Lombard, Williams, Peterson, 
Purington. 

Miss Sadie Duncan, assisted by Miss Jennie R. Morse, opened 
the exercises by an organ voluntary which was very finely rendered. 

The following gentlemen were on the platform: Hon. John Pat- 
ten, President of the day; Hon. T. W. Hyde, Mayor; Rev. Henry 
O. Thayer, of Woolwich, Historian; F. W. Hawthorne, Poet; J. O. 
Fiske, D.D.; Reverends H. J. White, J. Pottle, and Wm. R. Rich- 
ards; Joseph G. Torrey, of Boston, the first printer in Bath; Ex- 
Mayors John Hayden, Samuel D. Bailey, James D. Robinson, John 
G. Richardson; Charles Davenport, G. C. Goss, Jason Sewall; E. 
B. Nealley, of Bangor, Orator; Col. Lewis B. Smith, of Portland; 
B. F. Tallman, of Richmond; Edward E. Hyde, City Treasurer. 

A large number of old citizens were in the church, among them 
Isaiah Crooker, Robinson Fogg, L. P. Lemont, M. F. Gannett, Capt. 
Isaac Trott, L. W. Houghton, and Thomas Eaton. 

The choir, under the leadership of Zina H. Trufant, sang the 
anthem, " To Thee, O Country," Miss Jennie R. Morse presiding 
at the organ. 

Mayor T. W. Hyde in well chosen remarks bade the audience wel- 
come, and Rev. J. O. Fiske offered prayer, which was very appro- 
priate to the occasion and in the most beautiful language ; many 
were the hearts that were touched by its patriotic and Christian 
spirit. 

The reading of the act of incorporation was followed with music 
by Andrews' Orchestra of Bangor. 

The Rev. H. O. Thayer then delivered a very able and interesting 
historical address, touching briefly on the chief points of the city's 
history. 

The singing of Old Hundred was a marked feature of the occa- 
ison, filling, as it did, every part of the church with its grand 
inspiration. 

The oration by Hon. E. B. Nealley was delivered in a most elo- 
quent manner, and was replete with the highest and most ennobling 



244 HISTORY OF BATH. 

sentiments of a local and national character, expressed in terse and 
flowing periods. 

F. W. Hawthorne's poem fully merited the close attention given 
to its well delivered lines. 

After the closing hymn to the tune of America by the choir, 
orchestra, and audience, and benediction by Rev. Mr. Pottle, the 
immense audience slowly wended its way homeward, the booming 
of cannon and the ringing of bells blending in a national salute. 

Evening Gathering. — An audience of five thousand people 
thronged the Patten Car Works in the evening. Mayor Hyde pre- 
sided. The speaking was varied by occasional music by Andrews' 
Orchestra and the reading of letters from former residents who 
could not attend. The letters from Capt. C. C. Duncan, President 
George F. Magoun, and Rev. Philemon R. Russell were listened to 
with much interest, as was also that of Jonas Burnham, eighty years 
of age, the oldest surviving school-master who had taught school 
in Bath. 

Hon. Henry Tallman gave some interesting recollections of other 
days which were listened to with deep interest. 

Col. Lewis B. Smith, of Portland, was the next speaker, and 
made remarks expressive of his deep regard for Bath, and closed 
with words of Tiny Tim, " God bless you, God bless me, God bless 
all and everybody." 

Other speeches followed by Gen. Joseph S. Smith, of Bangor; 
Silas Stearns Low, of Bangor; Major H. A. Shorey, of the Bridgton 
News ; Capt. Guy C. Goss, representative of Bath in the legislature; 
Hon. Win. L. Putnam, Ex-Mayor of Portland, and Rev. S. F. Dike. 

The Ball. — At a meeting of the Commandery held in February, 
the whole affair of the ball was placed in the hands of a committee 
of gentlemen, consisting of Sir Knights Charles A. Coombs, Joseph 
M. Hayes, Charles H. Greenleaf, John O. Shaw, John W. Ballou, 
William C. Duncan, William D. Mussenden, and David O. Foye, 
who had complete charge of the arrangements, and to whom the 
credit should be given for the pronounced success of the evening's 
ball. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 245 

The car factory was the only building the committee could secure 
that would be large enough to accommodate the immense gathering 
they had every reason to expect, as invitations to the number of two 
thousand had been sent throughout the state, over seven hundred of 
this number having been used in Bath. Invitations had been 
sent to Governor Harris M. Plaisted and to other distinguished 
gentlemen. The different Commanderies of the state were invited 
collectively. They number thirteen as follows, and delegations from 
nearly all were present: Maine Commandery, Gardiner; Portland 
Commandery, Portland; Saint Johns Commandery, Bangor; Brad- 
ford Commandery, Saco; Dunlap Commandery, Bath; Lewiston 
Commandery, Lewiston; Trinity Commandery, Augusta; Saint 
Alban Commandery, Portland; Claremont Commandery, Rockland; 
DeMolay Commandery, Skowhegan; Saint Bernard Commandery, 
Eastport; Saint Omer Commandery, Waterville; Blanquefort Com- 
mandery, Portland. 

The opening march was a beautiful spectacle and was partici- 
pated in by two hundred and fifty couples, the Commandery and 
visiting Knights appearing in full Knight Templar regalia. At its 
close, the Commandery, leaving their ladies, gathered in the center 
of the hall, where a magnificent double silk banner with a heavy 
border of gold bullion fringe was presented to them by some leading 
citizens. F. B. Torrey presented the banner with well chosen 
remarks. Joseph M. Hayes, Eminent Commander, accepted the 
gift in behalf of the Commandery. 

Through all the broad space, wherever the eye turned, it was one 
bewildering, dazzling maze of feminine beauty. To describe in 
detail each rich costume would be to paint every color in a forest of 
tropical birds. They were lovely and attractive. 

This notable celebration was inaugurated by the Sagadahoc His- 
torical Society, in which its president, Mr. Albert G. Page, took the 
leading part, attending to all the details that ensured success to the 
timely undertaking, which was worthy of the great ship-building 
city. 



246 HISTORY OF BATH. 

THE MYSTIC ORDERS. 



MASONIC. 



Solar Lodge. — On the tenth day of September, 1804, the 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts granted authority to William King, 
Andrew Greenwood, Tileston Gushing, William Ledyard, William 
Allen, Arthur Wales, David Stinson, Joseph Torrey, Benjamin 
Swanton and Samuel Adams to open a Lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons, under the title of Solar Lodge of Ba'h, to commence Dec. 
10, 1804. The first meeting under the charter was held in Winship 
Hall, at which time the lodge was organized by electing William 
King, Worshipful Master, and the necessary corps of officers. 

The first officers of the lodge were not installed until the lodge 
was consecrated, Sept. 26, 1805. The Lincoln Lodge of Wiscasset 
was invited to attend on the occasion. Besides the installing 
officers of the Grand Lodge, one hundred members of the order 
were present and marched in procession to the North meeting-house, 
where the Reverend Brother John Turner of Biddeford delivered an 
address, and the consecration and installation ceremony was per- 
formed, followed with an address by the Grand Master, Woodbury 
Storer. 

On the retirement of William King as Worshipful Master at the 
close of his term of one year, a Worthy Past Master's jewel was 
presented to him by the lodge. The membership at the end of the 
first year was thirty-two. 

In December, 1824, it was "Voted that the lodge dispense with 
the use of distilled spirits at all times, and wines except on festival 
evenings, for the year ensuing." 

The Past Masters now living are: David R. Wylie, Joseph M. 
Hayes, Henry W. Rugg, Larkin 1 )unton, Horatio A. Duncan, James 
B. Wescott, A. R. Cahill, Turner McCarty, John H. Stantial, John 
R. Knowlton, Walter G. Webber, Oscar F. Williams, William H. 
Hartwell, George Ed. Litchfield, Fred W. Rideout, Bant Hanson, 
Albert A. Robinson, Seth T. Snipe. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 247 

At an early day the Masonic order was about the only mystic 
society in this section of the country. There existed much preju- 
dice against Masonry and secret societies in general. Many good 
people thought they saw no good but possible evil in them — or 
" why should such secrecy be observed " ? Consequently, while the 
Morgan excitement prevailed, Masonry became unpopular. Lodges 
hardly dared to meet, and the order went down to a low ebb. 
In the meantime Odd Fellowship came into favor and nourished. 
This was stimulating to Free Masons, who revived the working of 
the order, and gradually its meetings became well attended and its 
former prestige established. During all the years of the depressed 
state of the order there were some of the Bath brethren who held 
fast to their Masonic integrity. Prominently among those were 
William King and John Elliot. Solar Lodge now has 300 members. 

The Montgomery Royal Arch Chapter. — In accordance with 
a dispensation granted by the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Massa- 
chusetts, a meeting was convened in Bath on Dec. 27, 1819, on 
which occasion James McLellan, David Stinson, Peter H. Green, 
Robert P. Dunlap and six other "Companions" were present and 
were organized into a chapter, of which Robert P. Dunlap was 
made High Priest, James McLellan, Royal Arch Captain, and the 
other necessary officers chosen, forming the Montgomery Royal 
Arch Chapter, No. 2. 

In 1845, the chapter began holding its convocations alternate years 
in Bath and Brunswick, and so continued until April 4, i860, when 
it became permanently located in Bath. In 1863, the Brunswick 
members formed the St. Paul's Chapter in Brunswick and trans- 
ferred their membership accordingly, yet Robert P. Dunlap always 
retained his membership in the Bath chapter. 

Those who have held the office of High Priest in Montgomery 
Chapter now living in Bath are: Andrew J. Fuller, John O. Shaw, 
Joseph M. Hayes, John W. Ballou, E. M. Fuller. 

St. Bernard Royal Arch Chapter, No. 23, was constituted May 23, 
1876, with John W. Ballou, High Priest; Larkin Dunton, King; 
Joseph M. Hayes, Scribe. This chapter was the most prosperous 



248 HISTORY OF BATH. 

and flourishing Masonic body in the city for three years, and having 
accomplished its object it consolidated with the mother chapter, 
May 6, 1879, under the style and name of Montgomery and St. 
Bernard Chapter, No. 2. 

Montgomery and St. Bernard Royal Arch , Chapter, No. 2, was 
constituted May 6, 1879, by the consolidation of Montgomery 
Chapter, No. 2, and St. Bernard Chapter, No. 23, with Horatio A. 
Duncan, High Priest. The Past High Priests are H. A. Duncan, 
W. Scott Shorey, David R. Wylie, John W. Ballou, Hiram Welch, 
Charles A. Coombs, Turner McCarty, Oscar F. Williams, Walter S. 
Russell, Charles W. Clifford. 

Dunlap Commandery, No. 5, Knights Templars, was chartered 
May 3, 1864. Past Eminent Commanders are David Owen, Charles 
H. McLellan, John W. Ballou, H. A. Duncan, John O. Shaw, Hiram 
Welch, Joseph M. Hayes, Edwin M. Fuller, William D. Mussenden, 
George H. Clark, William B. Palmer, George L. Thompson. 

Polar Star Lodge. — This lodge was founded by those who 
were identified with the Bath Solar Lodge, among whom were 
Andrew J. Fuller, David Owen, John H. McLellan, and David T. 
Stinson, charter members, and there were ten others. The lodge 
was organized March 7, 1863, with A. J. Fuller, Worshipful Master, 
and was constituted May 8, 1863. The Masters have been Andrew 
J. Fuller, John W. Ballou, Charles W. Larrabee, Charles H. McLel- 
lan, Hiram A. Turner, Timothy B. Curtis, William C. Duncan, 
Edwin M. Fuller, Charles W. Arras, Walter S. Russell, William B. 
Palmer, William H. Swett, Augustus C. Sprague, George H. Clark. 
This lodge has 221 names on its roll of membership. 

Other Orders. — Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Lin- 
coln Lodge, chartered August 1, 1844, reorganized later; Sagadahoc 
Encampment; Canton King; Queen Esther Daughters of Rebecca. 
Independent Order of Good Templars, Popham Lodge; Bath 
Lodge; Juvenile Lodge; Good Cheer Lodge; White Cross Lodge. 
Knights of Laiior. Royal Arcaneum, William King Lodge. 
Knights of Pythias, Acadia Lodge, organized 1876; Patten 
Lodge; Bath Division, Uniform Rank. A. O. F., Sagadahoc Lodge. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 249 

American Brotherhood of Steamboat Pilots, Sasanoa Lodge. 
United Order of the Golden Cross, Katahdin Commandery. 
Improved Order of Red Men, organized March 26, 1889. 



ASSOCIATIONS. 



Bath Loan and Building Association; Sagadahoc Club; 
Sagadahoc Association for Protection of Fish and Game; 
Sedgwick Post of Grand Army of the Republic; Sedgwick 
Relief Corps; Sagadahoc Gun Club; Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union; Philharmonic Orchestra; Bath Rowing 
Club; The Young Woman's Temperance Union, styling them- 
selves the Y's; Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor; 
Missionary and Charitable Society; William King Council 
of Law and Order League; The Bees, a charitable association of 
young women; Olympian Club, for debate by young men; The 
King's Daughters; King's Sons. 

Young Men's Christian Association. — The association was 
organized Jan. 4, 1889, and held its first religious service the 
4th of the following February. An excellent suite of eleven 
rooms was opened to the young men June 17th of the same 
year. Galen C. Moses was its first president and W. J. Chad- 
bourne its first general secretary. Its board of directors includes 
some of the most prominent and successful business men in the 
city. The membership of the organization numbered, Nov. 1, 1890, 
260 young men. 

Evening educational classes, sociables, entertainments, lectures, and 
Bible classes have been among the attractions and privileges offered 
young men. The boarding-house register, correspondence desk, and 
the department of visitation of the sick are important factors in the 
work. 

During the year ending May, 1892, the applications for em- 
ployment were 40; directed to employment, 26; destitute young 
men assisted, 13. Forty young men's meetings were held during 



250 HISTORY OF BATH. 

the year with a total attendance of 2,236; average attendance, 56. 
Ten young men professed conversion; some of whom joined the 
churches. Several sick young men were called on and assisted in 
various ways. 

The rooms are open daily and evenings as a quiet resort, where 
there are papers and periodicals for gratuitous use. 

This association is now (1893) engaged in erecting at the south- 
west corner of Summer and Front streets a large building for its 
uses; the lower story to be rented for business purposes. 



THE SAGADAHOC HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



In view of the fact that the region of country of which the Lower 
Kennebec is the center is rich in historical lore, it was believed by 
some of the citizens of Bath having a taste for historical matters 
that an effort should be made to gather up and preserve facts of 
local history, and to collect and preserve relics of the past while yet 
in existence. To accomplish these purposes, a meeting of persons 
interested in antiquarian research was held in the common council 
room, Oct. 5, 1877, and consisted of Edwin Reed, then mayor of 
the city, C. A. Packard, George Prince, Samuel F. Dike, George A. 
Preble, Joseph M. Hayes, Elisha Upton, John G. Richardson, Har- 
old M. Sewall, Levi P. Lemont, A. G. Page, R. D. Bibber, Chapin 
Weston, J. L. Douglas. Of this meeting Edwin Reed was chair- 
man and Elisha Upton, secretary. It was decided to organize a 
historical society, and a committee, consisting of J. G. Richardson, 
Elisha Upton, Edwin Reed, J. M. Hayes, and George Prince, was 
appointed to prepare a constitution and by-laws. 

A second meeting was held on December 4, 1877, at which the 
society was organized under the title of the Sagadahoc Historical 
Society, with Edwin Reed, president, and Charles A. Packard, 
vice-president. For the year 1878, the board of officers were 
re-elected. At the annual meeting of 1879, tne same officers 
were again chosen and R. D. Bibber was elected treasurer, which 
office he held till 1890. In 1880, C. A. Packard became president 
and A. G. Page, vice-president, and the other officers were re-elected 



HISTORY OF BATH. 25 1 

for 1881. In 1882, Albert G. Page became president and James D. 
Robinson, vice-president, and were re-elected each succeeding year 
until 1887, when Parker M. Reed was elected president and J. D. 
Robinson, vice-president, who were re-elected the two succeeding 
years. In 1889, Parker M. Reed was again chosen president and 
John G. Richardson, vice-president. In 1890, R. D. Bibber was 
elected president, J. G. Richardson, vice-president, and W. W. Rob- 
inson, treasurer, all of whom were re-elected in 1891 and 1892, with 
the exception of George E. Newman, vice-president. For 1893 the 
former officers were re-elected. J. L. Douglas has been secretary 
since the existance of the society. 

During the presidency of Mr. Page and by his efforts, a course of 
lectures was held one winter with success, and at various times 
other single historical lectures have been given by historians from 
neighboring towns. At the meetings of the society many papers 
have been read by its members, treating of local historical events 
and of prominent men of early times. 

Since 1883 annual Field-day excursions have been taken by the 
society and its friends. For the first year, under the auspices of 
President Page, a small steamer was chartered for the day, and a 
select party of forty ladies and gentlemen enjoyed a day's outing 
at Arrowsic, the site of ancient " New Town," where the party 
visited the spot where stood the old Georgetown meeting-house and 
the ancient cemeteries, and then proceeded to Fort Popham. 

On the Field-day of 1884, a crowded steamer took the historical 
party to Sheepscot River, making a landing at the Edgecomb block- 
house of 1809. 

In 1885, the Maine Historical Society united with the Sagadahoc 
Society and went on steamer to Stage Island and Popham. 

In 1886, the society with friends took a carriage ride to Cape 
Small Point, where members were the invited guests of M. B. 
Spinney at the Spinney Cottage Hotel. A paper on the history of 
ancient Augusta by P. M. Reed was read by his son, A. A. Reed, 
followed by brief addresses from A. G. Tenney and H. O. Thayer; 
the remains of the fort of ancient Augusta, of 17 16, at the Harbor, 
and other historical points, were visited. 



252 HISTORY OF BATH. 

In 1887, the steam yacht Juno, owned by Mr. Amory M. Hough- 
ton, was placed at the service of the society by the courtesy of Mr. 
John R. Houghton for a trip to the Upper Kennebec, when the old 
Pownalborough court-house of 1761 and site of Fort Shirley were 
visited, proving to be points of much historical interest. 

In 1888, the excursion was to the "Pot holes" at Riggsville, 
Boothbay Harbor, and the Inner Heron Island, by a large party 
invited by a committee of ladies of the society. 

On the Field-day of 1889, the Pejepscot Historical Society of 
Brunswick came over by the cars and joined the Sagadahoc Society 
in a visit to Pemaquid, as was the case in 1893. 

Parlor Meetings. — In the winter of 1888, a series of meetings 
were held at residences of members of the society, termed parlor 
meetings, under the auspices of the president, and papers on local 
historical subjects were read. These meetings were kept up the 
following winter with success. 

Ladies were admitted to membership by a constitutional amend- 
ment in 1888, and many joined the society. 

The Society's New Room. — The meetings of the society had 
been held in the common council room in the City Hall up to 1891 ; 
the papers and relics belonging to the society having been kept in 
a chest in the basement of the custom-house for safety. Members 
had long believed it important to have a suitable room of their own. 
Accordingly, when plans were drawn for a Public Library Building, 
a successful effort was made by the president of the society — 
Parker M. Reed — to secure a room in the building for the society's 
occupancy, by the courtesy of Mr. Galen C. Moses, the donor and 
builder of the library edifice. A room in the second story of ample 
capacity was assigned to this purpose, which the generosity of 
Mr. Moses completed with fittings of elegance and utility equal to 
those of the .library apartments, providing likewise equal free 
advantages of heating and lighting. The society was at the expense 
only of necessary furniture, and is very handsomely and commo- 
diously accommodated. The society took possession of its new 
room in January, 1891. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 253 



BOARD OF TRADE. 



On May 26, 1863, at a meeting of business men held in the 
common council room, a Board of Trade was organized, and George 
A. Preble was elected president. One thousand dollars were esti- 
mated to be necessary for the expenses in fitting up a room, for 
telegraph despatches, newspapers, clerk hire, fuel, a bulletin board, 
and books. A list of 125 subscribers was obtained, whose annual 
dues were fixed at five dollars; $200 were raised by voluntary sub- 
scription, which with the annual dues were appropriated for current 
expenses. The organization was named the Merchants' Exchange 
Association of Bath. A reading room was procured and fitted up. 
July 6, 1864. This is the last record of a meeting of the association. 

Nov. 20, 187 1, an association of citizens met in the custom-house 
building and organized themselves as the Bath Board of Trade, 
and elected A. J. Fuller, President, Thomas S. Lang, Vice-President, 
and William D. Haley, Secretary. In January, 1872, the Board 
ordered the publication of five hundred circulars for public distri- 
bution. Feb. s, 1872, President A. J. Fuller read his first annual 
address. March n, 1872, the act granted by the legislature for 
incorporating the Bath Board of Trade was accepted. In 1881, 
the Board caused to be prepared and printed in book form " The 
Annual Report of the Bath Board of Trade," which was prepared 
and published by Jarvis Patten for that year and 1882, 1883, 1884, 
and by Albert A. Reed for 1886, 1887, and 1889, and largely circu- 
lated throughout the maritime sections of the country. 

There have been earnest and repeated discussions at the meetings 
of the Board relative to the matter of encouraging the introduction 
of manufactures into the city, and committees appointed to take 
active measures to induce manufacturers who might be looking for a 
favorable point to establish business to locate in Bath. 

The "Spanish Treaty" of 1885 received extended criticism, in 
which a large number of prominent business men took part, ending 
in passing resolutions against the ratification of the treaty. 



254 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Commencing during June, 1886, the subject of introducing water 
into the city by a system of water works was freely and repeatedly 
discussed, and favorable recommendation adopted, asking the city 
government to proceed to perfect the scheme, which was accom- 
plished in 1887. 

The matter of establishing iron SHiP-BuiLDiNG in Bath received 
protracted debate for several years, commencing in November, 1887, 
ending at the establishment of a plant for that purpose, and the 
contract to construct two gun-boats in 1890, and in 1891 a contract 
for the Ammen Ram was obtained by the Bath Iron Works. 

Much attention has been given by the Board to the securing 
Congressional aid by subsidy to deep sea-going ships in carrying 
freight and mails, in order to enable American ships to compete 
with those of foreign build that enjoy subsidies by the governments 
under whose flags they sail. To forward this purpose, in 1886, the 
Board invited the members of the Maine delegation in Congress to 
visit Bath and examine its facilities for building ships both for the 
merchant marine and government navy, tendering them a banquet 
on the occasion. Senator W. P. Frye and Representatives Dingley 
and Boutelle responded by attendance. Tables were spread at the 
Sagadahoc House and seats were occupied to their utmost capacity. 
Addresses were made by Messrs. Frye, Dingley, and Boutelle, and 
by President Fuller, J. M. Hayes, president of the Board of Alder- 
men, representing the Mayor in his absence, Thomas W. Hyde, 
Galen C. Moses, and William Rogers. 

The Board made an earnest effort in 1887 to bring about making 
of the ferry and bridges leading into Bath free. The scheme was 
balloted upon by the towns interested and defeated by five votes. 

In 1866, there was a bill before Congress to authorize ships built 
in foreign countries to be admitted to free registry in the United 
States. The Board took active and decisive measures to aid in 
defeating the measure, and after full discussion in regular session, a 
public meeting was held by the Board in the City Hall and delegates 
chosen to proceed at once to Washington. For that purpose, a 
committee of the Board raised by subscription ample funds to 



HISTORY OF BATH. 255 

pay the expenses of the delegates, whose services did much to pre- 
vent the passage of the bill. 

In the February of 1888 a Banquet was held by the Board at 
the Sagadahoc House, at which there was a large attendance, and 
brief speeches were made by a large number of members of the 
Board and its guests. 

Officers. — Presidents, George A. Preble, 1863; Andrew J. Fuller 
from 187 1 to 1892; William Rogers, 1892-1893; Vice-Presidents, 
Thomas S. Lang, Jarvis Patten, Albert G. Page, Parker M. Whit- 
more from 1885; Secretaries, Henry W. Fuller, William D. Haley, 
John O. Shaw, Frank W. Weeks from 1879 t0 I &&9 (also treas- 
urer), Eugene Greenleaf, E. C. Plummer from 1892. In January, 
1892, A. J. Fuller declined to be a candidate for president, on 

account of his age and long service, and William Rogers was elected. 

» 

Young Men's Business Club. — in 1886, a Young Men's 

Business Club was formed with John O. Patten, president, which 
held spirited meetings. In 1890, the club was reorganized and E. 
M. Fuller became president, Mr. Patten having moved out of the 
city; later it was merged into the Board of Trade. 



KNOW NOTHING PARTY. 



In 1853, a political party suddenly came up and was called the 
American party. In towns and cities secret orders were formed, 
composed of adherents to the views that none but native Americans 
should have a voice in ruling America. They held secret meetings, 
and when questioned concerning their movements simply said noth- 
ing or that they "did not know anything." Thus they were given 
the name of " Know Nothings." Haranguers traveled through the 
country to stir up the people and the idea took wonderfully. A 
taking point with, them was an onslaught against Catholics. The 
party carried some states in 1854, among which was Massachusetts. 
The career of this party ended with one year's triumph. This new 
movement greatly agitated Bath and led to mob violence. 



256 HISTORY OF BATH. 

On Thursday evening, July 6, 1854, there was witnessed in this 
city the destruction by a mob of the property of citizens. A street 
preacher held forth to those who chose to listen to him against 
Popery. He harangued Wednesday and Thursday evenings. On the 
first night there was no disturbance attending the gathering, although 
there was a large crowd in attendance, and many sympathized 
strongly with the sentiments of the speaker. Thursday night the 
crowd was still larger and was composed of many of the most 
respectable citizens, among them large numbers of master me- 
chanics, tradesmen, and professional men. There was also enough 
inflammable material — as the sequel shows — to do violence, despite 
the law and order sentiments that prevailed with the greater portion 
of the company. 

The lecturer had nearly finished his harangue without disturbance 
when a hack was driven through the^crowd towards the depot. 
Nothing was thought of this by the crowd, which opened to the 
right and left to give it an opportunity to pass. It immediately re- 
turned, however, and the crowd then acted on the supposition that 
the driver and passengers were designing to break up the meeting, 
and refused to let it go through, but stopped the horses and turned 
them about. This event appeared to be the starting point of excite- 
ment. Much feeling was expressed, and cheers and groans were 
given in rapid succession, ending by raising a shout, " To the old 
South church!" From the custom-house, the scene of the excite- 
ment, the crowd rapidly dispersed, the majority of them going to 
the old South church, which was being used for a place of worship 
by the Catholics. The crowd broke in doors and windows, entered 
the building, rang the bell, waved the American ensign from the 
belfry, and lastly set fire to it. The flames spread with great rapidity 
and in a few minutes the building was in ruins. The firemen were 
early at the fire, but nothing could be done towards staying it. 
The building was owned principally or wholly by William M. Rogers, 
John Patten, and Jeremiah Robinson. There was no insurance. 
The city lost a clock, which was in the steeple. The mob com- 
menced their riotous proceedings about quarter past eight o'clock in 
the evening, and continued to have entire and unmolested control of 
the city the whole night. 




THE OLD SOUTH, 1805. BURNT, 1854. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 257 

Soon after this, the mob endeavored to force an entrance into the 
Sagadahoc House, but by the interposition of the mayor and from 
other causes they at length desisted from that purpose. They 
then marched through the streets, threatening with violence the per- 
sons they supposed had attempted to disturb the native American 
and anti-Catholic speaker. The mob obtained a cannon during the 
night which they discharged several times. They visited a house 
occupied by several Irish families, notified them to leave town in 
two days or they would destroy the building. About midnight they 
surrounded the house of a good but Catholic citizen, uttering cries of 
" Fire the house,'' " Pull it down." When he inquired what was the 
cause of the disturbance, he was told that they had burned his 
church and also that any other place of Catholic worship would be 
destroyed the same way. They told him he must drink a toast of 
" Death to the Pope," which he refused to do. 

Mayor Putnam read the riot act on the steps of the City Hall 
and also made an energetic address to the masses before him, which 
had a salutary effect, but not to the extent of dispersing the rioters. 
By order of the mayor the City Grays were called out under the 
command of Capt. E. K. Harding; were under arms in their 
armory ready for duty to aid the police if resort should be had to 
their services, and they were on duty on both Friday and Saturday 
nights. Sunday night it rained and quiet reigned. On Monday an 
additional force of one hundred policemen were on duty and the 
City Grays also. The military were not used to quell the riot, but 
the knowledge of their being in readiness may have had its influ- 
ence. On Monday Ira Mason was arrested as a leader of the mob, 
and on Tuesday was examined before Judge Smith and ordered to 
recognize in the sum of $1,500 for his appearance before the Su- 
preme Court in August. And this judicial proceeding seemed to 
be the signal for the final dispersion of the mob, which had densely 
blocked the streets from the town hall to Front street, and as far 
down Front as Elm street. 



258 HISTORY OF BATH. 



PRESIDENT BENJAMIN HARRISON'S VISIT TO 
BATH IN 1889. 

In the early part of August, Bath was honored by a visit from 
President Harrison, accompanied by the Secretary of the Navy and 
other distinguished men. Among the courtesies extended to his 
excellency was a sail upon the river, by which he was afforded an 
opportunity to become acquainted with the unsurpassed advantages 
of the city's magnificent harbor. By a committee from the city 
government and Board of Trade, his attention was called to the 
great length and width of the harbor, and its uniform great depth, 
rendering it capable of accommodating fleets of vessels of the 
largest tonnage, while the long approach from the ocean, passing 
between high, commanding banks, could be fortified beyond the 
possibility of entrance by a hostile power, while the twelve miles 
that intervene between the city and the sea render a bombardment 
by a fleet stationed at the river's mouth wholly out of the question. 

His excellency's attention was also directed to the lofty hills that 
surround the harbor upon every side, — a complete safeguard from 
land attack and a splendid opportunity for the establishment of a 
signal station, one point in particular commanding a view of the 
whole sea-coast for many leagues in all directions. All of these 
features were duly appreciated by his excellency, who expressed his 
admiration of the great shipping city's maritime advantages in no 
stinted terms. 

He was also afforded an opportunity to view the ship-yards, which 
for over a century have given Bath the prestige of the leading ship- 
building city in the world. He also visited the Marine Iron Works 
and the site of the proposed iron ship-yard was viewed. The fact 
that all Bath needs is a little government encouragement to enable 
her to begin the building of iron ships was made very apparent to 
his excellency, who expressed the hope that in the near future the 
award of at least one contract for the construction of a steel cruiser 
would give the shipping city the impetus which she so greatly needs. 







/S^oaAs §L^^4^/r 



HISTORY OF BATH. 259 

In his remarks to the citizens, from the custom-house, President 
Harrison said that he had appreciated his warm reception in Bath, 
but above all had appreciated the wonderful facilities of the city 
and its shipping interests. He felt very sorry that time and oppor- 
tunities forbade his holding a public reception, for he would be 
delighted to welcome the good people of the city. He had more 
than enjoyed his brief stay, and believed from its evidences that he 
should be more than ever delighted with the Pine Tree State. In 
closing he said: "I now need say good-by; I hope you will allow 
me once again to thank you for your cordial welcome and to bid you 
prosperity and happiness for all time to come." ' The presidential 
party was then driven to an inspection of the Hyde Iron Works. 



VISITS OF UNITED STATES STEAMSHIPS. 



In the summer of 1843, the United States steam frigate Missouri, 
in command of John T. Newton, came into the river and anchored 
off the city. During her stay of several days she was visited by the 
entire people of Bath and thousands from the surrounding towns. 
The officers were entertained on shore by private citizens, who in 
turn were entertained on board the ship. This naval vessel was of 
two thousand tons, and the largest steamship in the world. 

At a later date the Saratoga was here, and the occasion was 
attended with about the same performances as took place with the 
Missouri. 

In 1890, Portland had a Fourth of July celebration under 
the auspices of the Maine department of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and the United States cruisers Baltimore, Dolphin, Petrel, 
and Kearsarge were in that harbor to aid the occasion. They were 
under the command of Admiral Gherardi. Later they were ordered 
to come into the Kennebec. They came to anchor off the city at 
five o'clock p.m., July 12, 1890. In view of the coming of these 
vessels, the city government took measures to make all possible 
arrangements to entertain the officers, in which effort leading citi- 
zens joined. On the same evening a reception was given to the 



260 HISTORY OF BATH. 

officers of the squadron at the house and grounds of Gen. T. W. 
Hyde, which the leading ladies and gentlemen of the city attended. 

On Sunday some of the officers attended the different churches, 
the admiral at Grace church. Monday, at ten o'clock, a carriage 
procession, composed of the officers and distinguished citizens, rode 
through the principal streets and to Whizgig and the cemeteries. 
In the afternoon there was a reception by the admiral in the alder- 
men's room in the city building, to which the citizens generally were 
invited to shake hands with this officer of distinction. In the even- 
ing a reception and ball were held in the Alameda, to which the 
leading people were invited, and a crowd attended. The music was 
by the Togus Band. The ships left for Bar Harbor the next day. 

There was a procession of the sailors and marines from the ships, 
marching through the principal streets. There was also a clam-bake 
on a large scale at Foster's Point, at which the admiral and officers 
of the fleet were present, and a large concourse of ladies and gen- 
tlemen, invited guests of the city. 

During the stay of the ships, large numbers of the people of Bath 
and vicinity visited them, the flag-ship Baltimore attracting the most 
attention, while the Kearsarge, for her historic fame of having sunk 
the rebel cruiser Alabama, was an object of great interest. She 
was painted black, while all the others were white. The flag-ship 
was anchored off the city landing, the Petrel south of her, the 
Dolphin south of her, and the Kearsarge north of all of them. 

Bath was again visited by the North Atlantic Squadron Sept. 2, 
1 89 1, the ships anchoring off the city for two days. Admiral 
Walker and his staff and the fleet officers were entertained by a 
reception and ball at the Alameda Opera House, under the auspices 
of the Sagadahoc Club. The next day there was an excursion in 
honor of the visitors on the large Boston and Kennebec steamer 
Kennebec to Popham, where a clam-bake was prepared for the 
large company. 

The ships were the Chicago, Capt. J. N. Miller (the flag-ship 
of Admiral Walker); the Newark, Capt. Silas Casey; the Atlanta, 
Capt. J. W. Phillips; the Boston, Capt. G. C. Wiltse; the Concord, 
Capt. O. A. Batchelder; the Yorktown, Capt. R. D. Evans; the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 26 1 

Vesuvius, Capt. Seaton Schroeder; the Cushing, Capt. C. W. Wins- 
low. The fleet made a fine display, riding in line on the river, the 
flag-ship stationed immediately opposite the city landing, where 
conveniences were placed for boats plying between the ships and 
the shore. In all there were one hundred and thirty-eight com- 
missioned officers on board the ships. The ships left Sept. 4th. 



AN ANCIENT STREAM. 



Originally a deep cove made in from the Kennebec north 
and contiguous to the old town landing, now the Eastern Steamboat 
Company's wharf. Small vessels came up in it to Front street as 
late as the last half of the last century, within the recollections of 
aged men now living. In 1820 a long bridge was built that extend- 
ed from the foot of Elm street to near Summer street, and a branch 
bridge which is now the foot of Elm street, was built leading from 
the main bridge along what is now Elm street to the northern ex- 
tremity of Water street. Some of the dock is now to be seen as far 
inland as the rear of stores on the west side of Front street imme- 
diately south of the eastern extremity of Elm street. King's dock, 
as it was termed, extended south to near the city hay scales, which 
was bridged by William King in 1824 and is now a part of Water 
street. King owned the dock in his day on both sides as far as 
Center street. From Water street it became a stream; it trended 
north and then south, crossing Center street near the "corner," turn- 
ing west a little north of the railroad crossing at King street. It 
next turned north on a line with the railroad track, on the west of 
which there is now a vacant lot on the south side of Center street, 
where bricks were made by Elijah Low, and there are those living 
who have seen gondolas come up to the brick yard as late as 1830 
to discharge wood for use in burning the bricks. From thence the 
water became a small stream, on the bed of which is now the rail- 
road track extending north. Isaiah Crooker, Sr., built a vessel on 
his own land on the west bank of this stream, opposite the dwelling 
of John R. Houghton. This vessel was of seventy tons and when 
rea dy for sea was loaded with lumber for the Island of Madeira. 



262 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The stream extended up this miniature valley a short distance, 
whence it turned north, ending in a pond of considerable extent, now 
a marsh. There was another pond, on both of which the youngsters 
a half a century ago found superb skating. From the northern ex- 
tremity of this pond there was a small stream that emptied into the 
"King's Dock," later known as the Peterson and later as the Har- 
ward Docks. 

It was up this stream that an exploring party from Waymouth's 
ship, that lay at anchor in the river in 1606, proceeded on a tour of 
exploration of the country as far north as Whizgig, as alluded to in 
the earlier pages of this volume. 



OLD ROADS. 



During the first part of the eighteenth century few roads had 
been made, and the settlements being on the banks of the rivers and 
the sea-coast, the usual mode of traveling was by water, and for many 
years after, country roads, connecting one township with another, 
were entirely unknown. In summer the canoe held the place of the 
wheeled carriage, while in winter the icy surface of the frozen river 
formed the principal road for the sleigh and for the ox-sled with its 
heavy load. A map, still in existence, shows that in 17 18 there was 
a " road " that is now High street in Bath, the only avenue of travel, 
and on which the dwellings of the few inhabitants, who were farmers, 
were situated. Between that " country road " and the river was a 
forest. 

In 1740, a road to Brunswick was the only one leading out of 
town. At this time travel was on foot or horseback. High street at 
first extended as far south as the old Pettengill farm. Down the hill 
below his house, now the McCutcheon house, is a narrow opening in 
the hill. Through this opening they built the road, it being the only 
gap to get over the hills. This road was nearly a southwest course 
over to Berry's Mill Pond ; here the road turned to the left to go to 
Phipsburg, and to the right to Brunswick, going westerly around the 
head of Mill Cove Pond, hence west around Short Cove, then around 
Long Cove, coming out to where later was Brown's Ferry, on the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 263 

New Meadows River, thence north to the head of the river, which it 
crossed and ran down on the west side of the river to what is now 
the Adams farm, thence about a southwest course over to the old 
Woodward Meeting-House, thence westwardly to Brunswick, or 
turn to the left to Harpswell Neck and Harpswell Island. 

There was. another road from Brown's, running north to the old 
Witch Spring Meeting-House, called the Rocky Hill road. It ran 
through the woods and came out to what is now known as Foster's 
Point road to a point which later was Brown's Ferry, and thence 
north along the river to the head of Stevens River. 

The reason why the road for travel between Bath and Brunswick 
was along the sides of the river, was that settlements were near the 
river, on both banks, necessitating roads near and on the line of its 
course. At a very early date there was only a foot-path through the 
woods, crossing Whizgig Creek on stepping-stones. 

In 1774, a county road was surveyed from the county line at 
New Meadows, beginning on land of John Ham, passing over 
Whizgig Creek to north end of High street, and thence to Harden's 
Ferry. It was some years later that this road was actually built, 
and stages from Portland, crossing the ferry, ran to eastern points. 

In 1780, the only roads leading into town from the west were one 
by the head of New Meadows River and one crossing the river at 
Brown's Ferry, which was at a point a mile or two below where is 
now Bull Rock Bridge. The " old road " to Brunswick was laid out 
in 1789, but it was not made passable until 1795. It was decided 
necessary to build a bridge at Whizgig, on the road leading around 
the head of the river, and the inhabitants petitioned the General 
Court for permission to raise funds for the purpose by a lottery, 
which was refused. 

In 1728, the High street road was extended to the New Meadows 
by way of what is now Winthrop street and the "stone house." 

For making South street the land was given by Jonathan Davis 
and originally called Davis Lane. 

In 1806, Center and South streets were laid out by commissioners 
to connect Washington street with the town road, which is now 
High street. The same year Washington street was extended to 
Day's Ferry and the bridge at Peterson's dock built. 



264 HISTORY OF BATH. 

In 1802, the bridge at Winnegance was built and the present 
road to Phipsburg laid out and built to connect with it. 

The reason that the date of the construction of Bull Rock bridge 
and the roads connected with it is not here given is on account of 
the town records having been destroyed by fire in 1837. 

Bridges. — Up to 1849 there had been thirty-six bridges con- 
structed wholly and in part within the limits of the city; the most 
costly was Bay bridge, at an outlay by Bath of $20,000. 

In 1887, an effort was made to make all bridges leading into the 
city and the ferry free; a ward vote by ballot was taken and the 
project defeated by five votes. 



THE SURPLUS REVENUE OF 1834. 



The John Quincy Adams administration was a marked era of a 
high tariff, accumulating a large surplus, for the times, in the United 
States Treasury. This accumulation, from necessity, continued into 
the first term of Jackson's presidency, aud after awhile ceased on 
account of a different revenue policy. After lengthy deliberation in 
Congress, it was decided to make a distribution of this surplus 
money to the several states according to their population, and it was 
done, to the amount of $40,000,000, in the nature of a loan to be 
called for when wanted. 

The proportion to Maine was made over by the state to the re- 
spective towns -to use as they should see fit, and nearly all of them 
voted to distribute their portion per capita, on the ground that it 
rightly belonged to the people de facto. This application of the 
money was overwhelmingly popular. The per capita share of each 
man, woman and child was three dollars. It was a God-send to 
poor men with large families. It was likewise a benefit to the towns, 
for there were men who had not paid taxes, or even a poll tax, for 
years ; therefore, when taking an order from the selectmen upon the 
treasurer, for their money, the over-due taxes were deducted by that 
official. 

The Town of Bath held a town meeting upon the subject. It 
was an object to heavy tax-payers to apply the money to public 



HISTORY OF BATH. 265 

improvements. There was to come to the town about ten thousand 
dollars. One of the leaders in town meetings was Gen. Joseph 
Sewall, and he submitted a motion, that passed, to appropriate in 
aid of the new ferry $2,000, the same amount for the improvement 
of the cemetery, and the balance to put into a town hall. The 
authorities proceeded accordingly to use the money as voted. But 
after awhile there came a growl from the rank and file as they were 
getting nothing directly from the surplus, which they believed their 
due. They found that other towns distributed per capita, and asked 
why a poor man with ten children in his family should pay, for these 
improvements, ten times more than a rich man with no family. 
Accordingly another town meeting was called at a later period, 
and it was overwhelmingly voted that the town make a loan to re- 
place the surplus that had been applied to improvements and the 
money divided per capita, which was done. 

The Town Hall was built by Couillard & Weeks, a firm of ma- 
sons. It was not finished off down stairs as it is now. There were 
two stores underneath, one used for a millinery store and one for a 
harness shop. Those doors on each side of the main entrance, now 
boarded over, were where the entrances were then. The steps ran 
the whole length of the front of the building. In the rear was a 
small lecture room ; the Universalists had it some time for their 
church services, and a select school was kept there at times. Up 
stairs it has always been about the same ; winding stairs came up 
into the hall ; where the doorways are now were the town offices. 
Major Shaw was town clerk in those days, and Cushing Allen, 
treasurer, who had his office in the other corner. It was said to be 
the best town hall in the state, and was completed in about 1837. 
It was remodeled when the city received its charter in 1847, and 
the stores underneath taken out and the present offices put in. The 
police station was changed at the same time. Old residents heard 
some wonderful speeches in the old hall. Charles Sumner spoke in 
it in abolition days, and there were grand old Free Soil speeches 
made in it. .Fred Douglass spoke in it when he was an escaped 
slave, and with a hoe showed how the plantation negro works, doing 
just as little as he possibly could, as this author well remembers. 



266 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The Old Turnpike to Brunswick. — This thoroughfare was 
in existence before there was any bridge across the New Meadows 
River. A charter was obtained by William King in 1804. It was 
chiefly owned by William King, who had the management of it. 
This end of it was on High street, where is now the north side of 
the court-house, and ran directly to the river, which it crossed by a 
bridge built by the company midway between the location of Bull 
bridge and the railroad bridge. It was at the bridge that toll was 
taken. On the building of the old Brunswick road, going by the 
stone house, the turnpike was discontinued, and subsequently 
Center street was extended west on the line of the turnpike to its 
present terminus. In 1806 there was another turnpike to Bruns- 
wick by the way of Brown's Ferry. 

Ferries. — The first ferry crossing the Kennebec River was at the 
Chops. It was known as Maynes ferry. Access to it from the 
west was by a path only for foot or horseback. It was this ferry 
that John Quincy Adams crossed, coming from Boston on horseback 
when he was a young practicing attorney, to conduct a lawsuit be- 
fore the Court of Sessions for Lincoln County. 

In the year 1762, Samuel Harnden was licensed by the Court 
of Sessions to keep and run a ferry, and it was probably run 
at a much earlier period. In 1769, a license was granted his son, 
Brigadier Harnden, by the same court. Licenses were also granted 
to several successors of the Harndens until in 1830, when Thomas P. 
Stetson applied for and received an act of incorporation by the Leg- 
islature to run a horse ferry under the name of Bath Horse Ferry, 
he having come into the possession of the grounds and landings on 
both sides of the river. From 1788 it was called Day's Ferry, from 
one of the former owners. 

March 7, 1834, John Parshley, Wm. M. Rogers, Nathaniel Wells, 
Asa Palmer, Oliver Moses, Peter Knight, George Ricker, Edward 
Hodgkins, Wm. V. Moses, Richard Nutter and Jonathan Hyde were 
incorporated as the Sagadahoc Ferry Company. A steam ferry 
boat was procured, landings built, and the running commenced 
in 1837. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 267 



MILITARY 



The first company of the second parish of Georgetown was 
organized with Patrick Drummond, Captain, John Stinson, Lieuten- 
ant, and there were eighty-seven members. There was an alarm 
watch composed of Lieut. Joseph Berry, Ensign Ebenezer Preble, 
Ensign Samuel Arnold, Lieut. John Lemont, James Thornton, and 
Deacon Purington. The above certified to — York, May 4, 1757 — 
" by Samuel Brown, clerk of the foot of militia in Georgetown." 

Revolutionary Period. — The relation, on page 53, of " Detach- 
ments sent to the Army" in 1775 was taken largely from accounts 
handed down from traditional authorities. Later researches reveal 
a difference in the details of the actual proceedings of that import- 
ant and interesting period in the history of Bath, the facts of which 
are now given. 

Records found in Massachusetts Archives of ancient date con- 
sist of muster rolls of soldiers drawing pay for services from the 
government of the commonwealth during the Revolutionary war. 
Details of the service have no mention in those records. The call 
for these soldiers is indicated under different headings, the first of 
which was 

"Lexington Alarm." 

The battle took place on the 19th of April, 1775, and upon 
news of the event reaching Bath, a small company of soldiers was 
raised to proceed to the seat of war. The record reads "A minute 
roll of Capt. Samuel McCobb's company." Samuel McCobb, Cap- 
tain; Benjamin Pattee, Sergeant; John Riggs, Corporal; Stephen 
Sampson, Stephen Ludlow, John Wheeler, John Mehoney, John 
Linnen, Isaac Hall, James Fleming, Joseph Brown, Joseph Cham- 
berlin, Obadiah Wetherell, Francis Green, Richard Berwick, Pri- 



268 HISTORY OF BATH. 

vates. The date of the enlistments was April 24, which was five 
days after the Lexington battle. 

This company of fifteen men were, evidently, spontaneous volun- 
teers, the officers had no commissions, they were simply a body of 
ardent patriots to serve when and where their services would be 
available. Reliable tradition informs us that there was no legal 
authority to enlist soldiers, and no public money to supply these 
men with an outfit, and that Capt. McCobb, who was a man of 
means, fitted out his men for service at his own expense. Tradition 
also informs us that they left at once for the front, whose center 
was at Cambridge. They served from April 24 to May 1, 1775. 

Competent historians are of the opinion that this company 
started to march to Cambridge, and before reaching there were met 
with tidings that their immediate services were not needed, and 
that they returned. This company was recognized by Massachusetts 
Dec. 19, 1775, and on Feb. 23, 1776, was paid for seven days' ser- 
vice and ninety miles' travel to the amount of ,£14 5s. 6d. by "John 
Lowell, Dep'y Sec'y, pro tern.'' 

"Siege of Boston." 

The records show that Samuel McCobb was in his seat as a 
member of the Provincial Congress at Watertown in May, and on 
the 17th of that month he enlisted in a company that was raised in 
Lincoln County to join in the siege of Boston. There is " A muster 
roll of the company under the command of Capt. Samuel McCobb 
in Col. John Nixon's regiment to the first of August, 1775." Upon 
this roll are the names of Benjamin Pattee, Lieutentant, John Riggs, 
Ensign, and the dates of their enlistments were, the captain, May 
17, and lieutenants, May 19, 1775. This roll contains the names, 
besides those of the commissioned officers, of fifty-nine " rank and 
file," a total of sixty-two men. The dates of the enlistments of 
those men extend from May 20 to June 9, the greater number of 
them bearing date of June 1. They were drawn from the towns of 
Georgetown, Woolwich, Gardinertown, Newcastle, Winthrop, Pow- 
nalboro, Haverhill, Hallowell, Pleasant Pond, Bristol, St. George, 
Winslow, and Wiscasset. Those from Georgetown were James 



HISTORY OP BATH. 269 

Fleming, James Buck, Thomas Foot, Martin Hall, Peter Heal; from 
Woolwich, Abner West, Solomon Whittier, Nathaniel Webb, Samuel 
Williams. One man from Winslow deserted July 13. The company 
was in service two months and about nineteen days. They drew 
clothing, guns, and cartridge boxes from the commissary. This 
company reached Cambridge, its destination, before the- battle of 
Bunker Hill, in which it participated in the command of General 
Putnam. 

On page 56 of this volume is a copy of the roll of this company 
dated at Winter Hill, Oct. 7, 1775, which is not in the handwriting 
of its commander, and was prepared during the time of its service 
on Arnold's expedition- to Quebec, evidently for the purpose of 
adjusting the pay of its members, which amounted to ,£144 3s. 8d. 
and was paid by the " Colony.'' As that roll states that forty-four 
men only went to Canada, one had deserted and eight left behind at 
Winter Hill, it is evident that there had been a decrease of the 
number of men originally enlisted of about eight, and it is possible 
that these may be accounted for as casualties in the battle of Bun- 
ker Hill. 

Artillery. — " Pay roll of Capt. Jordan Parker's company, in Col. 
Samuel McCobb's command, in the service of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, Dec. 1, 1781." Jordan Parker, Captain, enlisted 
May 3 ; Josiah Hinkley, Lieutenant, enlisted May 3 ; George Ulmer, 
Lieutenant, enlisted May 10; Elisha Shaw, Ensign, enlisted May 15. 
The roll contains the names of fifty-one " rank and file," the larger 
portion serving nearly seven months, the pay of the entire company 
amounting to £987 3s. 5d., and were discharged Dec. 1, 1781. The 
pay of the commander was sixty dollars a month; the men, fifteen 
dollars a month. There is nothing on record to indicate the line of 
service of this artillery company. Jordan Parker resided at Phips- 
burg and was a deacon of Rev. Ezekiel Emerson's church. 

Reinforcements to the Continental Army. — A detail was 

made of troops from the county of Lincoln "for filling up the 
fifteen battalions of Continental troops," and thirty-three men were 



270 HISTORY OF BATH. 

raised and sent to Fishkill May 28, 1778, under the command of 
Theophilus Batchelder, by " Samuel McCobb, superintendent." Of 
these men there were eleven from Georgetown and three from 
Woolwich. 

July, 1778, there were sent to reinforce the regular army a detail 
of forty-nine men and officers under the command of Benjamin 
Lemont, Captain, and Samuel Berry, Lieutenant, from the regiment 
of Col. Samuel McCobb and brigade of Gen. Charles Cushing. 

Winter Hill. — Immediately north of the original Bunker Hill is 
Winter Hill, which has a Revolutionary record of interest to the 
people of Bath. As appears on page 56 of this History, a military 
company of sixty-two officers and men was formed at Bath soon 
after the battle of Lexington and marched to Cambridge and took 
part in the battle of Bunker Hill, after which the company was 
encamped at Winter Hill as part of Col. John Nixon's regiment. 
Here the regiment threw up a fortification which stretched across 
the top of the hill, extending east and west on a line that passed 
where now is a Methodist church. In excavating for a foundation 
for this building, two six-pound round shot were found. In building 
the church, the lower half of which is of stone, these balls were 
inserted in the stone of the main door-way, one on each side of 
the door, half the round ball protruding, showing age and wear of 
the elements. 

It will be recollected that when Washington took command of the 
army he established a cordon of fortifications surrounding Boston, 
placing it in a state of siege. At these points were stationed dif- 
ferent regiments, Winter Hill being assigned to this regiment. At 
one time during its stay there, General Washington visited it and 
remained over night in a house within the fortification. A flat stone 
which formed a step on which he must have trod when entering it is 
now a choice relic in the possession of Mr. Jonathan Brown, whose 
residence is near the spot where stood the ancient house. 

On the south declivity of this hill a granite tablet has been placed 
which is firmly set into the ground and is in dimensions about half 



HISTORY OF BATH. 27 1 

a foot thick, four feet in height, and two and a half feet in width. 
It has on it this inscription : — 

Paul Revere 
passed over this road on his 

midnight ride 

To Lexington and Concord, 

April i8, 1775. 

Site of the "Winter Hill Fort," 

a stronghold built by 

the American forces 

while besieging boston, 

1775-6. 

So far as the site of the fort is concerned the location of this 
tablet is misleading, inasmuch as there is conclusive evidence that 
the fortification was at the apex and across the hill, its lines having 
been identified by aged people now living (1893) at the " Hill." Its 
height is one hundred and twenty feet above tide water. 

After the surrender of Burgoyne, several hundred Hessian pris- 
oners were quartered on this hill, and bones of some of their dead 
have been dug up there since 1850, when excavating to make foun- 
dations for buildings. These Hessian prisoners went to work, 
remained there permanently, and their children became good citi- 
zens, retaining in some degree the foreign brogue to the present day. 

The name of Winter Hill was derived from that of an early 
settler of that name who lived there, as told by an aged lady who 
died twenty-six years since, when eighty years of age. This historic 
locality can be reached by lines of street cars from Boston. It is 
now a part of North Somerville, having been set off from Charles- 
town in 1843. 

After the Revolutionary war a reorganization of the military 
system of Massachusetts was effected, and it was put on a more 
thorough basis. Every man from the age of eighteen to forty-five, 
except in certain cases exempt, was compelled by law to be 
placed as a soldier on the roll of a company, which met for drill 
in military tactics four days in a year. This service was afterwards 
changed in the State of Maine to a half day twice a year, one 



272 HISTORY OF BATH. 

in May and one in September, and also general muster of 
the regiment in the fall, usually in September. Absence from either 
subjected the delinquent to a fine. He was also required to appear 
on parade with a gun and equipments under the penalty of a 
fine. The towns were compelled to keep on hand, under heavy 
fine, ammunition specified by law. Bath had two companies and 
belonged to the first regiment, first brigade, and eleventh division, 
until Maine became a state, when it belonged to the fourth division. 
There was also, nearly always, a "uniformed" infantry company in 
Bath, and a,t times a rifle company and an artillery company. For 
fifty years a lively military spirit was kept up, as there were wars 
and rumors of wars. In time military service lost its interest and 
few men after 1830 were willing to accept military office, and the 
ranks became thin. But the "Aroostook war" of February and 
March, 1839, temporarily aroused the martial spirit, until the 
legislature in the winter of 1844 abolished the entire military sys- 
tem, giving commissioned officers honorable discharge. The change 
was followed by the volunteer system of " uniformed " companies, 
with equipments supplied by the state, to drill at their own option, 
with one general muster four days in the year with pay and rations. 
These organizations were not kept up during the civil war, but new 
companies were formed after its close, and the state now has a very 
respectable militia. For the era comprised between the time of 
the abandonment of the old, militia system in 1844, and the com- 
mencement of the civil war in 186 1, Bath had no company but the 
City Grays. 

" The exact time of the formation of any of the militia companies 
subsequent to the Revolution is not known. In 1788 the 1st regi- 
ment of the 1st brigade and 6th division of the Massachusetts 
militia mustered for the first time where the Bath Hotel formerly 
stood. John Lemont, of Bath, was Colonel, and John Reed, of 
Topsham, Lieutenant-Colonel, of this regiment " (v/i/r History of 
Brunswick). 

In 1795 the inhabitants of Bath raised an artillery company. 
Their guns were brass, three-pounders, and their first gun house 
was on the south-east corner of High and South streets, where 



HISTORY OF BATH. 273 

Francis Adams' house stands. The first corps of officers were: 
Captain, John Moodey; 1st Lieut., William Blasland; 2d Lieut, 
Caleb Lincoln. 

According to Lemont, there was a company under the command 
of Capt. J. W. Mitchell, numbering ninety-four men, liable to mili- 
tary duty, the roll of which is dated May 4, 1802; the only men 
living in December, 1866, were Andrew Heath, Gilbert Trufant, 
David Sewall, and Joshua Sewall. 

" May 6, 1806, the Bath Light Infantry was organized and 
voted to dress in red coats and turn out in uniform for the first 
time on May 12th, and on the 24th received an elegant standard 
from William King " {per Z. Hyde). . 

Besides "uniformed companies," Bath always had of later years 
two companies of 'militia of the line, the records of which are not 
at hand. 

March 8, 1808, William King, having been appointed major- 
general, was escorted into town on coming from Boston by troops 
of Topsham, Brunswick, and Bath. He had not filled any previous 
commissioned office in the militia. He served until after 18 17. In 
that year Governor Strong, of Massachusetts, came down to Bath 
and reviewed the Bath regiment at its annual muster. It was a 
great occasion. 

May 5, 182 1, Bath Rifle Corps was organized with Joshua Bow- 
man, Captain ; Barnard C. Bailey, Lieutenant, and Harris Gurney, 
Ensign. 

In 182 1, a Rifle Corps under the command of Capt. Joshua Bow- 
man, and Bath Light Infantry company under Lieut. Davis Hatch, 
took part in a Fourth of July celebration. 

Aug. 9, 182 1, Davis Hatch was promoted to Captain of the Bath 
Light Infantry ; Gershom Hyde promoted Lieutenant, and Thomas 
S. Marsh, Ensign. 

In 1825, Alexander Drummond, Jr., of Phipsburg, was Colonel of 
the regiment ; William M. Reed, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Capt. Thomas 
M. Reed, acting Major. 



274 HISTORY OF BATH. 

When Lafaykttk visited Portland, in 1825, the Bath Light In- 
fantry, by invitation, marched to Portland and took part in the pro- 
cession. 

In 1788, the muster ground was immediately south of where 
Phcenix Hotel now is. Later there was a muster field near the 
present poor-house farm; later, on Hospital Point, and the last mus- 
ter of uniformed militia was in the old Sewall field in about 1848, 
when E. K. Harding was commander, the Bath Grays in existence, 
and Portland Light Infantry present on duty. 

Sept. 21, 1836, there was a muster of the first brigade of the 
fourth division, under command of Brigadier-General Jeremiah 
Millay of Bowdoinham, at Brunswick, on the plain east of the 
village, with attached independent companies, the First or Bath 
regiment participating. All the companies of the regiment were 
on duty. Nathaniel C. Reed was in command of a Phipsburg 
company. 

The Aroostook War Of 1839.— In February, 1839, Bath 
was called upon to furnish a draft of men from the ranks of its 
militia companies to serve in a campaign in the Aroostook River 
region, where hostilities were imminent between Maine and New 
Brunswick relative to the right of possession of a "disputed territory" 
connected with an undefined line between the two governments, the 
crisis having been brought on by the plundering by lumbermen of 
New Brunswick of valuable timber from land claimed by the State 
of Maine. In attempting to drive off the invaders by force of arms 
collisions had ensued, and in consequence both Maine and New 
Brunswick made preparations for actual war. 

This state of things raised a tremendous excitement throughout 
the state, arousing the military spirit that had long remained dor- 
mant. Augusta became filled with troops, and within a week ten 
thousand soldiers were on duty in that city or on the march to 
Aroostook. Before regular hostilities had time to commence, Gen. 
Scott came down from Washington with his staff, early in March, 
and, to the general disappointment of the greater portion of the 
drafted men, made a truce between Gov. Fairfield, of Maine, and 




K Si- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



275 



Gov. Harvey, of New Brunswick. Within a year the disputed lines 
were settled by the treaty of Washington, negotiated by Daniel 
Webster, Secretary of State, and Lord Ashburton, Ambassador from 
England. 

This brief episode of war found the militia of the state in a con- 
dition of demoralization and inspired it to renewed activity, which 
lasted to a considerable extent until the abolishment of the militia 
system at the session of the legislature of 1844. 

When the act was passed by the Maine legislature abolishing the 
militia system in 1844, all officers then in commission received from 
the state authorities a certificate declaring their honorable discharge. 
Consequently there was no enrolled militia until after 1848, when 
a law was passed providing for the formation of volunteer com- 
panies, the arms and equipments to be provided at the expense of 
the state. 

The Bath City Grays. — Under the militia law of 1848, fifty- 
two young men, of Bath, of the highest standing enrolled their 
names for the formation of a military company, which was organized 
Aug. 3, 1850, electing Edward K. Harding, Captain; John G. Rich- 
ardson, 1st Lieutenant; Thomas S. Bowles, 2d Lieutenant; Galen 
Clapp, 3d Lieutenant; James T. Patten, 4th Lieutenant, and A. J. 
Farnsworth, Orderly Sergeant. In September of the same year 
the enrollment had increased to seventy-four members, and up to 
Aug. 22, 1859, the entire enrollment had been one hundred and 
eight, which included members who had dropped out from time 
to time. They made their first public parade Oct. 24, 1850, 
accompanied by the Bath brass band. After marching through 
the principal streets, at 1 1 o'clock a.m. they took a special train for 
Brunswick, where they partook of a collation at the residence of 
Mr. J. C. Cleveland, one of their members, and a dinner at the 
Tontine Hotel. Their fine appearance as they marched through the 
streets and went through various military evolutions elicited the 
hearty applause of the citizens of that village. Capt. Harding 
was promoted to colonel of the regiment to which the company was 
attached, when J. G. Richardson became captain, and upon his 



276 HISTORY OF BATH. 

resignation William Rogers was elected captain and served during 
the continuance of the company's organization. 

This company was in existence at the time of the notable Know 
Nothing riot of 1854, and was called out by the mayor and rendez- 
voused at its armory on Front street ready for any emergency. It 
performed some delicate duty in quelling the mob without resort to 
the use of their arms. The Grays proved themselves equal to the 
occasion, acting promptly and fearlessly. They were under the 
command of Capt. E. K. Harding. 

The City Grays, by invitation, went to Boston in the summer of 
1853, and took part in the celebration of the completion of the city 
water works, on which occasion the company with full ranks made a 
notable display. It also went on several other occasions to take 
part in public parades on many notable excursions in and out 
of the state, and entertained visiting companies from other parts of 
the state. 

Bath in the War of the Rebellion.— "The Bath City Grays, 
which had been formed in 1850, was at the commencement of the 
war of the Rebellion the only organized company left in the state 
under the voluntary militia law " ( Maine Archives). When the war 
of the Rebellion came on, and the regiments of Maine volunteers 
were to be formed under the first call for troops, Governor Coburn 
sent a requisition to Bath for two hundred men. With the City 
Grays as a basis, the requisite number enlisted and were formed 
into two companies. William Rogers -remained Captain of one 
company, with Reuben Sawyer and W. D. Haley, Lieutenants; C. 
A. L. Sampson was elected Captain of the other company, with 
William H. Watson, 1st Lieutenant, and Warren Matson, 2d Lieu- 
tenant. They were ordered to Augusta and went there by steamer. 
While there Captain Rogers resigned, and 1st Lieut. Reuben Sawyer 
was promoted to the command, with W. D. Haley and J. S. Wiggin, 
Lieutenants. These companies were mustered into the Third Maine 
Regiment, which rendezvoused at Augusta, and was organized June 
4, 1861, of which O. O. Howard was Colonel. The Bath com- 
panies became Company A, Capt. Reuben Sawyer, and Company 



HISTORY OF BATH. 277 

D, Capt. C. A. L. Sampson. Joseph S. Smith, of Bath, was a private 
in Company I of this regiment, was promoted to quartermaster- 
sergeant, and Nov. 14, 1861, commissioned captain in the commis- 
sary department of the army. 

When Captain Sampson was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, 1st 
Lieut. W. H. Watson became Captain of Co. D in the fall of 1861. 
When Captain Sawyer died, while in service, George W. Harvey, of 
Co. A, was promoted to the command of the company, and Lieut. J. 
S. Wiggin was promoted to the captaincy of Co. I of the Third 
Regiment. 

When the Seventh Regiment was organized at Augusta, Aug. 21, 
186 1, Thomas W. Hyde joined it from Bath with Company D, and 
soon after it was mustered in Capt. Hyde was appointed major of 
the same regiment. In this company George C. Morse, of Bath, 
went out a lieutenant, and afterwards became a captain. 

The Ninth Regiment rendezvoused at Augusta, Sept. 22, 1861, 
and a Bath company with Zina H. Robinson, Captain, was mus- 
tered therein. 

The Nineteenth Regiment rendezvoused at Bath and organized 
Aug. 25, 1862, with F. D. Sewall, of Bath, Colonel. Company K, 
of Bath, with Charles S. Larrabee, Captain, was mustered into this 
regiment. 

The Bath companies served chiefly in the army of the Potomac. 
Of the original members of the Bath City Grays, thirty-six went 
into the war of the Rebellion, serving in the Army of the Potomac, 
some of them attaining rank of all grades up to colonels and 
generals. 

There were Bath men who entered the Cavalry service, but as 
they formed no distinct organization, there is no special record of 
their names or services. 

One hundred and ten men was the quota for Bath and vicinity for 
service in the navy, and that number enlisted; among those belong- 
ing to Bath were John O. Shaw, D. L. Wylie, W. H. Fogg, H. M. 
Hagan, F. Eaton, C. W. Price, A. Dunham, sailing master. 

Soldiers' Monument. — The soldiers' monument, standing on 
High street in front of the court-house, was erected by the city gov" 



278 HISTORY OF BATH. 

eminent in 1867, a worthy tribute to those patriotic citizen soldiers 
who gave up their lives that the undivided government might live. 
The names of the officers inscribed on this handsome marble shaft 
are Captains George W. Harvey, Ashbury C. Richards, Alfred S. 
Merrill, Reuben Sawyer, Lieut. Luther Small, and there are 106 pri- 
vates. 

Those officers who went from this city to the front and survived 
the war were, Generals, Thomas W. Hyde and F. D. Sewall; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, Charles A. L. Sampson; Major, Zina H. Robinson; 
Captains, A. W. Turner, J. S. Wiggin, W. H. Watson, George S. 
Morse, Alfred Robinson, James L. Hunt, George \V. Bicknell, 
Charles S. Larrabee, George W. Prince; Lieutenants, R. C. Harris, 
George H. Hutchinson, W. D. Haley, Samuel M. Donnell, F. R. 
Smith; Engineer, David R. Wylie. 

Two hundred and two men of Bath lost their lives in the war of 
the Rebellion. 

Companies of the Reserved Militia. — In June, 1883, the 
Bath Light Infantry was formed and Henry E. Stetson was elected 
Captain; John O. Patten, 1st Lieutenant, and William R. Ballou, 
2d Lieutenant. In September, 1886, this company was reorganized 
with Henry W. Howard, Captain; Albert A. Reed, 1st Lieutenant, 
and E. H. Sawyer, 2d Lieutenant. In the spring of 1887, Albert 
A. Reed became its Captain; A. C. Harris, 1st Lieutenant; E. H. 
Sawyer, 2d Lieutenant. 

In April, 1887, this company held a Governor's Reception, at 
Gardiner, of an evening. For the music the celebrated Reeves 
American Band came from Providence, R. I., the first time it had 
been in this state, and on the evening before the governor's reception 
gave a concert in the Alameda Opera House, Bath, to a large audi- 
ence. The company went to Gardiner to give an exhibition drill at 
the governor's reception, and its performance was exceedingly cred- 
itable. In attendance were Gov. Frederick Robie and his staff, 
all of the military officers of the higher grades in the state and 
those on duty at the Togus Veterans' Home, together with ladies 
and prominent gentlemen from several cities in the state. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 279 

By special invitation this company with full ranks, Capt. A. A. 
Reed, went to Portland, July 4, 1887, and took part in a notable 
parade on the streets, in which the regiments of the state militia 
and the military from three naval ships, lying in the harbor, took 
part in a Fourth of July celebration. During the succeeding winter 
the commissioned officers resigned and new officers were chosen 
The Captain was George H. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, I. A. Harris; 
2d Lieutenant, John T. Parris. Efforts had been made to have this 
company mustered in under the state laws as state troops, and the 
adjutant-general had acceded to the proposition, but as a number 
of the rank and file objected to enlistment the scheme was aban- 
doned and the company disbanded. 

Hyde Light Guards was organized May 15, 1890, with Charles 
F. Nealey, Captain, who resigned Oct. 29, 1891, when James B. 
Hill was elected Captain. This company composes a part of the 
volunteer militia of Maine. It carries a banner presented by Judge 
William L. Putnam, Portland, a native of Bath. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



The first fire company that was formed in Bath was composed of 
the most prominent men of the town. It was the " Bath Fire So- 
ciety," instituted March 3, 1803. In its rules were specified that 
" each member shall pay seventy-five cents, and shall provide him- 
self with two leather buckets, two bags, and a knapsack for the 
purpose of carrying the bags ; the bags to be made of raven's duck, 
to have strings at their open ends, and to be each one and a half 
yard in length and three-fourths of a yard in width. The buckets, 
bags, and knapsack shall be constantly kept together in some con- 
spicuous part of his dwelling-house, shall always be preserved in 
good order, shall be used on no occasion except on alarms of fire, 
and shall be marked with the first letter of his Christian name and 
his surname at length, on penalty of twenty-five cents for neglect in 
each particular ; one or both buckets, one or both bags, and knap- 
sack shall be considered an article." 



280 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The members of the company at one period of its existence were : 
Barnard C. Bailey, J. Henry McLellan, William M. Rogers, Samuel 
G. Stinson, Samuel Swanton, Richard Nutter, Oliver Moses, Richard 
R. Smith, Converse L. Owen, Johnson Rideout, George Wood, 
Amasa Soule, Daniel Larrabee, Denny Kelley, John Peterson, B. 
Stinson, Peter Knight, D. D. Hodgkins, Samuel D. Haley, James 
Wakefield, Henry C. Donnell, Barzilla Gannett, Charles Clapp, Jr., 
David T. Stinson, John Elliot, E. Ayers, Thomas Eaton, Jr., J. Far- 
rin, R. P. Morse, Elisha Clark, J. Haley, 2d, Asa B. Robinson, Levi 
P. Lemont, George Davis, Thomas Gilpatrick, David P. Low, 
Edward Hodgkins. 

" Upon an alarm of fire every member shall immediately repair 
thereto with his buckets, bags, and knapsack; and shall, in a special 
manner, direct his exertions to the preservation of those buildings 
and effects, belonging to the members of this society, more imme- 
diately exposed to destruction. And should any member lose his 
buckets or bags at a fire, and, after diligent search and inquiry, 
should be unable to recover them, the loss shall be repaired by the 
society." 

" Should any member of this society be reduced in his circum- 
stances by fire, he shall be presented by the society with whatever 
sum they, considering his situation, may think proper. The same 
assistance and protection shall be extended to the widows of 
deceased members that their husbands would be entitled to were 
they living." 

At the scene of the fire a line would be formed leading to a water 
supply, where the pails would be filled and passed from hand to 
hand until emptied upon the flames, when they would be passed 
back again in the same manner. On some occasions a second line 
would be formed to pass the emptied buckets back again. When 
the crowd had become pressing, a rope would be drawn in the rear 
of the bucket line and kept taut. When the men in the line fell 
short, lookers-on would be pressed into service by a town ordinance. 

The first engine brought into the town was a "tub," into which 
water would be poured from the pails, and from thence thrown upon 
the fire by the use of brakes. This was in 1804. The first suction 



HISTORY OF BATH. 28 1 

engine was the Kennebec, now in existence, and was purchased in 
1838. The next was the Deluge. The Torrent was bought in 
Boston, Aug. 9, 1843, costing $955, and was called No. 2. A 
new engine company was formed with Edwin A. Morse, fore- 
man. The machine was purchased by subscription, each member 
of the company taking a share at five dollars. As every able-bodied 
man must belong to a fire company or be liable to do military duty, 
membership rapidly increased, starting with seventeen men. A 
peculiarity of the fire system was that of the appointment of war- 
dens, in which capacity William King and Joseph Sewall were 
chosen as such in 1837, and performed the duty of carrying a long 
rod, on the upper end of which was a bright round knob to use in 
keeping firemen close to their work. 

Chief Engineers. — 1804, Joseph Torrey; 1849, Jeremiah Ells- 
worth; 1850-5, John G. Richardson; 1856-7, C. D. Elmes; 
1858-9, L. G. Litchfield; 1860-4, Samuel L. Allen; 1865-6, Read 
Nichols; 1867-8, William Ingalls; 1869, Solomon Reed; 1870-1, 
William Hodgdon; 1872, Charles L. Turner; 1873-4, William C. 
Duncan; 1875-6, Thomas F. Craven; 1877-8, John T. Cook; 
1879-81, Andrew R. Cahill ; 1882-3, John R. Knowlton; 1884-6, 
Oscar F. Williams; 1887, Sidney B. Knight; 1888, George S. Brown; 
1889, James H. Scott; 1890, Sidney B. Knight; 1891, James H. 
Scott; 1893, John R. Knowlton. 

Old-Time Fires. — February 27, 1829, a fire broke out at the 
corner of Commerce and Front streets, in the store of James C. 
Tallman, and spread north through the stores of Elbridge G. 
Sprague, Clark & Sewall, John Bosworth, and James H. McLellan, 
to the large store of General McLellan. At that time all stores con- 
tained groceries, hardware, wooden ware, dry goods, salt, flour, and 
liquors of all kinds. The utmost exertion was required to prevent 
the fire from crossing the street to the west. The old-fashioned 
hand tubs were the only things provided to fight fire with, and as it 
was low water, lines had to be formed across the flats to pass the 
water from the river to them. 



282 HISTORY OF BATH. 

December 12, 1829, another fire occurred greater than the other. 
It commenced on the west side of Front street, directly opposite 
Kerry street, and spread south; and to the north to Elm street, and 
was stayed at the store of Edmund Freeman ; on the west it took 
a number of small buildings. The buildings burned were owned by 
Charles Clapp, Thomas Haley, James Foster, John Hodgkins, and 
Charles Crooker. The tide was out, as at the former fire, and a 
storm prevailed which interfered much with the work of saving 
goods. 

The Great Fire of 1837.— The winter of 1837 was one of 
terrible severity, and on one of the coldest nights of that cold win- 
ter a fire broke out in a building on the north-west corner of Front 
street, corner of Ferry street, on the evening of Feb. 5th, originating 
in the boot and shoe store of Samuel Foote. The wind caused it to 
spread to the west side of Front street, sweeping everything before 
it. The fire machines consisted of two old-fashioned hand tubs, 
which .had to be supplied by a long line of buckets, passing from 
hand to hand ; and such a freezing night as that to pass the water. 
The wind blowing from the north-east, almost a gale, nothing could 
stay the progress of the flames. They spread in every direction, 
carrying destruction and misery in their path. Thirty stores and 
houses were burned to ashes, including Parsons Smith, Hartley 
Gove, Ammi R. Mitchell, William M. Rogers, Otis Kimball, Mrs. 
Swazey, Mr. Ferrin, Mr. Larrabee, Mr. Haley and his son, Mr. 
Foote, Mr. Hogan, R. R. Smith, Davis Hatch, Mr. Bovey, John 
Hayden, Mr. Stevens, Converse Owen, the two Barbers, John Beals' 
tavern, Samuel Anderson, Mr. Donnell's watch-maker's shop, Jacob 
Robinson's store, Mrs. Brown, and others. 

" The fire took the adjoining buildings and crossed the street, 
taking all the buildings on the west side from the store of what is 
now Walter S. Russell's to the store now occupied by Charles A. 
Harriman, the high brick wall, extending above the roof covered 
with slate, with copper gutters, and no perforations for sky lights, 
sufficed to arrest the progress of the flames. About eight inches 
of snow fell that night and the mercury showed four degrees below 



HISTORY OF BATH. 283 

zero. The goods in the stores and shops were taken out and scat- 
tered in every direction in the snow. A large part of what was 
taken from the burning buildings was lost in the snow. It was past 
four o'clock before active exertion ceased. The sun rose bright and 
beautiful the next morning to shed its rays on a heap of ruins. 
The old tubs were all we had and they soon froze up and were 
useless. But for that brick wall, nearly all the houses and stores to 
the south would probably have been destroyed as far down as 
Winnegance. With the exception of the Elliot House and a three 
story building nearly all the buildings were two stories in height. A 
very singular circumstance occurred at this fire. Among the goods 
saved, a great many odd boots and shoes were found with no mates 
to match them. Of course they were valueless, the underwriters pay- 
ing for them as for a total loss. The loser soon after took another 
shop and opened a good assortment of boots and shoes, apparently 
as large as he had before the fire, although no one knew of his going 
anywhere to get them." — Hayden. 

It was felt at the time to be a great blow to the industry and capi- 
tal of Bath, as there was little insurance on either stores or stocks. 
The work of rebuilding was, however, begun while the ashes of 
the fire were still warm, and better buildings than those burned 
were soon completed on the devastated district. 

In the winter of 1838, Kelley's block on Center street, nearly 
opposite the present City Hall, was burned. In it were the town of 
Bath record books, which were entirely destroyed. 

One of the greatest fires that has ever occurred in Bath was that 
in the yard of the New England Ship-building Company in the fore- 
noon of July 15, 1887. Fire originated in a building at the north- 
west corner of the yard, in which was the office of the company, 
also a paint shop and oakum loft, in the latter of which the fire 
originated. The wind was blowing strongly from the north-west, 
sweeping the flames directly upon the yard, which had no fire appa- 
ratus, and there was delay in the fire-engines arriving upon the 
ground on account of the horses being employed on a distant street 
doing city work. Besides the burning of the building named, which 
was of two stories, there was a dwelling-house with stable, black- 



284 HISTORY OF BATH. 

smith shop, a 1,200 and an 800-ton schooner on the stocks, which 
were being built for outside parties, one valued at $20,000, the other 
at $s, 000, a tug valued at $10,000, a large quantity 'of ship material 
in the yard, machinery and appliances damaged, and a vessel on the 
marine railway caught fire, but was saved by heroic effort, led by a 
reporter of the Times. The property lost was valued at $150,000. 

In June, 1893, this company lost its mill by fire in the day-time, 
when it was not in operation. Valuable machinery was destroyed, 
as also chests of tools stored there by workmen off duty. The loss 
was estimated at $15,000. 

In April, 1893, the Columbian Opera House and Revere House, 
on the west side of Forest street between Elm and Summer streets, 
were burned. 

After the great Portland fire, July 4, 1866, the city government 
sent $2,000 in aid of the sufferers, and in addition citizens sent 
large quantities of provisions and clothing. In October of the same 
year there was a destructive fire in Wiscasset, and Mr. John Hay- 
den, then mayor of Bath, raised by subscription $1,000 in money 
and the people sent quantities of necessary goods. 

The Fire Alarm System. — In December, 1891, the city gov- 
ernment authorized a contract with the Gamewell Company to place 
its fire alarm system (experimentally for six months) in the city at a 
cost of $3,500, to comprise thirteen boxes and to include all the 
machinery necessary for operating the works. 

The system can be used in stormy weather to notify schools 
whether there will be one session or two. The system worked ex- 
cellently well and was adopted. In June, 1893, an alarm was placed 
in the Bath Iron Works. 



WATER WORKS. 



In 1884, the question of water supply became seriously agitated 
and discussed by business men, resulting in obtaining a charter from 
the legislature in January, 1885, by a company of citizens of the 
city. In the spring of 1886, the company instituted a survey of 



HISTORY OF BATH. 285 

water sources and of facilities for piping the streets. For the water 
supply it was decided that that from Thompson's Brook was the 
purest obtainable. Expert engineers reported that with extensive 
excavations sufficient good water could be secured from this source, 
and it was decided to adopt this as the source of supply, and it has 
proved to be the purest in the state. 

In the summer of 1886, a contract for preparing the brook, put- 
ting in the works and service pipe was awarded to F. B. Darley, of 
Norwich, Conn. He commenced the work September, 1886, and 
completed it in September, 1887. The water at Thompson's Brook 
is at a point in Brunswick near Harding Station, between the 
line of the Maine Central Railroad and Trotting Park. The pond 
is from 100 to 150 feet wide and 400 feet long. The water-shed is 
over six miles square, and the supply has been estimated to be suf- 
ficient for a city of 10,000 inhabitants. The soil for miles about 
the pond is sandy. The pipes are of iron; the main pipe crosses 
the New Meadows River about an eighth of a mile above the rail- 
road bridge. The pumping station is situated within short distance 
of the brook. It is a fire-proof, brick building. The stand-pipe is 
situated on Paradise Hill, about a mile and a quarter from the 
court-house, on the highest ground between the pumping station and 
the city, and can be seen for miles around. The dimensions of this 
large reservoir are 75 feet high, 34 feet 6f inches at the bottom, and 
33 feet 8 inches at the top, made of refined iron, 50,000 pounds 
tensil strength. The hydrant system for use in case of fire extends 
over the principal part of the city from Cowin's store to Pine street, 
and from Commercial to Lincoln street. There are one hundred 
and twenty-one in number, four four-nozzle, four three-nozzle, and 
ninety-two two-nozzle hydrants. 

The following are the members and incorporators of the Bath 
Water Supply Company: Arthur Sewall, Charles Davenport, L. W. 
Houghton, John S. Elliot, Thomas W. Hyde, John H. Kimball, 
Franklin Reed, F. H. Patten, Galen C. Moses, Charles H. McLellan, 
John W. McLellan, Frank O. Moses, John W. Marr, F. B. Torrey, 
John O. Patten, Henry W. Swanton, A. H. Shaw, George Moulton, 
Jr., Samuel D. Bailey, George H. Nichols. 



286 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Following is the official report of the statistics of 1892 of the 
Water Supply Company: Source, Thompson's Brook, located at 
Brunswick; system, pumping to stand-pipe; stand-pipe capacity, 
550,000 gallons; two Worthington pumps, daily capacity, 2,000,000 
gallons; hydrants, 121, Ludlow; pipe, 24 5-8 miles, 12 to 2 inches 
in diameter ; 6 1 valves ; 9 meters, various ; quality of water, extra 
good; pressure, domestic, 72 to 105 pounds; fire, the same; works 
owned by Company; cost of construction, $275,000. 



THE CEMETERIES. 



Within the limits of this city there are four cemeteries, the largest 
being Maple Grove and Oak Grove cemeteries. The oldest burying- 
ground is known as the David Trufant cemetery, at the head of 
Spring street. It is about an acre in extent and has not been used 
for nearly half a century. Many head-stones have been blown down 
and the graves broken. A slate head-stone marks the grave of 
David Trufant, who was known as " King David " and for whom the 
grave-yard was named. The inscription on the stone is : " David 
Trufant, who died Dec. 14, 1813, Mt. 72 years, 7 months." The 
oldest head-stone is dated Nov. 12, 1795. 

The next oldest cemetery is at the corner of Dummer and Beacon 
streets, and is known as the Dummer Sewall burying-ground. In 
this cemetery lie the remains of Dummer Sewall. According to the 
inscription on a ten-foot granite monument, he died aged 94 years. 

About 1800, the town of Bath purchased of the estate of Hetherly 
Foster three acres of land for use as a burying-ground. From time 
to time since, the cemetery has been enlarged by land purchased of 
William D. Sewall. This cemetery is now known as Maple Grove. 
About 1854, the city wished to enlarge the ground by purchase of a 
strip of land on the northern end, but concluded to try elsewhere 
on account of what the city fathers considered an exorbitant price. 
Four miles from the city a large tract of land was bought, but it 
turned out not to be a wise move, as not half a dozen graves were 




THE OLD NORTH, 1802. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 287 

made there by reason of the distance from the city. This cemetery 
is still owned by Bath and is covered by a dense growth of pine and 
other trees. The city enlarged Maple Grove cemetery at a later 
day at less than one-half the price first asked. Maple Grove is 
kept in excellent condition and is one of the best arranged ceme- 
teries in the state. In Maple Grove lie the remains of William 
King, Maine's first governor, who died June 17, 1852, aged 84 years. 
A large granite monument, erected by the state, marks the spot. 

In the north-west part of the city is Oak Grove cemetery, which 
was formerly known as the Sewall burying-ground, and was pur- 
chased by the city of heirs of Charles Sewall in 1872. This ceme- 
tery is well laid out in regular squares, with broad avenues. A large 
amount of money has been expended in beautifying the grounds, and 
it can be said that no other place in the state has a more beautiful 
resting place for the dead. The oldest head-stone in Oak Grove 
bears date of Jan. 22, 1777. 

On the Berry's mill road, a few rods south of "Witch Spring," 
there is an old cemetery, which is now occasionally used for burials. 
This cemetery was once owned by Bath, when it was a town, but 
when a portion of Bath was set off and made the town of West 
Bath, the cemetery went with it. The oldest head-stone in this 
cemetery bears date of May 1st, 1760. On one head-stone is cut: 
" Solomon Page, who was educated at Harvard College. He de- 
parted this life May 12th, 1788, aged 76 years." He had been a 
Bath minister. 



THE PARK. 



For years after the purchase by the city of the Park property 
from the Peleg Tallman estate, the fences that enclosed it remained 
in a dilapidated condition; but when Edwin Reed was mayor the 
fences were removed, which very much improved the appearance of 
the grounds. Some years previously the city purchased the lot on 
the south-west corner of Washington and Summer streets and added 
it to the Park. All the attention the grounds received for a number 
of years was the annual mowing of the grass, that produced an 



288 HISTORY OF BATH. 

abundant crop, and was looked upon as simply a public common. 
To make it something more than that and so improve it that it 
would become a credit and an ornament to the city, an effort was 
inaugurated in 1883, and by private donations decayed oaks were 
removed and the pavillion built. A few years subsequently an 
earnest effort was made to raise a Park improvement fund, which 
resulted in realizing the amount of $1,463.58. Of this fund the 
larger donors were Charles E. Moody, $200; John Patten, $100; 
Charles E. Patten, $100; Arthur Sewall, $100; John H. Kimball, 
$100. To the fund was added $155 by the city government, result- 
ing from a Fourth of July celebration under the management of the 
mayor, G. H. Nichols. 

With this money the Park was greatly improved; the ledge on 
the east side was blasted away sixteen feet from the sidewalk on 
Front street, the ground was graded, trees planted, flowers arranged, 
running vines cultivated, and rustic baskets placed in artistic posi- 
tions, all of which changed the open common to a gem of beautiful 
and picturesque Park grounds. Later a fund was^raised by sub- 
scription for the purpose of making a pond at the south-west end of 
the grounds, which was completed and a fountain added, using the 
city water. 



PAYING STREETS. 



The first paving in the city was undertaken in the summer of 1891, 
by the city government. The work extended on Front street from 
the south corner of Bank block to Arch street, and on Center from 
Front to Water street. The work was done on contract, using small- 
sized, brick-formed granite blocks on a gravel foundation. By doing 
away with water courses the paving widened the available part of the 
streets and did away with the necessity of cross walks. 

In 1892 the paving of Front street was extended to Elm street, 
requiring the raising of some of the buildings abutting on Front and 
on Elm streets. In making this improvement the grade of the street 
had to be raised, necessitating also the raising of buildings occupy- 
ing the lower portion of the streets. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 289 

THE OLD CANNON. 



According to tradition, the ancient cannon was once a part of 
the armament of the English frigate Glasgow, but more recently it 
has been traced to the British man-of-war Somerset, which ship was 
in Boston harbor at the time of the battle of Bunker Hill, but did 
not take part in that memorable action. This vessel afterwards 
sailed for England, and while on her return voyage to this country 
was wrecked on Cape Cod, in 1777. The gun is a nine-pounder and 
bears the royal stamp. 

This gun was recovered from the lost ship and was one of those 
mounted on the earth- works of Coxs Head in the war of 181 2. 
After the war the cannon was taken to Hallowell for some unknown 
reason. Some years since people of Bath succeeded in bringing it 
down to this city and mounted it on " Meeting-house Hill," a car- 
riage having been made for it in Boston. This carriage not proving 
suitable, it was condemned, and Capt. Waterman, a Bath mechanic, 
constructed one that lasted, with its out-door exposure, for many 
years. It is now well mounted. It has been used on all occasions 
requiring salutes by the city. 



RINGING OF THE TOWN BELL. 



Before there was a bell on the town hall, that of the old North 
church was used as the town bell, and was rung at one o'clock at 
noon for dinner and at nine o'clock at night. Mechanics and work- 
ing men dined at twelve and professional men and merchants went 
home to dinner at the ringing of the one o'clock bell. Finally the 
mechanics, of whom large numbers worked in the ship-yards, 
became dissatisfied with the hour for ringing the noon bell, and a 
town meeting was called to have a vote taken upon the question of 
having the bell rung at twelve instead of one o'clock. There was 
much excitement over the question, both parties rallied all of their 
forces, and the vote was by ballot. The mechanics won the vote, 
and the noon bell has made the dinner hour twelve o'clock to this 



290 HISTORY OF BATH. 

day. The adoption of "standard time," in 1886, revived the agita- 
tion concerning the noon bell; the mechanics succeeding, however, 
in continuing to have the noon bell rung on local time, while the 
town clock was set to standard time, until in 1890, when a vote of 
the city government had the clock set on local time to correspond 
with the adherence of the working classes to local time. In 1891, 
it was again changed by vote of the city government to standard 
time, and the bell rings to correspond. 



BATH GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY. 



The original Gas Company received its charter Feb. 22, 1853, the 
incorporators being John Patten, D. C. Magoun, G. W. Kendall, 
and Oliver Moses. The capital stock was $150,000, of which 
$70,000 only was paid in. By the charter, the city of Bath was 
entitled to make a contract for gas for public use for thirty years, 
and its supply was put on Oct. 1, 1853. After the expiration of the 
term, the city supply was continued until the Gas Company was 
consolidated with the Electric Light Company. 

The gas house was originally near the foot of North street, which 
continued in use until 1891, when it was rebuilt on the same site. 

The Bath Electric Light and Power Company was organized 
March 29, 1887. Sept. 23, 1890, this company was reorganized 
under the name of the Bath Gas and Electric Company, and the 
old Gas Company and the Electric Company were consolidated 
about that time. 

The works are located on Washington street, immediately south 
and east of the rope-walk. The plant comprises two 600 fifty-light 
Westinghouse alternating dynamos, one fifty-light 2,000 candle- 
power (American machine), one thirty-five-light 200 candle-power 
(American machine), one thirty-five-light, Thomson-Houston, 1,200 
candle-power. Of engines there are two, one of 125 horse-power 
and one of 250 horse-power (Cross' compound). The 125 horse- 
power engine has been used for operating the Bath street railway 
cars since August 19, 1893, and in October following the power of 



HISTORY OF BATH. 29 1 

the plant was increased by the addition of the 250 horse-power 
engine. 

Official statistics for 1892: Capital stock, $125,000; total bonds 
outstanding, $119,000; process of manufacture, coal; population, 
10,000; price of gas in 1892, for light, $2.75; for fuel, $1.66; 
approximate annual output, 5,000,000; candle-power, 21. 

Electrical Department. — Operate American and Thomson - 
Houston System of Arc Lights, no lights ; Westinghouse Alternat- 
ing System of Incandescent Lights, 1,800 lights. Price of arc lights 
for public lighting per light, per year, $100. Price of commercial 
arc lights per light, per year, $100. Total lighting hours per annum, 
moon scale. 



STEEET CARS. 



Early in 1893, a charter was obtained for the right of way and the 
laying of tracks for the operating of electric street cars on some of 
the streets of the city, in June the work was begun, and August 19th 
three cars commenced regular trips with success, the line running 
from Winnegance, along the traveled road, to the lower end of the 
McCutcheon field, which it crosses diagonally, as also the Hospital- 
Point field, to the lower end of Lemont street, where it enters 
Washington street, up which it runs to Center street, to Front, to 
Linden, to Washington, up which it continues to the apex of the 
hill immediately south of the bridge that spans the Harward dock. 
The company is composed of Bath people. Commencing with three 
cars, the company has now eight cars in its equipment. 

In October, 1893, the Bath Street Railway Company purchased 
the franchise of the Brunswick Company with the purpose of 
extending the Bath railway to Brunswick and Topsham, a distance 
of nine miles, using the public road for the purpose. The road will 
also be extended to Popham and Small Point. The members of the 
Company are: Galen C. Moses, F. H. Twitchell, A. H. Shaw, of 
Bath; and A. F. Gerald, of Fairfield. 



292 HISTORY OF BATH. 



ANCIENT LAND GRANTS 



Old English Grants. — "Up to the year 1649 there was a doubt- 
ful contest in the government of Great Britain, between the King 
and Parliament, which had a very peculiar effect on the purchases 
from the Indians. The lands had all been granted by the Crown, 
and a grant had been lately made to several noblemen, of all the 
lands in North America. If King Charles the First was able to 
support his contest against Parliament, the Indian titles would 
become nugatory and held as void ; but if the Republican cause 
should prevail, then the Indian deeds, as opposed to Royal Grants, 
would be held valid." The Republican Parliament, under Cromwell, 
won, thus causing Indian titles to hold good. Consequently Crown 
Grants did not over-ride the claims of the native inhabitants to the 
country they occupied. They were adjudged to have possessary 
rights, and their deeds of specific tracts held good over all other pre- 
sumed conveyances when brought to the test of judicial decisions. 
The proof of an Indian deed before the governor, which was 
sometimes done, was at once given a sanction to all purchases of 
that kind, and a complete acknowledgement of the Indians' right to 
convey. North Bath was thus deeded to Christopher Lamson; South 
Bath to Alexander Thwaits ; Bath to Robert Gutch ; Woolwich to 
John Brown and Edward Bateman ; Arrowsic to John Richards ; 
Georgetown to John Parker; Winnegance to Alexander Thwaits; 
Phipsburg to the second John Parker. 

Indian Titles. — All the land on both sides of the Lower Ken- 
nebec was deeded by the Sachem, Robin Hood, and native Saga- 
mores, to the early settlers upon it, and these deeds were often 
duplicated. It would seem that the natives believed they were con- 
veying the right of occupancy only, while they reserved to them- 
selves their natural right to fish, hunt, set traps, and grow corn, 
which, seemingly, covered all their wants. Consideration for these 



HISTORY OF BATH. 293 

deeds was merely nominal, usually being a few pumpkins, a little, 
corn, and some rum annually. 

In 1792, there was an enactment by the Massachusetts Legislature 
which declared that the Indians were not allowed to be dispossessed 
of their planting grounds and fishing berths, though all territorial 
purchases of them, followed by five years' quiet possession, accorded 
to the occupants, especially in Maine, an indisputable title. There 
was another enactment forbidding the taking of Indian deeds, but 
not applying to deeds made prior to this enactment. 

On the Resettlement, after the peace with the Indians by treaty at 
Portsmouth, in 17 13, the Pejepscot proprietors laid out by survey 
all the territory from Atkins Bay to Whizgig in tracts of three- 
quarters of a mile frontage on the Kennebec, extending to the New 
Meadows River. Their claims, however, were overruled in favor of 
prior claims of the Plymouth Company, as adjudicated by litigation 
and compromise, in 1766. 

Old Landmarks. — Joseph Heath was surveyor for the Pejepscot 
Company, taking pay for his services in land. By an original map 
this tract is definitely located, apparently comprising the Peterson 
and Harward farms, as it lies exactly opposite "Winslow's Rocks," 
running from the Sagadahoc to "Stevens Creek" [New Meadows 
River]. 

"The land between the two black lines [as is represented on map] 
contains four hundred acres situated and being on the west side of 
Long Reach in Sagadahoc River, part of w ch Land was Quit claimed 
and Delivered to the Pejepscot Company by Nicholas Lyddiard and 
his wife, and the said four hundred acres of Land was exactly sur- 
veyed and is herein Truly Disscribed. November 18, 17 16. 

Pr. Joseph Heath." 

" This plat made by Adam Winthrop at the desire of Capt. Joseph 
Heath, laid before Messrs. Saml. Waldo, J. N. Lewis & Nathaniel 
Conningham, as they met upon November n, 1731, to consider of 
the Pejepscot affairs, for their approbation & they did so far as they 
were concerned approve thereof as the Grant formerly made to 
s d Heath Provided it do not exceed the quantity of Land therein 



294 HISTORY OF BATH. 

expressed and that s d Heath proceed to settle a family thereon the 
next Summer. Boston, Nov. 24th, 1736. 

Attested by Adam Winthrop." 

About where is now the old Peterson house, was "The Heath 
house," "where John Tarp has lived since 1731," — as by a drawing 
of the house. 

This map defines the north line of the Gutch tract, as starting 
from Winslow's Rock and running diagonally southwest across the 
north end of Bath, touching the New Meadows, evidently at Foster's 
Point. The Heath line appears to overlap the Gutch line slightly at 
its eastern end. "A west line to Small Point Bay from Winslow's 
Rocks." "A west line to Small Point Bay being the northerly 
bound of Mr. Robert Gutch's Indian Grant, made in the year 1660." 

The Register of Deeds of old York, states that there does not 
appear on record any deeds of lands from the Gutch heirs to 
Nathaniel Donnell, but "July 10, 1753, there is on record a 'Par- 
tition of a tract of land owned by Nathaniel Donnell and others, 
said tract formerly belonging to Robert Gutch, lying and being on 
Kennebec River, of 3,480 acres of land laid out by Committee.' " 

This survey of that portion of the Gutch tract that was sold by 
his heirs, comprises territory extending from Trufant's or Ropewalk 
Creek to south of Harward farm. A map was made of the plan, which 
divided it into quarters, commencing at the southern boundary. 
Quarter No. 1 is set down as sold to Capt. Nathaniel Donnell, entire; 
quarter No. 2 to N. Donnell, six hundred acres, from river to river, 
with three hundred acres to Wm. Johnson which covered one-third 
of this quarter on its northern side; quarter No. 3, one-half to Capt. 
N. Donnell, comprising one hundred and seventy-six acres, the other 
half to John Milliken; quarter No. 4 is laid down, in part, to Elkins' 
heirs, comprising one-third of the quarter, the balance of the quarter 
being blank on the map. "Some of these divisions ran from river 
to river, others only part way, the copy of the plan not showing cross 
lines. Lamont and Philbrook, Sr., had lands west of Milliken, at 
north line beyond the creek." 



HISTORY OF BATH. 295 

Margaret Lovering, a granddaughter of Robert Gutch, married 
William Johnson, and it is stated she "took possession of the family 
estate in 1734; that she became a widow, and while such lived and 
died in the house of James Springer," to whom she and her hus- 
band, in 1753, deeded several hundred acres of land to which she 
was heir from the Gutch estate. It is stated by writers that James 
Springer kept tavern near where is the David T. Percy homestead, 
on High street, and to have been the first inn kept at Long Reach. 
The boundaries of this tract were apparently northerly on North 
street, southerly on Academy street, easterly on the Kennebec 
River, and westerly on New Meadows River, with a deviation on its 
western portion. 

A Famous Lawsuit. — The title to the tract on which the 
principal part of Bath stands was early the subject of a famous 
litigation. "It was claimed by David Jeffries, in 1761, by purchase 
from the Kennebec proprietors, who, by the name of the Kennebec 
Purchase, claimed the title to this territory under a deed from the 
Plymouth Company. In 1766, Jeffries brought his action for the 
premises, being about 12,000 acres [Williamson says 1,200 acres], 
describing them precisely according to the present boundaries of the 
town. In this action Nathaniel Donnell, of York, who had, many 
years before, purchased from the descendants of Robert Gutch a 
part of the demanded premises, was admitted to defend, he having 
in the meantime sold a considerable portion of it. Mr. Donnell 
disclaimed all except that part of the demanded premises which lies 
between the north line of the Edmund Pettengill farm and the north 
[should be south] line of the John Peterson farm, and as to that 
pleaded the general issue in such actions. 

"The plaintiff, to prove his title, relied upon the grant from the 
Council of Plymouth, in England, to William Bradford and his asso- 
ciates, Jan. 13, 1630, commonly called the Plymouth patent, and 
sundry mesne conveyances to his lessor. 

"The defendant denied, first, the right of the plaintiff to the prem- 
ises, and second, that if he had a colorable right, the right of entry 
was taken away. The original grant having included a tract of 



296 HISTORY OF BATH. 

land on the Kennebec, it was contended that the tract sued for was 
not included within it, inasmuch as it lay on the Sagadahoc, which 
means the mouth of rivers. The defendant traced his title from 
the heirs and descendants of Robert Gutch, who resided on the 
premises prior to 1670, and who purchased the same of Robin Hood, 
a noted Sachem of one of the Indian tribes, by deed dated May 29, 
1660. 

"This action was tried at the Supreme Court at Falmouth, June, 
1766, and a verdict rendered in favor of Donnell, upon which a 
motion was made by the plaintiff ' for an appeal to his Majesty in 
council ' ; and having been heard thereon by council, the motion 
was denied, it being the unanimous opinion of the Court that an 
appeal doth not lie by the Royal Charter in this case. The counsel 
for the plaintiff were Jeremiah Gridley, James Otis, Sr., and William 
Cushing; for the defendant, William Parker, Daniel Farnham, and 
David Sewall " (vide Joseph Sewall). Mr. Thayer states that a new 
trial was allowed, but never occurred, the chances for success having 
been too uncertain, and Donnell held title to his purchase. This 
decision must have settled the validity of all contemporary titles to 
land covered by the Gutch deed. 

Christopher Lawton's possession of a tract of land, at North Bath, 
by Indian title, was mortgaged to a Mr. Walker who died, and the 
land came into the possession of the widow ; she subsequently mar- 
ried Ephraim Savage, who was the executor of the Richard Wharton 
landed estate, and sold his wife's right to the Lawton tract to John 
Butler who married a daughter of this widow. There is a cove at 
North Bath, on Merrymeeting Bay, called Butler's Cove, deriving 
its name presumingly from this Butler who, it is inferred, lived at or 
near it. At the time of the Indian raids of 1719-20, upon the set- 
tlers on this bay and the Kennebec, Butler retired to lower Arrowsic 
for better security. 

What became of the subsequent ownership of this tract, as well as 
of that composing the rest of the territory of North Bath, has not 
been definitely ascertained. It was afterwards claimed by the 
Pejepscot Company. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 297 



OLD FAMILIES. 



It is men who make history, and the character of a place is deter- 
mined by the character of its inhabitants. It becomes, therefore, a 
matter of historical interest to give an account of some of the repre- 
sentative men and women of past generations who were the makers 
of Bath history, as far as pertained to the period contemporaneous 
with their lives ; who gave character to the society of their day ; 
were identified with its business and with its domestic, religious, and 
political welfare. Consequently as much space in this book as could 
be spared, has been devoted to this department of local history. 

The Early Settlers were stalwart men, ranking with the leading 
men of the state, while the women — intelligent and attractive — 
were truly worthy of their companionship. They were of Scotch 
and English blood, which is the best in European history. 

" The men who were the early settlers of Bath were reckoned to 
be half a head taller than those of any other community in the 
country. There were no small-sized men among them and but very 
few who were of medium size. They might well be termed a race 
of giants. There were few who weighed less than one hundred and 
eighty pounds and they were five feet and six inches to six feet 
and two inches in height." — Lemont. 

The Early Construction of Dwellings. — In making a location 

in this uncultivated territory, with its lack of sawed lumber, the 
pioneer settlers were under the necessity of making their houses of 
logs, which abounded in the forest surrounding them, by placing 
one above another, hewn on the inner side, for the walls, roofing 
them with birch bark, the openings for windows being covered with 
transparent skins of the wild animals of the woods. Hovels for 
cattle were constructed in a similar but ruder manner. So rude 
were the fittings of these abodes of families that rocks were used 
for andirons, on which to place huge logs of hard wood, the smoke 



298 HISTORY OF BATH. 

ascending through chimneys built of clay mortar. Those who came 
later, and were possessed of more means, constructed their dwellings 
of timber hewn on the four sides, laid lengthways one above another, 
and dovetailed together at the ends. Some of these had port-holes 
from which to fire upon the approach of hostile Indians. These 
were generally comfortable dwellings. 

In the closer settlements there were buildings of larger dimen- 
sions, capable of temporarily housing several families, to which they 
would resort when signals of danger, from the Indians, were given. 
They were termed garrison-houses, block-houses, and forts. They 
usually were of two stories, the upper projecting over the lower to 
prevent the foe from entering to the floor above, as well as to afford 
facilities for firing upon them when approaching the building. There 
was a sentry-box on top, and port-holes through the outer walls ; 
flankers on two ends from which to enfilade the sides and ends of 
the fortification ; and the windows, without glass, were protected by 
stout shutters. 

Huddled together in the garrisons, each family contributed its share 
of the provisions. The men, and boys that were old enough, had 
to go out of the garrison in the day-time to work at the risk of being 
killed and scalped before night; the women and little children keep- 
ing in the house. The men, collectively or alone, had to carry guns 
or some kind of weapons of defence, and whenever they would hear 
the report of a gun anywhere they suspected the Indians were kill- 
ing somebody, which generally proved true. 

Some of the Old Houses. — The Edward H. Page house was 
built by his grandfather, Joshua Philbrook, in 1753. Because it was 
of two stories and larger than any other in the settlement, it was 
termed "the great house on the hill." Its site was on High street, 
a little south of where is now the soldiers' monument — the second 
house from the southeast corner. A portion of it is still in exist- 
ence, forming the rear portion of a frame house, the original front 
door now remaining. Major I'age kept it as a tavern, and was by 
trade a tanner. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 299 

The Isaiah Cfooker house originally stood where is now the Cath- 
olic parsonage, on the west side of High street, and was built in 
1756. In this Mr. Crooker lived and died. It is yet in exis- 
tence, moved to the rear of the catholic buildings, partly occupied 
for a Catholic Old Ladies' Home. It is a framed building, not a 
timber house as has been generally supposed. He was the village 
blacksmith, having his shop across the street from his house. His 
barn was where the old High street Academy building now stands. 

Joseph Lambert's house was on the west side of High street, north 
of the Sewall houses, and is now in existence. He kept tavern, and 
in it was imprisoned the English timber agent that was arrested at 
the time the hewers were driven off, in connection with the War of 
the Revolution. 

Where now is the brass foundry of F. B. Torrey, was a large build- 
ing occupied by Joseph Stockbridge for a tavern, and subsequently 
called the Mansion House. It was at this house that the town 
authorities found quarters for Governor Gore, of Massachusetts, 
when he visited Bath in 18 10. 

Capt. Simeon Turner owned and lived on the Peterson place up 
to the year 1798, when he sold it to Capt. John Peterson. He also 
built a house on the " Point." 

In 1800, when Samuel Davis was in the zenith of prosperity, he 
built the original house that is now the Orphan Asylum, and subse- 
quently purchased by William M. Rogers, by whom it was enlarged 
and improved for his dwelling. His son, William Rogers, succeeded 
to its ownership and occupancy. It had been the most imposing 
dwelling-house in town and notable for its ample and highly adorned 
grounds. Some of the walks of its surroundings are underlaid with 
white chalk that at an early day had been brought as ballast in 
Davis' ships, and of no special value. 

Among the other houses that were notable nearly a century ago, 
were those of William King and David Shaw on the "Point," David 
Trufant on Pine street, now occupying the position of an ell to a 
more modern house near that street, and the White timber house. 

The earliest settlers who came from the old countries were gener- 



300 HISTORY OF BATH. 

ally better educated than their children born in this country, for lack 
of schools. When peace and prosperity were firmly established, and 
facilities became favorable for improvements, a better class of houses 
were erected. When their vessels took cargoes of timber, fish, and 
furs to England, English furnishings composed a part of their return 
freight. These articles of furniture, of great solidity and fine work- 
manship, are highly prized now by their descendants who are so 
fortunate as to possess some of them. 

How the Pioneers Lived. — They were an industrious and 
thrifty people. Domestic animals raised by the older settlers brought 
handsome prices, a good yoke of oxen often selling for fifty pounds 
sterling. Money was scarce, and all kinds of grain, with sheep, 
goats, and pigs, were considered as good as legal tender. People 
paid money or furs for clothing, which were then brought from Eng- 
land, and it was soon found important to raise flax and wool, from 
which, with the use of great hand looms, they wove strong cloth for 
bedding and wearing apparel. Until about this time, too, all the 
meal and flour used were brought from Massachusetts or ground in 
the mills at Sheepscot or Arrowsic, so there was a great demand for 
more mills for grain, as well as for sawing lumber. This demand 
was further increased by the opening of a trade in lumber with the 
West Indies, by which the settlers could, in return, have molasses, 
sugar, coffee, spices, and other tropical products, which they had 
before done mostly without. 

Scotch-Irish Settlers. — As a considerable portion of the earli- 
est settlers who came from the Old Country to this section of the 
New World, were from the north of Ireland, it may be pertinent 
to illustrate who were their ancestors. By birth Scots, they were 
Irish by adoption only, by virtue of having settled in the north of 
Ireland at some remote period of their history. 

The title that has been given to this truly stalwart people, who 
came to this country at an early date, is not justly applicable, as not 
a drop of Irish blood coursed in their veins. Their ancestors came 
from Scotland and settled in the north of Ireland. The first immi- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 301 

gration from Scotland to Ireland was chiefly from the Highlands, in 
1608, for the purpose of bettering their condition. There had 
been a rebellion of the Irish-Catholics in the northern section of 
Ireland, during the reign of Elizabeth, and when it was quelled the 
estates of the insurgents were confiscated. These lands were the 
best on the Island and included the .province of Ulster. The gov- 
ernment of James I. held out attractive inducements for its resettle- 
ment by a Protestant population, which many Scotchmen accepted. 
This territory was at the extreme north, within twenty miles of the 
coast of Scotland. At a later date there was a larger exodus to Ire- 
land from the Lowlands of Scotland, which consisted of a class 
superior to those of the Highlands. They were Protestants escaping 
from Papal persecutions. These people never assimilated with the 
Irish race nor did they intermarry. 

The Irish-Catholics were bitter enemies of the Protestants. Their 
religious rancor may have been intensified by the occupancy of these 
lands by a people of another nation, who increased in prosperity 
through their great thrift. The Catholics annoyed these new-comers 
in every possible way — making raids upon their farms, carrying off 
their products and stock. This state of continuous beligerancy 
culminated in civil war, which ended in the famous siege of London- 
derry and the deeisive battle of Boyne, in both of which the Prot- 
estant cause triumphed. 

Then came the dawn of the New World. Beholding, in. the dim 
distance, the opening of prospective civil and religious liberty in this 
wilderness land, Scotchmen in Ireland crossed the ocean, preferring 
to court fortune among the savages in this new country to remaining 
in a land inhabited by a relentless and hostile race, with whom they 
could never affiliate. Many came direct from Londonderry and the 
Boyne to the Kennebec. Large numbers landed in Boston and 
diffused themselves throughout New England, and their sturdy 
independence and tenacious Protestantism did more for the country 
than the much vaunted influence of Plymouth Pilgrims and Massa- 
chusetts Puritans. Those of this generation who trace their ancestry 
back to the Scotch-Irish may well be proud of it. They had to 
struggle with the hardships of the wilderness ; the dangers of the 



302 HISTORY OF BATH. 

savage foe ; the rigor of a sterner climate than that of their native 
land; the privations of a settler's life; the alternating neglect and 
oppression of the mother country; — but they struggled successfully 
with all these disadvantages. To them is due the credit of intro- 
ducing into New England the cultivation of flax, and utilizing this 
useful fabric with the hand-card, the foot-wheel, and the loom, enabling 
whole families to be clothed by their own industry. 

Numerous living descendants of the early settlers of Maine, and 
of the Kennebec valley, can trace their ancestry back to the Scotch- 
Irish race, whose fruitful blood permeates the veins of untold num- 
bers of the past as well as the present generations. Those who 
inherit it may well be thankful for the impress it has imparted to 
their traits of character, raising them above the characteristics of 
their less favored contemporaries. Maine owes much to those of the 
founders of its civilization who came to its shores as Scotch-Irish 
settlers, and who were as distinct from the Irish race as though 
their remote ancestors had never left the heaths and mountains of 
Scotland. 

The Philbrook Family. — The ancestors emigrated from Lin- 
colnshire, England, to Watertown, Mass., in 1630. Thomas Phil- 
brook soon after moved to Hampton, and had three sons, Jonathan, 
Samuel, and William. William settled in Greenland, N. H. He left 
three sons, Jonathan, Samuel, and Walter. This Jonathan moved 
from Greenland, N. H., to Saco, in 1738, and to Bath in 1742. He 
owned and occupied land that is now the site of the custom-house, 
also that of the court-house and Old North Meeting-house. 

In 1743 Jonathan Philbrook purchased land of Nathaniel Donnell, 
and built a residence on the site where, more than a quarter of a 
century later, stood the mansion of William King. This Mr. Phil- 
brook subsequently built a house on High street about opposite the 
site of the South Church, where he lived with his son, Job Philbrook. 
He built, in 1753, the timber, bullet-proof house afterwards owned 
and occupied by Maj. Edward H. Page. He built the first vessels 
on the west shore of Long Reach, as it was then called, very near 
where the custom-house stands. One of his daughters married a 



HISTORY OF BATH. 303 

Thompson of Brunswick, and one married Isaiah Crooker, Sr. 
Joshua, one of the sons, married and died in Bath at the advanced 
age of 94 years. 

In 1742 there were but eight families in. what is now Bath and 
West Bath, and Joshua Philbrook said he had but one playmate 
near his age of fourteen years. Some families moved away in fear 
of the Indians, as they were very troublesome. In the years 1746 
and 1747, the Indians were so troublesome that four of the eight 
families moved to some larger settlement for better protection, while 
the courageous built a bullet-proof block-house for their better 
security. The settlement was consolidated into one household. Mr. 
Jonathan Philbrook's family numbered ten, with five sons and three 
daughters; the other three families averaging eight each, which 
made a household of thirty-four souls. The nine males, with the 
assistance of the females, could repel an attack. 

Joshua Philbrook was born in Greenland, N. H., October 10, 1727. 
He married, June 15, 1750, Miss Elizabeth Alexander, who was 
born in Georgetown, September 8, 1729. Her father was shot in 
Topsham by an Indian and the widow married Mr. Bryant Robinson 
of Long Reach. Joshua Philbrook in his minority was employed in 
furnishing game, mostly water fowl that were very numerous in the 
creeks and coves of the Sagadahoc. Joshua related, that he one 
one day went in his float to Whizgig Creek and firing into a dense 
flock of teal, killed twenty-four at one shot. One spring Mr. Phil- 
brook was up in the wilderness, as was his custom two months at a 
time, with traps, a bag of meal, and a blanket strapped on a very 
light hunter's sled, a pair of snow-shoes, a Bible that he carried in his 
pocket, with his pocket compass. He spoke of these latter as his im- 
portant guides. As the spring advanced, he made preparations for 
returning home by felling a birch tree to make a canoe. He arrived 
home safely, coming in contact with no Indians. It was a very dan- 
gerous but profitable business; he paid for his farm by means of his 
traps and disposing of his pelts. Mr. Philbrook and wife would go 
to Boston in one of their sloops with their pelts and buy whatever 
articles they were in need of for the next year ; some years having 
an overplus of a stocking full of silver dollars. They often shipped 



304 HISTORY OF BATH. 

to Boston a load of white oak rift staves, the first kind of lumber 
that was shipped and sold in Boston. Rift shingles and clapboards 
were the next articles shipped to Boston from Long Reach before 
the time of saw-mills. In 1761-62, Mr. Joshua Philbrook had a 
commission and warrant from Governor Shirley of Massachusetts, 
under George III. of England, authorizing him to collect a tax from 
the tax payers of the second parish of Georgetown, the money to be 
appropriated to paying for the building of the meeting-house in the 
present West Bath, which duty he performed. 

Joshua worked with his father at building vessels and farming. 
When he married he bought a lot of one hundred and fifty acres 
of Mr. Donnell, of York, extending from the Kennebec River to the 
dividing line between Bath and West Bath, one-third of which later 
belonged to the City of Bath, extending from the east line of the old 
cemetery to the west by SewalFs Mill Pond. The first house Joshua 
built was of logs. In 1790 he built a log house near the county 
road, about three rods northwest of Mrs. Elisha Higgins' house. 
He built the latter house with his son Daniel. 

The first born of Mr. and Mrs. Joshua Philbrook, was Sarah, said 
to be the first white child born in Long Reach. She married John 
Donnell, of Brunswick, and died April 15, 1822. George Philbrook 
was born September 18, 1752, and married Deborah Lambert, 
daughter of Mr. Luke Lambert. George Philbrook served during 
all the years of the Revolutionary War with honor, and was present 
at the surrender of Cornwallis. He was 29 years of age on returning 
home. Mr. Thomas Philbrook, at Durham, has the gun which 
George carried all through the war. There is in existence a letter, 
102 years old, written at Ticonderoga to his father, also one 99 years 
old to his brother. George Philbrook was present at the farewell 
address of General Washington to his soldiers and officers. 

Hannah was born February 22, 1755, married Edward H. Page, 
who bought the timber house of Jonathan Philbrook, on High street. 
Elizabeth was born April 23, 1757, married David Lemont of West 
Bath, and died January 8, 1830. Susannah was born September 17, 
1759, and continued with her parents as a loving and dutiful child 



HISTORY OF BATH. 305 

to the end of their days. After the death of her parents, Susannah 
at the age of 60 years, in 1819, was married to Deacon Reuben 
Higgins, of West Bath. She died December 3, 1847. 

Daniel Philbrook was born January 17, 1762. At the age of 16 
years he assisted his father in transplanting the first apple orchard 
in this vicinity, some trees of which are still vigorous on High street 
and that neighborhood. In July, 1778, Daniel volunteered (then 17 
years of age) as soldier in the expedition to Bagaduce, after which 
defeat he returned home, crossing the Penobscot at Bucksport to 
Wiscasset, through a wilderness, enduring suffering and almost star- 
vation. In 1780, he served a term at the trade of blacksmith. In 
1790, he helped his father build their third house on High street 
(now the Elisha Higgins house), and owned and lived in half of the 
same. The Philbrook blood permeates a large portion of the fami- 
lies of Bath, and good blood it is. 

This dwelling-house of the ancient Philbrooks is now in existence, 
and in a state of occupancy, on the east side of High street, imme- 
diately north of the residence of John H. Kimball. There lived in 
it, John, Joshua, and George, who were brothers. George was 
unmarried and " carried on the farm." A large orchard extended 
down to near the North-end school-house, and the school boys were 
shrewdly bought off, by "Uncle George," from stealing apples; when 
the season for apples came around he was accustomed to call the 
boys together and say to them: "Now my good fellows if you will 
not touch the apples on the trees, you may have all those on the 
ground." To this proposition the youngsters readily agreed and 
stood honorably to it. Thus "Uncle George" saved all the apples 
that were of any value to him, the boys getting the "windfalls." Dur- 
ing the term of this contract, if any boy showed symptoms of dis- 
honesty by wanting to shake a tree, the others would not permit him 
to do so. 

Philbrook's Cove, later owned and used as a ship-yard and wharf 
by the Moses brothers, was one of the best salmon privileges on the 
west Long Reach shore. A net set once a week for twenty-four 
hours would bring a supply for the neighborhood for days. The 



306 HISTORY OF BATH. 

salmon were then cured by salting and smoking. Used fresh, their 
richness soon cloyes, as was shown by a judge from Boston attend- 
ing court at Pownalborough court-house (Dresden), who remarked 
on the food at table : " Fresh salmon, same old diet ! " 

In 1765, there was no market for salmon. When in later years 
there was a demand in Boston for this fish, the price increased from 
2 cents to $1.00 a pound, of which the Phipsburg traders availed 
themselves in 1820-25. I n I 8iS, after the close of the war with 
England, New York was a good market for smoked salmon and 
pickled shad, the trade being carried on by dealers from Connecticut 
River. Sturgeon were used for food in 1770. 

John Barnard kept a small stock of goods in a store at the 
water's edge, a little south of the brick store of Gilbert Trufant, at 
the south end. This stock consisted of the actual necessaries of 
life. As this John Barnard was knighted and bore a title, it may be 
well enough to say something further of him. He was not a man 
of fortune. Though not rich, he was proud. He performed all his 
journeys from the Reach to Boston on foot, invariably in a week. 
He would start on Monday by the road leading round by the old 
meeting-house, then north to the head of the New Meadows River, 
near the old Indian carrying place leading from the bay to the head 
of the river, then down the river, passing the house of old Esquire 
Hinkley, and then west to the old road, which led him to Stone's 
tavern, near the old fort at Brunswick Falls, making the distance 
traveled between fourteen and fifteen miles. He did not halt there 
long, but would advance so as at night to reach Falmouth, now Port- 
land. His dress was always a genteel cocked hat with cockade, knee 
breeches and shoes with silver knee and shoe buckles, coat, waistcoat, 
and stockings to match. He traveled with a pair of saddle bags, con- 
taining some extra clothes, with specie in gold and silver to pay for his 
goods. He was six feet in height; his body was after the model of 
the greyhound; his face was thin, with penetrating eyes. Just pre- 
vious to the Revolutionary War, he left and went to Barbadoes, 
where he held office under the King. He never married. He was 
a man of great integrity of character, and was much esteemed by 



HISTORY OF BATH. 307 

the people of the Reach. Mr. William Swanton named a son, John 
Barnard Swanton, for him. 

Mrs. Susannah Shaw, the wife of Elisha Shaw, was born in 
Quincy, Mass. Her maiden name was Susannah Clark. She was 
married in 1752, and came to Bath with her husband in 1761. They 
bought a piece of land north of Pine street, on the east side of the 
road, now called High street, and built a log-house. Mrs. Shaw was 
a woman of uncommon strength and courage, as for instance: They 
kept a few sheep, and one fine day, as they were grazing on the 
opposite side of the road, the dog gave loud barks of alarm. Mrs. 
Shaw ran out, and saw that a large bear had seized one of the 
sheep and was slowly carrying it off in his paws. Mr. Shaw being 
from home, Mrs. Shaw hastened into the house, seized the King's 
arm, which ornamented the kitchen mantel, found the cartridge-box, 
both of which her husband had used at the reduction of Louisburg 
in 1758-9. She loaded, primed, and ran out with the gun in her 
hand. She soon discovered the bear with his booty. She levelled 
over the log fence, fired, and brought down the bear, wounded. 
Captain Pettengill, a neighbor, who was on the road at the time; 
hearing the report of the gun, he ran to her assistance, and by the 
aid of an ax soon ended what little life there was left in bruin. His 
skin and meat amply compensated for the death of the sheep. Of 
' her ten children, eight lived to mature age. They were John, Joshua, 
Elisha, David, Elizabeth, Hannah, Jane, and Eunice, some of whose 
descendants are still living in Bath. Her sons were all remark- 
able for physical strength. Joshua and Elisha were soldiers in the 
Revolutionary War, both fearless and undaunted. Elisha Shaw, the 
father of these children, died December, 1775. His wife survived 
him, lived to bring up and see all her children married, and died in 
1795. She was distinguished for her piety, good morals, and 
physical courage. 

Major David Shaw was the youngest son of Elisha and Hannah 
Shaw, who were married in 1752, at Braintree, Mass., and removed 
to the second parish of Georgetown, which included the present city 
of Bath and West Bath, where David was born, August 10, 1764. 



308 HISTORY OF BATH. 

He was of a family of ten children, of whom four girls and four boys 
lived to arrive at full age. The father bought a tract of land near 
the junction of High and Pine streets, and built a log-house where 
David was born. The mother was she who shot the bear. At that 
time, not a sailing vessel was owned by an inhabitant of the parish, 
nor were there any saw-mills for manufacturing lumber, so that the 
inhabitants depended principally on farming and fishing for support. 
Some cord wood was shipped to Boston by vessels from abroad and 
exchanged for goods. 

In 1770, the father exchanged his farm at the Reach for one 
more eligibly situated, now in West Bath, and the same formerly 
owned by Mr. Benjamin Richardson. This was on the salt water 
of New Meadows River, where fish and clams abounded, and where 
he found greater facilities for supporting his wife and children. The 
father died in 1775, the same year that hostilities commenced be- 
tween the Colonies and England. Two brothers left their home and 
entered the army at Cambridge, and were at Dorchester Heights 
under Washington in 1776, when he drove the British troops out of 
Boston. David, being the youngest, stayed at home and performed 
filial duties. Salt works were, about this time, established near 
Berry's Mills, as no salt could be had from abroad. David worked 
at that business, taking his pay in salt, and applied the proceeds 
towards the support of his mother and sisters, while his brothers 
were in the army. At the time of his birth, there were only three 
houses in Bath, and they were all on High street. 

At the age of nineteen, he commenced work as a ship-carpenter, 
and had a natural faculty for drafting vessels. In January, 1793, he 
married a daughter of Jonathan Mitchell, who resided at Berry's 
Mills; with her he lived for a little more than sixty-three years. He 
built several ships for General King and Jonathan Davis, Jr., and 
was engaged in trade and commerce up to the time of the long 
embargo, which embarrassed his business. In 1803, he was chosen 
Town Clerk of Bath, and did the duties of the office forty years in 
succession. He was so popular, that, amid all the conflicts of the 
people on the subject of politics and parish affairs, he was always 
unanimously elected Town Clerk. He was also a Magistrate 



HISTORY OF BATH. 309 

for more than fifty years, and his decisions were marked by integ- 
rity and good sense. He was the last surviving military officer of 
Col. John Reed's regiment. He was a professor of religion for more 
than fifty years, and had sat under the preaching of every minister 
from the time of Rev. Francis Winter to the time of his death. He 
was a man of great equanimity of temper, dignity of character, with 
respect for himself and for his fellow-men. It may be said that he 
never aspired to fill public stations. He had a great soul, and acted 
well his part for three generations. At the time of his decease there 
was not living in Bath, a person who was alive at the time of his 
birth. He witnessed great prosperity in the growth of his native town. 
He was a conspicuous member of the Masonic order, having been 
admitted a member of Solar Lodge, Bath, January 10, 1805. Major 
Shaw died in Bath, February 22, 1856, at the advanced age of 91 
years, 6 months. His wife survived him, and was in her 91st year 
at the time of his death. They had living at that time three chil- 
dren, David, who resided in Brunswick, John, cashier of the Lincoln 
Bank, and Mrs. Gurney, of Providence, R. I. He was buried from 
the Central Church, and a large concourse of people followed his 
remains to their last resting place. 

Charles Clapp was a ship-carpenter, and afterwards an extensive 
ship-builder, a native of the old colony, a lineal descendant of Puritan 
ancestry, and was enterprising and energetic. He did much to 
advance the commercial prosperity of Bath. He lived to be over 80 
years of age. His children were Charles Clapp, Jr., Mrs. Oliver 
Moses, Galen Clapp, Mrs. Lucy Harriman, of Boston, Mrs. Rachel 
Parker, and Mrs. N. E. Nash, of Portland. 

Isaiah Crooker, Sr., was one of five brothers who came from 
the vicinity of Glasgow to the shores of Cape Cod, at Scituate. 
Two of them remained in Massachusetts; the other three came in 1748 
to the almost wilderness of the District of Maine. One was a phy- 
sician and settled somewhere east of the Kennebec ; one went into 
Oxford County, and Isaiah came to Long Reach, which then com- 
prised only half a dozen farms. Mr. Crooker purchased one of 
these farms, together with Rocky Hill, and as far west as the New 



310 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Meadows River. He married Betsey, a daughter of Jonathan Phil- 
brook. Their daughter, Priscilla, was born in 1757, and married a 
Lunt. She was the mother of the second wife of the Reverend 
Silas Stearns. Mrs. Crooker died and he soon after married 
Hannah Harding. Prior to this event, this lady, together with her 
sister and three brothers, left Truro, Cape Cod, in a packet com- 
manded by a Captain Turner, and were wrecked on Seguin, from 
whence they were taken up the New Meadows, and reached where 
is now Harding's Station, where their father had a settlement. Of 
this union there were ten children. These, together with the daugh- 
ter by the first wife, were all born in the homestead now in exis- 
tence. His Bible bears the date of 1756 and records that Isaiah 
Crooker, Jr., was born in 1764. They were both heavy men, the 
father weighing four hundred, and the son two hundred and fifty 
pounds. The senior was so portly that he had to have a chair made 
to order, which is still a choice relic with his descendants. Isaiah 
Crooker, Jr., was also a blacksmith and a vessel builder, fol- 
lowing the occupations of the father. Of the daughters by the 
second wife of Isaiah Crooker, Sr., one of them married John 
Whitmore ; another William Webb, and the youngest, Hannah, mar- 
ried Gen. Denny McCobb. She died in 1856 in Bath. His seven 
sons married and settled in Bath, where their descendants are 
innumerable. The last vessel built by the elder Isaiah Crooker was 
a short distance north of Center street, where once was a stream, 
now a valley, occupied by the track of the Maine Central Railroad. 
The yard was on the west bank of the stream. Mr. Crooker died in 
1796. He was a very prominent man of his day. The place of 
business of the younger Isaiah, also a prominent man, was where are 
now the yards of the railroad, and his dwelling on the west side 
of Washington street, near the railroad track. He had a black- 
smith shop, a three-storied store, and built vessels at the same 
locality. 

Christopher dishing, Sr. — The youngest daughter of Joshua 
Philbrook was Eleanor, who married Christopher Cushing, a dealer in 
boots and shoes. He bought a lot of land bounded on the north 
by J. Philbrook's, east by the Kennebec River, south by south side 



HISTORY OF BATH. 311 

of North street, and west by High street. His dwelling was on the 
corner of North and High streets. He gave North street to the 
town, and sold the lot for the Female Academy on North street, in 
1804. Mr. Cushing dying soon after giving a deed for the site of 
the old school house, the price named in the deed was probably 
never paid. Martin Cushing, a brother of Christopher, built the 
school-house, Caleb Leavitt and Robert Lemont serving with him as 
apprentices, and Joseph Donnell as journeyman. Christopher 
Cushing died in 1805, and Mrs. Cushing married William Lee, of 
Phipsburg, who lived on Lee's Island, in 181 1. Mr. Cushing was 
one of Bath's thrifty and prominent pioneer citizens. 

Jonathan Davis was, in his day, the first merchant of Bath. He 
lived in a house nearly opposite the site of the Old South Meeting- 
house, on High street, which he bought of Sir John Barnard, who 
had built it before the Revolutionary War. Mr. Davis built and 
occupied the wharf and store that was occupied by Levi Hough- 
ton during his business life, and is now in existence, north of the 
offices of Houghton Brothers. It is now about one hundred and six 
years old. This Mr. Davis was the father of Jonathan Davis, Jr., 
of Boston, and Samuel Davis who built the house that is. now the 
Orphans' Home. Davis, Sr., was a Calvanist, but was so much 
engrossed in his business as a merchant that he took no part in the 
theological controversy then existing between the two parties of the 
Bath parish. None of the descendants of Mr. Davis remain in this 
city, and his large real estate has passed into the hands of others. 
It is believed that Mr. Davis died in Boston. 

David Trufant, called King David, was deputy collector for 
this portion of the collection district of Massachusetts before the 
adoption of the United States Constitution. "This Mr. Trufant was a 
man of an iron will. He would not turn out of the way he thought 
right to save his life. He had one daughter, Mrs. Snipe, who lived 
on Arrowsic Island, to the advanced age of more than 84 years; 
one of his sons, Gilbert Trufant, was a prominent merchant of Bath. 
His grandchildren were Gilbert C. Trufant, of the former ship-build- 
ing firm of Trufant, Drummond & Co., Mrs. Wm. D. Sewall, Wm. B. 



312 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Trufant, and Mrs. John N. Smith. Mr. David Trufant left two 
sons at his death, in December, 1815, Joshua and Seth, who, it is 
believed, left no descendants in direct line." 

John Peterson was a native of Duxbury, Old Colony, and a 
descendant of the old Pilgrim stock. He first settled on the Bruns- 
wick side of the New Meadows River, where he built vessels and 
extensively carried on the West India trade. He built a dam and 
tide mills on the New Meadows, and dug, with others, a canal con- 
necting the head of that river with Merrymeeting Bay. This canal 
did not answer his expectations, though, for some time, he ran logs 
through it to his mills. His business increased, and as early as 
1798 he removed to Bath, and occupied the small house now stand- 
ing on the point immediately above his ship-yard. His son Daniel 
owned and occupied the Major Harward house and farm. John 
Peterson was the owner of two hundred acres of land, extending east 
and west, from the Kennebec to the New Meadows River, contiguous 
to his homestead, known as the Peterson farm. He carried on busi- 
ness extensively in building and sailing ships, and about the year 1809 
he left Bath for Liverpool. He carried with him two ships and their 
cargoes, all owned by himself. One of these ships he called the Fair 
Lady. Of this he took command. He sold both ships and cargoes 
in Liverpool and returned to Newport, R. I., and settled in Ports- 
mouth, on the island where he died at an advanced age. One 
daughter was Mrs. Abigail Stewart, Bath ; one of his sons, Daniel 
Peterson, Portland ; one grandson, John Bosworth, merchant, at 
Bath ; Miss Lucy Peterson, Boston, Mrs. John Patten, and Miss 
Jane R. Peterson. Mrs. S. H. Jenks and Daniel Peterson were 
grandchildren of John Peterson, and children of his son, Capt. Levi 
Peterson. 

Levi Peterson, who was a ship-master and ship-builder, was 
known as a man of noble bearing and a Hercules in size and 
strength. But he is now nearly " forgotten in the city " where he 
once passed in and out, and filled the measure of his friends' and 
children's hopes. The wife of Levi Peterson was the daughter 
of Col. John Reed, of Topsham, who was a brave offcer in the Amer- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 313 

ican army under General Gates, fought at Bemis Heights and at 
Saratoga, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. The other 
grandchildren of Colonel Reed in this city were Col. Edward K. 
Harding, Mrs. James F. Patten, Mrs. Charles W. Holmes, Mrs. Dr. 
T. G. Stockbridge, David T. Stinson, David Patten, Lincoln Patten, 
Miss Rachel Patten, and Lucy Stinson, who married J. W. Elwell, of 
New York. Mr. Peterson weighed four hundred pounds. 

John Lemont, ancestor of all bearing the name in this vicinity, 
if not in New England, was born in the County of Londonderry, 
Ireland, in the year 1704. At the age of eighteen he emigrated to 
America, and settled first in Georgetown, now Phipsburg, in that 
part of the town known by the name of Dromore. His farm 
contained from three to four hundred acres, and extended from 
Dromore to New Meadows River. Here he built a rude hut, in 
which he resided for forty years. In 1762, becoming dissatisfied 
with the farming land at Dromore, on account of its being much 
broken, he sold his farm to William Butler, of Georgetown, and 
removed to the banks of the New Meadows River, in what is now 
West Bath, where he cleared a farm and built him a log-house, 
which was of necessity the primitive style of all dwellings built by 
the pioneers of our state. He built vessels at the New Meadows 
River. His son, John Lemont, Jr., was born in West Bath in 1740. 
He entered the colonial military service in 1758, and was made a ser- 
geant; was at the taking of Ticonderoga and Crown Point from the 
French, in 1759, prior to the capture of Quebec by General Wolf. 
When the tidings reached Bath of the battle of Lexington, in April, 
1775, two companies of militia were raised for active service, to one 
of which he was appointed captain, and with his command, in Col. 
Samuel McCobb's regiment, joined Washington's army, and under 
Colonel Bradford was in the battles of White Plains, Ticonderoga, 
and Saratoga, where he witnessed the surrender of Burgoyne. 
After his return home he became Colonel of the Bath regiment, and 
was commissioned by Governor Hancock, of Massachusetts, in 
1788. The other field officers were John Reed, Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Topsham, and Edward H. Page, Bath, Major. The regiment mus- 



314 HISTORY OF BATH. 

tered the same year, 1788, for the first time, immediately south of 
the ground where subsequently was built the Bath Hotel, which was 
erected in 1806. At the age of seventy-four years he joined, as 
lieutenant, the famous large company, composed of those exempt 
from military duty, formed for the purpose of aiding the regular 
forces in protecting Bath from threatened attacks by barges from 
the British blockading ships at the mouth of the Kennebec, and 
was called out for active duty at the "great alarm" of June, 18 14. 
Captain Lemont died at Bath, at the advanced age of eighty-six 
years, in 1827. He left numerous descendants of respectability, 
the youngest of whom bearing the name in the male line was 
Charles B. Lemont, who inherited the ancestral military spirit and 
raised a company of young men, the " Bath Cadets," in Bath in 
1840 or 1841, of which he was captain, making an unusually fine 
officer. He married Miss Mary B. Rouse, of Bath, daughter of 
William Rouse, a most amiable and worthy lady, and they had a 
numerous family now living in Boston and Waltham. His father 
was Levi Peterson Lemont, who was an an old resident of Bath, and 
compiled and published a book of " Dates " pertaining to historical 
local events of this city and surrounding country. His last years 
were passed with a married daughter in Clinton, Iowa, dying at a 
very advanced age. 

Peleg Tallman. — In the latter part of the last century, Peleg 
Tallman was one of the magnates of this ship-building city. In 
person he stood over six feet high, of commanding figure and car- 
riage, with face smoothly shaven after the fashion of the times. 
While in no sense a dandy, he paid suitable attention to his personal 
appearance, and was a good representative of the old-time prosperous 
Bath merchant. He was one of a trio of Bath magnates who 
kept their coach and pair, the others being Governor King and Capt. 
William Sylvester. 

Squire Tallman built his ships in the yard on the opposite side of 
the street from the Public Library Building. To the north of this 
was his wharf, which was extended, in after years, to its present 
length, forming the present Boston steamer landing. On this wharf 



HISTORY OF BATH. 315 

stood his old store, now in existence though remodeled. It was 
here the young boys of that day, contemporaneous with the respected 
citizen, John Hayden, were accustomed to gather in search of bits 
of old rope from which to pick oakum, the sale of which, at six cents 
a pound, would serve to keep these youngsters in spending money. 
When the "Old Squire" looked amiable the boys obtained their 
rope ; when the old gentleman was in bad humor, they got, instead, 
"the rope's end" laid over their jackets by the nimble ship-builder, 
who would chase them off his premises with great enjoyment. 

Mr. Tallman purchased the then modern two-story house situated 
on grounds now the City Park. It stood where is the pavilion and 
flag-staff. The property connected with the dwelling comprised the 
Park grounds, and, extending north, took in the territory between 
Front and Washington streets, as far as Oak street. The house 
faced east and the entrance to the grounds was through the northeast 
corner, on Front street. On the west was a magnificent orchard, 
and the entire grounds were a well-kept lawn. A railing ornamented 
the roof of the house, and flower beds the grounds. 

When Mr. Tallman had nearly reached four score years and ten, 
and lay on his dying bed, his wife urged him to have the Rev. Dr. 
Ellingwood sent for, but the old man declined until the last day, 
when he remarked to her : "Well, Rena [Eleanor], you may now 
send for the minister, it would, perhaps, be more decorous." The 
clergyman came and the eminent ship-builder and public man died 
with the blessings of Christian ministry. 

Of his family, his sons were Scott, Benjamin Franklin, James, and 
Henry; the daughters became Mrs. Tileston, of Boston, Mrs. George 
H. Gardiner, Mrs. Sturtevant, and Mrs. Smith. During the life of 
his mother, Scott, the eldest son, managed the estate. He defined 
the northern boundery of the Park by laying out Linden street, on 
the north side of which he erected several dwelling houses, one of 
which is now occupied by the Rev. Dr. Fiske. Mrs. Tallman was a 
daughter of Capt. John C. Clark, a wealthy business man of Bath. 

From the Tallman estate the Park was sold to the city for $10,000. 
The old mansion house was sold at auction, for $200, to Crosby 



316 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Sewall, and now stands on the corner of Oak and Front streets and 
is occupied for a store with tenements above. In its day it was the 
largest and only three-storied house in town. 

During the embargo, non-intercourse, and war of 1812, Sweden 
was a neutral nation and much commercial business was done by 
her merchants with this country. Through Peleg Tallman, who was 
accredited resident consul for Sweden, at the Port of Bath, consider- 
able business was transacted by that nation in Maine. The trade 
extended to New Hampshire, where there was a United States 
Custom House. 

Patrick 1)111111111011(1. — It was on the line of the Winnegance 
Carying Place, on the south border of it, that Captain Patrick Drum- 
mond established himself soon after his arrival from the old country 
in 1729, with his father, Alexander Drummond and family. 

This location was about equi-distant from the head of Winne- 
gance Creek to the Bay, over-looking the length of the Indian trail. 
He erected a timber garrison-house on a ledge, which was used also 
for a warehouse, and later a dwelling near it. The spot where stood 
the house, is now enclosed in a field a little east of the garrison 
where there are a few small trees and a slight depression in the 
ground, as found in 1888 by some of his descendents. 

There he traded with the Indians, cut lumber, and worked his 
farm, and acquired a title to a large tract of land. He wisely made 
friends of the natives, acquired their language and was never 
molested by them. He brought up a large family of sons and 
daughters who married, had large families, whose descendants are 
found in West Bath, Bath, and other immediate localities, some 
of whom bear the name of Williams, Campbell, Elliot, Page, Reed, 
Drummond, and others prominent and innumerable. Mr. Drummond 
and his wife lived to a great age, and tablets to* their memory can be 
seen in the Drummond Cemetery in Phipsburg.* Captain Drum- 
mond's house was the only one on the west side of the Sagadahoc 
River not destroyed by the savages in their raids upon the settlers 
in this region during the first half of the eighteenth century He 



HISTORY OF BATH. . 317 

was Captain of the first Company of Militia formed at Long Reach, 
in 1757, and was prominent in all public affairs of this locality. 

Benjamin Biggs. — One of the most prominent men that ever 
lived in old Georgetown, was Benjamin Riggs. He was born in 
Gloucester, Mass., in 1759. His father having been lost at sea 
when he was quite young, he was apprenticed to a man engaged in 
the coasting business, and in early life became a skilful sailor. He" 
was master of a vessel before he attained his majority. He carried 
on a large freighting business between various towns on the coast of 
Maine and those in Massachusetts, principally Boston, Salem, and 
Gloucester. 

Early in the Revolutionary War he was anxious to join the army, 
but could not get the consent of his master, and, although never 
connected with the army or navy, he was taken prisoner five times 
by the British during the war. He often owned a part of the vessels 
which he commanded, and also a part of the cargo, and these in 
every case were destroyed or confiscated. 

On his last capture, while on a voyage to Boston, he was taken to 
Bagaduce, kept all summer, and when discharged on parole, started 
on foot for his home. He was assisted on his journey by the inhabi- 
tants along the route, in ferrying him over the bays, rivers, and 
creeks that lay in his path, until his arrival at the house of Major 
Pearl, an officer in the Revolutionary War, in Edgecomb, on the 
Damariscotta River — foot sore, weary and penniless. 

In the spring previous to his capture he and Miss Ruth Pearl, 
daughter of the Major, had made their intention of marriage pubilc, 
according to the laws of the times, but his imprisonment had post- 
poned the consummation. However, in September, 1782, they were 
married, and two years after purchased the farm at the entrance of 
Robin Hood's Cove (now Riggsville), which has been the homestead 
of the Riggs family for more than a century. It has ever been the 
home of hospitality and refinement. Mrs. Riggs was, indeed, a 
Pearl of great price. No better or nobler woman ever lived. 

Mr. Riggs was often a member of the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts, before the division of the State, and also of the Legislature 



318 HISTORY OF BATH. 

of Maine, when it met in Portland. At one time Phipsburg petitioneo^ 
for a division of old Georgetown. Mr. Riggs was a member of the 
General Court. He was strongly opposed to the measure and 
exerted his large influence against it. But, distrusting his own 
ability as a speech-maker, he engaged a young lawyer, (a member), 
to speak in opposition. This he did to the great delight of Mr. 
Riggs. That young lawyer was Daniel Webster. Their united 
efforts, however, were unavailing, for Phipsburg was incorporated 
in 1814. 

The foreign commerce of Mr. Riggs was wholly with the West 
Indies. He was often the sole owner of vessel and cargo, and he 
also built many vessels. In theology he was a Calvinist Baptist of 
the old school, and in politics a Democrat. He was a man of 
commanding presence and of remarkable native ability. His event- 
ful life closed January 2, 1846, at the age of 87 years, leaving a 
large property. Mr. Riggs was identified with Bath in commercial 
pursuits, and a large owner in real estate. 

David Stinson, son of Elder Samuel Stinson, was born at Wool- 
wich in 1770. In 1793 he was a sea-captain and followed that busi- 
ness until 1 80 1. He accumulated a handsome estate and settled in 
Bath. In 1802 he built a house on Front street, now occupied as a 
store corner of Front and Arch streets. He married for his second 
wife Jane Reed, daughter of Col. John Reed, of Topsham. Capt. 
Stinson was Postmaster of Bath about twenty-seven years. He 
died instantly in the Old South Meeting-house in 1842. His wife 
died the previous year. Samuel G. Stinson, David T. Stinson, and 
Mrs. James W. Elwell, of New York, were his children. 

Samuel Winter was a notable citizen of his day. He was a 
son of the Reverend Francis Winter, Bath's first minister. Samuel 
Winter commenced business life sailing as supercargo in Bath ves- 
sels engaged in the West India trade. There were few commission 
houses at foreign ports in those early times, and young men were 
sent out in vessels, bound on foreign voyages, to transact the vessel's 
business. Eventually, Mr. Winter established himself in commercial 



HISTORY OF BATH. 319 

business in his native city, trading wholesale chiefly in what was 
then termed West India goods, such as sugars, molasses, and liquors, 
and owned a wharf at the upper portion of the town. Those were 
the days when New England rum was a prime factor in trade. This 
was made from molasses, and this was a great port for the importa- 
tion of that article from the West Indies. The lower grades of 
smaller cost were well adapted to be distilled into rum. Accord- 
ingly Mr. Winter established a distillery a little south of where is 
now the gas house. He was having a fair degree of prosperity 
when he made a large purchase of molasses on speculation, and the 
price fell while his purchase was on his hands. He saw ruin ahead, 
and being of a very proud spirit he could not face a failure. He 
lived a widower, with his two unmarried daughters, in a modest cot- 
tage on the north part of Middle street. One night he sat up after 
all the others of his household had retired, wrote a note, which he 
left on the sitting-room table, walked down to his wharf, tied some 
stones to his feet and jumped into the river. The note told where 
his body could be found, which it was the next day. His sudden 
and tragic taking off was universally regretted, and the more so as 
very soon following this event molasses had a sudden rise in the 
market, which, if he had lived, would have restored his losses. 

Mr. Winter was an unusually handsome man, tall, straight, and 
well-proportioned, always well-dressed, of suave manner, marked 
ability, and a leader in the old Whig party. At one time he was 
Sheriff of the County, and held other local offices. 

Major Joshua Shaw was an older brother of Major David 
Shaw. He was a sergeant at the capture of Burgoyne. His mother 
was the lady who shot the bear on the west side of the road leading 
to Phipsburg, about one hundred rods south of the residence of 
T. W. Hyde. The widow of Joshua Shaw afterwards lived and 
died at Galveston, Texas, at the age of ninety years. She was his 
second wife, and they had had two children. 

Major Joshua Shaw was also a merchant of distinction; he 
bought all the land of the White lot, from High street to the river, 
embracing the point and the tract now covered by the old erudition 



320 HISTORY OF BATH. 

school-house, and north to where stood the house of N. Groton, and- 
so east to the river; for this he paid $650. He afterwards sold so 
much of it, in lots, as amounted to $40,000 in cash. He entered 
largely into mercantile business, but was overcome by the pressure 
of the embargo. 

David C. MagOlin commenced business in Bath, as an 
auctioneer, in 182 1; afterwards was engaged in navigation, building 
and sailing his own vessels, mainly in the West India trade; kept a 
retail, and subsequently a wholesale, grocery store, doing an exten- 
sive business; was interested in banking; was much in politics, 
affiliating with the Whig party as a leader; was a member of the 
House of Representatives, Senator, a member of the Governor's 
Council, and the first Mayor of Bath; was a high Mason, and a 
member of Winter Street Church. He was a man of extraordinary 
executive ability and unswerving integrity of character. He died in 
1872, at the age of 82 years, leaving children, of whom there are 
three sons now living. 

Mr. Magoun married a daughter of William Webb; Bath's first 
Collector, who lived in the Webb-Torrey house, the site of which is 
now occupied by the Public Library Building. She was grand- 
daughter of Isaiah Crooker, senior. 

Abraham Hammatt came to Bath, from Plymouth, Mass., early 
in this century, and was engaged, for many years, in the manufac- 
ture of cordage. His factory was situated between Raymond's 
court and Middle street, and from Centre street to the Crooker line. 
The double house on the east side of Raymond's court was head 
house to his rope-walk. 

"Mr. Hammatt was truly a wonderful man. His knowledge was 
universal, and very accurate upon every subject of literature and 
science, having no equal in town; possessing uncommon presence of 
mind, and a most extraordinary memory. He was a great reader 
and diligent student, retaining everything he had learned to the 
degree that he was in himself a complete encyclopedia, more accurate 
than the best of such publications on many subjects. He took great 



HISTORY OF BATH. 32 1 

pleasure in imparting his knowledge to others, in a manner that 
was delightful to listen to, while his statements proving truthful, 
implicit confidence was placed in them." 

Having obtained a competency, he devoted his time to the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge for which he had ample opportitaity, having been 
a bachelor until he reached the age of fifty-five years, when he 
married Mrs. Dodge, of Ipswich, Mass., to which place he removed 
in 1836, where he passed the remainder of his days with this highly 
esteemed lady, who was well-fitted in intellectual attainments to be 
the companion of such a man. 

Mr. Hammatt was something of an orator, and delivered an 
address at a Fourth of July celebration in Bath, to great acceptance 
to those who heard it. Mr. Hammatt was one of the most notable 
men in Bath of his day. 

Nicholas Loring Mitchell was of Pilgrim stock, and born in 
North Yarmouth, October 10, 1765. His father, David Mitchell, 
was a graduate cf Harvard, and during his life occupied many 
important public offices. The son, Nicholas L., came to Bath and 
entered into the mercantile and ship-building business, and was a 
deacon of the Old North Church. He married, for his first wife, 
Dorcas Drinkwater, of Portland, by whom he had two children. His 
second wife was Nancy McCobb, daughter of Gen. Samuel McCobb, 
of Georgetown, and they had ten children. 

Ammi Rnhamah Mitchell .was born in Yarmouth, September 
24, 1787, his father having been Deacon Jacob Mitchell, who held 
high positions of public trust. Ammi R. became a citizen of Bath, 
where he entered into mercantile business, filled important municipal 
offices, was a deacon of the Old North Church, and died May 1, 
1875. His first wife was Susan M. White, by whom he had two 
children. His second wife was Nancy Jones, married July 15, 18 17, 
and she died September 17, 1867. Their children now living are: 
Greenville Jones Mitchell, who was educated in the city schools, is a 
merchant of the highest standing, a leading member of the Winter 
Street Church, and a citizen of probity and honor; Mrs. Elizabeth 



322 HISTORY OF BATH. 

T. Simpson, Caroline G. Mitchell, and Mrs. Julia Cutler Ring. 
The Yarmouth Mitchells have had five deacons in their families, 
and have been termed "the Deacon Mitchells." 

The Hyde Family. — Jonathan Hyde, second son of Zina Hyde, 
Sr., and Sarah Goodwin, was born July 20, 1772, in Lebanon, Conn. 
He was a half-brother of Zina Hyde. Early in the spring of 1792 he 
made his first trip to Kennebec, in pursuit of health. With health 
improved he for several years traded there in summer, and returned 
in autumn, passing most of his time while on the river either at 
the settlement near Jones Eddy, at Georgetown, or at Pownalboro, 
now Dresden, which were then the principal seats of commerce 
on the Kennebec, and spending his winters, more or less, in teach- 
ing school in his native state. 

In 1799 he began his permanent residence in Bath, and opened a 
store for retail trade. In later years his attention was mostly given 
to the trade in iron and steel. 

In 1802, his half-brother, Zina Hyde, came to Bath to be with him 
as an apprentice. In 1803, their sister, Sarah, came to keep his 
house. She married Rev. Jonathan Belden, in 1809; they settled 
in Bristol, Me., where she died, March 25, 1812. In 1809, Gershom 
Hyde came as an apprentice, and his brother Henry soon followed 
and settled here in 181 1. They were cousins of Jonathan Hyde. 

In 1807, Mr. Jonathan Hyde built the brick store and wharf 
he occupied for many years, on Water street, and which was taken 
down in 1886. From 1810 to 1825, business was done there under 
the firm of Jonathan & Zina Hyde. Previous to this, and after- 
wards, one or both were more or less engaged in navigation. 
About the year 1838, James Thomas Hyde, his eldest son, became 
a partner with his father. On February 4, 1809, Jonathan Hyde 
married Deborah, daughter of Dr. James Thomas, of Lebanon, 
Conn. They came to Batli in an open sleigh. 

He was a staunch Federalist, of the Washington and Trumbull 
school, and at a time when party politics ran high, he was firm but not 
violent. In 1809 he was sent a Representative to the Legislature of 
Massachusetts, in which he continued for three years, under the 




<s^^l^ys u <: ^ 



ARTOTYPE, e. BIERSTADT 



HISTORY OF BATH. 323 

administrations of Governors Strong, Gore, and Gerry, but the 
influence of the Democratic party having been strengthened, they 
succeeded in carrying their candidates. He was again elected, 
and represented the town, in 18 15 and 1816. In 1816 he was a 
member of the Convention that met at Brunswick, to determine the 
question of separating Maine from Massachusetts. 

He was Director in the Lincoln Bank for more than twenty years, 
and for twelve years of the most difficult financial period of the 
country he was President of the Bank. To old age he continued to 
enter, with zeal and intelligence, into the public interests and 
improvements, and to aid in the support of the benevolent insti- 
tutions of the day. He died October 18, 1850, aged 78 years. 

His wife, Deborah Thomas, was born in Lebanon, Conn., April 
2, 1782. After the death of her husband, the house on South street 
was sold, and a house built on High street, opposite the Zina Hyde 
place, where, with her sons, Rodney and Adolphus, she lived until 
her death, December 3, 1863, at the age of 81 years. 

Zina Hyde was born in Lebanon, Conn., October 14, 1787, and 
died in Bath, September 19, 1856. He married Miss Harriet Buck, 
at Bucksport, Me., June 10, 1816, and she died in Bath, January 2, 
1817. Mrs. Hyde was born September 4, 1789, and came from a 
distinguished family, her father being Colonel Buck, for whom the 
town in which he lived was named. She was a very amiable and 
intellectual woman. 

On April 13, 1840, Major Hyde married Eleanor Maria Little, 
widow of Israel Little, daughter of Isaac and Lydia Davis. She 
was born November 21, 1803, and died in London, July 28, 1885, 
where she was residing for her health, and where her son Thomas W. 
was present with her in her last days. There children were Thomas 
W., and Mary Eleanor who was born November 4, 1842. 

Major Hyde was prominently identified with the business interests 
of Bath ; commencing by learning the trading business with his half- 
brother, Jonathan Hyde, dealing in general merchandise, he shortly 
became a partner in the store for many years at the south end, in a 
brick building, when he finally opened business for himself, corner 
of Broad and Front streets, as Zina Hyde & Co., dealing in hardware 



324 HISTORY OF BATH. 

and ship-chandlery, and the establishment became the leading one 
on the river. 

As has been noted elsewhere in this volume, Major Hyde was 
actively identified with the State Militia when he was a young man, 
rising from the office of Seargent of a "unifom" Company in Bath, 
to Adjutant of the Regiment and Brigade Major ; doing efficient 
service at the time the soldiery were on duty for the protection of 
Bath in the war 1812, while the town was in danger from the hostil- 
ity of blockading British men-of-war. 

Major Hyde was the first to take an abiding and active interest in 
the movement for temperance reform, at the time when to use 
spirituous liquors as a common beverage by all classes of people was 
a universal custom. He was from early life of devoted Christian 
character, and first was a member of the Old North Church ; became 
an intimate friend of Dr. W. Jenks, of the Old South Church, who 
together were embued with growing liberal religious principles, and 
he finally became a firm believer in the new doctrine of the Sweden- 
borgian faith, in which belief he lived and died, and had been the chief 
founder of that church in Bath. He had travelled extensively 
abroad, and brought with him, from the shores of Europe, only a 
more devoted attachment to the institutions of his own country, 
and if such a thing were possible with him, a broader and deeper 
love of his race. His exquisite tastes were displayed in the many 
treasures of art which adorned his residence in this city. As a man 
of business he was active, upright, reliable, and free. 

Edward C. Hyde, son of Jonathan Hyde, when a young man 
followed the sea for a time. He afterwards engaged in business 
in Bangor, and, while there, was active in the promotion of an enter- 
prise which has much interest in connection with the early history of 
steam navigation in this country, in the building of the first iron sea- 
going steamer in America, a twin screw propeller to run as a passen- 
ger and freight boat between Bangor and Boston. The vessel was 
built at Wilmington, Del., under the personal supervision of Mr. 
Hyde. The enterprise was brought to an untimely end, by the loss 
of the vessel by fire, on her second trip from Boston. Mr. Hyde 
returned to Bath, and was, for several years, superintendent of the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 325 

Kennebec & Portland Railroad, and afterwards held several public 
positions of trust in his native city, and since 1870, up to 1893, the 
position of City Treasurer of Bath, a period of twenty-three years. 

He married Miss Rebecca Tibbetts of Lisbon, at Little River, 
whose father was Hon. Moses Tibbetts, who held many offices. He 
was Justice of the Peace, Town Treasurer, first Selectman of the 
town for forty years, Representative of Lisbon from 1820 to 1840, 
and Senator for Lincoln County. 

Thomas Worcester Hyde, son of Zina Hyde, was born January 
15th, 1841, at Florence, Italy; only son of Zina Hyde of Bath, Me., 
who was a Brigade-Major in the war of 18 12. His mother was 
Miss Eleanor Davis of Jamaica Plains. Was graduated at Bowdoin 
College in the Class of 186 1, and also graduated the same year at 
Chicago University. He enlisted in a Chicago regiment which 
was not accepted on Lincoln's first call for seventy-five thousand 
men. Returned home and obtained papers to raise a company 
for the Seventh Maine Infantry. On going into camp with his 
company at Augusta was elected Major, and in the absence of 
the Colonel and Lieutenant-Colonel, took the regiment to the field. 
Was present with his regiment at the Seige of Yorktown, and battles 
of Williamsburg and Mechanicsville and all of the seven day battles 
in front of Richmond. Commanded the regiment in the battles of 
the Second Bull Run, Cramptons Gap, and Antietam. In this latter 
fight the regiment was ordered late in the afternoon to take a place 
where Stonewall Jackson had his headquarters. They broke through 
the lines of the enemy, suffering and inflictering great loss, losing all 
but sixty five men and three officers. In this fight Major Hyde's 
horse was three times shot under him and he was slightly wounded. 
After this battle the Seventh Maine was ordered to Maine to recruit, 
and its first battallion took the field the following spring. Major 
Hyde was soon after appointed Acting Inspector General of the 
Left Division, Army of the Potomac; when that organization was 
disbanded, was retained upon the staff of the Sixth Corps by Gen- 
eral Sedgwick, as Aide-de-camp and Provost Marshal. Was present 
with General Sedgwick at the storming of Mary's Heights, and was 



326 HISTORY OF BATH. 

with his regiment at the battle near Salem Church. After which 
battle he was selected to present the flags captured from the enemy, 
to General Hooker, and was recomended for brevet promotion. He 
was with General Sedgwick at Gettysburg and all the battles follow- 
ing in which the Sixth Corps was engaged, and was by his side when 
he was killed near Spottsylvania. About this time was promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel and remained on the staff of the Sixth Corps until 
his three years expired, when he was commissioned Colonel of the 
First Maine Veteran Volunteers, a regiment organizaed from the 
veteran Volunteers of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Maine Infantry. 
He joined his regiment in the valley and was immediately put in 
command, but twenty-three years of age, of the Third Brigade, Second 
Division, Sixth Army Corps, whose Commander, General Bidwell, had 
just been killed at Cedar Creek. He commanded this Brigade to 
the close of the war, leading with it the famous "wedge" assault of 
the Sixth Corps, which broke the enemy's lines around Petersburg. 
Was present at Sailor's Creek and at the surrender of Lee, and after- 
wards sent with a column under Sheridan to attack Joe Johnston 
in North Carolina. On this march took possession of the town of 
Danville, and Johnston having surrendered, was military Governor 
of Danville and the adjoining counties for two months. Mustered 
out in the summer of 1865 after four years' service. Was breveted 
Brigadier-General and selected to command a brigade in a Provis- 
ional Corps then proposed to be formed out of the Army of the 
Potomac for duty in the South. Then mustered out of service and 
went into the iron business in his native town, Bath, Maine, in which 
business he is engaged at the present writing, 1893. In 1873 was 
elected to the State Senate, where he served three terms, two of 
which as President of the body. The years 1876 and 1877 he was 
Mayor of the city of Bath. In 1877 he was appointed one of the 
Board of Visitors to West Point. In 1883 he was appointed by 
Congress one of the Board of Managers of the Soldiers' Home. 
Married in 1866 to Annie, daughter of John Hayden of Bath, Me., 
and has six children. President of the Bath Iron Works, an industry 
he has built up, employing in 1889, 190 men. He has always been 
a strong republican and in religious faith a Swedenborgian. Is 



HISTORY OF BATH. 327 

Commander of the Maine Commandery of the Loyal Legion, and 
President of the Sagadahoc and a member of the Cumberland, 
Somerset, and Metropolitan Clubs. He has been, for twelve years, 
a director of the Maine Central Railroad. 

Charles E. Hyde, son of Edward C. Hyde, was born in Bath, 
November 26, 1855 ; attended the city schools, graduating from the 
High School, after which he spent three years in the School of Tech- 
nology at Worcester, and one year in the Massachusetts School of 
Technology, Boston; then went on a trip to Europe for the purpose 
of examining the ship yards and engine works of the old country, 
obtaining much valuable information in his specialty. Upon his 
return he worked as a machinist in the Portland Machine Works; 
then as draughtsman in the Columbian Iron Works at Baltimore, 
being the first work he had undertaken as draughtsman; then in a 
drawing office of the Crampts one year; chief draughtsman for 
Ward, Stanton & Co., Newburg, N. Y., builders of all classes of fast 
vessels, affording him the advantage of working with Mr. Samuel 
Stanton, who is a man of remarkable ability as a designer of marine 
engine work. Returning to his native city he entered the employ of 
the Goss Marine Iron Works, in 1884, as chief draughtsman and 
superintendent of the works. While in the employ of these works 
he introduced the practical use of the triple expansion engine, the 
first used in this country, now become universal. When these works 
changed ownership, Mr. Hyde engaged with the Bath Iron Works 
Company and has continued its daughtsman and constructing 
engineer to the present time. In the construction of the government 
naval vessels, the Machias, the Castine, and the Katahdin, Mr. 
Hyde was chief draughtsman and constructor of the engines and 
machinery work for all of these war vessels. 

As a citizen of Bath, Mr. Hyde has taken interest in local public 
matters, as member of the Board of Trade, and several terms on the 
Board of Aldermen and one term its president. 

June 10, 1885, he married Miss Georgiana Miller, of Newburg; 
they have four daughters, whose names are Margaret, Emily, 
Dorathy, and Annie; and has a pleasant residence on the attractive 
banks of the Kennebec. 



328 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Rodney Hyde followed the sea for several years ; was a clerk 
with Zina Hyde, and since 1842 has spent most of his life in Bath, 
unmarried. In 1892 he gave a free deed of land for a site for a con- 
templated "Home for Aged Couples and Old Men," on Weeks street. 

WILLIAM KING, Maine's First Governor.— Of all the 

eminent men who have been citizens of Maine, less has been 
published of the career of William King than that of any of his 
contemporaries ; yet few have placed their mark so conspicuously 
upon the public affairs of the state as he. To accomplish a full 
history of his life and his services at this day is attended with 
difficulties. Among his voluminous papers few can be found of 
value to the historian. 

For over fifty years, William King was a resident of Bath, yet his 
name and fame belong to the whole state, as it was his energy and 
perseverance, in a great measure, that sundered the tie to the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts and placed Maine as an independent 
state in the Union. Bath, however, is identified with him in that 
close and more sympathetic tie that results from familiar companion- 
ship in the more quiet walks of life ; from a thorough knowledge of 
his manly character, his honorable dealing in matters of business, 
his devotion to right, his undoubted intellectual ability and states- 
manlike qualities, all of which he used freely for the benefit of the 
town as well as the state. 

His grandfather was Richard King, who came to this country 
from Kent, England; his father was also of the name of Richard 
and came from Watertown, Mass., to Scarboro in 1745. His father 
was twice married, his first wife died in 1759, having had a son and 
two daughters. . Rufus King was the son of this marriage, and was 
one of the great men of the day of Washington, Adams, and Jeffer- 
son. His second wife was Mary Black, of York, from which union 
there was three daughters and two sons, Cyrus and William. William 
was born in 1768, at Scarboro. William was less fortunate than his 
brothers, in the matter of a liberal education, as his father died when 
William was only seven years of age, leaving the bulk of his estate 
in lands that did not yield much income ; William had therefore to 



HISTORY OF BATH. 329 

make his own way in the world and went to work in a saw-mill at 
Saco. When he was nineteen years of age a division of his father's 
estate was made, and his portion was a yoke of two-year old steers. 
With these, in the the spring of the year, he started east to seek his 
fortune. He stopped at many of the houses on the way offering to 
work for his board without finding employment. It was cold when 
he reached Bath, and came into town barefoot, not being able to own 
either shoes or stockings. Failing to find any employment he went 
to Topsham where he went to work in a saw-mill and by industry 
and frugality soon owned half a saw and afterwards a whole mill. 
After a while he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Dr. 
Benjamin Jones Porter, and opened a store, which was conducted by 
Porter, King continuing his lumber business. Mr. King was one 
of the incorporators of the toll bridge crossing the river at Topsham. 
The first cotton mill in Maine was at Brunswick, erected in 1809, and 
King was one of the incorporators and one of the principal owners. 
While living at Topsham he built five vessels, consisting of one ship, 
two brigs, and two schooners. His first vessel was built at Bruns- 
wick in 1793, another in 1793; a ship at Bath in 1794 ; a brig at 
Topsham in 1799; a brig at Bath in 1798; from 1800 to 1815 he built 
four ships and five brigs at Bath, and was owner and manager of 
other vessels. 

When General King first came to Bath, in 1800, he opened a store 
in connection with Peter H. Green. He also had wharfs and ware- 
houses. He organized the first bank opened at Bath, of which he 
was president, having full control. He possessed much real estate 
in Bath and other parts of the state. Originally he owned the terri- 
tory of what is now the town of Kingfield, in Franklin County, which 
was named for him. He was accustomed to visit his town once or 
twice a year, going up from Bath in a carriage with his family. He 
took great delight in Kingfield, where he had much land under culti- 
vation. He owned the stone-house farm, some two miles from Bath 
on the Brunswick road. It was originally built for a shooting-lodge 
by a party of English sportsmen. It was notable for its large orchard 
of five hundred fruit trees of great variety, and on it were raised 
large quantities of potatoes for shipment to the West Indies. 



330 HISTORY OF BATH. 

When the state-house at Augusta was built, he was at the head 
of the commissioners who superintended the building. 

In General King's day the military had a high prestige, and as a 
military man he was conspicuous. He was popular with officers 
and men under his command, and this was particularly shown when 
he received the appointment of Major-General, at Boston, and on 
his coming home the military of Brunswick, Topsham, and Bath 
turned out to escort him into town. Besides in service as Major- 
General of militia, he had a commission of Colonel of the United 
States army as recruiting officer of United States volunteers, in the 
District of Maine, upon the declaration of war in June, 1812. He 
recruited a regiment in Bath early in 18 14, and was engaged in 
recruiting another when the war closed. 

He began his political career in Topsham, at the early age of 
27 years, by representing the town at General Court in Boston 
in 1795 and 1796. In 1800, he was elected Representative to the 
Legislature of Massachusetts, from Bath, for three years; and 1807 
and 1808, was elected Senator to represent the Lincoln district. 

General King was a leader by nature, in military, civil and citi- 
zen life; when appointed on a committee, King was the committee. 

During the many years which General King served in public life, 
his record shows a desire to legislate for the people. The so called 
" Betterment Act " was of special significance. The pioneer settlers 
went into the edges of our forests, made clearings, and prepared 
homes for their wives and children. Speculators then came forward 
and claimed a right to the entire property and proceeded to eject 
the settlers; they rose in rebellion, a surveyor for the proprietors 
was shot and suspected men were put in jail ; a rescue was attempt- 
ed and the militia companies were called out. 

In 1802, General King, then a member of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, took the matter in hand and framed a bill that gave the 
original proprietors the choice to sell the land to those occupying it 
at its appraised original value or pay for the improvements. King 
pressed the measure through by the force of his character. He was 
likewise the father of the famous "Toleration Act," which annulled 
the law that had compelled towns to support a minister; a grand 
work of entire religious freedom. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 33 1 

The public services of General King will, however, be the most 
recorded in history in connection with the leading part he took in 
the question of the separation of the District of Maine from Massa- 
chusetts. He battled seven years for separation in every political 
convention of which he was a member, and it would not be much of 
a convention without King. The separation being effected he was 
president of the convention that framed the constitution of the new 
state, and no state ever entered the Union with a better constitution. 

The people of the new state proved their appreciation of the 
eminent services he had rendered them, by unanimously electing 
him its first governor. During his term of office, he resigned to 
accept appointment as commissioner for the general government to 
settle claims in Florida. 

His state did him the honor of selecting him out of all his dis- 
tinguished contemporaries to be its representative in the national 
statuary at Washington. This statue of Maine's first governor was 
executed by Franklin Simmons, at Rome, — a native of Maine — repre- 
senting him as in the prime of life. It has been said to be the finest 
in the whole collection, which is made up of the most eminent men 
from every state in the Union. On the occasion of the presentation 
of this statue to the government, Senator Hanibal Hamlin, James G. 
Blaine, Thomas B. Reed, Mathew H. Carpenter, Roscoe Conklin, and 
other eminent statesmen, paid tribute to General King's character. 

Upon the institution of Solar Lodge at Bath, in 1804, William 
King was one of the charter members, and its first Master, and also 
Worshipful Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maine. 

His mansion which he built in Bath stood, in the Governor's time, 
near the banks of the Kennebec, on the site of the present Custom 
House. The grounds were extensive ; old-fashioned flowers and 
shrubs filled the front yard, while on the west and north was an 
extensive orchard of fine fruit trees, the pride of the Governor, and 
which was enclosed by a high stone wall. This house, in its palmy 
days, with its ample hall, broad stair-case, its chambers, with high 
post bedsteads and draperies, the coat-of-arms on the wall, the par- 
lor, with its massive furniture, and French plate mirrors over the 
mantel, the silver service, with convex mirrors, the candles blazing 



332 HISTORY OF BATH. 

in the winter twilight above the glowing fire on the broad hearth, 
all going to make a picture of beauty and comfort. He was a great 
entertainer. With unbounded hospitality his house was the resort, 
from time to time, of eminent men and women of this and foreign 
lands. There was not one who could outdo him in table argument, 
and, though often forcible and abrupt in his speech to men, his 
manners were always gentle and courteous to ladies and children. 
His evenings were often devoted to whist, and it was even a common 
thing in those days to devote a portion of the day to cards, and 
General King's card parties came to be a decided feature in Bath 
society. There was the Governor in the showy costume of the day, 
ruffed, starched and frilled, seated in state in his long parlor, where 
his friends assembled. They would sit at cards until late in the 
evening, not forgetting a cup of tea for the ladies and a glass of wine 
for the gentlemen. There used to be hot rubbers. The gay dames 
of a quiet day, sitting around the parlor, and the fresh breeze blow- 
ing through the open windows, where one could sit and look up and 
down the Kennebec ; then in the twilight his servant would harness 
up the span and drive the guests to their homes. 

In 1802 General King married Miss Ann Frazier, of Scarboro. 
The marriage proved a very happy one. At the next meeting 
after the marriage ceremony, as was the custom of the time, Gen- 
eral King and his bride "appeared out." The services were held 
in the " Erudition " school-house. Everybody was there in good 
season. At the proper time the couple walked deliberately in, when 
the General, with his commanding figure and dignified mien, with 
his beautiful bride by his side, made a pleasing sensation. Mrs. 
King was welcomed into Bath's best society, became a leader, and 
all through her life universal deference was accorded her many 
lovely traits of character. 

Characteristics. — Some reminiscences of General King may best 
illustrate his traits of character. A meeting was held to arrange 
for a celebration of " Independence Day," and King, as a matter of 
course, presided. The customary resolutions were prepared by 
Judge Ames, who was a man of wide attainments and patriotic. He 



HISTORY OF BATH. 333 

evidently took in the situation as a fine opportunity to air his gifts 
as a rhetorician. He had prepared an elaborate preamble to his 
resolutions, spending much time on it, calling upon his friends for 
the purpose of reading the paper to them for criticism on both the 
matter, its writing and his style of reading, and completed the doc- 
ument to his entire satisfaction, ready for the meeting to which he 
looked forward as his coming triumph. The eventful day arrived, 
and when called upon for the resoultions he commenced reading his 
eloquent preamble, and had hardly gone through with the first sen- 
tence when General King exclaimed, in his decisive way : " Never 
mind the preamble, Judge, never mind the preamble, it is always 
about the same thing you know, never mind it, give us the resolu- 
tions." Thus spread eagle rhetoric was squelched by a presiding 
officer, who at the time was truly "king." 

When General King was in his prime he was quick witted as well 
as profoundly intellectual. During the time he was one of the 
commissioners under the Florida treaty he was walking the streets 
of Wasington one bright moonlight evening in company with 
another gentlemen, when two girls flourishingly dressed came up 
close behind them apparently endeavoring to attract their attention. 
To avoid annoyance they turned a corner, but in vain ; the girls fol- 
lowed close; they turned another corner, the girls still following, 
when General King faced about and thus addressed them: "Ladies, 
I can only say to you that we are not members of Congress. " The 
girls followed them no longer. 

Although friendly to the cause of temperance, he never gave up 
the use of wine and always had it on his table. On one occasion a 
judge was dining with him and refused wine on the plea that he was 
a member of a temperance society. Melons were brought in at 
dessert and the General poured wine on his; his guest did the same; 
a short time after a physician was dining with the General, he also 
refused wine, when King bluffly remarked, "Won't you have a spoon 
Doctor? recently Judge Blank was dining with me and he would not 
drink my wine but he ate it with a spoon." 

It has been said that when some worthy ship-master, on returning 
from a voyage, would unroll before him the long columns of his 



334 HISTORY OF BATH. 

accounts, the restless Governor would interupt the whole by the 
exclamation, "Ah, that will do. We will lay these two accounts of 
debt and credit on the floor and find the difference by pacing 
them off." 

A zealous member of the church to which he belonged, felt it his 
duty to labor with the Governor on account of his occasionally 
allowing the use of cards in his house. In his efforts to convince 
Governor King of the evil influences of such amusement, his fellow 
member remarked that it led to cheating, and that he always used 
to cheat whenever he played. "Ah!" said the General, "I dare say 
this is true, but you need have no fear for me; I never allow myself 
to play in such company as yours." 

Early one morning the stage drove up to the door of King's resi- 
dence, and when his wife was about to enter it he discovered inside 
the stage, a Frenchman with his dog. "Driver!" thundered the irate 
General, "take this dog out." The frightened foreigner, dog and all, 
leaped from the stage, muttering; "I have seen the King of England; 
the King of France, and other Kings, but this King of Bath is the 
biggest King I ever saw." 

In about 1834 a club of young men, the Zetetic Club, was formed 
in contradistinction to a lyceum of older and more conservative 
men, and the members, after a long discussion of the education 
question, prepared to act in concert at an annual town meeting on 
a measure to be offered to improve the schools. It was arranged to 
proceed in this wise : An order, prefaced by suitable remarks, was 
to be offered by a member designated, to raise for schools an addi- 
tional sum of $3,000 more than was required by law to do, and 
consequently would provoke strong opposition from large tax payers. 
It was arranged that a dozen or so should be ready to reply in turn 
to the opposition, and that they should be well distributed in the 
house so as not to appear to act in concert. Town meeting was 
held and the "order" offered, and immediately assailed by General 
King, who did not make any lengthy remarks, seeming to be confi- 
dent, as he had always before "carried the town," that it was 
only necessary to make known his wishes to have them fully carried 
out. To his manifest surprise, however, no sooner had he taken his 



HISTORY OF BATH. 335 

seat than a vigorous reply was made to his remarks by the man who 
had offered the order and between whom and King there had been 
some previous sparring on some other question. To effectually silence 
him, King arose, looking straight at his opponent, with the remark 
that he "would willingly favor the appropriating more money for the 
support of schools if it would result in preventing the children of 
some men from being as ignorant as their fathers have shown them- 
selves here to-day." No sooner was the general seated when 
another advocate of the measure was on his feet in a distant part of 
the room, presuming to antagonize the long-time dictator. Amazed 
at this audacity, General King rose again and with more extended 
remarks apparently thought he had silenced the reformers. Then a 
voice from a far corner of the house is heard, dashing aside his 
arguments with audacity, Again General King takes the floor, and 
no sooner is he seated than Robert Babb assails him and evidently 
pitches into his feelings to some purpose. King inquires of those 
around him, "who is he?" and arising with glaring eyes looking 
around the room, says he : " Mr. Moderator, I should like to know 
what we are coming to ! Who is this Mr. Roberty Bobberty Babb, 
and the rest of them, are they going to rule the town?" The 
other members continuing to reply and assail him, General King, 
thoroughly amazed at this audacity, inquired of a neighbor what it 
all meant, "this happening in such a manner," and he arose in his 
mighty indignation to say : "Ah, Mr. Moderator, I have just learned 
where all this mischief comes from; it is the Zetetic Club; and what 
do we see ? " pointing with his finger, " Why, its cockadodle here, 
and its cockadodle there, and its cockadodle everywhere; and what 
does it all mean?" But the " cockadodles " carried their point with 
the complete overthrow of King rule. 

When General King and others seceded, in the year 1802, from the 
North Church and Society of Bath, and built the South Church, 
congregational clergymen declined to install Mr. Jenks who had been 
engaged for pastor, on the ground that there was no church. When 
this state of facts was made known at a meeting of the South 
Society, Mr. King promotly exclaimed, "We must have a church, 
must we? I'll have one immediately." He sat down and wrote a 



336 HISTORY OF BATH. 

document to be signed by such as were willing to enroll themselves 
as members. To quiet any conscientious scruples any might have 
in belonging to a church when not a professor of religion, he 
explained that their wishing to organize a church was simply a form 
and matter of business. Signing the paper himself, he took it 
around for others to sign, and very soon obtained the required 
number. On returning home from the meeting, he explained to his 
wife what he had done, and asked her to head the list for lady mem- 
bers. She said, "I cannot, I cannot." "Why not?" asked he. 
Said she, " I am not good enough, you know I am not a Christian." 

"Ah," said he, "jine, Annie, jine, I have jined, and you are a d d 

sight better Christian than I am." She "jined" and the church 
was founded. 

The Governor had a commanding figure above middle height, 
bright piercing eyes, shadowed by heavy, coal-black eye-brows, which 
retained their color even after his hair become white. It was said 
that in anger or when filled with righteous indignation his eyes had 
a flash that few cared to encounter. Many still remember him 
attired in his military cloak with scarlet lining, and his dignified mein 
and distinguished countenance made him always an object of interest 
in public or private life. 

The family of his son, Cyrus W. King, consisting of a widow, son 
and daughter, reside in Brunswick, the son a physician and the 
daughter an artist. 

When General King died, June 17, 1852, he was buried with 
military, masonic, and civic honors, the Governor and distinguished 
officials being in attendance. He was enterred in the old cemetery, 
where the state placed a monument of granite of suitable propor- 
tions to his memory, his wife resting at the same spot. 

The Patten Family. — As far back as 1119 mention is made 
of a Patten family at Pattine, near Chalmsford, Essex County, Eng- 
land. Various Richard Pattens are spoken of in different eras as 
men of worth and filling high positions, particularly in church gov- 
ernment. In the fifteenth century a number of families of that 
name emigrated to Scotland from Essex County, and from thence to 



HISTORY OF BATH. 337 

Ireland in 1630. It is supposed that Actor, or Hector Patten as the 
English call it, was a descendant of this branch. He was born in 
Belfast, county of Derry, about 1693, and immigrated to this country 
in 1727. He was accompanied by his brothers, William and Robert. 
Actor came to Saco with his brother William, settling in that portion 
now known as Old Orchard. After living here forty years he made a 
new home at Frenchmans Bay, now Sullivan, in the then District 
of Maine, a short time before the Revolutionary War. 

His first wife's family name was Sotor ; his second, whom he mar- 
ried in this country, was a Mrs. Armstrong. He had three sons, John, 
William, and Mathew. John, his eldest son, was born in 17 17. He 
married Miss Maria Means, of Saco, a pious and worthy woman. 
He settled in Topsham, Me., and lived on a farm pleasantly situated 
in sight of Merrymeeting Bay. 

His grandson, John Patten of Bowdoinham, from whom these 
genealogical records have been gleaned, says of him : "He lived to 
a green old age, beloved by his friends and respected by all. He 
was honest, industrious and upright in all his dealings. Besides attend- 
ing to the cultivation of his farm he did all the blacksmith's work of 
the vicinity. Later he engaged in ship-building, and accumulated 
coniderable property. He was a man of good appearance, quick and 
active in his movements. He raised a family of eight sons and six 
daughters. The daughters married into the Fulton, Randall, Jame- 
son, Harward, Maxwell, and Winter families. The descendants of 
the sons were numerous. John Patten was a deacon in the Congre- 
gational Church in Topsham and was always an exemplary Christian; 
strict in his observance of the Sabbath, he enforced like rigor on his 
house-hold. He died in 1795, aged 77. His son Thomas was born 
in Saco in 1761, and married Catherine Fulton of the same place. 
He came to Topsham with his father, and there were born to him 
there several sons and daughters, among whom were George F., 
James F., and John, all of whom settled in Bath while young men." 

John Patten, of Bath, was born in Topsham, August 27, 1789. 
He followed the sea during his early years. In the war of 1812-15 
he was mate with Capt. Levi Peterson and was taken prisoner five 
times. Through these mishaps he found himself penniless at the close 



338 HISTORY OF BATH. 

of the war, and was obliged to use his month's advance to purchase an 
outfit, but through his energy and ability, we find him in 1816 owner 
and master of the brig "Ann Maria," of 153 tons register, of 
Topsham. 

Captain Patten came to Bath in 1820 and formed a partnership 
with his brother, George F., in 182 1, under the firm of George F. 
& J. Patten, a partnership that lasted forty years. Their ship-yard 
was next south of the present office of A. Sewall & Company. Their 
first vessel was the brig Jasper of 222 tons. The remaining forty 
vessels built by these brothers were mostly ships. After the dissolu- 
tion of this firm, Captain Patten entered into partnership with his 
son, Gilbert E. R. Patten, and they occupied the yard adjacent 
to that of Major Harward. The first vessel by this firm was the 
Nimbus in 1869. Captain Patten always retained an interest in other 
shipping, becoming part owner in steamers and ships built by other 
firms. It has been estimated that he was an owner in sixty-five ves- 
sels. The following published at the time of his death gives an 
idea of various positions of trust held by Captain Patten and the 
various benevolent acts scattered through a long life. "For several 
years up to the time of his death, he was a Trustee of the Bath 
Savings Institution, Old Ladies' Home, and Director of the Lincoln 
Bank. He was one of the first members of the Merchants Exchange, 
afterwards known as the Bath Board of Trade ; was a stockholder, 
and for many years manager of the Bath Gas Light Company, and 
president of the Patten Library Association. He was largely inter- 
ested in building the Sagadahoc House and gave a large sum for its 
completion. Endowed with a benevolent heart, he gave largely to 
churches, public institutions, and private enterprises. He gave sev- 
eral thousand dollars to the Old Ladies' Home, a goodly sum towards 
the erection of the High School Building, and the Soldiers' Orphan 
Home was frequently a receipient of his bounty." He was a con- 
stant attendant upon the public services of the Central Church and 
gave liberally to religious objects, although not a church member. 
He was a member of the first City Council of Bath, and served the 
city as Mayor in 185 1 and 1852. He also represented the city one 
term in the Legislature. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 339 

Captain Patten was 3 1 years old when he made his home in Bath, 
yet he lived here an ordinary life-time. Very few attain to his age 
of 97 years and 6 months, with perfect health and unimpaired fac- 
ulties, and it is a rare instance where one of advanced age has been 
able to give personal attention to business to the very last days of his 
life. His gentle, beaming countenance was a pleasant sight for old 
and young. The restless spirit that so strongly marks this age, seems 
to have passed him by; he moved serenely in our midst, receiving the 
respect and regards of the entire community, and at each recurrence 
of his birthday of later years, a large number of citizins were accus- 
tomed to assemble at his dwelling, to do honor to the good citizen 
and venerable man. 

Captain Patten was twice married. His first wife was Miss Betsey 
Bates of Boston. They had two children, Thomas and Gilbert E. 
R. Patten. Thomas became a sea-captain and died at middle age; 
Gilbert also went to sea, commanded his father's ships, and in the 
latter part of his life retired from the sea and joined his father in 
building ships. The mother of these sons having died, the father 
married a daughter of Levi Peterson of this city. They had a 
daughter who died young, and a son, John L., who died just as he 
reached maturity. 

Captain Patten survived his second wife thirty years. The follow- 
ing extracts from Rev. Mr. DunnelFs sermon on Captain Patten's 
life and character are fitting tributes to an active, harmonious, and 
peaceful life : "It is not as a person valuable for his age, it is not 
as a successful money getter, one estimated by the figures of his 
taxes, but pre-eminently as a man that Captain Patten stands within 
our memory. His remarkable health one may safely say to have 
been partially due to the robust nature of his moral character. His 
physician states that to the last of his life there was no organic diffi- 
culty undermining his physical life. He had never impaired his 
constitution. Though a little remarkable for a sea-faring man, he 
was not addicted to the use of tobacco in any form. Although 
brought up in a period when spirituous liquors were used with a free- 
dom we can hardly comprehend to-day, he never used them in any 
but the most moderate degree, and of late years not at all. His 



34° HISTORY OF BATH. 

even, cheerful disposition was a great moral factor in his physical 
life. He was a man who never allowed himself what is popularly 
called the 'blues.' (doom was not a companion that he tolerated in 
his home. 1 fe was what we would call a successful man and I only 
speak of it to point out another way in which his manliness has 
impressed itself upon us. His success shows his character, because 
it was his own. He was in every sense a self-made man. I can 
testify from what I have personally heard him say that he was sensi- 
tive to anything which seemed to reflect on a man of small begin- 
nings. He had the keenest feelings about the value of a self-made 
life. 'There are few of us,' he said, 'who have not worked up 
from the smallest start.' ft was not often we spoke together on 
religious themes, but whenever we did he always talked without 
reserve. — 'Jesus has done everything for me.' This was the expres- 
sion which he coined himself, and which he repeated again and 
again. Surely no one who knew his life would be slow to believe 
that it had such a source. His spirit can be easily understood, when 
I remind you of a simple incident. As he was one day on his 
way from his office to his home, a poor man stopped him, asking 
if he would not help to procure a coat, when Captain Patten 
quickly removed his own, gave it to the man in need, and himself 
proceeded homeward without any. Any unworthy person rarely 
received from him. He was discriminating as well as generous. 
Truly there was fulfilled in him the promise to the godly — 'with long 
life will I satisfy him and show him my salvation.' " 

George F. Patten was born in Topsham, the home of his ances- 
tors, September 18, 1787. His advantages for an early education 
were limited, but his natural capacities made him a peer with all 
with whom he associated in his after life, whatever may have 
been their training. His early start in business life was in that 
branch in which he continued ever afterwards. Having been engaged 
in building boats, and later some small vessels, at his native town, he 
sought better advantages for ship-building by coming to Bath. 

In this city he established a yard in which he built ships during 
his entire life, having, at different times, his brothers, John and 
and James F. Patten, associated with him, being himself the builder. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 34 1 

His regular build was one ship a year and he managed them all. 
The Patten fleet became the largest in the United States. He was 
the builder of forty ships and other classes of vessels. He first 
built the brig Statira, of 188 tons, in 1819, at Topsham. The first 
he built at Bath was the brig Jasper, in 182 1, which was of 223 
tons; his last ship built at Bath, in 1868, was the Japan, of 1,252 
tons. He built two steamers to run on the Pacific coast, during the 
years of early California enterprises. The greater portion of the 
vessels of his building were ships of the larger class for those days. 
While his brothers, John and James F. Patten, continued going to 
sea they were in command of ships of the firm. 

On coming to Bath to reside, not many years elapsed before 
Captain Patten became a very prominent man, both in businees and 
as a citizen. He was a large stockholder in the banks of Bath, 
especially of the Lincoln Bank. He was a Whig and later a Repub- 
lican in politics. Never seeking, or indeed desiring, public positions, 
yet his fellow-citizens called him to responsible trusts, he having 
served several terms in the Legislature and in the City Government. 

He was prominent in the affairs of our first railroad, of which he 
was one of the original projectors, lifted the first spadeful in its 
construction, and was one of its most powerful supporters in the 
difficulties which its construction encountered. 

He was a member of the Board of Overseers of Bowdoin College; 
of the Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ; was Vice- 
President of the Maine Missionary Society, and by far the largest 
individual contributor to its funds. While in the prime of his man- 
hood, this eminent man became a professor of religion and a member 
of the Winter Street Church, of which the Rev. Dr. Fiske was the 
pastor, and who has warmly testified to his "true and sincere 
Christian character." 

Captain Patten was large in statue, commanding and distin- 
guished in his personal appearance. While always possessing more 
than ample means, his mode of life was that of comfortable sim- 
plicity, and his house was one in which there was always generous 
hospitality. 

Captain Patten never went to sea, and derived his title of Captain 



342 HISTORY OF BATH. 

from having been in command of a company of the militia at the 
time he was living at Topsham. During the last war with Great 
Britian, he was on duty at the head of his company when the troops 
were called out to protect Bath, when the British men-of-war were 
off the mouth of the river, alarming the town in June, and again 
in September, 1814. 

Captain Patten married in 1820, Miss Hannah Thomas who 
was born in Lebanon, Conn., in 1795. Their children were 
Catharine T. Patten, George M. Patten, Statira Patten, James F. Pat- 
ten, Pauline Patten, Ann Augusta Patten, George Maxwell Patten, 
and Hannah T. Patten. George F. Patten died September 26, 1869. 

James Fulton Patten was born in Topsham, June 28, 1790, 
and was educated in the schools of his native town. He then com- 
menced a sea-faring life, during which he made his home in Bath, 
rising to the command of vessels. He sailed in Bath ships, chiefly 
those built by his brothers, John and George F. Patten; himself 
eventually becoming a member of the firm, in which he continued 
until retiring from active business. 

He married a granddaughter of Col. John Reed of Topsham, and 
their children were Charles E. Patten and Frederic H. Patten. 
Captain Patten died in Bath, January 14, 1883, aged 82 years. 

Charles E. Patten, son of James F. Patten, was born in Bath, 
January, 1834, was educated in the city schools, and when 16 years 
of age began life on the sea, making his first voyage with Capt. J. 
Q. A. Reed, in the ship Italy. He won deserved promotion and was 
captain of the ship Britania in 1856. Until 1882 he continued in 
command of different ships, and retired after thirty-two years' ser- 
vice. In 1857 he married Miss Jessie Jones in London. Since his 
return from the sea he has continued his interest in shipping, and is 
one of Bath's heaviest tax-payers. He was elected Mayor in 1890 
and served one year with credit, and in 1892 was elected Alderman 
in a ward that is Republican, when he is an old-time Democrat. 
Since retiring from the sea Captain Patten has been a large stock- 
holder and for years a director in the the Lincoln Bank. Himself 
and wife are liberal to the poor, and he has made generous dona- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 343 

tions to the support of the Free Public Library and other objects of 
benevolence. 

Gilbert E. R. Patten was born in Boston, February 28, 1825. 
The home of the Patten family was in Topsham, Me., but Capt. 
John Patten, the father of Gilbert, made a permanent residence in 
Bath during his son's infancy. Gilbert was educated in the public 
schools, and his life associations and deepest interest centered in 
the home of his adoption on the Kennebec. 

Like the majority of young men of his time, he made the sea his 
profession and entered upon it at the early age of fifteen years. 
Manifesting unusual ability for his chosen career he easily gained 
promotion, and at twenty-one was captain of the ship Haleyon, one 
of the youngest commanders that ever sailed out of the Kennebec. 
One who knew him well writes : " I was with Captain Patten when 
he first stepped upon the active stage of life, in the first ship he 
commanded, and although I believe not yet two and twenty, he 
exhibited abilities far in advance of his years: sound judgment, 
coolness and self-possession in danger, and a faculty to command, 
qualities so necessary to carry the ship-master safely through the 
thousand difficult passages that are sure to lie in his way. I remem- 
ber him in his second voyage as master in a most perilous situation, 
one which called for the best qualities of the seaman to extricate his 
ship and save her from imminent wreck. He was equal to the emer- 
gency. With quick decision, he adopted the course which the event 
proved was the only one that could have brought him out of the 
jaws of destruction, and the decision, made with a coolness and pre- 
cision that would have done honor to a veteran, carried his plan 
to a successful issue. Even in those early days, he was governed 
in his dealings and in his intercourse with men by principles of high 
honor, and I well remember the impression he made upon those 
with whom he was thrown in business relations in different countries, 
and the many words I heard spoken in praise of his trustworthiness 
and integrity." 

On leaving the sea, Captain Patten became junior partner in the 
ship-building firm of John Patten & Son, and continued in that busi- 
ness until his health failed him in the prime of life and he was 



344 HISTORY OF BATH. 

forced to seek its restoration in various parts of our own land 
as well as in foreign climes. This practically closed a highly pros- 
perous and eminently successful business career, and crippled 
energies that were freely given to enhance the prosperity of Bath 
and add to the happiness of his fellow-citizens. Endowed with a 
capacity for friendship, he formed, and retained through life, the 
regard and respect of a large circle. His kindly disposition and 
genial smile remained undimmed through years of physical suffering, 
which he bore unflinchingly, while his resigned and truly Christian 
spirit enlisted the sympathy of both his older and later friends. 

He married, in 1859, Miss Emma M. Owen, daughter of Henry 
W. Owen, of Bath, formerly of Wayne, in this state. Captain Patten 
built a commodious and stately home on Washington street, where 
he died January 12, 1882. He left a son and daughter: John O. 
Patten; Clara M. Patten, married Richard E. Goodwin, of Augusta, 
February 10, 1887, and has one daughter. 

Frederic H. Patten, the younger son of James F. Patten, was 
born in Bath, May 13, 1838, where he obtained such education as 
was afforded by the schools of his native place. When entering 
upon the business of life, he went to New York City and engaged in 
the shipping business. Upon the decease of his father in 1883, who 
left him a large property, he returned to Bath where he remained 
during the remainder of his life, attending to the business of his 
estate. On April 26, 1883, he married Miss Clara Allan Kendrick 
of Bath, who was a devoted wife till his death, July 2$. 1889. 

Mr. Patten was a quiet, unassuming gentleman, of striking personal 
appearance and genial manners, whose departure in the prime of 
life has been greatly missed by his numerous friends and acquain- 
tances. 

John Owen Patten was born in Bath, April 20, 1861, and his 
parents are Gilbert E. R. Patten and Emma M. (Owen) Patten. 
He acquired his education in the schools of his native city, after- 
wards taking a special course at Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. He went to Boston, secured a position on the repor- 
torial staff of the Boston Fost -in 1884, and subsequently purchased 



HISTORY OF BATH. 345 

an interest in the paper, of which he was afterwards managing 
editor. He subsequently severed his connection with the Post 
and became executor of his grandfather's large estate (Captain 
John Patten), in connection with his brother-in-law, Richard E. 
Goodwin. 

On February 23, 1886, Mr. Patten married Miss Lucy W. Larrabee, 
daughter of Mr. Charles W. Larrabee, attorney-at-law, in Bath, 
moved to Boston to reside, and later returned to Bath. 

Mr. Patten has been a somewhat extensive traveler, having doub- 
led Cape Horn and made a sailing voyage to Madeira and England 
with his wife. In 1887-8 they made a trip around the world, visiting 
many countries in Europe, as well as Turkey, Greece, Syria, Pales- 
tine, Egypt, India, Ceylon, Java, China, Japan, and California, and 
in 1892-3 passed a winter in Spain in the study of the Spanish lan- 
guage. Mr. Patten has never lost his liking for journalism, and 
has lately become owner and editor of the Daily Times of his native 
city, which he has considerably improved, both as to circulation and 
influence. Mr. Patten is president of the Bath branch of the 
Sagadahoc Loan and Trust Company, and a director of the Bath 
National Bank. 

The Pattens have collectively and individually built from 18 19 
to 1875, thirty-eight ships, four barks, three brigs, two steam 
vessels, and one schooner. 

The Houghton Family. — The Houghtons of Milton and Bolton, 
Mass., trace their family line back to the Hoghtons in Lancashire, 
England, the founder of the family having come to England with 
William the Conqueror, and having been assigned large estates in 
Lancashire as a reward for his military services. The family was an 
active one, taking part in public affairs and the civil wars. 

The branch of the family in Massachusetts, from which the 
Houghtons of Bath are descended, was founded by Ralph Houghton. 
The legal proof of Ralph's parentage does not now exist, owing in 
part to the fact that Ralph, having been chosen clerk of his town in 
Massachusetts, was attacked by Indians and his office and all of its 
records were burned. He came to America for the purpose of enjoy- 



34^ HISTORY OF BATH. 

ing in freedom his religions and political opinions. He had fought 
under ( romwell against Charles I. He landed at Charlestown, Mass., 
some time between the years 1635 and 1647. In 1647, he and nine 
others founded the town of Lancaster, Mass. In 1682, he settled 
at Milton, and after a brief residence meanwhile at Lancaster, he 
built at Milton in 1689 or 1690 the old Houghton homestead, which 
has ever since been occupied by his descendants. 

Levi Houghton came from Boston to Bath in the schooner 
Sophronia, Capt. William Hayden, father of John Hayden, in 1802. 
He went into business in the northeast corner of a building located 
about fifty rods southwest from Davis', now Houghton Brothers', 
wharf. His stock in trade did not amount to over two hundred 
dollars, the chief portion of which consisted of ladies' and children's 
shoes. 

He early commenced taking an interest in vessels. The first 
vessel in which he invested was the brig Betsey, which went out on 
a voyage to the West Indies and was lost. When Samuel Davis 
failed, in 1808, Mr. Houghton purchased his property and went 
largely into the grocery business, supplying vessels during the war of 
181 2 and later. In 1820 he began building ships on his own account, 
which he continued until far advanced in age, when he relinquished 
his business to his sons. His vessels were all built at the foot of 
South street. He managed his own vessels. He eventually relin- 
quished keeping store, but retained trade in salt, wholesale and 
retail, his ships bringing in yearly cargoes from Cadiz and Liverpool 
on their return voyages from Europe. 

Mr. Houghton was a member of the Central Church for many 
years and one of its deacons. 

Levi Houghton was the son of Jonas and Lucy Houghton, and 
was born in Bolton, Mass., September 3, 1783. He married Char- 
lotte Reed, daughter of John and Rachel Reed, in Bolton, Novem- 
ber 3, 1813. She was born May 29, 1793; her father was born 
February 13, 1756; her mother was daughter of Ebenezer and 
Abagail Clark, and was born July 15, 1760. 

The successors to the business of Dea. Levi Houghton were his 
sons, Levi Warren, Silas Amory, John Reed, and Henry L. Hough- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 347 

ton. At a later date Amory died. The same line of building ships 
and dealing in salt has been pursued by them as was that of their 
father, and with the like success. Outside of this they make no 
speculative ventures, and are largely interested in banks in the city, 
especially so in the Lincoln Bank, the oldest institution of the kind 
in Bath, and of which L. W. Houghton has been on the board of 
directors many years, as also one of the board of trustees of the 
Bath Savings Institution. They are citizens who are notable for 
attention to their own business, and whose word is as good as their 
signatures. Levi Houghton and Houghton Brothers have built 
thirty-six ships, three barks, and four brigs. 

James McLellan, long identified with the business interests 
of Bath, was born in Gorham, May 7, 1777, and died in Bath, 
October 26, 1854, at the age of 77 years. His father was Capt. 
Alexander McLellan, who led a company to the siege of Biguyduce 
during the Revolutionary War in 1779. His son James commenced 
life a house carpenter at Monmouth, at the age of twenty-nine 
settled at Bath, in 1806, established a mercantile business, first 
under Music Hall, and afterwards at the foot of Summer street, 
near which was his ship-yard. He had Gen. Dwelly Turner for 
partner until his death in 1827, and afterwards his son, J. H. 
McLellan, keeping a store and building vessels for the West India 
trade on their own account. 

In his political life he was a staunch Democrat, and though never 
seeking office was one of the electors for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States during the War of 18 12; was a member 
of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1816 and 1817, 
and later was a member of the Executive Council. Entering the 
military service, he became Captain of a Bath company, from which 
he rose to Major, and through all the regimental grades to that 
of Major-General in 1822, always an active and distinguished 
officer. 

In religious matters he affiliated with the Methodist denomination 
and was conspicuous as one of the founders of the Wesley Church, 
of which he was a life-long member. 



348 HISTORY OF BATH. 

His house, at the top of the " hill " on Washington street, was 
ever the home of generous hospitality, clergymen finding always a 
hearty welcome, one of whom married his eldest daughter. 

Prior to his coming to Bath to reside he married Lydia Osgood, 
at Hallowell, in 1799, and their children were: Harriet E. (Mrs. 
Husted), J. H. McLellan, Mary O. (Mrs. Robinson), Lydia (Mrs. 
Hawkes), Charles, Samuel, Caroline (Mrs. Dr. Rogers), Sarah B. 
(Mrs. Snow), Louisa H. (Mrs. E. K. Harding), Adaline D. (Mrs. J. H. 
Allen, afterwards Mrs. Roberts), and Rufus. The mother of these 
children was notable for her traits of womanly character, and was 
an enthusiastic member of the Methodist denomination. 

General McLellan had the reputation of a man of strict integrity, 
active in business, and was one of the old-time merchants and 
prominent characters of Bath. He was a man of extraordinary 
energy and persistency, — a model specimen of the Anglo-Saxon 
Yankee character, — and through all the revulsions of commerce 
and trade for forty-six years maintained his credit. He built and 
owned, during the time he continued in active business, more than 
twenty-five ships and brigs, and, by his enterprise and example, was 
instrumental in doing much for the growth and prosperity of the city. 

The Moody Family. — Joshua Moody, son of William Moody, 
one of the original settlers of Newbury, Mass., was born in England 
in the year 1633, about one year before his father came to this 
country. As he was prepared for admission to college by the Rev. 
Thomas Parker, he was undoubtedly well fitted to enter college, 
having enjoyed the instruction of this eminent, classical scholar. 
Mr. Moody graduated at Harvard College in 1653; after which he 
commenced the study of Divinity, and very early began to preach. 
He had, before leaving Cambridge, made a public profession of 
religion, and joined the church in that town. 

Mr. Moody commenced his ministerial labors in Portsmouth, N. 
H., early in 1658, at which place he laid the foundation, and event- 
ually gathered the first Congregational church in that town. In 
1660, the town passed a vote for his establishment in the pastoral 
office, yet for some reason he was not ordained until 1671, at which 



HISTORY OF BATH. 349 

time the first church was gathered. As a minister, Mr. Moody was 
zealous and faithful. The church flourished under his pastoral care, 
and he was distinguished by his independent and faithful preaching. 

The Governor of the Province suspected that the general influence 
of Mr. Moody was the chief obstacle for the accomplishment of his 
own plans of self-aggrandizement. He accordingly determined to 
drive Mr. Modoy out of town by a series of persecutions, which 
culminated in 1684 in getting him into prison, by the perjury of a 
witness, but he was soon after released. 

After this persecution he went to Boston, May 3, 1684. The 
First Church made an arrangement for him to co-operate with Rev. 
Mr. Allen as assistant preacher. He was highly esteemed there, 
as a man, a scholar, and a theologian. Upon the death of Presi- 
dent Rogers, July 2, 1684, he was elected President of Harvard 
College, which position he declined. His usefulness was seriously 
abridged by the anathemas which his manly resistance to the witch- 
craft delusion drew upon him. It was chiefly by his moral courage 
that a gentleman and his wife, who had been lodged in jail in Boston, 
were saved from the cruel doom which the laws awarded to persons 
suspected of witchcraft. 

At length by the earnest entreaties of his former congregation he 
returned to Portsmouth, in 1692, where he spent the remainder of 
his days with his affectionate people. He died on the Sabbath of 
July 4, 1697, in the 65th year of his age. Dr. Cotton Mather 
preached his funeral sermon. The ninety-third volume of his man- 
uscript sermons is in the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

For the purpose of erecting a brick building at Harvard College, 
in 1689, Mr. Moody, by his exertions at Portsmouth, aided in obtain- 
ing the desired subscription for that object of ^60 per annum, for 
seven years. 

Rev. Samuel Moody, son of Rev. Joshua Moody, was a graduate 
of Harvard College, in 1689, and was for several years a preacher 
at New Castle, N. H. After a few years he laid aside his calling; 
and assumed that of a military commander with the rank of Major. 
He took command of a body of men in an expedition against the 
Indians, and frequently held a "talk" with them upon matters in dis- 



35° HISTORY OF BATH. 

pute. Mr. Moody eventually located himself with the new settlers 
at Falmouth, and has always been regarded as one of the principal 
persons who assisted in building up that colony. Mr. Moody was 
at the head of the committee who invited Rev. Thomas Smith to 
settle in the town. Maj. Samuel Moody may justly be called 
the leader of the little colony at Falmouth. In 1705 he had the 
command of forty men stationed at St. John's fort, Newfoundland. 
In 1709, he commanded the fort at Casco. While here, he had 
some correspondence with Father Ralle, the French missionary at 
Norridgewock. He became the organ of communication, repeatedly, 
during the war between the Indians and our government. 

Maj. Samuel Moody had two sons. Joshua, the eldest, was grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1715 ; Samuel his second son, was born 
at New Castle, N. H., October 29, 1699, and graduated from the same 
college, in 17 18; studied medicine, and was a surgeon in the army 
of 1722. He afterwards received a military appointment, and died at 
Brunswick, Me., while commanding officer at Fort George, Sept 22, 
1758, having nearly completed his 59th year, and is buried in the 
ancient cemetery at Brunswick. 

While Dr. Moody was in command of the fort his sister's family, 
(Mrs. Esther Wheelwright), resided in the fort for safety. She had 
two small children, a boy and girl. They were sent out to school 
every day, a servant accompanying them to and from school. On 
one occasion, by some mistake, the man neglected to call for them. 
On their return alone, they were stolen by Indians, carried to Can- 
ada and by them sold to the French. The girl was placed in a nun- 
nery. She became the "Lady Abbess." After many years her 
friends learned where she was, and endeavored to induce her to return 
to them, but she preferred to remain in the nunnery. She frequently 
communicated with her relatives, sending them little souvenirs, 
and also her portrait, an oil painting, which is in the possession 
of one of the Moody descendants. 

Samuel Moody of Portland, son of Dr. Samuel Moody, was a 
commissioned officer in the army at the time the English Frigates 
came into Casco Bay, with the intention of burning the town of 
Portland. Mr. Moody, being a Free Mason, was granted the priv- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 35 1 

ilege of removing his furniture in a small vessel that he owned. In 
the haste and excitement of the moment, a feather bed was rolled 
up where the youngest child, a babe, was sleeping ; it was not dis- 
covered until it was placed on board the vessel. When the child 
was found, it was nearly suffocated but it revived, and lived to a 
good old age. Mr. Moody removed his family to Mere Point, a por- 
tion of the town of Harpswell, where they resided for several years. 
Members of the family now have, in their possession, a few chairs 
that belonged to their grandfather, which were purchased for him 
in London, and were among the furniture that was removed in 
the little vessel from Portland to Mere Point. After a number of 
years, Mr. Samuel Moody removed from Mere Point to Bath, where 
several of his descendants continue to reside. Many of them were 
graduates of Harvard College — became men of eminence — clergy- 
men of note, and attained honorable success in their various pursuits 
of life. In the early history of Bath, those of the Moody family 
have been conspicuous in the many and different relations of 
society. In the formation of the first orthodox church in 1797, the 
"Old North," there are enrolled on the list of members several of the 
Moody family. All accounts of the family agree that the name 
is a synonym of traits of character of the best and highest type, 
straightforward, outspoken, of marked ability and generous impulses. 

John Minot Moody, son of Samuel Moody, and father of the pres- 
ent generation, commenced ship-building, with his brother Samuel, 
at an early day in Bath, which was at that period considered a large 
business. Their vessels were engaged in foreign trade. The first 
vessel built by the Moodys, was the schooner Fair Lady; several 
followed in succession, among them, the brig Amity, and top-sailed 
schooners, not a few. The schooner Marcus was commanded by 
Samuel Moody, Jr. She sailed from Bath, March 17, 1798, for 
Barbadoes, with a cargo of lumber and fish. On the 5 th of May, 
he fell in with two French Privateers, which captured his vessel, 
plundering her, and placing on board a prize master and five men, 
permitting Captain Moody and one of his crew to remain on his 
vessel, and ordered her steered for Cayenne. On the 18th of 
May, Captain Moody managed to get the Privateer men into the 



352 HISTORY OF BATH. 

cabin, locked, and securely fastened them there, supplying them 
with food, by lowering it from the stern, to be taken in at the cabin 
windows. Upon resuming command of his vessel, he sailed for 
Barbadoes, arriving there in six days, and sold his cargo. On the 
23d of June he sailed with his return cargo for Bath. The first of 
July he again encountered a French Privateer, which captured him, 
taking from the vessel much that was valuable, and placing on board 
fourteen American seamen, their prisoners ; directed Captain Moody 
to sail for the United States, which he did, arriving at Norfolk about 
the middle of July. For a period of years, when France was at 
war with several nations, the ocean was infested with piratical 
vessels, and Captain Moody was particularly unfortunate, in being, 
for the third time, captured by another of those French Privateers. 
He had sailed on the nth of May, 1799, from the Island of Jamica, 
for Bath, with a valuable cargo ; after being out only six days was 
taken, a prize-master and three men placed on board his vessel, 
taking all hands from the Marcus, excepting the Captain, ordering 
him to steer for the port of Campache, where they arrived on the 23d 
of the same month. The Captain was robbed of all his effects and 
left destitute, to take care of himself as best he could. The Span- 
ish government took possession of the vessel and cargo, appropri- 
ating the proceeds to their own benefit. The ship-yard of Messrs. 
Moody was just north of the present residence of Mr. Charles E. 
Moody, which is the original homestead of his father ; now remod- 
eled and enlarged, with all modern improvements added. It has the 
most attractive surroundings of any home in Bath. When the last 
war with England commenced, the Messrs. Moody had two of their 
vessels laden with lumber lying at their wharf. When the river 
became blockaded with English men-of-war, and Bath apparently in 
danger, their vessels were scuttled, and remained sunken with their 
cargo until the close of the war, when they were raised, and sent 
with their cargoes to Havanna, where the lumber was sold at a very 
high price, although a portion of it had become decayed. The ves- 
sels on their return brought sugar to Boston, where it sold at profitable 
prices. 

Mr. John M. Moody, although much engaged, and interested in 



HISTORY OF BATH. 353 

shipping and mercantile pursuits, was also equally interested in the 
affairs of his town and state, and occupied several offices of trust 
and importance ; was Captain of the Militia, and Representative to 
the State Legislature. 

Charles E. Moody, son of John Minot Moody, was born in the 
ancestral home in Bath, and at an early age went to Boston to com- 
mence his business life, where with no capital but native ability, 
energy, and persevering industry, with a firm and fixed principle of 
dealing fairly and honestly with all men, his career was attended 
with marked success, chiefly in - the wholesale grocery business. 
Having inherited a love for shipping, he had, in consequence, been 
accustomed to invest in some of the large ships built in Bath; 
had some vessels built solely for himself; was a member of the 
New England Ship-building Company of this city, in which he 
invested a large amount of money without profit to himself. 
Although having spent the larger portion of his life in Boston, 
Mr. Moody ever retained a warm interest in the city of his 
birth, had of late years made it his legal residence, and had ever 
been liberal in aid of its business and public improvements, con- 
tributing liberally to the Winter Street Society and also to the build- 
ing of the Young Men's Christian Association edifice in 1892. 

He was a member of the American Shipping and Industrial 
League, the Home Market Club, the Pine Tree State Clnb, the 
Commercial Club, the Chamber of Commerce, the Wholesale 
Grocers' Association, and was a director of several corporations. 

Through his efforts in the direction of practical legislation in the 
vital matter of pure food and medicine, a question fir-reaching and 
listing in effects, Mr. Mjody crjwajd a. career thit has proved 
alike useful and honorable. He was father of the important bill 
that provided for this object, and his unceasing efforts secured its 
passage through the Massachusetts Legislature. 

Mr. Moody died October 29, 1893, leaving two sisters, the only 
surviving members of the family. 

The Page Family are descended from John Page, who, with 
his wife Phebe, came from Dedham, England, with Governor Win- 



f 



354 HISTORY OF BATH. 

throp, in 1630. He settled in Dedham, Mass., and was admitted 
in 1631. He died in 1676, aged 96. Joshua Page, descendant of 
John Page, was born in Atkinson, N. H., July 1, 1782, and the old 
homestead there, on the land originally granted to the family, is still 
occupied by members of the Page family. 

Joshua Page was the youngest of ten children. He fitted for Har- 
vard College, but gave up his plans for a college education and came 
to Bath in 1805. Here he made his home at the Mansion House, 
which was kept by Capt. Joseph Stockbridge, and, in 18 16, married 
Captain Stockbridge's daughter Keziah. They resided at the Man- 
sion House for several years and then removed to the house on the 
corner of High and Academy streets where the family still resides. 
Mr. Page taught for many years in the old Erudition School-house 
on High street, and died January 27, 1861. The following article 
was published in a Bath paper soon after his death : 

"Joshua Page. — The columns of this paper have already recorded 
the decease of this esteemed and venerable citizen. He was born 
in Atkinson, N. H., July 1, 1782, of a family, as his own character 
gave good evidence, that inherited the true Puritan blood and train- 
ing, and removed to this place while he was yet a young man. Many 
of our citizens — some of whom are considerably advanced in life — 
remember him well as their faithful teacher in the rudiments of use- 
ful learning. For thirty-two years he occupied, in this place, the 
honorable post of an instructor of youth. We have had no one who 
has stood here in the same capacity so long. He has filled other 
responsible positions, and when he resigned or completed his trusts, 
so far as is known, he has always merited the plaudit, ' Well done, 
good and faithful servant' 

" He was a man of great probity and single-hearted devotion to 
doing exactly right. Attentive to his business, quiet and retiring, 
remarkably reserved in communicating his personal feelings, never 
disposed to thrust himself into public notice, yet his eye keenly 
observed whatever was passing His judgment was sound, and the 
case must be rare indeed in which, when his opinion was finally 
formed, and his stand fairly taken, he could be pronounced to be in 
the wrong, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 355 

"Those who had not penetrated through his habitual reserve could 
hardly have suspected how warm and affectionate and gentle a spirit 
he possessed. In his own family and in the immediate circle of his 
friends, these traits of character, added to those others of which the 
public also had some knowledge, made him to be prized as only 
something less than perfect." 

Capt. Joseph Stockbridge, the father of Mrs. Joshua Page, was a 
soldier in the Revolution and one of Lafayette's light infantry in 
1780, when he was about twenty years of age. Forty-four years 
later, when Lafayette re-visited this country in 1824, Captain Stock- 
bridge went to Portland to see him. When Lafayette saw the old 
soldier he recognized him, threw his arms about his neck and kissed 
him. Captain Stockbridge often, in after years, told the story of 
this meeting to his children and grandchildren. 

"In this town, on Sunday, the 9th instant, Capt. Joseph Stock- 
bridge, in the 76th year of his age. Captain Stockbridge was a 
soldier of the Revolution. He entered the army in the winter of 
1776, was at Dorchester Heights when the British evacuated Boston, 
was at the battle and retreat from Long Island, at Bemis Heights, 
and the capture of Burgoyne in 1777, at Monmouth in June, 1778, 
at the storming of Stony Point under General Wayne in 1779, 
wintered at Valley Forge, was one of General Lafayette's light 
infantry in 1780, at the surrender of Cornwallis, and one of the 
forlorn hope that stormed a British redoubt under Lafayette at the 
siege. Few men among us were better informed on the subject of 
the history of our country. 

"Dignified in his manners, honest in his intercourse with others, 
brave and decided in his course of acting and thinking, he was an 
example of moral firmness that claimed the respect and love of all 
with whom he was associated." — Bath Paper. 

Albert Gallatin Page was born in Bath, June 10, 18 1 7. He 
attended the schools here and later was sent to the academy at 
Limerick. When fifteen years old he went to sea for a year with 
Capt. John Barker. Upon his return he went to Ohio, where for 
two years he was engaged in business. As the western climate did 



35 6 HISTORY OF BATH. 

not agree with him, he returned to Bath and entered the grocery 
business, for many years occupying the store on Front street oppo- 
site the Columbian House. After this he had an office on Front 
street and entered into the insurance and real estate business. 

He was quite largely interested in shipping and all public affairs, 
and at one time a member of the city government. He was one of 
the founders of the Bath National Bank, one of the first directors 
and afterward president of the Bank. He was ever interested in 
the history of the surrounding country, and for several years presi- 
dent of the Sagadahoc Historical Society. 

He married Maria L. Drummond, daughter of Col. Alexander 
Drummond of Bangor. Their children are : Maria, Albert G. (mer- 
chant in Bath), William D., Mary D., Frank E. (lawyer in Chicago), 
Fred (jeweler), and Carrie R. D. Page. Mr. Page died Jan. 15, 1889. 

William Drummond Page, second son of Albert G. Page, was born 
in Bath, where he went through the city graded schools, graduating 
from the High School in 187 1 ; entered Yale College, from which he 
graduated in the class of 1875 ; took a course in the Columbia Law 
School in New York, and was admitted to the Bar in New York in 
1878. During the time he was studying law he worked for city 
papers in the capacity of reporter, for financial aid, working nights 
and studying law days. In this employment he made himself so 
successful that he was invited by leading newspaper managers to 
make journalism his profession, but that complimentary appreciation 
did not induce him to forego the pursuit of the profession he had 
chosen. In 1878 he opened a law o.'rke in the city and continued 
in practice, with merited success, until his death. 

Having established himself in an increasing business he married, 
October 31, 1882, Miss Helen Jesup Grinnell, a diughter of George 
B. Grinnell, who is one of the distinguished family of that name 
known as successful merchants and prominent citizens of New York 
city. Their residence is at Audubon Park and their children are 
Laura, Frank, Rutherford, Sylvia, and Donald. 

Mr. Page was a popular citizen ami honorable lawyer, ranking 
with the able attorneys of this metropolis. Mr. Page died in New 
York in September, 1893. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 357 

The Harnden Family. — Capt. Samuel Harnden, of Wilming- 
ton, Mass., came to Nequasset, now Woolwich, about 1737. He 
was one of the Andover proprietors. He settled and had a garrison 
on what was called Burying Point, now Days Ferry. He m \rried 
Mary Preble. They had eight children; and he died July 9, 1768. 
His son, Capt. Samuel Harnden, Jr., called "Brigadier," was born in 
Boston, Mass., August 28, 1751. 

By enactment of Massachusetts Legislature, General Harnden 
was empowered to call a meeting "for incorporating the Second 
Parish in Georgetown, in the County of Lincoln, into a separate 
town by the name of Bath," and " March 19, 1781, Samuel Harnden, 
of Woolwich, presided at Bath's first town-meeting. 

Gen. Samuel Harnden's life is of historical character. He lived 
in Indian times and their warfares, becoming a military man of 
some distinction, to whom was given the title of "Indian fighter." 
The Indians made several different attacks upon his fort, but were 
successfully repulsed. At the time of the " Preble massacre," in 
1758, the Indians attacked the fort and were repulsed, but a grand- 
daughter of the General, who happened to be outside of the fort at 
the time, was captured by the savages and was carried with the 
Preble children to Canada, but subsequently was brought back by 
General Harnden, together with the Preble captives. The sister of 
Gen. Samuel Harnden, Sr., married the Captain Preble in command 
at the Preble garrison house in 1758. General Harnden was an 
extensive landed proprietor, the establisher of Harnden's ferry, was 
of stalwart stature, commanding mein, and a trusted leader in the 
community where he lived. He was twice married, and died May 
21, 1808, aged 77 years. 

Lemuel White Harnden, a grandson of Capt. Samuel Harnden, 
married Elizabeth Grace McKown, daughter of Capt. Robert 
McKown of Bath. They settled on one of the family homesteads 
in East Woolwich, where six children were born to them : Richard, 
Alice Sophia Tallman, Robert McKown, William Abner, Lucy Jane, 
and George Lemuel. Capt. William A. Harnden, one of his children, 
was in command of a Bath ship at the age of twenty-one years, and 
settled in Bath, on High street, in the house now occupied by his 



35^ HISTORY OF BATH. 

daughter, Mrs. Charles I). Clarke. He followed the sea up to the 
time of his early death at 38 years of age, and had the good fortune, 
during all the years of his command as ship-master, never to have 
met with a serious accident. Robert McKown Harnden settled on 
the family homestead in Woolwich, where he still resides; the 
original house, however, having been destroyed by fire. 

Freeman Clark was born in Conway, Mass., May 23, 1795, and 
removed to Bath, Me., in 1807, where he lived until his death, May 
17, 1867. He was senior partner of the well-known ship-building 
firm of Clark & Sewall, and was president of the Bath National Bank 
for several years. He was three times married: first, to Frances 
Lincoln, of Leominster, Mass. ; second, to Nancy Stevens, of Port- 
land, Me. ; third, to Miss Sarah G. Hyde, of Bath. He had two 
children by his first wife: Henry Scotto, who died in infancy; 
Frances Lincoln, afterwards Mrs. Whiting Griswold, of Greenfield, 
Mass., now deceased. He had one child by his second marriage, 
Agnes Elizabeth, now Mrs. Joseph S. Smith, of Bangor; and one by 
his third wife, Augusta Hyde, who died in infancy. He purchased 
a house of Jonathan Hyde, on South street, and lived in it during his 
life. Mr. Clark was one of the prominent and wealthy men of Bath, a 
ship-builder and a merchant, keeping a general store. In connection 
with William D. Sewall he put a large fleet on the water. Thomas 
M. Reed built largely and constantly with the firm. It was they who 
built the ship Rappahannock in 1841, the largest merchant ship then 
afloat, though only a little more than 1,100 tons. Her appearance 
on the Kennebec, in New York and New Orleans, was a sensation, 
receptions being held on board of her at all these places. 

Captain John C. Clark was born in England, lived in Boston 
during the Revolutionary War, was one of the "Indians" who threw 
the tea overboard; coming to Bath soon after that event he became 
a wealthy and prominent citizen. The wife of Peleg Tallman was 
his daughter. 

The Swanton Family.— William Swanton, the ancestor of all 
the Bath S wantons, has been mentioned in full on pages 140 and 
141, in this volume. He had a son, William. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 359 

John Bernard Swanton was born in Bath, in 1782, and married 
Lydia Bosworth in 18 14. He was Collector of the Port of Bath 
from 1825 to 1829. He afterwards retired to a farm in Dresden, 
where he died in 185 1. 

John Bosworth Swanton, son of John Bernard Swanton, was born 
in Bath, Nov. 29, 1804, and Nov. 6, 1828, married Catherine Wood 
Reed, of Boston, who was born Feb. 7, 1804. They had seven chil- 
dren, of whom three are now living, Henry W., Louisa Josephine, and 
Mary Augusta. Mr. Swanton died in Bath, January, 1890. He 
had been in the hardware and ship-chandlery business sixty years, 
in Bath, commencing as partner in the firm of Zina Hyde & Co., 
and ending as member of the firm of Swanton, Jameson & Co. He 
was Deputy Collector of the Port of Bath, being appointed in 1825. 

Henry W. Swanton, son of John Bosworth Swanton, was born in 
Bath in 1833, was educated in the public schools, and graduated 
from the Bath High School. He succeeded his father in the hard- 
ware business of Swanton, Jameson & Co., was on the board of 
directors of the First National Bank for thirty years, a trustee of 
the Bath Savings Institution for twenty-five years, a member of the 
Common Council and Board of Aldermen from 1869 to 1873, and a 
member of the State Senate of 1890 and 1892. 

Charles Davenport. — The father of Mr. Davenport was Capt. 
Benjamin Davenport, of Bath, Me., who married Lucy Eames, 
December 16, 1804. Their children were Benjamin, Charles, Lewis, 
and William. He commanded a Bath company when the regiment 
was at Coxs Head in 18 14. Charles Davenport was born in Bath, 
May 9, 1809, and married, November 6, 1836, Catharine Trevett 
Duncan, an estimable woman, who was born February 24, 1814. 
They have had five children. 

Mr. Davenport had a good common-school and academical educa- 
tion, and after leaving study was for some years engaged as clerk 
and book-keeper. His father died before the son was fourteen 
years of age. Subsequently he went into trade on his own account, 
with a fair degree of success until 1853, since which time he has 
been more extensively engaged in commerce and navigation. He 



360 HISTORY OF BATH. 

has held several offices of trust and responsibility in his native town 
and city, both in benevolent institutions and in the local offices of 
selectman, overseer of the poor, assessor, school committee, and 
under the city form of government served several years as alderman 
and member of the Common Council, and has been president of 
both boards. 

Mr. Davenport was a member of the board of managers of the 
Maine Mutual Marine Insurance Company during its existence, and 
was the first president of the Lincoln Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany. He was one of the managers of the Bath Military and Naval 
Orphans Asylum for some years from its organization, and also its 
treasurer from 1869 to 1872. He assisted in establishing the Old 
Ladies Home in Bath, was one of its first board of managers and 
still continues in that office, and was its treasurer in 1876 and 1877. 
He was for several years a director of the Bath Gas Light Company. 
He was one of. the founders, a large stockholder, and one of the 
directors of the Goss Marine Iron Works. He was, some years 
since, president of the first total abstinence society in Bath, under 
the name of "The New Temperance Society." He has been admin- 
istrator and executor in the settlement of several estates. He has 
been, and still is, largely interested in shipping and as managing 
owner. He was for a year or more cashier of the Lincoln Bank, 
occupying the position temporarily on the decease of the cashier, 
but resigned the office as soon as a satisfactory substitute could 
be procured. He was then elected a director in the same bank, in 
which capacity he has served many years, and for many years has 
been its president. He has been a trustee of the Bath Savings Insti- 
tution since its first incorporation in 1852, and its president for the 
last forty years. 

From youth Mr. Davenport has been devoted to the principles 
and work of the Methodist societies of the city. Although he has 
never been a member of the church, he has, by his generous dona- 
tions to both the Wesleyan and the Beacon Street societies, been 
their chief financial pillar, at the same time adding the weight of his 
moral character to the promotion of their prosperity. He has served 
as superintendent in the Sunday Schools of these societies and 



HISTORY OF BATH. 361 

chorister to the present day. He was one of the originators of 
the Maine Wesleyan Board of Education and for many years its 
treasurer. 

The moral character and reputation of Mr. Davenport, for honesty 
and strict integrity, stands deservedly high in this community. He 
has a strong regard for truthfulness, and was never known, even 
from his boyhood, to utter a falsehood or to use profane language, 
is consciintiouly careful in the proper obsirvince of the Sabbath, 
and a consistent temperance man. 

John Hayden. — About the middle of the last century a family 
immigrated from Scotland and came to Maine. A young man 
(George Heddenn) came with them and subsequently married one of 
the daughters. He settled on a farm in Brunswick and had sons 
and daughters. William, born November 11, 177 1, was the father of 
John, who, when he became of age and went into business, had his 
name changed, by an act of the Legislature, to Hayden, for the 
reason that it was always pronounced so, thereby following the 
example of an illustrious countryman of his ancestors, the poet 
Robert Burns, whose name was originally "Burness," as is shown in 
his earlier autographs on his monument in Edinburgh. 

John Hayden was born in Bath, September 20, 1808. With a 
common-school education he became, at the age of fourteen, an 
apprentice to the watch and jewelry trade, where he continued until 
March 20, 1829, when he set up for himself, being then twenty years 
of age. He carried on that business, increasing with the times, until 
1863, when he sold out to Howland & Donnell, both of whom had 
been his apprentices and journeymen. He went to Europe that 
year, spending some time in Great Britain and on the Continent, and 
made the same trip the next year, all in the way of business. In 
1865 he went to the Chincha Islands and took charge of a ship 
whose master had been lost overboard, and took her to Hamburg 
with a cargo of guano. 

In 1850 he was elected a representative to the Legislature and 
served as a Whig in that only summer session that ever occurred in 
Maine. He declined a unanimous re-nomination at that time, but 



3 6 2 HISTORY OF BATH. 

subsequently served in the Legislature as a Republican, in 1862 and 
1863. He was always a strong advocate for freedom and, of course, 
in the former times was stigmatized as an Abolitionist. In 1866 he 
was elected mayor of Bath. 

Mr. Hayden was well versed in Bath history, was a diligent student, 
and had a remarkable memory. Having travelled extensively, he 
was well informed in the history and conditions of all countries. He 
married Miss Martha A. Brown, February 13, 1831, the Rev. John 
Ellingwood performing the ceremony. The children now living are: 
Mrs. Emma Eames, Mrs. Gen. T. W. Hyde, and Col. J. F. Hayden, 
of this city. Mr. Hayden was a grandfather to Mrs. Emma Eames 
Story, the renowned singer. 

At his death a most notable figure passed from Bath streets — a 
sturdy, active citizen, who took a lively interest in all the affairs of 
the city while he had the vigor to engage in them. 

William Richardson, when a young man, left his native town 
of Leominster, Mass., and came into Maine, and, after a brief 
sojourn in Berwick and Topsham, reached Bath where he perma- 
nently settled. Mr. Richardson's first employment of which there is 
authentic knowledge, was going as supercargo of a large vessel 
bound to London, the successful voyage becoming so lucrative that 
he received, for his share, sufficient profit to give him a start in 
business, which was in navigation, not going to sea himself. He 
developed into a merchant and ship-owner; was a shrewd, square- 
dealing man of ability and thrift, becoming one of Bath's prominent 
business men and greatly respected throughout his life. He was 
notable as a man of reticence, attending strictly to his own business 
and not entering into politics or accepting office, excepting to serve 
as senator from Lincoln senatorial district when the session was 
held in Portland, but was known to be a generous supporter of 
worthy public enterprises and institutions, of strict integrity and 
perfect uprightness, enjoying the confidence of every person who 
truly knew him. He acquired a large property from which he 
donated liberally to benevolent institutions. 

Mr. Richardson was born in Leominster, Mass., October 26, 1786, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 363 

and comes down from distinguished ancestry. He married, on 
March 13, 1814, Harriet Leland, daughter of the Hon. Joseph 
Leland, of Saco, and her mother was Dorcas King, sister of 
Rufus King and William King, and her family relations were among 
the most prominent professional and literay men of New England. 
He was twice married; his second wife was Mrs. Maria (Ogden) 
Ward, daughter of Jonathan Ogden, and widow of Marmaduke 
Ward, of New York, a merchant of note. 

His eight children were all by his first wife. Of his sons, Frederic 
Lord Richardson is a resident of Boston and treasurer of the Hill 
Manufacturing Company, of Lewiston, Me.; is a son-in-law of Homer 
Bartlett, of Boston; has his office on State street, and a summer 
residence at Swampscot. 

John Green Richardson was born in Bath, and married Miss 
Mary Lincoln; was well educated; has been in mercantile business; 
served in both branches of the City Government; been mayor two 
terms (1878 and 1879); nas ne ^ other responsible municipal offices 
of trust; has been vice-president of the Sagadahoc Historical 
Society; was captain of the renowned Bath City Grays; one of the 
trustees and managers of the Bath Soldiers and Naval Orphan 
Asylum; was Blaine elector in 1884. They have one daughter 
living. Mr. Richardson has been largely identified with the public 
affairs of the city and has proved true to the trusts reposed in him; 
has devoted much time yearly as overseer of the poor; as an officer 
of the school board has taken a lively interest in the educational 
interests of the city, and for years has had the sole management of 
the children of the Soldiers and Sailors Orphan Home. 



3^4 HISTORY OF BATH. 



BIOGRAPHIES 



David Thomas Percy.— The name of Percy comes down from 
the illustrious ancestry of the English Percys, famous in history. 
The advent of the family of Percy from the old country to the Ken- 
nebec region was in 1730, when Thomas Percy came over with his 
wife, two sons, and three daughters, and settled on Swan Island. 
Subsequently he changed his habitation to Hunniwells Point, and 
was there at the time of the French and Indian War of 1756. The 
two sons of the original Thomas were Arthur and Francis. 

Arthur settled in Phipsburg, and from him descended the entire 
race of Percys in this section of the state. He married, first, a 
Gilmore, resided on a farm in the south part of Phipsburg, and had 
six sons and two daughters. His first wife deceased and he then 
married Margaret Porterfield, daughter of the Mrs. Porterfield nota- 
ble in the early history of Georgetown. They had one son, Thomas, 
who became prominently known as Deacon Thomas, from having 
long held that office in the old Georgetown and Phipsburg Congre- 
gational Church. He married Martha Gilmore, in 1763, and had 
three sons and six daughters. 

The descent of David T. Percy was from the second son of the 
ancient Arthur Percy, whose name was also David, who was born 
Npvember 20, 1791, and married Elsie Grace, who was born February 
21, 1795. They were married May 26, 1816, and settled in Bath- 
He died February 9, 1867, and she January 3, 1866. They had 
nine children, of whom David Thomas Percy was the fourth son, 
born August 15, 1831, and married Adriana Bosworth, daughter of 
Capt. Robert Bosworth, at Bath, January 5, 1S54. 

On the maternal side, the great-grandparents of David T. Percy 
were James and Jane Grace, who came to this country with Alexander 
Drummond in 1729, and Jane was his granddaughter. His grand- 
father was William Grace, who was born April 13, 1764, and married 
Sarah Andrews, of Bath, born May 30, 1757, and they had nine 
children. 






ARTOTYPE, E. BIERSTADT. n. 1 



HISTORY OF BATH. 365 

David T. Percy and his wife have had seven children, of whom 
six sons are living : Frederick B. graduated at Yale and the Boston 
Medical University, and is in practice in Brookline, Mass. George E. 
graduated at the Bath High School and the Boston Medical Univer- 
sity, and is practicing his profession in Salem, Mass. Frank H. is 
manager of the crockery store of the firm of D. T. Percy & Sons, in 
Bath. Augustus A. conducts the business of the dry goods and 
carpet departments of the firm. Arthur S. is in the lumber business 
in Boston. David Thomas, Jr., is a graduate of Exeter, the Harvard 
Medical College, the Boston Medical University, ,and has settled 
in Arlington, Mass. 

David T. Percy, Sr., is at the head of the firm of D. T. Percy & 
Sons, in the dry goods, carpet, and crockery business, the largest 
establishment in those lines in this part of the state. He has long 
been a prominent member of the .Board of Trade, taking an active 
part in all measures designed to advance the prosperity of the city. 
In politics he adheres to the Democratic party without being a par- 
tisan. Mr. Percy, for a number of years, has been one of the 
deacons of the Winter Street Church, superintendent, for several 
years, of the Sabbath School of that society ; has been a member of 
the City Government, serving in the Common Council and on the 
Board of Aldermen ; and has been the candidate of the minority 
party for the highest offices within the gift of the city. Deacon 
Percy has ever been forward in every good work; has been open- 
hearted and liberal in all benevolent movements, an unceasing 
worker in the temperance cause, and one of the most reliable and 
genial of Bath's citizens. 

William Maxwell Reed was a native of Phipsburg and third 
son of Col. Andrew and Beatrice McCobb Reed. He was born at 
the Reed farm, on the banks of the Kennebec River, about one mile 
below the Centre Village, on the 14th of March, 1800. His educa- 
tion was derived from the local schools, one of which was conducted 
for many years by his eldest brother, John, who was a fine type of the 
school-master of that day. William also taught school for a while 
in his native town. Although young in years, he displayed in his 



366 HISTORY OF BATH. 

school discipline the same energy and force of character that were 
such important factors in his subsequent career. The monotony and 
enforced quiet of the school-room was, however, irksome to his 
naturally active temperament and he soon forsook the desk and 
became the manager of his father's farm. This was an extensive 
plantation and required many laborers. 

Having faithfully and successfully conducted this business for 
several years, his father compensated him with the gift of a small 
farm adjoining the main one. On this land stood the old John 
Parker timber-hpuse, which had begun to decay. Mr. Reed took 
down this ancient and well-known landmark, on the site of which 
he erected a house for himself in 1824. He was married, November 
25, 1825, to Miss Caroline Drummond, the eldest daughter of Capt. 
Alexander Drummond of Phipsburg Centre. After this event he 
devoted himself to his own farm, at the same time was interested 
in operating a lumber mill at the Centre Village. Two years after 
his marriage and occupancy of this house, it was burned by the 
carelessness of a carpenter who was giving the house some finishing 
touches. A new house was ready for occupancy in a few months. 

In 1835 Mr. Reed sold his farm, purchased and occupied the colo- 
nial house of his uncle, Parker McCobb, at Phipsburg Centre, also 
purchasing, in partnership with James Drummond, the double saw- 
mill owned by the heirs of Thomas McCobb. From this time he was 
engaged for many years in the lumber business. In connection with 
two other business men, he inaugurated the building of the lumber 
mills at Parkers Head, by making Parkers Bay a mill-pond and 
inducing lumber-men to erect the dam and mills. 

His first attempt at ship-building was the schooner Madawaska, in 
1832, which he built in a yard near his first dwelling on the Reed 
farm. The launching of this vessel was memorable as it took place 
during a snow storm in the month of June. 

Colonel Reed inherited a tendency toward a military career from 
his ancestors on both the paternal and maternal side, and when only 
nineteen years of age, was unexpectedly elected from the ranks to 
lieutenant of a military company, at a time when such promotion 
was no small honor, rising to captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 367 

In 1844 Colonel Reed moved to Bath and engaged permanently in 
ship-building, buying a yard in the southern part of the town, where 
he built ships during the rest of his life, under the firm of William 
M. Reed & Son. At the organization of the Sagadahoc Bank, he 
was one of its founders and a director, and in 1861 became its pres- 
ident, a position he filled until his death. When the enterprise of 
building the Kennebec & Portland Railroad was inaugurated he was 
among the first to aid the undertaking with money and influence. 

Mr. Reed's public career began at twenty-eight years of age, when 
he was elected, by the town of Phipsburg, to the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and was continually re-elected until 1840, when he was 
elected senator, serving two terms ; later was a member of the Gover- 
nor's Council two terms ; when Lincoln was first candidate for Pres- 
ident was one of the electors ; has served several times in the Com- 
mon Council and was one of the first aldermen of the city. 

Originally an ardent Whig and anti-slavery in his political senti- 
ments, he became a Republican upon the formation of this party, 
and was ever active in its cause, supporting the War of the Rebellion 
with zeal. In the performance of his public trusts, he gave the 
same attention to their duties as he gave to his own private business, 
to the obligations of which he was ever prompt, discreet, and active. 

Hon. Isaac Reed, of Waldoboro, was a member of the same 
Senate as Mr. Reed, and thus publicly wrote of him since his death ; 
"That honest, Christian gentleman was my room-mate during two 
sessions of the Legislature.'' From his earliest years he was sur- 
rounded with Christian influences, inherited genuine religious tend- 
dencies, and early in life he and his wife united with the church. 
In Bath he attended the Winter Street Church. Mr. Reed developed 
in his youth those noble traits of character that led to decision, dis- 
interestedness, and unswerving integrity. 

For forty-one years he and his wife made their house one of open 
hospitality. The poor found in him a constant friend, and he was 
always ready to assist any worthy object whose claims were presented 
to him. He always manifested a particular interest in young men, 
and one never applied to him in vain. Wm. M. and Franklin Reed 
built fifteen ships, three barks, one brig, and three schooners. 



368 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Colonel Reed died, while in the midst of a useful life, January 12, 
1866, in his sixty-sixth year. His wife died April 12th of the same 
year. They were buried in the Maple Grove Cemetery at Bath. 

Of a family of eight children, there are now living: Franklin, 
resident of Bath, and Edwin, Victoria, and Ellen Drummond (wife of 
Henry Churchill Goodspeed), residents of Massachusetts. 

Franklin Reed was born in Phipsburg, and is the second son of 
William M. and Caroline Drummond Reed. He attended school at 
the Academy in Bath and later at a private school in Portland. 

At twenty years of age he formed a partnership, in Bath, in the 
dry goods business, with Henry W. Field, under the firm of Field & 
Reed. He continued in this business five years, when he accepted 
the secretaryship of an insurance company, of which Capt. John 
Fisher was president. In 1857 he started an insurance business on 
his own account, his brother, Edwin, joining with him in i860. For 
twenty years the firm of F. & E. Reed did a large business and were 
well known in all shipping circles. In 1880 Edwin removed to Bos- 
ton and the firm was dissolved. 

In 1853 Franklin became a member of his father's ship-building 
firm, and after the death of the latter, in 1866, he continued the 
business in connection with his brother, Edwin. They launched a 
number of large vessels from their yard in the southern part of the 
city. Mr. Reed was elected director of the Sagadahoc Bank while 
his father was president, an office he held until 1874, when he was 
elected president, a position he still retains. He was president also 
of the Twenty-five Cent Savings Bank for some years. In 1885 he 
held the presidency of the Sagadahoc Agricultural Society, but 
declined a re-election. While a young man he was a member of the 
Bith City Grays, a military company that was favorably known 
throughout the stite. 

Although strong in his feelings politically, he has never taken an 
active part in politics. In his earlier years he was a member of the 
Republican party and filled a number of offices in the city govern- 
ment under the administration of that party. He joined in the 
Greeley movement after the war and eventually became a Democrat, 
being the nominee of that minority party for Congress in 1881. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 369 

Mr. Reed developed an aptitude for business from his earliest 
years, and has achieved success in the various branches he has 
undertaken. Cautious and careful in details, devoting himself with 
unceasing zeal to his duties, both public and private, his reliability 
and good judgment have won for him the confidence and respect of 
his fellow-townsmen. 

On November 5, 1857, Franklin Reed married Sarah Augusta 
Weeks. They had two children : Ada Frances, who died when an 
infant, and Frederic Clinton, who was born October 9, 1855, was 
educated in the Bath public schools and Cornell University, read law 
with Charles W. Larrabee, in Bath. He died in Brunswick, in 1887, 
and is interred in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Nehemiah Harding was a life-long sea-captain, sailing in the 
vessels of William King, continuing as long as able to go to sea. 
He was born at Truro, Mass., and came, with his father, to the New 
Meadows to a farm when two years old. When old enough he 
commenced going to sea, and, working his way up, became a very 
successful commander. He married Miss Rachel Reed, at Pleasant 
Point, Topsham, and they had three sons and three daughters. He 
lived until 86 years old, dying Angust 2, 1865. His wife died Jan- 
uary 19, 1834, aged 47 years. His descendants, in Bath and else- 
where, are numerous, taking high rank in business, society, and 
public positions. 

Edward K. Harding. — From the Boston Traveller we take the 
following notice (published soon after his death) of our late respected 
citizen, who was well known, through commercial and social inter- 
course, in Boston, New York, and New Orleans : 

" Edward Kelloran Harding, son of Capt. Nehemiah Harding, was 
born in Bath, Me., in September, 18 16. His father was an extremely 
energetic and successful ship-master, and sailed from that port over 
forty years. He attended the usual schools of the town, and at 13 
entered a store at some trivial rate of wages, all of which, however, 
he saved for a year and expended in a silk dress for his mother (then 
and there an uncommon article, even among the wealthy families of 
the district). He then entered the counting-room of Messrs. Clapp 



370 HISTORY OF BATH. 

& Boynton, ship-builders, where he remained four or five years, when, 
with letters of recommendation from Messrs. Clapp & Boynton, he 
went to New Orleans and entered, as clerk, in the ship-chandlery and 
cordage house of Messrs S. S. Green & Co. Here he rapidly rose 
to a position as one of the firm, and purchasing the interest of one 
of the partners, the firm name was changed to that of Green & 
Harding. Here his large Northern acquaintance and many friends 
increased the business to many times the original amount. 

"In 1841 he married Miss Louisa H. McLellan, daughter of Gen. 
James McLellan, of Bath, and in 1853 finally retired from the New 
Orleans house and permanently returned to his early home. Here 
he formed a partnership with C. S. Jenks, and commenced the 
building of ships which he continued until 1857 or 1858, under the 
name of Jenks & Harding, building a number of very fine ships and 
barques. Besides his ship-building he held very large contracts with 
the City of New Orleans for granite paving blocks, of which and 
pressed hay he shipped immense quantities. 

"For some years before his final retirement from his New Orleans 
firm he passed much of his time in the North, and in 1850 he organ- 
ized the Bath City Grays, a company composed of leading citizens 
of Bath, which company held their organization as such until the 
breaking out of the war, when they became Company A, of the 
Third Regiment, Maine Volunteers. This company was uniformed 
similarly to the Boston Tigers, and were the "crack" company of 
the State. They participated in the great Boston Railroad Jubilee, 
in 1851 or 1852. Besides his commission as Captain of this com- 
pany, in 1850, he was commissioned aide-de-camp to Governor 
Crosby in 1853, with rank of Colonel, and Colonel Second Regiment, 
Second Brigade, Fifth Division, Maine State Militia, in 1855. 

" At the breaking out of the war he desired to offer his service 
to the government, which his fondness for and familiarity with 
military command would have rendered invaluable at that juncture, 
but yielding to the desire of the Governor and Adjutant-General of 
the State he accepted the position of Acting Quartermaster-General 
of the State of Maine, and equipped every regiment that left the 
State during the war, personally superintending all details and cor- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 371 

respondence. To illustrate his business activity, in addition to his 
state duties at this time he was also the largest supplier to the gen- 
eral government of forage, and shipped largely from the ports of 
Bangor, Wiscasset, Belfast, Bath, and Portland, besides having 
buyers all over the state. 

"He was at one time president of the City Bank, president of 
the Marine Mutual Insurance Company, president of the Boston & 
Maine Steamship Company, president of the International Telegraph 
Company, Hinkley Knitting Company, Nequasset Lake Ice Com- 
pany, and had been prominently identified with many other local 
interests. 

"He was the most energetic business man of his time — always 
prompt, always to his word, and although he was generally con- 
sidered one of the most "wide-awake" business men, yet no person 
ever heard it intimated that he had ever over-reached to the amount 
of a single penny. He had not an enemey in the world. 

"As a husband and a father he seemed to his family perfection, 
— never even an angry word or look. The latter years of his life 
he was not actively engaged in business, except in occasional ventures. 
He died of dropsy, August 21, 1874, aged 57 years and n months, 
after an illness of three months." 

Colonel Harding married Louisa, daughter of Gen. James McLel- 
lan, an estimable young lady, and still living. The children of 
Colonel Harding are : George Edward, who went through a course of 
education in the Bath schools, graduating at the High School, and 
graduated at the Columbia College, New York, became an architect 
and civil engineer, and commenced business in New York, where he 
has continued with the success that has placed him in the front rank 
of his profession. He married in that city and has two children. 
Mr. Harding was the architect of the Bath Public Library building, 
the drafting of which was a valuable gift to the city, and is a model 
of adaptedness and beauty of design. Henry McLellan Harding, 
having received his early education at Bath, ending with the High 
School, graduated at Yale College in 1875, and is by profession an 
electrical engineer, was one of the first to introduce electric railways 
in the United States, being associated with F. J. Sprague, of New 



372 HISTORY OF BATH. 

York, and George Westinghouse, of Pittsburg, Pa. He married 
Florence Agnes Powers, of Boston, Mass., and has one child, Marion 
Powers Harding. The daughters are Mrs. D. W. Russell, who lives 
at Brookline, Mass., and has three children ; the younger daughter 
married Fritz H. Twitchell, of Bath, and they have one daughter. 

The Morse Families, of Bath, descended from Samuel Morse, a 
Puritan, who came to this country from England, to Massachusetts, 
prior to 1635, and settled at Dedham, which town he was instru- 
mental in incorporating. One of the descendants of this lineage 
was Jonathan Morse, who came to Maine and settled at Small Point, 
Phipsburg, from whom are descended many of the name in Bath, 
Phipsburg, and other parts of the state. 

Of this branch was J. Parker Morse, who was born in Phips- 
burg, March 12, 18 10. His father was Richard Morse, who, with 
his three sons, Parker, Alden, and John, was largely engaged in the 
lumber business and ship-building at Winnegance, and later built 
ships at Bath. In December, 1844, he married Miss Mary Foster 
Henry (one of the large ship-builders of Bath), and had one son 
and three daughters. The eldest daughter, Isabella, mrrried William 
F. Hooper, of Fall River, Mass., where they reside and have one 
child, Parker Morse Hooper. His second daughter, Clara, married 
Dr. F. W. Payne of Boston. 

As a Republican Mr. Morse was twice elected to represent Bath 
in the House of Representatives, in which he served in the sessions 
of 1867 and 1868, and in the Senate in 1869 and 1870. While a 
member of the Legislature, Mr. Morse was largely instrumental in 
procuring an act establishing the Soldiers and Sailors Orphans 
Home at Bath. 

The mother of Mr. Morse was Jane Parker Morse, whose parents 
were Jacob Parker and Isabella McCobb Parker, connected with the 
historic Parkers and McCobbs of the Kennebec. He died March 
19, 1872, and his wife June 24, 1883. 

Benjamin Wyman Morse. — No man has been better known 
on the Kennebec River than Capt. B. W. Morse. While still young 
he went with his father Wyman Morse in the memorable side-wheel 




l^,huyu^ 



HISTORY OF BATH. 373 

steamer Bellingham, a very early tow-boat on the river, proved him- 
self very capable and trustworthy, and, upon the death of his father, 
succeeded to the command of the boat when eighteen years of age, 
subsequently having command of newer and larger side-wheel 
boats, one of which was the Ellen Morse, the first beam engine side- 
wheeler built on the river. Then followed the era of screw propellers, 
the first of which on the Kennebec was the Fearless, with Captain 
Morse in command. The towage business increasing, Captain 
Morse was instrumental in forming the Knickerbocker Steam Tow- 
age Company, by act of the Legislature, in which he successively 
occupied the positions of treasurer, superintendent, and finally presi- 
dent of the company, holding that office till his death. 

From the tow-boat business Captain Morse extended his enter- 
prises to coastwise navigation. Besides owning " pieces " in many 
vessels he built in his ship-yard, after 1879, seventeen of the largest 
class of coastwise vessels, and purchased schooners from other 
builders so that he managed the largest coastwise fleet belonging 
to any one port. 

Commencing in the winter of 1876 the Morse Company was among 
the first to undertake the enterprise of cutting and storing ice on the 
upper Kennebec and shipping it to southern cities, extending the 
business to Boothbay and the Hudson River. His vessels were 
largely employed in the transportation of ice with return cargoes of 
coal for northern ports, and, of later years, using barges also for 
colliers, purchasing small-sized ships and converting them into 
barges. Since his death this same line of business has been con- 
tinued by his successors, Morse & Co. 

Capt. B. W. Morse was born in Bath, April 1, 1825, and was 
a grandson of Jonathan Morse, of Phipsburg, and married Miss 
Anna E. J. Rodbird, who was born in Bath, April 10, 1830. They 
were married, in New York, July 19, 1853, by the Rev. E. H. Chapin. 
Their children are : Jennie Rodbird Morse and Charles Wyman 
Morse. Captain Morse died May 30, 1887, and was interred in Oak 
Grove Cemetery, where a magnificent granite monument has been 
erected to his memory by his family, representing an oak broken off 
twenty feet from the ground — a very fitting memorial of his strength 



374 HISTORY OF BATH. 

of character and life. He enjoyed, to a high degree, his home 
where he had a library of rare books, of which he was a constant 
reader, He always led an upright and exemplary life, dealing 
squarely in every phase of his business transactions. 

Charles Wyman Morse was born in Bath, October 21, 1856; 
graduated from the High School in 1873, and Bowdoin College in 
1877, after which he went on a tour of Europe. On his return he 
engaged in business with his father, B. W. Morse. In 1884 he 
became treasurer of the Knickerbocker Towage Company, and in 
1888 its president; has been a director in the Lincoln Bank since 
1887 ; and is the head of the house of Moses & Co., of New York 
City, having an office and building vessels, barges, and tug-boats at 
Bath. April 14, 1884, he married Miss H. B. Hussey, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., where they reside, and have several children. 

Oliver Moses came to Bath a tin-worker, and with his brother, 
William V. Moses, kept a stove store, operated a foundry, and built 
vessels. He engaged in banking, was instrumental in inducing Bath 
to invest in the building of the Knox & Lincoln Railroad, and was 
chief manager in its construction. 

William Yaughll Moses. — The buisness life of Mr. Moses was 
connected with his brother, Oliver, in the firm of W. V. & O. Moses. 
The two sons of Mr. Moses, William O. and Albert, having com- 
pleted their education in the High School of their native city, 
united with their father in ship-building, in 1856, making the firm 
W. V. Moses & Sons. The vessels built by them were: ships W. V. 
Moses, N. Larrabee, Sarah Freeman, bark Rome, ships Fannie Lar- 
rabee, Thos. Freeman, Riverside, North Star, Invincible, Franconia, 
Palestine, Lucy Melville, G. Strickland, Oleron, Frank Haynie, and 
Lizzie Moses. 

The business career of William V. Moses was one of success. 
This was well earned by his unvariable attention to his business, 
his strict integrity, and pleasing manners. With a fine physique 
was added a uniformly cheerful countenance. In his just and 
upright walk he made no enemies. Without taking active part in 
political party matters he was ever a solid Democrat. In religious 





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p^tZ-o^f 



ARIOTVPE, £. BIEH8TADT. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 375 

sentiments he affiliated with the Swedenborgian denomination, and 
was, through life, a practical, temperate man in all things. Of such 
a man it may be unnecessary to add that he lived and died a most 
respected citizen. 

Galen Clapp Moses, second son of Oliver Moses, was born in 
Bath, August 30, 1835, and has made his home in his native place- 
He received a thorough education, going through all the grades of 
the city schools, and was graduated with honor from Bowdoin Col- 
lege in the class of 1856. Entering upon his business career he 
was, for a time, secretary of the Bath Mutual Marine Insurance Co., 
and subsequently was a partner with William H. McLellan, in the 
wholesale grocery business until 1865, when he took the management 
of the Worumbo Manufacturing Co., whose woolen mills are located 
at Lisbon Falls. To the successful building up of this great indus- 
try he has given the best years of his life. 

In 1882 he succeeded his father as President of the First National 
Bank of Bath, which office he still holds. In 1883, upon the 
re-organization of the Twenty-five Cent Savings Bank, he became 
its president, and continued to hold the office for six years, until the 
old assets of the bank were liquidated and the bank placed squarely 
upon its feet again. In 1875 he became deeply interested in the 
organization of the Old Ladies Home, becoming one of its man- 
agers, and, on the death of B. C. Bailey, became its second president. 
In 1888, upon the re-organization of the New England Ship Building 
Co., as the New England Co., he became its president, holding the 
office at the present time. When the Bath Iron Works undertook to 
go into iron ship-building to obtain government work, which resulted 
in the contracts for Gun-boats Nos. 5 and 6 and the Harbor De- 
fense Ram, Mr. Moses gave most valuable financial and other 
assistance, being one of the directors of the Bath Iron Works. In 
1887 Mr. Moses offered to give a public library building to the 
city, which has since been completed, and is a credit both to the 
architect, George Edward Harding, formerly of Bath, and the gener- 
ous donor. Mr. Moses also contributed liberally to the purchase of 
the land for the library site. He has been an active member of 
the Board of Trade; has served upon the school committee for six 



376 HISTORY OF BATH. 

years, and has been identified with, and prominent in, the organi- 
zation and management of many other private and quasi public 
corporations. In 1886 he became a member of Winter Street 
Church, to the support of which he has been a liberal contributor. 
He is also a leader in contemporaneous religious movements of 
which the Young Men's Christian Association is the most notable, 
and of which he is president. In 1889 he was elected a member of 
the State Historical Society, and takes an active part in its pro- 
ceedings. 

Although a life-long Democrat Mr. Moses takes no active part in 
party politics. He has been twice married. 

Frank Oliver Moses married, October 16, 1855, Miss Ann 
Maria Swanton Larrabee, daughter of Stephen Larrabee, and has 
four children : Orville Bowman Moses, Emma Pedrick Moses, Lydia 
Clapp Moses, and Olive Moses. Orville Bowman Moses married 
Jennie Cate of Dresden. Mr. Moses was educated at the Bath 
schools, graduating from the High School. Following his father's 
later business of ship-building, he built the ships Oliver Moses, 
Robert Cushman, Frank Boult, John Carver, H. V. Baxter, and 
James Wright; barks Andaman, Niphon, and Annie; and schooner 
Orville. In 1869 he retired from active business. 

Henry Wilson Owen resided in Wayne when he married Clara 
M. Martin, who was born in Hallowell, August 15, 18 10. They 
were wedded in Augusta, June 20, 1832, and settled in Wayne, where 
there were born to them a daughter and son, and two sons in Bath, 
and one in Brunswick, of whom there are now living: Emma M., who 
married Gilbert E. R. Patten of Bath ; Frederick Elwell, who married 
Miss I. Gilchrist, of Ohio, July 27, 1886, and Henry W., who married 
Miss E. Brown. Mr. Owen was a merchant, and in the latter years 
of his life was in the dry goods trade in Bath, where he did an 
extensive business and was greatly respected by his fellow-citizens. 
His death occurred in Bath, February 26, 1866. 

Isaiah Percy. — This eminently Christian citizen was the son of 
Francis and Jane Wyman Percy, and was born in the " Percy neigh- 
borhood " in Phipsburg, December 23, 1806. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 377 

On January 29, 1833, he married Beulah B. Bowker, eldest daugh- 
ter of Major James Bowker, a lady of many womanly and religious 
traits. He first settled in Phipsburg, and in 1840 moved to West 
Bath, where he raised a family of eight children who have all done 
honor to their parentage in their mature life. He owned and lived 
on a farm, but during his active life, pursued his trade of ship-joiner, 
working in Bath ship-yards. He joined the Congregational Church 
of his native town, and later the Central Church of Bath, of which 
he became the senior deacon. 

His wife died April 22, 1885, and after that time he lived in 
his ripe old age in the devoted care of his eldest daughter. Deacon 
Percy has always been known as an uncommonly substantial man 
from youth upwards. He was a man of reading and thought, 
and if he had had the advantages of early education and oppor- 
tunity, would have made a public man of value. In early life he 
became a professed Christian and ever lived up to its require- 
ments. He belonged to the ancient Georgetown branch of the 
Percy family, whose ancestors were among the early settlers at the 
lower end of Phipsburg, and whose genealogy has been traced back 
to the noble blood of the English Percys. His father was conspicu- 
ous as a devout Christian of the Congregational Church, and he was 
a grandson of Thomas Percy, who had been a deacon of the same 
church half a century, and was known by way of distinction as 
"Deacon Thomas," who was of conspicuous character as well as a 
notable citizen. 

Isaiah Percy was a man universally esteemed for his thoroughly 
upright character, and his bright intellect and keen judgment in all 
matters. He represented West Bath twice in the Maine House of 
Representatives, and repeatedly served the town as selectman, and 
in other positions of trust. 

For forty-nine years he lived in the Percy homestead, where a 
family of boys and girls were raised. There are five children : 
Timothy, of Portland ; Gershom, of Los Angeles ; George, of San 
Francisco; Mrs. John P. Cobb, of Bowdoinham, and a daughter 
not married. 

He was one of the earliest advocates of abolition, not that he 



378 HISTORY OF BATH. 

would free the slaves without compensation to their owners, but on 
the ground that, as slavery was a national sin and crime, the nation 
should procure the liberty of the slaves at any cost. 

Seth T. Snipe was born is Arrowsic, February 5, 1839. He 
passed his youthful days in that town, and on May 22, 1864, married 
Miss Ann Maria Spinney of the same place. When the War of the 
Rebellion commenced he was living in Massachusetts, and when the 
Forty-fourth Regiment of that state was organized he enlisted in its 
ranks, in 1862. Going to the front the regiment was in active service 
in North Carolina, participating in five or six battles. At the close 
of the term of his enlistment, he came to Bath, in 1868, and entered 
into the grocery business, in which he has continued ever since. 

Mr. Snipe has served two years in the Common Council, of which 
he was president in 1890-91; five years on the Board of Aldermen 
and two years its president; has been treasurer of the People's Ferry 
Company nine years; trustee of the Military and Naval Orphan 
Asylum ten years, and its president five years; has been clerk of 
the Winter Street Church since 1883; a deacon since 1876; senior 
deacon since 1888; superintendent of its Sunday School since 1886. 
As member of Sedgwick Post of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
of Maine, he has been commander, adjutant, quartermaster, and was 
a delegate to the National Encampment in Minneapolis, in 1884, San 
Francisco, in 1886, and Detroit, in 189 1. 

Mr. and Mrs. Snipe have one son, Langdon T. Snipe, who was a 
graduate of Yale College in 1889, and is a graduate of the Medical 
Department of Columbia College, New York. In 1893 he com- 
menced medical practice in Bath. 

Mr. Snipe is a descendant of the men of that name who were 
prominent residents of ancient Georgetown, of whom Charles Snipe 
was a member at the formation of the Rev. Mr. Emerson's church at 
that place, in 1765, thus inheriting the religious sentiments of the 
Congregational denomination, to which he has always remained 
attached. 

John 0. Shaw was born, in Bath, in 1838. He was educated in 
the city schools. In 1854 he went to sea, but coming home during 



HISTORY OF BATH. 379 

the war he entered the United States Navy, as ensign, and served in 
the East Gulf Squadron under Admiral Bailey. After the war Mr. 
Shaw engaged in the book and stationery business in Bath in 1865. 
He has been a member, for several years, of both branches of the 
City Government, and was president of the Common Council four 
years. In 1890 and 1892 he was elected representative to the Leg- 
islature, and in 1893 was elected mayor of Bath. 

Having been made a Mason in 1864, he has held the higher offices 
in Solar Lodge, was High Priest of Montgomery Chapter five years, 
has been Eminent Commander of Dunlap Commandery, has filled 
several offices in the Grand Masonic Bodies of Maine, and was 
Grand Commander of the Grand Commandery, Knights Templar, of 
Maine, for 1886-87. 

In August, 1864, he married Mary E. Macloon, daughter of Capt. 
E. C. Macloon, of this city. They have had seven children, four boys 
and three girls, of whom three boys and one girl are now living. 

The ancestors of Mr. Shaw were notable pioneers in the settle- 
ment of Bath, were of stalwart character, and the name of Shaw is 
indelibly identified with the history of the town, both in private and 
public capacities. Of these characteristics Bath's present mayor is 
a worthy representative. Inheriting patriotic impulses he joined the 
Union forces in the late war, cheerfully serving the country in its 
time of need. Since his return from the front he has taken a promi- 
• inent part in the affairs of the city, serving several years in the city 
government, and president of the Common Council many years, until 
his almost unanimous election to the office of mayor, in the perform- 
ance of the duties of which the city feels certain of ability, honesty, 
and economy. As senior warden of Grace Church he has ever been 
one of its chief pillars, and superintendent of its Sunday School. 
His children living are : Wallace E., Fred P., John, and Rachel L. 
Wallace E. is with him in his business. Fred P. carries on a book- 
store in Brunswick. John is employed at the Bath Iron Works. 

Fritz H. Twitchell was born, in Portland, in 1855, educated in 
the public schools and graduated from Portland High School. For 
several years he was in the wholesale dry goods business in Portland, 



380 HISTORY OF BATH. 

with the firms of Locke, Twitchell & Co., and Twitchell, Chapman 
& Co. He came to Bath in 1879, and in 188 1 married Miss Emma 
Patten Harding, daughter of the late Col. E. K. Harding. 

He is connected with many manufacturing and gas and electric 
corporations, being clerk and buyer of the Worumbo Manufacturing 
Company, of Lisbon Falls, treasurer of the Androscoggin Water 
Power Company, treasurer of the Bath Gas and Electric Company, 
and Bath Street Railway Company. 

He has taken considerable interest in Masonry and Knights of 
Pythias, having been Eminent Commander of Dunlap Commandery, 
Knights Templar, and is now an officer in the Grand Commandery 
of Maine; has been Chancellor Commander of Patten Lodge and 
Grand Chancellor of Maine, Knights of Pythias. 

He was a member of the City Council in 1883, 1885, 1886, 1887, 
1888, and 1890, and four of these years was president of that body. 
He was mayor of Bath in 1891 and 1892, and a member of the 
House of Representatives, of Maine, for 1893-94. 

Francis Adams was born in Charlestown, Mass., July 18, 1824, 
and is a descendant of Francis Adams, one of the early Plymouth 
settlers. His father was Richard Adams, and his mother was of 
the family of Hunter, of Topsham, to which town they moved and 
settled on a farm. He graduated at Bowdoin College, in 1850, 
with rank that admitted him to membership with the Phi Beta 
Kappa Fraternity of that institution. 

He then spent two years in part reading law in the office of 
Ebenezer Everett, in Brunswick, and in teaching in the high school 
in that town, after which he taught in the Topsham Academy and 
Litchfield Institute. In 1857 he entered the law office of W. G. 
Barrows, in Brunswick, and was admitted to the Bar in Sagadahoc 
County in 1859, and commenced the practice of his profession at 
Topsham, and soon after succeeded to the law business of Judge 
Barrows, on his promotion to the Bench. In 1869 ne removed to 
Bath. 

While residing in Topsham he served several years on the boards 
of superintending school committee and selectmen of that town. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 38 1 

He was county attorney for Sagadahoc County from 1864 to 1874. 
On July 8, 1867, Mr. Adams married Miss Clara Jane Hildreth, 
of Topsham. They have had five daughters and one son — Mar- 
garet Jane, Sarah Angeline, Clara Augusta, Alice Fairfield, Francis, 
Pauline Hildreth — all living but Alice Fairfield, who died in infancy. 

George Evans Hughes was born in Boston, January 19, 1852. 
His education was commenced in the schools of Bath, graduating 
from the High School in 1869, and having fitted for college he 
entered Bowdoin in 1873. In 1874 he took charge of Bath High 
School and was principal of it until 1884, when he resigned to enter 
upon the practice of law, of which he had made a study during his 
years of teaching. In 1884 he was admitted to the Bar of Sagada- 
hoc County, and opened an office in Bath. 

Although not entering largely into party politics, Mr. Hughes 
acceded to the wishes of the Democratic party of the city to run as 
its candidate for member of the Legislature in 1884, and for mayor 
in 1888, and at each election received a large complimentary vote in 
a city overwhelmingly Republican. 

In July, 1884, Mr. Hughes married Miss Susan M. Nealley, 
daughter of L. S. J. Nealley, who was for many years collector of the 
Port of Bath. 

William Edgar Hogan is one of a family of eight children, 
and was born in Bangor, August 1, 1849, and early found that 
his way in the world must necessarily be from his own exer- 
tions, and later in life became the stay of the family many years. 
He took to books and liked study, and, going through all the grades 
of the Bath schools, he graduated from the High School in the class 
of 1867. He then went to Phillips Academy, Andover, to prepare 
for a college course ; remaining there two years he entered Dart- 
mouth College in 1870; was admitted to the Sophomore class, and 
graduated in 1872. During his course in college Mr. Hogan taught 
school two winters, and, after graduation, taught in a Grammar 
School in Bath three years, studying law at the same time with 
Washington Gilbert. In 1876 he was admitted to the Bar, and has 
been in the practice of law in Bath ever since ; was register of deeds 



382 HISTORY OF BATH. 

four years ; postmaster of Bath from January, 1882, until 1885, 
and was again appointed in 1889. He has ever been an active 
Republican in politics. 

Joseph McCobb Trott was born in Bath in 1853; educated in 
the public schools of Bath; studied law with Judge Washington 
Gilbert; admitted to the Bar in 1879, and at once entered upon the 
practice of the law at Bath. 

Franklin Pierce Sprague was born in Phipsburg, June 28, 
1852, and, on September 26, 1883, he married Miss Ida B. Bailey, 
who was born in Anson, Me., March 23, 1863. He was a citizen of 
Phipsburg until March, 1882, when he became a citizen of Bath, 
where all his three children were born. 

Mr. Sprague started in his business life with a good education, 
acquired solely by his own exertions. After going through the pub- 
lic schools of his native town, he attended courses of instruction at 
the Maine State Seminary and Nichol's Latin School, Westbrook 
Seminary, Bates College, and in the winters of 1 890-1, the law 
department of the Boston University. 

In March, 1875, he was elected supervisor of schools, and again 
in March, 1880; was elected a member of the State Legislature in 
September, 1880, from Phipsburg and its classified towns; was 
elected to the Common Council of Bath in 1885, 1890, and 1893, 
having refused a nomination in 1891. Mr. Sprague is a member of 
the Maine Bar Association, and is a member of the Patten Lodge 
of the Knights of Pythias. He has ever been a strong Republican. 
After a course of study of law he was admitted to the Bar in 
April, 1880, and to the United States Circuit Court in 1888, 
practicing in Bath. 

Mrs. Dr. Lombard, who, with her husband, lived at West Bath 
at so early a date as 1760, was the first to professionally attend the 
sick within the region around about Bath. Her specialty was attend- 
ance at childbirth in the duties of which she was expert, and, for 
such in particular, was called from far and near. To be ready for 
a summons in the night her custom was to be in readiness at a 
minute's warning, and as she often had to ride on a "pinion" on 



HISTORY OF BATH. 383 

the horse, behind the man who came after her, she kept her pillion 
ready at hand. At such times when the man came within hailing 
distance of her dwelling he would call out loudly, "Granny Lombard! 
Granny Lombard!" Quick to hear, she would, at the first sound of 
his voice, leap from her bed, hastily dress, seize her pillion, emerge 
from the house, and, from a neighboring high rock, mount behind her 
patron, and speed to her destination. Her "call" ended, she was 
paid a silver dollar, her regular fee, and conveyed home in the same 
manner she came. 

Dr. Samuel Eaton Duncan lived in the house now owned by 
one of his descendants, Chapin Weston, near the Harding Station 
of the Maine Central Railroad. The doctor came from Topsham 
and bought thefarm on which this house stands, in 1772, and died 
there, June 30, 1782, at 39 years of age. His practice extended 
to Bath. Doctor Duncan is ancestor of all those who are residents 
of Bath of that name. He had the reputation of possessing great 
skill in his profession. He was born in 1743 and married a daughter 
of Benjamin Donnell, Sr. In 17 18 he was living in the house situated 
on High street, south of South street. 

In 1788 a Doctor Sampson practiced medicine at Bath — Lemont. 

Dr. John Hart was born in Ipswich, October 13, 175 1 ; studied 
medicine with the eminent Dr. John Calif ; came to Bath at the age 
of 19, and secured a large practice. 

Dr. Belshazza Stilkey was born in Hamburg and came to this 
country during the Revolutionary War, as surgeon of a Hessian 
regiment. At the close of the war he settled in Brunswick, and his 
practice extended to Bath. 

Dr. Samuel Adams was born in Killingly, Conn., in 1745, and 
descended from Henry Adams who came to New England in 1630 ; 
studied medicine with Dr. Nathaniel Freeman, of Sandwich, Mass.; 
practiced in Truro ; served as a surgeon during the Revolutionary 
War, in the artillery department, under General Knox, and was fre- 
quently in company with General Washington. At the close of the 
war settled in Bath, when he was the only physician in the place, 
and had an extensive practice. He married four times and had 



3^4 HISTORY OF BATH. 

nine children, to all of whom he gave the best education attain- 
able at that day. He was a charter member of Solar Lodge and 
its second Master, in 1805 and 1806. He died in Bath, March 
14, 18 19, aged 74 years. He was said to have been "the most 
intelligent and successful practitioner of medicine in the state. " 

Dr. Benjamin D. Bartlett was reputed a skillful physician, 
had notable social qualities, and enjoyed universal esteem. He was 
Master of Solar Lodge in 1820 and 1821. He moved from Bath. 

Dr. Moses Holbrook was, for some years, in practice in Bath, 
and had the reputation of skill in his profession, as he was also in 
the art of Masonry, and was Master of Solar Lodge in the years of 
18 13, 1814, and 1 81 5. Subsequently he became a resident of 
Charleston, S. C. 

Dr. Timothy Waldl'On lived in the fourth house north of the 
Ropewalk Creek; was surgeon during the War of 18 12 in Col. 
Andrew Reed's regiment, and was in the campaign at Coxs Head. 
He had two sons, Timothy and Charles. The latter became a 
physician in Bath. He married the widow, Mrs. Welch, eldest 
daughter of Dr. Prescott, a popular lady. The father died October 
6, 1836, at 55 years of age. 

Dr. Josiah Prescott came to Bath about 1825 and practiced 
here all his life, on the allopathic system, and was a leading 
physician. 

Dr. Amos Nourse had been a prominent citizen and practitioner 
at Hallowell, where he had been for a number of years a leading 
physician. 

Dr. John Stockhridge studied medicine with Dr. G. Hitchcock, 
in Pembroke, Mass. ; received the degree of M. D. at Dartmouth 
College and finally settled in Bath, where he practiced until his 
death. J. Gilman Stockbridge, son of John, was born in Bath, 
gradauted at Medical School of Bowdoin College, commenced prac- 
tice at Bath in 1827, and continued there during his life. He 
married Miss Mary R. Harding and had no children. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 385 

Dr. Israel Putman was born in Sutton, Mass., December 25, 
1805, and was the son of Israel and Hannah (Le Barron) Putman. 
His father was a cousin and intimate friend of Major-General Israel 
Putman. He graduated at Brown University and Bowdoin Medi- 
cal School, commenced practice in Wales, Me., and removed to 
Bath in 1835, where he attained an extensive practice in his 
profession and became actively connected with municipal affairs. 
He was chairman of the town council, and after the formation of 
the city government was chosen mayor, holding the office from 
1859 to 1865, and again in 1867. During this official period he 
won very marked approval for his administration, especially during 
the very arduous years of the war. Other municipal positions which 
he held were more or less connected with his profession. His char- 
acter, alike as a physician, a magistrate, and a citizen, commanded 
universal confidence and high respect. Doctor Putman was an off- 
hand man in everything he said or did, bluff in his ways, but 
withal genial, outspoken, and honest. He was well read and a 
physician by nature. His generous disposition forbade him from 
collecting his just fees from those whom it would distress to 
pay him, and he was liberal to the poor almost to a fault. His 
death occurred June 30, 1876, aged 70 years and 6 months. The 
manner in which he first acquired practice is, perhaps, worth relating. 
Doctor Prescott had become of that age when he did not care to 
answer calls at night. The old doctor owned what was then a fine 
dwelling, now standing on the southwestern corner of Washington 
street and the railroad track. He found confidence in the young 
man, and one day he said to him, " You buy my house and I will 
turn over to you my night practice; when there is a call at my 
door I will put my head out of the window and say that I cannot go, 
but if you will call Doctor Putman he will do just as well." The 
house and practice were at once secured by the young doctor. 

His sons are William L. Putnam, judge of the United States Cir- 
cuit Court; Edwin Putnam, who entered the United States Navy 
when twenty-one years of age, going into service in the War of 
the Rebellion, joining the Nahant, one of the iron-clads that was 
immediately engaged in the terrific and successful bombardment of 



386 HISTORY OF BATH. 

the forts in Charleston harbor, served through the war and since, 
and is paymaster-inspector on active duty. 

Dr. Andrew J. Fuller was born in Paris, Oxford County, Sep- 
tember 15, 1822. His parents were Caleb and Hannah Perkins 
Fuller. He studied at the Maine Medical School, at the University 
of New York, and at Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia. He 
graduated from the Maine Medical School in 1841 ; settled in Sears- 
mont, and in 1847 moved to Bath. Among his successful major 
operations have been amputation at the hip joint and resection of 
the humerus. He is a member of the Maine Medical Association 
and its president in 187 1. Previous to the war he served seven 
years as surgeon of the Second Maine Infantry, and was post-sur- 
geon at Bath during the war. He served as president of the 
Bath Board of Trade many years, has served one term as trustee 
of the Maine Insane Hospital, and is one of the consulting physicians 
and surgeons of the Maine General Hospital. In July, 1843, he 
married Miss Harriet, daughter of George Marston of Bath, and has 
had three children, one of whom, Mrs. Samuel C. Barker, is living 
and has one child, Byron F. Barker, a graduate of Bowdoin in 1893. 
Doctor Fuller has ever manifested a strong interest in all matters per- 
taining to the welfare of his adopted city, standing high in the 
esteem of all its people. His conscientious and persevering labors in 
behalf of Bath shipping interests have attracted world-wide attention 
and have been of appreciable benefit. Doctor Fuller has had a life- 
long membership in the Masonic Order, ranking high in its offices. 

Dr. Samuel Anderson was born in Deering, N. H., March 9, 
1807, and died in Bath, Me., April 22, 1873. He was the third of ten 
children of John and Nancy Anderson, of Deering, N. H. His 
ancestors came to New England from Londonderry, in the north of 
of Ireland, in 17 18. They were Scotch Presbyterians, driven from 
their homes by religious persecution. The grandfather, named 
Samuel, was captain of one of the ships that brought over these 
Londonderry immigrants, most of whom settled in New Hampshire 
and named their settlement "Londonderry," in memory of their 
old home. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 387 

Doctor Anderson was married, November 20, 1829, to Katharine 
Emerson of Edgecomb, who descended from the Emersons of Mass- 
achusetts. She was great-granddaughter of the Rev. John Emerson, 
fourth parson of Topsfield. Doctor Anderson came to Bath in 
1834. A few years later he commenced the study and practice of 
medicine and subsequently opened a drug store, where he continued 
in business the remainder of his life. He had five children, Edward 
Francis, Climena Katharine, Samuel, Jr., Nancy Elizabeth, and Laura 
Ann. Samuel, Jr., was born in Bath, September 7, 1835. He 
entered his father's drug store at the age of nineteen, was afterward 
received as partner, and has continued in the drug business ever 
since. He married Almina Martha Norton, of Phillips, Me. Their 
children were Harry Warren and Herbert Morrell. Harry Warren 
graduated at the College of Pharmacy in Philadelphia, in 1884, and 
has since been in the drug business in Exeter, N. H. 

Doctor Raeburil received his professional education in the medi- 
cal colleges of Edinburg and Glasgow, and then entered the English 
army as surgeon. He came to this country as surgeon in the British 
army in the War of 18 12, after which as a common sailor before 
the mast of a merchant ship he came to Thomaston. While there 
an accident occurred which required skilled surgery beyond that of 
the physicians of the town. Raeburn successfully accomplished the 
operation, and the reputation it gave him caused his settlement, in 
practice, in Warren, where he remained several .years. Later he 
came to Bath and acquired celebrity as a surgeon, which was a 
specialty with him, and was accounted exceedingly skillful. He 
died about 1840, leaving an American wife. 

He was an eccentric man, bold and daring in his practice. 
Faith in his skill went a great ways with credulous people; they 
flocked to see him and he was called to their houses. His prescrip- 
tions were off-hand and odd. His style may be illustrated in a case 
when, at her house, a woman patient asked him what she should eat, 
when he quaintly replied, "Anything but the poker and bellows." 

Dr. Edwin M. Fuller. — The Freemasons Repository says: "Edwin 
M. Fuller was born in Portland, January 8, 1850. When about one 



388 HISTORY OF BATH. 

year of age his father moved to South Paris, Me., where he resided 
until i860; from thence he located in Turner, where the homestead 
still remains. He fitted for college at Westbrook Seminary and 
graduated from there in June, 1869. In September of the same 
year he entered Tufts College and received the degree of Master 
of Arts from that institution. 

" He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Bowdoin 
College, and further pursued his medical studies in the leading hos- 
pitals of New York, and in France, Germany, and England. At the 
close of his medical studies he settled in Bath, where he is still 
residing, actively engaged in his calling. 

" He delivered the first oration before the Alumni Association of 
Westbrook Seminary in June, 1877. He was subsequently elected 
a trustee of the institution, and is now connected with the school 
in that capacity. He has always been greatly interested in sanitary 
reforms, and has written many essays on the subject. In 1876 he 
received the prize from the Maine Medical Association for an essay 
on 'Hygiene of our Country Towns and Villages.' He is interested 
in educational matters and has served for several years as a member 
of the school board in Bath. In his profession he has made a 
specialty of surgery, and many can testify to his skill. In 1891 he 
was elected president of the Maine Medical Asssociation. 

" He was made a Master Mason in Nezinscott Lodge, Turner, in 
187 1, and joined Polar Star Lodge at Bath in 1875. He was exalted 
a Royal Arch Mason in Montgomery R. A. Chapter, in 1875. He 
received the orders of Knighthood in Dunlap Commandery, 1876. 
He is a Past Master of Polar Star Lodge; Past High Priest of 
Montgomery R. A. Chapter, and Past Commander of Dunlap 
Commandery. He has served in the Grand Commandery of Maine 
as Grand Warder, Grand Junior Warden, Grand Generalissimo, 
Deputy Grand Commander, in 1890 was elected Grand Com- 
mander, and declined a re-election in May, 1891. Past Grand 
Commander Fuller is an arctive, progressive Mason and Knight 
Templar, and has rendered a large amount of service to the Craft. " 

During the first term of President Cleveland's administration he 
was United States Pension Examiner; was in 1893 elected alder- 






^L^^C^^Chu^^/ 




£ 



AUTOTYPE, E. BIERSTADT. N. V 



HISTORY OF BATH. 389 

man of the city; has been again appointed pension examiner on the 
Pension Board at Bath ; is consulting surgeon at the Central Maine 
General Hospital at Lewiston ; is consulting surgeon at the Maine 
Eye and Ear Infirmary, Portland; was appointed surgeon of the 
Second Regiment, National Guards, State Militia of Maine, in 1893, 
with rank of Major. He married Lizzie E. Gross of Brunswick, 
and has three children, of whom, Fred. A. Fuller entered Harvard 
University in the fall of 1893. 

Dr. Randall Doyle Bibber was born in Brunswick, September 
1, 1845, and when four years of age came to Bath with his father's 
family, where he has lived to the present time, obtaining his education 
in the city schools. At the age of sixteen he went to sea, which he 
followed six years. Returning home he undertook the study of 
the medical profession at the age of twenty-two. He attended a 
regular course of study at the Portland Medical School, and at the 
Medical Department of Bowdoin College, graduating in 187 1. With 
limited means he then commenced practice in Bath, and has worked 
his way up to a successful business. 

He is a member of the Maine Medical Association; acting 
assistant surgeon in the Marine Hospital Service since 1872; city 
physician and member of the board of overseers of the poor eight 
years; on the board of health and' pension examiner a number 
of years; has been president of the Sagadahoc Historical Society 
three years; its treasurer many years; is a resident member of the 
Maine Historical Society, and member of the Patten Free Library 
Association. His father is John D. Bibber, and mother Mehitable 
Cowen (Hall) Bibber. February 6, 1873, he married Miss Sarah 
Aborn Thornton and they have one son, Harold Thornton Bibber. 
Doctor Bibber has ever been active in forwarding benevolent under- 
takings, efficient in raising funds in aid of the public library and 
other worthy objects, contributing liberally to the proposed estab- 
lishment of an Old People's Home, of which he was the originator. 

Dr. James B. WeSCOtt was born in Gorham, May 21, 1841, 
and received his education in the common schools, after which he 
passed eight years in North Jay, and then in Portland until he entered 



39° HISTORY OF BATH. 

the volunteer army as a private, August 22, 1862, in the Twentieth 
Maine Regiment ; was promoted to hospital steward and assistant 
surgeon, and was honorably discharged at the close of the war. He 
then came to Bath, where he worked at mechanical employment 
while studying medicine ; took four courses of lectures at the Maine 
Medical School, graduating in 1881, having, unaided, worked his way 
through, and has since that time been in successful practice in Bath. 
He has been United States Pension Examiner since 1889, and served 
the city as member of the Common Council in 1876 and 1877. On 
December 31, 1869, he married, in Bath, Miss Eliza M. Taylor. She 
died in January, 1879, leaving two young daughters. 

Dr. Charles Appleton Packard, A.M., was born in Brunswick, 
Me., and graduated at Bowdoin College in 1848. After graduation 
he studied and practiced civil engineering four years; then studied 
medicine, graduating from Maine Medical School in 1857. He first 
practiced medicine in Waldoboro for nine years; then, moving to 
New York State, was in practice at Fordham for four years. In 
1870 he married Miss Caroline E. Payne, of Erie, Pa., who died in 
1881. He came to Bath, in 1873, where he has continued the prac- 
tice of his profession up to this time. 

Dr. M. H. Ferguson was born in Dixmont, Penobscot County, 
May 31, 1855. His father is the Hon. W. B. Ferguson of Brewer; 
his mother, now dead, was Rebecca Goodwin of Monroe. Dr. Fer- 
guson was educated in the public schools and at the Maine Central 
Institute. He taught school for seven winters in Veazie, Winter- 
port, Frankfort, and Belfast. He studied medicine with Dr. A. C. 
Hamlin, in Bangor, and graduated at Dartmouth Medical College in 
1879. In 1886 he took a post-graduate course in New York City at 
the New York Poly Clinic. Dr. Ferguson has practiced medicine 
in Phipsburg since 1880, and served the town as selectman, auditor, 
health officer, and for ten years as supervisor of schools. In 1887 
and 1893 he represented the town of Phipsburg in the State Legis- 
lature. He has had a large practice in the town, and is often called 
to Georgetown, Harpswell, Bath, Woolwich, West Bath, and Arrowsic. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 39 1 

Dr. William E. Payne. — The first introduction into Bath of 
the homoeopathic system was by a foreigner by the name of Blazin- 
ski, who remained in town a short time. He was a Polander, and 
invited all the doctors to a private lecture on the Hannamann sys- 
tem, and some, if not all, of them attended, among whom was Dr. 
William E. Payne, who was a graduate of the regular school and a 
new-comer to Bath. He undertook experiments with it, which 
resulted in his adopting its practice in about 1840, and, after a hard 
experience, succeeded in its introduction ; undoubtedly his pleasing 
personality having considerable to do with his success. He was 
aided in this by a novel way of advertising. Samuel Anderson was 
trying to introduce, at the same time, the "Thomsonian system" 
of " purely vegetable " remedies, and they united in a newspaper 
battle upon the respective merits of the two systems. It attracted 
attention and brought them business. In 1851 or 1852 Dr. Jotham 
Young came to Bath and commenced practice in this mode of treat- 
ment ; remained about two years. No practitioner of that persuasion 
could successfully compete with Doctor Payne. 

Dr. Milton Story Briry was born in Bowdoin, May 17, 1825. 
His grandfather was Thomas Briry, who came to Maine from Lin- 
colnshire, England, about the time of the Revolution, and settled in 
Bowdoin. Joseph, the youngest of his sons, was the father of 
Doctor Briry, who was educated at Litchfield Academy; studied 
medicine at the Bowdoin Medical School, after which he was assist- 
ant to Doctor Haley at Quebec. From there he came to Bath and 
studied the homoeopathic system of medical treatment with Dr. 
William E. Payne, and settled in this city in practice, which he has 
continued to the present time with success, sustaining an extensive 
practice. During Doctor Briry's residence in Bath he has taken a 
prominent part in municipal affairs, having served four years as a 
member of the Common Council, three years on the Board of 
Aldermen, on that of the overseers of the poor twenty-two years, 
physician to the Soldiers and Sailors Orphans Home eight years, 
and to the Old Ladies Home many years. He has always been 
closely identified with the temperance cause as one of its most 



392 HISTORY OF BATH. 

active workers, never prescribing liquor in any form in his practice. 
Doctor Briry's children are: Ernest M., Edward E., Mary E., John 
F., and William L. Briry. 

Dr. Edward E. Briry, having obtained a classical education at 
Bowdoin College, and a full medical education at Boston University 
School of Medicine, practiced in Boston in 1883 and 1884, and 
since that time has been in practice in Bath ; has been city physi- 
cian, member and secretary of the board of health, member of 
school board, and boarding officer for this port, serving in these 
capacities for many years. 

Dr. James W. Savage was born January 21, 1830, in Wool- 
wich ; received an academical education in Bath ; entered the office 
of Dr. William E. Payne in 1858, graduating from the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College of New York in 1862, and is in successful 
practice in Bath. 

John Hazeil Kimball, eldest son of Samuel Ayer and Eliza 
(Hazen) Kimball, of Concord, N. H. ; born in Concord July 14, 
1823; married, November 5, 185 1, Annie, daughter of John Camp- 
bell and Angeline (Whitmore) Humphreys, of Brunswick, Me. She 
was born November 19, 1828, and died December n, 1890. Their 
children are five sons, viz.. Edward Hazen, born August 24, 1854. 
He was graduated at Bowdoin College, 1876, Boston University Law 
School, 1879, and is now in the wholesale grain, flour, and grocery 
business in *Bath. He married, June 13, 1883, Anna, daughter of 
Rev. Dr. Samuel F. and Miriam (Worcester) Dike of Bath. She was 
born January 16, 1855. Their children are: Anne, born in Lewiston, 
April 16, 1884; Phillips, born in Lewiston, February 20, 1886; 
Miriam Worcester, born in liath, July 8, 1890. Samuel Ayer, born 
August 22, 1857. He graduated at Yale College, 1879, Harvard 
Medical School, 1882, and Boston University Medical School, 1883, 
and is in the practice of medicine in Boston, Mass. He married, 
October 17, 1883, Belle C. Trowbridge, daughter of Charles I. and 
Caroline (Lane) Trowbridge, of Portland. She was born in Portland, 
July 29, 1859. Their children are: John Hazen, born in Melrose, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 393 

Mass., May 6, 1886; Joseph Stickney, born in Boston, Mass., May 20, 
1889. Frederic Humphreys, born Feb. 25, 1861. He graduated 
at the Bath High School in 1880, and is in business with his brother, 
Edward, under the firm name of Kimball Brothers. He married 
Mary E., daughter of Milton G. and Eunice (Hinckley) Shaw, of 
Bath, October 19, 1892. She was born in Greenville, Me., Septem- 
ber 6, 1865. John McKinstry, born November 14, 1863. He 
graduated at the Bath High School, 1880, and at the Bates Mill in 
Lewiston. He is now agent of the Slatersville Mills, in Slatersville, 
R. I. He married, September 13, 1893, Sally Burnside, daughter of 
John C. and Mary (Dresser) Small, of Portland. Harry Whitmore, 
born December 13, 1865. He graduated at the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, in 1887, and learned the cotton-mill trade at the 
Tremont & Suffolk Mills, of Lowell, Mass. 

John H. Kimball was educated at Concord, Fryeburg, and Phillips 
(Andover) Academies. In 1843 he went South and taught school 
in Charles County, Maryland, for two years; was in Washington, 
D. C, during the winter of 1845-6. Returning North he studied 
law with Judge Samuel Wells, in Portland, and was admitted to the 
Cumberland County Bar, December, 1846, when he commenced the 
practice of law at Kezar Falls, in Parsonsfield. In 1848 he removed 
to Topsham, and in August, 1849, to Bath, where he has since 
resided. For a few years he practiced law and then became actively 
engaged in the insurance business and navigation. He was also 
interested in railroads, and for many years was director in the 
Androscoggin and Central Vermont Railroads, and is now concerned, 
with many others, in the ownership of land and cattle in the far 
West. He was the first treasurer of the Bath Savings Institution, 
which office he held for twenty-five years; was presidential elector in 
1872; representative in the State Legislature in 1878 and 1879, and 
senator from 1883 to 1887. In religion he was brought up a Con- 
gregationalism and in politics has always been a Republican. 

John Stockbridge. — 1. John Stockbridge came to New Eng- 
land on the ship Blessing, of which John Liecester was master, June, 
1635, when twenty-seven years old, and settled in Scituate. He 



394 HISTORY OF BATH. 

became owner of a large tract of land, purchased near " Stockbridge 
Mill Pond," where he owned one of the first grist-mills that were built 
in the colony. In 1656 he built the Stockbridge Mansion House, 
which was a garrison in Philip's War. 2. Charles Stockbridge lived 
in Boston, and in Scituate in his father's house, and built the second 
water-mill, in Plymouth, in 1676. 3. Charles S., son of Charles (2), was 
selectman of Hanover in 1727. 4. Thomas, son of Charles (2), mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Thomas Reed. 5. Joseph, son of Charles (2), 
married Margaret, daughter of Joseph Turner. 6. Benjamin, son of 
Charles (2), married Mary Tilden. 7. Samuel, son of Charles (2), 
married Lydia, daughter of William Barrell, in 1703. 8. Thomas, 
son of Thomas (4). 9. David, son of Joseph (5), married Deborah, 
daughter of Judge John Gushing. 10. William, son of David (9), 
married Ruth, daughter of John Bailey, October 8, 1774. n. Hon. 
David, son of David (9), married Ruth, daughter of Hon. James 
Cushing. 12. John, son of William (10), studied medicine with 
Dr. Gad. Hitchcock, in Pembrook, Mass., settled in Topsham in 
1804, moved to Bath in 1805, received the degree of M. D. from 
Dartmouth College in 1822, practiced forty-eight years, and died 
May 3, 1849. 

Dr. John (12) had children as follows: T. G. Stockbridge, physi- 
cian at Bath in 1827, married Mary R. Harding; John W., lived at 
New Orleans; Maria E., born March 25, 1815, died September, 1823; 
Mary G., born June 12, 1818, married Capt. William Drummond, 
and now lives at Kalamazoo, Mich. ; Theodosia, born September 20, 
1819, lives at Utica, N. Y. ; Francis B., born April 9, 1826, went to 
Chicago in 1847, and to Michigan in 185 1, was in the Legislature 
in 1849-50-51, and elected to the United States Senate in January, 
1887, re-elected in 1893, lives at Kalamazoo, Mich., is married and 
has no children; Cornelia L., married T. P. Sheldon, and lives at 
Kalamazoo; Joseph H., born February 18, 183 1, died June, 1844; 
March E., born October 27, 1832, married XV. D. Houghleting, and 
lives in Chicago, 111. 

Isaac H. Merritt was born in Harpswell, at the portion that is 
known as Condys Harbor. His education was such as could be 
obtained in the public schools. When still young he adopted a sea- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 395 

faring life, and in due course of service rose to the command of the 
vessels in which he sailed. His early voyages were to the West 
India ports, and later in the European trade. He was uniformly 
fortunate as a commander, and, having accumulated sufficient means 
to warrant him to do so, he retired from the sea to be with his 
family, making his home in Bath, where he built a fine residence, 
and entered into mercantile business which he continued as long 
as he lived. 

While yet a young man, he married Miss Hannah Ann Batchelder, 
daughter of Capt. Timothy Batchelder, with whom he sailed in his 
his early voyages. His wife had been a young lady of the highest 
standing in her native town, and was notable for her superior mental 
culture and personal accomplishments. They had two sons who are 
now living in San Francisco, where Mrs. Merritt has resided for many 
years since the death of her husband. Captain Merritt had native 
traits of character that were genial, outspoken, and generous, which 
endeared him to those with whom he associated. He possessed a 
well developed and handsome presence. While in the prime of life 
and in apparant health his sudden death was a shock to the com- 
munity and regretted by all classes of citizens. 

Alfred Lemont was born in Bath, April 5, 1808, and married 
Miss Malinda Hoadsdon, of Wales, Me., in December, 1836. They 
have one daughter, Aramede Snow Lemont, who was born in Bath, 
February 9, 1845, and married Capt. Henry C. Tarbox in 1866, and 
they live in Bath. In his early life Mr. Lemont worked at the 
blacksmith business in Bath thirty years, when he relinquished it 
and commenced ship-building. The first vessel he built was the 
schooner Eliza Ann, at a yard north of Thomas Harward's, in 1835. 
She was employed in the coasting trade, and eventually was lost on 
Seal Rock while endeavoring to make the harbor at Eastport, to 
which port she was bound to load with plaster. In 1835 he began 
building ships at Winnegance with Richard Morse & Sons, and con- 
tinued to build with them until 1851, when he established a yard of 
his own in Bath, in which he built vessels until 1865, when he relin- 
quished the business, but to the present time has continually owned 



396 HISTORY OF BATH. 

in various vessels. He has been connected in banks in Bath twenty- 
five years, as a director in the Sagadahoc National Bank and an 
incorporator in the Twenty-five Cent Savings Bank. He is now 
living in retirement on a farm at West Bath, realizing a green old age, 
at a finely located residence, fronting the beautiful Campbells Pond. 

Andrew Tarbox was a leading and influential townsman of 
Woolwich, who commanded Bath ships, and owned and occupied, 
for many years, the fine old Governor Phips estate, in that town. 
Late in life, Captain Tarbox purchased the Judge Groton property, 
on High street, in this city, and built thereon a new house, and 
passed his declining years in the midst of his children. Captain 
Tarbox was a staunch Republican through all the eighty-four years 
of his life, and served his adopted city repeatedly in both branches 
of the city government. 

Henry C. Tarbox was born on Phips' Point, Woolwich, December 
2, 1836, and was brought up on the old Phips farm. His father, 
Andrew Tarbox, being a ship-master, Henry C. early imbibed the 
attractions of a sea-faring life, and, at the age of thirteen, went to 
sea with his father. His early education was in the district schools, 
but eventually he attended the academies of Pittston and Litchfield, 
where he obtained the rudiments of an English education and the 
theory of navigation. From that time on he sailed in separate ships 
from that of his father, serving the regular grades of seamanship to 
the command of bark Samuel Tarbox in 1858, commanding her six 
years, most of the time in the Chincha Islands trade, coming home in 
1865, and remaining one year; rejoined the Tarbox, lost her in a 
hurricane sailing from Baltimore for Aspinwall, and was rescued 
after three days without food. He then commanded the ships 
Ataska, Alexander, bark Almira Robinson, and retired from the sea 
in 1884, living in Bath. On February 15, 1S65, Captain Tarbox 
married Aramede Lemont, only daughter of Alfred Lemont, of Bath, 
and they have three sons and two daughters. 

Parker Merrill Wliitmore. — His father, Dea. William H. 
Whitmore, was a prominent man of his day. He lived in Arrowsic, 
nearly opposite the City of Bath, where he had a farm which he 



HISTORY OF BATH. 397 

cultivated, and, in the earlier portion of his life, followed the sea; 
later on he studied for the ministry and was licensed to preach but 
never ordained. He devoted the winter months to teaching school, 
in which avocation he was very successful. He was a deacon in the 
Congregational Church, at Phipsburg, for a long number of years, 
and was always known as a bright and active Christian, notable, 
ready, and earnest in prayer and exhortation. In person he was of 
a compactly and fully developed build, the perfect man, with a fresh, 
cheerful, and hearty presence, and liked by all who knew him. He 
was a great reader of the Bible and read it through twenty-eight 
times. His days were long in the land, having lived to the age of 
89 years, departing this life October 13, 1877. 

P. M. Whitmore comes down in the line of the fifth and sixth gen- 
eration. His grandfather was Andrew Whitmore, born October 2, 
1760, and his grandmother was Lucy, only child of James and Mary 
Couilliard, born January 29, 1768, both living to a good old age, and 
both dying aged 99 years. His father was William H. Whitmore, of 
Arrowsic, born September 10, 1788, married, first, Charlotte, 
daughter of John and Susanna Parker, of Phipsburg, and second, 
Phebe, daughter of John Hayden, of Bowdoinham, having children 
by both wives. In early life Captain Whitmore followed the sea, but 
just after the Civil War he settled in Richmond and later in Bath, 
where he built several ships. Of late years he has occupied himself 
as a ship-broker, which business he is in at the presesnt time. He 
was twice married but is now a widower. His first wife was Martha 
C. daughter of Samuel F. and Elizabeth G. Blair, of Richmond, Me., 
by whom he had one daughter, who only lived one year; his first wife 
dying, he married Mary K, a sister of his first wife, who died June 
1, 1870; by his second wife he had four children, Eugenia Antoinette, 
Mary Parker, Harriet Louise, and Lizzie Parker. 

William Evarts Whitmore is the eldest son of William H. Whit- 
more by his second wife, Phebe Hayden, and was born at Arrowsic, 
November 22 1835. While young he entered upon a sea-faring life, 
became master of ships sailing out of the Port of Bath, and retiring 
from the sea, while in the prime of life, engaged in the coal trade in 
Bath, in which business he is now occupied. 



398 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Denny McCobl) Humphreys, son of John C. Humphreys, of 
Brunswick, was born in Brunswick, October n, 1838, and on January 
27, 1863, married Miss Carrie Augusta Owen, who was born in 
Topsham, April 30, 1839. They have had seven children, of whom 
there are living, Lillius Barrows (Mrs. A. F. Dunnells), Agnes Whit- 
more, John Campbell, Grace Thomson, Alice Mary, and Frederic 
William. Captain Humphreys followed the sea in his early life, 
commanding some of the best ships of Bath build. He retired 
from the sea while in the prime of life, and made his residence in 
Bath, where he has since been engaged in the insurance business. 

John Henry Humphreys was born in Brunswick, June n, 1825, 
and July 27, 1851, he married Miss Frances Wilson, who was born 
in Topsham, August 23, 1831. They had one son, Frederick W. 
Humphreys, who was born May 31, 1852, and died in Bath, of con- 
sumption, May 11, 1876. He was a very promising young man. 
Mr. Humphreys moved from Brunswick to Bath in 1866. In his 
business life Mr. Humphreys was engaged, with his father, J. C. 
Humphreys, in milling and ship-building in Brunswick; was employed 
in the Bath Custom House when his father was collector; was treas- 
urer of Bath Savings Institution from 1861 till his death, a period 
of thirty years; was a member of Polar Star Lodge and of Dunlap 
Commandery. In 189 1 he went to California for the benefit of his 
health, and on his return died in Bath, June 6, 189 1, and was interred 
with Masonic honors. He left an amiable wife, who is a member 
of Grace Episcopal Church and highly esteemed in society. 

Charles Nichols Delano. — The ancestor of the Delano family 
was Hopestil Delano, grandfather of Charles N., who was born in 
Kingston, Mass., in 1734. He became captain of a schooner, and 
while sailing to the Kennebec he purchased a farm in Woolwich and 
settled upon it, and died there in 1829, when 95 years of age. His 
son, John Delano, was the father of Charles N., who was born at 
Woolwich, February 19, 1819. He married, August 17, 1843, Miss 
Frances Caroline Larrabee, daughter of Robert Larrabee, of Phips- 
burg. She was born January 26, 1824. Their children were four 
sons and three daughters. His wife died November 4, 1864, and he 



HISTORY OF BATH. 399 

married her twin sister, Beatrice, November 17, 1865. Captain 
Delano followed the sea and was in command of sea-going vessels 
from 1844 to 1868, when he retired and was in the mill and lumber 
business, in Portland, until 1883, making his residence during that 
time in Bath, where his widow still resides in a pleasant home. In 
i860 he joined the Winter Street Church, and was one of its deacons 
fourteen years. He accumulated a handsome property. Deacon 
Delano was a most upright man and an exemplary Christian. His 
death occurred December 5, 1887, when he was 68 years of age. 

Abel E. Work. — James Work, the great-grandfather of Capt. 
Abel E. Work, of Bath, was born in the City of Cork, near Dublin ; 
his great-grandmother was Elizabeth Work, but no relation of her 
husband. They came to America about 1722; resided thirteen years 
on Birch Island; in 1735 they moved to Topsham and settled on 
a farm of one hundred acres, bought of the Pejepscot Proprietors, 
on the Bay road; both died about 1760. They had two sons and 
three daughters. 

The grandfather, Ebenezer Work, was born on the passage from 
Europe, in 1722. He married Olive Sullivan, of Scituate, Mass., 
born in 1724. They lived and died on the old farm, he in December, 
1826, and she in December, 1827. Their children were: John, 
James, David, William, Margaret, Jane, Mary, Elizabeth, Lydia, and 

Mary. 

The father, David Work, the third son of the above, was born in 
Topsham, in 1777 ; married Mary Eaton, of Topsham, 1801 or 1802; 
she was born in 1784 and died in 1876; he died in 1861, when 
nearly 84 years of age. They lived and died on the homestead 
farm. Their children were fifteen, of whom eleven lived to grow 
up: Oliver, Lucy, David, Joseph, Benjamin, Catharine, Charles, 
Susan, Lewis M., Harriet, Humphrey, Statira, Abel E. Those liv- 
ing are David, Susan, and Abel E. David lives on the homestead, 
and married Mrs. Hannah Griffin, of Topsham, in 1882. 

Abel E. was brought up on his father's farm, and commenced going 
to sea in 1850, when sixteen years old, and became captain in 1862, 
commanding, successively, the brig, President Benson of Baltimore; 
bark, Halcyon, and ships, Bombay, Oregon, and Thomas M. Reed 



400 HISTORY OF BATH. 

of Hath; never met with an accident in twenty-six years; only 
lost one man by sickness, and one lost overboard. On June 13, 
1874, he married Augusta Fisher, who was born in Arrowsic, Septem- 
ber 11, 1843, daughter of A. D. Fisher; has one child, Ruth Pearl, 
born in Bath, April 1, 1877. 

Jiimcs Todd Morse, a retired ship-master, was born in Phips- 
burg, April 17, 1822. His father was Francis Morse, and his mother, 
Nancy (Todd) Morse. His grandfather was Jonathan Morse, of 
Small Point. The boyhood of Captain Morse was spent on his 
father's farm, on the old Lithgow place, and his education was in 
the district schools. On October 29, 1849, ne married Miss Mar- 
garet W. Lowell, daughter of Capt. Abner Lowell, of Small Point. 
She was born August 26, 1827, and they have had six children, of 
whom four are living. 

Mr. Morse commenced going to sea in 1840, when he was eighteen 
years old, sailing in Bath ships, and rose to be master of a ship, in 
regular course of promotion, in eight years, and commanded some of 
the best ships of Bath build, for many years. In 1867 he was in 
command of the ocean steamer, Tiogo, running between New York 
and New Orleans, via Havana; she was consumed by spontaneous 
combustion. Ending his sea-faring life, in 187 1, he settled in Phila- 
delphia, being employed as Marine Superintendent of the steamer line 
between Philadelphia and Antwerp, in which he continued until 1884, 
when he retired from active business life to the old family homestead 
in Phipsburg. 

John S. Lowell, son of Capt. Abner Lowell, Jr., was born at 
Small Point, Phipsburg, and went to sea at the age of 17 years. 
He married Miss C. M. Campbell, of Phipsburg, and they have had 
two boys and two girls. When 2 1 years old he became captain, and 
successively commanded the ships Armoriel and Tiger, barque Alice 
Minot, ships M. E. Riggs and Merom, sailing in C. V. Minot's 
employ twenty-one years, after which he moved to Bath, where he 
still resides during the summer season, and in Charlestown, Mass., 
winters. Captain Lowell's wife died when he was on a voyage to 
China, and he subsequently married, after three years, the widow of 



HISTORY OF BATH. 401 

Captain Plummer, of Newburyport; Charleston, S. C, being her 
native place. The last few years of his going to sea he had charge 
of the ship, Studson, until she was sold. Captain Lowell has been 
fortunate in his sea-faring life. 

Samuel Woodai'd Cushillg was born in Phipsburg, July 27, 
182 1. He is a descendant of the ancient families of Philbrook, 
Cushing, and McCobb. Mr. Cushing obtained such an education 
as was afforded by the public schools of that day, together with 
three years in school in Bangor. During his stay in Phipsburg his 
home was on Lees Island, where his immediate ancestors resided, 
owning this notable island. In 1854 Mr. Cushing transferred his 
residence to Bath, where he pursued trade with success, retiring 
therefrom in 1892. September 26, 1848, he married, in Phipsburg, 
Miss Mary Ann Mereen, daughter of Capt. Abel Mereen, who was 
born July 26, 183 1. They have five sons and two daughters, who 
have been well educated at high schools and colleges, five of them 
becoming teachers in the higher departments of learning. 

William Lee Cushing was born in Phipsburg, July 24, 1849; 
graduated at the Bath High School in 1868, entered Yale College in 
1869 and graduated with the degree of A. M. in 1872 ; taught school 
in New Haven, Conn., — Hopkins Preparatory School — several years ; 
went to Europe and spent four years studying at Athens ; returned 
to this country in 1887 ; became teacher in Yale College. In 1889 
he founded " Westminster School " at Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., which he 
is conducting successfully. April 6, 1876, he married Miss Mary 
Strong, of Hartford, and they have three children. In the spring 
of 189 1 he went on a trip to Europe. 

John M. Cushing was born on Lees Island, Phipsburg, February 
26, 185 1 ; came to Bath, when three years old, with his father, Sam- 
uel W. Cushing; graduated from the high school in the class of 
1868 ; commenced a sea-faring life, in November of the same year, 
in the ship Ellen Goodspeed ; subsequently went in other Bath and 
Brunswick ships ; became captain in December, 1872, in command 
of the ship John O. Baker of Brunswick, when twenty-one years of 
age; in November, 1875, took charge of the ship Oregon; later was 
in the employ of the Red Star Line of steamers, plying between 



402 HISTORY OF BATH. 

New York and Antwerp; was in the ship brokerage business at 
Puget Sound four years ; came back and was in the employ of the 
American Line of steamers, running between Philadelphia and Liv- 
erpool; in August, 1886, was chief executive officer of the Vander- 
bilt steam yacht, Alva; in June, 1887, took charge of the steam 
yacht, Susquehanna, owned by Mr. Joseph Stickney, and is now in 
command and part owner of a ship. He married Emma Smith, of 
Bangor, December 31, 1872, and has two boys and a girl. She died 
in February, 1884. 

Samuel Dayton Cushing was born in Phipsburg, March 30, 1853; 
graduated at the Bath High School in 1871; went to Europe 
in September, 1872, and pursued the study of music at Leipsic, 
Germany, three years, as also at London, where he took lessons on 
the organ six weeks; returning home he became organist for the 
Springfield, Mass., Congregational Church, at the same time teach- 
ing music; from thence went to Toledo, Ohio, where he is organist 
for a Congregational Society of that city. 

Charles Elbridge Cushing was born in Bath, August 11, 1863; 
graduated at the Bath High School in 1881, and Yale College in 
1885, on which occasion he was class poet and the poem was pub- 
lished in book form ; taught school in New Jersey one year, and then 
at Yonkers, N. Y., and later in the Commercial College at Port- 
land; thence went to the City of Colorado Springs, Colo., where he 
was engaged in teaching; and went to Europe in 1890. He is now 
teaching in his brother's school at Dobbs Ferry. 

The youngest son of S. W. Cushing is Frank Delano Cushing, 
born in Bath, December 15, 187 1, and who is in Westminster School 
preparing to enter college. 

Charles Albert Coombs was born in Brunswick, October 17, 
1836, came to Bath when a youth, and was educated in the public and 
private schools. In commencing his business life he served as clerk 
in several stores, and at the age of nineteen went into the grocery 
business on his own account, afterwards a partner in the firm of 
Moores & Coombs. He went to the far western country in 1857 ; 
was one of General Lane's celebrated Kansas rangers during the 
Kansas-Nebraska difficulties ; then became a pioneer to Colorado in 



HISTORY OF BATH. 403 

the spring of 1859 in the pursuit of gold mining; traveled in Texas 
and New Mexico ; returned to Bath ; was the very first to enroll his 
name under the first call for troops at the commencement of the 
Rebellion ; was mustered in Company A, Third Maine Regiment of 
three years' men, of which O. O. Howard was Colonel ; was wounded 
at the battle of Fair Oaks in June, 1862, and taken to David's 
Island, on Long Island Sound, to recruit ; returned to the army in 
May, 1863, as clerk in the Quartermaster's department, served in 
that capacity in Sheridan's Cavalry until the close of the war; 
returning to Bath he went to Canada in the oil business ; coming 
back to the States he entered upon his subsequent career of railroad 
employ; was three and a half years, in 1867 and 187 1, station agent 
at Lewiston; was appointed the first superintendent of the Knox & 
Lincoln Railroad, in September, 1871; resigned March 31, 1886, to 
accept the office of general manager of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel 
and Western Road ; when that road was sold to the Fitchburg Com- 
pany he became general manager of the New York & Northern; 
resigned in one year to accept the general management of the 
Annapolis & Baltimore Road, which position he still holds, while his 
family continues to reside in Bath, where he married, July, 1866, 
Miss Mary Elizabeth Cowin, daughter of Capt. Joseph Cowin. 
They have had one son and two daughters. Mrs. Coombs was born 
in Bath in 1840. When Mr. Coombs resigned from the superin- 
tendency of the Knox & Lincoln Road his friends in Bath gave, in 
his honor, a banquet at the Sagadahoc House, with numerous guests. 

Francis Winter Weeks, youngest son of John Weeks and Mary 
Pettengill, was born in Bath, February 26, 1844. He received a 
good business education, which was completed in the high school. 
His business career was commenced as purser on the steamship 
Montana, plying between San Francisco and Portland, Ore., in which 
employment he was engaged in 1865, 1866, and March, 1867. Sub- 
sequently, returning to the East, he entered the office of Franklin & 
Edwin Reed at Bath. For the period of fourteen years he was in 
the insurance business. In 1883 he formed a partnership with 
Frederick E. Reed in insurance and private banking. That con- 
nection having been dissolved, he was chosen treasurer of the 



404 HISTORY OF BATH. 

People's Twenty-five Cent Savings Bank, in January, 1886, which 
position he is now filling, and he has been county treasurer since 1889. 
Mr. Weeks has been a prominent member of the Bath Board of Trade 
and its secretary many years. He served in the Common Council in 
1879, 1880, 1885, 1891, 1892, and 1893, and was its president the 
latter year; also on the Board of Aldermen in 1886, 1887, and 1888. 
For twenty-five years Mr. Weeks has been a member of the Masonic 
Order, having joined Solar Lodge in 1868, and the Commandery in 
1886. On September 12, 1876, he married Frances Almira Delano, 
daughter of Capt. Charles N. and Caroline Delano. She was born 
May 5, 1854. Their children are : Mary Eveleth, Caroline Beatrice, 
Charles Nichols, and Olive Metcalf Weeks. 

B. W. Hathorne was born in Wiscasset, August 28, 1839. His 
early life was spent on his father's farm, when, at eighteen years of 
age, he went to sea three years, after which he was employed on a 
steamer on Lake Ponchartrain, Mississippi, until i860, when he 
went to California and engaged in gold mining with success; 
returned to Bath in 1870; went into trade at Varneys Mills; in 
187 1 bought out the store of goods where he has conducted the 
grocery business to the present time. He has served two years in 
the City Government. December 31, 1876, he married Miss Eliza 
A. Morse, a sister of B. W. Morse, a very estimable lady, and their 
residence is on the site of the Old South Church, High street. 

Charles Henry Morse was born in Somerville, Mass., June 17, 
1830, and came to Bath when a child, with his parents, where he has 
since resided. He commenced life by learning the trade of ship- 
joiner, at which he worked six years. He then began running on 
steamboats on the Kennebec, soon taking command. In 1862 he 
was placed in command of a government steamer, built at Wiscasset, 
and took her to service in Southern waters, where she was employed 
during the war as a transport of men and supplies. On one occasion 
this boat did invaluable service in saving Washington from a raid of 
General Early, when its defenses were weak, by being the only boat 
on the Potomac, of sufficient light draft, to bring to the city a detach- 
ment sent to head off the enemy, the Union army being then (1864) 



HISTORY OF BATH. 405 

before Richmond. Returning from the war, Captain Morse com- 
manded steamboats on the Kennebec until 1885, when he became 
superintendent of the Knickerbocker Steamboat Company, holding 
the position to the present time. 

Alden Morse was born in Phipsburg, and is a son of Richard 
and Jane Morse. He worked with his father, cultivating a large farm 
and operating a saw-mill, during his minority, after which he became 
interested, with his father and brothers, in the manufacture of lum- 
ber at Winnegance, doing an extensive and lucrative business which 
they continued, in connection with the building of ships, at Winne- 
gance and subsequently at Bath, on a large scale. Mr. Morse was 
always a worker, and while operating a buzz-saw in his mill had the 
misfortune to meet with a fatal accident, prematurely ending his days 
while in the prime of life, May 7, 1875. He married Miss Louisa 
Lee, by whom he had a son, Charles, and a daughter, Jane. His 
wife dying, he married Miss Mary Elizabeth Averill, of Wiscasset, 
and their children are Horace Gray, John Alden, and Clarence 
Morse. The two elder brothers when of an age to enter business, 
in 1888, commenced ship-building, launching three large schooners, 
at Bath, in 1890. Horace G. had the misfortune of being run over 
in Bath, by a hose-cart of the fire department, while trying to assist 
during a fire, and was killed. The brother, John A., still continues 
the business. Mrs. Morse moved to Bath, where the family now 
reside. In 1870, when the ice business had commenced on the 
Kennebec, Mr. Alden Morse undertook the enterprise of purchasing 
and converting the Parkers Head mill-pond into an ice-pond, and 
taking his brother, John, into partnership, successfully carried on 
the ice business. 

William L. White was born October 10, 1825, in Cleveland, 
Ohio. His father was a native of Essex County, Mass., and was a 
lineal descendant of Peregrine White of old Plymouth Colony fame. 
Coming to Massachusetts when he was two years old, he came to 
Maine in 185 1, and, with others, owned the stage line that ran 
between Bath and Rockland until the completion of the Knox & 
Lincoln Railroad, when the travel east from Bath was changed from 



406 HISTORY OF BATH. 

stage to rail. On this road he was a conductor until 1885, when he 
became successor of C. A. Coombs as manager, and has been con- 
tinued in that office since the road has become a part of the Maine 
Central system. 

Frederic Henry Low, son of David P. Low, a life-long and 
esteemed resident of the city, was born in Bath, June 27, 1849, 
where he received his education in the public schools. He then 
entered the counting-room of J. S. Milliken & Co., as book-keeper, 
where he served three years; was then in the employ of George H. 
Nichols in the dry goods business twelve years; became treasurer of 
the Knox & Lincoln Railroad Company in 1883; when the road was 
sold to other parties, in 1890, he was continued in the same posi- 
tion; elected treasurer of the Bath Savings Institution upon the 
death of John H. Humphreys, in 1891, and was elected cashier of 
the Lincoln Bank in 1893. Mr. Low served as alderman in 1889, 
and has been a member of the Common Council for the years 1883, 
1892, and 1893, serving on important committees. 

Read Nichols was born in Bowdoin, March 11, 1822, and came 
to Bath in 1839 to learn the masons' trade, which business he has 
followed to the present time, and to which he has added dealing in 
baled hay, drain tile, cement, lime, and brick. He has served in 
the Common Council three terms and as an overseer of the poor 
five years; was chief engineer of the fire department two years, 
having worked his way up to that position in a twenty years' service. 
He helped work the historical Kennebec engine when its tub had to 
be filled by the use of buckets. In 1890 he extended his business 
by establishing a brick-yard at the western end of Western Avenue 
at Round Meadow. January 26, 1846, he married Rachel Ann 
Little, daughter of Capt. Charles Little of Bath, and their children 
living are: Charles L., Clara A., and Emma A. (Mrs. Daniel Pierce). 

Henry Eailies has been assistant cashier and cashier of the 
Sagadahoc National Bank continuously since 1853, a period of forty 
years. That he has been constant to the duties of this position is 
shown in the fact that, in all these years, he has not been absent 



HISTORY OF BATH. 407 

from his desk at the office a single day. Mr. Eames has always 
resided in Bath, where he was born February 3, 1834. He had the 
advantages of a good city school education. January 22, 1857, he 
married, in Bath, Miss Adelia Fredeline Morse, who was born in 
Gardiner, May 8, 1836. They have three children: Frederick 
Henry, Ella Florence, and William Morse. Ella Florence graduated 
from Smith College, Northampton, and married Edward E. Wood, of 
Northampton, Mass, September 8, 1885, and they reside in that 
city. F. H. and W. M. Eames graduated from Bowdoin College and 
from the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, and are in the drug 
business in Manchester, N. H. 

George W. Johnson was born and educated in Bath; was 
assistant postmaster several years ; when the Patten Car Works were 
built he was book-keeper for that company two years, then was 
elected treasurer of the People's Twenty-five Cent Savings Bank, 
which position he held until January, 1886. Edward F. Johnson 
was employed at Swanton, Jameson & Co.'s for eighteen years, as 
was also Ernest A. Johnson for about nine years, as salesmen, thus 
gaining a thorough knowledge of the hardware trade, so valuable to 
them in carrying on their own business in the same line. The firm 
is composed of George W. Johnson, Edward F. Johnson, and Ernest 
A. Johnson, all of whom are active, enterprising, business men, 
dealing in general hardware and ship chandlery, both wholesale and 
retail, occupying their own store in Elliot House Block, which was 
first occupied by Kendall & Richardson, then by S D. Bailey & 
Co., who were succeeded by George Fisher, and then by Johnson 
Brothers in 1885. 

Alfred D. Stetson was born in Brunswick and educated in its 
public schools. At the age of sixteen he commenced work in the 
furniture business, in which he has ever since been engaged in this 
city, with the exception of one year, when he was in the army at the 
time of the War of the Rebellion, having raised a company at Bruns- 
wick in 1862, in which he became second lieutenant. This company 
was stationed at Arlington Heights and Chantily during portions of 
the time of 1862 and 1863. After being mustered out of the army 



408 HISTORY OF BATH. 

he came to Bath in July, 1868, purchased the furniture stock of J. 
C. Ledyard, and has continued the business in the same store to the 
present time. He served three years on the board of trustees of 
the Military and Naval Orphan Asylum, and in the Common Coun- 
cil of the city about the same length of time. His sons are Harry 
E. and Arthur H. Stetson ; the latter graduated at the high school 
and is in Bowdoin College, Junior class of 1893. 

Joseph Marston Hayes is a son of the notable temperance 
advocate of olden times, Joseph Hayes, and his mother was Austress 
Davis Hayes. He was born in Bath, June 4, 1833, and graduated 
from the high school in 1848, when only fifteen years of age. He 
then learned the trade of printer with John T. Gilman, in Bath, and 
other printers, and worked as journeyman in Bath and Damariscotta. 
At the latter place he published the weekly American Sentinel until 
1856, when it was sold to Bath parties and he moved with it to this 
city, and was foreman of its office until 1863, when he was appointed 
clerk of the Supreme Court of Sagadahoc County, and has, by elec- 
tion, held the office to the present date, with the exception of one 
year. He has also served in the City Government twenty-three years 
as member and clerk of the Common Council and Alderman, and 
was president of the former board several terms. In Masonry he 
has been quite prominent, having filled the various offices in his 
Lodge, Chapter, Council, and Commandery, in this city, and been 
Grand High Priest of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Maine, and 
Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge. 

D. Howard Spear was born in Bowdoinham, Me. ; came to 
Bath at an early age and afterwards learned the blacksmith 
trade; was foreman blacksmith at Goss, Sawyer & Packard's for 
thirteen years; married Ada Sawyer in 1876; January, 1887, com- 
menced building vessels in the firm of Kelley, Spear & Co. 

James F. Mlirphey was born in Bath, March 31, 1850. His 
father was James K. Murphey, who was a ship-carpenter in Hough- 
ton Brothers' employ, dying in 1879. Captain Murphey married 
Miss Maria Higgins, of Bath, and they have a daughter and a son. 
He commenced going to sea in 1863, became captain in 1871, and 



HISTORY OF BATH. 409 

has commanded the ships David Brown, Alexander, North Hamp- 
ton, Yorktown, W. F. Babcock, and is now in the ship Shenandoah, 
which is one of the largest wood ships that has ever floated on the 
ocean, and under Captain Murphey's handling has proved superior 
to the most speedy deep-sea-going ship of the day. He has sailed 
in the Sewalls' employ twelve years; has had an interest in all the 
ships of which he has had the command, and owns largely in the 
Shenandoah. In all the years of his service as captain he has 
never had occasion to call upon underwriters for a dollar. 

John Louville Purillgton is a son of John H. Purington, and 
was born in Bath, January 31, 1833. He married Miss Mary Ann 
Larrabee, of Bath, July 2, 1862. She was born August 26, 1838, 
and they have had four children — William, John L., Edward C, and 
Arthur K. Purington. Mr. Purington was educated in the schools 
of his native city; commenced active life by going to sea in Septem- 
ber, 1850, and continuing seven years in deep-sea-going ships; return- 
ing from the sea, he was in the coal business in Dorchester for three 
years, when he again went to sea for one year, making his home 
with his mother, in Bowdoinham, a portion of the time. In the 
summer of 186 1 he came to Bath and entered the dry goods business 
in company with T. D. Percy; then in the firm of Blair & Purington, 
later as Purington & Carr, and, after April, 1868, continuing in the 
same business in his own name, moving into his store in Bank Block, 
December 14, 1877, with his son, John Larrabee Purington, assistant. 
Mr. Purington died in Bath, at which time the Bath Daily Times thus 
spoke of him : " He had been a member of Solar Lodge for some 
time. He was a man of fine character, untarnished reputation, 
good business habits, and an earnest Christian, having been an 
active member of the Baptist Church for many years." Since the 
death of Mr. Purington, his sons, John L. and Edward C, have 
united in continuing the business their father left, having remodeled 
the store into a first-class establishment and making the firm name 
J. L. Purington's Sons. 

William Dayton Hill was born in Phipsburg, December 14, 
1824, and is a descendant of James McCobb, the earliest permanent 



4IO HISTORY OF BATH. 

settler at Phipsburg Centre, and of the early Cushing and Philbrook 
families of Bath. His education was in the public and special 
schools of his native town, to which he added, at a later date, that 
of commercial business, in the counting-room of D. C. Magoun, in 
Bath, and by private study. His first start in the business of life 
was employment in the office of Magoun & Clapp, wholesale 
grocers, in 1849, as book-keeper four years, when he engaged for 
more compensation in doing the writing of the ship-building firm of 
Hall & Snow, and returning, after the close of his engagement for 
one year, to Magoun & Clapp; was appointed assistant cashier of 
the Commercial Bank, becoming afterwards its cashier ; then was 
assistant cashier of Bath City Bank, and its cashier eleven years, 
and subsequently became cashier of Bath National Bank from 
1865 to the time of his death, April 8, 1893. 

November 9, 1847, Mr. Hill married Miss Cordelia Hill Morrison, 
daughter of Capt. Pierson Morrison, a wealthy ship-master and ship- 
builder at Phipsburg. She was born April n, 1828. They have 
had a family of eight children, of whom there were four sons and 
four daughters, and there are living William Pierson, Silie Cushing, 
and Frederick Dayton Hill. William Pierson married Kate H. 
Fisher, and Silie Cushing married Frank R. Mason. Frederick D. 
graduated at the high school and Eastman Commercial College; 
was employed in the office of the Maine Central Railroad, and suc- 
ceeded his father as cashier of the Bath National Bank. 

Mr. Hill was a member of the Solar Lodge of Masons, of Bath, 
for many years, and also of the Commandery, having held some of 
the higher offices in each of these bodies. He was also a member 
of the Winter Street Church. 

Mr. Hill met with success in life solely through his own merits 
and unaided exertions, having ever been eminently true to his 
integrity and business responsibilities, of an irreproachable charac- 
ter, and was one of the most respected citizens. 

Albert H. Shaw was born in Greenville, Me., April 21, 1857, 
and married Martha Ellen Mansell, August 19, 1879. They came to 
Bath to reside in April, 1883. The education of Mr. Shaw was 



HISTORY OF BATH. 411 

such as could be obtained in the schools of his native place, where, 
after leaving school, he went into trade and at the same time had 
an interest in lumber operations. In October, 1878, he became a 
member of the firm of M. G. Shaw & Sons in the manufacturing of 
lumber. His father is the Hon. M. G. Shaw, a large owner of tim- 
ber lands in the forests of Maine, and who was for several years 
one of the board of selectmen of Greenville, served one term in 
the State Legislature, and now resides in Bath. 

John McDonald is one of the heavy ship-builders at the south 
end, and had built considerably before he came to Bath. He has 
built here the ships, St. Lucia, St. Nicholas, St. John, W. R. Grace, 
St. Paul, M. P. Grace, St. David, Santa Clara, St. Steven, A. J. 
Fuller, John McDonald, St. Francis, St. James, Henry B. Hyde; 
barks, W. B. Flint, Factolus; schooners, C. R. Flint, Alice McDon- 
ald, Myra B. Wheeler, Kate S. Flint. A total of fourteen ships, two 
barks, and four schooners. 

Parker McCobb Reed bears a name representing well-known 
families on the lower Kennebec River, dating back to its earliest 
settlement. Parker was derived from the John Parkers who were 
pioneers at the mouth of the river, and whose names are now found 
in Parkers Island, Parkers Head, and Parkers Flats. McCobb is 
identified with those of that name who, as early residents of George- 
town, assisted in the conquest of Quebec and achieved high military 
rank in the struggles of the American Revolution, and in our second 
war with Great Britain. 

Mr. Reed's paternal grandfather was Col. Andrew Reed, the 
pioneer of Boothbay; his father was also Andrew Reed, who com- 
manded a regiment in the War of 18 12, and he was brother of Hon. 
William M. Reed, who was a resident of Bath. Mr. Reed was born 
in Georgetown, now Phipsburg, April 6, 1813, at the Reed farm, 
when his father, with his regiment, was fortifying the heights at Coxs 
Head, near Fort Popham. His mother, Beatrice McCobb Reed, was 
daughter of Brig.-Gen. Samuel McCobb, and granddaughter of Maj. 
Samuel Denny, who was prominent in Church and State at Old 



412 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Georgetown early in the eighteenth century, and whose ancestry is 
traced back to 1400, in England, where the Denny home of that 
period still stands well preserved, and was occupied by a Samuel 
Denny in 1880. 

Mr. Reed's education was acquired in the district schools of his 
native town and at the High Street Academy, in Bath, under the 
instruction of Jonas Burnham. He began his business career as 
clerk to his brother, Thomas M. Reed, at Phipsburg Centre. When 
eighteen years of age he became clerk in the wholesale and retail 
book-store of Pendleton & Hill, 94 Broadway, New York City, 
opposite Trinity Church. This store was the fashionable literary 
emporium of New York City at that day. Mr. Reed afterwards was 
clerk to Samuel Byron Halliday, who subsequently entered the min- 
istry and was assistant pastor to Henry Ward Beecher at Plymouth 
Church. After a trip to Havana, in 1833, Mr. Reed returned to 
Phipsburg and engaged in school teaching, and later took the man- 
agement of his father's large farm, being the last of a numerous 
family to remain at the homestead. Inheriting a taste for military 
life, he was appointed sergeant-major of the Bath regiment of militia 
for the Aroostook War, and later was made captain of a company. 

The uncongenial work of farm life led to his removal to Massa- 
chusetts, where he studied medicine under Dr. Winslow Lewis, Jr., 
in Boston, and afterwards attended lectures at the Medical College 
in Buffjlo, N. Y., where the eminent Austin Flint and Frank H. 
Hamilton were professors. He practiced his profession, in Illinois 
and Wisconsin, until 1866, when he was induced, by the tender of a 
lucrative position, to enter journalism, for which he was, in a 
measure, prepared, as for many years he had continuously contrib- 
uted articles for the Boston Traveller and other newspapers, East and 
West. In 1866 he became directly connected with the Wisconsin, 
and later the Sentinel, the leading newspapers of Milwaukee, and the 
Post and Inter-Ocean of Chicago. He was closely identified, in the 
establishment of the latter paper, with Mr. William Penn Nixon, 
its corner-stone; J. Y. Scammon, its founder; E. W. Halford, later 
private secretary to President Harrison, and F. W. Palmer, after- 
wards government printer at Washington. As a newspaper man, 




Q t^o-ut O^H^^tJ 



^KrOTYPE, C. BIERSTAOT. N. Y. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 413 

Mr. Reed achieved distinction in the Northwest, attaining much 
influence and made many warm, personal friends, both in business 
and political life. He wrote and published, in 1882, the "Bench and 
Bar of Wisconsin," a large quarto volume, which was accepted as a 
work of much value. 

In the fall of 1882 he returned to Maine, and became a resident 
of Bath. Interesting himself particularly in historical matters, he 
became a member of the Sagadahoc Historical Society and was its 
president for three years. In 1888 he was elected a member of the 
Maine Historical Society. In 1889 he prepared and began the pub- 
lication of the " History of the Lower Kennebec," in a series of 
numbers, and at the same time was at work on " The History of 
Bath and Environs." He was induced to undertake this latter work 
by the solicitations of public-spirited citizens who commendably 
desired that the annals of Bath should be put on permanent record, 
by one of the few surviving citizens who had a personal knowledge 
of the men and events of past years. Endowed from his childhood 
with a love of historical research, he has added honesty of purpose, 
perseverance, and great power of endurance in collecting and con- 
densing the enormous amount of facts necessary in producing a 
history of a large and important district. 

In April, 1846, Mr. Reed married Miss Harriet S. Elliot of Phips- 
burg. Their children are : Emma Beatrice and Albert Alfred Reed, 
the former living in Bath and the latter a journalist in Boston. 

Oliver Moses came to Bath, from Portland, in February, 1826. 
He had learned the trade of tinsmith in that city and noticing that 
a newspaper recommended Bath as a good opening for that business 
came at once to this, then, village and opened a shop. With his 
natural energy and industry he worked in his shop evenings. He 
was a single man and boarded with Mrs. Rachel Trott, the first-class 
boarding-house of that day. A year later, his brother, William V. 
Moses, who likewise learned the trade of tinsmith in Portland and 
coming from Gardiner, entered into partnership, and the firm of W. 
V. & O. Moses eventually became one of the most noted on the 
river. 



414 HISTORY OF BATH. 

From tin they enlarged their business gradually into dealing in 
iron and like goods. Iron fire frames coming into use, they dealt 
largely in those, and when stoves were introduced they were the 
first to deal in them in Bath and the business became immense. 
Square dealing brought the best of custom to the establishment. 
The demand for stoves became large, and there was profit in hand- 
ling them. In connection with this business there was a demand 
for iron castings. With the enterprise for which Mr. Moses was 
always remarkable the firm established a foundry. The foundry 
was first on Vine street, where Emery's wool warehouse now is, and 
the plant was subsequently removed to Water street, the present 
location of the Bath Iron Works. When the marine railway was 
built in Bath the castings for it were made in the Moses foundry. 
The brick building occupied for so many years by the firm on Front 
street, opposite the head of Broad, was built by them. Like the 
generality of Bath business men, the firm had taken interests in 
vessels and finally relinquished their other business to enter into 
ship-building. For this purpose they established a yard at the foot 
of Pearl street in 1844, where they built a large number of ships 
and other vessels. 

The Moses Brothers possessed a laudable ambition for improving 
the city by the erection of buildings and blocks, among which were 
the Columbian Hall and Hotel and the First National Bank Block. 
Mr. Oliver Moses built the Church Block on Front street in i860, 
and the Universalist Church on Washington street the same year, 
paying largely for it himself. He also became largely interested in 
railroads; was president of the Androscoggin Railroad Company 
and superintended the construction of the road; was president of 
the Knox & Lincoln Railroad and was active in its construction. 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Moses was chiefly instrumental in founding the First 
National Bank of Bath, the first established in the state and num- 
bered sixty-one in the United States; was the first president of the 
bank and continued in the office until his death, which occurred on 
February 11, 1882, at the age of 79 years. Mrs. Moses died May 
1, 1886. He was also one of the founders of the Bath Savings 
Institution and served as one of the directors. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 415 

With the above record of his business career it would be super- 
fluous to add that the life of Mr. Moses had been one of exceeding 
activity. He was known as a man of indomitable energy, decision, 
and force of character. With unerring judgment and innate fore- 
sight, all his undertakings uniformly resulted in success. He was a 
believer in force of will and that what one man had accomplished 
another man could. Starting in life as he did with a limited educa- 
tion, with nothing but his own unaided arms and brain with which 
to work, he steadily advanced from a humble avocation to a position 
of wealth and influence second to none in the community in which 
he lived, and in competition with those who had from the start 
superior advantages. In person Mr. Moses was above the medium 
size and well developed, with native courtesy and personal magnet- 
ism, clear cut in words and ways, and true to his convictions. All 
his life an ardent Democrat, he had no aspirations for office. In 
religious matters he affiliated with the Universalist denomination 
and was one of the chief supporters of that society in this city. 
Temperance in all things and strict morality were marked features 
of his long and active life. 

Mr. Moses was born in Scarboro, Me., May 12, 1803. On July 
9, 1829, he married Miss Lydia Ham Clapp, daughter of Charles 
Clapp of Bath. They had five children: Frank Oliver, Galen 
Clapp, Harriet Sylvester, Anna Elizabeth, and Wealthy Clapp. 

Bernard C. Bailey was a grandson of Col. John Bailey, of Han- 
over, Mass., who was an officer in the Continental service in 1775, 
having command of a regiment in May of that year, held the com- 
mission of colonel in 1776 and served during the Revolutionary War 
with the reputation of a brave and faithful officer. Bernard C. was 
born in Hanover, May 17, 1796, and married Jane Doten Donnell, 
who was born in Hanover, May 3, 1797. 

Coming to Bath at an early age, Mr. Bailey entered upon active 
business in navigation, merchandise, and manufacturing, in all of 
which he met with success. In 1853 and 1854 he was elected mayor, 
and his administration was notable for the needed improvement of 
the streets of the city, into the work of which he entered with vigor 



416 HISTORY OF BATH. 

and efficiency. .When the Marine National Bank was organized Mr. 
Bailey was one of its founders and its first president, which position 
he held until his death in June, 1876, when eighty years of age. He 
was mayor at the time of the Know Nothing riot of 1854. Mr. Bailey 
was a very enterprising business man, straightforward in all his 
dealings, of exceedingly pleasant manners, and as a prominent citi- 
zen was greatly esteemed. 

Samuel D. Bailey, son of the above, was in partnership with his 
father in ship-building and other branches of his business, and suc- 
ceeded him in the presidency of the Marine Xational Bank, continu- 
ing in the position to the present time, devoting himself exclusively 
to banking business. He was mayor in 1870, elected on a citizens' 
ticket, and is president of the Eastern Steamboat Company and 
interested in other corporations. Mr. Bailey has ever been one of 
Bath's solid citizens and of the highest integrity. 

Sewall Watson was born in Leicester, Mass., in 1795, and went 
to Castine, Me., at the age of fifteen years and was clerk in a store 
when that town was occupied by the British in 18 12. During his 
residence in Castine he was town clerk for seven years, sheriff of 
Hancock County in 1830, and clerk of courts in 1838. He came to 
Georgetown in 1846, where he was in business for nearly twenty 
years. While there he was chairman of the board of selectmen for 
five years; was state senator in 1856 and a member of the Gov- 
ernor's Council during the War of the Rebellion. He removed to 
Bath in 1866, and died in this city in 1882, at the age of 87 years. 
Mr. Watson was twice married, his first wife being Anstress Little, 
by whom he had seven children. She died in 1843. His second 
wife was Mrs. Alice Delano of Georgetown. She died in Bath in 
1874. Two of Mr. Watson's sons, Sewall J. and William H., have 
been residents of Bath since 1848. 

William H. Watson was born in Castine in 1830; came to 
Bath in 1848; learned the tin and plumbing trade, and has been in 
the stove and plumbing business since 1854 until the present time, 
with the exception of about five years spent in the West, California, 
and in the army during the Civil War. He was married to Ellen C. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 417 

Hatch, in 1858, and has three daughters; served as lieutenant and 
captain of Company D, Third Maine Infantry, in the war, 1861-2 ; 
has been a member of the City Council six years and president of 
the board in 1885; has served as trustee and secretary of the Bath 
Military and Naval Orphan Asylum since 1882 to the present time; 
is an active member of Sedgwick Post, G. A. R., and Grace Epis- 
copal Church. 

John R. Kelley is one of Bath's successful ship-masters and 
ship-builders, having in his early life followed the occupation of his 
father by going to sea, and rising through all the grades of seaman- 
ship to commander. He has sailed deep-sea-going vessels of Bath's 
best build, including steamers sent to the Pacific coast, retiring while 
in the prime of life, investing in ships, and eventually becoming a 
ship-builder and ship-manager. Captain Kelly is a native of Phips- 
burg, born June 14, 1828. His great-grandfather was William 
Kelley, his grandfather John Kelley, and his father was Francis 
Kelley, who was born March 1, 1803, and married Mary Rook, at 
Phipsburg, September 20, 1827, she having been born April 5, 1806. 
Capt. Francis Kelley commenced a sea-faring life at the age of fifteen 
years, and followed that occupation until his retirement when verging 
on old age, having first been in command of coastwise vessels and 
then deep-sea-going ships, in which he was a part owner. During 
his later years he made his residence in Bath, where he died at a 
very advanced age. 

Although inclined to shun rather than seek positions, Capt. J. R. 
Kelley has been an alderman of the city, a trustee and is president 
of the People's Savings Bank, and has held other positions of trust 
and responsibility requiring sound judgment and reliability. Com- 
mencing in 1887, his firm, Kelley, Spear & Co., have built twenty- 
eight schooners, one bark, one barkentine, two steam barks, one 
steamer, two barges, and seven smaller crafts. 

Gardner (x. Deering has been, for a long series of years, a con- 
stant ship-builder, and for a number of years was in partnership with 
W. T. Donnell, the firm having been Deering & Donnell. The firm 
dissolved in the last-named year, since which date Mr. Deering has 



4l8 HISTORY OF BATH. 

been alone in his business, building a vessel every year to this time. 
He was a native of Edgecomb, which is said to be a good place to 
emigrate from. He came to Bath when twelve years of age, and has 
become prominent as a ship-builder and in municipal affairs, having 
served in the Common Council four years and then refusing a nom- 
ination for alderman. Mr. Deering was born October 18, 1833, and 
married Lydia M. Robbins, daughter of Chaney Robbins, of Bath, 
and of six children there are living : Emma H., Frank M., Harry G., 
and Carroll A. Emma H. married Calvin W. Rogers, who is in trade 
in Bath. Besides vessels built by the firm of Deering & Donnell, 
Mr. Deering has built the schooners William T. Donnell, Oliver S. 
Barrett, Horatio L. Barker, John C. Haynes, Lydia M. Deering, 
William C. Turner, John S. Deering, Edwin R. Hunt, David P. Davis, 
John S. Ames, Wesley Inoler. 

C. B. Harrington was born in Nova Scotia, in 183 1, came to 
Bath in 1847. He learned the joiner's trade and worked at it several 
years and when about twenty-two years of age began work in the 
ship-yard with his father who had been a ship-builder in Nova Scotia; 
learned drafting and the use of ship-carpenters' tools which, with his 
former knowledge of joiner work, made him a boat builder, at which 
he has worked ever since, and has built a great many boats of all 
kinds, as well as a large number of yachts for Boston parties. He 
has built one hundred and ten vessels and boats that have been 
registered, viz. : twenty-one schooner yachts, twenty-five sloops (most 
all yachts), twenty-five fishing schooners, and thirty-nine steamboats. 
He married at the age of twenty-one years and has had a family of 
nine children, seven of whom are now living, two sons and five 
daughters. The sons are both iron workers. 

Charles W. Taylor was born in Bath, February 14, 1849, and 
married Mary J. Lewis, at New Bedford, October 26, 187 1. He grew 
up in Bath; was educated in the city schools and Maine Wesleyan 
Seminary, Kent's Hill; was thirteen years in the employ of the 
Eastern Express Company in Boston, and seven years in the employ 
of the Pullman Company in Montreal ; is now in the coal business 
in Bathj in 1891 and 1892 was a member of the Common Council, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 419 

and an alderman from Ward Six for 1893. In political sentiments 
he is a Republican. 

William Pelham Larrafoee was a native of Phipsburg. He 
became a sea-faring man, sailing in Bath ships, among them the 
Hamburg, built by him at Phipsburg Centre, and the ship Moro, 
built also by him in the John Henry yard in Bath, and eventually 
was a resident of this city. His ancestry goes back to Walter 
Beath, a pioneer settler of Boothbay, coming directly there from 
the siege of Londonderry. He derives the name of Pelham from 
his grandfather, Joseph Beath, who married into the English Pelham 
family. He married, at Boothbay, Miss Ann Phillips Smith, sister 
of Seba Smith, who wrote the " Jack Downing " letters that were 
celebrated three-quarters of a century ago for their rich humor. 
The loss of his life at sea, together with two young daughters, is 
related elsewhere in this volume. Of his family there were several 
daughters, all married, and one son, Charles Smith Larrabee, who 
was engaged in the publishing business in New York until the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, when he went into the Army of the 
Potomac, captain of a Bath company in the Nineteenth Maine 
Regiment, after having served as mustering officer in Maine. After 
honorable discharge he engaged in business in Germany with suc- 
cess; returning from which he makes his home in Bath, where he mar- 
ried, in 1862, Ellen M. Conant. 

Joseph Toppan Donnell was born in Newburyport, Mass., in 
the year 1815, where, with his father, who carried on the business 
of rope-making, he learned the trade, and in the year 1843, together 
with his brother, George, came to Bath and built the rope-walk and 
carried on the business of rope-making and the manufacture of all 
kinds of cordage under the firm name of G. & J. T. Donnell. In 
1880, owing to the decease of George, the name of the firm was 
changed to J. T. Donnell, which continued until 1890, when the 
business was changed into a corporation under the name of the 
Donnell Cordage Co. Mr. Donnell withdrew from any active par- 
ticipation in the business, although he held \he position of president 
of the new corporation. Mr. Donnell was, at different times, a 



420 HISTORY OF BATH. 

member of both branches of the City Government, but had no polit- 
ical ambitions. He was a very successful business man, though 
conservative, and carried on for forty-seven years one of the very 
few manufacturing establishments of Bath. He died in July, 1893. 

Charles R. Donnell, a son of J. T. Donnell, was born in Bath, 
in 1846; graduated from the high school in 1863, and immediately 
went into the rope-walk of G. & J. T. Donnell and learned the trade 
and business. In 1880 he made one of the firm of J. T. Donnell & 
Co. In 1890 he was instrumental in forming the Donnell Cordage 
Co., of which he was elected treasurer and general manager, which 
position he now holds, 1893. He married, in 1874, Ella M. Mooers, 
and they have two children, a daughter, Florence E., and a son, 
Charles J. 

James D. Robinson comes down from a long line of distin- 
guished ancestry, of which he has a place in the sixth generation. 
He commenced his business life at Bath, and was for many years 
employed in the store of Jeremiah Robinson on Water street, oppo- 
site where is now the Bath Iron Works. He became interested in 
navigation and was master of the schooners Comet and the Planet, 
plying as packets between Bath and Boston, for eight years, from 
which service he acquired the title of captain. Retiring from a sea- 
faring life, in 1840, he entered into business on his own account, 
which he continued with success; having been a constant owner in 
shipping, dealer in timber, a half owner in the Parkers Head Ice 
Company, and holding largely in real estate. Though always in- 
clined to refuse office, he served the city on both boards of the City 
Government and was twice mayor; was city assessor several years; 
was a member of the board of directors of the First National Bank 
from its organization; was vice-president of the Sagadahoc Histor- 
ical Society many years, and was one of the solid men of Bath, of 
perfect integrity. He died April 28, 1893. 

He had been twice married. The first wife was Mary Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Jeremiah Robinson, his employer at the time. 
His second wife was Caroline Dresser, of Castine, whose father was 
born at Scarboro. Mrs. Robinson has considerable literary taste and 



HISTORY OF BATH. 42 1 

is a member of the school committee of the city. Captain Robin- 
son had two sons and a daughter by his first marriage, and by his 
second marriage one daughter and a son, W. W. Robinson. 

George Moulton, Jr., was born March 4, 1840. His father was 
George Moulton, now an aged citizen of this city, a native of Par- 
sonfield, and who came to Bath, from Limerick, in 1828, entered upon 
the business of blacksmith and carriage work, and later operating a 
machine and boiler shop, of which he made a success, retiring at a 
green old age, now reaching 86 years. He has served in the city 
government as a member of the Common Council during the Know 
Nothing excitement of 1854, and has ever been a useful and respected 
citizen. After having completed his education in the city schools, 
his son, George, at the age of fifteen, went to work with his father; 
was taken into partnership in January, 1862, and upon the-retire- 
ment of his father, in 1879, became sole proprietor of the business, 
continuing to the present date. Mr. Moulton has been prominent 
as a citizen, as a Republican, and as a member of the City Govern- 
ment, having served in the Common Council one year, on the Board 
of Aldermen four years, mayor in 1889, and is a member of the 
Board of Registration. 

On November 16, 1864, he married Fannie E. Shaw, and their 
children are : George F., Mary M., Jane D., Ruth E., Fannie M., 
Charles D., John O., and Carrie E. They are graduates of the High 
School; two of the daughters are engaged in teaching; Mary M. 
married, in 1886, Fred H. Morse, who is in business in Philadelphia, 
where they reside ; George F. was born September 12, 1865, gradu- 
ated from the Boston School of Pharmacy, and is in a drug store in 
Stockbridge, Mass. 

George E. and Frank N. Thompson are natives of Bath, sons 
of John L. and Lucy D. Thompson, old residents of the city. The 
young men commenced the business of clothiers by having the sole 
charge of a store in this city, employed by a Boston firm, several 
years, making the business a success. In 1888 they opened a store 
for themselves as Thompson Brothers, in Church Block, drawing a 
heavy trade from the start, having as large a stock of goods in that 



422 HISTORY OF BATH. 

line as any establishment of the kind in this section of the state, 
and their well-known square dealing has assured them a thrifty busi- 
ness. George E. was born September 3, 1859, and is married to 
Lizzie Low, daughter of David P. Low, an old citizen of Bath. 
Frank N. was born July 20, 1856, and bis wife was Miss Effie, 
daughter of F. L. Hodgdon of Boothbay. 

Milton G. Shaw is a native of Industry, Me., has passed the 
larger part of his business life at Greenville, which town he has 
been chiefly instrumental in building up, and where he and his sons 
have large real estate interests. It is the center of their extensive lum- 
bering operations ; is contiguous to much of their large area of tim- 
ber lands; and is where they have a large farm. Mr. Shaw has been 
in the lumber business since 1841 continuously. While a resident 
there he filled, at different times, all the offices of the town of any 
importance, and was a member of the Legislature at the session of 
1859. In 1883 he and his sons built the large "Shaw Mill" at Bath, 
contemporaneous with which he passed a portion of his time in the 
city, and in 1883 purchased a dwelling and established his residence 
here. Mr. Shaw is of the same age as that of the State of Maine, 
having been born in 1820; has a family that consists of wife, one 
daughter, Mary (Mrs. Frederic H. Kimball), and sons, Charles D., 
Albert H., and William M. Shaw. Charles D. and William M. con- 
duct the business of the firm at Greenville, and the father and 
Albert H. manage it at Bath. The Shaws have large interests in 
the recent improvements at Rumford Falls. Since becoming a citi- 
zen of Bath Mr. Shaw has done much in aiding legitimate business 
enterprises in the city, making real estate improvements and owning 
in schooners built in the city. Mr. Shaw's business ventures, with 
sound judgment, square dealings, far-sighted abilities, and life-long 
industry, have resulted in eminent success. 

William T. Doilliell is a native of Bath, born in 1837; is a son 
of Benjamin Donnell, who was a ship-joiner, and William T. was 
brought up to the same employment. He eventually engaged in 
ship-building, which be has followed thirty years. He built with G. 
G. Deering for a number of years, since which time he has built 



HISTORY OF BATH. 423 

with his son, Harry H., as assistant. Mr. Donnell married Clara 
Hitchcock, daughter of Harry Hitchcock, an old ship-builder, and 
their children are : Harry H., Clara A., William R., and Addie E. 
Mr. Donnell has been a member of the City Government many 
years, serving in both boards, to the present time, and is a member 
of the National Association of Captains and Vessel Owners. In 
his own yard he has built the schooners Katie J. Barrett, George R. 
McFadden, George P. Davenport, Clara A. Donnell, Independent, 
Mary E. H. G. Dow, and has a 1,200 ton schooner now on the 
stocks. Harry H. is a graduate of the high school, of the class of 
'83, is in the ship-building business in Bath, and built in 1890 the 
schooner Addie P. McFadden and in 189 1 the schooner Leora 
McFadden. 

James B. Drake has been one of Bath's active business men 
for the last quarter of a century, having been extensively known as 
representing some of the leading fire and marine insurance com- 
panies of this country and England; united with this business he is 
largely engaged in buying and selling and is a large owner and 
manager of vessels. He has long been a large stockholder in the 
Kennebec & Boston Steamboat Company, and on its re-organization, 
in 1889, became its president. His management, as president of 
the company, commenced with the building and adding to the line 
the steamer Kennebec, the conducting of which he has made an 
eminent success. Mr. Drake is married, has a family, and has for 
many years been recording secretary of the Winter Street Congre- 
gational Society. 

Samuel Duncan, physician, was a descendant of the old Dun- 
can family of Scotland, several families of whom emigrated to this 
country and settled in Massachusetts in the early part of the eight- 
eenth century.^ In about 1775 Samuel moved to this section of the 
state, purchased a farm in what is now called " Harding," on the 
New Meadows River, and erected thereon a large, two-story house, 
which is still standing, in a good state of repair, and until recently 
occupied by the family of Chapin Weston. Doctor Duncan had an 
extensive practice and had been called "Old Doctor Duncan" for 



424 HISTORY OF BATH, 

some years, although he was but thirty-nine years of age at the time 
of his death, which occurred June 30, 1784. He kept his hair 
clipped and wore a white wig, as was the custom, which, no doubt, 
contributed to his venerable appearance. He was buried in the old 
cemetery, near Witch Spring, in West Bath. His family consisted 
of one son and two daughters : Samuel Eaton, ^Hannah, Lydia. 

Horatio A. Duncan, a descendant of Dr. Samuel Duncan, was 
educated in the public schools and graduated from the high 
school in 1856. In January, 1865, he was elected cashier of the 
Marine National Bank, newly incorporated, which position he still 
retains. He has served in both branches of the City Government, 
and was for two years president of the Board of Aldermen. He 
was also for years connected with the fire department, being at one 
time on the board of engineers; is now a member of the school 
board and its vice-chairman; has also passed through the chairs of 
the several Masonic organizations. He married, in 1867, Georgie 
G. Mayhew, daughter of Nathan Mayhew, merchant, of Bath, by 
whom he had six children, three of whom are now living: Silas H., 
engaged in clothing manufacturing; Arthur B., watch-maker and 
engraver ; Grace, recently graduated from Bath High School. His 
first wife died and Mr. Duncan, in 1878, married Mrs. Augusta M. 
Hyde, by whom he has one child, Georgie, who was born in 1881. 
William C. Duncan, brother of H. A. Duncan, has been assistant 
postmaster at Bath from 1889 to 1894. 

George A. PreMe was the last representative of the main line 
of the ancient Preble family. Among his ancestors were Ebenezer 
and Jonathan Preble, who were noted among the early settlers of 
ancient Georgetown, whose home was a block-house so well histor- 
ically known as located at the head of Arrowsic Island, and where 
the Rev. Robert Gutch purchased at a very early day. George A. 
was a grandson of the Preble, who was one of the returned 
captives from Canada, so much noted in history, and his father was 
a sea-captain who died when George was five years old. The 
farm on which he was born, and where his ancestors became the 
victims of Indian cruelty, passed down through natural succession, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 425 

and became, in time, the possession of Captain Preble. George A. 
Preble commenced going to sea in his early life, and worked his way 
up to the command of ships, which became the business of his life, 
himself having a part ownership in the ships in which he sailed. He 
retired from the sea while in the prime of life, having his residence 
in Bath. He married and had two daughters, now living in Bath. 
He was for many years an active member of the Bath Board of 
Trade, a member of the Sagadahoc Historical Society, and a mem- 
ber of the City Government, in which capacity he did valuable 
service. For some years he represented Bath in the board of direc- 
tors of the Knox & Lincoln Railroad. He died greatly regretted 
by his fellow-citizens. 

Elisha Clarke was a descendant of Col. Matthew Clarke, who 
fought at the siege of Londonderry, Ireland, in 1689, and who after- 
ward settled on a royal grant of land in this country, and was given 
the title of " fighting parson " by becoming a Presbyterian pastor. 
Elisha Clarke was born in Bristol, Me. ; wheri fourteen years of age 
removed to Hallowell and fitted for college at the Hallowell Acad- 
emy, also learning the printers' trade. In 1836 he married Sarah 
Mansfield and moved to Bath, having purchased the Maine Gazette 
and Inquirer and merged it into the Lincoln Telegraph. In 1846 he 
purchased and established a bookstore. While still in this business 
he accepted the position, also, of manager of the Daily Tribune, 
Mr. Clarke with E. Roberts afterwards bought the Tribune, and Mr. 
Clarke took editorial charge. In a short time he sold his interest in 
the paper and entered the Custom House as deputy collector, which 
office he held for twenty years, when failing health obliged him to 
give up business cares. He died November 23, 1884. He was 
state senator in 1853 and 1854. He was a member of the Masonic 
Solar Lodge and of Dunlap Commandery, Knights Templar; a 
charter member of Lincoln Lodge, I. O. O. F., and a Past Grand 
Master of the State Encampment of the United States with John T. 
Gilman, E. S. J. Nealley, and others. He was a faithful member of 
the Methodist Church, being made president of its first conference, 
a delegate of Wesley to the Methodist Centennial, for years super- 
intendent of the Sunday School, and a member of the official board 



426 HISTORY OF BATH. 

of the church. Mr. Clarke was twice married ; his second wife was 
Miss Jane Moore of Waltham, Mass., who survived him. His only 
son is Charles Davenport Clarke, the founder and for thirteen years 
editor of the Bath Independent. 

George H. Nichols was born in Plaistow, N. H., March 16, 1832; 
came to Bath and was in the dry goods business from 1861 to 1885; 
was mayor in 1884; was postmaster from 1885 to 1889; kept the 
Tontine Hotel, in Brunswick, from 1890 to 1892; returned to Bath 
to become manager of the Atkinson Furnishing Company. He 
married Miss Susan E. Colby, of Lowell, Mass. 




VtSrPi ^v*. 




HISTORY OF BATH. 427 



NON=RESIDENT NATIVES. 



James W. Elwell. — There is not a great number of the old 
New York merchants still to be found among the younger genera- 
tion which has succeeded them, and in whose footsteps they are 
following. Many of those whose faces were familiar in the busy 
marts of trade, two and even one generation ago, have passed from 
life, or have, through choice or necessity, retired from participation 
in the business enterprises of the day. 

What, then, shall be said of such a representative as Mr. James 
W. Elwell, a man who has not only been a busy merchant for one 
and two generations, but for nearly three decades has been identified 
with the great business of the metropolis of the western hemisphere. 
Truly, such a man, one who has not only been successful in amass- 
ing a large fortune, but has done this without the. remotest sugges- 
tion of unfair dealing or any form of wrong doing, is entitled to 
more than usual mention with the other noble examples of the ideal 
American merchants and business men. We must accord Mr. Elwell 
a conspicuous place in the front rank among such men as Horace 
B. Claflin, David Dows, Henry E. Pierrepont, and others, of whom 
he is one of the few remaining members; men who, in their time, 
were not only successful in their mercantile pursuits, but left what 
was "rather to be chosen than great riches" — "a good name." To 
this, in addition, has Mr. Elwell proved, not only to himself, but for 
the comfort and joy of hundreds of beneficiaries of his charity, that 
"loving favor is better than silver and gold." The beautiful admo- 
nition of the Saviour was never carried out more effectually than in 
the life work of Mr. Elwell, during the period of which, it would be 
no exaggeration to say, he has given a million of dollars, a large 
part of his fortune, for the relief of the deserving poor and enfee- 
bled, and in aid of religious and benevolent institutions. 

James William Elwell was born in the old ship-building city of 
Bath, on the Kennebec River, Me., August 27, 1820. He is a 



428 HISTORY OF BATH. 

great-grandson of Payn Elwell, who married before reaching his 
majority, and left nine children, one of whom, Payn Elwell, Jr., 
he, previous to his death, had associated as a partner, he having 
previously been his clerk up to the age of twenty-two. At a later 
date he succeeded to his father's business, and took one of his own 
sons into partnership. This son was John Elwell, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, and he, following the example of his ances- 
tors, took his son, James W., into his employ at an early age, and it 
will thus be seen that he is essentially "a chip of the old block,'' 
having, from earliest youth, been brought up among commercial and 
mercantile surroundings. The father, John Elwell, when first enter- 
ing business, confined himself to general merchandise, but the 
extensive ship-building interests which were then, and are at this 
day, identified with Bath, induced him to extend his business into 
the fitting and equipping of vessels, for fishing cruisers and coast- 
ing ; he also established, at the same time, a very considerable West 
India trade. He settled in Brooklyn and commenced business with 
Mr. James B. Taylor, under the name of Elwell & Taylor, at No. 84 
Coffee House Slip, New York City. Brooklyn was then but an insig- 
nificant village, comparatively, and the trip from Bath to New York 
took up two weeks' time, steam then being in its infancy. In those 
days children were not usually sent to school at such an early age, 
but James W. began his schooling when only three years old, and at 
nine was so well prepared that he was admitted to the Bath Acade- 
my. The natural result was that he pushed his studies at an uncom- 
monly youthful period, and when his father opened store he was 
given the position of clerk. Some months subsequent to this he 
entered the store of James R. Gibson — not a very lucrative employ- 
ment — for in those days a clerk had to work his way upward by 
slow degrees, and in the meantime he was expected to do a great 
deal of hard work, for which he received very small wages, as wit- 
ness the terms upon which young Elwell entered Mr. Gibson's 
employ, where he was to receive no salary the first year, with fifty 
dollars the -following, and a subsequent small annual increase. But 
Mr. Gibson was a man who recognized merit and faithful conduct, 
and up to the end of the first six months this was substantially man- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 429 

ifested by the payment to him of twenty-five dollars, he, at the same 
time, being told his salary would be fifty dollars for the first year, 
instead of nothing, and at the end of the year he received the fifty 
dollars in full, although he had supposed the several advances 
during that time had been paid on account. 

Young ElwelPs progress, begun at this time, received no check 
thereafter; and in his eighteenth year he had charge of his employer's 
business, which was far from inconsiderable, and he remained with 
him until his retirement, May 1, 1838. 

James W. was then a youth of about eighteen years, but so well 
advanced in mercantile methods and knowledge that he was taken 
into partnership by his father, on May 1, 1838, in his shipping office, 
at No. 57 South street, the firm being known as John Elwell & Co. 
The father died in August, 1847, and for five years thereafter the 
business was conducted by James W. Elwell alone. During his part- 
nership with his father, he allowed his earnings to pay his father's 
obligations in full, brought about by the panic of 1837, by endorsing 
notes and signing bonds for others. He increased its business, 
establishing lines of sailing vessels between New York and the 
principal Southern seaports, as well as extending its export and 
import trade to the East and West Indies and South America. 

Charles Frederick Elwell, a brother and a clerk in his employ, and 
Thomas Besant, his book-keeper, were admitted into partnership in 
1852, the firm becoming James W. Elwell & Co. About two years 
later Mr. Besant withdrew from the firm; but its title remained, as it 
still does, the same. Mr. C. F. Elwell retired from the firm in 1885. 

Two brothers of Mr. Elwell are living, one of whom was for many 
years a ship-master, and is now engaged in business in Philadelphia, 
Pa. The youngest of the four brothers was the former partner. He 
was at one time president of the New York Maritime Exchange. 

On the maternal side the Elwell family is descended from Mary 
Sprague, one of the notable family of that name, who came to 
America in 1728, landing in Plymouth and settling in Duxbury and 
Marshfield, Mass. Subsequently some of their descendants removed 
into Rhode Island and Maine, where its members are well known 
and influential. 



43° HISTORY OF BATH. 

Mr. James W. Elwell was connected, from the origin, in 1838, with 
the old Merchants' Exchange, which subsequently became the pres- 
ent Produce Exchange of New York. He was for many years one 
of its arbitration committee, a tribunal equally as high in its powers 
as the Supreme Court of the State. In 1855 he became a member 
of the Chamber of Commerce, and was one of the incorporators of 
of the Shipowners' Association. 

In politics he was originally a Whig; but since the organization of 
the Republican party, he has not identified himself with any one in 
particular, preferring to remain independent in politics, especially in 
local matters — and in this he only votes for the best man. 

Although he has been connected with a great number of railroad, 
insurance and other enterprises, outside of his individual business, 
besides charitable and benevolent acts, he has not been absorbed 
by them ; and his generous nature has prompted to acts of benefi- 
cence of the most liberal character. Few, if any, men have done 
as much during their life-time in practical and unostentatious charity. 
The writer has been informed by friends of Mr. Elwell that he has 
donated substantial aid to not less than four hundred religious and 
charitable institutions, besides many and many times over, in his 
quiet way, in private gifts to the needy. It would require many 
times the space which could be given in an article like this to partic- 
ularize, even briefly, as to these many acts of kindness. But they are 
known to thousands ; and although Mr. Elwell has not sought praise 
for his generous acts, the pleasure he has brought to this multitude 
of needy ones, must but reflect itself in his heart as a generous 
act well done in each instance. The consciousness of this is, in 
itself, sufficient reward to this man, who does a generous act because 
it is a pleasure to him. In the autumn of life, yet still vigorous and 
active, how much greater must be the gratification to him than any 
sordid hoading of his wealth would have brought. All honor to 
such men of wealth ! They are too few to pass by without more 
than a word of commendation. 

Mr. Elwell married Miss Olivia P. Robinson, of Bath, Me., 
in 1844. Her death took place in 1851; and he subsequently 
married Miss Lucy E. R. Stinson, also of Bath. He has three 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



431 



daughters living, one of them by his first wife. He has attended 
Clinton Avenue Congregational Church, in Brooklyn, since 1854, 
having become a member January 3, 1834, subsequently to which 
time he became deacon, and has been a familiar figure in the church 
in which way he has seated the stranger in that genial way which 
always made him feel at home and welcome. 

In closing, while we could say much more of Mr. Elwell, we will 
be content to mention his four most prominent characteristics. These 
are — fondness for old people; affection for little children, love of 
flowers, and generosity. Truly these, also, bespeak the nature of 
the man. We need say no more. Mr. Elwell is identified with Bath 
interests to a large extent in the way of having, during his business 
life in New York, been commission merchant for many of Bath's 
ship-owners, and as having invested in many vessels that have been 
built at this port. 

Orrington Lunt. — Going "out West" for the first time, the 
writer landed at Chicago in the fall of 1848, then, as now, the cen- 
tral point of travelers to the West. Immediately seeking for persons 
residing there who had come from Bath or its environs, he found, 
down on the lake front, the brothers Frank and Joseph Stockbridge, 
old school-mates in Bath, who were engaged in lumbering business. 
Joseph has since died, and Frank has become United States Senator 
for Michigan, to which state he had removed his business and resi- 
dence. Near their office he found Orrington Lunt, whom he had 
known in former years in Maine, and who was in a grain ware- 
house handling wheat bags, that seemed to indicate business. This 
was a long time before the great modern elevator was dreamed of, 
and farmers then brought their disposable crops to market in farm 
wagons. Mr. Lunt was known for a number years as one of the 
most prominent grain merchants of the Garden City, but from that 
active and special business he retired in early middle life. He 
became identified with large interests, railroad and municipal, and 
in real estate, but mainly occupied himself with church and educa- 
tional matters. He has always been a man of affairs, and has 
made his activity felt far and wide. Of late years his suburban 
home has been in Evanston, that beautiful village on the lake shore 



432 HISTORY OF BATH. 

within easy distance from the great metropolis, the very attractive 
location for a village which he was the first to discover, and the 
leading founder. The prace has a world-wide celebrity as the 
location of the Northwestern University, the Garrett Biblical Insti- 
tute, and Methodist Episcopal Institution, the largest and most 
popular school of learning in the Northwest, of which Mr. Lunt 
has been a foster-father, to which he has given his constant, per- 
sonal attention and devoted service, and largely of his abundant 
means. He was one of its founders, one of the charter members, 
a trustee from the start, and for over twenty years vice-president and 
acting president. 

In his active life and distinguished career in the West, Mr. Lunt 
has had, by his side, the inspiration of a companion, who, as a 
young bride, accompanied him to the new and unknown country, 
and has stood by him in the varying fortunes incident to untried 
ventures in a strange land, where the tests of character are often 
severe and the trials frequent, as in new scenes and among new friends 
there are constant calls to meet unexpected exigencies in which 
heroism and self-sacrifice are involved; and having gone hand in 
hand up the ladder of life with her ever faithful husband to position 
and more than independence, she now has the satisfaction of enjoy- 
ing, with him, the pleasures of a green old age, honored and 
esteemed by a wide circle of friends and acquaintances. 

As identified with Bath through his ancestors, the tracing of the 
distinguished career of Mr. Lunt may perhaps be in place in this 
volume. His family traces its ancestry to Henry Lunt, of Newbury- 
port, Mass., who came from England to America in 1635. His 
grandfather, Joseph Lunt, at an early day moved to Bath, where he 
took up his permanent residence. He there married a Miss Crocker, 
and their son, William Lunt, was born in this city, subsequently 
becoming a citizen of Bowdoinham, Me. Mr. William Lunt served 
as a member of the State Legislature, and was an enterprising man 
of affairs. 

It was in the town of Bowdoinham that Orrington Lunt was born, 
December 24, 1815. His grandmother was a daughter of that dis- 
tinguished Revolutionary hero, General Vose, an original member of 



HISTORY OF BATH. 433 

the Society of the Cincinnati, and a direct descendant of a noble 
family noted for its courage and prowess. Orrington Lunt's mother 
came of the Sumner family of Massachusetts, of which Charles 
Sumner was certainly one of its most distinguished representatives. 
Educated in the schools of his native village, Mr. Lunt, at an early 
age, became a clerk in his father's store, and, on attaining his major- 
ity, became a partner with him. When the father retired Mr. Lunt 
and his brother continued the business until 1842. 

Business becoming depressed in Bowdoinham, Mr. Lunt sold out 
his mercantile interests and went West, Chicago being his objective 
point. He reached the city in November, 1842, with very little 
available capital, having disposed of his business in the East at a 
great sacrifice. After waiting until spring to commence business, the 
serious illness of his wife compelled a return to the East. 

It was not until July, 1843, tnat ne was a ble to return to Chicago, 
his only capital being letters of commendation from eastern friends 
and business men. Purchasing a set of books on credit, he began 
his business career in Chicago as a commission merchant. He at 
once began making shipments of such produce as he could obtain, 
and by the summer of 1844 was fairly started in the grain trade. 
In 1845 he leased a lot on the river front and erected a warehouse, 
which he soon,fil!-ed with grain, after the harvest. 

In those days grain was delivered by the western farmers entirely 
by wagon. . Having accumulated something like ten thousand dollars, 
about this time he launched out upon a speculative enterprise in the 
grain trade. The result of this was that he lost all he had made. 
He had, however, been taught the valuable lesson of conservatism, 
and during his subsequent business career met with no reverses of 
consequence. He 'became a member of the Board of Trade upon 
its organization, and is one of the few men now living in Chicago 
who were identified- with'it during the pioneer period of its history. 

In 1853, when the entry of railroads into Chicago had changed 
materially the condition of trade, Mr. Lunt retired temporarily from 
commercial life, leasing his warehouse at that time. In 1859 he was 
again called upon to take charge of the business and continued in 
the trade until 1862, handling sometimes as much as three and a half 
millions of bushels of grain annually. 



434 HISTORY OF BATH. 

In 1855 he was elected water commissioner for the south division 
of Chicago, and in this capacity served the city six years. He 
became a director of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad Com- 
pany in 1855, and was connected with the road in this capacity, and 
a portion of the time also as its vice-president until it became a 
part of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company's system. 
Eminently successful as a business man, Mr. Lunt has always con- 
tributed generously to charitable, benevolent, and educational work. 

When he was twenty years of age, he became a member of the 
Methodist Church to which he has ever since been devotedly attached. 
This attachment has made him a conspicuous figure in Western 
Methodism for more than forty years. In Chicago he has been 
identified with every movement of consequence designed to advance 
the interests of the church. During the pioneer era of Methodism in 
Chicago, when lands had to be acquired and churches built, his busi- 
ness sagacity and unselfish devotion to the church interest secured 
for it much valuable property, while his direct gifts amounted to 
many thousands of dollars. Whenever a struggling church organ- 
ization has applied to Mr. Lunt for assistance, the applicant has 
not gone away empty handed, although many of the churches thus 
assisted have been of denominations other than that with which he 
was affiliated. 

Under all circumstances, he has been recognized as one of those 
public-spirited citizens who could be relied upon to aid every worthy 
enterprise. He was one of the builders of the Chicago Orphan 
Asylum, and served as a member of the War Finance Committee of 
Chicago, spending the first Sabbath after the fall of Fort Sumter in 
obtaining supplies and arranging to start the first regiment of troops 
sent out of the city to the front. 

Of the Northwestern University, Mr. Lunt has been one of the 
most generous benefactors. In addition to numerous smaller gifts, 
he bestowed upon the University, at one time, a direct gift of fifty 
thousand dollars, and at another time realty now valued at more than 
one hundred thousand dollars. The gift last mentioned has been set 
apart by the university authorities as the "Orrington Lunt Library 
Fund." These munificent donations, valuable as they have been 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



435 



and are to the Northwestern University, have been less valuable 
to it than the personal services, the business sagacity, and the per- 
sistent efforts of Mr. Lunt, as one of the principal officials and 
patrons of the institution. 

In 1842, Cornelia A. Gray, daughter of Hon. Samuel Gray of 
Bowdoinham — prominent in the State of Maine as lawyer and leg- 
islator — became the wife of Mr. Lunt. One daughter and two sons 
have gladdened and honored their home. The daughter, Miss Cor- 
nelia G. Lunt, an earnest, cultivated woman of rare intellectual and 
social gifts, is noted for her philanthropic spirit and her efficient 
services in behalf of the advancement of religious, educational, and 
charitable work. The eldest son is a lawyer of fine attainments, and 
the second a business man of high character and sterling integrity. 

On the sixteenth day of January, 1892, Mr. and Mrs. Lunt 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their marriage. On that 
occasion there came to the much beloved benefactor of Western 
Methodism and its institutions, and to his equally beloved wife, 
the congratulations of friends from all parts of the United States. 
Telegrams and letters from many of the bishops and leading minis- 
ters of the Methodist Episcopal Church, who have been more or less 
intimately associated with Mr. Lunt in church and educational 
work, bore abundant testimony of their appreciation of his labors 
and to the depth of their regard for him. Nor were those tributes 
confined to those whose church affiliations are the same as his. 

At his home on the evening of the sixteenth of January, 1892, the 
presence of more than two hundred friends, together with University 
officials, members of the faculty, and church dignitaries, bore added 
testimony to the esteem in which he is held in the community, with 
which he has been so long identified and which he has done so 
much -to build up. Dr. Henry Wade Rogers, president of the 
Northwestern University, said on that occasion: "No man hath 
ever seen in you anything but that which becometh a brave, pure, 
and gentle nature. And no man lives who does not wish you well." 
Mr. Davis, in behalf of the board of trustees, presented Mr. Lunt 
with a beautiful and valuable hall clock, with cathedral chimes and 
of the highest order of horological mechanism. Mr. Ridgaway pre- 



436 HISTORY OF BATH. 

sented Mr. Lunt with a very handsome Turkish easy chair. This 
substantial and elegant remembrance was the gift of the faculty of 
of Garrett Biblical Institute. With these presentations appreciative 
addresses were made, and President Rogers, in behalf of the College 
of Liberal Arts, delivered an address, which was a hearty tribute of 
the confidence, regard, and respect of the faculty; accompanying the 
address with the gift of an elegantly bound copy of the Century 
Dictionary. As mementos, nothing could have been in better taste 
than these chaste and elegant gifts, the more for their simplicity and 
usefulness. 

Edward Bowdoin Nealley, the eldest son of Edward S. J. 
Nealley and Lucy C. Nealley, was born in Thomaston, Me., July 22, 
1837, and was educated in Bath, graduating from the High School; 
was prepared for college in North Yarmouth Academy, and graduated 
from Bowdoin College in 1858. He then went to Iowa and studied 
law with his uncle, ex-Senator James W. Grimes. In 1861 he was 
appointed to a clerkship in the Navy Department at Washington, and 
was afterwards promoted to the chief clerkship of a bureau in the 
same department. In 1864 he was appointed, by President Lincoln, 
the first United States Attorney for the Territory of Montana, and 
while there he wrote articles that were published in the Atlantic 
Monthly, Lippincotfs, and other magazines, descriptive of that new 
and distant territory. Upon his return he settled in business in 
Bangor, where he still resides. 

He married, in 1867, Miss Mary Ann Drummond, daughter of 
Capt. Jacob Drummond, of Bangor, formerly of Phipsburg. She 
died in 1877, leaving one child, Mary Drummond Nealley, who was 
born September 13, 1872. 

Mr. Nealley has been much in public life, having been one of the 
Board of Overseers of Bowdoin College since 1877; representative 
in the Maine Legislature in 1876 and 1877; was speaker of the 
House in the session of 1877; was state senator from Penobscot in 
1878; was mayor of Bangor in 1885 and 1886; is president of the 
Merchants Insurance Company (Marine), of Bangor, and president 
of the Bangor & Piscataquis Railroad Company. At the Centennial 



HISTORY OF BATH. 437 

Celebration of the organization of the town of Thomaston, in 1877, 
he delivered the oration, as he also did at the Centennial Celebra- 
tion at Bath, in 1 881. Every position in life in which Mr. Nealley 
has been placed has been without solicitation on his part, and the 
duties of which have been acquitted with faithfulness and honorable 
credit. 

E. B. Mallett, Jr. — The father of Mr. Mallett being a sea-captain 
and Mrs. Mallett sailing with her husband, their son was born at 
sea, in the ship Devonshire. When old enough he entered the public 
schools in Bath, where he completed his education. At sixteen years 
of age he went to New York City, where he remained until 1875, 
when he returned to Bath, purchased and lived on a farm in Pownal 
in 1877, and eight years later settled in Freeport, his present place 
of residence. 

Having inherited considerable property from an uncle, he has in- 
vested it in business at Freeport, having in view the improvement of 
the town. He has put up two large buildings for shoe factories, which 
are occupied by parties free of rent for ten years ; has a saw and 
grist-mill; a double store; has built cottages for employes to the 
extent of thirty-five rents; has developed and is working a valuable 
quarry of very excellent light granite ; has established a brick-yard 
and a box factory, employing, altogether, one hundred and fifty work- 
men in various avocations. 

Besides his multifarious business Mr. Mallett interests himself in 
public affairs, having been town treasurer two years, and chairman 
of the board of school committee the same length of time ; was a 
member of the House of Representatives of the state in 1887 and 
1888; was senator for 1891 and 1892, and re-elected for 1893 and 
1894; was a delegate to the Republican National Convention held in 
Chicago in 1888, and delegate-at-large to the Minneapolis National 
Convention in 1892. He is high up in Masonry; is Past Master of 
Freeport Lodge ; is Past Senior Grand Warden, and thereby a Perma- 
nent Member of the Grand Lodge; is a member of Portland Com- 
mandery; is at the head of Maine Consistory; has taken the 
thirty-third degree and is thereby an honorary member of the 
Supreme Council, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, U. S. A. 



438 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Washington Elliot was born in Brunswick, November 3, 1820, 
was educated in the public schools, and, when commencing his life 
business, came to Bath and engaged in mercantile pursuits. Pos- 
sessing a natural taste for music and a fine voice, he employed his 
leisure time in teaching vocal music in Bath, Brunswick, and Port- 
land, in which he excelled, especially in instructing large classes, as 
also in training church choirs. He was reputed to be one of the 
best tenor singers in Maine, having a range of voice of unusually 
high register. As leader of male quartettes in Bath and Portland 
he acquired a wide popularity. 

In 1852 he left Bath with his wife for California and there engaged 
in mercantile business and at the same time formed a class in vocal 
music, the first one ever taught in California, and immediately took 
position in a choir at seventy-five dollars a month. Soon after he 
became salesman in a large grocery store, and subsequently took a 
partner and went into business for himself. He had a fine trade, 
taking the lead of all grocers at that time, and success was assured; 
but while all was moving prosperously his partner, unbeknown to him, 
went into outside speculation, which resulted in financial ruin. 

In 1861 he went into the public schools of San Francisco, where 
he taught music for nineteen years. He stood at the head of the 
profession in that line and had the reputation of being the best and 
most popular teacher in California. In 1881 all special teachers of 
music and drawing were dismissed from the department on account 
of extra expense and politics. He then removed to Alameda and 
engaged in the public schools there, meeting with great success. As 
an evidence of his musical standing and popularity in that line is 
the fact that for ten years he received from one church one hundred 
dollars a month for singing tenor and training the choir, and for 
more than five years received two hundred dollars per month from 
the schools. He was also always more or less engaged with male 
voice singing, and had several very fine clubs which became very 
popular in concert singing. 

During the last few years of his life advanced age prevented him 
from taking the active part in musical matters that was once the joy 
of his life. But Columbus Day at Alameda was a great day for 



HISTORY OF BATH. 439 

him, for among the magnificent pageant there were 2,500 school 
children in line, and Professor Elliot was chosen to conduct the 
musical programme for the day. The Alameda papers commented 
on it and said: "Prof. Washington Elliot led the big chorus that 
sang the patriotic airs at the park, and it seemed perfectly natural 
to see him leading the music. He wielded the baton with the vigor 
of old." 

In early life he married Miss Mary Rich, in Bath, who now sur- 
vives him, and there are living a son and daughter, in California, 
who are prosperous in life, are married and have families, among 
whom, at the time of his death, Professor Elliot was enjoying a 
green old age, respected and esteemed by all who knew him both 
East and West. 

Professor Elliot was the eldest son of Dea. Ephraim Elliot, who 
was one of the best of men. After an absence of twenty-one years 
in California he visited with his wife, in the summer of 189 1, his 
relatives and friends in Bath and neighboring towns. While in the 
city he was warmly welcomed by his old friends, sang in some of 
the churches, and greatly enjoyed meeting and singing with his old- 
time musical associates. Before Professor Elliot left for his home 
in California he received his old friends at the home of his sister, 
Mrs. Parker M. Reed, on South street, and there passed a very 
happy evening. As he himself proudly expressed it, "We had a 
good sing." These same friends often speak of this last evening 
with Washington Elliot as one that would always bring pleasant 
memories. 

At the time of his death he was residing in Alameda, where he 
had a cosy residence. His son Charles lived near him and his 
married daughter, Georgiana, resides in San Francisco. He died 
February 19, 1893, at the age of 72 years. 

Francis Henry Fassett, of Portland, is a son of a well-known 
citizen of Bath of a former" generation. He was born in this city, 
in June, 1823, and received such an education as was obtainable in 
the public schools, chiefly under the excellent instruction of Master 
Joshua Page in the old Erudition school-house, from which have 



44° HISTORY OF BATH. 

graduated many Bath boys who have since done credit to the teach- 
ing of that veteran instructor by the mark they have made in the 
world. 

Mr. Fassett was a born architect. He commenced his career as 
an architect by learning to handle tools in the joiner trade, which 
occupation led to the development of his taste and talent for archi- 
tecture, the pursuit of which he began in Bath. When he had so 
far tried his skill in this department of mechanics, he struck out 
for a larger field, and located himself in Portland in 1864. The 
result has shown that he did not overrate his capabilities, as the 
reputation he has acquired as an architect is widespread as the 
country. His handiwork is to be seen in every part of the state 
in the chaste and magnificent style of construction of numerous 
public and private edifices. The great Portland fire of 1866 gave 
him unexcelled opportunities, and his work is to be seen in the fine 
design of the best buildings that rose from the ashes of that con- 
flagration, which include city buildings, churches, school buildings, 
large residences, and later the Maine General Hospital and Baxter 
Public Library building. 

Ardon W. Coombs, of Portland, was born in Brunswick, in 1847, 
and when two years old moved with his father's family to Bath, where 
he was educated in the city schools, graduating from the high school 
in 1865; studied law in Bath with J. S. Baker; admitted to the Bar 
in August, 1868, in Sagadahoc County; was in the law office of 
Francis Adams in Brunswick one year, and when Mr. Adams moved 
to Bath he continued practice at Brunswick another year ; went to 
Portland in January, 1870; was county attorney from January, 1880, 
to January, 1885; city solicitor in 1888 and re-elected two years, 
voluntarily retiring in March, 189 1. 

His father is Judge Nathan Coombs, who was a native of Bruns- 
wick; moved to Bath in 1849; was deputy sheriff of Sagadahoc 
County eight years ; admitted to the Bar in 1875; went into part- 
nership in the practice of law with Francis Adams ; was appointed 
municipal judge by Governor Bodwell in 1887 ; was re-appointed by 
Governor Burleigh in 1891, and has served some years in the Com- 
mon Council of Bath. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 44 1 

Thomas G. Harris, of Portland, was born in Wales, Me., 
December 29, 1835. When one year old he was moved to Bruns- 
wick with his parents, receiving his education there in the public 
schools and with private teachers. His father was an old school- 
teacher and merchant. When seventeen and one-half years of age 
he commenced going to sea, first in the ship Northern Empire, in 
1853, and at the age of twenty-one years became master of the 
barque Orrella, in 1857. On retiring from a sea-faring life, in i860, 
he engaged in the wholesale fruit and grocery trade, in Bath, which 
he continued, with the exception of two and one-half years, until he 
moved to Portland, in March, 1886, where he is engaged in the 
same business, adding that of brokerage, with success. While 
residing in Bath Captain Harris served as member of tiie Common 
Council in 1866 and 1869; was an active member of the Board of 
Trade for twelve years; has always been a- man of affairs and a 
Republican in politics. Mr. Harris married Miss Mary A. Pattee, 
whose ancestors were residents of Hingham, Mass., who settled in 
Bath soon after the Revolutionary War. 

William Henry Fogg was born in Bath, March 2, 1837. His 
ancestry comprises names that are prominent in the early history of 
Bath. The first minister in Bath, the Rev. Solomon Page, was his 
great-great-grandfather and Maj. Edward H. Page his great-grand- 
father. On November 12, 1864, he married Lydia Ann Merrow, of 
West Waterville, who was born March 16, 1843, an d died February 
17, 1887. Their children living are: Lizzie Mabel, Hortense, and 
W. Harry. 

Immediately on the commencement of the late war Mr. Fogg 
enlisted in Company A, Third Maine Regiment, and was in the first 
battle of Bull Run; entered the navy in February, 1863, on the 
frigate Savannah; was taken prisoner and was in Libby, Danville, 
Augusta, Macon, and Charleston prisons, to Libby again, and was 
paroled October 18, 1864; having been exchanged was ordered to 
duty, December 12, 1864, on the Muscoota, then to the Calipso, next 
to the captured ram Columbia, thence to the flag monitor ship Cats- 
kill. The war having closed he resigned November 1, 1865. Return- 



442 HISTORY OF BATH. 

ing home Mr. Fogg engaged in dealing in men's furnishing goods in 
Bath, which business he disposed of in 1888 and moved to Portland. 

William B. Olys was born in Bath, December 17, 1856. His 
father and mother came from the County of Roscommon, Ireland, 
in 1848, to Bath, the father dying in 1872. Mr. Olys graduated 
from the high school ; was employed in the printing and publishing 
establishment of E. C. Allen at Augusta; was an assistant in the 
management of several hotels, which he left, in 1886, to enter into 
the ship brokerage, commission, and insurance business, building 
three vessels in 1889-91, and operated extensively in ice. In April, 
1892, he went to Boston and engaged in real estate and banking 
business. 

George W. Bicker, of Rockland, was born in Bath, September 
1, 1820. His father kept for many years the Bath Hotel. George 
W. was also a hotel-keeper in Augusta a considerable length of 
time ; has been engaged in other business and is a prominent man 
of affairs. He married in Augusta and has one child, Emma B. 
Ricker. In his declining years he is living in Rockland, a respected 
citizen. 

Edward P. Mitchell, son of Edward H. Mitchell and Frances 
Page Mitchell, was born in Bath, March 24, 1S52. Going through 
the graded schools of the city and graduating from the high school, 
he entered Bowdoin College, graduating in 187 1. Having a taste 
for journalism, he early adopted that profession, commencing 
employment on the Boston Advertiser, in 1871, where he continued 
until 1872; worked on the Lewiston Journal in 1874 and 1875; 
accepted a position on the morning edition of the New York Sun 
the latter year ; has continued with that paper since that time and 
is assistant editor to his chief, Charles A. Dana. In 1874 he mar- 
ried Miss Annie S. Welch, of Bath, and they have four children, 
residing in New York City. 

. Samuel Harding was born in Bath, March n, 1809. His 
father was Samuel Harding, who was born at Truro, Mass., and his 
mother was Lucy Stetson Harding, who was born at Duxbury, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 443 

Mass. They came from Truro to Brunswick (New Meadows), Me., 
where his father had purchased a farm (now Miss Snow's beautiful 
place), and where his grandparents lived the remainder of their lives. 
His father, in his early days, was a successful ship-master from 
Bath, in the Liverpool and West India trade. Samuel Harding lived 
in his latter years in Brooklyn, N. Y., where he died in 1892, when 
84 years of age. 

J. €r. Dunning, of Springfield, Hampden County, Mass., son 
of Ebenezer and Harriet P. (Frost) Dunning, was born in Bath, 
May 25, 1857. After graduating at the Bath High School, in 1874, 
he taught the winter term at North Bath, and was afterwards prin- 
cipal of the lower grammar school in Bath for four years. While 
teaching in the latter school he began the study of law with Judge 
Washington Gilbert, and afterwards graduated from the law depart- 
ment of Boston University, in 1880, with the degree of LL.B. He 
was admitted to the Bar of Hampden County the same year and 
opened an office at Springfield, and has been in the continuous 
practice of his profession there ever since. He was married, in 
1884, to Miss Sadie L. Potter, daughter of William Potter, of 
Arrowsic, and has two children, Harold G., born May 17, 1884, and 
Ray P., born December 12, 1888. 

Arthur C. Donnell, of San Francisco, belongs to a family that is 
the oldest in Bath, coming originally from Scotland and locating at 
Yarmouth and York, believed to be during the year 1700. Of this 
branch was Nathaniel Donnell, the purchaser of a large portion 
of what is now the territory of Bath from the heirs of Robert Gutch. 
Mr. Arthur Chatham Donnell, who was born in Bath, in 1853, comes 
down from this ancestor, and his father was Arthur Donnell, who 
had been an alderman of Bath, and his grandfather and great- 
grandfather had served in the State Legislature. He was educated 
in the city schools, graduated from the high school and was a mem- 
ber of the Phi Rho Society; passed an examination for Harvard, 
but on account of the death of his father went to California, where 
he was engaged in civil engineering six or seven years, after which 
he entered into the insurance business, and is now a partner in the 



444 HISTORY OF BATH. 

firm of Okill, Donnell & Co., managers for the United States for a 
large English insurance company, for a New York insurance com- 
pany, and for the Employers' Liability Assurance Corporation of 
London for the Pacific coast. In 1734 a kinsman of the original 
Nathaniel Donnell resided where is now the mansion of Thomas W. 
Hyde. He died in 1761. The same house was afterwards occupied 
by another descendant, Capt. Benjamin Donnell. 

Bradstreet S. Rairden, of Aujer, Java. The father of Captain 
Rairden was Capt. Bradstreet Rairden, who was born at Georgetown, 
December 12, 1815, and died at Aujer, Java, May 28, 1887, while 
living there with his son after the loss of his daughter, a year previ- 
ous, who was with her husband who was in command of the ship 
Bombay when she was lost, with all on board, in the Atlantic Ocean. 
The father commenced a sea-faring life at an early age, and by regu- 
lar promotion rose to the office of captain, commanding the Bath 
ships Gerard, Gardner, Houghton, Ocean Romp, Canova, Alexander, 
Arcturus, and barks Henry Warren, Harriet Hussey, and Evie Reed, 
in all of which he made successful and uneventful voyages. 

His son, Bradstreet S., was born in New Orleans, November 7, 
1858; spent his youthful days in Bath, with the exception of one 
year at school in Portishead, England; commenced going to sea in 
November, 1874; took command of the bark Evie Reed, at Portland, 
Me., August 18, 1881, at the age of twenty-three years; left this 
vessel, on account of sickness with Java fever, at Batavia, Java, 
March, 1884, and settled at Aujer, April, 1884, as ship-chandler and 
commission merchant. He was married to Frances Elizabeth Collins 
(who was born at Bootle, England, July 16, 1865), January 12, 1887. 
Their children: Frank Bradstreet, born May 4, 1888; Percy Wallace, 
born November 14, 1889; Mamie Lowell, born May 30, 1891. In 
August, 1892, Captain Rairden was appointed, by President Harrison, 
consul to Batavia, Java, and took charge of the consulate November 
1, 1892. 

Willfleld Scott Batchelder was born in Phipsburg, in 1841, 
and is a son of Emerson Batchelder. His business life was com- 
menced in a cotton commission house in Philadelphia, and when 










DONNELL HOMESTEAD, 1734. 
Site of "Elmhurst," High Street, 189* 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



445 



the War of the Rebellion was in progress he enlisted as a private in 
the 1 1 8th Pennsylvania Infantry; was promoted to first lieutenant; 
participated in the battles in which that regiment was engaged 
including that of Gettysburg, participating in the repulse of Picket's 
famous charge. After serving two and a half years in the army he 
was compelled, by disability, to retire from further service. He 
married a Southern Union lady, of Harper's Ferry, and has two 
sons. His residence is at Titusville, Pa., where he is general super- 
intendent of the Titus Water Pipe Company, which is a very 
responsible position and which he has filled many years. His 
mother is a widow, residing in Bath. 

Luther Dorr Emerson, grandson of the Rev. Ezekiel Emerson, 
and son of Hawley Emerson and his wife, Rachel Lennan, was born 
in Arrowsic, and married Miss D. Minerva, daughter of Reuben 
Crane, of Fayette, Me. Their children are Alice and Walter C. 
The latter graduated from Colby University, in 1884, and is one of 
the editors and proprietors of the Portland Advertiser. Mr. Emerson 
was engaged in the business of manufacturing scythes and axes and 
was president of the Messalouskee National Bank at Oakland, Me., 
where he died in October, 1893. 

George W. Percy, of San Francisco, was born in West Bath, 
July 5, 1847; went to sea; returned in 1866 and, after a short time 
at Kent's Hill school, entered the office of F. H. Fassett, the Port- 
land architect; went to California in 1869 ; went to Chicago after 
the great fire, and was engaged one year in the work of the rebuild- 
ing of that city; early in 1873 went to Boston and was in charge of 
the construction of several important buildings there during the 
next three years; returned to California and opened an office in San 
Francisco, where he has since been employed in practical architect- 
ure with success. In 1880 he entered into partnership with F. F. 
Hamilton. On December 29, 1881, Mr. Percy married Miss Emma 
W., daughter of Mr. D. W. Clark, of Portland, Me. Mr. Percy is a 
son of Dea. Isaiah Percy, who was a well-known resident of West 
Bath. T. B. Percy, another son, resides in Portland and is a deacon 
of the Second Parish Church. 



446 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Joseph Whitman Spaulding was born in Carratuck Plantation, 
Somerset County, Me., August n, 1841. November 4, 1865, he 
married Miss Mary Jane Clark, of Boston, Mass., who was born at 
Tinmouth, Vt., November 19, 1840, and they have two children. 
Mr. Spaulding was educated at Richmond Academy and Westbrook 
Seminary, and received the honorary degree of Master of Arts from 
Bowdoin, July 10, 1878. He had commenced the study of law, but 
when the War of the Rebellion broke out he resolved to tender his 
services, and was commissioned first lieutenant of Company A, of 
the Nineteenth Regiment of Maine Volunteers, which was mustered 
at Bath, August 25, 1862; was promoted to captain, major, and lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the army of the Potomac, and was mustered out 
while in command of the regiment, May 31, 1865. Upon his return 
home he resumed the study of law, and was admitted to the Bar 
November 28, 1865; to the United States Circuit Court for Maine, 
April 24, 187 1, and to the courts of Alabama, August, 1890. He 
was a member of the House of Representatives of Maine in 1868, 
1870, and 1879; was state senator in 187 1 and 1872, and held offices 
of trust in the village of Richmond. From 1880 to 1888 he was 
reporter of Supreme Law decisions, and in 1881 he prepared a law 
book on common law practice in courts, with the changes made by 
Maine Statutes, which is cited as "Spaulding's Practice." For many 
years his law office was at Richmond, subsequently in Portland, 
removing to Fort Wayne, Ala., in 1890, where he is engaged in 
practice, and became mayor of the city. He is a member of Rich- 
mond Lodge of F. and A. Masons; of John Merrill Post, G. A. R., 
of Richmand, and of Maine Commandery, Military Order of Loyal 
Legion of the United States. 

Charles Carrol Morse was born in Phipsburg, April 4, 1843, 
and is a son of William H. and Hannah Reed Morse. His early 
education was such as is afforded by the district schools,- and he 
commenced going to sea when sixteen years of age; sailed out of 
Boston five years, when he became captain of the schooner Fleet- 
wing of Bath when less than twenty years old; then went mate of 
the bark Caroline Lemont of Brunswick, afterwards taking com- 
mand of her; subsequently was mate with Capt. Charles E. Patten 



HISTORY OF BATH. 447 

in the Bath ship Moravia one foreign voyage, when the command 
was relinquished to him by Captain Patten in 1870; afterwards he 
was master of the ship Ellen Goodspeed, the George F. Manson, 
and the C. F. Sargent, in all of which he was part owner. He mar- 
ried at Plymouth, England, in 187 1, Mrs. Margaret Stevens Webber, 
and they have had four sons and two daughters. His family lived 
in England until the year of 1888, when they came to this country 
and are settled in San Francisco, from which port Captain Morse is 
sailing. In 1890 he bought into the ship Occidental and is now 
master of her. 

Parker Henry McCodd Morrison. — Captain Morrison was a 
son of Capt. Pierson Morrison and was born in Phipsburg, at the 
Basin section, November 16, 1837. His education was such as was 
obtained in the district school, and, following his father's occupation, 
he went to sea in April, 1855, at seventeen years of age, as cabin 
boy with Capt. Frank Percy in the ship Lizzie Drew. Adopting the 
sea as his life occupation, he rose in the course of regular service to 
the position of captain in January, 1863, taking charge of the bark 
Comet. Subsequently he has commanded the brig Vincent, bark 
Aberdeen, bark Amie, ship George W. Adams, ship Indiana, and 
bark Andrew Welch owned by Welch & Co., San Francisco, and 
later was given command of the fine clipper iron bark R. P. Rithet, 
sailing between San Francisco and West Pacific ports. When in 
command of the bark Aberdeen, and at St. Thomas, in November, 
1867, a hurricane and tidal wave caused every person to flee to the 
hills, many lives were lost, vessels were swept up into the streets 
making more or less total wrecks, the Aberdeen among the number. 
Added to this calamity the cholera and yellow fever prevailed in the 
town. Captain Morrison is notable as a careful navigator and a 
trustworthy man in charge of a vessel. 

Albion H. Morse, son of Thomas and Arabella (Hillman) Morse, 
was born in Phipsburg, December 24, 1832, where his education was 
obtained in the public schools. When sixteen years of age he 
adopted a sea-faring life, rising, in a regular course of service in the 
merchant marine, to the command of deep-sea-going ships, and con- 



448 HISTORY OF BATH. 

tinued in that vocation until 1890, when he retired from the sea, 
having met with abundant success. His early voyages were in ships 
sailing out of the Port of Bath, but for the last twenty-five years he 
commanded steamers in a regular line plying on the coast and rivers 
of China — fourteen years under the Chinese flag. His long extended 
business with Chinese merchants led him to speak of them as being 
honorable, straightforward men. Captain Morse is unmarried and 
resides in Alameda, Cal., where he has a magnificent residence. 

Llewellyn Scott Wyman was born in Phipsburg, June 23, 
1831 ; married, in September, 1859, t0 Lizzie Merrill, only daughter 
of Thomas J. Merrill of Damariscotta. She died December, i860, 
at the age of 21 years. Lizzie Merrill Wyman, her daughter, born 
November 5, i860, died October 25, 1882. He commenced going 
to sea in 1843 ; took command of ship Caspian, 1853; from her to 
Florence ; changed to bark Rig ; from her to ship Champlain. In 
1859 he built, in part, and took command of ship Canada, the first 
ship sailing with star built on the Kennebec. All these ships 
were built and managed by Messrs. G. F. & J. Patten, Bath. In 
1867 he built with J. P. Morse ship Belle Morse, and was in com- 
mand of her three years. In 187 1 he built with J. P. Morse ship 
Harry Morse, and was in command of her until he retired from the 
sea in November, 1875. Since that time he has built a large num- 
ber of ships, barks, and schooners. Since retiring from the sea his 
home has been in Damariscotta and Portland. 

Felix U. Stinson, of Arrowsic, was born in Cuba, November 20, 
1855; came to America in 1868; was adopted by Capt. John Stin- 
son, living at Arrowsic. He went to the district school and worked 
on the farm. In 1874 he commenced going to sea, shipping on 
board of the ship Storm King, of Bath, of which A. P. Boyd was 
master, and in 1884 reached, through the several grades of service, 
the position of first officer. He has sailed as such in the ships 
Solitaire, Frank N. Thayer, Valparaiso, Arminia, John R. Kelley, 
and is now in the largest wood ship in the world, the Shenandoah, 
having three mates under him. All of the above-named ships in 
which he has sailed as mate are vessels of the larger class engaged 



HISTORY OF BATH. 449 

in the Pacific trade. To be first officer of a ship of such excessive 
tonnage as that of the Shenandoah is equal in responsibility to 
being in command of ships of a much smaller tonnage. 

Frederic W. Payne. — Dr. Payne, son of the distinguished 
William E. Payne, was born in Bath, where he passed through the 
city schools, leaving the high school just before the completion of a 
regular course to enter a. boarding-school in Newton Centre, where 
he remained two years. Commencing the study of medicine, he 
graduated from the Harvard Medical School, of the class of 1866, 
and from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 
1867; was engaged in study in Europe, at the hospitals of Paris, 
Berlin, and Vienna, during the greater part of the years 1868 and 
1869 ; has been in Europe at the hospitals, mainly those of Paris 
and Vienna, repeatedly since his first visit to them ; was associated 
with his father in practice, in Bath, for the first four years after his 
graduation, and went to Boston in 1872. 

Doctor Payne has since traveled extensively in Europe, Asia, and 
America, having once circumnavigated the globe and spent some 
time in China and Japan. He is a member of the International 
Hahnemann Association, senior member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society 
and of the Boston Hahnemann Association ; was formerly lecturer 
upon diseases of the eye and ear at the Boston University School of 
Medicine, and lately surgeon in charge of the Eye and Ear Depart- 
ment of the Boston Homoeopathic Dispensary. He has written 
much concerning homoeopathic practice and cases, and aided in the 
proving of several remedies for the homoeopathic materia medica. 
The doctor is a specialist in his practice in ophthalmology and 
otology, and has been most successful in the accomplishment of 
surgical and therapeutic means for the alleviation and restoration of 
sight and hearing to the distressed. 

Doctor Payne married the daughter of Jacob Parker Morse of 
Bath and has two sons and a daughter. He is in practice in Boston, 
where he has the confidence and patronage of a large community. 



450 HISTORY OF BATH. 

Dr. John H. Payne, of Boston, was born in Bath, June 14, 1855. 
He is son of the distinguished homoeopathic physician, Dr. William 
E. Payne of Bath. His mother was daughter of Capt. Davis Hatch, 
a prominent citizen of Bath in his day. Their son, John H., com- 
menced his education in the schools of his native city, graduating 
from its high school in 1872 ; from Bowdoin College in the class of 
1876; from the Boston University School of Medicine, class of 
1879; was in the Hospital of Paris, France, and in one in Austria 
during ten months of the years 1883 and 1884. 

In 1879 he commenced practice in Boston with his cousin, Dr. J. 
P. Paine, and moved into the city proper in 1881, where he has 
continued in his profession, in Copley Square, to the present date, 
in the specialty of the treatment of diseases of the eye and ear. 
Doctor Payne is lecturer on diseases of the eye and ear in that 
department of the dispensary in connection with the Boston Univer- 
sity School of Medicine, and also ophthalmic surgeon, by appoint- 
ment, at the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital at Boston. A 
few years since Doctor Payne, with his wife, went on a tour of 
Europe for health and recreation. 

William L. Putnam was born in Bath, May 26, 1835. He 
attended the public schools of his native city, and entered Bowdoin 
College in the class of 1855, graduating with it. He at once com- 
menced the study of law, and the next winter was chosen assistant 
clerk of the House of Representatives, and at about the same time 
assumed editorial charge of the Bath Daily Times, which he retained 
for nearly a year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1858 and imme- 
diately moved to Portland, where he has since resided. He was so 
fortunate as to be received into partnership by Hon. George Evans, 
and his associations with that brilliant statesman were of course of 
inestimable value. Also, he was thus introduced at the beginning 
to the best class of clients and business, and given plenty of work 
to do, which was a powerful stimulus, at that formative period, of 
his natural propensity for that thorough and unremitting devotion to 
his legal pursuits that has been and is the dominant feature of his 
life and the foundation of its eminent success. In the later years 



HISTORY OF BATH. 451 

of his law practice a great part of his business was connected with 
corporations and great business enterprises. In politics Judge Put- 
nam has always been devoted to Democratic principles, yet the 
citizens of Republican Portland elected him mayor in 1869, an office 
which he filled with credit. 

In 1883 he was tendered one of the judgeships of the Supreme 
Bench in this State, but declined the honor. In 1887 President 
Cleveland appointed him a commissioner on the part of the United 
States to negotiate a settlement of the rights of Americans in the 
territorial waters of Canada and Newfoundland, a duty that he dis- 
charged with distinguished ability. At the end of the negotiations 
he wrote two able papers in support and defense of the treaty. 
They were sent to the Senate by the President. These events gave 
him a national reputation, and his latest honor, his appointment, 
December, 189 1, by President Harrison, to be judge of the new 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals, which was created March 
31, 1 89 1, was entirely above the plane of politics and a recognition 
universally commended. In 1884 he was elected by the Bowdoin 
College corporation a member of the Board of Trustees of that 
institution, and simultaneously received from them the degree of 
LL.D. He was for several years president of the Portland Institute 
and Public Library, and is now president of the corporation of the 
Maine General Hospital. 

It was in cases that involved a mastery of the legal principles and 
required a profound research and preparation that Judge Putnam's 
superiority was manifest. It was, therefore, in the law courts and 
in office business that his efforts created, perhaps, the most exten- 
sive and valuable clientage of any of his contemporaries in the city. 
His thoroughness in details, his recognition of the importance of 
minor features that would not be apparent to most opponents, and in 
fact his complete mastery of the whole subject is what has made his 
arguments irresistible, and caused his judgment to be relied upon 
where matters of great importance were concerned. 

Mr. Putnam, for many years, has worked steadily at his law office 
all day and carried home his green bag full of papers to continue his 
work late in the evening. He is one of the few men who can labor 



452 HISTORY OF BATH. 

thus with their brains, year after year, and thrive upon it. He is, of 
course, strong of mind and body. He enjoys social life, both at 
home and elsewhere. Probably no other Maine man makes so many 
calls in Washington as he, or has a wider acquaintance with eminent 
people. 

Judge Putnam is a large man with an erect and imposing carriage, 
would attract attention anywhere, and when he walks into the court- 
room with his voluminous silk robe enfolding him, he expresses the 
dignity of the law to perfection. Judge Putnam is married and 
has no children. 

Henry A. Shorey was born in Waterville, in 1840. He is a 
journalist by profession, and for twenty-seven years, in Bath and 
Bridgton, has been engaged in the newspaper business as editor and 
publisher. He enlisted as a private in the first "challenge to the 
fray,'' in the old Bath City Grays (Company A, Third Maine), but 
was rejected at the medical examination as not being robust enough 
for field service. But, nowise discouraged, he recruited a detachment 
of men in November, 1861, and with them entered the service as 
second lieutenant in the Fifteenth Maine Regiment. He served 
with the regiment in the Butler expedition against New Orleans, and 
endured the privations of a soldier's life in the malaria infected 
regions of the Mississippi through three consecutive summers; 
served in Western Florida; was with Banks' expedition to Southern 
Texas ; in the Banks' Red River expedition, participating in all the 
battles of that eventful campaign; was with Butler at Bermuda 
Hundreds; was with Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley; was "in" 
at the final close of the war, commanding his company in the famous 
Grand Review at Washington in May, 1865; and, with his regiment, 
then proceeded to Georgia and South Carolina, serving a full year in 
the adventurous and exciting service incident to the reconstruction 
period and the protection of the freed people during that memorable 
transition period. He was mustered out of the service in July, 1866, 
after a continuous service of four years and seven months. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant in 1863; served as adjutant for a con- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 453 

siderable period; promoted to captain in 1865; and brevetted major 
for meritorious service during the war, in March, 1865. 

During his long term of service Major Shorey occupied many 
important detached positions, including those of provost marshal, 
judge advocate of military courts, and post commander, during his 
service in South Carolina in 1865-6, which was especially varied, 
responsible, and exciting. 

Major Shorey has held many important positions in the Maine 
reformatory and fraternal organizations, including those of chief 
and secretary of the Grand Lodge of Good Templars, and president 
of the State Odd Fellows' Relief Association. He was also a mem- 
ber of the governor's staff (with rank of lieutenant-colonel) during 
Governor Perham's administration; one of the trustees of the Maine 
Insane Hospital for half a dozen years; and for a number of years 
has been weigher and gauger at the Portland Custom House. 

Major Shorey has recently published a handsome volume, "The 
Story of the Maine Fifteenth," which has elicited highly compli- 
mentary notices from the Maine press. 

He has been a resident of Bridgton since 1870. He married Ida 
D. Currier, at Bath, in 1864, and has five children living, the eldest 
being A. C. Shorey, recently managing editor of The Times. 

William Henry Morse was a member of the Morse family 
who came from England at an early day and settled in Phipsburg, 
branches of which are closely identified with the history of Bath 
families. He obtained a good public-school education, was engaged 
in salmon trade, had a store, engaged in ship-building, and was 
selectman of Phipsburg, his native place. Going to California dur- 
ing the prevalence of the "gold fever," he lost his life heroically by 
entering upon a hazardous rescue of some men from a watery grave, 
resulting in a lung attack that ended his life while in the prime of 
his manhood. He married Eliza Hannah, daughter of Col. Andrew 
Reed, and they had a family of which Charles Carroll, mentioned 
elsewhere in this volume, and William Reed Morse are living. The 
latter resides at Clarks, Neb., where he has been in trade and banking, 
and has been postmaster and state senator. He married Mary Emma 
Thomas, and they have one son and four daughters living. 



454 HISTORY OF BATH. 



BATH'S NEWSPAPERS. 



To adequately cover the important subject allotted to this article 
would require much more space than the limits of this work will 
permit ; hence the writer must content himself with the merest out- 
line sketch of a fraternity of industrious workers, who, in the 
aggregate, have probably contributed as much to the city's moral and 
industrial upbuilding as any other profession ; and, it is no doubt 
also true, that, as a whole, they have been quite as inadequately 
compensated. 

It is an interesting historical coincidence that Bath's first venture 
upon the journalistic sea was in the identical year (1820) when 
Maine assumed the dignities and responsibilities of State-hood, and 
in which the city was honored in the election of one of its citizens 
as the new state's first chief magistrate. Since then Bath has 
never been without a paper. The local history of the ship-build- 
ing city to be found in the files of our newspapers, so far as they are 
complete, covers a period of nearly three-quarters of a century; and 
these furnish very valuable, and well-nigh indispensable, data for the 
historian of to-day. 

The newspaper of fifty years ago was strikingly dissimilar to 
the enterprising and " hustling " journals of a later period. Then, 
to a much greater extent than now, they were called into being to 
serve the purposes of political parties and aspiring politicians; and 
the news of the day, local or general, and literary and miscellaneous 
matter were made secondary to the exigencies of the political situa- 
tion. They were almost uniformly weekly issues, printed upon 
hand-presses of ancient device, with very imperfect facilities for ink- 
distribution and application to the "forms," and were generally of 
limited circulation. The long-drawn-out political essay, or editorial 
"leader," with political or philosophical "correspondence," some 
" alleged poetry " and miscellaneous selections, a lengthy digest of 
" foreign news " of very ancient flavor, with abstracts of congres- 



HISTORY OF BATH. 455 

sional and legislative reports, constituted the "matter," with the 
marine report, a few dull and unattractive advertisements, and the 
inevitable " deaths " and "marriages," as essential incidentals. A 
murder or a suicide or a destructive conflagration were about the 
only matters deemed worthy of local mention; and in those days to 
have chronicled the merry-makings and social festivities of the peo- 
ple, to have made a record of their comings and goings, or to have 
spoken kindly of any enterprise in which the business men were 
engaged, would have been regarded as infinitely unwise, if not person- 
ally offensive to the subject of such comment. It was not until 
many years later that the newspaper-man made the important dis- 
covery that the shortest road to the average newspaper reader's 
heart and purse was in the pleasant mentioning of the aforesaid f 
patron's name in print; and by a singular coincidence, the record 
shows that it was at about that period that newspapers and news- 
paper readers began " to multiply and to cover the earth." The 
newspaper as an educator and a leader of public sentiment retired 
from business in some measure; and gradually its scope was rather 
conceded to be that of furnishing the people with the news, con- 
tributing to their entertainment, and catering to their vanities. 

The pioneer Bath newspaper, The Maine Gazette, came at a period 
of comparative quiet in national politics, and at its inception took 
little part therein. It was during the Monroe administration, when 
there was little or no political excitement. It concerned itself more 
with matters of local and state politics incident to the formative 
period of "the State of the Pine Tree." Joseph G. Torrey was the 
chief man of the establishment, Mr. Simpson continuing with him 
only one year. Torrey, however, continued his labors for something 
like a dozen years. He had a clear field until the political pot com- 
menced to "sizzle" in the national field, when the paper was four 
years old. Then it vigorously advocated the cause of John Quincy 
Adams, and the supporters of William H. Crawford rebelled. They 
summoned, from the office of the Portland Argus, a practical printer, 
Thomas Eaton by name, and launched a rival paper, The Maine 
Inquirer. It run for nearly eight years. Meanwhile the old Gazette 
continued its course. It was subsidized by the national adminis- 



456 HISTORY OF BATH. 

tration, being the recognized organ for publishing the Public Laws, 
while Adams was President, and Henry Clay Secretary of State. 
The rival paper gave its adhesion to the cause of Andrew Jackson, 
and was rigidly Democratic. 

Mr. Eaton had for endorsers, such names as William King, 
Peleg Tallman, Peter H. Green, James McLellan, Joseph Sewall, 
Henry Tallman, and Nathaniel Groton. The Gazette contributors 
were William Thorndike, Benjamin Randall, and Joseph F. Wingate. 
The two papers thus continued to "dwell together,'' if not in 
brotherly unity. In 1832, a Mr. Harris came from Haverhill, Mass., 
and bought The Inquirer of Mr. Eaton, run it about one year, and he 
in turn gave way to J. S. Swift. Mr. Eaton was appointed post- 
master of Bath, serving from 1833 to 1850. 

In 1832, under the Jackson administration, the two papers were 
merged in one, The Gazette and Inquirer. The publishers, suc- 
cessively, were Harris, Hamlet Bates, J. S. Swift. Elisha Clarke 
bought in 1836, changed the name to Lincoln Telegraph, greatly 
improved the paper and increased the business, and, occupying the 
entire Bath field for a greater portion of his term, placed the estab- 
lishment upon a satisfactory financial basis. In 1846, after ten years' 
service, Mr. Clarke sold to Messrs. Chamberlain, Haines & Plum- 
mer, and retired upon his laurels. 

But, during these years, national politics were becoming very 
interesting, and the local politicians of the Democratic persuasion 
began to tire of the diet furnished them from the Whig tables. Since 
1842, when The Maine Inquirer had thrown up the sponge, Bath 
Democrats had been without a paper, and the exciting national cam- 
paign of two years before — "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" — had 
stirred them up to renewed activity in this- direction. So, in the 
spring of 1842, John J. Ramsay launched The Maine Enquirer as the 
Democratic organ. It run four years with fair success and was con- 
ducted with considerable ability. It supported James K. Polk; 
while The Telegraph valiantly fought for Henry Clay. Along in 
1846, when the Mexican War fever was most intense, John T. 
Gilman became associated with Mr. Ramsay. Soon after Gilman 
came in Ramsay went out. The name of the paper was changed to 



HISTORY OF BATH. 457 

Eastern Times, and, a year later, Gilman sold to Joseph F. Huston, 
an ex-professor of mathematics in the U. S. Navy. Three years 
later, 1850, an industrious, frugal, and enterprising printer came 
from Boston and purchased The Times, and added much to its value 
and influence. This was George E. Newman, still a resident of 
the city, and one of the very few survivors of the old-time fraternity 
of Bath newspaper publishers. Mr. Newman continued at the helm 
until about 1856, when he had the good sense to accept a tempting 
cash offer " to sell out " and to invest the proceeds in bank stock. 

So, as will be seen, when Messrs. Chamberlain, Haines & Plum- 
mer essayed to give renewed life and energy to the old-time Whig 
organ, under the name of The Northern Tribune, they found a some- 
what formidable rival in the field, flying the Democratic ensign from 
its mast-head. But they made expensive and valuable improvements 
in their plant and entered upon their work with zeal and commend- 
able enthusiasm. In 1845, during the campaign in which Gen. 
Zach. Taylor was the Whig candidate for President, The Tribune 
issued a daily edition, The Daily Northern Tribune, which was Bath's 
first venture in the way of a daily newspaper. But the experiment 
proved unremunerative and was soon abandoned. In 1849 Haines 
retired from the firm and was soon followed by Chamberlain. Mr. 
Plummer was the sole survivor, but he had the good fortune to 
secure, as partner, an accomplished practical printer from abroad — 
Mr. George Ross — the firm then being Plummer & Ross. Soon 
Mr. Plummer sold to Benjamin H. Meder, of Brunswick. It was 
under the proprietorship of Meder & Ross that The Tri- Weekly 
Northern Tribune appeared in the place of the daily edition, the 
weekly being also continued. Soon Meder retired, leaving Ross as 
the sole proprietor. All these changes occurred prior to 1852. 

But we have now reached the Franklin Pierce era in American 
politics. Two weeklies, rivals in politics, and one tri-weekly, did 
not appear to satisfy the Bath appetite for political newspapers. 
Like Oliver Twist it cried for "more"; and so, in 1852 or 1853, 
Rufus R. Haines and Hiram L. Wing put a new paper upon the 
field, The Mirror, weekly at first and afterwards daily and weekly. 
With a population of 8,020 Bath was then supplied with three week- 



458 HISTORY OF BATH. 

lies, one tri-weekly, and one daily. The Tribune establishment was 
in the rooms over the D. T. Percy & Sons' crockery store ; The 
Mirror across the way, where are now the billiard-rooms ; while The 
Eastern Times occupied a lofty perch in the third story of the brick 
block, corner Front and Arch streets. The Times was Democratic ; 
both The Tribune and The Mirror Whig, the latter with decided Free- 
soil proclivities. In its short career The Mirror had on its force of 
publishers, H. L. Whiting, Edwin Sprague, and Charles Cobb, in 
addition to its two founders. But The Mirror's career was brief 
though brilliant. In the spring of 1855 both Haines, of The Mirror, 
and Ross, of The Tribune, disposed of their respective interests in 
the two papers, to George A. Kimball and Charles Cobb. Their 
proprietorship continued just three months. In this short space 
of time they appear to have made the discovery that the newspaper 
field was over-crowded, and effected a consolidation. The Mirror 
and The Tri- Weekly Tribune were dropped out entirely, and. The 
Tribune name retained for both the daily and weekly editions. In 
the fall of that year, 1855, The Tribune establishment passed into 
the possession of a wealthy syndicate of influential Bath citizens, 
old-line Whigs, whose rich and rare experience as newspaper pub- 
lishers will be long remembered, at least by the stockholders. 

But there is still another newspaper enterprise of this period to go 
upon the record — the coming to Bath, and its establishment as a 
distinctive Bath institution, of The American Sentinel. Established at 
Damariscotta in the interest of the "American" or " Know Noth- 
ing " party, and having there a somewhat limited field, zealous 
adherents of that political "upheaval" interested themselves in 
bringing the paper to Bath. A well-known Bath printer — Joseph 
M. Hayes — was in charge of the mechanical department of the 
Damariscotta establishment, and had much to do with its coming to 
Bath. At all events, in the fall of 1854, at that "supreme moment" 
when patriotic men and political parties were placing themselves in 
line for the impending battle between the hosts of Freedom and 
the votaries of Slavery, a self-appointed syndicate of Bath " Free - 
Soilers '' made a raid upon Damariscotta, and, in a very limited 
space of time, had purchased the establishment, placed the materials 



HISTORY OF BATH. 459 

" upon wheels," and moved it to Bath. It first found refuge in a 
Centre street livery stable, and here a large edition of the paper was 
" worked off " and circulated broadcast among the enthusiastic 
"Native Americans." The episode created considerable of a sensa- 
tion in the local political world. After a few issues James M. 
Lincoln was installed as editor and proprietor, the quarters vacated 
by The Mirror secured, and the regular publication of The Sentinel 
continued, with a large and constantly increasing constituency. 

The year 1855, therefore, found Bath thus supplied with news- 
papers : The Tribune, the Whig organ, daily and weekly ; The Times, 
the organ of the Democracy ; The American Sentinel, the champion of 
the element which afterwards organized the present Republican party. 
"The Tribune Association," elaborately equipped with the most glit- 
tering array of talent ever employed upon a Bath newspaper, issued 
its first papers in September, 1855. They had made large invest- 
ments; had employed an able and thoroughly trained editorial writer 
in the person of Albert G. Tenney ; had installed, with liberal 
salaries, expert workmen in all the various departments; and, indeed, 
had given to Bath a newspaper and job printing establishment such 
as could only be supported in the larger cities, as they learned from 
sad experience. A year later another syndicate of Bath politicians, 
representing the Breckenridge wing of the Democratic party, had 
come into possession of The Times ; while the make-up of the new 
comer, The Sentinel, has already been mentioned. During the politi. 
cal campaign of 1856 The Sentinel issued a campaign daily, which was 
ably conducted, and had considerable influence in shaping results in 
the local field. After the presidential election of 1856 and the 
election of James Buchanan, the syndicates speedily dissolved. "The 
Tribune Association" suffered considerable loss, the stockholders 
being assessed one hundred per cent. In 1857 they sold, at a very 
great sacrifice, to Elisha Clarke and Elbridge Roberts. At about 
the same time The Times syndicate also sold to Clarke & Roberts ; 
and the papers of the two concerns were merged, under the name of 
The Northern Tribune and Eastern Times. The political flavor was 
Democratic and supported the Buchanan administration. This was 
not satisfactory to the admirers of Stephen A. Douglass, and to fur- 



460 HISTORY OF BATH. 

nish them a mouth-piece, John T. Gilman established, September, 
1857, a bright and sparkling weekly, called " The People's Organ" 
and for a season the warfare between the rival editors — Clarke of 
The Tribune and Times, Lincoln of The Sentinel, and Gilman of The 
Organ — was animated and spicy. In a few months, however, Clarke 
sold his interest in The Tribune and Times to Gilman, who consoli- 
dated the two establishments, continuing the name given to the 
papers by Clarke & Roberts; Roberts remained as business man- 
ager, with Gilman as editor. This alignment continued through the 
momentous political campaign of i860 and after the inauguration of 
Abraham Lincoln. Then all political subdivisions were swallowed 
up in the patriotic purpose to protect and defend the government 
and to strengthen the hands of the lawfully elected chief magistrate. 
There was no place for an "anti-war" newspaper in Bath! In 
1862 Mr. Gilman received a call to the Portland Daily Press as its 
first editor, The Tribune and Times establishment was sold to James 
M. Lincoln, The Sentinel establishment was transferred across the 
way, and, as "the survival of the fittest," Mr. Lincoln found him- 
self in undisputed possession of Bath's entire newspaper field. He 
named his weekly and daily issues, '■'■The American Sentinel" and 
"Daily Sentinel and Times" thus preserving for the weekly the name 
under which it was established in 1854 and which it retained until 
the summer of 1893, a period of nearly forty years. 

The Sentinel and Times held the Bath field, as distinctive Bath 
newspapers, for many years. For about four years, and during the 
war period, Mr. Lincoln was sole proprietor and editor, as he had 
been of his paper prior to the consolidation, for eight years previous. 
A faithful, conscientious worker, wholly absorbed in his profession, 
and ever striving for still higher attainments, he sacrificed himself as 
a victim of over-work, "dying in the harness," August, 1866, sin- 
cerely mourned by the entire community. The property fell to the 
hands of the widow, who, the same year (December, 1866), sold the 
establishment to Elijah Upton and Maj. Henry A. Shorey. Mr. 
Upton had long been connected with the Bath press as an editorial 
writer and had occupied official position in the county for years; 
while Major Shorey, fresh from a long and creditable period of army 



HISTORY OF BATH. 46 1 

service, resumed the vocation he but temporarily laid aside at the out- 
break of the war. He had entered a Bath printing-office at the- age 
of 14 and followed the fortunes of Mr. Newman's Eastern Times until 
its consolidation under, Gilman & Roberts in 1862. Messrs. Upton 
& Shorey made no essential change in the paper, following closely 
the lines pursued by Editor Lincoln, and, like him, contending 
earnestly for the ascendancy of Republican principles, and, incident- 
ally, for temperance and the impartial enforcement of our prohibi- 
tory laws. Their proprietorship continued three years and was 
reasonably successful financially. A favorable opportunity present- 
ing itself, in 1869, they sold the establishment to W. E. Whitman, 
then well known as "Toby Candor," of the Boston Journal. Mr. 
Whitman gave to the paper a new dress of type, changed the daily 
from a morning to an evening paper, and for thirteen months gave 
to the city very much more of a paper than it cared to pay for. 
His bank account sustained some shrinkage in consequence, and, in 
1870, the establishment was purchased by Elijah Upton. 

The Sentinel and Times continued to thrive under Editor Upton's 
proprietorship, and was published in the Upton family name for 
about eighteen years. The firm name, after a few years, was E. 
Upton & Son, the junior member being Mr. Joshua F. Upton, who 
had learned his trade in the office and ably assisted his father in the 
business and mechanical department. The elder Upton died in 
1886, and from that period until 1888 the junior had entire charge 
of the establishment, the ownership being vested one-third in the 
active member of the firm and the remainder in the widow of the 
deceased. 

For a brief period, in 1869, Maj. H. A. Shorey published a tem- 
perance paper, circulating in the state at large, under the auspices of 
the Grand Lodge of Good Templars, of which he was secretary. It 
was called The Maine Temperance Advocate. It supported the 
Hichborn "bolt" against Governor Chamberlain's fourth nomination 
as a candidate for Governor; but, upon the nomination of Sidney 
Perham by the Republicans, the next year, and the adoption of a 
prohibitory plank satisfactory to the temperance people of the state, 
the publication of The Advocate was discontinued. 



462 HISTORY OF BATH. 

During the Upton administration the Bath newspaper field was 
again invaded by rivals. The Times had held undisputed sway since 
1862, when Fen. G. Barker, a graduate of The Times office, estab- 
lished a sprightly weekly as a Greenback organ. The material was 
owned by active Bath Democrats. The venture proving unremuner- 
ative, its publication was suspended and the material lay dormant 
for some time. Charles D. Clarke established The Bath Independent 
— " The Little Green 'Un" as it was facetiously termed. It was a 
"local hustler,'' struck right and left, regardless of consequences, 
and soon built up a large constituency. It was printed in Rockland. 
When Mr. Clarke retired, in 1892, he sold the paper to Mr. E. C. 
Plummer, at that time the city editor of The Times. 

On the first day of January, 1889, the Sentinel and Times estab- 
lishment was purchased by Messrs. H. A. Shorey, of Bridgton, his 
son, Albert C. Shorey, a recent Bowdoin graduate, and W. S. Shorey, 
a well-known Bath book-binder and blank-book manufacturer. 
Major Shorey, for a few months, took editorial control, and under 
his personal supervision the establishment was entirely reconstructed 
and the paper enlarged and greatly improved in general appearance 
and journalistic influence. The old rooms so long occupied by The 
Tribune and its successors were vacated and the establishment 
removed to capacious quarters across the way, the counting-room 
and press-room occupying the first floor. The terms of subscription 
for the daily were reduced from seven to five dollars per annum, at 
the same time that the paper was considerably enlarged. The pub- 
lishers formed a corporation known as the "Sentinel and Times 
Publishing Co." The circulation of the daily was soon doubled and 
the patronage bestowed upon the new publishers indicated that their 
pluck and enterprise were appreciated. At the end of the first six 
months of the new regime, Mr. Albert C. Shorey was installed as 
managing editor, which position he continued most acceptably to 
fill for three and a half years. W. S. Shorey was the treasurer and 
business manager, and also superintendent of the book-binding 
establishment. It is generally conceded in Bath, that Mr. A. C. 
Shorey's editorial connection with the Bath press was infinitely 
creditable to him. Though a young man, and of limited experience, 



HISTORY OF BATH. 463 

he gave to Bath a clean, able, sprightly paper, and, although un- 
swervingly of the Republican flavor, all parties and individuals were 
accorded a fair hearing and treated with uniform courtesy. In fact, 
the Shoreys gave to Bath a much better paper than the field probably 
warranted. But they did a satisfactory business, and despite the 
large expenditures incident to the improvements introduced, their 
venture proved a success financially. After four years' experience 
they yielded to a tempting offer from Mr. John O. Patten, and sold 
the establishment to that gentleman, January 1, 1893. 

Again, during the latter part of 1889, Mr. Joshua F. Upton estab- 
lished a paper, semi-weekly, entitled " The Bath Enterprise." Mr. 
Upton has built up a large local and suburban circulation, and has 
established a paper which is bright and readable, and no doubt 
fairly remunerative. This gave Bath, in 1889, one daily, one semi- 
weekly, and two weekly newspapers. 

The dawn of 1893 found the old Times establishment in the pos- 
session of Mr. John O. Patten, a Bath-born boy, who was especially 
well-equipped in the fact of his having an ample private fortune at 
his command. He was financially able "to run a daily newspaper," 
and in that respect differed from either of his numerous predecessors. 
He is making a very lively newspaper, well-edited, thoroughly inde- 
pendent, and has largely increased the circulation of the daily. In 
April, 1893, he bought, of Mr. Plummer, The Independent property, 
dropped American Sentinel, which had stood as the name of the 
Sagadahoc weekly for forty years, and gave it the name of The Bath 
Independent, with which is consolidated The American Sentinel. Mr. 
Charles D. Clarke edits the weekly. At this writing, therefore, the 
Bath newspapers comprise The Bath Daily Times, The Bath Inde- 
pendent (its weely edition), and The Bath Enterprise. 

For a few months, in 1853, J. S. Swift issued a daily and weekly 
called The Sagadahoc Review, ahd in 1837, Mr. James Nelson run, 
for about a year, a paper called The Telescope. Then the Bath High 
School boys have for some years issued an ably conducted school 
paper, called The Phi-Rhonian. The Y. M. C. A. Magnet, commenced 
in 1892, is also worthy of mention. 

As a general rule, the Bath newspaper men have not been able to 



464 



HISTORY OF BATH. 



employ "managing editors," or editorial writers. This work they 
have performed themselves. But, in addition, there have at times 
been some able writers on the Bath press. 

Following is a complete list of the newspapers and newspaper 
publishers of Bath, with the dates of the origin of the papers and 
the adoption of the name under which they are more familiarly 
known : 

The Maine Gazette. Established 1820. Joseph G. Torrey and Mr. Simpson; Torrey sole pub- 
lisher 1821 to 1832. Whig. 

The Maine Inquirer. Established 1824 by Thomas Eaton. Democratic. Succeeded by Mr. Harris 
in 1832. 

The Gazette and Inquirer. Consolidation in t 832 of foregoing. Whig. Harris first publisher; 
then Hamlet Bates until 1834; Josiah S. Swift untl 1836. Sold to Elisha Clarke. 

The Lincoln Telegraph. Whig. Continuation of Gazette and Inquirer with change of name. 
Elisha .Clarke, editor and publisher, 1836 to 1846. Sold to Messrs. Chamberlain, Haines & 
Plummer. 

The Telescope, an 1837 " yearling,'' run by James Nelson. Little known of it. 

The Maine Enquirer. Established 1842 by John J. Ramsay. Democratic. John T. Gilman 
became partner of Ramsay in 1846 and Ramsay retired soon after. By Gilman name changed 
to Eastern Times. 

1 The Eastern Times. Lineal successor of Maine Enquirer. Democratic. John T. Gilman and 
Elbridge Roberts; John T. Gilman alone; Joseph T. Huston 1847 to 1850; George E. Newman 
1850 to April, 1856; a political syndicate, comprising H. W. Owen, Joseph S. Snow, et als., 
until sale of property to the Tribune, about 1857. 

The Northern Tribune, lineal successor of Lincoln Telegraph. Chamberlain, Haines & Plum- 
mer gave it the name in 1846; commenced publication of The Daily Northen Tribune in 
1848; Haines retired in 1849, Chamberlain a few months later. George Ross joined Plummer; 
soon Plummer succeeded by Benj. K. Meeder. Meeder & Ross withdrew daily and substituted 
Tri- Weekly Northern Tribune. And again Meeder retired, leaving Ross sole proprietor. 
All these changes between 1849 and 18-2. In June, 1855, Ross sold to Geo. A. Kimball and the 
establishment was merged with the newer daily and weekly Mirror, preserving the Tribune 
name. Cobb & Kimball held proprietorship three months and sold (September, 1855,) to newly 
organized " Tribune Association." The Tribune Association comprised a large number of influ- 
ential Straight Whigs. Albert G. Tenney was editor; Win. H. Whitman, business manager; 
R. R. Haines, general foreman; Simeon Drake and David Garland, chiefs in the job department, 
etc. Their plant very elaborate and the pay-roll surprisingly large. They published a daily and 
weekly edition. The Association held sway just two years, selling, September, 1857, to Elbridge 
Roberts and Elisha Clarke. 

The Northern Tribune and Eastern Times. E. Roberts & Co., publishers; Elisha Clarke, 
editor; consolidation of the Tribune and Times establishments, daily and weekly continued. 
Democratic. John T. Gilman succeeded Clarke (about i860) and consolidated his People's 
Organ therewith. Finally (in 1862) E. Roberts & Co. sold to James M. Lincoln of the Sentinel. 

The Weekly Mirror. Established in 1853 by Rufus R. Haines and Hiram L Wing. Whig in 
politics. A weekly when first established, but later The Daily Mirror was also issued. The 
successive publishers were H. L. Whiting, Edwin Sprague, and Charles Cobb. Joseph M. 
Hayes was foreman of the establishment. In June, 1855, Haines sold his interest to Charles 
Cobb, at the same time that Ross of the Tribune had sold to Geo. A. Kimball, and the Mirror 
and the Tribune were thus consolidated, the Tribune name being preserved. 

The Sagadahoc Review. Established in 1853 and published for a few months by J. S. Swift. Daily 
and weekly. 

The People's Organ. Established by John T. Gilman in 1857, Douglass Democrat. Merged with 
Tribune and Times upon purchase of Clarke's interest by Gilman. 

The American Sentinel. Moved to Bath from Damariscotta, 1854. Republican. Weekly. James 
M. Lincoln, editor and publisher, 185410 1862. Daily campaign paper issued in 1856. Paper 
merged with rival papers in 1862 and publication continued by Mr. Lincoln with no modification 
of name of weekly. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 465 

The American Sentinel and Bath Daily Times. Consolidation of all other Bath papers in 1862. 
Republican. James M. Lincoln, editor and publisher, 1862 to 1866, when he died. Property 
purchased of estate by Elijah Upton and Maj. H. A. Shorey, 1866, and published under same 
name, firm of Upton & Shorey, until 1869. Then purchased by W. E. S. Whitman and pub- 
lished by him 1869-70. Then purchased by Elijah Upton and published by E.Upton & Son 
1870-88; the elder Upton "dying in harness" meanwhile. In January, 1889, property pur- 
chased by the Sentinel and Times Publishing Co. (H. A., A. C, and W. S. Shorey), and pub- 
lished by them 1889-92. Sold to John O. Patten, Jan. 1, 1893. No change made in name of 
paper during" the period 1862-92, or about thirty years. 

The Maine Temperance Advocate. Published about one year, in 1869, under auspices of Grand 
Lodge of Good Templars, by Maj. H. A. Shorey, in the interest of Temperance and Enforced 
Prohibition. 

The Bath Commercial. Fen. G. Barker, editor and publisher. Continued but a short period. 

The Bath Independent. Established by Charles D. Clarke. Local and Independent. Printed in 
Rockland; sold to E. C. Plummer, 1892; sold by Plummer to John O. Patten and consolidated 
with Times establishment, spring of 1893. 

The B\th Daily Times and Bath Independent. John O. Patten, publisher and editor; assumed 
charge Jan. r, 1893. Of the weekly edition, the Independent, C. D. Clarke, is editor and 
manager. 

The Bath Enterprise. Joshua F. Upton, editor and publisher. Established 1889. Semi-weekly. 

The Magnet. Y. M. C. A. organ, published by the Bath Association. Established 1892. 

The Bath Phi-Rhonian. Published by Bath High School. 



466 HISTORY OF BATH. 



CHURCH EDIFICES 



The Popham Church. — The Popham Colony erected the 
earliest church edifice on the Kennebec River. This tenement was 
the first building completed by these colonists and was within the 
palisades of the Fort. It was rude in construction — made of hewed 
timber — and was destroyed in the conflagration, when the ware- 
house and other buildings were consumed, in the winter of 1608. 

It is difficult to trace the history of the first meeting-house on 
the river after that of the Popham Colony. Tradition has located 
one on Preble Point, in which the Rev. Robert Gutch is supposed to 
have preached. 

Capt. R. P. Manson, a gentleman over 85 years of age, living in 
Bath, and in his youth in Arrowsic, remembers seeing, in his youth, 
a stone foundation for a building, of which traces are *yet seen, 
immediately north of the conspicuous clump of trees on the bluff at 
Doubling Point,* the turn of Fiddlers into Long Reach, indicating 
the spot on which tradition says a frame of a church had been 
erected at an early day, and was undoubtedly boarded ; at a later 
day it was sold to Benjamin Riggs, who took it down and re-erected 
it on his "Sagadahoc farm," at the lower end of Parkers Island, 
head of Sagadahoc Bay. According to tradition it had been intended 
for an Episcopal Church. 

Pleasant Cove Meeting-house. — Col. Arthur Noble owned, at 
an early day, all the land that comprises the Morse farms, bordering 
on this Cove. Noble donated land for the building of this meeting- 
house, which was done by the Presbyterian Society in 1736, who 
occupied it until the completion of the Old Georgetown Meeting- 
house on Arrowsic Island. There is in existence a draft of a survey 
of the Pleasant Cove property, showing a one-story meeting-house, 
with steeple and facing easterly. 

* Termed Doubling Point because in entering either Reach this point had to be doubled. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 467 

At times when the Presbyterians had no minister, it was occupied 
by Episcopal preachers who were employed on the river as mission- 
aries from the Massachusetts diocese, and this probably continued 
after the completion of the house on Arrowsic. The first record of 
this church in the town records was March 15, 1740, and the town- 
meetings of Old Georgetown were held in the Pleasant Cove Meet- 
ing-house, from 1742 to 1762, as shown by the town records. 

This building stood on a flat ledge immediately in the rear of the 
William Morse, now the James B. Morse, house. After its abandon- 
ment it was used for a carriage-house, as related by those who had 
lived on the place, and this author saw it in his youthful days. Scott 
Morse, who saw the event, stated it was blown down by a gale of 
wind, one of its falling timbers wounding an ox. This meeting- 
house had a double floor, a beading on its beams which were 
uncovered, and benches for seats. 

The Old Georgetown Meeting-house. — This old church, a 

landmark of the last century, stood on an elevation that overlooks an 
extensive country — the Back River and a long stretch of the Ken. 
nebec above, and south as far as Seguin. It was of two stories with 
a porch, of a heavy timber frame, and never painted. The body of 
the church, as all in those days, was divided into square box pews. 
About six inches above the tops of these square pews was a railing 
against which the occupants could lean their heads. The pulpit was 
high, with a winding stair-way and a sounding-board. Two deacons 
sat in chairs in front of the desk, and high up in the gallery, opposite 
the pulpit, the choir sat in the "singing seats." The church never 
contained a stove. Foot-stoves were sometimes used by the women 
and reheated, between services, at some neighboring dwelling. 

The congregation came on foot or horseback, the women riding 
on a pillion behind the man. The horse-block was an indispensable 
adjunct to a meeting-house before the days of carriages, the women 
springing with agility from them to the pillion. Many became so 
skillful in sitting on their pillions that they could maintain their 
equilibrium by merely grasping the crupper-strap for support. An 
historic high rock, at the rear of this church, was its horse-block. 



468 HISTORY OF BATH. 

The site of the old building is now an orchard, adjoining the old 
Denny Cemetery. The land on which it stood was a gift from 
Samuel Denny. It was first occupied for holding the annual town- 
meeting in March, 1763, and for church services in 1764, when Mr, 
Emerson came there to preach. The old meeting-house continued 
to be occupied after the swallows had entered, built their nests under 
the overhanging singing galleries, and flew around the room during 
service. It was abandoned after the church held meetings only at 
Phipsburg, whose church was built in 1802. The old church was 
built by the town. 

The First Bath Meeting-house. — In 1756 there was not even 
an apology for a meeting-house or school-house in the whole Second 
Parish. The inhabitants, having now become a separate parish, 
determined to have a meeting-house, held a parish meeting and, after 
much deliberation, voted to build one. A committee appointed to 
select a site for the meeting-house, consisting of Jonathan Philbrook 
and others, were authorized to refer the matter to persons of some 
neighboring town in case they could not agree upon a location; 
consequently, failing to agree, persons of Brunswick were called in 
and decided upon a location, Nathaniel Donnell donating the nec- 
essary land, consisting of three-fourths of an acre. 

Its Location. — To more equally accommodate the people both 
of Bath and West Bath, which then constituted the Second Parish, 
they located the building half-way between the Kennebec and the 
New Meadows Rivers on a rise of ground immediately north of the 
old cemetery, a short distance south of "Witch Spring." It was 
raised, boarded, and the roof shingled the same year, 1756. The 
shingles were made and laid by Maj. David Shaw. It was about 
forty feet square with a porch. To construct it the men contributed 
materials and labor. The nails were made by hand in the black- 
smith shop of Isaiah Crooker, Sr., on High street. The only cash 
article required was glass, which was obtained from Boston, causing 
considerable delay, probably in consequence of lack of the necessary 
money. The house was never painted. By order of the General 
Court, a special tax for the benefit of this structure was authorized 
and Jonathan Philbrook was appointed collector. Finally, by the 



HISTORY OF BATH. 469 

latter part of 1758, this "meeting-house" was ready for its dedica- 
tion, but no record has been found of the event excepting the tradi- 
tion that the proceedings took place during winter severity, and the 
glow of feelings induced by the consciousness of having a church 
of their own imparted sufficient warmth to the people worshiping 
within its walls. It was said that Deacon Philbrook made the 
remark at a later date " that it far surpassed in size and architecture 
any other building at that time in Bath, and was regarded with great 
satisfaction by its builders." Parish and town-meetings were held 
in it until 18 12, although religious services ceased to be held in it 
when the North Meeting-house was completed in 1802. It was 
taken down about 1822 and set up the same day at the "Lower 
Steam Mill" on " Truf ants Point," where is now the "Shaw Mill," 
and utilized for secular purposes, remaining there about thirty years, 
when it was again taken down and rebuilt and used for the same 
purposes. Its true identity cannot now be vouched for. 

By enactment of the General Court of September 10, 1804, incor- 
porating the " First Congregational Church of Bath," separate from 
the parish, the meeting-house ceased to belong to that church, and 
its possession fell to the society from which was formed the South 
Church and constituted the parish. — Groton. 

The Old North. — The church and society of the parish having 
largely increased and become strong, the greater portion of its 
members being residents of Bath proper, and the old Witch 
Spring meeting-house having outlived its usefulness, the erection of 
a larger and more modern edifice, located in the village, became 
indispensable. Accordingly the society resolved to build a new 
meeting-house. The lot on the northeast corner of High and Centre 
streets was presented to the society by Edward K. Page. A contract 
was made with Martin Cushing and the building was completed in 
1802. It was a capacious, two-story edifice, with gallery on three 
sides, pulpit in the east end, modern style of pews, a singing gallery, 
a porch, faced to the west contiguous to the street, and a lofty 
steeple in which was placed a bell, in 1803, which was purchased by 
subscription. This bell was rung for a long series of years as the 



470 HISTORY OF BATH. 

town bell, and when the old church was abandoned and finally taken 
down the bell was placed in the steeple of the Universalist Church 
on Front street, opposite the Custom House, from which it was 
eventually transferred to the belfry of the City Hall, where it is still 
used for the city bell. "The building of this church settled the 
supremacy of Calvinism in Bath. One of the aged deacons used 
to relate, in the evening of his life, that when he first heard the bell 
ring in the steeple of the new meeting-house he was so affected that 
he wept for joy." — Groton. The building cost $10,000. 

Its Frontage. — From careful sifting of concurrent facts, it is 
evident that the seceding members of the Old North Church who 
composed the church and society of the Old South did not take this 
step, as has been asserted, because the Old North was placed to 
face the west instead of the east. On the contrary, it would have 
been impracticable for the church to face the east, as its eastern end 
stood on the edge of a precipitous ledge, affording no convenient 
access on that side, while its entrance was directly on the street, 
fronting the west. Moreover Judge Groton, the earliest historian 
of the churches of Bath, never mentions this facing question as an 
alleged cause of disagreement, and he had every facility for ascer- 
taining the facts. 

The Old North Meeting-house was the first in Bath to adopt a 
heating apparatus by putting in a wood stove. This was fifteen 
years after its erection. Mr. Ellingwood, who engineered the change 
and who was quite a mechanic, having learned to repair clocks and 
watches, had the stove at first placed in front of the pulpit, the pipe 
passing over the broad aisle and going up in front of the singers' 
seat to a brick chimney through the roof. Iron rods arose from 
some of the pew corners, which supported semi-ellipses across the 
aisles with semicircles on which to rest the funnel. The uprights 
extended above their connections with the ellipses, turning outward 
in the form of a scroll, which to youngsters appeared the very acme 
of beauty, and they regretted their removal, as was done subse- 
quently, while a new movement progressed, by placing two stoves 
near the doors, with their funnels passing under the galleries to a 
chimney in the southeast and northeast corners. 



HISTORY OF BATH. 47 1 

The Old Brick, where Baptists worshiped, took in a stove in 1820, 
and the Methodist Meeting-house, where the Wesley Church now 
stands, commenced warming up in November, 1822. At first there 
was much opposition to placing stoves in churches. It has been 
stated that Mr. Ellingwood once related that when a stove was first 
put up in the North Church, and when there was no fire in it, a Mrs. 
Blasland who was in the church arose and went out, declaring that 
she could not stand the heat. 

When the Old North became vacated, in 1844, the building was 
sold to James D. Robinson, who took it down and rebuilt it on his 
Union wharf, where it was utilized for storage purposes for some 
years, when it was again sold and moved intact on a gondola to the 
north part of the town, landed near the old ship-yard of the Pattens, 
where it now stands, in a dilapidated condition, having been long 
used for purposes connected with ship-building. 

The Winter Street. — In 1843, prior to the ordination of Mr. 
Fiske, leading members of the church and parish came to the 
conclusion that a building of modern style and more centrally 
located was demanded. To carry out this purpose individuals, on 
February 1, 1843, inaugurated the undertaking as "proprietors," 
independent of the parish, the necessary funds to be raised by 
subscription, depending upon the sale of pews for reimbursement. 
This was readily accomplished, as on January 31, following, $5,250 
had been raised and eight pews subscribed for. The site for the 
church was selected at the northwest corner of Washington and 
Winter streets, for which $1,350 were paid. The committee on 
building had full powers and consisted of George F. Patten, Thomas 
Harward, Caleb Leavitt, Charles Clapp, Jr., and Gilbert C. Trufant. 
By January, 1844, the edifice was completed. By selling the pews 
at auction the proceeds fully repaid the outlay incurred by the pro- 
prietors, "the house to be called the Winter Street Church." Its 
dedication took place February 1, 1844, Mr. Fiske preaching the 
dedicatory sermon. 

In 1845 it was found necessary to enlarge the accommodations of 
the church, and on March 7 George F. Patten, Richard Nutter, 



472 HISTORY OF BATH. 

William M. Reed, G. C. Trufant, and Chas. Crooker were appointed 
a committee to make the enlargement, which was done by con- 
tracting the entry so as to add twenty-four pews, and by carrying 
back the singing gallery four more pews were added. 

Renovation. — During the summer vacation season of 1890 a 
complete renovation of the interior of the church was made, re-ar- 
ranging the seats, adding new carpets, cushions, an elegant chande- 
lier, with a low pulpit, and fine new organ placed in the rear of the 
preacher's platform. The cost was $10,000, raised by donations. 

Rededication. — On Sunday, November 16, 1890, the church was 
rededicated, a large congregation attending. With much appropri- 
ateness the venerable Dr. Fiske made a dedicatory prayer. At the 
evening service there were brief and appropriate addresses made by 
the pastors of all the evangelical churches of the city. 

Conference Rooms. — For a long series of years the North 
Church occupied a room for lectures, conferences, prayer-meetings, 
and other church meetings, in the second story of the north wing of 
Dea. Nicholas L. Mitchell's dwelling-house, at the northeast corner 
of Oak and Washington streets, which was subsequently termed the 
upper conference room. Later the church was presented with a free 
deed of a hall in the second story of the building at the northeast 
corner of Centre and Washington streets, then termed Concert Hall. 
The donors of this property were Parsons Smith, John Smith, and 
Davis Hatch. When sold by the church it brought the sum of four 
hundred and twenty-five dollars, and the proceeds were appropriated 
to the purposes of Winter Street Church Vestry. 

This room was used by the church until in 1864, when the present 
chapel was built on the north side of the church. In this chapel is 
an apartment devoted to the purposes of a pastor's study, in which 
is the church library for the use of the pastor. There is likewise a 
ladies' room, chiefly used for conference and prayer-meetings. 

During Doctor Ellingwood's pastorate there was a school building 
where now (1894) stands a grammar school, on South street, that 
was used for a lower conference room. It had also a Missionary 
church building, where now stands the Corliss Street Church, and is 



HISTORY OF BATH. 473 

now used for the lower grammar school, on the corner of Corliss and 
High streets. 

The Parsonage. — This society never owned a parsonage until the 
settlement of Mr. Folsom, when a house was purchased on the north 
section of Middle street, which was occupied by the pastor until 
1889, when the fine house north and contiguous to the church was 
purchased and the other house sold. The attending expenses were 
defrayed by liberal donations from wealthy members of the church, 
together with funds raised by the efforts of the ladies of the church 
and society. 

The Old South. — About the year 1802 a number of worshipers 
at the Old North, having become dissatisfied with the rigid Calvin- 
istic doctrines preached in that house, seceded from that society, 
and resolved to build a meeting-house of their own of a more 
imposing appearance than the North edifice. It was placed on a 
high hill on the east side of High street, some distance south of the 
other church, facing the east and overlooking a long stretch of the 
Kennebec. The location was a delightful one and long denomi- 
nated Meeting-house Hill. The master builder was Tileston 
Cushing, a mechanic and citizen of considerable importance. Its 
foundation was laid in 1802 and the edifice completed in 1805, at a 
cost of fifteen thousand dollars. After having occupied this church 
thirty years, and a more central location becoming desirable, a 
movement was made that had in view the erection of a new church 
building. 

By an act of the Legislature, March 23, 1835, "William M. 
Rogers, Jacob Robinson, Levi Houghton, and Samuel G. Bowman, 
and such others as may be associated with them for the purpose of 
providing a house of public worship in the town of Bath, were 
incorporated into a religious society by the name of the Third Par- 
ish of Bath," and at a legal meeting, May 11, 1835, of the parish 
the act of incorporation was accepted. At this meeting W. M. 
Rogers, Levi Houghton, and Jacob Robinson were appointed a 
committee to purchase the South Meeting-house, which was accord- 
ingly accomplished. This action was undoubtedly to transfer the 



474 HISTOR