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Cornell University Library 

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History of thie town of Antrim. New Hamps 


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Peobably the idea of having a " History of Antrim " at the present 
time is due to George A. Cochran, Esq. In legal March meeting, the 
town voted to employ some one to write said history, and appropriated five 
hundred dollars to help meet the expenses. At the urgent request of the 
selectmen, I was induced to enter upon this undertaking, influenced, 
however, partly by my own tastes and pleasures in such work, and partly 
because, without any definite object in view, I had made some records of 
value in the same line. After more than five years, my labor now draws 
to a close. For these years, every hour that I could save from parish 
duties, I have devoted to this work; and the amount of labor I have 
spent upon it has been great and wearing. I have written an Introduc- 
tion touching matters long prior to our limits, knowing it would be of 
value to many among this people who have not books of history at hand. 
For this volume, I have searched the records of Londonderry, Bedford, 
and New Boston, with great care. The records of Antrim have been 
constantly under my eye. The town clerks of Hancock, Prancestown, 
Deering, and Hillsborough have gratuitously made patient investigations 
for me. The Antrim records concerning births, marriages, and deaths 
in the town, church records, and family records, I have found exceed- 
ingly meagre and irregular ; and I have been enabled to straighten them 
out only by comparison and patient study. Upon this part, as well 
as upon the Genealogies, I have written letters almost innumerable, 
and left no stone unturned to get at the facts. What is stated in these 
pages, is believed to be stated on the best evidence of its truth. The 
narrative is brought down to the day of the town's centennial cele- 
bration ; a few items being given of subsequent date as they came to 
hand, if judged important. This part of the work I could not possibly 
get time to rewrite; and hence some crude composition may be here 

The work has been delayed beyond all expectation, disappointing 
myself and all others. The amount of labor involved, and time used up 
on matters of detail, is the only explanation. I would not have believed 
it myself, but for experience of it. 

I have endeavored to be absolutely impartial in all I have said. More 
space has been given to the history of my church than the others, because 
it was the church of the town during its critical and formative period, 
being the only one here for a long series of years, and its business being 


done in open town-meeting. I have made frequent use of Dr. Whiton's 
excellent History, and thankfully acknowledge my obligations thereto. 
In a few cases I have been obliged to dissent from him, because of indu- 
bitable documentary evidence, probably not under his eye when he wrote. 
I am also indebted to the diary of Dr. Whiton, and that of Mrs. Whiton, 
and that of Dea. Isaac Cochran. John A. Riddle, Esq., of Manchester, 
formerly of Bedford, has put valuable papers in my hand, and furnished 
me with matters concerning this town from the diary of Matthew Patten 
of Bedford. E. D. Boylston, Esq., editor of the " Amherst Cabinet," has 
furnished me with scores of advertisements and. deaths and accidents from 
the files of the Amherst papers back to 1796. Reed P. Saltmarsh, Clark 
Hopkins, Hon. G-eorge W. Nesmith, and Hon. "Charles Adams, Jr., have 
rendered me important aid in this part of the book. For various and 
constant helps, both of purse and hand, I am also indebted to Dr. 
Morris Christie. The town clerks during these five years, Almus Fair- 
field and Charles B. Dodge, have been most obliging andhelpful, the 
latter during two years past having been frequently called to suffer on 
my account. I have searched the records at Concord, both in person 
and by proxy. Am indebted to Hon. Mr. Hammond, deputy secretary 
of state. Rev. William Hurlin wrote most of the history of the Bap- 
tist Church; and Rev. J. L. Felt gave me the facts concerning the 
Methodist Church. 

The people of Antrim have shown me universal kindness and encour- 
agement in the slow progress of this undertaking. I have visited every 
family in the town, and sought all possible information. To keep the 
book within bounds, much material kindly given must be unused, or has 
been " boiled down." The officers of the town, and the centennial com- 
mittee, have also manifested such considerate and cordial interest as 
greatly to encourage me. To these, and to all, I put on record my hearty 
gratitude. The votes of the town and all its action concerning the his- 
tory have been highly creditable. 

My estimate of the fathers of Antrim, after this acquaintance with 
them, rises to a certain height akin to reverence. Their greatness of stat- 
ure, their outspokenness, their manly bearing, their bold, open honesty, 
their courage, endurance, and patience, and, most of all, their unshaken 
faith in God, have won my intensest admiration. I shall speak some- 
what of their faults; but their virtues stand out as being of the boldest 
and noblest kind. There was a certain type of dignity and greatness 
about them, which, to say the least, is not prevalent in the world now. 
The Scotch-Irish race were all intense lovers of liberty; and this spirit 
stands out, in every son and daughter of them. They were made of tough 
stuff for tyrants to manage. Bancroft, the historian of the United States, 
uses these just and significant words: " The first public voice in America 
for dissolving all connection with Great Britain came not from the Puri- 
tans of New England, the Dutch of New York, nor the planters of Vir- 
ginia, but from the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians." 

A large part of the volume, and by far the larger part of the time 
and labor, have been given to the Genealogies. This may seem amis- 
taken division now ; but in future years that will be the more valued part 


of the work. Of this I have no doubt ; and this I have had constantly 
in mind. 

Of course it could not be expected that a history of this quiet town 
would be very romantic or great. We have had no Indian tragedies, no 
national battles, no men of extensive fame, no mines of wealth, and no 
very remarkable record in any way. Our town has little that is brilliant; 
much that is solid, honorable, and good. But to those born or bred here, 
these pages, I think, will be full of interest. 

The portraits are all steel engravings, chiefly from the hand of F. T. 
Stuart, 42 Court street, Boston, — an artist of high repute. The cost of all 
these has been borne by the parties or their friends. The several views 
and buildings appear in this book by the generosity of David M. Weston, 
Hon. Charles Adams, Jr., Mrs. Anna Woodbury, Mrs. Eliza (Weston) 
Williams, Benjamin P. Cheney, Mary Clark, and others. 

Other faces and views I earnestly desired and sought, but they could 
not be obtained. The engravings of N. W. C. Jameson, N. C. Jameson, 
and one or two others, go into other books from the same plate; other- 
wise they might not have appeared in this. Dea. A. H. Dunlap of 
Nashua gave one hundred dollars towards the engravings of Dr. and 
Mrs. Whiton. Hon. William B. Dinsmore of New York puts in the 
face of Anna Belle Jameson. This being unknown to the family, may 
be taken as a happy tribute to her beautiful character, and as a sample 
of the generous things that gentleman is in the habit of doing. 

It is believed the illustrations in this volume cannot be surpassed in 
neatness or style. The cost of all the illustrations is about two thousand 

It is worthy of remark that a state historian can say what he pleases, and 
squarely speak of the faults of public men ; but a town historian must be 
blind to many things. Nor is this to me altogether a dis'ad vantage. I 
have tried to avoid hurting the feelings of any one ; and the effort has 
done me good. 

And now these pages are respectfully submitted to the people of the 
town. That they might be better and more ably written, with fewer 
mistakes, and in neater form, I might well hope. That they will be 
charitably received, my knowledge of this people leads me to expect and 
believe. That they may be of some use and pleasure to the present gen- 
eration, and of substantial value to their children and children's children, 
is my ardent wish. This alone can repay my untold anxiety and pains. 
Better than present praise is the humblest, lowest place in the " thanks 
of millions yet to be." 

And I hardly need add that these studies have served to endear to me 
the very rocks of Antrim. On her mountains and valleys and streams 
and forests, her meadows and lakes, her comely villages and fruitful fields, 
I have come to look with a lover's eyes. Take the year through, this 
town cannot be surpassed for scenery. 


Far o'er the sea the fairest town 

Of all old Ulster thought hers, 
She christened " Antrim," — in renown 

" The land upon the waters." 
Such peaceful wavelets spread below, 

Such hills of green above them ; 
The little streams went laughing so 

She couldn't help but love them 1 

And after years of flood and flame. 

To-day I find another, 
That has the look and bears the name 

Old Ulster gave her mother. 
And slopes of green and laughing streams 

That marked the ancient quarters, 
Are here more beautiful, it seems, — 

Our Antrim's hills and waters ! 

The spot life's hurry overlooks. 

The skies that we are under. 
The verdure by the laughing bropks, 

The heights on which I wonder; 
So sweet, so fair, — a jewel set 

With sparkling sons and (laughters ; — 
Oh ! nevermore shall I forget 

Our Antrim's hills and waters I 

On mountains towering to the skies. 

On streams of song and story, 
I've looked with long-enraptured eyes, 

And caught .their gleams of glory. 
And these may fade from memory yet, 

All, all she ever thought hers. 
But nevermore shall I forget 

Our Antrim's hills and waters I 



Introdootokt ... . ix 


I. — The First Settlement of Antrim ; and Events prior to and including the In- 
corporation of the Town . . . 3 
II. —An Outline of Events in Antrim for Fifty Years : 1777-1827 44 
m. —An Outline of^vents in Antrim for Fifty YeSrs : 1827-1877 . 99 
IV. — Proceedings in Connection with the Centennial Celebration, June 27, 1877 114 
V. — Items of Ecclesiastical History 176 
VI. — The Military Record of Antrim . 194 
VII.— Schools . . 213 
VIII. — Various Societies in Antrim 222 
rX. — Koads and Bridges 226 
X. — Cemeteries ... . . 233 
XI. — List of Town Officers from the Year 1777 to the Year 1879, inclusive, as 

copied from the Town Records • • . . 237 

XH. — Mills and Manufactures in Antrim 245 

Xni. — Villages .... 257 
XIV. — Old Customs and Habits . . 265 
XV. — Inconveniences the Settlers had to contend with . . . 277 
XVI. — Scotch-Irish Character and Influence .... . 288 
XVII. — Various Descriptive Items of a Topographical Nature . . . 299 
XVni. — Containing Various Scraps and Remnants worth Gathering up and Pre- 
serving ... . ...... 311 

Genealogies . . .... 827 


Eet. Dr. John M. Whitojs Frontispiece. 

Mrs. John M. Whiton Trontispicce. 

Rev. W. E. Cochrane . Page 3 

Old MEETiNG-HonsE on the Hill 71 

Hon. Charles Adams, Jb. 135 

Hon. a. H. Dunlap . 168 

Presbyterian Church 184 

Baptist Church 192 

Maplewood Cemetery . 236 

Nathan C. Jameson . 244 

Hon. Daniel M. Christie 297 

Map of Antrim . 305 

Gregg's Pond from Holt's Hill 306 

Hon. George W. Nesmith 321 

Chandler B. Boutwell 367 

Dea. James Boyd . 375 

Benjamin P. Cheney, A. M. 412 

Morris Christie, M. D. 416 

Clark Hopkins 544 

N. W. C. Jameson 554 

AuNA Belle Jameson 660 

Reed P. Saltmarsh . . 670 

Steele Place, now William Cuetis's 688 

Mark True, A. M. . 715 

Edward L. Vose » . 727 

David M. Weston . 740 

Residence op Levi Woodbury 779 


At our earliest knowledge of England, it was a land of swamps and; forests, rough, 
desolate, and of no account in the world. It was in the days when Rome was a republic, 
and civilization and learning were at their height in the neighborhoods of the Mediterra- 
nean. A race of savages then occupied the now thrifty, mighty little islands. They 
stained their faces something after the fashion of the Eed Men, dressed in the skins of 
wild beasts, and lived together in huts on the river-banks or in the rude clearings of the 
forest. Their huts were made by twisting long willow sticks together, basket-like, on 
sides and roof, and then covering the whole with mud. An opening answered for window 
and chimney. It is said that such mud huts are built and occupied by some of the Irish, 
even to the present day. These barbarians were warriors, and had trenches about their 
settlements, and low mud walls for fortifications. There were probably nearly forty clans 
or tribes. At the- time of discovery by Csesar, some tribes at least, both men and women, 
went for summer entirely naked. They had horses and cattle, but no agriculture. These 
tribes *ere polj'gamous, but, unlike th6 Mormons, every woman had eight or ten husbands, 
though we are left entirely in doubt as to how she managed her numerous superior half. 

These many uncivilized tribes were united by a common religion named Drjiidism. 
Their'priests were Druids. It took twenty years to learn and commit to memory their 
various forms and ballads and incantations. Everything was oral — no books, no sermons, 
no creeds ; but they had innumerable rites and superstitions. The Druids kept the mysteries 
of their faith in their haunts in the deep oak forests, and but little is really known of 
them. The ruins of their great temples, and stupendous altars of stone, yet remain. It 
was a terrible religion to which they held. Sometimes they offered human sacrifices, 
carrying round the victims in wicker cages and then with fearful ceremonies burning them 
alive ! It was the most authoritative false religion that ever existed. These barbarian 
tribes were subjugated by the Roman arms, and England was occupied by the authorities 
of Rome for more than five hundred years, — this period commencing with the conquest of 
Caesar, B. C. 55, and extending to 449 A. D., though, on account of many rebellions and 
the wild unrest of the people, the Romans had peaceful and entire possession but a small 
part of these five centuries. It is during this Roman possession, and especially in the last 
part of it, that our attention is called to the Scots. We are often told about the inroads 
of the "Picts and Scots." The Picts were painted men, and so called because the faces 
of their warriors were adorned, or made frightful, in this way. The Scots were native 
clans, and said by some to be so named from the Gaelic word sguit (like scout), a wanderer. 
Others derive the name from the Anglo-Saxon scot, an assessment of money, by violence 
or otherwise. Both of these would certainly apply, as they were without doubt often 
strolling down as robbers over the lowlands of England (or Briton) and making reprisals 
with high and fearless band. To this day there is a phrase in the English law, " Scot 
and lot," meaning a contribution laid upon all subjects according to their ability; and 
one who escapes a payment or tax is said to be "Scot-free." The origin of these old 
clans of Scotland is a matter much disputed, antf as yet unsettled. Nor is it within our 
plan to discuss the question. Our earliest reliable history finds them in the Highlands of 

* The f ollowiog historical items are designed to be of use to such people in town as have not; 
authorities at hand to refer to. 


Scotia, the bold, independent, warlike, unconquerable race -which they are to-daj'. The 
Romans s'corned them and hated them, but they could not subdue them ; and as wealth 
increased in England under Roman management, the depredations of the Scotch rangers 
increased. They came down from the mountains, captured everything they wanted, 
and departed with such rapidity as to preclude pursuit and into such haunts as to render 
discovery impossible. Kind to the poor, helpful to the distressed, having in all their law- 
less depredations a certain haughty nobleness of character, they were, on the whole, an 
exceedingly uncomfortable race to the Romans. 

As a last resort, the Roman generals built walls and dug ditches across between England 
and Scotland. The last and most formidable of these was called the " "Wall of Severus," 
from the Emperor's name, was built A. D. 208, was made of stone, was eight feet thick 
and twelve feet high, and under the north side of the wall a ditch was dug the whole dis- 
tance, thirty-six feet wide and twelve feet deep. This, for a distance of about seventy 
miles, was certainly an enormous work. On this wall were hundreds. of castles and 
turrets, so arranged thatif a fire were lighted in one, it could be seen in the next, and in 
that way extended from tower to tower and shore to shore. Such an enormous barrier, 
guarded by armed men, would seem enough to keep back the few Scotch tribes of tlje 
northward mountains. Yet over this great barrier oft they broke, and, flying along the 
southward counties like the wind, escaped with their booty over the large wall and back to 
their fastnesses behind the impassable cliffs. Consequentl}', when the Roman forces were 
withdrawn from the island, the Britons, long used to being defended by their Roman con- 
querors, and unacquainted with arms, were in no condition to meet the intrepid clansmen 
from beyond the wall. The Romans seem to have taken their farewell in the spring of 
A. D. 449. Immediately the Scots poured in upon the defenseless counties. They went 
where they would. Only feeble resistance was offered them. Cattle and horses and fruit 
and treasure fell into their hands. They seemed to regard the land of the Britons as 
their proper prey. The latter in their extremity sent n deputation over the channel to 
the German tribes for help. And thus the Scotch, who would have controlled the whole 
island but for foreign interference, became the occasion of letting in the Saxons and Angles 
and Jutes, who afterwards governed England. Before the close of the year (449) some 
seven thousand warriors responded to the Britons' appeal, came across the channel, and 
soon put the Scots to flight. The rapidity with which they answered to this call for help 
has been explained bj' the statement that they were already meditating this very enter- 
prise by way of conquest, so that the petition of the Britons found them strangely will- 
ing, not only to reply in the affirmative, but to follow it up with immediate vigor. Yet 
no sooner had they driven back the Scotch invaders, than they began to manifest a spirit 
of conquest for themselves, and quietly, took possession of one important place after 
another. Being re-enforced by five thousand additional Saxons, they soon found occasion 
for a quarrel, and commenced open hostilities against those who had sought their help. 
After a varying struggle the Britons were mostly slain, or driven to Wales or Cornwall. 
A few escaped into France. The Saxons obtained full control. The country was divided 

into seven little kingdoms, — sometimes in conflict, but generally allied together, and in 

this way they held on their course for more than three centuries. But in 827, Egbert of 
Wessex succeeded, from various causes,- chiefly from conquest, in uniting these seven 
kingdoms into one, which received the name of England (Angles'-land), and was ilearK- 
identical in area with that which bears the name to-day. This government under the 
Anglo-Saxons continued unbroken until 1013, when the Danes succeeded in getting pos- 
session of the kingdom and held it for twenty-three years, after which the government 
returned to the Saxons and remained with them till the conquest and ascension to the 
throne of "William the Norman, in 1066. From this year the succession of the rulers of 
England were as follows : — 


William I. A. D. 1066-1087. 

William II. 1087-1100. 

Henry I. . 1100-1135. 

Stephen 1135-1154. 




Henry II. 
Richard I. 

Henry III. 
Edward I. 
Edward II. 
Edward III. 
Richard II. 



Henry IV. 
Henry V. 
Henry VI. 
Edward IV. 
Edward V. 
Richard III. 



1422- about 1461. 


1483-1483 (murdered 'when a child). 



Hgnry VII. 
Henry VIH. 
Edward VI. 


James I. 
Charles I. 



1625-1649 (beheaded Jan. 30, 1649). 


This period includes the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell from 1653 to 1658. 


Charles II. 1660-1685. 

James II. 1685-1688. 


William HI. 1689-1702. 

Anne 1702-1714. 


George I. . 
George II. 
George III. 
George IV. 
William IV. 
Victoria I. 


It should be added before leaving this brief outline, that Christianity was introduced 
among the Saxons of England in A. D. 596. They had received, or if receiving they 
had retained, very little, if anything, as regards the Christian faith from the Britons 
who retreated before them; and their whole system of belief was a mere superstition, 


gross and savage in the extreme. Augustin, called the "Apostle to the English," 
landed in Kent that year, and preached with so much zeal and prudence, and was so 
favored by Providence, that in a short time the body of the people embraced Chris- 

Scotland, the land of our fathers, is a romantic little country of about twenty-six thou- 
sand square miles, a little more than twice the size of New Hampshire. It is dotted over 
with lakes, and curious creeks wind round among its mountains, greatly diminishing its 
habitable surface. The indentations of the sea about Scotland are so many and so exten- 
sive that this little country has a sea-coast of more than three thousand miles. The arms 
of the sea almost cut it in two again and again. In several places, but for a few miles 
one could sail across from the Atlantic to the North Sea. One arm of Argyleshire stretches 
into the North Channel till it reaches within about ten miles of the county of Antrim ia 
Ireland. When you add to all this the fact that Scotland is covered with mountains; 
traversed in every direction by deep and beautiful valleys; marked by many rapid rivers; 
has birds and flowers exceeding those of England in variety; and has a climate so 
softened by the ocean that the thermometer rarely, if ever, falls to zero in winter, while 
in summer 80° is the limit of heat, — you can hardly wonder that it is a most attractive 
land and dear to the fathers. 

Scotland was known to the Romans under the name of Caledonia, and was not called 
by its present title till nearly four hundred years after their departure, or about A. D. 840. 
The Romans speak of the inhabitants of Caledonia as consisting of many tribes, as the worst 
kind of idolaters, as robbers, as uncivilized and living in huts and nearly naked summer 
and winter, and as exceeding brave and warlike, and capable of boundless endurance. 
The Romans generally speak of them' under the name of Picts, or painted men. These 
seem to have inhabited the lowlands and the eastern coast, while the old Scotch clans 
inhabited the highlands; certain it is there has always been a diiference in language and 
manners between the two. Some authorities assert that Caledonia was invaded by the 
Scots, a Celtic tribe from Ireland, about A. I>. 500, Who established a kingdom on the 
western coast, — gradually overpowering the Picts and getting control of the whole couu- ■ 
try about 840. But this whole idea that the original Scotch were from Ireland seems to 
lack proof, and appears very much like the conjecture of some historian ambitious to have 
a theory. It is certain that the Saxons invaded the land about the time they invaded 
England, that they conquered and settled the lowlands next to the latter country, and that 
under their chieftain Edwin they founded Edwinsburg, now Edinburg, the capital, while 
the Picts were driven back west and north. Probably what is spoken of as the invasion 
from Ireland, in that mythical period, was simply an uprising of the highlanders on the 
west and north of Caledonia, in which they poured down upon the Saxons and obtained 
full possession of the country ; and as the principal clans in these victories were Scots, 
and the leader was a Scot, the land began to be caBed Scots' land, while the Picts and 
surviving Saxons were absorbed by the victorious tribes. 

The first king that thus governed all Scotland was Kenneth Macalpin; and the Scottish 
kingdom, with various changes and vicissitudes, maintained its integrity till James the 
Sixth, who was heir of the English kingdom, quietly ascended the throne of England as 
successor of Elizabeth in 1603, as James the Eirst, thus uniting the two countries under 
one sovereign. Previous to this event, Scotland had many excellent kings. There was a 
long war with the Danes, resulting in the entire expulsion of the invaders. Subse- 
quently there were wars with England, and the borderland between the two countries was 
a scene of blood and devastation for many a year, until this union in James. 

In the year 1290 there was a vacancy in the Scottish throne, John Baliol and Robert 
Bruce being aspirants therefor. The next year the question of succession was referred to 
Edward I. of England, and in 1292 he declared John Baliol entitled to the crown, — 
but not until he had exacted from the Scottish barons an oath of fealty to himself as 
feudal lord of Scotland. But Edward soon scraped a quarrel with this weak sovereign, 
overran his kingdom, and sent John as a prisoner to the Tower of London. He soon suc- 
ceeded in subduing most of the fortresses of Scotland; but soon a deliverer arose in the 
person of William Wallace, who descended from an ancient family in the west of Scot- 
land, and, though being of small fortune and few resources, he succeeded, by great courage 


and endurance and wisdom, in freeing his country from foreigners. But at lengtli Wal- 
lace was betrayed into the hands of the king, who caused him to be executed with the 
cruelty and shame of a culprit. This is to the everlasting disgrace of Edward and of 
England. Few nobler spirits than Wallace ever lived. But his death (1305) only set 
tighter the teeth of every Scotchman ; and the struggle was continued by young Robert 
Bruce, grandson of that Robert who claimed the crown in 1290. The English had abun- 
dance of men and means, and often it looked dark for Scotland ; but the unconquerable 
spirit of her warriors was never broken, and they kept up the unequal contest in one way 
or another till their land was free. In the ppring of 1314 Edward II. collected an army of 
ope hundred thousand men for the purpose of iinishing up the Scottish conflict, marched 
into Scotland, and met little opposition till Bruce confronted him at Bannockburn. The 
battle of that name was June 25, 1314. The Scottish chieftain had but thirty thousand men, 
but they were heroes all, and were admirably managed. Full half the English army was 
either slain or captured. The young Scotch leader was covered with undying glor}^, and his 
land was free. He was succeeded by many sovereigns, until the crowns of England and 
Scorland were united in James, as named above. The latter had no further history as a 
separate nation, though it was more than a hundred years before the two Parliaments were 
united in o'ne as at the pi^sent time. This event occurred in the autumn of 1706, and 
since then the two countries have been more and more blended in interest and character. 

Having nowjiaken this brief view of the history of England and Scotland for the read- 
er's convenience, we will now, for similar reason, glance at the causes which led to the 
settlement of New England. Henry VIII., who ascended the throne of England in 
1509, married Katherine of Arragon in the first year, of his reign. After the death of 
Henry in 1547, and the brief reign of Edward VI. who died at the age of nearly sixteen, 
Mary I., daughter of Henry VIII. and Katherine of Arragon, ascended the throne. This 
was in 1553. She was the most bloody and cruel and devilish of women. When her licentious 
father determined to get rid of Eiatherine, he divorced her (1532), and was set in bitter 
opposition to the -Pope for declining to sanction the act. He declared his opposition to 
Rome openly; and his passion led to what has been called the "Reformation" in Eng- 
land. He had previously written a book against Luther, for which the Pope gave him the 
title "Defender of the Faith," a title still retained by the sovereigns of England; but 
now he proceeded to persecute the Papists, and many met death at his hand. Perhaps, 
therefore, it was to be expected that Mary, the daughter of Katherine, and a zealous 
Catholic, should feel herself called upon to retaliate in blood, and establish the persecuted 
sect. And she did her worst. ,, f he leading Protestants were condenined to the flames; 
many were thus burned at the stake; and scarcely in the five years of her reign did the 
fires of martyrdom go out. Great numbers were tortured, and in the most cruel conceiv- 
able methods put to death. But " Bloody Mary " died 1558, and her memory is covered 
with the abhorrence and execration of mankind. , 

On her death, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII. and the murdered Queen Anne 
Boleyn, succeeded to the throne ; and in the first year of her reign Protestantism was 
forever established as the religion of England. This was by act of Parliament. But for 
the object of putting down the Catholics, laws were passed requiring the abjuration of all 
foreign authority both in spiritual as well. as temporal things, and the acknowledgment 
of the sovereign of "England as the head of the church. It was made a crime to attend 
the religious services of any clergyman not belonging to the established church. This 
arbitrary enforcement of religion was the mistake and dishonor of Elizabeth's reign. It 
was only doing on the other side, and in a milder way, what the infamous Mary had done 
before her. Yet these wicked laws were in force for generations, and many suffered per- 
secution and death at the hands of so-called Protestants, in the reign of Elizabeth, and 
that of her successor, James I. But many of the Protestants themselves were not satisfied 
with the established religion, which, though freeing them from papal tyranny, gave them 
no real freedom of conscience. Soon parties called " Non-conformists " arose in the king- 
dom; and in subsequent years there was a very determined opposition, both in England 
and Scotland, to all these encroachments upon the rights of the people in religion. Those 
who professed to follow the "Pure word of God" were called Puritans. They grew up 
under the reign of Bloody Mary, but do not seem to be called Puritans till abbut 1564. 


They desired a wider separation from tlie Roman Catholics than that allowed by the 
established church, and willingly accepted the appellation given them in reproach. 
As they were opposed and ridiculed and persecuted, none joined them except such as 
were conscientiously devoted to Christ, so that the name Puritan came to be significant 
of great self-denial and excellence in religion. They were both godly and intelligent 
people, and were exalted by the fires they passed through. The name Puritan has been 
differently used at times. In later days, every one that wanted to live a decent life was 
called a puritan by the irreligious multitude, even though he were conformed to the 
established church. Under Charles I., all people opposed to his arbitrary government 
were called puritans. The historian Hume applies the name to three classes; the political 
puritans, who advanced the most radical ideas of civil liberty; the puritans in polity, who 
opposed the government and forms of worship in the established church ; and puritans in 
doctrine, who strenuously insisted on the tenets of the reformers. The Puritans that set- 
tled New England certainly embraced all of these, and there never was a time when any 
such lines of distinction could be drawn this side the water. 

It will not be judged out of place to devote one page here to Macaulay's description of 
the Puritans, though familiar to many, for it is a surpassing sketch ; and as he was a mem- 
ber of the Church of England, he will not be accused of speaking too highly in favor of 
its opponents. 

" We would speak of the Puritans as the most remarkable body of men the world has 
ever produced. The odious parts of their character lie on the surface. Nor have there 
been wanting malicious observers to point them out. For many years after the Reforma- 
tion, they were the theme of unmeasured invective and derision. . . But the Puritans 
were men whose minds had derived a peculiar character from the daily contemplation of 
superior beings and eternal interests. Not content with acknowledging in general 
an overruling providence, they habitually ascribed every event to the will of that Great 
Being, for whose power nothing was too vast, for whose inspection nothing was too 
minute. To know him, to serve him, to enjoy him, was with them the great end of human 
existence. They rejected with contempt the ceremonious homage which other sects sub- 
stituted for the pure worship of the soul. Instead of catching obscure glimpses of the 
Deity through an obscuring veil, they aspired to gaze full on the intolerable brightness, 
and to commune with him face to face. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial 
distinctions. They recognized no title to superiority but the divine favor ; and, confident 
of that favor, they despised all the accomplishments and all th? dignities of the world. 
If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets, they were deeply 
read in the oracles of God. On the rich and eloquent, on nobles and priests, they looked 
down with contempt; for they esteemed themselves rich in a more precious treasure, and 
eloquent in a more sublime language, — nobles by right of an earlier creation, and priests 
by the interposition of a mightier hand. Those had little reason to laugh at them who 
encountered them in the hall of debate or in the field of battle." 

These inimitable lines from the unprejudiced historian show what sort of stuff the early 
settlers of New England were made of. 

The first settlement permanently made by the Puritans in New England was in Salem, 
Mass., in 1628, by John Endicott and a few associates. June 29, 1629, five ships, 
one of them being the "Mayflower," came to Salem, bringing more than two hundred 
settlers. This was called the Massachusetts colony, and John Endicott was chosen gov- 
ernor. The next year (1630), Gov. John Winthrop came with eight hundred more. Thus 
this colony, seeking religious freedom, was strong and numerous at the start ; and though 
meeting many hardships, they grew in numbers, settled Boston and many surrounding 
towns, spread in every direction, and finally absorbed all the other colonies, the date of 
formal union being 1692. These Puritans, though persecuted for their opinions, held old 
England as very dear ; and it is said their minister. Rev. Francis Higginson, cried aloud 
as they parted from their native land: "Farewell, dear England! Farewell, all the 
Christian friends there ! " 

There was another colony that settled within the present limits of Massachusetts some 
years earlier than that of Endicott, named above. This was called the Plymouth colony. 
They were Puritans, — but they were more and better. By some they were called "Sep- 


aratists" ; but they were not strictly sucli, since they would admit to communion a godly 
member of the Church of England, or even hear a preacher of that church when they 
couldn't find better, on account of which extreme Separatists denounced them as sharing 
the "Harlotry of Episcopacy." Their religious ideas were far in advance of their time 
and more in accordance with the tolerant, evangelical principles that are held at the pres- 
ent day. These now bear the honored name of "The Pilgrim Fathers," Or "The 
Pilgrims," though the word is often used in a larger sense. Being more careful in doc- 
trine and more widely separated from the Church of England than many who wej-e 
substantially agreed with them, they were more intensely persecuted; and consequently 
, they fled to Holland, where there was tolerable religious liberty. But in Holland thev 
had a hard time, and were under some social disadvantages ; and, as they were greatly 
desirous of " advancing the gospel in the remote parts of the world," they determined to 
make a home in the wilds of America. There were upwards of a thousaud of these 
"Pilgrims" — on the way "to heaven, their dearest country" — then waiting in Hol- 
land; and about one hundred of them were selected as most fit to commence the new settle- 
ment. They sailed in July, 1620, in the "Mayflower," and steered for the Hudson river 
intending to begin there. But they were driven by storm onto the coast of IMassachu- 
setts. They sailed along with great care, exploring here and there for a favorable location. 
Having spent a mouth in this way, they came into Plymouth harbor (so called by a pre- 
vious explorer), and fixed on that as the most favorable location. They landed Dec. 21 
1620. Before disembarking they formed a compact for government on the basis of equal 
rights among them ; chose John Carver for their first governor, and Miles Standish for 
their military captain. The first foot on Plymouth Eock was that of Marj' Chilton. But 
■it was a wintry shore, and the prospect before them was dark enough. Winter had just 
begun. The land was supposed to be full of savages. There was neither house nor barn 
on all the shore. There was no help thej' could reasonably look for. But at once they 
resolutely went about building houses. They had log houses, with thatched roofs and 
paper windows. And these small, humble apartments, they afterwards said, " were as 
full of beds as they could lie, one by another." At once they built a church and put 
cannon upon it for defense. They subsisted largely by hunting and fishing. But their 
privations and hardships were so great that fifty-one, just one-half the entire number, 
died the first winter, their governor among them. It is said they planted corn over their 
graves in the spring to prevent the Indians from finding out how they were diminished in 
numbers ! At the same time the " Mayflower " returned to England, but not one of the colo- 
nists chose to return with her. They struggled on slowly and bravely for years. Gradually 
increasing and extending, they got firm ' hold of the soil, and the prospect had greatly 
brightened for them when their neighbors of the Massachusetts colony arrived. There 
had been some differences between the two ; but once on the shore of the New World, — 
with a common object in view, and a common dislike of the authority of the Church of 
England, and with need of mutual defense, the Pilgrims of Plymouth found allies in the 
Puritans of Salem, — graduallj'' they came together, and ultimately they became one, 
making the large and powerful State of Massachusetts at the time (1718) when our Scotch 
ancestors arrived at Boston. 

Having now followed Puritan and Pilgrim from persecution in England to a permanent 
and free condition in America, and left them united, and enlarging on every side, it will 
be expected of course that we look particularly at the causes and history of the " Scotch- 
Irish " emigration. Ireland had been invaded and conquered by the English in the reign 
of Henry II., A. D. 1172. But for four hundred years they really exercised but little 
authority in the island, and that in such a way as to exasperate the ignorant and suffer- 
ing Irish beyond endurance. They frequently rebelled against the English authority 
during the reign of Elizabeth, and it was not till near the close of her reign (1601) that 
her government could-very properly be said to be established there. To a great extent, 
the lands of the Catholic rebels were confiscated by the crown. These lands being attract- 
ive in soil and climate, and offered at a very low rate, many English and some Scotch 
settlers were induced to come over and settle upon them, — a course of things greatly 
encouraged by the government, in the hope that an intelligent Protestant population wou)d 
counteract the plots of the uneasy and troublesome Irish. James I., ascending the throne 


in 1603, pursued tlie same course and offered increased inducements to any of his country- 
men who would settle on the vacant farms. Indeed, soon after his accession, a company 
was formed in London to colonize Ireland. Large parts of the eastern counties, and nearly 
the whole of the Province of Ulstei*, comprising nine counties in the north, or in all full 
one-fourth of the island, came hy attainder into the hands of James. Those parts next 
to England were slowly filled up and occupied by the British; but Ulster in the north, 
being a wild and lawless province, remained for the most part unoccupied except by lin- 
gering bands of the rebel Irish who had now no legal right to the soil. James, whose 
government of Ireland was about the only record of good to be found in his reign, own- 
ing now more than two millions of acres in Ulster, and being very desirous of a loyal 
population there, thought of the Scotch as the only ones likely to meet his wish. These 
Scotch were rigid and decided Presbyterians, and James hated them badly enough, as 
being set to the death against all his pet schemes for establishing Episcopacy in Scotland. 
But they were nearby, and exceedingly brave and industriousj and were people of' intel- 
ligence, reliable in every place. More still as the Scotch were .poor, and their land was 
rocky and hard, it was thought they could be induced to plant a colony over the channel, 
where cultivation was so much easier. This vacant territory was therefore divided up 
into small farms and offered to the Scotch on such favorable conditions, that, like our 
young men going West, a great number went over and settled earlj' in the year 1612. 
These settlers were young men from all parts of Scotland, but chiefly from the adjacent , 
county of Argj'le, — hardy, vigorous, independent Scotchmen. The Irish were removed 
from the hills and strong places, and put out into the open country ; and the Scotch, 
though by honest purchase, occupied all the best of the soil. They spread over the 
counties of Antrim, Down, and Londonderrj', and some of them settled still farther to the 
south and west. The Irish Catholic rebels, living among and around these Protestant 
Scotch, not only looked upon them as invaders supplanting them of their rights, but as 
heretics and foreigners; and they felt the keenest hatred towards them, though, being 
awed by the government and over-matched by the superiority of the Scotch, they 
remained quiet. The new settlers flourished, multiplied, built churches, formed presby- 
teries, and extended themselves largely over all Ulster. This happy state of things lasted 
neai-ly thirty years. But the Irish hate during these thirty years did not soften with time, 
and was only as a smothered fire, heating and burning unseen, and ready, to burst forth 
into .dissolving flame. They associated with the Scotch in treacherous kindness while 
they were waiting an opportunity to murder them. This favorable moment for the great 
murder came in 1641, when thej' thought, from the disturbances in England and Scot- 
land, the Protestant settlers could get no help from abroad. Perhaps they may have been 
roused to this bloody action by notice of the thrift and increase of the settlers, and the 
fact that respectable accessions were being made to them by new emigrants from Scotland 
about this time, — suggesting the thought that something must be done, or Ireland would 
speedily become a Protestant land. King James I. and Charles I. had, step b3' step, 
as they supposed and hoped, forced Episcopacy upon Scotland, — when in 1638 the 
whole people of that land rose in opposition and entered into what was called the " Solemn 
League and Covenant." This was a solemn agreement to maintain the reformed religion, 
and to put down Popery and Prelacy in Scotland ; and it was signed by almost the whole 
body, men, women, and children, high and low. Then followed the controversy with 
Charles, — the efforts at compromise on his part, — the preparations for war, — the trea- 
ties with that weak ,king, — the raising of new armies, — entirely engaging the attention 
of Scotland until the visit of Charles to that kingdom in the summer of 1641, and a set- 
tlement of their difficulties, — which doubtful negotiations-lasted into the autumn of that 
year. Thus the Papish intriguers in Ireland concluded that Scotland was out of their 

In England in 1640 and 1641 the arbitrary conduct of Charles was stirring the kingdom 
from border to border; the conflict between king and parliament was intense; people were 
looking forward to the threatened arbitrament of arms, which followed ere long; the gov- 
ernment had no sufficient force in Ireland; and the universal interest was in affairs at 
home. At this juncture, therefore, the long-quiet malcontents of Popery in Ireland 
thought the favorable moment to strike for supremacy and revenge had come. Some 



eight thousand disciplined Catholic soldiers disbanded by Charles, and ready for any des- 
perate adventure, were at this time let loose. Help to the Catholics was promised 
from France. Priests excited the old Irish to revolt. All the English and Scotch in the 
island only amounted to one-sixth of the whole population. They were for the most part 
unarmed, and were entirely unaware of the storm that was ready to break upon them. 
The plan was to rise in all parts of the kingdom at once and wipe out the unsuspecting 
Protestants by death. The plot was discovered in Dublin, in season to save that place and 
the surrounding country to the Protestants and prevent an outbreak ; but in the north 
of Ireland it was carried out with all the cruelty which Popery and the devil could 
invent. The time fixed upon for this universal murder was Oct. 23, 164,1. On that 
morning (an exceedingly hard, cold day for that season of the year), the Catholics, being 
everywhere intermingled with the Protestants, fell upon them by surprise and commenced 
their contemplated butchery on every hand. The Protestants, outnumbered five to one 
unarmed, scattered, and surprised, had no chance at all. Their neighbors whom they had 
befriended and instructed, became their murderers. Entreaties and tears availed not. The 
young, and the old, the mother with her babe, the languishing invalid, the strong man, 
the fair and innocent child, were murdered together. Whole families were butchered, one 
after another, slowly, so that each living one might see the anguish of the dying before 
enduring the same cruel fate. Even the Irish women went further than their husbands in 
exquisite torture of young mothers and helpless children. Fugitives, fleeing naked from 
their burning homes, perished from hunger and cold. A few survivors were changed into 
maniacs by the awful scene, never to think of anything but murder and fiame, or know 
the quietudes of home again. By the hundred there were instances of lust and torture, 
the minute description of which would shock the most hardened heart. And this was 
done chiefly in the name of the Catholic religion. Priests were guilty of those murders. 
Those rivers of innocent blood flowed by Popery's accursed hand! Of this quiet and 
harmless people) who had not shown the least unkindness to the Catholics, nor been in any 
open way opposed to them, living in neighbor!}' love and peace, it has been estimated that 
two hundred thousand were thus butchered in a single day. The lowest estimate ever 
made was forty thousand. Probably the mean between them would be nearly correct. > It 
has been said by English authority that the victims were mostly English; and, without 
question, the English colonies in the northern counties were blotted out in this most inhu- 
man massacre. It may not be denied that the Irish pretended some friendship to the 
Scots, and murdered the English first ; and |so arranged things that the Scots to some 
extent had time to escape, or a chance to band together in defense, so that far fewer of 
, them were murdered. Yet it is certain that many , of the Scotch were murdered too, and 
that fire and robbery did not distinguish much between theirs and the English homes. 
Many fled back to Scotland. And there is little room to doubt that many ancestors and 
kindred of the Londonderry families, and therefore of those of our own town, perished on 
that bloody day. 

After this sad event those Scotch who remained in Ireland lived in alarm and on the 
lookout for defense, durmg seven or eight years, until in 1649, Cromwell, having leisure 
from affairs in England, came over the channel and subdued the Irish. Thence onward 
for several years the Protestants lived in comparative peace and prosperity, and slowly 
recovered their former condition. The Papists were disarmed, and the Protestants were 
supplied with means of defense. From this fact arose the habit which long prevailed of 
$ring guns at Scotch weddings, as being then the best way of expressing their triumph 
and their gladness. 

In Scotland during the last years of the reign of Charles II., the Protestants, or Presby- 
terians as they nearlj- all were, were growing less and less secure; and on the accession of 
James II., 1685, they began to be openly and terribly persecuted. The latter monarch 
was narrow-minded, small, and bigoted. Charles II. had been secretly a Papist ; James II. 
was openly Auch, and sought in the most bloody and arbitrary ways to enforce it upon 
the nation. To attend any meeting except that of the established order, was made pun- 
ishable with death. In the western lowlands of Scotland in particular, military bands 
were sent out everywhere to spy out the Covenanters and bring them to death. Some of 
these were commissioned to shoot on the spot any who would not renounce the Covenant, 


or swear to the king, who was murdering Protestants. James 11., even when viceroy, is 
said to have "amused himself with hearing Covenanters shriek and seeing them writhe 
while their knees were beaten flat in the boots." Under him, subsequently, when he became 
king and had things his own way, James Graham, or Lord Graham of Claverhouse; was 
prominent as a leader, — a most ingenious and remorseless wretch. No pen can paint the 
cruelties which he enforced. His name is now spoken with abhorrence all over the earth. 
When his bloody and hardened soldiers shrunk from shedding innocent blood, he would 
plunge his own sword into the body of the poor victim whose only crime was non-confor- 
mity to the Episcopacy, or unwillingness to pray for King James as against God's will. 
These indignities, robberies, and murders were so numerous and constant as utterly to 
surpass all calculation. Two instances out of thousands are here given. One of the 
hunted Covenanters had found shelter in the house of a widow of good family and name, 
and had died there. The corpse being discovered in her house, the soldiers pulled the 
house down, carried off all her property, and turned her out with several little children to 
perish with cold and want. The oldest' child, a lad of about fifteen years, was brought out 
before the soldiers, the guns were loaded, and the fair, sweet boy, without trial o r delay, 
was told to pull his bonnet down over his face. But he refused, saying, "I can look you 
in the face," and in a moment they fired and the boy fell dead with his Bible in his hand. 
About the same time two women were put to death by drowning. An attempt has been 
made to disprove this ; but there is n0|t, in view of the evidence, the least room to doubt 
the fact. One was an aged lad}', and the other a sweet girl of eighteen, named Margaret 
"Wilson. Their only crime was that they would not abjure their Presbyterian faith. Thev 
werft taken to a place on the banks of the Solway where it rises and overflows with the 
tide. The feeble old lady was tied to a stake nearer the water, so that the terror of her 
death might frighten the young girl into.submission. But she " prayed and sung praises " 
till the advancing waters choked her voice. But when the struggle of death was over, they 
unbound the unconscious victim from the stake and restored her to consciousness. Then 
kindred and friends begged her to comply with the vile murderer's command, crying, 
"Dear Margaret, only say, 'God save the King! ' " The weak but heroic girl gasped out, 
" God save the King if it be God's will ! " " She has said it ! She has said it ! " shouted 
her friends to the cruel ofiicer. "Will" she take the abjuration?" he savagelv asked. 
"Never," she answered; "I am Christ's, let me go ! " And then the waters closed over 
her head slowly, and she was gone ! ' On her gravestone at Wigton, are these rude words : 

' ' Within the sea, tied to a stake, 
She suffered for Christ Jesus' sake." 

"While, therefore, such persecutions were in progress in Scotland, quite a large number 
of the Covenanters, to escape misery at home, emigrated to Ireland and joined their coun- 
trymen there. From 1684 to 1688 these emigrations in small numbers took place. The 
McKeens, MacGregors, Cargils, and many others were among these exiles, and their blood 
flowed in the veins of some of the settlers of Antrim. But in Ir^and things soon began 
to gi-ow worse ; under Papal rule and surrounded by Papists, they were soon disarmed 
and in their defenseless condition began to suspect a repetition of the murders of 1641. 
And a desperate struggle was indeed awaiting them. Affairs had arrived at such a pitch 
of discontent in England, that the better part of the people looked for deliverance to Wil- 
liam, Prince of Orange, who had married Mary, eldest daughter of James II. According! v, 
being invited over from Holland, he came with five hundred vessels and fourteen thousand 
men, and landed in England late in the autumn of 1688. At once, the nobility, clergy, 
and military went over to William; even Anne, daughter of James, joined the party of 
the new king against her father : so that James was dethroned without a blow. Fleeing 
to France, whither Catholic renegades have been wont to flee, he was encouraged to 
attempt the recovery of his crown. As the Papists adhered to him, he had a small party 
of friends in England. In Scotland he had some strong Catholic clans. In Ireland he had 
great resources in the Irish Catholics, who constituted the great body of the people of 
that island. The military plan of James, therefore, was a good one : to pass over to Ire- 
land with what men and money the French king could give him ; to raise there an im- 
mense army of Irish; then to pass over to Scotland, and with the addition of the Catholic 


Highlanders, to bear down upon England from the north and sweep everything before 
hinv. With reason, this scheme loolsed encouraging to him. He started with great hopes, 
and landed in the south of Ireland, March 12, 1689. Thence he made his way as best he 
could to Cork, and thence to Dublin, expecting to go northward at once, and anticipating 
no serious resistance till he should reach England. But the Protestant population in the 
north of Ireland stood in the way; which, though small, was judged to be of such 
energy and valor that it must be overcome at the start. A large army had therefore been 
raised before the arrival of James, -and had began the attempt to subjugateihese Protest- 
ant colonies that stood in the face of the royal plans. The strongest of these Protestant 
positions was Londonderry, — a city that had held out successfully against the Irish in the 
murderous rebellion of 1641. As the army of Catholics swept northward to capture this 
city, which was supposed to be easily done, they pillaged and murdered without stint, till 
thousands of men, women, and children fled before them for life ; and many found refuge 
within the walls of Londonderry. The Protestants suffered more and lost more pos- 
sessions than in the massacre of 1641, though probably not so many lives were sacrificed 
as then. But the city of Londonderry refused to surrender; and the whole army of 
James, French and Irish, outnumbering the defenders of the city five to one, attempted 
the work of capture. They halted before the city April 15, 1689, and entered into nego- 
tiations with the treacherous Lundy to give up the city on some terms in spite of the 
known will of the people. This dalhang went on a day or two. King James arrived 
from Dublin with fifteen thousand additional soldiers, on the 17th, and was exceedingly 
anxious for the surrender on any terms (as the success of his whole undertaking seemed 
to depend on the immediate possession of this place), so that he might move on to Scot- 
land while his great army was in good spirits, and before too formidable preparations 
could be made against him there. Expecting the -surrender would be made more willingly 
to him, James advanced at once within three hundred feet of the southern gate to receive it, 
when he was answered with a shout of "No surrender ! ' ' and by a fire from that part of 
the wall, which struck dead an oiBcer by his side. The king fled like a frightened boy to 
get out of danger. Then the real struggle began, April 17, 1689. We cannot here detail 
all the circumstances of this remarkable siege. For Courage and endurance there'is noth- 
ing superior to this defense in human history. With weak defenses, scanty provisions, 
having but few soldiers against an immense army, and only a handful of that few inured 
to war; with a disadvantageous position, and twenty thousand women, children, and aged 
men to be fed; while, having themselves small hope of outside help, their enemies would 
be likely to increase, — it must be confessed that their situation was desperate enough ! But 
immense interests were at stake, and they determined to stand for their religion, come 
death, if it must. Lundy, the traitorous governor of the city, was in danger of being 
torn to pieces by the maddened people, and skulked oS in disguise, by night, to the foe. 
Maj. Henry Baker and Capt. Adam Murray called the people to arms and took the lead 
the first day. On the following day the people met, as Macanlay puts it, " with a gravity 
and prudence worthy of the most renowned senates, to provide for the order and defense 
of the city." They chose Rev. George Walker and Maj. Henry Baker, governors, the 
latter taking the military command. These men managed affairs with great wisdom and 
courage. The siege was pressed with cruel vigor; shells burst constantly over the defend- 
ers' heads ; chimneys were knocked down ; often the city was on fire ; night and day they 
were called to the most vigilant and desperate defense ; many sorties were made ; the 
walls were often assaulted by superior force; parties mining under the walls were con- 
stantly watched against, and by the fiercest struggle put to death ; threat and artifice 
were abundantly employed; they began to suffer for want of provisions, and for want of 
water; the long-hoped-for re-enforcement from England had come in sight, been frightened 
by the batteries on the river-side, and sailed away, leaving the brave defenders of the city 
to their fate; their enemies had been re-enforced; one-third .of their number had fallen; 
the force against them seemed overwhelming; and yet on the sixty-second day of the 
siege they determined that "no one should speak of surrender on pain of death," Thus 
matters went on day after day in heroic and painful detail which we have no . space for 
here. But before many days of July were gone, famine began to press harder than Papist 
foes. Not a few died of starvation. Cats and dogs and rats and mice and horse-flesh 


and old hides came to be luxuries. Tallow was mixed with pepper and meal to make 
a sort of pancake. Starch mixed with tallow became an article of food. A dog's head 
was sold for food for two shillings and sixpence; a quart of horse's blood, one shilling; a 
cat, four shillings and sixpence ; and so on. They expected to eat dead human bodies, — 
yet would not entertain the thought of surrender. So desperate was the case, that some 
fleshy people hid themselves for fear of being first chosen for food for the emaciate sol- 
diers ! , On the thirtieth of July, the garrison had become so far reduced that they reck- 
oned on only two days' more life — there being but one pint of meal left for each already 
starving man. But on this day deliverance came. It was the one hundred and fourth 
day of the siege. The commander of the English fleet received orders to relieve the city 
at whatever peril. Three ships, the "Mountjoy," of Londonderry, and the "Phenix," 
of Coleraine, both laden with provision, and the war-ship " Dartmouth," undertook this 
perilous adventure. Within the city the evening sermon in the cathedral had just closed, 
the sad audience had scattered, and it began to grow dusk, when the sentrymen on the 
tower saw the sails of these three ships coming up the Foj'le. The river was narrow and 
low, — the banks were Used with batteries, — and the great Irish army hurried to the spot 
to prevent the relief of the city. Rocks had been sunk by them in the channel, and an 
immense boom had been thrown across the river to prevent the approach of a ship, while 
formidable guns swept the spot. It was an hour of tremendous suspense — the besiegers 
straining every nerve to oppose, while the starving defenders looked on with an agony of 
interest seldom, if ever, equaled in this world. At length the little squadron came 
bravely to the critical point. The "Mountjoy" led the way and sailed with all force 
against the boom, — and the huge obstruction snapped and fell apart; but its strength was 
so great as to send the ship back by the shock, and she rebounded against the shallow 
bank and stuck partly over in the mud, exposed to a terrible fire. The Irish in great 
numbers rushed for their boats to board the defenseless ship. Just then the " Dartmouth " 
opened upon them so effectually as to destroy many of them and hold the rest in check, 
while the *' Phenix," left free by the struggle with the others, dashed under fearful fire, 
into the break made by the " Mountjoy," and, receiving no great injury, slowly passed all 
the barriers. When the "Mountjoy " was stopped in the mud the Irish gave a scream of 
fiendish joy, while the dying heroes within the walls looked at each other in hushed and 
awful agony ! All features grew black, and a feeble wail, like the prayer of death, 
ascended from the battered defenses ! Women and children wept, and men gazed with 
stern, dark faces whence hope had fled; but no yielding or fear was there. But the tide 
was rising rapidly; and just at the critical moment a broadside from the "Mountjoy " not 
only battered back the approaching enemy, but started her from the mud, and she sailed 
on up the stream. The "Dartmouth" followed, bravely answering the desperate firing 
from the shore; and under the curses of the whole Popish army and the rage of its officers, 
with considerable loss of life and injury to the brave little ships, they all made their way 
to the city. As the darkness closed in, and the firing went on, it was a time of unutterable 
suspense within the gates. But when they arrived, about ten o'clock, the whole popula- 
tion turned out to welcome them. Such ecstasies of joy, few lifetimes can ever know ! 
Men wept and thanked God! The bells of the city rang all night! There was no sleep 
within the walls that night for joy ! On the morrow the Irish fired tumultuously all day. 
But on the succeeding night, — that of Julj' 31, — silently that great army, mortified and 
enraged, with a loss of a hundred oflicers and about nine thousand men, retreated up the 
Foyle. Micaiah Browning, captain of the " Mountjoy, " was killed in the struggle at the 
boom; and afterwards a pension was conferred on his vi idow by King William, and that 
great monarch, in the presence of the court, put a chain of gold about her neck. 

The defense of Londonderry was the great check to King James and the Papists. Hu- 
manly speaking, it saved Protestantism in Ireland and England. Forty thousand men 
were thus kept back one hundred and five days. Bj' that time William was prepared to 
meet them there, and thus the forces intended for Scotland and England never went across 
the channel. On the banks of the Boyne, James was soon defeated (June 30, 1690); and 
after some less important struggles, he retreated into France. 

From these unconquerable soldiers who defended Londonderry, descended many of the 
settlers of Antrim, — among them the Dinsmores, the Cochrans, and McKeens, and 


others. It is a fadeless honor both to the dead and the living. The old city still holds a 
thousand memorials of the struggle. The battered old wall is carefully preserved. The 
old guns, the captured flags, are kept as treasures. The defenders' graves are annually 
decorated. The survivors were exempted from taxes thi-oughout the "British dominions. 
The farms of some of these in our Londonderry are called '^ exempt farms" to the pres- 
ent time, — over some of which I wandered in younger days. The king and parliament 
considered this defense so important and of such endurance and valor, that thej' made 
special grants to each hero, and bestowed the highest possible praise upon all who partici- 
pated in it. And to time's remotest bound, we will not cease to tak^ pride in this glorious 
achievement of our own ancestors ! 

After the subjugation of the Papists, the whole Protestant population of Ireland abode 
in peace and safety for many years. Further accessions from Scotland joined them, — 
among them the Nesmiths and others known to our local history. Still, though the heroes 
of Londonderry had many privileges, and though Protestants, as such, were in the' ascend- 
ant, yet the Dissenters, and especially the Presbyterians, were far from being satisfied 
with their condition. They had but little religious liberty, as we understand it. They 
had their own forms of worship, to be sure ; bat at the same time they were com- 
pelled to pay one-tenth of their increase to support the established religion of the state. 
They could not hold their land as proprietors, having inalienable homes, but only by 
lease from the crown. Then the Irish — bitter, ignorant, numerous, and bigoted Papists 
— were everywhere among them, of whom, though powerless now, they had had a 
most unhappy andcalamitous experience. Taxes were high. Titles, monarchy, aristoc- 
racy, were the order of the day. The Scotchmen, who had suffered so much for liberty, 
and cherished irrepressible longings to be free, could not be satisfied with such surround- 
ings and trammels. They looked into the future. They began to think of the New 
World. Some of them formed bright ideas of the community which they might found by 
themselves, free from Papists, ritualism, and all ecclesiastical oppression. At length, 
encouraged by reports of civil and religious liberty in America, four ministers, and 
a large part of their congregations with them, determined on removal hither. These 

ministers were Rev. Holmes, Rev. James MacGregor, Rev. William Cornwell, and 

Rev. William Boj'd. This seems to have been in 1717. In order to make sure of a place 
to settle, and also, it seems, to guard against any unfriendliness or opposition of the pre- 
vious settlers in New England, they sent Rev. William Boyd, early in the year 1718, to 
bring over a petition to Gov. Shute of Massachusetts, and make the needful arrangements 
for their coming. This petition, usually called the "Memorial to Gov. Shute," is so 
brief, peculiar, and to the point, as to-be worthy of a place here in its exact form, thus : — 
'* We whose names are underwritten. Inhabitants of ye North of Ireland, Doe in our 
own names, and in the names of many others our Neighbors, Gentlemen, Ministers, 
Farmers and Tradesmen Commissionate and appoint our trusty and well beloved Friend, 
the Reverend Mr. William Boyd of Macasky to His Excellency the Right Honourable 
Collonel Samuel Suite Governour of New England, and to assure His Excellency of our 
sincere and hearty Inclination to Transport our selves to that very excellent and renowned 
Plantation upon our obtaining from his Excellency suitable incouragement. And further 
to act and Doe in our Names as his Prudence shall direct. Given under our hands this 
26th day of March, Annoq. Dom. 1718." 

To this document were appended the names of three hundred and nineteen men, indi- 
cating that they represented a population of twelve hundred or more. Among the number 
were nine ministers (V. D. M. ), and three others were college graduates. Most of the 
settlers of -intrim could find their ancestors' names among these signers. 

On receiving flattering encouragement from Gov. Shute, and being well pleased with 
the prospect here, Mr. Boyd at once conveyed the intelligence back to those who had sent 
him, and they sold their property and made arrangements to depart with such dispatch 
that they arrived in five ships in Boston harbor, Aug..4, 1718. 

Soon after arrival they separated into three parts. One part, quite large, chose to make 
their home in Boston, finding friends of their own faith and race already there. These 
together formed, July 14, 1730, what was at first called the "Presbyterian Church of 
Long Lane," — and was afterwards the celebrated "Federal-street Church." Rev. John 
Morehead became their pastor.' This church became Congregational in 1786. Dr. Jeremy 


Belknap was pastor from 1787 to 1798, when he died. Over it the celebrated Dr. Channing 
was settled, June 1, 1803, and under him it went over to the Unitarians about 1819. Their 
land and church-building, "a rude and lowly edifice," was given to them by John Little, 
in 1735, but has been wickedly perverted from its intended use for nearly a hundred years. 
A just decision will yet restore this inheritance to its Presbyterian owners. Dr. Gannett, 
who was killed at Revere, was pastor of this church. Present pastor, John F. W. Ware. 

The second part of the settlers fixed upon Worcester, Mass., and vicinity, as their place 
of abode; and in that place they formed a church under pastoral charge of Rev. Edward 
Fitzgerald, in the early. part of the year 1719. They worshiped in the "Old Garrison 
House," so called. They were exceedingly hardy, vigorous, wide-awake, earnest, and 
devoted people. The historians of that section speak of them in the highest terms. And 
they prospered, and became attached to their homes. But in proportion as they flourished, 
their English Congregational neighbors became jealous of them — called them " Foreign- 
ers," "Irish," and so on. In this way things went on for years, till, with increase of 
population and means, the Presbyterians made plans to build a church-edifice. They put 
up the frame in 1740, and were greatly rejoiced in the prospect of a place of worship they 
could call their own. But at this juncture the Congregatiorialists in great numbers 
assaulted and tore the building down and carried it oil. The whole structure was swept 
away. And !t was all done between two days ! Nor was this the only persecution these 
peaceable, industrious, and godly Scotchmen endured. It seemed to them that the relig- 
ious liberty they sought was yet far away. The most of them left the place, some to 
Londonderry, some to Pelham, Palmer, and Coleraine, Mass. ; and a considerable number 
to Cherry Valley, N. Y. A few remained, however, — among them the names Clark, Dun- 
can, McFarland, eUf. 

A portion of this colony in central Massachusetts had settled in Pelham, that Statej ' 
under Rev. Mr. Ambercrombie, and these were greatly aided by the fugitives from 

The other part of the emigrants at Boston, having been under the pastoral charge of 
Rev. James MacGregor in Ireland, were anxious to keep together and have him as their 
pastor. Others joined with them in this design. And this body were more slow and 
careful in selecting a home. The most of them scattered for a time in the vicinity of 
Boston, while sixteen families embarked for Casco Bay to select a section of land if 
thought best, as this land had been offered to them by Gov. Shute, and recommended as 
very desirable, having also the better chance to carry out unmolested their religious views 
and aims. Arriving late in the season, and the winter coming on very early, they could 
accomplish nothing till spring. Most of them passed the winter on shipboard, and the 
ship itself was frozen in. In the course of the winter they suifei-ed many privations, and 
great lack of food. On petition of the inhabitants of Falmouth (now Portland), the gen- 
eral court of Massachusetts sent them one hundred bushels of meal. It may be doubted 
whether these Scotchmen ever would have petitioned for food themselves ! The statement 
in Willis's History of Portland, that there were " about three hundred " of these explorers 
in that port, must be greatly exaggerated, as there is no reason to suppose that more 
than half that number were there. In the spring they explored the coast eastward, but, 
not being pleased, they decided to return ; and, sailing back, they ascended the Merri- 
mack river, arriving at Haverhill April 13, 1719. Immediately on their arrival they 
heard of a large tract of unappropriated land lying fifteen or twenty miles northwest of Ha- 
verhill, called the " Chestnut Country," because its forests were largely chestnut-trees. 
Afterwards this- tract, now embracing several towns, was called "Nutfield." Walnut- 
trees and butternut-trees were also abundant here, and it was truly an inviting place for 
settlement. Leaving their families at Haverhill, the men made all haste to examine this 
ground ; were pleased at sight; determined to locate here the grant of twelve miles square 
which previously the authorities of Massachusetts had given them in any lands of the 
government not before occupied; selected a spot; put up some rude cabins, and then 
divided, part carrying on the work, and part returning to bring on their wives and chil- 
dren, with what scanty tools and furniture thej' could collect. And so vigorous and alert 
were they that this distance of nearlj' twenty miles, almost without roads, and on foot, 
was traveled over three times by the men, and their families met on the spot of settle- 
ment April 22, 1719. From this date, New Style, the actual settlement is generally 


reckoned. On the next day, April 23, Rev. James MacGregor preached the first sermon 
ever delivered in Londonderry. The settlers assembled under a large oak-tree on the east 
side of Beaver Pond; and the text was Isaiah xxxii. 2. Soon after a Presbyterian church 
was formed, and Mr. MacGregor, without installation, formally assumed the pastorate. 
This was in May, 1719. 

The original sixteen settlers of Londonderry were James McKeen, John Barnett, Archi- 
bald Clendenin, John Mitchell, James Sterrett, James Anderson, Randall Alexander 
James Gregg, James Clark, James Nesmith, Allen Anderson, Robert Weir, John Morri- 
son, Samuel Allison, Thomas Steel, and John Stuart. From these the McKeens, Cochrans 
Greggs, Nesmiths, Steels, Stuarts, and Wallaces, and others of the Antrim families 
descended. • 

So rapidly did new settlers of the Scotch, who had scattered here and there, now join 
the new settlement, that in September following, when they petitioned for incorporation 
there were seventy families against sixteen families in April. In October following, as ap- 
pears from the Wheelwright deed, there were one hundred and five men in the settlement. 
They early, therefore, sought to be set apart as a town by themselves. Having first 
applied to the general court of Massachusetts to get the old grant confirmed by a charter 
and being refused, they petitioned the general court of New Hampshire for incorporation 
September, 1719. The town was incorporated as Londonderry June 21, 1722. They at the 
start desired to get a title from the Indians as a matter of right, and sent their minister to 
John Wheelwright, whose ancestor had purchased the land from the native chieftains ; 
and from said Wheelwright they got a deed of the whole tract, dated Oct. 20, 1719. On 
account of this fair spirit toward the Indians, and also on account of the personal acquaint- 
ance of Rev. Mr. MacGregor with the French Governor of Canada, it is supposed that the 
Londonderry colony were so singularly exempted from assault by the red men. The 
■ French and Indians were warned by the Catholic priests not to touch any of these Scotch- 
Irish ; so that, notwithstanding they were a frontier settlement, they were never molested, 
while fire and murder were every wherte else. Moreover, those who went out from them 
into other places to settle, were equally unmolested by the Indians when known to them, 
as is shown in case of the pioneers of Bedford, New Boston, Antrim, etc. No, depreda- 
tions of savages were ever committed in this town ; nor is there any certainty of hostile 
intent on their part toward Riley when he ran away from his claim here in fright. 

As an offset to this exemption from Indian warfare, the Scotch Presbyterians were 
quietly and indirectly persecuted by their English neighbors for half a century. We 
have already spoken of their troubles in Worcester. But everywhere else they were 
looked upon as foreigners. They were called Irish. They ^ere denounced as Roman 
Catholics. The Londonderry settlers were threatened with armed violence if they did 
not leave their settlements to various claimants. The sufferers who passed the winter in 
Casco Bay under lead of Justice McKeen were designated, in the order of the general 
court at-Boston, as "poor Irish people." The New Hampshire general court called them 
(Sept. 24, 1719) a "company of Irish at Nutfield." 

I find in various books and reports the remonstrance of Rev. Mr. MacGregor to Gov. 
Shute, saying (1720) " We are surprised to hear ourselves termed Irish people, when we 
so frequently ventured our all for the British crown against the Irish Papists ! " This 
charge of 'being Irish was a matter of painful and long-continued offense to our fathers, 
easy to be cast into their teeth, and sure to provoke their ire. 

They were obstructed in getting titles to their land and incorporation for their town, 
from this secret opposition. As soon as they struck ground in the " Chestnut Country " 
and got together, certain influential men attempted to supplant them by secretly getting a 
grant to the same land in advance of them. From the position and arguments of these 
men, they easily got their grant (Aug. 26, 1720), and supposed they would soon have the 
Scotchmen out of the way. But their ignorance of the country was such that their grant 
of ten miles square, taking in Chester, Auburn, and a part of Manchester, fell to the north 
of "Nutfield" and left untouched all the settlements which they wished to break up. 
And the shrewd Scotchmen, as we have seen, were on the lookout, while this was going 
on, and secured a title to their lands, before anything further could be done against them. 
After this various parties presented bogus claims to induce the settlers to leave; armed 
parties came to dispossess them; sometimes their property was carried off: but they 


quietly and fearlessly and industriously held their way, and in the course of one year 
they became so numerous as not to be trifled with. But the prejudice was strong against 
them : and those Scotch Presbyterians who had really saved Protestantism by their defeat 
of the Catholic James; who had left part of their blood on the banks of the Boyne ; who 
had made sacred the "billowy Shannon" by death and parting on its banks; who had 
been disappointed in their expectations from William and Mary; and who left all for lib- 
erty in the forests of America, were misunderstood and opposed this side the water, until 
their virtues and their power compelled respect. 

It should be said here, that the Presbyterians of Ireland formed a body which might be 
called a presbytery, as early as 1627, which was designated "The Antrim Monthly 
Meeting, " — showing that the name "Antrim" was familiar to all Scotchmen. Also that, 
as early as 1631, the Presbyterians of Ireland planned an emigration to New England, 
and sent an agent to London to procure a passage for them. But for some reason they 
did not succeed, — probably because advised not to proceed without first securing a tract 
on which to settle ; since very soon after " they sent over an agent, who pitched upon a 
tract of land near the mouth of the Merrimack river, whither they intended to transplant 
themselves:" Consequently a vessel called the "Eagle Wing" sailed from Loch Fergus, 
a port near Belfast, Sept. 9, 1636, for the " Merrymac." This ship was about the size of 
the " Ma3'flower," and started with many more emigrants on board than the Pilgrim ship 
had. But the " Eagle Wing " had a most tempestuous voi-age, encountered many gales, 
and was obliged to put back, reaching Loch Fergus Nov. 3, 1636, having sailed in all about 
twenty-five hundred miles. Four clergj'men were on board, and among the families were 
Stuarts, Campbells, and Browns, — names familiar, and probably ancestors or kindred of 
our early families. Long subsequent the emigrant? of 1718 had their minds on the " Mer- 
rymac ; " so that, though directed bj' Gov. Shute to Casco Bay, they afterwards sought that 
river and sailed up to Haverhill, locating on the nearest acceptable unoccupied land. It is 
owing to this early project, therefore, that the Scotch-Irish settlement was made in New 

There were two periods of special emigration of the Scotch from Ireland to America. 
The first commenced in 1718, as already shown, in real earnest, though efforts had been 
made and some had arrived in this country before. From 1718 for thirty years they left 
Ireland in great numbers. Everj' vessel that sailed was crowded with emigrants. Some 
settled in the Carolinas. Large numbers located in various parts of New England. So 
many joined the new settlement in Londonderry, that for a long time it was the second 
town in population in New Hampshire; and for vigor and resources, without question the 
first. But the great body of these emigrants went to Pennsylvania. Proud, in his his- 
tory of that State, says that before 1729 as many as six thousand of these Scotch people had 
arrived there. In September, 1736, one thousand families sailed from Belfast for Pennsyl- 
vania. For many subsequent years, ?is many as ten or twelve thousand annually sailed for 
America. From 1750 to 1771, there was a lull in emigration, only a few relatives and 
friends and adventurers joining their countrymen here from time to time, 

But in 1771 a new and remarkable impetus was given to this movement. The lands in 
Ireland having never been owned by the Scotch, but only rented, on long leases, chiefly 
for ninety-nine years, now on the expiration of the time fell back into the proprietors' 
hands. This especially in the county of Antrim. On application for new leases, the rent 
was greatly advanced, on the supposition that these Scotch, who had thrived so much better 
than the Irish around them, would be able and willing to pay the additional fee. But 
they, feeling that Ireland was not their home, and they must always be in a sort of sub- 
jection there, were stirred to resentment, and in great numbers determined on an imme- 
diate flight to New England. Large tracts of land were absolutely abandoned. In about 
two years twenty-five thousand, all Presbyterians, reached this country, a few finding 
homes in this vicinity, but most settling in western Pennsylvania with Pittsburg as a cen- 
ter, forming a community conspicuous in the annals of this country. Heavy colonies of 
these Scotchmen also settled in the CumTjerland Valley, Virginia, and in North Carolina, 
forming stock foremost in all good in those States. And these colonists, and multitudes 
that soon followed, leaving the old country on account of oppression, were just in the spirit 
to join the Americans in opposition to British tyranny, and rendered vigorous, import- 
ant, and willing service in the war for independence which broke out soon after their arrival. 






The settlement in Londonderry increased so rapidly by births 
and accessions from abroad that in a very short time it took a 
leading position in the State. The church formed May, 1719, 
the first Presbyterian church in New England, in two years had 
one hundred and sixty members, and at the spring communion 
of 1724 two hundred and 1;hirty members were present. As 
early as the incorporation, June 21, 1722, almost every lot in 
this large town had a family on it, some more than one. In the 
course, therefore, of a few years, this enterprising people, being 
crowded at home, began to look elsewhere, and put an eye on 
favorable localities for settlement. Individuals now and then 
went out very early into the towns of Chester, Derryfield, 
Hudson, Merrimack, and others. But the first considerable 
colony from Londonderry settled in Bedford in 1737. This town 
had been granted in 1733 to certain surviving soldiers of the 
Narragansett war, and was called " Narragansett No. 5," and 
afterwards " Sow-Hegan Bast." But the first actual settlement 
was made by the Scotch from Londonderry ; and so rapidly did 
they fill up the place that it was incorporated as Bedford, May 
19, 1750. It is a prosperous and noble town, having sent out 
many men of mark, and retaining to this day the noble charac- 
teristics of its founders. 

The next colony from our old mother Londonderry was to 
Cherry Valley, N. Y., in 1741. This place is in Otsego county, 
about a dozen miles south of the Mohawk river and fifty miles 
west of Albany, — and thirteen hundred feet up on the hills 
above the river. This township had been granted to a Scotchman 


named John Lindesay, and in 1740 he built a house in the forest 
and called it " Lindesay's Bush." Soon after, he fell in with 
Rev. Samuel Dunlap, a Presbyterian clergyman, who happened 
to be in New York, and persuaded him to " visit the Scotch-Irish 
colony in New Hampshire to get recruits for the new colony at 
the Bush." On his representation, about thirty persons left 
Londonderry and laid the foundation of the new town. It was 
then on the extreme frontier ; only an Indian path for many 
miles led to it. The great valley and the fair prairies to the 
west were then as an undiscovered country. David Ramsay, 
William Gault, James Campbell, and William Dickson were the 
leading parties in this emigration. From the last descended 
Rev. Dr. Cyrus Dickson, the able Secretary of our Home 
Missions. Judge W. W. Campbell of New York is a descendant 
of James Campbell. A few others followed out subsequently 
from Londonderry and joined this colony. At the opening of the 
revolutionary war, it numbered about sixty families. 

When Mr. Dunlap sat down in " Lindesay's Bush " to wi'ite 
his first letter, in 1740, he said to the owner, " What shall we 
name this new town ? " And then, looking out the window as 
he spoke, his eye rested on a stately wild-cherry tree ; and then' 
he answered his own question, by saying, " Let it be ' Cherry 
Valley.' " ' And so he wrote " Cherry Valley " at the head of 
his letter. And " Cherry Valley " it has been to this day. 

But this frontier colony was destined to a fearful ruin at tlie 
hands of Tories and Indians. It should be said, however, that 
the Indians took few lives, and were rather desirous to take 
hostages and destroy property, while the Tories, slaughtered 
without mercy. It was the morning of Nov. 11, 1778, that the 
enemy fell upon this unsuspecting people in great numbers. 
The ground was covered with snow. It was a dark, cold morn- 
ing. The early-rising settlers, many of them, were at morning 
prayer. The Tories, hating them for their loyalty to Washing- 
ton, crept into the town in true Indian fashion, and with their 
savage allies divided so as to attack all the houses at once. 
They made this general assault soon after break of day. On 
every hand the flames of burning homes soon arose, and every 
house in the settlement was consumed. Women and children 
were murdered, and no appeals for mercy were heard for a 
moment. Bodies were cut to pieces, and heads and arms thrown 
up into the branches of trees. About forty persons were mur- 


dered ; a few escaped by hiding"; a few escaped by flight into 
the woods; some were saved by providential absence ; and the 
rest were carried into captivity Some of the Steeles and 
Sawyers of Antrim descended from those who by great exposure 
and suffering escaped with life only from that awful hour. The 
mother of the Dicksons named above escaped with three or four 
children into the thick woods behind her house. During the 
day she slipped back to the house to get food for the children ; 
but they never saw her again. She was remarkable for her 
beautiful, long red hair, and the children first learned the fate 
of their mother by seeing her gory scalp and beautiful hair 
hanging to the belt of an Indian who passed near their hiding- 
place. Cherry Valley was a total ruin. Church, school-house, 
dwelling, people, — all swept away. 

In 1784, six years after, a few survivors returned and built 
log houses. Rev. Mr. Dunlap, who, under charge of an Indian 
chief, was compelled to see the murder of his family and the 
burning of his home, being spared, as Brant said, because " he 
was a man of God," had survived his afflictions. but a little 
while. But the remnant assembled at the graveyard where 
their fathers and mothers wei-e buried, and re-organized the old 
church, April 5, 1785, which church remains in vigor to the 
present day. The last survivor of this colony was Col. Samuel 
Campbell, who was three years of age when he left Londonderry 
with his father in 1741, and died in 1824. He was a man of 
note in the revolutionary army, and did honor to the name he 
bore. The first minister of Cherry Valley after its restoration 
was Rev. Dr. Nott, so long time president of Union College. 
This colony did a great deal to lay the foundations of religion 
and good government in the center of New York. There is no 
honorable pursuit or profession in which its descendants have 
not been distinguished. 

The next colony from Londonderry was that at New Boston. 
This town was granted Jan. 14, 1736. It was called the 
Piscataquog township, but the name New Boston was given first 
in April, 1751. A claim has been advanced that a settlement 
was made there in 1733, but there is no reliable proof of it, and 
there was nothing permanent in the town until the Scotch from 
Londonderry began to locate there about 1742. In September, 
1766, there were fifty-nine persons in the town ; in 1767, two 
hundred and ninety-six persons. New Boston was incorporated 


Feb. 18, 1763. Probably more exclusively than any other town, 
it was of the Londonderry stoek. The Smiths, McNiels, McAl- 
listers, Cochrans, Christies, Clarks, and many others of that 
town, were ancestors of Antrim families, or intimately connected 
with them. Between this town and New Boston there was, for 
a long series of years, the" greatest intimacy and friendship. 
Being of the same race and religion, and being pioneers with the 
same difficulties to overcome, and being united by frequent 
intermarriage, they were greatly drawn together, and made 
frequent visits to and fro. The people of New Boston built their 
meeting-house' in 1767, and called Rev. Solomon Moor Aug. 25 
of that year. He was settled Sept. 6, 1768, and died May 28, 
180-3, aged sixty-seven years. His successor. Rev. Ephraim P. 
Bradford, was settled Feb. 26, 1806, and died Dec. 14, 1845, 
aged nearly seventy years. 

The next colony of Londonderry was that at Peterborough, 
beginning in the year 1749. During eight or ten succeeding 
years many went from Londonderry to Peterborough, and among 
them one of the " original sixteen " who began the former settle- 
ment in 1719, — John Morrison. He was the last survivor of 
the sixteen. He died in 1776, aged ninety-eight years. He 
moved to Peterborough about 1758. His son Jonathan was the 
first child born in Londonderry, that event taking place Sept. 8, 
1719. The very earliest permanent settlers of Peterborough 
were from Lunenburg, Mass.; but they were all Scotch, having 
resided in that town but a short time, whither they had come 
from the north of Ireland. Peterborough was incorporated Jan. 
17, 1760. Their first meeting-house was built in 1752. In the 
days of the revolution there was not a Tory in Peterborough. 
During the preceding war fourteen sons of Peterborough lost 
their lives. Their names were James Turner, Thomas Cunning- 
ham, Charles McCoy, David Wallace, William Wilson, John 
Stewart, Robert McNee, John Dinsmoor, and John Kelley. The 
seven named last were surrounded by Indians, by surprise, and 
fell dead at the first fire, March 18, 1758. The others of the 
fourteen were Jeremiah Swan, John Turner, John McCollum, 
John Hogg, and David' Scott. One hundred and forty-five 
persons from Peterborough were engaged more or less in the 
revolutionary war. The population of the town in 1767 was 443 ; 
in 1775 it was 645; and in 1870, 2,228. Peterborough is a town 
marked all the way by the Scotch-Irish traits of hardihood, 


perseverance, courage, and religious devotion, and its record will 
compare favorably with that of any town in New England. 

The next colony that went out from our Londonderry mother 
was that to Nova Scotia. The great victory of Wolfe over the 
French at Quebec, Sept. 13, 1759, had opened all the country to 
the English, and many of them had in the course of war made 
some acquaintance with its resources and location. In t;he 
following year, 1760, about thirty persons left Londonderry and 
settled in Truro, Colchester county. Nova Scotia. In the few 
succeeding years, quite a number of families followed them. 
Among their descendants, the Fishers and Archibalds and 
others have been in the highest positions of honor in that country. 
They maintain the church of their fathers unchanged to the 
present day. This colony, like the others, has done a noble 
work. The Scotch are by far the most enterprising people in 
Nova Scotia. Truro is situated at the head of one of the arms 
of the Bay of Fundy, is on the railroad to the St. Lawrence, and 
is a shire-town, — all which suggests the shrewdness and enter- 
prise of the early settlers of the place. 

About this time, many families of the Londonderry people, or 
their kinsmen who had located temporarily in several Massachu- 
setts towns, settled in Hillsborough, Prancestown, Deering, and 
Hancock, making the important and leading element ip these 
populations. Hillsborough was settled by a Scotchman, James 
McOoUey, in 1741 ; about ten families were driven off by Indians 
in 1744 ; resettled in 1762 ; incorporated Nov. 14, 1772. 
Prancestown was first settled by a Scotchman, John Carson, in 
1760, and was incorporated June 8, 1772. Deering was incor- 
porated Jan. 17, 1774. Hancock was incorporated Nov. 5, 1779. 
But the next considerable colony from old Londonderry was 
that at Acworth, in 1768, though a beginning had been made 
earlier in Antrim. Quite a little company commenced in that 
town in the summer of 1768, and from that part of Londonderry 
now Windham probably as many more followed in the next 
year. Acworth was incorporated Sept. 19, 1766, but it was not 
permanently settled till the colony from Londonderry arrived on 
the ground. The conditions of their charter not being fulfilled, it 
was forfeited in September, 1771 ; but another was at once peti- 
tioned for, and it was granted May 30, 1772. At that date there 
were thirteen houses and twenty-five settlers (men) in the town. 
Acworth grew slowly, on account of the war and the disturbed 


condition of the country ; but it became a noble town, and 
retains in children's children the noble characteristics of its 
founders. It may be noticed here, that Londonderry, the seed- 
place of so many towns, has been itself divided into several. 
Windham, the southern part, was incorporated as a separate 
town Feb. 12, 1742. The east part of Londonderry, including 
the spot where the first settlement was made, was incorporated, 
together with a slice of the old town of Cheshire (Chester), as 
Derry, July 2, 1827. 

We come now to that other colony from our Londonderry 
mother, — dearer than all, — our own blessed Antrim. When 
we remember that hundreds from that old town of Londonderry 
went out into various places far and near, of whom we have 
taken no notice in these pages, and that since the commence- 
ment of the present century probably more than all before have 
emigrated therefrom, we see how prolific and vigorous was that 
ancient stock. 

In this town the first beginning was made by Philip Riley in 
1744. At that time and for years previous it was a matter of 
great peril, on account of Indians, to venture far from the close 
settlements of the lower towns. The valley of the Contoocook 
was known to explorers, and was looked upon as valuable 
ground, but no settler had ventured to remain. When the forest 
was first broken in Antrim and in some of the adjacent parts of 
Hillsborough at the same time, in the early summer of 1744, 
there was not a white person in any other of the adjoining towns. 
Deering, Francestown, Greenfield, Bennington, Hancock, Stod- 
dard, and Henniker were all a trackless, unbroken wilderness. 
A very small beginning had been made, as we have seen, in 
Peterborough and in New Boston. This, therefore, was not only 
a frontier settlement, but, with no roads or even paths, it was 
fifteen miles from neighbors and from any help ; while to the 
north and west it was all a forest, deep and unknown, where the 
savages roamed and hunted, and planned their attacks upon the 
scattered whites. And the nearest neighbors, at Peterborough 
and New Boston, were themselves so few and weak as to need 
assistance instead of being able to impart it. The only settle- 
ment of any force in New Hampshire, west of the Merrimack, 
was Dunstable. This town of Dunstable, covering what is now 
about six towns, had been incorporated by Massachusetts Oct. 15, 
1673 ; had thirty families in 1680 ; and was incorporated by New 


Hampshire April 1, 1746. (The name was changed to Nashua, 
by act of the legislature, Dec. 8, 1836.) But Dunstable had had 
a hard time with the Indians, having been for fifty years a 
frontier town, and having suffered many losses of property and 
life by the hands of the savages. They were in poor condition, 
therefore, to render any considerable immediate help to the 
obscure settlers on the Contoocook. And when we take into 
account, that, previous to the cession of Canada to the English, 
Feb. 16, 1763, there had been almost constant war for fifty years 
between the French and Indians on the one hand and the English 
on the other, and that the deadly, cruel savages were scouring 
the forests most of the time, with murderous intent, the imder- 
taking of a half-dozen settlers in the vicinity of Hillsborough 
Bridge seems hazardous enough ! The sense of danger that all 
felt at this time is shown by the fact, that, soon after, we find all 
the frontier settlements and some stronger and less exposed ones 
asking for soldiers to help defend against the Indians. The 
town of Monson, having fifteen families and considerable strength, 
claimed to be a frontier town and asked for a garrison, though 
twenty miles below us, and joining Dunstable. Part of their 
petition represents " That they are one of the Frontier towns 
west of Merrimac River & the qaost northerly One, already incor- 
porated, Lying Between HoUis & the New Plantation called 
Souhegan "West" (Amherst). This is a strong misrepresenta- 
tion of the facts, and shows the general alarm. (Monson was 
subsequently divided up between HoUis and Amherst.) June 
12, 1744, at the very time Riley was striking' his first blows here? 
thirty-six men in Souhegan East (Bedford) sent a delegate and 
petition thus : — 

""We the Inhabitants of Souhegan East Apprehending ourselves 
Exposed to Immenent Danger both from the French & Indian 
Enemys & being in no capacity to make a proper Stand in case of an 
assault from them do constitute & appoint Mr. John Chamberlain our 
Delegate requesting him in y' capacity with all possible speed to repair 
to Portsmouth & to represent our Deplorable case to his Excellency our 

But this state of unusual alarm followed the beginning of 
Riley here, as in the very stormiest* time no such venture would 
have been made. James McColley and Samuel Gibson, two 
Scotchmen born in Ireland, came from near Boston and put up 
cabins near Hillsborough Bridge in 1741 ; and they seem to have 
been joined in 1743 by three or four others, among them Philip 


Kiley, who began his farm in Antrim the next year. This little 
settlement (called that of 1744) was begun in a comparative 
quiet of the forces of war, while at the very same time the strife 
had begun anew on the other side of the water. But then news 
came slow. Prance had declared war in 1743. This was called 
in Europe " the war of the Austrian succession " ; in this coun- 
try, " King George's war " ; but perhaps New Bnglanders would 
better know it as the " Gape Breton war." It did not break out 
in America till 1744, nor have much progress till the expedition 
against Louisburg in 1745. (Louisburg surrendered June 17, 
1745, and the same old drums used to beat the triumphal entry 
of the New Bnglanders were used to beat the call at Bunker 
Hill, June 17, 1775.) For the rest of that year, and for 1746 
especially, the Indians swarmed on the frontier, and all sorts of 
horrors were perpetrated at their hands. In the spring and 
summer of 1746, no less than six attacks, in more or less force, 
were made upon Charlestown, some thirty-five miles northwest 
of us, on the Connecticut river, and a large proportion of the 
settlers killed or carried captive. The settlers of Rindge had 
abandoned their settlement the year before on account of alarm 
at the outbreak of war. The families of New Ipswich retired 
into a " block-house in Townsend, Mass." The settlers in 
Peterborough retired to a place of safety, and not a white family 
was left there. In Keene the Ipdians burned all buildings of 
every kind and killed several of the inhabitants, the others 
remaining some time in th& fort and finally abandoning the 
town. Hopkinton, then called New Hopkinton, and then having 
the largest population of the New Hampshire towns west of the 
Merrimack, was guarded by a strong fort or fortified house. 
The Indians, variously armed with knives, hatchets, bows, and 
guns, had been lurking about for some time watching for an 
opportunity to make an attack by surprise, which was always 
their favorite way. Very early in the dawn of April 22, 1746, 
one of the garrison rose and went out to hunt, thinking all was 
safe at that hour. He left the others asleep, and of course left 
the door unfastened behind him. The savages, with customary 
cunning, suffered this mau to go on his way unmolested ; but, 
as soon as he was out of the way, they slipped along and entered 
by the unguarded door. The slumberers awoke to see the armed 
savages with tomahawk ready to strike them dead. But they, 
like the real cowards they were, failed to make much of their 


opportunity, and .simply seized eight persons and hustled them 
oif ha,lf-naked to the woods. The report of this attack spread 
terror through the little settlements of Hillsborough and Antrim. 
They had no garrison-house. They had remained on their 
ground when many larger settlements had been entirely aban- 
doned. Perhaps their smallness had been the reason of their 
immunity thus far. But now they wei-e thoroughly alarmed. 
They had seen Indians lurking along the Gontoocook river, and 
had every reason to suppose themselves to be the next object of 
attack. It would be of no use for them to plant their crops 
under such circumstances, and therefore the sooner they were 
off the better. Nothing but their connection with the Scotch- 
Irish, who were almost undisturbed by the savages throughout 
New England, can account for this attack upon Hopkinton rather 
than upon them. And this would not be likely to stand them 
any longer. They determined to abandon their humble yet 
happy dwellings at once. Hurriedly they buried their few 
articles of heavy furniture and iro'n tools. Some things they hid 
under flat rocks and in hollow logs. A few things they carried 
with them ; their few cattle they drove in a flock before them ; 
and all started, Riley and every inhabitant of Hillsborough, for a 
place of safety. In all it seems probable there were from fifteen 
to twenty persons. TJiat roadless flight of many miles through 
the woods must have been sad indeed. They were poor and 
homeless, and in danger all the way. We know not the exact 
course they took. But,vas Peterborough had been abandoned 
and Hopkinton had just been a place of attack, and the Gontoo- 
cook was known to be a favorite lurking-place of the savages, it 
is probable they struck off from the river, and made their lonely 
way somewhat in the direction of the- turnpike over the hills 
through Prancestown and New Boston to Londonderry. After 
this flight Antrim had no inhabitant whatever for fifteen years. 
Occasionally, during this time, . hunters and scouting parties 
traversed the town ; and in alittle respite from war the proprie- 
tors made a survey of their grant, including Antrim, in the year 
1753 : but, with these exceptions, the town was given over to the 
beast and the savage and the deep silence of the woods. 

This break of fifteen years in our history will give us chance 
to speak of some other matters a little out of the line, — among 
them the claim of Massachusetts to a large part of our State. 
During the reign of James I. (1603-1625) a council was estab- 


lished by the king, having general control over all the territory 
of New England, and probably more. Capt. John Mason, one 
of this council, as early as 1621 obtained a grant from James 
of most of the southern part of New Hampshire east of the 
Merrimack. Under this grant he and certain associates took 
possession of the land, made settlements at Dover in 1623, 
and subsequently at Strawberry Bank (Portsmouth) and other 
places. After the death of James, Capt. Mason, being in the 
ring, secured a second grant (1629), defined as follows: "Prom 
the middle of Piscataqua river, and up the same to the farthest 
head thereof, and from thence northwestward until sixty miles 
from the mouth of the harbor are finished ; also through Merri- 
mack river to the farthest head thereof, and so forward up into 
the land westward, until sixty miles are finished ; and from 
thence to cross overland to the end of sixty miles accounted from 
the mouth of Piscataqua river." -This would make a triangular 
piece of territory, extending as far north as Conway and as far 
west as Rindge ; and the westward or long side of the triangle 
would be a straight line drawn from Conway to Rindge, which 
would leave Antrim on the west, and of course this town would 
not be included in the grant. 

This grant to Mason was called New Hampshire, and was the 
beginning of our State. But in 1635 Capt. Mason died, having 
realized but little from his grant, and having accomplished the 
settlement of only a few places, and to a small extent. Various 
disturbances arose in England, and the contest between Charles 
I. and his people grew so fierce as to absorb all attention, and 
the colonies in America were left for the most part to shift for 
themselves. Consequently the feeble colony of New Hampshire 
came under the protecti9n of the stronger colony of Massachu- 
setts. It is only fair to say that this protection was sought and 
was needed. But in subsequent years the stronger colony 
claimed to continue the government thus assumed. Erom time 
to time the heirs of Mason, or others under them, put in claims, 
but they were disregarded. As Massachusetts claimed a large 
slice of the southern part of the Masonian grant as her own by 
previous claim, she was not disinclined to the management of the 
whole, and was very willing to put the New Hampshire settlers 
under obligation, by generous assistance. So, by way of confirm- 
ing her claim and exercising her jurisdiction, Massachusetts 
made many grants of towns in this State. Thus New Boston 


was granted Jan. 14, 1736 ; New Ipswich was granted Jan. 15, 
1736 ; Peterborough, Jan.. 16, 1738 ; and several other towns in 
this vicinity about the same time, and for a year or two succeed- 
ing. But at this time the controversy about the boundary 
between Massachusetts and New Hampshire grew more and 
more bitter ; and, it being found impossible to settle it otherwise, 
the whole matter was referred to the king (George II.), who 
after some delay, decided (1740) against Massachusetts, and 
gave New Hampshire more than she had claimed. In 1737 the 
king had appointed a commission to hear the evidence of the 
parties, and they met for the purpose in the town of Hampton. 
In the adjoining town of Hampton Falls, close to the present 
State line, the New Hampshire legislature met, to enforce their 
claims ; while, only five miles off in the border town of Salisbury, 
the Massachusetts legislature met, to press in every possible way 
their own side of the question. So great was the excitement 
that a large and showy procession on horseback was formed in 
Boston, and this, led by a trained body of cavalry, escorted Gov. 
Belcher to the scene of controversy. A bit of satire on this very 
important performance is extant, and too good to be omitted : — 

'' Dear Paddy, you ne'er did behold such a sight, 
As yesterday morning was seen before night. 
You in all your born days saw, nor I didn't neither, 
So many fine horses and men ride together. 
At the head, the lower House trotted two in a row, 
Then all the higher House pranced after the low; 
Then the governor's coach gallop'd on like the wind, 
And the last that came foremost were the troopers behind ; 
But I fear it means no good, to your neck or mine, 
For they say 'tis to fix a right place for the line! " 

But this commission, backed by two legislatures and a great 
amount of talk and some threats, really amounted to nothing, or 
as near that as we are able to calculate at this day ; since they 
only fixed upon one thing, that the point of beginning should be 
three miles north of the "Black Rocks" situated in the channel 
of the Merrimack river near the sea. The final decision was, 
that, beginning at the point above mentioned on the Atlantic 
ocean, the line should run westward three miles north of the 
Merrimack, crooking and bending so as to correspond to the 
curves of the river, and so as always to be just three miles north 
of the same, until it should reach a " point due north of Paw- 
tucket Falls (Lowell), and a straight line drawn from thence due 


west until it meets with His Majesty's other governments." 
Massachusetts had asked, after the point of beginning was set- 
tled, to have the line three miles north follow the bend of the 
Merrimack to its source near the White Mountains. But the 
" due west " line not only prevented this, but added to New 
Hampshire a strip about fifteen miles wide from the -Merrimack 
to the Connecticut. Otherwise, Greenfield and Hancock would 
have been border towns, and Peterborough would have been cut 
in two. The new line was run by Richard Hazen in 1741. 
Those towns whose charters had been granted by Massachusetts 
now found their charters invalid, and were obliged to seek incor- 
poration by the State of New Hampshire, which accounts for the 
" new charters " so often referred to in the old records. But 
no sooner was the State line fixed and these other matters 
brought into the process of adjusting themselves accordingly, 
than the old lingering " Mason claim " was revived and pressed 
with new vigor. John Tufton Mason, a native of Boston, great- 
grandson and heir of Capt. John Mason, succeeded in getting a 
final decision in his favor. This long-continued case was now at 
an end. It had been in litigation for more than a hundred 
years. Generation after generation of the contestants died ; but 
still the controversy revived and went on, and the magnates of 
two continents in long struggle over a title to the rocks of 
New Hampshire. But the new settlement of the case stirred up 
more trouble than it settled, — ^•at least for a few years. Mason 
sold his title to twelve men of Portsmouth in 1746, for fifteen 
hundred pounds ; and they took the whole charge of this vast 
tract of land. They are known in the history of this section as 
the " Masonian Proprietors." Immediately on their accession 
there was new and universal alarm among the scattered inhabit- 
ants of all the frontier towns, lest they should be ejected from 
their lands and clearings by the new men 'in power. Petitions 
from the poor settlers poured in upon the " Proprietors." Others, 
like the committee of New Boston land-holders, tried to compro- 
mise with them. But the proprietors pursued a course both 
generous and noble. They immediately took measures to 
release their claims to all townships granted by Massachusetts 
east of the Merrimack river. And several west of said river 
being actually chartered and settled according thereto, were 
given up on very reasonable conditions and, for a very trifling 
consideration. But it was natural that the " Masonian Proprie- 


tors," sometimes called in that day the "Lord Proprietors," 
should look after the western part of their grant at once, this 
part being chiefly ungranted and unclaimed by others. They 
therefore marked out a row of towns bordering on Massachu- 
setts and thence northward on what they claimed as their 
western boundary, as follows : South Monadnock (previously 
granted by Massachusetts as " Rowley Canada," now Rindge) ; 
Middle Monadnock (Jaffrey) ; North Monadnock (Dublin) ; 
Monadnock Number Pour (Pitzwilliam) ; Monadnock Number 
Five (Marlborough) ; Monadnock Number Six (Nelson) ; Monad- 
nock Number Seven (Stoddard or Limerick) ; and Monadnock 
Number Eight (Washington). It is pretty certain that these 
surveys were made as early as 1749, since in the spring of 1750 
we find efforts made to determine whether this line of towns was 
within or beyond the Mason boundary. As these towns sur. 
rounded Anti'im, it will be seen that this town was claimed by 
the proprietors, but not surveyed till the line of towns on the 
outside of the claim were looked after. Several settlers in these 
places, finding their claims to laud originating in Massachusetts 
grants worthless, left their clearings in disgust and returned to 
that" State ; but the most of them repurchased of the " Maso- 
nians" at a low rate, and remained. The question of their 
western boundary was, however, agitated for several years. 
Massachusetts, as early as 1750, determined that some of this 
claim was beyond the " sixty miles from the sea." But the 
Masonians then very conveniently argued that their western 
bound must be a " curved" line corresponding to the bend of the 
sea; and they went to work on this "curved" line, and they 
cmwed it so as to take in the towns above named. Pending this 
dispute, the revolutionary war broke out. On return of peace 
the legislature of New Hampshire decided that the bound should 
be a " straight " line. This,- running from about the west line of 
Rindge to the northwest corner of Conway, would divide the 
town of Antrim, leaving the most of it on the west. At this 
juncture the " Masonian Proprietors " came out and purchased 
the land between the " straight " line and their " curved " line, 
of the State, for about forty thousand dollars, after which their 
title was no more disputed. In the charters they had from time 
to time granted, they had generally given the soil to actual 
settlers free, reserving a few lots in each for the ministry and for 
schools, and reserving about one-quarter of the lots for them. 


selves, — it being- their plan to encourage settlements and to 
advance education and religion, and get their return in the 
increased value of the reserved lots. 

It will be seen that there was in this county a large tract of 
territory ungranted, and bounded as follows : On the north by 
Hillsborough and Henniker (Number Six) ; on the east by 
Halestown (Weare), New Boston, and Salem Canada (Lynde- 
borough) ; south by " Peterborough Slip " (Temple) and Peter- 
borough ; and west by Monadnock Nos. Six and Seven (Nelson 
and Stoddard). This tract of land was for some years called 
" Cumberland," a name which has entirely disappeared. It 
included Antrim, Hancock, Bennington, Deering, the west half 
of Francestown, and most of Greenfield. Probably Windsor was 
in this tract, though no mention is made of it, it being a gore of 
land that escaped all grants and calculations for many years ; 
and when subsequently referred to, it was designated as " Camp- 
bell's Gore," till 1798. T*he large area called " Cumberland," 
being the last owned by the proprietors in this section of the 
State, soon came to be called "Company Land" or "Society 
Land " ; and this last became the common name until, part by 
part, it was incorporated under present names. It was surveyed 
and divided into shares in 1763 by Robert Fletcher, but I do not 
find the name "Society Land" applied to it till about 1770; 
while, as will be shown, a large part of it was called " Antrim " 
by the settlers themselves as early as 1771. 

Before resuming the thread of our annals, a brief notice of the 
Indians who hunted in Antrim will be in order. Explorers of 
New England, before the landing of the Pilgrims, found west of 
Cape Cod, covering Rhode Island and a large part of southern 
Massachusetts, the Narragansetts and Pequots. North of these 
and in the interior of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, were 
the Pennacooks, sometimes noticed as Merrimack-river Indians, 
or Nipmucks (fresh-water Indians), as the natives called them. 
The Pennacooks consisted of many tribes, a sort of confederation 
of all in the vicinity of the Merrimack. At the earliest knowl- 
edge of them, the Agawam^ occupied the country about the 
mouth of the Merrimack and as far south as Cape Ann. The 
Pawtuckets next west made headquarters at Pawtucket Falls 
(Lowell), reaching as far south as Concord, Mass., and occupy- 
ing a fine territory. Next west and north were the Nashuas, 
owning the lands on the Nashua river far into Massachusetts 


and the lands about the Merriniack for some ten miles. The 
Souhegans occupied the lands of the Merrimack north of the 
Nashuas, and all the country of the Souhegan river to its source. 
North of them the Namoskeags resided at the Palls (Manches- 
ter) and spread out upon the intervales, and up the Piscataquog 
to New Boston, and out eastward of Amoskeag to the Massa- 
besic. Then next north came the Pennacooks, centered at 
Concord, and occupying most of the present county of Merri- 
mack, and spreading southwestward along the Contoocook to the 
foot of Monadnock, and also over the land on streams eastward 
of Concord. Then the Winnipesaukees occupied the northern 
part of New Hampshire, with their villages about the sources of 
the Merrimack, chiefly at Lake Winnipesaukee. Eastward of 
these tribes there were several others in the State of Maine that 
were part of, or at least subject to, this confederation. Among 
all these tribes mentioned, the Pennacooks at Concord, through 
favorable situation and wise chiefs, gradually became the most 
powerful, and so far led the way in everything as eventually to 
absorb the power and bear the distinguishing name of the whole. 
Especially after the plague among the Indians which broke out 
in 1616 and lasted three years, and swept off" four-fifths of them, 
leaving.the land empty for the Pilgrims, these tribes were under 
the control of the Pennacooks. In subsequent years the English 
called them all by that name. Their chieftains, or sagamores, 
were truly noble men. The greatest was Passaconaway, who had 
supreme authority from 1623 to his death in 1669, was a fast 
friend to the English, and sent for the missionary Elliot and 
his " praying Indians " to come and teach them to " worship 
God and keep the Sabbath." His son, Wciiualancet, succeeded 
him, embraced Christianity in 1674, and died in 1689. Kancam- 
agus, grandson of Passaconaway, then succeeded. He was for 
a time hostile to the English, and made the celebrated attack 
upon Cocheco (Dover), June 27, 1689, in which the aged Major 
Waldron was tortured and then murdered. Soon after this 
event the chief retired into the State of Maine, and not long 
after died. Many of the Pennacooks withdrew northward and 
eastward, like their chief ; and the tribe was effectually broken 
up before the settlement of Londonderry in 1719. Yet a few of 
them lingered and hunted among the sacred haunts of their 
fathers for fifty or sixty years later. This tribe, proud of the 
name Pennacooks, had controlled the valley of the Contoocook 



and vicinity for generations. Over the hills of Antrim they had 
hunted again and again. Mink and moose thrived here. Often 
they made what was called a " drive," — a large triangle shaped 
like the letter "Y," with an opening at the^ apex just wide 
enough to let the game through, the sides being constructed of 
brush and logs. This would cover about half an acre, in some 
favorite resort of the moose. Then parties were stationed at 
the apex to kill, while the tribe would scour the country and 
close up round the game, forcing it into the drive. Sometimes 
a " snare " was set at the apex, with ropes, mainly as boys set 
them now. It is said that late in the year 1620, soon after the 
landing of the Pilgrims, several of them, walking in the woods, 
came into one of those " drives." As William Bradford walked 
through the apex, looking over the contrivance, suddenly he was 
caught up by the legs, with his head hanging down in the air, — 
much to the amusement of his sedate associates. The relics of 
these " drives " were often found in New Hampshire in early 
days, and no doubt one or two were in this town. 

The Contoocook was very dear to the Indians. It is pretty 
certain that they had some residences on its banks within the 
present limits of Antrim. The first settlers found many evi- 
dences of this. Their place of burial was on the. Esquire 
Hopkins farm (Arthur Miller's), and not far from the beautiful 
Maplewood cemetery, where the bodies of the ^' pale faces " are 
borne to rest at the present day. It is not improbable that a 
great host of the " red men " sleep near by. There the dusky 
maidens wept, and the red warrior sat down silently on the 
mound and mused upon death. The Indians raised their corn 
mostly on the farm of Deacon Joseph Boyd (Mr. Goodell's), and 
on the lighter soils of that farm the hills were visible in 1768 
just as the red harvesters had left them. The women or 
" squaws," did all the agricultural work, built the wigwams, 
gathered the wood, and performed all the hard labor that was 
done. When fish were plenty, the men helped catch fish enough 
to manure the corn with, and the squaws would put a dead fish 
or part of one, into each hill. When the " oak leaf was as big 
as a squirrel's ear," it was their rule to plant, and the dark 
maidens along the Contoocook began their task. 

Indians were often seen here by the first settlers, and came 
to trade with them, as is proved by the trafiBc of Thomas Nichols 
and others with them, which is noticed elsewhere. The Indians 


threatened the life of Capt. Nichols, but never really committed 
any depredations here. They were few and scattered, and their - 
power effectually broken before the settlement of Antrim. 

About 1789, Jacob Puffer, the first settler on the farm now 
George Brown's, plowed up the skeleton of a man near his 
house. This fact suggesting investigation at onqe, he found 
near by and close to the brook the remains of a camp, with 
relics of fire, and unmistakable evidences that white men had 
occupied the cabin. It was a sort of log house, and the decayed 
and fallen sticks showed its outline. Further search disclosed 
two graves close to the ruins of thp cabin, obviously not Indian 
graves, as each had its headstone and footstone like many graves 
in the old cemetery on the hill. But they might have been 
victims of the Indians, hurriedly buried, while a third was shot 
down in attempting to escape ; or they might have been left 
behind by some one of the many scouting parties and expedi- 
tions, who buried two and left a third as too lame or sick to go 
on, as in the case when Capt. Lovewell left Benjamin Kidder 
and others in a little log fort at Ossipee in May, 1725. Dr. 
Whiton says that " Puffer and others believed that the bones, 
graves, and camp were not the relics of Indians ; but that a 
party of three hunters had been attacked by some infectious 
disease ; that, as one died, the others buried him ; that when a 
second died, the survivor buried him ; that when he died, none 
being left to bury him, his body remained above ground, was 
gradually covered with leaves and dust, and the bones were at 
length turned up by the plow." On one of these graves grew a 
beech-tree of about forty years' growth ; and, as this would 
probably start up within a few years after the burial, it is proba- 
ble the camp was made not much later than Lovewell's fight 
(1725), in the years of special conflict with the Indians. It 
is possible that among the many little bands of captives carried 
from the borders of Massachusetts to Canada by the savages, in 
the war, three or four unable to proceed might have been left 
behind by the savage foe, and built a rude shelter for themselves 
in this obscure valley in the hope of rescue, in which they were 
finally disappointed. It seems to me, that, in view of the cir- 
cumstances of the country at that time, these persons must 
some way have been victims of Indian cruelty and violence. 

Philip Riley (or Raleigh), who fled with the Hillsborough 
settlers before the Indians in the spring of 1746, went directly 


to Sudbury, Mass., where his family were, and there he resided 
for fifteen years. The cajature of Canada from the French, in 
1759 and 1760, relieving the borders from danger, the settlers 
on the frontier began to creep back to their deserted cabins. 
Riley was the first to return to this section, coming back in the 
spring of 1761. A thick growth of young wood had spread over 
his clearing, and it was a matter of difficulty to find the little 
cabin he had left. His cabin was 'the only one left in the 
vicinity. Every building in Hillsborough, even the church, was 
burned, excepting only the small house stfterwards called the 
" parsonage." Riley found his ax and other tools where he 
had concealed them, and soon prepared the way to bring on his 
family. Of his twelve children, several had^rown up, and some 
came with him here. It has been said that the refugees from 
Hillsborough returned with Riley ; but this is a mistake, as 
none of the first settlers of Hillsborough ever returned to reside 
there at all, though the children of some of them located where 
their parents had begun. Riley was in the wilderness one year 
alone ! The second settlement of Hillsborough was by Daniel 
McMurphy on Bible -Hill in 1762. After this Riley had near 
neighbors in Hillsborough, but for five years his was the only 
family of white persons within the present limits of Antrim. 
But in the first part of the year 1766 the Masonian proprietors 
sent far and wide an advertisement of their lands on the Oontoo- 
cook, announcing their beauty of situation and great fertility, 
and inviting an examination by any who thought of seeking a 
settlement. Some way this document conveyed the idea that 
these lands were free. Accordingly, Riley had companions in 
Antrim in the summer of 1766, in the persons of James Aiken, 
William Smith, James Duncan, James Hogg, George Otterson, 
James Otterson, and a young man by the name of Perry, who 
came here in the early summer of that year, ax in hand, and 
made their beginnings in the east and south parts of the town, 
chiefly in the neighborhood of South Village. They had come 
on the strength of the advertisement, were greatly pleased with 
the lands, each marked out his farm, and on the approach of 
autumn they all returned to Londonderry to spend the winter, 
expecting to come back in good earnest the next spring. At 
that time Aiken returned very early, and completed his cabin 
and prepared his ground. Then going after his wife and chil- 
dren, they arrived at their new home, here Aug. 12, 1767. But 

aiken's difficulties. 21 

he was not joined by his comrades of the previous year. On 
heai'ing that the land was not given, but to be purchased, though 
at a mere trifle, they threw up their claims, or determined to 
wait till there was some change for the better. Only two of 
them, Smith and Duncan, ever settled in Antrim, and that after 
some years. But Aiken was not the man to give up anything 
that energy and perseverance could accomplish The place 
which he began, and on which he lived and died, is now the 
Whittum farm, South Yillage. He was obliged to pay to the 
Masonian proprietors about nine cpnts an acre for this land, or 
less than fifteen dollars for one hundred and sixty acres, — a 
very small sum, yet, for a poor man, for wild land, and in that 
day, it was considerable. Besides, he supposed he was to have 
the land free. But he resolved to hold his clearing alone, 
hoping that others would join him in time. Yet his position 
was a very hard one, and he and his family, submitting to 
many discomforts, not seldom also felt the pinch of actual want. 
Bears and wolves in great numbers prowled about them in the 
woods, and it was dangerous by day or night to venture out 
unprotected and unarmed. Within ten weeks of his removal 
here, his pigs running loose were killed and torn in pieces by 
bears. Provisions were very scanty.. Very little could be 
raised the first year. No help could be obtained from others. 
The nearest neighbor was B,iley, six miles through the woods to 
the north. On the east, William McKeen and two associates 
had planted themselves in the southerly part of Deering, six or 
eight miles away. About the same distance off, John Grimes 
and another- settler lived in Hancock. And the nearest settler to 
the west 'was in Walpole on the Connecticut river, in the person 
of Col. Benjamin Bellows, noted in the Indian war. But some 
of the settlements, like Peterborough, New Boston, and Hills- 
borough, were making good progress ; and there was a cheerful 
and determined spirit in the pioneers of the adjacent towns. A 
census taken in 1767 makes the population of Londonderry, 
■ 2,389 ; of Bedford, 362 ; New Boston, 296; Lyndeborough (and 
Greenfield), 272 ; Peterborough, 443; Hillsborough, 64; Fran- 
cestown contained about twenty inhabitants, and Antrim (two 
families) about twelve. The whole State had a population of 
52,700, and of slaves 633. 

In the fall of 1767, a boy, Thomas Nichols, who had run away 
from the man he was apprenticed to in Newburyport, and who 


now sought some remote cabin for concealment, came to Dea. 
Aiken's, and, through an abode with him of some years, proved 
a very desirable addition to his family. This was the Capt. 
Thomas Nichols that afterwards settled the Dea. Shattuck -farm, 
and of him a notice will be found elsewhere. He was an adven- 
turous and smart boy, fearless, and roving, as witnessed by his 
descendants and proved by his removal to New York when ripe 
in years, and by his movements there. He bravely entered the 
forests alone, shot the bears that encroached upon the deacon's 
domain, killed a moose that fall near the Dea. Worthley place, 
and his keen, smart undertakings were such as would do credit 
to an experienced hunter. 

But soon winter, the first he had seen in the woods of Antrim, 
drew its cold arms about the deacon's cabin. It was a hard 
winter, with deep snows and little respite from the cold. Riley, 
who had spent the five previous winters in Antrim, and who 
had several neighbors within two or three miles, in Hillsbor- 
ough, got along very comfortably. But Aiken suffered many 
trials. His good wife, Molly, saw not a woman's face, save her 
own, through all that dreary winter, yet she was called to see 
one of her little ones die when thus alone. This occurred in 
February following their settlement in Antrim (February, 1768). 
The little child had come into the wilderness to die. 

This was the first death among the settlers of the town. There 
were no minister, and no mourners, and no coffin, and no burial- 
ground. No neighbors could come to help. No kindred could 
come to sympathize. No procession followed the little body away. 
Probably that burial-day of their child was the loneliest and 
darkest those parents ever knew. Dea. Aiken split out some 
boards of ash as well as he could from a log, and pinned these 
together, making a rude but strong casket for the dead child ; 
and then the parents covered the little form, and fastened down 
the heavy lid. The depth of snow was immense. There was 
no road, nor even a path ; but, assisted by the boy, Thomas 
Nichols, Dea. Aiken carried the body up over the hill northward 
from his cabin, and buried it near the spot now occupied by 
the house of Mrs. Anna Woodbury. There the "little dust" 
reposed till its removal to Meeting-House Hill in 1781. Two 
months later, April 15, 1768, Mrs. Aiken gave birth to a daugh- 
ter—the first American child born in this town. They called 
her Polly ; and she died Dec. 14, 186-2, aged nearly ninety-five. 


More may be learned of lier under the names Aiken and Kim- 
ball. She was a strong woman, and left a revered and noble 
name ; and was worthy to be the leader in the long and honora- 
ble line of Antrim's sons and daughters. The first male child 
born in Antrim was James Aiken, Jr., son of Dea. James, the 
event of his birth occurring in the spring of 1772. 

In the summer of 1768, Dea. Aiken was obliged to go to New 
Boston for corn, and was detained there by lameness four days. 
It was a serious undertaking to carry a bag of corn on one's back 
sixteen miles through the forest. Soon after the deacon's de- 
parture, the cows, apparently following him, crossed over the 
river and were lost on the other side in the woods. As the 
family depended on milk for their food, they were now absolutely 
destitute. Friday and Saturday they hunted for them in vain. 
' Saturday night Mrs. Aiken put her children to bed crying with 
hunger ; and the starving mother knelt down beside them, and 
commended them all to God in prayer. Sabbath morning, early, 
a flock of pigeons alighted on a tree near the cabin. Very re- 
luctantly and only on the ground that they were starving, Mrs. 
Aiken consented to let the boy Thomas Nichols shoot them on 
the holy day. Only one was brought down, but this, being made 
into a broth, relieved the distress of hunger, and was all the 
family had through the day. By the middle of the afternoon, 
however, the cows were found a little beyond where the village 
of Greenfield now stands, — nine miles off in the woods, — and, 
being hurried home, the family were preserved from starvation. 

At this time the nearest grist-mill was at Hillsborough, but 
Dea. Aiken often went to Peterborough or New Boston instead ; 
probably being better accommodated in purchasing in those 
places. He used to speak in after years of this carrying to and 
fro as the severest of all the hardships he endured. He had no 
road, and no iorse, and no help except the boy Thomas. 

In the fall of 1768, he and the boy started for Bradford's mill, 
Hillsborough, with a bushel and a half of grain on their shoul- 
ders. They made their way through the woods six miles to 
Riley's cabin, where they learned that the mill was under repair 
which would require several days. Storing the grain at Riley's 
they immediately returned ; but being driven by necessity he 
hastened in another direction. To avoid the terrible task of 
carrying the grain on his back through the woods twelve miles 
to Peterborough, he tried to paddle his way there in a canoe. 


With great labor he towed his load nine or ten miles up stream 
before dark, when suddenly the heavily-loaded canoe capsized, 
and the grain went to the bottom and was spoiled before it could 
be recovered. The family were compelled to make the best turn 
they could, without bread of any kind, to quell hunger and sup- 
port life. What do the modern heroes of luxury and ease think 
of such endurance ? 

In the spring'of the next year (1769), the first framed build- 
ing in Antrim was erected, — it being Dea. Aiken's barn. It 
stood about half-way between the McKeen barn (Mr. Whittum's 
barn) and the old Aiken building-spot by the poplar-tree. 

The timber for this barn was all " got out by hand'" near by ; 
but the boards were sawed at Hillsborough Bridge, the nearest 
saw-mill being there, and drawn home on the ice of the river, 
there being no road whatever. (The people of Hillsborough 
petitioned the governor and provincial assembly, Feb. 15, 1770, 
to compel the " owners of Society's Land " to maintain a road, 
which, they say, '• We have maintained on our own Cost near 
seven years, being the only way we could come to our own 
Lands." This was therefore made, i. e., " cut and cleared, " as, 
early as 1764. But this road was through Deei-ing — possibly 
West Deering.) It would have been impossible for Dea. Aiken 
to get his plank and boards except upon the ice of the river. 
This made a good as well as an only way. 

Later in the same season he built a new log house, adjacent to 
the barn, only a few steps to the south and west of it, by the 
old poplar-tree. It was in a better position, larger, and other- 
wise an improvement upon the old log house hastily made at the 
foot of the hill over two years before. It was constructed of 
peeled logs, white and clean, and is said to have looked very 
neat. The family were happy in it as in a " brown stone front," 
and not a little proud of it. The children called it their " new 
white house," and cherished the memory of it, even to old age. 
Nothing further of importance is known of Dea. Aiken or of 
Riley during 1769. In this and the preceding year a few 
families of settlers were creeping into Hancock, Francestown, 
and Deering. Capt. Isaac Baldwin of Sudbury, Mass. (whence 
Riley came to Antrim), had moved into Hillsborough about two 
y^ars before this date, making the fifth family in that town, and 
being soon joined by others. In the fall of 1769, John Gordon 
came to Dea. Aiken's and seems to have remained a long time. 


As he was a Scotch Highlander and soldier, and as he had been 
through the French war, it may be supposed, that, as in many 
other cases, he had slipped out of the service in his own way 
and preferred to winter on the frontier for obvious reasons. 

In the spring of 1770, the Gontoocook overflowed its bounds 
to greater extent than ever known by the settlers before, and 
effectually shut off Dea. Aiken from the rest of the world. For 
a large part of March it was impassable. The family were with- 
out bread of any kind for several weeks. While thus isolated by 
the freshet, Mrs. Aiken gave birth to her second child in Antrim, 
Nancy, who died in Antrim in 1814. When the waters subsided 
so that Mr. Aiken could wade the river, he went to New Boston 
for a nurse and for meal, leaving his wife and her infant and the 
baby Polly, two years old, under the care of John Gordon, the 
Highlander, and the little girls Jane, Kate, and Barbara, eleven, 
nine, and five years of age. 

In April of this year George Bemain came to Antrim, being 
another of those homeless ones whom Dea. Aiken sheltered. 
He seems to have been acquainted with the Scotch, probably 
having found them as comrades in the war. He was a deserter 
from, the British army in Boston, having grown tired of the ser- 
vice, being now in mature years, and had probably been directed 
to this obscure cabin as a place of concealment by friends in 
Londonderry. By means of marked trees and swimming the 
swollen streams, he found his way. and here he begged to stay 
and work for his board. There were already in that small 
house, the deacon, his wife, and five children, John Gordon, and 
probably the boy Thomas Nichols ; yet it was not in the dea- 
con's line of life to turn any one away, and the wanderer stayed. 
He proved to be a great blessing to the children. On his first 
morning here he took up the Bible, saying " he'd scarcely seen 
the Good Book for forty years." He was a good reader and a 
good scholar for those times, and was for a long time "a teacher 
in Dea. Aiken's family, working also part of the time on the 
land. More is said of him in another place. 

In the early summer of 1770, William Smith made a second 
visit to Antrim, four years after the first visit, and was so much 
pleased with the land that he purchased a lot with the deter- 
mination to come here and spend his days. The lot he pur- 
chased, probably the same he began on in 1766, joined that of 
Dea. Aiken's on the west, being that now Thomas Poor's, and 


other land west and south. He paid nine cents per acre, — or 
" half a pistareen." With him came John Duncan, afterwards 
" Hon. John," and bought, at the same price, the lot on which 
he afterwards settled, being now the homestead of his great- 
grandson, John Moore Duncan, Esq. Smith was fifty-five years 
of age, and Duncan forty, when they thus planned to begin in 
the forest anew. 

In 1771 Dea. Aiken experienced great comfort in the removal 
to this place of his old friend, William Smith. Having pur- 
chased his land the previous year, and made a little beginning 
upon it, he now put up a small framed house and something that 
could be called a barn, on a spot southwest of Poor's mills, and 
south of the present road. Here he lived till 1800, and died in 
good old age. Notice of his family may be found heading the 
list of Smiths. He was a devoted aud good man, and though 
sixteen years older than Aiken, they were most intimate friends, 
and lived in great confidence and love together till death. An 
instance of their confiding in one another was told the writer 
almost the first thing on coming to Antrim for a Sabbath's 
preaching, and many times since, and, though told in Dr. 
Whiton's History, is too characteristic to be ornitted here. After 
they got rich enough to have oxen, long after Aiken's settle- 
ment, the latter bought a pair of Smith, and not having ready 
money wrote a note for the same. But Smith said to Aiken, " I 
hav'n't any desk to keep it in, so you keep it till I call for it." 
Consequently Aiken kept the note till he was ready to pay it, 
and then delivered it up, at the same time paying it in full. 
And then Smith took the note ! 

Smith brought with him four children, the oldest twenty-two 
years of age, the youngest ten, and made a decided addition to 
the settlement. Himself and son soon began a lot west and 
north of the first, on which the second son, John, afterwards 
settled and died. The descendants of William Smith stand 
high and well in the world. He was the oldest of all the 
pioneei's of Antrim, except Riley, and on this account, proba- 
bly, being a pious man, he was the one they chose to make the 
prayer when all the men in Antrim marched off to meet the 
British, on news of the battle of Lexington. Smith's was the 
third family in town, and the only one that came in 1771, 
though others who afterwards settled were here most of the 
year, like Gordon and Nichols, and though several young men 


from Londonderry visited the place and made plans to locate 
here at some future time. 

The fourth family in Antrim was that of Randall Alexander, 
who came in the spring of 1772, and began northeast of Dea. 
Aiken, on the farm now Arthur Miller's, his lot extending to the 
river. The fifth settlement was that of John Gordon, who, 
having been in town most of the time for two years and made a 
thorough examination of the town, determined to make a begin- 
ning in the north part, and struck the first blows in that section 
in the eavly spring of 1772, or perhaps in the fall of 1771. His 
log house, put up that spring, stood about on the site now occu- 
pied by the house of Oliver Swett in North Branch. To this he 
brought his young wife, Mary Boyce of Londonderry. In the 
course of his first summer in his new home, his only cow was 
killed by a bear. Gordon had no neighbor on' the west for 
nearly forty miles, and the nearest one in any direction was Dea. 
Aiken, or Philip Riley. The latter in midsummer attempted 
to visit Gordon, taHng the best course he could over the moun- 
tains ; but he had miscalculated the distance, darkness came on, 
he was lost in the woods, and was compelled to spend the night 
on the mountain. But nothing daunted, he found Gordon's 
cabin hid in the deep woods then skirting the banks of North 
Branch river, after a few hours' hunt in the morning, and 
Gordon declared the mountain Riley was the first man to sleep 
on should be called " Riley's Mountain." So it has been called 
to this day, and so may it be in all the future. 

At a festival of the sons of New Hampshire, in Boston in 
1849, Samuel Gregg, son of Maj. Samuel Gregg of Peterborough, 
a near relative of the Greggs of Antrim, gave a narrative of a 
visit of his parents to Dea. Aiken, which 'he fixes at about 
March, 1772. Circumstances lead to the conclusion that he was 
right in fixing the time of the visit, but wrong in saying it was a 
matter of " distinct recollection," as the said Samuel Gregg was 
not born till Oct. 25, 1772. He probably told the story correctly 
from hearsay. As narrated by Dr. Whiton, it was as follows : 
Maj. Samuel Gregg, a companion in arms with Dea. Aiken, and 
an old friend, having been some years settled in Peterborough, 
and having never seen Antrim, together with his wife (Agnes 
Smiley of Londonderry) "determined to visit their nearest 
neighbor on the river, James Aiken of this town. On a cold 
winter's day his mother threw on her the scarlet cloak worn by 


the greatgraiidmothers of the present generation, and walked 
with her husband on the ice of the river twelve miles to Antrim. 
On their arrival they found their friends absent, they having 
gone on a visit to New Boston. Jane, the eldest daughter, 
about twelve years old, prepared for them the refreshment of a 
cup of tea and a short-cake, then considered a first-rate article, 
an almost indispensable accompaniment of tea for company, — 
an article truly excellent as baked by our great-grandmothers 
before a glowing bed of coals. After tea the disappointed visit- 
ants retraced their steps on the river ice, arriving at their home 
in the evening, wearied with the long and fruitless walk (twen- 
ty-four miles). Their return was none too soon. That very 
night brought a sudden change of weather, and a rain so power- 
ful as to break up the ice of the river, and there being a great 
depth of snow and no roads, their return home, had they lin- 
gered on their visit, had been for weeks impracticable." 

It was in 1772, also, that Maurice Lynch began the James 
Wallace or William Stacey farmj west of John Gordon. He 
built his log house a little west of the present house, and on the 
opposite side of where the house is now. The cellar is now nearly 
filled, yet the depression of ground made by it is plainly visible 
at the present day. Lynch was a native of Ireland, thirty-four 
years old, brought with him three children, was an educated man, 
and first town clerk of Antrim. But before his year as clerk 
was out, he went back to New Boston, to the general regret of 
the people, and there soon after died in the prime of his days. 
His was the sixth family in town ; but there were nearly thirty 
families here when he left after a sojourn of five and one-half 

The seventh family in town was that of John Duncan, — after- 
wards " Captain John," " Esquire John," " Deacon John," and 
" Hon. John." He had been here at work on his land somewhat 
in the summers of 1770, 1771, and 1772. His coming to town 
was the principal event among the few settlers which is put on 
record for the year 1773. He was a man of good connections and 
already had won some reputation. He had been very deliberate 
in his coming, having made more preparation than any that pre- 
ceded him, and having his goods brought here in a cart, — the 
first ever driven into Antrim, — whence we infer that he had 
more than others to bring. His log house was near the site of 
the present residence on that estate ; and he arrived at its hum- 


ble door with his family (wife and five children), Sept. 20, 1773. 
It must have been a tough and weary journey, — forty miles in an 
ox-cart, — and much of the way no road. They drove across the 
Contoocook in a shallow place, and reached their new home 
without any serious accident. Here John Duncan lived fifty 
years, dying at the age of eighty-nine. This farm, purchased in 
1770, is now in possession of the family, after one hundred and 
ten years. The only other farm a Imndred years in the family 
of the pioneer settler, is that of Dea. James farr, who began 
his lot in 17^8. A census of New Hampshire was taken in the 
fall of 1773, making the population of Hillsborough county 
13,514, and of the Stp,te, 72,092 ; but in the record of places 
no mention is made of Society Land. 

The year 1774 witnessed the arrival in Antrim of eight settlers 
and their families ; and others, if they did not move here that 
year, made preparations to do so at .no distant day. Probably 
ten or twelve log houses went up that year in different parts of 
the town. Joseph Boyd, afterwards " Dea. Joseph," settled on 
the Goodell farm ; James Duncan on the Saltmarsh farm ; Dan- 
iel McParland bought all between Aiken's lot and Boyd's, and 
located his dwelling about where N. W. 0. Jameson now lives ; 
James Dickey settled where Samuel M. Thompson now lives (the 
large brick house over east is about on the spot) ; John Warren 
settled at the Branch, on the south side of the stream a little be- 
low the present village ; James Moor settled on the same side of 
the stream somewhat above Warren ; while John Burns struck 
off alone into the High Range, locating near where for many years 
the High Range school-house subsequently stood ; and James 
Hutchinson reared his cabin half a mile to the west of Lynch, 
north of the river. The buildings on Hutchinson's lot are now 
gone. It was at the foot of the mountain west of the Webster or 
Daniel Swett place, and has been known as the " Old Reuben 
Boutwell farm." Before Hutchinson moved his family here, the 
war broke out, he went to the scene of strife with the others, and 
lost his life by reckless daring at Bunker Hill. 

This is all of the brief record for 1774. Counting Hutchinson, 
who was here alone, expecting to bring his wife from Amherst 
the next spring, there were in the autumn of 1774 fifteen fami- 
lies' in Antrim ; two in the east part of the town ; six at the 
Branch or vicinity ; and seven in the vicinity of South Village, 
making a population of^abbut sixty-two. Things now looked 


very hopeful for this new settlement. All summer long the for- 
ests echoed the stroke of the woodman's ax, and the falling 
crash of old trees, monarchs of the wood. Clearings became 
larger and more numerous. Paths were cut out here and there. 
Walls began to appear. The grounds about the dwellings began 
to look like fields. Others desiring to make settlements visited 
the place, and promised to purchase and return the next year. ;. 
and there was a prospect of the rapid increase of this small 

But, in the spring of 1775, events occurred which tended very 
much to check and alarm the frontier towns. For at least a 
dozen years previous there had been a growing coolness between 
the British government and the American colonies. For a much 
longer period many of the more thoughtful men this side" the 
water had felt that the colonies had been treated by the king^ 
with great selfishness, as shown by the fact that if anything 
could be made out of the Americans he was ready to receive it, 
or confer it upon some of his favorites, while in wars with the 
French and Indians which his own folly had kindled he left 
these same loyal subjects to look out for themselves. Such as 
were accustomed to look ahead and think of the future, asked,, 
not infrequently, what shall the end of these things be ? In 
176'0 George III. ascended the British throne, finding a difficulty 
with France on hand ; and soon after war with Spain was de- 
clared, and a long struggle ensued costing many lives and a vast 
sum of money. England, deeply in debt before, was now pressed 
for means, and began to think of taxing the struggling people in 
America to help pay their war debt. Under the most false and 
absurd plea that " the war had been waged chiefly on account of 
the colonies " and therefore they should share its burdens, they 
proceeded in a mild way to enact measures which would draw" 
money from Americli. As this was a very pleasant idea to them,, 
it soon took a more positive form in the Stamp Act in 1765. 
Other acts of " taxation without representation " soon followed ;. 
taxes were put upon almost every thing brought to America ;. 
a heavy duty was laid upon tea ; and when a storm of indigna- 
tion arose here, men-of-war heavily armed were sent into our 
ports by way of intimidation, and garrisons of soldiers from 
abroad were sent into our principal cities. But seeing they had 
gone too far, the British abandoned all their taxes except that 
upon tea, and on this the king determined " to try the question. 


with America." Consequently, in 1773, shiploads of tea were 
sent to the chief American ports. In some ports it was landed, 
but they didn't dare to attempt the sale of it. From other ports it 
was sent immediately back to England. In Boston it was de- 
stroyed by the '• Boston Tea Party," Dec. 16,1773. In retaliation 
the British government passed the " Boston Port Bill," taking 
effect June 1, 1774, forbidding all commerce with that city by 
water, so that not even a " stick of wood or a barrel of flour 
could be brought in a row-boat from Cambridge." But this, only 
made the resistance of the colonies greater still. Contributions 
poured in from all parts of the country to feed the people of 
Boston. In some places people made that day (June 1, 1774) 
a day of mourning and public prayer. Excitement grew fearful 
all over the country. Men began to talk of war. Military sup- 
plies began to be collected and put in places of concealment. A 
congress was called as early as October, 1765, — and these assem- 
blies grew more' bold and frequent, and tended to unite the 
several colonies ; and it was agreed that Freedom in America 
should be confided to " the watchfulness of a united continent." 
It having been determined in this condition of affairs that Massa- 
chusetts, and particularly Boston, should suffer, large bodies of 
foreign troops were soon added to the garrison of that town. 
Barely was a collision .avoided in that place for several months. 
But the people talked resistance and prepared for war. " Min- 
ute-men " — men pledged to start for the scene of conflict at a 
minute's notice — were drilled in little companies, all over New 
England, the old soldiers of the French war performing this 
service. Arrangements were made by signals, fleet riders, firing 
guns, and so on, to convey immediate intelligence of an outbreak 
wherever it might occur. Early in April, 1775, Gen. Gage, the 
British commander in Boston, determined secretly to seize the 
military stores the patriots had collected in Concord, Mass. 
Consequently, on the evening of April 18, 1775, just after dark, 
eight hundred men under Major Pitcairn started for Concord. 
But the signals of the patriots were given promptly by the gleam 
of the lantern in the steeple of the old church, and otherwise ; 
the " minute-men " were started in every direction ; the military 
stores were for the most part saved by removal ; and this brave 
expedition terminated in utter defeat. Pitcairn reached Lex- 
ington about daylight in the morning of April 19, 1775, and 
there found a company of " minute-men " confronting him, and 


they hung upon the British in their advance and their retreat, 
until the fugitive red-coats fairly run for life, and would have 
been all shot down but for a re-enforcement by Lord Percy of 
more than a thousand men. When Percy met his comrades 
flying for life, it is said " their tongues were hanging out of 
their mouths, like dogs after a chase." By sunset of April 19, ' 
they got back into Boston, tired, ashamed, mad, and utterly 
defeated by the rude farmers, having lost two hundred and sev- 
enty-three men-, left dead or wounded in the road. 

Over this event the wonder and rage in England were very 
great, but in America a fearful wave of excitement swept from 
town to town and bound to bound. The tidings flew with incon- 
ceivable rapidity. The remotest corners of the frontier seemed 
to catch the word, as though it were borne by the lightnings or 
the wind. Thf scattered inhabitants of Society Land caught 
the tidings, and hurriedly met for departure to meet the foe. 
The men met at Dea. Aiken's, together with those of Deering, 
incorporated Jan. 17 of the previous year, at the shortest possible 
notice. As they came from Hancock, Greenfield, Bennington, 
Antrim, and Deering, with the difficulties of communication and 
travel then, it is surprising to see with what promptness they 
acted. They elected Isaac Butterfield of Greenfield to be theiu 
-captain, and marched immediately for Lexington, not even stop- 
ping to go to their homes to arrange for leaving. Every man in 
the town of Antrim old enough to carry a gun marched off on 
this sudden call to meet the foe, except two, — John Gordon, 
who had fought for the king, and who soon after enlisted and 
fought against the king till the close of the war, and William 
Smith, sixty years old, who followed with provisions the next 
morning. All night after the company marched, the women of 
Antrim sat up and worked, preparing articles needed to use, 
especially provisions, and promptly met in the morning with 
what they had prepared ; and this little company of wives and 
mothers, bowing in tears and supplication to God, were led in 
prayer by the " pious " William Smith, after which he set out 
with his horseload of supplies to overtake the men, while the 
women returned bravely and sadly to their homes. Only the 
man John Gordon was left in town. What an everlasting 
honor to this town ! More will be said of this under the mili- 
tary history of Antrim on another page, but this most remarka- 
ble event seemed to demand mention here, and is worthy of 


being told over and over. For a shorter or longer period every 
man in Antrim capable of bearing arms was in the service ! 
Seventeen men from fourteen families went at the first call, so 
that there must have been some that were only boys among 

Of course, as said before, the breaking-out of the war tended 
to alarm the people and hinder all new projects. Nobody could 
calculate what would be in the near future. Indians from 
Canada and northern New Hampshire and Maine might again 
fall on the exposed towns. This was the frontier. It would be 
very discouraging for any to commence here at that time. And 
yet in 1775 some additional settlers came here, — probably such 
as had purchased their land and were determined to run the 
hazard of a. beginning rather than forfeit their claims. Alex- 
ander Jameson from Dunbarton certainly began the Temple 
place this year, though he may not have moved his family here 
till the following year. Matthew Templeton came from Wind- 
ham and began the Dea. Isaac Cochran place in 1775. Being 
an eccentric man, he soon after purchased a second lot in Peter- 
borough, and ultimately moved to that town. He brought three 
children with him, and two were born in this town. Richard 
McAllister also moved his family here from Bedford in 1775". 
He had worked on his land somewhat in previous summers. 
He was the first beginner on Meeting-House Hill, locating on 
the place first north of the fork of roads, afterwards the Abra- 
ham Smith farm. McAllister was on the first board of select- 
men. He left town about 1795, and but little is known of him. 
Also Thomas Stuart came here in 1775, settling where John G. 
Flint now lives, at the Branch. He brought no children, his 
first being born in 1777. John McClary, having done something 
in previous years on his land, moved here in 1775, his three 
grown-up children coming with him. The place he began has 
long been known as the Madison Tuttle farm. It is certain that 
these five men, and perhaps more, came here the spring the war 
broke out. In the fall of 1775 there were, therefore, at least 
twenty families in this town. The last five families numbered 
at the very lowest thirteen persons, making seventy-five persons 
here in the fall of 1775, This is on the supposition that there 
had been no births in town during the year previous, and that 
there were no transient persons here. Seventy-five is probably, 
therefore, somewhat under the actual number then resident here. 



A census was taken in 1775 which made the population of Lon- 
donderry, second town in the State, 2,590 ; Bedford, 495 ; New 
Boston, 669 ; Hillsborough, about 150 ; while Society Land 
(Antrim, Hancock, Bennington, and the western and larger part 
of Greenfield) contained 177 inhabitants, — Hancock, Benning- 
ton, and western Greenfield having altogether not over 102 
persons. Prancestown had 200, and Stoddard 224. 

In the next year, 1776, but little addition was made to the 
population of Antrim. Three of the Nichols brothers, Thomas, 
Daniel, and Adam, certainly lived in 1776 in the east part of the 
town. Thomas Nichols had been here several years most of the 
time, and seems to have picked out his farm (Dea. Shattuck 
place) and worked on it when a mere boy. Daniel Nichols on 
the Turner place, and Adam next south of him (McCoy place) , 
either moved here in 1776, or, what is almost certain, had begun 
earlier. But probably all these three brothers were single men 
in 1776, so that at the close of that year there were not more 
than eighty-five persons within the present limits of Antrim, and 
not less than eighty. James Dickey and George Bemaine, citi- 
zens of this town, lost their lives at the battle of White Plains, 
Oct. 28, 1776. This was, on the whole, much more discouraging 
than the previous year, to the people of this place. Three of 
their small number had- already lost their' lives in the war. 
Dickey was one of their smartest and most popular men. The 
public cause looked dark. But through it all these brave men 
and women worked on undismayed. More and more the forest 
faded before them, and the wilderness turned into the fruitful 
field. The women shared every hardship with marvelous 
strength and zeal. The amount of work done in farming, clear- 
ing, and fencing, was almost incredible. 

And at this time they began to talk over the project of being 
incorporated as a town. It was in this year, early in the season 
(1776), that John Warren put up the first saw-mill in town. It 
was the first mill of any kind ever run within our borders. It 
was a very modest and limited affair at first. It stood at the 
Branch, a few rods below the Wallace mills, now Parkhurst's, 
and was a very great convenience to the settlers. In the fall of 
the same year, James Aiken and Joseph Boyd together put up 
a saw-mill on the spot now occupied by Goodell's saw-mill in 
South Village. It was not of very permanent character, and 
after a few years was removed to give place to a more substan- 


tial structure, but it auswered an excellent purpose at the time. 
With these two little mills began the lumber business in 
Antrim in the winter of 1776-77, which has gone on briskly for 
a century, till there is but little of the old forest left. About 
twenty thousand acres have thus been chopped over, many of 
which are -now covered with timber of subsequent growth. 

During this year (1776) the American colonies declared 
themselves independent of the mother country, and while the 
few sons of Antrim were battling with the forest and with the 
poverties and hardships of a new settlement, the great struggle 
for independence or death was going on without. But months 
before the declaration of independence (March 14, 1776) Con- 
gress had recommended to the several colonies to disarm all 
persons " disaffected to the cause of America " within their 
bounds. In accordance with this request, the colony of New 
Hampshire "in Committee of Safety" (April 12, 1776) drew up 
for signature the following paper : — 

"We the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage, and promise, that 
we will, to the utmost of our Power, at the Risque of our Lives and 
Fortunes, with Arms, oppose the Hostile Proceedings of the British 
Fleets and Armies against the United American Colonies. 

This was called the " Association Test," and was sent out into 
every town and corner of our State for signature and return. 
All males above twenty-one years of age " except Lunatics, 
idiots, and negroes " were asked "to sign to the Declaration on 
this paper." In the whole State eight thousand one hundred 
and ninety-nine persons subscribed to this, and seven hundred 
and seventy-three refused to sign.. Of these last, quite a portion 
were Friends, who were loyal, but opposed to bearing arms ; 
some were too timid to sign ; and some were aged and sick, so 
as to feel that if they signed they could not carry out their 
pledge. Probably, therefore, not one-third of the seven hundred 
and seventy-three were actually Tories. And really it was a 
pretty sweeping test to sign. It meant death and confiscation of 
property, to every man, if the cause failed ! It was treason 
against the most powerful government in the world. It places 
little New Hampshire three months ahead of the Declaration of 
Independence of the United States. 


The " signers in Society Land now Antrim " were as follows : 

John McClary. William Smith. 

Thomas Stuart. James Aiken. 

Nathan Taylor. Isaac Butterfield. 

John Green. Robert Rogers. 

John Warren. James Gregg. 

Samuel Moores. Alexander Parker. 

James Moores. James Hopkins. 

Philip Raley. James Duncan. 

Tristram Cheney. Matthew Templeton. 

John Cheney. Morish Lynch. 

Joseph Boyd. John Duncan. 

Daniel Miltimor. Robert Duncan. 
Alexander Jameson. 

There were none here that refused to sign. Some few were 
too young, and some were temporarily absent. Of the above 
names, Nathan Taylor and Daniel Miltimore had not yet brought 
families here, though no doubt here at work on their land. 
Tristram Cheney and his son John, not hitherto noticed, lived 
near the town line west of the Judge Whittemore place, where 
now there is neither road nor house, and their stay in Antrim 
was very brief, — not more than a half-dozen years. John 
Green, Isaac Butterfield, Robert Rogers, James Gregg, Alexan- 
der Parker, James Hopkins, and Robert Duncan lived in other 
parts of Society Land. In Londonderry, three hundred and sev- 
enty-five signed and fifteen refused ; in Bedford, eighty-seven 
signed and one refused ; in Deering, thirty-three signed. 

Having talked over the project of incorporation for several 
months in the early part of this year (1776), the conclusion was 
almost entire on the part of this little people, that, they would 
seek town privileges. This shows how courageous and hopeful 
they were even in the face of poverty and war, and what great 
plans they had for the future. About the middle of the summer 
of 1776 they held a meeting, and chose Maurice Lynch, John 
Duncan, and Samuel Moore a committee to draw up a petition 
and present the same to the legislature. No record of this 
meeting can be found, nor is it known in whose house it was 
held. But the petition, signed by this committee, was drawn up 
and duly presented. It is now on file in the office of our state 
secretary, in the bold, clear, old-fashioned, handsome handwrit- 
ing of Maurice Lynch. It seems to have been sent in by hand 
of Capt. Joseph Simonds of Hillsborough, who then represented 


Henniker, Hillsborough, Deering, and Society Land in the legis- 
lature. It was presented at the session which commenced at 
Exeter, Sept. 4, 1776. It was labeled by the clerk of the assem- 
bly, " A petition from the Society," and is given below with cap- 
itals, spelling, etc., unchanged : — 

To the Honorable Council and • House of Eepresentatives in the 
Colony of New Hampshire at Exeter Assembled 

The Humble petition of us the Subscribers, being a committee Chosen 
by the Inhabitants of a part of the Society land (So called) in the County 
of Hillsborough — 

Humbly Sheweth — 

That your honours petitioners has been these two years past waiting 
for a Reconciliation between Great Britain, Eather than to assume the 
boldness to trouble any person or persons' Invested with power or 
authority, to Grant our Request in Such Troublesome times, we your 
honours petitioners being Ready and willing, to pay our proportion of all 
the Reats Collected within this Colony these three years past ; yet being 
Destitute of the privileges laws or Customs Granted to other Towns by 
their Charters. 

Now as your honours hath wisely plan'ed a form of Government 
agreeable to any Good Meaning person or persons, we your petitioners 
do Request an Incorporation from your honours of a Township In Said 
Society, the bounds of which being as follows (viz.) Beginning at 
the North-East Corner of Said Township, which is the Northwest Corner 
of Diring and Running Southerly According to the course of Contacook 
river which River is the west line of Said Diring, so as to make five 
Miles 'pon a strait line. Thence westerly on the north line of No. three 
in the original plan of Said Society to the East line of pecker's-fleld 
thence Northerly on said pecker's field and Stodard to Camel's-gore 
Thence Easterly on Camel's-gore and Hillsborough to the bounds first 
Mentioned we your honours petitioners being destitute of the privileges 
before Mentioned Can't oblige a man to work one hour upon the High- 
ways which is a Great Damage to our-selfs and to the publick,, therefore 
do Desire, your honours Serious Consideration on the Contents of this 
petition and we will as in Duty bound for ever pray — 

JOHN DUNCAN' [ Committee. 

By hand of Capt.- Simonds they also sent the following letter : 

"Whereas we the Subscribers have been chosen as a committee to 
prefet a petition to your honours for an Incorporation of a District of 
Land in the Society (so called) Butted and bounded as in Said petition, 
which bounds is less than what is Granted to other Towns, and have Left 
more unincorporated land than what we have petitioned for, vvhich we 
can make appear, and whereas your honours have been Delegated to 
Redress our grievances, and we have just Reason to Complain of it as a 


Grievance, that we have Been Taxed to Support government and called 

upon for our quota of men to Defend our privileges, and yet Destitute of 

the privileges granted to other Towns by their Charters, therefore if the 

Request of this petition is not Granted, that we will take it very hard to 

pay any more Taxes till we have the same privileges of other Towns, 

but yet is Eeady and willing to Defend the privileges Expecting to Injoy 

them in the whole hereafter. 


Society Aug. 30th 1776. 

The petition is not dated, but undoubtedly was presented at 
the same time with the letter, and in the very first days of the 
session, as indicated by the following extract from the Journal 
of the House : — 

Sept. 13, 1776. Upon Reading the Petition of Sundry of the Inhab- 
itants of Society Land so called, Voted that the Petitioners Cause the 
Substance of said Petition and order thereon to be Published in the most 
PubUc places in the Society Land so called and in tlie New Hampshire 
State Gazette or Saturday Cirqulating Chronicle, that any Person Con- 
cerned may appear before the General Assembly of this State on the 
third day of their next Session To shew Cause if any they have why the 
Prayer thereof may not be Granted. 

Thus matters rested till the new year 1777 came in. What 
was left of Society Land west of the Contoocook, between Hills- 
borough and Peterborough, was judged to be enough for two 
towns. The above committee asked for the incorporation of the 
northern half, and asked for less than half. To show their fair- 
ness in the whole transaction the following paper is copied : — 

Society Jan'y 14, 1777. This may Certify the general Cort of this 
state of New Hampshire that the inhabitants of s'' Society Living on the 
South part are willing the North part should be incorporated the half 
being Left to us which is found upon inquiry to be the Line between 
Number 3 and 4 mentioned in their petition 


This whole tract of country first called Society Land, including 
Francestown and Deering, had long been called " Antrim" by 
many of the settlers, and they determined to have the name con- 
nected permanently with this tract. Many circumstances drew 
me to this conclusion, and it is confirmed by the positive evi- 


dence of Samuel Downing, who lived in Deering from the age of 
ten to fifteen, and afterwards in this town, and bore witness over 
and over that the whole tract was called " Antrim " when he 
came here. He says that " Antrim was a wooded country- 
then," and speaks of his homesickness here, though he lived 
with Thomas Aiken near Francestown line in Deering. His 
acquaintance with the vicinity, his clear memory, and his accu- 
rate and circumstantial testimony, leave no chance to doubt that 
" Antrim " was once the name of the whole, even if there were 
no other evidence. 

The county of Antrim is in the northeast part of Ireland, 
being nearly two-thirds bounded by the northern ocean and the 
North channel. . On the southwest side of this county there is a 
lake called Lough Neagh (lok na), from which the broad and 
beautiful river Bann flows north into the ocean, forming the 
western boundary of the county. On the south the river Logan 
and Lough Belfast almost complete the boundary of water. 
Hence its ancient name " Bndruim," meaning " habitation upon 
the waters ; " and this name, as it came to be spoken by the 
earliest Scotch emigrants, was soon changed and shortened into 

The old town of Antrim, a shire-town, though situated- on the 
northeast corner of Lough Neagh, is near the center of the 
county of Antrim and in its best part. It is a small town but 
most beautifully located, sloping toward the lake about as the 
south part of our own Antrim slopes toward the Contoocook. A 
round tower, ninety-three feet high and fifty-three feet in circum- 
ference at the base, is of unknown origin, but attests the ancient 
importance of the place. A small stream from the east, called 
the " Six-Mile- Water," flows into the lake at this point, — a 
short, winding, hurrying little river, with great fall, dotted with 
mills of various kinds, very like our Clinton stream. The whole 
scene is charming. Lough Neagh is at this point a marvel of 
beauty. A recent traveler says : " In the immediate neighbor- 
hood of Antrim town it may vie with the fairest of the southern 
lakes, while it possesses a grandeur exclusively its own." 

On the shore at this point stands the ruined castle of the 
" Niels," an ancient and honorable race of kings. This castle 
was burned in 1816, but enough remains to show its former 
glory and beauty. The old turrets still remain, and the little 
old cannon are still mounted on its walls. In the midst of 


great, venerable trees, near the water, near the great round 
tower, half-bounded by an ancient graveyard with slanting and 
crumbling stones, — the ruined, empty, falling old castle, with 
its secret vaults and threatening guns and romantic traditions, 
might well be taken for a haunted place. This was long said to 
be a favorite abode of the " banshee," a spirit in woman's form, 
in loose, white robes, plaintively wailing an admonition of mis- 
fortune and death. "The wail of the banshee" was said 
always to be heard* before a death in the family, so sad, tender, 
musical, and sweet, as never to be mistaken. Sometimes this 
pleading, plaintive strain was heard at the bridal scene, turning 
faces of gladness pale. 

Along the shore at " Old Antrim town " Lough Neagh was 
reputed to have the singular power of turning all substances 
into stone. Petrified wood lies all along under the water. An 
ancient canoe recently raised from the bottom was perfect in 
every part, but had turned into stone. An old writer said that 
if a pole near Antrim were stuck into the mud and left standing 
in and above the water, the parts in the mud and above the 
water would remain wood, while the part in the water would 
soon become stone. Of course this is exaggeration, but there is 
in fact something remarkable in the case. This probably 
accounts for frequent appearances, by moonlight, of what seem 
like towers and steeples and walls and curious carved work at 
the bottom, and for the discovery of dead cities under the water. 
A poet speaks of it thus : — 

" On Lough Neagh's banks as the fisherman strays, 
When the clear cold eve's declining, 
He sees the round towers of other days 
In the waves beneath him shining." 

As Prancestown and Deering were incorporated before this 
town, it may be supposed that one of these towns would- have 
taken the good name " Antrim," but for the interposition of Gov. 
Wentworth, who took the notion into his head, just at that time, 
to perpetuate in the designation of two adjoining towns the 
name of his wife. Prances Deering. The former was long writ- 
ten " Prances' Town." 

The name Antrim was very dear to the Scotch. It has not 
been found that there is any place or city in Scotland by this 
n9,me. Our ancestors found the name on their first arrival in 
Ireland. It was applied to that city and county which has been 


said to be more exclusively Scotch than any other in the island, 
and where our fathers enjoyed their rights' to the greatest 
extent. Like those who settled in Londonderry and kept that 
honored name', the settlers here clung to that which was next 
memorable and precious. Consequently, when incorporation 
was sought, there being then no royal governor, and therefore 
no royal governor's wife whose name they were compelled to 
respect, it was a matter of general consent among the people 
that the new town should be called " Antrim*," and this was the 
request presented in their behalf. 

Very early in 1777 the inhabitants of this place met and made 
provisions to defray the expenses of incorporation, and chose 
Capt. John Duncan to present and enforce their petition before 
the legislature, as appointed in the notification of that body, 
indicated above. This session commenced at Exeter, March 12, 
1777. Mr. Whiton says there were then " about twenty families 
and twenty-three resident freeholders." But, as Jatnes Hutch- 
inson and James Dickey and George Bemaine were dead, to 
make this number it would be necessary to count in Dea. Tris- 
tram Cheney, who was part of the time in Hillsborough, and 
also Daniel Miltimore, and perhaps others, who, like him, were 
on the ground but had not yet brought their families here. The 
town had been twice surveyed, once by Robert Fletcher of Ports- 
mouth not far from 1753, and again not earlier than 1775, since 
John Duncan, James Aiken, and Daniel Nichols were chairmen, 
the last of whom had not long been here. This last survey was 
made, no doubt, by Col. Joseph Blanchard of Dunstable. That 
part falling south of the line thus fixed upon, and west of the 
Contoocook, was incorporated afterward as Hancock, the act 
being obtained Nov. 5, 1779. 

Mr. Duncan appeared ' before the assembly at Exeter as 
directed. No opposition was made. The records of the House 
for those days are exceedingly brief, and but little is known of 
what was said on the occasion. The first that appears in regard 
to it, copied by the kind permission of the secretary of state, is 
as follows : — 

Tuesday Mar, 18, 1777. Met according to adjournment A. M. 
Upon Reading and Considering the Petition of Sundry of the Inhab- 
itants of the Society Land, So called to be Incorporated with Town 
Privileges &c. 

Voted that the Prayer thereof be Granted and that the Petitioners 
have leave to bring in a bill accordingly. 

Sent up by Cap Symonds. 


This indicates that some hearing was previously had. In 
accordance with this a bill was drawn up at once and presented. 
There is no record of its first or second reading, but its fate 
appears by the following entry on the House Journal : — 

Friday Mar. 21, 1777. An Act for Incorporating a Part of the 
Society Land So called into a Township by the Name of Antrim was 
read a third time and passed to be enacted. Sent up by Captn Symonds 
and Cap. Wilson. 

There were then 'no senate and no governor, but a body called 
" The Council " combined, to some extent, senatorial an-d execu- 
tive functions, Meshech Weare being its presiding officer, and 
sometimes being called " President of New Hampshire." The 
act of incorporation was brought before them the day of its 
passage in the House, and seems to have reached its second 
reading at that time. On the following day occurs this entry: — 

In Council ^ 
MAECH 22. 1777. 
This Act, having been read a third time. Voted, that the same be 

M. WEAEE, President. 
A true copy: Attest, E. Thompson Sec'y. 

The charter of the town is given below. The original act as 
delivered to the town is believed to be lost, but this is a copy of 
that in the State records : — 

In the year of our Lord one thousand Seven hundred & Seventy 
Seven — 

State of New Hampshire — 
An Act to incorporate Part of a place Called the Society Land in the 
County of Hillsborough in the said State of New Hampshire. 

/^.A,^\ Whereas a Petition has been preferred to the General Court 
C Loc. "i in behalf of the Inhabitants of a Part of that Tract of Land in 
1 ?i|^ ■ C the County of Hillsborough Setting forth that for want of an 
^^.^^ Incorporation they Were Exposed to many Difficulties & 
Inconveniences, and praying that they May be incorporated, of Which 
due Notice has-been Given and no Objection has Been made to it, and it 
appearing to be for the publick Good — 

by the Council and House of Representatives and by the authority of 
the Same it is enacted, that there be and hereby is a Township erected & 
incorporated- by the Name of Antrim within the following bounds viz: 
beginning at the Northwesterly Corner of Deering and Thence Running 
Southerly by Said Deering according to the Course of Contoocook River 
which is ye Westerly Line of Deering till it Comes opposite to the East- 


erly End of the line between the Great Lots Number Three and four 
thence Eunning from the Said Eiver westerly To the Northwesterly 
Corner of Said Lot Number Three thence Eunning Still westerly on the 
Said Line between the Said Lots to the Easterly line of Packersfleld 
thence running Northerly by Said Packersfleld and by Stoddard to 
Campbell's Gore So Called thence Running Easterly by Said Campbell's 
Gore & by Hillsborough to the Bound Where it began — and the Inhab- 
itants of Said Tract of Land are erected into a body politic and Corpo- 
rate to have Continuance & Succession forever and are hereby invested 
with all the powers and Enfranchised with all the Eights Privileges & 
Immunities Which any Towns in this State hold & Enjoy To Hold to 
the Said Inhabitants of Said tract of Land & their Successors forever — 

And Cap. John Duncan of Said Antrim is hereby authorized & impow- 
ered to Call a meeting of said Inhabitants, To Choose all Necessary & 
Customary Town Officers Giving at Least fourteen Days Notice of the 
Time Place & Design of Such Meeting and Such Officers Shall Hereby 
be Invested With all the powers of the Like Officers in any other Town 
in This State and every other meeting Which Shall be annually held in 
Said Town for that purpose Shall be on the Second Tuesday of March 
annually forever. 





We have just celebrated the 'one hundredth anniversary of 
Antrim's incorporation ; but probably we could realize but little 
of the pride and joy which our fathers felt when they were first 
blessed with town privileges and town honors. Only a handful, — 
twenty-three, — but they had great hearts and great hopes ! They 
did not, however, call a town meeting till May 1, probably on 
account of deep snows and the difficulty of assembling for lack 
of roads; There was nothing in town that could very properly 
be called a road. The first warrant posted in this town for a 
legal meeting was as follows (the contradiction of dates was 
probably a mistake of Lynch in making the record) : — 

State of New Hampshire ( Antrim 

And County of Hillsborough ss, j Apr. 16. 1777. 

By The authority of The afforsaid State I do hereby Warn all the- 
freeholders and other Inhabitants Quallified by Law to Vote in Town 
meetings belonging To Said Antrim, to meet on Thursday the first Day 
of May at 12 of the Clock at the house of Capt. John Duncan in Said. 
Town, To act on the following articles viz. — 

1=' To Choose a Clerk To Keep the Records Allso Selectmen and 
Other Necessary Town Officers. — 

2* To See if the Town Will agree to find a Center and Burying 
place. — 

3diy To See if the Town Will agree to Eecord the most Leading- 

4M7 To See What money they Will Rease to Get preaching the 
Present year and act on aney other thing Thought Needful When. 
met — . 

And This Shall be your Sufficient Warrant 

Given Under my hand and Seal at Antrim This 16* Day of March 
A: D: 1777. 


Agreeably to this warrant the few scattered yeomen assembled' 
at John Duncan's May 1, 1777. It had little resemblance to the 
crowded, noisy town meetings of recent date. No politics ! A 
kitchen-full of quiet, brave, noble, united men ! "What a treasure 
a picture of that town meeting would be ! No presiding officer 
is mentioned in the record ; but it is probable that John Duncan, 


■Twho called the meeting to order, acted as moderator throughout. 
Maurice Lynch was chosen town clerk and began the record in 
excellent shape, but was not rechosen, as he moved back to 
New Boston before the close of the year 1777. Thomas Stuart, 
James Aiken, and Richard McAllister were chosen the first 
ijoard of selectmen. Maurice Lynch was chosen constable ; 
and James Duncan and John Warren were the first highway 
surveyors. The clause in the warrant to " act on any other 
thing Thought Needful When met " left the door open pretty 
wide, and they proceeded to make a pretty liberal construction 
of this most liberal phrase. They — 

Voted the Selectmen a Quarter a Dolar p' Day for their service in 
the Town Buisness. 

Voted To Take Some Meathod To find a Center. 

They then chose Maurice Lynch surveyor for this purpose. 

Voted James Aiken & Sam^ iloore To Be Cheanmen. And Capt. 
-John Duncan Tally man. 

Voted forty Dollars to be Worked out on the highways this year. 

Voted that the Selectmen Shall Be a Committee of Safety for this 

Voted that 23 Inhabitants or freeholders Those in the Town Will pay 
a. Shilling Each for the Charge of the Chartor. 

This shows that there were several besides " Those in the 
Town," — that is, some who had begun farms but had not yet 
moved here ; and also that the expense of incorporation was very 
slight. They also — 

Voted to hold Town Meetings at Ric* M^Allostor's house (Abram 
Smith place on Meeting-House Hill) Till Such Time as ther Will be a 
proper place to meet at the Centor and To post Warrants for the futter 
meetings at James Moor's Mills. 

This humble grist-mill was on the spot where are now Park- 
hurst's mills at the Branch, and the warrants were to be put up 
there because every settler would visit that place on business. 
The town also voted in regard to the " Meathod to find a Centor," 
that the " Surveyor and his Assistants.Shall go Round The Town 
and Take the proper Courses and Distances So as to Give Their 
Return of a proper Centor." 

.^The surveyor went about his work in the early summer, and 
fixed upon the top of Meeting-House Hill as the " Centor " of 
the town, though after the enlargement of the town the 
geographical center was nearly a n^ile west of that point. It is 


probable they varied some from the exact center for the sake of 
being on the top of a hill ! Then, after the hurry of summer 
■work was passed, they called a meeting for Aug. 20, the warrant 
for which is curious enough to be inserted here entire. It was 
addressed to " Maurice Lynch Constable." 

In the ISTame of the Government and people of this State you are To 
Warn all the freeholders and other Inhabitants Quallifyd by Law to Vot 
in Town meetings Belonging To Said Antrim to meet at the Centor of 
Said Town on Wensday the 20"^ Day of this Instant at Eight of the 
Clock in the forenoon first to Chuse A moderator 2°^ To See if the 
Town Will be Satisfyd With the Choice of the Surveyor and his 
assestanc Maid of the Spot for a meeting house and Buyring place — 

3iiiy for Every Man for to a ax fall the Trees off the Yalue of one Acer 
More or Less When Legualy agreed for the Spoot To Build upon. — 

4"y To Chuse a Committee for to Regulate the Expense The Town 
has been at in Respect of the War and Act on aney Thing Thought 
Needful in the opinion of the Selectmen and this Shall be your 

It is to be concluded that they had a remarkably good set of 
selectmen ! But then it was a day of sudden emergencies and 
mutual confidence, and they did not stand for technical rules. 
On assembling, they made short work of voting on the several 
articles. It must be remembered that this town meeting was in 
the woods. There was no road ; and out of the thick forest 
there was no opening from which a human dwelling could be seen. 
The nearest human habitation was the log cabin of Benjamin 
Gregg, on the E. L. Vosie farm. I have heard old people say 
that the trees on the hill were very large, and I think of this 
town meeting under them with admiration of the men and the 
scene. It seems to have been held a few steps from the south- 
east corner of the old cemetery, under " A Read oak tree markd 
with the figur of Eight." Having chosen John Duncan modera- 
tor, they seem to have accepted the report of the surveyor by 
unanimous consent, as there is no record of any kind about it. 
In the same way they fixed upon a lot for burial. Then they 
passed the following votes : — 

Voted the Spot to Build the Meeting h6use to be Between A Read 
oak tree markd with the figur of Eight and the Deat of the year 1777 — 
and the Buring Place, — 

Voted to Chope one Acer more or less. 

Voted that the Delinqueant inhabitants Shall Pay one Dollar or Else 
work one Day at Choping a" falling at the Center. 

Then, after the transaction of some other business, they dis- 


solved the town meeting, and " immediately went to work at 
felling trees " on the " Acer more or less " which now constitutes 
the old cemetery. Every man. had been notified to bring his 
ax, and as they met at eight o'clock in the morning, and were 
eager to commence this public work, it is probable the town 
meeting did not last an hour ; and therefore they had time for 
a vigorous day's work. They had no debate about the " Spoot 
to Build upon " and no time to waste. It will be noticed that 
in this first transaction the idea of building a church was in 
every miiid ; also that the old and beautiful idea that church 
and cemetery must be together was prevalent here. No doubt 
they made rapid progress that day in laying the forest low ! It 
was simply cut down to dry for burning, — an immense pile, 
enriching with ashes the place of the dead. Alas ! now the 
" Read oak markd with the figur of Eight," and the meeting- 
house, the highest landmark in the vicinity for fifty years, and 
houses subsequently occupied there as dwellings,- and those 
voters themselves, are gone ; and only the stones placed at the 
graves of those noble men, remain to identify the spot ! May 
these be held sacred by future generations ; and may the town 
commenced by those strong arms do honor to the place where 
they rest ! No descendant of them — not the remotest son of 
Antrim — should fail to visit this solemn and commanding 
ground ! 

This year (1777), James Moor completed a grist-mill at the 
Branch on the site of Parkhurst's mill. Moor had been on the 
ground four years, and must have commenced his mill in 1776, 
as it was designated as " Moor's Mill " in the spring of 1777. 
This was only for corn, but it was more a matter of welcome 
and convenience to the settlers than a new railroad is to a town 
now. They rejoiced over it " as a great acquisition." Com- 
pelled to live 'largely on corn meal, they were obliged to go to 
mill to Hillsborough and Peterborough, and even to New Boston, 
till David Lewis built a grist-mill in the southeast part of Pran- 
cestown, 1774. This latter event was counted a public benefit ; 
but a grist-mill now in their own town seemed to meet a most 
urgent want, and was looked upon by them with pride, and 

In 1777, soon after the first town meeting, Antrim first had a 
public highway, though " barely passable for horses." The 
previous year they had put up the frame of the " Great Bridge," 


as the records long designate it, the same being where is now 
the Baldwin bridge over the Contoocook. It was a small, frail 
affair, and only called great as compared with any other they 
planned to have in town, and as measured by " the poverty and 

, fewness of the builders." In the course of 1777 a road was 
" cut and cleared " from this bridge up by the old Jonas White 
place, through the Center, over Meeting-House Hill to the new 
corn-mill at the Branch, and thence over the English hill to 
Hillsborough. This was the first road in town, and hardly 
worthy that name even for many succeeding years. More will 
be said of roads in another place. 

This year, also, Antrim, with all her struggles at home, did 
not forget her duty to the suffering cause of liberty. About one- 
fourth of the men in town were in the army more or less in 
1777, and a still greater number of those who afterwards settled 
here wbre on the field. Under the military history of the town 
these items will have particular note. At this point it may be 
said, however, that the town nobly aided the families of absent 
soldiers ; they carried, forward the " clearings " of such as had 
no families, and occasionally voted to " clear up their fell wood" 
or " pieces of chopped wood." These were pieces of land on 
which the trees had been cut and left as they fell, and then 
burned over. After the fire these tracts were covered with 
charred logs in every direction. The town cut, piled, and 
burned these logs, and prepared the new land for a crop, in the 
absence of its young owner in the army. Many votes of this 
kind are found in the old records, during the period of the war. 
Also, year after year, they " Voted Miss Mary Dickey be freed 
of her Reats," — i. e., the widow of James Dickey was exempted 

'from taxes, as her husband had lost his life in the service. 

In 1777 several new settlers located in town. Samuel Gregg 
certainly built this year, on the Paige or Dea. Newman place, at 
the present center of the town. His cousin Benjamin Gregg, 
also, as early as this year, began the Edward L. Vose farm at 
the Center. Most of the new settlers worked one summer, and 
sometimes two or three, on their lots, before moving on to them. 
Hence, it is sometimes-difficult to decide when they became res- 
idents here, as their names are found at the same time in other 
towns as well as this. In some instances this double residence 
continued four or five years, as with John Gordon, Matthew 
Templeton, Benjamin Gregg, the Cheneys, and others. Daniel 


Miltimore settled on the Whiteley place this year, to which he 
brought his young wife the year following. William Boyd, also, 
in 1777, settled on the Dea. Worthley farm. tlis first house 
stood on the old road several rods north of the present residence 
on that place. John McAllister, James McAllister, and Philip 
Coffin came this year or before. It seems also certain that as 
many as a half-dozen young men, not named heretofore in these 
pages, were chopping away all summer on their lots, so that the 
crash of falling trees was constantly heard, and clearing fires 
were most of the time burning. Some of the stone walls now 
standing are thought to have been built this year. It was, 
altogether, a lively year for Antrim, — the year of incorporation, 
healthy, toilsome, struggling, hopeful 1777 ! It may be added, 
that, of a State tax assessed June 1, 1777, Antrim's share was 
one pound, five shillings, and ten pence. 

The year 1778 made some valuable additions to the popula- 
tion of the town. In, the spring of this year Dea. Jonathan 
Nesmith, having worked on his land the four preceding seasons, 
moved on to the farm on which he died, now known as the 
Nesmith place, and was for a long life one of the foremost men 
in town affairs and church affairs. Dea. James Nesmith the 
same year moved on . to the Chandler Boutwell place. Dea. 
James Carr located on the place now that of his grandson, 
William R. Carr. John Gilmore settled this year on the farm 
long occupied by C. J. Whitney. Elias Cheney, who had been 
living here with his father, Dea. Tristram Cheney, for several 
years, moved in 1778 on to the Dimon Dodge place, near Cork' 
bridge. The Dinsmores, Samuel and James, came also this 
year. Samuel located where his son Samuel now lives, and 
James fixed on the Zadok Dodge place. Others made begin- 
nings the same year, and the town's population increased con- 

But, from pecuniary and various other embarrassments, this 
was one of the hardest years for the town. So many perplexing 
matters called for attention, that there were ofe town meetings 
within eight months. The first regular Mai'-ch meeting ever 
held here was at the house of Richard McAllister (Abram 
Smith place on Meeting-House Hill), March 10, 1778. At this 
they chose Hon. John Duncan town clerk, and Thomas Stuart, 
Daniel Miltimore, and Daniel Nichols, selectmen. James Dun- 
can was chosen constable. Maurice Lynch, though absent much 


in New Boston, and probably for that reason not continued in 
the ofifice of town clerk, was nevertheless chosen surveyor of 
highways in his part of the town. Their first vote, after electing 
town officers, was to raise " 32 dollars for Preaching this year." 
Then they " Voted five Hundred Dollars to be Reased to be 
worked out on the Highways — and Bach man to have three 
Dollars A Day for his weages and two Dollars P Day for Oxen." 
Mr. Whiton is mistaken in saying this was the rate for 1777, as 
the vote for that year was, " That the Inhabitants Shall Work at 
highways at the Rate of half a Dollar a Day &c find What Tools 
the Surveyor . Will order them to Bring." This large change 
from a half-dollar per day in 1777 to three dollars in 1778, 
shows that depreciation of paper currency was quite rapid early 
in the war, and shows a new hardship wliich our fathers had to 
struggle with. Prom the first, specie had been comparatively 
scarce in the country. The early settlers, buying tools and 
seeds, had nothing to return but coin, which had a tendency to 
draw the specie back to England. As a consequence, the colo- 
nies were driven to the issue of paper currency for circulation 
among themselves. . Coins of the small denominations, and of 
trifling intrinsic value, were issued by several States, but these 
were only convenient for small suras. Paper was issued long 
before the Revolution, of which Massachusetts paper generally 
stood highest. As compared with English money, this colonial 
paper was largely depreciated years before the rupture between 
this country and Great Britain.. In' 1767 it would take seven 
pounds in South Carolina to obtain one pound sterling, and in 
other colonies somewhat less. Hence, when the war of the Revo- 
lution broke out, the financial question was the most difficult one. 
Less than a month after the battle of Lexington Congress pro- ■ 
vided for the issue of what has since been known as " Continen- 
tal Pap,er." Of this money, 12,000,000 were put in circulation 
June 22, 1775. This was followed by other and larger issues, 
until 1300,000,000 were in circulation. Laws were passed, 
making this pape" 'legal tender for payment of debts, but, in spite 
of these arbitrary enactments, it depreciated every week until it 
became worthless. As indicated by the votes of Antrim, it took, 
March 10, 1778, three dollars of this currency to be worth as 
much as fifty cents of it was wortii ten months before. Coins, 
therefore, had become extremely scarce. Those who had silver 
were charged with concealing it, while the settlers of this town, 


being mostly poor, found it almost impossible to get specie 
enough to pay their taxes to the State. Samuel Gregg, who 
came here with considerable wealth, nobly aided the citizens of 
the town by giving specie for paper to a large extent, until its 
depreciation nearly swept his property away. No remuneration 
was subsequently made to him, and none of the paper he held 
ever redeemed. 

Under these circumstances of war and monetary embarrass- 
ment, trouble arose with the proprietors and non-resident land- 
owners. In the first place, there was difficulty in obtaining the 
land for public purposes at the established center of the town. 
It seems that the voters had been a little too fast the preceding 
year in clearing ground for a burial-place. Hence, perceiving 
their mistake, and putting the matter in, a mild form, they 
entered an article in the warrant for March 10, 1778, " to See if 
the town will be willing [to] Present a petition to the owners of 
that Right our Cantor falls into to get A Privilege for Building 
a meeting house." On this article they — 

Voted to Send a Petition to Mr. Jeffre (Geo. Jafl'rey of Portsmouth) 
and Mr. Parce. 

Voted Lieut Jno M°Cleary to Gary in the above Petition. 

No doubt he attended to this duty at once, and was Successful 
in getting the grant of land, as within three weeks another town 
meeting was called to finish up clearing the lot set apart for 
purposes of burial. Thus this disturbing element, which threat- 
ened to be serious, was happily and manfully put out of the way. 

The March meeting of 1778 was closed by choosing Daniel 
McFarland town treasurer. They also " Voted the Selectmen as 
a Cometee of Seafty. " 

In the next place, trouble arose with non-resident land-owners 
in regard to taxes assessed by the town on their land. The 
records are very scanty and obscure touching these points ; but 
enough is known to indicate what the trouble was. Very likely 
these unlettered men of the forest had not gone strictly accord- 
ing to law in everything. Two-thirds of the soil of the town was 
owned by outsiders ; and the people rightfully thought this 
property should be assessed as well as their own improvements. 
Several records of sales of such land for taxes are now in exist- 
ence. All the north part of South Village was thus sold in 1778. 
This action of the town the proprietors resisted, though the 
taxes thus assessed seem to have been chiefly, perhaps entirely. 


on account of the war. This caused great and continued anxiety 
in town. Committees were appointed again and again, and legal 
counsel was obtained. It seems froni the subsequent action of 
the town, that there had been no record of the acceptance of the 
charter ; and probably on this ground they denied the right of 
the selectman to tax them. Hence a meeting was called for 
May 7, 1778, " To heare M"^ Cleggets Advise by Lieut. mcCleary," 
and " To See if the town will act acordiug to our Charter as 
Was Voted last Meeting." This gentleman was Hon. Wyseman 
Claggett of Litchfield, long Attorney-General of the State. It 
seems that he advised them to accept the charter in a formal 
manner by vote, put it on record, and then go ahead ; since they 
at once " Voted the Town on the Charter as Voted last meet- 
ing ; " and since we find them subsequently selling land for 
taxes, and hear no more of trouble with non-residents for a 
considerable time. And thus this difficulty was overcome, and 
the settlers as before had their own way, which was the right 
way. But it is not to be wondered at, that, at the meeting April 
21, 1778, being in the midst of these troubles, the town felt too 
poor to send a man to Concord " As a Delegate to Lay a plan 
for Government," especially as they then had their first applica- 
tion for the poor, and " Voted Twenty Dollars out of the Town's 
Stock to the Suport of Miels Realys family." This meeting was 
at Richard McAllister's house, and the moderator was Dea. 
Tristram Cheney. 

July 9, 1778, that being the fourth town meeting of the year 
(Benj. Gregg, moderator), " Voted that there be 700 Dollars 
Raised for the Great Bridges being compealed in Said town." 
This being in depreciated currency, would be less than one hun- 
dred dollars in specie. " The Great Bridge " (Baldwin bridge) 
was then the only southward exit from the town by road of any 
kind, and hence of great importance. 

At the fifth town meeting of the year, Oct. 14, 1778, much was 
talked of, but nothing was done of much importance. " Voted 
that All meetings for the futer be held at Sa™ Greg's." Also, 
" Voted that the Warrants for the futer be posted at Jam' 
Moore's mill Likewise at James Aiken's house." 

The year 1779 was even harder than 1778. There was some 
increase of population, and improvement of lands ; but with 
many of the citizens in the army, with new roads to build, with 
fences everywhere to put up, with land to clear for absent 


soldiers, and with the burial-ground to finish, it was a year of 
extreme toil and hardship for every son and daughter of Antrim. 
At the town meeting March 9, 1779, Samuel Moore first comes 
into notice. He seems to have made quite an impression, as he 
was chosen moderator, second selectman, and town clerk all at the 
same time. This shows that their method of voting and keeping 
records was different from what is followed at the present time. 
At this meeting, the north stream in town is first Called the 
" Branch." A bridge over the same in Branch village was put 
up this year. Mr. Whiton is mistaken in saying 1781, as the 
record Mai'ch 9, 1779, is, " Voted that Richard McAllestor & 
Thomas Stuart be a Committee To finish the Bridge on the 
Branch." The continued depreciation of the currency is shown 
by the following record of this meeting : — 

Voted 3000 Dollars To be "Worked out on the highways for the presaat 
year at Ten Dollars pe"^ Day. 

Silver passed entirely out of circulation. As this paper was 
legal tender, unprincipled men paid their debts with it ; and 
many creditors were crippled or ruined by being compelled to 
take it. The town paid Rev. James Miltimore seventy dollars per 
day for preaching, which was about /owr dollars in good money, as 
shown by this record : — 

Voted that the Minister Be Paid four Dollars per Day Equal to Coarn 
at three Shillings per Bushel. 

The embarrassment and trouble of the people on account of 
currency this year can hardly be calculated. By an interesting 
" Table of depreciation for this State," recorded on the Journal 
of the New Hampshire Assembly, July 3, 1781, it appears that 
Jan. 31, 1777, continental paper was at par with silver, while 
Dec. 31 of that year it took $3.10 in paper to equal one dollar in 
silver. At the close of 1778 it took $6.34 of papef to equal a 
dollar of silver. March 1, 1779, it took ten dollars of paper to 
equal one of silver ; and through the year depreciation was so 
constant and so rapid that on Dec. 31 it took $23.93 of paper to 
equal one dollar of silver. And thus the monetary unrest and 
uncertainty grew worse and worse. Hence but little was under- 
taken at the March meeting. They adjourned to April 20 ; and 
then, though paper had lost a tenth of its value in one month, 
they cut down the highway appropriation one-third ; and of that 

Voted Three Days Work of Each man to be Worked out at y« Centor 
for preparing for a meeting house. 


At this meeting a vote was taken to lay out a certain road, 
which as a curious specimen is here given : — 

Voted that there be a Boad Laid out from a Rock in the River as it 
is Now Markt or as Near as the Ground Will allow To the West Branch 
To the most Convinent place for a Bridge Running out to the other 

Of course that is plain to every one ! In 1779, there wei-e six 
town meetings, which shows the disturbed condition of affairs. 
The most important of these was called for Sept. 20. On 
assembling, they chose Samuel Gregg moderator, and adjourned 
to Oct. 4. The principal object of this meeting was to regulate 
the values of produce, or, as the warrant has it, " To See if the 
Town Will Ohuse a Committee To make a Regulation of prisses." 
They chose Benjamin Gregg, James McAllister, and Daniel 
McFarland a " Committee for to Set Upon the Vigitabels that is 
to be Sold in Said Town." " Yoted that Sam' Gregg be one to 
Assist s'^ Committee : " and surely if ever a difficult task was 
allotted to three men, this was such a case, especially as they 
" Voted that any person Taking any more for aney Article that 
the above committee has Stated forfits that Article or the price 
of Said Article and all charges arrising Thereon ; " and still more 
especially as they " Voted that sai'^ commit Shall Bring "Such 
offenders To punishment." Then after voting that the " Select- 
men Give Instruction " to our " Delegate to Represen us in 
Cort," they adjourned to the first Monday in November. It will 
be noticed that though our fathers were fighting for freedom, 
they ruled severely. Their intent was to prevent extortion and 
extravagant prices, but their steps were exceedingly arbitrary 
and futile. But little is known as to the details of the plan, 
only that it. proved a failure, and prices were soon left to regulate 
themselves. They were not the only men that have attempted 
to make a dollar's worth go for eighty-five cents, or eighty-five 
cents' worth go for a dollar ; but experience everywhere eventually 
enforces the conclusion that prices hinge upon demand and supply, 
not being subject to arbitrary decisions. 

In the fall of 1779 the proprietors and absentees again 
attempted resistance to the non-resident tax, and this time 
carried the matter into the legislature of the State. In that 
body, after some debate and delay, they got a decision in their 
favor this much : — 

Nov. 9, 1779, Voted to forbid the Selectmen of Antrim from Selling 


land of non-residents for Taxes until further order of the General As- 

Soon after receiving this order a town meeti'.ig was called for 
Dec. 14, 1779, to " See What Meathod the Town will agree upon 
to obtain Redress of Their Grievances." As the times were 
then, and as the noh-residents were so many, their failure to pay 
would bring a greater burden on the settlers than it would be 
now to double our taxes. At the present time, our western 
pioneers for new roads and improvements issue bonds, or in 
some other way borrow money, but our fathers paid for every- 
thing when they got it, and did without until they could pay. 
Hence, as they were paying and doing all that men could already, 
the non-resident resistance brought serious ^trotible upon them. 
Therefore, when they met Dec. 14, they voted to send a petition 
to the general court setting forth their circumstances, and 
"Voted that Lieut. Tho^ Nichols Carries y^ ab° petition." 

Then they called a meeting for Jan. 24, 1780, " To her Cap'. 
Nichols Report from Court," and " To hear a petition Read 
With the order of Court thereon Which the proprietors have 
Laid into the General Court against the Town of Antrim." At 
this meeting they " Voted that John Duncan Esqr. go Down to 
Court To answer against the proprietors petition," and " Voted 
that Cap'. Nichols Go to Court to Assist Squir Duncan." This 
matter was pressed in the assembly the following March. Prob- 
ably other towns might have had the same interest there. But 
a compromise was at length decided upon by the legislature, 
and they voted, March 9, 1780, " That the unimproved lands of 
non-residents within this State shall be subject to be taxed to the 
State Taxes, Continental Taxes, War taxes. County Taxes & not 
otherwise." The question of taxing "located lands," — i. e., 
lands purchased, partly cleared, but on to which the owner had 
not yet moved, was referred on the above day to a " Committee 
of both houses." They reported an act, which was passed 
March 16, but the text of it I am not able to find. But, after 
this, non-residents were taxed for everything . except town 
expenses. But the proprietors were not pleased with this result. 
A few months after, an article was in the warrant to petition 
them for " one hundred Aicres of Land for a Settlement for a 
minister ; " but they seem to have concluded it was no use to 
ask for favors, and therefore they " Voted that Daniel Miltimore 
Shall Go to Portsmouth and Purchase a Lot of Land from Esqr. 


Jafre as Low as Possible." Or perhaps they were getting their 
backs up, in regular Scotch style, and did not wish for any 
favors from that source. 

There are but little data for further remarks on events in 
Antrim up to March meeting in 1780. By this meeting conti- 
nental paper had gone down so far that it took 137.36 of it to 
purchase a silver dollar, and silver could not be had in Antrim 
even at that rate. They "Yoted.that Wages at hieways the 
Instant year be Nine Pounds." They also " Voted that william 
Boyd have five hundred Dollars for his Sarvice at Road island." 
By vote of the assembly, June 23, 1779, a regiment of three 
hundred men was raised in this State to defend Rhode Island 
from threatened invajsion. It is believed that Boyd was the only 
man from Antrim in this particular service. 

This year the first " Tayithing man " was chosen in this town, 
in the person of Dea. James Aiken. This office was regularly 
filled for a long series of subsequent years. The badge of office 
was a stick a yard long tipped with brass or pewter. The busi- 
ness of the incumbent was to keep order in i-eligious meetings, 
and see that the Sabbath was strictly observed, and to stop 
travel on the Lord's day. This was a religious office, and often 
the best men in town were elected to it, though in after years 
the religious was not always the chief distinction about it. It is 
^related that a man from Stoddard was going home one Sabbath 
afternoon, and, in passing by the Daniel Swett house, was 
arrested for traveling on the Lord's day. But the Stoddard 
man was short of corn, and the tithing-man had corn to sell ; so 
said tithing-man, after duly admonishing the guilty footman of 
the wickedness of traveling on the Sabbath, sold him a bushel of 
corn, gave him something to drink, and at sunset let him go on ! 
The year 1780, like the two preceding years, was liard for the 
new town of Antrim. There was a steady but slow increase of 
population, but scarcely any increase of wealth. War expenses 
weighed very heavily on the people. Men, women, and children 
had to struggle to get a living even of the plainest kind. No 
votes or town transactions of account to the present reader, are 
put on record. The year 1780 is noted rather for extreme cold, 
and for the " Dark Day," so far as it has any special importance 
in the traditions that have come down to us. The winter of 
1779-80 has a place of note as the " Hard Winter." Dr. 
Whiton tells us that water did not drop from the eaves in any 


place for six weeks. For most of the winter snow was five feet 
deep on a level. The only communication was by means of 
snow-shoes. Roads were out of the question. Boston harbor 
was frozen hard enough for a sleigh-ride on it, according to 
report. People could not go to mill, and, after their stock of 
meal was used up, they lived for weeks on boiled corn and vari- 
ous broths. Wood was drawn on hand-sleds most of the winter, 
it being impossible to move a team. It is related that one lad 
and his little sister, their father being in the army, drew wood 
in this way for the family all winter. Having no boots, they 
sewed rags round their feet and saturated them with neat's-foot 
oil to keep from freezing, and then sallied forth into the woods. 
Old stockings, thus saturated, were called proof against frost. 
As evidence that the reports of cold and snow were not greatly 
exaggerated, the Journal of the New Hampshire Legislature, 
March 8, 1780, contains a " Resolve to enable the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas in the County of Hillsborough to take up and finish 
sundry matters pending at said Court at their next term, the 
last term being lost by reason of the stormy weather." In some of 
these deep snows arid blows ordinary log houses were entirely 
covered out of sight. In one place in New Hampshire, nearly a 
month after a great storm, a flock of one hundred sheep were 
dug out of a snow-bank that was sixteen feet deep above their 
ba;cks, most of them being dead, the few alive having subsisted 
by eating the wool off the dead ! 

In such a winter the privation and solitude of these few scat- 
tered' settlers must have been oppressive. It was a rare thing to 
see a neighbor's face. Bach family was shut up by itself. Even 
the larger places, like Boston and Portsmoutli, were thoroughly 
blockaded with snow. In those families where the husband and 
father was in the army, the long winter must have been desolate 
in the extreme ! With all our winter comforts and social enjoy- 
ments, we are in no condition to appreciate what was endured 
by the founders of our institutions. 

Following this severe and long winter came the celebrated 
" Dark Day," May 19, 1780. I take the liberty to copy such 
statements about it as have fallen under my eye. For several 
days previous the air was full of smoky vapors, as if fires had 
been' burning in the woods, the sun and moon appearing red and 
somewhat obscured. The early morning of May 19 was cloudy 
and showery and cool, with some thunder and lightning. But 


about ten o'clock, when the artisans were busy in the shop and 
mill, the women spinning and weaving, and the farmers hurrying 
with their spring work in the field, it began to grow dark. The 
wild birds screamed and flew to their nests, — the hens went to 
their roosts, — the cattle came up, uttering strange cries-, to their 
stalls, — the sheep, bleating Wofully, huddled under the fences, 
— the buds and small leaves on the trees were colored almost to 
an indigo blue, — robins and blue-birds flew into the houses as 
if they sought the protection of man, — the rain that soon fol- 
lowed was full of a substance like burnt vegetable matter, form- 
ing a scum, with smell of soot, over everything, collecting on the 
Merrimack river here and there to the depth of half a foot, — 
and this strange darkness increased until by noon people had to 
light candles to eat their dinners by ! Lights were seen in 
every window, and, out-of-doors, people carried torches to light 
their steps. Everything took a different color from what it had 
by sunlight, and consequently the strange reflections of the 
torch-lights were in keeping with the marvelous and changed 
appearance of everything. Hosts of people believed the end of 
the world had begun to come ; men dropped on their knees to 
pray in the field ; many ran to their neighbors to confess wrongs 
and ask forgiveness ; multitudes rushed into the meeting-houses 
in towns where they had such, where pious and aged ministers, 
pleading repentance, interceded with God in their behalf; and 
everywhere throughout this day of wonder and alarm, the once 
careless thought of their sins and of their Maker ! At this time 
the legislature of Connecticut was in session, and when the 
growing darkness became so deep that at mid-day they could 
not see each other, most of them were so alarmed as to be unfit 
for service. At this juncture Mr. Davenport arose and said : — 

Mr. Speaker, it is either the day of Judgment or it is not. If it is not, 
there is no need of adjourning. If it is, I desire to .be found doing my 
duty. I move that candles be brought, and that we proceed to business. 

The darkness somewhat increased all day, and before time of 
sunset was so intense that no object whatever could be dis- 
tinguished. Anxiously and tremblingly people waited for the 
full moon to rise at nine o'clock, and even little children with 
strained eyes sat silently watching for its beautiful beams to 
appear. But they were disappointed, the darkness being unaf- 
fected by the moon. The most feeling prayers ever prayed in 


Antrim were at the family altars that night. Children never had 
more tender blessing than these mothers gave them that night. 
They slept soundly for the most part, but the parents chiefly sat 
up all night to wait and see if the glorious sun would rise again. 
Never dawned a lovelier morning than that 20th of May ! 
Never were hearts more thankful on the earth ! Even thought- 
less people praised God ! So much were the whole population 
affected by this event, that, at the succeeding March meeting, 
the town voted, March 9, 1781, to keep the next 19th of May as 
a day of fasting and prayer. 

The dgirkness was greatest in northern Massachusetts and 
southern New Hampshire. It covered New England more or 
less, was noticed on the Hudson river, but was not thought of 
farther south and west. As to causes and explanations of this 
event, a high authority says : — 

The Dark Day in North America was one of those wonderful phe- 
nomena of ilature which will always" be read of with interest, but which 
philosophy is at a loss to explain. 

The year 1781 finds the people in much financial distress. 
Paper had gone so low that it required seventy-five dollars of it 
to purchase one dollar of silver. In the border towns like 
Antrim, the people were distressed to pay their taxes. Tuesday, 
March 13, 1781, they " Voted Esqr. Duncan go to meet a 
Cometee from Hancock [and] Bearing and Draw a Demon- 
strance," and " Voted James Aiken and Thomas Stuart be a 
Commettee to give Capt. alcock instruction." So great were the 
war expenses, and so poor were the people, that even an article 
in the warrant to call a minister was " adjourned till the town 
Receive instruction from Coart." And yet in their great dis- 
tress they " Voted Mrs. Mary Dickey be freed of Reats," and 
that " Chopt Down wood Shall pay a tax equal to wild Land and 
no more." They would not tax the widow of the dead soldier, 
nor would they tax the scanty beginnings and improvements of 
soldiers then at the front. This financial pressure explains the 
action of the town at a subsequent meeting, Friday, June 1,1781. 
This was convened to " Chuse a man to Send to Concord to the 
Convention for forming a Plan of Government," and " To See if 
the town will agree upon aney method to provide their Supply of 
Beef for the army." Antrim then had " fifty famihes or more," 
as the order for election sent out by the assembly read as fol- 
lows : — 


That such Towns & places as contain more than Fifty families be 
directed (if they see fit) to send one member for every fifty families, pro- 
vided that each Town, Parish or place so sending, shall pay their own 
members for their time & expense. 

This our townsmen were too poor to do, and they " Voted that 
we Send no man to Concord." 

This year (1781) the distinguished -office of hog-reeve was 
instituted in Antrim. The name is from the old English reve, 
and is as honorable as shire-reeve, or sheriff. The first holders 
of this office in town were Randall Alexander and Nathan 
Taylor. It was the custom, as now in many countries, to let 
hogs run loose. Little squads of these comely and interesting 
quadrupeds might be met with anywhere. They were not con- 
sidered very desirable guests in corn-fields and gardens. Now 
the duties of this officer were to go about town occasionally, or 
upon complaint, to catch all loose hogs, " yoke " them so they 
couldn't go through fences, and " ring " them so they couldn't 
" root," and collect fees for the same from the owner. We are 
left somewhat in the dark as to the -methods of procedure, the 
time required to " run down a hog," or the issue if the emaciate 
candidate for the pork-barrel took to the woods, and if it became 
the fortune of bruin to " hug the pig " instead of the honorable 
official of the town ; but certain it is that the office was judged 
important enough to be filled by serious and dignified election 
for a long series of years. But in process of time fences were 
completed, and swine were inclosed in pens as now. The office 
then had no duties connected with it, and the custom arose of 
electing newly-married people to this office, on the ground, prob- 
ably, that such persons were not capable of discharging any 
duty. Regularly, since about 1800, men who had just been 
entangled in the bondage of matrimony have been thus honored 
by their townsmen. And this promotion never has been 
opposed. And this is the only office a few ever had ! Sweet 
rescue from oblivion ! 

At a town meeting at Samuel Gregg's, Aug. 20, 1781, called 
among other things " To See what Instruction the town will 
give their Selectmen about assessing money to Purchase the 
Supply of Beef for the Army & to Pay the Remainder of the 
towns Depts as the Currancy failing will not Pay it," it was 
" Voted that beef and back rearagea occationed by the depretia- 
tion of our paper currency be Sessed in hard money." This 


shows their inflexible loyalty in hardship and trial. And as 
most of them had no money, it was " Voted that a bushel of 
Corn brought in Shall pay equal to a hard dollar." 

They also voted (though there was nothing about it in the 
warrant) that " Capt. Nichols and Ja^ Steele be a Committee to 
go to Dearing Selectmen and demand a road from Deering to 
this Town," — from which it appears that there was no commu- 
nication with that town except by way of Hillsborough. 

Adjourning till Saturday, Aug. 25, they " Voted that the town 
be classed in eight Divisions to clear up Samuel Densmores fell 
wood," thus showing their continued determination to share in 
the sacrifice those in the field were making. 

A curious vote is put on record in 1781, which was as follows: 
" Voted that the Comitee Chuse a man to assist Esqr. Beetiu, 
[perhaps Patten] with the Pillion." The pillion was a soft pad, 
or cushion, extending back from the saddle, on which it was 
customary for a woman to ride. To bounce the solid ladies on 
to this pillion was perhaps too much for the worthy captain 
alone ; or it may be that other's were more than willing to 
render him aid. It was not fair that one man should monop- 
olize this noble work. 

Having on petition (1778) been granted land for a burial- 
place, but failing to get land for a common, Samuel Gregg, then 
in good circumstances, came forward, bought the land known as 
,the "Old Common," and presented it to the town. This seems 
to have taken place in 1779, and in that year and 1780 much 
was done to clear up this land. At the town meeting, Aug. 22, 
1780, an article was in the warrant "To See what the Town will 
do with the improvement at the Center." As no record is made 
of any vote on this article, it is probable, as Dr. Whiton has it, 
that they all " volunteered " a day's work, and finished up the 
clearing of burial-ground and common. In 1782 this burial- 
ground was inclosed by a neat log fence, but 1781 was probably 
the year of the first burial on the hill. This being the first sum- 
mer after the ground was fixed upon and cleared and burned, 
they made haste to remove thither some of the bodies of the 
children previously buried on the Whitney place. The first 
death of a white adult in Antrim was that of Asa Merrill, who 
was kiiled by a fall in Dea. Aiken's mill, some time in the year 
1781. He was from Hudson, and it is not known whether his 
body was buried on the hill, or removed to ttat town. 


The year 1782 opens with a town meeting, which for a long 
time occurred almost as often, if not as regularly, as a club meet- 
ing, or that of brokers' board. The convention of 1781 having 
prepared a " Systim of laws or Plan of Government," it was sent 
down to the towns for acceptance. Jan. 8, 1782, the citizens of 
Antrim met at Samuel Gregg's, and having chosen Capt. Thomas 
Nichols moderator, they selected a committee of five, viz., James 
Aiken, Capt. Nichols, John Duncan, Thomas Stuart, and Daniel 
Nichols, " To inspect the Systim of laws or Plan of Government 
Proposed and to make proposals for some amendment," and then 
adjourned till Friday, Jan. 11. But at this adjourned meeting 
the record shows no action concerning the constitution, and after 
some talk about local matters, they " Voted this meeting is 

It may not be out of place here to say that there had been a 
previous convention, which met at Concord, June 10, 1778, to 
form a constitution. In this convention, Henniker, Hillsborough, 
Antrim, etc., were represented by Isaac Andrews, who was 
chosen representative also to the assembly near the close of the 
same year, although Antrim, by itself, " Voted that Wee Do 
Not Send a Deleaget." The constitution which they framed was 
voted upon in 1779, and was rejected by the people. The con- 
stitution of 1781 was framed by a small convention, many towns 
like Antrim not sending. And the House of Representatives 
voted, Jan. 10, 1782, to recommend to the convention to adjourn, 
and " in the mean tinie to issue precepts to the Towns & places 
not represented in said Convention to send Delegates thereto." 
But of this second call for delegates Antrim seems to have taken 
no notice. The constitution of 1781 was rejected by the people 
in January, 1782. The convention, having adjourned till August, 
sent out another constitution in the fall of 1782, which also was 
rejected. Then the convention adjourned till June, 1783, when 
they proceeded to draft a third constitution, and this last effort 
the people approved. Our town voted, March 11, 1783, " The 
present form of Government To Stand as it is Till June Eighty 
four." And when the constitution of 1783 was sent out for 
approval, they '• Voted to Not Act." But in the State at large 
it was adopted, and for several years was the supreme law in 
this commonwealth. By it, this territory, formerly caljed by 
various names, as colony, province, and so on, and in regard to 
which it had been voted, Sept. 10, 1776, "That this Colony 


Assume the Name & Style of New Hampshire," was forever to 
be known as the State op New Hampshire. In common remark 
this is known as the constitution of 1784, as it did not go into 
operation till June of that year. The convention which formed 
it was a remarkable one, having been in existence nearly two 
and one-half years, and having had seven sessions, some of them 
at great length. 

A town meeting was called on " the last monday of January" 
to choose a juryman, and James Steele has the honor of first rep- 
resenting Antrim in that position. For many years we have 
records of little town meetings to choose men for jury, — a very 
laborious and expensive way of selecting men for this duty. By 
it, however, they may have secured better men than by the 
present system. 

At the annual meeting, March 12, 1782, this being the third 
town meeting of the year, Randall Alexander was chosen con- 
stable. For many years the constable was one of the most 
important officers in town, it being his duty to keep the peace, 
and, within the town, to discharge those duties now usually per- 
formed by the sheriff. He was also collector of taxes ; but 
whether this was a part of his office, or was annually voted to 
him on accession to said office, does not appear by anything dis- 
coverable in the records of any town, so far as I know. This 
office had been filled successively by such men as James Duncan, 
Joseph Boyd, and Daniel Nichols. The first remuneration 
noticed for the work of a collector was the following, April 2, 
1782 : " Voted Six Bushels of Corn to the Constable for y" 
present Years Service." Bach man was expected to perform 
this service when his lot came, as appears from the record : 
" Voted that Jam^ Nasmith Serving as Colector Shall Serve for 
him as his Turn for Constable." Randall Alexander having 
asked to be excused from serving, the town voted, at an adjourned 
meeting, April 2, 1782, to excuse him, "he giving the Town 
Secqurity for seven Dollars the old Way Equeal to Corn at 
Three Shillings p' Bushel." Then, having previously tried to 
have John Smith take the office, they chose Richard McAllister, 
but, apparently at the request of the latter, they " Voted Thom' 
English be Constable the Service Being for Richard Mcallestor 
Excepted by the Town." Thus this office that went a-begging 
was at last fixed in the hands of English. Perhaps, as the State 
had assessed a tax on " unimproved lands of non-residents," 


there was an unwillingness to discharge this extra and outside 
trust. The appointment of English, however, proved unhappy 
for the town. The State tax (penny an acre) brought too much 
money into his hands, and he absconded in the fall of 1782, 
taking two hundred dollars in silver. Probably, with their pov- 
erty and privation, that loss was as great as would be four, 
thousand. dollars to the town now. The people were struck with 
amazement and alarm. English was a smart young man, had 
been here three years, was well connected, and had the confi- 
dence of .the people. Immediately, the selectmen attached his 
land, the matter was carried into court, a town meeting was 
called for Nov. 25, 1782, and they " Voted Cap'^ Thorn'' Nichols 
be Agent To attend at Cort To Carrey on the action Comenced 
against Thom^ Englishes Estate By the Town." Nichols seems 
to have been put in possession of said estate soon after by the 
court, as we find the friends of English's much-respected wife 
and family coming forward to save her from ejectment. A town 
meeting was called for Jan. 23, 1783, to hear a proposition of 
Dea. William Moore of Bedford, father of Mrs. English, to .prevent 
execution of the order of court and " Take It out of the Law." 
Dea. Moore, now an old and venerable man (member of first 
board of elders, Bedford, in 1757), came to Antrim in midwin- 
ter for this purpose. His son, afterwards Dea. William, Jr., 
was then in the army, though a mere lad. The old man was 
known to most, or all, the people of Antrim, and held in great 
respect. This meeting was, therefore, a very sad one. They 
heard the old man through, and then " Voted The Town Has 
excepted of Deacon Mooer's Proposals in Setteling Thom" 
Englishes Affeairs as is mentioned in the Warrant S"^ Moore 
paying The "Debt." Prom this it would seem that Moore made 
up t"he deficit while the town paid the cost. At the following 
March meeting the town "Voted To Give a Deed to English s 
Wiffe and Childer." I find an old note made by me on this 
record when first seeing it years ago, which is thus: 1. Default- 
ers existed in those days. 2. Put 'em through as they did. 

But the trouble on account of English did not end here. The 
tax on wild lands, which, subsequent to the vote of March 9, 
1780, had gone to the State, had not been paid, and was resisted, 
as before, by non-resident owners. English sold many of these 
lots for taxes. They went at a very low figure, were chiefly 
bought in by the citizens, and then quit-claimed by them to 


new settlers. In other towns, ^Iso, there was constant trouble 
on account of the non-resident tax, and sometimes the State 
gave relief, as appears by many votes on the House Journal like 
the following, March 16, 1780 : " Voted to pay the selectmen of 
Francestown ^83 : 12 : 4, for taxes on land of absentees." But 
in this town the non-residents recovered their land by technical 
illegalities in the proceedings of English in selling them. As a 
consequence, the settlers who received titles through the col- 
lector, after resisting by law and paying costs, had to purchase 
their land a second time. One of these, it is believed, was 
Robert Duncan in the east part of the town, who several years 
later was sued by owners by previous title, and ultimately had 
to pay for his land a second time and at a higher rate. Many 
and probably most of the settlers between 1782 and 1787 were 
somewhat embarrassed in this way, taking their land through 
English, or through parties to whom he had sold. Being chiefly 
poor, it was a heavy load for them, and some of them were old 
men before they completed payment the last time. Thus 
English was cause of untold trouble. He did not think it best 
in subsequent years to exhibit himself in Antrim ! 

The town, however, proceeded to fulfill their part of the 
arrangement with Dea. Moore, and March 25, 1783, " Voted 
John Duncan Esqr. Go to Amherst To Settel With the Lawyers 
in Regard of Englishs With y" Town." They also chose a com- 
mittee (Capt. Nichols, James Aiken, and James Dinsmore) " to 
prefer a petition to the General Court, " — which petition we 
cannot find, and of whose purport we know nothing. It was 
supposed to have reference to the troubles with English ; but it 
may be explained possibly by a vote at a subsequent town meet- 
ing, that the " Selectmen Signe the petition in Behalf of the 
Town for a Road to Hillshorough" as if this road were what 
these several votes were about. 

We must not leave the year 1782 without saying that the 
continental paper was nearly worthless, and transactions were 
mostly in silver and grain. It is said that Rev. Jonathan Barnes, 
of Hillsborough, paid the salary of a whole year for a pig four 
weeks old, though that town subsequen;tly made up the loss to 
him. Sailors sewed the bills together in jest, and made coats of 
them for parade. Barbers papered their shops with them. For 
months, a thousand paper dollars were given for one silver dollar. 
Two hundred millions thus lost their value. This money had 


done great service, caused great inconvenience, and then quietly 
passed away. 

The year 1783 was one of public more than local interest. 
After the surrender of Cornwallis, Oct. 19, 1781, it had been the 
general feeling tljat the war would soon end. There continued 
to be some severe fighting here and there, but peace was talked 
of, and after various negotiations a treaty was signed Sept. 3, 
1783, between the English and American representatives, at 
Paris ; and the " United States of America " took its place as a 
new nation on the earth. This event was hailed on this side of 
the water with universal joy. The people of this little town had 
done wonders of sacrifice and hardship' in the public cause. As' 
they chiefly were making their settlements, building their roads, 
and meeting the sacrifices of pioneers, at the very time of the 
long public struggle, it came especially hard upon them ; and 
hardest of all upon the women of Antrim, wlio, being left with 
the care of the family, had few resources and many hardships. 
Their perils also were very great. The inhabitants of this little 
hamlet, therefore, entered into the general gladness with no lack 
of enthusiasm. All religious minds turned to God with praise. 
The " Second Thursday of December next " (1783) was set 
apart by Congress as a day of National Thanksgiving for Peace. 
The proclamation for this was issued Oct. 18, a few days after 
the reception of definite tidings of peace ; and the paper itself, 
drawn up by Elias Boudinot of New Jersey, president of Con- 
gress, is remarkable for force and beauty, and worthy a place in 
every reading-book and every school-boy's memory ! 

And now a bright era opened before the few settlers of Antrim. 
They had been extremely burdened by taxation for the war, as 
well as by service in the ranks, and hardships at home. Anxi- 
eties and perils which we cannot appreciate now, weighed upon 
them. But after the long struggle these were passed. They had ' 
met everything without flinching, their heroism was of the mar- 
velous and noble kind ; but none the less could (hey rejoice 
to be unburdened and to be free. Some citizens of this town 
were in camp, some were home on furlough, and some were 
expecting to march if cg:lled for, when the glad news came. At 
home they laid out many roads this year, and planned improve- 
ments, in the hope of peace ; but they stood to the ranks as 
though they meant war to the last, — and rejoiced like true 
heroes at its close. 


The way was now open for the more rapid increase of this 
settlement. Soldiers returning purchased lots of land, and even 
in the winter worked more or less, clearing the same and pre- 
paring to put up their log houses in the spring. Others, seeing 
hope of being delivered from the perils and costs of war, had 
courage to start a home for themselves. Truly, this was a happy 
hamlet in a happy country ! 

Previous to 1783 this town had been classed, as will be seen 
in the list of town officers, with Henniker, Hillsborough, Deering, 
and Society Land, in the choice of representative to the general 
court. But this section having increased in population, and 
Hancock being now incorporated as a town, the assembly, 
Sept. 10, 1782, " Voted that the towns of Henniker and Hills- 
boro' be coupled together, and that the precept for a. member 
of the next Court be directed to the Selectmen of Henniker; 
and that Antrim, Deering, Hancock, and Society Land be formed 
into one District and the Precept be directed to the Selectmen of 
Antrim." In accordance with this order, an election was held 
near the close of 1782, or very early in 1783, but no record of 
the meeting can be found. The town clerks of Deering and 
Hancock very kindly searched their records for me, but no trace 
of this particular meeting could be discovered. But the Journal 
' of the House renders it certain that John Duncan of Antrim 
was chosen to represent this district, and that he was in due 
season at his post. I suppose the election was held in Deering, 
as a courtesy to that older town, but that among so many town 
clerks the record was not entered in the book of either town, but 
kept on a loose paper by the clerk chosen for that special occa- 
sion. Such loose papers would readily be lost, as we have had 
more recent occasion to regret. 

In the Journal of the Assembly for this year the name John 
Duncan sometimes occurs twice on the same vote, and Dr. 
Bouton, the State historian, calls attention to this as a mistake. 
But probably Col. John Duncan of Acworth, cousin of " Hon. 
John " of Antrim, then represented Acworth and Unity, so that 
there were properly two of that name in the assembly. This 
Col. John Duncan represented Acworth and Lempster in the 
constitutional convention of 1792, and there Dr. Bouton wrongly 
applies to him some items in Dr. Whiton's biography of Hon. 
John of Antrim. 

As previously noticed, the old common and burial-ground on 


the hill had been " chopped " and " cleared " by voluntary labor, 
from time , to time, and had been burned over, but there yet 
remained a large amount of half-consumed logs. Sometime in 
1782 Dea. Aiken agreed > with the town to pile and burn what 
remained on the whole tract, and " put it into rye " and grass. 
This tract of several acres was covered in 1783 with a heavy 
growth of I'ye, and Dr. Whiton tells us that in hot midsummer 
it was all reaped in one day by Dea. Aiken " with the aid of two 
hired men and three daughters." These afterwards noble women 
were not to be beaten by any reapers in the field ! 

This year (1783) we find the first 'record of what used to be 
called " warning out of town." This, as a sample of many, and 
as a curiosity at the present time, is here given verbatim : — 

State of New Hampshire { To John "Warran 

Hillsborough ss. J Constable of Antrim 

( Greeting — 

"Whereas Samuel Steel & his Wife hath Latly Come into the Town of 
Antrim and Came last from Lyndsborough Whom the Selectmen of 
Antrim Kefuse to admit ass Inhabitants — 

This is Therefore in the Name of the Government and Peopel to 
Require you to Warn the above Named Persons to Depart out of the 
Town of antrim forthwith, and make Return of this Warrant to uss With 
your Doings hereon at or before the Twenty third Day of Ocf Nixt, and 
this Shall be your Warrant 

Given Under our hands and Seal at Antrim This Twenty Second Day 
of July A. D. 1783. 


f TYifn 

Ocf: 22: 1783 

The Within Named persons haith Been Warned according To Law 
p': John Warron Constable. 

Persons thus " warned out of town" were not obliged to leave, 
and were not known to leave on that account. But it was only 
a legal precaution, according to the law of those days, to avoid 
the support of any comers that might fall upon the town. This 
formality having been carried out and put on record, the parties 
might remain, and generally were desired to remain ; but in case 
they became a public charge, the town where they previously 
resided was held for their support. This act, therefore, was 
simply one' of pecuniary lookout, while occasionally those warned 
off became valuable and wealthy citizens. " Warning off" was 
made the duty of the selectmen ; and it must have involved both 


work and pain, to investigate every new comer, and inflict this 
warning on every man that had not money. Happily, this law 
has long since passed away. 

As the summer of 1783 wore away, it was found, as before, 
almost impossible for the people to pay their taxes in specie, 
and a town meeting was called for Sept. 19, to act on some 
State affairs, but specially " To See What the Town Will Do 
Concerning the Colector Taking Grain in pay of Reats." On 
assembling, their only action was upon this matter, and they 
" Voted to Take Rye at four Shillings p"' Bushel " and to " Take 
Corn at Three Shillings p"^ Bushel." Also " Voted Esqr. Dun- 
cans be a place to Take in y" Grain." (Not a bad idea for the 
Squire, some one says !) This of course involved cost of 
storage, receiving, and dealing out, and a sale had to be sought 
for much of it out of town, with chance for loss in many ways. 
But it was the best they could do, and they went on with this 
hard and inconvenient method, making no complaint. 

In 1784 we find the first vote for State officers, as follows: 
" Voted Thirty one Votes for M Ware for presedan of State." 
Another curious vote was this (March 15, 1784) : " Voted This 
Meeting Stand adjurned to there is a Nother Legal Meeting 
called." Also (Sept. 2, 1784) " Voted the Sixth Articl out of 
the Warrant." It was this: "To See Who the Town Will 
Think fit to free of Choping their proportion of the Wood." 
They made short work of it ! 

This year, the town, as well as the whole State, was greatly 
troubled with wolves. They came in about the settlements in 
vast numbers from the forests to the west and north, starving 
and ravenous, destroying sheep, and even attacking cattle. 
Children were in, constant danger, and it was perilous for armed 
men to travel at night. A bounty was paid by the State for 
killing wolves, but the urgency of the case was so great that the 
towns took it up, and Antrim " Voted five Dollars of a Dition to 
the Court Act For Killing of Woolves to be paid by this Town." 
It W9,s more than a year before this excitement died away, after 
which gradually these pests disappeared, never to be seen again 
here in any considerable numbers. But the annoyance and loss 
from them in the following winter (1784-85) was very great, 
that winter being very cold and long, and snow very deep. 
Often were the settlers awakened in the night by the howling of 
wolves at the door, or about the barns where their little flocks 


were sheltered. Toward sunset, when men began to hear their 
yelping in the woods or on the hills, they left work and hurried 
home. Flocks were sheltered and doors closed at dark. But, 
happily, this state of things did not long continue. 

Early in 1784 a question arose as to taxing a tract of land 
between Antrim and Stoddard. Stoddard, then being the most 
populous town in this vicinity, and wishing for the best slices, 
discovered that there was a strip on her western border not pos- 
itively claimed by the new towns adjoining. Actuated by the 
idea that this land on the west was more desirable than that on 
their east line (though at this day it is hard to see much dif- 
ference) , the people of Stoddard laid claim to the former, and 
ceased to tax a corresponding area adjoining Antrim. This last 
step was taken to avoid exceeding their charter limits. It was 
a nice little game, though it is very much to be doubted whether 
it has been for the advantage of that town. The strip of land 
disclaimed by Stoddard remained untaxed a year or more. It 
was nearly a mile wide at the south line and came to a point at 
the north, and contained about fifteen hundred acres. I cannot 
discover that it was inhabited by any one at that time. Now 
the claim of Stoddard to the land west of that town not being 
refuted, and the charter limits of Antrim extending to Stoddard,, 
it became a question whether this town should accept and tax 
that enlargement of its bounds. In the fall of 1784 a meeting 
was called to decide this. The meeting was adjourned and the 
matter talked over, but it was finally (Nov. 3) " Voted to Tax 
the Land Dissclaimed by Stodder." And this has since remained 
a part of Antrim. Probably the income from the tax of this 
wild land was very much desired, as hereinafter explained ; but 
it involved large expenditures on the part of the town, in long 
subsequent years, for roads which were of no. advantage to us. 

It will be remembered that the tax on non-residents for wild 
land had been assessed by the town and resisted by the owners, 
though compelled to pay, or lose their land by non-payment, 
until, after three or four years, the State, to avoid controversy, 
took this away from the towns and assessed it as a State war 
tax. But when the war was over, the legislature was induced 
to allow this tax of a penny an acre, within the limits of Antrim, 
to be used to help build a meeting-house. A petition of the 
people seems to have been handed in for this purpose, and much 
was due to the energy and shrewdness of our representative, 








Hon. John Duncan, of which the town showed some apprecia- 
tion in that immediately, though there was nothing in the 
warrant to that effect, they met all extra charges, as appears 
from this record (March 15, 1784) : "Voted John Duncan Bsqr. 
Three Dollars he Paid out for the Town in Geting the Land 
Tax." This tax was thus allowed by the State for three years, 
1784-85--86. Probably one-half the town was then owned by 
the Masonian proprietors at Portsmouth, and other non-residents 
held land purchased from them ; and they all paid this tax for 
the meeting-house with much reluctance and some scolding. 
But it brought in quite an amount of specie, without which the 
settlers could not have built for many years. This was kept 
separate from the town's money, and the first act upon it was 
this: " Voted Lent : Dan': Miltimor Oolect the Tax Laid on the 
Laud by the Court for one Year." And thus encouraged they 
at once proceeded to make preparations to build the following 
year, — of which a brief record may be found in the chapter on 
ecclesiastical history. The building was raised June 28, 1785. 
A drawing of it by F. L. Nay is herein given. 

The year 1785, beyond the fact that it was meeting-house 
year, and on that account memorable to the settlers, has but 
little to narrate, of interest to the present generation. Dr. 
Whiton says the spring opened with forty-three families in 
town, — his authority no doubt being the memory of some old 
person who recollected, or thought he recollected, that this was 
the number of families in town when they began to build the 
church. But this certainly could not include several who had 
made beginnings, nor any that came in 17s5. This year and 
the preceding year, or in some cases a little earlier, came Isaac 
Cochrari, William McDole, Nathan Austin, David McClure, 
Thomas Day, Thomas Jameson, Adam Dunlap, Reuben Bout- 
well, and others, so that there were constant accessions to the 

There was but one two-story house in t^wn, that of Isaac 
Cochran, raised July 12, 1785, a part of whicli is now in exist- 
ence, a few feet from the spot where, it was raised, though 
eclipsed and hidden by that which took its place in 1864. The 
other houses in town were almost entirely log houses, and small 
at that. The people were brave, hardy, hopeful, self-denying, 
ready for any good work, but poor. The house of worship 
which they set about making was, therefore, grand and rich, 


compared with the dwellings of the people. Though in respect 
to having neighbors and roads there had been great improve- 
ment in ten years, yet it was still a time of great inconveniences 
and many privations to our fathers. They had to get everything 
from their land and their flocks. Foreign goods and groceries 
were nearly unknown in most families. There was no store 
within many miles. Dr. Whiton thinks there was no store 
nearer than Amherst. But search into the records shows there 
was a store at that time (1785) in New Boston, doing a large 
business, and which had then been running more than twenty 
years. And it is scarcely credible that Peterborough, having 
then eight hundred people, had no store. But at best it was 
exceedingly difficult to get at a place of trade, and the people 
had no money to buy. 

Yet there was something delightful and beautiful in the 
society of this town's people at that day. If they had privations, 
they had them all alike. Dr. Whiton quotes the remark of a 
survivor that " Then was a time of brotherly love ; each family 
sat under its own vine, having none to molest ; no haughty 
looks or mincing steps ; no jealousy, tale-bearing, or envy, known 
in town : but as population and wealth increased, these evils 
crept in." This no doubt is spoken strongly, as old men are 
wont to speak of early scenes. Unquestionably, however, these 
pioneer families were very happy together, living in great sim- 
plicity, peace, and love. Their brotherliness and helpfulness to 
each other were deepened by their common and equal struggle 
for a living and a home. 

A curious and summary case of ousting a town officer occurs 
at this time. At the March meeting Samuel Moore was chosen 
town clerk and third selectman. But a dispute arose as to some 
money in his hands according to the " Counter's Reports," 
which money the new selectmen demanded, and he refused to 
pay over. Moore had been chairman of selectmen and town 
clerk the preceding year, and had managed affairs chiefly, it 
seems, himself, though it is not certain that he intended any 
fraud. But the people were so stirred up by the matter, that, at 
an adjourned meeting (May 5, 1785), they " Voted the Town 
reconsider the Choice of Samuel Moore for Town Clerk," and 
chose Daniel Miltimore to said office. Then " reconsidered " his 
choice as selectman and put Daniel Nichols in his place. They 
then "Voted that Lieut. Moor be CalP upon to Settle and Pay 


up the Ballance or give Security," failing of which the select- 
men were instructed to " Prossecute for the Same." Just how 
this affair was settled I have found no data to determine. But 
Moore's name appears no more among the town officers, and in 
a few years he left town. 

At this time there was renewed uneasiness in the public mind, 
occasioned by the .dearth of coin. To say nothing of incon- 
venience, it continued extremely difficult to get enough to pay 
state and county taxes, or make indispensable settlement of 
debts. Old excitements and discontents burned higher than 
ever. There was a popular craze for paper money correspond- 
ing to the greenback clamor of the present day. They wanted 
the State to issue paper, lend it to New Hampshire land-owners 
on security, and make it legal tender for all debts within our 
own State. This would be the " Continental Paper" with 
certain conditions, and probably no improvement, — paper whose 
temporary relief would again be followed by depreciation and 
consequent trouble. But still large numbers clamored for relief 
by law, as if some arbitrary legal tenders could accomplish what 
economy and persevering labor only have been able to do. This 
excitement culminated the following year in the " Shay's Rebel- 
lion " in Massachusetts, in which several thousand men, some of 
them old soldiers of the Revolution, took up arms, demanding a 
reduction of salaries and an issue of paper money. But there 
were enough level heads in New Hampshire to keep the malcon- 
tents quiet from violence for the most part, and to defeat the 
inflation scheme. It is pleasant to know that in public town 
meeting the people of Antrim, with their usual good sense, 
" Voted ' to instruct our Representative not to have Paper 

Stepping now into the next year, we find the town appropriat- 
ing its first money for school purposes, March 14, 1786, as fol- 
lows : " Voted to Raise fifteen pounds for the use of a Town 
Scool." The sparseuess and poverty of the people had hitherto 
prevented any public effort in this direction. A few children 
who came here at about the age of eight years, grew up with 
little or no schooling. But most had some privileges by way of 
private schools. Others, by earnest study, in spare hours at 
home, acquired a fair knowledge of tlie common branches. There 
was a certain strength of thinking power among the people. 
They wasted no time in trashy and frivolous reading. Having 


few books, they made the test use of them. By vigor of mind 
and strong application, they found compensation for lack of priv- 
ilege ; and were surely people of intelligence, as well as virtue 
and religion. In the chapter on schools more may be found 
upon this subject, showing the continued interest of the town in 
the education of its children. 

March 3, 1786, the legislature of the Stateordered a " return 
of all the inhabitants " to be made by the selectmen of each town, 
under penalty, if neglected, of the " sum of five pounds." Until 
recently, this census was unknown for half a century. The 
original returns were discovered in an old box of papers in the 
attic of the state-house, and first saw the light in a publication 
by Dr. Bouton,in 1877. The population of the State then was 
95,801. There were five counties ; in order of population, Rock- 
ingham, Hillsborougli, Cheshire, Strafford, and Grafton. Con- 
cord, then returned as " Gunthwaite, " was in Grafton county, 
and had 152 inhabitants. The number of towns returned was 
138, averaging 691 persons each for the whole State; while by 
the census of 1870, there were 239 towns, and an average popu- 
lation of 1,337 each. The, document for this town is as follows: 

A Eeturn of the iSTumber of Souls in the town of Antrim County of 
Hilsborough taken in April last and found to be two hundred and Eighty 
nine p'ns. 


289 Souls. JONATHAN J^ESMITH [■ Selectmen 


Antrim June 5, 1786. 

It will be interesting to know that at that time the popu- 
lation of Hancock was 291; Society Land, returned by Alexan- 
der Parker and Isaac Butterfield, 157 ; Bedford, 785 ; Amherst, 
1,912; Temple, 701; Peterborough, 824; and Stoddard, 563; 
while Nashua (Dunstable) had but 554. It will be noticed that 
several of these towns had a greater population in 1786 than in 
1870. And it may be added, though anticipating, that the pop- 
ulation of Antrim by the census of 1790, four years later, was 
528, with nearly 90 families ; showing for those four years a 
more rapid increase than in any other period of our town's exist- 
ence. There was also a corresponding increase of conveniences 
and of wealth. 

This year the town lost one of its most valuable citizens, by an 
accident in shingling the meeting-house. The staging gave way, 


and with it James and Samuel Dinsmore fell to the ground. 
The latter was but little injured ; but James Dinsmore's back 
was broken, and he lived but three or four hours. He never 
spoke after the fall. He was a carpenter, chairman of the select- 
men in 1783, at the age of twenty-nine, and only thirty-two at 
his death. This accident filled the whole settlement with uni- 
versal and unaffected gloom. No such occasion for mourning had 
been known in Antrim before. Very properly they engraved 
upon his burial-stone these lines : — 

" The rising morning can't assure 
Tiiat we shall end the Day; 
Eor Death stands ready at the Door 
To sieze our Lives away ! " 

Dr. Whiton advances some doubts as to the time when Antrim 
was first represented in the legislature, fixing, however, on the 
fact that John Duncan represented this town and others adjacent 
in 1787, and perhaps earlier. But, upon search of the Journal 
of the House and other documents, I find that John Duncan was 
chosen for this district in 1783, as will be seen on a preceding 
page, and also in the list of town officers ; T^hile Society Land, 
including Antrim, was represented as early as there were people 
here to represent. Capt. Joseph Symonds of Hillsborough repre- 
sented Henniker, Hillsborough, and Society Land, in 1776, the 
year before our incorporation. Prom 1788 to 1797, inclusive, John 
Duncan represented the district, it is believed. This was a new 
district, consisting of Deering, Antrim, and Hancock, which so 
remained till 1795, when Antrim and Windsor were classed to- 
gether. At a meeting of the voters of Antrim and Windsor (then 
called Campbell's Gore), at the house of James Wallace (now 
William Stacy's), March 21, 1797,. John Duncan was again chosen 
representative, as also in 1795, and probably in 1796. But being 
elected to the senate, he resigned ; and a second meeting was 
called at James Wallace's, which, Aug. 28, 1797, elected Dea. 
Jonathan Nesmith to represent the district. This union with 
Windsor lasted but one year, as Antrim had voters enough of her 
own in 1798, and always since that day has been entitled to one 

As indicated by the census of this year (1786), slavery in 
New Hampshire was nearly extinct.. Subsequent law made it 
entirely so ; but it was in the nature of the constitution of 1784 
to abolish slavery, as shown by its opening sentence : " All men 


are born equally free and independent." Slavery never had any 
legal establishment in this State. After the establishment of the 
above-named constitution, it was looked upon as dead. A few 
slaves were held subsequently, yet apparently not by force, but by 
the choice and for the good of these persons. It has been said that 
slavery was abolished in New Hampshire in 1810, at which time 
the census found no slaves in the State ; but it was certainly abol- 
ished so far as property in slaves was concerned, by the tax-law 
passed Feb. 8, 1789, which, in furtherance of the principles of the 
state constitution, " expunged male and female servants " from the 
lists of taxable property. The number of slaves in this State in 
1775 was 657 ; in 1790, 158 ; in 1800, 8 ; in 1810, 0. Slavery was 
never recognized in any way by legislation in New Hampshire, 
subsequently to Feb. 8, 1789. Strictly speaking, therefore, there 
never was a slave in this town. Manly Ransom, named else- 
where, and often spoken of as a slave, coming to New Hampshire 
was really no longer property, — though the servant of Mr. 
Moore, and of Dr. Adams. These men were not taxed for him 
as for a horse or a yoke of oxen. The census of 1786 makes 
return of servants, for the most part, not as slaves, but as " those 
bound to service for a term of years." 

A severe tempest passed over the east 'part of Antrim in 1786, 
similar to one which swept through the valley of Bast Sullivan 
in 1875. The writer saw the path of the latter a few days after 
its occurrence. A swath some ten rods wide was cut through 
the woods, and every tree, small and great, uprooted. In An- 
trim, 1786, the ruin was not so great, but many trees were blown 
down. It passed with terrible force through the valley at the 
foot of the McCoy hill, north of the Robert Duncan place. Hugh. 
Jameson buried a babe that day, and the procession, following 
the then only road to the Center, by Hiram Comb's and George 
Turner's, had just got down the hill into the woods when the 
fierce wind struck them, and trees began to writhe and snap and 
fall. The mourners on horseback fled in terror back to McCoy's 
with all possible speed. The bearers, being on foot, ran with the 
corpse through storm and wind, and dared not stop till they 
reached Mr. Cochran's. There they waited till the tempest was 
over, when the frightened mourners followed, clearing the way ; 
and when they came up, the procession again moved on, and they 
buried the unnamed little one without further trouble ! Hun- 
dreds of trees were blown down in Antrim that day. In the 


valley a few rods east of Mr. Gove's, and some distance south- 
ward of the present Center, half the timber was leveled with the 
ground ! Its force was greater in the valleys than on the hills. 

It seems pretty certain that the first store in Antrim was 
opened in the spring of 1788, or earlier, by Ebenezer Kimball, 
on the spot now occupied by the Carter house. Dr. Whi ton's 
History says it was in 1789; but in his Half-century Sermon, 
published in 1838, he says the store was opened in 1787. 
Kimball came here in- 1787, prepared his place, and opened his 
trade as soon as he could. The people of Antrim, in their first 
years here, went to Londonderry sometimes to trade, sometimes 
to Amherst, but generally to New Boston. It was no unusual 
thing for the women of this town to take the linen cloth they 
had manufactured, go to New Boston on horseback, exchange 
the same for goods or money, and return the same day, — and 
not much of a day's work it seemed to them ! Prancestown had 
a store about two years before Antrim. The following year 
(1789), James Wallace opened a store on the William Stacy 
farm on the hill west of Branch village, and this was the place 
where subsequently several town meetings were held in connec- 
tion with the Windsor people. These two stores accommodated 
the people several years, and until the population was greater, 
pj;obably, than at the present day. Merchants had but little 
competition in that day, and made large profits on their limited 

The year 1788 was long cherished as the time of the organiza- 
tion of the church. Referring the reader to the chapter on 
churches, I will only say here that the town acted in legal meet- 
ing, March 11, and appointed a committee to apply to the pres- 
bytery for the establishment of a church here ; and that many 
church affairs were managed by the town in public and legal 
meeting. Rev. Walter Little was settled, as also was Dr. 
Whiton, on the call of the town; and the town chose committees 
to present the call in each case. The minister was paid out of 
the town treasury as regularly as any town officer, and he was 
called " the town's minister ! " This course made the burden 
come equally upon all. And it was satisfactory to all, inasmuch 
as they were all substantially of one opinion. 

The first town meeting held in the meeting-house was 
Sept. 16, 1786, though it was only a frame partly covered. 
They had met several years previous at Samuel Gregg's (Dea. 


Newman place at the Center), and there again, being cold 
weather, they held their March meeting in 1786. But, subse- 
quent to this, town meetings were held in the meeting-house on 
the hill for about fifty years. It is suggestive of the brogue of 
our fathers that they chose each year a " Town Clark." Most 
of the hard spelHng in the old records results from an obvious 
effort to put the brogue into English, rather than from igno- 
rance. The Cutious may find pleasure in tracing this. , 

In February of this year (1788), a convention was called to 
act upon the new constitution proposed for the United States. 
The small States being jealous of the large ones, and all of them 
unwjUing to delegate much power to the general government, it 
was a long time before the body which framed that great instru- 
ment could reach an agreement. But at length it was attained, 
and the constitution was sent to the several States to be ratified 
or rejected. Strong opposition was made to it in every State ; 
but ten States soon accepted it, and it went into force in 1788. 
New Hampshire was one of the States that were prompt to 
accept the constitution^ In our convention, Hancock, Antrim, 
and Deering were represented by Evan Dow, believed to be of 
Deering, who voted in the negative, as did also Cochrane of 
New Boston, Bixby of Prancestown, and most other representa- 
tives from this section of the State. The final vote to ratify was 
June 21, 1788, and stood fifty-seven yeas to forty-seven nays. 

At a town meeting Dec. 15, 1788, the first vote of this town 
was cast for member of Congress and presidential electors. 
Thirty-six was the highest number of votes cast, it being a small 
meeting and very quiet, — apparently all one way. 

This year we find on the record the first instance of " selling 
the poor," as it was called. It was customary to sell the support 
of paupers to the lowest bidder. Philip Riley, the first settler, 
was poor, and had been supported chiefly by his son-in-law, 
Michael Cochlan, the town freeing said Cochlan from taxes. At 
times Philip "boarded round," the people taking turns to keep 
him along. March 25, 1788, the town "Voted the Selectmen 
provide Sutable apperil for Phillip Reley." But in May follow- 
ing, pending the decision of referees as to the obligation of the 
town to support him, the town " Voted that mr. Raley be Struck 
of to the Lowest bider," and he was immediately " struck off" 
to Lt. Thomas Stuart " as Long as he Concludes to Stay." We 
have no means of knowing what the decision of the referees 


was. The town subsequently " Voted Mr. Rely to be kept oyer 
the town when & as Proportioned," yet he soon went off among 
his relatives and died with them. 

There is a curious item in the record of 1788, thus : " Voted 
to give m"^ Anssworth 24 y'^^ of Linning Such as the Selectmen 
will approve." The writer is not able to reach any satisfactory 
explanation of this vote. 

There is another curious item at the meeting March 9, 1790. 
They met at the meeting-house, but it was a cold, rough day, 
there was no glass in the windows, and they " adjourn" on 
account of accommidetion to the house of Ensign Benj° Gregg 
immediatly." Arriving there, they continued Daniel Miltimore 
in his office of town clerk, but, as he was absent, they chose 
Arthur Nesmith '' Cle7-k Protemperary." 

At all these meetings a g'i-eat deal of business was transacted 
vital to them, but unimportant for history. The records indicate 
the dispatch of much such business. March 8, 1791, after a long 
session of several hours, they " adjourned to Mr. Caldwells for 
fifteen minutes." This being one-fourth of a mile off, fifteen 
minutes would not do for dinner, hut would answer tolerably well 
for a drink! Tliat this last was probably the object in view is 
further indicated by the effect on the town clerk, who makes 
this record when he gets back to the place of meeting : " Met 
according to adjournment and eeazssumbd the meeting ! " 

Aug. 8, 1791, the voters of Hancock, Bearing, and Antrim 
met at Ebenezer Kimball's (now Carter hpuse), and chose 
Daniel Nichols delegate to the •' Convention of 1792," as it has 
been called. This convention had several sessions, as. its first 
efforts were not all accepted by the people. The voters of 
Antrim, however, by two-thirds vote, accepted all the articles 
gave one, which concerned a court of equity. Other amend- 
ments were then sent out, which were adopted in the whole 
State by a small vote. On these, the vote in Antrim was eight 
for, and none against. Then the convention met Sept. 5, accord- 
ing to adjournment, and the new constitution, being adopted in 
all its parts, was declared to be " The Civil Constitution of the 
State," at Concord, Sept 6, 1792. 

In March, 1791, James Nesmith was chosen town clerk, which 
office he held for twenty-seven consecutive years, — until too old 
to discharge its duties. He was a good penman, and competent 
every way, but was specially kept in that position because of his 


efficiency in the publication of marriages. He had a voice of 
tremendous power, and yelled out just as tliey heard the close of 
Mr. Whiton's gentle '■ amen," and his tones rolled high over the 
succeeding clatter of heavy feet and slamming' of falling seats. 
It was said, that, notwithstanding his age, they never would have 
consented to his leaving the office, but for a legal disqualification 
by loss of his real estate. 

A meeting was called for Nov. 5, 1793, to choose " one Person 
Duly Qualified to serve as a petit Juror at the next inferior court 
of common pleas to be holden at Hopkinton." We are not told 
exactly why this was an " inferior " court, but certainly, in the 
person of James Steel, Jr., Antrim sent no '■'■inferior" man to 
attend upon it. 

March 28, 1793, meeting of Hancock and Antrim was held at 
Bbenezer Kimball's, and John Duncan was again chosen repre- 

In 1793 the distinguished office of " Dog-Pelter " was insti- 
tuted in this town, Hon. John Duncan, Samuel Dinsmore, James 
McAllis'ter, and Dea. Joseph Boyd being elected to tliat respon- 
sible position. The dut^ of this officer was to sit near the door 
with a cudgel, and lay it on to every dog which attempted to 
enter the church. Sometimes these officers were armed with a 
long staff having an iron point, or hook, at the end, to be used 
in severe cases. It is related that one dog-pelter struck the 
hook into the back of a rebellious cur, and swung him, howling, 
over his shoulder. This would be very interesting to the audi- 
dence and helpful to religion, of course. An occasional wake-up 
in the process of a two-hour sermon would 'certainly have its 
uses. As a great many babies were then carried to church, it 
may be supposed that small noises were not noticed. Perhaps 
our modern looking round at the step of a slipper, or the rustle 
of silk, or the snore of some restful saint, may be taken as a 
mark of our too great fastidiousness as to silence in church. 

It will be observed that some of the most responsible men in 
town were promoted to this office. The salary is not mentioned. 
But these men were willing to remain in the office year after 
year, as the annual record is, " Voted to continue the old Dog 
pelters." The fact that these men's pews were near the doors, 
may account, in part, for tlieir annual election to this office of 
trust and honor. Dogs were plenty, every farmer having one 
or more. They made considerable disturbance in church, with a 


dog-fight in the aisles at any time possible, and various uncleanly 
demonstrations at the corners of the pews. To prevent these 
insupportable trials, dog-pelters were first chosen. But the 
object of silence was scarcely attained, since often all business 
had to stop through a tremendous howling, till the officers 
cleared the aisles. One person remembers seeing Samuel Dins- 
more, who sat with a heavy cane leaning over his pew by the 
west porch, when a big dog came in and proposed to stop a 
minute at his pew-door, strike him a blow that sent him, with 
inconceivable yells and howls, clear up to the pulpit. The audi- 
ence were all waked up ! 

It was a custom, for many years, to sell at auction the collec- 
tion of taxes to the lowest bidder. This commenced in March, 
1792, when they " Voted to vendue Constableship & Collector's 
together," these offices being then united. These were " struck 
off to David McClure at eleven Dollars." Of course the pur- 
chaser had to give " a bondsman whom the Selectmen will accept." 

As far back as 1786 there arose a dispute about a certain lot 
of land " Laid out for a School lot," and action is put on record 
in regard to it, as follows : Aug. 16, 1787, " Voted not to give 
up our former grant of the lot of Land Laid out East of the 
Meetinghouse for a town Privilege." ' 

Monday, June 22, 1789, "Voted Esqr. Duncan & Deacon 
Cochran be a Oomete to treat with Daniel Miltimor, James 
McGregor, John Hunter, John Miltimor in Respect to the Cen- 
ter Lot," these men being " Owners of the Jeffrey Right of Land 
by virtue of Jeffreys Deed." 

At a legal meeting held by the Inhabitants & freeholders of Antrim 
in the County of Hillsboro' State of New Hampshire on the 22'' Day of 
April Setting forth' in the forth Article of the Warrant Something to be 
Done Concerning the Center Lot, as there has been several Dissputes 
which has arisen betwixt Cap' Danl Miltimor & Some indiveduals in S* 
Antrim Bespecting S^ Lot who shall hold it & whereas Some persons of 
Late have proposed To Commence A Law Suit Against S'' Miltimor on 
account he purchessed it from the Mesonian Proprietors We therefore, 
the Subscribers Hereof Do Utterly protesst against all Such unneeces- 
sary sutts of Law which may rise from Such Disputes and May be hurt- 
full to the Town in General — 

Eitchard M^alisster Arthur Nesmith Michail George 

Tobias Butler John Mcalisster Semiou George 

Dan' Miltimor John Karr Kobt Gregg 

James Nesmith Alexander M"Doel John Stuart 

Thomas Patch William Holms Samuel Patten 

Alexander Jameson William Bodwell. 


March 12, 1793, " Yoted Daniel Nichols be requested to 
survey the land which the town had from Samuel Gregg and 
Cap* Daniel Miltimore." 

It seems that a tract of land between Benjamin Gregg and 
Samuel Christie, and extending from the old road eastward one- 
quarter of a mile or more, had been granted to the town for 
school purposes, — but without deed. This the Masonians sub- 
sequently deeded to Daniel Miltimore and others for a consid- 
eration. Then followed the question of ownership ; and after 
several years, it seems to have been compromised, — the town 
taking part of the laud, and hiring it surveyed, as indicated by 
the above vote. The other land referred to was given by 
Samuel Gregg to the town, constituted the " old common," was 
known among the old people as the "parade," and when, on 
removal of the church, and town-house forty years later, this was 
sold by the town, the avails were returned to " Blind Lettice," 
the aged daughter of Samuel Gregg. 

In 1794 considerable was done by way of repairing the ceme- 
tery on the hill. The wooden fence which had been put round 
it at first was in a decayed and fallen state, and the town voted, 
at the March meeting, to " fence the grave yard with a good 
Stone wall four feet four inches high and a timber of eight 
inches on the top." At an adjourned meeting, March 25, they 
voted to dispense with the timber, and have simply a wall of 
stone five feet high, and proceeded to sell the building of it at 
once. The east side was built by Samuel Christie ; the south 
by William Brown ; the west by David McOlure ; and the north 
by " Lt. Macfarland." Most of this wall stands in good condi- 
tion after the lapse of eighty-five years. 

In May, 1794, there was a remarkable frost, killing almost 
every green thing. Dr. Whiton says it was June 17. But, as 
this was fourteen years before he came to town, and probably 
fifty years before he wrote, I think we must rely upoii the 
evidence which puts it a month earlier. The following entry 
-appears in the diary of Dea. Isaac Cochran : — 

1794 May IS"" A Remarkable Hard frost on Saturday the 17* wass 
a very heavy gale of wind, from the norwest, and extreme Cold. On 
the morning of the Eighteenth, the water in tubs wass froze, one inch 
thick, and watter Emptied out of a tar kittle, on the ground, Condenced 
into ice, as fasst as it Struck the ground; and the wheat, Barley, oats,- 
and flax, wass intirely Cut oflf ; and Rye iu general wass very much dam- 
aged, and in many plaisse totaly Cut off. 


Fruit that year was entirely destroyed. No mention is made 
of any damage to corn, which would have been very serious 
had such a frost occurred oji the 17th of June. 

March 26, 1795, a meeting was held at James Wallace's store 
(Stacy's) to choose a representative to the " General Court to 
be held at Hanover on the first Wednesday of June next ; " and 
John Duncan was chosen, as usual. He must have been in the 
legislature, one branch or the other, as much as twenty years. 

In 1795, there was again a call for military action. The rela- 
tion of America to England had never been very cordial, and 
the constant disturbances between Prance and England made 
trouble for us. In 1794 a treaty was made with England, which, 
though somewhat unfavorable to us, was on the whole beneficial 
for many years. But Prance was in such a state of violence and 
rashness as almost to involve the United States in war with their 
old ally. Ambassadors were sent over from this country, but 
they would not receive them. Some of them went so far as to 
intimate that if America would pay tribute money to France, it 
would be taken as a sufficient satisfaction by that country ; to 
which Charles C. Pinckney of South Carolina replied : " Millions 
for defense, not a cent for tribute." Things went on from worse 
to worse until Napoleon came into power. There were some dis- 
turbing elements in this country also. It was in the process of this 
excitement that a meeting was called in Antrim, April 9, 1795, 
" To See What Method the town Will take to raise their propor- 
tion of minute-men called for from this town." A trained army 
subject to call at any moment was the object of this plan. This 
town " Voted the term for which the minutemen are enlisted be 
two years ; " they voted to " make up the minutemen's wages to 
ten dollars per month " exclusive of clothing, and then pro- 
ceeded to enlist men for their quota. Further than this, the town 
records do not show. 

March 22, 1796, the town " Voted the Selectmen be empow- 
ered to appoint a Day, and to clean the parade and Set up Some 
horse blocks." There not being a carriage of any kind in town, 
and riding altogether on horseback, these blocks were needed to 
assist old men and boys and women in mounting the horse. 
These were set up in convenient places near the steps and round 
the common, and then the horses were led up to them. The 
mounting of matrons and fair damsels at the close of service was 
quite an affair. There was room for agility and politeness both. 


And then, slowly, the long procession of horses moved like a car- 
avan down the hill. I have heard old people say that the head 
of the procession, two or three horses abreast, reached Mr. 
Whiton's (Bass place) before the last horse started from the 
church. Sometimes the blocks for mounting had one or two 
steps up, for the special advantage of tlie aged. I well remem- 
ber the old chestnut horse-block at my father's door, an enormous 
thing that had lain there a hundred years, and after all that 
decay was large and heavy. 

The year 1797, like the preceding, has but little to chronicle in 
this place. March 21, a meeting of Antrim and Windsor was held 
at James Wallace's store (Stacy's now), to choose a representa- 
tive to the general court at Portsmouth, and John Duncan was 
chosen, as before. At the same place a meeting was called to 
assemble Aug. 28, to vote for congressmen ; and another separate 
meeting was called at the same place and on the same day, to 
elect a representative in place of John Duncan, who had been 
elected to the senate. Probably the laws i-equired that national 
and state elections should be separate, as they ought to be. 
The first meeting was called at two o'clock, p. m., the other at 
three. Woodbury Lang received all the votes for representative 
to Congress. Then adjourning, the other meeting was organized 
immediately, and they chose Dea. Jonathan Nesmith representa- 
tive to the state legislature. This was the last meeting of An- 
trim with any other town. 

In 1798 it was found that Antrim had voters eiiough for a 
representative of its own, the number required by the consti- 
tution of 1792 being one hundred and fifty. This indicates a 
constant increase of population in the preceding years. Dea. 
Jonathan Nesmith was chosen representative, the first the town 
had by itself ; and the subsequent list may be found in the chap- 
ter on town officers. 

At the annual meeting March 13, 1798, " Voted to choose the 
Selectmen by pricking-." This was probably to save time, as they 
had no printed votes In recent years it has been customary, 
in caucus aud elsewhere, to suggest several names, write them in 
one column, on pasteboard, and then pass the pasteboard for every 
man to mark against which name he preferred. It is supposed 
a sheet of paper, with eight or ten names on it, was passed for 
every man to prick with a pin against the name he preferred, 
the one having the most pin-holes to be first selectman, the one 


having the next highest number to be second selectman, and the 
next the thii"d. Tliis certainly was a novel way to elect town 
officers ; but it is supposable that they voted fast and with free- 
dom from the party whip. At any rate, most of the old officers 
were thrown overboard. Perhaps this would not be a bad method 
of election at the present day — especially if the pin might 
be used occasionally upon the candidate himself ! 

In 179^, a company having been formed to build a turnpike 
from Claremont to Amherst, they asked permission to pass 
through this town ; and a meeting was called, Nov. 18 of that 
year, " To See if it is agreeable to the Inhabitants of the town to 
have a turnpike road established from Cornish to Amherst." 
Upon this, " Voted the town have no objection." This road was 
constructed chiefly the following year, cutting across the eastern 
edge of the town. It was called the '• Second New Hampshire 
turnpike." It was completed and stages were put upon it in 
1801 (" the first that had visited Antrim ") ; and at once there 
was a great stream of travel over it to Boston. Business was 
thus drawn to the east part of the town, and travel diverted from 
the old line through the Center. In the following year William 
Barnes put up the great three-story tavern on the turnpike, and 
subsequently a store was opened near by. Thus it looked as if 
the extreme east of the town were to be the principal place of 
business. But the turnpike was built over hills and away from 
villages, as though it were more an object to go in a direct line 
than on an easy road ; it was calculated for the accommodation 
of interested parties, rather than the public, in some cases ; and" 
its tolls were so burdensome, that, in the process of time, other 
roads were built on better ground, which, being free, seriously 
affected the travel and income of the turnpike. For twenty-five 
years there was an enormous amount of travel over it, chiefly of 
the heavier sort, — teams of all kinds in long procession, laden 
with farm products and timber going to Boston, or loaded with 
store goods and rum in return. But as, by competition and 
expense of supporting it, the income of the turnpike dwindled 
down, the proprietors threw it upon the care of the towns through 
which it passed, and it became a free road. The gates were 
taken down, or were left to rot down. They were about eight 
miles apart. When the turnpike was in its prime, a toll-keeper 
was stationed at each. gate. There were two gates in Frances- 
town ; one where the New Boston road branched off, and one at 


the Gibson place. Another toll-gate was at Hillsborough Upper 
Village. The charge for passing a toll-gate was eight cents. At 
a proper bed-time, all the gates were closed ; the heavy bolts 
were locked ; and woe to the young gentleman that was out late 
with his father's team ! 

The year 1800 is memorable for the terrible scourge of dysen- 
tery that swept a great number of children into the grave. It 
was a summer terribly dry and hot, — spoken of as one of great 
physical suffering for every one, on account of heat. The first 
death by dysentery was July 23 ; and the last fatal case, it is 
believed, occurred on the 23d of September. 

The following item in the " Village Messenger" of Amherst, 
Sept. 30, 1800, gives sortie idea of this great fatality : — 


Funerals from the 23'i of July to 17* of Aug. 16 

" " 17'" Aug. to 24* of Aug. 19 

" 24"' of Aug. to 31=' of Aug. 9 

" " 1 Sept. to 7''' of Sept. 7 

" " 7"' to 10"" 4 

" " 10*" to 23'i . 10 

All but 3 of dysentery. 65 

Prom this it will be seen there were nineteen funerals one 
week in August. For two months there was hardly a day with- 
out a funeral in town, and some days there were four or five. 
These were mostly children, but not all. The following appears 
in the " Village Messenger," Sept. 27, 1800 : — 

In Antrim, Sept. 20, of dysentery, Mrs. Mary Duncan, wife of the Hon. 
John Duncan. She was benevolent and friendly, and in particular useful 
amongst her own sex in the hour of distress. 

Quite a number of families lost all their children. It was a 
time of intense mourning among the motbers of Israel. Seven 
persons died in the year from other diseases, making four besides 
those numbered above, and sixty-nine in all, — nearly one 
fifteenth of the whole population. Other towns suffered at the 
same time with Antrim. Probably more than fifty of those little 
graves on the hill, in 1800, are now unmarked, and forgotten 
by the living. 

It was in the midst of this terrible sorrow that the town set- 
tled its first minister. The town^voted him a call more than a 
year previous ; but tliere was some opposition and no enthusiasm, 


and much delay : but in the summer of this terrible year their 
need of a' minister was so great, and the work they required of 
Mr. Little put them under so much obligation to him, that they 
hurried up the work of ordination. Many cherished objections 
to him, but made no opposition. They may have thought there 
was a judgment upon them for failing of a pastor so long. The 
day of ordination was one of sadness, and under a baptism of 
tears, the like of which seldom has opened a minister's career. 

The census of 1800 gave Antrim a population of 1,059. Dr. 
Whiton thinks the census was taken in the fall of the year, and 
reached the above figure notwithstanding the loss of numbers by 
death. The inhabitants had doubled since 1790 ; and in all 
outward features the town had vastly improved. Let Dr. Whiton, 
who always speaks a little better than any other, add here : — 

This period was marked by a happy progress in relation to buildings, 
fences, roads, cultivation, and the increase of the comforts of life. Nearly 
all the log houses of former days gave place to more commodious framed 
buildings. The rude household furniture of the first settlers began to be 
succeeded by articles more convenient and ornamental. The bean por- 
ridge, the hasty-pudding, the brown-bread-and-milk, — the staple articles 
of former diet, — yielded the field quite generally to tea and cofiee. 

The year 1801 began with a small political tempest in town. 
There had been a terrible struggle between France and England ; 
and a terrible revolution in France, with an aim toward liberty, 
perhaps, but with fatal result. A strong party had grown up in 
this country, that sympathized with the aims of the French 
Revolution, and they were called Republicans, subsequently Dem- 
ocrats. These were opposed to a strong central government, 
talked about having the people rule, and advanced the doctrine 
of State Rights. Their opponents were called Federalists. These 
last had always prevailed without opposition in Antrim, hitherto. 
But after peace with France was restored (1800), removing the 
apprehension of war, the new party received additional strength. 
Some severe and offensive acts of the Adams administration, 
subsequently referred to as " the first Adamses reign of terror," 
had resulted in the election of Jefferson to the Presidency in the 
fall of 1800. These things were talked over during the winter, 
and at the following meeting, March 10, 1801, a large majority 
were of the new, or Democratic, party. The old officers were all 
removed ; and the new set, under the leadership of Hon. Jacob 
Tuttle, took possession of the town. From this time, for about 


half a century, the " Democratic party retained ascendency in 
this place by large and decisive majorities." 

As an example of the economy of the times, the following 
item may appear (March 16, 1801) : " Voted M"^ Pairbank take 
the care of the meeting house for one Dollar and Seventy five 
Cents." Yet at the same time they voted a " gallon of rum for 
the vendueing of the great bridge," and " three gallons of rum 
for the use of the men who work on the road near Stoddard." 

This year, the Baldwin bridge, which, never having been thor- 
oughly built, had always been a source of trouble, was so out of 
repair as to occasion much outcry and risk. The matter was 
delayed because of the unwillingness of this town to build the 
whole bridge. At length its condition became so serious that a 
special meeting was called, June 11, 1801, and the town " Voted 
Cap' Hopkins M"^ Balden and Lt. Sterrett be a committee To 
treat with the Society [now Bennington] respecting building 
the bridge." -And this committee were instructed " to Inform 
them if they refuse to build one hal-f of the bridge, that eyery 
thing in the power of the town will be done to compel them to 
it." It is supposed they quietly conceded to build their half, as 
nothing more appears concerning the matter. This would be 
inferred from the fact, that, soon after, the town, in good nature, 
" Voted to spend forty dollars to Causaway the Intervail between 
Mr. Baldwin's and the Bridge." Since then, one-half of said 
bridge has been maintained by Antrim, and often the town has 
had occasion to " causaway " that interval. 

In the year 1802 very little occurred, to be mentioned in this 
place. A vote was passed to repair the graveyard fence, and 
the work was intrusted to Samuel Christie. This was the third 
time within twenty-five years that this fence was set in order, — 
showing the deep interest of the fathers in that spot. All the 
surroundings were very humble, but kept neat and in good order. 

The previous year the depredations of crows had been so 
great, that, at the following March meeting, this town, like 
many others, offered a' bounty for their extinction, putting it at 
" one shilling for an old one and 6 pence for a young one." 
Under this rule the boys made rapid work with these black 
pests. In these early years the towns often assumed the matter 
of bounties ; but more recently the State has had control of such 
things, though it must be admitted that the town was ahead in 
knowing what was wanted, and in common sense in pursuit of it. 


This year (1802), William Barnes put up the "Great Three 
Story Tavern," on the turnpike. It attracted considerable 
attention, as being by far the largest building of the kind in this 
section, and probably destined to influence the direction of busi- 
ness for the whole town. The only village, then, being on Meet- 
ing-House Hill, and very small, there seemed to be nothing to 
prevent the drift of things eastward. Roads were soon called 
for from other parts of the town to the turnpike. Some short 
pieces were built. The " Big Tavern " had its day. Mr. 
Whiton occasionally went there to preach. But, after all, it 
does not appear that there was much money in it ; it changed 
hands occasionally, and at length was burned, JFeb. 1, 1818. 
Likewise, the turnpike store was not a good investment ; and, 
after the fire, .business no more drifted to that part of the town. 

In 1803, and for several successive years, John Duncan, Isaac 
Baldwin, Samuel Dinsmore, Joseph Boyd, Alexander Thompson, 
and Jacob Tuttle were chosen dog-pelters. -The annual eleva- 
tion of some of the best men in town to this office, indicates that 
it was a position of some importance. Or, possibly, it may have 
been deemed prudent to dignify the office by means of the men. 
At any rate, these men accepted the trust, and no doubt dis- 
charged its obligations faithfully, as before stated. 

Oct. 4, 1804, Eev. Walter (Little) Fullerton was dismissed 
from his pastorate. In the chapter on churches further notice 
of this event will appear, and it is barely stated here, inasmuch 
as the business was all done by the town in public town meet- 
ing. Some of these votes strike us as very peculiar now. For 
more than fifty years, the votes on church matters are as much 
a part of the town record, and about as frequent, as votes on 
highways, or on raising money. 

A remarkable snow-storm came Oct. 7, 1804, covering the 
ground, in this town, more than a foot deep with snow. People 
had only begun harvesting. Mr. Whiton says of it : " The 
greater part of the potatoes and apples were buried under the 
snow. In the open fields it gradually melted and disappeared, 
but in some cold spots, secluded from the sun, the drifts lay till 
the next spring." This indicates a very cold and early winter, 
compared with anything we have now. It seems certain that 
the removal of forests, and other causes, have produced a change 
of seasons, in a hundred years, very marked and favorable. In 
proof of the same, it may be said, that, April 19, 1807, at the 


funeral of Dr. Cleaves, snow was so deep as to make it very diffi- 
cult to carry the body to the grave, and that the doctor got his 
death by traveling on snow-shoes, to see his patients, in the mid- 
dle of April. 

The years 1804-8 were prosperous ones for the town. They 
had preaching, but no pastor, until the" settlement of John M. 
Whiton, Sept. 28, 1808. It is proper to say here that the 
" town " took great pains to prepare for this day. Ministers 
being settled for life, such events occurred but once in a gen- 
eration. People came for many miles, and in great numbers, to 
witness the solemn and unusual scene. A legal town meeting 
was called more than two months beforehand, and in the middle 
of " haying-time," for the sole purpose of arranging for the 
ordination. Of this meeting, Mark Woodbury was moderator. 

Voted Dea. Isaac Cochran, Dea. Jonathan Nesmith, John Duncan 
Esqr., Capt. James Hopkins and Mr. Isaac Balden be a committee to 
make all necessary provisions for ordination day. 

Voted D" Arthur Nesmith, Ensign Asahel Cram and M'^ Abr"" M°Mel 
be a committee to regulate the music. 

Voted Col. M^Cluer be Marshal of the Day on Said ordination Day. 

Voted Capt. Jameson, Capt. Worthley, Lt. Tuttle, Lt. Nesmith, 
Ensign Bell and Ensign Gregg be a committee to keep regulation in and 
about the Meeting-house on Said ordination Day. 

Voted the Selectmen See to proping the Meeting-house and fixing the 

In accordance with these faithful and earnest preparations, 
the vast gathering of people from this and the adjoining towns, 
and the "hundreds of strangers" from abroad, were provided 
for to an extent " far exceeding the demands." The great and 
free hospitality of the fathers has been kept up. Antrim always 
was generous, and always did love to feed and honor her guests. 

It was about this time that Mark Woodbury bought out the 
" Jeffi-ey Right." He had been collector, and had advertised 
the non-resident taxes, as appears by the Amherst paper of 
October, 1800, and subsequent dates, and it occurred to him that 
ho might make a good thing by buying up this advertised land. 
He advertised nine hundred and forty-four acres in one lot "on 
the west end of Great Right No. 6," which seems to have been 
near Stoddard line. The " Jeffrey Right " was what remained 
of the original wild lands of the Masonian proprietors, and con- 
sisted of thousands of acres of woodland in Antrim, Deering, 
Hancock, and Bennington, — i. e., the various tracts in the 


original Society Land remaining unsold to settlers. This land 
was variously situated, and, in many cases, of uncertain bounds. 
Woodbury bought them out, and, it was said, at a low figure, as 
they did not realize that they had much left here, and he subse- 
quently sold to various parties as he could. Woodbury met 
Benjamin Bullard of Bennington* at Goodell's lower mill, and 
laid claim to all said Bullard's land, which he had occupied 
many years. It may be presumed that Woodbury did it by way 
of a joke ; but Bullard snatched up a sled-stake, in desperate 
earnest, and drove him out of the mill-yard. That claim was 
not prosecuted any further. 

From 1804 onward a number of years, there was but little 
political interest in town, if we may judge from the votes. As 
the families were large, the number of voters was less to the 
same population than now. But there must haye been 225 
voters in town, or more. Yet, in 1806, there were only 36 votes 
cast for representative to Congress ; in 1808, only 121; for Presi- 
dent, 1808, only 127; in 1810 the votes for congressmen were 
120; in 1812 the number increased to 213; and the next year 
the vote for governor was 241. 

Until 1811, collector and constable of the town were always 
united in the same person ; but, at the March meeting that year, 
John Taylor was chosen collector and Bzekiel Paige constable, 
and these offices have since been held separately. The audit- 
ors were then called " town counters." 

For many years the town " voted Dea. Jonathan Nesmith find 
a pound and be poundkeeper." It was very common then to 
" pound " cattle, a custom now gone to disuse. Dea. Nesmith 
used his barn for this purpose. At one time Samuel Fairbanks 
sued the town because they had no pound, and, after considera- 
ble litigation, he lost his case ; but the town, soon after, took 
measures to build a pound, which resulted in the erection of the 
now dilapidated structure above the Center. The law case was 
closed up in 1818. The present pound was built in 1817, and 
the office of pound-keeper, so long held by Dea. Nesmith, was 
passed over, in March, 1818, to Asahel Cram, living near the 
new structure. 

In the winter of '1811-12, the spotted fever broke out in 
Antrim, — the most fatal scourge that ever swept over the town. 
It had been a time of unusually cold winters and unhealthy sum- 
mers for about three years. The winter Of 1809-10 was very 


severe, Jan. 19, 1810, being the celebrated " Cold Friday." 
There was no snow that winter till Feb. 20 ; but the cold was 
almost intolerable, and many persons perished from cold in all 
parts of New England. Then followed a summer of much sick- 
ness among children, and there were many deaths in Antrim 
among the young. In the following year, 1811, there was con- 
siderable sickness, but few deaths. Again, the winter of 1811-12 
was one of great length and severity. Dec. 25, 1811, William 
McClary was frozen to death. Snow was very deep. Dr. 
Whiton's diary says that "snow fell a foot deep in May, 1812." 
In the midst of this long and terrible winter came the spotted 
fever. The first case occurred Feb. 7, 1812, the first subject 
being a child of Samuel Weeks, then for a short time living on 
the Dea. Shattuck place. This child recovered. On the follow- 
ing day, Robert Nesmith, child of Dea. Jonathan, was taken, 
and lived but a few hours. This first victim died Feb. 9, 1812. 
Then cases followed rapidly in all parts of the town. Dea. Nes- 
mith's child died on Sunday, and was buried the following day. 
The next death was that of Mrs. Daniel Paige, sick only a little 
over half a day. Persons would be taken with a violent head- 
ache, or, as in the case of Mrs. Abraham McNiel, with a pain in 
the little finger, or in some other strange way, and, in severe 
cases, the victim usually died in less than twelve hours. There 
were two hundred cases and forty deaths, in two months. 
Everybody wore mourning till the deaths became so numerous it 
was impossible to provide mourning apparel. It was hard to 
find well persons enough to take care of the sick. At many 
times there were two or three funerals per day, and on one day 
there were four funerals and four processions up the hard, 
snowy road to the cemetery on the hill. Sometimes they threw 
a little snow and dirt over the coffin, and then left the grave 
unfilled till spring. All ages were taken, from sixty years 
down to the infant of days. Daniel Nichols, Esq., surveyor, 
deacon, and nine years selectman, fell a victim. None were 
attacked by it who were over sixty years of age. The "Cab- 
inet " at Amherst printed reports from Antrim mournful indeed, 
week after week. These reports bear the mark of Mr. Whiton's 
hand. For ten weeks all work was suspended except what was 
absolutely necessary, and people gave their attention to the care 
of the sick and the burial of the dead. As this was a new dis- 
ease, physicians did not know how to manage it, and most of 


them adopted the roasting process. This they carried to such 
an extreme that many were actually roasted to (Jeath. Families 
held themselves ready to apply the roasting or sweating process, 
at a moment's warning, night or day. With hot bricks, hot 
stones, hot blocks of wood, hot rooms, hot drinks, and piles of 
clothes, the poor creature, burning with fever, was roasted out of 
the world. But, after many deaths, experience and the " sober 
second thought " .brought about a more merciful^ and successful 
treatment. Houses were kept lighted all night, and for more 
than a month there was one body, or more, awaiting burial all 
the time. But, as the spring- advanced, the disease took a 
milder form, and entirely ceased about the middle of April. In 
other towns this scourtie was felt. In Acworth there were fifty- 
three deaths, and many latal cases occurred far and near. In 
some towns the disease returned in milder form when cold 
weather came again, but not here ; and it is not known that 
there has been a case among us since that lamentable winter. 

June 18, 1812, Congress declared war against England. This 
was approved by a very large majority of the people of Antrim ; 
and many citizens of this town took part in the struggle, as will 
be seen in the chapter on military matters. The war lasted 
about three years ; all the way there was considerable opposition 
to it ; the celebrated " Hartford Convention " was called to 
oppose the prolongation of the war ; there was no little excite- 
ment in this town ; and when, therefore, tidings of peace came 
in February, 1815, the people here turned out, in disregard of 
party lines, for a meeting of mutual congratulation. The treaty 
of peace was signed Dec. 24, 1814. The last conflict of the war 
was the battle of New Orleans, when Jackson gained his great 
victory, Jan. 8, 1815, two weeks after peace was declared. 
But there were no telegraphs then ! 

It was in the course of the war that the Antrimites j'aised an 
enormous liberty-pole on the top of Meeting-House Hill. The 
day was July 4, 1813. It was cut on Dea.. Boyd's land just 
south of Clinton Village, was drawn up by eighteen yoke of oxen 
(one pair for each State in the Union), and raised with great 
ceremonies, speaking, and shouting, by a vast assembly. It was 
a great day for the men and boys. Alas ! but few remain tu tell 
the memories of tliat day. The big pole went down in the gale 
of 1818. 

March 9, 1813, a record is as follows : " Voted Alexander 


Witherspoon, James Jameson, James Campbell, and all others 
of the newly-married men be hog-reeves." So far as the record 
goes, this is the first indication of tlie transfer of this office to 
this unfortmiate class of men, as a body. 

As a sample of votes on the subject for many years, the fol- 
lowing is given, under date of March 11, 1817 : " Thomas Day 
strack off to Charles Gates at 98 cts. per week, he to be fur- 
nished with suitable victuals, Drink, lodging and Tobacco." 
" Drink" and " tobacco " begin with capitals, it will be noticed. 
But this selling was not so hard as it might seem, inasmuch as 
the selectmen looked after the treatment of the poor, and they 
were kept in our own town, and looked upon by the people with 
kindness and pity. 

It may be of service to some to know that the capital of the 
State was fixed at Concord in 1816. The various legislatures 
had assembled at Portsmouth, Exeter, Hanover, Concord, and 
Hopkinton previous to this date. The latter place made a strug- 
gle, hard and long, for the honor, but in vain. 

The " Amherst Cabinet," August, 1816, has the following: — 

Fire! The barn, shed, and outhouses of Mr. James Dunlap of Antrim 
were consumed on the 26"^ of July last, together with all his farming 
utensils contained in them, with about three tons of hay, 80 pounds of 
wool and 100 pounds of flax. In consequence of his heavy loss the in- 
habitants met on the following Monday, and prepared timber for a frame 
and raised him a barn 40 by 50 feet, underpinned, and .boarded a third 
part of it in 30 laboring hours ! And on the 2* inst. it was completed for 
receiving and saving bis crops. 

Sept. 25, 1815, a terrible wind swept over the northern part 
of Massachusetts and southern part of New Hampshire, making 
great havoc of buildings and orchards The damage in Antrim 
was mostly to the timber, a great amount of it being blown down. 
East of South Village there was a second growth extending to 
the river, covering a large ti-act, over which were scattered per- 
haps a hundred old hemlocks rising above the new growth. 
Clark Hopkins, then a small lad, says he lay on his bed that 
afternoon and saw the old trees go down, one after another, 
till all were gone. 

The year 1816 used to be called by old people " Poverty Year," 
and sometimes " Mackerel Year." It was a cold, frosty season so 
that corn would not ripen, and farmers had little to fatten stock 
with, and hence were compelled to live largely on fish, there 
being then no great storehouse of corn in the West. Now, if a 


frost should cut off the whole corn crop of New Hampshire, it 
would not sensibly affect the price. Then, farmers lived on 
what they raised themselves. Their crops of English grain, 
however, were very good in 1816, and sufficient to prevent star- 
vation. I remember hearing my father tell about two inches of 
snow and great suffering from cold, on the eleventh of June. It 
was with difficulty that ripe corn enough was matured for seed 
on the following year. That also was a cold and unproductive 

March 10, 1818, the town " Voted that the Selectmen inlarge 
the Graveyard the present Season to the West as far as the 
towns Land runs." It seems, that, in accordance with this vote, 
about half an acre was added on the west, being that part which 
is not so full of graves. The old part is literally packed with 
the dead. 

The summer of 1819 was remarkable to the people of Antrim 
for the number of thunder-showers that passed, over the town. 
This fact is suggestive to those who think every season they live 
through to be the " strangest season they ever saw," and are 
always finding some fearful omens, as if remarkable seasons 
never occurred before ! Yet the world has stood through several 
such. I have heard travelers and boarders say that " showers 
generally went round Antrim." My observation for twelve 
years leads me to have some belief in this. But in 1819 show- 
ers were numerous and violent here. There were many weeks 
in the summer that had a violent shower every day. Mr. Whiton 
tells lis that " buildings were set on fire and many persons killed 
by lightning," throughout New England. The only building 
damaged in Antrim was the house of Dea. Josiah Duncan ; but 
crops were injured, and damaged hay-was plenty. It is believed 
to be in the course of this marvelous summer that the old church 
on the hill was struck by lightning. Mr. Whiton speaks of it 
thus : — 

It was a time of bright sunshine, after a sprinkle of rain, a little after 
noon; but a single cloud, and that small, being visible. The flash was 
vivid and the report violent, but soon over; no other thunder clap it is 
J)elieved wa^ heard that day. The electric fluid entered the roof directly 
over the pulpit, being attracted by the large bar of iron by which the 
canopy, that old-fashioned appendage of ancient meeting-houses, was 
suspended over the stand of the minister. It set the cauopy on flre, and, 
flames began to burst forth, when the people in the vicinity arrived in 
season to extinguish them. 


Some parts-near the pulpit were much blackened and shat- 
tered, but the damage on the whole was not great. 

In 1820 the town's poor were ten in number in a population of 
thirteen hundred and thirty. The following year there were six 
only ; and the town voted the " Poor be sot up as last year." 

For a long time there had been a little sectional feeling in An- 
trim, as divided by Meeting-House Hill. Intercourse between 
the two parts of the towB was only by the road over the summit, 
and therefore was very limited. In winter it was difficult, and 
at times even perilous, to travel from the south to the north part 
of the town. The old church and the annual town meeting 
were all, except the memories of the past, that held the town's 
people together. Hence, after long talk, it was determined to 
build a road round the west side of the hill. This was laid out ' 
in 1820. Tlie vote, March 14 of that year, was as follows: " To 
have the Selectmen to Lay out the road from near the Pound to 
Nathan Pierces old place," — now Luther Campbell's. This was 
difficult to build, and was not finished till 1822. At that time 
there was no building of any kind from Lemuel Page's (New- 
man place at the Center) to Luther Campbell's. 

This road being completed, travel was almost entirely diverted 
from the hill. The location of the meeting-house, in a beautiful 
and sacred place, glorious in summer, favorable as being midway 
in point of distance, and hallowed with memories, was neverthe- 
less unfortunate in being on a high hill-top, hard of access, 
especially in the storms and drifts of winter. The subject of 
building a new meeting-house was talked over in earnest All 
were agreed that something must be done ; few could unite on 
any one thing. Nor was it strange, considering the geography 
of the town and the location of its inhabitants, that this 
embarrassment should arise. South Village was not large 
enough then to be of special promise, and nobody seems to have 
thought of building there. Meetings for consultation were held. 
Finally a town meeting was held, Feb. 4, 1823, to take action as 
to building a new house, or removing the old one to " some con- 
venient place near the Center of the Town." This seems to 
have been a full meeting. Jacob Tuttle was moderator. They 
voted not to remove the old house ; to take measures toward 
building a new house ; and the first question being that of 
location, they chose a committee of one from each school dis- 
trict in town to " point out a spot to set a meeting house." This 


committee consisted of Eps Burnliam, Amos Parmenter, Jacob . 
Tuttle, Samuel Steel, Robert Carr, Boyd Hopkins, Dimoiid Dodge, 
John Worthley, Samuel Fletcher, John Symonds, and Josiah 
Duncan. No record is made of the meeting on " the first Tues- 
day of April," to which they adjourned. But the committee could 
not agree upon any location, and so reported to the town. So 
great was the diversity of interests and opinions, it was thought 
best to drop the subject for the time ; and it was never brought 
up \n legal meeting again. Yet this was not the last action of 
the town, in its corporate capacity, concerning religious matters. 
For, a society of individuals having been formed, and the pres- 
ent church built by them, as will be seen in the proper chapter, 
the town voted in legal meeting (Amos Parmenter, moderator), 
Nov. 27, 1826,— 

To have the Preaching discontinued at the old Meeting House, Yeas 
149, nays 24. Voted to have the Bev. Jolm M. Whiten hereafter officiate 
in the New Central Meeting House by Yeas 128, nays, 15. Voted that 
Mr. Whiton Preach an Apropriate Farewell Sermon in the old Meeting 
House next Sunday in the forenoon, and take Possession of the New 
Central Meeting House in the afternoon. 

Also they refused to let Mr. Whiton " preach in the New East 
Meeting House" by yeas 34, nays 126. This was the last action 
of the town in church matters, except that they annually voted 
the salary of Mr. Whiton, so that he drew his pay like any 
servant of the town. This continued until the March meeting 
of 1836, when the article in the warrant being " To see how 
much money tlie Town will raise for Salary of Rev. John M. 
Whiton," the town voted to dismiss .the a,rticle. And with 
that vote terminated the long-continued connection between the 
town and the church. 

The year 1826 is spoken of by the old people as " Grasshopper 
Year." ,The summer was one of great and long-continued 
drought, and by August the grasshoppers were in hosts and 
almost covered the pastures, sweeping them clean of verdure. 
Hay-crop was at least half cut off. The fields looked brown and 
dead as November, I have heard some of the older farmers tell 
how they drove the grasshoppers in between the rows of potatoes 
or corn, and then scooped them up by the bushel to feed to their 
hogs ! This year of meeting-houses and grasshoppers was at 
this time very dark. The change is best expressed in the happy 
words of Dr. Whiton : — 



On the afternoon of Aug. 28, a tremendous rain swelled the little brooks 
into raging torrents, so that by evening they were impassable, and the 
roar of foaming waters was heard in almost every direction. The autumn 
yielded an exuberant growth of grass, cold weather was late in coming, 
and the cattle found, till into December, ample supplies of food in 
the fields; happily disappointing gloomy apprehensions of distressing 

But SO great was the damage done to roads and bridges, by 
this sudden flood of water, that a tovyn meeting was called for 
Sept. 11, 1826, to " see what measures the town will take " to 
make the extensive repairs needed. They voted (George Dun- 
can, moderator) to raise an extra tax on the highways of half 
the ordinary annual tax, and to leave the heavy expenses of 
bridges to the selectmen. The loss to the town has been esti- 
mated at more than two thousand dollars in money and a vast 
amount of work. 

The first appearance on the record of any action concerning 
the sale of liquor, is a permit given by the selectmen May 25, 
1822, to Jacob Tuttle, " to sell wine, rum, gin and other spirits 
by retail, that is, in less quantities than one gallon." The agita- 
tion of the temperance question had then only begun, and the 
law was only carried to such an extent as to limit the amount of 
sale to one gallon, and prevent selling by other than licensed 
parties. These licenses were given by the selectmen, forming a 
sort of local license. This continued for several years. In 1826, 
the year of building the meeting-houses, Isaac Smith, Capt. Eob- 
ert Reed, Robert Burns, Jr., Isaac Barrett, Jacob Tuttle, Mark 
Woodbury, George Duncan, Amos Holt, and Ira Cochran (in com- 
pany with Hiram Bell) were all licensed to keep tavern and sell 
rum, — nine places in full blast in this town ! One would think 
they needed a few meeting-houses ! Surely, we have made some 
progress in fifty years ! 




The year 1827 has always been distinguished as one of great 
religious interest in Antrim. This will be noticed in another 
place, but it is proper to say here, that, after the preceding year 
of controversy and doubt about the future, the revival was one 
of the most remarkable ever known. About one hundred and 
twenty persons became Christians, one hundred and three of 
whom united with Mr. Whiton's church. Oct. 26, 1827, seven- 
teen persons in the east part of the town were formed into a 
Congregational church. With these arose conflicting denomina- 
tional sentiments, where hitherto hardly a division had .been 
known. Immediately after March meeting of this year, ninety 
men protested against being taxed for Mr. Whiton ; but under 
the revival some of these returned. Some, also, were in the 
extremes of the town, and were justly exempted. The previous 
religious oneness of the town was, however, forever broken. 

Scarcely had the church been organized before ideas previously 
entertained began to be spoken out boldly, concerning a division 
of the town. The people in the east part, having a church and a 
costly church-building, a saw-mill, grist-mill, blacksmith-shop, 
tavern, and store, with favorable location, boldly struck out to 
make it the center of .a new town, taking Society Land, the 
western part of Deering, and the eastern part of Antrim. Their 
plan was to take in the Dustin Barrett farm, the contemplated 
line running southward so as to take into the new town all east 
of Meeting-House Hill, including the poor-farm, the Whiteley 
place, and all of South Village. This was first brought before 
the town in public meeting, Nov. 3, 1828, — George Duncan 
being moderator, and the article being, " to take the Sense of the 
Voters respecting a division of the town of Antrim, as petitioned 
for by Robert Duncan and others." The town voted to dismiss 
the article. But the matter being now hard pressed by the peti- 
tioners, another town meeting was immediately called. At this 
meeting, Nov. 19, 1828, Clark Hopkins was chosen moderator. 
They then by ballot elected Isaac Baldwin the town's agent to 


oppose the petition for division. They empowered him to employ 
counsel and use all available means to prevent the dismember- 
ment of the old town, and chose James Cochran, Amos Parmen- 
ter, and William Little, a committee to " advise with the Agent 
in Selecting the necessary Witnesses from this town." They 
also voted to raise six hundred dollars to defray expenses, and 
instructed the town clerk, Jacob Tuttle, who was understood to 
favor division, to " forthwith transmit an attested coppy of the 
proceedings of this meeting to the Agent." They also voted a 
survey of the town, so as to exhibit the position' of the town- 
house and the distances from the Center. The work of the town 
committee was so earnestly done, that, at the following session 
of the legislature, the " Committee on Incorporation of Towns " 
reported against the division, and it was lost. So persistent, how- 
ever, were the friends of the measure, that, at the same session, 
they subsequently obtained, on petition, the appointment by the 
legislature of a committee to visit the town and vicinity, exam- 
ine the country, take evidence, and report at the next session. 
This committee had, for its chairman, C. F. Gove, of Nashua, 
then of Goffstown. The other members of the committee were 
Alfred Gordon, of Washington, and Jesse Bowers of Dunstable. 

The next spring (May 27, 1830), this committee came here to 
perform its work. Antrim by its agent, Isaac Baldwin, backed by 
most of the leading men in the town, opposed the measure. 
The selectmen of Deering came to represent that town in oppo- 
sition to the petition. Society Land, by its agent, John Dodge, 
Esq., did all in its power against the scheme. Counsel appeared 
on both sides. But the committee reported in favor of estab- 
lishing the new town. No name seems to have been suggested 
for this new creation, as one of them said "they would not 
name the child till it was born." All now turned to the legis^ 
lature (June, 1830) for the final struggle. It should be added^ 
that, pending the hearing of this committee, an article had been 
introduced into the warrant for the annual meeting (March 10, 
1829) to " See if the town will consent to a division of the town 
of Antrim, provided the line of division be so drawn through said 
town as to leave a sufficient number of voters on the west part 
to send a representative to General Court." But so strong and 
decisive was the feeling, that, as soon as they were organized 
(Sutheric Weston, Jr., moderator), they called up this article 
and dismissed it. A motion was made to allow the town ac- 


counts except what was raised to oppose division ; but the town 
quickly voted that the " account be adopted as it stands." Then 
they proceeded to the election of town officers. 

It should be added, also, that at a meeting May 17, 1830, the 
town chose " Amos Parmonter second Agent " to assist Mr. 
Baldwin ; and also chose a committee consisting of the selectmen 
(Samuel Fletcher and Thomas McCoy, besides Baldwin, the 
agent), Dea. Jonathan Nesmijth, and Capt. John Worthley, to 
assist in opposing the petition " at the Widow Woodbury's house 
on the 27th of this month." 

Before the legislature there was a sharp and final contest. On 
the one hand was the report of the committee in favor of the 
new town, backed by able counsel, and determined friends. Tliey 
did everything possible to force the thing through, and never 
was a plan more vigorously pursued. And they were confident 
of success. On the other hand, Antrim, Deering, and Society 
Land (now Bennington), by decisive and determined majorities, 
opposed the new town. Every man in Antrim signed a remon- 
strance against it except the few. interested petitioners. Within 
the proposed new town, many and influential men opposed it 
with all their might. And some of the older people begged the 
legislature, even with tears, not to dismember the old town. 
In the face of all this, to grant the petition of so few, to their no 
great advantage, against the wishes, the associations, the convic- 
tions, and the interests of so many in all these towns, was seen 
to, be preposterous! By an overwhelming majority the legisla- 
ture voted down the measure ! And it has stayed voted down to 
this day ! 

At the March meeting, 1829, an article was in the warrant to see 
if the town would move the " Town House," no longer called " meet- 
ing-house," to a more convenient place> Travel had mostly left the 
hill, most of the families had moved ofif, and the old building stood 
there, high, cold, and almost alone. But the town was then stirred 
up with the excitement about division, and simply dismissed the 
article. Thus the matter stood till March meeting, 1832, when 
the town "voted that the Selectmen be requested to insert an 
article in the warrant at the November meeting to see if the 
town will vote to build a town-house and appropriate the Old 
Meeting House to that use." But, meantime, a town meeting was 
called on petition, to take immediate action. This meeting was 
May 30, 1832, Oapt. Isaac, Baldwin, moderator (afterwards Dea. 


Isaac) . They voted to accept the plan proposed by the select- 
men, to rebuild the old meeting-house " by leaving out the mid- 
dle band and Cuting it Down to one Story in hight." They then 
chose John Worthley, Thomas Carr, Thomas McCoy, James 
Cochran, and Samuel Cummings, as a committee to nominate 
" a Disinterested Committee to locate." They reported " Rus- 
sell Tubbs, of Deering, Solomon McNeil, of Hillsboro', and 
Thacher Bradford of Hancock Bsqrs." These were immediately 
accepted, and met on June 13 following. They fixed on the 
spot now occupied by the town-house. The town meeting having 
been adjourned to June 16, the citizens, when met, accepted the 
report of the locating committee ; voted to pay Capt. Robert Reed, 
then owning the land, five dollars a rod for what was needed ; 
chose Isaac Baldwin, Benjamin Rollins, and James Wallace, Jr., 
as the building committee ; and instructing them to spend as 
little as possible, and " have it convenient," they dissolved the 
meeting. The contract for taking down, removing, and rebuild- 
ing, was given to Charles Gates. And thus this old landmark 
was removed, making a great change in the appearance of the 
hill, and leaving only the monuments of the dead to mark the 
spot ! It had been a place of meetings and partings, of joys and 
sorrows, for half a century ! The first town meeting at the new 
place was Nov. 5, 1832. Prom the unfinished state of the build- 
ing, the meeting was called at the Center school-house ; but im- 
mediately, on choice of moderator (Luke Woodbury), they 
adjourned to the town-house. There the town meetings have 
been since held. 

About this time, in addition to expenditures in opposing divis- 
ion, and on the town-house, the town was beset with petitions 
for roads. All the town meetings had petitions for roads ; and 
extra meetings were called over and over ; and after being voted 
down again and again, the petitioners would put in the same 
article again. At one time (Nov. 9, 1836), as though fairly 
worried into concession, the town voted to lay out three different 
roads. But these were not very burdensome compared with two 
larger ones, and the " Forest Road," across the southwest cor- 
ner of the town. The latter had been built in passable condition 
for many years, making a road from Stoddard to Hancock at our 
expense, the town voting quite a sum every year to repair it, not, 
however, without all the swearing and scolding needed on each 
occasion ! Nor is it strange that they should be unwilling to be 


taxed to support a road for which no citizen of Antrim could 
derive any advantage, it being in an uninhabited part of the town, 
entirely separated from the rest. But about this time, under the 
name of " Forest Road," the whole thing had to be widened and 
straightened, at a heavy expense to the town. And it always 
has been a heavy and unfair tax upon us. To keep two miles of 
this road, remote from all the people of the town,- in good condi- 
tion for stages and heavy teams year after year, was felt to be a 

Then, in 1831, the " Court's Committee," as they were called 
at that time, laid out a road from Stoddard line, near the Box 
tavern, to Hillsborough line, east of Miles Tuttle's, mostly on 
new ground, making more than six miles of new road, and in- 
volving a very large outlay. To this road the town made all 
possible opposition. Town meetings were called. Petitions 
were sent to court asking for discontinuance. Plans were made 
to improve the old route from Concord to Keene, through South 
Antrim, Hancock, and Dublin. Luke Woodbury, Esq., was 
chosen agent to fight this road. Other towns above also made 
vigorous opposition to said. road. 

At near the same time the " Court's. Committee " laid out a 
new road from Hancock Factory (Bennington) to Cork bridge. 
This and the " North Keene Roa,d," then so called, are first 
mentioned in the town warrants Nov. 5, 1832, and first appear 
together. The Cork-bridge road was laid chiefly on new ground, 
about three and one-half miles in Antrim. Both these roads 
were fought off for about two years, and considerable money was 
expended in the opposition ; but the town was compelled to build 
them in the end. Both were constructed in»the year 1834. The 
town chose Jacob Tuttle agent to build the " North Keene Road " ; 
and Thomas McMaster, Jr., agent to build the "South" road. 
The expense of the Keene road was over 14,000, and of the 
South road about f 2,000, — all of which was hired on the credit 
of the town. All the costs of these roads was about 18,000, 
from first to last. The road from Clinton Village to Mr. French's, 
built in 1886, was also quite expensive, and added to the town 

Another heavy item for the town at this time was the support 
of the poor. There were nearly twenty paupers. They had 
been sold out year by year, but the expense was large for so 
many, and some more thoughtful people believed the poor would 


be better off with a fixed home, and were not willing to see them 
" sold" at auction. As early as March 13, 1832, the town voted 
the " Selectmen be a committee to look out a farm, and report at 
a future meeting." They selected the Hutchinson Flint farm, 
now Henry D. Ohapin'.s residence, which was purchased the fol- 
lowing year. March 11, 1834, the town " voted The Selectmen 
to take charge of Paupers and the Town Farm " ; and this was 
the first year it was occupied by the town,. Its cost, with stock 
and some repairs,, was $2,500. Timothy Weston, a joking, jolly 
man, first took charge of the farm. Chandler Boutwell was the 
first man chosen to " superintend " the farm and the poor, and 
was annually chosen to that office for several years. The farm 
continued to be the comfortable home of our poor till 1869, when 
those dependent on the town being very few, and the tax for the 
county farm being heavy, it was sold. In November, 1868, the 
town chose J. W Perkins, Cyrus Saltmarsh, and William S. 
Foster, a committee to sell. This change was made inevitable 
by the county-farm system, as no town could support its own 
farm for two or three paupers. But the county system was hard 
and cruel to all but foreigners, and very distasteful to the people 
of Antrim. Many protests has the writer heard. Some poor 
have been kept away from the county farm, by gifts of money 
and board. If some one state institution, with plenty of work, 
could have taken the foreign element, and the system of town 
farms, so acceptable, and so general, been retained, it would 
have saved money and pleased the people, besides saving the poor 
from many home-sick and bitter years ! 

In view of all these expenditures, the town debt in 1835 went 
as high as $9,000. Population was decreasing slowly by emi- 
gration and death, — and taxes were very severe. For the first 
time in its history, the town paid a large amount of interest 
money ; and town notes, hardly before ever heard of in Antrim, 
were now very common. At this time the prospect of help from 
the surplus revenue of the United States arose, most agreeably 
to the people. Congress passed an act, June 23, 1836, the coun- 
try being out of debt, and a large sum having accumulated in 
the public treasury, to distribute a certain part of the surplus 
among the States. It seems that our state legislature was in 
session, and passed a law to distribute this sum to the towns on 
certain conditions, Jan. 13, 1837. On the 14th of February fol- 
lowing, a meeting was called in Antrim, of which Amos Par- 


menter^was moderator, at which they voted to receive the money 
and to " Execute a certificate of deposit therefor," according to 
the terms of the law. This is understood to be a bond of the 
town to pay back said sum on certain conditions. They chose 
Samuel Fletcher agent to receive the- money. He obtained 
$3,000. The town voted to invest the money on " undoubted 
security " ; but subsequently, as there was no probability that the 
money would be called for by the government, they appropriated 
the whole sum to the payment of town debts. At once the taxes 
were diminished, and the people were enabled readily to subdue 
the debt. And perhaps it would be well if, at the present day, 
town debts were viewed with the same abhorrence and alarm as 

For many years it ha,d been the custom to sell the collection 
of taxes to the lowest bidder, the town finding its security in 
the bondsmen. This selling at auction was in open town meet- 
ing, and the bondsmen were then and there proposed, and they 
were accepted or rejected by public vote. These were generally 
the most excited, and often the most amusing, scenes in the 
town meeting. All the taxes of the town were generally col- 
lected for five or six dollars per year ; and sometimes the salary 
of this dreaded ofiicial was run down to almost nothing. At the 
March meeting of 1832, excitement was so great that they bid 
the collectorship down to nothing, when Bartlett Wallace offered 
the town fifty cents for the privilege of collecting, and it was 
struck off to him on those terms. And amid shouts of triumph 
and laughter, Jacob Tuttle and John Worthley came forward 
to be his bondsmen and were accepted by the town. 

For the pleasure it may afford to the curious, the following 
resolution, passed in public town meeting March 12, 1839, is 
here given : — 

Eesolved that George Duncan has faithfully Served this Town in the 
Capacity of Clerk and that our only object, in Displacing him is that we 
hold rotation in office a fundamental principle of the Democratic Creed. 

Whether this was planned by way of letting-down easy some 
sensitive official, or to put a little Salve of compliment over a 
sore place, or to give deserved praise, does not appear on the 
record. Strange to say, Mr. Duncan did not live a year ! But, 
as he was a worthy man whom the town had many times 
honored, it is fair to presume that their object was to honor him 
also on retirement. 


In 1840, the population being 1,225, the number of names on 
the check-list was 299, — of which 296 voted at the presidential 
election, Nov. 2, that year. Of this number twenty-seven did 
not pay a poll-tax, indicating that as the number of men then in 
town over seventy years of age ; whereas now, with a population 
of about eleven hundred, we have thirty-four men in town about 
that age. Life is not growing shorter in these days. 

In January, 1840, there was a great scare in Antrim on 
account of the small-pox, and a town meeting was called (Feb. 
11, 1840) to take public action. Of this meeting, Rev. John M. 
Whiton was moderator. They chose two agents. Dr. Burnham 
and Dr. Stickney, " to See that all the Inhabitants that is in 
town are vaccinated." These agents made rapid work and all 
the people were frightened into readiness therefor. A man had 
died of that loathsome disease at Bennington, so near, and in 
such fearful way, as justly to produce alarm, especially when we 
remember that very few of the people had been vaccinated. 
Dr. Jenner's discovery of vaccination had been announced in 
London in 1796, but was a long time opposed, and even preaclied 
against in the pulpit as " diabolical " ; so that it was slow in 
finding general acceptance. Such a scare, probably, could not 
occur now. It seems to have filled the people with more alarm 
than any war ever did. But it soon died away, and only the 
curious mind will care to revert to it. 

Dec. 15, 1842, the last of Society Land was incorporated as 
the town of Bennington. With this Antrim had been connected 
in the early days. From the original tract called Society liand, 
a part of Francestown was taken off June 8, 1772, in the incor- 
poration of that'town. Another larger portion was set off as the 
town of Deering, June 17, 1774. Another slice was cut off for 
the town of Antrim, March 22, 1777. Still another was incor- 
porated as Hancock, Nov. 5, 1779. The south part of what was 
left, together with parts of Francestown and Lyndeborough, seem 
to have been made into the town of Greenfield, June 15, 1791. 
Both Antrim and Hancock were bounded on the east by the 
Contoocook river, and therefore what was left of the original 
Society Land was only a small strip between Francestown and the 
Contoocook, lying along the stream. Its old name gradually 
dropped out of use, and it was called " Hancock Factory " for 
many years. To this unincorporated tract, inhabited in 1830 by 
about one hundred and thirty persons, small portions of Hancock,, 


Greenfield, Francestown, and Deering were added to form the 
little town of Bennington. On account of manufactures, its 
population had largely increased ; and the new town started 
with a population of about four hundred. This increased at the 
census of 1850 to 541. At the census of 1860, it was 450 ; 
at that of 1870, 40l. But for the past few years Bennington 
has evidently increased in population. It is almost a child of 
Antrim, and is a smart little town, with busy factories, and a 
wide-awake, ambitious people. Its church, formed in part by 
members from Antrim, was organized July 6, 1839. 

As noticed under the year 1822, the selectmen were authorized 
to license as many as they saw fit, to sell liquor in each town. 
This with little variation was the law for more than twenty- 
five years. There were plenty of these licenses in Antrim every 
year, aud rum was free and cheap. But misgivings began to 
arise in the minds of good men concerning this traffic. Our 
town records contain hints of the progress of the temperance 
sentiment among us. Public opinion changed very slowly. An 
article was in the warrant March 10, 1846, " To See if the town 
will vote to instruct the Selectmen not to License the Sale of 
ardent Spirits except for mechanical and medicinal purposes." 
This made quite an excitement in town, and the friends of free 
liquor were not a little angry. Almost immediately after the 
organization of the meeting they called up this (the twelfth) 
article and voted to dismiss it, one hundred and fifty-three to 
eighty-seven. Thus more than one-third of the voters favored a 
practical prohibition. But the selectmen went on with the 
license as before, though with greater care, and a less number of 
licenses. The question of temperance had been carried into the 
church, and had made great disturbance there, and had been 
agitated with considerable bitterness among Christian people ; 
but was settled among them by the following vote, whicli is in 
force to this day : — 

That when persons hereafter (1842) may offer themselves for admis- 
sion they be required to abstain from the use of intoxicating 
drinks, except as a medicine. 

In the town, however, the discussion went on, as appears by 
this article in the warrant for March 14, 1848 : — 

Is it expedient that a law be enacted by the Legislature, prohibiting 
the Sale of wines and other spirituous liquors, ex;cept for chemical, me- 
dicinal and mechanical purposes. 


It shows the intense feeling on the subject, that they passed all 
other articles and immediately called this up for action. The 
vote for this law was, in favor, ninety ; against, one hundred and 
two ; showing a steady advance of sentiment. 

In 1850 a convention was called to revise the constitution of 
this State. Previously, several tinies, the project to call a co|i- 
vention had been voted down. This town had gone steadily and 
strongly against it. But finally it had been decided to have a 
convention ; and a meeting was called Tuesday, Oct. 8, 1850, to 
choose a delegate. Of this meeting, John G. Flint was modera- 
tor. On the first ballot for delegate, John M. Whiton had fifty- 
six votes, and Hiram Griffin fifty-eight, besides scattering votes, 
and there was no election. On the next ballot, Mr. Griffin was 
elected by a very small majority. This convention met at Con- 
cord, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 1850. They worked faithfully, had a 
long session, suggested many excellent changes, and supposed* 
their work would stand. But it was voted down by a large ma- 
jority. Antrim voted against every article, generally by large 
majorities. The great labor and heavy cost of the " Convention 
of 1850 " were thrown away ! And the old constitution went on 
for a quarter of a century more. 

The first break in the town lines was in 1849, when the small 
farm of John Flint, in the southwest part of the town, was 
annexed to Hancock, by act of the legislature, he having no 
access to Antrim except by passing first through other towns. 
A petition for consent of Antrim had been inserted by him sev- 
eral times in the town warrant; and the town voted, Nov. 7, 
1848, that " Our representative be instructed to favor the disan- 
nexing John Flint & joining him to Hancock." This, it is believed, 
was completed at the next session of the legislature, and was no 
doubt beneficial for a time ; but, on the whole, it is to be regretted, 
as breaking the continuity of the town lines, and beijig of no 
present use, since the farm is now deserted. 

About this time, began rapidly to disappear the whole popula- 
tion of a school-district of about a dozen families on Robb 
Mountain. More than sixty persons resided there at one time. 
About 1816, Andrew Robb, Moor Robb, Nathan Cram, Thomas 
Aucerton, Daniel Paige, Thomas Carleton, Luther Conant, Samp- 
son Reed, John Edwards, and others, were at one time living 
there near together. They all lived in log houses, had large 
families, had a school, were well off, were large raisers of stock. 


and were considered a prosperous community. But they began 
to leave for better accommodations, and in a few years all were 
gone. The log houses rotted' down. And as no road was ever 
built to these habitations, and fences have gone to decay, almost 
every relic of this community has disappeared. Cattle roam 
there ; trees have sprung up in the old fields ; and no one now 
passing there would think that within one hundred years that 
tract of land was cleared, turned into fruitful fields, inhabited 
till babes born there grew gray, was deserted, its buildings rotted 
down, and all gone back again to forest, or worn pasture, as if 
never inhabited! If all this may take place in ninety years, 
it becomes us to speak cautiously of what time may do ! Will 
not six thousand years answer someway for all known effects on 
the earth ? 

In 1852, Franklin Pierce was elected to the Presidency of the 
United States, — an event at that time of much interest and sat- 
isfaction to the people of Antrim, inasmuch as the farm of Gov. 
Pierce joined Antrim, and the family had long been intimately 
associated with our people. Before he entered upon the high 
of&ce to which he had been elected, his only son was killed by a 
railroad accident at Andover, Mass., Jan."6, 1853 ; and this, from 
sympathy, kindled a new interest in the honored and afflicted 
man. But many thoughtful minds here were slowly alienated 
from him, by his course favoring the propagandists of slavery. 
Especially the act of May 30, 1854, sometimes called a " Com- 
promise," but really opening Kansas and Nebraska to slavery, 
awakened a sullen, deep opposition at the North, and multiplied 
the strength of the anti-slavery party. Pierce's administration 
was that under which the great forces that clashed in 1861 were 
really setting themselves. The " Free Soil " vote in Antrim, 
before almost nothing, now steadily and silently increased, and 
ultimately made this town a unit in resistance to the armies of 

In the year 1860, the famous cattle-disease broke out, called 
pleuro-pneumonia. One Antrim man (not born here) refused 
to buy moat out of a butcher's cart, because the creature he 
feared had had the " B pluribus Unum ! " This cattle-disease had 
been immensely fatal in some sections of the country ; and on 
its appearance in New Hampshire, our legislature hastily passed 
an act giving great power to the towns over live-stock, for the 
purpose of suppressing the disease. Immediately, a town meet- 



ing was called in Antrim, and they chose William S. Poster, 
Gyrus Saltmarsh, and James Boyd a committee, with discretion- 
ary powers, to enforce the new act. This committee was con- 
tinued through 1861-62-63. They ordered cattle supposed to 
be infected, to be isolated. At great labor farmers made double 
fences, twenty feet apart, between their pastures, to prevent the 
communication of the disease. There was a certain Dr. Cutter 
who came here claiming to know all about the disease, and who 
ordered the killing of some creatures. The excitement among 
the people was universal, and among stock-raisers it was intense. 
Many were afraid to buy meat. Some of the more nervous ones 
said : " We shall come to bread and salt yet." The hills of An- 
trim were covered with herds of cattle, many of them from 
below ; and nobody could be sure his cattle were not infected. 
Men watched their stock constantly, and worried, and didn't 
always " remember the Sabbath Day to keep it holy," in their 
zeal for the safety of the brute ! At one time, two hundred and 
fifty men and a crowd of boys assembled on the mountain north 
of the pond to see the slaughter and examination of a heifer 
supposed to be under the disease. By loss of the animals killed, 
extra fences, and time -spent, the cost to the people was quite 
heavy. Yet not an animal died of the disease in this town. Less 
than a dozen were killed, all told. And I have heard cattle-men 
in town say that all of these would have lived to a fat old age, if 
the people had let them alone ! It was a great scare. No doubt 
there was some small temporary trouble with the stock ; but it 
wore away, and soon was unmentioned, save by way of jest ! 
How oft our fortunes are better than our fears ! 

The action of Antrim through the fearful civil war was loyal 
and vigorous. All through Buchanan's administration things 
were ripening for conflict. John Brown commenced his raid to 
deliver the negroes at Harper's Perry, Va., Oct. 16, 1859. He 
was soon captured, was tried for treason, and was executed on 
the gallows, Dec. 2 following. This event created great excite- 
ment North and South. Parties were broken up. The Presidential 
contest of 1860 was very severe. But Lincoln being elected by 
a decisive vote, the Southern States began to " secede," as they 
called it. South Carolina passed an " ordinance of secession," 
Dec. 20, 1860, but was not remarkably successful in the business 
in the end. Six other States along the Gulf went through the 
same formality, in so short a time that they formed the " Con- 


federacy," and held an election of their own Feb. &, 1861, 
and thus had Davis and Stephens ready to be inaugurated as 
soon as Lincoln and Hamlin. The Southerners began the con- 
flict by firing on Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861. That cannon roar 
waked up the whole North like the sound of an earthquake ! There 
was a swell of holy indignation in every heart. Old political 
enemies to a great extent rose up together all over the North, 
saying, — " The Union — it must be preserved." There was a 
call to arms ! Many marched to the front ! Solemn, determined 
preparations were begun. April 16, the President called on 
New Hampshire for a regiment of infantry for three months, — 
which was at once filled by volunteers, and in a few days started 
for Washington. There was a town meeting in Antrim, as soon 
as legal notice could be given, May 3, 1861. John G. Flint was 
chosen moderator. The town expressed at once, by resolution, 
its deep interest in those who had volunteered to defend the flag, 
its determination to assist them, and do its part in whatever 
struggle might come. Then they appointed a committee, consist- 
ing of Cliarles McKeen, William S. Foster, D. H. Goodell, N. 
W. C. Jameson, and John G. Flint, to assist volunteers; and 
made an appropriation of money to carry it into effect. Surely, 
this was prompt and smart. The town meeting was called, the 
fourteen days' notice given, the committee was appointed and at 
work, all within less than three weeks of the hour when the first 
gun was fired on Sumter ! 

And the town was true to all the pledges then made, and more 
than true. At a meeting Sept. 5, 1861, J. H, Bates moderiator, 
the town voted to hire 1*8,000 to assist the families of volunteers. 
At the March meeting, 1862, they voted a continuance of aid to 
the families of volunteers. At a meeting Aug. 12, 1862, Harold 
Kelsea moderator, voted il25 bounty " till the quota be full," 
and to hire an additional §3,000. This was besides the help to 
the families. In September following, the same offer was made to 
nine-months men. March 10, 1868, the town voted 18,000 lor 
war purposes. At a meeting Aug. 15, 1863, M. B. Mcllvaine 
moderator, they voted to pay a drafted man, or liis substitute, 
1300. Also, Dec. 9, 1863, in legal meeting, tlie town voted to 
hire $7,500, and appropriated the same " for the purpose of 
encouraging voluntary enhstments to fill the quota of this town." 
At the March meeting of 1-864, they appropriated |1,000 to aid 
families of volunteers. April 16, 1864, they voted a generous 

112 WAR DEBT. 

bounty to soldiers who would re-enlist, and took efficient meas- 
ures to fill Antrim's quota. Aug. 10, 1864, they, voted a bounty 
of $1,000 to every soldier enlisting to fill Antrim's quota ; also 
$200 to any man who might be drafted and choose to serve. And 
they authoi-ized the selectmen to hire $15,000 to carry these 
votes into effect. At a meeting Nov. 25, 1864, James W Per- 
kins moderator, they authorized the selectmen to pay the highest 
bounty allowed by law to twenty volunteers to fill Antrim's quota 
in anticipation of a future call, and keep our number full and a 
little more. For this they voted to hire $15,000. And still 
further, at the meeting March 14, 1865, after four years of strug- 
gle, they instructed the selectmen, by volunteers, or otherwise, to 
fill any and all calls for, men, up to March 1, 1866, at any cost 
not exceeding $15,000. This was the last vote. Had the thing 
gone on, it is not known how much Antrim would have done ! 
Our quota was more than full when the war closed. Lee sur- 
rendered April 9, 1865 ; and soon all the other rebels did the 
same — and the terrible war was over. The selectmen of this 
town hired some substitutes and some volunteers from other 
towns ; but chiefly the quotas were filled from our own citizens. 
Some of the substitutes deserted ; but others of them were good 
soldiers, and stood by the flag to the last. And some of these 
substitutes were killed in battle, or retired from the service 
scarred with wounds. The number of our soldiers that lost 
their- lives in- the war of the rebellion, either by battle or dis- 
ease, was twenty-seven. Of these, ten were killed in battle. 
Others languished and died in hospitals or prisons. Three or 
four were fatally sick, but lived to reach Antrim and die at 
home. Further details will be given in the chapter on the mili- 
tary of Antrim. 

In the round of events since the war, little has occurred 
requiring notice in this connection. On return of peace, the 
town found itself fearfully in debt. Taxes had been very high 
through the war, large sums being raised at the time to meet the 
new obligations of the town. But above all this, the debt reached 
the great sum of $32,341.17, as by report of 1865-66, or about 
$33 for every man, woman, and child of our population. With 
this debt the town has been struggling ever since. In addition 
to ordinary expenses something has been paid on the debt every 
year. Town bonds were issued to the amount of $17,800, in the 
year 1870, bearing interest at six per cent, and covering most of 


the then existing debt. These bonds have from time to time 
been called in, as they could be paid. The debt of the town, 
March 1, 1879, was 17,388.47. 

The question. Is it expedient to call a convention to revise the 
Constitution of this State ? having often been submitted to the 
people and decided in the negative, it was in March, 1876 (I 
think), decided in the affirmative, many thinking to diminish 
expenses by biennial elections, and other changes being demanded. 
Consequently, at the meeting for the presidential election, Nov. 
7, 1876, Leander Smith moderator, the town elected Nathan C. 
Jameson, delegate to the convention. This body convened at 
Concord, soon after, and prudently and rapidly performed its 
work, so that the new constitution was printed and submitted to 
the people at the next March meeting. Every article was 
approved by the people of Antrim, though not all by a two-thirds 
vote. Being adopted by the whole State, it is now the supreme 
law of our C(5mmonwealth. 

The Baldwin road, so called,- was raised about five feet in the 
spring of 1878. This is later than the proposed limit of our 
History (June 27, 1877) ; but as this had been long talked over, 
and measures previously taken to accomplish it, it may be proper 
to say, that it was brought about at the above date, at a cost of 
about twelve hundred dollars, the opening of the railroad 
making it an immediate necessity. 

Thus I have gone over the events for one hundred years from 
the incorporation of the town. The narrative of the centennial 
celebration of that event will follow ; and then chapters of eccle- 
siastical and military history, and miscellaneous matters. I 
venture the hope that some abler hand may touch these threads 
in the future, and weave them into fabrics fair. Probably the 
facts here brought together will be of greater interest then than 
now. The only record of some of them is on these pages. God 
grant that those who may live here then, be worthy of the 
fathers of the town ! In Dr. Whiton's words, may " Antrim be 
inhabited by an industrious, well-educated, Christian population ; 
fearing God, honoring religion, seeking truth and righteousness. 
Long ere that day comes, time will have leveled the graves and 
oblite'rated the memory of the present actors on the stage of 
life ! " 




JUNE 27, 1877, 

At the annual March meeting, 1876, an article having been put 
in the warrant by George A. Cochran,. Esq., authorizing such 
action, the town voted to celebrate its centennial anniversary, 
voted to raise one thousand dollars to defray the expenses of said 
celebration, and chose a committee to take the whole charge and 
execution of it, and see that the will of the town be properly 
carried out. This committee was as follows : — 

Dr. Morris Christie, George A. Cochran, Esq., Rev. W R. 
Cochrane, Capt. Moody B. Mcllvaine, David H. Goodell, Esq., and 
Reed P. Whittemore, Esq. 

The committee held their first meeting soon after, and chose 
Dr. Morris Christie, president; D. H. Goodell, Esq., secretary, 
and George A. Cochran, treasurer. March 22, the day of incor- 
poration, being an unfavorable time for a celebration, the com- 
mittee fixed on June 27 following, as the most convenient. Met 
as often as occasion required — selected Prof. James E. Vose as 
the orator of the day — appointed sub-committees, and with 
untiring labor and care made ready for the day. 

One thousand invitations, in form as follows, were sent out by 

mail : — 

Antrim, N. H., Dec. 14, 1876. 
Dear Sir, — The town of Autrim was incorporated about one hun- 
dred years ago, and it is proposed to celebrate its Centennial Anni- 
versary in an appropriate manner. 

You are hereby invited, by the resident citizens of Antrim, to meet 
them " at home, " on "Wednesday, June 27, 1877. All natives of this town 
and their descendants are cordially invited to be present with us. 

Prof. James E. Vose, of Gushing Academy, Ashburnham, Mass., is 
expected to deliver an address, and such other exercises will be held as 
will be suitable to the occasion. 
Eespectfully yours, 



Executive Committee. 

The celebration was held at the Center of the town. The large 
brick church was elegantly decorated for the occasion ; a large 


platform was erected on the west, side of the church ; and a large 
tent, white as the snow, was located still farther west, and amply 
filled with provision of every kind. 

The vestry on the opposite side of the church was used as an 
antiquarian roovi, under the charge of Mrs. Anna Woodbury. It 
is simply just to say that she managed this department with 
admirable good taste, to say nothing of patience and work. Here 
the implements, keepsakes, weapons, and innumerable treasures 
of our fathers and mothers, were on exhibition, and this was 
one of the most attractive features of the occasion. 

Preparations were made, partly by food contributed, chiefly by 
purchase, to feed three thousand people. But the audience 
largely outnumbered this estimate, so that, though a considerable 
amount of provision was hastily purchased on that day, not over 
a bushel was left in good order, after the vast company were 

Not a bite of poor meat or poor provision was on the ground ! 
Antrim had the honor of giving a dinner, excellent, bountiful, 
and free ! 

^ The choirs of the town, under lead of Prof. Sylvester Little, 
rendered several pieces most powerfully and happily, so as to 
win praise from all hearers. 

Two brass bands, the New Boston Cornet Band and the Hills- 
borough Cornet Band, having been engaged for the day, music 
of that kind was abundant from sunrise far into the night, and of 
a quality not easily surpassed. 

The committee selected, as president of the day, Reed P. Whit- 
temore, Esq., of Antrim, with vice-presidents. Dr. Morris Chris- 
tie, Chandler B. Boutwell, James Boyd, George F. Parmenter, 
Samuel Dinsmore, James Wood, N. W C. Jameson, John M. 
Duncan, George A. Cochran, John B. Woodbury, Clark Hopkins, 
and William N. Tuttle. 

The weather was all that could be desired. In the early morn- 
ing it threatened rain, but soon broke away into a day of singular 
beauty. Soon after sunrise, people began to gather. The farm- 
er's humble turnout — the dainty phaeton —- the princely four- 
in-hand — pedestrians — young and old — the gaily decorated 
— the modest poor, — came pouring in from all the neighboring 

In the morning at half-past seven a flag was presented to the 
Antrim Cadets. This ceremony was in South Village, the con- 


course was large, and the presentation was beautifully done in 
an address from the balcony of Waverly Hall, by Miss Bessie, 
daughter of N. W. C. Jameson. Then the march was taken up 
for the Center, the multitude, especially at Clinton, falling in on 
the way. This division was led by the New Boston band, under 
direction of Capt. Moody B. Mcllvaine, chief marshal, and Col. 
S. I. Vose, assistant marshal. 

A procession also came in from the Branch, led by Hillsborough 
Band, under direction of Col. Silas Dinsmore, assistant marshal. 
These met on the common at nine o'clock, marched to the field on 
the north, — and then re-formint;-, in the order on the programme, 
marched into the church. The spacious edifice was filled to its 
utmost capacity in every part, and every staiiding-spot^ even 
to vestibule and outside platform, was full ; more than eleven 
hundred were thus accommodated ; and yet twice as many at 
the same time covered the common outside, and thronged the 
antiquarian room. Those outside were busy and happy as chil- 
dren let loose from school, talking over old niatters, and laugh- 
ing or weeping at the recall of the past, so that they did not seem 
to miss the literary exercises within. 

As soon as the house was packed full, the chief marshal 
announced the president of the day, Reed P. Whittemore, Esq., 
who, on taking the chair, made an able, address of welcome, and 
called on Rev. James M. Whiton (in absence of Rev. J L. Felt) 
to invoke the divine blessing. Then, after reading of Scripture, 
and singing by the choir, prayer was offered by Rev. William 
Clark, D. D., of Amherst (in absence of Rev. E. M. Shaw), 
which was followed by reading of the town charter by Charles 
B. Dodge, Esq., town clerk. 

Then, after music by the band. Prof. James E. Vose pronounced 
his admirable oration, which the audience followed intently to the 
close. It is herein subjoined entire. 

Again the choir sung, charmingly, one of the grand old pieces 
of the fathers ; and then came the poem, which will be found 
below, by Prof. J. W Barker, of Buffalo, N. Y.. It was impos- 
sible for Mr. Barker to get here, and hence the poem, which he 
had taken the precaution to send on beforehand, was read by 
Henry D. Ohapin, Esq. The exercises in the church were now 
closed with singing, and music by the band, after which all 
marched out to dinner. 

For three-quarters of an hour, forty persons Worked with all 


their might in distributing provisions and ice-water to the multi- 
tude. One cord solid of breads one-lialf a ton of meat, cakes and 
et cseteras innumerable, vanished like a dream. But thei-e was 
enough and to spare ! And after all were filled, and a half-hour 
of buzzing conversation stirred occasionally by martial music, 
the audience was called to order, and speakijig commenced on 
the platft)rm outside. 

These responses for the most part will be found below. They 
were given with vigor and life, and received with cheers and 
laughs, all of which is utterly beyond a description of the pen. 

And the bursts of music by either band were frequent, and of 
the most able and enjoyable kind. 

Some of the addresses and letters here given, it was impossi- 
ble then to hear for lack of time. The programme of the day, 
three thousand copies of which were printed and scattered in the 
assembly, is reproduced below. The hymn was written by the 
author of this book. 




,— OF — 

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27, 1877. 


Einging of bells, <fec., at Sunrise. 

South Procession, with Military and New Boston Band, form at Clinton, at 8 1-2 A. M. 
North Procession, with Hillsborough Band, will form on the Branch road, at the same hour. 
Both arrive on the Field at 9 A. M. There form in the following order for march to the 
Church : 

Chief Marshal and Aids ; 

Band ; Granite State Cadets ; Band ; 

Odd-Pellows ; 

President of the Day and Vice Presidents ; 

Orator, Poet, Speakers, Town Clerk, Clergymen, Choirs, 

Town Officers, Aged People ; 

Guests from other Towns and Citizens generally. 

Chief Marshal will announce President of the Day, EEED P. WHITTEMORE, Esq. 


Eev. J. L. Felt. 

Eev. W E. Cochkane. 


- Eev. E. M. Shaw. 

C. B. Dodge, Esq. 

Hillsborough Band, 

Invocation of Divine Blessing, 

Scripture Eeading, 



Eeading Town Charter by Town Clerk^ 


Oration by 

of Aslib-uriiliairL, Mass. 
Singing, - Choir. ' 

Poem by 


of Biaffalo, N. Y. 
Singing, . Choir. 

Music, New Boston Band. 



Social half hour, enlivened by Music by the Bands. 


' Scotch Character — still marked by grit 
and grace." 
Hon. Charles Adams, Jr., 

Nprth Brooklield, Mass. 
"Bonny Doon ' ' — New Boston Band. 
' The Physicians of Antrim." 

Dr. James Stickney, 

Pepperell, Mass.- 

' Past of Antrim contrasted with the 

Present." Key. S. G. Abbott. 

Music — Hillsborough Band. 

' The Clergy of Antrim — may their power 

always be Felt." 

Eey. J. L. Felt, Antrim. 
' Hardihood and toil of the Fathers and 
Mothers of Antrim." 

Isaac Baldwin, Esq., Clinton, la. 
Music — New Boston Band. 
' Influence of the Hill-Towns on the 
Destiny of our Countrj'." 

Rev. J. M. Whiton, 

East Hampton, Mass. 

Music — Hillsborough Band. 
"Lawyers of Antrim." 

. Frank H. Pierce, Esq., Concord. 
"Rev. J. M. Whiton, D. D. — his life a 
Gospel of Peace." 

Prof. Cyrcs Baldwin, Meriden. 
Music — New Boston Band. 
" Antrim forty years ago." 

Col. S. I. VosB, Peterborough. 

Mrs. E. M. Huntley, Milford. 
Music — Hillsborough Band. 
"Men and Women of 1777 who laid the 
foundation of the Church in Antrim." 
A. H. Dunlap, Esq., Nashua. 
" The State of Maine — of our best she has 
taken and of our best she has given 

Rev- E. M. Shaw, Antrim. 
Music — New Boston Band. 
Volunteer Responses. 

Form in procession and march to old Parade Ground on Meeting House Hill. 

Historic Statement, Ret. W. R. Cochrane. 

Dirge over Old Century, New Boston Band. 


AuLD Lang Syne. 

We bring thee here, our fathers' God, 
Our tribute warm and deep, 

Where once our sires in vigor trod, 
Where now in death they sleep. 

Of Auld Lang Syne we sing, 

Of Auld Lang Syne ; , 

We'll drop a tear in memory here 

Of Auld Lang Syne. 

Hard by their graves the altar grew, 

A temple large and free ; 
And here in joys and sorrows true 

They paid their vow to thee. — Cho. 

And this till death their onlj' fold, 
Thy praise their only aim ; 

Through summer's heat or winter's cold 
The long procession came. — Cho. 

But now, Lord, not here thy call, 

Nor throng, nor sacred fane ; 
To-day these graves alone of all 

That busy scene remain. — Cho. 

But o'er their dust we pray that we 
May touch thy garment hem ; 

And the same voice acknowledge thee 
That bids farewell to them. — Cho. 

And since our sires through all the past 

Were safe to rest or roam. 
We trust our fathers' God at last 

Will bring their children home! — Cho. 

March down and re-form. Closing words by President. 

Antrim, N. H., June, 1877. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, — Through the kindness of my fel- 
low-townsmen, I have been called to preside over your delibera- 
tions to-day. I need not say to you, fellow-citizens of Antrim, 
nor to you, her sons and daughters gathered from near and from 
far, that this is a duty to which I am not accustomed, as century 
celebrations do not occur often to the same man in his own town. 
We at home are mostly a farming community, living in scattered 
dwellings, and having a hard though productive soil. We have, 
indeed, some pleasant villages and thriving manufactories, but 
as a people we look to mother earth, in humble dependence on 
the blessing of God, to earn with our own hands our daily bread 
from the soil. We have kept the old farms. And it becomes 
my pleasure, as well as duty, to welcome you, the returning sons 
and daughters of Antrim, to your ancestral ground. I am not a 
public speaker ; nor have I been chosen to fill that place. You 
will in due time listen to the orator of the day, — a gentleman 
and a scholar and a self-made man. I shall not intentionally 
step into the work assigned to him. 

But, while I make no pretensions to the graces of oratory, or to 
the learning of schools, I am proud to say that I have a heart to 
feel a deep interest in this anniversary. My memory goes more 
than half-way back to the beginning of Antrim as a corporate 
town. I know in my boyhood the Londonderry stock gave char- 
acter to this place. The early settlers were warm-hearted, whole- 
souled, impulsive, generous men; quick, indeed, to resent an 
insult with a blow, and as quick to acknowledge a favor and 
double it in return. A mean man among them was rare to find, 
and, when found, was the object of general dislike. 

There was among them a deep religious feeling, but they 
scorned to make a show of it, and hated all sham. They were 
a church-going people, as yonder hill, crowded with willing feet 
going up to worship, can testify. 

While we, their sons and daughters, perhaps to the third and 
fourth generation, may have made great advance in arts and im- 
provements in implements of agriculture, I fear we may have 
lost some of their straightforward, stern integrity of purpose. 
And if we have more contrivance, we may have less heroic 

It is pleasant for us, friends and neighbors, to meet to-day and 
look into each other's faces, and take each other by the hand, in 


token of the fraternal union and harmony in which, as citizens, 
we dwell. It is pleasant to see those who have sought to better 
their fortunes by leaving the old town, come back again to visit 
the I'emembered retreats of their boyhood. 

We recognize you as the same young men that went from us. 
You find us the same you left behind. The same, did I say ? 
Yes, — but not wholly the same ; in some things changed. Some 
of us and some of you have had our days of sorrow. Loved 
ones have faded from our sight. Many here have been borne 
■with sad hearts to their long resting-place. 

Yet we are glad to meet you ; glad to have you know, that we 
■who have stayed at the old homestead have hearts to feel, and 
can weep with those that weep, as well as rejoice with them that 

We welcome home again the school-boys and the school-girls 
of the olden times ! We will forget for the day that so many 
years have flown ! We ask you all to lay aside for now the 
cares of business ! Do not trouble yourselves whether stocks 
are rising or falling ; -whether the debt or credit side of your 
paper or your company's account be the greater ; throw off care, 
and enter fully into the festivities of the day ! 

In the name of Antrim, now one hundred years old as a town, 
and at her request, I bid you all a cordial welcome ! 


Three hundred years ago ! This continent was a wilderness ; 
not a Protestant settlement in all its length and breadth. But 
the clay was in the hands of the potter. God was slowly shaping 
those bodies of men, who, during the next two centuries, were to 
transform the ■wilderness into an empire. It is remarkable 
through what furnace fires the founders or reformers of nations 
have had to pass. The dross of ordinary men has to be burned 
out of them. Muscle, and mind, and heart, and soul, have to be 
laid on the anvil, and the ponderous blows rain down till every 
spark of baser alloy is driven out, and nothing but the clear, 
tough, ringing iron remains. 

" Hot burns the fire 

Where wrongs expire, 

Nor spares the hand 

That from the land 
Uproots the ancient evil." 


So it was that three centuries ago the massacre of St. Barthol- 
omew, destroying forty thousand Protestants at a single blow, 
sent six hundred thousand of the best blood of France out into 
the stern discipline of homeless exile to prepare the Huguenots 
for their great work upon this continent. So it was that three 
hundred and twenty years ago the Bloody Queen lighted in Eng- 
land those fires of persecution, that, through intervals, for more 
thap a century, drove men to the stake and sent them wandering 
through caves and dens of the earth, till twenty thousand of 
them, "the foremost men of all this world," had been driven to 
take refuge in the woods of New England. So it was with that 
small but remarkable body of men, a few of whose descendants 
meet here to-day. The peerages of America, thank Providence, 
were not bestowed by royal favor. Manhood in peer, and you and 
I have blood in our veins that ought to tell in the world. 

Three centuries ago Queen Elizabeth was crushing out a long 
series of Irish rebellions with blood and fire, and so relentlessly 
did she do it that, the six northern counties of Ireland, a terri- 
tory half as large as New Hampshire, became a waste of ruin. 
Partly to i-epair this devastation and partly to hold the Irish in 
check, about 1612 King James drew over some thousands of 
Scotchmen to settle on the lands. They gained rapid headway 
and laid the foundation of a good share of all the prosperity 
poor Ireland has ever since enjoyed. But they had to stand for 
their lives. The native Catholics turned upon them like wild 
beasts invaded ii) their dens, and for sixty years there was one 
continued conflict for the mastery. On one dark October day 
in 1641, in a second St. Bartholomew, thousands of them were 
butchered in cold blood, and the rest were driven to take 
refuge in protected places. Ten years later the iron hand of 
Cromwell released them for a moment's breathing-space, but 
in ten years more the merciless grip of Charles II. was upon 
them in the most terrific persecution of all. Over in Scotland, 
too, Graham of Claverhouse was hunting and murdering the 
Covenanters in every fen and fastness where they with their 
Bibles were hidden away ; and so hundreds of the first men 
of the country took refuge with their brethren in Ireland. Out 
of such materials, and through two generations of such stern 
work, the Scotch-Irish race had its beginning. 

Two hundred years ago ! Fifty years of this schooling of 
sword and blood, and now to see what stuff these men were 


made of. In 1688 occurred the greatest of England's rebellions. 
James II., the bigoted Catholic, had been driven from the coun- 
try, and the Protestant William was struggling against the 
greatest odds to hold the throne. By French aid James was 
making desperate efforts to regain his kingdom. His plan 
embraced a descent upon Ireland, thence upon Scotland, thence 
upon England. The first part of the programme was speedily 
carried out. Ireland was subdued, the victorious armies were 
preparing to descend upon Scotland, everything was favorable, 
and a few months more, apparently, would see this great rebel- 
lion ended and the tyrant in his throne again, when a sudden 
obstacle arose. A little handful of these same Scotch-Irishmen 
stood up across the pathway and disputed the passage into Scot- 
land. They could' not stand in the open field, for the flower of 
the king's army was against them. But they knew their foes. 
Their fathers had told them of the old-time butcheries. They 
themselves, some of them, had but lately escaped from the 
slaughter of the Covenanters. They resolved that only over 
their dead bodies should the new-found liberties of their country 
be struck down again. So seven thousand five hundred of them 
shut themselves up in Londonderry, right athwart the path of 
the king, and for nine months endured one of the most memora- 
ble sieges on record. Four times their number, French, English, 
Irish, aided by a powerful fleet, raged and stormed against them 
in vain. With only a clergyman for their general, without arms, 
or munitions, or discipline, or food, by incessant fighting, by 
sorties day and night, by hand-to-hand encounter, they repulsed 
every attack and held their foes at bay. Every second man of 
them fell by sword or famine ; they were reduced to feeding on 
horse-flesh, dogs, and cats. A rat, fattened on human flesh, sold 
for a shilling, and a mouse for a sixpence. In grim, terrible 
resolution they were preparing to feed upon their own dead, 
when, at the last extremity, a fleet from William relieved them. 
The besiegers retired, the great rebeUion triumphed, and 
English liberties and our liberties were saved. 

These were the men to found a state. As they could brook 
no tyranny in politics, so they could endure no intolerance in 
religion. The established Episcopacy was insufferable to them, 
and they resolved to find here in the wilderness that liberty 
which the world offered nowhere else. Five ship-loads of them 
came over in 1718, part settling in Boston, Worcester, Lunen- 


burg, and other towns in Massachusetts, and part going to Casco 
Bay. We can well picture this latter party as they stepped for 
the first time upon the desolate shore in the late autumn, gath- 
, ering to sing that saddest of all the old psalms, — 

" By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, 
Yea, we wept when we remembered Zion." 

In the spring they settled in Londonderry. It may be added 
here that some fifty years later a very much larger emigration 
occurred, maliing in all some one hundi'ed and twenty ship-loads 
of the Scotch-Irish race that came to America, settling in every 
State from Maine to Georgia. Small leaven, it may seem, for so 
great a lump, but we shall see. 

The Londonderry company prospered. They brought over 
with them their great energy and industry. Their spinning- 
wheel, which makes Irish linen famous even to-day, brought , , , 
them wealth. They introduced into New England what has 
been known as the " Irish potato " ever since. They wrung for- 
tunes from those hillsides where now their descendants cannot 
subsist. With their restless activity they mdVed out to make 
wider settlements; Bedford, New Boston, Antrim, and other 
towns had their planting from this stock. Of the well-known 
peculiarities of this people, I need not speak. Their unculti- 
vated manners, keen wit, unconquerable will and perseverance, 
sterling common sense, firm, deep-rooted religious convictions, 
have made them a marked people wherever they have been 
found from that day to this. We read that Dea. Aiken, sec- 
ond settler of this town, gave his note to his neighbor Smith, 
and, at the request of the latter, kept it safely locked in his own 
desk till he was ready to pay it, and did pay it. The smile with 
which we to-day receive the story shows how much we have 
gained on their grand integrity in the hundred years. Their 
Bible, their Sabbath, their religion, — for these they had endured 
the tortures of the Covenanters, the starvation of Londonderry, 
the privations of exile and the wilderness ; they clung to them 
as the sheet-anchor of their hope, they made them the corner- 
stone of their foundation. Had these things anything to do 
with the prosperity of these old towns during the first half of the 
century, compared with the depopulation since ? 

One hundred yea^s ago! The early history of this town is 
quite as familiar to you as to me, and is soon to be recounted in 


better words than I can command; Riley's first opening in 
1744, the Indian war driving liim away for years, and then his 
first permanent settlement, 1761 ; Dea. Aiken's opening at 
South Antrim, Aug. 12, 1767, his nearest neighbor five miles 
away ; his solitary home in the forest for four years till William 
Smith came in 1771 ; the toil and privations, carrying his grist 
on his back six through the woods to find the mill broken, 
then returning and rowing another one twelve miles up the 
river, only to lose it in the water after all ; the weeks without 
taste of bread ; the children without food relieved by the chance 
shot of a single pigeon on Sunday morning, while the father had 
gone sixteen miles to New Boston for corn, — all these and 
scores of incidents more have been so wonderfully condensed in 
Whiton's history of the town, that you will be more interested in 
getting them there than here. How often, when a boy, have I 
lain dreamily on the hill over there and looked down upon this 
most magnificent scenery, — looked, to see the whole covered 
with its original forest, and watched and listened to the varying 
scenes: the sharp stroke of Dea. Aiken's ax, and the crash of 
the trees, one after another, as they fell before his vigorous 
blows ; the smoke of his first clearing going up into the sky ; the 
royal welcome, and supper, and cheer, when Smith came to 
break his four years'' loneliness ; the creak of John Bell's first 
cart, bringing Capt. Duncan's goods through the Coutoocook, 
177-3 ; the gathering from all the towns about to the first sermon 
in town, in Dea. Aiken's new frame barn, 1775 ; the great event 
of two saw-mills in town, 1776, one at North Branch, the other 
at South Village ; the hardly less event of the " Great Bridge " 
over the Contoocook below Dea. Aiken's, and the sturdy axmen 
slowly cutting a bridle-path from it up througli the hills to the 
Branch mill, and thence to the grist-mill at Hillsborough. But 
why recount ? How little we realize, my friends, in our compar- 
ative ease and abundance, the tremendous cost of what we pos- 
sess to those sturdy men who dug and cleft it with bar and ax 
from the depths of the primeval forest. Yet, I am not sure that 
I would not' leave, to-day, our elegant mansions and sumptuous 
fare and costly refinements, with their accompanying physicail, 
not to say mental and moral, weakness, for the glorious manhood 
of those, who, barefooted and in their shirt-sleeves, ate baked- 
beans and hominy from pine tables in cabins with no carpet but 
the hardened earth. 


" Lexington battle, April 19, electrified the country. The 
spring was early and the grass-fields green. Men either flew 
with speed, or fired guns, to give the alarm to their neighbors. 
The scattered inhabitants' of Society Land promptly assembled 
at Dea. Aiken's, elected Isaac Butterfield of Greenfield their 
captain, and marched forthwith toward Boston to defend the 
liberties of their country, — a band of as brave hearts and as true 
patriotism as could be found in America. Next morning the 
women came together with the provision they had prepared dur- 
ing the night ; and, after a fervent prayer by William Smith, his 
female auditors being in tears, he set out with a load of pro- 
visions to overtake the company, John Gordon being the only 
male adult left in town." Such is Dr. Whiton's quaintly beauti- 
ful account of an event which I have never been able to think of 
without a thrill of pride and admiration. Not an able-bodied 
man in town but was speeding down to fight the foe at Boston ! 
They were met at Tyngsborough by Col. Stark, and sent home, 
to plant their corn, not being immediately needed ; but the spirit 
was there the same — the spirit of their race : for '< the first 
voice in America," says, Bancroft, " for dissolving all connection 
with Great Britain, came from the Scotch-Irisli Presbyterian ; " 
and another adds that " such a thing as a Scotch-Irish Tory was 
unheard of; the race never produced one." 

And those weeping women there in the gray morning, kneel- 
ing beside the load of provisions which their hurried fingers had 
toiled all night to prepare, while the white-haired veteran lifts 
his hands for the divine protection on those left alone there, and 
on their fathers and brothers marching to the war, — it was one 
of those rare scenes that canvas, song, and story seize upon for 
immortality. Oh, those Scotch-Irish mothers and grandmothers 
of ours, — what marvelous women they were ! With their large 
families; their spinning and weaving and housekeeping;' their 
great stores of butter and cheese ; their milking, and feeding the 
pigs, and " doing the chores " ; their washing and ironing and 
mending and making ; their " fixing up " the children every 
morning for school, catechising them for the Sabbath, toiling 
early and late to send them to college, weeping over them in 
childhood, praying over them always ; their tireless watching 
before the sick and the dying ; their humble, devoted walk before 
their God, — where, in all the past, can we anywhere find their 
peers ! What wonder, with mothers such as these, that New 


Hampshire has her unchallenged record, not indeed for fruits of 
the soil, nor wealth of trade, nor silver mountains or golden val- 
leys, but for men ! 

The year 1777 was an eventful one.' Burgoyiie was marching 
down into New Yorlc, sending detachments into Vermont, boast- 
ing that he could march across New England if his superiors 
would permit. New Hampshire flew to arms, — our own town 
furnishing h?r quota under Lieut. John Duncan, — and led by 
the Scotch-Irishman Stark, aided by troops from Vermont and 
Massachusetts, won the brilliant victory of Bennington, one of the 
most decisive battles of the war. But the most important event 
of the year to the town was the granting by the general court, 
March 22, of the town charter just read to us, which we celebrate 
to-day. The first regular town meeting was held May 1. At 
the second meeting, August 20, at eight o'clock, a. m., a report 
was made fixing the site of the Center, and adopted at once, 
when the meeting immediately adjourned to felling trees on the 
site of the meeting-house. Oh for one more such town meet- 
ing in Antrim I The meeting-house was not begun till 1785, and 
was finished in 1791. The first school-house was reared in 1779, 
and a better took its place in 1786. Thus, true to the instincts 
of their race, in their labor and poverty their first solicitude was 
for the meeting-house and the school-house. They knew, those 
men, what we are too much forgetting, that in religion and edu- 
cation lies the only security to popular liberty. Remember they 
did these things under " hard times " such as we have never 
dreamed of, when a silver dollar could hardly be found, when 
ten dollars of an inflated currency was the price of a day's labor 
and seventy of a Sunday.'s preaching. A corresponding energy 
and sacrifice on our part, with the wealth and advantages of to- 
day, would build a railroad through the town, erect a factory on 
North Branch river, found a high school for our children and 
endow it for all time to come. 

But I must not linger on these themes. Words of ours are 
very powerless here to-day. Ten generations of the past are 
speaking to us, — men who have had a hand in overturning dy- 
nasties, and founding states ; a race that has given to our country 
one-third of her presidents, commanders and generals to our 
armies, scores of governors to our states, and senators, represent- 
atives, judges, clergymen, educators, without number ; a race 
whose blood, it is said, has infused itself into five millions of our 


population, and everywhere only to carry its tremendous energy 
and~resolute success. Are we the sons of sires like these ? The 
question is not of three centuries ago, nor of two, or one ; not 
of what they did, but of what we are doing. We look back upon 
them and say there were giants in those days ; they wrought 
heroically ; they builded well. To-day these gathered thousands 
sit in judgment on a century ago; but I cannot keep it out of 
mind, my friends, that a hundred years from to-day another jury 
will be assembled where we stand, a jury larger, and I hope 
wiser and better, than we — what shall their verdict be ? These 
petty self-seekings, and strifes, and political squabbling, that so 
much engage us, — into what meanness and poverty they sink 
beside the achievements of our ancestors ! The great work for us 
to-day — how tlie blood of three centuries leaps in our veins when 
we see such paltry trifles holding us from its high accomplish- 
ment ! If the money, time, and effort, that have been directed by 
everybody for the last twenty-two years, since the contest began, 
to carrying our March elections, had been put into mill-dams, 
canals, shops, factories, the old town to-day would have been sec- 
ond to but few in the State. As it is, the pleasant fact meets us 
that Antrim is one of our few country towns whose population has 
increased during the past ten or fifteen years. Very few of our 
towns^n the last five years have made such improvement in the 
erection and adornment of residences. Let this be the harbin- 
ger of the future. Turn this Scotch-Irish grit in anew direction. 
As our fathers were for a long time leaders in reducing the State 
from the wilderness, let their sons and daughters now be leaders 
in solving the greatest problem of New Hampshire's future, — of 
redeeming these old towns from decay. 

The old days and the old ways have done their work and are 
gone. " New times demand new measures and new men ; " the 
sooner we appreciate the fact the better. The steady drain of 
our young men and women to other fields must be diminished. 
It may be life to them but it is death to us ; the wonder is that 
we have been able to endure it so long. Only three things will 
remedy the matter, — religion, education, business. Men may 
sneer as they please, but it is eternal truth, nevertheless, that 
" righteousness exalteth a nation " and " unless the Lord build 
the house they labor in vain who build it." It was the strong 
hold which this truth had on the lives of the forefathers, more 
than anything and everything else, that gave them their prodig- 


ious power, yhe general forgetfulness of this, in high places 
and low, is one of the direst omens of our times. Our people 
must understand, too, that while the physical life-blood of our 
cities must still come, as it has, from the country, it is no longer 
to be merely physical, — stout muscle, and brawn, and brain. 
Henceforth it must be educated muscle and brain. Our whole 
country, especially in the larger places, is getting thoroughly 
alive to this question ; and the town or people which fails to ap- 
preciate the situation and energetically apply the remedy, must 
inevitably fall behind. The third thing is everywhere admitted 
already, that under the changed condition of things no town can 
stand at all without manufactures. This educated muscle and 
brain must be set to work at home. The places that have seen 
this and drawn in around them railroads and shops, are prosper- 
ing ; those that ignore it are dead. » 

This grand old town with all her magnificent lake and moun- 
tain scenery, unsurpassed in southern New Hampshire, and with 
the unbounded hospitality of her people, - — bigger hearts I have 
never yet found in all my wanderings, — instead of being the 
resort of a few scattered tourists, ought to be made the summer 
residence of hundreds. These prodigious water-powers, now 
tumbling idly over the rocks, if harnessed to the wheel would 
build up, in at lea^t three sections of the town, large and flour- 
ishing villages like those of Peterborough, if not like Milford or 
Nashua. T/ien these wide fields where once our fathers plowed, 
where now only the oxen fatten or bushes grow, feeling the inspir- 
ing touch of industry, would berepeopled, and agriculture, which 
after all is the substratum of all our wealth, would come up to 
the position its importance demands. With increased popula- 
tion, these churches, whose prosperity is the best measure of real 
progress, would no longer crowd each other ; and education, 
without which there can be no progress, would be stimulated into 
the prominence it must hold in every successful community. I 
say nothing of the refined and elegant homes, the culture, the 
wealth, that would come of all this ; they are beginning to be 
seen already, that they would come is certain, but has nothing 
to do with the case. Our business is to wall up these rivers, 
send the plowshare through these hillsides, put life and power 
into -school and church. 

You say all this is a flighty dream ? Well, here all abroad are 
the grand possibilities, and here before me the power for their 


realization. To sit idly down on the fame or successes of our 
fathers, is to perish. The twentieth century is upon us. To 
shake off this tremendous inertness, to turn up our sleeves in our 
fathers' manhood, and by sheer strength roll these old granite 
mountains out into line with the progress of the day, — that is 
the work Antrim has to perform, that is the work New Hamp- 
shire has to perform. The on-coming years demand it of us ; 
for that the jury that shall stand here one hundred years from to- , 
day will hold us to the judgment. God grant the verdict, — They 
did their work, they builded worthy the race from which they 
sprung ! 


Turn back, O Time, thy chariot wheels, 

And pause in thy mysterious flight; 
Whate'er the past from me conceals, 

Now throw around the morning light; 
A moment pause, — let me forget 

The present with its hopes and fears, 
And read the past with earnest thought ; 

Turn back. O Time, a hundred years ! 

I'm there amid the solitudes 

And scenes of nature, undefiled, — 
The cragged cliff, the trackless woods, 

The trouted brook and rivers wild ; 
The landscape in its beauty lay 

As fair as Eden's richest bloom. 
When morning's first inspiring ray 

Touched the untrodden hills of June. 

A signal on thy granite hills 

Is beaming like a golden star; 
The mystic wealth its light distils 

Seems calling people from afar. 
A voice is floating through the vales, 

And stirreth by the moaning sea. 
Upon the breath of every gale : 

It is the voice of prophecy. 

'Tis not to waiting mines of gold, 

Nor fields of plenty, clothed in bloom ; 
Oh not to treasures, new and old. 

It bids a toiling race to come ; 
A richer least than kings can spread, 

Or e'en the fabled gods prepare, 
Is waiting now the heavy tread 

Of freemen, gathering slowly there. 


Behold a thin and scattered band, 

Yet brave and stout of heart they come, 
To plant upon their chosen land 

A freeman's hope, a freeman's home; 
They build their altars by the streams, 

And on the mountain's sunlit sod, 
And dedicate their earnest toil 

Alone to Freedom and to God. 

And Freedom's spirit, hovering o'er, 

Accepts the gracious offering given; 
The winds upon the lonely shore 

Are lifting now their vows to heaven ; 
And God, who sees the feeblest thought 

That stirs to life the human soul. 
Looks down upon the freeman's cot. 

And gives his labor kind control. 

One afternoon, from near and far, 

When June her softest air distilled. 
They gathered on the neighboring height, 

A scattered crowd, resolved to build; 
No marble column, towering high, 

No stately " corner-stone " is laid, 
No steeple pointing toward the sky, 

In gorgeous tinselry arrayed. 

The oak, the sturdy forest king, 

And granite from the solid hills, 
"With gratitude and songs they bring. 

To plant for hutments, and for sills ; 
Firm as the faith on which they stand. 

They rear the humble house of prayer. 
And God around the faithful band 

Extends the covert of his care. 


Six toilsome days, six quiet nights. 

To earnest work and care are given ; 
Six days to till the rugged earth. 

And one, the blessed hope of heaven; 
For when the peaceful Sabbath came, 

Amid the scenes of nature grand, 
The breath of worship seemed to stir 

The stillness of this favored land. 

I see him now — the man of God — 
As in the olden time I saw, 


Bearing on high the mystic rod 

Of sovereign grace, or sterner law ; 

He speaks of heaven, a rest for all, 
With earnest heart and tearttil eyes. 

Within the pulpit, rude and tall, 
That lifts hinn to the listening skies. 

They worship with the scented groves. 

The spreading vales and towering hills; 
Their hymns, the chorus of the song 

Of singing birds, and singing rills; 
So near the sky, the azure blue 

Seems ringing with united song; 
The saints on earth, and saints on high 

Join in one vast unbroken throng. 


Amid a little clustering group 
Of fair and sm'iling hills it stood, 

In all its rude simpliciLy, 

Near to the border of the wood, — 

That old school-house with windows four. 

And one above the shattered door. 

Near by, the little brooklet sung, 

In spring and summer time, so sweet. 
Inviting to its pebbly shore 

A score of busy truant feet, 
Which dashed the crystal waters wide. 
When e'er they touched the sparkling tide. 

And when old winter's icj' touch 
Had deftly silvered o'er the stream, 

And many a stately pile of snow 
Was heaped upon the school-house green, - 

How swiftly flew the shining steel, 

Bound closely to the skater's heel. 

The people's college, rude in form. 
But in its purpose nobly grand, 

The sport of sunshine and of storm, — 
The crowning glory of the laud. 

And so, upon Columbia's shore. 

We'll siDg its praise forever more. 

The church and school-house, side by side, 
Fair treasures of this chosen land, 

They spread their beams of glory wide; 
As stars above the night they stand. 

These are the bulwarks of the free; 

The chosen forts of liberty. 


As mouutain streams, the years went by; 

With life, the hill and valley rung, 
And thickly o'er the rugged land 

The hamlet and the vilhige sprung. 
The arts of peace, the busy hum 

Of labor, driving on apaee. 
Where'er their grateful blessings come. 

Work wonders for the toiling race. 

The hamlets of the living grow 

In pride and beauty everywhere. 
Round many a hearth the genial glow 

Of song and gladness mingle there; 
But ah ! amid these sunlit scenes. 

Some clouds are hanging overhead. 
As burns the light in living homes. 

So grow the cities of the dead. 


Yon silent street I'm treading now, 

And touching memories throng my breast, 
When in the June of long ago 

We laid her* gently down to rest, 
And left her with the groves and flowers, 

A tear upon the lovely bed; 
She vanished from that home of ours, 

To swell the city of the dead. 

And oh! to tread tlie mournful round 

In the lone city on the hill, 
And know that in the voiceless ground 

Some kindred dust is sleeping still. 
Is like the border-land of dreams. 

We visit in the midnight deep, 
When sailing on the shoreless sea, 

Beyond the mystic river. Sleep. 

They're with us' now, — oh, could the screen 

That thinly veils these mortal eyes 
Be lifted from the worlds between, 

What visions would our souls surprise I 
We'd see the dear, familiar forms. 

Whose dust is mingling with the clay, — 
Though o'er the " silent river " gone, 

They gather round our homes to-day. 

For, mid the scenes of hope and toil. 
Amid the calm or mid the strife, 

* An only sister. 


These spirit eyes are watching still, 
Upon the skyward towers of life ; — 

The voices stilled amid the flood, 
Whose sullen murmur we can hear, 

Break the deep silence of the tomb. 
And breathe soft music in the ear. 

The ceaseless current of the years, 

With noiseless flow, is moving on, 
, While on its glittering sheen appears 

The trophies of the victories won . 
A thousand years, a single day — 

The same upon its heaving breast, 
The works of ages move away 

As lightly as a child at rest. 

And can it be all else must move 

Upon the current at its will ? 
Is the vast army pressing on, — 

And we alone left standing still ?- 
Nay, moving, hoping, toiling on, — 

Oh, may we fill the mission well! 
The story of our earnest work, 

The coming hundred years must tell. 


The sun is dropping toward the western hills, 
A misty halo gathers round its moon, 

I hear the murmur of the distant rills, 
And the soft echo of the songs of June. 

Far in the east, beneath the frowning skies, 
A boundless ocean bathes a mystic shore, 

And winding up the steeps a pathway lies, 
O'er which my weary feet shall press no more. 

And through the gathering shadows, I can see 
Deep foot-prints marking all the beaten road, 

Where struggling with life's earnest destiny 
I sometimes fainted 'neath the heavy load. 

Oh! these are not the " prints upon the sand " 
Smoothed and concealed by time's relentless wave; 

The chilling frosts of winter they withstand. 
And greet the vision e'en beyond the grave. 

There are thorns which spring by the wayside yet, 
Where the hands of the toiling pilgrims bleed, 

And I know the depth of the sad regret, 
That my hands have scattered some careless seed. 


^t^, s^^^^^'^^^^'^^ , 


But a golden light is streaming through 

On memory's dim and faded page, 
And fairy hands seem weaving now 

A chaplet for the brow of age. 

For there bloom upon the virgin soil 

The flowers of love and kindly deed, 
"Where, through the hours of earnest toil, 

I scattered wide the precious seed. 

And the harvest-fields are rich in gold, 

The fruitage of the kindly years, 
For there springs the growth of a hundred-fold, 

From the seed we sow in love and tears. 

But the sun hath reached its burning noon 
And droppeth towards the western sky; 

The anthems and the flowers of June 
K"o more allure the ear and eye. 

The span' is short, — ■ the sunset hills 

In gold and crimson seerd more near ; 
The murmur of the autumn rills 

Within the western vales I hear. 

The fields are whitening, and the blade 

Grows heavy with the dropping sun ; 
A voice seems stirring in the shade, 

" Brother, thy work is weU-nigh done." 

Then up to the harvest-fields, at morn! 

There is work for the feeblest heart or hand; 
We must work till the weary day is done, 

And we reach the golden sunset-land. 


" Scotch character — still marked by grit and grace." 

Mr. Presidekt, Friends and Fellow-Citizens of Antrim, 
Ladies and Gentlemen, — After listening to the eloquent and in- 
structive speeches of your president and the accomplished orator of the 
day, it is with great reluctance that I rise to say a single word. I should 
prefer to remain a silent listener; but somehow your committee have got 
the notion that every son of Antrim is a born orator, — which is undoubt- 
edly true, as a rule, — and, under that impression, they have invited, or, 
rather, they have required, me to tespond to the sentiment just read, 
touching the "grace and grit" of the Scotch-Irish character. I shall 
endeavor to comply with the request, conscious, however, that by so 
doing I shall demonstrate the fallacy of their rule, or at least show one 
exception to it. I was notified beforehand, by the reverend chairman of 


the committee on literary matters, of the sentiment to which I was 
expected to respond, and expressed a doubt of my ability to do justice to 
the subject, or to satisfy the reasonable expectations of a Scotch-de- 
scended audience, when he cut me short, and, to some extent, relieved 
my misgivings, by kindly remarking that there was no necessary con- 
nection between the "sentiments" and the speeches that follow, — the 
sentiments being, in fact, mere " figure-heads,"- ornamental, but of no 
particular use ; or, as I understood it, like the " dummy " forms in a 
mantua-maker's shop, — used to hang dupes of all kinds upon, for exhi- 
bition ; or. if my clerical friends will pardon the comparison, like a text 
of Scripture at the head of a sermon, always good in itself, but not always 
indicative of the quality, and sometimes not even suggestive of the sub- 
ject of the sermon that follows it. Mr. President, I prefer ihis last com- 
parison, because 'it applies so closely to the sentiment under considera- 
tion, and the speech I am making in response to it. 

I am reminded, in this connection, of a meeting of the agricultural 
society to which I belong, where several gentlemen who were called 
upon to speak made the excuse that they were unacquainted with the 
subject, when the president announced that speeches would be in order 
upon any subject, provided no allusion was made to agriculture; and I 
suppose I shall be pardoned, if, in speaking to the sentiment announced, 
I shall avoid all allusion to anything that is Scotch. 

And now, Mr. President, as I have a few remarks to make on my own 
account, aside from this sentiment, I wish to lay it upon the table for a 
few minutes, promising to resume it again, if time permits," unless it is 
voted that the " further reading of it be dispensed with," — a vote which 
is frequently resorted to, in parliamentary proceedings, to get rid, for the 
time being, of some tedious bill or document, — and which would be a 
very appropriate vote in the present case. 

It was with extreme gratification that I received the kind invitation of 
your committee to be present on this very rare and very interesting 
occasion, — a pleasure of which I should very unwillingly have been 
deprived. As I have already intimated, my desire was to be a hearer 
and learner of your history from others, rather than to take any prom- 
inent part in the exercises of the occasion myself, for which I am not 
qualified, either by literary attainments, or by a knowledge of the history 
of your town, especially in its details, which are of chief interest on an 
occasion like this. Although a native of the town, I left it in early 
childhood, and my lot has bpen cast far from it, in another State. But I 
thankfully accept your greeting of welcome, and am here to claim, my 
birthright, and to " stand up and be counted " among the sons of Antrim, 

— a privilege and an honor in which I have always felt a pride, and that 
feeling, I assure you, is re-enforced and brightened by the surroundings of 
this meeting. Indeed, it always occurs to me when I visit Antrim, and 
never more sensibly than on this visit, that my leaving it was a mistake, 

— a mistake, however, for which I was not accountable. New Hampshire 
is proverbially said to be " a good State to emigrate from," but I have 
always found it to be a most delightful State to visit, — especially this 
town of Antrim, These beautiful hills, by which we are surrounded, 


were among the objects which first greeted my young eyes. They have 
never been forgotten, but have ever been dear to me, and will be among 
the last of eartlily scenery to fade from my memory. 

It is both a duty and a pleasure to meet you, my brothers and sisters, 
and join with you in this family gathering; to greet this good old town, 
our common mother, now a hundred years old, yet beaming in perennial 
beauty and youth, smiling in every feature to welcome her children as 
they gather around her, to celebrate this, her centennial birthday. 

I have been accustomed, from year to year, to visit this my early home, 
a stranger to nearly all its inhabitants, calling upon the few remaining, 
acquaintances of my father's family when they resided here; but year by 
year tlie number has diminished, and now I find most of their names 
"grav'd on the stone " in your several places of burial. In my visits I 
have never failed to make a pilgrimage to the ancient cemetery on the 
hill above us. 

" Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, 
Each in his narrow cell forever laid, 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." 

There in unknown graves rest some of my ancestors and other rela- 
tives, and I have looked in vain for any indication of the particular spot 
occupied by their dust; nor has any one now living, relative or stranger, 
any knowledge or recollection of it. In my wanderings and musings 
among the graves, I have sometimes thought, that, with a hammer and 
chisel, in my hands, I might easily be mistaken, by the readers of Walter 
Scott, for "Old Mortality" himself, renewing and recutting the epitaphs 
upon the headstones of the old Scotch Covenanters. In these wanderings, 
I find myself literally fulfilling what may now be considered a prophecy, 
uttered by Rev. Dr. Whiton, in his farewell to the old meeting-house, 
December, 1826. He said : " In the progress of years, even though this 
house should not be removed by the hands of men, yet its walls, already 
dilapidated, must totter and fall. Still, this spot, consecrated by so 
many sacred associations, will long retain a peculiar interest. Unborn 
generations will remember it as having once been holy ground. Tradi- 
tion will hand down something of its history to those who shall live in 
this place after the very name of each one of us shall have been totally 
forgotten. Pointing to this eminence, they will say, 'There stood the 
first house of prayer erected in this place ; there our fathers worshiped ; 
in yonder burying-ground sleeps their dust ; ' and thv' no business may 
call the travelet here, yet a contemplative spirit will invite, now and then, 
an individual in future generations, to ascend this hill to examine the moul- 
dering monuments of the dead, and to indulge imagination in recalling the 
scenes of an age then past and gone." 

I suppose, Mr. President, that I am not the only one who, uncon- 
sciously, has already verified these predictions. 

The little, old, unpainted house in which I was born, in which my early 
years were spent, and which was to me the dearest spot on earth, disap- 
peared many years since, and the place is now occupied by the very neat 
and attractive cottage of your townsman, Mr. Kelsea. Tlie elm-tree, — 


small as I recollect it, shading the well, where hung " the old oaken 
bucket," is now a stately and piost graceful tree of some two feet in diam- 
eter. That house, as long as it stood, was an object of my love and 
veneration, and I always visited it with peculiar interest. On one of my 
visits I found it occupied by strangers, who, however, knew by whom it 
had formerly been inhabited, for, on my asking the privilege of going into 
all the rooms, — they were not very numerous, — leave was granted, and 
the lady of the house, wondering, I suppose, at the enthusiasm I mani- 
fested, expressed the opinion that I was either a lunatic, or an Adams. 
The old school-house, too, where they taught my first " ideas how to shoot," 
— which stood opposite to the end of the road leading westward from 
the two churches in the South Tillage, was long since removed, and its 
site is now occupied, very nearly, by one of those churches. My first 
teacher was the late Hon. Daniel M. Christie, afterwards one of New 
Hampshire's most eminent jurists. He taught that school the winter 
of 1814-15, and also the succeeding winter, I think. The intervening 
summer it was taught by Miss Panny Baldwin, — afterwards Mrs. Dr. 
Burnham, ^ who was my first female teacher. I was probably the youn- 
gest of the winter scholars. Among the older, were Luke Woodbury, 
afterwards, for several years, judge of probate for Hillsborough county, 
deceased many years ago ; G eorge W . Nesmith, afterwards, and during 
the entire constitutional term, chief justice of the supreme court of New 
Hampshire, and whose absence on this occasion is very much regretted 
by all; and Clark Hopkins, who rejoices all by his presence, and no one 
more than myself, as he is the only one whom I am able to recognize as 
a school-fellcjw. There may be one or two other scholars of that school, 
and of that day, present, — possibly more, — but, if so, we are mutually 
unknown to each other. More than sixty winters have scattered their 
frosts upon our heads since we were school-fellows; many are dispersed 
to various parts of the country; but more have gone to " the undiscdvered 
country from whose bourn no traveler returns." 

I wish here to allude to a custom of that school at that time, which, on 
a retrospective view, seems at least remarkable. At the examination at 
the close of the winter term, the ashes which had accumulated during 
the winter — and it was not a small quantity — were sold at a potash 
manufactory in the immediate neighborhood, apd the proceeds invested 
in rum, sugar, gingerbread, raisins, etc., at the store; and teachers, 
scholars, and visitors, including the ministers, all united in a general 
symposium. This I suppose was found to be " a custom more honored in 
the breach than in the observance," for I was informed, from an authen- 
tic source many years since, that it was practiced but for a very few years. 
It is one of the customs of those early times, of which we may not boast 
except in its abandonment. 

One feature, however, in the school-house landscape still remains, — 
the brook just west from the school-house, where we thoughtless boys — 
and girls, too — during the noon intermission, in the sultry summer days, 
were accustomed to wade, sometimes for the refreshing coolness of the 
stream, but oftener for the fun of splashing each other with water. The 
bridge, and each rock in the bed of the stream above it, seem to me at 


this day just as they did more than sixty years ago. And now that I 
have got into the brook, 1 will follow it up to the scene of a very notable 
event in my life. In my fifth year, as I remember, hearing some older 
boys tell of their wonderful exploits in fishing, I caught the piscatorial 
infection, and could not be satisfied till I had tried my luck. Accordingly 
my mother rigged me out with a fish-pole, something Kke a long whip- 
handle, which I think it was, attached a line to it of her own making, 
extemporized a fish-hook from a pin and baited it for me. With this 
offensive gear over my shoulder, I took leave of my friends and the pa- 
ternal roof, and wended my way westward to the aforesaid brook in quest 
of adventures. In some previous age a large tree had fallen across this 
stream, and in the process of time had gradually settled into the ground, 
till it became a dam, over which the stream poured, forming, and falling 
into, a basin below. Standing on the end of this log, I threw my hook 
into this basin or pool of deep water, when the bait was at once taken by 
a trout, which I was about to say was instantly landed; but that would 
not be in strict conformity with the facts. It was withdrawn from its 
native element, elevated in the air, and carried dangling at the end of my 
line, like a flag or pennon, to grace my triumphal and very rapid march 
back to head-quarters. Achilles, dragging Hector at his chariot wheels, 
did not feel moi'e exultant than I did on this occasion of catching my first 
fish. I have usually, when in town, visited the place and stood on the old 
log; but the last time I was there the log had decayed, its ends only 
remaining imbedded in the- bank on each side of the stream. 

Among the cherished recollections of these early years, are those of my 
school-books. I have at home a copy of each book used bj me during 
all my school-days, — a collection to which I find myself frequently refer- 
ring, with more interest, perhaps, than when it was my duty to study them. 
Those in use here by scholars of my age were, first, the " New England 
Primer," from which we learned the alphabet, connected with, and made 
attractive by, the accompanying wood-cuts and verses, commencing with 
" In Adam's fall we sinned all," and ending with " Zaccheus he did climb 
the tree, his Lord to see." There was also a picture representing the mar- 
tyrdom of John Rogers at the stake, in presence of his wife and an uncer- 
tain number of children. But, in the estimation of our orthodox seniors, 
the little volume was chiefly valued as being the only book among us 
that contained " The Assembly's Shorter Catechism," of which every 
scholar was expected to know the answers, from the question " What is 
the chief end of man? " to " What doth the conclusion of the Lord's prayer 
teach us ? " The young children understood very little of the meaning 
of these answers at the time ; but they learned the " form of sound words," 
which was of great value to them in riper years. Second, " The Ameri- 
can Spelling Book, by Noah ffebster, Junior, Esquire,^' from which we 
were taught to spell words of two or three letters, and from that up to 
full-grown words of seven or eight syllables, — " words of learned length 
and thundering sound." Here, also, we learned the sounds of vowels 
and consonants, punctuation, numerals, abbreviations, and other element- 
ary principles, which were quite as thoroughly taught then, I think, as 
in more modern times. But the great attractions of the book were the 


fables, — each headed by a square wood-cut, which we could undersland, 
and ending with a " moral " which to us was not always so clear. Among 
these fables, " The boy that stole apples '' came first. This was a case of 
conflicting claims between him and the " old man," touching some fruit, 
which was, after some very powerful arguments, settled in favor of the 
latter. The next, I think, was "The country maid and her milk-pail.'' 
She appeared to be surveying, with woful visage, the contents of her 
overturned pail, flowing upon the ground at her feet, and the ruin of a 
plan quite as reasonable as many speculations of the present day involv- 
ing millions, and by far more honest than some of them. Moral: " Don't 
count chickens before they are hatched." Then followed •' The cat and 
the rat," undoubtedly the origin of the phrase, " A cat in the meal," 
much used in these days by our very astute and far-seeing politicians. 
Moral: '■ Caution, the parent of safety." 

Then there was " The bear and the two friends." These two friends, ' 
when entering a forest through which they were to travel, formed an 
" alliance offensive and defensive '' against danger, which soon made its 
appearance in shape of a large bear, when one of them, Who was very 
agile, went " up a tree " out of the waj^ of harm, leaving his less active 
friend to arrange matters with the bear, as best he cf uld. By a shrewd 
piece of deception, which, however, I have always considered justifiable, 
he succeeded in humbugging the bea* and getting clear of him, besides 
learning from him the valuable moral of this fable, which he repeated to 
his deserting comrade, " Never associate witha wretch, who, in the hour' 
of danger, will desert his friend." I would remark that the bear, for- 
merly very dangerous, has now become nearly extinct in this part of the 
.country, being seldom seen except upon the stock exchange in New 
York, where he roams as fierce and untamable as ever. He is hunted 
there sometimes successfully by ''bulls," but somietimes, the "bulls" get 
the worst of it. ' 

Lastly, " The unjust judge," a fable well known to all this audience, 
and also known to be so exclusively applicable to the legal profession, of 
which I see around me several of high standing, that it might appear 
personal if I proceeded further into the " case." The obvious moral is, 
"Don't go to law nor to lawyers expecting to obtain justice." I should 
not omit to say, the " bull " of this fable is not of the kind used for hunt- 
ing " bears " in Wall street. 

The only reading-books used in that school, besides those mentioned, 
of which I have any recollection, were the '• American Preceptor," by 
Caleb Bingham, A. M., and " Au American Selection of Lessons in 
Beading and Speaking," etc., " being the Third Part of a Grammatical 
Institute of the English Language," " by Noah Webster, Jun., Esquire, 
Boston, 1802." 

And now, Mr. President, after begging pardon for occupying so much 
time in giving my boyish recollections of the Neighborhood where 1 was 
born, always interesting to myself, but tedious, I fear, to my audience, I 
will say a few words upon the characteristics of our Scotch-Irish ances- 
tors, — a subject laid on the table a few minutes ago, where I really 
think it had better remain, as the history of the first settlers here. 



which you have already heard from others, has necessarily, to a great 
extent, covered the subject, and presented it more ably than it is possible 
for me to do. 

The emigration from Scotland to the north of Ireland, about the year 
1612, was chiefly from Argyleshire. There are reasons, however, for 
believing that some portion of 'it went from Ayrsliire. From the 
descendants of that emigration to Ireland, came those who settled in 
Londonderry and its neighboring towns in this Stale, in 1719, and subse- 
quently. From this stock the early settlers in this town are derived, — 
that is, those of Scottish descent. I have endeavored to fiad some record 
of the names of the families who emigrated from Argyleshire to Ireland, 
but without success, though I find in the " statistical account " of that 
shire, in nearly every parish, names identical with those of the early set- 
tlers in this town and vicinity. The characteristics of those who emi- 
grated to this country were substantially the same with their ancestors 
in Scotland. Very little change took place during the century they 
were in Ireland. Scotch when they came there, and very proud of it, 
their descendants were just as Scotch, and equally proud of their descent, 
when they left Ireland for America. The native Scotchman is proverb- 
ially proud of the country of his ancestors. Although it is a land rough 
and sterile, a large portion of which is, and always has been, totally unfit 
for agricultural purposes, or in any way sustaining a numerous popula- 
tion, the native Scotch are nevertheless strongly attached to the " land 
of the mountain aud the flood." At 'times obliged by necessity, or for 
other causes choosing, to emigrate, they never forget the hills, mosses, 
straths, banks, and braes of " bounie Scotland," or cease to speak of them 
with affection, and with the hope of some day returning there. 

Our Scotchrlrish ancestors, although generation after generation of 
their progenitors were born in Ireland, never seem to have formed 
any strong attachment to that country, nor to have acquired, to any great 
extent, the manners, customs, or political or religious notions of that 
people, nor to' have looked back to the country as once their home, or the 
home of their ancestors. Their religion, and the treatment they received 
on account of it, probably more than all other causes, created in them 
an antipathy to the Irish people, which was kept up, not only during 
their sojourn in that country, but sur\fived it, and came with them to 
this ; and, according to my observation, seems to be one of their charac- 
teristic, and perhaps unreasonable, prejudices, to the present time. 

The Scotch are naturally a serious people, and, to whatever religious 
denomination they may belong, are strongly attached to it. aud may be 
said to be "terribly in earnest " in regard to it. Their national religion 
has for centuries been Presbyterianism, to wliich order our ancestors 
generally belonged. Any history of it on this occasion is unnecessary. 
Perhaps no Christians, as a denomination, ever suffered more for "con- 
science' sake," than they in the early jears of the sect in Scotland, or 
exemplified more " grit and grace " under their persecutions, or held 
more tenaciously to their faith under the most trying conditions. In 
Ireland, also, great trials awaited them. The Irish Catholics, who had 
been dispossessed of their lands by these Scotch Presbyterians, soon 


began to annoy them whenever opportunity offered. In addition to the 
expense of supporting their own church, they were compelled to pay a 
tenth part of all their increase to aid in the support of a minister of the 
established church. They could only hold the lands they occupied as 
lessees of the crown, and not as owners of the soil. With their ardent 
aspir,ations for liberty, they could not endure to be thus deprived or 
trammeled in the exercise of their civil and religious rights. By these 
and other deprivations and trials, they were finally prepared to abandon 
the land to which they never were strongly attached, and where they 
had met so many discouragements, and set their faces toward this land 
of freedom. The motives for emigrating from Ireland to America, as 
stated by Kev. Mr. McGregor, in a sermon addressed to his pfeople on 
the eve of their embarking to this country, were : " (1) To avoid oppres- 
sion and cruel bondage; (2) to shun persecution and designed ruin; (3) 
to withdraw from the' communion of idolaters; (4) -to have an opportu- 
nity to worship God according to the dictates of conscience and the rules 
of His inspired Word." With these motives and with an unfaltering' 
confidence in Divine Providence, our fathers left the place of their birth 
and all the associations and comforts of home, and took the perils of a 
passage across the ocean " to a land which they knew not " ; neither for 
wealth, power, nor earthly honor, but for "freedom to worship God"; 
and this the very sublimity of " grace," if not of " grit." 

Arriving at this their adopted home, then an unbroken wilderness, 
they were subjected to all the trials and deprivations incident to new 
settlements: the want of roads, bridges, mills, mechanical and agricultu- 
ral tools and implements, the destitution of educational and religious 
privileges, sickness, the depredations of wild and savage beasts, and the 
constant fear of more savage men, — their condition during the early 
years of the settlement was peculiarly hard and rigorous. From many 
incidents that might be cited, showing the perils of the time, and also 
indicating the " grit and grace " with which they were encountered, I 
will relate a single one which was told me by my mother, who resided in 
Dea. Boyd's family some nine years, and who had the story directly from 
the heroine herself. Joseph Boyd (afterwards Dea. Boyd) with his 
young wife Mary, or Molly (McKeen), were among the very early set- 
tlers here, and had begun a clearing and built a house and barn, of logs, 
on the spot now occupied by the fine residence of Mr. D. H. Goodell. 
During the absence of Mr. Boyd at a neighboring town on business, his 
wife, being entirely alone, heard a sudden outcry from the swine, of 
which they had only two. Presently one of them rushed past the door 
toward the barn. As the other did not appear, Mrs. Boyd started at 
once to reconnoiter, when, at a little distance from the house, she discov- 
ered the missing animal held fast in the embraces of a huge black bear, 
whose biting and hugging caused the outcry of the pig. Here was a call 
for " grit " if not for " grace," and Mrs. Boyd was equal to the emergency. 
Thinking the loss pf the animal would, in the beginning of their married 
life,'be almost irreparable, she braved the danger, and, approaching within 
speaking distance, screamed at the top of her voice, hoping to frighten 
away the bear. But he cast a look of contempt upon her, as much as to 


say, " Who cares for you, Mrs. Boyd? This pig is mine." But Mrs. Boyd 
was not disposed to concede this claim. Laying hold of a partially 
burnt stick of wood which she could conveniently wield, she boldly 
advanced within striking distance, and gave the bear a violent blow 
upon his back, at the same time raising her voice with all her power; 
whereupon, astonished, if not damaged, by this unexpected attack in the 
rear, he at once droppeu his prize, and, marching off a couple of rods, 
seated himself upon his haunches to take a view of the situation, when 
the intrepid Mrs. Boyd, executing a strategic movement, placed herself 
between the bear and the pig, and drove the latter up to the barn and 
shut him in with his mate. She then hasted to the nearest neighbor, 
Mr. Daniel McFarland (who then lived where Mr. N. W. C. Jameson 
now resides), for re-enforcements; but so much time was consumed in 
preparing ammunition, that when the allies appeared on the battle-field, 
the bear had made good his retreat. Mr. Boyd arriving home about this 
time, a bear-trap or pitfall was constructed, and baited with a portion of 
the pig, which it was found necessary to slaughter, and the next morn- 
ing a three-hundred-pound bear was found in the trap. Bear-meat was 
generally considered a welcome delicacy by the new settlers, but Mrs. 
Boyd declined to partake of the feast. In describing this involuntary 
tete-a-tete with the bear, as he sat gazing at her, she said she could hardly 
avoid the impression that it was the evil one himself, and always there- 
after mentally associated them together, as having a striking family 
resemblance at least. I have no doubt the young wives of this day have 
inherited the "grit" of their foremothers, and would emulate their 
courage in encountering danger under the same circumstances. But 
that they are not called to the trial is fortunate for the young wives, and 
for the bears too. 

Few years only were required under the exercise of the indomitable 
fortitude and industry of these ancestors of ours, to materially change 
these rigorous conditions. The wilderness gradually yielded to the 
aggressive inroads of the husbandman. 

" How jocund did they drive their team afield, 
How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdj' stroise." 

Green meadows, fertile fields, rich and broad pastures, supplanted the 
forests; the meeting-house early made its appearance on the hill above 
us; school-houses multiplied as they were needed; the din of the smith, 
the carpenter, and the mason began to be heard ; the smoke curled up 
from the chimneys of neat and comfortable dwellings on every side, indi- 
cating the industry and thrift of the new settlers. These were the 
beginnings, one hundred years ago, of what we see to-day in this town, 
and in many other towns having the same common origin . 

The sojourn of our Scotch progenitors in Ireland may be compared 
with the crystal stream having its source high up among the Alpine 
glaciers of central Europe, augmeflted by tributaries as it descends, till it 
becomes a large and rapid river, pouring into and passing for a long dis- 
tance through a lake, with whose waters, however, it does not appear to 
mingle at all, but continues its course, maintaining its own distinctive 


character and color, till it pours forth from the lower extremity of the 
lake, the same clear and sparkling stream which entered it far above, — 
still pursuing its way, beautifying the landscape, fertilizing the meadows 
and vineyards, imparting wealth and utility throughout its course, till it 
reaches the blue sea, where it contributes its share in floating the com- 
merce and navies of the world. So our ancestors, originating and nur- 
tured among the mists and heath-covered mountains of Argyle, induced 
by the hope of an improved temporal condition, but more by the hope of 
escaping from persecution and enjoying a greater religious freedom, 
began the western stream of emigration, landing in the north of Ireland, 
where they and their immediate descendants sojourned ; and, after resist- 
ing and repelling, for more than a century, the adverse influences and 
uncongenial elements by which they were environed, and which crowded 
and oppressed them on every side in that land, they emerged from it the 
same indomitable race, retaining the same characteristics with which 
they entered it more than a century before, and, resuming their west- 
ward course, landed on these American shores. Hero they settled, 
founding communities which were models of moral, religious, and mate- 
rial strength, sending out numerous colonies of the same character, — 
their sons worthily and honorably filling the highest positions in the 
nation ; their daughters exemplary in every relation of life, and orna- 
menting every station in society to which they are called. From these 
settlements the race has spread, by emigration, to every part of the land, 
uutil, at the present time, there is not a State in the Union which has 
not more or less of the Scotch-Irish element, the descendants of this Lon- 
donderry immigration; and it may safely be asserted that they have con- 
tributed much more than their mere numerical proportion in forming 
the institutions and wielding the destinies of this great republic. 

Our ancestors inherited the traditional characteristic of the Scotch, 
of attachment to their religious belief, and a zealous defense of every 
theological point of doctrine involved in it. They seemed so sure that 
a correct life would result from a correct belief, that they depreciated 
and undervalued all sermons of a mere practical character, and some- 
times stigmatized ministers who preached them as unsound, — "daubers 
with untempered mortar." On hearing a sermon of this character, a 
lady of the congregation angrily said of the minister, " If there's an ill 
text in a' the Bible that creature's sure to tak it." 

They were always distinguished by a strict observance of the Sabbath; 
never failing to attend church the whole day, unless something very 
serious prevented. In their homes, no levity, nor conversation on ordi- 
nary topics, was tolerated on that day. Heading the Scriptures, studying 
and teaching the catechism, with family devotions, occupied the rest of 
the time. The Presbyterians in Scotland and elsewhere formerly had a 
great prejudice against the use of organs and other musical-instruments 
in churches; and that prejudice was inherited by the same denomination 
in this country, and to some extent exists to-day. In reading the history 
of the Presbyterian churches, I flnci some very ludicrous incidents con- 
nected with instrumental music in church choirs. I am indebted to 
Dean Eamsay for an anecdote or two in illustration: An Episcopal lady 


took a favorite Presbyterian servant to church, and, on returning, asked 
her how she liked the organ music. " Oh,^' she replied, " it's very bon- 
nie; but oh, my lady, it's an awfu' way of spending the Sabbath I" 

A lady, in speaking of an Episcopal minister, who, of course, had an 
organ in his church, without intending the least disrespect, described 
him as a " Whistle-Kirk minister." 

A most worthy Scotch family came to the town of my residence, and, 
attending church for the first time where an orchestra was connected 
with the choir, their little boy, who had only heard instrumental music 
in the streets of Edinburgh in connection with the exhibition of a mon- 
key, on hearing the instruments commence a prelude, pulled his mother 
by the sleeve, and earnestly inquired, "Mother! mother! where's the 
monkey? " 

There has been a great change since those early days, in relation to 
the use of musical instruments in churches, and also in the manner of 
observing the Sabbath generally. 

They are proverbially cautious in their statement of facts ; reticent, 
almost to a fault, in committing themselves by an unwary answer to the 
most undesiguing question. This trait is illustrated by the reply of the 
non-committal old lady, who, while being examined for admission to the 
churcjji, when asked if she loved the Saviour, replied that she didn't know 
as she had anything against him. 

Our Scotch-Irish ancestors were firm believers in witches and witch- 
craft. This was a legitimate inheritance from Scotland, where it was 
heresy to reject such belief. - The whole day might be consumed in the 
relation of strange incidents, honestly, religiously believed in by our 
grandmothers and their contemporaries; but time will not permit, nor 
would it be profitable. 

They were a well-educated people. The standard of education among 
the common people in Scotland, at the time of the emigration from there, 
was much higher than in any other part of Great Britain ; and that it was 
more than maintained while they rea. ained in Ireland, is shown by the 
fact, that, of the three hundred and nineteen petitioners to Gov. Shute for 
a grant of land in Massachusetts (but which, on running the line, was 
found to be in New Hampshire), there were but thirteen who did not 
write their' names. It is also shown by the class of men who, subse- 
quently came over and settled in this vicinity. The poverty of many, 
and the necessity for all to labor in clearing and settling a new country, 
were suflScient reasons why so few obtained a college education here; 
but the common school was early established and efficiently maiintained, 
and it was very rare, even in the early days of these settlements, to find 
a person who could not both read and write. 

Although Sidney Smith has said that " It requires a surgical operation 
to get a joke into a Scotch understanding," I think it merely shows a 
prejudice on his part, or an unwillingness to admit in a Scotchman a 
trait said to be so eminent in himself. If I know what wit and humor 
are, they are found to a pre-eminent degree in the writings of Scott, 
Burns, Wilson, and other Scotchmen; and of all the acquaintances I have 
formed, I should mark the Scotch and Scotch-Irish as distinguished 


above all others for humor, wit, and repartee. To be sure, they are an 
upright, downright, matter-of-fact class ; but under all this you are sure 
to find a substratum of keen, dry, and, to use a Scottish adjective, pawky 
humor. That our immediate Scotch-Irish ancestors inherited a full 
share of the wit of their progenitors, is the testimony of all traditional 
and written biography. 

Much more might be said, and much 'better said, upon the character- 
istics, of our Scotch-Irish progenitors, but I have already extended these 
remarks to an unreasonable length, and will close them by a concise 
summary of their characteristic traits, in the language of another: — 

" They have always been characterized by a staid and solid cast of 
thought, uprightness of personal deportment, an honest industry in the 
pursuits of life, and, pervading all, a deep-seated sense of religion, which, 
if it has sometimes merged into severity, and darkened, as it were, 
with a cloud, although only in detached patches, the fair landscape of the 
social picture, — has, nevertheless, on the whole and in its grand results, 
been favorable to virtue and to the maturing of those principles and feel- 
ings which have conduced to a quiet, peaceful, contented, and happy life 
and frugal habits, the desire of independence, a submissive obedience to 
civil rule withal, but not incompatible, also, when circumstances have 
required, with a vigorous resistance to oppression, and the exhibition of 
heroism in defense of civil and religious liberty." 

So much, Mr. President, for the "grit and grace " of Scotch-Irish char- 
acter, as illustrated in the lives of our ancestors. 

May their descendants avoid their failings, and emulate their virtues! 

" Rev. John M. Whiton, D. D., — his life a gospel of peace." 

Ladies, Gentlemen, and Feiends of my Native Town, — The 
occasion which has called us together is one of deep interest to every 
lover of home and native land. I rejoice to be present at this centenary 
festivity, and, though addressing public assemblies has not been in my 
way, yet I must speak. I have occasion for gratitude that so copious a 
subject has been presented to me. So fruitful does it seeni that no one 
could fail to speak on it. The only apparent difficulty is to find a suita- 
ble place to close. But great subjects require great ability in those that 
treat them ; and to do justice to great men, requires," not only ability, but 
a familiar and intimate acquaintance with their whole life. Such 
acquaintance does not come in childhood and youth ; yet that was the 
period, in my life, when nearly all the observations were made from 
which I must now draw. A casual intercourse, indeed, existed to the 
close of his long and useful career ; for, in my visits to my native town, I 
always felt that, next to my mother, I must visit the venerable and 
much-esteemed Dr. Whiton. Those interviews were always most grati- 
fying, and served to keep fresh the earlier observations, while maturing 
years and experience served, in some measure, to correct the crudities of 
my youthful imagination. Childhood and youth look upon mature and 
noble manhood as distant, grand, unapproachable. They can have no 


proper sympathy with it. But, as we advance in life, this distance and 
grandness somewhat abate, though we can never quite dispel the feel- 
ings of reverence and awe with which our youthful imagination had 
invested them. Hence the constant cry, " What shall we do when the 
present generation of great men shall have passed away ? " as if every 
succeeding age did not furnish accumulated material and equal occasion 
for greatness, in the various departments of life. 

Was the theme of our remarks, the Eev. John Milton Whiton, D. D., 
a great man? Probably he was never conscious of greatness, and few, if 
any, who were conversant with him, suspected it of him. But, measured 
by the true test, I think this quality cannot be denied to him. 

Greatness does not consist in illustrious descent, size, physical force, 
commanding presence, brilliancy of address, nor in great attainments. 
It is the ability to do, with ease, what is very* difficult, or impossible, for 
others to do at all. It is simple, unpretending, unconscious. The high- 
est greatness is not inconsistent with the deepest humility ; indeed, 
humility is its necessary concomitant. 

Dr. Whiton was eminently fitted, by nature and acquirements, for the 
position which he filled. He had a clear apprehension of his field of 
labor, and of the duties to be performed in it. When he spoke, it was 
never for display. Self was put out of sight, and only his subject 
appeared. His language was chosen with remarkable taste and judg- 
ment. He never overshot his audience. His style was lucid and pure. 
In his sermons he seemed ever aware that he had for hearers the .mature 
and immature, and adapted his words and reasonings to the comprehen- 
sion of both. He never diverted the attention of his hearers from the 
subject-matter of his discourse, by the introduction of new and strange 
words, expressions, or pronunciations. He was plain, direct, and intel- 
ligible in his preaching, but never striking. He treated little of meta- 
physical or abstruse questions. He labored to indoctrinate his church 
and people in a pure faith and a corresponding practice, to teach all to 
love and be at peace with one another, enforcing his teaching by his life. 
He was, himself, "' A living epistle, known and read of all men." He 
was respected, even to veneration, by those who affected to disbelieve 
his teachings. Though few suspected it, and himself least of all, he was 
truly eloquent, if eloquence is the power of convincing and persuading, 
and not, as some think, the utterance of high-sounding words, accompa- 
nied by a brilliant display of gestures. The art of pleasing stands first 
among the essential qualities of the orator; and of this art Dr. Whiton 
was truly a master. 

Those who are to be affected by eloquence, must be satisfied of the 
honesty and sincerity of the orator. In these respects, also. Dr. Whiton 
was above all suspicion. Only intelligence and good sense are wanting 
to complete the list of qualities that go to make up true greatness, and 
these were accorded to him with great unanimity. He was not only a 
good preacher, but an admirable pastor. Until near the last of my resi- 
dence here, the township was his parish ; and it was his practice to visit 
every family, at least once in a year, and the people, old and young, 
gladly welcomed him. Kor, when he had preached his Sabbath dis- 


courses, attended his meetings for lectures, conference, and prayer, and 
made his pastoral visits, did he regard his duties done. The schools of 
the town were his special care, and regularly did he visit them, without 
particular invitation, or pay. He was a thorough scholar, and kept him- 
self posted in all the branches taught. So kindly and genial was his 
manner in the school-room, that, judging others by myself, his visits were 
ever welcome and inspiring. He also gratuitously examined, as to their 
qualifications, such as were desirous of teaching, and, if he deemed them 
qualified, gave them letters of recommendation. But, on no considera- 
tion, would he recommend a low or vile character. In all disputed 
grammatical points, he was ultimate court of appeal. So great was the 
confidence of all in the accuracy of his knowledge, that his decisions 
were accepted without question; and, if rumor speaks truth, this confi- 
dence in his intelligence and judgment was not confined to this town- 
ship. As moderator in church councils, his knowledge of the rules by 
which such bodies are governed is said to have been so extensive and 
accurate, that rarely did any question arise for which he was not pre- 
pared, or any appeal taken from his rulings. Ecclesiastical bodies 
regarded it an auspicious omen, in all questions of difficulty, if the ser- 
vices of Dr. Whiton could be secured as moderator. And yet, the 
duties, public and private, so many and varied, he performed with such 
apparent ease, as always to appear comparatively at leisure. Though 
simple, unpretending, and humble, beyond most men, he was still a man 
of great dignity. Though he was never austere, never assumed author- 
ity, yet his very presence would keep in abeyance the most turbulent 
elements. His goodness overcame the spirit of disorder. He never 
seemed to say, by word or act, to the youngest, poorest, or worst of the 
people, that he was happy to lay aside his dignity, for a time, and conde- 
scend to treat them kindly. His courtesy was inherent, spontaneous. 
It welled up and overflowed from a living, perennial spring in his heart. 
He knew, and could call by name, every person, old and young, in the 
township, and never passed siny one without a cordial greeting, nor did 
he ever omit or misapply titles of respect. If he made any distinction 
in his treatment of rich and poor, 'high and low, it favored the latter. 
He was not only modest, courteous, genial and kind, and easy of access, 
but he seemed to be endowed with a kind of centripetal force which 
drew, and bound to him, all who came within the sphere of his influence. 
All were made to feel entirely at ease in his presence. There was no 
tyranny in his courtesy, no oppression in his condescension. The bash- 
ful and timid he would so lead on and draw out, that they were com- 
pelled to feel that they were giving him both pleasure and profit, and 
that he regarded himself their debtor. In short, he made them pleased 
with themselves and him. He was a true and ardent friend, and no 
man's enemy. He was cordial and wise in counsel, and a safe depositary 
of confidence. Neither slander nor detraction could be laid at his door. 
His truthfulness was proverbial. But, with all his excellencies, he still 
bore the impress of humanity, so we were not left in doubt whether he 
were an angel. His extreme caution and timidity would provoke an 
occasional smile. Though he knew well the value of things, he, was not 


made to get rich by traflac. He could not appreciate his own and depre- 
ciate his neighbor's goods. He could not quite see the point of honesty 
in the man who could dispose of a cow, somewhat too "nimble and spite- 
ful ,of foot, for a quiet, gentle animal. In short, he was not what the 
trading world calls sharp and shrewd. But of his honesty and honor 
there was no question. Though we are too apt to judge others by our- 
selves (and such judgment is termed "righteous'^ yet even the dishon- 
est had full confidence in his integrity. 

If, in our attempt to prove that our hero was a great man, there should 
seem to be a missing link, it may be supplied by the estimation in which 
he was held by his parishioners. If the question of changing ministers 
had ever arisen, there was not a man in all the region who would, for a 
moment, have been thought of to fill his place. Thus his greatness 
was unconsciously conceded, even though no one had thought him great. 
But this question of change never arose. 

A true courage is never boastful: so true greatness is never obtrusive. 
It may be in the midst of us, and we not know it. " The kingdom of 
God Cometh not with observatipn." In all my life the example of Dr. 
"Whiton has been ''A light to my path." No character has been more 
constantly before my mind. Though my youth precluded the possibility 
of forming ku intimate acquaintance with him in the more tender and 
delicate relations of friendship, yet this I can truly say, that, of all men 
with whom it has been my privilege to hold acquaintance, I have never 
met a more perfect Christian gentleman. 

May the riiantle of this remarkable man fall on his successors in the 
sacred office, and, as we insensibly become like the heroes of our contem- 
plation, may his life and character be so constantly exhibited that his 
virtues may ever characterize the sons and daughters of this, our native 

The reading by Mrs. Emma M. Huntley, of Milford, was of a 
high order. She was the daughter of an Antrim woman, Harriet 
J. Chapin. (See Chapin family.) The piece rendered was 
"The Rising of 1776," and elicited much applause. Mrs. 
Huntley has fairly achieved success as a reader, and is highly 
appreciated by the most cultivated audiences. 


"Influence of hill-towns on the destiny of our country." 

The subject which is proposed to me is, " The influence of the hill- 
towns upon the destiny of the republic." As I begin to think of this, I 
am reminded how the thought has come to me, when I have stood upon 
the bridge at Lawrence, fronting the fall, where the Merrimack makes its 
last plunge in its path to the sea, that the waters of our Great Brook 
mingle with that flood, and bring their pressure to bear upon those mill- 
wheels. And as I have stood by our brook, and listened to the dash of 
its cascades from the pond to the river, I have thought of which 
those waters are waiting to do in the great manufacturing towns. Thus 


is presented to us an image of that livij^g stream, wliich, in the country, 
we see -working its way to the city, and which, as we see it- turning the 
wheels of trade and of progress, we love to trace to its source, among 
the hills. Were he unacquainted with the springs of our national life, a 
tourist from the European world, passing through these hill-towns, would 
not see all that makes ttiem interesting to us, who know what they have 
contributed to the natroi. 

The lakes that sparkle like gems upon the earth's greeji .mantle ; the 
mountains that stand like sentinels, looking down upon the quiet villages; 
the variegated reaches of forest, and meadow, and upland pasture, 
which diversify the landscapes that open from many a turn and many a 
summit on the highway ; the leaping streams that run by many a roadside, 
and fill many a shady glen with music, • — would leave upon his memory 
many a charming photograph, combined with impressions of a rugged 
and ingenuous soil, requiring stout labor to wrest from nature a far less 
liberal return than might be obtained elsewhere. But we, who know 
what manner of men this rough soil develops, may well turn from con- 
templating those luxuriant lands, — 

"Where every prospect pleases, 
And only man is vile," — 

to bestow a higher admiration on the ^oil, which, though so poor that 
grain must be imported, has made the nation, and the world, its debtor 
by the export of men. It is a phenomenon equally interesting to the 
historian and the philosopher, that the hill and the plain have ever recip- 
rocally acted on each other. " The strength of the hills " has descended 
to the plain, — the culture of the plain has ascended to the hills. The 
life of the plain has been invigorated by influx from the hills, — the life 
of the hills has been beautified by tribute from the plains. This current 
and counter current, in their perennial flow, have always exhibited a form 
appropriate to the spirit of the times. 

In barbarian ages and lands, as often as the dwellers of the plain made 
advances in the arts, and acquisitions in the comforts of life, the hill popu- 
lations swarmed down like eagles on the spoil. Thus manly courage and 
martial strength were stimulated on the plain to resist the invaders, 
while the rude life of the hills was enriched by glimpses and tastes of 
better condition. And when the hill and the plain had learned to dwell 
together in peace, the mutual interchange of strength and beauty was 
none the less marked. When Rome had become the' mistress of the 
nations, her greatest soldier, Marius, — her greatest orator, Cicero, — 
her greatest living poet, Horace, — her greatest scientist, Pliny, — 6ame 
to her from the hill-towns. And, in return, the villas and country-seats 
of the wealthy pushed back upon the hills. The poems of Virgil were 
directed to the improvement of agriculture, and the culture of Pliny 
projected an academy for his native Comum. It is most interesting to 
notice, on another continent, and in ancient times, the same current and 
counter current between the highlands and the plains, which we may 
have imagined peculiar to our own land and times. When we find that 
the heads of great mercantile houses, whose lines of business extend over 


the cities of Europe and Asia; that the m,anagers of railways control- 
ling the transit from ocean to ocean ; that the preachers who guide and 
inspire our metropolitan churches; that the statesmen whose words flash 
on electric wires to the ends of the earth, — came down originally from 
hill-side farms, and drew from springs that bubble out of mountain gran- 
ite the deep, full life which they infuse into the world's movement, we 
merely meet modern instances of a phenomenon old as mankind, and 
likely to manifest itself in time to come, so long as hills hold water- 
springs and make the source of rivers. The influence, then, of hill-towns 
on the destiny of our country, is to be perpetual. Though the streams 
are all the while flowing from the hills, the hills will never empty their 
springs, so long as the clouds hang over them. If, here and there, we see 
deserted farms on back roads ; if, occasionally, a settlement like West 
Antrim, or our neighboring "Windsor, seems likely to be given back to 
the encroaching forest, — these are but like those slight subsidences in the 
coast-line, from which we can never infer that the continents are to be 

The monotonous flat of the prairie, however fertile in wheat, (and 
ague !) the pent-up lodgings of a city boarding-house, however conven- 
ient to shops and concert-halls, will never compete to any preponderat- 
ing and permanent advantage with the life of these hill-side homes, — free 
from city nuisances, if not furnished with every city convenience ; sure 
of a subsistence, that depends on no great man's favor, but on the rain- 
drops and the sunbeams that God gives; in constant view of a majestic 
panorama of nature's changing wonders ; accessible to all fresh thought 
that is worth the reading ; near enough the world's rush to hear it, and 
to feel a lively human interest in the struggle, and yet, as in a quiet eddy 
of the stream, to be at peace and independence, — the likeliest of all sit- 
uations in the world, if only controlled by a wise appreciation of what 
God deems best for man, to secure a life of content and dignity, send- 
ing forth a vigorous offspring, and reaching a green old age. Such life is 
to characterize the hill-towns in the future, as in the past. From farm- 
houses are to graduate new defenders of the constitution, as eloquent as 
Daniel Webster, of Franklin; preachers as magnetic as Charles G. Fin- 
ney, of Warren ; other inventors as skillful as Elias Howe, of Spencer ; 
world-embracing missionaries, as influential as Mary Christie, of Antrim. 
For, just as the streams, which the hills send to the sea, are brought back 
by cloud chariots, so the quickening influences and impulses which these 
farm-houses are ever giving to the world's movement, are continually 
brought back to feed the upland springs of -thought and life. 

If the country pours its best blood into city arteries, it is not long after 
the public library springs up in the city that it springs up in the country 
village. The district school, the church, the cemetery, show, by various 
improvements, the counter current running up hill. The railroads that 
bring this secluded valley and these lonely hill-tops so near to the focus 
of New England's thought and work, could not have thus brought the 
world to our doors, with all its resources for the improvement of our 
sequestered life, had not the country boys first gone down to make the 
money that built these residences, and to develop the business that sus- 


tains them. Let the boys go, then, and the girls too, as the boys and 
girls of past generations have gone. We are neither to check nor to 
grieve over an emigration that has made the land far richer and stronger 
than if all the young adventurers had taken root on the hill-sides. The 
Great Brook, let it run never so full to find the mill-wheels, will never 
drain the deep reservoir from which it flows. Nor will the young people 
who seem to hear the voice of destiny calling them hence to more ex- 
hausting labors and more uncertain harvest than the home farm proffers,' 
ever drain away the strength of this town. As my college class sung of 
themselves at graduation, a hundred strong, — 

' ' Some will go to Greece or Hartford, 
Some to Norwich or to Rome, 
Some to Greenland's icy mountains; 
More, perhaps, will stay at home." 

So we may be sure that that Providence, whose invisible influences 
impel us, in our freedom, to go just where we are wanted in his plans, 
will see to it that the life of these hill-towns, refreshed and adorned, as it 
will ever be, by the reflex influences of the constant emigration of the 
flower of our youth, will ever retain a charm adequate to bind to their 
birthplace enough to hold the plow, and swing the ax, and flll the 
church, and feed the stream of our national energies with an unfailing 
procession of sons and daughters, as of yore. * 

One word, just uttered, suggests to me the thought with which I 
should bring these remarks to a close. It is through the church, that the 
hill-towns are to hold in the future, as in the past, a share in shaping the 
destiny of our republic. What their share has been, may be seen by 
referring to the lists of preachers of the gospel that have been raised up 
in some of the hill churches. One such church in Connecticut has sent 
out, during two hundred years, forty ministers. How far that little can- 
dle throws its beams! And many a city church is indebted, if not for 
its minister, yet for its strong men and helpful women, who supply its 
charities and wield its influence, to little, weak, sister churches (mother 
churches ought they rather to be called) upon New Hampshire hills. 

These mother churches, then, must live. Here, in these days of shift- 
ing novelties, we find religious conservatism. Here the social focus is 
still found at the sanctuary, and the house of G-od is still " the meeting- 
house " ; the weekly social rendezvous is still at the prayer-meeting. 
Here the simple Bible truth, which the fathers accepted, is received by 
the children, who have not yet learned that the book is unfit to be read, 
as the best of classics, in our schools. And, as a familiar word in our 
language records the historical fact that Christianity originally spread 
from the city to the country, and reached the village dwellers, " pagani," 
or pagans, last of all, so we may be sure that- any partial reverse move- 
ment will be felt here last of all, and Christianity find in our villages her 
most permanent seat. Whatever city temples may be deserted, the peo- 
ple will still offer saciriflce in " the high places," and will love to say, 
" Our fathers worshiped in this mountain." So long as our hill churches 
shall stand as reservoirs fed from heaven, so long shall streams of the 
water of life flow throughout the land. 


And so shall the praise which old Homer bestowed upon the hills of 

the Ithaca, that produced the most gifted hero of the Greeks, the praise 

which the greatest of Roman orators and philosophers^ borrowed from 

Homer to bestow upon the rugged hills of his native Arpinum, express 

the influence with which the hill-towns shall never cease to sway the 

destiny of the republic, — a glory which will never pass hence, as, with 

the decay of religion, it has passed from the birthplaces of Ulysses and 

Cicero, — 

"Rugged however they be, thej' be noble mothers of men." 

" Lawyers of Antrim." 

This sentiment was responded to by Frank H. Pierce, Esq., of 
Concord, in a sliort but very eloquent and interesting address, 
one of the best given during the day. We regret, exceedingly, 
that our efforts to procure a copy for insertion in this place have 
been unsuccessful. 


"England and Scotland, — fatherlands of our ancestry; together they have given us 
the best stock the human family can boast." 

B. A. Wallace, Esq., of Havana, 111., having been invited to 
respond to this sentiment, wrote the following letter: — 

Ret. W. R. Cochrane. 

Dear Sir, -»■ Your favor, extending me an invitation to be present at, 
and take part in, the centennial celebration of Antrim on June 27, was 
duly received. With many thanks for the same, I regret that my 
engagements are such that I cannot be with you on that occasion to join 
in glad rejoicing with the many friends and acquaintances who will be 
there, as well as to respond to the sentiment proposed. Although sep- 
arated by many miles, I shall often think of those there assembled in the 
dear old town of my nativity, for nearly three-quarters of a century the 
home of my parents, the scene of my early childhood and youth; and, 
with the recollection, will ascend to heaven a prayer for the peace and 
prosperity of all its inhabitants. 

Hoping that the celebration will bte a grand success, I remain, 

Tours respectfully, 


" Reminiscences of old Antrim." 

Henry Reed, Esq., of Lowell, though unable to be present, 
sent the following response : — 

Me. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen, — I am very grateful 
for the invitation to be present and join in the festivities and exercises 


of this interesting occasion. The proper observance of anniversaries of 
important municipal, as well as state and national, events, is a custom 
that surely ought to be fostered and encouraged. 

Said the eloquent Patrick Henry, " I know of no othe? way of judging 
the future, but by the past." There is no way by which a town or nation 
can make safei: or surer progress, than by recalling the past, avoiding its 
errors, and emulating its virtues. I came to this good old town fifty- 
three years ago. Almost two generations have passed away since that 
-time, and marvelous changes have taken place during this half-century. 
"When I came here there was not a railroad in New Hampshire, and not 
even one projected. Now, the iron horse carries mountain visitors, with 
the greatest ease and comfort, up among the clouds, to the very summit 
of Mount Washington. Then, it required two days to carry a message 
from Antrim to Boston. Now, you can send your thou'ghts around the 
globe with the rapidity of lightning. Then, the application of steam for 
mechanical purposes was almost unknown. Now, there is scarcely a 
town or village in the Granite State but has machinery driven by steam 
power. As great changes have also taken place regarding other indus- 
tries. When I lived in this old town, everj' farmer employed from one 
to half a dozen men to cut and cure his grass. Now, every important 
farmer has a mower, a tedder, a horse-rake, a horse hay-fork, and a loader. 
Instead of doing his haying by the sweat of his brow, he makes his horses 
and oxen do it for him. Fifty years ago, a barrel of old New England 
rum was considered as essential, in haying-time, as one of Colby's New 
London scythes. Now, I trust, that, in the old Granite State, at least, 
ginger and water, sweetened with molasses, is the strongest beverage 
allowed on any well-regulated farm. - Then, the girls milked the cows, 
made butter and cheese, washed, baked, mended, spun and wove, and 
knit, and were thorough-going housekeepers, by the time they were 
eighteen. Now, the girls, ■ — well, you know better than I do about the 
farmers' girls of to-day. There have been changes on every hand. The 
people that I knew fifty-three years ago are nearly all gone. 

The number in this large gathering who were in active business life 
when I came here, is comparatively small. I recall, with many pleasant 
memories, some of the old families that were then prominent in the town. 
There are numerous incidents that come back to me in connection with 
the old homes of Antrim. I can only say here, that these homes were 
noted for the honest industry, as well as strict integrity and Christian 
virtues, of their inmates. There were faults, but they are dimmed and 
overshadowed by the predominating influences making up honest, patri- 
otic, and noble character. May this generation emulate the lives of the 
fathers and mothers of half a century agol 

And, in closing, Mr. President, let me offer you this sentiment: The 
old homes of Antrim, — may their benign influences be felt and cher- 
ished by all who have emanated from them to the latest generation! 


" The host that have gone from Antrim to bless all parts of the land." 

In response to this sentiment, Rev. Arthur Little, of Chicago, 
111., sent the foUowmg letter : — 

Rev. Waeben Cochrane. 

My Dear Friend, — I trust you will pardon my delay in answering 
your card of invitation to be present and share in the centennial celebra- 
tion at Antrim. Had there been any possibility of doing myself so great 
a pleasure, I should have given you speedy notice. I like this centennial 
business flrst-rate, and am sorry to lose any opportunity of having a 
hand in it. I should enjoy speaking, for a few moments, in response to 
the sentiment mentioned in your note. It is a grand theme. Antrim is 
rich in history. Settled by a little the best stock the world ever saw, she 
has been sending out a continuous stream of blessing during all the 
years of the century. Her sons and daughters have marked the whole 
breadth of the continent with their footsteps. Wisconsin is, to-day, in 
possession of one gifted clergyman whose mother was an Antrim 
woman, the daughter of Dr. Whiton, — Rev. C. H. Richards, of Madison. 
He is an honor to the State capital, a power for good throughout the 
commonwealth. I am so glad that my father had the good sense to 
marry an Antrim girl. I shall not seem to boast if I say that a letter, 
purer, truer, nobler woman was never born, or reared, or married in that 
good old town. If I am anything, or shall ever do anything, it will be 
owing very, very largely to the influence of that mother. I love Antrim 
for my mother's sake. To review the history of Antrim, or almost any 
other New Hampshire town, for a hundred years, were enough to fill the 
heart of any son of the Granite State with honest pride. 

The past is secure. I glory in it. The future is what troubles me. 
It will be a sorry day for this republic, for this great, expanding "West, if 
the time comes when Antrim, and other towns like her, has no more 
sons and daughters, rich in tried qualities, good character, and rugged 
enterprise, to send forth to the great work of molding and fashioning 
these new States and opening territories into Christian commonwealths, 
after the New Hampshire pattern. Sometimes I fear that time has 
almost been reached. But I will not indulge in gloomy forebodings. 
The fathers' God is still the God of the children, and he will preserve us. 

Be kind enough to assure the good people of Antrim of my interest in 
their anniversary, and of the joy it would give me to be with them, per- 
sonally, in its observance. I know the retrospect will bring strength 
and hope to your hearts, for the years to come. Know that my prayer 
mingles with all yours that the century to come may be as rich in good 
men and women, and good works, as the century that closes with this 

Faithfully yours, 




The following letter from Amasa Edes, Esq., of Newport, N. H., 
nearly eighty-five years of age, was sent in reply to an invitation 
to be present at the centennial celebration : — 

Eey. W. R. Cochrane. 

Dear Sir, — Your favor of the 8th instant is received, and I reply 
that there is no prospect that my health will be such as to enable 
me to be present with you on your centennial day. I much regret this, 
for there is much to attach me to Antrim. There was I born, there 
repose the ashes of my mother, and there was I flrSt inspired with a love 
of letters. When about five years. old, I attended the common school, 
taught by a Mr. Gregg. From being much his smallest scholar, or from 
some other cause, he held me in his lap for hours, while hearing his 
classes recite, drew me pictures with his pen, and gained my love for 
himself and my studies, so at the end of the term I could read well in 
plain reading. I hope you will have an agreeable meeting, and that 
everything will pass ofi' according to your plan, that your town will be 
prosperous and celebrated for the intelligence and virtue of its people, 
and at its next centennial will show improvements and progress greater 
even than the present. 

With great respect, 



The following letter from Hon. George W.Nesmith, of Frank- 
lin, N. H., will be read with interest, because of its numerous 
personal allusions : — 

Rev. W. E. Cochrane. 

My Dear Sir, — Be pleased to receive for yourself, and convey to your 
associates upon the committee, my warmest expressions of gratitude for 
your kind invitation to be present at your approaching centennial festival. 
It would afford me sincere pleasure to revisit the scenes of my early days, 
Nearly all the compamons of my youth have gone to their rest. Not 
enough, survive to recount the interesting events and achievements of 
their own day and generation, much less the history of their virtuous 
ancestry. I congratulate your town upon yolir patriotic efforts to obtain 
a full record of its early and progressive history. Rev. Dr. Whiton res- 
cued from oblivion much valuable material, which will necessarily con- 
stitute the corner-stone, upon which foundation you will build a rich 
edifice for us to look upon. 

Antrim can boast of a worthy ancestry. I imagine myself upon my 
father's old homestead, and there located I look south for his nearest^ 
neighbor, and find the good old Deacon Joseph Boyd and his excellent 
wife, both models of industry and benevolence. They never turned 
away the hungry or naked from their door without some supply. No 


boy ever returned home from district school, in good health, without a 
sharp appetite, and many times we can attest to the generous donations 
of food from the hand of good Mrs. Boyd — blessed be her memory! 
With much interest we used to hear her relate how, in the early days of 
her residence in Antrim, she drove off the bear with a broomstick, that 
had attacked her pig in the pen. Now I recollect the first settler on the 
east next to my father's house, Mr. McKean, who resided there for many 
years, and where his son Joseph was born, who afterward became the 
eminent school commissioner for the State of New York. A gentleman 
capable of judging his merits, one who knew him well, says he has never 
been surpassed by any successor, in the able discharge of the duties of 
this responsible ofiSce, in that State. Dea. John Taylor, a man of great 
moral worth, succeeded McKean. On the north, our neighbor was 
Thomas Brown, who was a brave Revolutionary soldier, and recounted 
with much interest his personal achievements. He lived to a good old 
age, and led an honorable and blameless life. 

On the west, the fl:rst settler and nearest neighbor was John Gilmore, 
from Londonderry. For a number of years he occupied the Cole, or Ten- 
nant, or Weston, or Whiton farm. He was a highly respectable citizen, 
and emigrated to the State of Ohio. Just north of Gilmore was Capt. 
Daniel Miltimore, who held the rank of lieutenant in Capt.Peter Clark's 
company, in the battle of Bennington. With this company you will find 
enrolled, if I mistake not, many of the good citizens, then of Antrim, 
who rendered memorable service in that glorious struggle one hundred 
years ago. Now we may place ourselves in the various districts of the 
town, among the early inhabitants. We shall find occasion to record 
similar meritorious conduct, illustrating the deep, virtuous, moral princi- 
ple which stamped the character of our ancestry. They have given to 
their posterity splendid examples, worthy of imitation by this and future 
generations. I regret exceedingly that I cannot be with you in person, 
on this festive occasion, but my pressing engagements at Dartmouth 
will not permit. I shall be with you in spirit, and I adopt Goldsmith's 
language in remembrance of his own native city, — 

" Where'er I roam, whatever realms I see, 
My heart, untfaveled, fondly turns to thee." 

With sentiments of great respect, 



The following poem is from the pen of James Aiken, Esq., a 
venerable man of Lewisburg, Penn., and relative of Dea. James 
Aiken, the first permanent settler of Antrim : — 

Ye men of Antrim, these rude lines 

Are written by a friendly hand; 
And my forefathers, like your own. 

Helped to subdue your land. 


And though my feet have never trod 
New Hampshire's hills, so grand, so high, 

Long, long your scenery sublime 
Has charmed my mental eye. 

' Oh, call me brother! for my sires, 

Like yours, were patriots, true and brave ; 

They periled life, and all they had. 
Our nation's life to save. 

Our town, — one hundred years of age! 

!N"ot one, now living, saw its birth. 
Its history shows us change on change, 

Like all the things of earth. 

Change seems the universal law; 

Suns, planets, systems, never rest; 
But all, in silence, onward move, 

Obeying God's behest. 

Man's intellect and moral state 

Must change, — for better or for worse : 

The former be a blessing pure. 
The latter be a curse! 

Nations, communities, as well. 
When not advancing, must recede; 

And those that wiser, better grow, 
Are largely blest indeed. 

We cannot boast; but surely, we 
Have light our fathers never saw; 

And what, with them, was theory, 
With us is fixed law. 

Oh, had our moral growth kept pace 

With intellectual advance, 
Then duty's pathway we might see 

At the first searching glance ! 

Our noble ancestors were men 
And women of high moral worth ; 

And who can tell how fast, how far, 
Their influence marks the earth ! 

In a smooth lake a pebble drops ; ' 
We see the waves approach the shore; 

Even so, the influence of our deeds 
Moves onward evermore. 

Lord, make us worthy of our sires! 

And oh, may our superior light 
Show us the way to noble deeds, 

Make coming ages bright! 



The following letter from Hon. W. B. Dinsmore, of New York, 
was received in reply to the invitation extended to him to be 
present at the centennial anniversary : — 

Eev. W. R. Cochrane. 

Dear Sir, — It would give me pleasure to accept your polite invitation 
to be present at the centennial celebration of Antrim, on the 27th 
instant, but my engagements are such as to prevent my enjoying the 
good things to be seen and heard on that interesting occasion. I trust 
there may be a delightful gathering of old and young, to listen to the 
glowing accounts by the speakers of the energy, perseverance, industry, 
and moral power of the first settlers of Antrim, in their trials, tribula- 
tions, and sufferings to subdue the forests and provide homes for them- 
selves and their offspring. New England thrift and pluck have made 
their, mark wherever its people have wandered, and will continue, I hope, 
to make their impress felt " while the earth bears a plant or the sea rolls 
a wave." Regretting the necessity which keeps me at home,,! remain. 
Tour most obedient servant, 


" The past of Antrim contrasted with the present." 

Rev. Stephen G. Abbott, having been invited to respond, sent 
the following letter from North Adams, Mass., where he was 
preaching for a season : — 

Rev. W. R. Cochrane. 

My Dear Brother, — I very much regret my inability to accept your 
kind invitation to be present at the approaching centennial anniversary 
of the good old town of Antrim, and participate in the exercises of the 
occasion. For thirty-eight years it has been the only spot on earth that 
I could call by that peerless name, — home! 

Most of the tender recollections of my childhood seem to have been 
transported, with the family and household goods, when we became the 
adopted children of your goodly town. "Whenever, in the wanderings of 
my pilgrimage, my thoughts rove in search of a pleasant and a final 
resting-place, they settle down in the ancestral homestead at Clinton, the 
repository of all those memories, painful and joyous, which give to the 
word home its indescribable and incomparable fascination. There I 
passed the point of transition from irresponsible youth to the stern reali- 
ties of life's mission. There I consecrated myself to the work of the gos- 
pel ministry. From the little church now worshiping at South Antrim, 
I received my license to preach. There was the scene of those early 
struggles, weaving a variegated web of successes and failures, which form 
the most marked and profitable period of every poor but ambitious 
young man's experience. In the old mansion, or adjoining cottage, I 
closed the eyes of father, mother, three sisters, a brother and a brother's 


wile, dear to me as a sister, and of her brother, who had, for many years, 
been to me what only a brother can be, and their precious dust lies in 
your beautiful cemeteries, awaiting the voice of death's conqueror, call- 
ing them forth to life and immortality. There was born my only son 
and child, who has proved himself worthy a better father, and whose 
filial devotion none but loving parents' hearts can appreciate. During 
the vicissitudes of these years, I, with my family, learned, by grateful 
experience, what great, warm, sympathetic hearts beat within the 
bosoms of the sturdy yeomanry of your rough hills and verdant vales. 
Nor can I ever forget the tender, self-denying, delicate attentions of the 
revered Dr. Whiten and his devoted wife, during the sicknesses and 
deaths in our family. It is no wonder that their pure example and 
faithful instruction, for so many years, should be left upon the character 
of the people. 

Love Antrim! Why should I not.? With a home around which 
gather such associations, in a State that has no peer in the nation, I 
should be less than human if I did not love it ! It will be just forty 
years, the third of July next, since I first entered the town, and, on the 
following day, so cold that fires were kept iu all the houses, I aided in 
raising the house that became my future home. I can realize the flight 
of this long period of time, only when I note the changes it has wrought. 
The old men and women of that time have all gone to their rest. The 
middle-aged have become old. . The young are just passing, with me, 
over life's summit. So the stream of life, like a great river, is flowing 
steadily along, constantly emptying its treasures into the great ocean of 
eternity. This thought must come up, most impressively, before you on 
the day of your gathering, and, though -it may beget a feeling of sadness, 
it will more tenderly link the past with the present, and so chasten your 
festivities as to inspire sentiments in more delightful harmony with the 
occasion. How varied will be the emotions awakened in the hearts of 
the people, by memories that will come trooping from the past, and by 
messages from the future which will respond to the prophetic imagina- 
tion! And how sublime, as well as delightful, the thought, that He to 
whom the past and the future are alike present, will preside' over you, and 
harmonize all with His own grand purposes. 

It is one of the very painful self-denials of my life, that I cannot be 
with you in person, as I certainly shall be in spirit. Accept the sincere 
expression of my heart in the following sentiment : Glorious old Antrim, 
— in all her inhabitants, her institutions, and her interests, may the sec- 
ond century of her history be to the first as the meridian sun to the 
morning star! 

Very truly your friend and brother, 


" Military of Antrim." 

Eesponded to, in writing, by Col. Silas Diusmore. 

My first acquaintance with the military of Antrim was about the year 


1810 or 1811. I remember going to a training, with my father, down to 
Jacob Tuttle's store (the place where James Tuttle now lives). It was 
the custom, in those days, to train at Tuttle's store and Christie's hotel, 
alternately, where there was something to take ; not the poison of the 
present day, but the pure article, — unadulterated New England rum. 
At that training, Parker Morse was captain ; Daniel Mcllvaine, lieuten- 
ant; and William Gregg, ensign. The next year Capt. Morse resigned, 
and, Daniel Mcllvaine declining promotion, William .Gregg was chosen 
captain; David McCalley, lieutenant; and Thomas Gregg, ensign. 

To show the spirit of patriotism existing in Antrim at that time, I 
will relate an incident that occurred during the war of 1812. The 
Twenty-sixth Regiment was required to furnish a certain number of 
men (1 do not remember how many) to go to Portsmouth to defend that 
place against an expected raid of the British. David McClure, then in 
command of the north company, received his orders during Sunday 
service, after which he notified his company to meet at Christie's the 
next day, either to volunteer or stand a draft. The company met 
promptly, was paraded, and the object of meeting stated by the ofHcers, 
who propose'd that the musicians march round the company, as it stood 
in line, when those who wished to volunteer were to fall in after the 
music. By the way, some, if not all, of the musicians wished to be con- 
sidered as volunteers; among the number, Clark and Jesse Atwood, 
drummers. When the word was given to march, the entire company 
fell into line ; but, as there were not so many men wanted, most of them 
were counted out, greatly to the disappointment of some. Among this 
number were Thomas Duhlap and Ira Wallace, who went home with 
heavy hearts On arriving at home they were informed that a draft had 
been made in the town of Windsor, and, if my memory serves me right, 
James Walker and Simeon Buck were the drafted men ; at any rate, 
Thomas Dunlap and Ira Wallace went over to Windsor that same night 
and agreed to take the places of the drafted men. Samuel McClure took 
the place of a drafted man in Francestown. All that went from Antrim 
to Portsmouth, at that time, returned safely, with the exception of Ira 
Wallace, who died from sickness. I mention this circumstance to show 
that the spirit of patriotism existing in 1776 was not extinguished at the 
time of which I speak. With the same spirit, exhibited in 1861, you are 
more familiar than I, since I was absent from the town. In the fore- 
going remarks I have referred only to the north company, which was 
No. 6 in the Twenty-sixth Eegiment. There was a company in the 
south part of the town, with whose history I am not familiar. I think, 
that, about the year 1817, the two companies were united, and made 
choice of David McCalley, captain; John' McNeil, lieutenant; and Moody 
Barker, ensign. Previous to this, a grenadier company had been formed, 
by enlistments from the several infantry companies in the regiment. 
As that company had been reduced in numbers, the infantry company 
in Antrim being enlarged by the union of the two, permission was 
granted to fill up the grenadier company by enlistments from this 
infantry. Thistook place in 1822. The company was promptly filled, 
procured a neV uniform, and, from that time until the active duty of the 


military was abolished by law, the grenadier company was second to 
none in the regiment, in point of discipline and military drill. My first 
experience in active military duty was in 1815, on the reception of the 
news of peace with England. Col. McClure proposed to have a day of 
rejoicing, and, accordingly, everybody was invited to meet at Christie's 
for that purpose. The boys met and formed themselves into an artillery 
company, making choice of Jesse Christie for captain, and Clark Hopkins 
for lieutenant. I had the honor of being a private in that company. 
We had a swivel for a field-piece. We marched to the meeting-house, 
where Kev. Dr. Whiton stated the object of the gathering, and opened 
the exercises with prayer. Daniel M-. Christie then read the declaration 
of peace, and made an appropriate address, when the crowd formed iu 
procession and marched to Christie's, where the remainder of the day 
was snent in a general good time. I was then thirteen years of age, and 
the law required boys to perform military duty at the age of sixteen. I 
looked forward, with anxious anticipation, to the time when I should be 
counted in; but, before I arrived at the age of sixteen, tlie law was 
changed, making eighteen the legal age. This placed me in the back- 
ground for two years; but these passed away and my name was placed 
upon the roll. On the eighteenth of September, 1820, I mustered on 
Cork plain, under Capt. Moody Barker (I was eighteen years old on that 
very day). Under Capt. Barker, I performed all the duty required of a 
private soldier for two years. In 1822 the grenadier company was re-or- 
ganized, and I was one of the first to join. From this time I continued 
to perform military duty for twenty-nine years, when it was no longer 
required. Now, as old as I am, I should enjoy a day of recreation in 
performing private duty in a well-drilled military company, better than 
in any other way imaginable. 


The follrowing centennial poem, from the pen of Mrs. Stephen 
G. Abbott, was omitted in the exercises of the day, with other 
written communications, for lack of time : — 

To-day a hundred rolling years 

Complete their final round, 
Since here our sires, in desert wild, 

Their altars sought and found. 
Through long and weary years of toil 

Each struggled for a prize; 
And now, whei'e stood the forest tall, 

See happy homes arise. 

From early morn till latest day 
They toil, in want and pain, 

Till they behold a rich reward 
In fields of waving grain, 


"Which soon the willing, winding streams 

Impel the mills to grind. 
And education's mills soon yield 

The grain that feeds the mind. 

And now the rough ascent is made 

To tind a Mount Moriah, 
Whereon to build a raeetiug-house 

"Without a bell or spire. 
A church was formed, and placed in care 

Of good and wise divine, 
"Who, if a wanderer left his fold, 

Reversed him into line. 

Through all the years the wheat and lares 

Have both together grown, 
And' side by side shall grow, till when 

The Master claims his own. 
Their names on monuments are graved 

O'er many a mound of dust, 
"Which, at the Father's mighty word. 

Shall yield its hallowed trust. 

Their honored names we still transmit 

To our own children dear, 
"Who to their sons shall bear them down, — 

Untarnished, bright, and clear. 
Throughout full many a hundred years, 

In long and bright array. 
May all, with glory, gild the roll 

On each centennial day! 

" The physicians of Antrim." 

Mb. President, Ladies and Gentlemen or my ISTatiye Town, — 
"Would that some one more competent than myself had been called upon 
to respond to the sentiment just offered; yet, unused as I am to public 
speaking, the inspiration of the occasion prompts me to give, in a few 
words some of the leading points in the character, and the circumstances 
under which the early physicians labored. 

I regret that I am unable to give a memorial of the physicians of the 
town prior to 1807, when my father. Dr. Jeremiah Stickney, commenced 
the practice of medicine here, as successor of Dr. Nathan "W. Cleaves, 
who died a short time previous. 

Contemporaneously with Dr. Slickney, Dr. Charles Adams established 
himself at the Center of the town, from whence he soon removed to the 
South Village, remaining there nine years. He had several children 
born here, among whom is Hon. Charles Adams, Jr., now of Boston, who 


has filled, with honor to himself, many important oflSces in the State, his 
father having removed to Oakham, Mass., in 1816. At that time, when 
the inhabitants were few and scattered, with roads almost impassable 
except on horseback, with drifting snows in winter, without the comfort- 
able protection which we of the present generation so much require, the 
country doctor displayed as much heroism in his profession as is exhib- 
ited in any calling whatsoever. 

Physicians were settled at wide distances from one another, and con- 
sultations, ip cases of emergency, were attended with much delay; conse- 
quently, each was often thrown upon his own resources: yet I venture to 
say that crises were met with as great promptitude and skill by them as 
by the average physician of to-day. Of Dr. Jeremiah Stickney, who 
was located at the North Branch, and in continuous practice for more 
than half a century, — may I not be permitted to say ? were mine the 
conviction that duties to the sick well performed, hardships manfully 
endured, sacrifices unflinchingly made for those he loved and labored 
for; were mine the conviction that such qualities were possessed by 
myself as I know they were by him, — I would ask no higher cordmemo- 

My recollections of Dr. Israel Burnham, who was settled at the south 
part of the town, are, that he was a gentlemanly and quiet man, kind and 
conciliatory in his deportment toward others, attentive to his profession, 
and that he held the confidence of those who required his presence in the 

To those who have practiced medicine in town since 1840, when I left 
it, to return only at long intervals, and whose acquaintance I have not 
the privilege of possessing, I would only offer this sentiment : When 
their mission has been fulfilled, may they deserve and receive a eulogium 
as worthy, as their predecessors ! 

"Hardihood and toil of tlie fathers and mothers of Antrim." 

Me. Chairman, — "We are met to commemorate, in an appropriate 
,manner, an event of which there are no living witnesses; and it well 
becomes those who have always been at home in these seats, living in 
sight of these hills and yonder mountains, as well as those whose tardy 
steps have brought them hither after long absence, while reviewing these 
scenes, to renew the traditions of, and to recall from the vanishing past 
whatever gave character to, those who, through toil and trouble, laid the 
foundations and erected thereon the institution which we honor and cel- 
ebrate as the town. 

In response to the sentiment uttered, we are not called upon to demon- 
strate the fact that the founders of this institution, the builders of this 
home seat of civilization, were possessed, in large measure, of the genu- 
ine hardihood that springs from trial and culture, nor to prove that they 
did toil right faithfully to establish this heritage. If this were our 
theme, it would be enough to say, that they were descended, without 
corruption, from the Scotch-Irish stock of North Ireland, Presbyterians 


in faith, of the old school at- that, case-hardened by the tires of bigotry 
and the waters of affliction, well versed in the history and traditions of 
their church and people, who knew, by practice, what virtue there is in 
continuance, and from whom they inherited, not wealth, nor favor of 
kings, nor liberal franchise, hut a love of liberty, and the will to main- 
tain it ! No hot-house plants were they who made this heritage. 

If we consider the time in the history of our country during which 
the fathers and mothers of Antrim took unto themselves a corporate ' 
name and set out to obtain a charter and other conveniences, we find 
nothing auspicious, no exhibition of effeminacy, nor any softening influ- 
ence upon such a people. In the disastrous campaign of 1777, the hard- 
ships of Valley Forge, with the capital of the nation in possession of a 
victorious enemy, — the cause of King George was not the cause of the 
people here. Here were none to yield to his exactions or submit to his 
dictation ; and the record does not vimpeach the truth of the assertion, 
that those who went hence to maintain their cause were animated by 
that true courage, that genuine hardihood, which does ,'iverything for the 
right, and were imbued with wisdom to direct. 

If we consider what nature had done for the fathers and mothers of 
Antrim, when Providence cast their lot among these hills and valleys, 
we perceive that she had not been lavish in the bestowal of ways and 
means for the advancement of civilization. Bej'ond a pure air, pure 
waters, and a not unhealthy climate, she showed them no special favors. 
No deep bays, embosomed in gently nestling hills clothed with verdure ; 
no majestic streams, natural highways for the world's commerce; no land 
of voluptuous undulations, so willing to yield all that a proper appetite 
might crave ; no bread-fruit hung overhead mid leafy shade, making 
sufficient food and shelter ; no land of sensual delights, — but everything 
grave, serious, and solemn, created to be the domain of intelligence. A 
rugged soil, a rigorous climate, the parent stock, the discipline of the 
church, and the hardships of war, fore-ordained the fathers and mothers 
of Antrim to be a hardy race, inured to toil. 

They had been trained to believe, and they so taught, that work was 
a divine institution, and, in faith, to trace the wisdom of God in so 
ordering. The intimate relation of works and faith was a favorite theme 
of both preachers and people, and this the lesson taught : "You need 
expect nothing but by labor."' 

" Antrim/ forty years ago." 

Mb. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen, — It is a source of satis- 
faction and real pleasure to me to meet so many of my old acquaintances 
and friends here to-day. And, as I look upon their smiling faces, my 
mind reverts to the' time when the cares, perplexities, and struggles of 
life were unknown to many of us. And it must be gratifying indeed to 
the people of Antrim to meet so many of the sons and daughters of the 
good old town, who have come from the East and the West, the North 


and the South, to congratulate each other and participate in the exer- 
cises of the occasion. 

I have looked forward to this day, for the past few years, anticipating 
that it would be one of the most enjoyable holidays of my life. And 
should 1 say my expectations were not fully realized, so far as human 
effort could accomplish that result, I should speak an untruth; and 
should I say that my cup of happiness was full, I should commit a simi- 
lar error ; for there will probably be but few days in our whole lives in 
which we shall experience more sad and pleasant thoughts intermingled, 
than on this, our centennial day. 

While this day, so long anticipated, is made a season of rejoicing and 
festivity, it of necessity calls upon us to review, with more or less of sat 
isfaction, the record of the past. 

And now, let our minds revert to forty years ago, as the events of one 
hundred years ago must be learned from history alone. 

Mr. President, when I look over this vast assemblage of human forms 
and faces, and strjlin my eyes to select therefrom those of father, mother, 
btother, sister, neighbor, and townsman, that we were wont to see on 
this sacred spot forty years ago, how sad to realize that we find so few ! 
And shall we ask why it is so? Yes : and yon marble-dotted inclosure 
sends- back the answer. 

But let us not dwell on things so sad, but take a glance at the manu- 
facturing interests of the town, as they were forty years ago. Then, our 
friend Thomas Poor manufactured the coramon kinds of leather ; also 
the patent or morocco leather, which, I think, was about the first of this 
kind manufactured in New England ; he also did quite a lumber busi- 
ness, gathering in the pines from the east part of the town and from the 
Society Land. Then there was one other saw-mill at the South Village, 
which, I think, comprised all the manufacturing at that place. At Clin- 
ton Village we find the manufacture of cotton yarn, by Dea. Imla Wright, 
who was one of the pioneers of cotton manufacturing in N"ew Hamp- 
shire, which was then jealously looked upon as being rather a dangerous 
business for the best interest of the town, as in those days each house- 
hold was a rival manufactory on a small scale. Ifext we come to North 
Branch, where we find the quite extensive tannery of Dea. William 
Little, who, I think, also manufactured the first boots and shoes in town, 
except those made at home by men who went from house to house, 
which was called in those days " whipping the cat." There was also one 
saw-mill at North Branch, and the wool-carding and cloth-dressing mill 
of Franklin Reed. 

This, I believe, comprised pretty nearly all the manufacturing by 
power in the town forty years ago. But it must be remembered, that, 
in those days, almost every house in town was a manufactory in itself, — 
where woolen, cotton, and linen cloth was spun and wove, and, after 
being sent to the mill of Franklin Reed, where it was colored, fulled, and 
dressed, was made up at home, generally by some maiden lady of doubt- 
ful age, who would rig out the boys and girls for the winter schools; the 
boys in striped frocking, and the girls in their neat, checked, home-made 
gowns, — that is what they called them forty years ago, — cut to fall 


closely about their limbs. But stop! Methinks I hear some young 
lady exclaim, " Oh, my! how they would look!" But let me tell you, 
young ladies, those plain dresses were not without their attractions. I 
have known a young man to ask permission to follow one of them to the 
wearer's home from a spelling-school a mile and a half distant, tread- 
ing the middle ridge of a new snow-made country road all the way; 
and that, I think, is about as well as the young men will do by you 

But, Mr. President, I fear that you will think I am wandering from 
the subject; and would it be strange, when one's mind becomes fixed on 
moving manufactured dry goods ? 

Have I spoken of the schools ? I think I have alluded to them some- 
where ; but I wish 'to speak of them more explicitly, for fear that some of 
you might think that I have never known what a school was. "Well do 
I remember the old school-house west of the pond. There is where I 
graduated, after attending seven terms of seven to eight weeks each, 
under the tutorship of B. P. "Wallace, Mary Duncan, Rachel Pletcher, 
and Annie Fisk. And nobly did .they, perform their task, considering 
the material they had to work with. But oh, such a job to get ready to 
go to school in those days ! "We had to hunt up, after haying laid away 
for nine or ten months, " Peter Parley's Geography," " Colburn's Arith- 
metic," " "Webster's Spelling-Book," " Easy Lessons in Beading," and 
the old " English Reader." Grammar I need not speak of, for you will 
readily see that it had not come into use in our district at that time, and 
did not in my whole course. "With the addition of an earthen or free- 
stone inkstand, containing a little cotton saturated with ink, and a 
wooden stopper ; two or three undutched goose-quills freshly plucked 
from the old gray goose ; ay, and one thing more, which I had almost 
forgotten to mention, the leaden plumniet, which required so much skill 
to mold, and, when finished, was a remarkable cross between a toma- 
hawk and a shingling hatchet, — thus equipped, we were ready for a full 
term of school, forty years ago. 

But enough ! I know that I have already trespassed too far upon 
your valuable time. But, in conclusion, I find that these social reunions 
serve to revive old and pleasant associations and friendships, partially 
obscured by the corroding hand of time. True, some of us have come 
here, with our heads bleached by the frosts of many winters, to find no 
near relative to welcome us. Yet it is our privilege to turn aside to 
yonder graveyard, and there to linger in silent sadness by the tombs of 
our dearly remembered but departed friends. 

But adieu to melancholy musings on the past. The cheering and rosy 
coloring of the present and the future now demands our attention. And 
when from this visit to our native town we have returned to our respect- 
ive homes and various duties and avocations, the memory of this occa- 
sion will always be fraught with pleasure. It will cause our hearts to 
overflow with gratitude to God for these sacred privileges, and fill our 
minds with an enduring fragrance. 


" Men and -womeii of 1777 who laid the foundation of the church in Antrim." 

Ladies and Gentlemen of mt Native Town, — It is with the 
greatest pleasure that I meet you on this deeply interesting occasion. 
After the lapse of many years since I turned my face from the home of 
my boyhood to seek my fortune elsewhere, I am allowed by a kind Prov- 
idence to meet you again, to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of 
the incorporation of this good old town of ours. 

I thank you, fellow-citizens, that you have entertained and matured 
the idea of celebrating this event; and that you have called back the 
wandering sons and daughters of the old town to participate with you in 
the pleasures of this occasion. And I thank you again, that, instead of 
confining yourselves to the exact day of the year named in the act of 
incorporation, you have rather chosen this beautiful day, in this beau- 
tiful month of June, for us to meet you and turn our thoughts bs^ckward 
for a little while, as we review some of the more important events of 
the century that has just closed. 

You have invited us to meet you at the old Center Church, nndei the 
shadow of whose dome we are now assembled. Here our fathers and 
mothers used to worship, and here we, in our childhood, learned to love 
and venerate the house of God. 

This is indeed to me one of the most thrillingly interesting spots in all 
the world, and I can assure you that those of us who have come back to 
the old homestead could not have felt at home in any other place, on an- 
occasion like this. Once more I have the pleasure of looking out upon 
these grand old mountains, and these beautiful green fields and forests, 
as I did in my early days. ' Every hill and valley and brook presents 
the face of an old friend ; and their image is so indelibly stamped upon 
my memory, that no time or change of condition can ever efface them. 
These have not changed ; but all else, how changed ! To-day we stand 
around the graves of more than four generations of men and women that 
have passed away since Philip Riley struck the first blow towards the 
first settlement of the town, in 1744. 

In yonder cemetery, silently and peacefully reposes the sacred dust of 
my father and mother, and many of my kindred and best friends. To 
that sacred shrine my thoughts go out instinctively; and as I hold com- 
munion with their departed spirits, and call to mind their many virtues, 
and the deep interest they ever took in my welfare, the tear of affection 
rises unbidden, while I bow in sorrow over their green graves. 

Our greeting here to-day has been most cordial and satisfactory. We 
recognize, among those assembled, many of our dear old friends and 
acquaintances, who were school-fellows with us when we were a little 
younger than we are now. But a shade of sadness comes over us as 
we call to mind other dear ones who have fallen by the way since we last 
met. In vain we search for them among the living ; their names are 
only found on the long catalogue of the dead. 

But, Mr. President, I must not longer indulge in this strain of reflec- 
tion, for you have invited me to speak of the " Men and women of 1777 
who laid the foundation of the church of Antrim." 


In assigning this task to me, I fear you have made a mistake, for I 
must frankly admit that I am not equal to it. To dp this subject justice, 
involves substantially a history of the town for several years from its 
first settlement. This you do not expect me to give, and I vcill not 
attempt it to any considerable extent. 

This town, as is well known, was settled to a large extent by Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians, whose ancestors emigrated from the county of Lon- 
donderry, in the north of Ireland, and landed in Boston in 1718. Subse- 
quently, a portion of this colony selected a tract of country in this State 
and gave it the name of Londonderry, in honor of the county from which 
they had emigrated. From this colony most of the early settlers of An- 
trim had their origin. 

The first man who began a settlement in this town was Philip Riley, 
who located himself on the farm now owned by Reed P. Whittemore, 
Esq., in the northeast part of the town, in 1744. Two years subsequent 
to this date, a sudden attack upon a garrison-house in Hopldnton, and the 
capture of its inmates, by the Indians, spread alarm through the neigh- 
boring settlements, and caused Kiley to flee into Massachusetts, where 
he remained for fifteen years. During this time Antrim was without a 
white inhabitant, and it was not until Aug. 12, 1767, that James Aiken 
located himself with his family, consisting of his wife and four children, 
at what is now the South Village. Mr. Aiken was a pious. Christian man, 
and subsequently became one of the most prominent and useful men in 
town. He was chosen one of the first deacons of the Presbyterian church, 
at its formation, in the year 1788, and con,tinued in oflSce until his decease 
in 1819. He was a man of great energy and tenacity of purpose, and 
his humble cabin was always a safe and welcome retreat for those who 
sought its shelter, and its generous hospitality was freely extended to all 
those early settlers who needed his assistance. 

In the person of Dea. Aiken and wife, wte find the first germ of the 
church in Antrim ; and to them more than to any other two individuals, 
probably, belongs the honor of having laid its foundation, and secured its 
future prosperity. 

After a residence of four long years in his wilderness home, Mr. Aiken 
had the unspeakable pleasure of receiving a neighbor' in the person of 
William Smith, who came from Londonderry and settled near him in 
1771. Mr. Smith was a good, Christian man, and there very soon sprung 
up between these two men a strong mutual attachment, and the confi- 
dence that each' reposed in the other was very remarkable, and continued 
through life. 

In 1772, Randall Alexander, John Gordon, and Maurice Lynch began 
settlements at the North Branch, and in 1773 Dea. John Duncan moved 
his family here from Londonderry, making the seventh in town. The 
cart that brought his goods was the first one that ever entered the place, 
and was driven by the Hon. John Bell, the father of two distinguished 
governors of New Hampshire. 


In 1774, Dea. Daniel Nichols, Dea. Joseph Boyd, James Duncan, 
Daniel McParland, and James Dickey settled in the southeast part of 
the town. 

In 1775 the settlement of the town was further increased by Alexander 
Jameson, Matthew Templeton, Eichard McAllister, Thomas Stewart^ and 
John McClary; and in 1778, by Dea. Jonathan and Dea. James Nes- 
mith, Daniel Miltimore, and Dea. James Carr; and also in 1784 and 1786, 
by James. Hopkins, Adam and Thomas Dunlap, and Dea. Sutheric Wes- 
ton. I have thus given by name most of the families who were residents 
of the town at this time, and I find these same names, with others, 
amounting to about sixty in all, on the roll that constituted the Presby- 
terian church in Antrim, as it was organized in 1788. Most of these 
men and women were descendants of .those who settled Londonderry, 
and kept up their church connection with that people, and would make, 
long journeys with their children to be with them at their regular com- 
munion seasons. 

Being desirous of organizing themselves into a church, Isaac Cochran 
was chosen an agent by the town to apply to the presbytery of London- 
derry to authorize a minister to visit Antrim for that purpose. Eev. 
"William Morrison, of Londonderry, was delegated for that service, and 
on the third day of August, 1788, the Presbyterian church was organized, 
and a board of elders elected, consisting of Deacons James Aiken, Isaac 
Cochran, and Jonathan Nesmith. On the twenty-fourth day of the same 
month, Mr. Morrison came a second time, and administered the sacrament 
of the Lord's supper for the first time in Antrim. 

The first sermon tha.t was ever j)reached in this town of which we 
have any record was delivered by Eev. Mr. Davidson of Londonderry, in 
Dea. Aiken's barn, in September, 1775. 

For several years subsequent, the people here were able, only occa- 
sionally, to have preaching on the Sabbath, and that was usually fur- 
nished as a free-will ofi'eriug by the ministers of the churches in the 
neighboring towns. To these neighboring churches, not unfrequently 
would the pious. Christian parents take their offspring, to have conferred 
upon them the sacred seal of the everlasting covenant. 

Up to this time, 1784, the people of this town had no public place in 
which to worship God on the Sabbath, or to transact the ordinary busi- 
ness of the town. It is a singular fact that most of the business relating 
to the church was transacted in open town meeting, for the reason that 
most of the adult male population of the town were members of the 

The center of the town having been previously determined by a sur- 
vey that had been ordered for that purpose, the people resolutely set 
themselves to work to build a meeting-house, — a lot of land having been 
donated for that purpose by Mr. Samuel Gregg. The lot selected, near 
the center of the town, was a commanding eminence, " beautiful for sit- 
uation,'' and overlooking one of the finest views to be found in southern 
New Hampshire. Such was the enthusiasm manifested by our pious 
ancestors in this noble work, that, in twenty days from the time the first 
blow was struck, the timber was cut down in the forest and hewed, and 


the other material got ready, and, ou the twenty-eighth day of June, 1785, 
the first meeting-house in Antrim was erected, — Col. William Gregg, of 
Londonderry, being master-workman.. So overjoyed were the people at 
the idea of having a house of worship of their own, that, on the very 
next Sabbath after its erection, they gathered themselves together inside 
its uncovered walls, beneath the rays of a summer sun, and poured out 
their hearts to God in grateful acknowledgment for his goodness and 
mercy in giving them the means to go thus far towards completing a 
house to the honor of his name. For forty years our fathers " worshiped 
in this mountain," and to this hallowed spot they came from the most 
distant parts of the town, in summer and in winter, in sunshine and in 
storm, bringing with them all the pious characteristics that distin- 
guished the ancient people of God, as they wound their way up this, the 
" Mount Zion " of their love. 

These were the men and women who laid the foundations of the 
church in Antrim, and most nobly did they do their work. They knew 
what it was to be poor. They knew what it was to labor and to wait. 
They put their trust in God, and most devoutly did they rely upon his 
promises. A scoffing and gainsaying world may point the finger of 
scorn at the church, if it will, deride its members, and criticise their 
faults; but a scofiing world has yet to produce something that is better. 

What would Antrim have been-without a church? We cannot tell; 
but we have reason to believe that it would not have been what we find it 
to-day. Antrim without a church, we think, would have risen but little 
above the howling wilderness that Passaeonaway saw, when he roamed, 
unobstructed, through its pleasant valleys, and up and down its beautiful 
streams. We owe a debt of gratitude to this noble band of Christian 
men and women, who, through patience and tribulation, laid the founda- 
tions of the church, and built upon it a superstructure that we are proud 
to own as a part of our inheritance; and it well becomes us, their sons 
and daughters, here to-day, to rise up and call them blessed. 

It is a matter of special interest to me, as I survey the early history 
of this town, that I can remember, and was well acquainted with, most 
of the men and women who were the early actors in the scenes that we 
now contemplate. They were old people then, just passing from the 
stage of active life. But I, knew them well. They were men of sterling 
integrity and of undoubted piet3''. They were devotedly attached to the 
ordinances and institutions of the church and of the Sabbath, and would 
make great sacrifices for their support. 

This brief sketch of the founders of the church in this place would be 
imperfect if 1 should neglect to speak of the labors and the excellencies 
of its second pastor, the Rev. John Milton Whiton, D. D. Although he 
was not among the first settlers of the town, and was not present at the 
organization of the church, still he was so well known to the early set- 
tlers and so intimately connected with everything that related to their 
history and prosperity, that he can, with propriety, be regarded as their 
spiritual father. He came here a young man, direct from college, and 
God seemed to have exactly adapted him to this field of labor; and the 


fidelity with which he cultivated it showed how well he was fitted for the 
work that was put upon him. His sound discussion, fervent piety, and 
affahle manners soon won the love of his people, and for forty-five 
years he retained their undivided confidence, afiection, and support. 

Those of us who were children fifty years ago, will remember the 
deep interest he took in the public schools. Without being authorized 
by law, or requested by the oflacers of the town to do so, he rarely 
allowed a'term of school to end without being present at its closing exer- 
cises, with ,no hope or expectation of receiving any pecuniary .reward. 
Like a good shepherd, he was keenly alive for the welfare of the lambs of 
his flpck, and this was shown' by the deep interest he took in their 
studies. The questions he would ask, in reference to the diiferent 
branches they had been pursuing, were well calculated to bring to the 
surface what they had learned. And at the close of the school, the part- 
ing advice, solemn warning, and fervent prayer of this good man made a 
deep and lasting impression on the minds of the children. 

Mr. Whiton had the rare good fortune of having for a wife a lady who 
was almost an exact counterpart of himself,, in reference to all those 
qualities that are lovely and of good report. She was intelligent and 
refined, modest and retiring in her manners. Her amiable and loving 
disposition attracted people towards her. She was the acknowledged 
head of every good work among the ladies of the parish, and she did very 
much, in her quiet way, towards staying up the hands of her husband, 
and making him the honored instrument, in the hands of God, of con- 
ferring great blessings upon this people. 

It was my good fortune, for a little while in my early boyhood, to be a 
member of this Christian household. I saw something of the beauties 
of its inside working. 

I remember the kind consideration that always characterized their 
intercourse with those who were in their employ ; and I have long since 
come to the conclusion, that no one can be a member of such a family 
without receiving a blessing. Standing here to-day, Mr. President, I 
can seem to see this devoted pair, as they appeared many years ago, 
approaching the house of God at the call of the Sabbath bell, bowing 
gracefully and greeting with a pleasant smile, as they recognized famihar ' 
friends who were standing about the door. 

And now, in conclusion, let me say, that it is hardly possible to over- 
estimate the good infiuences that proceed from such a man as Be v. Dr. 
Whiton. His life and labors have been stamped upon the people of this 
town and their institutions. If he did not plant the church, he watered 
it with the best dews of divine grace. He watched over it in its infancy, 
and supported it in its manhood. He gave to it a name and a reputation 
that it is not possible for a short pastorate to impart to any people. 
Since he passed away other able and worthy men have labored here, but 
none more worthy than the young man who now ministers at this altar, 
wearing, so gracefully and meekly, the mantle that fell from this eminent 



At a little past four o'clock, p. m., a procession was formed, 
nearly in the order of the morning, and about twelve hundred, 
stirred by inspiring music from the two bands, marched up to 
the " Old Parade Ground," or " Old Common, " on Meeting- 
House Hill. No such procession ever marched there before. 
It was like a pilgrimage to the fathers' graves. The clear and 
beautiful day was drawing to its close. The distant prospect, 
strangely sweet, the present scene, so tender and suggestive, con- 
spired to make that the grandest hour of the day. The speakers 
occupied the spot where the first meeting-house stood, while the 
company covered the old common and thronged the ancient cem- 
etery in the rear. A statement of past associations that hallowed 
the spot, bringing up the scenes of other days, was then made 
by Rev. W R. Cochrane. Prayer was offered by Rev. Harry 
Brickett, of Hillsborough Bridge, after which a " Dirge over the 
Old Century," by the New Boston Band, plaintive and touching, 
swelled on the air, while the large audience listened with 
thoughtful faces and bowed heads. 

Very happy and able remarks were made by Rev. William 
Clark; D. D. Then a hymn, written for the occasion, as printed 
in the programme, was sung to the tune of " Aul'd Lang Syne " ; 
and the long procession returned, under the same escort, to the 
church, where the service of the day commenced, from the steps 
of which at setting sun, by request of the president. Rev. W. R. 
Cochrane spoke some closing words, and called upon Rev. J. 
M. Whiton, Ph. D., of Easthampton, Mass., to pronounce the 

Thus ended a day which will long be kept in remembrance by 
the sons and daughters of Antrim. It was every way a success. 
No intoxicating drink was on the ground, — no drunkenness, — 
no noise, — no fighting, — no accident. No loss was suffered by 
any person. The Antrim Cadets, under Capt. S. R. Robinson, 
did the escort duty of the. day, with honor to themselves and, the 
town. The police arrangements, care of grounds, and distribu- 
tion of dinner, were in charge of George A. Cochran, Esq., who 
managed them with great coolness and wisdom. The cost to 
the town, in addition to all contributed food and labor, was 

The following was said of the Antrim centennial by one every 
way qualified to know and speak : — 


I was not prepared for the high-toned entertainment you gave us. 
I think it was the best-arranged celebration I ever saw, and reflected 
credit upon the executive ability of its managers. None need be ashamed 
of their ancestry who looked upon that stalwart company in their native 
town. I, at least, never' looked upon a better-looking or a better-behaved 
crowd. While memory does its office, I shall never cease to be thankful 
for having been present ! 


The following notice of the celebration appeared in the 
" Nashua Telegraph " of June 28, 1877, and is given as a sample 
of the newspaper comments, — all of wliich were exceedingly 
favorable and pleasing. It should be added, that the oldest An- 
trimite present was Chandler B. Boutwell, Esq., aged ninety-one, 
while a dozen of eighty and upwards stood upon the ground. 

The one hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of the' town of 
Antrim — the original settlers of which were representative men and 
women from the Scotch-Irish families of Londonderry — occurred on 
Wednesday. It was a gala day for the old and young of village and farm; 
for the multitude of her visiting sons and daughters ; for the people who 
were present from the- neighboring towns ; for the " strangers within 
their gates." The weather was perfect; the highways in the best possible 
condition for travel, and the mountains and valleys — hills, dales, and 
streams — in their finest robes. In fact, everything imaginable contrib- 
uted to make the day memorable and of historic pride to the children and 
children's children of those who participated, to the latest generation. 

The decorations were general, and in many cases very beautiful. There 
was hardly a dwelling-house or other occupied or unoccupied building 
that did not display the American flag, while in many.instances evergreen 
streamers and floral devices were conspicuous over doors and win- 
dows, on trellises and convenient places. Among those who made fine 
displays were the'foUowing : S. A. Peaslee, on the site of the first 
house — a log cabin — built in the town, the Carter House, John B. 
Woodbury, Bennett Buckminster, Mrs. Anna Woodbury, Mrs. Mary 
Woodbury, N. W. C. Jameson, Melvin Poor, John M. Duncan, D. H. 
Goodell, E. D. and L. W. Putney, the Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyte- 
rian churches, the town-house, — over the door of which, in large letters, 
was the word " Welcome," — the armory, high-school building, stores, 
shops, and innumerable dwellings in the three villages and environs. 

It is estimated that the gathering numbered between twenty-five hun- 
dred and three thousand people, and that fully five hundred turnouts 
were made fast in this vicinity. Among those from Nashua who were on 
their native heath, were Major A. H. Dunlap, Mrs. Charles Williams, Mr. 
John J. Whittemore, Mrs. B. F. Kendrick, Mrs. Charles E. McClary, 
Mr. Silas Brackett, Mr. James Steele, Mr. Anson Swett, Mrs. Horace 
Gillis, and others. Among the Nashuans who are natives and were not 
present are Mrs. E. S. Russell, Messrs. Alzathan Barker, Alvin Brown, 


John M. Hopkins, and others. There were also present sons and daugh- 
ters of Antrim from far and near. Among the number, Dr. Gilman Kimball 
of Lowell, whose mother was the first person horn in the town ; C. E. Car- 
ter and G. P. Dadmun of Lowell, Dr. James Stickney of Pepperell, Hon. 
Charles Adams, Jr., of Boston, Dr. Whittemore of Boston, and Col. S. I. 
Yose of Peterborough. Among the guests were Hon. David Gillis, Hon. 
Charles Williams, George A. Kamsdell, Esq., Mr. John A. Spalding, 
Charles R. McClary,Hon. Albert McKean, Mr. Horace Gillis, and B. F. 
Kendrick, Esq., of Nashua. 

At an early hour a procession was formed on the Branch road in the 
following order : — 

Chief marshal, M. B. Mcllvaine. 
Aids, — Col. S. I. Vose, of Peterborough, and Col. Silas Dinsmore, of 


New Boston Brass Band. 

Granite State Cadets, — forty men. 

Waverly Lodge, I. O. of 0. P. 

The president of the day, Col. Reed "P. Whittemore, orator, poet, 

speakers, invited guests, clergymen, town officers, 

and others in carriages. 

The procession, which was very creditable for a country place, pro- 
ceeded to the church at the Center of the town, where the president of 
the day made ^n address of welcome, which was followed by exercises as 
follows : Invocation of divine blessing by the Rev. James Whiton, 
reading of the Scriptures by the Rev. William Clark, select singing by 
the choir, prayer by the Rev. Mr. Clark, reading of the town charter by 
C. B. Dodge, Esq., music by the band. The oration was then delivered 
by Prof. James E. Vose, of Ashburnham, Mass. 

Pollowing the address, H. D. Chapin, Esq., read a poem which was 
written for the occasion by Prof. J. W. Barker, of Buffalo, N. Y., formerly 
of the town. These exercises were concluded shortly after twelve o'clock, 
and an hour was spent in social intercourse upon the green, in listening 
to the music of the band, in partaking of an excellent collation hospita- 
bly served by the people of the place, and such other recreation and 
pleasures as the meeting of such a large number of old friends suggests. 

Then, after very favorable comment on the various responses 
of the afternoon, the " Telegraph " speaks thus of the closing 
exercises of the day : — 

The procession of the morning was ^e-fbrmed, when it proceeded to 
Meeting-House Hill, where the Rev. W. R. Cochrane made an historic 
statement, a dirge over " Old Century " was performed, and a hymn sung 
to the tune of " Auld Lang Syne." The closing words were spoken by 
the president, and thus was ended a celebration which did honor to the 
people and adds to the good name of one of the most thrifty and honored 
old towns in New England. 




Up to the year 1836 the town and the church were -united, the 
town in public meeting calling the minister, and paying him out 
of the town treasury, like any other town officer. The first 
town warrant that was ever posted in Antrim had in it an article 
" To See What Money they Will Rease to Get preaching." It 
is not known how much they " Reased," but it is certain that 
they had several Sabbaths of preaching in that year. As to the 
first known preaching in Antrim, I quote from my memorial 
sermon, Nov. 5, 1876 : — 

For many years there was no religious meeting of any kind in town. 
Probably there was not even a prayer-meeting for thirty years after 
Eiley began in 1744. The lirst sermon in Antrim was preached in Sep- 
tember, 1775, in Dea. Aiken's barn, which stood about half-way between 
the old Aiken house and the barn now Mr. Gove's. May be some future 
generation will erect a monument there, marking it as holy ground. 
What an audience it was ! A picture of that scene and company would 
be worth a fortune now. The speaker, Bev. William Davidson of Lon- 
donderry, was a gray old divine, a dull and sleepy preacher, but an affec- 
tionate and holy man. He was personally acquainted with those to 
whom he was speaking, for they were the children that had grown up 
about him in his long ministry at home. The rough-clad settlers — the 
hardy wives in their homespun, ribbonless as Eve was in Eden — and 
bare-footed children made up the group. Seated on rough planks and 
bits of logs, or leaning against the hay-mow, listening, hushed and rever- 
ent, to the words of life, — fitly they worshiped Him who was born in a 
manger " where the horned oxen fed." 

Whenever needed to " solemnize marriages and attend funer- 
als," which events then were rare, neighboring clergymen came 
in, and their services were gratuitous previous to the incorpora- 
tion of the town. Rev. Jonathan Barnes, settled in Hillsborough 
Center Nov. 25, 1772, was for a few years almost as much a 
minister of Antrim as of his own town. A noted meeting was 
held in the barn of Dea. Robert Hopkins, of Francestown (Gib- 
son place), in October, 1775, and several sons and daughters of 
Antrim were carried there for baptism. In those days, meetings 
in barns took place in many towns. According to custom, " the 
ladies were accommodated with seats in jthe center," and men 


arid boys got in as best they could. In 1776 and 1777, there 
was occasional preaching here, mostly gratuitous, a sernion a 
year each, from Rev. John Morrison, of Peterborough ; Rev. 
Sewall Goodridge, of Lyndeborough ; Rev. Solomon Mopr, of New 
Boston ; Rev. John Houston, of Bedford ; and the faithful Mr. 
Barnes. The scattered settlers had but few religious privileges ; 
yet in these and preceding years they were not negligent of re- 
ligious things. They taught their children at home. The Bible 
and the Catechism were the chief literature in every house. 
They kept the ."^abbath with great reverence. Nobody could 
even walk the rough paths of the forest without being liable to 
be called in question for breaking the day of God. Having no 
trash to read, or for their children to read, they studied over and 
over the Holy Book, and came to hold its great doctrines rigidly 
and intelligently. Yet they longed for a stated preaching of the 
Word, and at their first March meeting, 1778, voted thirty-two 
dollars for that purpose, and in July of the same year voted one 
hundred dollars more. This, considering their feebleness and 
their poverty, was a very generous outlay. It would be about 
like nine thousand a year for Antrim now ! 

At a meeting Oct. 8, 1778, one ar.ticle in the warrant was " To 
See Where the Town Will Chuse To have Their preaching for the 
futer ; " and they " Voted that All meetings for the futer be held 
at Sa' Gregg's." March 9, 1779, they " Voted Eight Dayes preach- 
ing the presen Year ; " and it may be added, that, as every person 
went, and they had about four hours of actual preaching, the 
ratio of annual hearing was not so far behind the present time. 
The first candidate for the ministry ever in Antrim was Rev. 
Aaron Hutchinson, of whom a brief notice may be found in the 
genealogy. He preached here several times in the summer of 
1778, but for some reason the question of giving him a call 
never came up ; and he settled as a lawyer in Lebanon. Some- 
time previous to 1779, a Rev. jMr. Clarke preached here a few 
Sabbaths. He was a highly educated Scotchman, direct from 
over the sea ; but his oddities were such as to make it undesira- 
ble to kefep him. In 1779, Mr. James Miltimore (see genealogy) 
preached here most of the summer. He was a brother of Daniel 
Miltimore of Antrim. April 20, 1779, the town " Voted . . , 
Three Days' Work of Each man to be Worket out at ye Cen'ter 
for preparing for a meetinghous." 

March 14, 1780, the town " Voted Twelve Days preaching, " — 



a smart increase on the preceding year. They also " Voted 
M"^ Miltimore to Preach the above time, only to exchange as much 
with an Ordained Minisster as the towif Sees Needfull." The 
people were so much pleased with Mr. Miltimore that at a special 
town meeting, Aug. 22, 1780, years before there was church 
organization or church building within its borders, the town voted 
a call to him, and chose James Steel, William Smith, and John 
Duncan, a committee " to treat with him." They also voted to 
send Daniel Miltimore to Portsmouth to purchase a lot of land 
" for a settlement for a minister." They wanted their minister to 
have a farm. Mr. Whiton says they offered him a farm and 
$233 per year. This does not appear on tlie record, but no 
doubt it is correct, as probably Mr. Whiton received it from the 
lips of the parties themselves. It was a remarkably generous 
offer. Probably, with the same interest, Antrim could raise 
■ 110,000 as easily now as $233 then. Mr. Miltimore, it was said, 
declined the offer on the ground that it was too much for the 
people to pay. But he continued to preach here summers, part 
or all, for five years. March, 1781, the town " Voted the Select- 
men find preaching ; " and they hired Mr. Miltimore. At the 
same meeting they voted to keep the 19th of May, the first anni- 
versary of the Dark Day, as a town fast. I mention this at some 
repetition, as expressive of the strong religious sentiment of 
the people. 

March 12, 1782, the town " Voted that Wee have Ten Days' 
Preaching this year ; " and at an adjourned meeting, March 26, 
they " Voted Jam^ Dinsmore be a Committee man to Get preach- 
ing ; " also Alexander Jameson. At a second adjournment, they 
" Voted that Dan' Nichols Read the Pslam on Sabath Days and 
other Days When publick Service is attended for the Current 
year." This committee also hired Mr. Miltimore a few Sab- 
baths ; and it is inferred that on other Sabbaths the people 
carried on a meeting themselves, at which Daniel Nichols did 
" Read the Pslam:' 

March 11, 1783, " Voted Ten Days preaching this year." 
" Voted the Selectmen provide the preaching," and " Voted the 
Minister have four Dollars per Day." 

March 9, 1784, " Voted Twelve Days Preaching for this Year." 
Th'ey also had an article in the warrant " To See What Steps 
the Town Will take in Consequence of the Late act of the Gen- 
eral Court for Raising a tax off the Lands in S* Town for the 


purpose of Building a Meeting House and Purchasing a Miniss- 
terial Lot." On the strength of this aid they determined to 
build. They decided to have the edifice forty by fifty feet, with 
a porch at either end, patterned after the old church in London- 
derry where they had attended in youth. A picture of the old 
church is preserved in this book. They chose Daniel Nichols, 
James Dinsmore, and Samuel Dinsmore, a " Committee to Esta- 
mate the timber." 

At a meeting Sept. 2, 1784, the report of this committee was 
accepted. They voted to build " where the Ceiitor is Now found ; " 
voted to sell the building '• To the Loest Bidder," and chose the 
same committee to make the contract. They also at a subse- 
quent meeting voted " five Gallons of Rum for the Vendue." 
Nov. 3, they " Voted to have Two Barrels of Rum for the Rais- 
ing," and " Voted Jam= Hopkins Get the Rum." 

In April, 17 So, they voted, in addition to the rum, to " Provide 
Bread and Chease and Dry fish for Breakfast for the Raising at 
the Meeting house & Butter ; " that " A meat Dinner be Provided 
for the Reating ; " and also " Voted to Provide one Dozen of 
Wooden kans each to hold Three Quarts." June 8, 1785, Col. 
William Gregg of Londonderry, who was noted as commander 
of a division in the battle of Bennington, came here as master- 
workman. The people were all alive with enthusiasm. The tim- 
ber was standing when he came ; but the people went at it with 
such vigor that all was cut, hewed, and framed, in less than 
three weeks. They took the pine timber from the plain, about 
the Branch cemetery, but the hard wood was cut on the hill near 
by. The house was raised June 28 ; and a great day it was for 
Antrim. The people rejoiced that they had even the frame of a 
meeting-house. Hitherto they had worshiped chiefly in barns. 
"So pleased," says Dr. Whiton, " were the people with the idea 
of having a meeting-liouse, that, on the Sabbath next after the 
raising of the frame, they met in it for worship, having a Mr. 
Whipple for their preacher. Nothing had been done to the 
house but to lay down a little loose flooring, to place a few boards 
on blocks for seats, and a few on the beams as a screen from the 
sun. In time of service there arose a violent thunder-storm, 
and while the little congregation were fleeing for shelter the 
rain poured down copiously, wetting many to the skin." But 
this was not so hard as a ^imilar case some years before in Hills- 
borough, — when Rev. Mr. Barnes got his boots full of water in 
a shower ! 


This old church was not completed till near the close of 1792, 
it taking nearly eight years to struggle through it. They did 
what they could each year, but they didn't have any debt or 
mortgage ! Blessed old building ! What lessons of persever- 
ance and self-denial it speaks ! What memories are sealed in 
its massive walls ! 

March 8, 1785, the town voted twelve days' preaching, and 
"Voted Publick Worship beat Daniel Miltimore's this year " 
(Whiteley place). It was here, this same Mr. Whipple preach- 
ing for them, that, the little dwelling being crowded full, the 
floor gave way, and dropped them all, minister, people, furniture, 
and Bible, into the cellar ! Strange to say, nobody was hurt ; 
and with a small fright and a few scratches and a short inter- 
ruption, the service went on ! 

In 1796 and the following years till 1800, the amount of 
money raised for preaching was from fifty to three hundred dol- 
lars, — slowly increasing from the first-named sum. These 
amounts seem small, but, under the circumstances of the people, 
were far in excess of what their descendants do. 

For the most part, the preaching in 1786-87 was by Rev, 
Aaron Hutchinson, Sen., an eccentric, brilliant, good old man, 
of whom information is given in the genealogy. 

March 13, 1787, the town " Voted Cap* Nichols Colect the 
minisster tax for four' Dollars," — the first in town to have that 

March 11, 1788, the town chose Isaac Cochran to go to the 
presbytery and ask for the organization of a church in Antrim. 
Other records show that John Duncan was added to this com- 
mittee. All the action was taken by the town in legal meeting. 
The people were, without exception, in sympathy with the Pres- 
byterian system, and some of them were still members of Pres- 
byterian churches in the towns whence they came. On this 
petition the presbytery sent Rev. William Morrison, of London- 
derry, to this place to organize a church. He found things sat- 
isfactory, and proceeded to organize the present Center church, 
Aug. 2, 1788. James Aiken, Isaac Cochran, and Jonathan Nes- 
mith, by vote of the church and the congregation, were chosen 
elders ; and this session held its first meeting and transacted its 
first business on that day. On the following day, Aug 3, Mr. 
Morrison preached ; and the church, which seems to have been 
organized out of those who had been members elsewhere, 


received quite a number by profession, — making seventy-two in 
all. The sacrament of the Lord's supper was first administered 
in Antrim Aug. 24-, 1788. Subsequently it was administered 
but once a year ; and Mr. Morrison, who first officiated, contin- 
ued his annual visits for this purpose many years. He was an 
able and winsome man, and was greatly endeared to this people. 
He died March 9, 1818, after a pastorate of thirty-five years. 

The annual sacramental seasons were times of great interest 
to the whole town. For many years the whole town kept the 
preceding Thursday and Friday with great strictness as fast 
days; and Saturday afternoon, all day Sunday, and Monday 
forenoon were entirely given to public religious services. Abso- 
lutely all of the people attended. As these meetings were 
planned for, and anticipated long, and neighboring ministers 
were called in to help, the whole was very impressive, and often 
issued in revivals ; and the church, though without a pastor, 
constantly increased. 

March 2-3, 1790, the town " Voted M"^ David M^eary Provide 
table Linning twelve y'^* 7-8*s wide at the town's Coast," this 
being for the communion tables. Long tables were set in the 
aisles of the churcli and before the pulfit, at which all, if possi- 
ble, sat down together, the aged being seated first, and the ele- 
ments being passed from one lo the other. Sometimes the 
tables had to be set several times. At the mother church in 
Londonderry, more than seven hundred have been known to be 
present at communion. Often persons came in from a distance, 
and were unknown to pastor and deacons. In such cases, to 
keep out unworthy persons, it was customary for each pastor to 
furnish his own flock with cheap, lead coins, marked with the 
letter A, entitling them to admission. With still greater reason, 
this practice had been in vogue beyond the water. It was a 
kind of ceriificate of church-membership. Long, however, after 
there was no need of it, these tokens were in use. The aged 
people remember when they were taken at the Lord's table, and 
some of them are kept till the present day. They ceased to be 
used in Antrim in 1824. 

Subsequent to the organization of the church, preaching was 
maintained most of the time, except in the midst of Winter, by 
various ministers. May 28, 1792, the town voted a call to Rev. 
Samuel Tomb-, which he dechned. At the March meeting in 
1793, the town renewed the call, but in vain. The records for 


1793-94-95 speak of " boarding the minister," but we know not 
who he was. A Mr. DufF was perhaps here a few Sabbaths, as 
the town record speaks of voting to send for him. Rev. David 
Goodall preached here in the summer of 1796, and a town meet- 
ing was called Dec. 10, 1796, " To know the minds of the town 
if they will employ M"^ Goodall to Supply the Dessk in antrim' 
any longer." Jan. 5, 1797, the town met "To see if the town 
will vote to present a call to the Rev. David Goodall proba- 
tioner ;" on which they " Voted not to give m'' Goodall a call at 
present," and appointed a committee to "enquire into Mr. Good- 
all's moral character." For some reason he did not remain ; 
but he turned out to be a self-denying and useful man. 

March 14, 1797, the town " Voted the agents inquire into the 
character of m' Cleveland, and apply to him to Supply the Dessk 
if they find it fair." He may have preached here in the sum- 
mer of 1797. In'the spring of 1798 Mr. Joshua Howard came 
here to preach. June 18, a meeting was called to give him an 
invitation to settle as the town's minister. No record of this 
meeting appears, but it seems the call was voted, for, at a meet- 
ing Aug. 27 following, they speak of the " call voted last meet- 
ing." Mr. Howard werft to Dunstable, Mass. Early in 1799, 
Mr. Walter Little, of Peterborough, came here to preach. June 
3, 1799, an article was in the warrant to see whether they would 
ask " Mr. Little for further service." Aug. 29, following, they 
voted him a call. At a subsequent meeting they made the sal- 
ary three hundred and twenty dollars, and four Sabbaths' vaca- 
tion. He was ordained Sept. 8, 1800, and resigned Sept. 4, 
1804. Li 1802 he had his name changed to Fullerton. The 
first opposition to paying the town's minister appears in the 
record of a town meeting, Feb. 8, 1803, to act on the petition of 
Zaccheus Fairbanks and others, to be " released from paying 
taxes to the Rev. Walter Fullerton," which petition was not 
granted. In .the dismission of Mr. Fullerton, the entire action 
was taken by the town, there being no evidence of any action by 
the church. Several very sensible resolutions on the matter 
were passsed in legal meeting, and may be found in the Town 
Record, vol. 1, page 261. 

May 1, 1806, the town voted a call to Thomas Cochran, of 
New Boston, he having preached here some months previous. 
This call was declined, but he seems to have remained their 
preacher for a time. Nov. 20, 1806, the town voted a call to Mr. 


William Ritchie, of Pe^terborough, which he declined. He went 
to Canton, Mass. The previous year the session adopted a cus- 
tom then somewhat prevalent, which Mr.,Whiton describes as 
the admission of " persons of sober life and conversation, who had 
been themselves baptized, to the privilege of bringing their chil- 
dren to baptism." This was called the " half-way practice," or 
" owning the covenant." This was making town and church 
still more as one. Many availed themselves of the privilege. 
It was a matter of great talk and argument, then, and long 
after ; but was pi-acticed only five years. 

Mr. John M. Whiton first preached here July 11, 1807. At a 
special town meeting, Sept. 21, 1807, they voted him a call. 
After a month or two Mr. Whiton declined the call and left 
town, — probably on account of some opposition to him. But, 
May 8, 1808, at a special meeting, the town renewed the call, 
offering a salary of four hundred and fifty dollars, — the same 
being counted large in those days. In addition, they voted five 
hundred dollars down, which they called a " settlement," from 
which twenty-five dollars a year was to be paid back for the time 
he was deficient, if he left within twenty years, except in case 
of sickness or death. With that five hundred dollars they 
wanted to help him start, and they wanted to hold him. 

In consideration of these inducements, and of the earnest 
desire and great need of the people, Mr. Whiton accepted this 
second call, and was ordained Sept. 28, 1808. And notwith- 
standing thirteen men entered on the town record their protest 
against his settlement, — some of them very bitter, some on the 
ground that the salary was too much for the town to pay, though 
the population was greater than it is now, and no other church 
within its bounds ; some on the ground that money for preach- 
ing ought to be collected " only by subscription " ; and some on 
the ground that Mr. Whiton " held the tenets of Hopkins," 
apparently a very thin excuse for those men to make, — notwith- 
standing all this, Mr. Whiton continued pastor long after every 
one of these opposers was dead and gone, reaching almost the 
longest pastorate in the history of the New Hampshire churches. 

Mr. Whiton's letter of acceptance is a model in every respect, 
but too long for this place. An indication of his feeling, and a 
prophecy of his career, may be seen in the following sentence 
from it : " When I reflect on the various events that have, unex- 
pectedly to myself, led to my return to you, I cannot but think 


there has been a Providence superintending these events, and 
plainly marking out this place as the scene of my labors." 

Some items concerning the ordination may be found in the 
narrative of the town for 1808. None of thoSe who protested, 
from time to time, against paying for his support, were ever com- 
pelled to pay. Mr. Whiton, by his prudent and charitable 
course, -soon gained the hearts of the community. Matters went 
on harmoniously and prosperously quite a number of years, until 
the excitement arose about building a new meeting-house. The 
town as such voted to build, but could not agree on a location. 
After two years of excited talk, the present locality being agree- 
able to a large majority, a voluntary society was formed to go 
ahead and build, as appears from the following, from the 
" Amherst Cabinet," Dec. 24, 1825 : — 

Notice is hereby given that -Jouathan Nesmith, James Cochran, 
James Boyd, Amos Parmenter, and Samuel Fletcher, and their associates, 
have this day formed and organized themselves into a society for the 
purpose of building a house for public worship, to be styled and known 
by the name of the Central Society in Antrim, etc. 


Eighty-three men united to form this society. They chose 
John Worthley, Thomas McCoy, Samuel Cummings, James 
Wallace. Jr., and Isaac Baldwin, their building committee. 
They began the foundation in the fall of 1825, quite a large 
company assembling, and Mr. Whiton making an address, at the 
lajdng of the corner-stone. The house was erected in the sum- 
mer of 1826, at a cost of six thousand two hundred dollars. 
The bell, costing over four hundred dollars, was added by sub- 
cription, and was first used in tolling the death of Dr. Whi ton's 
mother, Oct. 27, 1826. When they were ready to raise the 
steeple, the four long corner-timbers of it were first drawn up 
and laid on the beams. Then they drew up the two front tim- 
bers to a perpendicular position, and fastened them there by 
ropes. Then two young men, Ira Cochran and William S. 
Poster, one to each long timber, with a brace in one hand and 
holding on with the other, were swung up on the top ends of the 
timbers, met at the top, drew the four timbers into position, put 
in their braces, pinned them, and then slipped down the ropes 
outside to the ground ! It was a feat beheld with trembling by 
a great multitude ! 

The house was dedicated Nov. 15, 1826. Sermon by Dr. 

; I )! »«- 


Whiton, Gen. xxviii. 17. The first Sabbath of the following 
December they met for the last service in the old house on the 
hill. It was cold a'nd desolate, — nature's mournfulest hour, — 
but the company was large, and Mr. Whiton preached an able 
sermon (which ought to be preserved), from John iv. 20, " Our 
fathers worshiped in this mountain," closing with the words of 
Jesus at the supper : " Arise, let us go hence." Then they all 
marched down the hill to this house, filling it full, and Mr. 
Whiton proceeded to preach again from Ps. cxxxii. 8, 9, " Arise, 
Lord, into thy rest ; thou and the ai'k of thy strength. Let 
thy priests be clothed with righteousness ; and let thy saints 
shout for joy." 

Yet with these sounds of gladness there were undertones of 
disquiet and opposition. Building the new house soured some, 
some wanted an excuse for not paying anything for religion, 
many felt heavily the cost of construction, — so that the next 
spring ninety-one citizens entered on the town record their pro- 
test against paying any tax for Mr. Whiton's support. This 
made about one-third of the paying men in town, and things 
looked dark and uncertain for the future. But at this critical 
■juncture Grod c^me to his people's rescue. Hardly had the last 
protest, backed up by vigorous wrath, got into the record, when 
a revival began. It came entirely unexpected ; it broke out 
where it would never have been looked for ; softly as the warm 
breezes of spring it moved over the whole town, — it was the 
mt)st sweeping and wonderful revival Antrim ever saw ; nobody 
questioned that it was the work of God. It silenced opposition, 
it turned enemies into friends, it united Christians, it brought 
more than one hundred new members to this church, and its 
good results are visible now, after the lapse of nearly fifty years. 
This precious revival began in May and was at its height in hay- 
time ; yet, notwithstanding the time given to meetings, they got 
their hay all right, — and good and plenty besides. 

Up to this time, the Presbyterian church had been so much a 
town church, its affairs being transacted in legal meeting and by 
public vote, that I have felt justified in this somewhat large nar- 
rative of it. But, subsequent to 1826, 1 will now make its history 
very brief. In 1831 there was another revival, and an addition 
of about forty to the church. For the liext twenty years there 
were many additions from time to time, but heavy losses from 
death and emigration. And Mr. Whiton was feeling the burden 


of age, and growing unusually anxious for the flock he must 
soon leave. Then came the revival of 1851, gladdening his old 
age. Nearly forty were added to the church ; it was greatly 
cheered and strengthened by those additions ; other denomina- 
tions in town were also blessed ; peace, and love unusually pre- 
vailed ; and Mr. Whitou, with characteristic prudence, took this 
favored time to resign his pastorship, which was done , in May, 
1852. At the close of his service the church numbered one 
hundred and fifty-three. On the last Sabbath of December fol- 
lowing, he preached his farewell discourse. It closed a service 
of forty-five years. Many of the hearers of this last sermon 
were grandchildren of his original flock. A few aged ones 
present on that occasion remembered the ordination. He had 
been with them in all the afflictions they ever knew. 

And when the committee of the church arose to address to 
him some parting words in reply, every one was overcome ; tears 
filled the reader's eyes (Dea. Robert Steel), and his voice was 
. choked and broken. And even the saintly old pastor was cap- 
tured by his emotions. It was a parting of intense interest and 
pain. There was something grand about it. Seldom in this 
world can such a scene be witnessed. On that day only_^ve were 
living of the flock to which he came ; and on this day only thirty 
are with us of the great number which he welcomed to the 
church ! 

Mr. Whiton having given his resignation eight months in ad- 
vance of its taking effect, a successor was early in his place, Rev. 
John H. Bates being ordained March 16, 1853. He was a man 
of more than ordinary learning and power. Under him there 
was only one revival, that of 1864. He resigned July 1, 1866, 
and died May 10, 1870. By his effort the organ was obtained 
in 1864, it being presented by the following absent sons of An- 
trim : S. W. Flint, John G. Flint, I. P. Wallace, M. W. Stick- 
ney, Leander Stickney, A. 0. Cochran, and W. W. Duncan. To 
Mr. Bates belongs also much credit in the success of remodeling 
the church in 1857. 

The services of the present pastor began Jan. 1, 1868, though 
he was not ordained till March 18, 1869. The chapel, located 
a few steps east of the church, was built in 1875. 

The people turned out and gave their service to prepare the 
foundation. The building was given to the church by the follow- 
ing persons : Hon. William B. Dinsmore, Hon. Daniel M. Chris- 


tie, Mary Clark, John G. Flint,. Esq., M. W. Stickney, Esq., 
Leander Stickney, Esq., David M. Weston, Esq., Prof. James B. 
Vose, Gardiner Parmenter, Esq,, Hon. George W. Nesmith, Hon. 
George W. Patterson, Hon. Charles Adams, Jr., W. W. Duncan, 
Esq., Edward Whiteley. Esq., Hon. G. W. Cochrane, John J. 
Whittemore, Esq., and Rev. W. R. Cochrane. 

The membership of the old church, now (Jan. 1, 1880) in its 
ninety-second year, is two hundred and sixty-three. 

It may please the curious to be reminded, that, in the early 
history of these old churches, persons were seated according to 
rank. In some of the older towns the duty devolved upon the 
selectmen, and it was customary to have set rules to follow. I 
have examined one set of rules, eight in number, two items of 
which I quote : " That every male be allowed one degree for 
every complete year of age he exceeds twenty-one " (not to be 
applied to unmarried women) ; and " That some suitable abate- 
ment in degrees be made where it is well known that the person 
is greatly in debt." Who says there was no churchly pride in 
those days ? 

The front seats were highest in rank. Women were seated 
separately from the men. Children were seated on the gallery 
stairs, or in a great box pew, with a tithing-man to keep them 
still. Persons of no special standing took the back seats. Strange 
to say, all this was more prevalent in Congregational churches 
than in Presbyterian.. It did not prevail to any great extent in 
Antrim, except in the courtesy that was shown to age and 
piety, though traces were visible of its influence for many years. 

It appears even now, in the pauper's pew, and in the custom 
of taking the best-dressed stranger to the front seat ! 

The session of the Presbyterian church is here added : — 



rear of Choice. 

Tear of Death. 


James Aiken, 




Isaac Cochran, 




Jonathan Nesmith, 




John Duncan, 




John Alexander, 




James Nesmith, 




Arthur Nesmith, 




Sutheric Weston, 




Daniel Nichols, 




Barachias Holt, 




Joseph Boyd, 




James Carr, 






Samuel Vose, 




Tristram Sawyer, 




Josiah Duncau, 




John Taylor, 




Epps Burnham, 




John Bell, 




Amos Parmenter, 




Robert Steel, 




Robert Duncau, 




William Little, 




Joel Wilkins, 




Samuel Fletcher, 




James Hopkins, 




Samuel Wood, 




Asa Bond, 




Imla Wright, 



James Boyd, 




Thomas Thompson, 



Francis M. Shattuck, 




Harris B. Newman, 




John E. Hastings, 



Edward D. Putney, 



Enoch C. Paige, 



James W. Perkins, 



The church in the east part of the town was erected also in 1826. 
It was forty-four by fifty-five feet, and cost four thousand five 
hundred dollars. Jacob Whittemore, Benjaofiin BuUard, Solomon 
Hopkins, Dimon Dodge, Benjamin Rollins, and others, being dis- 
satisfied with the erection of a house at the Center, called a 
meeting at John McCoy's (big brick house) late in the fall of 
1825, §oon after the foundation at the Center was laid ; and 
there they formed themselves into a society which they called 
" The First United Presbyterian Congregational Baptist Society 
in Antrim." Certainly the name was long enough for conven- 

Having by committee fixed on a location, they gave John 
McCoy one hundi-ed dollars for the acre of land, and chose 
Thomas K. Breed, Benjamin Bullard, and Elijah Gould, build- 
ing committee. A certain Capt. Kilburn built the house. It 
was dedicated Dec. 20, 1826, the sermon being by Rev. John Law- 
ton of Hillsborough. It was built by a union of people in East 
Antrim, West Deering, and the north part of Bennington ; but 
there was no church organization. In the great revival of 1827, 


there were, however, several converts in that part of the town ; 
and from these a Congregational church of seventeen members 
was organized Oct. 25, 1827, the sermon being preached by Rev,. 
Phinehas Cooke, of Acworth. Nearly as many united with the 
new church by letter, nine of them being from the Center 
church. The first minister in the new house was Rev. Roswell 
Harris, who was here through the revival and most of the time 
for three or four years succeeding, and left an excellent name. 
He was a Congregationalist. The next preacher was Rev. Joseph 
Davis, of the Baptist order, who remained about twenty years, 
though preaching part of the time in other places. Mr. Davis 
was honored by the town by appointment to the offices of town 
clerk, representative, and superintending school committee. 
Under his ministry a small Baptist church was formed, in the fall 
of 1831, it is believed. Benjamin Nichols was its deacon. It 
was dissolved about 1841, its members, few in number, uniting 
with the church in Bennington, now the Antrim Baptist church. 
After Mr. Davis there was occasional preaching in the East 
church till 1860, by Baptist and Methodist ministers. The Con- 
gregational church there, being reduced to a small number, dis- 
solved in 1843, most of its members uniting with the Presbyte- 
rian church, some of them being yet alive. 

The tall steeple of this church was taken down in the spring 
of 1867. After forty years, people thought its timbers were 
decayed and unsafe. Consequently they met, threw a rope 
round the top, sawed off the main supports, and pulled it over. 
It tipped entirely over and came down with a fearful plunge, far 
into the ground ! -But they found the timbers perfectly sound 
and safe. 

The house was sold at auction, October, 1873, for four hundred 
and forty-one dollars, to J. B. Woodbury & Son, and was imme- 
diately taken down. Now the material is all. removed, the site 
is turned into a planted field, and nothing remains to mark the 
spot. For the information of the next generation, let it be said 
that the Bast church stood on the swell of land nearly opposite 
the East cemetery, being a little farther .north than the ceme- 
tery, and on a commanding spot. 


Chiefly by the kind help of Rev. William Hurlin, I am enabled 
to give the following sketch of the Baptist church in Antrim, 


Its early records are very imperfect, rendering a minute history 
difficult. The church was organized Dec. 17, 1805, at the house 
of Joseph Baton, of Greenfield, and was recognized by a council 
from Mason, Dublin, and New Boston, consisting of the pastors 
in those places. Elders William Elliott, Elijah Willard, and 
Isaiah Stone, and eleven delegates. Rev. William Elliott was 
moderator, and John Brown clerk. Thirteen persons, five males 
and eight females, were organized under the name of the 
"Peterborough and Society Land Baptist Church " The name 
has been several times changed. Aug. 19, 1824, it was voted to 
call it " Society Land Baptist Church." May 24, 1835, it was 
changed to "Hancock and Society Land Baptist Church." 
When Bennington was incorporated, 1842, it assumed the name 
of " Bennington." Aug. 29, 1857, it was voted to call it the 
" Antrim Baptist Church." There had been a Baptist church - 
here before, dissolved about 1841, as stated in the history of the 
brick edifice over east. 

Of the early pastors of the church, very little is known. As 
far as can be gathered, they were as follows : Elder Elliott ; 
Elder Westcott, who left , under a cloud in 1826, and was after- 
ward excluded from the fellowship of the church ; Elder Parrar; 
Elder Goodnow, one year, 1831-32 ; Elder McGregor ; Elder 
Joseph Davis ; Rev. James A. Boswell, 1836 ; Rev. P. Page, 
1836 ; Rev. John Woodbury, 1837 ; Rev. Zebulon Jones, one 
year, 1837-38 ; Rev. Amzi Jones, two or three years, from 
December, 1840 ; Rev. J. M. Chick, two years, 1845-47 ; S. L. 
Elliot, a licentiate, one year, 1847-48. 

Rev. W. W. Lovejoy commenced his labors as pastor of the 
church April 26, 1850, and closed them in July, 1856. Rev. 
W Eimball became pastor in April, 1856, and hisresignation 
was accepted Oct. 4, 1862. Rev. L. C. Stevens commenced his 
labors Nov. 1, 1863, and closed them April 30, 1865. Rev. 
William Hurlin became pastor in March, 1866, and continued 
till March, 1873, seven years, being the longest period of any 
pastorate of this church. Mr. Hurlin was a man of critical 
scholarship, great information, and good life, having the highest 
respect of all the people of the town. 

Rev. E. M. Shaw was ordained pastor Sept. 30, 1873, and 
closed his work in August, 1877. He was an excellent scholar, 
a sound thinker, and a sermonizer of high rank. He wrote in a 
very pure and forcible style, and his manner of delivery, though 


calm, was very impressive. Though a constant sufferer from ill 
health, he did excellent service, and greatly endeared himself to 
the church and to all the people of the town. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. W. H. Pish, who was stated supply from Aug. 
20, 1877, to April, 1878. At a meeting of the church, March 1, 
1878, a unanimous call was extended to Rev. E. M. Shaw, to 
resume his labors as pastor, which he accepted, entering upon 
his work the second Sabbath of May following. But his old ills 
again came upon him, and he was forced to resign after about a 
year's service. His successor, Rev. Horace F. Brown, was 
ordained Oct. 1, 1879. 

The deacons in the church have been as follows : Benjamin 
Nichols, chosen March 13, 1806 ; Eli Maynard, chosen Nov. 4, 
1827 ; Asa Knight, chosen April 16, 1829 ; Lewis A. Fletcher, 
chosen July 9, 1835 ; John Higgins, chosen July 7, 1848 ; Jesse 
R. Goodell, chosen 1851 ; Gilbert P. Hall, chosen June 2, 1864 ; 
Mark True, chosen June 2, 1864 ; E. Z. Hastings, chosen May 
1, 1875. 

The clerks of the church have been Dea. Benjamin Nichols, 
William Darrah, Dea. A. Knight, Dea. S. A. Fletcher, Rev. 
Amzi Jones, Rev. J. M. Chick, Dea. Gilbert P. Hall, John R. 
Abbott, Dea. Mark True, and the present incumbent, William B, 

Rev. Samuel Abbott became a member of this church in 1847, 
and remained so till his death in 1853. He was never pastor of 
the church. His son, Rev. Stephen G. Abbott, united with this 
church at Hancock, in 1838. At that time the church wor- 
shiped at Society Land, and maintained a branch church at 
Hancock. He was licensed, by the mother church, Aug. 11, 
1848. Since then he has been almost constantly preaching, and 
is able and vigorous in the presentation of the truth. 

Owing to the imperfection'of records, it is impossible to ascer- 
tain how many persons have been members of this church. The 
names of three hundred and two have been found, divided thus : 
constituent members, thirteen; baptized, one hundred and twen- 
ty-six ; by letter, one . hundred and six ; experience, six ; 
unknown, fifty-one. The largest number of members at any one 
time was eighty-four, which occurred in 1851. The present 
membership (1878) is seventy-five. 

It is not known where they met for worship the first year. 
The first meeting-house was built before 1812, in Greenfield, 


near the Samuel Dascomb place. In Society Land, now Ben- 
nington, a meeting-house was built before 1826. In April, 1851, 
it was " Voted to hold the meetings on the Sabbath half the 
time at South Antrim for the present." Jan. 2, 1852, it was 
" Voted to hire Woodbury's hall for one year, for worship." 
Feb. 6, following, they " Voted to hold the meetings all the time 
at South Antrim," since which time this has been the location 
of the church. Several unsuccessful efforts were made to build 
here, but the church continued to worship in Woodbury's hall 
till 1871, when, during the pastorate of Mr. Hurlin,they resolved 
to rise up and build God blessed the effort, and they were 
enabled to dedicate their attractive and commodious house Oct. 
25, 1871, frea of debt. The total cost was six thousand two 
hundred dollars. The parsonage was built in 1879. 


The first preaching under this order was at the Branch, and 
at the East meeting-house. The first preacher was Rev. Ezra 
Wardwell, in 1838, or possibly in 1837. Wardwell was a young 
man. He died in Sullivan, September, 1850, aged thirty-eiglit. 
After him, a Rev. Mr. Heath, a Rev. Mr. Jones, and a Mrs. Orne 
preached in town occasionally. Antrim was included in a cir- 
cuit with other towns, and was supplied a part of the time. The 
first Methodist class, the beginning of the Methodist church, was 
formed in 1838 at the Branch, and was connected witii the Hen- 
niker charge. The persons forming it were Harvey Stacey, 
Nathan Barker and wife with three sons, Ira Knowlton, Arnold 
McClure, and Anson Fletcher. This organization was, however, 
soon lost. 

About 1840, by exertion of Rev. Ezra Wardwell and others, a 
class was fortned at Woodbury Village, now South Antrim. 
Solomon McGee was leader of this class, and it was connected 
with the Deeriug charge. Mr. Wardwell preached about one 
quarter of the time for a year or two in the East house, and 
occasionally, for several years following him, students from Con- 
cord preached there. In 1851, Rev. S. S. Dudley came to 
Antrim, and spent that and the following year in labor here, 
preaching half the time in the East house, and half the time in 
the hall in the three-story house at the Branch, the hall being 
fitted up about 1851 for that purpose. ^ 

The class was re-formed at the Branch, under the leadership 

Ih'liotypi^ Priitiiag Oi. 

21J 'Inmmit HI,, llosl 

Bafi'ist Church and Parsonage. 


of Harvey Stacey. Considerable interest was awakened under 
the labors of Mr. Dudley ; quite a number were added to the 
classes ; and by his labors, it is believed in. 1852, these were 
brought together into a church. It numbered fifty-one at its or- 
ganization. They held their meetings in the hall at the Branch, 
chiefly, though in part still at the East house, and sometimes 
in the school-house in South Village. During the winter of 
1863-64 new interest was awakened ; through the exertions of 
Harvey Stacey, Harold Kelsea, and Alvah Dodge, funds were 
raised by contributions of the citizens, for the purpose of build- 
ing ; and on the 9th of October, 1864, a new hall was opened in 
South Antrim, which, with' several improvements and enlarge- 
ments, is now the Methodist church, and is a very neat and con- 
venient edifice. Its dedication was attended with very happy 
exercises, including the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's 

The several pastors of this church are given below : Rev. S. 
S. Dudley, Rev. R. Gregg, Rev. D. W Barber, Rev. Irad Tag- 
gart, Rev. Cliarles H. Smith, Rev. John Olough, Rev. Jesse 
Wagner, Rev. Mr. Stinchfield, Rev. Otis Cole, Rev. Leroy Stow, 
Rev. A. E. Drew, Rev. C. W Miller, Rev. B. A. Howard, Rev. 
A. A. Cleveland, Rev. J. W. Fulton, Rev. C. E. Dorr, Rev. 
Lewis Howard, Rev. Jacob P. Spalding, Rev. J. W Oooledge, 
Rev. J. R. Bartlett, Rev. J. L. Felt, 1876-79, and Rev. Mr. Curl. 

Many of these, from personal acquaintance, the writer can 
speak of in high terms ; especially Rev. Jesse Wagner, who 
married a daughter of John G. Flint, Esq., and is one of the 
best preachers in the denomination ; and Rev. J. L. Felt, who has 
furnished most of- the items of this sketch, and whom I take 
pleasure in claiming as a personal friend. 

The Methodist church has slowly yet constantly increased, 
has considerable support from adjacent towns, and, notwithstand- 
ing removals and deaths, it now has a membership of one hun- 
dred. And it has been a power on the side of truth and good 
morals in the place. 

The Luke Thompson' house was bought and fitted up for a 
parsonage in 1879. 





Several of the citizens of Antrim were out in the British 
service against the French and Indians, but, as that service was 
prior to their settlement here, I will commence at the opening of 
the Revolution. I have already stated the remarkable fact, that 
every man (and boy of size sufficient) marched for Lexington at 
the first sound of battle, except John Gordon, and that he soon 
enlisted for the whole war. There was not a male in Antrim 
that did not respond to his country's call. Some only served a 
short time ; others were absent for years. Quite a number of 
young men came here and began their " clearings," but left at 
the sound of war to enter the ranks ; most of them returning, on 
the establishment of peace. Their settlement here is put at the 
later date by Mr. Whiton, — ^though they were here years before, 
and enlisted from this town. A few, however, of the list given 
herewith, did not strike a blow in Antrim till after the war, and 
then, seeking a settlement somewhere, were led to this place. 

It is not possible to fix the exact date of organizing the first 
military company in this town. No doubt, however, it was 
immediately on return from the march to Lexington in April, 
1775, as they were then. all together, and in the war spirit. 
They had marched under Capt. Isaac Butterfield, of Society 
Land, but, on return, they wanted a company of their own. 
They chose John Duncan, captain ; Thomas Nichols, lieutenant; 
and James Dickey, ensign. No doubt that the organization, and 
choice of Duncan as captain, immediately on return, or perhaps 
lefore return, gave rise to the statement once made by Dr. 
Whiton (Half-century Sermon, p. 13), that the company march- 
ing to Lexington was commanded by Duncan instead of Butter- 
field, and that Duncan " had previously been commissioned as 
captain over the few militia of the places above named." I find 
he. is called "Capt. John Duncan" in a state pay-roll, 1775. 
The company under Butterfield marched as far as Tyngsbor- 
ough, Mass., and there were met by Gen. Stark, " who told them 
there were men enough near Boston, and advised them to return 
and plant their corn, holding themselves ready to march at a 


moment's warning ; adding, tliat, however rusty their guns, he 
knew of no men with whom he would sooner ti'ust his life in the 
hour of battle." (Dr. Whiton.) On this tliey returned, organ- 
ized, for convenience of meeting, the company of their own men, 
planted their corn, met to drill, and awaited the next call. It is 
a mistake to say that no citizen of Antrim was in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, soon following. Judge Nesmith, who, like myself, 
has hunted up many old papers, and who is an authority in such 
matters, says : " I suppose you may claim, with entire confi- 
dence, that Dea. James Aiken was in the battle of Bunker Hill." 
He received a small sum in payment for " property lost " in the 
battle. John Burns was also in the fight. And James Hutch- 
inson lost his life by a wound received after the battle was over. 

At Bunker Hill the New Hampshire men took position behind 
the rail fence between the i-edoubt and Mysiic river. Part of 
the way they made a stone wall before them, and brought up the 
rail fence to the wall. Three times the foo were driven back by 
the ter<-ible fire from this rail fence ; and even in the last onset, 
and after the fall of the redoubt, the New Hampshire men were 
victorious, and rushed over the fence in pursuit of the flying foe. 
But Stark, perceiving the fate of the redoubt, drew back his 
men, and retreated, being the last to leave, and marching off in 
good order. 

All this was before the incorporation of Antrim as a town. 
Subsequently there was hardly a town meeting without some 
action concerning the war, until peace was declared. Aug. 20, 
1777, five months after incorporation, an article was in the war- 
rant to choose a •' Committee for to Regulate the Expense The 
Town has been at in Respect of the War," on wliich they chose 
the selectmen to be the committee. From this it is inferred, that, 
though few and poor, they assumed their part of the expenditure 
at once. 

In the summer of 1777 there was great alarm in Vermont and 
New Hampshire, on account of the invasion from Canada by 
Burgoyne. The legislature of New Hampshire was convened, 
and voted to raise two brigades for defense. They were none 
too fast ; for Burgoyne detached a force to go through the 
" New Hampshire Grants " and put down the few people in this 
part of the cotintry. Being excited with success, he supposed 
the thing would easily be 'done. The east New Hampshire brig- 
ade, under Col. Whipple, could not be ready in season ; but the 


west brigade, under Gen. Stark, hastily assembled, and, march- 
ing with haste, were able to meet the invaders before they had 
made great progress in " subjugating New England." A com- 
pany was mustered in at New Boston, July 23, in which it is 
believed there were eight or ten men from Antrim. The rest 
were from Deering, Francestown, Lyndeborough, and New Bos- 
ton and Greenfield. I have not been able to find the roll of this 
company in season for insertion here. Peter Clark was cap- 
tain ; Daniel Miltimore, of Antrim, first lieutenant ; Benjamin 
Bradford, second lieutenant ; and William Beard, of New Bos- 
ton, ensign. The company ,was attached to Col. Thomas Stick- 
ney's regiment of ten companies. Col. Moses Nichols had a 
regiment of ten companies, of which William Gregg was lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Col. David Hobart, of fJollis, had an incomplete 
regiment of five companies. The battle of Bennington occurred 
Aug. 16, 1777. The company in which were the Antrim men 
went on with the others, and took part in the series of contests 
which resulted in the surrender of Burgoyne. The names of 
those from this town cannot be given with certainty. Capt. 
John Duncan was among the number at Burgoyne's defeat, but 
it is probable he was not in the company when first mustered in 
at New Boston. Like some others, he probably followed as a 
volunteer, and served as a lieutenant in the several battles. 
William Smith, also, was known to be of the number from 
Antrim. His sou John had enlisted, but Dr. Whiton says : 
" The father, on reflection, volunteered to take the place of the 
son, giving as his reason, that, should he himself fall in battle, 
he trusted he was prepared to meet his Judge in peace ; while, 
should his son go and be killed, he could cherish in relation to 
him no such hope ! " A beautiful instance of fatherly devotion 
and sacrifice ! So the father went, at the age of sixty-two, but 
returned, without serious hurt, and lived till he was eighty-five. 
John Nichols and John McAllister were in the company of Capt. 
Peter Clark. At a meeting May 7, 1778, they chose John Dun- 
can, John McOleary, and Daniel Miltimore a " Committee to Set- 
tle the Ware Expense in Antrim and Proportion the Seame." 
Various taxes wei'e laid on the people, and when they could not 
pay money there was a tax in beef. In the " Beef Tax " of 
1781, the proportion of Antrim was two thousand seven hundred 
and ninety-one pounds, which, with their small amount of live 
stock, was a very heavy load. The selectmen delivered one 


thousand four hundred and ninety pounds ; and the town is 
marked deficient for one tliousand three hundred and one 
pounds, in tlie fall of that year. But the people had a town 
meeting ; " Voted that Sam^ Gregg & Daniel Miltimore Provide 
the Beef for this year's Proportion ; " and it seems, by great 
effort, they paid the whole tax. 

The town of Antrim exhibited great zeal to keep full its quota 
of men. In 1781 and 1782 this town had nine men in the field. 
An old report of men required from the several towns in 1781 
gives the number to Antrim, nine ; to Amherst, four ; to Bed- 
ford, eleven ; and so on. That this was squarely met by this 
town, appears from the following document : — 

Antrim Sept. 1", 1781. 
This may Certify that Moses George has passed Muster before Genl. 
Nichols for the town of Antrim 3 years Likewise Samuel Dinsmore and 
Eandall Alexander to the Last of December which the Quoto Demanded. 

Attest JOHN DUNCAN 1 Select 


SAM'. MOOEE ; men. 

When men were called for to defend Rhode Island, a detach- 
ment went from New Hampshire, in which William Boyd was 
the only one from Antrim, so far as known. For this service 
both State and town paid a bounty. 

Slate of New Hampshire to the Selectmen of Antrim Dr. 

July 20"^ 7 
1779 I To Cash paid William Boyd a Soldier enlisted in the Contij 

nental Service for the defehce of Khode Island. 

Bounty £30 — . Travel 120 miles to Providence £12. 

Errors excepted in behalf of the Selectmen of Antrim. 


The action of the town was as follows : " Voted william Boyd 
have five hundred Dollars for his Sarvice at Road island." 

The town was faithful in its care for the families of absent 
soldiers ; and if the soldiers had made beginnings', which the old 
records call " choppings " or " pieces of chopped wood," the 
town went right on with their work for them. It was the cus- 
tom to fall the trees on a certain piece of ground, let them lie 
one season to dry, and then burn all where it fell, even though the 
best of timber. After these pieces were burned over, all the 
heavy logs would remain, in immense quantities, charred, black, 
and hard to move among the stumps. These were next cut, 
piled, and burned, involving great labor and considerable time. 


For months these fires burned on a single lot, not being extin- 
guished even by long and heavy rains. Thus to subdue this 
rocky soil, covered with gigantic trees, and prepare the ground 
for a crop, was a great work. This the town did by public vote, 
for every soldier that needed it. It was not done by money tax, 
but by apportionment of labor. They had no money, but they 
had strong hands and determined wills. The amount of labor 
done by the few men left at home was incredible, — or would 
seem so now. They worked late and early, and by moonlight, — 
men and women and children, — as though their fingers were 
iron and their bones were steel. 

It may' be added, that, though we had no very distinguished 
men in the field, this towVi did its full share, and a little more 
than its full shave, of the hardship and sacrifice by which our 
national independence was won. , And some of our Antrim men 
were among the very last that left the public service. For a 
large part of tlie war, the regular quota for New Hampshire was 
three regiments, — though probably seldom full regiments.. Jan. 
1, 1781, by order of Gen. Washington, the Third New Hamp- 
shire Regiment was merged in the other two. A second reduc- 
tion of the army took place Jan. I, 1783, in which the Second 
New Hampshire was consolidated into the First, leaving one full 
regiment in the service from this State. 

Nov. 8, 1783 (the treaty of peace was signed in Paris Sept. 8, 
1783), the army was disbanded, except such as Gen. Washington 
specially designated to remain on duty for the honorable services 
attending the close of the war. For this purpose the general 
picked out the First New Hampshire, among others. This regi- 
ment remained, therefore, and took part in the various ceremonies 
of the evacuation of New York by the British, Nov. 25, 1788. 
The last official act of Gen. Washington, before resigning his 
commission, was the designation of a small force to remain on 
duty after Jan. 1, 1784. For this purpose, he chose a small 
artillery force, a few companies from Massachusetts, and Capt. 
Israel Frye's and Oapt. Joseph Potter's companies from New 
Hampshire, the rest of the reserve force being discharged. 
Members whose times were out were discharged from these 
companies and their places filled by those from other New Hamp- 
shire companies who had a year or two longer to serve. These 
several companies reserved after Jan. 1, 1784, formed what was 
called the " First American Regiment," and was put under com- 


mand of Col. Henry Jackson of Massachusetts. By act of 
Congress, June 2, 1784, this last regiment was honorably dis- 
charged, and the last of the army of the Revolution disappeared. 
Thus the First Ne^¥ Hampshire Regiment, through these two 
companies, had a continuous service of nine years and two and 
one-half mouths, — being the longest service rendered by any reg- 
iment in the whole army. And in this last disbanded force were 
certainly several men from this town ; among them Joseph Clark, 
Moses George, Isaac Patterson, Thomas McClary, and probably 
Dinsmore, Alexander, and others. I append the list of Revolu- 
tionary soldiers, which is undoubtedly correct, embracing all 
that were really mustered in : — 

1. James Aiken (was at Bunker Hill and Bennington). 

2. Randall Alexander. 

3. Thomas Brown. 

4. Thomns G. Breed (only a lad, but was surgeon's servant, 

and saw danger). 
0. John Burns. 

6. Daniel Buswell. 

7. Abijah Barker. 

8. Tobias Butler. 

9. Peter Barker. 

10. George Bemaine (killed at White Plains)., 

11. William Boyd. 

12. Joseph Clark. 

13. Stephen Curtice. 

14. Samuel Caldwell. 

15. Capt. Isaac Cochran. 

16. Elias Cheney (three years, one for himself, one for his 

father, and one for his brother). 

17. Lemuel Curtice. 

18. John Case. 

19. Samuel Dinsmore. 

20. Capt. John Duncan. 

21. Thomas Day. 

22. Adam Dunlap. 
28. Daniel Downing. 

24. David Downing. 

25. James Dickey (killed). 

26. Samuel Downing (last survivor army of the Revolution, 

died Feb. 19, 1867, aged 105 years, 2 months, and 21 


27. Samuel Edes. 

28. Thomas English. 

29. George Gates. 

30. John Gordon. 

31. Samuel Gregg. 

32. Alexander Gregg. 

33. Simeon George. 

34. David George. 

35. Jonathan Grimes. 

36. Michael George (part of time for Londonderry). 

37. Moses George. 

38. James Hutchinson (killed). 

39. James Hopkins. 

40. Josiah Herrick. 

41. Pitman Howard. 

42. Hugh Jameson. 

43. Thomas Jameson. 

44. Taylor Joslyn (served for Antrim, afterwards for Deering). 

45. William Lakin (badly wounded at Stillwater, Oct. 7, 1777, 

on account of which he was soon discharged). 

46. David Lufkin (badly wounded in second battle with Bur- 

goyne, Oct. 8, 1777, whence soon discharged). 

47. John McAllister. 

48. Robert McClary. 

49. Thomas McClary ("Freed of Reats " April 2, 1782). 
60. John McClary. 

51. David McClure (one year for Antrim). 

52. John McCoy. 

53. Daniel Miltimore (first lieutenant at Bennington and 


54. Robert McClure. 

55. James Nesmith. 

56. Daniel Nichols (served short time). 

57. John Nichols (was at battle of Bennington). 

58. Thomas Nichols (in service short time). 

59. Adam Nichols (enlisted on Antrim's quota one year, July 

20, 1779). 

60. Isaac Patterson. 

61. Zadoc Reed (chiefly for New Boston). 

62. Major Riley. 

63. John Ross. 


64. Joel Reed (served five years). 

65. John Smith (northern army, 1777). 

66. William Smith. 

67. Benjamin Simonds. 

68. Thomas Stuart. 

69. John Taylor (served for Antrim ; killed at Ticonderoga, 

July 3, 1777). 

70. John Thompson. 

71. James Wallace. 

72. Sutheric Weston. 

73. Jeremiah Wier (lost his life in returning from the war). 
Besides these, Jonathan Nesmitli, Daniel McParland, James 

Duncan, Joseph Boyd, and Alexander Jameson marched to 
Tyngsborough under Capt. Butterfield, and are thought to have 
rendered other services in the field. And a few names are 
omitted, probably, who served for other towns and in subsequent 
years lived in Antrim. 

As having some curious interest, the following document is 
added : — 

This certifies, that John McCoy on the 4th of September, 1777, being 
then a mariner on board the Continental Frigate, Raleigh in the service 
of the United States, in an action of said ship with the British Ship of 
War Druid, did receive a wound in the right Os Ilicum with a Grape 
Shot, which being lodged within a bony substance, prevented its extrac- 
tion, and will forever render him unable to obtain a livelihood. 
Portsmouth Aug. 24, 1785. 

Then Surgeon of the above Frigate. 
Also Capt. Thomas Thompson, 
Commander of the Ship JRaleigh: 

Also John Jeeet Osboeke, 

Captain of the Marines. 

This testimony was used by McCoy in order to obtain half-pay 
from the State. He did obtain half-pay, equal to one hundred and 
twenty-three pounds and ten shillings. 

Thus ends the record of the Revolution as regards this town, 
so far as it can be written. 

They had come out of it with an intense hatred of tyranny, 
and an intense love of liberty and popular government. Hence, 
when, in 1795, as elsewhere narrated, there was danger of war 
with Prance, Antrim promptly and generously provided for its 
quota of" minute-men," ready to march at a moment's warning. 
And again, when a new war with Great Britain seemed probable, 


the town " Voted [March 14, 1809] to make the minutemen up 
twelve dollars a month when called into actual service," — indi- 
cating a great and determined patriotism still. If they were 
really called into service, iheii their pay was to be made twelve 
dollars per month /rom enlistment. 

Through all the years until the formation of the modern uni- 
formed companies, it is quite certain that the old company foniied 
in 1775 was kept up. By act of the legislature, March 18, 1780, 
all the younger and abler men formed a " training band" while 
all others in any town under seventy years of age formed the 
" Alarvi List," called out for drill twice a year. Probably these 
were united in this and other towns then small, so that here old 
men and young drilled together many years. June 24, 1786, a 
change was made in the law, and those over sixty years of age 
were released from military duty ; but it made little difference 
in this town. This old Antrim company had no uniform, and 
they cared little for such things then. 

When the constitution of 1792 went into force, an entire 
change was made in the militia system. The whole force was 
divided into twenty-seven regiments, with two battalions in each 
regiment. Antrim fell into the Twenty-sixth, which afterwards 
became the -'crack regiment" in the State. The companites of 
Antrim, Deering, Henniker, Hillsborough, and Campbell's Gore 
formed the first battalion ; those in Hancock, Francestown, 
Greenfield, Lyndeborough, and Society Land formed the second. 
Each regiment also had a cavalry force, then called the " troop." 
The first officers of the Twenty-sixth were : Benjamin Pierce, 
colonel, or " Lieut. Col. Commandant," which meant the same 
thing (claimed by some to be grandson of " Stephen Perce," one 
. of the Scotch-Irish proprietors of Londonderry) ; David Camp- 
bell, major of first battalion ; Daniel Gould, major of second 
battalion. In 1808 the officers were : David McClure, of An- 
trim, colonel ; William Gould, first major ; Peter Peavey, second 

This military arrangement continued without much change till 
the act of July 5,1851, which reduced our organized force to a 
mere nothing, and was practically the end of our long-noted and 
well-drilled companies. 

About 1800, the militia of Antrim, then a continuance of the 
old company of 1775, was divided for two companies, one north 
of the meeting-house and one south of the same. These were 


tm-uniformed, but well-drilled and efficient. The north com- 
pany was commanded by Capt. Parker Morse, Capt. William 
Gregg, and others ; the south conxpany.was commanded by Capt. 
James Taylor and others. In addition to drill days, these com- 
panies met occasionally at the captain's house " to burn powder 
and drink rum." These two companies, being reduced in num- 
bers, came together again before the war of 1812, and chose 
David McCauley, captain, and John McNiel, first lieutenant. 

The act of Dec. 28, 1792, provided that each regiment should 
have a company of grenadiers ; meaning, then, a uniformed com- 
pany composed of large, tall, and selected men. There seems 
to have been no company of this kind in the Twenty-sixth Regi- 
ment until about 1807, when John McNiel, of Eillsborough, 
afterwards Gen. John McNiel, distinguished in the war of 1812, 
succeeded in organizing the noted grenadiers, so proudly remem- 
bered by the old people. McNiel was six feet and six inches 
tall, and received no one to his company who was less than six 
feet in height. The uniform consisted of black coats gorgeously 
faced with red, tall caps, and high, brilliant plumes, which made 
the tall men look taller still, and gave an exceedingly stately and 
commanding appearance to this body of men. Gen. McNiel 
commanded this company quite a number of years. The men, 
at first, were picked out of Antrim, Deering, Henniker, Hills- 
borough,. Hancock, Prancestown, Greenfield, and ■ Windsor. But, 
because we raised taller and bigger men in Antrim than could 
be found in other towns, the majority of the grenadiers belonged 
here from the start. It passed more and more into the posses- 
sion of Antrim, and, being reduced in numbers, was entirely 
filled up from this town as early as the year 1823. This com- 
pany continued in its glory, the wonder of small boys, the admi- 
ration of all, until the enactment of the disbanding law in 1851, 
after which it gradually wasted, and, ere long, was dropped. 

The " old Twenty-sixth " had also a fine cavalry company, 
picked out of the several towns. It was called, in common talk, 
"The Troop." In, this Antrim furnished a large quota, and 
was second to no town. At the organization of the troop, a man 
from Henniker was chosen captain (cannot learn his name), 
and James Hopkins, of Antrim, first lieutenant. But before the 
commissions could be issued, the former died, and the latter was 
chosen in his place, so that Capt. James Hopkins was the first 
commander. He held the commission several years, and was 


succeeded by Capt. Thomas K. Breed. The subsequent com- 
manders of the troop I am not able to give, as they were some- 
times from other towns ; but the captains of the grenadiers, suc- 
ceeding Gen. McNiel, were as follows : — 

Zebadiah Peavey, of Greenfield. 

Daniel Wyman, of Hillsborouglj. 

Thomas D. Nesmith, of Antrim, as were all his successors. 

James Wallace. 

Thomas Dunlap (sou of Adam). 

Silas Dinsmore (1828). 

Dimon Twiss. , 

Cyrus Saltmarsh. 

James Wilson. 

Reed P. Whittemore. 

Jeremiah Breed. 

Jonathan Nesmith. 

Amos Dodge. 

Samuel Dinsmore. 

Allen Parker. 

War was declared by the United States against England, 
June 18, 1812. On the seventeenth of December following, our 
State passed an act organizing a " Voluntary Corps of Infantry," 
only to resist invasion of New Hampshire, and formed of those 
by law exempt from military duty. 

A company of this kind was formed in Antrim, and the fathers 
called it " The Alarm List." There were forty in the company, 
and most of them actually bore the scars of the Revolution. 
Their uniform was a large white frock thrown over their 
ordinary clothing. They paraded two or three -times a month 
on Meeting-House Hill, under command of Oapt. Peter Barker, 
with fife and drum, and they could be seen in their drill move- 
ments for miles away. Their heads were white as their frocks, 
and they mad§ a most stirring and imposing appearance. And 
these patriots did not wait to be called for. They actually 
offered their services to the governor ! God bless their memory 
to the town ! But they were not needed. Several times an 
attack on Portsmouth was expected, and no doubt was only pre- 
vented by the rallying of the militia in that part of the State in 
great numbers for defense. Also, invasion from the north was 
considered probable, but never occurred within our State bounds. 

WAR OP 1812. 205 

And after the war this glorious old company was soon broken up 
by death and infirmity. Some of them were seventy-five years 
old when they offered their service in their country's defense. 

But little can be given here of the details of our history in the 
war of 1812. About the first thing that started the people here 
was a sudden call for men. So great was the haste that a mes- 
senger came at flying speed, on the Sabbath, with a requisition 
on the Twenty-sixth Regiment. He found Col. McClure at 
church on the hill, who immediately rose in meeting, announced 
the call, and, on the spot, notified the company to meet at Chris- 
tie's tavern the next day. Then the worship went on, probably, 
however, in a somewhat nervous state. The next day the 
militia company met, and Col. McClure told them how many 
men were wanted, and that if enough did not volunteer they 
would be drafted. He then proposed to the company in line, to 
start the music, and then at the word " March ! " he would step 
forward, and all volunteers were to follow. To his great sur- 
prise, the whole company followed, to a man ! So they had to 
make a draft to settle it, after all. Ira Wallace and Thomas 
Dunlap, not being taken, went to Windsor and volunteered as 
substitutes for two drafted men there. Several men from 
Antrim enlisted at once into the regular army, and served 
through the war, on the Canadian frontier. Others, after a vol- 
unteer service of one year, entered the regular army ; among 
the last being Daniel Gregg, who attained to the office of cap- 
tain, and held it many years. No son of Antrim was killed in 
the war of 1812, though several lost their lives by sickness and 
otherwise. Robert Holmes was badly wounded at the fall of 
Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario. The British sent a force across 
the lake to capture this little fort. The garrison was small, and 
thought best, though after vigorous resistance, to evacuate the 
works. Holmes was the last man out, and turned and fired 
upon the enemy as he left, at which moment he fell, badly 
wounded in the groin. " The British," says Dr. Whiton, 
" rushed by and over him in pursuit of the garrison, who, how- 
ever, escaped. On their return from the pursuit, four soldiers 
carried Holmes, on a blanket, roughly and unfeelingly toward 
the fort ; a British officer, possessed of humanity, noticed their 
rough handling of the wounded man, and ordered them, under 
threat of striking them with his cutlass, to carry him gently. 
The British speedily evacuated, and the Americans repossessed 


the fort, when Holmes found himself again in the hands of his 
own countrymen." He received a pension on account of his 
wound, but lived only about three years. 

"• ear the close of the war a company was raised in this and 
the adjoining towns, under command of Oapt. William Gregg of 
Antrim, which marched to the defense of the seaboard in the vicin- 
ity of Portsmouth. All returned except Ira Wallace, who died of 
disease at Portsmouth. 

During the war, and especially in the last of it, the people 
were under great excitement. The danger of attack anywhere 
on the shore was constant. Some were sharply opposed to the 
war from the start, Party spirit was bitter and unconcealed. 
But on news of peace, February, 1815, they all joined together 
as one, to celebrate the event. In this town, as in others, there 
was at once a " social meeting " called ; and, drcfpping all party 
differences, they spent the day in hand-shaking and mutual con- 
gratulation and joy. I append a list of the soldiers of Antrim 
in the war of 1812 : — 

James Aiken, Jr. 

Jonathan Hay ward (supposed to be murdered on his way home 
after being discharged). 

Theodore G. Wallace. 

James M. Day. 

Robert Holmes (died from effect of wound). 

Moses P. Wier. 

Swallow Willson. 

John Witherspon (never heard from ; supposed deserted arid 
killed by Indians). 

Peter C. At wood. 

Thomas Gregg. 

Thomas Dunlap. 

Charles Gates. 

John Robinson. 

James Ross. 

Levi Thompson. 

Samuel Vose. 

Ira Wallace (died in service, Nov. 3, 1814). 

Capt. Daniel Gregg. 

Dexter Fairbanks. 

James Brown. 

Ziba Curtice. 


John Stuart. 
Joseph White. 
Charles Fairbanks. 
John Boyd (died in service). 
Silas Rhodes. 
Capt. William Gregg. 

Samuel McClure (took place of a drafted man and went from 

Moody M. Barker. 

Thomas P. Haywood. 

Elijah Severance. 

Asa Stearns. 

Isaac Saltmarsh. 

William Roach. 

John Barker. 

Alexander Parker. 

Samuel Carr. 

Nathan B. Barker. 

Samuel Caldwell, Jr. 

James Robb (died a prisoner at Halifax). 

Jfesse McAllister. 

Gideon Barker (murdered on way home). 

Hugh Ross. 

David McCauley (first lieutenant, and afterwards captain). 

In the Mexican war, declared by Congress to " exist"" between 
this country and Mexico May 11, 1846, there were four soldiers 
from Antrim, and all were killed. Their names were : — 

John Atvvood. 

John Caldwell. 

James Derush. 

Josiah W. Tuttle. 

* ■" 

In the regular narrative of events of the town (page 112), I 
have already given the principal facts of our town's connection 
with the war of the Rebellion. The record is very favorable. I 
append a list of our soldiers, and have made great effort to have 
it correct. It will be seen that thirty of our men lost their lives 
by death on the battle-field, or by disease, in the late war. Four 
were killed in the Mexican war. Seven were lost by us in one 
way or another in the war of 1812. And five perished in the 


Revolution. Thus, in some form, forty-six of this town's soldiers 
lost life from their country's service ! 

Others lost health, neyer to regain it'. Some were terribly 
wounded ; among the latter was Charles F. Holt, who was shot 
through the face and left for dead upon the field. He lay in that 
condition several days. He was two days on the battle-field 
among the dead ; afterwards in the hospital, where it was judged 
impossible to do anything for him. But after all he rallied ; 
and he survives to this day, being now deputy-sheriff of this 
county. No better soldier entered the field. 

This list of names has been picked up from various sources, 
and I have made free use of the various reports of the adjutant- 
general of New Hampshire : — 

William Allen. 

George Allen. 

Albert G. Abbott. 

William F. Archer. 

Hiram G. Atwood (died in service). 

Samuel H. Atwood. 

Jeremiah Atwood. i 

Theophilus Ames. 

Benjamin P. Baldwin. 

Charles A. Brackett. 

William Brown. 

Simeon C. Buck. 

James Bateman. 

Reuben Boutelle. 

Jackson Boutelle. 

David W. Boutelle. 
• William Boutelle. 

Joseph S. Brooks (furlough, on account of sickness ; died on 
passage home). 

Bill C. Butterfield. v 

Charles A. Barrett. 

Isaac Boxall. 

Charles Boswell. 

Isaac Buswell (musician ; died in service). 

Horace P. Buel. 

Abner B. Orombie. 

Andrew Cochran. 

Levi H. Curtis. 


William G. Cochran. 

Daniel Clancy. 

John Collins. 

Albert S. Conant (twice promoted; wounded May 14, 1864). 

David J. Oarkin. 

Charles Champney. 

Grosvenor Colby. 

Charles H. Dodge (died in service). 

George A. Dustin (killed June 14, 1863 ; had been pro- 

Thomas P. Dempsey. 

William Donohoe. 

James B. Decatur. 

George D. Dresser. 

Gilman Dunlap (re-enlisted). 

Patrick Duffie. 

Charles Donnell. 

Andrew J. Derush. 

Charles F. Dresser. 

Edgar W. Estey (wounded May 12, 1864 ; still carries the 
bullet in his body). 

James W Baton. 

James W. Pragg. 

John Flood. 

Thomas Freeman. 

George R. Follansbee (died in service May 1, 1862). 

Henry H. Poster (died in service). 

Frank A. Fletcher (severely wounded July 2, 1862). 

Charles Fletcher. 

Henry C. Griffin (promoted and re-enlisted). 

George B. Hutchinson (promoted). 

John Hutchinson. 

William S. Hopkins. 

Abbott D. Holt (died in service Oct. 4, 1862). 

George L. Her rick. 

John B. Herrick. 

Henry Hunt. 

Edward Z. Hastings. 

Luther T. Hastings. 

Charles Hart. 

Frank Harrison. 



Charles P. Holt (terribly wounded Aug. 29, 1862). 

Harrison H. Hardy. 

Alden S. Johnson. 

Ira S. Johnson (killed, Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862). 

Orville J. Johnson (sharp-shooter). 

John Kinsella (taken prisoner ; last heard of him). 

James King. 

John Kelley. 
-Joseph N. Kelsea. 

Samuel Lavare (promoted). 

Charles E, Lawi'ence (died in service June 9, 1865). 

Stephen Lanegan. 

Charles E. Lane. 

John Laine. 

Hiram W. Muzzey. 

Charles B. Morris. 

Enoch P. Marsh. 

Charles B. Morrows (killed Sept. 30, 1864). 

Adino N. Moore (died in service). 

William R. Philbrick (promoted ; severely wounded July 2, 

David Pettenglll (promoted). 

Miles T. Peabody (re-enlisted ; died in service Nov. 8, 1864). 

Enoch C. Paige. 

Joseph Petro (killed July 9, 1864). 

Alfred Pinch (killed July 30, 1864). 

Alonzo P. Pierce (died in service Jan. 6. 1863). 

Albert M. Putnam. 

Charles P. Parmenter (died in service Feb. 12, 1863). 

Tristrani M. Paige (re-enlisted). 

James Pryor. 

Martin L. Parmenter (promoted ; died in service Jan. 1, 

Reuben C. Philbrick. 

Irving Parmenter. 

John W Rose (died in service Oct. 9, 1864). 

Joseph Reinhart. 

James C. Richardson. 

Charles Reynolds. 

Edward P. Ross (promoted ; killed. Port Hudson, June 14, 


Samuel R. Eobiiisou. 

Peter Smith. 

Dennis Shaw (killed May 10, 1864). 

George Spitzer. 

Charles H. Story (promoted ; died in service July 24, 1863). 

James M. ^mhh (promoted ; diud in service July 1.3, 1863). 

Cyrus H. Simonds. 

George W. Smith (died in service Oct. 15, 1863). 

David Steele (promoted to captain). 

George Smith (enlisted for three years, Nov. 29, 1864). 

Henry E. Swain. 

Elbridge T. Smith (died in service Dec. 26, 1862). > 

John Skinner. 

Samuel Savage. 

Lewis Simonds. 

Talford R. Twitchell. 

Edward D. Twitchell. 

Orrin C. Temple (promoted). 

Alexander Vernot. 

Joseph Williams. 

Jason K. Webster. 

Charles H. Wilson. 

William H. Wilson. 

Brooks K. Webber. 

John L. Worthley. 

Charles B. Warner. 

Owen A. Willey. 

Joseph Welsh. 

Harvey H. Winn (killed Aug. 29, 1862). 

Francis White (promoted). 

George H. White (killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1868). 

Orlando T. Webster (died in service). 

Loammi H. Webster (died of starvation in Southern prison). 

Granville Whitney. 

Joseph Young (killed June 5, 1864). 

The whole number of men from New Hampshire, in the war 
of the Rebellion, was 31,426. The whole number from Antrim, 
139. Under all the calls, Antrim furnished 12 men more than 
our aggregate quota. We had 73 men in the Revolution ; 44 in 
the war of 1812 ; 4 in the Mexican war; and 139 in the last war, 
— making 260 men in all. The list returned by the state commis- 


sion is deficient. It is possible that tlie names Morris and Mor- 
rows may be for the same person. 

The artillery company of the old Twenty-sixth Regiment was 
largely supported from Antrim for many years. Dea. Robert 
Duncan was its captain for quite a length of time, and was 
called one of the best officers the company ever had. After him 
John G. Flint, Esq;, was captain, a man of most soldierly figure 
and bearing. 

The present military company in this town, the Granite State 
Cadets, was organized in the spring of 1877, and ranks second 
to no other in the State in drill and character. Its principal 
officers, from the start, have been those who had seen service in 
the late war. At organization, they were chosen as follows : 
Samuel R. Robinson, captain ; John A. Bryer, first lieutenant ; 
Arthur A. Miller, second lieutenant. In the spring of 1879, 
Robinson and Bryer resigned. The officers now are Capt. 
Charles Champney, First Lieut. A. A. Miller, Second Lieut. H. 
W. Muzzey. 

About the time tof our centennial celebration, the Antrim 
Cornet Band was organized, un-der the leadership of Squires 
Forsaith, Esq. It has been truly successful and creditable during 
its brief existence to this writing. 




The old Scotch settlers of Londonderry prized education next 
to religion. Their intense hatred of popeiy was not a little 
inspired by the ignorance, brutality, and slavery in which it kept 
the people. There was a very marked contrast in Ireland, as 
regards intelligence, between the Catholic Irish and their Scotch 
neighbors. The Scotch in the north of Ireland had better 
school privileges than the common people of England had at the 
same time. March 26, 1718. the " Memorial to Gov. Shute " 
was signed by tliree hundred and thirteen of these Scotchmen, 
most of whom subsequently emigrated to America, of whom 
three hundred and six signed their own names in a bold, legible, 
and generally handsome hand. This document, now . in good 
preservation, is proof, that, considering their disturbed circum- 
stances in Ireland, they must have given particular attention to 
the ti'aining of their children. Twelve of the signers were 
graduates of the university. All this shows that our fathers 
were an intelligent race, well-informed, capable, and setting a 
high value upon education. They had schools, and also they 
made a great deal of teaching truth, both religious and secular, 
in the family. And in this country the regard of the Scotch for 
education may be seen in the educated men they have given in 
great numbers to the highest ranks of attainment ; and in the 
institutions of learning which they have established in the land. 
Hence, as soon as they were fairly settled and had erected their 
little church, they proceeded to build a school-house. The first 
school-house of our fathers in this country was provided for 
March 5, 1724, as by following entry in the records : " Voted 
that there shall be a schol hous built in this town [Londonderry], 
the demension of s'^ house to be sixteen foot long and twelve 
foot in width — s* house is to be a logg house seven foot side 
wall." And they were to build " two fire-places in one end ass 
large ass the houss will allow." In the course of a few years 
the district schools of Londonderry were in good condition ; and 
in them were bred the first settlers of Antrim. Every settler of 
this town coming from Londonderry had a fair common-school 


education, was well informed, was well acquainted with the 
Bible, and had a vigorous stock of common sense. They had 
schools here before they had a church, though chiefly private 
schools. The exact date and order of the first schools here are 
not very clear. Mr. Whiton makes the mistake, most unusual 
with him, of contradicting himself as to the location of the first 
school-house. Putting all the items of evidence together, I think 
it may be set down without much doubt in the following order. 
The first who ever taught in Antrim was George Bemaine. This 
credit should be given him, as he lost his life in the Revolution- 
ary service before Dinsmoor ever taught here. He also taught 
the first school in the neighboring town of Hillsborough. Be- 
maine taught chiefly in the family of Dea. Aiken, and began as 
early as the winter of 1770-71. At times a few neighboring chil- 
dren attended with Aiken's, and this school continued parts of 
four or five winters, without question. This Bemaine was a 
school-mate of Thomas Dilworth, author of the spelling-book 
then and long used in England and America, who died in 1780. 
The next teacher in Antrim was John Dinsmoor, the same, I 
think, who was afterwards a preacher for a time -in Peterborough. 
He had a school of twelve scholars, and kept it in Dea. Aiken's 
house in the winter of 1778-79. This school, like most preced- 
ing, and those following for several years, lasted only one month 
out of the twelve. Of course the children of those days had 
but scanty privileges. The mother of Clark Hopkins, a most 
excellent and intelligent woman, had but four days' schooling in 
all her life, except what was under her father's roof. In his 
half-century sermon. Dr. Whiton says Dinsmoor's was the first 
school kept in Antrim, — a mistake which he corrects in his sub- 
sequent history. Dinsmoor taught also the succeeding winter, 
and probably more. Several female teachers had short summer 
schools. These, like the winter schools, were all kept in private 
houses, as there was not a school-house in town. Dea. David 
Dickey, who was the third child born in Antrim, and who may 
be taken for authority, says he first attended school one month 
in 1782, and that the first " district school " in town was in 1788, 
whicl) he " attended " ; that is, the first school kept in a school- 
house and at public expense, all previous being in the nature of 
private schools, in dwelling-houses here and there. The only 
reading-books were the Bible and Dilworth's spelling-book. No 
text-books in grammar, geography, or arithmetic, could be had. 


Eeading and writing were the principal studies. A little knowl- 
edge of figures was imparted orally. Rules were written out on 
paper or birch bark, and committed to memory. Some parents, 
like Robert Mcllvaine, constructed the elements of arithmetic 
into form, in writing, for their children. Some of these " home 
arithmetics " I have examined, and consider them of high rank 
for plainness, brevity, and common sense. How many parents 
now could write out a correct arithmetic for their children ? 

The third winter teacher in town was Tobias Butler, then 
always called " Master Butler," — a man of fine education, and 
exceedingly useful in his day. He commenced as early as 1787, 
probabfy 1786, and no doubt kept the first school in the first 
school-house. He taught winters for a long time. 

Now as to the location of the first schobl-house. Mr. Whiton 
says (page 25) the first school-house was at the upper end of 
South Village ; but on page 90 he says, that " until 1794, 
there was but one school-house, and that a log one, in town, 
standing a little east of Mr. Raymond's." The evidence seems 
to me conclusive that this last statement was the right one. Mr. 
Raymond, .at Mr. Whiton's writing, lived east of the Dea. Jona- 
than Nesmith place, at the corner, the buildings now being gone. 
This first school-house stood on the top of the hill east of the 
Raymond place, on the north side of the road. It was standing 
within the memory of men now living. It was a capacious log 
house, calculated for the whole eastern half of the town. There 
ought to be a monument to mark the spot. 

To this school-house some of the children traveled two or 
three miles. Some of them had no road. Children from the 
Center went to this school-house what little they went anywhere. 
The town, as such, had nothing to do with building the first 
school-house, and there is no record of this or any other school- 
house before the year 1801. It was built, no doubt, by contribu- 
tions of labor, the citizens turning out, giving the logs, and 
doing the work. No doubt it was built in the summer of 1787 ; 
and thus for seventeen years or more, previously, the schools 
were in private houses. This method, however, was not without 
its advantages under the circumstances, as it could rotate among 
the few and scattered people. The school in the log house 
above named was dignified with the name of the " Town 
School," and probably was considered quite an attainment. 

But as population increased, this house was found inconven- 


ient for the whole east half of the town, and a movement was 
made to divide it into two parts. The date of this division can- 
not now be fixed. It was not a matter of town action, or tax, 
but the people of the vicinity arranged it among themselves. 
Mr. Wbiton says it was " not far from 1794." It seems to me it 
must have been as late as 1797. The people " over east" put 
up a small school-house about where the present brick house 
stands ; and the people " at the south " built a small framed 
house a little east, and probably within one hundred feet, of the 
spot where now Rev. Mr. Hurlin's house stands. This school- 
house was burned in December, 1801, as near as can be learned. 
The fire had gone out, and they sent a little boy, John Hop- 
kins, after a dish of coals. There were some cracks in the floor,* 
and all the waste chips and shavings left from building being 
under the floor and very dry, it was supposed the boy dropped 
some coals, from which the fire caught. At any rate, the flames 
were blazing up under the whole house before being noticed, and 
the scholars had barely time to escape. Soon after a school- 
house was erected on the spot now occupied by the Methodist 
church. When this last house was well used up, they built the 
" brick school-house " opposite, now changed into a dwelling- 
house. Subsequently, on the growth of the village, the district 
was divided, and two new school-houses prepared; one being 
now the dwelling of Henry Smith, and the other the tenement 
house opposite Mr. Balch's, in the south part of the village. 
Thus matters went on till the district was reunited, and the 
present new building, including Waverly Hall, erected in 1869, 
since which time they have had graded schools, and generally of 
a high order. It should be added that this district has the 
income of |1,000, presented for school purposes by D. H. Good- 
ell, Esq. 

In the northwest half of the town, the first school-house was 
built at the Branch in 1794 ; and the following year the old 
High Range school-house was built. Previously, schools were 
kept in that part of the town in private houses, sometimes at the 
High Range, sometimes at the Branch, but all in one school 

At the March meeting of 1801, the town " Voted that under 
direction of the selectmen, committees be appointed in each dis- 
trict to estimate the cost of a suitable school-house, and the 
amount should be at once assessed." The preceding year, an 


article in the warrant to " see if the Town would take any Steps 
for the better regulating of the public Schools," was passed by 
without any action. It appears from the vote concerning school- 
houses, in 1801, that districts had been previously formed, prob- 
ably in the year 1800, and by the selectmen, though no record of 
it has come to my eye. It is inferred, that, at the meeting in 
1800, the selectmen were instructed to district the town, and 
the record was omitted by mistake. At any rate, in 1801, or 
soon after, two or three humble structures went up in districts 
where there were none previously. The principal of these was 
the school-house at the Center, built in the spring of 1802. It 
stood on the hill, on the east side of the old common, a few rods 
below the meeting-house. This house was burned in 1811, in 
the daytime, breaking out while school was keeping, and fright- 
ening the children half to death. A colored boy called Manly 
Ransom was so frightened that he hid under a seat. He was 
somewhat burned, and would have been consumed had he not 
been missed, and found and dragged out ! The next summer 
they built again, this time nearly half-way down the hill, on the 
east side of the road, near the northwest corner of Mr. Gove's 
field, where a pair of bars still marks the entrance. After many 
years this house was moved to its present locality. It was 
enlarged to its present dimensions in 1853. 

In 1820 there were nine school-districts. In 1825 there were 
eleven. These did not vary greatly from the present arrange- 
ment. In 1843, by vote of the town, a division was made into 
thirteen districts, and their bounds were put on record. These 
were not much changed for "thirty years. But .some recent 
changes have reduced the number about to that of 1826. 

Previous to any town action as to schools, there was a small 
school-house between Prank Robinson's and S. A. Holt's, near a 
dwelling-house on the flat, half-way up the hill. An article was 
in the warrant to lay out a road (1799) from this " Scool 
house " to the present Center. On the building of other school- 
houses in 1801-2, this was left unused, and nothing more is 
known of it. 

The first notice of schools on the town record was the follow- 
ing, March 14, 1786 : " Voted to Raise fifteen pounds [about fifty 
dollars] for the use of a Town Scool." Subsequently the town 
took no action whatever concerning schools, till 1800, of which 
there is the least record. All that was done was by Individ- 


ual and voluntary effort, so far as known. Subsequent to 1800, 
possibly a little before, there seems to have been an " allowance 
by law " which went to the schools without the vote of the town 
upon it. Hence in 1805 the town " Voted to Augment the 
School Money," — i. e., add to the allowance by law. Also they 
voted that the " Whole of the School Money be Three hundred 
and fifty dollars," — an amount very meager as compared with 
present appropriations, though the population was nearly as now. 
In the warrant for 1806 appears for the first time that familiar 
article: "To see how much money the town will raise for 
school purposes the' present year." 

The first year that the town took any supervision of the 
schools was 1809, when this action appears : " Voted the Rev. 
John M. Wheton Cap* Ja" Hopkins and D" Arthur Nesmith be a 
committee the Schools of this town." Two or three times the 
town tried a committee of two in each district, with Mr. Whiton 
for the whole town, and chairman of the board. A list of the 
superintending school committees of the town, as also a list of 
the principal teachers, will be found below. It will be seen that 
Mr. Whiton was chairman of the board, thirty-two years ^t least, 
and probably also those years marked " unknown." 

Several high 'schools from time to time have been kept. in 
town. These began at the Branch about sixty years ago. 
Sylvester Cochran had an ■' Academy " there several years, had 
a large number of scholars, and was counted successful. He 
opened the institution in the large hall then extending over 
John G. Flint's house. Afterwards he occupied the three-story 
house, having the hall for his school-room. His successors were 
Benjamin F. Wallace, Rev. Mr. Barber, Miss Augusta Barber, 
Frederick S. Little, and Dr. S. M. Dinsmore. 

Occasionally, select schools have been held at the Center. 
Prof. James B. Vose had several terms here, with large and 
excellent schools, in which he did much good. Lizzie S. Tenney 
kept a tuition school here one or more terms, till prevented by 
failing health, — a teacher eminently fitted for her work, both in 
education and skill. More recently, some excellent select 
schools were kept here by Miss Abby C. Morse, of Concord. 

About 1872 Prof. James E. Vose opened a select school in 
South Village, and continued several terms, to the benefit and, 
satisfaction of all the people, until he was called away to a larger 
field of labor. 



1809. Eev. John M. Whiton, Capt. James Hopkins, Dea. Arthur Nes- 


1810. Kev. John M. "Whiton, Dea. Jonathan Nesmith, Dea. Arthur Nes- 

n ith. 

1811. Eev. John M. Whiton, Dea. John Alexander, Dea. James Carr. 

1812. Rev. John M. Whiton, Dea. Arthur Nesmith,Dea. Jonathan Nes- 


1813. Rev. John M. Whiton, Capt. James Hopkins, Samuel Christie. 

1814. Rev. John M. Whiton, Dea. Arthur Nesmith, Barachias Holt. 

1815. Rev. John M. Whiton, Capt. James Hopkins, James Wallace. 

1816. Rev. John M. Whiton, Joseph Boyd, James Wallace. 

1817. Rev. John M. Whiton, Israel Burnham, Jeremiah Stickney. 

1818. Rev. John M. Whiton, Israel Burnham, Jeremiah Stickney, 

Capt. James Hopkins, Jacob Tuttle. 

1819. "Vol* Rev. John M. Wheton, Dr. Israel Burnam, Esq' Jacob 

Tuttle, and Samuel Steel Town Committy to Examin Schools." 

1820. Rev. John M. Whiton, chairman; District No. 1, Isaac Baldwin, 

George Duncan ; District No. 2, Robert Gregg, Amos Parmen- 
ter ; District No. 3, James Steele, James Wallace ; District No. 
4, Thomas McCoy, Andrew Cochran; District No. '5, David 
McCluer, Robert Carr; District No. 6, Solomon Hopkins, Rich- 
ard McAllister; District No. 7, Thomas Jameson, Isaac Smith; 
District No. 8, Samuel Yose, John Worthley; District No. 9, 
Samuel Fletcher, Alexander Witherspoon. 

1821. Rev. John M. Whiton, Jeremiah Stickney, Israel Burnham. 

1822. Rev. John M. Whiton, Jeremiah Stickney, Israel Burnham. 

1823. Rev. John M. Whiton, Jeremiah Stickney, Israel Burnham. 

1824. Rev. John M. Whiton, Israel Burnham, William Carr, Jr. 

1825. Eev. John M. Whiton, Robert Reed, Jeremiah Stickney, Thomas 


1826. Eev. John M. Whiton, chairman; District No. 1, Israel Burnham, 

Luke Woodbury; District No. 2, Amos Parmenter, Eobert 
Gregg ; District No. 3, William Gregg, James Wallace ; District 
No. 4, Thomas McCoy, William Carr ; District No. 5, Thomas 
Dunlap, Silas Dinsmore; District No. 6, Eobert H. Cleaves, 
Solomon Hopkins ; District No. 7, Jacob Whittemore, Dimon 
Dodge ; District No. 8, William Pritchard, John Vose ; District 
No. 9, Samuel Eletcher, Isaac Brown; District No. 10, John 
Symonds, Gilman Swain; District No. 11, Dea. Josiah Duncan, 
Giles Newton. 

1827. Eev. John M. Whiton, chairman; with same assistants as in 1826. 

1828. Eev. John M. Whiton, Mark Woodbury, Israel Burnham, Jere- 

miah Stickney, Bartlett Wallaee. 

1829. "Voted School Districts choose their Committees." 

1830. Benjamin F. Wallace, John Vose, Silas Dinsmore. 

1831. Luke Woodbury, John Vose, William Carr, Jr. 

1832. Eev. John M. Whiton, Luke Woodbury, B. F. Wallace. 


1833. Kev. John M. Whiton, Kev. Joseph Davis, E. L. Vose. 

1834. Eev. John M. Whiton, Rev. Joseph Davis, Bartlett Wallace, 

James Hopkins, Jr., Silas Dinsmore. 

1835. Rev. John Whiton, Rev. Joseph Davis, IJartlett Wallace, James 

Hopkins, Jr., Silas Dinsmore. 

1836. Rev. John M. Whiton, Rev. Joseph Davis, Bartlett Wallace, James 

Hopkins, Jr., Silas Dinsmore. 

1837. Rev. John AI. Whiton, Rev. Joseph Davis, B. F. Wallace. 

1838. Rev. John M. Whiton, Rev. Joseph Davis, James M. Stickney. 

1839. Eev. John M. Whiton, B. i\ Wallace, Rev. Joseph Davis. 

1840. Unknown. 

1841. Unknown. 

1842. Rev. John M. 'Vyhiton, B. F. Wallace, Rev. Joseph Davis. 

1843. Rev. John M. Whiton, B. F. Wallace, ReV. Joseph Davis. 

1844. Unknown. 

1845. Unknown. 

1846. Unknown. 

1847. Rev. John M. Whiton, Charles McKeen, Clark Hopkins. 

1848. Clark Hopkins. 

1849. Rev! John M. Whiton, Clark Hopkins, George H. Hubbard. 

1850. Daniel W. Hazelton, George H. Hubbard. 

1851. E. L. Yose, SQlomon J. Buckminster, Frederick S. Little. 

1852. E. L. Vose. 

1863. Rev. John H. Bates, E. L. Vose. 

1854. E. L. Vose. 

1855. William W. Lovejoy. 

1856. LeviW Wilkins. 

1867. Levi W. Wilkins. 

1868. Levi W. Wilkins, D. H. GoodelL 

1859. J. H. Bates. 

1860. J." H. Bates. 

1861. J. H. Bates. 

1862. J. H. Bates. 

1863. James E. Vose. 

1864. James E. Vose. 

1865. James E. Vose, J. H. Bates. 

1866. James E. Vose. 

1867. JamesE. Vose, D.H. Gondell. 

1868. Dr. Morris Christie. 

1869. Henry D. Chapin. 

1870. Henry D. Chapin, Dr. J. R. Kimball. 

1871. Dr. J. R. Kimball. 

1872. Henry D. Chapin. 

1873. Dr. J. R. Kimball, Mark True. 

1874. Mark True, Abbott F. True. 

1875. Clark B.Cochrane. 

1876. Abbott F. True. 

1877. Abbott F. True. 

1878. Dr. I. G. Anthoine. 

1879. Dr. I. G. Anthoine. 




George Bemaine. 

Tobias Butler. 

John Hopkins. 

Thomas McCoy. 

Thomas Dunlap. 

John Nichols. 

Daniel M. Christie. 

George W. Nesmith. 

Mary Nesmith. 

James Hopkins, Jr. 

Mary Nichols. 

Mary Dinsmore. 

Margaret Dinsmore. 

Margaret Nesmith. 

John Duncan. 

Mary Woodbury. 

Benjamin F. Wallace. 

Mary Duncan. 

Clark Hopkins. 

Seneca Cummings. 

Sylvester Cochran. 

Ann Cochran. 

James M. McCoy. 

Panny Baldwin. 

Fanny (Burnham) Baldwin. 

Harriet Boyd. 

James A. Gregg. 

Henry D. Chapin. 

Edward L. Vose. 

John Vose. 

Samuel Vose. 

Cyrus Baldwin. 

Estimate E. E. Baldwin. • 

Harriet Baldwin. 

Eannie Burnham. 

Sarah Brown. 

Harriet Brown. 

James E. Vose. 

Elisabeth Whiton. 

Helen Whiton. 

Mary Steele. 

Elisabeth Steele. 

Ann Steele, 

Alice Steele. 
Frances M. Steele. 
Georgianna Steele. 
William Carr. 
Lucy Tenney. 
Bartlett Wallace. 
Hiram Wallace. 
Frederick S. Little. 
John F. Tenney. 
Mark True. 
Millie Abbott. 
Lucy Tuttle. 
Morris^ Christie. 
Lizzie S. Tenney. 
Mary F, Sawyer. 
Emily Tuttle. 
Laura Shattuck. 
Myra Mcllvaine. 
Alma Shattuck. 
Nancy Gould. 
Samuel G. Newton. 
Lucretia Bobinson. 
Clarissa Cochran. 
Dr. George Wilkins. 
Joanna Fletcher. 
Bachel Fletcher. 
Augusta Mcllvaine. 
Almeda Mcllvaine. 
Kate I. Preston. 
Jennie M. Nesmith. 
Fannie H. Nesmith. 
Nellie Clement. 
Addie Gould. 
Mary E. Whiteley. 
Nellie Whiteley. 
Jennie M. Ferry. 
John D. Hutchinson. 
Sadie M. Holman. 
Nellie Jackson. 
Loisa E. Allds. 
Araorette Hopkins. 
Alice Gould. 
George Hastings. 




The fij-st association in town except the church and the mil- 
itary was the " Social Library Association," incorporated Nov. 
27, 1800*. It was started before there was any minister settled 
in town, and was in active operation long before it was incorpo- 
rated. Its previous existence is attested by the following vote, 
Nov. 3, 1800 : " To excuse those who have incurred fines this 
year_ on account of the sickness." The first records are lost. 
The first recorded meeting known was that of Nov. 3, 1800, at 
which Capt. James Hopkins was moderator, and Dea. Arthur 
Nesmith, clerk. Books were rare and liard to be obtained, and 
what books they did get were of the solid kind, well selected, 
useful, and decidedly unlike the trash that preponderates in our 
modern libraries. This library was a great thing in its day. It 
was the custom of all the leading families to go the round of 
EVERY BOOK. Thcology and history and philosophy, — all were 
read and thought over ; and consequently, though they had few 
books, they had much information. The charter was granted to 
" James Aiken, John Duncan, Thomas Nichols, and their asso- 
ciates." About one hundred and twenty names appear on the 
record as " proprietors," and names were constantly added. 
The last record is of a meeting Jan. 2, 1826. Tristram Sawyer 
was chosen moderator; William Gregg, clerk; and William 
Pratt, librarian. This excellent library is still in existence, 
though not with its former fullness and value. 

About 1818, a "Juvenile Library" was started. This was 
before the day of Sunday-school libraries. But the young people 
had the idea that they must have a lighter, easier style of read- 
ing. Mr. Whiton went into this to help manage it and keep it 
pure, thinking he could do more good inside than outside. This 
library flourished grandly for some years. It was kept at Chris- 
tie's tavern. But subsequently many of the proprietors died 
or moved away ; and hence those remaining voted to sell, and 
disband. Perhaps this was brought about by the rise of the 
Sunday-school library. At any rate, at the close of a town 
meeting, about 1830, the books were sold at auction in the hall 
of the Christie tavern, and the whole lot were sold for more 
than the first cost ! 


In February, 1866, " The Antrim Library Association " was 
established in South Village. Ten persons associated together, 
paying down ten dollars each. These original members own 
the library. The public have the use of it by paying one dollar 
and fifty cents per year, each, and this money goes to enlarge 
the library. It embraces several hundred volumes. Mrs. John 
R. Hills has been the librarian. Harold Kelsea is treasurer. 
The names of the original members were Mrs. Mark B. Wood- 
bury, Morris Christie, Artemas Brown, Eben Bass, James W. 
Perkins, N. W C. Jameson, Mark True, J. W. Poster, J. B. 
Vose, Reed P. Whittemore. 

■ There was an association called the •• Madan Society," for 
musical purposes, organized so long ago that its existence is for- 
gotten by the oldest people. Traces of this society I first found 
in old advertisements in the " Cabinet." It was formed of the 
singers and musical people in Antrim, Hancock, and Greenfield, 
had regular meetings, and made quite a sensation in its day. 
They probably held meetings in rotation from town to town. 
Very little positive information of this society can now be 
gained. It seems to have lived many years, and deserved well. 
There was never any organized musical society in Antrim save 
the above, except the choir of the old church. This was held to 
be of great importance, and occasionally the town made some 
sqiall appropriation for music within its borders. Dea. Arthur 
Nesmith led the old choir nearly thirty years. He was elected 
chorister at the annual March meeting, 1794, and was annually 
elected by the town to that office till his removal West. " His 
courteous, amiable manners made him accep&ble to the qhoir 
and to the congregation." I may add that his successors have 
been John Taylor, David McOauley, William Gregg, Charles 
Gates, Giles Newton, Joel Wilkins, Solomon J. Buckminster, 
Frederick S. Little, Sylvester Little, and Frank Swett. 


" The Clinton and South Village Water Company " was 
formed in February, 1847, for the improvement and control of 
the water-power on the stream. This company own the outlet 
of Gregg's pond, and large tracts of land subject to flowage. 
They have greatly enlarged the reservoir of water, probably 
doubling its value. Ezra Hyde was a leading spirit in this 
undertaking. All, or nearly all, the owners of privileges on the 


stream belong to thisfcompany. Its first meeting was March 6, 
1847, at which Imla Wright was chosen secretary and treasurer, 
and Ezra Hyde, Jonathan White, and Daniel Story, directors. 
The annual meeting is in January. ' The present officers are as 
follows : Secretary and treasurer, Charles B. Dodge ; directors, 
D. H. Goodell, William H. Hildreth, John G. Abbott. 


Members of this order residing in Antrim desiring a lodge in 
town, presented a petition to the Right Worthy Grand Lodge of ' 
New Hampshire on the tenth day of January, A. D. 1876. The 
members of the order petitioning for a charter were I. G. 
Anthoine, PranTi P. Roach, Alfred A. Miller, Charles W. Cool- 
idge, Chester A. Holt, Charles B. Dodge, John A. Bryer, and 
William H. Hill. 

On the first day of Pebruary, A. D. 1876, a dispensation being 
granted, Right Worthy Grand Master George A. Cummings, 
accompanied by other grand officers, instituted Waverley Lodge 
No. 59, Independent Order of Odd Pellows. At nine o'clock, 
the Odd Pellows, to the number of about two hundred, pro- 
ceeded to the hall of Mrs. Mary E. Woodbury, the use of which 
had been kindly granted for the occasion, and there partook of a 
bountiful collation which had been prepared by the Antrim 
brethren and their ladies. 

The lodge was organized with eighteen members. Its present 
membership is forty-one, consisting of I. G. Anthoine, Chester 
A. Holt, Frank P. Roach, Charles B. Dodge, Alfred A. Miller, 
John A. Bryer, Charles W. Coolidge, William H. Hill, John B. 
Perkins, Oilman H. Cleaves, Charles H. Kimball, George W. 
Shaw, Will E. Downs, Bartlett L. Brooks, William A. Hildreth, 
Prank B. Gould, Henry J. Beasom, George C. Wilson, Willard 
Manning, Samuel S. Sawyer, John C. Butterfield, Horace L. 
Pisher, Pred Hunt, Charles 0. Harris, George P. Hildreth, Martin 
Swett, Levi H. Brooks, Prancis M. Sharpless, John M. Duncan, 
Sumner N. Ball, Anson Swett, Melvin 0. Hunt, Clarence E. 
Sawyer, Richard D. Weston, Fred I. Burnham, Pred C. Parring- 
ton, Pred H. Kimball, James L. Whitney, Charles W. Parmer, 
Prank G. Dodge, John R. Putney, Charles W. Kelsea. Edward 
A. Carter withdrew, by card, April 12, 1879. 

There has been but one death in the lodge, Frank P. Loveren, 
who died at Deering, Oct. 18, 1878, and was buried under the 


The following members have passed the principal chairs ; 
viz., I. G. Anthoine, Prank P. Roach, Alfred A. Miller, Charles 
B. Dodge, William A. Hildreth, Chester A. Holt, John A. Bryer. 

The present officers coiisist of Charles H. Kimball, N. G. 
William H. Hill, V. G. ; Charles B. Dodge, Sec. ; G. H. Cleaves 
Treas. ; Fred I. Burnham, Ward. ; William A. Hildreth, Con. 
R. D. Weston, 0. G. ; Fred H. Kimball, I. G. ; F. P. Roach, R 
S. N.. G. ; H. J. Beasom, L. S. N. G. ; A. A, Miller, R. S. V. G. 
S. N. Ball, L. S. V. G. ; J. C. Butterfield, R. S. S. ; B. L. Brooks, 
L. S. S. ; Prank G. Dodge, Chap. 


'• The Contoocook Lodge of Knights of Honor, Antrim, N. H," 
was instituted Sept. 4, 1876. 

The charter members were Charles B. Caldwell, William H. 
Hill, Joiin H. Smith, E. W. Esty, Rev. B. M. Shaw, H. P. Kim- 
ball, A. B. Lawrence, S. R. Robinson, A. F. True, W. S. Baton, 
A. L. Smith. 

This wofthy society has its headquarters, as do the others, at 
South Village, and is in a very flourishing condition. 


The lodge of "Free and Accepted Masons" in Antrim is 
called the Vesper Lodge. It was organized May 1, 1878, with 
a membership of thirty, and is now working under very prosper- 
ous conditions. 

The present list of officers is as follows : Joseph N. Kelsea, 
W. M. ; John P. Dodge, S. W. ; William H. Hill, J. W. ; Ben- 
jamin P. Upton, T. ; E. C. Paige, S. ; Charles D. Sawyer, S. D. ; 
Albert B. Lawrence, J. D. ; George F. Corey, S. S. ; Charles H. 
Griffin, J. S. ; John C. Kimball, Chaplain ; C. H. Champney, 
Marshal ; H. J. Beasom, Tyler. 





It will probably be of use to some to have here the dates of 
construction of the several roads in town, as it would take long 
to find the same from the confused records. Nothing that the 
present generation would think it safe to ride over, existed in 
Antrim before the present century. There were no wagons and 
few carts. Traffic was chiefly on horseback. The first roads 
were made " passable for horses," and then gradually improved 
in the course of years. The first path cleared through the town 
was on the line of the first road named below, and all those laid 
out in 1777 had been used a,s paths before ; there being,no legal 
road till formally made such by vote of the town after incorpo- 
ration. Hence the first roads laid out by the town were said to 
be " Recorded." It will be seen that the use the' settlers made 
of roads would not require a bridge over every little water- 
course ; so that for a long time there were only two bridges in 
town. Building roads, therefore, was not then a matter of much 
expenditure. It has been Said elsewhere that the " great bridge," 
where now we locate the Baldwin bridge, was built in 1776, a 
year before there was any legal road. This was the only bridge 
except some frail foot-bridges. All the other streams, including ■ 
the Branch river, were forded by teams. 

1777, May 1. " The Road from the Bridge on Contocook 
River To John Warrins Sawmill & from thence To Hillsborough 
Line by the Way of Leut. McOlearys." This first road com- 
menced at the Baldwin bridge, passing up by McFarland's (N. 
W C. Jameson's), thence by John M. Duncan's to the old Cen- 
ter on Meeting-House Hill, on the line of what is now called the 
" old road," — i.e., past Bill Butterfield's. Prom the old Center it 
was in nearly a straight course to Branch Village, thence over 
English or Tuttle hill as now the old highway is built to Hills- 
borough. In South Village this road was in a straight line from 
Jameson's to Goodell's, and consequently was a few rods east of 
the present street. It was on this road, at its junction with that 
from Miller's to Kelsea's, that the old school-house was built and 
burned. But in 1801, this road, at the request of Hon. John 


Duncan,. perhaps to bring it near his cousin James, was made to 
run straight to James Duncan's, — i. e., Saltmarsh place. The 
fork of the roads was at the Elijah Kimball place, long before 
there was any liouse there ; and the ti'ack of the old road from 
Elijah Kimball's to John M. Duncan's may still be followed. 

The first road, voted May 1, was formally laid out Sept. 3, fol- 
lowing. It seems that the first path from South Village to the 
Branch was east of the summit of Meeting-House Hill, cross- 
ing the northeast side of the hill, and striking near Richard 
McAllister's house, coming out the same as the subsequent road. 
Reference is made to this old road in laying out the new one. 
It was probably on the east side of this " old road " or path, 
called " old " in 1777, that the children were buried, and they 
thought the " Center would fall " ; i. e., on the extreme west of 
the Whitney farm. The first road was laid out " To be four 
Roads Wide it Being the Leading Road of the Town." 

The same year they laid out the road from South Village to 
Hancock line. It lay south of the present road, by William 
Smith's to Alexander Jameson's (now the residence of G. H. 
Cleaves), and thence as now traveled. 

Likewise a road from Randall Alexander's (A. A. Miller's) to 
the main road. This has not been changed to the present day. 

Likewise a road from the Saltmarsh place (James Duncan's) 
to D. H. Goodell's (Joseph Boyd's). 

" And another Road from Warrins Sawmill as it is Now Used 
To Maurice Lynches or as Near it as the Ground Will Admitt of 
Good passing and it to be Three Road Wide." This is that now 
traveled from the Branch to William Stacey's. 

1779. No roads were laid out in 1778. At the March meet- 
ing, 1779, the north stream is first called the " Branch," and 
Richard McAllister and Thomas Stuart were chosen a committee 
to " finish the Bridge " over it. March 9, 1779, the town " Voted 
that Robt. Burns & adm Nichols Shall Each of them have a Road 
Where they Required it." The first of these was no doubt that 
which now exists from the old Burns place past Reed Carr's and 
the cemetery to the " leading road." The second appears by 
the next action of the town thus : " Voted that the Road be 
Recorded from Adam Nichols place [McCoy's — north John Dun- 
can's — buildings gone] by miss Dickeys [now S. M. Thompson's] 
and Joseph Boyd's [Goodell's] And Daniel Miltimors [White- 
ley's] To the Center." This was not all built at once, as parts of 


it we find laid out a second time — a circumstance that careful 
eyes will find repeated below. 

This year, also, the road was laid out from William Stacey's 
to Windsor — over the mountain. 

Likewise, July 2, 1779, as follows : " Beginning at John Nich- 
ols Choping [N. C. Ferry's] Thence Runing North Where the 
Road is opened to Adam Nichols Improvements [McCoy's on the 
hill] thence by markt trees to Realys Sugar Camp Thence 
North by markt trees Passing Betwixt Major Realys fell wood 
[Gibson place] and John McCoyses [Elijah Goold's old place] to 
Hillsborough line." This was the old first road to Hillsborough, 
was close under, Riley's mountain, and is now mostly thrown up. 

1780. Road from South Village to the Zadok Dodge place, 
then settled by James Dinsmore. 

Likewise the old road from the old Center by Green's, Law- 
rence's, Reed Carr's, and Dinsmore's to Stoddard. 

Likewise from Saltmarsh place by Goodell's and Whiteley's 
to the Center. 

Also from a point half-way between Whitney's and Goodell's 
to ('corge A. Cochran's, — which, however, seems not to have 
been built on that ground, but farther north, making the road 
about where now traveled from Whitney's to Cochi'an's. 

1781. "Voted that there be a road laid out from James 
Dinsmores [Zadok Dodge place] by Mr. McDoal [Poster place] 
to Sam' Patten's house." This house was on top of Patten's 
Hill, and the road to it was open many years. It went up nearly 
straight west from Dea. Boyd's. 

Likewise, Sept. 1, 1781, from Bben Bass's to Samuel Patten's 
on the top of the Patten Hill. It was laid out by marked trees, 
and there was neither dwelling nor clearing between these two 

1782. The road by Daniel Swett's to Windsor. It was 
described thus: "Beginning at James Nesmiths Hous [Wm. M. 
Conn's] Running Westerly By markt Trees and Where it is 
partly Cleared to Stephen Turtioes Barn then Running thfough 
S'^ Curtices Land and Lem' Curtices Land to his house." 

1783. From William M. Conn's over the mountain to Wind- 
sor. , This was June 14. 

Also, same date, a road from Elias Cheney's (Dimon Dodge 
place), on the line between him and Joseph Clark, to strike the 
previous Hillsborough road near the Gibson or Danforth place. 
This was very nearly on line of present turnpike in Antrim. 


' Also, from Milfes Turtle's up by Kidder's and J&,mes Wood's 
to the corner now marked by the school-house in that district, 
July 9, 1783. The town had voted to extend this road from 
-this corner to Franklin Perry's, but it was only laid out to the 

The town also voted, at its Marcli meeting, a road from Daniel 
Nichols's (Turner's), by Cooledge place, and down the sand-hill 
and past Robert Mcllvaine's, to old Center. 

1784. A road was laid out from Reuben Boutwell's house, 
standing a little southeast of Daniel Simonds's, to the Stoddard 
road near Samuel Dinsmore's. 

Also, from Samuel Patten's house to Hancock line. Thus 
for some years the main road to Hancock was over the top of 
Patten Hill. 

1786. A road from the town line on the Hiram Eaton farm 
" northwardly " till it should strike the road from Patten Hill to 
the meeting-house. 

1787. From Hiram Combs's past Cooledge p]ace and school- 
house, down sand-hill to Robert Mcllvaine's, and thence to meet- 
ing-house. This had been voted 'before. 

Also, from the house of Ira Holmes to Windsor line. 

1788. From D. H. Goodell's eastward to Raymond place at 
the corner. 

Also, from South Village by Thomas Flint's, Munhall's, and 
Greeley's, and thence over the hill south of the pond, past the 
old Yose place to the place now occupied by Hugh Rogers, — 
long Rodney Sawyer's. 

1791. A road from John Duncan's to the Dea. Woods place, 
thence by Levi Curtis's and Henry Barker's to the old Center. 
This was voted March 22, 1791, but not formally laid out till 
June 3, 1792. 

1792. From Miles Tuttle's to Hillsborough line. 

AlsOj from Thomas Day's house to the Stoddard road near 
Samuel Dinsmore's. This was discontinued long since. 

1793f Jan. 19. From Raymond Corner past the Dea. Jona- 
than Nesmith place to " a balm tree which Stands a little South 
of Nathan Coles house," — i. e., to Whitney place. 

1791, Sept. 12. From the old meeting-house past the pound 
and thence westward over Holt's Hill, and then nearly as now 
traveled, round north and west of the pond, till it intersected 
with the road south of the pond at the corner near the Capt. 
John Worthley place. 


1795. From George F. Parmenter's westward past Chandler 
Butterfield's to Gregg's mills, then standing at the upper end of 
the pond. This road was discontinued about 1873. 

Also, from Elijah Holt's (near the river in the east part of 
the town) westward to S. M. Thompson's Discontinued half a 
century ago. 

Also, from Thomas Jameson's to David Parker's, — a short 
piece, long since thrown up. 

1796. Dec. 10. From Jackson Boutelle's over the hill south 
to the William N. Tuttle farm. This road, perhaps on better 
ground, was laid out again Aug. 21, 1798. 

1797. The road from Hancock to Stoddard across the south- 
west corner of this town. Jonathan Nesmith was ageut to build. 
This lias always been an expensive and troublesome road, and of 
no use to the town. Referred to elsewhere. 

1798. From the William N. Tuttle farm southward past 
Amos Dodge's to the Caleb Clark place, now Mr. Lovewell's. 

1799. November. Town gave permission to build a turnpike 
througli Antrim. This was soon after built. Facts about it are 
given in the narrative elsewhere. 

Tins year the records first have mention of the " State Road 
so called," about which there was a great talk, for and against, 
for many years. This road was never built. It was laid out by 
a court's committee. Can't see why it was called a state road. 
It was surveyed from Stoddard to Francestown. Its line began 
at South Stoddard, passed over the mountain north of George 
Brown's, thence near Lovewell's, round the north side of Holt's 
Hill, past Lily pond, down the lower side of the Center grave- 
yard, down the Parmenter brook to near Chauncey White's, 
thence in about a straight line to Arthur Miller's, crossing the 
river near his house. A very good road miglit have been 
made on this ground, but it would have been expensive to build, 
and of no great public importance. 

1801, Jan. 20. A road was laid out from the Tenney farm, 
then Enoch Sawyer's, southeastward to this state road. 

1801, June 20. A road " Running from the foot of the hill 
west of the meeting-house southeastwardly till it, strikes the 
leading road." This is the road now traveled from the pound 
to the town-house. This, it seems, was not built, and was laid 
out again in 1807, and made that year. 

1802. Road commencing near Conn's corner on Stoddard 


road, and running southeastwardly over the north side of Tuttle 
Mountain to the William N. Tuttle place. This was never more 
than a path, and has been discontinued near half a century. 

In the two following years several short roads were l^,id out, 
all of them unimportant, and some of them hard to locate. A 
road was laid out from Daniel Mcllvaine's to Mr. Whiteley's in 
1804. One of these was to be a " Bridle Road " several years, 
after which the town was to build it. 

1806, May 10. Road from George Turner's to the river, was 
laid out. It was to commence " near Daniel Nichol's Cyder 
Mill," and run eastward to the Dimon Dodge place, — " thence 
on river bank to Turnpike Bridge." In the following year, a 
road was laid out from the north end of the pond to the Artemas 
Brown place. Also, same year, road was straightened across 
the meadow from Mr. Kelsea's to John M. Duncan's. In 1808, 
the town voted to lay out a road from Luther Campbell's to 
Steel's mills on the Hillsborough road (Estey's). This would 
have made a level and convenient road. It was voted a second 
time, a year or two later, but was greatly opposed, and was 
never built. 

1813. Road from Steel place west of pond to Lieut. James 
Nesmith's — long since discontinued. 

Also, 1816, from Lovewell's to the Artemas Brown road. 

1817, Nov. 4. From George P. Parmenter's, eastward to the 
old road to the Center. 

1820, March 14. The town voted to lay out a road from near 
the pound to Luther Campbell's. This was the road now traveled 
to the Branch, and is mentioned in the town narrative. It was 
a hard road to build, and was not finished at once. 

1827. Road from Daniel Mcllvaine's to Fred Gove's, laid out 
in 1804, seems to have been built this year. 

18ol. From Stoddard line to Hillsborough, as now traveled, 
was laid out by " Court's Committee," was stoutly opposed by 
the town, but finally built. Referred to elsewhere. 

1835. From Clinton to Mr. French's (Dea. Worthley place). 
This road was laid out through a dense forest. The building of 
it was somewhat delayed. Same year a road was laid out from 
Gregg's mills to strike the other near the north end of the pond. 
The following year, a road was laid out from William M. Conn's 
to Reed Carr's. 

1842. From Luther Campbell's to Keene road. This was 


opposed and put off. Finally was laid out by county commis- 
sioners in '1844, and soon after was built. 

1846. From Clinton to- Charles F. Holt's. Laid out in 1845 ; 
again the following year ; built 1846. This was continued from 
Holt's mill up to the pond in 1854. 

It may be added that many pieces of road have been discon- 
tinued which are not so given above, — especially in west part of 
the town. That part of the " leading road " from the old grave- 
yard to Luther Campbell's was discontinued in 1872. The roads 
of Antrim will compare favorably with those of any New Hamp- 
shire town. 

For twenty-five years subsequent to incorporation, these roads 
were little more than clearings through the forests, and no 
attempt was made to evade hills. But for the past seventy-five 
years great effort has been made to improve our roads. The 
labors of generations have made them what they are ; and those 
in the hardest localities have been made excellent. Few towns 
have done so much for accommodating people not their own, as 
ours. The road across the southwest corner, that from South 
Village to the turnpike bridge, the turnpike, and the Keene 
road, were none of them made for ourselves, though some of 
these are now of great value to the town. We have about eight- 
een wooden bridges to support ; Branch river being bridged 
seven times, Clinton or Great brook seven times, besides Carr 
brook once, Cochran brook once, and the dry bridges and half- 
bridges along the Contoocook. , 




The first burial of a white person in Antrim' was that of a 
child in February, 1768, on. the spot now occupied by the Levi 
Woodbury house. In 1772, Dea. Aiken lost a second child, and 
he buried it on the Whitney farm, near its northwest corner. To 
this spot he removed the body of the child that died in 1768. Sev- 
eral other children were buried at this place. But it was in the 
woods, and the graves were not marked. As they supposed the 
Center of the town would be at this point, they expected in the 
near future properly to mark and honor the ground. But when 
the Center was fixed on the hill, these little graves had to be 
left. Some of the bodies were removed to the hill. Three or 
four years later the land was cleared and burned ; and it was 
soon impossible to identify the spot. That first burial-place is 
known only to God. They are little graves, but they are not 
forgotten of Him. 

The burial-place on the hill was fixed upon by the town in 
public meeting, Aug. 20, 1777, it having been previously laid out 
by the surveyor, and so far informally decided upon as to be then 
referred to as " the Burling Place." A little of it, nearest the 
" spoot " fixed to build the meeting-house on, was cleared at 
once. The rest of it was gradually chopped down and the tim- 
ber left to dry. It was burned over in 1781. The brands and 
blackened logs were piled and burned in 1782, and the land 
sowed with rye, of which there was a great crop the following 

The old cemetery was at first surrounded by a log fence ; but 
a good stone wall, standing to this day, took the place of the log 
fence in 1794. But the care of the town for this spot was so 
great that they voted again, as soon as 1802, to repair the grave- 
yard fence. The enclosed portion rapidly filled up ; and an addi- 
tion of about half its size was made on the west, in 1818. In 
1838 the town instructed the selectmen to make such repairs as 
were needed " at the old graveyard." This was done from time 
to time, so that the ground was kept in a fair condition. In the 
fall of 1872, there was a voluntary turn-out of citizens to work 


in righting the slanted monuments and " bowing wall " ; and a 
vigorous and willing day's work was done. A new gate was also 
provided. Thus the town, and especially the fathers, manifested 
a great interest in that place of the dead. In my judgment it is 
by far the most sacred spot within our borders ;. and I venture the 
hope, that, after we are gone, children and children's children 
will keep it in good condition, and guard its monuments with 
deathless care. 

It is impossible now to tell who was first buried on the hill. 
After the ground was set apart and one corner made clean, in 
1777, it is certain no burials took place elsewhere in town for 
fifty years. Probably a child or two were buried there as early 
as 1778. The oldest monument is dated a little later. Only a 
very small part of those buried there have any mark at their 
graves. The ground was full in 1818, and about one hundred 
and thirty were subsequently buried in the addition of that year. 
Mr. Whiton'says " the dust of about six hundred sleeps in the 
old burying-yard," which seems to me at least one hundred too 
low. He says four hundred were buried there during his minis- 
try (Half-century Sermon, page 8), of which no doubt he had a 
record, — the deaths during his ministry averaging eighteen per 
year. For the eight years preceding his settlement, including 
the dysentery year, 1800, the average of deaths must have been 
twenty annually. This would make five hundred and sixty 
burials there in the present century. If, now, we suppose the 
bodies moved there to be six, and the average of deaths from 
1778 to 1800 to be six yearly, the whole would be just seven 
hundred. A look at the table of populations strongly confirms 
ihis reasoning, especially when we remember the fatality among 
children. Probably in those days when the town had no minis- 
ter to keep a record, many were buried there not numbered in 
Mr. Whiton's account. Many are the children not accounted 
for, unless they were laid there in this way. 

In the old days the town provided a heavy, large black cloth 
to throw over the coffin, — this last being generally a very cheap 
and unsightly box. This pall was called " The mort-cloth," and 
sometimes the " Palm-cloth," by the Scotch. I found in the 
first Londonderry record-book this item : " Voted that Moses 
Barnet hoop the Pam-Cloth, & Impowered to Let it out in the 
town for five Shillings for Bach funeral that Imploys it." They 
also voted to buy a " Mor-Cloth that will be small for young 


children." I remember seeing one of these great, dark, fright- 
ful coverings of the coffin, with fringe all around it, a most dead 
and mournful black ! The more modern pall of fringed velvet 
is less repulsive. Rarely, however, is anything of the kind to be 
seen, or used, at the present day. 

The next cemetery in town, begun in 1826, was that now 
known as the " Center Yard." It was started by Dr. Whiton, 
but the most active man in organizing the work and putting the 
ground in order was James Cochran, father of Ira. A great 
amount of labor was spent upon it, the earth on the ridge being 
scraped down several feet against a huge bank wall erected for 
the purpose. This ground i^ no^ nearly full. Here Dr. Whiton 
expressed a wish to be laid when his work was done, and here, 
under the morning shadow of his church, they buried him. 
This sunny and quiet yard is neatly kept, but will soon be, like 
the former, a thing of the past. 

The East yard was commenced in October, 1827, by the soci- 
ety then existing there. The first burial was that of Aura Ann 
Tennant, Oct. 10, 1829. This yard also is now nearly full, and 
but little used. It was located nearly opposite the East church. 
Comely for situation, accessible, and orderly, it was the chosen 
ground for that part of the town, as well as for many families in 
Bennington and Deering. This yard was some time in prepara- 
tion, and several bodies- were buried in fields and gardens, tem- 
porarily, and then removed to it. 

" The Cemetery on the Plain," in the north part of the town, 
was begun soon after that at the Center, and in the same year, 
182H. It constituted then about half of the present yard, that 
on the west being purchased and added about the time of the 
incorporation. " The Antrim North Branch Cemetery Associa- 
tion" was incorporated in 1864, the right being granted to "Syl- 
vester Preston, Daniel Simonds, Samuel Dinsmore, and other 
owners of lots." The first burial was that of Benjamin Simonds, 
Sen., who died, in 1826. 

The present officers of the association are : President, Henry 
B. Swett ; secretary, George P Little ; treasurer, Luther M. 
Wilkins; directors, William R. Carr, William M. Conn, Edmond 

About 1829, the town voted " a Saxon for each yard*' ; and for 
half a century three sextons were annually appointed by the 
town for these three yards. 


Maplewood Cemetery was prepared for use in the year 1861. 
The land had been for years a dry, poor sheep-pasture. One 
day, J. W. Christie, riding along with his son, Dr. Morris Chris- 
tie, thought of the convenience and fitness of the place for a 
burial-ground. They two got out and looked it over; then went 
up -and consulted with Mark and Levi Woodbury. The next 
step was that the two last named bought the land. Then, as 
soon as possible, they fitted it up nearly in its present shape, and 
sold the lots for remuneration. It was opened with the year 
1862. It has been spoken of as remarkable that Mr. Christie 
was almost the first to be laid there (April 10, 1862). The first 
burial there was that of Charles McKeen,'Vho died March 24, 
1862. The number buried in this cemetery (Jan. 1, 1877) is 
one hundred and twenty-seven, and the number removed there 
from several other places eighty-one, making two hundred and 
eight in all. 

Pew country burial-places are more attractive than this. It 
will be still more beautiful in the future, when the long rows of 
trees reach maturity. Many substantial and comely monuments 
adorn the ground. The fountain was put in (1877) at a cost of 
about four hundred dollars. It was by the work and solicitation 
of Mrs. Anna Woodbury, who also paid more than half of all the 
expense. The principal other donors were D. H. Goodell and 
Morris Christie. 

There is only one private burial-place in Antrim, that of the 
elder Whittemore family, lying on the Hillsborough line, in the 
extreme northeast part of the town. It should be added that 
west of the mountains, from forty to seventy years ago, many 
bodies were taken from Antrim to South Stoddard and Hancock, 
for burial. 






I &i 








Date. Moderator and Town Clerk. 

1777. Moderator not named. 
Maurice Lynch, Clerk. 

1778. Daniel Nichols, Mod. 
John Duncan, Clerk. 

1779. Samuel Moore, Mod. 
Samuel Moore, Clerk. 

1780. John Duncan, Mod. 

Daniel Miltimore, Clk. 

Selectmen. i 

Thomas Stuart. 
James Aiken. 
Richard McAllister, 

Thomas Stuart. 
Daniel Miltimore. 
Daniel Nichols. 

John Duncan. 
Samuel Moore. 
Adam Nichols. 

Daniel Nichols. 
Benjamin Gregg. 
Thomas Stuart. 


Henniker, Hillsbor- 
ough, Deering, An- 
trim, and Society 
Land were repre- 
sented in several 
sessions at Exeter 
by Capt. Joseph Sy- 
monds, and same 
also, 1776. 

District as above, rep- 
resented by Isaac 
Andrews. Met at 
Exeter, Dec. 16, 

This year Capt. Jas. 
McCalley was cho- 
sen for the district. 
Met at Exeter, Dec. 
16, 1779. 

Henniker, Hillsbor- 
ough, Deering, An- 
trim, Hancock, and 
Society Land, — by 
Capt. James Mc- 
Calley, of Hillsbor- 

1781. John Duncan, Mod. 

Daniel Miltimore, Clk. 

1782. John Duncan, Mod. 
Samuel Moore, Clerk. 

Samuel Moore. 
Daniel McFarland. 
John Duncan. 

Thomas Stuart. 
Samuel Moore. 
John Duncan. 

1783. Benjamin Gregg, Mod. James Dinsmore. 
Samuel Moore, Clerk. Thomas Stuart. 
Daniel Nichols. 

1784. John Duncan, Mod. 
Samuel Moore, Clerk. 

Samuel Moore. 
Samuel Patten. 
Richard McAllister. 

District represented 
by Capt. Robert Al- 
cock, of Deering. 

Henniker, Hillsbor- 
ough, Deering, An- 
trim, Hancock, and 
Society Land, rep- 
resented by Capt. 
Joseph Symonds. 

John Duncan repre- 
sented district of 
Antrim, Deering, 
Hancock, and Soci- 
ety Land. 

John Duncan for An- 
trim, Deering, and 
Hancock, and So- 
ciety Land. 



Date. Moderator and Town Clerk. 

1785. Isaac Cochran, Mofl. 
Samuel Moore, Clerk. 


Isaac Cochran. 
Jonathan ISTesmith. 
Samuel Moore. 


Probably John Dun- 

1786. Isaac Cochran, Mod. Isaac Cochran. Probably John Dun- 

Daniel Miltimore, Clk. Jonathan Nesmith. can. 
Daniel Nichols. 

1787. Thomas Nichols, Mod. Isaac Cochran. 

Daniel Miltimore, Clk. Jonathan Nesmith, 
Thomas Stuart. 

John Duncan for An- 
trim and other 

1788. John Duncan, Mod. 
Tobias Butler, Clerk. 

Thomas Stuart. , 
Samuel Dinsmore. 
David McClure. 

1789. Daniel Miltimore, Mod. Thomas Stuart. 

Daniel Miltimore, Clk. Samuel Dinsmore. 
James Hopkins. 

1790. Isaac Cochran, Mod. 

Daniel Miltimore, Clk. 

Daniel Miltimore. 
Thomas Stuart. ■ 
Jonathan Nesmith. 

Probably John Dun- 

John Duncan, for 
Deering, Antrim, 
and Hancock. Met 
at Seth Hadley's, 
Hancock, to elect. 

Probably John Dun- 


Thomas Nichols, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Jonathan Nesmith. John Duncan, for An- 
William Brown. trim, Deering, and 

Dani(>l Nichols. Hancock. 

1792. Isaac Cochran, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Jonathan Nesmith. 
Arthur Nesmith. 
Daniel Nichols. 

1798. John Duncan, Mod. Jonathan Nesmith. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. Arthur Nesmith. 
John Mcllvaine. 

John Duncan, for An- 
trim and Hancock, 
as shown by Han- 
cock records. 

John Duncan repre- 
sented Antrim and 

1794. Isaac Cochran, Mod. Jonathan Nesmith. Probably John Dun- 
James Nesmith, Clerk. Daniel Nichols. can. 
Arthur Nesmith. 

1795. Thomas Nichols, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

1796. John Duncan, Mod. 

James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Jonathan Nesmith. 
Daniel Nichols. 
Arthur Nesmith. 

Jonathan Nesmith. 
Arthur Nesmith. 
Thomas Stuart. 

John Duncan for An- 
trim and Hancock. 

John Duncan repre- 
sented the district. 

1797. John Duncan, Mod. Jonathan Nesmith. (John Duncan lepre- 

James Nesmith, Clerk. James Hopkins. 
Arthur Nesmith. 

sented Antrim and 
Campbell's Gore, 
but in August Jon- 
athan Nesmith was 
chosen for a session 
in Portsmouth.) 












Moderator and Town Clerk. 

Isaac Cochran, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Samuel Diusmore, Mod . 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Isaac Baldwin, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

John Duncan, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Isaac Baldwin, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Isaac Baldwin, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Isaac Baldwin, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 


Arthur Nesmith. 
Baniel Nichols. 
James Wallace. 

Arthur Nesmith. 
Daniel Nichols. 
James Wallace. 

Arthur Nesmith. 
William Starrett. 
Jacob Tuttle. 

Nathan Cleaves. 
Samuel Vose. 
Robert Gre^g. 


Pirst Representative 
of Antrim alone, 
Jonathan Nesmith. 

Jonathan Nesmith. 

Jonathan Nesmith. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Robert Gregg. Jacob Tuttle. 

.John Alexander. 
James Dunlap. 

Robert Gregg. 
John Alexander. 
James Dunlap. 

Robert Gregg. 
James Nesmith. 
Thomas Jameson. 

Robert Gregg. 
James Nesmith. 
John Worthley. 

Robert Gregg. 
James Nesmith. 
John Worthley. 

Jacob Tuttle . 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

1807. Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

1808. James Wallace, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

1809. Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

1810. Mark Woodbury„Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

James Nesmith. Jacob Tuttle. 
Jonathan Nesmith. 
James Wallace. 

James AV^allace. 
Robert Gregg. 
Samuel Vose. 

James Wallace. 
Samuel Vose. 
Thomas McCoy. 

Robert Gregg. 
Samuel Vose. 
Thomas McCoy. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 


1811. Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

1812. Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

James Nesmith. James Wallace. 
Stephen Woodbury. 
Charles Adams. 

Robert Gregg. Mark Woodbury. 

Stephen Woodbury. 
Charles Adams. 


















Moderator and Town Clerk. 

Jacob Whittemore, Mo. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Jacob Tuttle,Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Jacob Whittemore, Mo. 
James Nesmitli, Clerk. 

Jacob Whittemore, Mo. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 

Mark Woodbury, Mod. 
James Nesmith, Clerk. 


.Tames Wallace. 
Jacob Whittemore. 
Thomas McCoy. 

Eobert Gregg. 
Jacob Whittemore. 
Thomas McCoy. 

Robert Gregg. 
Jacob Whittemore. 
Thomas McCoy. 

Eobert Gregg. 
David McCalley. 
Thomas McCoy. 

David McCalley. 
George Duncan. 
Amos Parmenter. 

Mark Woodbury, Mod. David McCalley. 
Amos Parmenter, Clk. Amos Parmenter. 
Robert Gregg. 

Lt. James Nesmith, Mo. Amos Parmenter. 
Amos Parmenter, Clk. John Wallace. 
John McNeil. 

James Nesmith, Mod. Robert Gregg. 
Amos Parmenter, Clk. Amos Parmenter. 
John Wallace. 

Mark Woodbury, Mod. Robert Gregg. 
Robert Gregg. Clerk. John Wallace. 

Tristram Sawyer. 

James Nesmith', Mod. 
Amos Parmenter, Clk. 

Jonathan Nesmitlj. 
Samuel Fletcher. 
John Worthley. 

Jacob Tuttle, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 

Amos Parmenter, Clk. John AVorthley. 

Samuel Tuttle, Jr. 

William Gregg, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 
Amos Parmenter, Clk. John Worthley. 

Samuel Tuttle, Jr. 

Jacob Tuttle, Mod. 
Amos Parmenter, Clk. 

Samuel Fletcher. 
John Worthley. ' 
Samuel Tuttle, Jr. 

William Gregg, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 
Samuel Fletcher, Clerk. John Worthley. 
Samuel Tuttle. 

Amos Parmenter, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 
Jacob Tuttle, Clerk. Jacob Tuttle. 

Samuel Tuttle, Jr. 


Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Jacob Whittemore. 

Jacob Whittemore. 

Jacob Tuttle. 

Mark Woodbury. 

Amos Parmenter. 

Amos Parmenter. 

Amos Parmenter. 

Amos Parmenter. 

George Duncan. 

Samuel Fletcher. 



















Moderator and Town Olerk. 


George Duncan, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 
Jacob Tuttle, Clerk. Thomas McCoy. 
Isaac Baldwin. 

S. Weston, Jr., Mod. 
Jacob Tuttle, Clerk. 

Samuel Fletcher. 
Thomas McCoy. 
Isaac Baldwin. 

George Duncan, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 
Samuel Fletcher, Clerk. Thomas McCoy. 
Isaac Baldwin. 


Samuel Fletcher. 

Samuel Fletcher. 

Samuel Fletcher. 

Jacob Whittemore, Mo. Samuel Fletcher. Thos. McMagter, Jr. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Thomas McMaster. 

Jacob Tuttle. . 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. Thomas McMaster. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Thomas McMaster. 
George Duncan. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. Luke Woodbury. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Thos. McMaster, Jr. 
Jacob Whittemore. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Thos. McMaster, Jr. Samuel Fletcher. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Jacob Whittemore. 
Isaac Baldwin. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Thos. McMaster, Jr. Luke Woodbury. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Thomas McCoy. 
Jonathan Carr. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Thomas McCoy. Thomas McMaster. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Jonathan Carr. 
Thomas Dunlap. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Thomas McCoy. Thomas McMaster. , 
George Duncan, Clerk. Jonathan Carr. 
Thomas Dunlap. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Thomas McCoy. 
George Duncan, Clerk. Jonathan Carr. 
Thomas Dunlap. 

Jacob Whittemore, Mo. Thomas McCoy. 
Hiram Griflln, Clerk. Samuel Fletcher. 
William Carr, Jr. 

Jacob Whittemore. 

Jacob Whittemore. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. William Carr, Jr. Jacob Whittemore. 
Hiram Griffin, Clerk. Henry C. Smith. 
John Barker. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. William Carr. 
Hiram Griffin, Clerk. John Barker. 
John G. Flint. 

Luke Woodbury, Mod. Samuel Fletcher. 
Hiram Griffin, Clerk. John G. Flint. 
David McKean. 


Eev. Joseph IJavis. 

Kev. Joseph Davis. 



Date. Moderator and Town Clerk. 

1843. William Carr, Mod. 
Hiram Griffln, Clerk. 

1844. Jacob Whittemore, Mo. 
Rev. Jos. Davis, Clerk. 

1845. Luke Woodbury, Mod. 
Hiram Griffin, Clerk. 

1846. Jacob Whittemore, Mo, 
Hiram Griffin, Clerk. 

1847. Jacob Whittemore, Mo. 
Charles McKean, Clk. 

1848. Luke Woodbury, Mod. 
Charles McKean, Clk. 

1849. Luke Woodbury, Mod. 
Charles McKean, Clk. 

1850. Jacob Whittemore, Mo. 
Charles McKean, Clk. 


Samuel Fletcher. 
William Carr. 
David McKean. 

William Carr. 
Jonathan Carr. 
Manly W. McClure. 

Thomas McCoy. 
Josiah W. Christie. 
David McKean. 

Thomas McCoy. 
Thomas Dunlap. 
Manly W. McClure. 

Thomas McCoy. 
Thomas Dunlap. 
E. P. Whittemore. 

Thomas McCoy. 
Thomas Dunlap. 
K. P. Whittemore. 

Thomas Dunlap. 
R. P. Whittemore. 
Rodney Sawyer. 

R. P. Whittemore. 
Rodney Sawyer. 
Ira Cochran. 

1851. Bartlett Wallace, Mod. R. P. Whittemore. 
Charles McKean, Clk. Ira Cochran. 

Samiiel Dinsmore. 

1852. Bartlett Wallace, Mod. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

1853. Reed P. Whittemore, M. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

1854. Lemuel N. Pattee, Mo. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

1855. Lemuel N. Pattee, Mo. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

1856. Charles McKean, Mod. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

1857. Charles McKean, Mod. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

Thomas Dunlap. 
Clark Hopkins. 
John Dodge. 

Thomas Dunlap. 
Clark Hopkins. 
John Dodge. 

Thomas Dunlap. 
John Dodge. 
John Little. 

Isaac Baldwin. 
Sam'l A. Fletcher. 
Harvey Stacy. 

R. P. Whittemore. 
Jesse R. Goodell. 
Zadoc P. Wilson. 

R. P. Whittemore. 
Jesse R. Goodell. 
Zadoc P. Wilson. 


Samuel Fletcher. 

Rev.' Joseph Davis. 
Hiram Griffin. 
Hiram Griffin. 
William Carr. 
William Carr. 
Thomas Dunlap. 
Thomas Dunlap. 
Charles McKean. 
Charles McKean. 

Hiram Griffin. Levi 
Woodbury chosen 
■ and declined. 

Hiram Griffin. 

Lemuel N". Pattee. 

No Representative. 
First warrant ille- 

R. P. Whittemore. 



Date. Moderator and Town Olerk. 

1858. Charles McKeau, Mod. 
D. H. Goortelt, Clerk. 

1859. Lemuel Jf. Pattee, Mo. 
John M. Wallace, Clk. 

1860. Lemuel ?f . Pattee, Mo. 
John M. Wallace, Clk. 

1861. Mark True, Mod. 

John M. Wallace, Clk. 


R. P. Whittemore. 
Samuel Dinsmore. 
John G. Flint. 

William S. Foster. 
Harvey Stacy. 
William N. Tuttle. 

William S. Foster. 
Harvey Stacy. 
William ST. Tuttle. 

William S. Foster. 
Harvey Stacy. 
William N. Tuttle. 

1862. Wm. M. Parsons, Mod. William N. Tuttle. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. Henry B. Swett. 

G^orse A. Cochran. 

1863. Lemuel N. Pattee, Mo. 
Bennett S. Buckmiu- 
ster, Clerk. In Sept. 
A. A. Eamsey was 
chosen to till vacancy 
in otfice of Town Clk. 

. 1864. Mark True. Mod. 

Abram A. Ramsey, CI. 

William N. Tuttle. 
George A. Cochran. 
Albert Baldwin. 

William S. Foster. 
Harvey Stacy. 
Albert Baldwin. 


R. P. Whittemore. 

Lemuel N. Pattee. 

Lemuel N. Pattee. 

ISr. W. C. Jameson. 

Harold Kelsea. 

Harold Kelsea. 

Mark True. 

1865. Leander Smith, Mod. 
James E. Vose. Clerk. 

1866. Leander Smith, Mod. 
James E. Vose, Clerk. 

1867. Leander Smith, Mod. 
James E. Vose, Clerk. 

1868. Leander Smith, Mod. 
Edward D. Putney, CI. 

1869. D. Harvey Goodell, Mo. 
Edward D. Putney, CI. 

1870. D. Harvey Goodell, Mo. 
Edward D. Putney, CI. 

1871. D. H. Goodell, Mod. 

Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

William S. Foster. 
Edward L. Vose. 
James W. Perkins. 

William S. Foster. 
Edward L. Vose. 
James W. Perkins. 

Edward L. Vose. 
George A. Cochran. 
F. M. Shattuck. 

Edward L. Vose. 
Geo. A. Cochran. 
Leander Smith. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 
Leander Stnith.- 
Samuel S. Sawyer. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 
Leander Smith. 
Samuel 8. Sawyer. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 
Leander Smith. 
William N. Tuttle. 

William S. Foster. 

William S. Foster. 

Mark True. 

William N. Tuttle. 

William N. Tuttle. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 



Date. Moderator and Town Clerk. ■ Selectmen. 

1872. EeedP.Whittemore,M. Geo. A. Cochran. 
Almus Fairfield, Clerk. Leander Smith. 

William N. Tuttle. 


Harris B. Newman. 

1873. Leander Smith, Mod. 

Charles B. Dodge, Clk. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 
Leander Smith. 
William N. Tuttle. 

Harris B. Newman. 

1874. George A.Cochran, Mo. 
Charles B. Dodge, Clk. 

William N. Tuttle. 
Samuel S. Sawver. 
William K. Carr. 

John M. Duncan. 

1875. Leander Smith, Mod. 

Almus Fairfield, Clerk. 

R. P. Whittemore. 
Arthur A. Miller. 
Miles B. Tuttle. 

N. C. Jameson. 

1876. Leauder S,mith, Mod. 
Almus Fairfield, (lerk. 

R. P. Whittemore. 
Arthur A. Miller. 
Miles B. Tutile. 

N. C. Jameson. 

1877. Leander Smith, Mod. 

Charles B. Dodge, Clk. 

1878. George A. Cochran, M. 
Charles B. Dodge, Clk. 

Geo. A. Cochran. 
Samuel S. Sawver. 
Elijah F. Gould". 

Samuel S. Sawyer. 
Elijah F. Gould. 
William R. Carr. 

D. H. Goodell. 

D. H. Goodell. 

1879. George A. Cochran, M. 
Charles B.Dodge, Clk. 

1880. George A. Cochran, M. 
Charles B. Dodge, Clk. 

Samuel S. Sawyer. 
Charles W. Kelsea. 
Enoch C. Paige. 

Samuel S. Sawyer. 
Charles W. Kelsea. 
Enoch C. Paige. 

Samuel S. Sawyer. 

Samuel S. Sawyer. 
(Elected for two 

^ VC/>^^^^a.^^<^ ^^,JCc;c^^^:.^...e^<^i,er^<^■ 





As the first mill of any kind in town was' on the Branch 
stream, I will begin with that stream and follow it down. The 
same order will be observed with Great Brook. 

1. The Burns Mill. — This was near Stoddard line, was built 
by Robert Burns, Jr , in 1818, was an ordinary saw-mill, and 
quite an amount of lumber was cut out there for many years. 
This mill was then sold to George Wood, of Henniker. After a 
brief use, he left it to rot down ; and all its parts, even to saw 
and wheel, are there to this day in utter ruin and waste. The 
frame has fallen and rotted to the ground, and the passer-by 
seldom notices the spot. 

■2. Loveren's Mills. — A grist-mill was erected where the pres- 
ent one stands, or near the same spot, by Samuel Dinsmore, 
Sen., probably as early as 1798. This was sold, in 1807, to 
Josiah Herrick, who occupied it for a long series of years, and 
did a large local business. The saw-mill just above was built by 
John Robb, about 1839. The whole was sold to John Peabody, 
in 1850, who made many improvements, and did an increasing 
business till his death in 18G5. The grist-mill was rebuilt by 
Peabody. Soon after his death the whole passed into the hands 
of Josiah Loveren, the present owner. Shingle saws and vari- 
ous improved machinery have been introduced by him at heavy 
cost. This mill has a great power, is kept in complete repair, 
and turns out lumber of all kinds and in large quantities. 

3. Branch Tannery. — This was built by Dea. William Little, 
in 1815. It stood west of the street, just abi)ve the bridge in 
the Branch Village. Some of the buildings yet remain. Dea. 
Little carried on the tannery business on this stand forty years 
or more. In 1871 Lewis Charon bought this old privilege, made 
repairs, and pursued the businebs a few years. A small " bark- 
mill " stood close by, for grinding bark by horse.-power, as was 
then the custom. 

4. ParlfJiurst's Mills. — The first on this spot, and the first 
grist-mill in Antrim, was " James Moor's corn-mill," built in 
1777. No mill ever built in town was welcomed with buch a joy 


as this. Reference is made to it on another page. Moor's 
mill was removed about 1814, and the present structure put up, 
by Josiah Wallace* This united the saw and grist mill. After 
the day of Josiah Wallace, these mills were run by his oldest 
son, Theodore. Afterwards the Flint Brothers manufactured 
pegs and other wares extensively on this stand, until they went 
elsewhere for larger business. They were succeeded by Moody 
B. Mcllvaine, and then Lowell Simonds, and then Hiram Davis. 
This property passed into the hands of D. J. Parkhurst and Son, 
the .present owners, in 1873. In addition to sawing of various 
kinds, and grinding, they do a heavy business in the manufac- 
ture of pail-handles, and similar wares, turning hundreds of 
cords of hard wood into these small but essential things. 

5. The Branch Woolen-Mill. — This was put up on the oppo- 
site side of the river from Parkhurst's mills and at the same 
dam, by the brothers James and Josiah Wallace, about 1808. 
It was for carding wool and dressing clqth, chiefly, and at that 
time was very popular and useful. Francis Reed took the bus- 
iness after these brothers ; and still later, John Wallace. This 
shop was moved down to another dam and became the " Peg- 
Mill " named below. On tlie site Dea. Little soon after erected 
a large building, and used it in connection with .his tanning 

6. Warren^ s Mill. — This was the first mill in Antrim. Was 
put up by John Warren in the spring of 1776. Was a very 
humble saw-mill. Stood a few rods below the Wallace mills, in 
Branch Village. The sills are still to be found where he laid 
them more than one hundred years ago, though the structure 
itself has been gone more than half a century. Warren lived in 
a log house which stood on a knoll half-way between the mill 
and Scott Preston's. 

7. Dimond Mill. — This was built by Bphraim Diraond, in 
1820. The dam was immediately below that of Warren. It 
was a large, two-story building, was put up for the manufacture 
of scythes and all kinds of edge-tools, and Dimond did a smart 
business in it for years. He had a great name in his day as a 
maker of superior tools, and people came from all the adjacent 
towns to patronize liim. But in course of time he neglected his 
business, and finally abandoned it; and the shop, which he 
would not sell, rotted down. He lived to see it entirely gone ! 

8. " The Peg-Mill" — This was the old woolen-mill moved 


down onto a new dam. This was a few rods below Branch 
Village, and near the house of John G. Flint, Esq. It was put 
into the new position in 1830. Subsequently, Sylvanus Sumner 
occupied this mill, who, it is believed, succeeded Francis Reed, 
and used it as a woolen-mill. In 1849, Henry Duncklee took 
this mill, and used it for the manufacture of raw silk, something 
after the manner now followed at South Village. He w^s suc- 
ceeded by Harold Kelsea, who, after a time, removed the business 
to the present Kelsea silk-mills. Then the old mill was occu- 
pied by Robert F. Dodge, in making zinc wash-boards. Last, it 
was fitted up for a " peg-mill," and was occupied last by Hiram 
Davis. This mill was burned March 17, 1869. 

9. Bobhin-Mill. — This was a large, two-story structure, built 
on a canal from the lower dam at the Branch, and was below the 
last named. It was put up in the fall of 1822 by Farrington 
Dascomb for a wheelwright-shop, and was so occupied by him, 
with considerable help, for about sixteen years. In 1839, Clark 
and Buss began the manufacture of bobbins in this shop. Subse-' 
quently, Isaac Boyd carried on the same business here. He was 
succeeded by Abram Putnam, who was here only a very short 
time, as the mill caught fire from a dry-house and was burned 
Feb. 26, 1846. 

10. The Steele Mill. — Now Hiram Mcllvaine and E. W. 
Estey own and occupy this stand. It is a short distance below 
the Branch. Was built by James Steele, and long kept in the 
family. It was burned, July, 1839. The present mill was put 
up by Moody F^. Mcllvaine, the fall of the same year. At pres- 
ent, this mill contains a. threshing-machine, a cider-factory, and 
a wheelwright-shop. Isaac C. Tuttle manufactured pegs, awhile, 
also pill-boxes, on this stand. 


1. Gregg's Mills. — Samuel Gregg went into the forest at the 
mouth of the pond, and built a saw and grist mill, in 1798. 
This was a fine privilege, and controlled t^he stream. A large 
amount of business was done at this place for a long series of 
years. The original mill was several times enlarged. In the 
day when there was a large population west of the pond, heavy 
quantities of grain were ground at " Gregg's Mills." This mill 
was owned and run, after Mr. Gregg's death, by many different 
parties, for .a short time each. It was at one time made into a 


starch-factory, by Charles Gates. The last owner was Henry E. 
Eogers, by whom it was taken down' in 1876. The control of 
this. privilege was purchased by the Antrim Water Power Com- 
pany, about 1847, in order to hold the pond as a reservoir of 
water above. 

2. Hildreth Mill. — This is next on the stream below the site 
of Gregg's mills. Was built in 1871 by William A. Hildreth. 
Is a saw-mill, with various other appurtenances. Large quanti- 
ties of lumber, summer and winter, have been prepared for mar- 
ket here every year since it was jnade. 

3. Eolfs IKK. — Built by Hervey Holt in 1832, but is now 
the property of his son, Charles P. Holt. For many years this 
was only a saw-mill, but has recently been enlarged by the addi- 
tion of machinery for making cider, threshing grain, sawing 
shingles, and other such things. This is among the largest 
mills and best powers on the stream. 

4. The Hastings Mill. — This is a large establishment for the, 
manufacture of bedsteads and cribs. Hatch's spring-beds are 
also manufactured in this shop. A vei\y large amount of cider 
is annually made at this mill. It is owned and run by Dea. E. 
Z. Hastings^ It was on this site that the first building in Clin- 
ton Village was erected ; namely, the cotton-mill built by Dea. 
Imla Wright, in 1828. The whole place then was a dense for- 
est, the nearest dwelling being that of Dea. Amos Parmenter. 
Dea. Wright may fairly be called the founder of Clinton Yillagie, 
inasmuch as it rapidly grew up round his new enterprise there. 
Dea. Wright manufactured cotton yarn, wicking, batting, and 
twine. The last, now the common wrapping-yarn, was first 
thrown upon the market by Dea. Wright. Subsequently, others 
with him formed a company and were incorporated, and did a 
much larger business. But the company in time met with mis- 
fortunes and gave up business. The building was sold, and 
soon after was changed into a furniture-factory. Bedsteads, 
tables, bureaus, etc., etc., were made, and many hands employed. 
Hall and Putnam carried on this business in 1845. Afterwards, 
Pratt and Putnam, and finally Isaac B. Pratt, continued the bus- 
iness, the latter' for quite a number of years. This factory was 
burned, April 9, 1857, but Pratt at once rebuilt. Afterwards, 
the business and stand were sold to Charles Turner, who was 
burned out, April 29, 1864. The upper and smaller part of the 
present factory on this site was built by E. 0. Paige,- 1864 ; the 


large, two-story part was moved there from Hancock, and put up 
by the present owner, in 1870. 

5. Story's Shop. — Now owned and occupied by Daniel Story, 
manufacturer of bedsteads and cribs. Was built by his brother, 
Ambrose Story, in 1831. The present owner has run this mill 
more than forty years. 

6. Bryer's Shop. — .Now owned and occupied by John A. Bryer, 
blacksmith. Was put up by Dimon Twiss. Part of this shop 
was u'sed by a wheelwright at times, and as a repair-shop for the 
other mills. The first mill on this stand was built in 1832; 
was two stories high, and had a barn attached in which rooms 
were finished off for boarders. The whole was burned in 1838. 
It caught from varnish in the upper story, that part being occu- 
pied by the Abbotts for painting and varnishing window-shades. 

7. Dodge's Shop. — Built by Dea. Wright for a cotton-factory, 
in 1844 Here for some years he manufactured batting and various 
kinds of cotton yarn. Was bought by Brooks and Poster in 1862, 
who exchanged shops with the Dodge Brothers in 1865. Doors, 
bedsteads, etc., etc., have been made here. This shop has had 
the reputation of turning out work that was extra nice. 

8. Abbott's Shop. — The first on this spot was built by Samuel 
W Abbott and Imla Wright, in 1835. Here they made hat- 
boxes, and also the "• patent window-shades," invented by Rev. 
Samuel Abbott. Subsequently they added the manufacture of 
paper fans, and found a market for all these articles in the South- 
ern States and in South America. Subsequently the business 
was carried on by Samuel Abbott ; then by Abbott and Buckmia- 
ster ; and then for a good many years by John R. Abbott. After 
his death, the business was carried on by his widow, under the 
wise management of her brother, Mark True. The whole is 
now owned and occupied by John G. Abbott, who manufactures 
bedsteads, cribs, cradles, and window-shades. Here, also, for 
many years, have been the coffin-warerooms of this section of 
country. Abbott's factory was enlarged, 1880. 

9. The Brooks Shop. — This large, two-story factory was built 
by Reuben Hill and Samuel A. Fletcher, ih 1848, for the manu- 
facture of chairs. In a few years it passed into the hands of 
John Johnson, who continued the manufacturing of chairs, and 
added that of powder-kegs. The Dodge "Brothers occupied this 
shop for a time. In 1865, Brooks and Poster moved into it for the 
manufacture of bedsteads, and employed about a dozen men. 


After the death of Poster in 1868, Charles S. Brooks continued 
the business till 1875, when he sold out to Tristram B. Page. 
The latter kept on till the factory was burned, Feb. 8, 1876. 
A new shop was built on this spot by Dea. E. 0. Paige, 1880. 

10. Paige's Orih-Factory. — The first mill on this site was 
built by Samuel Cummings, Jr., in 1836, who did a small busi- 
ness here for some years. In 1848, S. 0. and J. L. Kendall 
built the part now standing, and put it in operation as a factory 
for making doors, sashes, blinds, and all sorts of dimension work. 
This firm in three or four years was changed to Kendall and 
Jackson. Hiram Story succeeded these last in th6 occupancy of 
this shop, and retained it till death in 1866. For recent years it 
has' been owned and occupied by Dea. E. C. Paige, as a manu- 
factory of cribs, of all sizes and patterns. Abbott P. True was 
associated with him as partner, in 1879, and they did the largest 
business in their line, in this vicinity. Mr. True assumed the 
whole business in tlie spring of 1880. 

11. The Silk-Mill. — The beginning on this site was by John 
Dunlap and his son Robert, about 1835, who put up a small fac- 
tory for the manufacture of chairs, and for general cabinet work, 
and carried it on about eight years. It was sold to Ezra Hyde 
in 1846, who nearly doubled the size of the building, and fitted 
it up for a woolen-factory. It was used for this purpose two or 
three years, when Mr. Hyde met with reverses in business, and 
the mill was closed. It stood unoccupied about eight years, but 
was purchased by Harold Kelsea in 1857, who at once prepared 
it for his silk manufacture, and removed the machinery and busi- 
ness from the Branch into it. Steam power was added in 1871. 
About sixteen hands are employed in this mill, — and the raw 
silk is manufactured in a manner nowhere exceeded. Some in- 
ventions highly important in the manufacture of silk have been 
made by Mr. Kelsea. The business is now carried on by Joseph 
N. Kelsea, Esq. 

12. The Third Woolen-Factory. — Ezra Hyde built a third 
woolen-factory in South Village, a few steps above the present 
cutlery-factory. It waS a large, two-story building, planned for a 
great business. But it never went into operation, hard times and' 
reverses coming just as it was completed in 1847. It was used 
for the manufacture of powder-kegs by White and Eaton, by Moore 
and Stearns, and then by J. S. Burnham, — in all nearly three 
years. Then it passed into the hands of Jonathan Temple, who 


made picture-frames and some kinds of furniture. Afterwards, 
this building was. occupied a year or two by John Hadley, in 
carding wool. It was a cheap building, and was taken down in 
1856, to make way for other buildings. 

13. Still another Woolen-Mill. — Just below the canal, Hyde 
built a large, two-story structure almost joining the last named. 
This passed into the hands of Mark B. Woodbury, who moved it 
up across the canal onto the street, where it was known as • 
Union Hall. The French roof was put on in 1876. It is -now 
known as Goodell's Block, and is occupied for stores, printing- 

■ ofl&ce, Odd Fellows' hall, and various other purposes. 

14. The Hoe-Factory. — White and Eaton bought the privilege 
next below, and put up, in 1844, the large building now a store- 
house on the street, where at once they continued the manufac- 
ture of cast-steel hoes, doing a large, business. Subsequently, 
they made wliat was called the " premium cast-steel concave hoe," 
which was extensively popular. White was a gunsmitli of great 
skill, and carried on some business in that line. Dui-ing their 
stay in this shop, they got out the patent for the " Antrim shovel." 
Baton claimed the idea ; White invented the application of it, — 
the welding of sheet steel, which had been accounted impossible. 
When the Shovel Company was formed, or soon after, this shop 
ceased to be used for manufacturing. 

15. Oonant's Wheelwright- Shop. — This has long been used as 
a dwelling-house, and is the last one at the top of the hill below 
the end of the canal. It was built by Samuel A. Conantin 1842, 
for a wheelwright-shop, that being his trade. A "penstock" 
was made from the canal to it, and preparation made for exten- 
sive business, — to which the death of Conaut put an end. 
There seemed to be no limit to the mills that were planned to 
run by that canal. 

16. The Shovel-Shop. — In 1856 the Antrim Shovel Company 
was organized, and at once built them a long, one-story shop, 
nearly where the cutlery-works now stand, for the manufacture of 
shovels on the patent of White and Eaton. This company con- 
sisted Of many of the prominent and wealthy men of the vicinity, 
and did a heavy business for several years. This company did 
not fail, as has been mi^akenly said ; but not finding the profits 
large enough to remunerate them and pay dividends as they 
expected, they sold out all the effects of the company to Tread- 


well & Co., of Boston, in 1860. This ended the famous Shovel 
Company. As an investment, it was not a success. 

In 1863, Treadwell & Co. built a two-story addition, sixty feet 
long, to the north end of the shovel-shop ; but the next year, 
they sold the shovel patent, with all the machinery and tools per- 
taining thereto, to Oliver Ames and Sons, of North Baston, Mass. 
When the patent ran out Ames got it renewed, and it was in 
force twenty-one years. This shovel is now made in Taunton, 
Mass., in Philadelphia, and several other places. It is every- 
where called the " Antrim shovel," and is really one of the best 
things ever patented. Ames at one time made one hundred 
dozen per day of these shovels. Literally, they have gone into all 
the earth. 

After the departure of the shovel business, 1864, the shop 
stood unoccupied, for the most part, till it was burned, "Feb. 22, 
1867. But it was immediately rebuilt one-story high by Tread- 
well & Co., and was occupied by D. H. Goodell & Co. in the ' 
manufacture of " lightning apple-parers." This machine was 
invented and patented by D. H. Goodell, in 1864. In 1868 the 
"turn-table apple-parer" was purchased of J. H. Lockey & Co., 
of Leominster, Mass. Also, soon after, the right to manufacture 
the " Cahoon seed-sowers." Treadwell & Co. failed in 1870 ; 
and D. H. Goodell & Co. were drawn down with them by en- 
dorsement of paper together. The last-named company had 
valuable assets and owed only seven hundred and sixty-one 
dollars, and that in small bills. Mr. Goodell has since paid 
every dollar of this, the debt of his own company. After a 
course of bankruptcy, this shop passed by sale at auction into 
the hands of D. H. Goodell. This was in 1872. He continued 
the manufacture of apple-parers and seed-sowers till Jan, 1, 
1875, when the present Goodell Company was formed. This 
company bought out the factory, power, tools, stock, etc., of D. 
H. Goodell, and also all the business, stock, and tools of the 
Wood's Cutlery Company of Bennington. They at once put u'p 
an addition, two stories high and seventy feet long, on to the 
south end of the apple-parer factory, into which new building 
they removed the cutlery business from Bennington. Another 
large addition to this factory, bringing the entrance up to the 
main street, was made in 1879. They now employ about one 
hundred men and several women, and manufacture more than 
one hundred different styles of cutlery, all of superior character ; 


besides great quantities of apple-parers, potato-parers, cherry- 
stoners, seed-sowers, and several other new and valuable conven- 
iences. This large business has been built up chiefly by Mr. 
Goodell, showing him to be a man of remarkable energy ajid 

n. -Aiken's Second Mill. — This was a small, low saw-mill 
built by Dea Aiken, about 1790. It stood on the bank of the 
brook, about at the south end of the knife-factory ; had a little 
canal to bring the water to it, and an old-fashioned " sputter- 
wheel," but no great force. About 1800, it passed into the 
hands of " Capt. Hadley, " who sawed lumber there a few years. 
Then it was used several years for the maiiufacture of potash, 
and several parties made large quantities till the war of 1812. 
Soon after the breaking-out of the war, an old man by the name 
of Wetherbee bought or hired this old mill for the manufacture 
of saltpeter. Wetherbee came from Society Land. Did not live 
here. Saltpeter was one dollar per pound, and the demand was 
pressing. Wetherbee crawled under all the old building^ in 
town, scraped the soil off, carried it to his shop, leached it, and 
boiled down the lye. Under the old meeting-house on the hill, 
he took the whole of the soil. 

After the war the Woodburys made potash for years in the 
old mill. It has been gone about half a century. 

18. Poor's Mills. — Frederick Poor cut a canal and put in a 
small wheel to grind bark, and started a tannery, in 
1822. A saw and grist mill was built by Stephen Poor, in 1825. 
Three or four years later the whole passed into possession of 
Thomas Poor, who enlarged the tannery and carried on all three 
kinds of business, employing many hands. Poor commenced 
the manufacture of patent leather in l.^'SS, putting up for the 
purpose a large building across the street south of his dwelling- 
house. This was burned the following year. He rebuilt, and 
continued the manufacture several years. This last building is 
now a tenement house. 

Poor's tannery and the saw and grist mill were burned March 
18 1858". He reb'iilt the saw and grist mill the same year, about' 
as they now stand. The tannery business was not revived. 
.Large quantities of " excelsior" are annually sent to market 
from this milL It is made of poplar wood, and is a very nice 

19. The Breed Mill. — The first on this spot was a little full- 


ing-mill and carding-shop, built by Benjamin Sargent. This was 
certainly running as early as 1788, and was probably built in 
1786. Sargent, after a few years, sold to James Taylor. The 
last advertised, July 25, 1796, that he " proposed dyeing deep 
blue, crimson, scarlet, and other good durable colors." John 
Gilmore " took the mill " June 15, 1799. Between Taylor and 
Gilmore, Samuel Fisher occupied the mill awhile. Gilmore was 
succeeded by Thomas G. Breed. About 1814 he pulled down 
the old mill, and built one much larger and better. The main 
body of it stood a little south of the present mill. Here Breed 
did large business in carding, coloring, dressing cloth, etc., for a 
long time. In 1841, his son, James 0. Breed, in company with 
Ezra Hyde, commenced to manufacture woolen cloth of various 
kinds in this sliop In 1846 this firm was dissolved, and Breed 
continued the business some years alone. Then the mill was idle. 
It was burned March 31, 1850. Nothing more was done at this 
privilege till 1857, when the building now Luke Hill's blacksmith- 
shop was moved from the upper end of the village and put in 
its present place and use. The west and larger part of the pres- 
ent building was put up by D. H. Goodell in 1860. It has been 
used some years as a part of the cutlery- works. 

20. The Rollins Mill. — A little mill was built to saw logs, on 
this spot, in the fall of 1776, by James Aiken and Joseph Boyd. 
In course of years it come into possession of Isaac Baldwin, who 
sold it to Benjamin Rollins in 1815. It was burned Dec. 11, 
1817. Rollins immediately rebuilt, and on somewhat larger 
scale, occupying the place, in the whole, seventeen years. He 
sold in 1832 to Elijah Herrick. Rollins added a grist-mill and 
ground grain New Year's Day, 1818, — just three weeks from the 
fire. Herrick was succeeded by Volney Johnson, who in 1836 
tore down everything and built new and large. This was burned 
in 1842. The present mill was built by Abijah Whitcomb soon 
after. It is now the property of D. H. Goodell. An immense 
quantity of lumber has been sawed here in the last half-century, 
chiefly drawn from the pine lands over the river in Bennington 
and Deering. Shingles, clapboards, and such light stuff were 
prepared here so extensively as to establish a reputation at a 
distance for these articles. Several hands are now employed 
here summer and winter. 

21. Duncan'^ Tannery. — The relics of this once most impor- 
tant enterprise in town may yet be discovered. It was a few 


steps below the last-named mill. Was built by William Star- 
rett, in 1796, who occupied it some years, and made it of great 
advantage to the town. Frederick Poor owned it a short time. 
George Duncan bought it, 1816, and carried it on till his death, 
1840. It was then continued by his son, George C. Duncan. 
This tannery was burned in June, 1841. Was at once rebuilt. 
John and Dexter Simouds had it a short time, but chiefly 
George C. Duncan. The second tannery was burned, April 2, 

22. Thompson'' s Mill. — About 1824, Dea. Isaac Baldwin put 
up a large, two-story factory on this site, and occupied it in black- 
smithing and as a general repair-shop for some years. About 
1833, Baldwin and White commenced here the manufacture of 
cast-steel hoes, being the first in New Hampshire in that enter- 
prise. About 1839, Robbins and Flint succeeded them, manu- 
facturing about to the value of three thousand dollars annually. 
White and Baton began business as a firm in this shop, but 
afterwards built for themselves. In later years, Baldwin's fac- 
tory was partly made into tenements It was chiefly unoccu- 
pied, and was burned about my first coming to Antrim, in the 
fall of 1867. In 1868 Luke Thompson built the present shop, 
which is kept running by his heirs. 

Thus it will be noticed, that, altogether, there have been 
twenty-two different mills within two miles on this busy, mighty, 
little stream, not counting mills rebuilt. From the pond to the 
river, the water is now used fourteen times, and might be used 
much more. This stream has a great fall, so that less water is 
needed. It is fed by springs : does noi dry up like other 
streams. I have known the mills to run here when factories on 
Merrimack river and many larger streams had shut down, for 
lack of water. This useful, laughing brook thus supplies most 
excellent privileges. It is the life of the town ! 

There were two mills in town which I have not yet men- 
tioned. One was in the southwest corner of the town, built by 
David Low, of Hancock, in 1825, was an ordinary saw-mill, has 
passed through many hands, was long owned by John Flint, 
afterwards by Warren Hatch. It is now going to decay. Bob- 
bins, shingles, wash-boards, and clothes-pins were at times made 
in this mill. 

The other was " Dea. Cochran's Mill," built by Dea. Isaac, in 
1786. The remains of the dam are still to be seen near the 


road southvest of the old homestead. This was a saw and grist 
mill, and was quite important in its day. The grist-mill part 
was swept away in the great freshet of 1819, and again in the 
still greater one of 1826, but was each time promptly rebuilt. 
The whole was taken down in 1855, with intent to rebuild. 
But circumstances prevented the accomplishment of the design 
at the time, and the project was not afterwards revived. 




The first village, of course, was the old Center on the hill. It 
would hardly be called a Tillage now. Going up from the south, 
the buildings on the top seemed to lean against the sky. School- 
house, church, tavern, and a few dwellings made up the whole. 
It had a spacious and beautiful common. It was all the gather- 
ing-place the town had for more than half a century. Religious 
meetings, town meetings, everything, were at the Center. Con- 
gregations of four hundred and five hundred were often gath- 
ered there in summer. At the time of the town's greatest popu- 
lation, there was no other meeting-house or meeting-place. 
Going up from the south seventy-five years ago, the buildings 
were as follows : — 

1. A small, low school-house, a little below the southeast 
corner of the common. It had a huge fire-place and steep floor, 
according to the custom of those days. This was burned, 1811. 

2. On the left of the large common of about two acres, lying 
west of the road and south of the burial-ground, stood the house 
of Samuel Webster, a shoemaker. It was a large, three-story 
building, with shoemaker's shop in the basement. Was planned 
for a tavern also. Was never fully finished. Was taken down 
and made into the Appleton tavern. West Deering, in after 

3. The Meeting-House. — It stood at the southeast corner of 
the cemetery, with a drive-way between. Was a large, two-story 
structure ; gable end to road, fronting south ; two rows of win- 
dows clear round ; high porch on each end ; three entrances ; 
and pulpit on north side. A long row of horse-sheds, facing 
south, extended from the church Westward along the south side 
of the cemetery to the extreme west of the common. Another 
long row stood on the east side of the old highway, extending 
northward considerably beyond the church. The church and 
horse-sheds and common and cemetery made quite an imposing 
appearance for those days, and all were proud of the place. 

4. Dea. Tfistram Sawyer's Place. — This was a small, low, 
poor house, and stood just north of the cemetery, on the same 



side of the road. Sawyer built new in 1810, which house was 
moved down whole over the rocks in 1821, and is now the house 
of George G. Hutchinson. 

6. Christie Tavern. — A large, double, two-story house on the 
east side of the road a few steps north of Dea. Sawyer's. There 
were several large barns, and every appearance of thrift. Here 
was a hall, also a spacious bar-room. It was a good sample of 
the old-fashioned tavern. 

6. Small house nearly opposite Christie tavern. This house 
had been occupied by various parties back many years. David 
Hopkins lived in this house, John Warren, and many others. It 
was taken down as long ago as 1813. 

These constituted the " Old Center," as the records call it. 
It was a spot very dear to tlie fathers. Now all is changed. 
Every building is gone. Some of the cellars are filled up. Only 
the burial-ground remains ! Passing on north, where now the 
roads are discontinued, just at the fork of roads on the west side 
of the main road, stood a small house, of whose occupants little 
is known. It was here John McAllister first lived ; and in the 
fork of roads opposite stood his blacksmith-shop, — the first in 
Antrim. All this set of buildings have been gone about seventy 
years. Down the east branch of the road a short distance was 
the house of Dea, James Nesmith. A few steps farther north 
on the main road was the house of Abraham Smith, which stood 
on the west side. North of him a few rods, and on the east side 
of the road, lived Abraham McNiel. 


For half a century this was often called Woodbury's Village. 
Gradually it came to be called South Village. Recently, from 
its being by far the largest village in town, it has been some- 
times called simply Antrim ; and this is the name of its post- 
office. It is situated, on a ridge of land rising from the west 
bank of the Contoocook, which river is the southeast line of the 
town ; South Village being therefore on one extremity of the 
town, and about eight miles, by direct road, from its western 
inhabitants. It is " beautiful for situation," being seen from 
long distances from the hills around, and yet high enough to be 
healthy and attractive. Few prettier villages can be found in 
New England, and none of more enterprise and thrift. 

The first settler within the limits of this village was Dea. 


James Aiken ; the second, William Smith ; the third, Daniel 
McParland (now N.W. 0. Jameson's) ; the fourth was Benjamin 
Sargent, who probably began the Kelsea place ; and the fifth 
was Ebenezer Kimball, who began where the Carter House now 
stands. Kimball had the first store. The second was opened 
by Mark Woodbury, on the present Woodbury stand, in 1794. 
Isaac Baldwin, William Starrett, and Bartholomew Ballard set- 
tled in the village in 179.3. The Baldwin place is known to all. 
Starrett built the Fletcher house, and started the lower tannery. 
Ballard built the Henry Hill house, and commenced the manu- 
facture of clocks. From this time the village increased very 
slowly till 1860. In 1826, or " meeting-house year," Sout^i Vil- 
lage had only fourteen dwelling-houses. These fourteen were 
as follows : The old, low, unpainted house on the, Kelsea place ; 
a small dwelling where Mr. Corey lives ; the old, bulky, half-fin- 
ished, unpainted McFarland house ; the Woodbury house, late 
the residence of John R. Hills ; the Burnham house, now Mr. 
Whittum's ; the old Aiken house by the poplar-tree ; the house 
of Mr. Poor, consisting only of the brick part ; the Fuller, or 
Ballard house, late Henry Hill's ; the William Smith house, just 
south of Chessmore's ; the Breed house, a small, low dwelling 
on the spot where the south school-house afterwards stood ; the 
Rollins house, recently occupied by Charles Gibson ; the Dun- 
can house, now Carter's ; the Dea. Baldwin house ; and the 
Starrett house, now Mr. Fletcher's. There were two stores, two 
taimeries, three saw-mills (Aiken's, Poor's, and RoUins's), two 
grist-mills, and a fulling-mill. There were also school-house and 

Twenty-five years later (1851) there were thirty-three dwell- 
ing-houses, two stores, two school-houses, and some additional 
mills. The first church built in South Antrim was that of the 
Methodists, built in 1864. The growth of this village sinCe 
1868 has been quite rapid. There are now (1879) sixty-eight 
dwelling-houses, more than double the number ii> 1851. Many 
of these houses accommodate more than one family. There are 
some beautiful residences, and all have the appearance of neat- 
ness and prosperity. There are now four stores, a shoemaker's 
shop, a harness-shop, a jeweler's, a tailor's, a barber's, a tin-shop, 
six mills and factories, two churches, a fine large building for a 
graded school, and a large hotel. There are now more than 
ninety families in the village ; a large amount of business is 


done ; and it is one of the liveliest, smartest, handsomest, clean- 
est villages in New Hampshire ! 

The streets in South Village were named as below, at a meet- 
ing of the citizens called for the purpose, though some of the 
names had been fixed in the use of the people before : Prom Mr. 
Groodell's through toward Bennington, Main street ; from Main 
street toward Clinton, Clinton street ; from Main street past the 
Methodist parsonage. West street ; from Main street past Mr. 
Poor's, High street ; from Main street to the river. Depot street ; 
from Main street to Maplewood cemetery, Concord street ; from 
the north end of Main street to Concord street, Elm street. It 
was ivoted to call the common School Square. Of the two 
streets laid out in 1879 from the south end of Main street, west- 
ward, the south one was called Prospect street, and the one next 
north, past Mr. Hatch's, Pleasant street. 

A few of the houses in South Village were built as follows : — 

Elijah Kimball's. — The oldest part of this house was biiilt by 
James Duncan for his son, about 1799. The wing and barn 
were built by Dr. Buruham. These buildings repaired, and 
second story put on the house, by Elijah Kimball and his son, in 

The Sylvester Little House. — Built by said Little, 1879. 

Hurlin House. — By Rev. William Hurlin, 1878. 

J. H. Smith's. — Built 1846, for a school-house. 

Kelsea House. — Built by Harold Selsea, 1861. 

Ruthven Child's House. — Bm\t by A. F. True, 1876. 

Baker House. — Moved to its present position and fitted up, by 
Bphraim Simonds, 1864. 

Corey House. — John Hopkins put up part of it for a store. 
The other part is probably older than any other building now 
standing in South Village. 

Alvah Dodge House. — Put in its present position by him in 

Kimball Crirl's House. — Built for parsonage for Rev. Mr. 
Stevens, 1864. 

Dr. Anthoine's.— Emh, by William Hill, 1864. 

iMke Hill's. — Built by Reuben Simonds, 1862. 

William N. Tuttle's. — Built by S. G. Wallace, 1861. 

Old Brick House. — Was once union school-house ; fitted for 
dwelling by Ezra Hyde, about 1847. 

S. a. FaZkce's. — Built 1874. 


John ButterfieMs. — Built by R. L. Livingston, 1833, 

Methodist Parsonage. — Built by Prank Muzzey, 1861. 

School-house and Hall. — Built 1869. 

Methodist Church. — Built 1864. 

Baptist Church. — Built 1871. 

N. W. C. Jameson's. — Built 1862. 

Baptist Parsonage. — Built 1879. 

The Judge Woodbury House. — Built 1849. 

Mr. Whittum's House. — Built by James Aiken, Jr., 1806. 

Levi Woodbury House. — Built by George C. Duncan, 1850. 


The first blows in this village were struck by John Gordon, 
who settled in 1772 where Oliver Swett now lives. Probably 
he had made an opening and laid claim to his land two years 
before. The next was John Warren, who began the farm now 
S. S. Sawyer's, taking all of the land now in the village south of 
the river. He built the first mill in town, and had his log house 
back of Scott Preston's. He built the mill in the spring of 
1776, — having probably laid the foundation and partly built the 
dam the preceding year. Thomas Stuart came next, being about 
a year later than Warren. Stuart settled the Flint place as 
early as 1775. Nathan Taylor soon followed. After this, for 
thirty years, the Branch Village grew but little. An eye-wit- 
ness, in 1809, gives the following : — 

1. A small, low, unpainted house with only two rooms, where 
is now the residence of John G. Flint, Esq. 

2. A small, old-looking school-house on the spot where a bet- ■ 
ter one now stands. 

3. The Day House. — Then nearly new, built by John Dunlap. 

4. The Bangdon Swett House. — Built by Joel Jones, 1808, 
for a house and shoemaker's shop. Was then in a half-finished, 
bad-looking condition. 

5. The Dea. Weston House (Oliver Swett' s). — Built about as 
it now stands, in 1807. 

6. A small, old house, occupied by Robert Smith, previously 
by Nathan Taylor. It was in the field a feyp- steps south of S. S. 

7. The three-story house, built by Josiah Wallace, 1805, then 

8. The Champney House. — Then occupied by Dr. Stickney. 


It had been standing some years above the well in the yard 
opposite. Moved across and fitted up by Dr. Stickney early that 
year (1809). 

9. A small house, occupied by Dea. John Alexander. This 
stood a few rods east of Scott Preston's. Has been gone many 

These eight dwelling-houses and school-house, with a few 
small barns and two or three small mills, constituted the Branch 
Village in 1809. The first store at the Branch was opened by 
Tuttle, McCoy, and McCauley, in 1813. The building put up 
for this purpose is now the dwelling-house of Henry E. Swain. 
John G-. Flint's house was built by David McCauley, in the 
spring of 1817, having a large hall, which was used for select 
schools and various other purposes. The Tuttle house, now 
Hiram Griffin's, was built in 1817, and the brick store in 1818. 

The Branch has now twenty-five dwelling-houses and two 
stores.' Parkhurst's are the only mills in operation. The neat 
chapel was built in 1877. Stages run from Keene to Hillsbor- 
ough Bridge through this village. Also they have a daily stage 
to the depots at South Antrim and Greenfield. Branch Village 
is nearly two miles north of the Center, has a delightful situa- 
tion on the river, is surrounded by hills, and has excellent mill 
privileges, most of which are now unused. 


This small collection of houses, hardly to be dignified by the 
name of village, is situated on the south slope of Meeting-House 

'Hill, and about a mile southeast of the geographical center of 
the town. Its situation is high and sightly, and, in summer, 

^exceedingly attractive, and a resort for summer boarders. It 
consists of the Presbyterian church, vestry, school-house, town- 
house, and seven dwelling-houses. There were formerly a store 
and post-ofBce here ; also a tavern was kept on the Vose place. 
It now has daily stage to and from depot. Its houses were built 
as follows : — 

1. Capt. Leander Smith's^ — Built by Moses Wilkins, 1828. 

2. The Ambrose Story House. — The first building on this spot 
was moved from west of the pond, about 1827, by James Hill. 
The barn was burned here in 1867, and was rebuilt by Ambrose 
Story. The house was put into its present large and attractive 


shape, by Mrs. Sarah Perry and her mother, in 1877. City 
boarders find a quiet, restful, and pleasant home here. 

3. Whilon House. — Built by Charles Gates, in the early 
spring of 1826. An addition on the east was long occupied as a 
store and post-office. Now the Presbyterian parsonage. 

4. Dra-per House. — Put up by Jonathan Paige, 1828. Had. 
a harness-shop in one part. (Afterwards a small building for 
this use stood east of the house.) Now owned and occupied by 
Mrs. N. B. Herrick. 

o. Rev. Morris Holman's. — This used to be called the " Paige 
house," by old people. Was built by Samuel Gregg, in 1777. 
A town meeting was held in it in 1778. Was built on the New- 
man place, but was moved to its present site by Charles Gates. 
Was fitted up and long occupied by John S. Parmenter. Is the 
oldest occupied house in town. 

6. The Newman House. — - This was built by Charles Gates, 
out of the timber of the Christie tavern, on the old site where 
Samuel Gregg settled in 1777. This was tlie parsonage during 
the pastorate of Mr. Bates. " 

7. Mr. Gove's. — This is known as the B. L Vose place. 
The first buildings were put up by Benjamin Gregg His suc- 
cessor was Samuel Caldwell. Afterwards Zaccheus Fairbanks 
put up a large, two-story house here, in which he had a large hall 
for dances, singing-schools, etc. Fairbanks was licensed to keep 
tavern year after year. The large house was taken down by 
E. L. Vose. 

Besides these, a small house stood many years just above the 
town-house, and was occupied by the widow Todd and children ; 
and another house stood opposite the town-house, which was 
occupied some years as a store, and was long subsequently the 
dwelling of Jonas Parker. This house was taken down by the 
boys between two days. 


The first building in this village was put up by Dea. Imla 
Wright in 1828. It was then a deep forest, rocky and rough in 
the extreme, but grew up rapidly by the development of its 
water-power. Soon after the building of the cotton-mill by 
Wright, several houses were built. The Abbott mill went up in 
1835. In 1851,' there were sixteen dwellings in Clinton. At 
one, time it was proposed to call this village " Wrightville," as it 


was founded by Dea. Wright, he having built three of its mills 
and several houses, either alone or in company with others. 
But he modestly objected, and proposed that they call the village 
" Clinton." As DeWitt Clinton had just died, and was then uni- 
versally praised, and even called a benefactor of mankind, all 
fell in with Dea. Wright's suggestion, and the place has since 
been called " Clinton." . Dea. Wright is now living in respected 
and smart old age, and sees a thriving village where he began in 
the forest. Now, including Charles P. Holt's, there are twenty 
dwelling-houses, six mills and factories, a store, a blacksmith- 
shop, and a cooper's shop. This village has excellent water 
privileges, and does considerable manufacturing of wooden-wares, 
chiefly bedsteads, cribs of many kinds, window-shades, spring- 
beds, etc., etc. Some of the houses in Clinton were built as 
below : — 

1. House of Dea. E. Z. Hastings. — Built by Dea. Imla Wright 
in 1828. 

2. Dea. Wright's. — Built by himself, 1831. 

3. Daniel Story's. — Built by AmbrosQ Story, 1832. 

4. J. A. Dryer's. — Built by Dimon Twiss, 1833. 

5. David. Hill's. — Built by his brother Reuben, 1833. 

6. Hildreth's. — Built by Imla Wright in 1836. 

7. John G-. Abbott's.— Put up by Samuel W Abbott in 1837, 
being moved from Dea. Boyd farm. 

8. 0. D. Sawyer's.— Built by the Abbotts, 1847. 

9. Robinson's. — Built by Reuben Robinson,' 1848. 

10. 0. B. Cochrane' s. — Bu\\t by Horace B. Tuttle, about 1.869. 

11. Store. — Fitted up and opened by C. B. Cochrane, 1874. 




Some of the religious habits of our Scotch-Irish ancestry are 
spoken of elsewhere. They were people of intense religious 
convictions, and held the principles of their fa,thers with undy- 
ing grip. They were great readers of the Bible, and the rank 
and file of them had such a knowledge of it as would put us no# 
to shame. They were very strict in keeping the Sabbath. All 
work ceased at sunset Saturday night. There was absolutely 
no travel on that day, except by the doctor, in most urgent 
cases. When Mrs. Aiken and her children were starving, in 
1768, in the absence of Mr. Aiken, it was with great reluctance, 
and barely to save life, that she consented to the boy's shooting 
a pigeon near their door in the wilderness on the Lord's day. 

As soon as they had a meeting, all the people attended, trav- 
eling without shoes and on foot ; the aged and feeble, and the 
mother with her babe, following on, horseback. Young ladies 
walked barefooted five miles to church, if need be. In later 
days, they carried their coarse, thick shoes in the hand, and put 
them on before entering the church. It was their custom to 
worship all day. They had two sermons a Sabbath, and each 
was often two hours long. I have heard old people say they 
had to get up early and make a long day of the Sabbath. When 
the young people met to be " catechised," at the old school- 
house on the hill, they were accustomed to get there from 
remote parts of the town at nine o'clock in the morning. The 
old church never had any fire in it, though the people stayed in it 
so long. In latter days, they carried a foot-stove or a hot brick 
for feet and hands. Little children were universally taken to 
church. It was not unusual to have twenty or thirty babes a 
Sabbath, in summer. In earliest times, children big enough to 
leave the mother's knee were put on the stairs, or in a box-pew, 
by themselves, and put under the care of a " tithing-man " to 
keep them quiet. There was considerable enforced order, or 
sometimes disorder, at church, on account of dog-pelters, tithing- 
men, children, and cold feet. One dog-pelter in Antrim drove a 
nail into a long cane, leaving it projecting, and, having well 


sharpened the same, went quietly with it to church. As things 
got somewhat dozy about " ninthly," in came a dog, smelling 
along the aisle. Instantly the man buried the nail in the dog's 
head, dragged it out in terrible yelping, and it died in a few 
minutes on the church-steps ! 

Sometimes a brawling child would not "down" at the tithing- 
man's bidding, but, being frightened, screamed-the louder. Also, 
the seats hung upon hinges, and were lifted in prayer-time when 
ail rose to their feet and stood. At the minister's '• Amen," 
down slammed the seats with a vigor that would wake anything 
but. the dead ! 

The tithing-men, also, like some teachers I have known, made 
a great deal of noise in keeping the young people still, and 
accomplished a fair amount of confusion in preserving order. 
These officers, being charged to enforce the keeping of the Sab- 
bath and the decorum of the house of the Lord, sometimes had 
curious ways of discharging their duty, and were not a little 
domineering. Many incidents might be given, being mere tradi- 
tions, but all probably having some foundation of truth. It is 
said of one man, that, having " bin chose to wake ye sleepers in 
meeting, and being much proud of his place, must need have a 
fox taile fixed to ye end of a long staff wherewith he may brush 
the faces of them y* will have naps in time of discourse -, like- 
wise a sharp thorn wherewith he may prick such as be moste 
sounde. On ye last Lord his day, as he strutted about ye meet- 
ing house, he did spy a farmer sleeping with much comforte, his 
head kept steady by being in ye corner, and his hand grasping 
the rail. And soe spying, he did quicklie thrust his staff along 
the rail and give him a grievous prick upon ye hand. Where- 
upon the farmer did spring upp much above ye floor, and with a 
terrible force sti-ike his hand against ye wall, and also to ye 
great wonder of all, prophainlie exclaim, in a loud voice, ' Cuss 
the woodchuck ! ' he dreaming, as it seemed, y,t the woodchuck 
had bit him." It is greatly to be feared that a good many peo- 
ple nowadays dream of woodchucks or something else at church ; 
but, alas ! now we have no man who has " bin chose to wake ye 
sleepers " ! 

Some aged person may remember a tithing-man's speaking to 
Henry Hill in meeting. Said Hill was young, unmarried, pop- 
ular among the young people, and running over with fun. It 
can readily be supposed that his face might have an occasional 


mischievous look at church. At one time the tithing-man, near 
the end of the sermon, perceiving rather too many smiles on 
said face, rose up suddenly and screamed at the . top of his 
voice : " Young man, seriousness always becometh the house of 
God ! " Many who couldn't remember the text, used to quote 
this pious remark to Mr. Hill in after years ! They enjoyed 
refreshing his memory ! 

At the present day, ministers have to be their own tithing- 
men ; but perhaps it is only fair that those who put people to 
sleep should wake them, or those whose dullness admits of 
diversions should be responsible for the decorum of the place ! 

Among our Scotch ancestry the drinking of liquor was univer- 
sal. The minister was '■ treated " with the best liquor at every 
place, and sometimes arrived home at " early candle-lighting " 
in a state of doubt as to what house he lived in. Women took 
their drink with the rest. It was looked upon as a rightful and 
pleasant custom. Old people now remember when it was the 
fashion for all to drink. Sometimes the good cheer was, how- 
ever, carried to excess, resulting in fighting and noise such as 
would not be tolerated now. I found the following item in an 
old warrant for a town meeting in Londonderry when the first 
settlers of Antrim were among the children of that town : " To 
see what method they will take to suppress the many disorders 
that happen about tavern and tippling-houses in this town." 
For more than fifty years after our incorporation, it was com- 
mon when a caller entered to bring on the drink. A boy called 
with a notice to Dr. Whiton, but in his absence Mrs. Whiton 
brought out the brandy and sugar, and asked him to help him- 
self, remarking, by way of apology, that it was the " only kind 
she had in the house " ! 

It was customary, as aged ones remember, for the children to 
save up the ashes at school, to buy rum with, to pass round 
at the close of the term. As they had enormous fires, this 
would give a plentiful supply ! Sometimes the jollification was 
noisy and wide-awake. We are not told whether it was taken 
in season to mellow the examination, or to what extent the 
teacher joined in the parting glass ! What if there had been a 
superintending school committee in those days ? 

In every hard job, planting, hoeing, butchering, they calcu- 
lated to have plenty of rum. If a meeting-house was to be 
raised, or bridge built, they voted the proper supply of rum. 


The first house built in Antrim without rum for the raising and 
rum for the help, was that built by Jonathan Carr, now occupied 
by Luther Campbell. This was in 1845. The first barn raised 
without rum was that of Lemuel Curtice, near Windsor line, in 
1830, now the barn of George G. Hutchinson, having been 
moved in 1866. Putting up these buildings without rum, caused 
a great deal of talk and opposition ; and the work was delayed 
because it was hard to get help without rum, and of course the 
expenses were increased. But Curtice and Carr were plucky, — 
and the buildings went up all right ! 

It was considered a great calamity to get out of liquor. I 
remember hearing an old man say that a " gallon of rum would 
go as far in his family as a bushel of corn." Circumstances in 
this case indicated that it " went " briskly but not '■'■far " .' About 
1813, Dr. Adams was called to visit a family, when the good 
woman. of the house attempted to show him their deplorable 
condition, as follows : " Doctor, we're sick, and we're out of 
wood, and we're out of meat, and we're out of meal, — and 
we've but plaguy little rum ! " Yet, notwithstanding all this, 
the number of real drunkards and sots was small. They used 
to get too much, and then sleep it off, — and be all well the next 
day. But no liquor can be obtained nowadays which will not 
kill in a few years. Li judging the drinking habits of our an- 
cestors, we must remember that the day of the temperance reform 
had not dawned, and that then public opinion put no more 
restraint about drinking than about eating or sleeping ! The 
most pious and devoted saw nothing wrong in the social glass. 
It is said that two men who were among the dignities of the 
town, went into Woodbury's one afternoon and made about the 
same inquiry concerning each other. James went in first and 
said : " Mark, did ye see cousin Johnny at the Mooster yester- 
day,? " " No ; what was the matter ? " asked Mark. " Why," 
said James, " he was so droonk I was actooally ashamed of him ! " 
Soon after the departure of the tried and wounded James, John 
also came in, and hardly was he comfortably seated when he 
said : " Mark, did ye nootice cousin Jamie at the Mooster yester- 
day ? " " No," said Mark, " what was the matter ? " " Oh ! " 
replied John, " he was so droonk I was actooally ashamed of 
him ! " 

At one time, after the temperance question began to assume 
some importance, most or all of the male members of the church 


mutually agreed not to use any liquor for a certain length of 
time, except in haying and washing sheep. But one who lived 
near the Branch river, it was said, kept an old ram tied near the 
stream most of the season to wasli every day ! 

In those days the young people began small in their plans for 
life. It was no unusual thing for a young couple to be married 
without a dollar in the world. Jonathan would buy his land at 
ten to thirty cents per acre, on trust ; go into the woods and put 
up a log cabin ; and at once move the young wife there ! Of 
course the furniture would be the scantiest possible ! Some 
cases are known where the whole household outfit consisted of a 
few quilts, a fry-kettle, and all ax ! Wooden bowls and plates 
were made subsequently, in spare time. Within eighty years 
since, one man says he was " so poor when he got married that 
he had to get trusted for a quarter of a pound of Bohea tea to 
stock his new log house with." This was the way the majority 
began life. But they were honest, healthy, and persevering, and, 
in the course of years, worked themselves into comfortable homes 
and good circumstances. It should be remembered, however, 
that some were better off in this world's goods, and sometimes 
the bride had a conspicuous " setting out." That there was 
about the same amount of pride floating about our human nature 
then, is shown by the fact that one woman said : •' If we must 
have a log house, let us make it a few logs the highest in town ! " 
When William Smith came to town he framed a house ; but 
Aiken's children were proud of their log house because it was 
larger and the logs were white ! 

Nor should we think they lacked happiness, with their scanty 
beginnings. There was a certain romance in their inconven- 
iences and hardships together ! They were healthy, trustful, 
patient, and full of hope. They lived to build good houses, and 
have abundances of evei-ything ; but it may be doubted whether 
the last days were better than the first. Dea. Jonathan Nes- 
mith,in old age, used to say that he never was so happy as when 
he lived in the log cabin ! 

The customs at the burial of the dead were peculiar. In case 
of death, all work in the vicinity was immediately stopped. In 
our mother town of Londonderry, the neighbors and friends 
watched all night long with the body until it was buried. They 
read the Bible, and prayed, and warned each other at such 
times, and then passed round the liquor freely. Occasions have 


been known where the ceremonies'about the dead grew some- 
what joyous before the morn ! But it was not an " Irish wake," 
and should never be so named. There never was anything like 
a "wake" in Antrim, but the dead/ were carefully "watched 
with," till interment. I have known instances, in my own day, 
where nothing would induce the friends to omit this watching. 

Everybody, far and near, went to funerals. As soon as they 
were ready for service, liquor was passed round to minister, 
mourners, and every guest. Then they had prayer, and some- 
times singing. Then the minister " talked to the mourners," 
sometimes minutely spoke of the dead, and always faithfully 
warned the living by name. It is said that in some of the older 
Scotch towns, there was no funeral sermon till a later date ; but 
there certainly was in Antrim. After the service, in which each 
relative separately was " spoken to " and " prayed for," then 
they passed round the liquor again before lifting the body. 
Then, closing the uncomely cofBn,they formed a long procession, 
always on foot, and marched to the grave. A close procession 
half a mile long was quite common. Then in the same order 
they all marched back to the house, and the third time liquor 
was passed to every one. Then all that could remain were 
sumptuously fed, which ended the funeral ceremony. 

At their marriages, also, they had great gatherings, and used 
" spirit " over and over. All the kindred and all the neighbors 
must be invited in good season. A short notice was an insult. 
The wedding-day was introduced by firing guns at dawn, a cus- 
tom perpetuated by the pride of the Scotch, who, long befoi'e in 
Ireland, had retained their arms, while the Irish were deprived 
of theirs. This also accounts for the fact that the ancestors of 
all the Scotch-Irish towns were married with swords by their 
sides. On the wedding morning, the bridegroom, with his rela- 
tives and friends, set out on horseback for the house of the 
bride, each one being armed with a pistol. At a proper time, a 
party of the bride's friends, armed and equipped the same way, 
set out to meet the others. When they met they saluted each 
other, and then deliberately chose one man out of each party 
"to run for the bottle " to the house of the bride. They then 
freely mingled together, but waited in respectable order for his 
return. These races on horseback " for the bottle " were 
sharply but pleasantly contested. The two returned together, 
but the victor " carried the bottle " ; the waiting company 


formed like a cavalry regiment before him ; he gave a toast ; 
drank the bridegroom's health ; and then " passed the bottle " 
to every one. This done, they fired a salute, and proceeded on 
the way to the bride's residence, one or another firing pistols 
almost incessantly. The people of the houses they passed by 
came 'out to their doors and saluted the bridal party with the 
firing of muskets. If there were any enemies living on the 
road, they would fire squibs by way of reproach, as the company 
passed by. Dr. Whiton tells us that at least one bridal party in 
Antrim was saluted with squibs, though he gives no names. 
When all was ready for the ceremony, the bridegroom was con- 
ducted into the room where the company were assenibled, intro- 
duced formally, and put into the proper position before the min- 
ister. Then the bride was led in and placed at the bridegroom's 
right hand. The groomsman and bridesmaid took their posi- 
tions immediately behind the pair to be married. The service 
was very solemn and somewhat lengthy, always commenced with 
prayer, and embraced the ceremony of "joining hands." Nor 
could they be gloved hands. Hence, to increase the precious 
formality of the occasion, the- minister, asking them to "join 
hands," waited ; and they, partly turning, each reached back the 
right hand to the attendant behind, to remove the glove. This 
was very elaborately done. Of course "the two gloves must 
come off so as to free both at the same time. It was a matter 
of very nice importance. Then the hands were "joined," some 
very wise remarks and comments were made by the clergyman 
in his " address," and assent was given to a solemn marriage 
covenant. The whole was closed by a second prayer, after 
which the minister requested the husband to kiss his newly- 
made wife, which authoritative order was gracefully complied 
with. Then the minister proceeded to do the same thing. 
After him, the gentlemen in the company kissed the bride, and 
the ladies the bridegroom. Then they sat down to dinner, with 
abundances to eat and drink, and lingered long at the board. 
The whole was closed with a jolly, rollicking " good time," fin- 
ishing up the day and evening. Often the great old kitchen 
was cleared for the dance. Ceremony was over, rules were dis- 
pensed with, and the laughing guests, young and old, had their 
own way, and carried their jokes and pleasantries sometimes to 
extremes. The lapse of years has changed these methods very 
much. Perhaps, however, we have lost by making less and less 


of this ceremony. It is too easy to get married now. Tlie old- 
fashioned wedding was a grand affair. 

There were, however, exceptions to this rule of ceremonies, 
and these exceptions gradually increased after the commence- 
ment of the present century. Especially in the neighboring 
towns, and sometimes here, couples went quietly to the minister 
and were married, after which they both mounted upon one 
horse and rode to their proposed home. In such cases they 
were generally honored by the firing of muskets at every house 
they passed. I am not able to fix the date when this firing at 
weddings ceased. 

The amusements of our fathers were of a kind to correspond 
with their rough and athletic training, and consisted of wrest- 
ling-matches, chopping-bees, piling-bees, log-rollings, huskings, 
raifcings, trainings, and musters. They had neither money nor 
taste for convivial entertainments, and were no creatures of 
appetite or indulgence, but into the rougher sports they entered, 
young and old. with hearty zest. The chopping-bee was quite 
an affair. It was' not to chop a wood-pile, but to fell the trees 
on a certain tract of 'land. Of course it was a noisy and danger- 
ous pleasure. Imagine twenty to one hundred men at work 
under a leader on one piece, all felling the old trees ! Crash 
followed crash all day long. The giants of the forest went down 
with a continual cracking and crashing, amid the shouts and 
cheers of strong men. With their powers of endurance, under 
the cheer of each other's company, and with a little rum, they 
accomplished enormous work, and called it pleasure. 

Occasionally, also, just for a little innocent pleasure, they met 
for a piling-bee; that is, to pile, for burning, the immense 
quantities of charred, black logs left by the fire. This was the 
hardest, dirtiest kind of work, but they went into it with a ring- 
ing, cheering pleasure that would astonish people now. Heavy 
logs were thrown over the rocks like toys. Stacks of wood like 
small barns dotted the ground at sunset, when they " treated " 
and went home. The labor thus put into a single day seems 

The ladies had some corresponding entertainments. We have 
no record of their meeting to fold their hands, or make tatting. 
But carding-bees, apple-parings, quiltings, and spinnings were 
among their leading pleasures when together. It was common 
for the good mother to take her baby under one arm and her 


flax-wheel under the other, and walk a mile to a neighbor's. 
When there, all would set their little wheels buzzing, and chat 
together with voices that could be heard above the noise of 
twenty machines ! And such spinning ! It was perfect and 
much. And then, at sunset, each would take baby and wheel, 
walk home, get supper for a large family, "and wasn't much 
tired after all ! " 

Occasionally the men entered into some sports not reported in 
literary or religious documents. Cases in point were the hust- 
ling-off of Randall Alexander, and the taking-down of the old 
Jonas Parker house. On one occasion, a man who called on 
Robert McCauley's wife oftener than the highest propriety 
required, was met at McCauley's by a company of men who 
" rode him on a rail " to Dea. Isaac Cochran's, — more than two 
miles. It may be said they shook the rail some. Some of the 
best men in town took part in these summary but righteous 
deeds. After these things were over it was not known who had 
done them, but it was generally said to be Mr. Whiton ! And 
Mr. Whiton was on hand enough to like the joke ! 

It was customary to have no adornments except those of per- 
sonal beauty, neatness, and virtue, about the house. Even as 
late as fifty years ago, the walls were as bare of pictures as our 
barns are now. A few were able to have certain figures painted 
on the plastering, relics of which, in some old houses, may yet be 
seen. Hardly a dwelling can now be found in Antrim without 
its chromo, or engraving of some kind, and neat little ornaments, 
— attractive, even if cheap. But there was nearly ' nothing of 
the kind in our ancestors' humble abodes. Now pianos are 
common, and an organ may be found in almost every house. 
No such pleasure had they. The first piano in Antrim was pur- 
chased in 1842 by Judge Luke Woodbury. The mothers had 
no parlor tables, covered with choice books, and most of them 
had no parlors at all. If there was any " best room," it was 
without carpet, or paint, or picture ! 

As a specimen of the old habits, I have been told of a dinner 
at the house of James Hopkins, about ninety years ago. Hon. 
Samuel DinsmorCj afterwards governor, Hon. Silas Dinsmore, 
Sen., and other relatives and guests were present. After the 
usual greeting, five or six of the male guests were seated at the 
table ; the young ladies stood up round the large room, and, 
when they wanted anything, they reached over the guests who 



were seated, took the meat in their fingers and stepped back to 
eat it ! And it was all considered very popular and fine ! 
Indeed, in some families, it was the daily habit for the children 
to stand back from the table and take in their fingers what was 
allowed them. At other times, the pudding and milk,- or broth, 
was put in a great wooden pan on the top of a barrel or table, 
and all stood around with wooden spoons and ate out of the 
same dish at once ! 

Their food was of a cheaper, healthier type than ours. I have 
heard the Antrimites mention a dish called " sowens," which I 
had not previously heard of. It was made of oat-meal, sifted, 
and left in water to sour, and then boiled down to a jelly. This 
was a favorite dish. It could be seasoned to suit, but was com- 
monly eaten in milk. When Mr. Whiton came to town it w^s a 
new thing to him, and he declined to try it. At length Mrs. 
Hopkins came along to him one day with a bowl of it in "her 
hands, and, lifting a spoonful, she prevailed on him to " take one 
bite." But being exceedingly smooth and slippery stuff, it dis- 
appeared instantly, and Mr. Whiton looked up surprised and 
puzzled ; yet, with his usual quiet dignity, he said, " I declare, 
madam, it is gone ! " This saying pointed many a joke for a 
time, but it cured Mr. Whiton of his dislike, and he lived to say 
of many a dish of " sowens," " Madam, it is gone ! " 

I have heard it said that their cheap, humble food was very 
relishable, and that, with their hard work and vigorous appetites, 
they enjoyed it keenly. The good mothers knew how to make 
the most of everything. With little to do with, they would pre- 
pare a really inviting meal. And isn't this the highest skill of 
housewifery ? The bannock, baked by the open fire, has hardly 
been improved upon in modern cookery ; the " short-cake " has 
no modern equal ; and it may be believed, without hesitation, 
that no bride of to-day can cook meats equal to her great-grand- 
mother a hundred years ago ! 

Until within about fifty years, the people manufactured their 
own clothing, and a great deal of cloth has been made in Antrim 
since such a date, — all by hand. There was a wheel and a loom 
in every house. The ladies were accustomed to spin by fire- 
light far into the night. The daughters were good spinners at 
ten years of age ; and many, at twelve, could spin a " hank a 
day." They wove all sorts of flannels and linens then in vogue. 
The women and girls made their various cloths, and walked 


through the woods to New Boston to sell them, and back the 
same day. These home manufactures of this and other Scotch 
towns attained quite a reputation. In some cases the selectmen 
inspected the articles, and put the seal of the town on them, if 
good. Some specimens of their work I have seen are very deli- 
cate and beautiful. 

The weaving was mostly done by women, at odd jobs, but 
sometimes a few men followed it all the time. I find Daniel 
Mcllvaine, great-great-grandfather of Moody B. Mcllvaine, Esq., 
charging my great-great-grandfather, Capt. John Cochrane, in 
Windham, with the weaving of " 27 yds of Toa Cloth." John 
McClary came to this town as a professed weaver. It was con- 
sidered an honorable and favored calling. 

For many years, almost every article worn by man or woman, 
young or old, in this town, was spun, woven, colored, and made 
here. Every woman knew how to do every part. Men had 
their whole suits of " striped cloth," and these were worn to 
church and everywhere else. In later days, they took the plain 
white woolen cloth to the " fulling-mill " and had it " dressed " 
for " nice suits," either blue or black, or what the old folks 
called " blue-black." Blankets and table-cloths were always 
made at home, and were taken as tests of the woman's skill. 
The maiden manufactured her own " outfit," as it was called ; 
and her " intended," as they named the happy creature, had 
ample chance to judge of her work beforehand. Every woman 
in this town had her " patch of growing flax," which she culti- 
vated herself. Prom this they made strong and beautiful linens, 
of many styles, valuable specimens of which may yet be seen. I 
will not dwell on the process of preparing flax, pulling, breaking, 
swingling, carding, spinning, and weaving, as almost every town 
history has elaborately explained it before me. 

The women and girls were accustomed to work with the men 
in the field all day long, if occasion required. They not only 
raised their own flax, but they took care of the barn, milked, 
split wood at the door, raked hay, and reaped the grain. They 
would lend a hand at any job in the smartest possible way, and 
it was considered proper and honorable. Dea. Aiken's three 
daughters reaped all day with him and his hired men, on Meet- 
ing-House Hill. Generally, the " girls " were the smartest 

I will now grace this reference to old customs by a quotation 


from Dr. Whiten, whose habit it is to put things better than 
anybody else : — 

Their dwellings were log houses, without glass, ill fitted to exclude 
the cold. Had it not been for the roaring fires kept up in winter in the 
huge fireplaces, fed continually by great logs, which they were glad to 
get rid of, the inmates must have suffered. Wood and timber were so 
abundant that the faster they could consume them the better. Their 
farming utensils were clumsy ; Iheir clothing homespun and coarse, but 
durable ; the men wore tow shirts, striped woolen frocks, and leather 
aprons. The best suit of coarse woolen cloth was reserved for Sabbaths 
and special occasions, and lasted year after year. In winter they wore 
shoes, excluding snow by a pair of woolen leggins fastened over the 
mouth of the shoe by strings. Boots were rare; great-coats and sur- 
touts rarer still. A pair of boots would last a man many years. In 
summer, neither men nor women wore shoes at home ; on the Sabbath, 
the women often carried their shoes in their hand, to save wear, till they 
came near the meeting-house, when they put them on. They were clad, 
when engaged in their work, which was nearly all the time on week- 
days, in a short gown and petticoat of some coarse material, with a 
striped apron, calicoes being thought quite a dressj' article. The house- 
hold furniture was rude and coarse ; carpets, sofas, piUnos, were unheard 
of ; instead of them was the spinning-wheel, both small and great, and 
the loom, — articles of less ornament, certainly more indispensable. Tea 
and coffee were almost unknown ; broths of various kinds, corn, bean, 
barley broth, were in constant use. In many families, hasty -pudding 
with milk, if milk could be had, was almost the standing supper. For a 
lunch in the intermission of public worship on the Sabbath, instances 
were not wanting of men carrying in their pocket a few cold boiled pota- 
toes, and nothing else. Sometimes in winter, families were conveyed to 
meeting through deep snow on an ox-sled ; in summer, the man, if he 
were the owner of a horse, rode to meeting with his wife seated on a 
pillion behind him, and a child seated on a pillow before him; and some- 
times another and smaller child in the mother's lap, encircled by one 
of her arms. A party of the smart young people once assembled at a 
neighbor's, in early limes, for a social interview. The supper, — what 
was it ¥ Not a modern supper of roast turkey and oysters, but hasty- 
pudding and milh^ I There being but three spoons, one division of three 
guests sat down to table, then another division, and another, till all had 
been served. All went off well, and it was considered a fashionable, 
well-managed affair. 




A VOLUME might be written concerning the hardships and 
difficulties whicli the settlers of Antrim met. I will barely 
notice a few items, as they have appeared to me. I have else- 
where referred to the obstacles in the way of communication. 
Few of the early settlers were able to have horses. Of carriages, 
there were absolutely none. Roads were few and poor, — often 
nothing but paths in the woods. Some families lived for years 
with not even a path out, a few marked trees being the only 
guide. John Campbell, on the James Wood place, had nothing 
but marked trees for two miles. Most that was brought or car- 
ried away, had to be borne on the settler's back. His bushel of 
corn was carried to mill on his own shoulder. Aiken carried a 
bushel of corn nine miles to mill and brought it back the same 
day. It was considered a great thing when roads wSre cleared 
and horses could be secured and the animal be led with these 
loads on his back ! Now we must have easy carriages and fast 
horses and smooth roads. Men now threaten to sue the town, 
if there be a rock in the road unsafe to drive rapidly over. 
With our present facilities, it is hardly possible to get an idea of 
the difficulties of communication then. 

The houses were inconvenient and uncomfortable. Some fam- 
ilies had but one room, and a " loft " overhead, to which they 
ascended by a ladder. Many could not afford, or could not get, 
glass for windows. ■ A few openings in the wall gave them hght, 
which openings were closed in intense cold weather by a board, 
or a bundle of rags ; and then their only light was a blazing, 
open fire ; generally, however, amply sufficient. The first chim- 
neys were roughly made of stone. Many early cabins were built 
each against a great rock, which answered in part for a chimney. 
In such rude, small dwellings, they struggled along, raised their 
families, put up with discomforts, and were cheerful in the hope 
of better things. 

For many of the earlier years the houses had no cellars, — 
only a hole in the ground, to which they descended by trap-door 
and ladder, and only about large enough for a man to turn 
round in at that. 


A well-ordered modern kitchen, with grained floor, extension- 
table, screen-windows, fine drawers, polished range, and cane- 
seat chairs, etc., etc., would have frightened our grandmothers ! 
An oil-stove would probably have been attributed to the devil ! 
What would they have thought of a sewing-machine, a clothes- 
wringer, or a " lightning apple-parer " ! 

Generally, the good old mothers had to carry every pail of 
water from five to fifty rods ! Often they washed at the nearest 
brook, and hung their clothes on poles. Wells were dug as 
soon as they became able to have such luxuries ! Then, women 
stooped down and drew up the pail of water with a pole. The 
" well-curb " and the " well-sweep" were later inventions. Still 
later the pump was introduced. It is but a few years since the> 
first water-pipe was laid in this vicinity. Happy the log cabin 
that was located near a spring of water ! 

They had no friction matches to start a fire, these being intro- 
duced here, in very small quantities, about 1833. Many fami- 
lies had a " tinder-box," which was a very inconvenient and 
uncertain thing. Sometimes a fire was started by flashing pow- 
der in the pan of an old-fashioned gun. But it was a rule in 
every house never to let the fire go out ; and seldom, summer or 
winter, did the big pile of coals fail. If, by absence, the fire 
went out, it was customary to send to a neighbor's for a pailful 
of coals. " Borrowing fire " was considered perfectly proper. 
Sometimes, if the distance were great, they rolled up a bundle 
of old cloth and set it on fire, as being lighter to carry. The 
first school-house in South Village was burned by dropping coals 
by a boy who had been after fire. Lamps they had not. Can- 
dles were lighted by a coal, or a splinter. Their chief light was 
the open fire. The writer learned many a lesson in boyhood by 
firelight ; and when the light began to grow dim, he would take 
the " big shovel " and an extra " punch." 

Cooking was performed by the open fire. It was years before 
there was a brick oven in Antrim. A tin oven, to set down 
before a bed of coals, was considered a great invention, and came 
a little later than the brick oven.' A " crane " swung over the 
open fire, on which were six or seven hooks of different lengths, 
so that the pot could be raised or lowered. Sometimes it was 
needful to put the " pot on the crane." I have seen four pots 
hanging over the same fire at once. Then there would be a 
"spider" and coffee-pot on the coals, and a "johnny-cake" 


baking in front, all at once. The cook's face was red with the 
heat of the roaring fire. Then she would " turn the johnny- 
cake," — a process requiring great skill. To drop it, or break 
it, or pile it up in a heap, was very humiliating to a young cook. 
I have seen the " lassie " " turn the cake " quick as a flash and 
in perfect order. As late as forty years ago, stoves were very 
rare. There was a great prejudice against them when they 
came round. The great brick oven was a convenience in its 
day. It was heated once a week, and " baked full " of pies, 
beans, etc. There, in later days, the turkey was roasted. But 
the first generation clung to the old way of cooking over the fire 
alone. The goose, or turkey, or spare-rib was splendidly cooked 
by being hung up before the open fire. Some of the old people 
thought food tasted best in the old way. Some " doughnuts 
fried over the fire " had a marvelous goodness about them, if my 
boyhood's idea be correct. The dresses of the women often 
caught on fire, but, being always woolen, no damage was done. 
What would a housewife think now, if obliged to cook in the old 

The poverty of the beginners in Antrim I have already 
noticed. They had no newspapers. The Bible was the only 
book in most houses. The almanac could be found in most, 
after the commencement of the present century. The little 
paper-covered catechism was in every family. A few had spell- 
ing-books. There was no mail to Antrim for more than sixty 
years after its settlement; Amherst, for most of that time, being 
the nearest office, — more than twenty miles away. Snows were 
deeper and winters harder than now, on account of which many 
hardships had to be borne. Often, bodies had to be carried to 
the grave on sleds, with a long team of oxen wading through 
the snow, and a few mourners laboriously following on foot. 
Instances are given where it was impossible to fill the graves 
with earth till spring. A few handfuls of gravel' were thrown on 
the coffin, and the piling, whirling snow did the rest ! 

There was also what was called the " pine-tree " law, which 
greatly troubled the people of New Hampshire, and to some 
extent the people of Antrim. The king " reserved " all pine- , 
trees over twelve inches in diameter, and chose Gov. Went- 
worth " Surveyor of the King's Woods," his duty being, by 
deputy or in person,- to mark all the trees "fit for the royal 
navy." This law was exceedingly hateful in the eyes of the 


people. A man by the name of Mudgett cut one of these 
" marked trees " in Weare. A great cry was made, and Mud- 
gett was arrested. As it was late in the afternoon, he suggested 
to the sheriff to stay over night. The latter complied. But in 
the night the matter was whispered about, and, before daylight, 
the sheriff's horse was trimmed clean of mane and tail, and at 
dawn a mob put the obliging officer on said horse's back, facing 
the rear of said animal, and led him out of town amid shouts of 
laughter, and without his prisoner ! " Moral. — Kings should let 
other people's pine-trees alone, and sheriffs should not put up 
with their -prisoners over night ! 

This was in 1772, but this hated law had then been in force 
half a century. Antrim was not specially a pine town, and was 
settled somewhat late, and was at a distance from any king's offi- 
cer, but yet was subject to this annoyance with the rest. There 
is reason to believe that some who claimed to be residents of 
Antrim had part in this affair. 

Our fathers in Antrim also suffered the inconveniences and 
hardships of scanty living. Flour was scarce and rare. To be 
without meat and to be without meal, was common. I have 
heard old people say that even potatoes were carefully kept as a 
luxury for company. This will explain what Mr. Whiton said 
about a man's carrying nothing but a cold boiled potato for a 
lunch in the long day at chur^ch. When at work in the woods, 
it was sometimes the case that a man took a piece of frozen 
bean-porridge for dinner ! For children to go to bed without 
their supper occasionally, was not looked upon as disgraceful, or 
alarming. They used to get along with anything that would 
support life. Often a hard-shell pumpkin was baked for the 
meal of a large family. When I was a boy I heard the old peo- 
ple tell of cutting a hole in the top of the pumpkin big enough 
to let the hand in, taking the seeds and loose parts out clean, 
putting in a small bit of meat, and then, replacing the piece cut 
out, baking the whole in the old oven. Then the whole family, 
and sometimes guests, would gather round and eat everything 
but the shell. The shell was often preserved as a receptacle for 
balls of thread, or as a " rag-bag." 

Pumpkin and milk was counted qiiite a luxury. The. pump- 
kin was prepared the same way as above ; but instead of meat, 
they filled it nearly full of new milk, and baked with the greatest 
heat they could get. In earliest times they all stood round and 
ate with wooden spoons immediately from the shell. 


As showing the scantiness of what people commonly live on 
now, it may be said that there was no such thing as buying a 
barrel of flour in Antrim prior to 1820, or about that time ; and 
for a long time subsequent to that date it was not the chief item 
of food. Oat-meal and corn-meal and rye-meal were common. 
Sometimes potatoes were roasted in a bed of coals, and eaten 
with a little salt; and this made a very acceptable meal. I 
thought it delightful when a boy if I could have this, — especially 
when permitted to add a little butter. I have supposed that this 
was the origin of the phrase spoken of shiftless, aimless fellows, 
fifty years ago, that they " wouldn't earn their salt." 

The first wagon having been brought to Antrim by Dea. Isaac 
Cochran in 1815, it is astonishing how they carried on horseback 
the heaviest and most inconvenient things. The saddle-bags on 
a steady horse would carry small wares with comparative safety. 
But think of carrying empty cider-barrels, glass windows, black- 
smith's iron rods, linen-wheels, and feather-beds, on horseback ! 
Two-wheeled vehicles were in use long before wagons. The first 
cart brought to Antrim was that on which John Duncan brought 
some household gear in 1773 ; but for many years after that date 
very fe.w could afford the convenience of a cart. The chaise, a 
rude, heavy affair, square as a box at the top, and having long, 
clumsy thills, was used in New Hampshire as early as 1802. A 
few yeafs later these found their way into Antrim, the first being 
brought here by Isaac Baldwin about 1812. 

The ox-wagon was in use years before anybody thought of a 
light riding-wagon. This was very heavy and bungling, and 
hard to turn round. When first talked of, the wonder was how 
a carriage 'with more than two wheels could turn round! But 
that problem being solved the lighter horse-wagons soon followed. 
Probably, however, there was. no such thing in New Hampshire 
prior to 1809. A phaeton would then have been considered a 
thing of the air, and not of the earth. 

The convenience of an umbrella was not known in Antrim till 
about 1807. The umbrella (little shade) was first used in eastern 
countries, and as a protection from the sun. Old paintings of 
the Greeks and Romans show they were in use by the ladies in 
those nations. Slaves carried them over the heads of Greek 
women. Roman lovers carried them over the heads of their 
fond ones. Umbrellas were introduced into England from 
Prance about 1790, for general use, a few having been previously 


used by the rich. Some were brought over to America probably 
as early as 1795. Price was from five to six dollars, — too high 
to be afforded in log cabins. 

In the old days there were great inconvenience and trouble in 
keeping time. People set their houses " square with the sun," 
and determined the time by the shadow of the sun. Some had sun- 
dials, — which were commonly a kind of large pewter plate with 
hours marked on the circumference, and an erect stick in the cen- 
ter, by the shadow of which time was determined. This plate was 
usually placed on a pedestal, and the movement of the shadow 
was shown by the hour marks. Of course, on cloudy days, and 
in the night, it would be of no service. Formerly an invention 
called the clepsydra took the dial's place by night, it being a 
round, long cylinder, set erect, and filled with water, which 
would empty itself out in a certain number of hours by a very 
small orifice in the bottom. The hours were marked on the side 
of the cylinder, beginning at the top, and the time was thus 
shown by the distance the surface fell. When the cylinder was 
of glass, it was easy to see the hour, and the machine was toler- 
ably accurate ; but it involved a great deal of work to fill and 
set it, and it never was in general use. 

Clocks were first used in Europe about 1120 ; were introduced 
into England about 1288 ; were costly and few for several centu- 
ries ; and were never brought to this country in any great num- 
bers. Brass clocks were manufactured in New England as early 
as 1720, and in New Hampshire as early as 1730. Probably 
there was no clock in Antrim before 1793 ; and even after Bal- 
lard made them here in 1795, but very few could have them, the 
expense being so great. They were all of the large, tall kind, 
such as used to stand in the corner of the room, and the cost 
was from forty to one hundred dollars. The cheap clock is an 
American invention, and quite modern. What would our fathers 
and mothers have thought of a really good time-keeper, with 
alarm, and neat ornamentation, for two dollars and a half? 
About 1826, wooden clocks of the old-fashioned shape were sold 
for fifteen or twenty dollars, without cases, and were set up in 
the corner, the long pendulum sweeping to the floor, the work 
all exposed, yet keeping time well, through dust and dirt, for a 
generation. The scarcity of clocks gave rise to the old-fashioned 
way of giving out an evening meeting " to commence at early 


Our fathers suffered what would be counted ' an intolerable 
inconvenience by people now, in not being able to find many- 
things within reach, even for money. Pew things were kept in 
the stores. Rarely could a tool of any kind be found for sale. 
No boots or shoes of any kind were kept for sale till recent 
dates. Shoemakers went from house to house with a " kit of 
tools,"' and made shoes for the older persons. Small children 
had none at all. Baby-shoes were unknown. Shoes for women 
and girls were made of cowhide, with thick soles, projecting, I 
have heard old people say, so that a " mouse could run round on 
the rim." Women that were able sometimes had " calf-skin 

If a man wanted a plow, he must get a carpenter to make the 
wood-work, and a blacksmith to put on the iron. Of course, 
some of these were very uncouth, unhandy things. The handles 
were bungling, and low, and long. A heavy beam about seven 
feet long, a wooden frame, and a " wooden mold-board," com- 
pleted the " wood-work." Then the blacksmith made the 
"point" and the "share" and the "wing," these together going 
by the name of the " plow-irons." When these became dull, 
they were taken to the blacksmith to be " sharpened." I have 
carried these rude', clumsy irons to be sharpened many a time. 
Over the wooden mold-board they used to nail bits of sheet-iron, 
or tin, to keep it from wearing out. 

So, also, if any one wanted clothing of any- kind, it must be 
home-made. There was no such thing as a " furnishing store" ; 
and " ready-made clothing" had not entered a merchant's dream. 
It required considerable time to get up a suit of clothes. Tailors 
went from house to house, and did up the cutting and sewing of 
the family, once in about two years ; that is, such cutting and 
sewing as the common housewife could not do. Female apparel 
was chiefly made by the wearers. The first " dress-maker ',' in 
Antrim began business at comparatively a modern date. Now, 
any person' can go to the store and fit out, from the top of the 
head to the sole of the foot, in fifteen minutes, to the latest 
fashion ! 

Every artisan had a certain hardship and inconvenience in his 
work then. The weaver, the fuller, the tanner, — each had the 
clumsiest machinery, and had to do a vast amount of hard work. 
" Labor-saving machinery " was hardly known. Blacksmiths 
used to do what they do now ; but also made scythes, axes, hoes, 



and nails. Every bolt was made by hand, and every nail came 
from the anvil. Blacksmiths, eighty years ago, used to go from 
farm to farm and shoe oxen where wanted. They would catch 
the ox, lead him into the barn, throw him down on some straw, 
turn him onto his back, cross his legs and tie them ; and then 
and there the shoes were put on. The " ox-swing " is of recent 
date. 1 

The hardship of travel on snow-shoes must not be unnoticed. 
It has been said that one accustomed to them could travel easily 
in this way ; but surely without reason. They were hard to 
manage, weighed several pounds each, and dragged some snow 
with them. A man could thus walk on the softest snow, but it 
was exceedingly tiresome. The writer has tried it enough to 
know. Yet, in deep, soft snow, they could go with them where 
it would be impossible to go without them at all. These shoes 
were invented by the Indians, were in common use when Amer- 
ica was discovered, and are manufactured and used and sold by 
the Indians to this day. . By means of them the savages secured 
their winter stock of meat, it being their custom to hunt the 
deer and moose when the snows were very deep. The animals, 
with small feet and great weight, would sink to the bottom at 
every step, while the hunter skimming along the surface would 
soon worry them down and easily dispatch them by hand. 

The accompanying picture is given lest the 
children of the next generation forget what a 
snow-shoe was. The outside piece of tough 
maple or ash, nearly an inch in diameter, was 
bent into tlie shape it bears in the picture, 
and the ends riveted together. Two cross- 
pieces, as appears, were put in ; a«d fi'om 
these and the rim a stout net-work of leather 
straps was fixed. Those made by the Indians 
had strips of green hide instead of leather. 
In wearing them, the toe' of the foot was 
slipped under a loop on the front cross-piece, 
so as to have the weight come there. Gen- 
erally, the foot was not tied ; and therefore it 
could be slipped out any time, and the shoes 
taken under the arm. Snow-shoes were from two to four feet in 
length, and generally about a foot wide. The more ancient ones 
had the heel-end weighted so as to trail in the snow, only the 



forward end being lifted when the man stepped. The smaller 
ones were used by women and boys. In walking with thein it 
was necessary to swing out the foot as a boy does skating ; and 
this process, though very laborious, aided in making progress, 
somewhat as with the skater. Every family was supplied with 
one or two pairs of snow-shoes. Physicians used them, travel- 
ing where no horse could go. Dr. Cleaves got his death by a 
walk of eight or ten miles on snow-shoes to see a patient. 
Women would put them on, and start out across the pathless 
snows half a mile to a sick neighbor's. Soldiers marching 
against the Indians were always provided with snow-shoes. 
Companies were sometimes detained till these shoes could be 
made. With these heavy things upon their feet, their knap- 
sacks stuffed with provisions on their backs, and gun in hand 
our fathers made campaigns of a week or ten days' duration, far 
into the trackless forests of northern New Hampshire and Maine. 
I have already referred to the trouble and hardship of our 
fathers on account of cumbrous carts and plows, or the entire 
lack of them. I have heard my grandparents say, that, in the 
absence of plow or team, they would dig up the ground by hand 
for planting ; and that, in the absence of a cart, they would carry 
manure from the barn to the field in a rude hod on tlie shoul- 
der. Many did their farming this way for years. Pitchforks 
were heavy, bungling things made of iron by ordinary black- 
smiths. Scythe-snaths were simply straight sticks, or some" nat- 
ural bend picked up in the woods. Hoes were made by black- 
smiths out of iron, were sometimes edged with steel, and had an 
" eye " at the top, into which a stout handle was inserted and 
wedged. When a boy I had an old casf^ofif hoe of this kind to 
play with, — a heavy and awkward thing which it must have 
taken much strength and patience to use. All their shoveling 
was done with wooden shovels. Probably no steel or iron 
shovel was seen in A'ntrim before 1808, and few for many years 
after that. My father used to get out timber for wooden shovels 
on his farm, as there was much timber there of the kind needed. 
These were split out of the old-growth red oak, about fourteen 
inches wide, two inches thick, and three and one-half feet long. 
Out of this piece, at one end, the shovel was " hollowed," part 
was left the whole length for a handle, and then the end of the 
blade was " shod" as they called it, — i.. e., edged with steel. 
These " shod-shovels," being shod over and over when needed, 


lasted a great many years'. The writer formerly owned a very 
fine specimen which had been handed down from the past. It 
was excellent for some work ; but how it could be used for most 
purposes I never could see. It must have taken the strength of 
a giant to make headway with it in a manure-heap, or in a bank 
of earth. James Hopkins, Esq., used to make these shovels, 
chiefly for his own use. He used also to manufacture a nar- 
rower-wooden shovel, perfectly straight, which was lighter, and 
much better for some purposes. 

I must not omit to mention the laborious manner of making 
bricks. Tliis manufacture was carried on to some extent for a 
long series of years on the Hopkins place (now Arthur Miller's), 
by James llopkins, Clark Hopkins, Lyman Dow, and others. No 
machine for grinding clay was used here before 1840. Previous 
to that, the clay was spread about a foot thick on a " bed " and 
ground by the treading of oxen. This " bed " was on a hard spot, 
or on plank, was from twelve to fifteen feet in diameter, was circu- 
lar in form, surrounded by a railing ; and into this they put four 
oxen, yoked with chains, standing close, and a small' boy on the 
outside kept them going round and round, till the clay was thor- 
oughly ground by their feet. This was a slow and we^ary job for 
both boy and team. The " core,'' or small part in the center which 
would not be trodden, had to be " turned out," and the rim outside 
the oxen's feet to be " turned in "; and then the process repeated 
to complete the bed. Then this was removed and another bed 
prepax'cd. Sometimes several wei"e going on at the same time. 
In this way excellent brick were made. Mr. Hopkins tried other 
ways, but only to return to the old plan, as turning out the best 
brick. The brick for the Center church, made on the Hopkins 
farm, were all made in this way, and were of the best, and cost 
only two dollars and a half per thousand. The wonder is, how 
they could be made in such a hard way for that sum. There 
was a time when brick houses were fashionable, and large quan- 
tities were made here for this purpose, many being carried into 
adjoining towns. The large chimneys of those days swallowed 
up many bricks. Nowadays, with wooden houses and small 
chimneys, there is small demand. But there is clay enough on 
the Miller farm to build a city. 

Other things I cannot mention here without repeating myself 
too much, or writing too much at length. But, on the whole, the 


annoyances, inconveniences, drawbacks, and hardships of our 
early settlers, were almost incredible. They had to do things at 
disadvantage, and laid out a great deal of what was called 
" main strength." The labor, downright, tough labor, was enor- 
mous. They were trained in the school of hardship and trial ; 
and they were not disheartened by any obstacles. 




It is just to say something more than may he found in the pre- 
ceding pages, concerning .the Scotch-Irish character and the 
influence of that race in this country. They were a peculiar 
people, and truly remarkable and original. They had personal 
and national traits that separated them from their English neigh- 
bors for generations ; and even to-day these marks of character 
appear, after a mingling-together of a huudi-ed and sixty years. 
The American people have become so used to the admixture of 
foreign elements as not to notice peculiarities that are not con- 
spicuous or offensive ; but the student of character can trace 
them still. When the Londonderry settlers came, they were so 
different from the English in customs and language as to arouse 
the enmity of the latter. Coming from Ireland and having a 
religion different from that prevailing in New England, they were 
supposed to be Papists, and bitter prejudices were aroused against 
them. Efforts were made to prevent their getting land ; they 
were freely spoken against ; little inroads were frequently made 
upon them ; and there was even talk of expelling them by vio- 
lence, as was actually the case with the Scotch-Irish colony that 
settled in Worcester, Mass., about 1740. It took several gener- 
ations to wipe out these prejudices entirely ; but it was soon so 
well understood that the Scotch-Irish were Protestants, and a 
worthy, brave people, that they were unmolested, and even looked 
upon with favor by many. 

They were not Irish. Not a drop of Irish blood was in them. 
Their fathers, coming from Argyle and Ayr in Scotland, had 
dwelt in the north of Ireland : but in language, habits, tastes, 
education, religion, history, capacity, manner of life, and general 
appearance, they were always distinct from the Irish ; and so 
distinct, as history shows, that a stranger traveling in Ireland 
could pick out the Scotch communities with his eye. They prided 
themselves in being unlike the Irish. To call one of them a 
" Paddy," was to make sure of being knocked down before the 
words were fairly out! A hatred of Papacy, disgust with 
Irish unthrift and ignorance, and bitter memories of Irish mur- 


ders handed down from parent to child, — all united to make 
them sensitive when the name was applied to them. So great 
was their feeling oil this point, that their minister, Rev. James 
McGregor, topk up the matter, and stoutly protested to Gov. 
Shute against being " termed Irish people." That part who 
wintered in the harbor of Portland were termed "poor Irish 
people" in a petition for provisions sent in their behalf to the 
legislature of Massachusetts, — very much to their mortification 
and disgust. Some of their manufactures were called " Irish 
linens." The petition for incorporation, 1719, was indorsed, " In 
behalf of a company of Irish at Nutfield." But these offensive 
designations wore away. 

There were several colonies of the Scotch-Irish, coming at 
different times. These settled in various parts of the country, 
and their descendants in every place have been conspicuous in 
virtues and abilities. But probably no other, out of the many 
Scotch-Irish settlements in this country, has been so noteworthy 
and influential as that of Londonderry. Probably not less than 
twenty towns have been organized almost entirely by their de- 
scendants, in New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, New York, 
Nova Scotia, and our Western States, besides their taking a 
leading place in the organization of scores of others. They have 
gone everywhere and vastly increased in numbers and influence. 
Dr. Whiton estimated the descendants of the Londonderry set- 
tlers at fifty thousand in 1852 ; others, at that time and before, 
carrying the number much higher. I think it not possible that 
the number can be now (1879) less than one hundred thousand ; 
and the proportion of influence in the country is very much 
greater still. 

Among the characteristics of this people, I place first their 
strong, manly individuality. They had opinions and convictions 
of their own, and they had a way of holding them which was 
their own. They took nothing second-hand. They were decided, 
earnest, high-spirited, independent, and set in their way, and 
not ashamed to declare just what they believed and meant to do. 
They never kept you in the dark as to their political or religious 
convictions. There was a certain bold, cordial, honest open- 
heartedness about them which was attractive, though rough some- 
times in its forms and methods. The Scotchman must choose 
for himself. He never followed a leader blindly. He couldn't 
be controlled by a priest. Against being used and managed like 



the Irish clans, as a driven flock, there stood out always the bold, 
decided, thinking man ! The individual rights must be observed. 
In a regiment of a thousand Scotchmen, there were just one 
thousand men set on thinking, knowing, and judging for them- 
selves, and about as independent a set of fellows as human 
history presents. The brave, ready, skillful, yet unm.anageable 
Gen. John Stark was a characteristic Scotchman. A recent wri- 
ter, touching upon the personal, self-asserting character of this 
stock of men, the strong force and opinion of each man wherever 
found, speaks of " that rare old Scotch-Irish stock, which has for 
the last two hundred years given us so many of those honest, 
earnest men, remarkable for their moral and physical strength, 
as well as for their correct and decided views, as portrayed in 
political and religious history, — men grave and majestic in their 
simplicity, always in advance of the times, acknowledged lead- 
ers, molding and fashioning the social and political tendencies 
of the people with whom they were associated." 

I have already spoken of their religious traits. Independent 
as you please, nevertheless they were humble ant^ devout wor- 
shipers of God. They were very tolerant toward all that was 
not a sham in others' religion, but for themselves they were stiff 
Presbyterians ; and they were such knowing just what Presby- 
terianism was. There was none of the modern sectarianism 
without an intelligent understanding of what or why. The Scotch 
settler of Antrim was ready to give any man a reason of the 
hope that was in him ; nor did he always wait to be asked either. 
The whole theology was put into the mind of the child. They 
had a knowledge of Scripture, and an acquaintance with church 
history, which would astonish Sunday-school scholars of the 
present day. They made the Bible a subject of thought and 
study at home. They were deeply acquainted with it. They 
could prove Scripture by Scripture, and quote at marvelous 
length. Their religion was of the simple, unceremonious kind, 
and their worship was reverential and solemn. And their piety, 
being founded on principle, appeared in their lives and under- 

For example, they were religiously honest. Having received 
the " benefits of government " from the officials of New Hamp- 
shire, they thought of the Indians as the original and rightful 
owners of the soil, and sent at once their minister. Rev. Mr. 
McGregor, with an associate, to procure a right under the deed 


given by the Indian chiefs. They wanted an honest claim to the 
soil. The same is illustrated in Aiken's keeping the note run- 
ning to Smith to remind himself that he owed him, and then, on 
payment, delivering up the note to the said Smith to remind him 
that it was paid ! Instances are exceedingly rare of trickery or 
over-reacliing among the Scotch-Irish for a hundred years, and, 
as a rule, ever since. They despised everything that was insin- 
cere or crooked, in business or religion. Close, economical, 
saving, still they would have dropped dishonest gold like fire. 
They abhorred the silver of Gehazi, and they did it in such a 
hearty, decided way as to have a meaning, and render roguery 
unpleasant and unsafe. When English appropriated a little ot 
the town's money in 1782, he thought it prudent to locate some- 
where else for the rest of his days. 

The generosity of these Scotch-Irish settlers was another out- 
flow from their religion. Though poor themselves, they were 
always ready to share with others. Aiken's little cabin could 
always accommodate the wanderer that knocked at the door. 
The sick and the aged were cared for by somebody. They were 
hearty givers in case of real need. At whatever personal sacri- 
fice, the Scotch-Irish were always on the liberal, noble side. 
They were also a truly hospitable people. Mr. Whiton says 
" their hospitality was unboun'ded, being freely tendered both to 
friend and stranger, and as readily accepted." It was customary 
" to have the latch-string out." Rarely was a doOr fastened. 
Some families were almost kept poor by the free entertainment 
of everybody that came along. The tramp was welcome. A 
warm fire, a mug of cider, a share of the family meal, and a pil- 
low at night, were most cordially given to any and all. I have 
been told of families that always had more or less of such guests 
the year round, and of many a tired housewife's saying she 
" guessed they would be eaten up." 

There was also a certain open-heartedness about them that 
seemed to be almost an item of religion. Management and 
diplomacy they hated. Secret enmity they could not endure. 
Plain, outspoken, square, and honest, they had but little charity 
for private scandal and abuse behind one's back. The injurer 
was always first to hear of the injury. If one felt hurt by his 
neighbor, he went right over to him, with his head up, and with 
a defiant air, and demanded an explanation in a loud voice and 
on the spot. Sometimes the parties would come to blows. But 


the matter was searched to the bottom, and cleared up and set- 
tled up, and stayed settled up. Thus they squa^red accounts as 
they went along. The tornado cleared the sky, and it was fair 
weather afterwards. Hence, they were nearly free from long- 
continued feuds and neighborhood spites. If they were noisy 
and angry, it was quick over. The roughness was outside. In 
very heart, they scorned deception. One knew where to find 
them. They spoke out what they thought. And in daily inter- 
course there was a certain noble candor about them, fairness, 
freedom from equivocation, a spirit so frank and true, as to 
make them agreeable and winsome as a people. 

Prom the same deep principle also came a certain unceremo- 
nious politeness which charactCFized our ancestors. They were 
in no sense a Frenchy, obeisant, fawning, flattering people. They 
put on no airs. They had no artificial refinements. They 
never made good clothes do the business for them. Etiquette 
might lift up her little empty head and say they were rude and 
unmannered. But in fact the principles of all true politeness 
were in them. They had kind and gentle and honest and 
manly feelings, without which the forms of politeness are but a 
mockery. They had the courtesy of goodness and love. If 
there was little that was oily and showy in their manners, there 
was nothing that was hollow and unreal. A hearty greeting, 
with them, meant just what it seemed to mean. 

The Scotch-Irisli have been called quick-tempered, and even 
hard-tempered. This is true. But it is not true that they were 
conspicuously such in comparison with either English or Irish, 
or any other race. I have never found any class of people 
greatly deficient in temper. Our Scotch fathers and mothers 
were thoroughly endowed in this respect. Their anger was 
quick and violent, but soon over. They resented an insult 
instantly, and on the spot, and in the boldest way, and with tre- 
mendous force. But they had no sullen, meditating malice. 
They were not cruel and revengeful. Their very anger was face 
to face, open, and honorable. 

Another trait of our fathers was an exalted heroism. They 
seemed to be fearless of danger. Away back in Scotland and 
Ireland they battled against fearful odds. They were trained by 
centuries of peril and trial. When every man in Antrim (save 
one who afterwards served four years) marched towards Lex- 
ington at the sound of war, they showed a certain loftiness of 


courage and self-sacrifice worthy of their sires. And when the 
women determined to remain here in the few weak, scattered 
cabins in the wilderness, in want, and among wild Ijeasts, they 
showed the same mighty spirit with the mothers that helped 
defend old Londonderry to the death ! The courage of victory 
was in every born child of them. Their feats of bravery are too 
many to l)e put in a volume like this. And I can only add here, 
that they were heroes in private life as well as against the foe. 
There was a brave, fearless, undaunted way with them. They 
pressed on with an intrepid spirit in all their work and business 
and discouragement. In sickness and sorrow they wept sore, 
but they held up their heads like men. The fields of Antrim, 
the miles of stone wall, are everywhere a witness of brave hearts 
that once throbbed here. Theirs was the courage of battle, and 
the courage of suffering, and the courage of toil. 

The Scotch accent may be mentioned here as something very 
pleasing to the ear, and not yet entirely softened away. It was 
called the "brogue." They retained many words purely Scotch, 
and their broad, strong pronunciation of the English gave a 
grace and keenness to its use. I have found a few aged peo- 
ple retaining the brogue very strongly. When Dr. Morrison 
preached before the New Hampshire legislature, that hodj had a 
resolution introduced to print so many copies of the discourse ; 
and a certain member, rising to compliment the same, moved to 
increase the number of copies, " provided they would print the 
brogue." This peculiarity of speech distinguished the Scotch 
here for generations. It was not the Irish brogue, though hav- 
ing some resemblances to it. In some Scotch-Irish families, it 
still remains, especially in parts of New Jersey and Pennsylva- 
nia. In New England it has chiefly disappeared, not, however, 
without influencing the pronunciation of many words. 

The Scotch-Irish were noted for great simplicity of life. They 
.were a proud race, high-spirited, having good opinions of them- 
selves, and enjoying office and leadership ; but they had no 
ostentation in their style of living. Tlieir pride took a different 
turn. Probably no highly intelligent and enlightened people can 
be named whose daily habits were so simple and humble. Even 
the wealthiest were not accustomed to have servants, nor to give 
up work. You could not tell the richest among them from the 
poorest among them by anything ordinarily discoverable in their 
dress or bearing. Jewels and silks were rare. No elegant fur- 


niture could be found. Every house looked humble. In every 
kitchen the furniture was about the same. The old-fashioned 
" dresser " .stood in every one, displaying the same stock of 
pewter plates and wooden spoons. No housewife was jaded out 
by getting up elaborate dishes, or scrubbing parlors and best 
chambers. Guests received most relishable food, and looked 
tipon table linen faultlessly white ; but no display, no great 
things, no rivaling of any neighbor. 

Another Scotch-Irish trait has held its own for centuries ; 
iiamely, that of being extremely set in everything. Our fathers 
wanted light on every subject, and informed themselves, and 
made up their minds ; but after that, it was commonly about as 
easy to move one of these hills of Antrim as to stir one of these 
old yeomen out of his opinion. They meant to be right and 
they meant to stick to it. They had ways of their own. They 
loved opinions. They had a mortal hatred of giving-up. They 
came to their convictions logically and fairly, and then their ivill 
was always a part of their conviction. And this " setness " en- 
tered into their politics and religion, and into their ways of doing 
things. Their tenacity of purpose was remarkable, and gener- 
ally agreeable because generally right. Tiiey were constitu- 
tionally fitted to accept the doctrine of the " perseverance of the 
saints." Their unyielding purpose was of the kind to win suc- 
cess in the world ; and hence, in the forest, in the face of poverty 
and wild beasts, on the battle's front, in public debate, — in every 
place of peril or trial, the Scotchman has made his njark. 

Our early settlers were charactei-ized by a keen and vigorous 
wit. Sidney Smith once said that you " couldn't get a joke into 
a Scotchman's head without a surgical operation," — which 
statement is a joke coming pretty near to a falsehood. The jolly 
Englishman well knew that the Scotchman- did not stop for a 
joke when he meant fight. There was a straightforward, mighty 
earnest about the Scotch, at such a time. Nevertheless, they • 
were a jolly, witty race, fond of repartee and good cheer. They 
could not be made to laugh when they did not feel like it ; they 
hated all flat, clownish, Prenchy, effeminate humor : but they 
gloried in hard hits, vigorous feats, and stinging repartee. There 
was nothing weak or timid about their fun. Their wit was a 
keen blade. Jokes went round their companies, like their old 
sports, with a blow for every one. These hills of Antrim rang 
with their laughter in the day when the panther's howl answered 


back, and the India,n's whoop echoed in the forest. The laugh 
of some of the Antrim fathers was glorious to hear. Their log 
cabins heard many a brighter piece of wit than may be found on 
the printed page. Young and old were full of it. The venera- 
ble grandmother in her easy-chair in the corner would deal her 
strokes of wit as keen as the keenest, or tell a story with real 
side-shaking power and zest. And, as showing the quick retort 
of the young, it is said that a little lassie met a man on his horse 
driving some hogs, and politely courtesied to him. Willing to 
plague the lassie a little, he stopped and asked : " What, my bairn, 
da' ye courtesy to a drove of hogs ? " " Na', na', sir," said she, 
" only to the one on horseback ! " 

■ The high intellectual cast of the Scotch-Irish is also to be no- 
ticed. They were thinking people, — strong-minded, capable, 
from highest to lowest. The humblest of them took up the great 
themes of government and of religion, and could talk intelli- 
gently about them. Parents were capable of instructing their 
children. It is believed that every one of the settlers of Antrim 
could read and write. There were mental giants in these New 
Hampshire colonies ; and we may look with just pride on the 
capabilities and caliber and good judgment of these humble yet 
large-minded ancestors. On this point I add these words of 
another : — 

No people have shown themselves so capable of high culture as the 
Scotch. It is of little consequence where you may look for the material 
to be operated upon. You will find men at the plow, on the hill-side 
tending sheep, in the carpenter's shop, in the mason's shed, or in the 
engine-manufactory, behind the counter, and at the merchant's desk, who 
only require the means of study and advancement to make them fill with 
credit and honor any situation to which a free, loyal-hearted man maybe 


Where'er you go through the world below 

You'll find old Scotia's men ; 

And when you rove through the world above 

You'll find them there again. 

Much might be said of the physical powers of our ancestors. 
They were great in body, and commanding and noble in de- 
meanor. They had foot-races, wrestling-matches, log-rollings, 
and various diversions, all calculated to foster their physical 
strength. Both men and women hated effeminacy. They grew 
strong by hardships, and took pride in it. The grandmother of 
one of our citizens was out, baby in hand, pulling flax, when she 
was complimented upon her vigor, as the child was very young. 


Her reply was : " Weel, if I can't have a baby and pull an acre 
of flax. every year, I'll give up the ship ! " Generally, the women 
were about as strong, and fully as heroic, as the men. The wives 
of Aiken, Joseph Boyd, James McAllister, the Steeles who mar- 
ried Jamesons, and Mrs Dickey, whose husband was killed in 
the Revolution, were women whose courage nobody could ques- 
tion, and whose arm might well be feared. Nor were they much 
ahead of the rest. The maid of twenty feared not the face of 
man or beast ; and many with ax or gun were strong and agile 
enough to outdo the sterner sex. Boys in those days were not 
intimidated by desperate tasks. Thomas Nichols began the 
Shattuck farm when a mere lad, all alone. Dea. Jonathan Nes- 
mith began to subdue the heavy forests on his farm at less than 
sixteen years of age, camping out alone. The two Steele boys 
chopped all summer on the Perry farm, at an age when many 
boys of the present day would feel overworked by the care of a 
barn or a fire. The men generally were tall, erect, brawny, 
somewhat coarse in feature, but perfect in form, and weighed 
two hundred without obesity or slowness of movement. I have 
seen a Scotchman of two hundred and fifty pounds, aged sixty 
years, dance as lightly and nimbly as a maid. It is said of the 
late Gov. Patterson of New York, formerly of Londonderry, 
some of whose early days were spent in Antrim, that, though a 
man of majestic form, he was lithe and agile at eighty years, like 
i. boy. The grenadiers of the old Twenty-sixth Regiment, who 
were the wonder of everybody on account of their great size, 
were almost entirely picked out of the Scotch-Irish communities, 
and a majority were from Antrim. Their leader, McNiel, was a 
Scotchman, and was only six feet six inches tall ! And the 
strength of these men corresponded to their size. They could 
carry heavy burdens for long distances without worry. Instances 
are on record where men were killed by a single blow of a Scotch- 
man's fist. 

The Scotch-Irish emigrants of 1719, settling some in Maine, 
and some in Massachusetts, but chiefly in Londonderry, have 
had a vast influence in New England and in the whole country. 
The colonies that went out from them became leaders every- 
where. In war and peace, in art and learning, they have stood 
at the front. When the New Hamp^Jiire convention met at 
Exeter, April 25, 1775, they formed the State forces into two 
regiments, and placed both under Cols. Reed and Stark, two 

(>^L^f/^, ^^^^^^^I^S^ 


Scotch-Irishmen of Londonderry. The descendants of this col- 
ony have been governors, senators, jurists, college presidents, 
generals, philanthropists, teachers, missionaries, and everything 
that is noble and high. About fifteen of these New England 
Scotch-Irish have been governors of States ; not less than twelve 
have been judges of supreme courts ; quite a number have been 
United States senators ; and probably not less than twenty-five, 
at one time and another, have been members of Congress. 
Among scholars and teachers of the stock of the emigration of 
1719, may be mentioned Joseph McKeen, D. D., president of 
Bowdoin College ; Prof. C. A. Aiken, D. D., of Princeton ; Prof. 
Jarvis Crregg ; Prof. W A. Packard ; Joseph McKeen, D. D., of 
New York City ; Rev. James Means ; Samuel H. Taylor, D. D., 
late of Andover ; and hosts of lesser lights. 

Among the distinguished lawyers, jurists, and statesmen in 
this colony and its descendants, were Hon. John Bell, justice, 
and member of the Provincial Congress ; John Bell and Samuel 
Bell, governors of New Hampshire ; the two Samuel Dinsmores, 
governors of this State ; Daniel M. Christie, of Dover ; judges, 
Jeremiah Smith, George W Nesmith, and Samuel D. Bell, of 
New Hampshire, and Levi McKeen and Peter Patterson, of New 
York ; senators, Samuel McKeen of Peimsylvania, Samuel Hell 
and James W Patterson of this State, and James W Nesmith 
of Oregon; Matthew Thornton, physician, judge, and signer of 
the Declaration of Independence ; Clark B. Cochrane, a noted 
advocate and congressman of New York ; Hon. George W. Mor- 
rison of Manchester ; and a long list of men now living, some of 
whom are in Congress, and some in almost every position of 
honor and trust ail over the land, and with prospect of adding 
still greater luster to the race which settled here 

A great number of clergymen have sprung from the London- 
derry colony. Rev. David McGregor; Rev. James Miltimore ; 
Rev. Silas McKeen, D. D!, formerly of Boston; Rev. Rufus 
Anderson and son, missionaries and authors ; Rev. Dr. Morrison ; 
Rev. Dr. McCollom ; Rev. John Nichols and Rev. Seneca Cum- 
mings of Antrim, missionaries ; and probably fifty otlier clergy- 
men dead and living, trace themselves back to this little flock. 

From the same source the army of physicians is very great, 
many of them of the highest rank. Princely merchants, invent- 
ors, and eminent writers and authors also sprung from this 
fruitful tree. Among military men of this particular flock, may 


be mentioned Gen. Stark, Gen. Raid, Gen. McNiel, Gen. Miller, 
and a large number of less distinguished and able men in the 
field, for every war which our country has passed through. 

And of the Scotch-Irish not belonging to this particular Lon- 
donderry flock and its branches, a proportionate record mav be 
made. Though outside of our work, yet, as belonging to our 
race, it will be deemed proper for me to add, that, like the Lon- 
donderry men, they have been cropping out in distinguished 
places all over the land for one hundred and fifty years. 
Among Scotch-Irish divines and scholars, notice such names as 
Archibald Alexander, D. D., James W. Alexander, D. D., Joseph 
A. Alexander, D. D., and, it is said, Charles Hodge, D. D., and 
Bishop Mcllvaine, and many other such. Among public men, 
notice such names as Thomas McKeen of Pennsylvania (kins- 
man of Antrim McKeens), signer of Declaration of Independ- 
ence, from that State, senator, and president of Congress, 1781; 
President Buchanan ; the Wallaces of Pennsylvania, including 
the present Senator Wallace ; John Cochrane of New York ; 
and many of the most distinguished statesmen of New Jersey, 
Virginia, and other parts of the land. 

The military record is also very flattering to the Scotch race 
in America. President Grant is of this stock, and is a fair speci- 
men of its inflexible, straightforward determination. Others of 
the best leaders in the great war were of Scotch origin. This 
race were very few in numbers compared with the whole, but 
furnished a remarkable proportion of leaders. I have found 
somewhere a list of " Scotch-Irish Presbyterians who were 
officers in the army of the Revolution, many of them elders in 
Presbyterian churches," which is as follows: "Major-generals, — 
Wayne, Stark, Mercer, Sumter, Alexander (Lord Sterling), 
McDowell, Montgomery, Sullivan, and Moultrie; generals, — 
Morgan, Beatty, Marion, Rutherford, Graham, Irvine, Moore, 
Stewart, Armstrong, Davidson, Hughes, Pickens, St. Clair, and 
Reed ; and brigadier-generals and colonels almost without num- 

This is certainly a remarkable showing, considering the size 
of tlie whole array and the comparative fewness of the Scotch. 
It is hoped that some abler pen, and some more extensive and 
faithful investigation, may show the standing and influence of 
the Scotch-Irish on this continent. Such a history would also 
find large material in the Dominion of Canada, whither many of 
Antrim's kinsmen have gone, and risen to exalted positions. 





Antrim is in the nortliwestern part of Hillsborough county, 
being bounded on the north by Windsor and Hillsborough ; on 
the east by Deering and Bennington ; on the south by Benning- 
ton and Hancock ; and on the west by Nelson and Stoddard. It 
contains a little over thirty-three square miles, and about 21,175 
acres. Of this, only a little more than half (11,730 acres) has 
been classified as improved land. Antrim is separated from 
Deering and Bennington, on the east, by the Oontoocook river, 
which runs northward toward Concord, its course bounding An- 
trim being about north twenty degrees east. The north and 
south lines of the town are nearly parallel, being about five and 
a half miles apart. Mr. Whiton likens the shape of the town to 
that of a diamond. The thrivicig village of South Antrim is on 
the southeast corner of the town, from which the distance to the 
opposite corner, adjoining Stoddard, is about seven and one-half 
miles ; while from the southwest to the northeast corner a line 
would measui-e nearly eleven and one-half miles. The south line 
is due east and west, commencing at the center of the Oontoo- 
cook river, and extending to Nelson, with no break or bend, 
except the small break made by annexing the farm of John Flint 
to Hancock, referred to elsewhere. By a perambulation made in 
1804, this line ran " south eighty-seven west," which has since 
been corrected or changed. Bennington bounds Antrim on the 
south one hundred and forty rods ; and the south line, were it 
straight, would extend six miles and about seventy-five rods. 
The west line of Antrim is not a straight line, running north 
twelve degrees east on Nelson, and north fifteen degrees east on 
Stoddard; having three hundred and two rods on the former 
town, and fourteen hundred and fifty on the latter. Commenc- 
ing at Stoddard, the north line of Antrim runs east three degrees 
north to the center of Oontoocook river. Formerly this line was 
bent to the north on Hillsborough two degrees more, but now it , 
is a straight line for the whole distance. Some early perambu- 
lations made the line east seven degrees noi'th. The distance on 
Windsor is about nine hundred and forty-nine rods, and on Hills- 


borough about twelve hundred rods. The old perambulation 
made the line extend " across said river six rods to the north- 
west corner of Deering," so that Antrim was not then bounded 
entirely by the river on the east. 

The soil of Antrim is for the most part fertile and strong, as 
compared with New England land in general. Some parts are of 
a light loam, productive and easy to cultivate ; but the greater 
part is rocky and uneven. On the whole, it is a soil hard of, cul- 
tivation, yet retaining its enrichment for a long time, and amply 
repaying the labor spent upon it. It is a soil not easy to run out. 
There are pastures in Antrim that have been fed for half a cen- 
tury, and are still good. The amount of poor land in town is 
very small. Along the streams are beautiful and valuable mead- 
ows. The intervals of the Oontoocook are of surpassing fertility 
and loveliness, and are divided among a multitude of farms along 
the whole eastern side of the town. There are many farms de- 
cidedly desirable and excellent ; notably such being the farms of 
Franklin Perry, Eben Bass, D. H. Goodell, George A. Cochran, 
Jacob Whittemore, and Hiram "Griffin. There is an unusual 
number of fine farms in the town. In fact, there is hardly a 
miserable, starving farm to be found within our borders. In the 
course of years these farms have diminished in size, but increased 
in number and value. They would not now average more than 
seventy-tive acres each. Most are well cultivated and wear the 
appearance of neatness and thrift. Farm buildings have been 
greatly improved, and do now compare favorably with those of 
any town in the vicinity. The villages are attractive and thriv- 
ing, and the whole face of the town is smart and good-looking. 

A vast amount of labor has been spent in building wall, and 
consequently the farms and pastures are strongly fenced. It 
would take an immense fortune to build these walls at the pres- 
ent day. Rough and rocky fields were cleared to construct them, 
and the process went on for a hundred years. This toil of the 
fathers will be of great value for generations to come. 

The west part of Antrim is peculiarly rich in pasturage. 
Hundreds of horses and cattle from below find here a delightful 
home through the hot summers. Large flocks I have seen com- 
ing here in the spring, lank, poor, weak, and tired ; but going 
back in the fall, full, sleek, frolicsome, fat, and of double value. 
Few towns in the State, or in Vermont, can boast of fatter cattle 
or finer teams than Antrim. Formerly, sheep were raised by 


thousands on these hills ; now they have mostly given place to 
horses and cattle. 

The forests of Antl-im are quite extensive, especially in the 
west part of the town, though the old growths have mostly been 
removed. A few lots have never been culled or cut over. For 
the various mills and fires, vast amounts of wood and timber are 
taken every year ; and yet good judges say the growth nearly 
equals the cut. Not half the wood is burned in town that was 
burned eighty-five years ago ; now the effort being made to save it, 
then to get it out of the way. I have often spoken of the exceed- 
ing beauty of the forests of Antrim. In autumn, the hues are 
brighter and more varied than I have ever seen them anywhere 
else. Even in winter they are attractive, being dotted every- 
where with evergreens. We have white pine, Norway pine 
(have not seen any" hard pine," so called), white, double, and 
bald spruces, and two kinds of hemlock. Our deciduous forest 
trees are, beech (white and red); birch (white, black, and yellow, 
have never seen any gray birch here) ; red oak. white oak in 
small amount; ash (white, black, and mountain); rock maple, 
white maple, red maple ; elm, butternut, bass, locust, hornbeam, 
lever wood, willow, balm of Gilead, poplar, cherry, and moose- 
wood. In very small amount may be found the chestnut, walnut, 
mulberry, cedar, and fH-balsam. Sumachs, and all small shrubs 
and plants common to this part of New Hampshire, flourish here 
in abundance. Berries of all the valuable kinds are plentiful, 
and, following each other in season, are of great comfort and value 
to the people. 

It hardly need be added that our forests are a mine of wealth. 
Nearly all the farmers have been accustomed to draw more or 
less wood and lumber for sale winters, for years. The bedstead- 
factories in Clinton have swallowed up immense piles annually ; 
for these, maple, birch, and beech being used. Spruce has been 
sent abroad in great amounts. This is a " hard-wood town," on 
the whole. Pine, though sufficient, does not abound here as in 
some of the lower towns. Pine lumber, though valuable now, 
was considered of small account by the early settlers. In 
1790, Dea. James Carr was offered fifty acres of heavy phie tim- 
ber for a pair of three-years-old steers, worth about fifty dollars, 
which oflfer he declined. That timber in that condition would be 
worth ten thousand dollars to-day ! The deacon in old age used 
to repeat the story, and tell with a laugh how he " missed it." 


But then the fifty dollars at interest would amount to more than 
twenty-five thousand dollars now ! 

The surface of Antrim is greatly, and sometimes abruptly, 
broken, especially in the west part of the town. The east part 
slopes gently and gracefully toward the Contoocook, forming from 
the hills of Deering a most beautiful picture. The rest of the 
town is made up of mountains and hills, and vales among them. 
Many of the elevations have had from time to time the names of 
the owners. A few have permanent names. Near the junction 
of the Contoocook and North Branch rivers, and situated between 
them, in the northeast corner of the town, is Riley's, Mountain, 
about fifteen hundred feet high, named after the first settler. I 
have heard it called by other names, but this is the old and only 
proper appellation. It has two summits, extends a little into 
Hillsborough, has large and beautiful pastures on the soutli, 
rises abruptly on the east and north, has large forests, and is 
worthy of the tourist's ascent. 

The Windsor mountains, along the north line of Antrim, form , 
a lofty ridge three or four miles long, the line being about on 
the summit all the way, and the broad southward slope giving 
fair pastures and ample forests to this town. At the base of this 
ridge, through broad meadows, the North Branch river flows. On 
the south of these mountains is a cave of some note. Three 
different roads ascend from Antrim over these mountains to 
Windsor, very steep and dangerous, yet down them are brought 
great loads of lumber and hay, with chained runners or wheels, 
and no serious accident has ever yet occurred. 

On the south side of Branch river, extending along the west 
part of the town five or six miles, and reaching into Hancock, is 
a range of mountains of considerable height. This range is sit- 
uated nearly midway between the Merrimack and Connecticut 
rivers, and reaches approximately the height of land between 
them. This ridge extends to the Monadnock on the south, and 
to the Washington, Stoddard, and other mountains on the north. 
This range is divided in Antrim into three parts by two valleys 
across it ; one valley being of small depth, the other said to be 
low enough to build a comfortable road through it. The north- 
ern part of the range is called Tuttle Mountain, from Charles 
Tuttle, Vho settled well up on the north side of it as early as 
1797. The range of lots extending along the north slope of 
this mountain was called the " High Range " by the settlers, on 


account of its high location, a name still attaching to that sec- 
tion of the town. Througli these lots lay the old Stoddard road, 
and this was a prosperous and valuable part of our territory, 
occupied by many families, though most of it is now deserted. 
Tuttle Mountain covers a large area, has several points or sum- 
mits, and presents very different features as seen from different 

The middle part of this chain, as it is divided in our town, is 
Robb Mountain, named from Andrew Robb, who settled on its 
western declivity about 1796, and owned a large part of it. It 
is of nearly the same height as Tuttle Mountain. At a distance it 
seems like a vast and regular elevation ; but it has many depres- 
sions and elevations, several summits, many wild and romantic 
spots, and, but for difficulty of access, would be often visited by 
the tourist. Various names have been given from time to time 
to peaks in this part of the range. / 

The south part of this chain, so far as belonging to this town, 
is Bald Mountain, so-called by the fathers because a forest fire 
had swept over it, leaving it bare and bald. Prom some points 
of observation it is not unlike a broad, bald head. I have heard 
this mistakenly calle'd Ball Mountain, from James Ball, on the 
supposition that he lived upon it. But it was Robb Mountain on 
which Ball settled, and the two men were neighbors. Bald 
Mountain, from the first known of it, was bare and naked. It 
may be that the Indians kept it so for reasons of their own, as 
it seems certain that it must have been mani/ times burned over 
to make it as it was when first discovered. Nor would forest 
fires confine themselves to that mountain without help. Did the 
Indians have it as a point of observation ? Was it a forage- 
ground of the moose once abounding here ? Was it a gathering- 
place in summer for their councils ? We must remember that 
fire was the only means the Indian had to clear the land. Bald 
Mountain is properly named for now, as well as then. From a 
distance it looks smooth and clean and naked as of old. It is 
found on near approach to be quite rocky ; and its broad 
summit and gently sloping sides afford many excellent pastures. 
In fact, this whole mountain chain, both on the eastern and west- 
ern declivities, supplies pasturage unsurpassed, and of vast ex- 
tent. Here, also, are large tracts of wood and timber, — a sort of 
lumber reservoir, from which many teams draw year after year, 
without apparent diminution of the store. On the west side of 


Robb Mountain there was once quite a population, a whole school- 
district, within the limits of Antrim ; but now every habitation is 

Smaller elevations in town may be also named. Goodhue Hill, 
partly in Hancock, east of Bald Mountain, is very considerable in 
height. Patten Hill formfe the eastern boundary of Gregg's pond, 
and was named for Samuel Patten, who settled near its summit. 
Holt's Hill, north of the pond, was named from its owner, Daniel 
Holt, has a wide and beautiful prospect, and a fine farm on its 
summit. Hedge-hog Hill, eastward from Holt's, has some local 
note for its precipices, ledges, and caves, and was named from 
the animal formerly frequenting its rocks and hiding-places. 
Meeting-House Hill, on which were the " Old Center " and the old 
church, extends from the present Center northward about two 
miles, and is seen from nearly all sections of the town, being 
visited by many people yearly, both for its beauty of situation, 
and its association with the past. Rising from South Village 
southwestwardly is Nabor Hill, whose summit is in Hancock. 

On the other hand, there is nothing in town that can be called, 
strictly speaking, a plain, though the tract in which the Branch 
cemetery is located has received this designation. It is a level, 
light, easily-cultivated tract of about one hundred acres, extend- 
ing southward from a bend in the Branch river. 

But, speaking of mountains, it may be desirable to add that 
Mount Washington, among the White Mountains, is 6,293 feet 
above tide-water ; Monadnock, 8,718 ; the highest peak in Stod- 
dard, 2,200 ; the highest point in Antrim, about 1,550 ; the 
Uncanoonucs in Goffstown, 1,388 ; and the highest point in the 
road-bed of the Manchester and Keene Railroad, at Harrisville, 

The streams of Antrim of any considerable size are few. By 
far the largest is the Contoocook. ItS' source is almost on the 
Massachusetts line in Rindge, an arm also coming from ponds 
in Jaffrey. Flowing but little east of north till it reaches the 
northeast corner of Antrim, its course is then northeasterly and 
then easterly till it flows into the Merrimack a little above Con- 
cord. Its mouth is about sixty miles north- of its source ; and 
with all its meanderings and broad bends, its entire length is 
nearly one hundred miles. It has a fall in its whole length of over 
eight hundred feet. 

This beautiful river forms the east boundary of Antrim over 


This map, names and all, was copied for the most part from the county map. I ha' 

be ofconsiderabte 



/G. Curtis 








WJBoutBU ,| 






S.tvooa ' 

H.nChc'jn-rt ^ 

\f:,Jl a. Turner 


iDea^Sea \ 'j.P' 

t^^OS^'"^ ""T>>i^'?r:?. 










,de some changes and several additions. It is thought to be sufficiently accurate to 
! to the town. 


six miles, having but little fall in this whole, distance ; has a 
border all the way of charming and fruitful interval ; and is 
crossed from Antrim by three bridges. In the early days of the 
town, salmon abounded in this river. It retains the name the 
Indians gave it. Its ice formed the first highway of the settlers 
into adjacent towns. Hardly can a lovelier river be found in 
New England. 

The North Branch river is the next in size. It rises in Wash- 
ington and flows southward into Long pond. This pond, now 
largely a resort in the summer, is over six miles long and from 
three to one hundred and seventy rods wide, terminating at the 
south at Mill Village, Stoddard. From this last point the river 
runs southward through Island pond to South Stoddard, where 
it turns and flows northeast into Antrim. It flows about six 
miles in this town, most of the way nearly parallel with the north 
line and about one-half, a mile from it, after which it bends north- 
ward and flows into Hillsborough just north of Riley's Mountain ; 
is used at the foundry and at the Lower Village ; and, again 
bending somewhat to the south, passes into the Contoocook almost 
at the northeast corner of this town. This is a wild, impetuous, 
noisy river, dashing over rocks ; and frequently, when swollen by 
rains, its roar can be heard for a long distance. Its length is 
abo^t twenty-five miles, but in that short course its fall is about 
equal to that of the Contoocook in a hundred miles. Conse- 
quently the water-power on this stream is immense, capable of 
running a host of factories. It has capacities for great reser- 
voirs without great expense, is never exhausted, and offers un- 
surpassed advantages to manufacturers. But a small fraction of 
its force is now used. The fall from the top of Loveren's dam to 
the bridge near Benton Tuttle's is three hundred and thirty-two 
feet ; and for the whole distance in town, about three hundred 
and fifty feet. 

Great brook comes next in size after Branch river, being so 
named by the fathers of the town. Its source is in the chain of 
mountains in the west part of the town, and its whole length is 
a little less than six miles. Two little brooks issue from the 
mountains, and, uniting, flow into Gregg's pond on the west ; 
whence issuing on the east the stream flows southeastwardly 
through Clinton and South Village into the Contoocook. For 
the purpose of a reservoir, the surface of the pond has been 
raised by the Water-Power Company ; the fall from the pond to 



the river is said to be four hundred and sixty-five feet, in a dis- 
tance of three miles. This stream and pond are fed by moun- 
tain springs. Several of tliese are believed to discharge into the 
pond below the water mark. As a result of this, the stream 
does not dry up like other streams, I have heard mill men here 
say they could run their mills when the wheels on the Merrimack 
had to stop for lack of water. Hence, the fall being so great 
and the water supply so regular, here are found some of the best 
privileges in the State. From the pond to the river, there are 
fourteen dams across Great brook, and still there are some ex- 
cellent opportunities unimproved It may be safely .said that no 
other stream in New England of the same length affords so 
many, and so good, privileges as Great brook. It is not greatly 
swollen by freshets. Busy, laughing, hurrying, humble little 
river, it goes gliding, singing along, about the same summer and 
winter, in rain and in drought, adding greatly to the wealth of 
the people. 

Besides these three, many little brooks may be found in all 
parts of the town. Cochran's brook, in the east part, is the out- 
let of Campbell's pond, and has a southward course of a little 
more than three miles into the Contoocook. On this was the 
saw and grist mill of Dea. Isaac Cochran. I find the old records 
speak of " Meadow Brook," which rises in the meadow west and 
northwest of Holt's Hill, and runs northeast, crossing the main 
road near Luther Campbell's and falling into Steel's pond, and 
through tha,t into North Branch river. Salmon brook, once the 
fisherman's favorite, comes from the west side of Tuttle Moun- 
tain and flows into the Branch river near Chester Conn's, at the 
once noted fishing-place called the '' Trout-hole." On the whole, 
Anti-im is remarkably well supplied with water, for pasture, for 
dwelling, and for manufacturing purposes. Many wells twelve 
feet deep are never dry. Ice-cold, delicious springs of water are 
numerous. One on the James Nesmith farm, west of the pond, 
is said never to vary in temperature, being ice-cold in summer, 
yet never known to be frozen over in winter. 

The collections of water in Antrim are neither numerous nor 
great. The largest is Gregg's pond, named after Samuel Gregg, 
who built the mill at its outlet. The name fairly belongs to him 
and ought to remain. It has been occasionally called Pleasant 
pond, — which would be a good name if there were not so many 
Pleasant ponds (by name) in other towns all over the State. It 

Gregg's, steel's, and eye ponds. 307 

has some shallow parts, but chiefly a level bottom, and is, as no-w 
flowed, for the most part about forty feet deep. It is a beautiful 
sheet of water. Has mostly a hard and rocky shore, the land 
rising abruptly and steeply, especially on the east. Cold water 
at many points, and the fact that so much more flows out than in, 
prove that this pond is fed by springs from below. Pickerel 
were first put into this water in 1800, by John Smith, who lived 
on the Thomas Flint place. Black bass were introduced in 1876. 
The ice here has been a driving-place for sleighs and heavy 
teams, for nearly a century. It is a great summer resort, and 
increasingly such ; multitudes of chowder-parties, camping-par- 
ties, fisiiing-parties, and untold picnic-gatherings, occurring in 
constant succession through the hot weather. Boats abound. 
Fishing has yielded pleasant rewards. But, strange to say, no 
person has ever been drowned in this sheet of water* It is about 
a mile long, and its greatest width is about half that distance. 
As presenting a scene of great beauty, as a public resort, and 
especially as a reservoir, it is of vast importance to the town. 
A view of it may be found on another page. Campbell's pond 
lies at the south base of Riley's Mountain and covers about 
twenty-five acres. It has been a favorite place for the fisherman. 
The outlet is Cochran's brook. It is hidden from the highway, 
but is a neat sheet of water, with dry, green, solid shore. Was 
named from John Campbell, who was the first settler near it. 

Steel's pond, southeast of Branch Village a quarter of a mile, 
contains about twenty-five acres, and, like Campbell's, was for- 
merly a, great place for fishing. Meadow brook 'flows into this 
pond, also Branch river, the latter issuing from the pond some 
twenty rods below where it enters. Was named from James 
Steel, who built the mills below. 

Eye pond, lying partly in Antrim, partly in Stoddard, and 
partly in Nelson, near our southwest corner, is believed to cover 
fifty acres. The outlet passes north, and flows into the Branch 
river, near South Stoddard. This is a curious pond, being sur- 
rounded, like some others I have known, by a shaking surface 
that trembles and settles a little at every step over it, this sur- 
face being a net-work growth by many years of roots and 
grasses over water or soft mud. In such places I have run my 
fish-pole down easily its whole length under my feet. The cen- 
ter of this pond is very deep, growing shallow outward ; and a 
large part of it is covered in aiitumn by a coarse mire grass, its 

308 willaed's and lily ponds. 

long, tall spires waving like winter rye. Hence its name. It is 
known to only a few of our own people. 

Willard's poiifi lies at the east base of Bald Mountain, is quite 
large, estimated to cover one hundred and fifty acres, and is very 
deep, believed in some points to reach the depth of one hundred 
feet. Was named, it is said, from an old hunter who trapped 
along its banks, and fished and thrived here in summers and 
autumns, long before any settlement was made in the vicinity. 
In the early years of this town, large numbers of trout, weighing 
from one to five pounds, were taken from this pond. Its shores 
are covered with a very white sand. At the outlet, which flows 
through Hancock to the Contoocook river, is the Hatch mill, for- 
merly owned by Flint and others, now in a decaying condition. 

A little southwest of the Center is a small body of water, cov- 
ering five or six acres, called the Lily pond, formerly called Lit- 
tle pond. It is very deep, and is muddy at the outer parts ; 
being surrounded, like Rye pond, with a sliaking, sinking bank 
of roots which have grown over the water in the course of cen- 
turies. Cattle caught in the mud here are said to sink very 
slowly yet surely out of sight. Adjacent to this pond are incal- 
culable amounts of meadow mud, or decayed vegetable matter, 
now popularly called muck, which, if accessible, would be of 
great value to farmers in the vicinity. Parts of this pond are 
'covered with white lilies in summer, — whence its name. Bush- 
els of ' these are carried away every year to adorn parlors and 
churches. It has a local reputation as a resort for skaters, but 
is of no account as a fishing-place. 

It will be readily inferred from this show of momitains, 
streams, and lakes, rivulets and hills, that Antrim is a town of 
rare scenery, well named after the beautiful town in Ireland. 
The view of Antrim from Deering mountains is magnificent. 
From Meeting-house Hill, Holt's Hill, Patten Hill, or Riley's 
Mountain, the landscapes are with difficulty surpassed. Many 
dwellings are in positions from which a painter would delight to 
look. Along these streams and valleys are many delightful 
drives. In no place in the world, I think, are the autumn for- 
ests more gorgeous and beautiful than here. It is a romantic 
and comely town. 

Of the geological structure of the town, there is nothing to be 
said as distinguishing it from the other New Hampshire hill- 
towns. No special examination of the soils and formations of 


this town has ever been made, of which I have any knowledge. 
Some State survey showed the remarkable fact that we had a 
small sand plain and plenty of rocks, — which had been known 
hei'e for one hundred years, — beyond which nothing has been 
discovered by our official surveyors. Concerning these matters 
I am not qualified to write, nor have I had time and strength to 
investigate. On my first visit here, I was struck with the 
appearance of the rocks as generally round, coarse, and con- 
glomerate. Fine granite is scarce. Immense bowlders look as 
if dropped here and there. On the highest point of Meeting- 
house Hill are several rocks weighing five or six tons each, lying 
entirely on the surface, as if dropped from a passing chariot, or 
as if a bit of the sliding glacier had melted away and left them 
there. On the Asa Robinson farm is a bowlder weighing more 
than' twenty-five tons, so nicely balanced that it can be rocked 
to and fro with the finger. One near Robb Mountain, believed 
to weigh twelve hundred tons, rests on a base of three feet 
square. A bowlder on the farm of S. M. Thompson is larger 
than any barn in town. I have never seen any limestone in 
town, nor any of the flat, slaty rocks common in my native sur- 
roundings. No minerals of value have been found here. There 
is a small body of black lead on the north side of Riley's Moun- 
tain, but not of great amount or value. Some sands were consid- 
ered superior for the manufacture of glass, and for a time large 
amounts of this were carried from the Nat. Herrick farm to 
Stoddard for black glass, so long as the mills there were in ope- 
ration. I have already referred to the beds of clay, one on the 
farm of S. M. Thompson, and another on the farm of Arthur 
Miller, both of good quality and vast amount, though somewhat 
deeply covered by soils and vegetable deposits. 

The amount of decayed vegetable matter covering the rocks of 
Antrim is immense, and must have been the accumulation of 
ages. Of meadows we have abundance, besides the various 
intervals, of which, however, there is nothing special to say, 
except perhaps " Cedar swamp," in the northwest part of the 
town. This swamp, called " The Bog," covers about three hun- 
dred acres. A small brook runs through it, south, into Branch 
river. This whole tract was covered with large, stately cedars, 
all dead and bare, and almost limbless, when the first settlers 
came here. It is concluded that they must have' all been killed 
at the same time, as they were nearly alike in size ; and that 


they had been dead about two hundred years, as another growth 
of large size, of cedar and spruce, of slow maturing, covered the 
"ground, among which the dead cedars stood. The cause of this 
strange forest Qur fathers discovered, as it was quite plain one 
hundred years ago. At a favorable place the beavers had built 
a dam, flowing the whole bog four or five feet deep, and killing 
the cedars and every other tree. The spruce and hard woods 
soon rotted away ; but the cedar, being almost imperishable, stood 
till cut down by the white man's ax. This pond of three hun- 
dred acres may have remained half a century. Then the bea- 
vers' dam gave way, the bog was dry again, and after a time the 
new growth sprung up, and slowly grew, and itself was old when 
discovered. But the dead cedars were of great value, being 
light and sound, though probably some of them five hundred 
years old, and lasted more than three-quarters of a century for 
wood, shingles, pails, and various other wares. The new growth 
of cedar is not equal to the old, there being but little valuable 
timber of this kind now in town. 



coWaining various scraps and remnants worth gathering up 

AND preserving. 

movements op population. 

From the rate that families have moved out of town since I 
have kept a record, I conclude thai about six hundred and twen- 
ty-five families have moved out since our first settlement, or 
about three thousand persous. Many of these lived here but a 
short time. For ten years past, more families have moved into 
Antrim than have left ; but from 182.5 to 1865, emigration was 
constant and large. In 1832, it was said that one-third of the 
church in Alexandria were from this town. A colony went out 
from this town and founded Antrim, Minn. All over the known 
world the sons of Antrim have gone. It is believed their descend- 
ants may be found in every State and territory in the United 
States. I have had letters from several families in Canada. 
Many have traversed foreign lands. Some have gone as mis- 
sionaries. Were all the living descendants of the Antrimites 
on the spot, we should have a large population, and perhaps be 
chartered as a city. 

And within our own limits there have been certain movements 
of the people requiring notice. As late as 1826, there were 
thirteen families west of the pond, forming a school-district and 
having forty scholars, and a population at times of nearly one 
hundred. It was considered the wealthiest part of the town. 
They were all church-going people, and made a long procession 
on their way to and fro. They had a neat school-house and 
thriving farms. Now this population is nearly all gone, and 
most of the buildings and farms are deserted. 

Also on the west of Robb Mountain there was quite a popula- 
tion which has disappeared. So on the north side of Tuttle 
Mountain. An old road, or path, led from near Chester Conn's 
corner along the side of the mountain, striking tlie old Stoddard 
road again west of the first High-Range school-house. On this 
mountain path, and near it, were six dwellings, with large fami- 
lies, making a prosperous neighborhood, sending more than 
thirty scholars to school, having good though rocky farms, and 


raising great flocks of sheep. Now no vestige of these buildings 
remains, no trace of the road ; and nothing but old pieces of wall, 
and clumps of apple-trees around half-filled cellars, give any indi- 
cation of tlie stirring, thriving households that were once happy 
there ! 

On the High Range west of Reed Carr's, where now the road 
is thrown up, dwelt, at one time, Jedediah Tuttle, James Steele, 
Robert McKean, Robert Burns, Zaccheus Dustin, and John Wal- 
lace. There, also, was the High-Range school-house. But tlie 
Keene road took ti'avel away from them, and gradually these 
good farms were deserted. The new school-house on Keene 
road was built in 1867, and the old road thrown up soon after. 

The movement of all the families from Meeting-House Hill 
has been referi-ed to elsewhere. But wliile these farming com- 
munities have disappeared, the villages have been built up, and 
land in the vicinity of villages has been taken up. There are 
now upwards of two hundred and ninety families in Antrim, — 
more than ever before, though smaller than fifty years ago. The 
wealth and population of the town have been increasing for 
the past ten years. The table of population will show a rapid 
increase from 1775 to 1800 ; a small increase from 1800 to 1825 ; 
and then a small decrease till 1870; and again considerable 
gain, — recently about forty per year. 


one family. 




two families. 




twenty families. 


















(new census) 1,172. 



Prom Jan. 1, 1^09, to Jan. 1, 1852, Mr. Whiton tells us there 
were seven hundred and eighty deaths in Antrim, about eighteen 
and one-seventh per year. From Jan. 1, 1868, to Jan. 1, 1880, 
there were two hundred and eight deaths, about seventeen and 
one-third per year. Reasoning from these, we conclude the 
deaths in Antrim since its settlement are about 1,580. The 
oldest person was Mrs. Buswell, aged ninety-nine years and two 
months. More than twenty have been upwards of ninety years 
of age. One hundred and twenty-four, and perhaps a few others, 
have been between eighty and ninety years of age. The average 


age of those dying here within my record is fifty-three years. 
Most of the settlers of the town reached a good old age. Mr. 
Whiton tells us, that, in the early years of his ministry, an im- 
pression went abroad that Antrim was more unhealthy than the 
adjacent towns. But certainly our record for longevity is quite 
remarkable. The deaths in 1879 were one out of every eighty ; 
and this is about the average for recent years. Can any town 
show a better record ? 


The first was that of Asa Merrill, killed by a fall in Dea. 
Aiken's mill in 1781. The next was that of James Dinsmore, 
by a fall from the old meeting-house, June, 1786. Gideon Dodge, 
brother of John Dodge, Esq., of Bennington, was killed by the 
fall of a tree west of the pond, in 1816. A few others have been 
killed by falling trees or limbs. Thomas and William McClary 
were frozen to death ; eleven have been drowned ; tWo have been 
killed by accidental shooting ; there have been about twelve sui- 
cides in the hundred years ; and several have been found dead 
in house or field, but probably not dying by violence. But all 
these put together do not equal the deaths by war, noted in the . 
military records. A woman from Lyndeborough, by name of Wil- 
kins, who stopped awhile at Capt. Thomas Jameson's, in the east 
part of the town, said she would die rather than return to Lynde- 
borough ; but no attention was paid to it, and it was thought she 
had returned. She left July 4, 1812. The next spring it was 
found she had not returned to that town, and the people here 
turned out at once to hunt for her. Her body was found in 
a decayed condition, April, 1813, in the woods, on the spot where 
now stands the barn of William Duncan. The remains were 
gathered up, and carefully buried in the field near by. Mr. Dun- 
can has placed a stone to mark the spot. Her age was about 


Of the two hundred and eighty-nine people here in 1786, 
almost all were Scotch. , Some names are found in both English 
and Scotch, but such are rare. The Scotch names of the early 
families now remaining are Dinsmore, Carr, Wallace, Mcllvaine, 
Campbell, Jameson, Duncan, Christie, Thompson, Cochrane, Hop- 
kins, and Boyd, — twelve in all. The descendants of many other 


Scotch families are here still, but under different names. Only 
one family of " Macs" (Mcllvaine) are now here, though once 
Antrim liad twelve; viz., McAllister, McAdams, McAuley, Mc- 
Clure, McCoy, McClary, McDole, McKeen, McFarland, Mcllvaine, 
McMaster, and McNiel. It may be added that the whole Scotch 
colony had many other familiar, names with this prefix, such as 
McMurphy, McDuffee, McGregor, McLaughlin, McClenche, Mc- 
Clurg, McCollum, McConihe, McQuestion, and McBride, showing 
that the " Mac " clan were largely represented. The Scotch names 
that liave disappeared from Antrim are Allds, Gregg, Dunlap, 
Steele, Bell, Nesmith, Gilmore, Miltimore, Lynch, Warren, 
Gordon, Moor, Dickey, Templeton, Alexander, Aiken, Stuart, 
Todd', Wier, Orr, Houston, Caldwell, Walker, and possibly 
others, besides the " Macs " referred to above. Smith, Nichols, 
and Wilson are both English and Scotch, but the old Scotch 
families of these names are all gone from town. About two- 
thirds of the people now in town are Scotch, or have in part 
Scotch blood in their veins. 


But little can be said, positively, concerning the aboi'iginal 
inhabitants of Antrim. The Pennacooks lived and hunted here, 
beyond question, but had mostly disappeared on the arrival of 
the first settlers. There is good reason to believe that the cele- 
brated fighter of the Lidians, Capt. Lovewell, about 1722 crossed 
the town of Antrim in quest of savages, going as far as Wash- 
ington, the mountain where he encamped there bearing his name 
to this day. It is possible that some misfortune connected with 
this expedition of Lovewell may explain the English graves 
found on the Artemas Brown place, referred to elsewhere. 
Indian graves were found on the Arthur Miller farm. Indian 
corn-fields were found on the Goodell farm. An Indian stone 
pipe, neatly and even ornamentally constructed, was found on 
George F. Parmenter's farm. Numerous Indian relics have 
been discovered here and there. Appearances of Indian graves 
may still be seen in the pasture west of South Village. No dep- 
redations by Indians were made upon the whites in this 
town, most of this tribe having died or gone to Canada before 
our settlement. April 26, 1746, a party of savages made an 
attack on Hopkinton, on account of which the first settler of 
Antrim withdrew to a place of safety. The Oontoocook seems 


to have been a favorite stream with them. Along its banks 
they hunted, fished, and planted their corn ; and down its waters 
they sailed in their canoes to the Indian headquarters at Con- 
cord. This river retains the name they gave it ; but it is to be 
lamented that of all other streams, as of all the mountains in 
Antrim, the Indian names have disappeared. The last of the 
Indians in this town was Peter Waug, who, having married a 
half-breed wife, remained on the ground, and died here at an 
advanced age, about 1815. He lived many years in a shanty on 
the northeast side of the old road from the pond to George 
Brown's, nearly up to the corner. Here he was at one time 
burned out, rumor whispering that the ill repute of his wife had 
SQmething to do with it. But it was not a matter of great 
expense to rebuild his abode, and here he died, childless and 
poor, and the last of the original owners of the soil. 


Our Scotch ancestry, with all their intelligence, retained, like 
other wise people, some delusions which were handed down 
from the past. Many of the people believed in witches, or at 
least had some lingering dread of them, and took various pre- 
cautions against them. If the butter would not come, they 
threw in a red-hot horse-shoe ; and in such cases it was said the 
witch herself was burned, it not occurring to them that heating 
the cream some other way would accomplish the same thing, 
and save controversy with the said witch. Mrs. Stephen Curtis 
is remembered as frequently using a horse-shoe in this way, and 
she was sometimes charged with being a witch herself. In the 
southwest corner of Hillsborough, near Mrs. Curtis, in a little 
old house alone, dwelt "Aunt Jennie," a little, shrill-voiced, 
wiry, thin, sputtering old woman, shrewd, and, may be, a little 
ugly with the rest. It was whispered, that, when the old lady 
was dry, no liquor could be carried by her house without divid- 
ing with her. .She could make a moping old horse jump through 
a small barn window, make a sheep ugly, make a fire refuse to 
burn, and various other such marvelous things ; at least such 
things were told and believed. As she lived near to Antrim 
line, she seems to have carried on the business here as much as 
in her own town, and there is reason to believe she spoiled as 
many churnings of cream here as there ! Another old lady, with 
her husband, kept a hotel on the side of a hard hill, and she 


was shrewd enough to make her witchcraft profitable, as she 
bewitdied all travelers so dreadfully that they could not go hy 
without buying a drinh ! Loaded teams were said to stop 
squarely at the house, and refuse to biidge an inch till the driver 
had received his toddy ! Such " possession " at the present day 
is more common, though not accounted so remarkable. 

Some families would not go a day without a horse-shoe over 
the door. Many would not begin a job or a journey on Friday, 
it being considered an unlucky day. If a corpse were kept 
unburied over the Sabbath, they felt sure another death would 
occur in town before the week was out. If a dead body were 
carried out of the house head foremost, thei-e would be another 
death in the family before a year. If twice there were raps on 
the door, and on opening it nobody was there, it was considered 
a sure admonition of speedy death in that house. Dreams also 
had fated meanings, good and bad. 

" Saturday night's dream, Sunday morning told, 
Was sure to come to pass before a week old." 

Fortune-telling was quite common, also, andjSome gave much 
credence to it. Bouses were haunted in those days, past which 
many could not be hired to go in the night. Ghosts, now and 
then, were reported to appear ; and children were generally 
frightened into good behavior by mention of various warlocks, 
and witches, and bogles, and hags, and sprites, and various 
other such beings ! About the roaring fire at evening horrid 
stories of hobgoblins and lighted graveyards were told. Espe- 
cially if it were dark and howling without, it was a time for 
ghost stories. 

" That night, a child might understand 
The de'il had business on his hand." 

But if pne were out, and were pursued by a whole army of spec- 
ters and skeletons, he had one good chance for safety in rushing 
for the nearest brook, since these creatures dare not cross a run- 
ning stream! Antrim, being well watered, had some advantages 
in this respect ! 

These and other such superstitions have in a great measure 
died away. Yet some traces of them I find now and then, kept 
along, I suppose, by a certain desire to be humbugged, which 
exists in the human race generally. 

Akin to this was the Capt. Kidd furor which raged in this 

CAPT. kidd's gold. 317 


vicinity about 1823. This noted pirate was executed in London, 
May 24, 1701 ; and his plunder was seized, consisting of sixty- 
two pounds of gold, seventy-one pounds of silver, and various 
bags of diamonds and curiosities. But this was considered only 
a fraction of what he had, and he was said to have buried here 
and there immense treasures for future use. It was in 1698 that 
he returned to New York with his booty ; and hence there had 
been ample time to obliterate all signs of the hiding-places of the 
pirate's wealth. Some way the rumor got afloat that he had 
borne a part of the gold into New Hampshire, and buried it on 
the shores of Rye pond in Antrim ! Somebody started this as a 
practical joke. But it was talked over, and taken up by fortune- 
tellers, till one and another went to hunt for the treasure. By 
and by they began to dig for it in various places, and for a short 
time there was considerable excitement, the bags of gold appear- 
ing to many willing imaginations. Hazel rods were used to 
detect the spot of concealment. Time and labor and money 
were freely spent. Rooty bog and rocky soil were dug over in 
vain. In this way the delusion soon wore itself out, and those 
who had been duped were glad to hear no more about it. It is 
pleasant to say that citizens of Hancock and other towns shared 
in these Rye-pond adventures, and that to this day the shores of 
Long Island Sound and the banks of the Hudson are occasion- 
ally explored in pursuit of the buried wealth. Yet, that Kidd 
should come as far as Rye pond, all alone and on foot, and as 
early as 1700, and carrying fifty pounds of gold, besides gun and 
provisions, on his back, certainly would show a very great lack 
of hiding-places near New York ! 


In the day of the Indians, Antrim was a valuable hunting- 
ground. . The first white settlers gained a large part of their 
living by wild game. Nor were there any deadly serpents in the 
bogs and forests. The rattlesnake, common within twenty 
miles, has never been seen within the limits of this town. Black 
snakes, once formidable and swift as an arrow, have very rarely 
been found here. Most, however, of the lesser animals common 
to New Hampshire, have always abounded here. Formerly the 
valuable otter was often caught. Hedge-hogs were formerly 
found in the neighborhood of Hedge-hog Hill. Years ago, the 
raccoon, a small animal weighing from twenty to forty pounds and 


resembling the bear, was common here, and was hunted in the 
night. It was counted rare sport to " go cooning." Boys, and 
even old men, from two to six together, would tramp all night to 
"tree a coon," and then bang away at him till they "btought 
him down," or watch him there till morning. The flesh was 
considered choice food. Foxes have always been plenty in An- 
trim. The lynx, an animal of the cat kind, but larger and 
stronger, and exceedingly fierce, has from time to time appeared ' 
here, though now probably exterminated. The moose was occa- 
sionally met with by the settlers, and afforded a " winter's stock 
of meat " to one who was fortunate enough to capture him. The 
last moose was killed here as late as 1795. It was an Indian 
name, probably taken from the noise the animal made. Smaller 
specimens of the deer kind were occasionally found here till a half- 
century later. Bears were numerous among these mountains 
till 1800, but were gradually subdued, and called exterminated 
about 1840, though rarely heard of later than 1815. In the 
early days they occasionally killed swine, — rarely a sheep. They 
were very destructive in the corn-fields in autumn, and were then 
hunted and trapped ; and some, like Mr. Dinsmore, watched 
their patches of corn by night against the bears. 

Wolves were dangerously thick here for nearly a half-century 
after the town's settlement. Their bowlings by night were both 
unpleasant and dangerous. These began to echo through the 
woods a little before sunset. People that were at work in ob- 
scure places, or alone, made that a signal to go home. These 
ravenous, fearless creatures did most damage by killing sheep. 
They have been known to attack cattle, but unsuccessfully and 
rarely. Wolves were accustomed to go in small flocks, and if 
one of their number were shot, the others would stop and tear 
him to pieces and eat everything but his bones. These animals 
have been exterminated here about a half-century. Mr. Whiton 
says the last mischief done by them was about 1825. I quote 
from him as follows : " A Mr. Curtice, who lived on Windsor 
Mountain, once turned out his cattle to browse in a swamp ; a 
pack of wolves beset them ; the cattle made a quick but well- 
planned retreat, the cows taking the front, the small cattle the 
center, w'hile the oxen assumed the perilous task of guarding the 
rear, and beating back the wolves with their horns. The herd 
made good their retreat ; that the oxen killed or at least wounded 
some of the enemy, was inferred from the fact that their horns 
were bloody on their arrival at the barn." 



The first store in Antrim was opened by Ebenezer Kimball, in 
1788, or more probably in the fall of 1787, about on the spot where 
the Carter House now stands. After about six years, he was 
succeeded for a short time by Andrew Seaton, from Amherst ; 
then came Moses McFarland. William Whittemore -then took 
the business, building the Gibson house for the purpose, and was 
succeeded by Miller and Caldwell, and James Campbell. The 
Woodbury store was opened in 1794, and has continued in the 
family since, except a short time when it was run by Thomas 
McMaster. A Mr. Wallace from Milford put up a store about 
where the old post-office stood, now Jameson's block, about the 
same time of Woodbury's beginning, but the place was not large 
enough for both, and he left in about two years. Charles Mc- 
Keen opened a store in 1845, and occupied the same till his 
death ; his successors on the same stand being James W Brad- 
ford, Cummings and Putney, B. D. Putney, and E. D. and L. W. 
Putney. The stove and tin business was commenced in South 
Village by Luke Thompson, in 1862, who sold to the present 
occupant, Squires Forsaith, in 1872. John Hopkins began trade 
in what is now the Corey house, in 1822, and contimied about 
three years. In the east jjart of the town, Henry Campbell 
traded from 1793 to 1801, at the place now occupied by widow 
John G. Newman. Thomas Jameson traded on the turnpike 
about four years, closing up in 1819. At the north part of the ' 
town, James Wallace opened a small store on the William Stacy 
place as early as 1789, and continued in trade several years. 
Jacob Tuttle began trade at his farm, now James M. Tuttle's, in 
1796, removing his business to Branch Village some twenty two 
or three years later ; being succeeded by Hiram Griffin (who 
traded in all sixteen years), Griffin and Bell, Fairfield and 
Shedd, and Almus Fairfield, the last having been in trade there 
more than thirty years. A store was opened in 1813 in the house 
now Mr. Swain's, and run under the firm name of Tuttle, McCoy, 
and McAuley, which continued some years. Subsequently some 
of these parties seem to have traded in the three-story house. 
Moody B Mcllvaine built the store now George P Little's, about 
1852, and was in trade there some years. 

At the Center of the town, Robert and Henry Reed com- 
menced trade in 1827, at the stand now Rev. W; R. Cochrane's 
dwelling-house. Most of what constituted the store is now gone. 


This store was continued sixteen years. Reed Brothers traded 
seven years ; their successors being Martin L. Cliandler, Chand- 
ler and Vose, Charles Gates, and John M. Whiton, Jr. Business 
was closed up here in October, 1843. 

The store in Clinton was opened in 1873, by Clark B. Coch- 
rane, being the first in that village. 

In old times, traders dealt in everything they could buy or sell. 
They bought wood, lumber, ashes, fat cattle, cloth, flax, furs, 
wool, — everything. One who did much business would have a 
few droves of cattle and sheep to drive to market annually, tiro- 
ceries and rum were the main things sold to the people. Large 
quantities of corn, rye, oats, and beans were annually exported 
from Antrim as a surplus. Sometimes the farmers had wheat to 
sell. Now we do not raise enough of any one of these articles 
to supply our town market. 

The traders now in business here are given for future refer- 
ence : — 

Branch' Village, — Almus Fairfield; George P. Little. 

Clinton, — Clark B. Cochrane; also John G. Abbott, dealer in meal, 
grain, and halrdware. 

South Village, — Squires Forsaith, stoves, tinware, and glassware; B. 
r. Upton, dealer in harnesses, etc.; Mrs. B. F. Upton, millinery ; J. B. 
Woodbury; E. D. and L. W. Putney. 


Mail matter for all the towns in tliis section came jfco Amherst 
as late as 1809. A letter before me, dated May 16, 179.9, is 
marked " To be left in the post-office at Amherst." Letters were 
rarely written except on urgent matters of business, or once in 
a half-dozen years to bring tidings of absent friends. There was 
no post-office here for more than ten years after we had one 
thousand inhabitants. The first office in Antrim was opened in 
1810, in what is now the Gibson house, South Village, James 
Campbell being postmaster. The office was in his kitchen, and 
superintended by his wife. The successive postmasters in the 
village have been George Duncan, George C. Duncan, Luke 
Woodbury, James C. Breed, James W. Bradford, Charles Mc- 
Keen, N. W. C. Jameson, D. H. Goodell, N. W. C. Jameson, E. 
D. Putney. 

There was a post-office at the Center about ten years, the post- 
masters being Robert Reed, M. L. Chandler, and Charles Gates. 


^i.o.Wr JVlimuTPfo, 


A post-office was established at the Branch in 1835, and the 
postmasters have been Hiram Griffin, William P. Little, Hiram 
Griffin, and Almus Fairfield, the latter having held the office 
more than a quarter of a century. 

When the mail was first brought here, it was carried from 
Concord through Deering, South Antrim, Hancock, and Nelson, 
to Keene ; and we had two mails a week, once from Concord 
and once from Keene. It was a long time before facilities were 
any better. A daily mail is of quite recent date. Now we have 
several mails per day, and get our Boston morning papers before 
noon. The railroad to Antrim was opened for travel, June, 


The first printing of any great amount in town was by Almus 
Fairfield, who, in connection with his store, did quite a business 
in the line of posters and all similar work for many years, very 
neatly and successfully. After him the business passed into the 
hands of Edward J. Thompson, at South Village, who has prose- 
cuted the same and done a large amount of work. For a time 
he published the " Antrim Home News " ; also edited and 
printed the " Hillsborough Messenger " for a brief period. The 
best of work is done in this office. 


The following were college graduates from this tqwn : — 

John Nichols, Dartmouth College, 1813, missionary, Bombay. 

Daniel M. Christie, LL. D., Dartmouth College, 1815, lawyer, Dover. 

George W. Nesmith, LL. D., Dartmouth College, 1820, judge supreme 
court, Franklin. 

Luke Woodbury, Dartmouth College, 1820, judge of probate, Antrim. 

Thomas W. Duncan, Dartmouth College, 1817, clergyman, Nelson. 

Sylvester Cochran, Dartmouth College, 1835, clergyman, Vermont- 
ville, Mich. 

Hiram Bell, Williams College, clergyman, Westchester, Conn. 

Seneca Cummings, Dartmouth College, 1844, missionary, China. 

Charles I. Fox, Dartmouth College, 1831, lawyer and author, Nashua. 

Cyrus Baldwin, Dartmouth College, 1839, professor, Meriden. 

Isaac Baldwin, Dartmouth College, 1849, lawyer, Clinton, lo. 

John D. Hutchinson, now of Middlebury College, Vermont. 

The following persons from Antrim, not college graduates, 
have been lawyers, doctors, or professional teachers, or clergy- 
men, and of honorable rank in their professions : — 



John McFarland, lawyer, Hillsborough, died young. 

i)r. John Bertram, Dartmouth Medical College, 1825, Townsend, 

Dr. James A. Gregg, Unity and Manchester. 

Dr. Samuel Vose, New Portland, Me. 

Dr. Dexter Baldwin, Dartmouth Medical College, 1823, Marlborough, 

Eev. Stephen G. Abbott, pastor Baptist churches, Needham, Mass., 
and other places. 

Prof. Benjamin F. Wallace, teacher and editor. 

Prof. Joseph McKeen, LL. D., New York City. 

Prof. James E. Yose, Ashburnham, Mass. 

Dr. Morris Christie (studied in New York City), Antrim. 

Dr. Augustus G. Stickney, Williams Medical College, West Townsend, 

Dr. James M. Stickriey, Vermont Medical College, Pepperell, Ma,ss. 

Dr. George A. Wilkins, Albany Medical College, Hillsborough. 

Dr. Jacob P. Whittemore, Dartmouth Medical College, 1847, Haver- 
hill, Mass. 

Dr. Silas M. Dinsmore, Prancestown. 

Eev. Joseph Moulton, pastor Methodist church, South Waldobor- 
ough, Me. 

Prof. Nathan B. Barker, Jr., principal Buffalo Public School, N. Y. 

Prof. James W. Barker, president New York Teachers' Association, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Eev. Sewall P. Barker, teacher and Methodist pastor, Shelby, N. Y. 

Edgar A. Wallace, Harvard Law School, 1867, lawyer. 

Dr. M. W. Atwood. 


This has not been a good field for this class of professional 
men. We have always been a law-abiding people. We have 
sent out some ot the best lawyers in the State, to help settle the 
troubles of other towns. The first lawyer who opened an ofifice 
in this town was Hon. Luke Woodbury, who began in Hancock, 
but moved his office to Antrim in 1826. Was much in town 
ofiice ; an excellent presiding officer ; judge of probate from 
1888 to his death in 1851, being also at that time candidate for 
governor, with almost a certainty of election. John McNiel, of 
Hillsborough, succeeded Judge Woodbury, but did not -remain 
more than two or three years. Subsequently Brooks K. Web- 
ber practiced law here some years, then removed to Hillsbor- 
ough. Samuel W. Holman now has an office here for one day 
in every week. 



Up to 1786, this town depended upon neighboring towns for 
medical help in severe cases, others being left in charge of some 
of the good mothers who were excellent nurses and often as 
efficient as a doctor. Dr. Little, of Hillsborough, came here 
principally, and was of great service to the town. The first phy- 
sician here was Dr. Prye, who came in 1786 and stayed, about a 
year. He was succeeded by Dr. William Ward, who remained 
about five years. Dr. Cleaves followed Ward, remaining till his 
lamented death in April, 1807. Dr. Stickney then came, locat- 
ing at the Branch, and continuing in practice about half a cen- 
tury. He was succeeded at the Branch by Dr. D. W. Hazleton 
and Dr. Wilkins. 

Dr. Graham, living on the Caleb Roach place, had some prac- 
tice from 1847 to 1851, not being, however, a physician in reg- 
ular order, but somewhat successful. 

The first physician in South Village, after Drs. Frye and 
Ward, was Dr. Charles Adams, who began at the Center in 
1807, and after about a year moved to the village, going to Oak- 
ham, Mass., in 1816. He was succeeded by Dr. Burnham. The 
names and date of practice of all in town are here given. Drs. 
Christie and Anthoine, now our physicians, have large practice 
iu this and adjoining towns. 



William Ward 


Nathan W. Cleaves 


Jeremiah Stickney 


Charles Adams 


Israel Burnham 


G. H. Hubhard 


T>. W. Hazleton 


V. Manahan 


Levi W. Wilkins 


William M. Parsons 


Morris Christie 


J. E. Kimball 


I. G. Anthoine 



John Duncan (about 1775 to 1813), Daniel Nichols, Jacob Tuttle. (1810- 
1846), Mark Woodbury, Jacob Whittemore (1812-1867), James Hopkins 
(1814-1839), Amos Parmenter (1824-1844), Luke Woodbury (1826-1849), 
George Duncan (1827-1847), Samuel Fletcher (1828-1848), Thomas Mc- 


Master, Jr., David Nahor, Mark B. Woodbury, Cyrus Saltmarsh, Thomas 
S. Holmes, Joseph Davis, 2d, Hiram Griffin (1843-1863), William Carr, 
John G. Flint (1844-1870), Edward L. Vose (1846-1866), Isaac Baldwin 
(1847-1871), George H. Hubbard, Thomas Dunlap (not sworn in), John 
McNiel, Bartlett Wallace, Lemuel N. Pattee, Charles McKeen, Imla 
Wright (1855-1879), James Boyd (1855-1871), William S. Foster (1855- 
1871), N. W. C. Jameson (1856-1879), Ira Cochran, John B. Woodbury, 
Isaac B. Pratt, James W. Bradford, James Wood, John M. Wallace, John 
K. Abbott (did not qualify^. Reed P. Whittemore, Samuel Wilson, Henry 
B. Swett (did not qualify), William N. Tuttle (1860-1879), Almus Fair- 
field (1862-1879), Brooks K. Webber, Samuel G. Newton, D, H. Goodell 
(1866-1879), C. E. Dorr, George A. Cochran, Mark True, Edward D. 
Putney, Samuel' S. Sawyer, John K. Kimball, William R. Carr, John M. 
Duncan, Francis M. Shattuck (did not qualify), J. D. Clement (did not 
qualify), David Steele, Eben Bass, Charles B. Dodge, James E. Vose, J. 
R. Bartlett, Morris Christie, Josiah Loveren, Nathan C. Jameson, Charles 
F. Holt, Alfred A. Miller, Samuel W. Holman, Elliott W. Baker, Frank 
O. Clement. 


House of John Duncan, Jan. 31, 1812. 

James Dunlap's barn and sheds, July 26, 1816. 

Bollins's mill, Dec. 11, 1817. 

The three-story tavern, Feb. 1, 1818. 

Johnson's mill, 1842. 

Twiss's shop and barn, Clinton, 1838. 

Bobbin-shop, at Branch, Feb. 26, 1846. 

Dea. Jonathan Nesmith's house, March 4, 1841. 

Steel mills, Branch, July, 1839. 

Duncan tannery, June, 1841. 

New Duncan tannery, April 8, 1851. 

Poor's patent-leather shop, March 9, 1836. 

John Blanchard's house, Feb. 14, 1842. 

Breed's woolen-mill, March 31, 1850. 

Poor's saw and grist mill, March 18, 1838. 

Cotton-factory, Clinton, April 9, 1857. 

Turner's shop, Clinton, April 29, 1864. 

George G. Hutchinson's barn, Aug. 17, 1866. 

Baldwin's shop, November, 1867. 

Keyes house, 1861. 

Abbott's shop, Clinton, Sept. 10, 1866. 

Shovel-factory, Feb. 22, 1867. 

N. W. C. Jameson's buildings, Ausr. 9, 1861. 

Peg-shop at Branch, March 17, 1869. 

Webster's barn (Center), Sept. 2, 1866. 

Tuttle house (High Range), May 16, 1873. 

Tristram Paige's factory (Clinton), Feb. 8, 1876. 

Parkhurst's mill house, 1876. 




Antrim is increasingly a resort for city inhabitants in summer. 
Bben Bass has an attractive home and fine accommodations for 
fifty or more ; Mrs. Perry, at the Center, has large and well-fur- 
nished apartments ; Mrs. M. B. Mcllvaine, at the Branch, has 
had a houseful for years; other pleasant homes open their doors 
to boarders as well as relatives, — making Antrim a lively place in 
the summer. From one hundred to two hundred and fifty per 
year spend part of the summer among us. No richer tables, 
pleasanter drives, purer air, better society, finer scenes, or kinder 
hosts can be found in the State. 


John G. Abbott . $75 20 
John G. Abbott as guardian 77 41 

James Boyd 88 97 

E. W. Baker 62 00 

Eben Bass 80 29 

George Brown . 93 87 

Addie P. Baker 53 77 

Mary Clark 54 82 

George A. Cochran 63 26 

Morris Christie 101 06 

William Curtis 53 54 

D. H. Goodell 201 2.3 
Goodell Company (part ex- 
empt term of years) 96 00 

Hiram Griffin . 86 5.3 

E. Z. Hastings 64 19 
L. W. Hill . 69 68 

N. W. C. Jameson $102 60 

Josiab Loveren 51 20 

Franklin Perry 50 73 

Thomas Poor 60 35 

Sawyer and Bryer 73 23 
John S. Shedd . 215 14 

Daniel Story 66 57 
George Thompson . 63 53 

James A. Tuttle . 62 98 

Mary E. Woodbury 56 00 

Jacob B. Whittemore 77 28 

Eliza Wilson 50 79 

James Wood . 6i) 06 

John B. Woodbury 96 83 

Anna M. Woodbury 118 40 

George E. Whittum 62 72 



The following family records will explain themselves, for the most 
part. The arrangement is original with me, and fixed upon as best for 
our limited requirements, while it would not do for an extended geneal- 
ogy. The first generation born here or identified with Antrim is nimi- 
hered, and everything said about each child or descendants of the same 
immediately follows within brackets. The next generation is printed in 
Italics, and immediately after each name follows the record of the same 
and descendants in parenthesis. It will be noted that the parenthesis 
with its contents is included in brackets. Notices of other generations 
before and after these two will be given in a form of words needing no 
explanation. Only the first generation is numbered. This avoids the 
extensive use of numbers, and all mixtures of Roman and Arabic terras; 
and is suflEicient, as in most cases we have only three or four generations 
to deal with. 

As these records are given in alphabetical order, no index is needed. 
"When several families are of the same name, it has been the rule to 
mention first the family earliest here. When places outside of New 
Hampshire are mentioned, the initials of the State are given therewith, 
except in a few cases where it would be needless, as New Orleans, Phil- 
adelphia, etc. 

It has been the rule, as far as practicable without dividing families 
unwarrantably, to confine our remarks to those born in Antrim. Dates 
have been brought down to Centennial Day, June 27, 1877 ; and but lit- 
tle will be found in these genealogies subsequent to the above point of 
time, and this only such as has come unsought to my hand. These fam- 
ilies are allotted different amounts of space, since some were here but a 
little while, and some left no information or record behind. I have made 
it a rule to give all information to the point which I could get. If fam- 
ilies would give me but little, they must not complain if but little is said 
of them here. Most of the old settlers are noticed at some length. 
Sometimes I have had to decide between conflicting statements by dif- 
ferent branches of the same family. Some who had absolutely no 
records of their own will find notices here which I have picked up from 
various sources and put together. In making these searches during 
about five years, I have written fifteen hundred letters and about two 
thousand postals, — many of them for convenience in our own town. Of 
families who long since left town, I have often had to write to town 
clerks and clergymen and others, to find a person who could tell any- 


thing; and then write over and over, inclosing stamps, till sick at heart 
with it, to get out of him what I wanted. I have tried with entire 
impartiality to get in all cases what facts I could. 

All matters of biography in this book are embodied in the genealogies. 
Have said but little about the living. 

It should be added, that, some items coming in late, I have been 
obliged to make the additions in a manner out of the usual order. Some 
of the larger sketches of families I have actually written over four times, 
to make them Correspond with new information, often also unknown to 
the families themselves. About sixty families have during this period 
resided in Antrim more or less who are not named in the genealogies, 
because we have no valid information. Most of these were so little here, 
or so little identified with us, as not to be greatly missed. The following 
persons lived here at least one year each before 1810 : Joseph Clark, 
Jonathan Lamson, Daniel Moore, Stephen Reynolds, Thomas Patch, 

Jonathan Flanders, Thomas Miller, David Carleton, Hoyt, William 

Davidson, William Johnson, and Jesse Rogers. Subsequently, Nathan 
Cram, Thomas Aucerton, Sampson Reed, Thomas Carleton, Bezaleel 
Wheeler, Luther Cohant, John' Edwards, most of them with large fam- 
ilies, resided here for a time. More recently, many families have come 
and gone, whom neither convenience nor interest would justify us in 
following. These genealogies embrace three hundred and twenty-nine 
different names, and five hundred and eighty-one different families. I 
have taken what seemed to me all possible pains to be accurate ; yet 
probably many mistakes will be found, for which I ask in advance the 
patience of all concerned. The result may seem imperfect; but, scat- 
tered through five years, I have spent more than twelve months of steady, 
close labor on these genealogies alone, and submit them as the best I can 
do under the circumstances. 

I am indebted to Miss Abby G. Morse, of Concord, for much patient 
and most efiicient work in arranging and copying these materials. 
Clark Hopkins also has been of great service to me, and has been willing 
to spend much time in my help. Reed P. Saltmarsh has been ut. tiring in 
his efforts to aid me, and has been of great service. To these especially, 
and to many others, I here put on record my tender of honest thanks. 

And among those who have gone out from the town who have aided 
in this work, I would mention Rev. S. G. Abbott, Hon. George W. Nes- 
mith, Hon. A. H. Dunlap, and, in particular, Hon. Charles Adams, Jr. 
The last named has taken upon him more actual labor and pains than 
any other person, and he has been ready both with money and work to 
forward these investigations. i 

I may add that I have drawn items from every possible source, with- 
out hesitation but thankfully, for which it would take too much room to 
make separate acknowledgments. 

Robert C. Mack, Esq., of Londonderry, has been greatly "my helper, as 
he is always my honored friend, and my fellow-laborer as a genealogist. 

No abbreviations are employed except b. for born, m. for married, and 
d. for died, unless in case of initials of names; the object being to make 
every page as plain as possible, especially to the aged. 



Ret. SAMUEL ABBOTT was son of Dea. Ephraim and Dorothy 
(Stiles) Abbott. This Dea. Ephraim was the son of Ephraim, who was the 
son of Ephraim, who was the son of John, who was the son of George Ab- 
bott, who came from Yorkshire, England, and settled in Andover, Mass., 
1643. Rev. Samuel Abbott was born in Mont Vernon, 1777, married Sa- 
rah, daughter of Rev. John Rand, 1798; was pastor in Middleborough, 
Bridgewater, and Chester, Mass., and Londonderry, N. H. Was the 
inventor of " Abbott's window-shades," 1825; came here in 1838, and 
bought the present estate in Clinton, where he remained till his death in 
1853. Mr. Abbott was wholly uneducated in the schools, but had strong 
native abilities, was a good sermonizer, and an impressive preacher. 
In style, he was bold, incisive, and logical. As a minister, he was honest 
and "fearless. He never wrote a sermon. An incident will best show 
the man. He preached for Dr. "Whiton one day, and had for a subject: 
" What must be put out of the church to promote a revival ? " After 
enlarging on several items, he paused and said, " One thing more must 
go out of the church. [A pause.] Tes, I must mention it, — Bum must 
go out of the church ! " And then with great courage and ability he 
enforced the reasons why. Those were the first days of the temperance 
excitement, and many of the members had long been accustomed to a 
daily dram. Many, therefore, were oflFeaded and declared they would 
never hear Mr. Abbott again. The next time Dr. Whiton asked him to 
preach, he consented on condition that no hint of it be given beforehand. 
Then, when suddenly he arose to speak and several men started for the 
door, he was too quick for them, and in a loud voice gave out his text: 
" And they, being convicted in their own consciences, went out one by 
one I " And at once they all appreciated the thing, — heard him through, 
and were ever after good friends 1 Mr. Abbott's children were thus: — 

1. Samuel, [d. in infancy.] 

2. Bpheaim, [b. Milford 1801, m. Ann Wallace of Merrimack, 

lives in Sudbury, Mass.] 

3. Sakah G., [b. in Middleborough, Mass., 1804, m. Richard 

Waldron, and lives in Providence, R. I.] 
'4. MiLLB R., [d. in Antrim 1848, unm., aged 41.] 


5. Hepsibah N., [b. in Middleborough, Mass., 1809, d. in Antrim 


6. Samuel W., [b. in Bridgewater, Mass., 1812, m. Clarissa P. 

Olaggett of Derry, d. Montreal, Can., 1862. Samuel W. 
Abbott was the first of the family here. He came in 1885, 
and bought, in company with Dea. Imla Wright, all the 
water-power between Holt's and Paige's mills, with a large 
tract of land. They two built the Abbott mill, 1836. The 
former bought the Boyd house, 1837, moved it and fitted it 
up as it now stands. This house was built in 1797, and, 
when moved, the shingles that had done service forty years 
were turned over and relaid on the back side, and are doing, 
good service now, having lasted upwards of eighty years.] 

7. Dorothy S., [b. in Bridgewater 1813, m. Rev. Isaac Wood- 

bury 1857, d. in Antrim June, 1873.J 

8. John R., [b. in Bridgewater, Mass., Feb. 14, 1817, m. Han- 

nah 0. True of Prancestown, Dec. 19, 1848; carried on 
an extensive business in Clinton many years, was a smart 
and efficient business man, a loving and devout Christian. 
Died in the prime of life, Dec. 6, 1863, in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, where he had gone in pursuit of health. His widow 
died June 21, 1875, a noble woman full of prayer and good 
works, aged 53. Their children are : — 

John Gr., (b. Nov. 3, 1854. He carries on a large business in 
Clinton, is a most worthy young man and desirable citizen. 
Is town treasurer, and probably the youngest man that ever 
held that office in Antrim.) 

Charles S., (b. Aug. 16, 1856.) 

Harlan P., (b. July 10, I860.) 

Mart/ Jane, (an adopted daughter, niece of Mrs. Abbott, b. 
July 13, 1857.)] 

9. Rev. Stephen G., [b. in Bridgewater, Mass., Nov. 9, 1819, 

studied theology at New Hampton, was licensed to preach by 
the Baptist Church of Antrim, and settled in Needham, 
Mass., and other places. He m. Sarah B. Cheney of Hol- 
derness, in 1846. The degree, of A. M. was conferred on 
Mr. Abbott, by Bates College, in 1870. He has but one 
John T.,Xh. in Antrim in 1850, was graduated at Bates Col- 
lege in 1871, m. Alice B. Merriman, and is now a lawyer in 



[Chieflj' from Drake's History of Boston, Folio Edition.] 
AP ADAM came to England out of the " Marches of Wales," and 
twenty-three generations of his descendants in the male line are here 
given. The earlier generat\ons lived in Lancashire and Devonshire, 
. England, and the later ones in America. 

1. Sir John Ap Adam, Knt. Lord Ap Adam, member of Parlia- 
ment from 1296 to 1307. 

2. Sir John Ap Adam. 

3. William Ap Adam. 

4. Sir John Ap Adam. 

5. Thomas Ap Adam. 

6. Sir John Ap Adam, Knt. 

7. Sir John Ap Adam, alias Adams. 

8. Roger Adams. 

9. Thomas Adams. 

10. John Adams. 

11. John Adams. 

12. John Adams. 

13. Richard Adams. 

14. William Adams. 

15. Henry Adams, who settled in Braintree, Mass. (now Quincy), and 
died 1646. 

16. Edward Adams, of Medfleld, Mass. 

17. John Adams, of Medway, Mass. 

18. Abraham Adams, of Brookfield, Mass. 

19. Jesse Adams, of Brookfield, Mass. 

20. Dr. Charles Adams, of Antrim. 

21. Hon. Charles Adams, Jr., North Brookfield, Mass. 
22 Charles Woodburn Adams, North Brookfield, Mass. 
23. Charles Joseph Adams, North Brookfield, Mass. 

From Henry Adams (15), who settled in Braintree, descended the 
presidents. He had a large family besides the Edward named above, 
and among them a sou Joseph, born 1626, who married Abigail Baxter, 
and died 1694. This Joseph had a son Joseph, born Dec. 24, 1654. Of 
this second Joseph, the second son was Dea. John Adams of Braintree, 
who died May 25, 1760. Dea. John married Susanna Boylston of Brook- 
line, Mass., and their oldest son was John Adams, born Oct. 19, 1735, 
second president of the United States, reaching the age of nearly 91. 
His oldest son was John Quincy Adams, born July 11, 1767, sixth pres- 
ident, dying Feb. 28, 1848. John Q. Adams married Louisa C. Johnson, 
and was father of the distinguished Charles Francis Adams. 

Dr. Charles Adams, the twentieth generation from Ap Adam of 
Wales, was son of Jesse and Miriam (Richardson) Adams cf Brookfield, 
Mass., and was born in that place Feb. 13, 1782. His early years were 
spent on the farm with his father. His education was chiefly acquired 
in the district school and Leicester Academy. He then taught some 
two years in Half Moon, N. Y. On return (1803), he commenced the 


study of medicine with Dr. Asa Walker of Barre, Mass., with whom he 
remained in practice one year after completing his studies. He came to 
Antrim and began practice in the early summer of 1807, coming to take 
the place of Dr. Cleaves, whose death occurred iti April of that year. 
His attention was called to Antrim by Dr. Whiton, who afterwards set- 
tled here in the ministry, and at that time had been here enough to 
know something of the people and their wants. At tirst Dr. Adams 
established himself at the Center of the town, where he remained about 
a year. He bought the place now occupied by Harold Kelsea in 
South Village, Oct. 31, 1808, and some months after located there, and 
remained there till his removal from town. This house and the few 
acres of land attached to it was part of a large tract containing five hun- 
dred and ninety-five acres, all which was sold for taxes, Oct. 28, 1778, 
by James Duncan, constable of the town, to Daniel McFarland, in two 
lots, for £16. 15s. 2d. McFarland held all this land till 1798, when he 
sold about twenty acres (now belonging to Kelsea, Alvah Dodge, and 
many others) to Nehemiah Knight, for eighty dollars, under date of 
June 7 of that year. Knight sold to Dr. Adams, and Dr. Adams to 
Moses B. Person, June 23, 1832. The succeeding owners were John 
Dunlap, Ezra Hyde, Mark B. Woodbury, oST. W. C. Jameson, and Harold 
Kelsea. Dr. Adams paid three hundred dollars, in 1808, for what is now 
worth many thousands. At that time there was on the place a little, 
low, unpainted house, with a small shop joined on to it, which, having 
apparently been a shoemaker's ' shop, now became the doctor's office. 
Feb. 13, 1809, his twenty-seventh birthday, Dr. Adams married Sarah 
McAllister, daughter of James and Sarah (McClary) McAllister of 
Antrim. She was a woman of excellent tastes and talents, of rare 
patience under trial, and of a sweet and winning Christian spirit, — all 
which made her a woman conspicuously worthy and attractive. "In 
her tongue was the law of kindness." " Her children rise up and call 
her blessed." His practice here was large and laborious, and promised 
to remain so, suggesting to him the idea of a change ; and on the death 
of Dr. Fobes of Oakham, Mass., near his native town, he determined at 
once to go there, and made his removal to that place in 1816. He died 
in that place March 6, 1876. Dr. Adams, in Antrim, was occasionally in 
town office, was a favorite among the people, and was held to be a suc- 
cessful physician and a man of marked ability. He was a great reader, 
was full of information, pursued his practice till most of his contempora- 
ries were gone, and even in extreme old age he was sent for in difficult 
cases. He was the oldest of twelve children, all of whom he survived 
more than a quarter of a century. Unbroken health was given him all 
his life long, aSnd he died of old age at last. Dr. Adams had eight chil- 
dren, four of them born in Antrim and the four youngest in Oakham. 

1. Hon. Charles, Jr., [b. Jan. 31, 1810. Had his first school- 
ing here, under charge of Daniel M. Christie and Miss 
Fanny Baldwin. After removal from this town, he was at 
school six months under Rev. John Bisbee of Brookfield, 


Mass. ; then studied eight months with Rev. Josiah Clark of 
Rutland, Mass. ; and this was the limit of his opportunity 
for education. Then, though quite young, he was in a store 
five or six years, obtaining much practical knowledge in the 
course of his work. Is what is called a self-made man. 
Few men can be found better versed than he in literary 
affairs or political economy. May 8, 1884, he married Eliza, 
daughter of Dea. Joseph Cummings of Ware, Mass., and 
settled in North Brookfield, that State, where he has since 
resided. Was a long time book-keeper, and afterwards part- 
ner, in the immense boot and shoe manufacturing establish- 
ment of that place, from which he retired just before the 
war. With singular continuance he has been kept in offices 
of trust by the people of his town and State. He was clerk 
of the town ten years ; representative, four years ; on the 
Massachusetts executive council, four years ; treasurer of the 
State, five years ; and is now (1877) on his fourth year as sen- 
ator in the Massachusetts legislature. Has been in public life 
more than a quarter of a century. Is a man of fixed prin- 
ciple and irreproachable character; and is held in honor 
throughout his adopted State. Has always been greatly 
attached to his native town, cherishing with unfading love 
the rocks and the hills upon which he looked in childhood. 
Was one of the donors of the vestry to the Center Church, 
with which he subsequently united. He is a Scotch anti- 
quarian of much reading, foreign travel, and patient research. 
The degree of A. M. was conferred upon him by Dartmouth 
College, 1878. Has had five children : Joseph Charles', 
Charles Woodburn, Ellen Eliza, John Quincy, and George 

2. Austin, [b. June 23,1811; m. 1st, Charlotte Noyes, 1845 ; 

2d, Almira Stearns ; is a mason by trade, lives in Oakham, 

3. Charlotte, [b. May 21 , 1813, m. John F. Howard of Boston, 

and died Oct. 14, 1849.] 

4. Lyman, [b. April 1, 1815, m. Sarah Brown of Baltimore, Md., 

and died at New Orleans, March 18, 1859.J 

5. Dea. Levi, [b. Oakham, March 7, 1817 ; m. Sarah L. Ward 

of North Brookfield, Aug. 14, 1845 ;' 2d, Clara M. Dwight 
of Belchertown, Mass., May 14, 1854. He died Aug. 11, 
1860. Was a fine scholar and a superior teacher. He fol- 


lowed the profession of teaching nearly twenty years ; was 
a man of early and life-long piety ; very able in meetings ; 
greatly loved by all classes ; was deacon in Congregational 
Church of North Brookfield, and his early death was one of 
great glory and peace. In the struggles of death he said to 
his pastor, referring to his funeral : " I wish you to state 
that I do not want a Unitarian Savior now, but one that is 
Almighty ! "] 

6. Horace, [d. unm., 1849, aged 30.] 

7. Clarinda R., [b. Nov. 17, 1823, m. George A. Ellis, who is 

now treasurer of the South Boston Savings Bank. She is a 
woman of rare sweetness of character and life.J 

8. John, [b. April 4, 1827, m. Marietta Pierce, lives in Boston.] 

EDWIN T. ADAMS, carpenter by trade, son of John and Betsey 
(Atkins) Adams, born in "Waterbury, Vt., 1836, came here in 1870 into 
the Ezra Hyde house, which he has greatly enlarged and improved. Mar- 
ried Jennie Davis of Hancock, and has one child, Sadie M. 


EDWARD AIKEN", ancestor of all the New Hampshire Aikens, 
came over from the north of Ireland in 1720, the next year after the set- 
tlement of Londonderry, and located among his countrymen in that new 
town. Parker puts the date of emigration in 1722. But near the close 
of 1720 the general committee of the town were " petitioned to by Wil- 
liam Aiken, John Bell, Andrew Todd, John Wallis, and Benjamin Wil- 
son, for the grant of a stream or brook, which commonly goes by the 
name of Aiken's brook, in order to the setting-up of a saw-mill thereon, 
and also one acre of land adjoining to said brook, that will be convenient 
for a yard to said mill." This shows that the Aikens must have been 
on the ground previous to December, 1720, long enough for the stream 
to get the name " Aiken's brook." Many of these Aikens were mill- 
wrights and mechanics, — the first Aiken in Antrim also having up a 
saw-mill soon after he got fairly started on his farm. 

The emigrant, Edward Aiken, had three sons, all, it seems, born in 
Ireland; and if he had daughters, we have no note of them. The sons 
settled on adjoining farms in Londcjuderry, and hence the neighborhood 
was called " Aiken's Range." 

Nathaniel, oldest son of Edward, was born May 14, 1696; married 
Margaret Cochran, daughter of James, Dec. 1, 1726, and had children: 
Edward, John, Eleanor, Nathaniel, Christian, Jane, James, Ninian, Wil- 
liam, Susannah, and Thomas. Nathaniel, the father of these, died Dec. 
1, 1783, and his wife in 1788. Edward Aiken, the emigrant, was bora in 
Ireland in 1660, married Barby Edwards, and died in Londonderry in 


Edward, the oldest child of Nathaniel, went to Windham, Vt. He 
was born Sept. 2, 1727; was grandfather of Rev. Dr. Samuel C. Aiken 
of Ohio. 

John, second child of Nathaniel, called Dea. John, married Annis Orr, 
and removed to Bedford. He was grandfather of Rev. Dr. Silas Aiken 
of Boston, afterwards of Rutland, Vt., and also of Hon. John Aiken of 
Andover, Mass., and great-grandfather of Rev. Dr. C. A. Aiken, pro- 
fessor at Princeton. The descendants of Dea. John Aiken are very 

Much might be given of the other children of Nathaniel, but it is 
beyond the province of this book. James, his seventh child, remained 
in Londonderry, and had a large family. 

Ninian, the eighth child, lived in Deering, and was grandfather of 
James Aiken, Esq., of Lewisburg, Penn., whose poem appears in the 
centennial proceedings. 

William, the ninth child of Nathaniel, was born Feb. 20, 1743, married 
Betsey Woodburn, settled in Deering, and died Feb. 19, 1799. He was 
known as " Dea. William," was an excellent man, and was a leader in 
the new town where he settled and died. Had ten children, and was 
grandfather of M. M. Aiken, Esq., a man of note in Peoria, III., and of 
the Gillis family named elsewhere. The descendants of " Dea. William " 
are many in number and noble in character. 

Thomas, youngest child of Nathaniel save a daughter, Harriet, sup- 
posed to have died young, was born Feb. 27, 1747. He married Mary 
Anderson Dec. 31, 1772 ; was known as " Spinning-wheel Thomas." He 
settled in the south part of Deering, and there manufactured spinning- 
wheels for the whole region. Was an officer in the militia. The section 
where he lived was called Antrim as early as 1770. This was the 
Thomas Aiken tliat " lived in Antrim," and brought up the boy Samuel 
Downing, who became the last survivor of the Revolutionary army. (See 
Downing.) " Spinning-wheel Thomas " died June 10, 1831, aged eighty- 
four. Thousands of his spinning-wheels were in use in this region fifty 
years ago, and a few are still preserved. He had ten children : Joseph, 
Nancy, John, Thomas, Susanna, Alice, Jennie, Mary, Robert, and Sallie. 
Inasmuch as he claimed that he " lived in Antrim," his children shall 
have additional mention here, as fpllows : — 

Joseph was graduated at Dartmouth College, 1799, and died in 1803. 

Nancy married Daniel Dane of New Boston. 

John married Nancy Moore, and died in Texas, 1846. 

Thomas died young. 

Susanna married David Lewis of Prancestown. 

Alice married David Ellin wood of Deering. 

Jennie married Peter Clark of Francestown. 

Mary married William Langdell of New Boston, and left a large 


Robert settled in Kingston, Canada, and his descendants are now in 

that vicinity. 

Sallie married Rufus Fuller of Contoocookville, and had a large 



Walter aud J. B. Aiken, manufacturers at Franklin Falls, are descend- 
ants of " Spinning-wheel Thomas." 

■James Aiken, second son of the emigrant Edward, married Jean Coch- 
ran, Oct. 26, 1725, probably a sister of Margaret Cochran, named above. 
They had six children. The oldest, Elizabeth, was born Aug. 13, 1726. 
The others were Edward, James, Jane, Agnes, and John. We have no 
knowledge of Elizabeth ; Edward, Jane, Agnes, and John went to Benson, 
Vt., and were among the best people there. A descendant, James H. Aiken, 
Esq., now resides there, and many are scattered in the South and West. 

James, the other of these six children of James and Jean Cochran, 
was our "Dea. James," of whom a brief sketch follows here. In addi- 
tion to this sketch it may be said that Dea. Aiken served one campaign 
or more in the Revolutionary army. He lived to see the forest of 1767 
turned into a thriving town of thirteen hundred inhabitants. A brief 
obituary may be found in the " Amherst Cabinet " of Aug. 2, 1817. 

Dea. JAMES AIKEN of Antrim was born in Londonderry, June 1, 
1731 ; was out in the French war ; was one of the company celebrated as 
" Rogers's Rangers," who scoured the country and accomplished marvels 
in the line of bravery and endurance. Dr. Whiton tells us that Dea. 
Aiken was once on a scout with Maj. Rogers as far west as Lake George, 
and the party were almost famished with hunger and thirst, nothing 
remaining but a glass of rum in a soldier's canteen. The major offered 
him a dollar for the rum. But the soldier, saying, "Major, I love you, 
but I love myself better," tipped the canteen and swallowed the rum! 

That Dea. Aiken was a brave man, is attested by the fact that alone 
he faced the forest and the savage, and fixed his home here many miles 
from a human neighbor. He was the second permanent settler of 
Antrim. He came and made a little opening in 1766, aud the next year 
removed his family here. Their arrival at his cabin was on Aug. 12, 
1767, and it stood against a big rock near the house of Robert Dodge at 
the foot of the hill in South Village, that being, as he said, the lirst dry 
spot he came to on this side of the river. It was four years before 
another settler joined him in that part of the town. Dea. Aiken was a 
man of remarkable energy and power, was -ready to help any one, was 
intimidated by no hardship, made his house a shelter to the first settlers, 
and opened his humble door to every wanderer. Some of these, as else- 
where related, found a happy refuge with this family in the wilderness. 
For many subsequent years, whenever' one came to preach to the scat- 
tered settlers, Dea. Aiken " took care of the minister." In his barn, 
September, 1775, was preached the first sermon ever heard iu Antrim. 
At the formation of the Presbyterian Church, 1788, he was the first per- 
son chosen elder, and he held the office with great faithfulness till his 
death, July 27, 1817, aged eighty-six. He died in the old house by the 
poplar-tree, which house was taken down by Charles McKeen about 
1855. His wife was Molly McFarland, a worthy and noble companion of 
his hardships and perils. They brought with them four children. She 
died Dec. 8, 1814, aged seventy-eight. Besides two that died young, 
the family was as follows : — 


1. Jane, [Was preparing to marry Dea. John Alexander, when 

she suddenly sickened and died, to the great grief of the 

2. Barbara, [m. John Campbell, 1786, and d. Feb. 1, 1828, 

aged 63.] 

3. Katherine, [b. Aug. 10, 1761, m. James Hopkins 1788, and d. 

Sept. 6, 1820.] 

4. Martha, [m. Joseph Favor and went to New Chester, now 

Hill. Her husband was killed by the fall of a bank of earth 
upon him, Oct. 13, 1807. She died in Lowell, Mass., more 
than fourscore years of age.] 

5. Polly, [b. April 15, 1768, first child of the white race born 

in Antrim ; m. Ebenezer Kimball, and d. Dec. 14, 1862! She 
was mother of the noted Dr. Kimball of Lowell.] 

6. James, Jr., [b. in the spring of 1772, being the first male of 

the white race born in this town. He married a daughter 
of Hugh Orr of Antrim. He built on the farm of his 
father, just north of the deacon's residence, the large house 
now (1879) Mr. Whittum's, and previously Gove's and 
Barrett's. He soon after went to New York with his wife 
and two children, Fanny and Edward, locating in Locke, now 
Summerhill. No son of Antrim has been hunted for more 
eagerly than this one, by the writer, but without avail. It 
is known, however, that he had several' sons after emigra- 
tion, one of whom was Leonard Aiken, who began life as 
a lawyer.] 

7. Peggy, [b. Aug. 80, 1776, m. Richard McAllister, and d. 

leaving several children, March 1, 1813, aged 36.] 

8. Nancy, [d. unm., 1814.] 

William, the youngest son of Edward the emigrant, married Janet 
Wilson, and had two sons, Edward and William, the former going to 
Windham, Vt., and the latter to Truro, Nova Scotia. This Janet Wilson 
was aunt of that Mary Wilson who was bom on board of a pirate ship 
while her mother was a prisoner, and who was named for the pirate cap- 
tain's wife, and received valuable presents from him. The whole of the 
children known were Agnes, Edward, Mary, Jonathan, Martha, and Wil- 
liam. Agnes was born Nov. 17, 1726. Other and valuable information 
concerning the several branches of the Aiken family must be omitted 
for want of space. 


RANDALL ALEXANDER, no doubt son of Randall and Janet 
Alexander, who received their lot of land in Nutfield in 1720, came 


here from Londonderry and began the James Hopkins place (Arthur 
Miller's) in 1772. Had been a soldier in the French war. Then he 
seems to be lost sight of on the redords till he turns up in this place. 
When he came here he '" squatted " (built a log cabin) on the brick-yard 
hill, so called, near the present house, but never made any purchase. 
And not possessing a spirit congenial with his neighbors, the land he 
claimed was quietly bought by others ; and when he resisted removal, he 
was hustled off without the forms of law. 'Tis said they dragged him 
down the sand-hill by his heels ! Would not this seem a good process to 
apply at a day as late as the present in certain cases ? 

Mr. Alexander had the first grindstone in Antrim for several years; 
and when asked by Aiken, his nearest neighbor, where he got it, said he 
found it in the jam, the annual collection of drift-wood in the bend of 
the river east of his camp. Aiken said he knew he lied, but couldn't 
resist the temptation to use that grindstone ! So things went on for a 
time, until it was found that Alexander had borrowed the grindstone in 
PeteBborough, without the owner's cousent, and sent it down the river in 
a large sap-trough ! 

Mr. Alexander left town in 178-1:. Nothing can be ascertained about 
his family, or where he went. But he came back here in 182.8, white- 
headed, feebl?, and forgotten, and was supported by the town till his 
death in 1826, at the age of ninety-two. Dr. Whiton says, objection was 
made to tolling the bell for him, because it was the tradition that he saw 
a beautiful French girl murdered for her beads when he might have pre- 
vented it with a word. Very likely there was no truth in the charge ; but 
this circumstance shows that this people were very sensitive to a wrong. 
And that was the first year they had a bell, and no doubt it seemed a 
very sacred thing. . ' 

Dea. JOHN ALEXANDER, not known to be kin of the .above, — 
of Scotch race, — came here from Londonderry and began the Daniel 
Holt farm in 1787 ; married Mary Nevins of Salem, Mass. Sold his farm to 
Samuel McAdams and moved to the Branch in 1795, into a little house 
then standing six or eight rods east ot Sylvester Preston's. Was chosen 
elder in the Presbyterian Church in 1800 ; died in 1812. Left no chil- 
dren. Was a good man. His widow, partially iusane, and without friends, 
survived him many years. Nothing is known of their ancestry. 


JOHN ALLDS, son of James and Sarah (Hopkins) Allds, came here 
from Peterborough in 1798; cleared and settled the Jesse Combs place 
(now Lewis Green's); put up the present buildings in 1800; married 
Sarah, daughter of Charles Tuttle, in 1803 ; after many years moved into 
a house then standing between B. F. Dustin's and the Keene road; moved 
to Conneaut, Penn., in 1835, and died there, April 11, 1869, aged eighty. 
Children : — 

1. Isaac W., [b. May 26, 1804, m. Abigail Butters July 19, 1836, 
lived in west part of Antrim till 1853, when he moved to 


Stoddard, and died there April 26, 1876. Had children, all 

born here : — 
John, (b. July 15, 1837, d. in infancy.) 
Benton, (d. Sept. 23, 1842, aged 4.) 
Eliza, (d. Sept. 28, 1842, aged 2.) 
Sarah Ann, (b. Aug. 3, 1843, m. Charles S. Fletcher of this 

town March 25, 1874.) 
Louisa mien, (b. June 25, 1845, m. Cyrus J. Whitney, Jr., 

Oct. 17, 1875.) 
Isaac Worden, (b. Nov. 30, 1848, lives in Centralia, Wis.) 
Warren, (b. June 18, 1850, now of Worcester, Mass.) 
John Langdon, (b. Oct. 8, 1858, d. June 23, 1861.)] 

2. John, [b. March 25, 1806, went to Conneaut, Penn., in 1827, 

m. Sarah Osmore, now lives in Camp Douglas, Wis. J 

3. Sarah A., [twin sister of John, m. LangdonSwett April 25, 

1833, was blind many years, d. Dec. 11, 1878. J 

4. Nancy H., [b. Jan. 11, 1811, became second wife of Calvin 

Barrett of Stoddard.] 

5. Jonathan, [b. June 18, 1815, went with his father to Con- 

neaut, Penn., and still lives there ; m. Hannah Loomis.] 


NICHOLAS ANTHOINE came over to Marblehead, Mass., about 
the middle of the last century, and there married Rachel Hawkes. He 
was of French race, coming from the Isle of Jersey in the English chan- 
nel, which has long been a possession of England, though once a part of 
France and retaining its French manners and customs to this day. 
Nicholas Anthoine and Rachel Hawkes had three children : John, Rachel, 
and Nicholas, Jr. The latter went to Windham, Me., with many oth- 
ers, who formed a settlement and called it New Marblehead, after their 
old home, — which name was subsequently changed to Windham. 

Nicholas, Jr., married Anna Pettingill, whom he found in his new 
home in Maine. He was a man of note in his day in that section of the 
country. He had only six weeks' schooling in all his life, yet was a fine 
scholar, many years a teacher ; was teacher of Latin, and was particu- 
larly proficient in astronomy. He had his telescope and library of astro- 
nomical works, and used to calculate the various eclipses. He also 
studied medicine sufiiciently to be of great ^ use in that place and day, 
when physicians were remote. 

John Anthoine, son of Nicholas, Jr., married Mary Gilman, and their 
son. Dr. Isaiah G. Anthoine, was born in Windham, Me., March 25, 
1846, and came here as the successor of Dr. Kimball in 1874. He mar- 
ried Kate I. Preston, Jan. 2, 1877. Is superintending school-committee 
of the town. Dr. Anthoine studied at Stevens' Plains Seminary near 
Portland, Me.; entered the academic department of Dartmouth College 


in 1868, leaving at the close of ttie first year to go out teaching; then 
studied nearly two years in the Portland School of Medical Instruction ; 
and was graduated at Bowdoin Medical College in 1874, coming imme- 
diately here, and locating in South Village. Has one son, Harry M., h. 
Oct. 2, 1879. 


CHARLES APPLETON, grandson of Judge Robert Alcock, who 
came direct from England to Deering, and son of James and Mary 
(Stewart) Appletou, was born in Deering, 1825 ; name was changed from 
Alcock to Appleton ; married Nancy J. Parker, moved onto the then- 
called Tennent place, 1859, and still occupies the same. Children : — 

1. Clara A., [b. in Deering Sept. 5, 1853, m. Andrew D. White 

April 4, 1877.J 

2. George J., [b. in Deering, Feb. 18, 1855.] 

3. Scott J., [b. in Antrim, June 23, 1862.] 


JOSEPH S. ATHERTON, name changed from Witherspoon. See 
that family. 


JOSHUA ATWOOD. Little known of him. Lived awhile in ^ 
Lempster; was son of Caleb Atwood of Weare; came here and settled 
the John Barker place, 1790; married Susan Cram, and died in 1829, 
aged seventy-nine. The five last children were by a second wife, Mrs. 
Anne (Miller) Dresser of Windsor. He sold his farm to John Barker, 
in old age, and moved to Washington, but did not long survive the 
change. The children, except two that died in infancy, are given below. 
First wife died at the age of thirty-five. 

1. Wells, [m. Betsey Dresser, and moved to Windsor ; went 

thence to Washington, and d. there years ago.] 

2. Betsey, [m. Samuel Brown, d. on the Dea. Woods farm.] 

3. Polly, [m. John Dresser, moved to Washington, d. there.] 
4.' Jesse, [m. Betsey Hall of Londonderry, Vt., and lived and d. 

in that place.] 

5. Dolly, [m. Squire Gove, and. moved to Weare.] 

6. Peter Clark, [b. in Lempster Aug. 11, 1795, m. Mary P. 

Wilkins (" Polly") of Antrim. They lived here about five 
years after marriage, moving to Londonderry, Vt., in No- 
vember, 1820. They had children thus : — 
Dr. Matthew Whipple, (b. in Antrim May 22, 1816, m. Fannie 
W Burnham of this town Oct. 10, 1843, settled as a physi- 


cian in New Hudson, N. Y., and d. there, of consumption, 
Aug. 19, 1847, aged 31. Was a young man of much prom- 
ise, and his., untimely death was the occasion of great sor- 

Mary Almira, (b. in Antrim Jan. 18, 1818, m. Elisha D. Gear- 
field Oct. 13, 1886, d. of consumption in Londonderry, Vt., 
July 5, 184'7.) 

Lydia W., (b. in Antrim March 5, 1820, m. Alvah W. Pierce 
May ;'., 1841, d. of consumption May 9, 1854.) 

Harriet N"., (b. in Londonderry, Vt., March 23, 1823; m. 1st, 
Joel M. Pettengill. Her husband d. at the age of 25 ; m. 
2d, Harvey S. Curtis, Dec. 25, 1850. Home in Kenosha, 

Hmeline, (b. March 14, 1825, m. Samuel B. Cof&n, lives in 

Susan A., (b. Oct. 2, 1827, m. Josiah W. Pettigrew, lives in 
Ludlow, Vt.) 

Sarah F., (b. Oct. 11, 1829, m. Thomas P. Davis, lives in 

Peter C, (b. Jan. 26, 1832, m. Helen Aldrich.) 

Ann E., (b. Feb. 18, 1835, m. Prof. Addison P. Wyman, d. 
Sept. 24, 1871. Her husband followed in six months.) 

James H., (b. June 5, 1840, m. Prances Palmer, and lives in 
Canton, 111.)] 

7. Joshua, [m. Alice Sanborn of Unity ; went some twenty 

years ago to Wisconsin; supposed to be dead.] 

8. Rhoda, [b. May 1, 1800, m. William Gove of Weare.J 

9. Sally A., [m. John Flint of Antrim, Jan. 31, 1822, and now 

lives a widow at Albany, Wis.j 

10. John, [child of second wife, b. Dec. 2, 1807, went into U. 

S. army in the Mexican war, was badly wounded, from the 
effects of which he soon died.] 

11. Jeremiah S., [b. Nov. 22, 1809, m. Elisabeth Moore, has 
children: Hiram G., b. Nov. 2, 1841 ; Samuel H., b. May 
9, 1843 ; Mary R., b. May 1, 1845 ; Diantha E., b. May 29, 
1846; Martha A., b. July 10, 1850 ; James M., b. Feb. 20, 
1852; Joshua C, b. Aug. 27, 1855 ; George L., b. Oct. 20, 
1857 ; Abby M., b. Oct. 16, 1859 ; and John M., b. Aug. 13, 

12. Iba, [b. July 11, 1813, m. Mary Temple of Claremont, went 
to New York.] 


13. Lenora, [b. Oct. 2, 1816, m. Oscar Lawrence, and went to 

New York.] 

14. LucETTE, [m. Harrison Andrews of Windssr.J 

WILLIAM D. ATWOOD, grandson of Caleb, and son of Philip and 
Sarah (Dustin) Atwood, was born in Sandwich, 1789, and married Sally 
Simonds of this town. May 7, 1812; came here in 1810, livei^ near Lover- 
ing's mills; moved to Bridgewater, Yt., in 1823, where he now survives 
at great age. Children, all |but the youngest born here, were thus : — 

1. Alexander, [b. in 1813, unm., lives in Pennsylvania.] 

2. Sarah, [b. in 1816, m. Cephas Harding of Pomfret, Vt., d. 


3. Louisa, [b. in 1818, m. Isaac Angell of Bridgewater, Vt.] 

4. Luke, [b. in 1820, m. Martha Weld, and lives in Barnard, 


5. Hannah, [b. in 1823, m. Sylvester Woodward, and has recently 

come from Deering to this town.] 

6. William, [b. in 1829, m. Sarah Fairbanks, and lives in Bridge- 

water, Vt.J 


But little is known of the ancestry of the Austins of this town. The 
father of Nathan, named below, was killed by the Indians, but the time 
and place cannot be' ascertained. The father and son were fording a river, 
both on one horse, when the savages fired upon them. The father was 
killed and fell into the river, but the boy and the horse escaped unhurt. 
This boy was taken to Pelham, and there he was brought up, and there 
he married; and his posterity are very numerous and respectable. 

NATHAN AUSTIN came here from Pelham, and began the Danforth 
farm, west of the Gould place, in 1780. His wife was Phebe Barker, half- 
sister to Capt. Peter Barker. Brought with him a large family. Moved 
to Rochester, Vt., in 1800, and died there very aged in 1840. Their chil- 
dren, besides four little ones buried in Antrim, were: — 

1. Nathan, [m. 1st, Betsey Brown ; 2d, Sarah Brown ; went 

with his father to Rochester, Vt., and d. there in 1847, aged 

2. Marena, [b. 1770, m. John Brown ; had one son, Samuel, b. 

in Antrim, who m. Louisa Ayer, and is now living in Mont- 
pelier, Ind. After the birth of Samuel, they moved to 
Rochester, Vt., and had a large family, one of whom, 
Thomas Brown, m. his cousin, Lucy Brown of Antrim, in 
1829, and lived on what is called the Thomas Brown place, 
till 1866, when he moved to Hancock. Mrs. Lucy Brown 


d. in 1875, aged 74. Marena d. in Goshen, Vt., at the age 
of 80.J 

3. Hannah, [m. Ezra Washburn and lived and d. in Rochester, 

Vt. The date of her death was Sept. 6, 1833, and her age 

4. Daniel, [m. Polly Baker, lived in Rochester, Vt., and d. there 

May, 1827.] 

5. Abijah, [went to Potsdam, N. Y., m. Polly Shaw, and d. 

April 1.5, 1860, aged 19.. His wife d. Feb. 7, 1858, aged 

6. Phinehas, [m. "Dicy " Washburne, went to Potsdam, N. Y., 

and d. there April 15, 1863. His wife d. Aug. 20, 1865, 
aged 80.] 

7. Sarah, [m. Daniel Shaw of Rochester, Vt., went to Potsdam, 

N. Y., and d. there, Dec. 22, 1834, aged 47. Her husbaud 
d. April 20, 1854, aged 73.] 

8. Isaac, [went to Potsdam, m. Mary Field, moved to Hopkinton, 

N. Y., and d. there, March 1, 1862, aged 72. His wife d. 
Oct. 4, 1863, aged 69.] 


PHILIP AYERILL, son of Thomas and Mary Averill, of Windsor, 
born in Amherst, 1789 ; married, 1st, Hannah Boutwell, Sept. 16, 1812 ; 2d, 
Mary Vose, Sept. 28, 1834; 3d, Hannah G. Barber of Peterborough. 
Lived many years in a house then standing near Windsor line, on the 
road above Daniel Swett's; moved thence to Peterborough in 1836, and 
died there, Sept. 27, 1868. Children : — 

1. Mart Ann, [b. Jan. 30, 1815 ; m. 1st, James Boutelle, Jr., 

Oct. 23, 1834; 2d, Benjamin B. Osmer ; lives in Peterbor- 

2. John, [b. June 29, 1817, m. Elisabeth Puffer of Peterbor- 



DAVID P. AVEBY, born in Greenfield, 1821 ; married Mary A. 
Newhall of Nottingham ; came here in 1856, and lived where John C. 
Butterfield now lives; was a carpenter by trade ; moved to Rutland, Mass., 
in 1868; has but one child, now Mrs. Daniel C. Putnam of that place. 


LEYI P. BAILEY, son of Luther and Betsey (Crombie) Bailey, was 
born in Troy, Vt., in 1818; married Hannah Morse, and came here into 
the Ohampney house, at the Branch, in 1876. Children: — 


1. William, [b. July 4, 1841.J 

2. Marcus M., [b. Oct. 4, 1843, m. Helen Thompson, and lives in 


3. Charles, [b. Nov. 26, 1844, m. Abby Quint of Great Palls, 

and settled in Wilton. J 

4. Hiram S., [m. Mary A. Woodward of Francestown, lived 

here awhile, where one child, Walter, was b. Nov. 18, 1876.] 

5. Levi E. 

6. Amanda, [m. Richard Woodward, and lives in Francestown.] 

7. Alonzo p., [m. Sarah Woodward, sister of above ; lived here 

in 1876. One child, Charles, was b. here in Nov., 1876,] 


The ancestor of Elliot Webster Baker in this country was John 
Baker, who came from England, and, bringing a large family, settled in 
Waltham, Mass., in 1738, where he resided six years. Then the father, 
and probably his younger children, removed to Killingsley, Conn., while 
the others remained. The youngest son was Richard, who was ten years 
of age on arrival in this country. In 1757, he purchased a section of 
wild land in Westminster, Mass., with the intention of settling on the 
same, but was pressed into the army against the Erench and Indians 
for one year. At the close of the year the British officers refused them 
their discharge. But the whole company, being stationed at Albany, N. 
Y., determined to leave in a body, and, making themselves snow-shoes, 
they started across the Green Mountains over the deep snow for their 
home in Massachusetts. They were safe from pursuit, inasmuch as they 
could not be followed without snow-shoes, no considerable number of 
which would be ready. But they lost their way, wandering several days 
ajnong the mountains, till, after a time, they struck Deerfield river, and 
followed it to Coleraine, where they found welcome and shelter and food. 
They slept on the snow, and were nine days without provisions, except a 
small dog which they killed and ate. Mr. Baker reached his friends in 
safety, soon after married Mary Sawyer of Lancaster, settled on his land, 
had a large family of children, and died in good old age. The fourth 
son of Richard and Mary (Sawyer) Baker was Bezeleel, who was born in 
Westminster, Mass., 1768. He came to Marlborough, our State, in 1787, 
and selected a tract of land on which he soon after settled. In 1793, he 
married Abigail, daughter of Dea. IsTathan Wood of his native town. 
They had several children, among them the late Dea. Abel Baker, dea- 
con of the Congregational Church of Troy, and Asa Baker of Jaffrey. 
The latter married, first, Hannah Moors ; second, Adeline Plummer, 
daughter of Jesse T. Plummer of Goffstown. The second marriage 
occurred June 19, 1856. Asa Baker died in Jaflfrey, Oct. 12, 1869. His 
first wife died Dec. 24, 1854. 


ELLIOT W. BAKER, son of Asa and Hannah (Moors) Baker, was 

born in Jaffrey, Sept. 1, 1846. He came here with his step-mother in 


1870, into the Ephraim Simonds house in South Village, which house in 
itself and surroundings he has greatly improved. Mr. Baker is the very 
careful and obliging insurance agent for this section. He married Julia 
V. McCoy of Antrim, Feb. 10, 1878. 


JAMES T. BALCH, son of Varion and Mary (Thompson) Balch of 
FrancestoVn, born there 1817, came here 1840, to work for Dea. Baldwin 
in the manufacture of hoes; married Lois W.Robbins, 1844; lives in the 
Eobbins house ; has children : — 

1. Charles P., [b. Nov. 29, 1844, m. Ellen 0. Fleming Nov. 

17, 1870, and lives in Bennington.] 

2. George W., [drowned May 8, 1852, aged 6 years. Went 

fishing with other boys, and fell into the river near Baldwin 

3. William A., [b. Nov. 4, 1856.] 

4. John A., [b. Feb. 28, I860.] 


HENEY BALDWIN of Devonshire, England, was a citizen of 
Woburn, Mass., as early as 1640. Was selectman and deacon of the 
church. He married Phebe Richardson of England, Nov. 1, 1649, and 
had eleven children. He died Feb. 14, 1698. His eighth child, Henry 
Baldwin, Jr., married Abigail Fisk, May 4, 1692, and had eight children, 
of whom Isaac, the third in order, was born Feb. 20, 1700. This Isaac 
married Mary Flagg, March 24, 1726, and had four children : Luke, Jedu- 
thun, Nahum, and Isaac, Jr. 

Nahum, known as " Col. Nahum," was born May 3, 1734, and settled 
in Amherst. This was without doubt the record of the ancestry of the 
Antrim family, and may be found more full in Savage's Genealogical 
Dictionary. Some of the descendants of Dea. Henry Baldwin are said to 
occupy places in Woburn settled by him two hundred and forty years 
ago. " Col. Nahum Baldwin" was the "village blacksmith" of Am- 
herst, was deacon in the Congregational Church the last fourteen years 
of his life, and died May 7, 1788. 

ISAAC BALDWIN of Antrim was son of Col. Nahum and Martha 
(Low) Baldwin, and grandson of Isaac Baldwin. The father. Col. 
Nahum, was an officer of considerable note in the Revolutionary war, 
was the first treasurer of Hillsborough county, was a man of property, 
was several times representative of Amherst in the New Hampshire 
Congress, and took conspicuous place oh its committees and in its 
debates, as appears by the Journal of the House. He was one of the 
parties in the first case brought before a grand jury in this county. 
The other party was Jonas Stepleton, who, being brought to the bar, 
pleaded guilty, and threw himself upon the mercy of the court. It was 
a queer kind of mercy which was dispensed, according to the old record. 


thus : " It is ordered that the Stepleton be whipped twenty stripes on 
the naked back at the publio whipping-post between the liours of one 
and two of the afternoon of this third day of October (1771), and that he 
pay Nahum Baldwin, 1?he owner of the good stolen, forty-four pounds 
lawful money, being tenfold the value of the goods stolen (the goods 
stolen being returned), and that in default of the payment of said tenfold 
damage and cost of prosecution, the said Nahum Baldwin be authorized 
to dispose of said Jonas in servitude to any of His Majesty's subjects for 
the space of seven years, to commence from this day." 

Isaac, who came here, was born in Amherst in 1768. He married 
Bethia Poole of Hollis, before coming here. Came and settled the Bald- 
win farm on the river in 1793. He was a stirring, earnest, useful man, 
greatly respected by all. Was one often called to preside in town meet- 
ings, and go ahead in important matters. He died in the prime- of man- 
hood, in 1821. He raised a large and respectable family as follows 
below. The marriage of his sister, who settled near him in Antrim, 
appears in the "Village Messeuger" of Amherst, thus : "In Antrim 
Sept. 1797 Mr. William Starrett to the agreeable Miss. Lucy Baldwin." 

1. Emma, [b. at Amherst July IS, 1792, m. Jabez Youngman 

March ,14-, 1809, and now lives in Dorchester.] 

2. Fanny, [b. at Antrim Feb. 26, 1794, m. Dr. Israel Burnliam 

Dec. 11, 1817, and d. April 8, 1847.] 

3. Dea. Isaac, [b. Mar. 22, 1796 ; m. 1st, Sarah Osgood of Nel- 

son, in 1823, who d. in 1831 ; 2d, Nancy White of Nelson, 
in 18H3, and d. Feb. 9, 1872. He was one of the building 
committee of the Center Church in 1826, afterwards was 
deacon in the Congregational Church at Bennington many- 
years. He was a good man, very decided in his convictions 
and set in his purposes, yet always meaning to be right. 
Children : — 

Sarah A., (b. June 20, 1824, now Mrs. Gideon Dodge of Fair- 
fax, lo.) 

Isaac 0., (b. Feb. 23, 1826, graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1849, m. Elizabeth Means of Ohio, and .is a lawyer of 
note in Clinton, lo.} 
- Nathaniel 0., (m: Mary Clough of Lowell, Mass., d. in New 
York City in 1859.) 

John W., (m. Mary Currier of New York City ; had one child, 
Frank, b. here 1865 ; is now a merchant in New York City.) 

Abby B., (m. Maj Benjamin R. Jenne Oct. 18, 1869, and lives 
in Brattleboro', Vt.) 

Albert, (b. in 1837, m. Martha J. Eaton in 1871 ; is in the in- 
surance business at Brattleboro', Vt.) 


Benjamin B., (m. Carrie Cochran, and lives in Clinton, lo.) 

Edward P., (now -of Fairfax, lo.)] 
4. Dexter, [b. July 5, 1798 ; graduated from Dartmouth Medical 
College in 1823, practiced medicine many years in Mount Ver- 
non, Me. , afterwards in Boston ; retired after practice of nearly 
forty years, to Framingham, Mass., in 1860, and died there 
May 27, 1870. Was one of the first " abolitionists " in 
Maine ; a man of strict principles and a helper in every 
good work ; m. 1st, Caroline Peabody of Franklin, 1824, 
who soon died ; 2d, Lavina B. Howard of Winthrop, Me., 
in 1829. He was a fine specimen of the physical man, 
pleasant, fearless, and open-hearted. Once in public meet- 
ing when the votes were counted and they found one " abo- 
lition " vote, they sneeringly shouted, " Dr. Baldwin ! " " Dr. 
Baldwin ! " At once he raised himself on tiptoe, and stand- 
ing high above them all he said : " Yes, gentlemen ; and 
you and I will live to see the day when a vote like that will 
be the rule and not the exception in this town ! " And he 
was right. But it was thirty years before the war. J 

5. Nahum, [b. July 13, 1800, d. of spotted fever in 1812.] 

6. Samuel, [b. June 15, 1802; m. 1st, Betsey G. Bell of Ben- 

nington, in 1830 ; 2d, Mrs. Martha (G-regg) Lear of Man- 
chester, in 1871. Settled in 1832 in North Branch as a 
blacksmith, moved thence to Bennington in 1836, where he 
still resides. Has followed business of machinist and man- 
ufacturer. Three eldest children were born in Antrim. 

Anna M., (b. March 13, 1833, m. Levi Woodbury of Antrim 
May 21, 1856; a woman whose amiability and good works 
are often heard mentioned with praise throughout the town. 
We are indebted to her for some of the views in this book.) 

Samuel Dexter, (b. June 11, 1834, unm., d. in Bennington, 

William K., (b. Nov. 1, 1835, m. Nancy E. Barrett of Wilton 
Sept. 6, 1861 ; was a merchant in East Wilton many years ; 
d. in the midst of his usefulness, Feb. 12, 1877.) 

Eelen P., (b. Bennington Feb. 25, 1838, m. Abram A. Ram- 
say Nov. 28, 1860.) 

iMcretia G., (b. May 7, 1840, d. Nov. 27, 1863.) 

Sarah F., (b. Aug. 27, 1841, d. Oct. 26, 1873.) 

Augusta J., (b. Jan. 16, 1843, m. George A. Whittemore May 
2, 1866.)] 


7. LucT, [b. June 12, 1804; m. 1st, Dr. David Flanders, Sept. 

20, 1829 ; 2d, David Watts, 1865 ; 3d, Aaron Perkins, 
1858 ; 4tli, Dea. Fiske of Wilmot, March 15, 1872.] 

8. Thomas J., [b. Dec. 16, 1806, d. of spotted fever in 1812, 

aged 6.] 

9. "William, [b. May 15, 1809, m. Abigail R. Kenney of "West- 

brook, Me.; was a man of energy and large business ; d. 
at Lawrenceville, 111., 1849. His wife d. 1865, aged 56.] 

10. Cyrus, [b. May 14, 1811 ; studied at New Ipswich, then at 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.; entered Dartmouth Col- 
lege, 1835, was graduated in class of 1839 ; went as teacher 
to Meriden the following year ; has been an honored and 
successful teacher nearly forty years, at Palmyra, N. Y., at 
Freehold, N. J., and at Providence, R. I., but mostly at 
Meriden, where he now resides; m. Hannah Shattuck of 
Meriden, in 1841. Few sons of Antrim have a better 

11. Harriet, [b. April 26, 1814, m. Dr. J. L. Flanders Oct. 15, 
1836 ; mo%'ed to Lawrence, 111., and d. there in 1846.] 

12. Estimate R. E., [b. Oct. 22, 1816, m. Dr. Calvin McQues- 
tion Sept. 11-, 1844, and went to Hamilton, C. E. Harriet 
and Estimate once went over the river for the cows, when, 
being gone some time, the water suddenly rising flooded the 
road three feet deep. But undismayed, each got on a cow's 
back and rode through it home !] 

JAMES BALDWIN, born in Tyngsborough, Mass., in 1783, son of 
Jeremiah and (Carr) Baldwin, married Abigail Pollard of Green- 
field, in 1814; settled in Hillsborough, but moved to the Solomon Hop- 
kins place, Antrim, in 1835, where he lived eighteen years, then moved 
back to Hillsborough and died there at the age of eighty-eight. Left 
two children : — 

1. Abby, [b. in 1816, m. Ericson Burnham, and d. in Hillsbor- 

ough in 1858, leaving two daughters now m. and living in 

2. Maria, [b. in 1821, m. Alonzo Travis, and is now living in 

Mont Vernon.] 


BARTHOLOMEW BALLARD came here from Ashby, Mass., 1796. 
Soon after built what is known as the Henry Hill house'. South Village, 
in one part of which he lived, and in the other part manufactured clocks. 
His work was quite distinguished in that day. Many of these clocks are 


in existence now, and occasionally appear on sale, marked, " B. Ballard, 
Antrim." They were of the old-fashioned kind, standing in the corner 
of the room. One of these is now in possession of the writer, having 
run eighty years, — fifty of those years giving the time to one family in 
Maiden, Mass. It is still in good condition and bears marks of delicate 
workmanship. Mr. Ballard left Antrim, probably in 1806, and went into 
the same business in Ohio, and died near Columbus, that State, in 1830. 
He married, first, Rusha Lawrence, in 1796 ; second, Lucinda Lawrence 
of Ashby, Mass., cousin of the first. Only two children known: — 

1. Christiana, [b. in- 1800, daughter of first wife.] 

2. Lucinda, [daughter of second wife, b. 1804, d. unm. 1829.] 


JAMES ~B ALL, born in Townsend, Mass., Jan. 1,1764, was son of 
Lieut. Jeremiah and Mary (Stevens) Ball, and grandson of Jeremiah 
Ball, who married another Mary Stevens and settled in Townsend in 
1727. This last was son of Nathaniel Ball. This> Nathaniel's father was 
Nathaniel, sou of John Ball, who came from "Wiltshire, England, and set- 
tled in Concord, Mass., in 1640. 

James Ball married Rebecca Shattuck of Pepperell, Mass., in 1791 ; 
came here about 1796, probably a little earlier. Was one of the refugees 
from the Shay's Rebellion that escaped into New Hampshire in 1787. 
Cleared and built about half-way up the west side of Robb mountain, and 
there after a time he was joined by his wife and their two children. She 
died on the mountain in 1829. Not long after he went to live with his 
son Jonas in Nashua ; and they two died within a day of each other, Au- 
gust, 1850. Children: — 

1. James D., [b. Jan. 28, 1794, m. Mary Farnsworth.J 

2. John, [b. June 15, 1796, m. Rebecca Proctor of Stoddard in 

1818 ; took the homestead farm, lived here till 1835, when 
he moved to Washington, where he yet lives. His children 
were : — 

Dexter, (m. Hannah Brockway, lives in Washington.) 

Nathaniel, (m. Sylvia J. Perkins, lived in Washington ; killed 
by a blow from a cart-tongue in 1858.) 

Worcester H., (m. Lydia A. Allen of Nashua, lives in Washing- 

Henry M-, (m. Emily J. Kidder of Walpole, lives in Wasli- 

Rebecca H., (m. Andrew J. Barney, lives in Washington.) 

Bosanna, (m. Sumner Fairbanks and moved to the West.) 

Allen W., (m. Frances Bradford.)] 

3. Nehemiah, [d. in 1817, aged 16.] 

4. David, [b. in 1804, m. Julia West of Greenfield, settled in 



5. Jonas, [b. July 3, 1807, m. Rosa Nichols of Haverhill, Mass., 

moved to Mariow, thence to Nashua, where he d. Aug. 14, 

6. Sarah, [b. April 18, 1810, m. Benjamin Mead of Swanzey 

March 6, 1834, and lives in that town.j 


NATHAN" B. BAEKER, son of Dauiel and Bathsheba (Blanchard) 
Barker, was born in Lyndeborough in 1784. His fatlier was lost in the 
Revolutionary war. Nathan B. was himself an officer in the war of 
1812 ; married Hannah Parker of Peterborough ; came with his children 
from Bennington in 1833, and located on the Adam Dunlap place, where 
he lived till 1846, when he followed his children to Western New York, 
and died in Buffalo in 1864. Children : — 

1. Stephen B., [b. in Greenfield in 1808; m. Abigail Ordway of 

Deering July 12, 1835. She d. in Lyndeborough July 15, 
1850. He lived here several years, then moved to Frances- 
town and d. Feb. 2, 1860. His children (b. in Antrim) 
are: — 

Nancy ^ (m. Daniel F. Carey, and went to Cedar Rapids, lo.) 

Clark E., (d. unm. March 15, 1861.) 

Nathan, (lives unm. at Morton, 111.) 

Newton, (d. quite young.) 

■Stephen N., (b. July 19, 1843, m. Mrs. Evelyn S. (Upton) 
Walker Nov. 27, 1878, and lives in Nashua. He serve'd in 
the late war both in army and navy, was in Admiral Por- 
ter's Mississippi squadron, and was all through the Red- 
river expedition, and for some time after the close of the 
war was stationed in the navy-yard at Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Hannah M., (m. N. T. Hartshorn and lives in Concord.)] 

2. PfiOP. Nathan B., Jr., [b. in Peterborough in 1811, was a 

teacher all his life after the age of 17. Went to Riga, N. Y., 
and there m. Minerva N. Morse in 1841, and d. of apoplexy 
in 1873. At the time of his death he was principal of Buf- 
falo public school ; was an able and good man, and left chil- 
dren : Sarah, James W., Ella, Jennie, and Ida.j 

3. Sarah, [d. unm. in 1835, aged 21. J 

4. Rev. Sew all P., [b. in 1816; is a Methodist minister; 

ordained at Shelby, N. Y. ; m. Eliza Dean and lives in Buf-, 
falo. Has been a teacher most of his life.] 

5. Abel P., [m. Esther M. Sargent of Manchester, 1842 ; lived 

some years in that city; thence went to New York ; thence 


eight years in California ; now^ lives in Nashua ; has but one 
son living, Abel W.] 
6. Prof. James "W., [b. 1824 ; degree of A. M. conferred upon 
him by Hillsdale College, Michigan, 1861; m. Amanda Bal- 
com of Lockport, N. Y., 1848 ; teacher from age of 18 except 
a short editorial career ; was president of New York State 
Teachers' Association, 1868 ; has place of high responsibil- 
ity in Buffalo city schools ; is a poet of some eminence, his 
occasional pieces finding a welcome place in periodicals for 
many years. The Antrim Centennial Poem was from his 
pen. He is also editor of " The Buffalo School Journal," a 
vigorous eight-page paper in that city.] 

Peter and Abijah Barker, Eevolutionary soldiers and good men, were 
sons of Zebediah and Deborah (Merrill) Barker of Atkinson. 

Caft. peter barker married Sally Wood and came here in 1789, 
or a little earlier. They had a child born here that year. He bought 
the place now Levi Curtis's, and began to clear the same ; but, after a 
time, for reasons not given,, exchanged places with Charles Wood, his 
wife's brother, who had made a beginning on the Moody Barker place. 
On this last Gapt. Peter lived and died, and his descendants still occupy 
the ground. This exchange of places seems to have been made during 
the year 1789, and before either party had subdued a great amount of 
land. Peter Barker was captain of the " Alarm List," of which notice 
will be found in the military history of Antrim. He died May 23, 1829, 
aged seventy-four, and his wife in 1843, aged eighty-eight. Children : — 

1. Samuel, [b. in Atkinson, m. Polly Barker of Hancock, lived 

several years in a log house a little west of the Artemas 

Brown place; in 1817 went to Oppenheim, N. Y., and d. 

there in 1870, aged 87. His wife d. March, 1874, aged 89. 

Children born here were : — 
Nancy ^ (b. Dec. 20, 1805, m. John Warner, of Oppenheim, d. 

Samuel, (b. 1807, d. 1812.) 
Peter, (b. 1809, d. in infancy.) 

Susannah, (b. 1810, became 2d wife of William Cook.) 
Peggy W., (b. 1812, married William Cook, d. 1862.) 
Mary, (m. Jacob Cook of Oppenheim, and is yet living in that 

Mhridge (?., (m. Mary Stone, lives on farm adjoining the 

homestead of his father.) 
These seven children were born in Antrim. Afterward five 
others were born to them whose names are given below : — 



William B., (m. 1st, Meray Haile of Temple ; 2d, /Mary Hud- 
son ; lives in Oppenheim.) 
Samuel, (m. Eliza J. Poster, d. 1868 aged 48.) 
Sarah, (m. Benjamin Turney, lives in Johnstown, N. Y.) 
Lucy S., (d. 1836, aged 12.) 
Peter, (m. Adeline Fuller, d. Orwell, N. Y., 1865.)] 

2. Hannah, [b. in Atkinson, m. Daniel Mcllvaine Jan. 28, 1808, 

d. June 14, 1856.] 

3. Peter, [b. in Antrim March 14, 1789, m. Maria D. Marsh in 

St. Albans, Vt., went to Cleveland, 0., and died there 1864. J 

4. Isaac, [b. July 2, 1791 ; brick-maker by trade ; m. Nabby 

Taylor Dec. 26, 1817 ; settled in Deering, then moved to 

Charlestowu, Mass., thence after a brief sojourn in Antrim 

he moved to Centre Township, To., and died there Nov. 

26, 1872. His second wife was Abigail Nesmith, whom he 

mai'ried October, 1847. He left five children, three by first 

wife and two by second, as follows : — 
Hannah T., (b. Dec. 20, 1818, m. Zebadiah Kinsley of Somer- 

ville, Mass.) 
Isaac, (b". Oct. 23, 1823, m. Mary 0. Giles of Somerville, Mass. ; 

is brick-maker by trade ; is an honored and wealthy citizen 

of San Prancisco, Cal.) 
Henry L., (unm., lives in San Prancisco.) 
John J., (b. August, 1848, is railroad engineer in Iowa.) 
Milton R., (b. October, 1851, m. Mary Hanna, lives in Mount 

Vernon, lo.)] 

5. Thomas, [b. 1793, m. Nancy Taylor 1825 ; settled in Deering, 

but after the death of his wife came back to Antrim ; m. 2d, 
Pamelia . Barker of Sutton, lived at foot of sand-hill and 
died there 1867. Left no children.] 

6. Capt. Moody Morse, [b. May 24, 1795, m. Nancy Bixby of 

Hillsborough in 1821, and remained on homestead. They 
lived together till March 24, 1873, when he died, and she 
followed March 26. They were quiet, unassuming, and 
Christian in their lives. Children : — 
John B., (b. 1822, m. Harriet Newton of Bennington, went to 

Mexico, and d. there in prime of life.) 
Mmily, (b. 1824, m. Samuel Brown, and lives in Wilton.) 
Adeline, (b. Sept. 12, 1829, m. Charles Wood of Hillsborough,: 
July 3, 1854.) 


Miles O., (b. 1832, m. Sarah J. Oarr of Hillsborough, lives in 

Eenry M., (b. Aug. 24, 1838, m. Mary J. Colburn of New 
Boston Nov. 30, 1864, lives on homestead settled by his 
grandfather, and has three sons : Herbert L., b. Aug. 27, 
1866 ; Harry C, b. March 31, 1870 ; and Fred M., b. May 
4, 1871.)] 
7. Sally, [b. Jan. 26, 1797, m. Dea. Asa Bond, now lives a 
widow in Hancock.] 

ABIJAH BARKER, the other son of Zebediah and Deborali (Merrill) 
Barker that came here, married Susannah Wood, sister of Peter Bar- 
ker's wife, and moved here in the spring of 1787. Probably these two 
brothers were here a season or two at work before moving here. He 
located in the pasture northeast of Alvin Barker's ; cleared the land 
and built the house himself, living in a room of Daniel Nichols's house 
(now George Turner's) until his humble shelter could be reared. In 
this house of his own building he raised his family, and lived till 1834, — 
forty-seven years, — when he went to spend his old age with his children, 
and died April 22, 1847, aged eighty-seven. His wife died Oct. 28, 1840, 
aged eighty. She was a woman of great courage and endurance. As an 
illustration of this, one fact may be given. In the fall of 1 1791, she went 
on a visit to Atkinson, upwards of forty-five miles as the bad and 
crooked roads were then, went through in one day on horseback and 
alone, and on a man-saddle, and carried her babe Gideon, weighing 
eighteen pounds, in her arms ! What think ye of that, young misses 
hardly able to walk out to dinner ? Who argues for easy carriages any 
longer ? 

After Mr. Barker had moved away, the old buildings he had occupied 
so long dropped to pieces by the decay of years, and now no vestige of 
them remains ; the bridle-path to them is grown over ; and few of the 
living remember the spot. The children of Abijah and Susannah 
(Wood) Barker were thus : — 

1. Ohakles W., [b. Sept. 17, 1787, m. Polly Chapman of Wind- 
sor Dec. 17, 1811-; lived some years between John Barker 
place and Cooledge place, in the deep valley, in the Brown 
house which has been gone near half a century ; built the 
Cooledge house 1823 ; moved to Henniker, 1829, and there 
both husband and wife are now living in ripe and honorable 
old age. Children born in Antrim : -^ 

John, (b. April 4, 1813, m. Mary J. McClure, d. in Boston 
Feb. 15, 1873.) 

Mary 0., (b. Jan. 13, 1816, m. James M. French, lives in 


Almira A., (b. March 19, 1820, m. Joseph Nichols, lives in 

Caroline M., (b. June 5, 1823, d. aged 6 years.) 

Charles W., (b. June 19, 1828, m. Caroline B. Eaton, d. in 
Warren, October, 1875.)] 
2. Abijah, [b. Jan. 7, 1789, m. Jane Mcllvaine 1817, and set^ 
tied on the mountain south of where widow Levi Curtis 
lives. In 1824 he built, on land bought of Daniel Mcll- 
vaine, the house now Alvin Barker's, moving his barn from 
the farm on the mountain to this place, and occupying most 
of the homestead of his father ; d. August, 1870. Had 
children : — 

Susan H., (b. Oct. 8, 1818, m. Frederick Gray of Bennington 
April 17, 1847, and d. in that town Sept. 12, 1850.) 

Robert, (d. in infancy.) 

Minda Gr., (b. March 23, 1823 ; m. Hartwell Lakin, the jew- 
eler in Bennington, f'eb. 25, 1851.) " 

Livera 0., (b. Feb. 26, 1825.) 

Betsey J., (b. May 27, 1827, m. William Russell of Gi;eenfield, 
d. June 23, 1865.) 

Allen, (d. in childhood.) 

Alvin JR., (b. Nov. 27, 1831, occupies homestead, m. Mary E. 
Shattuck June 1,1859; has children: Willis A., b. June 
3, 1860; Allen F., b. Jan. 15, 1862; Junia E., b. March 
19, 1863 ; Nellie M., b. Feb. 4, 1868 ; and Eugene L., b. 
May 27, 1870. Part of the rear of Alvin Barker's house 
was built by Robert McAllister at the foot of Perry's hill, 
1793, then after some years was moved up near the Dea. 
Woods cider-mill and occupied by Samuel Brown ; next 
was moved out east of Campbell's pond, and there occu- 
pied some years by same Brown ; then was moved to the 
Kidder place and occupied by Reuben Kidder, and last to 
the Barker place, where it now abides !) 

Mzaphan I., (b. Feb. 22, 1834, m. Elizabeth Wheeler of New 
Boston Oct. 4, 1859, lived some years on the John Barker 
place, moved to Nashua 1871.)] 
8. Gideon, [b. in 1791, went to the State of Maine about the age 
of 21, m. Lavinia Brown near Canaan, that State ; served in 
the army through a large part of the war of 1812, was paid 
and discharged, and is supposed to have been murdered on 
the way home.] 


4. John, [b. in 1794, m. Mary A. Taft of Deering, lived on the 

Joshua Atwood place, and d. there March 23, 1872. Left 
no children.] 

5. Polly, [b. in 1796, m. Joseph Moulton, d. 1872.] 

6. Susannah, [b. in' 1798, d. num. 1832.] 


WILLIAM BARNES came here from Hillsborough, and was son of 
Bev. Jonathan Barnes, first minister of that town, who was born in 1749, 
graduated at Harvard College in 1770, and married Abigail Curtis 1774, 
having built the preceding year the house at Hillsborough Center now 
occupied by his grandson, Samuel G. Barnes, Esq. William, their son, 
was born Christmas day, 1774. Married Mehitable Miller, and came 
here and built the famous three-story house on the Gould place, 1802. 
There he kept tavern several years. This place, which he had bought 
of John McCoy, he sold about 1812 to William Lawrence. During his 
stay here, he owned and occupied an extensive stage-line, — a most 
important business at that day. This three-story hotel was burned in 
February, 1818. In 1812 Mr. Barnes went back to Hillsborough ; thence 
went to Stanstead, Canada ; thence after some years to Mokena, 111., 
where he died in 1855, leaving no children. 


ISAAC BAEEETT, son of Isaac and Susan (Page) Barrett, came 
here from Hudson in 1808, and succeeded Samuel McAdams on the 
Daniel Holt farm ; married Susan, sister of Gapt. John Woithley, and 
died in 1850, aged sixty-nine. Their children were : — 

1. PoLLT, [b. Nov. 19, 1811, d. aged 20.J 

2. Isaac, [b. July 7, 1813, m. Mary Breed ; has lived mostly in 

Lowell, though he occupied the Aiken or Dea. Burnham 
place in South Village from 1864 to 1875 ; has long had a 
place of trust in the Lowell mills ; has but one child, Ida 
M., b. Oct. 25, 1849, who married, Dec. 10, 1873, Charles 
E. Adams, a merchant in that city.] 

3. Nahtjm, [b. in 1815, m. Mary Noyes of Henniker, and went 

to Nashua.] 

4. DusTiN, [b. Nov. 29, 1816 ; bought the, Dr. Cleaves place in 

1858 ; m. Louisa A. Hall ; has children : Levi, b. Jan. 31, 
1860 ; Nellie L., b. Sept. 4, 1864 ; Isaac, b. May 12, 1869 ; 
and Kate A., b. May 13, 1871.] 

5. Abel, [b. Sept. 19, 1824, m. Lemira Blackington of Woburn, 

Mass., in 1857, and now lives in that place.] 

CHARLES A. BARRETT, son of Jesse and Ann (Lawrence) Bar- 
rett of Brookline, Mass., was born in 1835, married Mrs. Betsey A. (But- 


ler) Hill ; came here in 1857 ; has spent many years on the sea ; chil- 
dren : — 

1. Nellie, [b. in January, 1867.] 

2. Frank A. S., [b. Feb. 22, 1861.] 

3. LuviE E., [b. in March, 1866.] 

4. Freddie S., [b. in December, 1867.] 

5. Anna E., [b. in June, -1871.] 

6. Daniel S., [b. in January, 1875.] 

7. Harry A., [b. in December, 1877.] 


Bev. JOSHUA E. BAETLETT, son of William and Maria (Part- 
ridge) Bartlett, was born in Templeton, Mass., in 1839, married Martha 
A. Southworth of North Eastqn, Mass., came here in 1874 as pastor of 
the Methodist Church, and moved to Amherst in 1876. This was his 
first charge, and prospered under his care. Has children : Mary E., 
Maria H., and Edwin S. One younger child was born and died here. 


'EBEN BASS, son gf David and Mary (Eaton) Bass of Deering, and 
grandson of Simeon and Hannah (Sawyer) Bass of Sharon, was born 
May 20, 1823. Married Clara Wilkins (daughter of John and Lucinda 
(Eorsaith) Wilkins, and granddaughter of Bray Wilkins, one of the first 
settlers of Deering), Nov. 16, 1848. He bought the Dr. Whiton farm in 
1854, succeeding Silas Hardy on that place, and has since occupied the 
same, making extensive improvements in buildings and farm. The large 
and beautiful trees in the yard were planted by Dr. Whiton, assisted by 
Clark Hopkins, in 1814. They were given to the minister by Hon. John 
Duncan, who, though an old man, brought them up in his arms on horse- 
back. This house has been a very popular resort for summer boarders 
from the city for many years. A second large building was put up for 
this purpose in 1878. Mr. Bass is one of our live, smart men, diligent in 
business, has been honored by his townsmen with places of trust, and 
has had considerable business as auctioneer for years. Children are: — 

1. Ella F., [b.Dec. 5, 1849, m. George F. Newman Nov. 30, 

1871, and lives in Somerville, Mass.] 

2. Charles H., [b. Dec. 9, 1851, m. Jennie Darrah of Benning- 

ton Dec. 25, 1877.] 

3. Clara L., [b. March 24, 1857, m. Lucien W. Putney Nov. 25, 


4. John W., [b. June 24, 1861.] 

5. Frank E., [b. Sept. 4, 1862.] 

DAVID BASS, Jr., brother of Eben, born in 1821; married Jane 
Carr of Deering ; lived some years in the Cummings house, and for a 


time run the bedstead-factory, now Dea. E. C. Paige's. Is now engaged 
in extensive wooden manufactures at Woonsocket, B. I. Children : — 

1. Maet a., [b. July 20, 1846, m. Lyman H. Pulton of Bedford 

May 18, 1870.] 

2. Jennie, [d. aged 16.] 

3. Lewis C, [b. May 29, 1862.] 

4. Viola, [b. Not. 4, 1864.] 

LEWIS 0. BASS, brother of the two above, born in Deering in 1831 ; 
married Mary J. "Wiggin of St. Albans, Me. Came here in 1867, and 
bought, in company with David, the Cummings place and mill; but soon 
divided, retaining the farm, bought the Kendall house adjoining, and still 
occupies the same. 


Eev. JOHN H. BATES, son of Moses and Drusilla (Hart) Bates, 
born in Colchester, Vt., in 1814 ; fitted for college in Williston, that State, 
and was a graduate of the University of Vermont, class of 1840. His 
seminary course was partly at Alleghany City and partly at Union Semi- 
nary, -ISTew York. Mr. Bates came here, January, 1853. He gave such 
immediate and full satisfaction that he received a call from the church, 
Feb. 8, following, and was settled over it (CenteV Church) March 16. He 
was a fine scholar, an able preacher, and full of the old doctrines. On 
exchange he was very welcome in all the pulpits of the vicinity. One 
sermon, " Bighteousness taught by Divine Judgments " (Nov. 27, 1862), 
was published and extensively circulated. Through the efibrts of Mr. 
Bates the church was remodeled (1857) and the excellent oigan procured 
(1864). Much credit is due to him. Far and wide he had the respect of 
the people. While an effort was being made to increase his salary, he 
resigned, July 1, 1866. This was his first and only settlement. After 
leaving Antrim, he preached awhile in Merrimack. Theuy with enfeebled 
health, he went South ; and though in constant service teaching and 
preaching, he died very unexpectedly, near Charleston, S. C, May 10, 
1870. His body lies buried in Magnolia cemetery of that city. Mr. 
Bates had no children. His wife was Sarah J. HlUyer, a lady of unques- 
tioned refinement and worth, — now Mrs. Eoland Mather, of Hartford, 


. HENET J. BEASOM, son of Henry and Serena (Williams) Beasom, 
born in Hudson City, now Jersey City, N. J., Oct. 1, 1851 ; married Vienna 
C. Upton of Stoddard, June 3, 1873 ; came here the next year to work in 
Parkhurst's mill at the Branch. More redently has lived in South Vil- 
lage. Is foreman in one of the cutlery-shops. His wife was born Feb. 
14, 1852. Children : — 

1. Susan Aloba, [b. Stoddard, March 29, 1874.] 

2. Daniel B., [b. Antrim, May 12, 1876.] 



JOHN BELL, son of Joseph and Mary (Houston) Bell of Bedford, 
born in 1779, came to Antrim in 1799 ; married Margaret Brown in 1801 ; 
built the two-story house now Mr. Conant's, was licensed to keep tavern 
there in 1802 ; lived there sixty-four years, was forty years an elder in 
the Presbyterian Church, and died Oct. 5, 1864. His wife died Jan. 14, 
1860, aged eighty-seven. Children : — 

1. Mary, [m. Josiah W Christie May 11, 1830.] 

2. John, [d. in childhood.] 

3. Margaret, [b. 1806, m. Dea. Samuel Wood Dec. 24, 1833.] 

4. Rev. Hiram, [b. Dec. 15, 1807 ; united with the Presbyterian 

Church in 1828 ; vras graduated at Williams College ; studied 
theology at Bast Windsor, Conn, ; was settled in Marlbor- 
ough, Killingworth, and Westchester, Conn. ; preached 
thirty-seven years, and died in the work at Westchester, 
Conn., June 18, 1876. Was a strong, sound, and successful 
pastor. His service was all in another State, but always in 
demand, and honorable to the town that gave him birth. 
He married Mary E. Wells and left several children. Rare 
are the men purer and abler than Rev. Hiram Bell. " Their 
works do follow them."] 

5. Louisa, [d. in childhood.] 

6. Marinda, [d. in childhood.] 

7. John L., [b. June 27, 1815 ; m. Charlotte E. Root, and lived 

in Rochester, N. Y., till his wife died in 1861. He then 
moved to Kansas ; went thence into the army, was with 
Sherman in the famous " march to the sea," and, returning, 
died June 15, 1869.] 

HIEAM BELL was born in Antrim, March 16, 1803. His father, 
Thomas Bell (son of William Bell of Andover, Mass.), born July 31, 
1769, lived at the Branch quite a number of years. Thomas had seven ' 
children: Margaret, John, James, Hiram, Hannah, Thomas Jefferson, and 
Betsey. He moved to Washington and died there, Feb. 25, 1811, aged 
forty-two. Was buried in Hillsborough. He married Mary Giles of 
Deering (one report says 0-ibbs), Sept. 8, 1796. Of the children of 
Thomas Bell, little has been ascertained of, any except Hiram, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, and Jefferson, who lives highly respected at Chicopee 
Falls, Mass. The most of them, however, were born in Antrim. Mar- 
garet, born June 8, 1797, married an overseer in' Lowell by the name of 
Taylor ; but after his death she returned to Hillsborough, and died there 
April 8, 1854. John lived and died in Hillsborough. James died unmar- 
ried. Hannah married a Murdough of Hillsborough, and lived and died 
in that town. Thomas J. (called "Jefferson" by old people), born Dec. 


23, 1808, married Emily Dean of Bellows Falls, Vt., and is now spoken of 
as " enjoying the rest and comfort which a life well-spent deserves." 

It is helieved that Thomas Bell moved away about 1809. None of the 
family returned here to live except Hiram, by whom chiefly the family 
was identified with this town. Hiram Bell returned to North Branch 
to live in the fall of 1832, and on Dec. 19, of the same year, he married 
Mary French. She was horn in Hancock, Aug. 28, 1813. In 18.33, Mr. 
Bell went into trade at the Branch, in company with Hiram Grifiin . But' 
he did not long continue in the business ; and we find he moved to Hen- 
niker in March, 1837. He died Feb. 27, 1871. He left three children 
whose^ names will be found below. 

Mr. Bell was largely noted as a hotel-keeper. He began his career 
of serving the public in this way by opening a tavern in company with 
Ira Cochran in the McCoy brick house in Antrim, now Samuel M. Thomp- 
son's. This was in 1826, under the " Sign of the Big Pumpkin." He kept 
a bowling-alley, — -the first in this section, it is said. But he came into 
notice specially as a landlord at the White Mountains. He presided at 
the Profile House seven seasons ; at the Crawford House for a time; and 
at the Pemigewasset House, Plymouth, for many years. Was an exceed- 
ingly genial and pleasant man, helpful and wide-awake, and everywhere 
he had a host of friends. 

1. George B., [b. in Antrim May 15, 1834, m. Susan J. Thomp- 

son Dec. 4, 1862 ; was a hotel-keeper in Boston, smart, 
capable, widely-known, and popular. He died suddenly, 
April, 1880. Was an alderman of Boston ; was several 
years in the custom-house, by appointment of the President; 
was one of those genial men who usually have a host of 
friends and no enemies. The " Boston Journal " says : " In 
his private relations he was a most estimable man, and in 
his official life as a member of the board of aldermen his 
duties were discharged in a conscientious manner. Although 
a Democrat in politics, he was not a partisan in deciding 
matters affecting the interest of the city of Boston, and, 
although at times differing with his colleagues in this respect, 
he always had their respect as acting according to his honest 

2. Mart B., [b. in Henniker Aug. 21, 1837 ; m. Col. Bdwin R. 

Abbott, Feb. 20, 1860. Mr. Abbott went from Bradford, 
and is now at the head of an immense hotel at Coney Island, 
N. Y.] 

3. Ellen A., [b. in Henniker May 4, 1845, m. Solon Newman July 

1, 1873.] 



GEORGE BEMAINE, of English birth, came here in the spring of 
1770, and made his home several years with Dea. Aiken. He was a de- 
serter from the British in Boston, and came to this frontier town for con- 
cealment. Was a man of fifty years or more, wdl educated, was a good 
reader, a superior penman, and was the first teacher in Antrim, and also 
the first in Hillsborough. His first school in that town seems to 
have been in the fall of 1771. In early life he had been a school-mate of 
l)ilworth, of spelling-book fame. Here he taught the, children, in private 
houses, as there was no school-house, and deserves credit as one very 
useful in the new settlement. He finally went into the Revolutionary 
army, and lost his life at the battle of "White Plains, Oct. 28, 1776. Noth- 
ing can be learned of his ancestry, or connections. He deserves credit 
as the first teacher in Antrim or vicinity. Made his home at Dea. Aiken's 
till death, though occasionally absent for purposes of teaching. Seems 
to have been a very worthy man, and just the one to meet the wants of 
these pioneer families, giving instruction when otherwise it must have 
been denied. 


DANIEL BIGKFOED, an Englishman, one of ten sons, was born on 
the voyage to this country. His father settled in Exeter. Daniel was a 
hatter by trade, came here from Pembroke in 1795, and settled a short 
distance southwest of the Riley or .Tudge Whittemore place. He mar- 
ried Martha Mann of Pembroke in 1786. Moved to the Scott Moore 
place, Hillsborough, in 1812, and died there in 1815, aged fifty-five. They 
had six children, the two youngest born here : — 

1. William M., [b. in 1787, m. Cragin of Charlestown, 

Mass., and d. in that city in 1825.] 

2. Abraham, [m. Jane Stuart of Henniker, and d. in that town 

in 1872, aged 82.] 

3. Daniel, [b. in 1792, m. Sarah Spring, went to New York and 

d. 1813.] 

4. Sally P., [b. in 1794, m. Reuben Kidder, d. 1847.] 

5. James D., [b. in 1796, a clothier by trade ; m. Salome' Hun- 

toon of Unity, d. Newport 1842.] 

6. Polly M., [b. in 1798, m. David McCaine of Prancestown, d. 

in that town in 1838.] 


RICHARD BISHOP, son of John and Mary (Poor) Bishop, and 
grandson of Thomas Bishop, was born in the county of Kilkenny, Ire- 
land, in December, 1822. He married Mary Flinn, of the same place, 
and two of his children were born on that side the water. He came to 
Antrim from Boston in 1857, and lived in what is known as the Bishop 


house, being that next east of Maplewood Cemetery. Thence he moved 
to Bennington in 1870, where he now resides. Children : — 

1. Mary, [b. March 12, 1851, m. Michael Harrington of Han- 


2. Anne. 

3. Kate, [m. Thomas Welch.] 

4. Ellen. 


THOMAS BLANCHAED and his son Samuel came over in 1639, 
and settled in Charlestown, Mass. They were of Huguenot race, and 
the name was originally Blanche. Samuel, the son, moved in 1686 to 
Andover, Mass., and died there in 1707, aged seventy-seven. His son, 
Samuel Blanchard, Jr., is understood to have been the father of Caleb, 
who came to Antrim. This second Samuel married Ruth Gould, of 
Chelmsford, Mass. 

Caleb, son of Samuel and Ruth (Gould) Blanchard, was born in Ando- 
ver, Mass., in 1760, came to Antrim from Dracut, Mass., in 1818 (follow- 
ing his son Joshua who had come here some years before), and bought of 
Francis Brown what is now known as the Whiteley place. He married 
Lucy Gould, of Chelmsford, Mass., and had seven children, all born else- 
where, but most of them lived more or less in this town. He fell in the 
ham and broke his neck, Aug. 7, 1843, aged eighty-three. -He was a 
remarkably vigorous man ; walked two miles before breakfast on the day 
of his death. His widow died in 1852, aged nearly ninety-three. Their 
children : — 

1. John, [b. in Dracut, Mass., July 30, 1788 ; m. Margaret H. 

Taylor of New Boston ; remained on homestead ; d. Nov. 
30, 1860. His wife d. June 20, 1866, aged 78. His house 
was burned Feb. 11, 1842, while all the family were gone 
to church, and the present house was built in the summer 
of that year. Mr. Blanchard was many years a teacher, 
was a great reader, was a man of active memory, strict in 
his family, very religious, and very decided and unbending 
in his convictions. His children were : — 

Betsey H., (b. Sept. 22, 1821, m. Edward Whiteley Sept. 15, 
1853, remains on homestead.) 

John N., (b. Nov. 11, 1824 ; rendered partially insane by fit 
of sickness ; has been patiently cared for by his sister many 

Ephraim T., (d. at the age of 11, July 2, 1840.) 

iMcy a., (d. at the age of 18, Aug. 9, 1849.)] 

2. Joshua, [m. Isabella Harvey of Dracut, Mass. ; cahie here 

about 1814 ; bought the Jonas White place (B. C. Butter- 


field's) ; was a blacksmith, and had a shop a little south of 

the house ; was succeeded hy his brother Caleb ; after a few 

years moved to Lyndeborough, and d. there in 1821, aged 

31. His children were : — 
William Gr., (b. in Antrim, m. Eugenia Morange of New 

York, lives in Boston.) 
Julia Ann, (b. in Dracut, Mass., m. Mason Wheaton, lives in 

Maiden, Mass.) 
Harriet N., (b. in Lyndeborough, num., lives in Boston.) 
Jane C, (b. in Antrim, m. Henry Ohesley, lives in Brighton, 

Isabella, (d. unm. in Boston in 1854.) 
Mari/ F., (m. 1st,' George W. Hope ; 2d, Daniel Sargent of 


3. Ruth, [m. John Barton of Weston, N. Y. ; had five children; 

all dead but one, and she the widow of Col. Bartlett Dorr, 
who was killed in battle in the late ^ar. A daughter, Liz- 
zie, was the wife of Rev. Henry 0. Puller. The aged par- 
ents are both living.] 

4. Lucy, [m. Thomas Knowlton of Dracut, Mass. ; had a family 

of ten children ; but now parents and children are all dead, 
save one son, Charles P. Knowlton, living in the West.] 

5. Caleb, Jr., [b. May 17, 1795, m. " Millie " Cram July 12, 

1821 ; wa§ blacksmith by trade ; succeeded his brother 
Joshua in shop and farm occupied by him ; was there but a 
short time ; had children, Elizabeth W. and Oliver H., 
born in Antrim, and several after removal from town ; went 
from here to Eden, N. J. ; thence to Kansas ; and as noth- 
ing has been heard from them, it is supposed they were all 
swept off by the Indians, who made fearful depredations at 
that time in the State.] 

6. Amos, [b. Nov. 30, 1799; built the Collins Whittemore house 

in 1819; m. Eunice Flint April 6, 1820; sold in 1824, 
probably to John Dunlap, and went to Aurora, N. Y. ; is 
still living in Jamestown in that State. Children : — 

Amos A., (b. in Antrim in 1821 ; graduated at Dartmouth 
College, class of 1845; m. Ruth Tenney of Hanover; is a 
lawyer of note in Buffalo, N. Y.) 

Creorge Cr., (b. in Antrim in 1822, m. Philinda Keyes of 
Jamestown, N. Y. ; lives in San Francisco ; has been attor- 
ney-general of Cg-lifornia. George A., his only son, is a 


lawyer in that State, and district-attorney of Sacramento 

Flint, (b. in Aurora, N. Y., in 1824, m. Sarah J. Allen, lives 
in Jamestown, N. Y. One son, Henry L. Blanchard, is a 
lawyer in Port Townsend, Washington. Territory, and 
another son is a physician in Jamestown.) 

William B., (m. Sarah Prince of Buffalo in 1856, d. in James- 
town, N. Y., in 1862.) 

Charles, (graduated at Dartmouth College Medical Depart- 
ment in 1851, m. Cornelia Lampson of Detroit in 1864, is a 
physician in Buffalo, N. Y. The name appears as Henry 
Charles on the college record.) 

Mary, (d. unm. in Jamestown, N. Y., in 1864.)] 
7. Maet, [b. May 6, 1802, m. Samuel H. Pratt of Boston Aug. 
16,1827. Mr. Pratt d. Feb. 14, 1862. Children: — 

Senry 0., (b. in Boston in 1828, unm., lives in Brighton, 

Charles 0., (m. Anna B. Jones, lives in Dorchester, Mass.) 

Mary B., (m. James E. Favor and lives in Bennington.) 

Edwin B., (m. Harriet A. Hemmeilway, lives in Waltham, 
Mass., was an ensign in the navy during the war.) 

Harriet N., (m. Arthur D. Phelps, lives in Boston.) 

Julia Marella, (five preceding b. in Boston ; this b. in Aurora, 
N. Y., m. D. A. Glidden, lives Boston Highlands.) 

William B., (b. in Antrim in 1840, m. Susie Snelling of Bos- 
ton ; was colonel in the army ; wounded at Atlanta ; lives 
in St. Louis ; is in postal railway service.) 

Caroline E., (b. in Boston in 1848, m. William P. Hunt of 
Roxbury, Mass., lives in Chicago.)] 

Mrs. CARRIE (FOOTE) BLANCHARD came to South Village 
in January, 1876, bringing five children, all born in Bennington, viz. : 
John, born in 1858 ; Fred, born in 1860 ; Charles, born in 1867 ; Minnie, 
born in 1869 ; Eugene, born in 1871. John Blanchard, her husband, 
was killed by the explosion of a powder-mill, Oct. 4, 1870. 


WILLIAM BODWELL, son of Joshua Bodwell, whose mother was 
murdered by the Indians in Haverhill, Mass., was born in Methuen, 
Mass., in 1761, married Rachel French of Atkinson in 1785, settled the 
Reuben Robinson place west of the pond (Dutton's) in 1789, went to 
Ohio in 1800, and died there in 1834. The widow afterwards married 
Alexander Witherspoon, and died April 12, 1837. Children of William 
Bodwell : — 


1. William, [b. Sept. 6, 1786, m. Betsey Kimball of Dublin, 

went to Stow, N. Y., in 1811, and died there in 1816.] 

2. Sally, [b. Sept. 4, 1788, d. 1804.] 

3. John, [b. Sept. £, 1790 ; moved to Stow, N. Y., in 1811 ; 

thence after the death of his brother William he went to 
Ohio, and nothing more can be learned of him.] 

4. Hannah, [b. Jan. 25, 1793, m. Joseph Knight, moved to 

Atkinson, and is yet living there.] 

5. Anna, [b. March 24, 1795, m. Dea. Samuel Fletcher, April 

20, 1814 ; is a noble, devoted woman, spending her old age 
with children at Bunker Hill, 111.] 

6. Ede, [b. July 30, 1797, m. Rev. David Van Alstin, a Univer- 

salist preacher, settled in Atkinson in 1818, and she died 
there in 1831.] 

7. Peiscilla, [b. March 3, 1800, d. Oct. 18, 1803.] 


Dea. ASA BOND, adopted son of Dea. Elisha Bond of Gilsum, mar- 
ried, first, Almira Ellis of Sullivan ; went from Gilsum to Nashua, and 
was a machinist there of considerable prominence. His wife died in 
Nashua in 1842 ; married, second, Sally Barker of Antrim in 1844 ; 
came here in 1846, and bought the Samuel Carr place (now James Rich- 
ardson's) and lived there till his sudden death, Oct. 30, 1865, at the age 
of sixty-nine. Mr. Bond was at work repairing machinery at a lathe in 
the shop now J. A. Bryer's, and dropped dead so suddenly that when 
found he still held the tools in his hands ; was a long time an elder in 
the Presbyterian Church, and a pure and devoted man. His descend- 
ants are all gone fronl Antrim. He buried six children before coming 
here, and brought four with him as follows : — 

1. William L., [b. in Nashua in 1828, m. Jane Pickles, is a 

physician, lives in Charlestown, Mass.] 

2. J. Elliot, [b. in Gilsum in 1830, now of Somerville, Mass.] 

3. Sibyl E., [b. in Peterborough in 1832, m. James Gordon in 

1850, lives in Somerville, Mass.] 

4. Charles P., [b. in Nashua in 1837, m. Olivia Brown of 

Antrim Feb. 19, 1867, now lives in Hancock. Their chil- 
dren, — Charles W., b. Dec. 10, 1857; George A., b. Dec. 

21, 1859 ; and Mary A., b. in 1861, d. in infancy, — were 
all natives of Antrim.] 


BEUBEN BOUTWELL was born in Reading, Mass., in 1760 ; came 
here in 1783 froin Amherst ; married Olive Bradford of Mont Vernon; 



moved first into a log house a few rods southeast of Daniel Simonds 
place, in which he lived several years and had three children born, one 
of whom was Chandler B. Boutwell, Esq., -long the oldest person in 
Antrim. Afterwards lived in Simonds house for a time, then cleared 
and settled the farm begun by Hutchinson, next west of Daniel Swett's, 
putting up the buildings there in 1799. These buildings are now gone, 
and the road to them thrown up. The house was moved to the Branch, 
was known as the mill-house, and was burned in 1876. Mr. Boutwell 
died in 1816, and at the burial, March 11, at the cemetery on the hill, 
the snow was so deep and the cold so intense it was impossible to fill the 
grave, and they left it to be finished in warm weather. His children 
that grew up were : — 

1. Rebecca, [b. July 25, 1780, m. Asa Robinson Feb. 23, 1804, 

d. Aug. 18, 1831.] 

2. Molly, [b. June 19, 1784, m. John Robinson, and d. in early 


3. Chandlee B., [b. March 6, 1786, m. Peggy Oarr June 4, 

1811, with -whoni he lived more than sixty-two years. She 
died Oct. 23, 1873. Bought of John Woodcock the place 
on which he now resides ; built the brick house in 1847 ; 
has been always a vigorous, industrious man, of good cal- 
culations and simple habits ; has acquired large property ; 
been a constant attendant at church all his life ; one that 
the minister was sure to find in his place and one that 
always supported the gospel with his means. He united 
with the Presbyterian Church at the age of 88 ; is now 
smart and cheerful in his 93d year ; has voted seventy-two 
times in succession at the March meeting, without a break. 
Since writing the above Mr. Boutwell has died, the event 
occurring Jan. 27, 1880. At one time they buried all their 
family of children in a row of four little graves on Meeting- 
House Hill, but afterwards were born to them as follows : — 

Roxah, (b. Dec. 14, 1815 ; m. Daniel Swett, June 18, 1840 ; 
a most excellent woman ; d. after lingering sickness and 
great suffering in August, 1875.) 

Achsah, (twin sister of Roxah, m. Sylvester Preston, Dec. 26, 

Margaret, (b. Jan. 9, 1826, m. William M. Conn April 9, 
1854. They occupied the homestead of her father, where 
she d. very suddenly of diphtheria Feb. 16, 1876.) 

Elizabeth, (b. Feb.. 11, 1829, m. Charles R. McClary, and lives 
in Nashua.)] 

4. James, [b. March 13,.1788 ; m, 1st, Lottie Dodge of New Bos- 


ton ; lived on his father's homestead till the death of the 
latter ; then moved to the Weeks or McCoy place in the 
east part of tlie town where the large brick house stands. 
His wife d. Jan. 17, 1844, aged 68, and he m. 2d, Hepsibeth 
(Draper) Brooks, widow of William Brooks of Hancock. 
He d. April 26, 1851, aged 63. His children were : — 

James, (m. Mary A. Averill Oct. 23, 1834, and moved to Peter- 
borough. He-d. in Milford March 27, 1855, aged 44.) 

Achsah, (m. James Wilson Dec. 25, 1834, and d. July 25, 
1863, aged 49.) 

Reuben, (b. in 1815, m. Hannah Gillis, inherited the home- 
stead, and d. Nov. 15, 1868, leaving two children : Susie E., 
who m. John M. Blodgett of Newbury, where he died in 
1871, and Horace G., b. March 19, 1858.) 

Charlotte, (d. Feb. 28, 1840, aged 20.) 

JSunice, (now Mrs. Ziba Crane of Washington.) 

Benjamin, (m. Prances Emery of Athens, Me., and d. March 
20, 1858, aged 32.)_ 

Sarah M., (m. James D. Matthews of Hancock in 1850, and 
d. in that town.)] 

5. Hannah, [b. May 11, 1791, m. Philip Averill Sept. 26, 1812, 

d. Nov. 5, 1834.] 

6. Patty, [b. Aug. 26, 1796, m. Walter Jones of Hillsborough 

Aug. 10, 1816, moved to the West many years ago.] 

7. William, [b. Jan. 8, 1798, m. Elizabeth Morrison of Wind- 

sor Nov. 4, 1817. He lived a short time in Stoddard ; 
bought and built in 1825 where his son William now lives, 
at the end of the road, south of the Keene road in the west 
part of this town. Built again about 1830 between the 
Levi Curtis place and the Keene road ; but after a few 
years bought the Abner pram place, where he lived till his 
death in January, 1878, aged a few days over 80 years. 
His first wife d. Nov. 7, 1862, aged 68, and he m. 2d, Mrs. 
Hepsibah (Tyler) Rogers, who survives him. This family 
spell their name Boutelle. The oldest child, Mary, was 
born in Windsor ; the rest in Antrim. 

Mary, (b. Feb. 29, 1818, m. Albert Frost Feb. 21, 1843, and 
lives in Peterborough. Has children : George A., Mary E., 
Eugene L., and Emma Jane.) 

Ann M., (b. April 14, 1819, m. John Hutchinson July 4, 


William, (Jo. May 3, 1823 ; m. Susan Splaine Oct. 27, 1847 ; 
lives in extreme west of the town south of Keene road ; 
was out in the army in the Thirteenth N. H. iiegiment ; 
has children : Elizabeth J., b. Aug. 24, 1848, who m. 1st, 
Rodney D. Wyman, and 2d, Henry Shepherd of Stoddard ; 
William H., b. Nov. 24, 1849, who m. Lottie Wilmot of 
Rome, Pa., and has children, Mary Belle and Nellie May ; 
Wallace M., b. Sept. 10, 1851, who m. Hattie B. Cram of 
Nelson Oct. 6, 1875 ; Augusta S., b. April 16, 1855, who 
m. Henry Hasling and lives in Lawrence, Mass. ; Nancy J., 
b. May '1, 1857, who m. George H. Buffiim June 28, 1873 ; 
James E., b. Sept. 16, 1859 ; Nell S., b. June 17, 1862 : and 
John H., b. Aug. 6, 1865.) 

Jackson, (b. June 12, 1824 ; m. Fanny Wier in October, 1853 ; 
lives on the Horace Tuttle farm, High Range ; was out in 
the war in the Thirteenth N. H. Regiment ; has children : 
Mary J., b. Oct. 4, 1854 ; Willie T., b. Dec. 27, 1856 ; Henry 
E., b. March 7, 1858 ; Lilla E., b. Aug. 18, 1861 ; George E-, 
b. Nov. 15, 1865 ; Albert L., b. April 21, 1871 ; 4nd Ada P., 
b. June 12, 1873.) 

John, (b. March 12, 1825 ; went to California in 1858 ; not 
heard from since 1861.) 

Nancy 0., (b. Nov. 25, lfi27 ; m. George W. Baldwin Nov. 6, 
1851 ; lived in Nashua ; but his health failing, he came to 
Antrim and died here, three days after the birth of his 
youngest child. His death occurred Oct. 3, 1856, at the 
age of 29. She m. 2d, Col. William Cross of Litchfield, 
Jan. 1, 1858, who d. Jan. 6, 1867, aged 56. She m. 3d, 
Aaron Cutler of Londonderry, March 5, 1868, and now 
resides in Litchfield.) 

Margaret J., (b. in 1832 ; m. Augustus Lovejoy of Hollis Feb. 
24, 1853; has children: Nellie Jane, b. in 1867, and Prank 
H., b. in 1863.) 

Reuben, (b. May 17, 1835 ; was out in the war in the Thir- 
teenth New Hampshire Regiment; m. Rose McGue of 
Nashua ; has one son, Fred, b. in September, 1860.) 

David W., (b. June '25, 1837; m. Eliza J.- Whitney March 20, 
1860 ; lived awhile in Nashua ; was out in the war in the 
Thirteenth New Hampshire Regiment ; was disabled by 
disease, and now draws a pension for support ; lives at the 
Branch; has children: Jennie P., who was b. in Nashua 


March 13, 1861, and Charles H., who was b. in Antrim 
April 25, 1863.)] 


CHARLES M. BOUTELLE, son of Charles and Betsey (Knight) 
Boutelle of Hancock, born in 1825, was a cabinet-maker ; came here to 
work for Isaac B. Pratt in Clinton in 1848; married Sarah Buckminster 
in 1850 ; built the same year the house now Allen Sawyer's (Clinton), 
but moved to Bear Valley, Minn., in 1859, and died there in 1876. Mr. 
Boutelle stood in high repute in the community . where he died ; was 
postmaster in Bear Valley ten years. Left children : — 

1. Prof. Clarence M., [b. in Antrim in 1851 ; now professor of 

mathematics and physics in the State Normal School at 
Winona, Minn. J 

2. Charles H., [b. in 1853, lives in Bear Valley.j 


The ancient family of Boyds " descended from a younger son of the 
illustrious lord high steward of Scotland." Robert, sou of Simon, who 
was third son of Alan the second lord high steward, was of a very fair 
complexion, and consequently was named "Boyt,"or " Boyd," from the 
Gaelic, signifying fair. From this Robert Boyt or Boyd, all the Boyds of 
Scotland descended. Some families by the name of Boit claim that as 
the original name. Robert Boyd died about 1240. His son. Sir Robert 
Boyd, called in 1262 " Robertus de Boyd," died in 1270. And his son, 
the third " Sir Robert Boyd," was one of the barons who were forced to 
swear fealty to King Edward I. of England in 1296. The following year 
he joined Sir William Wallace, but died soon after. His son, the fourth 
" Sir Robert Boyd," was one of the most gallant and able friends of Rob- 
ert.Bruce, and was by that king made Lord of Kilmarnoc, and covered 
with honors. His descendants have been traced in the male line down 
to the year 1800, and stand high among the dignities of old Scotland. 
Some of the younger sons from time to time emigrated to Ireland, and 
thence in subsequent years their children came to America. Much 
about the Boyds of Scotland must be omitted here from lack of space. 
In Ireland they kept clear of the natives. William Boyd, Esq., of Fox- 
borough, Mass., who was born in Newtownards, Ireland, in 1800, tells us 
the word which the grandmother would call out to the '' bairns " in the 
street when the native Irish came along : " Came in, an' stay in till them 
folks hae a' gane awa', for they're Eerish oot there an' ye maunna gang 
neer them." William of Foxborough was grandson of Hugh Boyd, who 
had a brother William born about 1710, or a little later. The names 
William, Robert, and James occur many times. There is no doubt that 
Capt. William Boyd, father of the brothers who settled in Antrim, was 
of this stock. There is little doubt that he was a cousin of " William^ 
born in 1710 or later." But positive proof must be sought in the old 


records on the other side of the water. I am indebted, for various 
papers, to Prancis Boyd, Esq., of Boston. 

Capt. WILLIAM BOYD, a man of notable courage and force, came 
to Londonderry among the early settlers of that town, though not for 
several years after the beginning in 1719. Eight of this name appear on 
the memorial to Gov. Shute, March 26, 1718, asking encouragement to 
obtain land in " that very excellent and renowned Plantation " called 
New England. In his mature years, he signed the " Association Test," 
April, 1776. Mr. Boyd came over the water fourteen times as captain, 
bringing Scotch emigrants from Ireland. Married Alice Hunter, and 
settled permanently in the western part of Londonderry in 1751, Died 
Nov. 24, 1789, aged 70. His wife died Nov. 26, 1790, aged 60. Chil- 
dren : — 

1. Dea. Joseph, [came to Antrim in 1774 and began the D. H. 
Goodell farpi ; m. Mary McKeen, — "Molly Boyd," as she 
was called ; had the reputation of being " peculiarly kind, 
tender-hearted, and generous." Joseph Boyd was a very 
efficient elder in the Presbyterian Church from 1800 until 
his death. It was said that nobody ever knew him do an 
unfair thing ; was eminently sincere and honorable ; was a 
man patiently laborious and industrious. His death, Dec. 
20, 1816, was occasioned by his being thrown from a car- 
riage just below the old meeting-house on return from wor- 
ship. His age was 64. His wife, Mary, who d. May 3, 
1828, aged 73, was a woman of great force and courage. 
At one time her husband was absent in Londonderry, and 
she was left with two or three small children in their log 
house in the woods, when a bear attacked her pigs. They 
had a small barn, one cow, a pair of oxen, and two pigs. 
This was all their stock. The bear broke into the inclosr 
ure some way, and her first notice of it was by the terrible 
squealing of the pigs. One of them ran by the door in a 
fright, and as the other kept up the squealing, she went 
down near the barn and found a bear hugging it nearly to 
death. Quick as a flash she grabbed a stake, one end of 
which was on fire, and struck bruin such a fearful blow that 
he dropped the pig, ran off about two rods, set up on his 
haunches, and looked at her as if deliberating what to do ! 
She used to say that he looked more like the devil than 
anything else she ever saw ! She got between him and the 
pig and drove the bleeding thing into the pen and shut it 
in. Then she ran for Daniel McFarland, the nearest man 


(at N. W. 0. Jameson's), to come and shoot the bear. 
McParland hurried up, and just then her husband came, but 
the bear was gone. But they made a trap, baited it with 
part of the mangled pig, and caught the old fellow that 
night. He weighed over three hundred pounds ! The 
children of Dea. Joseph and Mary Boyd, besides five little 
ones laid long ago in the grave, were as follows : — 

RoUH, (b. Nov. 7, 1778, m. Betsey Paige in 1800. His father 
gave him the Whiteley farm, which he occupied for a time. 
Afterwards he lived on the homestead of his fathier. He 
was found dead in the woods on the John Moore Duncan 
farm, September, 1837. He left a family of eight children, 
thus : William, who was b. Sept. 24, 1801, and died in 
childhood; Betsey, who was b. Nov. 2, 1803, m. James W. 
Wilder, and lives in Providence, Penn. ; Joseph, who was 
b. Aug. 11, 1807, m. Mary G. Bemis of Boston, was long 
time in the provision business in that city, amassed wealth, 
and lives in Somerville, Mass., having but one surviving 
child, Frances A.,unm. ; William, who d. in infancy ; Mary, 
who died in March, 1812 ; David, who was b. April 9, 
1813, m. Abbie S. Butler of Bolton, Mass., and now lives in 
Plymouth, Vt. ; and Mary, b. June 30, 1815, now living 
with her brother Joseph. The mother of these died in 
Providence, Penn., May 5, 1869. David buried his wife, 
Abbie Butler, in 1878, but has two children, William D. 
and Mary Alice.) 

Alice, (b. June 24, 1780, m.' Mark Woodbury. A woman of 
rare attractions and unusual ability and force. She d. 
April 15, 1858.) 

David, (b. Nov. 17, 1782; never m. ; lived on the old home- 
stead till all the. rest of the family were dead or gone, then 
boarded here and there in town till his death, Sept. 2, 

John C, (never m. ; went into the army in the war of 1812, 
and d. in the service at Portsmouth, March 18, 1813, aged 
27. His body was brought to Antrim and buried on the 
2. William, [came to Antrim as early as 1777, and selected a 
tract of land of which the original deed is appended : — 

Know all men by these presents : That George Jaflfrey of Ports- 
mouth . for and in consideration of one hundred and 


fifty pounds,, lawful money of said state, to liim iu hand, paid before- 
the delivery hereof, by William Boyd of Londonderry 
yeoman,, the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge 
do by these presents give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, release, con- 
vey and confirm to him the said William Boyd, all my right, title 
and estate of, in, and to, a certain lot of land, being part of the great 
Lot numbered six which was drawn to my right in the Society land, 
so called, but now in Antrim iij the county of Hillsborough in said 
state, which large lot was surveyed and laid out in small lots, most 
of which in one hundred acre lots or thereabouts, and marked in a 
plan thereof made by Maurice Lynch, surveyor, and returned to 
me Nov. 3, 1773 — which said lot hereby conveyed to William Boyd 
aforesaid is numbered twenty-four, at the four corners of said lot, 
and is situate between the Lots numbered tweut5'-three & twenty- 
five, and the side lines one hundred & seventy rods about north & 
south, and the head and foot lines ninety-four rods about east and 
west, as may appear by said plan. Iu witness whereof I 

have hereunto set my hand & seal this twenty-ninth Day of Octo- 
ber Ann. Domini 1778. 


William Boyd m. 1st, Anuis Orr, daughter of William 
Orr of Derry ; 2d, Martha Dickey, sister of the late Capt. 
Joseph Dickey of Londonderry. She is now living, nearly 
a hundred years of age. Her husband died Oct. 10, 1825, 
aged 69. In this town he settled the Dea. Worthley farm, 
and built the large house now standing on the same. Had 
five children born here. Sold to the Knights brothers in 
1795, and returned at once to the old homestead in Lon- 
donderry, the occasion being the untimely death of his 
brother John, who. had inlferited the paternal acres. The 
first wife of William had five children, and d. in 1813. AH 
his children were thus : — 

William, Jr., (m. Margaret Holmes, and d. in Derry in 1841, 
aged 59.) 

Letitia, (m. Samuel Marsh, d. in Pittsburg, Penn., 1845. Her 
husband d. Oct. 4, 1825, aged 45.) 

James, (d. Dec. 9, 1809, aged 18.) 

Robert, (m. Elizabeth Cheat, and d. May 19, 1816, aged 27.) 

Mary, (d. Aug. 28, 1804, aged 3.) 

Col. Calvin, (b. March 5, 1818, m. Charlotte W. Shepard, and 
lives on the old homestead in Londonderry. Commanded 
a regiment of New Hampshire militia, and was an efficient 
and fine-appearing officer.) 

Maria, (b. Aug. 19, 1819, m. Horace P, Watts of Manchester.) 


Mason, (b. Aug. 28, 1821, m. Mary H. Dodge, and lives in 

3. Isaac, [drowned in the Merrimack river April 28, 1800. Said 

to have occurred while he was trying to get a drove of cat- 
tle across. His age was 29. His wife, Mary Thompson, 
d. Feb. 2, 1817, aged 47. They left three children, thus: — 
Dea. Robert, (m. 1st, Susan Riddle of Bedford ; 2d, Martha 
B. Dickey of Warren, 0. He d. in Ohio April 12, 1871, 
aged 73.) 
Alice, (unm. ; d. in Londonderry Jan. 9, 1852, aged 55.) 
Isaac, (graduated at Dartmouth College in 1826 ; studied 
medicine, taking his diploma at Bowdoin College in 1829. 
He settled in the practice of medicine in West Newbury, 
Mass. ; m. Sarah C. Hill of that place ; d. there in 1844 
aged 44.)] 

4. John, [m. Naomi, daughter of Hon. John Duncan of Antrim ; 

lived on the homestead of his father,, and d. there in early 
manhood, greatly lamented, July 12, 1795, aged 29.] 

5. Alice, [m. James Steel, lived and d. on the place now occu- 

pied by William Curtis.] 

6. James, [b. April 3, 1768 ; cleared and settled the farm now 

Dea. James Boyd's, probably beginning as early as 1789. 
He married Fanny Baldwin t>f Amherst in 1795. She was 
a sister of Capt. Isaac Baldwin, came here as a teacher, and 
taught in several places in town. She taught awhile in a 
dwelling-house on the top of Patten Hill, up to the summit 
of which there was at that time a rough public road from 
the Boyd place. Here she made such good impression, it 
was judged best to keep her for life. Dr. Whiton says she 
was a " woman of great excellence of character," which 
seems to be the sentiment of all who knew her. She d. 
Dec. 25, 1828, aged 57. He d. Sept. 6, 1835, aged 67. 
The children of James and. Fanny Boyd were : — 

Fanny, (b. July 15, 1796, m. Josiah W. Christie March 16, 
1824, and d. in child-birth near the close of the same year, 
leaving twin infants : Franklin, who d. in 1828, and Fran- 
cis, who removed from Antrim to Boston in 1845.) 

Harriet, (b. Sept. 17, 1798, m. Simeon B. Little of Boscawen 
Sept. 16, 1824, and d. there Oct. 3, 1860, leaving four chil- 
dren: George, Sherman, Arthur, and Evelyn. One of these 
is Rev. Arthur Little, a distinguished Congregational cler- 


gyman of Chicago. His letter will be found among the 
centennial reports.) 

Lucy, (b. Oct. 6, 1802, m. Dea. Joseph Kimball of Hancock 
Oct. 20, 1831, d. Feb. ^10, 1879.) 

Bea. James, (b. May 26, 1804, lived on homestead of his 
father, m. Evelyn Hall in 1832. She was daughter of Gil- 
bert and Phebe (Perry) Hall of Warren, Me. Her father 
was named a " good man," was a sea-captain with a life of 
romantic successes, and reverses, and d. at sea in 1825. 
Dea. Boyd was a carpenter by trade ; built many houses ; 
was characterized by tireless energy ; was a hard worker 
and a constant worker, and an able and careful manager. 
The land on which Clinton Village is built once belonged to 
his estate, and was sold off in small lots from time to time. 
By years of hard labor and good calculation he accumulated 
the largest property ever collected in Antrim. Was for a 
long time a chief supporter of the Presbyterian Church, of 
which he was chosen elder in 1860. Left no children. Was 
town treasurer for a long time. He d. April 18, 1880, after 
long and terrible suffering, leaving one hundred dollars per 
year to the Presbyterian Church, besides thirty dollars per 
year to its poor, and all the residue of his estate, after the 
death of his heirs, to missionary and charitable institutions. 
The " Congregationalist " thus speaks of him : — 

Dea. Boyd was of the Scotch-Irish race, retaining to a remark- 
able degree the characteristics of the early settlers. He held opin- 
ions of his own, and was one of those who in every place will think 
and act for themselves. Like the fathers, he held his views 
strongly, yet always meant to be right. He was a thinking man of 
clear head, strong natural abilities, and sound judgment ; a. depos- 
itary of many trusts, and strictly 'reliable in the care of them. Per- 
haps no really abler man was ever raised in Antrim. For half a 
century he was a man of great physical endurance, capable of doing 
two men's work ; and yet in no rash or careless way, since every- 
thing was thought out beforehand and done by method. 

He was a strong Presbyterian, but he could give the reason why. 
If, like the Scotch fathers, he was set in his views, he was first 
thoroughly satisfied with the reasons for them. He came into the 
church in the great revival of 1827. For a long series of years he 
held the ofllce of deacon. In the course of his life he gave more, 
probably, for the support of religion and the various charities, than 
any other man that ever lived in Antrim. His last years were full 
of bodily suflfering, and his last sickness painful in the extreme ; 
but he met it all with fortitude, and passed away in the Christian 


faith, with the hope of immortal happiness and in sweet peace with 
all the world.) 

Isaac, (b. April 28, 1806 ; m. Ifary Hadley of Goffstown ; 
was a roving, stirring, wide-awake man ; carried on busi- 
ness of various kinds in different places ; was in the bob- 
bin business at the Branch some years ; then moved to 
Waldoborough, Me., and d. there April 24, 1868, leaving 
children: Mary P., now Mrs. Samuel N. Morse of Nashua ; 
James P., who lives unm. in Waldoborough, , Me. ; and 
Sarah M., who was sometime a teacher in Boston, — more 
recently a traveler in South America and Europe ; was a 
teacher in Brazil ; speaks several languages ; a woman of 
rare scholarship afld energy.) 

John M. W., (b. April 1, 1810, named for Dr. Whiton, m. 
Mary A. Hall of Boston, and d. in that city in 1847, leaving 
children: John G. ; Henry M., who m. Elvira Marshall, 
lived in this town some years, had one child, Ida P., born 
here, and moved to Boston some two years since ; Abbie P. ; 
and Anna E.) 

Abigail W., (twin sister of John M. W., and named for Mrs. 
Dr. Whiton, d. in 18260] 


The first known in America by this' name was Capt. Richard Brack- 
ett, a native of Scotland, born in 1610, who came to this country in 1629 
in the " Massachusetts Bay Company," under Gov. Winthrop. With oth- 
ers he signed a covenant to establish the first church in Boston. Nov. 
25, 1636, he was " admitted a member of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company." In 1637 he was appointed " Keeper of the Prison,'' 
which office he long held ; was chosen deacon of the church July 21, 
16^2, being then thirty-two years of age ; was " chief military com- 
mander in Braintry ; " was appointed to " marry and take oaths in civil 
cases." His life is spoken of as " useful, active, and pious." He died 
March 5, 1690. One of his eight children was James, born in 1645, — a 
pious and good man, who died in 1718, leaving seven children. The 
third of these was Nathan, born Sept. 29, 1677. Nathan married Han- 
nah Yeasie, and died in Quincy, Mass., in 1743. He left seven children. 
James, oldest child of Nathan, was born Nov. 3, 1709 ; married Abigail 
Belcher ; was a hotel-keeper ; and died in 1781, leaving a large family. 
His fourth child, Samuel, was born in Braiutree, Nov. 30, 1741 ; married 
Eebecca Haywaid of Braintree Dec. 17, 1765, and went at once to Peter- 
borough. His descendants in that town now occupy the spot where he 
settled. Samuel Brackett had thirteen children in all, as follows: Sarah, 
Samuel, Betsey, Dorothy, John, James, Josiah, Isaac, Eebecca, William, 


Ebenezer, Joseph, and Benjamin. He died March 16, 1826. His wife 
died July 7, 1832, aged eighty-six. 

JAMES BEACKETT, the sixth of these children, was born in Peter- 
borough May 10, 1777. He married Hannah, daughter of Dea. James 
Carr of Antrim, in the year 1803, and lived several years in Peterbor- 
ough, doing business as a drover, though by trade a shoemaker. Came 
here in 1811, and the next year built the house long occupied by Mrs. 
Sally Sawyer, but recently bought and repaired by his son, James Brack- 
ettr He united with the Presbyterian Church in his old age, and his 
conversion was so remarkable as to be worthy of notice here. He 
worked at his trade many years, in a little shop nearly opposite to the 
house ; had worked tliat day early and late ; had been very thoughtful 
all the afternoon ; but got through with his work, put out the light, went 
into the house and sat down. Soon it occurred to him that he had for- 
gotten something, and he went back to the shop. He found it brilliantly, 
lighted, though from no visible source. He sat down on the bench to 
consider, and the thought at once struck him that this was a call of God. 
After looking and wondering for near ten minutes, he went into the 
house and told his wife what had occurred. They agreed that it was 
either a call to die or to prepare for death. He did not sleep that night, 
was under great conviction, but came out into religious peace and con