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Full text of "History of the town of Newburgh"

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Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028824781 



Cornell University Library 
F 129N54 R98 
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History of the town of Newburgh / by E.M 



3 1924 028 824 781 
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HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWI OF lEWBUM: 



Bv e:_ m- r_utt-e:nbe:r, 

CORKBSFONDING MEMBER OP THE X. Y. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Illustrations by Clias. W. Ticc, Artist, Newburgli. 



" Those only desei-ve to be remembered by posterity who cherish the memory and 
treasure up the history of their ancestors." — ^BtTiKE. 



NEWBUBGH : 
E. 51. EUTTBNBER & CO., PRINTERS. 

1859. 

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/]. Cf20 



/Cornell 
universityi 

LIBR/VRY 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the Clerk's Office of the District 
Court, of the Southern District of New-York, 

BY E. M. EOTTENBEE AND C. W. TICE, 

the third day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-nine. 



k 



INDEX, 



Abeol, James S. 

Academy, Lottery for 86,247 
" Erected 87,247 

" Revenae 108 

" History 246,247,248 
" Boarding House, 261 
" Highland 241,251 

Acker, "Wolvert (see Ecker) 

Adams, John (Corvette) 117 
" H. F. 189 

Aderton, Thomas 234 

<< John L. 131 

Adae, William 172 

Albertson, Biohard 30,31,37,38 
52,83,244 
" Jos.43,57,92,100,104 

" Joseph, Jr. 186 
" Jeremiah 186 

'* Mary 

Alexander, James 

Aldridge, Peter 

Alliger, Key. Mr. 

Allison, Jethro 
" WiUiamL. 

Alms-Honso 

Alsop, John 

Amerman,Dorick 



33,47,186 

53 

219 

234 

265 

124,138 

140 

80,178,208 

213,247,268 

American Union Lodge 258 

Ancient Druids 89 ,98 ,99 ,258 

Anderson, Jolm 81,97,107,108 

117,169,177,178,206,299 

" John,Jr. 118,161,172 

" Benj. 105,173,292 

" Sovereign B. 187 

" Mias C. 2161 

Andrews, David 297 

Andruss, Hannah 209 

Applegate, Rev. Thomas 

Appleton, <T. J. 

Arbuclcle, Rev. James 

Ai-mstrong, Messrs. 

" Major John 

" Mrs. Jane 

" Maj, John 

Armtynge, John 

Arnell, David R. 

Arnold, J. N. 

" Rev. S. 

Artillery, Butterworth's 

Asbury, Rev. Francis 229,230 

" (3hapel 233 

Asherton, Theophilus 223,224 

Ashhurst, John 238,256 

Askell, John 140 

Atherton, Rev. Jon. 223,226,227 

Atlee, Samuel 134 

" James F. 134 

Atwood, Thomas 189 

" Jediah 227 

Austin, Alanson 115 

" Nelson 235 



241 
244 
130 

67 
296 

67 
140 
266 
189 
233 
188 



172 

Bailey, Jonathan 144 

Baird, Alex.Patont (see Patent) 

Baker, Charles 258 

" Joaiah and Mary 227 



Baker, Barthl. and Hannah 227 

" "William 

Baldwin, John F. 188 

" Rev. Methusaleh 202 

" Rev. Abraham C. 206 

Ball, Honry 204 

" Chai-lesH. 188 

Bahnville 128,178,187 

Balm of Gilead Tree, 106,128 
Bank, Newb'gh 113,118,119,149 

" Branch at Ithaca, 150 

" Highland 118,150,192 

" Powell ISl 

*' Quassaick 162 

" Savings 163 

*' Suspensions, 163 

Banks, Hugh S. 208,251 

" Rosalie H. 208 

Banker, Robert 181 

Barbarie's Patent, (see Patent) 
Barber, Jos. Wf 87 

Barljer, John- 116 

Barbour, Joseph 185 

Barclay, D.H. 101,143,163,262 

" Miss N. 
Barges 180,181 

Barker, A. Female Seminary251 
Barnes, Charles 192 

Barton, Isaac 52,53 

Barracks, 96,118 

Barret, Rev. John 227 

Barr, Ann 210 

Bate, D. W. 143,147,166,159,244 

" James 247,263 

Bath Hotel 119 

Beach, Est. J. C. 207 

" Rev. John W. 232 

Beatlebron, Antony 
Beattie, Robert 

" Robert, Jr. 

" Thomas 
Bcaty , Archibald 

" Arthar 

" Charles 
Bedford, Stephen 

" David 
Beede, 'William H. 

" Napoleon B. 



Belffage, Henry 
Belknap Family, 
" Thomas 
" Saml. 
" Joseph 
" William 
" Kuth 
" Isaac 



52,53 

» 48 

» 62 

62 

181 

181 

181 

140 

181 

133 

133 

136 

243 

267 to 272 

48,268 

48,182,268 

62,268 

187,268 

268,270 

,41,48,60,62 



83,97,10S,lo4l69,176 
182,184,199,200,201 
213,268,269, 
Briggs 186,269 

Samuel 269 

Samuel, Jr. 213,270 
William G. 270 

Seth 117,187,206,269 
Lydia 270 

Stephen 187,271 

Aaron B. 266,271 



Bellcnap, Isaac, Jr. 68,115,117 

149,150,167,183,213 

219,220,269,312 

" Abel 39,41,52,69,186 

199,201,206,270 

" Chancy 133,149,178 

183,271 
" AbeljO'r, 161,271 
" Moses H. 148,151,249 

270 
" Aaron 150,164,166,271 
" David 48,62,271 

" Hezekiah 116,117,272 
" Daniel C. 133,271 

" Jonathan 62,268 

" John 49,60,52,167 
" Elizabeth 213 

" James 161,155,163,166 

187,248,258,268 
" Nathaniel R. 151,268 
" Chaunoey F. 164,271 
" RuJus R. 164,271 

" Jeduthan 268,312 
Belknap, A. & M. H. 191,192 
Belknap Ridge, 137 

Belknapville, 132,185 

Bell, Alexander 283 

" Capt. H. H. 241 

Bell of Lutheran Church 31,96 
Bellamont, Gov. 36 

Bellows, Charles H, 148 

Bell Button Company 187 

Bend, Henry 41,92 

Benedict, E. T. , 248 

Benevolent Society 267 

Benjamin, Jos. 121,160 

Bennett, Hiram 151,165 

Bonnet, William 32,83 

Berkenmeyer, Rev. Wm. Chris- 
topher 28,29,261 
Berlin and Milan Decrees, 113 
Botts, S. B. 266 
Beveridge, Jno. 143,216,246,249 
" Mrs. ,Tno. 216 
Bevridgo, J. & Co. 156,162,810 
Bevier, Rev. J. H. 220 
Biographical Notes, 323 
Birdsall, Benjamin 60,62,63,99 
177,201 
" Daniel 62,99,166,247 
" Chas. 116,166,186,269 
" Amelia 208 
Birdsall's Capt. Company 186 
Bird, Michael 191,237 
Black Hawk, Steamer 187 
Blacklaw, James and Jane 216 
Blake, Daniel D. T. 206 
Elizabeth 209 
Deborah 210 
Blarcken, Jacobus Von 47 
Blizard, John ' 189 
Bloom, Dominie 16 
Bloomer, Joseph 47 
" William 52, 67 
" Reuben H. 266 
" Anna 227 
Board of Education 248 



(See Appendix) 



22 



INDEX. 



Board of Trustees, Members of 

(Bee Appendix) 

BoardmaDj Rev. Richard 229 

" Elijati 173 

Bogardus, Peter - 169,170 

" Cath. and Ann 170 

" Cornelius 219 

Bogert, 'William 241 

Boice, Eliza C. 206 

Bolls, Michael 139 

Bolton, Francis 174 

Booth, Charles 199 

" Thomas H. 267 

Booyls, 'William 43 

Bondj'William 47,139,140 

" Susanna 47 

" Samuel 62 

" John 
Borden, Rev. T. 288 

Borland, Chas. 145,146,147,183 



Charles, Jr 
Bowers, Rev. E. K. 
Bowdisn, William 
Bowman, Phineas 
Sowne, Robert 
Boyd, Nathaniel. 

" Mary 

" Robert 

" Eleanor 

" Jano 
Brackett, Mr. 
Bradner, John 
Bradford, L. 
Bradley Patent 
" Children 
*' Joshua, 
Brainer, Thomas 
Brash, Rev. John 
Breasure, "Valentyn 
Brewery 
Brewster, Saml. 
" Francis 
" Eugene A. 
" William C. 
Brick Chapel 
Bride, Jbhn 
Briggs, Rev. Avery 
Broadhead, Rev. Dr. 
Brock ,'Capt. 
Broderick, Patrick 
BrooliS, David 
Broom, I.6wis 
Brown Family 



151 
202,209 
52 
106,289 
108 
173 
210 
164.213,215 
213 
213 
248 
115 
209 
(see Patent) 
46 
224 
140 
218 
139 
119 
54,199,201 
169 
143 
186 
232 
43 
224 
220 
165 
181 
134 
179 
303,304 
John 119,213,247,303 
Chichester 304 

Js.S.98,119,120,148,S04 
John James 251,304 
James P. 129,249 

Eov. John 6,194,196,197 

240,260 
'William 32 47 

Isaac 41,43,62 

Isaac, Jr. 52 

Thomas 41 

Johu"W. 09,143,183,187 

243,288 
.Tosiah, 



Bruyn, Catharine 

" Wilson 

" Hester 

" Cornelius 

Bryant, William Cullen 

Buchanan, James P. 



279 



Book, Rev. David 
Buckingham, Richard 
" Solomon 

" Benj. F. 

Bull, James D. 
" HughB. 
Burling, Walter 
" David 
" Nathaniel 
Burnet, Gov.Wm. 
" Bishop 
'< Rev. Eleazer 
" Robert R. 
" Robert 
Burnett, Robert 

" Mary 
Burr, Calvin 
Burt, E. 
Burtis, Samuel 
Bushfield, James 
" John 
" Thomas 
Butterworth, Messrs. 
" Henry 

H. & J. 

" James 

" William 

" Glorianna 



144 

9 

206 

206 

235 

52,176 

62 

176 

244 

186 

101,172 

101 

172 

20,33,47,139 

21,33 



" .Jacob 

" David 

" William E. 

" Addison W. 

" John 

" Rebecca 
Brouner, Bov. Jacob 
Brovort, John 
Brower, Alex. 
Brundage, Rev. Wm. 
Brunbridge, Jonathan 
Bruyn, Cornelius 

" Jacobus 



114 
119 
161,271 
181 
181 
240 



261 

89,41 

223,227 

52 

264 

181,270 



Cadets of Temporanco 268 
Caldwell, Harry 166,196 

Callahan, Sapiuol T. 256,298 
Calvary Presbyterian Ch. 207 
Camack, William 

" Moses 
Cameron, William 
Camp, Herman 
Campbell, Thomas 
Canal, Erie 

" Hud. & Delaware 122^123 
Cannon, Foundry 

" Westlake 
Car^, A. 

" Lucius 
Carlisle, Samuel 

" Rev. Samuel 
Carman, Elijah 

" John 

" Cornelius 

Carpenter, Nehemiah 

" Joseph, 

" Daniel 



Carter, Lewis 232 

" Family 296,299 

" Enoch, Sr. 296,297,298 
' ' Jonathan 98 ,161,172,191 

266,298,299 
" Enoch 6,96,98,142,299 
Case, Benjamin 38,106,199 

" Benjamin, Jr. 106 

" Stephen 62,66 

" Absalom 62 

" Walterl09,nO,16O.172,281 
- ■ - 153 

178 
210 
166 



" Family 

" Benjamin 

" Jacob 118,170,171 

293,294 
'• Leonard 149,170,172 

172,263,269,293,294 
" IsaaoB. 119,162,170 

171,183,294 
Girpfnter, Benjamin 119,147 

161,163,164,166,166 

178,179,180,294 
" Jane B. 170,294 
" Alexander L.170,294 
" Bridget 170,268 

" Henry B. 171 

" J. &L. 178 

" B. & Co. 161,178,181 

Carscadden, William 62,67 
" Robert 43,44,194 

" Thomas 104,I96i 



Robert L. 

" E. and B. & 1. 

Casement, M. A. and M 

Caster line, Joseph, Jr. 

Castle, Rev. J. H. a:i6 

Caughey, John 252 

Cauldwell, Joseph 224,227 

202 Celebration, Peace 72 

253 " Perry's Victory 116 

181 Cemetery, Highland 129 

151 " St. Patrick's 237 

20B " Old Public 29 

150 CensusEeturns, 122,139 

Chev is . Christian 140 

173 Chambers & Sutherland 34 

137 " Thomas 13 

234 " William 139,140 

234 " John 160,165,172 

128 " Bi W. 240 

116,142 " A. VanGaasbeok 181 

144,186 " Creek 22,136 

178 Chapman, Paddock 301 
183 " Joseph H.H. 176,301 
188 " Doct. Hiram K. 206 

Mrs. Jane 206 

Charlton, Rev. Richard 184,324 

Chase, Caleb 62 

Rev. Johnson 224 

Joseph 225 

Chetwood Rev. Hobart 197,240 

186 Chrystie, Rev. Dr. 214,223 

186 " Thomas W. 296 

223 Christie, Albert 256 

150 Churches — 

62 Lutheran, N.Y. 28 

121,122 " Newburgh 29,193,203 

Church of England 30,193 

136 First Presbyterian 82,86,199 

188 Second " 206 

179 Calvary " 207 
252 Middlehope " 128,212 

179 Fh-st Refd. Presbyterian 221 
Second " " 222 

44 First Baptist 223 

43 " Mission 228 

180 Refd. Protestant Dutch 219 
62 St. George's Ep. 44,110,193 

62,276 St. John's Chapel 198,21r 

169,170 St. Paul's sij 

293,294 St. Andrew's J^ 

St. David's 195 

Associate Ref. Pres. 85,212 

Union " 198,204,218 

Methodist Episcopal 228 

First Newburgh 231 

Middlehope 233 

Gardnertown 233 

RoBsville 234 

Fostertown 334 

Second Newburgh 234 

M. E. Classes 231 

St. Patrick's R. C. 236 

First 'Oniversalist 238 

First Un. Presbyterian 289 

Walloon Protestant 279 

African M. E. Zion 242 

Shiloh Baptist 197,242 

Clark, Gov. George 33,167 

Jeremiah 199 



INDEX. 



Ul 



19»1 

204, 

181 

83,176 

62,181,221 

62,56,81,182 

a2,66 

«,B2 

206 

166 

210 

241,242 



Clark, Bouten 

" Goorge 

" Jolin 

*' Lewis 

" James 

" Samuel 

" Daniol 

" Johiel 

" Job 

" Chester 

" Zipporah 

Clarkson, David M. 

Clapp, Efiv. W. S. 

Clement, Gabriel ST. 172 

Clinton, Gov. George Si;37,108 

" Charles 181,182 

" George 60,100,184,199 

" Genl. James 68,69,100 

182,199,263 
" Boot. Chas. 63,108,144 

1187,247,268 

" DoWitt 188 

James G. 147,166,174 

Cliosophic Hall (see Schools) 

aose, Eev. John 102,199,200 

Clothing Store-house 

ClugBton, John '119 

" Ebbert 161 

" Bachel S Anna M. 209 

Coal Beds, Road to 123 

Coal Hole, • 167 

Cochrane, Lieut, CoL 79 

Coffin, Caleb 62,99,178,269,313 

Coinage Mill, MacMn's 95,134 

Coke, Eev. Thomas 230 

Cole, mdei- 

" Morgan 96,132 

" Joseph 

" Maria 

" Jane 267 

Coleman, "William 181 

" Thomas 181 

" Daniel 181 

'* James 186 

" Natbauiel 62 

" John 173 

" Joseph 29,66,94,99 

176,200 ,301 ,389 

Coles, Dennis 264 

Coley, William 184 

Cold Spring 160 

Colden's Gore 118 

Ooldeo, Cadwallader 33,48,49,84 

139,140,182,264 

" Cadwallader, Jr., 44,83 

195,247,266 

" Alexander 80,31,32,88 

37,38,89,41,83,96,128 

167,168,177,264 

" Thomas 120,166,203 

" Eichard Nloolls 

" Honse 97,118 

Colomiade Row 118 

ColTill, 'William 119 

Committee of Sajety 

Action of 61 

Cdmrnis. of Sequestration 266 

Commissioners of Aims-House 

(See Appendix) 

Concklin , James O. "'" 

" Edmund, Jr 

" William 62 

" Lemuel 44,62,66 

" Nathaniel 

" Joshua 43 

" Wiggins 52 

" Jacob 52 

Cone, Josiah 

Conger, Joshua 145^147 

Conner, Charles W. 121,160 



Connor, David 41 

Convention, Provincial 63 

" ■ Republican 114 

" Federal 114 

Cook, Rev. William B. : 

" Capt. lis 

Cooley, Justus 144 

Cooper, Bev.Ezoklel 102,280.231 

" Eev. John 102,230 

" Gilbert 106 

" Joel 248 

Cope, Joseph 62 

Cornbury, Gov. 36 

Cornell, Henry 234,236 

Cornish, James 137 

Cornwell, George 143,161,163 

Corwin, John H. 167,206,207 

" Cyntha 

" Eli, Jr., : 

" Daniel 219 

" Phineas 62 

Cosman, James and John 52 

Elizabeth 227 

" Oliver 224,227 

" Henry 187 

Coulter, John 213 

" James 247 

County, Division of 167,168 

Courts 90,167,248 

Court House 90,167,168 

" Goshen 167 

Couwonhoven, Petal' 16.16,130 

Covin, Eev. Jamer ' P"" 

Craig, James 296 

" Hector 296 

Crawford & Harris 178,311 

" P. &C. Belknap ,178 

" F. & D. 178,179 

" D. &Co. 119,179,180 

" Maillor 4 Co. 179,180 

" Alfted 179 

" Alexander 179 

" James I. 162,168 

" John 222 

" Family 311,312,313 

" Francis 149,161,178 

311,312 

" David 120,144,146,147 

162,166,179,192,269 

312,313 

" James 187.312 

Crawford's Hall 143 

" Dock 76,177 

Creek, Quassaick 23,26,127,136 

" Chambers' 22,136 

" rostertown 136 

" Tent Stone Meadow 186 

" Gidneytown 136 

" Bnshfleld's 136 

" Beaver Dam 137 

" Denton's 137 

" Acker's 137 

" Jew's 137 

Crissey, Gilbert "W. 187 

Cromwell, John B. 187 

Oronomer's Hill 137 

Cropsey, Hendrick 43 

" Henry 

•' C. 151 

" Matthew & Rachel 227 

Q-owell, Eev. Mr. 210 

" John 62,167 

Cruger, John 

Cruiokshank, Eav.Wm. 219,220 
Culbert, Doct. W. A. M. 306 
Carrie, John 275,311 

Curtis, Caleb 181 

Cttddeback, Boter 146 

Cunnmgham, Abnor 87,89 

" Eev. Mr. 218 



Coshman, Robert 319 

" Charles 319 

" Chas. TJ. 143,162,163 
262,264,319 

Cypher Miss E. 216 

Dakens, Elder 226 

Bales, Kev. J. B. 266 

Dalson, Tunes 43 

Dalsen, John 48,52 

Bans-Kammer 12,15,127,129 

Bauskin, William 191 

" James and Mrs. 216 

Barby, Baniel 52 

" Benjamin 52,94 

Barling, William 52 

Bavids, John 140 

" Bavid 181 

Bavie, Anthony 247 

" Oliver 146,147,168 

" Matthew 181 

" Hev. liUlje 323,224,227 

Bay, William 62 

" P. 189 

Bean, John 35 

BeOondres, P. W. 179 

Beoker, John 115,157,179 

" Jacob, Jr. 139 

" Comelins 139 

'■ Moses I. 183 

Beerpark, settlement of 34 

BeGrove Family 294,295 

" Adolph 80,81,97,98 

200,201,296,300 

" Mrs.Adolph 191,205 - 

" ' Adolph, Jr. '.-596 

" William 595 

John 81,295 

BeLaet 129 

Bemott, Michael 37,47 

" James 43 

" Isaac 43,52.106 

Banes, Baniel 139,140 

Benniston, Bavid 87,89,254 

" Alexander, Sr. 181 

" Alexander 114,116 

118,188 

" James 118,311 

Eobert 147,243 

George 183 

" John 316 

" & AheroromMe 98 

Benton, Banl. 33,43,53,56,276 

" Baniel, Jr. 53 

" Jas. 37,43,62,56,81,169 

" Samuel 39,41,52 

" Jonathan 39 

" Jonas" 41 

" Gilljert 43 

" Nehcmiah 44,93,137 

177,278 

Gabriel 264 

" B. B. 268 

Bobort 278 

Bepot of Stores 68,295 

BeVendle, Mrs. School 251 

Bevine, Joseph 226 

BeVine, Samuel 53,55 

Bevlin, Baniel 237 

BeToU, George 63 

BeVries, B. Pieterzen 12,129 

BeWitt, Chai-les 62 

" Andrew 142,143,316 

" Margaret 287 

" Cornelius 172 

'■ Jacob E. 56,184 

" Eev. Thomas 220 

John 297 

BeWint, John Peter 96,103,119 

145,148,147,154,159 

170,171,179,191 



IV 



INDEX. 



Deyo, Maria 279 

" Cliristiaii 279 

" Hendriok 231 

Dezendorf, Aaron 192 

Diolison, Jas. E. 132,133,136 

Dmimick, Alpheus 243 

Dismal Swamp 101 

Dobson, H. W. 151 

Docks 96,118,120,178,177,178 

Dodge,Levil08,150,157,253,26B 

" Levi P. 233 

Dolph, Eobart E. 196 

Bomanski, M. Ij. 251 

Don, Henry 41 

Dongan, Gov. 18,19,36 

Donaghy, John 52 

Donalson, Isaac 52 

Donnelly, Peter 43,52,92,100 

" James 6,65,89,172 

178,231 

Donoughue, Capt. 176 

Donveur, Lewis 244 

Douchtout, Jacob 43 

Downing, Samuel 94 

" Andrew J. 252,257 

Doyle, M. 187 

Drake, Charles 143,153 

" Uriah 157,184 

" "William 157 

" Eeuben 226 

" Phoebe 227 

" JolmB. 258 

Druids (see Ancient) 

DuBois, Mrs. Louis 161 

" Mr. 43 

" Daniel 52 

" Mrs. Ann 53 

" Major 59 

" Matthew 98 

" DavidM. 155,249 

" Lewis 182 

Nathaniel 133,144,146 

147,185 

" Andries 231 

" Amanda L. 209 

" John 203 

Duer, John 115 

Duffy, Eev. Patrick 237 

Duke, Matthew 222 

Dumond, Egbert 53 

Dunlop, Eobert 161,162 

Dunning, Michael 

Dunn, Joseph 52 

" Jeremiah 52 

" "WiUiam 62 

" John 184 

Durland, Daniel 43,52 

Eager, Samuel W. 6, 162, 153 
166,257 

" JohnM. ■- 158 

Ecker Eamily 282,283 

" VolTert 47,49,50,51,104 

106,130,182,273,282 

" ■William 130,185,283 

" Isaac 283 

" Susan 283 

'* Deborah 

" Phebe . 

" Sarah 283 

Eoker's Ferry 137 

Ednaeston, James 181 

Edmons, Samuel 57 

Edwards, Thomas 52,140 

EUet, Nathan 226 

" " and Mary 227 

" Archibald 227 

" Elizabeth 227 

(Elliott's Indian Grammar 128 

Ellison, Ths. 34,140,181,182,197 

" ■WilUam 44,60,195 



Ellison, John 44,60, 
" Benjamin 223 
Ellis, John 224,227 
Elmendorf, Coenradt 181 
" Cornelius 181 
Ebns, George 53,139 
" John 53 
Elsworth, John 43 
*' Benjamin 140 
" James 47,140,181 
" Moses 140,181 
" ■William 47 
" " "Widow 139 
" Josiah 181 
Embury, Eev. PhOip 229 
Emmet, T. A. 110 
Emett, N. P. 188,192 
Erskine, John 243 
Erwin, ■William . 184 
" Charles 192 
Esopus 12,13,14 
Ettrick, Colonel 138 
" Grove 138,164 
Evans, Capt, John 19,36 
" EhH. 189 
Everett Family 103 
" Daniel 281 
Evertson, George 179 
Expedition, Vaughan & ■Wal- 
lace 58,93 

Eairchild, Aaron 81,177,266 

" HezeMah 187 

Falconer, Justus 

Palls, Samuel 

Edward 43 

Alexander, Sr. 181 

Alexander 99,165,172 
"WUUamH. 183,187,f"- 
Hiram 178,191,241 

Farmer's Company 178 

Famam, John 151 

Eamum, Frederick ■W. 160,188 
" Saml. J, 151,174,246 
Farrineton, Daniel 118,160,151 
155,192,221,244 
E. ■W. 144,145,152 

153,156,188,216 

Mrs. E. W. 215 

Daniel, Jr. 192 

Fear, Thomas 181 

Febb, Christopher 140 

Feber, Isaac 22,24 

Catharine 22 

Abraham 22 

Feef, Eobert 181 

Federal Party 114,115 

Ferguson, J. 208 

" Eobert 215 

Ferry — 

Newburgh 34,167,168,169 

Continental 169 

New Windsor 169 

Bcker's 130 

Eates 168,169 

Boats 170,171,172 

Fiere, Daniel 22,24 

" Anne Maria 

" Andrew 

" Johannes 22 

Filips, John 140 

Filkins, John 252 

Fire Department 86,172 

" " Fund 175 

" Oompaniea 172,173,174 

" Chief Engineer 175 

Fires 117,191,192,253 

Fischer, Johannes 22,23,26,27 

N 33,128 

" Maria Barbara 22,27 

" John 189 



Fish, Joseph 52 

Fisher, Eev. Isaac M. 219 

Fisk, Jonathan 105,109,110,114 

121,149,172,196,268 

291,306,307,308 

Fitzpatrick, John 237 

Fletcher, Gov. 36 

" Miles J. 152 

Fletcherdon, Manor of 19 

Flewwelling, John 43,53,278 

" Abel 43,62,53,278 

" Morris 43,52,278 

" John, Jr. 278 

Floyd, Samuel 196 

Foote, Ebenezer 166,258 

" Justin 196 

Forbes, ■WiUiam 81 

Force, E. 173 

Forrest, Eev. Dr. Eobert 24S 

Forsyth, John 145,146,147,151 

155,158,172,243,310 

" Eev. John, D.D. 

6,143,210,216,218,220 

224,257,311 

" E. A. 145,153,156,311 

" Ann 20S 

Forsyth & Byram 191 

Fort Orange IS 

'( Amsterdam 13 

' Montgomery & Cliutoii, 

Eeduction of 59,182 

Forwarding Lines 176 

Foster, ■WUliam 62,130 

Foster, Elnathan 43,52,86,102 

196,199,231,232,233 

247,278 

" John 52,56,130 

(< Jeremiah 181 

" Amos 181 

" Peter H. 206 

" Mary 3. 206 

Fostertown 130 

Fowler Family 274,277 

" Samuel 43,44,47,53,195 

231,233,275 
" Samuel, Jr. 232,275 
■■ Nehemiah 52,275,278 
" Nehemiah, Jr. 234 
" John 47,52,157,278 
" Morris 41 

" Thomas 62 

" Isaac 45,62,101,167,275 
" Isaac, Jr. 52,66,275 
" Caleb 275 

" Peter V.B. 209,212,275 
" M. V. B. 221,252,275 
" Jacob V.B. 119,145,275 
" Isaac S. 119,152,276,306 
" Doct.David 157,196,247 

256,275,276 
" Gilbert O. 146,147,151 

183,276 

" David E. 271,27?. 

" Isaac "V. 277 

" James ■W. 6,143,277 

" Josiah 278 

" Eobert 151 

Fountain, "William 140 

Fox, John 43 

Foxhall, Manor of 19,36 

Frazier, James 222,223 

Freeman, Eev. Jona. 201,261 

Free Schools (see Schools) 

Fry, Jacob 63 

Fifllerton, 'William 145,162,158 

" & Fowler 192 

Furman, Nathan 37 



Gailey, O. 
Gale, Cornelius 
" Joseph 



221 
43 
140 



INDEX. 



Gallaa-her, Bev. Mr. 237 

(gamble, Hemy 43 

" iTames and John 181 

Gamwoll, James 140 

Qanno, Bev. Mr. 74 

Gardinor, Silas 48,52,55,131 

" Samuol 52 

" Geo. 97.101,106,108 

161,162,177,178,246 

" "Wm. 106,172,258 

" SilasB. 234 

" family, 301 

" Kobert 101,119,186 

251,266,301 

" Jas. M. 187,262,302 

" C.A. 174,175,188,302 

" Lewis W. 188,302 

Gardnertown 131 

Garner, Thomas 156 

Garitson, Koses 181 

Garrison, Abraham 62 

Garrit, John 196 

Gaa-Iright Company 156 

Gates, John 62 

" Genl. 60,67,176 

Gaalay, Vard M. 115,117,121 

172,254,299,316 

Geam, George 143^240 

Geddes, John, Sr. 240 

Gedney, J. P. 151 

George, Thomas 164,255 

" Johannes 181 

Gerard & Boyd 210 

" & Halsey 220 

" Jernsha 208 

" William H. 153,801 

" 'Wessel S. 209 

Qervin, 'WilEam 210 

" Sarah 210 

Gjdney, Daniel 45,48,53,132 

" Joseph 45,48,132 

" David- 48,53,132 

" Eleazer 48,132,167 

" Joseph, Jr. 63 

" Daniel 187 

" David W. 234 

" Eleazer, Jr. 132,142 

" Jonathan 151,186 

Gtdneytoima, 132 

(sHlbert, Joseph 44 

" Josiah 194 

GiloriBt, J. 161 

Gilder, Bev. John L. 232 

Giles, James 134 

GiUis, Melchior 34,140,263 

" Jacob 34i43i52,181,234 

Gillespie, Vm. G> 192,208,209 

" Samuel 248 

" Bev. Mrs 102,231 

Gilmore, Heniy 237 

Glan, John 227 

Gtebe,, 25,29,30,37,38,39,40,83 

84i85,96,108,109,110,lH 

112,124,194,196,244,245 

Good Templars 258 

Goodsell, John 245,274 

Goldsmith, Dajniel 52 

" Joslraa 157 

Gomoz, Samuel' 4J,];37,189,140 

Gordon, George 186i2Si§ 

" John 241 

Gterham, WalteivHi 209,210 

" Laura A. 209 

QBsman, Robert-. !gl5,310 

anurlay, Bobt. 98,18?,21Si215 

" &, Company 118 

Gove, Luther 150 

Offlnt, Bev. Ebenezer 202 

Graham, Augustus 25,26,139 

" Andrew 44,194 

" Dootoi 304 



Graham, James 47 

" Bev. Mi. 102i 

" James G. 145 

Gray, Bev. John, 207 

" James 

" E. v. 241,255 
Green, General 

" Jesse 179 

" David 52 

Greenleaf, John 179 

Gregory, Samuel I. 172 

" George M. 20S 

" Samuel O. 271 

" Lemuel B. 250 

" Thomas 244 

Grier, James 134 

Griggs, Alexander 47,139 

" John 52,130,131 

Gi-iswold, Chauncoy 118 

" Edmund 166,183 

" Bev. Edmund E.232 

Grummun, J. B. 192 

Guloh, Melohioj 22,24,34,129 

139i263' 

" Anne Oattojdne 22,263 

" Heinrioh; 

"* Margaret 



Hack., Geopge 52 

Hagamah, Thomas 52 

Haiett, Jacob 43 

Haight, Ifelson 249,301 

" Sylvanus 202,251 

Hains, Daniel " 63 

Hal], Levi 227 

" Rev. B. E, 
*' Doct. James 
Halladay, David 109 

Hallen, Jolin 43 

Hallett, Joseph 44 

Hallook, Samuel 52 

Halsey, Rev.Luther 106,248,256 
Halstead, Kev. Mr. 

" Mary E. 210 

" James 133,155 

" Chas. 151,178,179, 

" Benjamin 

" Charles, Jr. 153,156 

Hamilton, Geul. 60 

" James 147,172,188 

" James r. 176 

" Catharine 209 

Hampton, 128,130 

Hancock, Royal B. 266 

Hanmer, Robert 62 

" Francis 52 

Hard Winter of. 1780 93 

Bard, Thomas . 43 

Hardcastle, Joseph 

Hardenbergh, Col. Job. 6S,1S2 

" Nicholas 144 

1 " J. E. 

^ " Johamies,Jr.l82 

Harduig,Wm. 43,52,li8,2TS 

" George, 63,65 

Eftrgrave,Alex.andMary A, 

Uarlovf, Judat 199 

Harman, Reuben 134 

Harper, Richard 45 

Harpending, Rev. Andrew 231 

Harris &.MiUer, 161 

Harris, John 97,109,154,172,253 

i '■ James 62 

" Thomas 139 

" David 188. 

" Minard 172,258 

Harrison, Francis 46,82,140 

Harrison's Patent (see Patent) 

Hartwiok, Eev. Mr. 102, 

HBiStoll, John 140 



Hasbrouok Family 278,281 

" 01. Jonathan 32,33 

39,41,45,49,50,52,53,56 

67,58,59,93,103,177,182, 

191,263,280 

" Mrs.,Ool, 103,104 

" Elias 56,281 

" Isaae,83,a4,144,253 

" Com. 51,62;i82,280 

" Jonathan 144,148 

155,160,161,162,178 

" Eli 99jl81,162,192 

" 266,281 

" WiffiamC. 16,143 

155,183,188,281 

'< Elias 56,184 

" Joseph 180,280. 

" Chati. Hi 192,281: 

Haslehurst, Edward 192 

Hatch, William P. 188 

Hathaway, John 116 

"' Family 312 

" Odell S: 146,153,183 

188,314— AppenSix, 

" William M. 189,314, 

Hathron,Genl. l-li 

Havens. David 302 

" ■ Smith 262 

Havemeyer, 0. H. 136 

Hawkins, Cyrus S. & B..B. 188 

" Nathaniel T. 212 

Hay Scales 113,16.7. 

Hayt, Stephen 152,192 

Hazzard, Jonathan 185 

jrjjadley, Joseph 62 

Heath, Genl. 60 

Hedges, Doct. Phiueas 89' 

" Jonathan 144,149 

Hedsel, Henry 140 

Htolms, Matilda 179 

Hendrick, John 62 

Henricke,Chi-islian26,27,33,139 

Henry, Rev. Dr. C. S. 199 

Hermance, Rev. John P. 235 

Hessian Prisoners 93 

Heurtiii, William 261 

Heyer, Rev. Wm. S. 220 

Higby,Mosos 60,52,56,157,199 

High School 248-i249 

■Highland Lodge, 258 

Highland Academy 261 

Hlldreth, Sarah 209 

Hill, Lydia Ann 225 

" Rev. Wm. , 20T 

" Richard 101 

" Elder Daniel T. 225 

" Nathaniel P. 161' 

" William. 161' 

Hilton, James 222,223 

Hinds, Thomas 266 

Hii-am Lodge , 268- 

Hoagland, John 172 

" George T. 206 

Hobart, Bishop 197 

Hobbie, Selah Reeve 288 

Hofman, Hormanus 29,264 

" Zacharias 28,80,38,47 

128,139,264 

" & Harris 83 

Hoffman, John 97,300 

" Joseph 97,98,110,J17 

172,196,300 

Holms, Burras 38,43,46,52 

" Reuben 62,57 

Holmes, Joel 43 

" William 101 

" Daniel 231,238 

" Gilbert 187,233,273 

" William S. 234 

Holt, Lewis 62 



23 



VI 



INDEX. 



Hull, 

Hulse, George E. 172 

HnmpWy , John 46,139,140,181 

" Charles 131,187 

John, Jr. 181 

Jas. and David 181 



172 
219 

Jewett, Kev. William 232 

Johnes, Echv. E. 88,162,199,204 
Aaron P. 151,166,199 
199 
45 
80,99 
104 
160 
181 



Hooper, Steyhen 43; Jossup, Sylvanus 

Hopkins, Genl. Reuben 114,167 " Thomas 

Hornheck, John 53 

Horton, David 52 

Hosaok, Alexander 215 

Hotels 43,97,98,101,106,115,119 " Rev. Timothy 

130,167,167,192,252,812 Johnson's Patent 
Hough, Doot. F. B. 135 Johnson, James 

Houston, Johnston &,Co. 178 " Brom 

" Nelson 183 " Benjamin 

Howard, Capt. , 71 " Sir William 

Howell, Phineas 84,86,100 " Rev. Jeth. 323,224,227 

" Benoni H. 87,142,154 
172,176,264 

" David 97,177,246 

" Edwardl06,109,159,247 
Huhertson, Hubert & Jacob 22 
Hudson, Daniel 200,201 

" Timothy 85,157 

" Richard 04,247 

" Henry 9,10,12 

" Kiv. Bap. Assoc. 224 

" Elver Lodge 268 

, A. Gerald 249 



192 

206 

216 

46,82 

62 

209,210 

208 



Hunn, Johns. 117,160 

" Peter F. 257,258 

Hunt, Moses 52 

Hunter, Gov. 26 

" James 47 

" Dr. John 243 

Hurtin, Alfred D. 183 

Hutchins, John Nathan 43,83 

103,344,245,281 

" Family Almanac 103 

Hutchinson, Rev. Aaron 231 

Hyatt, Mrs. Stephen 106 

Hydrophobia 103 

Byndman, Robert 240 

Indehtedneiss of Town 113 

•Indians, History of 10,11,12,13, 

17— OiiefE, 14,17,18— Castles, 

13,14,16,18— Worship, 12,17, 

129,181— Names explained, 9, 

10,12,13,22,128 

Iropressmont of .Seamen 113 

Infidelity, 87,88,89 

Ingoldshy, Gov. 23 

Itmis Family 283 

" James and William 130 

Insurance Companies 173 

Iron Works, Stanton k Co. 120 

Ireland, Thomas 63 

Isaacs, Capt. 312 

Ithaca, 121,160 



" Doct. William 
" William M. 
'^ James and Mrs. 
Johnston, John 

" Abraham 

" Charles 

" W. M. N. 

" & Falls 

" Thomas 

" . John 

" Robert 

" Andrew 

" Bev. Jas. B. 

" William 

" Rev. John 87,88,162 

199,202,203,204,206 

206,208,232,247,266,317 

Jones, Rev.Cavo 109,118 

• 0. A. 119 

'■ Hon. Nathaniel 161,260 

■ Hon. John P. 

' Robert W. 172,213 

' Peter M. 183 

' John 181 

' E. A. 189 

' Bmaga 227 

' Rev. Doct. 209,216 



220 
232 
187 

2.32,323 
139 
162 

119,310 
248 



178 
181 
188 
221 
240 
222 
222,228 



Kockerthal, Rev. Joshua 21,22 
23,25,26,27,28,261 
Kossuth Lodge ' 258 

Kregier, Col. Martin 16,16 

Ladies of Newburgh 116 

LaFayette, Genl. 60;72,258 

London, Rev. John 

" Rev. Seymour 
Under, D. T. 

" Benjamin 
LaRoss, Peter 
Law, James 

" Bevridge & Co. 

Lawremore, Jas. W. 

Lawrence, Wm. 62,199,200,201 

" Beiy. and John 62 

" Jacob 184 

" John 139 

Lawson, Jno. D.118,142,144,149 

165,191— Appendix 

" Robt. 161,187,191 do 

John 118,222 

" Jolm K. 175 

' ' Joseph 266 

" John 222,223 

SBabb 191 

" & Buckingham 191 

Leader, John 179 

Ledjard,John 118,147,148,153 

165,192 and Appendix 



62 

175,189,239 

179 



179 
188 
216 
186 
187 
215 
163,189 



Jack, Rev. Alexander 
Jackson, Elias 

" Richard 
Jagger, Rev. S. H. 
James, Elder David 
Jamison, William 



218 
134 
144 
203,212 
235 
46 



John 119,151,152,322 



" Jolm B. 
Jansou, Fetor 
" Abraham 
'' Johannes T. 
" Johannes, Jr- 



" John 

" Thomas 
Jarvis, William B. 
Jcnkinson, Isaac 
.lennings, Lewis 

" & MoKinstry 



145,252 
139 
144 
144 
182 
151 
183 
264 

162,192 

189 

69 

100 



Keiter, Tunis 
Kelly, John D. 

" Patrick 

" William 

" Nelson 

" Stewart and Mrs, 
Kelso, Thomas 

" James 
Kemp, Dr. John 
" Robert D. 
Kennedy, Rev.. John 
Kerr, George W. 160,166,260 

" Eev. Eoberl 213 

Kernoghan, John 53,186 

" Joseph 146,293 

Keyes, Rev. Edwin R. 282 

Kimball, Thos. & Son. 169 

Kimberg, John Mattys 181 
Kjng, Richard 83,103,244,246 

" Horatio 

" William 
King's Hill 
Kinna, Rev. Mr. 
Kirk, Rev. William H. 
Kirkland, Robert 
Kirkpatrick, Rev. Mr. 
Kip's Patent (See Patent) 

Knapp, TJzal 189 

Knap, Beiy. and Moses 52,63 
Knevels, John W. 146,147,165 
219,252,356,257 



Lee, Rev. Jesse 231 

" Rev. E. P. 219,220 

LeFebre, Catharine 
Lefever, Margaretta 

" Daniel 
Lendrum, George 
Leonard, Sila^ 

" Goorge 

" James 

" Levi 

' ' Elizabeth 

" Jane 

" Bev. Lewis 

" D. Gillis 250,252— Ap. 

Leslie, William 256,321 

" Alexabder 256 

Lester, John and Mary 
Loveridge, Caklass 
Lewis, BeAJamin 

" Michael 

" Rev. Isaac 

" Rev. John H. 

" Rev. Zephaniali I 

" Zadoch 

" Benjamin F, 

" Judge Morgan 

" & Crowell 
Liboschain, Susanna ^a 

Library — ^Newburgh, 251 — Me- 
chanics 252— OaiiioUo 238,253 
—Theological 244,263— Pub- 
School 253— School Dist. 263 
Life Guard 94,104 

Lilhurn, Adam 152,153,183,188 



16 

264 

183 

240 

43 

53 

62.58 

160 



224,225 



227 

37 

53 

58 

201,202 

207 

232 

183 

191 

290 

• 254 

22 



Isaac A. ■ 219 

" & Spalding 265 

" & Leslie 256 

Kniffln, Daniel 47,62 

" Gilbert 223,227 

" Lavina 227 

Knoll, Michael Christian 29,31 

Knox, Genl. 60,71,267 

" Rev. Doct. 214 



LiUio, Rev. Jolm 
Lime-Stone Hill 
Lindsay, Goorge 
Linderman, Jane 
Little, John Jr. 
" Andrew 
" William C. 
" & Kelly 
Little Pond 
lA)ckstead, Geo. 
Ixickwood, Rolaort 
" James 
" Hem-y 
" Samuel 
" Uriah 



204 

138 

215 

299 

143,210,252 

228 

188 

233,233 

137,163 

26,32,139,140 

52 



65 
144 

156,179 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Lock wood, I^wie D. 
" . Thomas 8. 



" Eol)ert 187,234 

" Gilbert 234 

" Rombrt. 233-37-38 

" Allen 

Logan, Samuol 64,184,199,201 

" Sally A, 208 

l/)ng,Petor 140 

Longking, Joseph 136,234r-36 

Logs of tlie Crockottj AiTpendix 

Loud, Sylvamis 233 

Loveland, J. 179 

Low, Isaac 49 

" iDoct. James 183 

Luckey, Saml. a^d James, 181 

Ludlovf , Kobei-t 97 

" Charles 166,190 

" Sarah 208 

Luptondalo 131,227 

Lutherloh, E. C. 81 

Lynch, Peter 261 

" John 192 

Lyon, James 166 

" Rov. Mr, 

Lyons, Andrew 247 

Maoo, Benj. H. 146,147,151,166 
Maohm, Thomas 96,133 

Mackey, Jurie Ann 47 

Maxikey, Thankful 227 

Mackio, Alexander 140 

Maokin, CJharles 161,237 

" Bev. Mr. 197 

Mackneel, J. Jr. 140 

Maclay, Key. Aroh(,bald 224 
Magregory, Peter 139 

Mailler Family 314 

" Wm. K. 69,96,151-82-63 
208-09-10,816 

" William 0. 178,315 

" Wm. K. & Co. 178,181 

" Wm. K. & Bon ITS 

MaiB, Eev. Charles 224 

Mairs, Bev. James 215-16 

Mandevill, David 84 

" Francis 199 

'• Jno. 92,96177-42-61 

" Eev. G, Hf. 220 

Mangam,D. E. 156 

Mann, Alexander 189 

Manso, Jerry 181 

Mapes, Eobert D. 186 

Marie, John 181 

Markharo, John 181 

Majlborough 46,128,199 

Marsh, Oscar 188 

" Si Ferris 
Marston, James 62 

" Joshua 284 

Martain, Bavid & Hannah 
Martin, James 234-35 

Marvin, George 186 

Mason, Bev. Dr. 214-16-42-44 

" Eev. Thomas 232 

Masonic Lodges 
Masters, Eev. F. R. 
Matthews, Bev. Jas. M. 244-97 

" ■ Vincent 34,139 

Mathewson, Noah 161 

" William 166 

MoAliBt6r,Baos 237 

MoAuley, John 97,98,108-19-44 

149-7^-90,208-47-53-67 

" John, Jr. 188 

MoAuley's Hill 166 

McBrWe, John 
McCahill, John 237 

McCallah, Eev. John 200 

MoCann, Thomas 240 



166 McCamley, CoL David 
172 " ■- 



230 

Sands 312 

McCai'rell, Bev. Dr. Joseph 

210-11-16-43-14 
MoCartoe, Rev. Dr. 214 

McCartney, J. Aloxanto' 176 
MoCary, Patrick 39,41 

McClaakey, Eev. John 
McClelland, John 174,208-9 
McClean, Cornelius 181 

McClaghan, Wm. and Mary 208 



MoCollum,S6lahT. 
McConnelljHngh 
McCrary, John 
McCroskery, John 

" John J. S. 

McCuUoogh, Thomas 
McCutcheon, Hugh 
McDongal, Maj. Gonl. 
McDowell, Andrew 
* " Ann 
McElratb, Sarai 
McEachron, Rev. G. M. 
McFarland, J 
MoSahey, Owen 

" Patrick 
McGiden, Daniel 
McGill, WUliam 



188 
99,268 

46 
192 
175 
188 
175 

71 
181 
298 
208 
218 
192 
191,237 
161,237 

66 

64 



UonelL Joseph 144 

■ John J. 95,143,163.166 

161,190,204-19-50-62-56 

Montfort, Dr. B. V. K. 241 

Moore, Gov. Henry 42 

" David 145,168 

Morewise, Jacob and Daniel 62 

Morgan's Eiflemen 03 

Moriarty, Eev. John D. 232 

Morrell, Charles A. 160 

J " Joseph 115,117,157 

" John 39,42,53,64 

" JohnW. 117 

" Thomas 39,41,48 

Morris, Bohert 74 

" F. A. 268 

Morrison, Doct. 39,41,105 

" Robert 43,52 

" Hugh 106 

" John 115 

Morton, Charles F. 60,231 

Mount, John & Co. 178 

Mount Carmel Encampment 258 



Mcintosh, Phineas 33,139,140 
" House 187-97,227-32 
Mclntyre, Mark 237,301 

McJimpsey, Eev. Dr. 215-17-43 
MoKey, Alexanden- 181 

McKissockrThomas 

" Hngh 

McKune, Eunice 

MoLannen, Felix 48 

McLaren, Eav. Wm. 288 

" Bev. M. N. 210-17-19 

" Bev. I}. 0. .243 

McLaughlin, S. G. 

McLanghry, Col. Jas. 43,69,181 

McLean, Neal . 52 

McMikhill, Joseph 181 

McMuUen, Bev. S. H. 202-8-9 

MoNear, Arnold and Mrs. 216 

McVey, John 181 

MoWilliamB, Rev. Alex. 

Mead, Boswell 159 

Mecklem, George 191 

Menge, Mr. , 81 

Meyndors, Burger 2657,30,32 

33,34,95,132,139,140,263 

" Burger, Jr. 140,263 

" Alexander 33 

Hiddlehopo 47,128,137,231 

Miller, Alanson 188 

" James 118 

" James W, 161 

" Johannes 108 

" Lodewick and Peter 181 

" William 41,263 

" & Smith 188,189 

Mills - 98,182,136,166,265 

Mills, Bev. Nathan B. 231 

" Hope and David 62 

Military Organizations 56,181 

" BendezTOus 68,116 

Militia, Services of 58,114,182 

Milwaukie Light Guards 189 

Minister's Eesidence 41,244,245 

Minor, Maria 210 

Missionary at New Windsor 193 

MitoheU, William 87,226 

" James N. 145 

" Bev. Mr. 

Moffet, Rev. Mr. 199 

Mend, John 140 

Monell, George 98,108,144,160 

" Gilbert C. 148,163,267 



Much-Hattoes Hill 
Miilliuer, Peter 

" Alex. C, 
Mnllock, Joseph 
Munsell, Jabez 
Murderer's Creek 
Mnrray, Eev. Dr. 

" Alexander 
Myers, Jacob 

" Henry B. 
Myrtle Degree Lodge 



137 

140,181 

151,166 288 

179 



12,18,96 
211 
216 
52 
188 
26S 



National Grays 164 

Navy Tard 122 

Nealy, James 181 

Neoly, John 167 

Neptnne, Loss of Sloop 179 
Nestle, Michael 110 

Newburgh and the War of 1812 
114— Appearance 01 117— Ar- 
my Disbanded at 77— Bay, 
Hudson in 9— Bible Society 
257— Branch B. B. 123,148— 
Climate of 128— Gas Light Co. 
188 — General Progress of 118 
—Guards 180— Historical So- 
ciety 257— Letters 61— Loca- 
tion of 127— Lodge 268— Ly- 
ceums 25ftr-Market 98,166— 
Mission 44,194— Mission So- 
ciety 257— Old Town Plot of 
33.128-iParish of 39,128,194 
—Plank Roads 144^Precinot 
of 45,128— Sabbath School So- 
ciety 267— Steam Mills 156- 
Town of 82,128— Volunteers 
188— Village Inoorpor'd. 107, 
127— Waterworks 159— Wha- 
ling Company 154 
New Grange 134 

New Mills 133,164 

New Windsor, settlement of 35, 
50— Encampment at eO-Tem- 
ple at 67 
Newspapers 87,253 

Nichols, Oapt. 69,61 

" William 246 

Nicholson, John 53,114 

Nicoli, John 54,199 

" John, Jr. 181 

" Leonard 199,201 

" Leonard D. 277 

" John D. 144 

Niven, Daniel 80,89,115,156,167 
213,215,247,290,323 
" Diiniel, Jr. 98,172 



Archibald C. 



243 



vni 



INDEX. 



Nivon, Tliornton M. 145^2-63-! Phillips, Rot. B. T. 202-4- 9- 12 



Nixon Edward 
Nob, Albert 
North, Major 
Ntiyes, Samuel 
" Aaron 



159-87,216-44-46 



265 
174 
78 
148 
151 



Oakley, Jackson 151 and Apdx. 

" Jacob 316 

" & Davis 96,178-80-92 
O'Callaghan, Boot. E. B. 128 
Oglotborpe, Gov. 
Oliver, David 181 

" William M. 24S 

Olmstead, Richard A. 274 

O'Neil, James 

.- - Orange Lato 22 ,131 ,133 ,136 

" County Poor House 140 



I-odge 

" Hussars 
Orders in Council 
O'Beilly Kev. Philip 

" Rev. E. J. 
Orr, Thomas 
• Osbon, Rev. A. M. 
Ostrom, Rev. Mr. 
Outman, Stephen 
Owens, Jonathan 



258 

18« 

lis 

237 

237 

43,52 

232,235 

206 

62 

62,181 

181 



John 76 

Robert 76,238,274 
G. N. 115 

" Thomas, Jr. 121,173 

" JohnD. 156-83-88-301 

" Elder James 

" Misses 1 School 251 
Phillipse, Frederick 
Phinney, Rev. Samuel 251,257 
Phippen, Elder George 226 
Pierce, Kev. "Wm. 225 

Piorson, A. 179 

Pilraore, Rev. Joseph 
Pinckney , Doet. John 283 

Pine, Jonathan 52 

Pitts, Elias 145,265,321 

Plank Boads 124,144 

Pledge of Association 51,62,53 



Painter, Frederick 

Palatines, Dispersion of 20 — ^In 
ilnglaud 21 — Transported to 
America 21 — Settled at Quas- 
saick 22— Names of 22— Pat- 
ents to 25 — ^Parish 22,193 

Palmer, Thomas 49,60,66,94,184 



194 
244 
238 
206 
184 
267 
318 
265,318 



William 
" Rev. Elihu 
" Aaron F. 
Parker, I. 

" Benjamin 
" Rev. Mr. 
Parkham, Lydia C. 
Parks, Arthur 
Parmeloe, John E. 
Parmentsr Family 
*' Samuel 

S. C. 6,183,255;318 
" Riflemen 189 

Patent, Baird's 43,46,48- 
barie's 46— Bradley's 41,131, 
294^Bond's 47— Colden's 46 
—Chambers' 34,136— Evan 
19, 36 -German 27,45,193- 
Griggs' 47— Harrison 45,48,47 
-Johnston's 46— Kip's 46,47 
— Paltz, 17,2,79— Penny 46,48 
— Spratt's 46';48,132— Swart- 
wout 34— Van Dam 45— Wal- 
lace 45,48,131-Map of 45 
Patrick, Adam 
Patterson, Joseph 53 

Patten, James 152 

Pauling, Eovi 50,182 

Peck, Rev. Luther W. 
Peddle, Jamea 243 

Ptany, Joseph 48, 53, 103, 131 
244,231 
" Children of 48,131,281 
P^ppard, Rev. Francis 199 
Perry, James 63 

" James H. 267 

Perkins, Key. Aaron 224 

" W. A. 144 

" Edgar 206,248 

PcstHouse 99 

Fettle, Aim 209 

Pettingale, Maj. J. 80,86,96,104 
Phelps. Oliver 121 



Plettel, Johannes Jacob 
Pompelly , James 
Polhamus, Jacob 
" John 

Porter, John 
Post, Alfred 

" Charles W. 
Post OfBce, Coldeuham 
Middlehope 
Newburgh 



Racoon Hill 137 

Badoliff, J. HO 

Rail-road. N. Y. k Erie 120,122 
146— Hudson & Delaware 123 
145— Newburgh Branch 143 

Bamsdell,Homer 96,143,144,146 
152,166,156,306— Appendix 

Ramsdell, Mrs. F. E- L. 172,306 
" H. & Co. , 177 

Rangers, Company of 66,184 

Raudol, Alanson 

Raney, James A. 

Rankin, Rev. Thomas 

Raymond, Rev. C. A. 

Read, John 

Reader, Jacob 

Recollections 

Rechabites, Order of 

Red Store House 



!.i 



188,233 



226,251 
181 



81 



22,24; Reed, Ruf us A. 



268 
177 
255 



" SaviU 

Potts, Arthur 
Pope, John 
Powder Mills 
Powell Family 
" Jacob 



131.164 
128 
191 
133 
314 
108,109,144,305 
Thos. 96,121,145,146,147 
152,169,172,180,192,306 



181,283 
152 
172 
224 
104 
62 
201 

206,248 
267 
120 



" Morgan 

" Rev. Ml- 

" Rev. Thomas 

" Jacob & Thomas 

" Eamsdell & Co. 

" Corps 
Precincts 44,46,49,139 

Prentice, Rev. E. L. — 

Preslaer, Anthony 
Preston, A. B. 

" Alfred 
Price, Rev. Mr. 

" Col. 

*' Joseph 
Prime, Rev. Ebeu 

" Rev. S. I. 

" N. S. and A. J. 
Private Residences 
Provost, Capt. 
Proudflt, Rev. Dr. Alex. 248 

" Rev. David L. 244,266 

" Robert, Jr. 144 

Proudfoot, John 176 

Public Stocks 166 

Purdy Family 277 

" Gilbert 23,62,53 

" Nathan 43,44,45,52,196 

" Isaiah 43,62,54 

" Joshua 

" Daniel 

" David 

' ' James W. 

'^ Samuel 

" James D. 

" William 
Putnam, Genl. 
Putney, Eev. Eufas 0. 



(Jnackenbnsh, Wm. 81 

Qnassaick 12,18,32,128 

Quick, Jm-ie 47,140,181 

" Thomas 181 

Quigly, Hugh 52 



121] ReevG Family 
179 " Selahll6,H8,121,144,149 
186 150,172,179,203,285 

43 " Joseph 117,172,288. 

143,252 " James 288 

192 " Christ'r. 146,147,151,188 
132 184,165,178,179,181,288 

129 " Chs. F.V.102,246,250,288 
165 " George 161,191,288 

" Nathan 143,249,288 

" Charles 151,289 

" Robert 301 

" Samuel 
" & FaUs 
" &Son 
" Moore & Co. 
Regatta Association 
Regents of University 
Keid, William N. 
Reid, Horatio B. 
Relje, Dennis 
Rennau, Heinrich 
Renwick, James- 

" William 

Republican Convention 114 
" Blues 114,185 

Revolutionary Events 
Reynolds, Daniel 

" James B. 

Reynor, James H. 
Richards, John 
Richardson, John 
Riggs, Edward 
Rikeman, Richard 
Riley, Thomas and Hugh 
Ring, Samuel ass 

Ring, Thos. C. 151,191,248,260 
Ritchie, Jacob 161 

Ritchie's Spring 162 

Rivers, Mrs. Sai'ah 297 

Roach, William S2 

Roads and Str'ts 37,39,80;81,12I 
(See Turnpikes) 
Robersou, William H. 188 

Robertson, Alexander 218,297 
Robie, Oliarles 41,196 

Robinson, Henry 106,147,159 
190,205 
" John 60,52,53,64 

" Benjamin 62 

" Josiah 183 

Rocky Forest 131,144 

Rodgers, Daniel 133 

Rodman, James 212 

Roe, Wm. 120,147,164,199,292 



43 
52 
54,277 
189 
2B0 
212 
226 
71 
235 



118,178 
178 

177,178 
190 
127 
261 



22,24,139 
32,215 
215 



63 
191 
206 
192 
172 
270 

99 
23T 



Cadwallader 
Jefferson and Mary 
AnnaE. 
Jane Ellon 
& Darby 



172 
206 
209 
210 

ISl 



INDEX. 



IX 



Kogcrs, Jasou 101 

" Eliza 208 

Eonay, Eev. Mosos 222,266 

Rose, Jobii 179 

" Peter 22,24,26,263 

Boss , Robert 48 ,62 ,131 ,157 

" wmtom 101,116,117,131 

149,187,247,266 

" Alexander ISl 

<■ James 183,281 

" Mary 248 

EossTlUo 103,131,234 

EouBds, Daniel 53 

Buggies, David 121,146,147 

" House 120 

Eiimsey, James l44 

Eiissell, William 62 

" Calvin S. 252 

Kulteul)8r, E M. 265 

Sabaton, J. A. & S. 156 

Sacljott, William W. 108 ,136,181 

196,247,263 

Salt, Scarcity of 76,99 

Samson, Henrv A. : 

Sands, Saml. 41,46,49,62,91,182 

" Joshua 41 

" David 163,188 

" Esther 293 

" & Eaymond 192 

Sanders, William 140 

Sauxay, Edm'd 165,191,248,268 

" Edmund S. 301 

Sargeant, John B; 147 

SauEders, John 52 

Savin Post Office 181,164 

Sayer,Eev. John 44,82,101,194 

196,244,246,246 

" Samuel 116 

Schenek, Peter H. 

" Abraham H. 

Schofleld, Augustus F. 146,154 
Sclioneman,Herman 22,23,26,83 
" Elizabeth 27 

Schools 124,244 to 261 

School Master's Residence 

41,96,244,246 

Schoolcraft, H. L. 128,138 

Schoonmakerj Abm. 182 

" Rev. Mr. 219 

Sohultz, ChriBtian Otto 816 

" Jacob87,89,268,310,316 

" Abraham 144,247,816 

Schwisser, Lorentz 22,24 

Scofield, John 54 

Sooleffleld.Eev. A. : 

Scott, William 301 

" Francis 150,301 

" Eev. James I 

Scrimgeour, Eev. ias. 218,214 

216,216,247,310 

Scrugham, Wm. W. 183 

Seal of Board Trustees — Apds. 

Seney, Eev. Robert 232 

Seward, Samuels. 149 

Seymour, Stephen 

" William 84,86,86,101 

108,166,256,292,298 

" Satal. Sands 276,293 

Shad-Bush in bloom 127 

Shadford, Eev. George : 

Shafer, R. P. L. 256 

Shaw, John 62,98,172,213 

" Joseph 181 

" Thomas 140 

Shelling, Rev. Charles : 

Sherman, Allen M. 162 

Shields, Margaret and Jane 210 

Ship-Buildmg 101,293 

Smg, Rev. Charles B. : 



Sinsipink, Lake 22 

Sims, Matthew and Mrs. 216 

Simms' History 134 

Simson, Joseph 181 

Simpson, John ■ 104 

Slater, John 139 

Slaughter, John 140 

Sleight, Solomon 106,115,117 

172,176,297 

Sloops 177,178 

Sly, Catharine 20r " 

Sly, Charles H. 183 

Small Bills 301— Apdx. 

Small Fox 100 

Smiley, J. 179 

" William E. 266 

" James 189 

Smith, Nathan 32,41 

" Henry 32,37,43,45.62,83 

91,199 

■ " Thomas 32,43,62 

" William 37,38 

" William, Jr. 181 

" Thadeus 41,43,62 

" Joseph •: 

" Leonard 48,44,52,91,183 

196,288 

" Leonard, Jr. 52 

" Luff 43,62,288 

" Anning 43,62 

" Daniel 43,92,109,116,128 

144,177,178,187,203 

" Obadiah 43 

" Daniel T. 187 

" Arthur 47,52,56,157,182 

" Francis 196 

" Abraham 52 

" Abraham M.146,147,161 

154,165,262,266 

'< David 62 

" Thomas 188 

" Israel 52 

" James 192 

" Samuel and John 62 

" Hazael and Claudius 62 

" Francis 69 

" Jeremiah 92 

" James 38^261,265 

" Benjamin 33,43,62,56,80 

81,97,203,266,266,299 

" Wm. H. 109,118,172,269 

" William L. 99,172,266 

" William P. C. 162,266 

" C.C. 145,162,158,178,266 

" 0. M. 152,206,249,310 

" William 187 

" Daniel 310 

" Eev. Thomas G. 213 

" Mrs. Arthur : 

" Eev. Friend W. 232 

" WiUiam 283 

" Rev. E. ; 

" Pascal N. 297 

" Charles 303 

" James 174 

Smuller, Rev. Mr. '. 

Sneed, George 119,161 

Sneeden, S. G. 119-47-61-87,314 

Snider, Johannes 52 

Social Union, E.L.Snow 268 

Society for Prop. Gospel 198 

Somers, Rev. Charles G. 224 

Sons ol Temperance : 

Southwick, K. A. 145,163,312 

Spalding, Eev. Joshua 317 

" JohnD. 266,317 

" Mrs. E. L. 208,266,317 

" &Parmenter 266 

Sparks, Eohert 181 

Speedwell, George 140 



Spencer, Elder 225 

" Mr. Justice 110 

Sparry, Silas 62 

Spioer, Rev. Tobias 232 

Spierin, Bev. Geo. H. 42,83,84 
86,101,196,244,247 
Spier, Hugh 172,213,247 

" Aikman 176 

" John 301 

" Eliza P. 208 

SpraguOj Samuel 48,62 

" Andrew 62 

" Charles 19 

Spratt, John, Patent 46,48,132 
Sprole, Rev.W.T. 202-4-11-12 
Sproul, Eev. Thomas 258 

Stackhouse, Phebe 314 

Stagg, Abm. & Co. 178 

Standring, J. 186 

Stausbrough, Lewis H. 302 
" Thomas G. 210, 

Stansbury, Rev. Arthur I. 214 
Stanton, Isaac 204 

" George 234 

" &Co. 120 

Stark, J. 248 

Starr, Joseph A. 188 

" Mary'G. 208 

St. Clair, Genl, 60 

Steamboats 178,179,180,181 
Steamer on Cayuga Lake 121 
Stears, Elder David 225 

Sterling, William 206 

" Asa 206,209,210 

" Robt. 153,206-7-10-49 
« Isabella 206^262 

" Phebe, Margaret, Ma- 
ry, Nancy, Maria 210 
Stephens, Nicholas 52 

Stephenson, Stephen 52 

" Hugh 95 

Steuben, Baron 60,74,75 

" Lodge 268 

Stevenson, Doct. M. 240^67 
Stewart, Paul 186 

" Mrs. Catharine 216 
" Asa 200 

" Alsop 271 

" Charles 803 

Stickney, James 48 

" Samuel B. 115 

StiUwell, William, Jr. 62 

" John 43,62 

Stillman, Rev. Stephen L. 232 
St. John, Daniel B. 163 

Stocking, Rev. Davis 232 

Stone-Dam Meadow 136 

Stoney Point 18 

Storey, Jonas 116,247,307-9-16 
Stow, Peter 43 

Straohan, Margaret 209 

" Mrs. 192 

" James S. 240 

Stratton, Samuel 49,62,67 

" John 62,68 

Strawbridge, Eev Robert 229 
Street, Alfred B. 107 

Strong, Lewis M. 204 

Strickland, Abraham 227 

" Robert 140 

Stringham, Daniel 144 

" James 181 

Stuyvesant, Gov. 12,13,14,15 
Stymas, Casparis 181 

Supervisors ■ Appendix 
Sutherland, WiUiam 34,139 
" David 140 

Sutten, William 181 

" Daniel 172 

Swallow-Hole 137 



24 C 



INDEX. 



Swartwout Patent 
Sweety Jonathan 

" EzraB. 
Sweezer, Joseph 

Taggcrt, James 
Tait, Thomas 
Talket, Josiah 
Tappen, Christopher 
Turhell. Orson 

" John P. 
Tal'tiSB, John C. 
Taverns, Petition for 
Tax-Bolls 
Taylor, 'WiUiam 

'* Andrew 

" Archibald K. 

" Asa 
Toller & Bloomfleld 
Temple, The 
TenBroeck, Wessol 
Terboss, Henry 
Tenhout, Severyn 
Terwilllger, Maria 
Thacher, Caroline Knox 
Tharp, Peter 
Thatcher, Eev. Wn^. 



34 Tudor, Henry 
52 Turck. L^a&c 
188 



181 

137 

215 

48,272 

63 

183,188 

246,248 

119 

43 

139 

144,196 

68 

146 

133 

192 

64,67 

181 

43 

264 

264 

267 

223,224 

232 



Thayer, WiJliam 161,173,294 
" John 146,294 

Theological Seminary 
Thomas, John "W. 
Thompson, Alexander R. 
" R. W. 

" Alexander 

" William 

(Jardiner 183-87,318 

~ 222-23 

222 
209-10 
266,318 



172,266 
22,24 
19 
215 
108-18-82-44 



Turenne, Genl, 
Tnrner, John Jr. 
Turnpikes 

Tusten, Col. Bergarain 
Tu thill, Daniel S. 

" Freegift 

" Solomon 

" Samuel imA Sarah 
Tuttle,Selah&Son 
Tyler, Benj. 96,119,209,110 

Umphrey (see Humphrey) 

Underhill, WiJliam I. 188 

" ADgnstine 319 

Upright, Moses 209 



" William 

" Hev. J. E. 

" Kev. Alex. 

" Nancy 

Thorne, Benjamin 
Thornton, John 
Thrall, Abel 
Thurston, Daniel 

" Colonel 

" William 

Tice, Henry Jr. & Charlotte 2 



170 

243 

52 

37,62 

39 

81 



David 
Tidd, James 
Tilford, Alexander 

" George 
Tilton, Peter 

" Enoch E. 
Toohey, John H. 
Tooker, Nathaniel 

" Daniel 

" Reuben 

" Charles 

" Lewis 
Tompkins, Jonathan 

" Gov. D. D. 

'' Jeremiah 

■' Mr. Justice 



166 
41 
192,213 
213 
52 
172 
189 
187 
163,187 
52,275 
52 
121 
181 
115,116 
181 
110 
181 
223-24-27 
43 
52,63 
136,316 
44 
152 
206 



Tompson, Rev. W. C 
Totten, Beruamin 

" Jonas 
Townsend, Peter 

" James 

" Isaiah 

" William 
Township of Washington 81,177 
Town Clorks Appendix 

Travis, Gabriel 62,63 

Treat, Adna l9l 

Trees, Elm and Balm G. 96,106 
Ti'emper, Jacob and John 52 
Trimble, Richard 138- 
Trout Brook 137 

Truesdell, John 43,53 



Vail, Abm. M. ' 151 

" Nathaniel 188 

" Henry 206 

Vale, The 138 

Van Arsdale, John 311 

Van Blarcken, Jacobus -47 
Van-Cortland's Regiment 60 
Van Dam, Rip 23,45,82 

Vanderdonck's Map 12 

Van Deusen, Abm. W. 301 

Vanderveer, Rev. F. H. 219-20 
Van Doren, Rev. Isaac 202 
Van Dozer, Ohristopher 203-88 

" SelahR. 204 

Van Dyck, Henry H. 256 

Van Gilder, Elder 226 

Van Gonder , John 43 

Van Home, Philip 87,263 

" Hev. Fred. 196 

Van Ness, Mr. Justice 110,111 

" Rev. Abm. R. 217 

Van Nort, John 191 

" Benjamin 192 

" George M. 189 

Van Orsdall, James 246 

V&n Tuie, John 140 

Van Veohten, Bev. Samuel 220 
Van Voorhis, Daniel 134 

Van Zaadt, Eev. A. B. 219,257 
Vclteh, George 204 

Veltman, Henry 233 

Vermilyea, Wm. M. 160 

Verplancfc, Daniel C. 161,247 

" Samuel 60 

Village Guards 188 

Volck, Andrles 22,24,26,28,33 

128,138— ChUdren of 22,27 
Vrles, David Pieterzeu de 12 

Walker, James 277 

Wallace, Robt. and Mary A.208 

" Eev. R. H. 217 

" & Sweet 265 

" .Tames, Patent 46,131 

" & Vauglian 58 

Waller, William 206 

Wallkill, Indian name of 12 

Walsh, Hugh 81,98,108,136,144 

156,177,178,203,212,215 

216,247,263,267,296 

John H. 296,297 

J. DeWitt 136,297 

Wm. 119-46-50,206,323 



Ward, William 34,37,41,52,67 

140,187,263 

" WilliamJr.39,41,43,62,96 

96,104,181 

" Jeremiah 41,52 

" Josiah 52 

" Thomas 37,41 

149 " Peter 209,210 

148 " & Leonard 212 

206 " Eichard ISO 

178 Wardrop, Robert 168,178 

" Smith & Co. 178,181 

Waring, James 187,288 

" Alvah 234 

Warner, R. S. 152 

Warren Family 284 

" Wm.L.F. 161-52-63,285 

" Miles 252,285 

" John W. 192,285 

" Wm. E. 162,241-42-86 

Washington, Head Quarters of 

60,74— Reply to Nicola 61,82 

— ^Appeal to Congress 63 — 

Reply to Armstrong 67— Ad- 

dress to Army 69 — Orders 

Celebration 72, 73— Farewell 

Orders of 77— Tradition of 

138— References to 68,93,94 

—Mrs. 75,76,94 

Washington,Township of 81,177 

" Contin'l Guard 189 

" Hall 226-27 

Watch, Night 113 

Water, Supply 159,163— Bonds 

162— Reservoirs 162 

Waters, John H. 153.235 

" Abigail 206 

" Thomas 41 

Walerfleld, Mary E 206 

Watkins, Rev. Hezekiah 

31,41,83,194,244 



'* Henry 
Walsworth, Rev. I 
Wan del, Jacob 

" Joha 

" George 
War of 1812 
Ward House 
Wa,rd's Cider Mill 

" Bridge 



W. 



244 
236 
87,43 
37,46,52 
276 
113 
104 



156,157,264 



" Joseph ' 44,194 

' , Marietta 210 

" Victor M. 267 

" Eunice 312 

Watts, William 181 

Waugh, James 62,67,244 

" Robert 62 

" Sarah 209 

Wayland, James " 187 

Wayne, General 48,94 

Wear, John S. 188 

" William 62,247 

Webber, Jacob 22-4-6-7-8,139 
Weed, ^fathaniel and John 62 
' ' Samuel 157 

" Jonathan N. 6,152,274 
" Walter W. 188 

Weeks, Obadiah 62 

WeigandjMiohael 24,26,28,32,34 
139,262 
Tobias 22,28,30,139 
140,181,262 
George 22,140,181,262 
Martin 39,41,43,49,52 
66,67,68,60,82,84,94 
100,137,262 
Capt. Martin 262 

Weir, John 43 

Wells, John 144 

John H 206 

Wm. H. and Abigail 206 
Albert 219 

Weller, Hiram 144,172 

" George 152 

Woman, Widow 24 

Wenham, Col. Thomas 23 

Wesley, John and Charles 228 
Westlake, Samuel 52 

" George 52,232 



INDEX. 



XI 



Westlake, Burroughs 
WestcoU, Ebt. Isaac 

" David M. 
Wostorvelt, John L. 
Weygant, Tooker 
Weymans, W. 
Wlialing Company 
White, Judge 

" Silas 

" Nathan H. 

" William 
Wliitliead, William 

" John 
Whitehill, James 
Whitney, Eiohard J. 
Whipping Post 
Whitmarsh, A. 
Wiggins, Stephen 
" John 



John, Jr. 
Wilberforce, William 



234 

226 

254 

210 

161,166 

194 

164 

114 

201 

248 

62 

44,62,104 

322 

166 

188 

166 

220 

44,62,64,196 

62,63 



Williams, Richard 192 Wood, John, Jr. 

" Rev. John 224 " Bichard 

Saml. 118-51-64,202, 



Wileman, Henry 
Wiley, Rev. Mr. 

" Wm. M. 
Willard, John 
Willett, Charles 

" Gilbert Coldcu 
Williams, F. T. 

" Joseph 

" Jonas 

" John F. 



63 

243 

33,82,139 



168,222,248 
243 
52 
106 



144 

234 



" Thomas 181 

" William 199 

Willson, Francis 223 

" Rev. Jaines R. 

122,133,221,266,256 



" William 178 

Willis, William 167 

Wilson, Widow Mary 

" William 32,281 

" Joseph 189 

" Robert 304 

Wiltsie, John K. 163,232 

" James and John 179 

" Martin 169,170 

" IMartin, Jr. 170,171 

Wind, Genl. Brigade 69 

Windfield. John . 

Winfleld, boot. Elias 87,21 

Winslow, Samuel 44,195 

Winterton, William 224-7 

Wise, John and Mrs. 216 

Witor, Jacob 223 

Withers, P. C. 204-10-41-42 

Wolfe, Genl, 300 

Wolfert's Boost 282 

Wood, Cornelius 62 

Daniol and Joseph 199 

Isaac, Jr, 175,189,191 



Stephen 



Woodcock, David 
Wooden, James 
Woodhull, Col. Brigade 
Wool, Genl. John K 

" Mrs. 
Woolsey, Beiyamiu 

" Thomas 

" Levi D. 

" Eleazer B. 
Wright, David 

" Nicholas 

" Rev. Richard 

" Samuel 

" William 

*' William B. Appendix 
Wyatt, David 43,63,130,232 

" David, Jr. 233,234 

" Hezekiali 43,52 

" Nathaniel 67,323-24^-27 



' 187 
203 
62,53 
121 
62 
69 
43 
94 
45 
45,266 
170,299 
252 
191 
172 
229 
172,222 
62,185 



" Samuel 

Wynant, William 

" Jurie 

" Jane 

Wyokotf, Henry 

Young, John M. 
" Lewis W. 
" James S. 



46 
47 
47 
47 
143 , 

41 

143,163,192 

252 



I-*-** 



ENGRAVINGS. 



.Academy , New burgh 

" Highland 
Aims-House, Newburgh 
Associate Eef. Pres. Church, First 
" " " Union 

Baptist Church, Old 

" " First 

Belknap, Samuel, Autograph of 
" Isaac " 

" Samuel " 

" LydiaRiggs " 

" Moses H., Portrait and Autograph 271 
Bovrman , Phineas, Portrait of 289 

Carter, Jonathan, Autograph of 

" Enoch, Portrait of 
Crawford, Francis, Autogi'aph of 

" David, Portrait and Autograph 

Colden or Newburgh House 
" Hasbrouclc's if ill 
Court House, Newborgh 
DeGrovo, Adolph, Autograph of 
" Adolph, Jr., Autograph of 
" William ." 

Disbiinding of the Army of the Revolution 
Ferry Boat Caravan 
Fisk, Jonathan, Portrait of 
Fostertown M. E. Church 
Fowler, Gilbert 0., Portrait and Autograph 277 
Gardiner, James M., Portrait of 302 

Gardner, Silas, Residence of 131 

Gardnortown M. E. Church 234 

Hathaway, OdellS., Portrait of 314 

Hay Scales 167 

Hoffman, Joseph, Portrait of 300 

Hudson in Newburgh Bay 11 

Indian Devil Worship 129 

Lutheran Church 29 



270 



Mailler, William K. , Portrait of 
Map of German Patent 

" Glebe 

' ' Patents in Town 

" Township of Washiugtoii 
Market, Old Newburgh 
Martin Weigand's Hotel 
Methodist Episcopal Church, First 

" Second 
Middlehope Presbyterian Church 

" M. E. Chrach 

Minister's Residence 
Nichols, David, Portrait of _ 
Parmenter, Samuel, Autograph of 
Presbyterian Church, First 

" " Calvary 

Public Stocks and Whipping Post 
Reeve, Selah, Autograph of 
Reformed Dutch Church 

" Presbyterian Church, First 
" " " Second 

Ross, Robert, Residence of 
Rossville M. E. Church 
Ruttenber, E. M^ Portrait of 
School-master's Residence 
St. George's Episcopal Church 
St. John's " Chapel 

St. Paul's " " 

Temple, The, at New Windsor 
Tice, Charles W., Portrait of 
United Presbyterian Church, First 
Universalist Church, First ; Z3» 

View of Newburgh Frontispiece 

" in Water Street 119 

" on the Qaassaick Finale. 

Walsh, Hugh, Autograph of 296 

Wa.shington's Head Quarters at Newburgh 74 



316 
27 
40 
46 
81 
166 
43,100 



212 
233 
41 

Title Page 
31S 
205 
211 
165 
287 
221 
222 
.223 
131 
234 

Title Page 
42 
198 
198 
241 
67 

Title Page 
240 





APPENDIX 


* 




TOWN OFFICERS. 






SUPEEVISOES AND TOWN CLERKS. | 


Year. 


Su/penisor. 


Town Clerk, 


1763 


Jonathan Hasbrouck. 


Samuel Sands. 


1764 


Lewis Duboi-s. 


(I 


1765 


John Wandal. 


t4 


1766 


Benjamin Carpenter. 


Joshua Sands. 


1767 


Lewis Dubois. 


Leonard Smith. 


1768 


Edward Hallock. 


« 


1769 


Latting Carpenter. 


ti 


1770 


u 


u 


1771 


a 


(C 


1772 


Jonathan Hasbrouck. 


a 


1773 


John Flewwelling. 


Samuel Sands, 


1774 


Samuel Fowler. 


a 


1775 


Wolvert Ecker. 


a 


1776 


Morris Flewwelling. 


;c 


1777 


Wolvert Ecker. 


Thomas Palmer. 


1778 


IC 


u 


1779 


i\ 


u 


1780 


a 


i 


1781 


Thomas Palmer. 


William Palmer. 


1782 


tc 


u 


1783 


u 


tl 


1784 


a 


(C 


1785 


C( 


Daniel Birdsall. 


1786 


(I 


a 


1787 


John Kobinson. 


a 


1788 


(; 


Benjamin Carpenter. 


1789 


Isaac Fowler, Jr. 


Isaac Belknap, Senr. 


1790 


John Robinson. 


Deiick Amerman. 


1791 


u 


a 


1792 


Isaac Fowler. 


a 


1793 


ii 


It 


1794 


u 


i{ 


1795 


ti 


u 


1796 


Keuben Tooker. 


({ 


1797 


t* 


u 


1798 


u 


David Denniston. 


1799 


u 


ii 


1800 


a 


Daniel Birdsall. 


1801 


it 


u 


1802 


e( 


u 


1803 


ic 


a 


1804 


>v 


Isaac Belknap, Jr. 


1805 


U 


(C 


1806 


a 


u 


1807 


a 


(ft 

210 



• 


APPENDIX. 


ii 


Year. 
1808 


Swp&rmsor. 
Isaac Belknap, Jr. 


Town Clerk. 
Edmund Griswold. 


1809 


William Boss. 


t( 


1810 


a 


CC 


1811 


Jonathan Fisk, Leonard Smith. 


11 


1812 


Leonard Smith. 


cc 


1813 


u 


Aaron Belknap. 


1814 


{( 


Isaac Belknapj Jr. 


1815 


a 


(( 


1816 


u 


If 


1817 


ii 




1818 


(I 


Robert H. Reeve. 


1819 


Daniel Tooker. 


ct 


1820 


K 


£C 


1821 


it 


William Walsh. 


1822 


Leonard Smith. 


ft 


1823 


William Wear, Jr. 


(.' 


1824 


William Walsh. 


Isaac W. Seymour. 


1825 


C( 


ec 


1826 


ce 


Edmund Sanxay. 


1827 


a 


(C 


1828 


a 


(C 


1829 


11 


cc 


1830 


u 


(C 


1831 


a 


(C 


■< 1832 


Robert Lawson. 


William Butterworth 


1833 


u 


cc 


1834 


William Walsh. 


cc 


1835 


James G. Clinton. 


Walter Simonson, 


1836 


(( 


cc 


1837 


Daniel Tooker. 


Albert Noe. 


1838 


David W. Bate. 


cc 


1839 


Jackson Oakley. 


cc 


1840 


David W. Bate. 


C£ 


1841 


u 


tc 


1842 


John W. Brown. 


u » 


1843 


David W. Bate. 


i^ 


1844 


{{ 


a 


1845 


u 


cc 


1846 


ii 


cc 


1847 


Odell S. Hathaway. 


cc 


1848 


(£ 


c. 


1849 


ii 


cc 


1850 


Enoch Carter. 


Lewis W. Gardiner. 


1851 


Odell S. Hathaway. 


ce 


1852 


Enoch Carter. 


CC 


1853 


Samuel J. Farnum. 


cc 


1854 


Henry Walsh. 


cc 


1855 


Stephen W. Fullerton. 


cc 


1856 


Odell S. Hathaway. 


!.<. 


1857 


Albert Noe. 


Isaac C. Chapman. 


1858 


Enoch Carter. 


c: 




ALMS-HOUSE COMMISSIONEES. 


1853- 


-David W. Bate, Henry Wyckoff, David 11. Barclay, Eugene A. 


Brewster, George Gearns, Alfred Post. D.W. Bate, President; "William || 


0. Miller, Superintendent. 




1854- 


-David W. Bate, Henry Wyckoff, D. H. 


Barclay, S. W. Fuller- 


' ■■ ■■ 



APPENDIX, 111 

ton, E. A. Brewster, Alfred Post. D. W. Bate, President: William 0. 
Miller, Superintendent. 

1855— Henry Wyckoff, D. H. Barclay, Thos. H. Roe, 0. P. Belknap, 
L, B. Gregory, S. "W. Fullerton. Henry Vyckoff, President; William 
0. Miller, Superintendent. 

1856—0. F. Belknap, Tbos. H. Roe, L. B. Gregory, S. W. Pnllerton, 
Isaac Wood, Senr. 0. P. Belknap, President; Win. 0. Miller, Supt. 

1857 — Thos. n. Roe, Oliver Belknap, L. B.Gregory, Enoch Carter, 
Isaac Wood, Senr. Thos. H. Boo, President ; Wm. 0. Miller, Supt. 

1858 — Thomas George, Enoch Carter, Jaifies Belknap, Isaac Wood, 
Senr., James H. Mallory, Oliver Belknap. Thomas George, President; 
William C. Miller, Superintendent. 



COKPOEATION OFPICBES. 

BOAED OF TRUSTEES. 

1804— Hugh Walsh, George Monell, Jacob Powell, William H. Smith, 
Hugh Spier, John Mandevill, Solomon Sleight. Geo. Monell, President.* 

1805— George Monell, Chas. Clinton, Hugh Walsh, Hugh Spier, Jacob 
Powell, Solomon Sleight, JohnMandevill. Geo. Monell, President. 

1806 — Isaac Belknap, Jr., Leonard Carpenter, John Mandevill, Saml. 
Downing, John Anderson, Jr., Jona. Hedges, Alex. Denniston. Isaac 
Belknap, Jr., President. Chas. Clinton, Clerk. 

1807 — Hiram Weller, George Monell, Jacob Powell, John McAuley, 
• Daniel Stringham, Hugh Spier, William Taylor. Goo. Monell, President. 
William Taylor, Clerk. 

1808 — George Monell, Hiram Weller, John McAuloy, William Taylor, 
Jacob Powell, Daniel Stringham, Hugh Spier. Geo. Monell, President, 
Wm. Taylor, Clerk. 

1809— Jacob Powell, Edmund Griswold, Jona. Hedges, Hugh Spier, 
Selah Reeve, George Monell, William Boss. George Monell, President. 
Wm. Ross, Clerk. 

1810 — Jacob Powell, Selah Reeve, Jonathan Pisk, John D. Lawson, 
John Mandeviile, James Hamilton, John Chambers. James Hamilton, 
President. Aaron Belknap, Clerk. 

1811 — Jacob Powell, George Monell, Seth Belknap, Jonathan Pisk, 
Isaac Belknap, Jr., William H. Smith, John Chambers. Jonathan Pisk, 
President. Aaron Belknap, Clerk. 

1812 — Jonathan Pisk, Seth Belknap, Jacob Powell, George Monell, 
John Chambers, John Harris, Cadwallader Roe. Jonathan Pisk, Presi- 
dent. Aaron Belknap, Clerk. 

1813 — Walter Case, Jacob Powell, John Harris, John Chambers, 
Leonard Carpenter, James Hamilton, John D. Lawson. Walter Case, 
President. Aaron ]3elknap. Clerk. 

1814— Walter Case, Jacob Powell, John Chambers, John D. Lawson, 
John Harris, Leonard Carpenter, William Ross. Walter Case, President. 
Aaron Belknap, Clerk. 

1815 — Walter Case, Jacob Powell, John Chambers, John Harris, John 
D. Lawson, Leonard Carpenter, Solomon Sleight. Walter Case, Presi- 
dent. David W. Bate, Clerk. 

1816— Isaac Belknap, Francis Crawford, John Anderson, Jr., Jonathan 
Carter, Levi Dodge, Samuel Downing, Henry Walsh. Francis Crawford, 
President. Nathan 0. Savre, Clerk. 

1817— Francis Crawford, Thos. Phillips, Jr., Benoni H. Howell,! Isaac 
Belknap, John Anderson, Jr., William Walsh, Samuel Downing. Fran- 
cis Crawford, President. M. R. Griswold, Clerk. 

* Ante page 107,108. t Kesigned; but resignation not accepted. 



IV APPENDIX. 

1818— Francis Orawford, Thomas Phillips, Jr., Benj. Case, Jr., Selah 
Reeve, Wm. L. Smith, Jacob Carpenter, Jonathan Hedges. Selah Reeve, 
President. M. E. Griswold, Clerk.* 

1819— Selah Reeve, Thomas Phillips, Jr., William L. Smith, Jonathan 
Hedges, Samuel "Williams, William Seymour, Isaac Belknap. Selah 
Reeve, President. M. R. Griswold, Clerk. 

1820— Selah Reeve, Isaac Belknap, Thos. Phillips, Jr., Samuel Wil- 
liams, Jonathan Hedges, Wm. Seymour, Wm. L. Smith. Seiah Reeve, 
President, M. R. Griswold, Clerk. 

1821 — Selah Reeve, Jonathan Hedges, Samuel Williams, Thos. Phillips, 
Jr., Isaac Belknap, Wm. L. Smith, Francis Crawford. Selah Reeve, 
President. John W. Brown, Clerk. 

1822— Francis Crawford, Samuel Williams, Isaac Belknap, Thos. Phil- 
lips, Jr., Wm. L. Smith, Alex. Falls, Jonathan Hedges. Francis Craw- 
ford, President. John W. Brown, Clerk. 

1823— Francis Crawford, Isaac Belknap, Wm. L. Smith, Saml. Williams, 
Thos. Phillips, Jr., John Forsyth, Alex. Falls. Francis Crawford, Presi- 
dent. John W. Brown, Clerk. 

1824— Francis Orawford, Samuel Williams, Isaac Belknap, Wm. L. 
Smith, Thos. Phillips, Jr., John Forsyth, Alex. Fails. Francis Crawford, 
President. John W. Brown, Clerk. 

1825— Francis Orawford, Isaac Belknap, Wm. L. Smith, John Forsyth, 
Samuel Williams, Wm. Walsh, Thos. Phillips, Jr. Francis Crawford, 
President. John W. Brown, Clerk. 

1826 — William Walsh, Samuel Williams, John For.-iyth, John Ledyard, 
Robert Lawson, Ward M. Gazlay, Thomas Phillips, Jr. William Walsh, 
President. Benj. H. Mace, Clerk. 

1827 — William Walsh, Robert Lawson, Saml. Williams, John Ledyard , 
John Forsyth, Thomas Phillips, Jr., Joseph Iloflinan. William Walsh, 
President. Benj. H. Mace, Clerk. 

1828 — William Walsh, Samuel Williams, Robert Lawson, John Led- 
yard, John Forsyth, Joseph Hoffman, Selah Reeve. Robert Lawson, 
President. B. H. Mace, Clerk. 

1829— Selah Reeve,Samuel Williams, Joseph Hoffman, William Walsh, 
John Ledyard, David Sands, Samuel G. Sneden. Saml. Williams, Pre- 
sident. B. H. Mace, Clerk. 

1830 — David Sands, John Ledyard, David Crawford, Chas. A. Johnes, 
Jackson Oakley, Robert Kelly, Benj. Carpenter. John Ledvard, Presi- 
dent. Wm. B. Wright, Clerk. 

1831 — Saml. Williams, David Crawfurd, Jackson Oakley, Robert Law- 
son, Benj. Carpenter, Aaron Noyes, Moses H. Belknap. Jackson Oakley, 
President. A. 0. Mulliner, Clerk. 

1832 — Saml. Williams, Robert Lawson, David Crawford, Jackson Oak- 
ley, Aaron Noyes, M. H. Belknap, Benj. Carpenter. Moses H. Belknap, 
President. A. 0. Mulliner, Clerk. 

1833 — Saml. Williams, Robert Lawson, M. 11. Belknap, Benj. Carpen- 
ter, Aaron Noyes, Jackson Oakley, David Crawford. Moses H. Belknap, 
President. A. 0. Mulliner, Clerk. 

1834 — Samuel Williams, M. H. Belknap, Benj . Carpenter, David Craw- 

* The following singular oath was taken by Griswold on entering upon his official 
duties: 

"I, Marvin E. Griswold, being chosen Clerk of the Corporation of the Village of New- 
bnrgh, do solemnly swear that I will m all things, to the best of my knowledo-e and 
ability, execute and perform the duties enjoined on me, and that I will not divulge or 
make public any of the proceedings of the Corporation until the same shall be pub- 
lished by them or their order; nor at any time disclose or discover the votes or opinions 
of any member of the said body, unless required to give evidence thereof in a Court of 
Justice. [Signed] m. E, GRISWOLD. 

Sworn and subscnbed the ath day of May, 1818, James Hamilton. 



APPENDIX. V 

ford, Jackson Oakley, Christopher Reeve, Eli Hasbrouck. M. H. Belknap, 
President. A. C. Mulliner, Clerk. 

1835— John Ledyard, Aaron Nuyes, Saml. Johnson, Wni. C. Hasbrouck, 
Minard Harris, John Jamison, Saml. J. Farnum. John Ledyard, Presi- 
dent. Horace Armstrong, Clerk. 

1836 — John Ledyard, Minard Harris, Wm. 0. Hasbrouck, Samuel J, 
Parnum, Saml. Johnson, Aaron Noyes, George Reeve. John Ledyard, 
President. Horace Armstrong, Clerk. 

1837— John Ledyard, Wm. C. Hasbrouck, Benj. Carpenter, Jackson 
Oakley, Saml. J. Farnum, David Crawford, Chris. Reeve. John Ledyard, 
President. Horace Armstrong, Clerk. 

1838— Moses IL Belknap, Saml. J. Farnum, Wm. C. Hasbrouck, Jack- 
son Oakley, Nathl. Dubois, Robt. Lavvson, Benj. Carpenter. Moses H. 
Belknap, President. Solomon Tuthill, Clerk. 

1839— M. n. Belknap, Saml. J. Farnmn, Jackson Oakley, Wm. 0. Has- 
brouck, Nathl. Dubois. Odell S. Hathaway, Robt. Wardrop. Moses H. 
Belknap, President. S. Tuthill, Clerk. 

1840— M. H. Belknap, S. J. Farnum, T. M. Niven, 0. S. Hathaway, 
Nathl. Dubois, Geo. Cornwell, Robt. Wardrop. M. H. Belknap, Presi- 
dent. S. Tuthill, Clerk. 

1841— M. H. Belknap, 0. S. Hathaway, Nathl. DuBois, Saml. J. Far- 
num, Benj. Carpenter, Benj. F. Buckingham, E. W. Farrington. Moses 
H. Belknap, President. Jackson Oakley, Clerk. 

1842 — Joseph Hoffman, Gtorge Reeve, William K. Mailler, Wm. M. 
Wiley, Saml. Johnson, Alex. Whigam, Minard Harris. Minard Harris, 
President. S. C. Parmenter, Clerk. 

1843~M. H. Belknap, Jos. Hoffman, Benj. Tyler, S. J. Farnum, Jeffer- 
son Roe, Robt. D. Kemp, David W. Gridley. M. H. Belknap, President. 
Stephen B. Brophy, Clerk. 

1844— M. H. Belknap, Jos. Hoffman, Benj. Tyler, Robt. D, Kemp, E. 
W. Farrington, Aikman Spier, Homer Ramsdell. M. H. Belknap, Presi- 
dent. Jackson Oakley, Clerk. 

1845 — David Crawford, Homer Ramsdell, Saml. J. Farnum, Robt. A. 
Forsyth, Wm. L. F. Warren, Lewis W. Young, Edmund S. Sanxay. S. 
J. Farnum, President. Jackson Oakley, Clerk. 

1846 — Saml. J. Farnum, Lewis W. Young, David Crawford, Homer 
Ramsdell, Wm. L. F. Warren, Robt. A. Forsyth, Aikman Spier. Saml. J. 
Farnum, President. J. Oakley, Clerk. 

1847— Saml. J. Farnum, Wm. L. F. Warren, Robt. A. Forsyth, Wm. 
P. 0. Smith, Aikman Spier, Homer Ramsdell, David Crawford. Saml. J. 
Farnum, President. Peter F. Hunn, Clerk. 

1848— Saml. J. Farnum, Wm. L. F. Warren, R. A. Forsyth, Aikman 
Spier, Homer Ramsdell, David Crawford, Wm. P. 0. Smith. Saml. J. 
Farnum, President. Jackson Oakley, Clerk. 

1849 — Homer Ramsdell, S. J. Paruum, Wm. L. F. Warren, Lewis D. 
Lockwood, Eli Hasbrouck, Robert A. Forsyth, Lewis W. Young. Saml. 
J. Farnum, President. Jackson Oakley, Clerk. 

1850 — Old Board held over in consequence of an amendment to the 
Act of Incorporation, which changed the time for the annual election. 

1851 — Robert Lawson, Minard Harris, Thornton M. Niven, Henry T. 
McCoun, Saml. J. Farnum, Homer Ramsdell, Eli Hasbrouck. Samuel J. 
Farnum, President. D. G. Niven, Clerk. 

1852— E. W. Farrington, Wm. L. F. Warren, Eli Hasbrouck, Robert 
Lawson, Ohas. Drake, George Gearn, John R. (torham. E. W. Farring- 
ton, President. Chas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

1853 — E. W. Farrington, Wm. L. F. Warren, Robert Lawson, Eli Has- 
brouck, Saml. J. Farnum, George Gearn, John R. Gorham. E. W. Far- 



VI APPENDIX. 

rington, President. Chas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

1854 — Eli Hasbrouck, Wm. L. F. Warren, John R. Gorham, Lemuel 
B. Gregory, Franklin Gerard, James H. Mallery, E. 11. Clark. Wm. L. 
F. Warren, President. Ohas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

1855— Wm. L. P. Warren, Eli Hasbrouck. Edwin T. Comstock, Wm. 
E. Peck, Jno. P. Van Nort, Wm. H. Callaban, Ohas. H. Doughty. Wm. 
L. P. Warren, President. Chas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

1856 — Wm. L. F. Warren, Lewis D. Lockwood, George W. Kerr, Jas. 
H. Mallery, P. Gerard, Isaac Wood, Jr.. Edwin T. Comstock. Wm. L. 
P. Warren, President. Chas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

1857— Wm. L. F. Warren, E. W. Parrington, P. Gerard, M. Doyle, H. 
R. Stevens, Robt. Sterling, George Lawson. Wm. L. F. Warren, Presi- 
dent. Chas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

1858— Wm. L. P. Warren, E. W. Parrington, E. T. Comstock, H. R. 
Stevens, M. Doyle, Robert Sterling, Geo. Lawson. Wm. L. P. Warren, 
President. Chas. Halstead, Jr., Clerk. 

BOARDS OF EDDCATION. 

1852— Jno. Beveridgo, Rev. Jno. Brown, D. G. Leonard, Lemuel B. 
Gregory, Geo. W. Kerr. John J. Monell, Hon. Nathl. Jones, Chas. P. V. 
Reeve, Thomas C. King. Jno. Beveridge, President. Nathaniel Jones, 
Clerk. 

1853 — Jno. Beveridge, Rev. Jno. Brown, Rev. Jno. Porsyth, Nathl. 
Jones, Geo. W. Kerr, J. J. Monell, Thos. C. Ring, D. G. Leonard, L. B. 
Gregory. Jno. Beveridge, President. Nathl. Jones, Clerk. 

1854— Jno. Beveridge, Rev. Jno. Brown, Rev. Jno. Porsyth, Nathaniel 
Jones, Geo. W. Kerr, J. J. Monell, Thos. C. Ring, D. G. Leonap.l, L. B. 
Gregory. Jno. Beveridge, President. Nathl. Jones, Clerk. 

1865— Jno. Beveridge, Rev. Jno. Brown, Rev. Jno. Forsyth, Thos. C. 
Ring, Nathl. Jones, D. G. Leonard, Jno. S. Thayer, Dr. Wm. A. M. Cul- 
bert, Jacob Brown. John Beveridge, President. Nathl. Jones, Clerk. 

1856 — Jno. Beveridge, Rev. Jno. Brown, Rev. Jno. Porsyth, Hon. N. 
Jones, Dr. W. A. M. Culbert, Samuel Williains, Orville M. Smith. Thos. 
C. Ring, D. G. Leonard. Jno. Beveridge, President. N. Jones, Clerk. 

1857— Jno. Beveridge, Rev. Jno. Brown. Rev. Jno. Porsytb, Samnel 
Williams, D. G. Leonard, Dr. W. A. M. Culbert, 0. M. Smith, Jas. R. 
Dickson, E. M. Ruttenber. Jno. Beveridgo, President. Nathl. Jones, 
Clerk. Messrs. Beveridge and Culbert resigned in the course of the year, 
and their places were filled by George Clark and Thomas C. llin<r. 

1858— Rev. Jno. Brown, Rev. Jno. Porsyth, Saml. Willi.ams. James R. 
Dickson, E. M. Ruttenber, Georire Clark, Thomas Beveridge' John K. 
Lawson, E. A. Brewster. Rev. Jno. Porsyth, President. H. S. Banks, ■ 
Clerk. Rev. Jno. Brown resigned, and Thomas George was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. 



SEAL OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 
The official Seal of the Board of Trustees, was adopted Juno 7 1819 
It is described by Mr. William Rollinson, of New York, by whom 'it was 
engraved, as follows: "The figure is a representation of the Deity of the 
Hudson, or a River God (Aquarius, the water-beai er,) accordino- to Hea- 
then Mythology, pouring forth the river from his urn, and bearini; in his 
right hand an antique Rudder of a vessel, as an emblem of the extensive 
navigation and commerce of the river ; and the Hudson is designated bv 
the arms of the State of New York being blazoned upon the Rudder— 
which I believe corresponds with the idea communicated to me '' Thi.s 
description is rather crude, bui, it was approved by the Board and enter- 
ed upon its minutes. 



APPENDIX. Vll 

SMALL BILLS. 
In 1814, the Board of Trustees authorized the issue of "Small Bills for 
a circulating medium, of the following denominations, viz : One cent, two 
cents, three cents, six and one quarter cents, twelve and one half cents, 
twenty-five cents, and fifty cents in the following words, viz : 

" 77(c Corporation of the Village of Newburgh promise to pay the bearer 

Cents, in current bills at the Bank of Newburgh. By order of the Trustees, 
"Dated, Nob. 8, 1814. A. BELKNAP, Clerk." 

These bills were sold to business men and others, and the money which 
was received for thera was deposited in the Banlc of Newburgh for their 
redemption. $3,000 or $4,000 was put in circulation in this way, and 
was of great convenience to the public. The bills were discontinued in 
1816, and the amount then outstanding was purchased by Mr. Belknap, 
he agreeing to provide for their redemption. 



LOSS OF THE SCHOONEE COL. CEOCKETT. 

CAPT. OBLANBO H. AUSTIN. 

This vessel sailed faom Newburgh on the 20th June, 1839, on a trading 
voyage to the coast of Africa and the neighboring Islands. In May last, 
she entered Delago river and sailed up that stream nearly 100 miles, where 
the captain opened a trade with the natives, and having succeeded in 
completing a valuable cargo of ivory, gold dust, ostrich feathers, shells, 
ebony wood, &c., was returning to the Bay, with the intention of return- 
ing immediately home, when the vessel unfortunately grounded on a bar 
at the mouth of the river. On her way down the river, most of the crew 
were taken sick with the fever of the country, and the remainder were 
unable to haul off the vessel. The captain and a part of the crew then 
attempted to proceed in a boat for assistance to the Portuguese settlement 
at English river, 60 miles from the place of the disaster, but they could 
not pass the surf. Mr. Reed, the second mate, then volunteered to ac- 
company tlie captain over land. It was unfortunately determined to go 
unarmed, so as to afford the natives less temptation for Hiolesting them. 
At first they were treated kindly, but towards night, after traveling about 
35 miles, the savages fell upon them with spears, killed the captain and 
wounded the mate so severely that they supposed him to be also dead. 
Mr. Reed stated that he presented his side and received most of the 
spears in his arm. One, however, struck him near his eye, and he for a 
time became senseless. On his recovery he observed the negroes cutting 
up and roasting and making their supper on the body of the captain. He 
lay still until the cannibals fell asleep — then crept into the bushes and 
made his escape lo the schooner, which he reached in a miserable condi- 
tion. A few days after the return of Mr. Reed with the melancholy 
intelligence of the death of Capt. Austin, Mr. Daniel "Wood, of Pough- 
keepsie," chief mate, Robert McTurk, Robert Blalney, and John Fowler, 
a colored seaman, all of this village, died of fever. A part of the survi- 
vors, after burying their dead companions in the sand of the beach, again 
took the yawl, and making another attempt, succeeded in getting through 
the surf and reaching the settlement on English river, from whence a boat 
was sent to the schooner which returned with the sick that were left on 
board. The Governor subsequently despatched a boat to the wreck to ^ 
save the cargo. It was loaded with some of the most valuable articles, 
but in returnmg, the boat swamped, and a;ll on board perished. Only 
three of the schooner's crew survive, viz : Charles Wilson, (shipped in a 
foreign port,) David Baker, a lad, the only person living of the crew that 
left this village in 1839, and David Reed, the second mate, who not having 
sufficiently recovered from his wounds and the fever, remained at Delago 



VIU APPENDIX. 

Bay. Wilson and Baker went on board the Englisli iron steamei- Nemesis, 
and subsequently got on board of a Stonington whale ship, which arrived 
last week. Baker got back to this village on Thursday. 

Capt. Austin and Mr. Wood were highly esteemed by the citizens of 
this village. They made several voyages in the ships Portland and Illi- 
nois, in the employ of the Newburgh Whaling company. On their return 
from the last cruize of these ships, they projected the voyage, the melan- 
choly result of which we have above recorded, and which, until the 
schooner grounded at the bar of the river on her return, had been very 
successful : her cargo at the time being worth $20,000 or $30,000. The 
crew had not experienced any sickness on the coast until a few days pre- 
vious to that unfortunate occurrence.* There was no insurance on the 
vessel or on the cargo, which was owned by Capt. Austin, Mr. Wood, and 
two or three citizens of this village Netoburgh Jowmal, March 6, 1841. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 

1609 — Mahakenghtuc river discovered by Hudson. 

1652 — Hostilities commenced by Esopus Indians. 

1660 — First Esopus (or Indian) War. 

1663 — Second Esopus War. 

1685 — ^Lands extending from the Paltz to Stony Point purchased from 
the Indians by Gov. Dongan. 

1694 — Lands purchased by Gov. Dongan patented to Capt. John Evans 
under the title of "Manor of Pletcherdon." 

1699 — Evans' Patent vacated by an Act of the Assembly. 

1709 — Palatine emigrants assigned lands near Quassaick creek. 

1710 — Precinct of Highland established by an order of the Court of 
Sessions of Ulster county, as a Court district. 

1719 — -Lands at Quassaick patented to Palatine emigrants — including a 
Glebe of 500 acres for the support of a Lutheran minister : Settlement 
designated, "The Palatine Parish by Quassaick." 

1733 — First Church erected by Lutherans. 

1743 — Newburgh Plot kid out by Alexander Oolden : First application 
of the name of Newburgh to the settlement. 

1743— Ferry established by charter to Alexander Golden. 

1744 — Precinct of Highland erected by an Act of the Assembly, and 
Supervisor and other officers elected. 

1747— Members of the Church of England elected Trustees of Glebe, 
and the Church edifice closed against the Lutheran minister. 

1752 — First Patent for Glebe surrendered and the Second Patent issu- 
ed, confirming income of Glebe to Church of England : Settlement desig- 
nated, "The Parish of Newburgh." 

1763 — Precinct of Highland divided, and the Precinct of Newburgh 
and the Precinct of New Windsor erected therefrom. 

1769 — Seventeen buildings on the site of the present Village. 

1775— Committee of Safety appointed. 

1782— Washington's Head Quarters established at Newburgh. 

1783 — Army disbanded. 

lT9J_Presbyterians elected Trustees of Glebe : Organization of St 
George's Church briiken up by the Revolution. 

1796— First newspaper, "The Newburgh Packet," printed 

1796— Newburgh Post Office established. 

1798— The Town of Newburgh erected. 

1800— The Village of Newburgh incorporated. 

1805— Glebe charter amended, and income applied to the supnort of 
Schools. '^^ 



INTKODUCTION. 



The necessity of Local History is unquestionable; it is, to a 
large extent, the material of History in its highest sense and 
scope. To those who would thoroughly comprehend the Past, 
the former is as needful as the latter. Events of a strictly 
National character are few in comparison with the Local; and 
the men whose names live in a Nation's memory as the great 
statesmen of their day, are fewer still when compared with the 
many who at the same period filled other spheres, less prominent 
indeed, but still closely connected with the welfare of society. 
The discovery and settlement of this Continent, the growth of 
its humble Colonies into a glorious cluster of confederated States, 
the noble deeds of noble sires who achieved their independence, 
have engaged the pens of historians who have won a world-wide 
fame; they have, however, only gathered a few of the choicest 
sheaves from a field of vast extent and rich with ungarnered 
harvests. These portions of the harvest-field belong to local 
husbandmen, and by their efforts we may hope that the complete 
history of our Nation will be preserved. 

Until within a few years, little attention has been paid to the 
preparation of Local Histories, and perhaps still less to the 
preservation of the materials of which they must be composed. 
Too frequently the only record of the early annals of towns and 
cities is the memory of individuals, and very often this record 
has died with its possessor. A few scattering documents, brief 
and unsatisfactory letters, and family traditions colored or 
enlarged as such statements are apt to be, embrace all that can 
be obtained. Much, however, in the aggregate remains, and in 
the work of collecting and preserving it, all may bear a part. 
The descendants of early settlers should embody in a written 
form the details of family history. In every town and village 
Historical Associations should be founded, and the different 
branches of historic research be confided to able and energetic 
hands. Above all the public mind should be educated to appre- 
ciate the value of ancient records, and the importance of guarding 
them with sacred care. Newburgh, we are happy to say, has 
made a beginning in this good work; and her citizens are en- 
couraged to prosecute it with zeal, by the consideration that in 
the old Head Quarters they have a place of deposit for these 
precious remains, abundantly safe and invested with the most 
venerable associations. 

The design of Local Histouy is to preserve the memory of local 



VI. INTKODUCTIOX. 

events and enterprise; to record the manners and customs, the 
character and services of our fathers, and in a word, as far as 
may be, to reproduce the familiar scenes of by-gone years. In 
preparing this work, no little care and attention have been 
devoted to secure this end. Our object has been, not to present 
an elegantly written volume, but one containing authenticated 
facts. In all cases we have consulted the most reliable sources 
of information to which we could get access, and have taken 
every pains to guard against error. We have endeavored to 
sketch, with as much fulness and accuracy of detail as possible, 
the rise and progress of the "Village and Town of Newburgh — of 
the public enterprises in which the men of the diiferent periods 
have been united — of the religious and educational establish- 
ments, and to outline the mote prominent actors, who from time 
to time have appeared on the public stage. In our biographical 
sketches we have sought neither to flatter any one, nor to pander 
to the aristocracy of birth or wealth, but to hold up for reverence 
and esteem private and public worth, whether found in those 
who claimed a lordly ancestry, or in those who sprung from the 
humblest walks of life. There is an aristocracy which wo are 
proud to recognize and have endeavored to commend-^iHE aris- 
tocracy OF WORTH. Every man may become a nobleman though 
he resides in a hovel — every man may leave behind him an 
example which his descendants may worthily strive to. imitate, 
a record of his deeds in the public service, or for the good of the 
community, to which they can point with honest pride. This is 
the aristocracy which elevates and ennobles the human race, and 
is the ground-work on which rest the dignity and virtue of 
society. Neither money nor lineage constitute the measure of 
its value or the test by which its existence is determined. Each 
one must win and maintain it for himself. 

For many valuable facts and suggestions embodied in its 
pages, the 'work is indebted to James Donelly, Esq., Eev. John 
Brown, D. D., Hon. Thomas MoKissock, Hon. Samuel W. Eager, 
William E. Warren, Enoch Carter, S. C. Parmenter, James W. 
Fowler, and J. N. Weed, Esqs., and to other gentlemen; and to 
all who have aided us, we return our most sincere thanks. 
Especially are we under obligations to Kev. John Forsyth, D. 
D., for suggestions and assistance cheerfully rendered at every 
stage of the work. To the public, whose subscription has 
guaranteed its publication, the work is most respectfully dedi- 
cated. 

Nkwburgh, January 1, 1859. 



fart £nBt"-§mml 



CHAPTER I. 

HUDSON IN THE WATERS OP THE MAHAKENEGHTUC ABORIGINAL 

HISTORY THE PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

1609—1750. 

"Late from this Western shore, that morning chased 
The deep and ancient night, which threw its shade 
O'er the green land of groves, the beautiful waste, 
Nurse of full streams, and lifter up of proud 
Sky-mingling mountains that overlook the cloud. 
Erewhile, where yon gay spires their brightness rear, 
Trees waved, and the brown hunter's shouts were loud 
Amid the forest ; and the bounding deer 
Fled at the glancing plume ; and the gaunt wolf yelled near." 

Bkyant. 

The History of Newburgh, it may be properly claimed, dates 
from the discovery and exploration of the Mahakeneghtuc* by 
Henry Hudson, in 1609. On the evening of September 3d, 
Hudson anchored his vessel, the Half Moon, in what is now the 
harbor of New York. Having remained there a week, ho com- 
menced, on the 12th, the exploration of the river now bearing his 
name, and, on the morning of the 15th, sailed into what is now 
known as the Newburgh Bay. The morning was cloudy and dark, 
but as he passed the K linker sberg,'\ the sun came out through 
the clouds and revealed to his astonished vision the grandeur of 
the over-hanging Highlands, and the magnificent virgin forests 
which clothed the river banks with their gorgeous autumnal hues. 
How beautiful — how grand must have been the scene I A pano- 
ramic picture suddenly unrolled by the hand of the Great Artist, 
combining all tints 

"Of gem, of bird, of flower, of cloud, of sky." 

Before him the riv;Br mirrored the rocky heights and the waving 
verdure — around him "the lethargy of uncivilized nature reigned 
in undisturbed solitude. The wild game sprang from their 
familiar retteats startled by the echoes which now rolled through 
the ancient forests, as the I'oar of the first Dutch cannon boomed 
over the silent waters, and the Dutch trumpets blew the inspiring 
airs of Fatherlands" Enraptured, Hudson paused. We who 

* This was the name given to Hudson's River by the Mohegans, or Mahakondas, who 
resided upon its eastern bank. The word is supposed to mean "the continually flowing 
waters." 

t The earliest recorded name of Butter-Hill. 



10 HUDSON IN THE MAHAKENEGHTUC. 

have so often gazed on the scenery of Newburgh Bay, can hardly 
realize Hudson's enthusiastic admiration of a place that then 
appeared 

"As though earth's guardian angel watching o'er 
Had dropped his silver mantle from his form 
Upon her to protect her helpless sleep ;" 

but we may gather from his Journal* his sentiments, in the 
exclamation: "It is as beautiful a land as one can tread upon." 
Poets and word painters have in vain essayed to give a more 
expressive description. "This," continues the Journal, referring 
to the land on which Newburgh is now situated, "is a very 
pleasant place to build a town on. The roadstead is very near 
and very good for all winds, save an east-north-east wind." This 
description, although brief, is a perfect identification of the spot. 
The Journal adds: "The mountains look as though some metal or 
mineral were in them; for the trees that grow on them are all 
blasted, and some of them are barren, with few or no tree^ on 
them. The people brought a stone on board like to emery (a 
stone used by glaziers to cut glass,) it would cut iron or steel, 
yet when bruised small and water put to it, it made a color like 
black lead glistering. It is also good for painter's colors." 

Hudson remained at anchor some hours in the Newburgh Bay, 
and in the afternoon resumed his voyage with a favorable breeze. 
After spending several days in the northern part of the river, 
he reached Newburgh Bay, on his return, on the afternoon of the 
29th September, and again cast anchor to enjoy for the last time 
the beautiful scenery yet hovering in his memory. Forcibly 
remarks Moulton: "If the morning scene was grand, how beau- 
tiful must have been that of the night. His was the first 
European vessel which had been encompassed by the Maiteowaw\ 
mountains. 

"One still 
And solemn desert, in primeval garb, 
Hung round his lonely bark.." 

The departing sun rested in beauty upon the hills, and left the 
shadows of the mountains to deepen into those of the night, 
when the solemn gloom became interrupted only by the scream 
of the catamount, as it leaped from the forest to the jutting 
brow, glanced for a moment at the ship, as its port-lights glim- 
mered on the waters, and then plunged into the thicket; or by 
the shrill screech of "each wild throat, in this incumbrance of 

* Hudson's Journal was kept by Juet, his mate. 

t The Indian name of the Mountains at the northern entrance of the Hiehlands 
according to Spafford and Moulton. ' 



HUDSON IN THE MAHAKENEGHTUC. 11 

horrific woods." Aiid now the full-orbed moon rose from behind 
the mountains and opened to full view the grand amphitheatre 
of hills. At their base lay the ship embosomed in a tremulous 
gleam of light, while the surrounding rocks glistened with the 
reflected moonbeams, or presented in traces of shade the cavern- 
gorges, whither the grim, gaunt wolf hastened with stealthy 
tread, when, prowling along the bank, his glare first fell upon 
the alarming wonder." Anon the forest was hushed and its 
tenants mute; and as the -hours passed on, the mountain sides 
again sparkled with gems and dew-drops as the morning sun 
awoke the scene to life. 




But the vision of Hudson embraced other objects beside lofty 

hills, and landscapes unmarred by the hand of man. Around 

him gathered, at each step of his progress, the representatives of 

a race who had received their titles to this broad domain directly 

from the Creator — men of noble form and mien — 

"With tawny limb, 
And belt and beads in sunlight glistening ;'' 

who hailed him as a God, and whose kindness he repaid by 
exhibiting the power of fire-arms, and the introduction among 
them of that great enemy of their race, the mysterious "fire- 
water." They were a happy, free, and mighty people; but des- 
tined to fall beneath the tide of commerce and of war which the 
discovery of their pleasant lands soon rolled upon them. The 
wave broke upon the prinicval scene, carrying devastation to 



12 ABORIGINAL HISTORY. 

their rude homes, yet preparing the way for the advent of 
Civilization and Religion. As light beams upon the past and 
reveals the struggle of the Indian lords against their pale-faced, 
subjugators, the benevolent mind shrinks with horror from the 
picture presented. Wherever the eye rests there, 

"The glens, the groves. 
Paths in the thicket, pools of ranniug brook, 
And banks and dept& of lake, and streets and lanes 
Of cities, murmur of guilty force and treachery." 

Eeverting to the Indian history of the locality we are con- 
sidering, we turn again to Hudson's Journal, and find, under 
date of September 30, this brief notice: "The people of the 
country came aboard us and brought some small skins with 
them, which we bought for knives and trifles. At three o'clock 
they departed." The next allusion to them is in the Journal of 
David Pieterzen do Vries who sailed up the river in April, 1640, 
for the purpose of making a more minute examination of the 
country with a view to locate a settlement. He arrived off the 
Dans-Kammer* about sunset on the 26th April, and cast-anchor. 
During the evening, he states, a party of riotous savages assem- 
bled there "who threatened trouble," and that "the sloop's com- 
pany stood well on their guard." On his return, (May 15,) he 
tells us that he saw many Irtdians "fishing from the rocks at the 
Dans-Kammer." Coming down to 1656, wc find on Van der 
Donck's Map of New Notherland the district lying between 
Murderer's Creek and Esopusf marked as in the occupation of 
the Waranawankongs. Subsequent research confirms this desig- 
nation, and defines the tribe as a branch of the Minsis, some- 
times called Minisinks, the Wolf tribe of the Delawares. The 
Waranawankongs were seldom called by that name, but with 
the Wauwapiesjes, the Wauwarsings, the Papagoncks, and the 
Mamekotings, were known by the general title of "the Esopus 
Indians." Without specifying the particular localities occupied 
by the other tribes, we notice that the Waranawankongs had 
villages and castles at Atkarlcarton, now Kingston ; on the 
Mombaokus, now Wallkill river, at a point now called Bruyns- 
wick, and at ^wossaici;, now Newburgh; while the Dans-iTaiTimej" 
was the Temple in which they gathered to worship their God, 
BaMama. 

* A point on the Hudson in the northern part of the Town of Newburgh. The name 
is Dutch, and given to express tlie nature of the Indian rites held there. We shall refer 
to the locality more fully hereafter. The meanmg of the word is Dance Chamber. 

t This word is fi-om Seepu, a Delaware term for river. It was speedily rornipted 
into Seepus, then to Sapus, and finally to Esopus. 



ABOKIGIN'AL HISTORY. 13 

The Waranawankongs were a bold and warlike race, aiid un- 
doubtedly took no small share in maintaining the dignity and 
supremacy of the Minsis in the long and bitter wars between 
the Delaware and Iroquois confederations. From the first, they 
appear to have regarded the Dutch with suspicion ; and when 
the latter, at Fort Orange, supplied the Mohawks with fire-arms, 
and refused to treat the Minsis, at Fort Amsterdam, in a similar 
manner, suspicion ripened into hatred. Hence, when Thomas 
Chambers and some of his neighbors, residing in the Colony of 
liensselaerswyck, removed to Esopus, in 1652, they were driven 
off by the Indians. The settlers returned, however, in 1651, 
and continued for sometime unmolested. 

Our history of the Waranawankongs — though the material is 
ample — must be confined to scenes more immediately connected 
with the localities where their house* was first invaded — where 
they were finally crushed and broken. With the second advent 
of the Dutch at Esopus we commence Ihe narrative. For a time^ 
very little hostility was manifested by the Indians; but at length, 
under the influence of "fire-water," they became quarrelsome; 
"one of the settlers was killed; the house and out-buildings of 
another were burned, while others were forced to plow up the 
patches where the savages planted their maize." The settlers 
wrote to Governor Stuyvesant detailing their situation, and he 
responded by visiting the scene of disturbance accompanied by 
a number of soldiers. Stuyvesant summoned the chiefs before 
him and patched up a treaty of peace, in which he managed to 
extort, by threats, a gift of the land that the settlers desired. 
But the truce was of short duration, and Stuyvesant's presence 
was again required in 1658. Ho now moved with a bolder hand 
and demanded, as an indemnification for his trouble, that the 
Indians should make a free surrender of all the Esopus lands, so 
far as they had been explored by the Dutch. The Indians de- 
murred at so extravagant a request, and retired from the 
conference. Stuyvesant, however, determined to gain his pur- 
pose, and at once erected a Redoubt and took possession of the 
lands. This course contributed still farther to exasperate the 
Waranawankongs, who now only waited for a single aggressive 
act to rouse them to war. Nor was the occasion long delayed. 
Thomas Chambers had employed a number of Indians to husk 

* T^is word is used in a special sense. The Indians designated tlieir confederations 
by the title of "house." The "long house" of the Iroquow extended from Hudson's 
River to the Lakes, while that of the Detawares embraced a larger extent of territory. 



14 ABORIGINAL HISTORY. 

corn; and, on the night of the termination of their job, they asked 
for and obtained some brandy. A carouse followed, in the course 
of which a volunteer company sallied out and attacked" the 
intoxicated Indians, killing one and wounding two of their 
number. This cowardly act justly incensed the Waranawankongs. 
The war-whoop rang ont; the settlement was invested by four 
or five hundred Indians; the houses, barns and crops of the 
settlers were destroyed, and eight or ten prisoners taken and 
burned at the stake. The Dutch, however, maintained their 
Redoubt and succeeded in sending off a messenger to Governor 
Stuyvesant for relief, who again sailed for Esopus with a con- 
siderable force. The Indians, however, learned of his approach, 
and a few hours previous to his arrival raised the siege and 
retreated to the woods. Heavy rains inundated the country, 
and Stuyvesant found it impossible to pursue his wily foes; 
but, through the negotiation of friendly chiefs of the Mohegans 
and Wappingers, a truce was effected. 

The war, however, was renewed in the spring of 1660, and 
offensive operations pushed with vigor in the immediate vicinity 
of Esopus. The Indian castle at Wiltmeet was destroyed, and 
a large quantity of maize and beans and several prisoners fell 
into the hands of the Dutch. The Waranawankongs now sued 
for peace, and proposed to surrender or exchange prisoners. 
This Stuyvesant refused, and with a view still farther to terrify 
the Indians he banished the captive chiefs in his hands to Curacoa 
" to be employed there, or at Buenaire, with the negroes in the 
Company's service.'' Negotiations were broken off, and the war 
was renewed. The Dutch forces swept the country along Kit 
Davit's Kill; penetrated the district occupied by the Papagoncks, 
reduced their castle and killed Preummaker, "the oldest and 
best' of their chiefs." This noble chief was too old and infirm to 
follow his retreating friends, but he met his foes with defiance. 
"What do ye here, ye dogs ?" he asked, aiming an arrow at the 
soldiers as he spoke; but his limbs were palsied, and before he 
could discharge the arrow he was seized and disarmed. "As it 
was considerable distance to carry him," says the record, "we 
struck him down with his own axe." The tribes now held a 
consultation, and Sewackenamo, sachem of the Waranawankongs, 
asked the wishes of the warriors. "We will fight no more," was 
the brief reply. He then asked the squaws* what "seemed to 



*Theaqnaws possessed the power of making peace at any time, and it was not 
considered a dishonorable peace that was made at their request. See Schoolcraft, 



ABORIGINAL HISTORY. 15 

them best ?" and they answered, "That we plant our fields in 
peace and live in quiet." To a similar inquiry the young men 
responded, that they would not "kill either hog or fowl any more.'' 
The wish for peace being thus expressed, the sachem who had 
spoken proceeded to Oamcenapau and seenred the good offices 
of the HacHnsacks, at whoso solicitation Stnyvesant again visited 
Esopus and succeeded in making a treaty of peace. By one of 
the articles of this treaty — to secure which the Dutch provoked 
hostilities — "the Esopus savages, in compensation of damages, 
transferred to the Director-General all the lands of Esopus, and 
agreed to depart from thciiQe without being permitted to return 
to plant." The Indians asked that their kindred in slavery 
should be restored; but Stuyvesant replied that they must 
consider them as dead. Although deeply grieved at this answei', 
the chiefs agreed to the treaty and departed. 

Three years of tranquility succeeded the peace of 1660. The 
Indians, however, were far from being satisfied with their Dutch 
neighbors; and as the settlement increased and a New Village 
was staked out on land not included in the grant to Stuyvesant, 
their threats of vengeance were again muttered. In June, 1663, 
the blow came. Entering the settlement, ostensibly for trade, 
they suddenly attacked the inhabitants, and the tomahawk and 
fire-brand did the work of death. Women and children were 
seized and carried ojlf prisoners, and the New Village destroyed. 
The settlers finally rallied, under Dominie Bloom, at the Old 
Village, and succeeded in driving oif their assailants. Twenty- 
one lives were lost, nine persons wounded and forty-five carried 
off captive. 

Immediately on the receipt of the intelligence of this disaster, 
Stuyvesant dispatched Col. Martin Kregier to the Esopus with 
a sufficient force to protect the settlement and chastise the 
aggressors. He arrived at the Redoubt on the 4th of July, and 
in a few days negotiations were opened, through the mediation 
of Mohegan chiefs, and some of the captives held by the Indians 
released; but they would not listen to peace' unless the Dutch 
would "pay for the land named the Great Plot." Kregier con- 
tinued the negotiations by sending Lieut. Peter Couwenhoven, 
and some friendly chiefs, to the Dans-Kammer, the head-quarters 
of the tribe, to secure the release of the remainder of the 
prisoners. Couwenhoven remained with his sloop off the Dans- 
Kammer iox several days; and on the Itth of August he sent a 
message to Kregier informing him that the Waranawankongs had 



16 ABORIGINAL HISTORY. 

collected about four hundred men, and were preparing to renew 
their attack on Esopus; that they also daily threatened him "in 
an insuiFerable manner"; that he hourly expected the arrival 
of the sachem who had already been gone "four days about the 
captive Christians, and should soon know the issue of his mis- 
sion"; and that "the Indians who lay thereabout on the river 
side made a great uproar every night, firing guns and Mntekaying, 
so that the woods rang again." Lieut. Couwenhoven returned to 
Esopus on the 20th, bearing with him two released captives 
and the promise that others would be restored when the Indian 
prisoners were presented for exchange. Kregier, anxious to 
secure the captives before commencing hostilities, sent back 
Couwenhoven to negotiate, who plied the Indians with brandy, 
furnished them with powder and made promises to restore the 
Indian prisoners provided the Christian captives were first re- 
leased; but all to no purpose — the Indians required as a proof 
of good faith that their brethren should be first released, and 
Couwenhoven was compelled to abandon the mission. 

Kregier now determined to roll the tide of war into the 
Indian country, and having learned the location of their castles 
on the Mombackus, from one of the released captives, marched 
thither and successfully attacked and laid waste the strong- 
holds of the tribe as far west as the present village of Blooming- 
burgh. The war was short but decisive. The first castle 
attacked was situated in the present town of Shawangunk; but 
the Indians discovered the approach of their foes and fled to the 
mountains. The castle was found to be one of considerable 
strength, consisting of an enclosure formed by three rows of 
palisades, and was eligibly located for defense. The work of de- 
struction commenced at once. The castle was set on fire; fields 
of corn, covering about two-hundred and fifteen acres, were cut 
down; "above a hundred pits full of corn and beans that had 
been preserved" from the crop of the previous year, destroyed; 
and the retreating Indians pursued and a number slain.* The 
expedition then returned to Wiltwyck, laden with spoil. 

But the Indians were not subdued. Gathering together their 
scattered forces they commenced the construction of another 
castle in the vicinity of the present village of Bloomingburgh. 

* Catherine Lefever, wife of Louis DaBols, the matemal ancestor of Wm C Has- 
bronck, Esq., was among the prisoners.- The family tradition is, that when the Dntch 
forces approached the Indian fort, they discovered Mi-s. DuBois tied to a tree with faKota 
around her ready for burning; that the Indians had permitted her to sing Psalms to 
console herself, and that while she was singing the Dutch gave the shout and the Indians 
fled. Three of Mrs. DuBois' children were with her in captivity. 



ABOEIGINAL HISTORY. 



17 



Hearing of their operations, Kregier again started on the work 
of destruction, and succeeded in reaching the castle unobserved. 
The Indians, although taken by surprise, made a stout resistance. 
Eetreating across the Kill, they returned the iire of their 
assailants with such spirit that it was with difficulty they 
were dislodged. The Indians lost their chief, Papequancehen, 
fourteen warriors, four women and three children; while the 
Dutch had three men killed and six wounded. Thirteen Indians 
were taken prisoners, and twenty-six captives recovered. One 
of the Indian prisoners was an old man, who, after accompany- 
ing the Dutch a short distance, refused to go farther; and the 
account adds, "we took him aside and gave him his last meal." 
On their return march, the Dutch stopped at the castle first 
destroyed and found that the Indians had visited it and thrown 
the bodies of their dead comrades into five pits, from which "the 
wolves had rooted them up and devoured some of them. Lower 
down on the Kill four other pits were found containing bodies ; 
and farther on, three Indians with a squaw and child that lay 
unburied and almost wholly devoured by the ravens and the 
wolves." A terrible picture of desolation was spread out on 
either hand, where but a few days before the native lord had 
exulted in his strength. 

The Waranawankongs were now virtually destroyed. "Not 
more than twenty-seven or twenty-eight warriors, fifteen or 
sixteen women, and a few children survived." * Sewackenamo, 
their sachem, again solicited peace ; and, at Stuyvesant's appoint- 
ment, the chiefs, in company with chiefs of other tribes, visited 
Fort Amsterdam, where, the usual preliminaries being djsposed 
of, Sewackenamo arose, and calling several times in a loud voice 
on BaoMamo, his God, prayed unto him to conclude something 
good with the Dutch; and that the treaty about to be negotiated, 
in the presence of the sachems assembled, should be, like the 
stick he grasped in his hand, firmly united the one end to the 
other. The treaty was concluded. By its terms, the Indians 
gave up all the land asked by the Dutch as an indemnity, and 
"now conquered by the sword," and agreed to remove from its 
occupancy. This treaty was annually renewed for a long term 
of years, and was never broken. 

The displacement of the Waranawankongs now went on with 
much rapid.ity by the purchase of their lands. The first tract 
purchased was that since known as the "Paltz Patent," the sale 

*Alb. Records, xii, 331. We think the number is incorrect. 



B2 



18 ABORIGINAL HISTOKY. 

of which was made on the 24th May, 167t. The few scattered 
Indians residing there removed to Quassaick, and the settlers 
enjoyed their homes in peace until partially disturbed by the 
Indians in the employ of the French in ITSt. No effort was 
made to^btain possession of the lands at Quassaick until 1684, 
when Governor Dongan bought of Mangenaett, Tsema, Keghgeka- 
powell, alias Joghem, who claimed to be the "native proprietors 
and principal owners" of the lands mentioned in the deed, "with 
the consent of Pemeranaghin, chief sachem of Esopus Indians" 
and other Indians named, "all that tract and parcel of land 
situate, lying and being upon the west side of Hudson's river, 
beginning from the south side of the land called the Paltz, and 
extending thence southerly along the said river to the lands 
belonging to the Indians at the Murderer's Kill, and extending 
westward to the foot of the High-hills called Pit-kis-ka-ker and 
Aiorskaw-osting." This tract ran from the Paltz purchase, on 
the north, to Murderer's Creek on the south, and bounded oh 
the north-west and west by the Shawangunk mountains until 
a point was !-eached from which a due east and west line would 
strike the mouth of Murderer's Creek. For this immense tract 
Governor Dongan paid "the sum of ninety pounds and eleven 
shillings" in the following articles, viz: "10 fathoms blue duffels, 
10 fathoms red duffels, 200 fathoms white wampum, 10 fathoms 
stroudwater, (red cloth,) 10 fathoms blue cloth, 10 blankets, 10 
guns, 10 kettles, 10 duffel coats, 10 drawing knives, 10 shirts, 
10 tobacco boxes, 10 childrens' duffel coats, 10 childrens' shirts, 
10 pairs of hose, 10 pairs of shoes, 50 lbs. powder, 50 bars of 
lead, 10 cutlasses, 10 hatchets, 10 scissors, 10 tobacco tongues, 
100 flints, 2 rolls tobacco, 20 gallons of rum, 2 vats of strong 
beer, and 1 barrel of cider." These lands were, relinquished, 
and the Indians residing thereon united with Maringoinan at 
his castle on Murderer's Creek, abput eight miles from its con- 
fluence with the Hudson. But their sojourn here was of short 
duration. On the 15th April, 1685, Governor Dongan added 
to his previous purchase the tract extending from Murderer's 
Creek to Stoney Point. Maringoman signed the deed, and with 
his followers commenced their march toward the setting su'n.* 
We need not trace their history later. They are gone ! No 



* These facts are from a well-authenticated MSS. written as early as 1730, now in our 
possession. The lands, however, were not wholly vacated until after actual possession 
by the whites. When the first settlers came to New Windsor, Indians were still living 
afong the banks of Murderer's Creek, and a few continued to reside in the vicinity untU 
a much later period ; the great bulk of the tribe, however, had gone. 



PAI/ATINATE OF THE EHINE. 19 

monjiments preserve their memory — no graven tablets bear the 
record of their greatness. Beautifully wrote the poet Sprague: 

"0 (Joably lost 1 oblivion's sbadows cloae 
Around theii" triumphs and their woes. 

On other realms, whose suns have set, 

Reflected radiance lingers yet ; 

There sage and bard have shed a light 

That never shall go down in night ; 

There time-crowned columns staiid on high, 

To tell of them who cannot die ;• 

Even we, who then were nothmg, kneel 
In homage there, and jom earth's general peal. 
But the doomed Indian leaves behind no trace. 
To save his own, or seiTe another race ; 
With his frail breath his power has passed away, 
His deeds, his thoughts are buried with his clay ; 

Nor- lofty pile, nor glowing page 

Shall link him to a future age, 
. Or give him with the post a rank ; 
His heraldry is but a broken bow, *' 
Hirbiatory but a tale of wrong and woe, 

Hb very name must be a blank." 

The two tracts purchased by Gov. Dongan, were conveyed by 
him in a Patent to Gapt. John Evans, dated September 12th, 
1694, and erected into the Lordship and Manor of Flelcherdotj. 
The Patent, however, was subsequently. (May 12, 1699,) annulled 
by an Act of the ColoniaJ" Assembly, and the land reverted to the , 
Crown. While in the possession of Evans, no settlements appea'f 
to have been made on the tract — at least none in the vicinity of 
the present town of Newburgh. The early Dutch settlers 
thought of farming lands and mines, and where such points 
could be found in close proximity to the river, they made their 
homes. After the Patent was annulled, however, the tract was 
covered by small grants to different individuals. 

About the time of which we have written, events transpiring 
in France and the Palatinate of the Rhine, contributed in no 
small degree to the colonization of America. The Palatinate 
•-was the name given to a section of country lying upon the Rhine, 
in Germany, and now divided and incorporated with Bavaria, 
and the states of Ehenish Prussia, Baden, and Hesse-Darmstadt. 
At an early period in the history of the Eeformation, the move- 
ment was felt in the Palatinate, and the Elector himself became 
one of its decided friends. His dominions were, consequently, 
resorted to by the Protestants of other countries, who found the 
fires of persecution too hot for them in their native land. For 
this reason, as well as from its geographical position, the Pala- 
tinate shared largely in the wars of the time of Louis XIV. In 
1614, the French army under Turenne entered the district in 
triumph, and marked its victory with the most barbarous and 



20 DISPEESION OP THE PALATINES. 

wanton destruction. Prom his Castle at Manheim the Elector 
beheld two cities and -twenty-five towns in flames. "Rapine and 
lust," says the historian, "vied with each other in the dreadful 
destruction committed by the French soldiers." Turenne was 
subsequently forced to retreat from the Palatinate; and the 
district enjoyed comparative prosperity until 1683, when, by the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantz, and the flight of many of the 
persecuted Huguenots to the shelter afforded by the Elector, 
it became marked for the especial vengeance of Madame de Main- 
tenon, the wife of Louis XIV, acting through the Wa&Secretary, 
Louvois; and the war between France on the one hand, and 
Austria and Holland, and subsequently Spain, Denmark and 
Savoy, on the other, supplied the opportunity. Made aware 
of the intention of Austria and Holland to commence hostilities, 
Louis determined to anticipate their movements and strike the 
first blow; and for this purpose he dispatched his son, the Dau- 
phin, at the head of 100,000 men, to invade the Palatinate. The 
expedition was successful ; and several cities had already surren- 
dered to the French arms, when the peremptory order came from 
• Louvois that the Palatinate should be* reduced to cinders, and 
the whole face of the country turned into a desert. The Dauphin 
and his oflScers shrank from the task imposed; but there was no 
escaping the command, and accordingly they announced to the 
people that in three days time the work of destruction would 
commence. Gathering together what little could be collected — 
unable to turn any property into money — ^the people fled. Men, 
women and children, clinging to their homes to the last, were 
driven to the fields, in the heart of winter, and left to perish of 
cold and hunger, while their dwellings were reduced to ashes, 
their property seized, and their possessions pillaged. More than 
forty cities and an infinite number of villages were burnt; the 
palaces of the Electors razed to the ground, and their very tombs 
opened in search of hidden treasures. The officials by whom 
the order was executed, blushed at the enormities of which they 
were the agents; and all Europe gazed on the scene in horror. 
Even Louis was forced to admit the enormity of the act, as he 
reminded Louvois that he had issued an order for the execution of 
which his sovereign must bear the obloquy. 

The fugitive Palatines scattered themselves over Europe, and 
the streets of Protestant cities became filled with men and 
women once in the enjoyment of plenty; but now reduced to 
beggary and want. Wherever they went the hand of charity 



PALATINES IN ENGLAND. 21 

was cheerfully extended to them, and efforts made for the amelio- 
ration of their condition. In 1108, alpout fifty Palatines passed 
over to England. They came, says Bishop Burnet, "so effectually 
recommended to the Chaplains of Prince George, (the husband 
of Queen Anne,) that the Queen allowed them a shilling a day, 
and took care to have them transported to the Plantations." The 
Palatines, ravished with this kind reception, wrote back to their 
friends and neighbors ; and the result was that over 10,000 of 
the unfortunate exiles were soon in England. Here they were 
temporarily maintained at the public expense. Subsequently, a 
portion were sent to Ireland, but the large majority came to the 
Province of New York, and were first settled on Governor's 
Island, and afterwards in Columbia and Greene counties and in 
the valley of the Mohawk. 

Without noticing farther the details of the general dispersion 
of the Palatines, let us return to the company in which we are 
more immediately interested — the fifty who first went over to 
England in 1108. Soon after their 3rr.ival in England, Joshua 
Kockerthal, their Minister, petitioned the Lords Commissioners of 
Trade and Plantations to be transported to "some of Her Majesty's 
Plantations in America." This petitiop was favorably received 
by the Commissioners, and the subject laid before the Council 
in a report dated April 28, lt08, in which it is said : 

"They (the Palatines) are in numbev forty-one, viz ; ten men, ten ■women, twenty-one 
children. They are very necessitous and in the utmost want, not having anything at 
present (but what they get by Charity,) to subsist themselves. They have been reduced 
to this miserable conMon by the ravages committed by the French in the Lower Pala- 
tinate, where they lost all they had. They have produced to us several testimonials 
from the Bailiffs or Principal Magistrates in the Villages where they dwelt, which we 
have examined, and find that they give good chai'acter of the said Minister and the 
others with him. We humbly propose that they be sent to settle upon Hudson's Elver, 
in the Province of New York, where they may be useful to this kingdom, partioulaxly in 
the production of Naval stores, and as a frontier against the French and their Indians. 

"And we do further humbly offer, that they be supplied with the necessary goods for 
agriculture to be sent with them, to enable them to begin and make settlements. 

"We further offer, that before their departure they may be made Denizens of this 
Kingdom for theh gi-eater encouragement." 

The Council, at its session May 10th, when this report was 
submitted, complied with the suggestions of the Commissioners 
so far as to order "that the petitioners, mentioned in the report, 
be made Denizens of this Kingdom." The noble-hearted Queen 
Anne followed this Act by providing, at her own expense, for the 
maintenance of the fugitives and their removal to America ; and, 
in addition to this, signified, in a letter from Mri ^Secretary Boyle 
to Lord Lovelace, dated Whitehall, August 10th, that it was her 
pleasure that a grant of land be made to Joshua de Kockerthal, 
not exceeding five hundred acres, "with liberty to eell a suitable 



22 PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

proportion thereof for his better maintenance till he shall be in a 
condition to live by the produce of the remainder." 

The Palatines now sailed for their new home — citizens of a 
new country, supplied with the necessaries of life, furnished with 
tools for various occupations, and guaranteed an allowance of 
9d a day per head for twelve months for their support. They 
were landed at New York in the spring of 1709, and from thence 
removed to Quassaick* on the Hudson, where they commenced 
laying the foundations of the present 'town of Newbargh. In 
the Letters of Denization, which bear date August 25th, 17.08, 
we have the names of these Palatines, as originally represented 
before the Commissioners of Trade, with the addition of a few 
others who were subsequently permitted to unite with the com- 
pany. They were: "the above-named Clergyman, Joshua Kock- 
erthal, Sibylle Charlotte his wife, and Christian Joshua, Benigna 
Sibylle and Susanna Sibylle, their children; also, Lorentz 
Schwisser, Anne Catharine his wife and Johannes their son; 
Heinrich Eennau and Joanna his wife, and Lourentz and Heinrich 
their sons; Susanna Liboschain, Maria Johanna Liboschain; 
Andries Volck, Anna Catharine his wife, Heironemus, Maria 
Barbara and Anne Gertrude, their children ;lMichael Weigand, 
Anne Catharine his wife, Tobias, George and Anne Maria their 
children;/ Jacob Weber, Anne Elizabeth his wife, and Eve Maria 
and Eve Elizabeth their daughters; Johannes Jacob Plettel and 
Anne Elizabeth his wife, and Margaret, Anne, Sarah and Catha- 
rine their children; Johannes Fischer and Maria Barbara his 
wife; Melchoir Gulch, Anne Catharine his wife, Heinrich and 
Margaret their children; Isaac Turck; Peter Eose and Johanna 
his wife, Mary Wiemarin and Catharine Wiemarin their children; 
Isaac Peber, Catharine his wife, and Abraham their son; Daniel 
Fiere, Anne Maria his wife, and Andrew and Johannes their 
sons; Hubert Hubertson and Jacob his son; and Herman Schu- 
neman." 

In their new home the Palatines were subjected to many trials 
and difficulties. We find them (May 20th, 1709,) petitioning the 
Council of New York, representing that since the death of Lord 
Lovelace, the provision for their support had not been complied 
with — that they were in great want of the same, and without it 
would not be able to make any settlement on the lands assigned 

* This name was probably the Indian title for Orange Lake, although early applied to 
its outlet, now called Chambers' Creek. The outlet of the Sinsipink, the beautiftl Lake 
in the vicinity of West Pomt, is the boundary line of a Patent and called SinmpinJt 
Creek in precisely the same manner that Quassaick is applied to Chainbcrs' Creek. 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 23 

them, and that nineteen persons of their number had changed 
their religion and turned Pietists, and withdrawn themselves 
from the Lutheran communion. The Council immediately granted 
them the supplies asked for; and at the same time appointed Mr. 
Van Dam, Mr. Barbaric and Capt. Provost a Committee to inquire 
"into the disputes between ye Germans lately sent to this 
Province by Her Majesty; and that Mr. Vesey and Mr. Du Bois* 
assist them on their said inquiry.'' The examination was held 
and the difficulties satisfactorily arranged ; and at the request of 
the Council, Col. Thomas Wenham engaged "to provide a needful 
and necessary support for the Germans until the expiration of 
the twelve months." 

We next have a petition from Joshua Kockerthal to Gov. 
Ingoldesby, dated New York, June 29, 1709, in which he asks to 
be re-transported to London, in order to more speedily and satis- 
factorily arrange what had hitherto been done in favor of his 
Company, and to secure "the most clement Royal resolutions 
conct'rnii% his settlement for the future." This petition, we 
presume, was granted, for the next petition is from the "German 
Company at Quasek Creek and Thanshamir" dated September 23, 
1709, in which the Jiame of Kocherthal does not appear. The 
next petition is dated Oct. 10th, 1709, and is signed by John 
Conrad Codweis, "in behalf of the German Company." This 
petition was in reference to the allowance which had been granted 
for the support of the Company, a large portion of which remained . 
due ; and recited, that unless "the remainder of their allowance 
be provided," the petitioners would certainly perish during the 
winter. The Council, on the 10th, ordered the advance of sup- 
plies to the Germans, the latter giving "their personal security 
for the repayment thereof in case it be not paid in England in a 
year." 

Kockerthal returned from England in the spring of 1710, with 
a successful issue of his mission. Tools were now supplied to 
the settlers, and the work of building homes commenced. The 
tools and other articles were distributed as follows : 

"Joshua Kockerthal — 1 barrel of Lime, 3 Gouohes, 2 formers, 1 Grindingstone, 1 square, 
1 rule, 1 compass, and several pieces more. 

Hermanus Schuneman— 2 Handsaws, 1 great Saw, 3 Gouohes, 2 Agors, and several 
pieces more. 

John Fischer— 1 Tenant Saw, 1 Gimlet, 1 Hammer, 1 small flic, 1 hatchet, 1 Joynter, 
besides several pieces more. 

* Mr. Vesey was at this time Rector of Trinity Church, New York, which office he 
held from 1699 to 174,5. Mr. Du Bois was one of the Ministers of the Reformed Dutch 
Church from 1699 to 17.')] . 



24 PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

Michael Weigand— 1 great file, 1 smaller dito, 1 mortising chisel, 1 Joynter, 1 Agor, 
besides several pieces more. 

Andreas Voick— 1 Cross Cat Saw, 1 smooding plain, 1 wiping saw, another sett of 
Gouches, besides several pieces more. 

The widow Plettel— 1 wiping saw, 1 great hammer, 1 gimlet, 1 Tenant saw, besides 
several pieces more. 

Peter Rose— 1 Glapott, 1 Whimplingpeltg, 1 hatchett, [1 little hammer, 2 Agors, 1 
Joynter, besides several pieces more, 

Jacob Weber— 1 box with white lead. Knife and Compass, 1 addz, 2 Gouches, 1 
mortizing chisel, besides several pieces more. 

Isaac Turol£ — 1 Glapott, 1 box with white lead, Knife and Compass, 1 saw-file, 3 
Gouches, 1 fore plain, besides several pieces more. 

Lorenz Switzer— 1 grinding stone, 1 square, 1 little gimlet, 2 Agors, 1 smooding 
plain, beside several pieces more. 

Henry Eennau — 1 Cross Cut Saw, 1 Miterblock, 1 addz, 2 Agors, 1 Gimlet, besides 
several pieces more. 

The Widow Weman's — Another sort of Smoodmg plain, 1 little file, 1 hatchet, besides 
several pieces more. 

Isaac Peber — 1 Broad axe, 1 little hatchet, 1 smooding file, 1 rule, 1 former, besides 
several pieces more. 

Daniel Fiere — 1 Broad axe, 1 square, 1 Miter block, 1 Tenant saw, 1 Joynter, besides 
several pieces more. • 

Melchoir Gulch — Three fiill setts of Joyuer-Tools, one for him, the second for his son, 
and the thu-d for an Apprentice." 

In addition to these articles, Smith Tools; Iron and Steel for 
Horse-shoes, Nails and mending tools; Medicines; Books and 
Paper; Agricultural Implements; Horses, Cows and Rigs, were 
assigned to the settlers. The general distribution of Carpentef- 
Tools would seem to imply that every one was expected to bear 
some part in the task of subjugating the wilderness. The 
occupations of the settlers, however, were as follows: Peter 
Rose, weaver; Johannes Fischer, blacksmith; Henry Eennau, 
stocking-maker ; and the remainder farmers, with the exception 
of Kockerthal, who, as already stated, was their minister. 

Such were the men, — and, in brief, such was their history, — 
who, amid poverty and privations, laid the foundation of the 
Village of Newburgh. Of their private history we know nothing 
beyond the facts shown before the Commissioners of Trade, that 
they were men of good character; and the general fact that they 
had been stripped of their possessions by the hand of religious 
persecution — that they were earnest followers of the doctrines 
of Luther, and were knit together by 'common memories and a 
faith that had proved sufficient to sustain them amid the most 
severe trials and sacrifices. We shall not attempt to trace the 
progress of their settlement, but presume that . it was slow. 
Unlike the pioneers in other localities, they left behind them no 
friends able to assist them. A scanty public stipend, too fre- 
quently withheld, was all that sustained the strong arms and 
willing hearts before which the dense forest yielded its sway — 
their humble cabins dotted the hill-side, and a sanctuary in 
which to worship God arose. To such men we can point with 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 25 



* 



pride — knowing that they, and their neighbors, settled in other 
parts of the State, contributed much to establish the noble insti- 
tutions under "which we live. 

Eesuming the hi&tory of the Palatines, we find that the pro- 
mised Patent for the tract on which they had been located, was 
not granted until several years after they had (Commenced their 
settlement. In 1713, Gov. Hunter issued to Augustus Graham, 
Esq., Surveyor-General of the Province, a warrant flirecting him 
to "survey and lay out for the Germans at Quassaick Creek, in 
the County of Ulster, such quantity of land as is by them peti- 
tioned for and approved of in Council," and further requiring 
that he should "survey for each of them his quantity distinctly." 
This survey was made, but the official return has been lost. We 
find it referred to, however, in a petition from George Lockstead, 
"on behalf of himself and the rest of the Germans settled near 
Quassek Creek," dated June 17th, 1714, iu which it is stated that 
the survey was made on the "thirtieth day of April" of the 
previous year; and that the land laid out being "all upland," the 
petitioners were not able to obtain subsistence for themselves 
and families "for want of some meadow land for fodder for their 
cattle in winter." They asked for a tract of meadow land lying 
"about an English mile" west of the lots surveyed for them, for 
the purpose named ; and the petition we presume was granted. 

The next petition was from Joshua Kockerthal, in behalf of 
himself and associates, dated June 18, 1718, in which it is stated 
that the Surveyor-General of the Province, pursuant to the war- 
rant issued for that purpose, "did survey and lay out a certain 
tract of land on the west side of Hudson's Eiver, in the County 
of Ulster, beginning on the north side of Quassek Creek, and 
extending northerly up the Hudson River on a straight line two 
hundred and nineteen chains, and into the woods on that side one 
hundred chains, containing two thousand one hundred and 
ninety acres ; which said tract of land he thereby divided into 
nine lots, the which are numbered from one to nine, each lot 
containing a suitable quantity for each family to which they 
are appropriated, there being allowed for each head fifty acres, 
and five hundred acres for a Glebe." The survey and allotments 
were not in all respects satisfactory to the petitioners, who feared 
that it might "hereafter be a means of disturbance and disagree- 
ment in their respective families with their children." They 
therefore asked, that in the Letters Patent ordered to be issued 
the names of the petitioners be entered, but "not in the name of 



26 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 



them and their respective wives and children"; and that the two 
hundred and fifty acres assigned to Joshua Kockerthal, "on the 
north side of the Glebe,'' be added to the Glebe, and the same 
quantity of land on the south side of the Glebe be assigned to 
him. 

This petition "was in part complied with. The change in the 
location of the lot assigned to Joshua Kockerthal was made ; but 
the Council xletermined to Patent the lands to the "wives and 
children" of the Patentees as well as to themselves. Before the 
Patent was issued, however, Kockerthal died. 

Other changes also occurred." Peter Rose, one of the original 
members of the Company, transferred to "one Burger Meynders, 
a blacksmith," his interest in the lot assigned to him, and removed 
to Pennsylvania; while several "English and Dutch new inhabi- 
tants" had joined the settlemerit. In consequence of these 
changes, the execution of the Letters Patent was delayed until 
December 17, 1719, when the Council, on the petition of the 
Palatines, directed the issue of a warrant to the Attorney Gene- 
ral "for the drawing of a Grant of the tract of land, on the 
north side of Quassaick Creek," being the same previously 
surveyed by Augustus Graham, Esq., in 1713. The Patent thus 
ordered was issued December 18, 1719, and is on file in the oflSce 
of the Secretary of State. It recites the grant "to George Lock- 
stead, Michael Weigand, Herman Schoneman, Christian Henricke, 
Sibylla Charlotte, widow of Joshua Kockerthal, Burger Meyn- 
ders, Jacob Webber, Johannes Fysher, and Andries Volck, 
Emigrants from the Palatinate," of a tract of twenty-one hundred 
and nineteen acres of land, situated on the west bank of Hud- 
son's River, and bounded as follows: "Beginning on the north 
side of Quassaick Creek and extending northerly up Hudson's 
river upon a straight line two hundred and nineteen chains, and 
into the woods westerly at both ends and the whole length 
thereof one hundred chains." 

By the terms of the Patent the tract was divided into nine 
Lots and a Glebe, "numbered regularly from south to north. 
No. 1 being the southernmost, and No. 9 the northernmost, and 
the Glebe, or minister's land, (500 acres,) lying between No.'s 5 
and -6." The lots were assigned — 50 acres to each man, woman 
and child— as follows: "Lot No. 1, to George Lockstead and 
Anna Elizabetha his wife, Margaratha, Anna Sarah and Catha- 
tharina, their children, 250 acres; No. 2, to Michael Weigand 
and Anna Oatbanna his wife, Tobias, George and Anna Maria, 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 



^1 




their children, 250 acres; No. 3, to Herman Schoneman and 
Elizabeth his wife, 100 acres; No. 4, to Christian Henricke, 100 
acres; No. 5, to Sibylla Charlotte Kockerthal, the widow of 
Joshua Kockerthal, and to Christian Joshua, Benigna Sibylla 
and Susanna Sibylla their children, 250 acres; No. 6, to Burger 

Meynders, 100 
acres; No. 1, to 
Jacob' Webber 
and Anna Eliza- 
abetha his wife, 
Eva Maria and 
Eva Elizabetha 
their children, 
200 acres; No. 
8, to Johannes 
Fysher and Ma- 
cs— Glebe. E-Western Avenue. K— King's Highway. ria Barbara his 
wife, 100 acres; No. 9, to Andries Volck and Anna Catharina 
his wife, George, Hieronymus, Maria Barbara and Anna Jer- 
truyd their children, 300 acres." The Glebe Land of 500 acres 
was assigned to Andries Volck and Jacob Webber, and their 
successors, as Trustees, for the use and behoof of the Lutheran 
minister and his successor forever. Forty acres were reserved 
for Highways*; and the whole tract to be known and called "the 
Palatine Parish by Quassaick." The Glebe Land, we may remark 
in passing, was to be leased at a certain quit-rent, in whole or in 
parcels, for terms not longer than seven years, and the rents 
and' profits received appropriated to the maintenance of a Luthe- 

* Tlie roads included in the forty acres reserved for that purpose, cannot be positively 
designated. It is almost certain, however, that what is now known as Western Avenge 
formed part of the reservation; and the probabilities are that the remainder was included 
in what is now Liberty street. Western Avenue foimed the Northem boundary of lot 
No. 3, and the Southern boundary of lot No. 4, and extended two chains in width from 
the Eiver to the West bounds of the Patent; and w-hat is now Liberty street extended 
the whole length of the Patent, and was in width one chain. These two roads would 
cover the whole forty acres reserved. It is pretty positively ascertained that no indi- 
vidual title has fever covered Western Avenue; but, on the contrary, the oldest deeds 
are bounded North or South, aa the case may be, by that street or road. An old road 
or path ran from the Eiver, from a point in the vicinity of Second street, up the hill in 
a south-westerly direction along the bed of what is now part of Colden street, and after 
crossing Western Avenue and Liberty street, continued south-west. This road was first 
called the "Wallkill Road," and subsequently "Wagon Street." It was certainly not 
included in the reservation, as we find a deed from Colden to the Village of Newburgh 
covering a portion of the land originally included in the street. Nor could South street 
have been included in the reservation; that street was opened by the Trustees of the 
Glebe, and that body controlled its dftection. The original width has been reduced, and 
instead of extending West 100 chains, its course was .changed by the Trustees, and what 
is now called Gidney Avenue foi-med. This would not have been the case had the road 
been resenred in the original sui-vey. One point is certain, the early settlers located 
along the line of what is now Liberty street, while Western Avenue stood vacant for a 
long period of years. 



28 PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

ran minister, as already stated, subject to the annual payment to 
the Provincial authorities of "one pepper-corn, if the same shall 
be legally demanded." * 

As previously intimated, the settlement began to fill up, at an 
early period, with "English and Dutch new inhabitants." Few if 
any of the Dutch new comers were from the Palatinate. The great 
bulk of the Palatinate emigrants were farmers, and had settled 
in the valley of the Mohawk and in the present county of Columbia, 
where their old neighbors and friends joined them. A few years 
served to show the effect of the change in population on the 
"Palatine Parish by Quassaick." Turning to the Church Books 
of the Lutheran Congregation of New York, we find that the 
successor of Joshua Kockerthal was Justus Falconier, who, it is 
said, was baptized "in the house of one of the Trustees, the 19th 
April, ITIO." The place referred to was doubtless New York, 
as no Trustees existed at Quassaick at that time. Falconier, it 
is said, continued to serve the people at Quassaick "every year 
(i.e. by an annual visit,) without any profit of the Glebe. He is 
deceased, 1723." 

In the year 1125, William Christofier Berkenmeyer arrived at 
New York, and entered upon the duties of Pastor of the Lutheran 
Church there, and also filled the appointment of Falconier at 
Quassaick. Meanwhile the two Trustees of the Glebe, Andries 
Volck and Jacob Webber, had sold out their lands and removed 
to Pennsylvania, and their places had been supplied by Zacharias 
Hofmanf and Tobias Wygand,J son of Michael Weigand, who, 
in 1127, entered into a written contract with the Consistory 
of the Lutheran Congregation of New York, by the terms of 
which the Congregation at Quassaick were received into the 
communion of the former body, they consenting "that the 
Lutheran Minister of New York, at his going to and from 
Albany," should visit Quassaick Parish twice in each year, for 
which service he should receive the yearly rents and profits of 
the Glebe. The contract continues as follows: "As we (the 

* "To HATE AND TO HOLD the Baid Glebe of five hundred Acres of the same tract of 
Land and premises unto the aforesaid Andries Volck and Jacob Webber, as first Trustees 
during their natural Lives and their successors for ever. 

But, to and for the sole and only proper Use Ben^t and Behoof of a Lutheran 
Minister to serve and have Care of the Inhabitans of the same two thousand one 
hundred and ninety Acres of Land and their successors for ever." 

t Zacharias Hofman was probably the son of Hei-manus Hofman, who came over with 
the Palatine emigrants in 1710. He appears to have occupied a prominent position in 
the Parish— was a freeholder in Shawangunt Precinct in 1727, and Captain of the first 
Militia Company organized in the district in 1738. 

t This name is now spelled Wygant, and the letter y is here used for the first time in 
the records. 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 



29 



Trustees named,) do herewith call, constitute and appoint Mr. 
William Christoffer Berkenmeyer, Lutheran Minister at New 
York, for our lawful Teacher of the Parish of Quassaick to 
Minister to us twice a year, as well in preaching the Holy 
Scriptures, and the Symbolical Books of our Lutheran Church, 
as in administering the Holy Sacraments of Christ's Institution, 
promising to pay him the income, &c., and acknowledging him 
as our Teacher, as also whenever he lands upon our shore to 
receive him, and bring him back on board the vessel. Moreover, , 
since hitherto we can make no use of the Bell given to our 
Parish, we therefore give the said Bell by oral permission of his 
Excellency, Gov. Burnet, to the Lutheran Church of New York. 
However, on this condition, if it should happen that we should 
be able to build a Church of our own at any time hereafter, then 
the Lutheran Church of New York shall restore to us the same 
Bell, such as it now is, or another of equal weight and value. 
Signed, sealed, &c., March 30,. 182T." Mr, Berkenmeyer served 
until I'ISl, receiving thirty cheeples of wheat.* 

In the year 1133, Michael Christian Knoll was appointed 

Minister at "Quassaick 
Creek, Weapon's (Wap- 
pinger's) Creek and Hack- 
ensack." He served in the 
Parish of Quassaick three 
times each year, receiving 
thirty cheeples of wheat a 
year. It was during his 
administration that the 
Palatines erected the build- 
ing known to many of the 
present generation as the 
Glebe School House, and 
which, until a few years 
ago, stood in the old Bury- 
ing Ground on Liberty 
The precis§ date & its erection 




Street. This was their Church. 



* The agreement quoted appears to have been the result of a misunderstanding 
between Mr. Berkenmeyer and the Palatines, in 1726, concerning the produce of the 
Glebe Lands, to which he considered himself entitled for his services and which for 
some cause was witheld. Berkenmeyer first laid his complaint before the Governor, 
expecting him to interfere in his behalf. The Governor, however, declined to act 
in the matter, but wrote him a letter, pointing out his mode of relief, saying that the 
courts of law were open to him where such cases were disposed of. The difffculty was 
settled by this contract. 



3,0 PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

cannot now be ascertained. It was a building of perhaps twenty 
feet square, with a roof running up from the four sides. In the 
centre of the roof a little cupola was erected in which hung the 
bell which had been loaned to the Lutherans of New York. The 
building was without floor or chimney, an aperture in the roof 
under the cupola serving the latter purpose. In this building the 
people worshiped. In their poverty, it was their palace; and not 
less acceptable to the Great Ruler than the costly edifices and 
gilded spires which men now dedicate to His service. Here, 
with each returning Sabbath, the people gathered, as the bell 
proclaimed the hour of service, and anon raised their voices in 
songs of praise and in prayer and thanksgiving to Him who had 
crowned their lives with peace. And here they buried their dead ! 
The record of eternity doubtless contains the names of many to 
whom the portals of this modest Church were the gateways of 
Heavpn. The building, and those who worshipped there, have 
alike mouldered to dust; but the- ground is holy, and should be 
cherished 

"Like spots of earth where angel feet have trod." 

Resuming the record, we find that Zacharias Hofman, oiie of 
the Trustees of the Glebe, died in 1*744; and that, on the 23d of 
June, in the same year. Burger Meynders, the last of the original 
Patentees living in the Parish, was selected as his successor; 
and "Tobias Wygand anew confirmed, which was done in the 
Church there. None of tlie English and Dutch new inhabitants 
appearing, althoug'h they were knowing of our election." At 
this time the number of Palatine settlers had been consid(3rably 
reduced, by death and removal; while a corresponding increase 
had been made in the number of settlers of other religious de- 
nominations, termed "Dutch and English new inhabitants,"^ 
terms which may probably be understood to mean, "members of 
the English and Reformed Dutch Churches." Some of these set- 
tlers were of English origin— others were Huguenots. The 
members of the Church of England were probably in a large 
majority in t^ settlement, and were determined to obtain posses- 
sion of the Church* whenever a favorable opportunity should 
ofier. This occurred in lt41, when Burger Meynders sold out 
his land and removed to Wallkill. On the 2d July, pursuant to 
the terms of the Patent, a meeting was held of all the inhabitants 
of the Parish, and elected "Mr. Alexander Colden and Mr. Richard 
Albertson for their Trustees." The new Trustees of the Glebe 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 81 

were of the Episcopal faith, and took immediate steps to open 
the Church to a Minister of that denomination. 

The record continues: "Our (tlie Lutheran) minister coming- 
there, did preach the 12th of July, without speaking to the new 
Trustees. Sunday the 19th, the Church was full of people, taken 
out of the country from both sides of the river. Some Justices 
of the Peace, and some with swords and sticks, were there in the 
Church, in presence of the English minister, Mr. Watkings, who 
was come there the first time the same Sunday. Our minister, 
after oral and public protest at the door of the Church, went into 
a private house upon the Glebe, to do divine worship for the 
Lutherans.* In the year l*liS, the 3d July, our minister preach- 
ed in the Church, to which Mr. Albertson did consent, because 
the English minister was not to come there that Sunday; but 
Mr. Golden did prohibit the Church. The 2d October, our minis- 
ter was preaching in the Church without speaking with the new 
Trustees." 

This appears to have been the last visit ever made by "our 
minister," Mr. Michael Christian Knoll. In behalf of himself 
and others, Mr. Knoll presented to Governor Clinton a petition, 
dated May 12, 1*149, setting forth the facts in the case substan- 
tially as we have given them. The Petition states, "that the 
Lutheran inhabitants living on the said granted lands, being 
now reduced to a small number, the present inhabitants have 
taken occasion to deprive your petitioners of the said Church 
and Glebe; and have lately hindered your petitioner, Michael 
Christian Knoll, from performing service in it, and forbade the 
^Tenants to pay the Rents to your said petitioner, pretending that 
the said Glebe and Church have reverted to the Crown for want 
of Lutheran inhabitants to enjoy them, notwithstanding your 
petitioners do aver, that within a convenient distance from the 
said lands as great a number of LtJtheran families are living as 
are suificient to make a congregation for divine service at those 
times when your petitioner, Michael Christian Knoll, by his 
agreement is called to preach at that place. Your petitioners 
therefore most humbly pray your Excellency to grant to your 

* The tradition connected with this a^ir is, that the Lutherans attempted a forcible 
ejectment of the new inhabitants, but failed, In the melee the door of the Chtu'ch was 
forced from its binges and one bulky P^atine buried beneath it as it fell. He escaped 
with a few bruises; and the assailants retreated with most woeful countenances. 

There is another tradition, that the Bell, previously noticed, was taken from its place 
secretly at night, and hidden in the swamp on the lands recently owned by Wm. P. C. 
Smith, deceased; in which place it remained for thirty or forty years, when it was acci- 
dentally discovered, and returned to its proper place. The Bell was subsequently 
removed and placed in the cupola of the Academy, where it remained until 1831 or '32. 



32 PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

petitioners, the Minister and Consistory of the Protestant Luthe- 
ran Church of New York, Letters Patent to confirm the said 
Church and five hundred acres of land, for the use of a Lutheran 
minister for the benefit of the said Lutherans in that neighbor- 
hood," &c. 

Another petition on the same subject was submitted to the 
Grovernor, by the same parties, on the 5th of October, 1749, in 
which it is positively asserted that "there live as Tenants upon 
the Glebe and thereabout, on both sides of the Eiver, more than 
thirty families" of the Lutheran confession. This paper and the 
documents accompanying it were read before the Council, Octo- 
ber 29, and the memorandum in reference to their disposition is: 
"Read, and Council of opinion that nothing can be dong in this 
petition." 

The acquisition of the "new inhabitants" already referred to, 
was desirable, as it aiforded some revenue from the Glebe for the 
support of a minister; but in the end it caused the Palatines no 
little trouble, as we have already shown. Under their influence, 
however, the settlement began to assume a more definite shape 
and character. They had been compelled to settle on the Glebe 
because, at their first coming, no other lands could be obtained. 
Soon, however, the proprietorship of the patented lots began to 
change. The Palatines were mainly farmers, and in the place of 
their nativity had occtipied lands of the richest and finest soil, 
and such they sought to obtain in the New World. The sterile 
hills of Quassaick offered no such attraction, and as soon as they 
had opportunity they sold their farms. The first sale was by 
George Loickstead and Michael Weigand, of the whole of' Lot ^ 
No. 1, and half of Lot No. 2, to Nathan Smith, from whom 
the western part of both lots was purchased by William Brown, 
and sold by him to Alexander Golden, who sold to Jonathan 
Hasbrouck, the grand-fathef of the late Jonathan Hasbrouck 
The eastern part of No. 1, descended from Nathan Smith to 
Henry and Thomas, his sons, and was subseqnently purchased 
by James Kenwick. The eastern part of Lot No. 2, was sold 
by Michael Weigand to William Bennet and Burger Meynders. 
Bennet sold his,— the southern half, of the Lot,— to William 
Brown, who sold to Alexander Golden, by whcran it was conveyed 
to Jonathan Hasbrouck in 17 53.* Burger Meynders occupied 
the north-eastern portion of Lot No. 2 until 1T63, when he 
sold to Jonathan Hasbrouck, who thus became the owner of 
the largest portion of the original lots. Meynders, the immediate 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 33 

predecessor of Hasbrouck, was the son of Burger Meynders, 
and held the lot by virtue of a deed from his father. Lot No. 3, 
was sold by Herman Schoneman to James Alexander,* from whom 
it was purchased by Alexander Golden and Burger Meynders, 
except two acres at the north-east corner reserved by Alexander. 
Meynders subsequently sold to Jonathan Hasbrouck; and Golden 
cut up a portion of his lot into small parcels. Lot No. 4, was 
sold by Christian Henricke to William Burnet,t from whom it 
was purchased by Cadwallader Golden for himself, Jacobus Bruyn, 
James Alexander, Phineas Mcintosh, Daniel Denton, Michael 
Dunning and Henry Wileman, by whom it was divided into lots 
and was subsequently known as the Old Town of Newburgh 
Plot.J Lot No. 5, granted to the widow of Joshua Rockerthal, 
was sold by her children, in lUl, to James Smith,§ who sold 
one acre in the south-east corner to Alexander Golden. The 
remainder of this lot descended to Benjamin, the son of James 
Smith. The Glebe Land, as before stated, was leased to several 
persons ; and the section now known as "Old Town" was at an 
early date the site of scattered dwellings. Lot No. 6, the first 
one north of the Glebe, was sold by Burger Meynders to Burras 
Holms. Lot No. 1, was sold by Jacob Webber to Zacharias 
Hofman, August 5th, 1124. Lots Nos. 8 and 9, were sold by 
Johannes Pyscher and Andries Volck to Zacharias Hofman, 
February 20th, 1722.11 Hofman held the lots until his death in 
1744, when they were sold by his heirs. 

As the settlement increased in population, and emigrants 
began to occupy lands on the opposite side of the river, the 
necessity of a ferry became apparent. The subject was laid 
before the Hon. George Glarke, Lieutenant Governor of the 
Province, and Gouncil, by petition of Alexander Golden, dated 
May 24, 1743, and Letters Patent were issued to him estab- 

* James Alexander — ^"a gentleman of good estate in the Province, and wlvo has serv- 
ed two years as Deputy Secretai-y, with gieat approbation, with Brigadier Hunter." (Col. 
Hist, v., 579.) At the time of. this purchase he was a member of the Council, 

t Erroneously piinted Bennet on the preceding page. "His Excellency, Gov. William 
Bamet," is tlje language of the deed, although written Bennet on an old map of the 
Village, which led to the error. Governor Burnet was the son of Bishop Burnet. He 
was largely interested in lands in the present town of Newbmgh. 

i The reader will not confound this title with that of "Old Town," by which the Glebe 
Lands have been known in more modem times. 

§ The original deed is still preserved in the Smith family. The price paid was three 
'hundred and ten pounds. 

II The deeds to Hofman from Webber, Volck, and Fyeoher are recorded in the Clerk's 
office of Ulster County. Webber sold for "one hundred and ten pounds currentmoney." 
Volck and Pyscher sold for "one hundred and thirty pounds, onrrent money, to be 
divided betw'een them." 



C3 



34 PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 

lishing what, through various changes, is now the Newburgh 

Ferry. We shall notice this subject again, and more at length. 

— At this point we close the history of the first period in the 

settlement of the present village of Newburgh; and our sketch, 

we trust, has thrown some light upon its origin and early progress. 

We have only to add, that the facts cited from the records* show 

that the Palatines never wholly abandoned their Patent after the 

work of settlement commenced, as has been generally believed. 

They, or some of them, lived and died here; and their descendants, 

or some of them, remained here for many years. Burger Meynders 

did not remove until Itit; and the descendants of Michael 

Weigand occupied prominent positions in the community until 

after the close of the war of the Revolution. Another of the 

first Palatine settlers, Melchior Gulch,f although not the holder 

of a lot in the German Patent, nevertheless lived and died in the 

present town of Newburgh, and some of his descendants still 

reside here. The Wards were also of Palatine stock — Margaret, 

the wife of William Ward being the daughter of one of the 

original patentees, as appears by her affidavit given in lt51. 

That a majority of the Palatines did dispose of their lands, is 

true ; but the continuity of the settlement was never broken, and 

the change in population was not greater than naturally occurs 

in any locality during a period of forty years. 

Newburgh, therefore, is beyond dispute, the oldest settlement in 
the present County of Orange, with the exception, perhaps, of that 
which is now known as Deerpark. J This honor has been claimed 
for other towns, and especially for New Windsor; but without real 
foundation, 'it is true, the Patent to Chambers and Sutherland, 
covering the present village of New Windsor, was granted prior 
to that to the Palatines; but the tract embraced in the latter 
Patent has been shown to have been in the possession of actual 
settlets as early as the spring of 1'709, while the former does not 



^<^^'^^i^,??'i™^^*^'7^'^*°''y'"^"'-m'5*5,4;.'. Also, Tax-Rolls on file in the Clerk's 
Office ol Ulatev County and quoted In another part of this volume. 

t We find this name written Melchoir Gnleh, in the records of 1710: "Melgert, the 
Joyner "m 1715; "Melgert de Schrynwerker," in 171?, and Melchoir Gillis in the Patent 
granted to him m 1719, smoe which time the name has been written Gillis. The land 
granted to GiUis consisted of 300 acres, and is now occupied in part by Daniel Memtt, 
fcsq., Middlehope. We can only account for the location of this Patent separate from 
the lota ot the other Palatmes by supposing that the Patentee had previously selected 
and _ta,ken possession of the tract. The land, or a portion of it, was held by Jacob Gillis 
hy nght of primogeniture, until after the commencement of the Revolution when his 
interest was confiscated. Such is the family account. 

i Tradition claims that a few European families settled on the Patent to Swartwont 
and others as early as 1690. If such was the fact, the settlement did not progress with 
much rapidity, for we find the names of only five persons there as late as 1715. 



PALATINE PARISH BY QUASSAICK. 85 

appear to have been thus occupied prior to 1721 or 1728.* It 
is also true, that though Newburgh had in its Glebe a source of 
revenue for" maintaining the Gospel, -which New Windsor had 
not, the latter seems to- have held, in' ecclesiastical and other 
records, a prominent place as the "New Windsor Mission"; while 
the high civil and social position of the Clintons was sufficient 
to secure distinction for their place of residence. But the earlier 
prominence of New Windsor is no evidence of earlier settlement. 
It is not necessary, however, to discuss the question — the Tax- 
rolls, which we shall give hereafter, determine the matter. 

* The earliest notice of settlemeiit in the preeent town of New Windsor occurs in the 
Tax-roll of 1722, where it is written, "The house and land where John Dean lived, for- 
merly William Sutherland." Sutherland was one of the Patentees, and probably erected 
a log-house and placed a tenant on the land to prove occupation. The first sale of land 
to actual settlers appears to have been made in 1724, when Thomas Ellison purchased 
a tract of 800 acres from Vincent Mathews. Ellison's name, however, does not appear 
on the Tax-roll as a resident prior to 1736. 



NOTE Settlement on Patent to John £i)aM— SeePage 19. 

To the Queen's most excellent M^'esty . 

Tlie humble Petition of John Evans Captn of your Majesty's ship the Defiance 
Sheweth — That yom- petitioner teing Commander of the Eichmond Man-of-Wan- in 
the year 1693, was sent to attend the province of New York in America, where he con- 
tinued almost six years, and performed considerable Service for the benefit of that 
Colony. 

That Coll: Benjamin Fletcher then Govr of New York in consideration thereof and 
of five hundred pounds paid to him by your Petitioner, in lieu of his established fees 
upon grants of lands, by letters Patent under the great seal of that province, granted 
unto yom- petitioner and his heirs, a large tract of unappropriated land called Murderere 
creek, containing 18 miles in length frontmg on Hudson's River, and 30 miles backwai'd 
which had been bought by Coll Dongan when Govr of New York from the Indian na- 
tives for seventy pounds. On (vMch tract your^Petitioner expended great saras of money 
in clearing several places for Farms, and planted several familys of Scots and Irish under 
Annual rents, intending to retire thithei" himself, when there should be a happy and 
lasting peace. 

That after Coll: Fletcher and your Petn'r being commanded from New York to Bngld 
the late Earl of Bellamonte next succeeding Govr of that Colony, having conceived 
some prejudice to them both, and designing to take to his own use and profit several 
tracts of land which had been granted by OoH: Fletcher to your Petitioner and .others 
in order thereunto, procured an Assembly to be chosen of Ignorant, necessitous and 
profligate persons (most of them Dutch) who by his direction passed anaot, Intitled: an 
Act for destroying extravagant grants made by Coll: Fletcher, whereby Your Petitioner 
was striptof his lands and improvements, but the said act being sent over for the con-, 
flrmation of the late King William the thirdj His Majesty upon a true representation of 
the ill practices used to obtain that Act, refused to confirm it, but not rejecting it, the 
same continued in ibroe till repealed by a subsequent law. 
That upon the arrival of the Lord Viscount Cornbmy to that Governmt the inhabi- 
_ tants of the province, thinking their Titles precarious whilst such an Act remained in 
■ force, applyd for redress to the fii-st Assembly conven'd by His Lordp, who by another 
Act, unanimously repealed the said Act passed during the. Earl of Bellamont's adminis- 
tration, whereby Your Petitioner was restored to and enjoyed his lands, till Your Majes- 
ty sent a great number of Palatines to New York, when Your Majesty liaving not been 
truly informed, how those Acts wei-e obtained, was prevailed on to confirm the Act of 
Assembly made during the Lord Bellamont's time, for destroying Coll: Fletcher's Grants 
and to reject the said Act of Repeal passed in tUe Lord Cornbury's 'time, and to grant 
Your Petitioner's lands to those Palatines, by which means your Petitioner, who has 
been in yom- Majesty's sea service, during your whole Keign and faithfully discharged 
his trust, is deprived of his property, and of an Estate for which he had been offered 
ten thousand pounds sterling money in England, without being heard in his defence or 
having the least notice thereof, till at his late retm-n from the Straights, he was infoi-med 
of it to his great sui-prise: 

Yonr Petitioner therefore most humbly prays, that Your Majesty will be graciously 
pleased to restore Iiim the .said Tract of Land (there being other unappropriated lauds 
in New York sufficient to receive the Palatines) or to give your Petitionei- an equivalent 
for it. And your PetitioEer shall ever pray ettc. 

Nov. 1, 1711— Co/. Hist, v., 283. 

"Since therefore the Petr (Cap: Jno Evans) hath made it appear to us, that he did 
actually disburse above £3000 in purchasing clearing and improving some part of the 
land so granted him, that he has not received any advantage from the same, * And 
for as much as the Petr hath been represented to us as a person who hath rendered great 
services to his Country in the late war and who hath upon all occasions shewn himself 
Zealously efl'ected to the Succession of His Majesty's Royal Family, We humbly conceive 
he may be a proper object of his Majesty's favor, and that an equivalent for his losses 
may, if his Majesty shall be so graciously disposed, be granted to him, under proper 
regulations in some other part of his Majesty's Plantations."— /Jraort of Lords of 
Trade, April 12, 1720. 

We have not found any record showing the points where Evans settled his families of 
Scots and Irish. The reference in his jjetition to Murderer's creek and to the Palatines 
would seem to convey the impression that they were. assigned lands on which he had 
made improvements; but in the absence of positive proof we cannot claim that such 
was the fact. 



CHAPTER II. 

SECOND PATENT OF THE GLEBE THE PARISH OF NEWBURGH — THE 

PRECINCT OF NEWBUKGH REVOLnTIONARY EVENTS THE TOWN 

i)F NEWBURGH-r-THE GLEBE IN THE HANDS OF THE PEOPLE 
— ;THE VILLAGE OF NEWBUKGH — INFIDELITY. 

1750—1800. 

"Years roll along. 
Where stood the hnt, a white wall'd cottage now 
Looks through its screen of roses. Keadows stretch 
With grain fields, round. A village clusters near, 
In whose broad street is heard a mingled din 
Of saw and hammer, wagon-wheel and voice." 



"But holier recollections dwell with thee. 
Here hath immortal Freedom built her proud 
And solemn monuments. The mighty dust 
Of heroes in her cause of glory fallen, 
Hath mingled with the soil and hallow'd it." 



Stbekt. 



Elizabeth F. Ellet. 



We have already traced the history of the Palatines, and of 
the "Dutch and English new inhabitants," down to the seizure of 
the Palatine or Lutheran church hy the English residents; and 
have given the substance of the petition of the Palatines to the 
Governor and Council on. the subject. Affairs remained in this 
position until 1151, when Edmund Concklin, Jr., William 
Ward, Jacob Wandel, James Denton, William Smith, Richard 
Albertson, Thomas Ward, John Wandel, Caklass Leveridgc, 
Henry Smith, William Mitchell, Alexander Golden, 'Nathan Fnr- 
man, Daniel Thurston, Michael Demott, and Duncan Alexander, 
presented a petition to Governor Clinton and Council, praying for 
Letters Patent conveying to themselves and their successors the 
Glebe lands, with a view to establish and maintain a minister of 
the Church of England, and a school-master; with power to divide 
the Glebe so as to reserve two himdred acres for the use of a 
minister and school-master, and cut up the remaining three hun- 
dred acres into lots of one acre each, which lots instead of being 
leased for seven years should be leased forever,, the lease-holder 
paying an annual rent; and also with power to "hold a Fair on 
the said lands on the second Tuesdays in April and October 
annually." 



38 PARISH OF NEWBURGH. 

Notwithstanding the earnest remonstrance of the Lutherans, 
the Governor issued a warrant to William Smith, Esq., "His 
Majesty's Attorney-General," directing him to "prepare a Draft 
of Letters Patent to xVlexander Golden and Eichard Albertson, 
Trustees, &c., for the Glebe land of Quassaick, in the County of 
Ulster," in accordance with the-terms of the petition, the lands 
to be held by the "said Alexander Golden and Richard Alb^ertson, 
as first Trustees, during their natural lives, and to their suc- 
cessors forever, for the sole use and behoof of a minister of the 
Church of England as by law established, and a school-master, 
to have the care of souls and the instruction of the children of 
the neighboring inhabitants." 

This was followed by a legal surrender, on the part of Golden 
and Albertson, of the lands held by them as Trustees under, the 
first Patent; and on the 26th day of March, 1152, the Letters 
Patent previously Ordered by the Governor and Council were 
issued to Golden and Albertson, "constituting them and their 
successors one body corporate and politic, in fact and name, by 
the name of the Parish of Newhurgh;" and vesting in them the 
lands in question in trust "for the proper use, benefit and behoof 
of a minister of the Church of England, as by law established, 
to have the care of souls of the aforesaid tract of 2190 acres of 
land, and of a school-master to teach and instruct the children 
of the aforesaid inhabitants, and their successors forever, and to 
no other use whatever." The Patent further granted to the 
Trustees and their successors "free and* full liberty and license to 
hold and keep a public Pair upon the tract of 500 acres on the 
second Tuesdays in April and October in every year forever 
hereafter, where, as well all the inhabitants of the aforesaid tract 
of 2190 acres of land, as those in the neighboring settlements 
and counties, and all other persons whatsoever, may buy and 
sell any horses, sheep and cattle, or any goods, wares and mer- 
chandize whatsoever, without paying any toll or ether fees for 
the same."* 

Another new feature of the Patent was the change effected 
in the name of the settlement. Under the first Patent it had 

* Sucli Fairs were very common in England and Gennany. In many of the Counties 
of the Province they were established by special enactment of the Assembly at an early - 
period. The Fan's were held, on the spot above named, down to the stormy period of 
the Bevolution, were resumed after the war and were held at different periods as late as 
1805, at which time they had degenerated into mere exhibitions of race hoi-ses. The 
last Fair of which any record has been preserved, was held on Tuesday, October 14, 
1805, when $200 in premiums were awarded "to the jockey riding the best horse on 
the course of Benjamin Case."— Sec Eager^a Orange County, 185. 



PARISH OB' NEWBUBGH. 39 

borne, as we have shown, the title of Quassaick; and by this 
name the place was legally known until the grant of the new 
Patent, in which it was expressly directed that the settlement 
should he called the Parish of Newburgh. Previous to the legal 
application of this name the place had been called Newburgh hy 
the "new inhabitants;" but at \<rhat precise period cannot now be 
ascertained. In the petition of Alexander Golden, May 24, 1*743, 
asking- for Letters Patent to establish a ferry, it is said, "at a 
place now commonly called Newburgh Patent;" and in the peti- 
tion of Golden, Albertson and others, Nov. 4, 1T51, it is said, "at 
a place called Quassaich, now commonly called Newburgh Patent, 
in Ulster Gounty." As both of these papers were drawn by 
Golden, and as the' name is not found in any documents prior 
to 1143, it would seem that to Golden belongs the honor of 
having conferred the title which the Town now bears. The name 
is of Saxon origin, the word Nevi being the English orthography 
for the Saxon Neow, and Burgh is the Saxon burg with the English 
addition of the letter h. The name is used in both Germany and 
Scotland, and may have been conferred by natives of either 
country; but the probabilities, for the reasons already stated, are 
that it was conferred by Golden, who was Scotch, 

One of the first official acts of the Trustees under the new 
Patent was the division of the Glebe into streets and lots, 
the designating the portions for the minister and school-master, 
and the repair and seating of the church building. Soon after, 
a map was prepared showing the location of the streets and 
lots. This map is still preserved. It is endorsed: "A Eough Map 
of the Glebe Land of the Parish of Newburgh," and is of interest 
for reference. The streets laid out on it are King, now Liberty; 
Second, now Grand; Hasbrouck, now Montgomery; Water, South, 
Glinton, Broad arfd North streets. The streets named, however, 
with the exception of King and South streets, were not opened 
until a subsequent period.* The lots were occupied as follows: 
No, 1, by the Church; 2, by three buildings owned by John 
Morrel and Doct. Morrison; 3, one dwelling, by William Ward; 

* The marginal notes on tliis map are as follows : "Lots No.'s 1 and 27 are resei-ved 
for Church and Church-yards, and No, 72 for a public landing and ship-yard. The 
owners of the lots below King street are: Capt. Jonathan Hasbrouck, No. 33 and 45; 
Saml. Denton, No. 20, 32, and 44; Jonathan Denton, No. 31, 43 and 19; John Morrel 
and Doct. Morrison, No. 2 and 14; Wm. Ward, Jr., No. 3, 15, 64 and 76; Joseph Albert- 
son, No.6, 18, 53, 63, 65, 77; Martin Weigand and othere, No. 7; Patrick McCai-y, No. 
9 and 10; Alexander Brower, No. 11, 12, 23, 24, 36, 48 and 60; Thomas Morrel, No. 10, 
22, 34, 46, 50, 59, 35, 47, 70; Abel Belknap, No. 71 and 20; Isaac Belknap, No. 73. N. 
B. South street, Broad street and North street are each two chains wide; and all the 
rest each one chain. Each lot contains one acre of land and is three chains and eighty- 
three links in length and two chains and sixty-five links in breadth." 



PARISH OP NEWBURGH. 41 

4, one dwelling by Henry Bend; 5, one dwelling unoccupied; 6, 
one dwelling by Joseph Albertson ; t, two dwellings by Martin 
Weigand; 25, one dwelling by Henry Don; 29, one dwelling by 
William Ward; 41, one dwelling by William Ward, Jr. The 
remaining lots were without buildings and occupied as follows: 
No. 8, John M. Young; 9 and 10, Patrick McCay; 11, Thomas 
Waters; 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60, Alexander Brower; 13, Samuel 
Sands; 14, Morrel and Morrison; 15 and 40, William Ward, Jr.; 
16 and 39, Joshua Sands; 18, 53, 63 and 65, Joseph Albertson; 
19, 31, and 48"j! Jonas Denton; 20, 82 and 44, Samuel Denton; 21, 
Isaac Brown; 22, Morris Fowler; 23, Thomas Brown; 26, Charles 
McCay; 28 and 71, Abel Belknap; 33 and 45, Jonathan Has- 
brouck; 34, 35, 46, 41, 58, 59 and 10, Thomas Morrel; 37, Robert 
Morrison; 38, William Miller; 42, Thomas Ward; 50, 57 and 69, 
David Connor; 51, Thadeus Smith; 52 and 64, Jeremiah Ward; 
55 and 67; James Tidd; 66, Nathan Smith; 73, Isaac Bellmap; 
17, 49, 54, 56, 61, 62 and 68, and those west of King-st., vacant. 
The records throw little additional light upon the period 
between the transfer of the Glebe to Colden and Albertson, and 
the events immediately preceding the Revolution. The few facts 
that we have gathered, however, are worthy a passing notice in 
this history, as they serve to indicate the progress of the Parish. 
It was during this period that' the Trustees of the Glebe erected a 
residence for their minister, and a residence and school-house* 
combined fo^' their school-master. The former was a building 

about thirty- five feet 
square, a single story and 
attic in height, with a rude 
portico. It stood on the 
west side of what is now 
Liberty street, just north 
of Gidney avenue. It was 
here that Hezekiah Wat- 
kins, the first English min- 
ister resided. The build- 
ing continued to be occu- 
pied as a Parsonage until after the commencement of the war, 
and subsequently became a tenant house. The school-master's 
house was a building of similar construction, and stood on the 

* It has been suppoaetl that the Glebe school was kept in the old Church; but this is 
a mistake. The Chnrch waa not used as a school-house until after the commencement 
of the present century. 




42 



PARISH OF NEWBURGH. 




west side of Liberty nearly opposite Clinton street. This 

building had 
no p o r t i c o, 
but was deep- 
er than the 
minister's re- 
sidence, the 
school - room 
being placed 
in the rear. 
In this rudi- 
mental c o 1- 
lege such 
men as Hut- 
chi ns and 

Sperin presided; and a few gray-haired fathers and mothers 
of the present generation, who yet linger with the living, were 
among their pupils ! 

In 1161, John Morrel and Joseph Albertson petitioned Gov- 
ernor Henry Moore for tlie establishment of more taverns at 
Newburgh. In this petition it is stated "that on the Glebe land 
there are about seventeen dwelling houses,* which are situated 
at or close by a very public landing placef on Hudson's river, 
whither many people from the back parts of the country bring 
their produce to send it to New York, having at least three 
boats belonging to the place that constantly go from thence to 
New York and return back again with goods, which creates a 
very considerable trade." This brief statement exhibits the 
germ of that extensive western trafSc of which Newburgh was 
the natural outlet, and which contributed so greatly to the 
prosperity of the place in subsequent years, until it was diverted 
by those artificial means of transportation, which necessity has 
demanded, and the wonderful genius of man has developed during 
the past fifty years. 

The petition further represents, that, in order to accommodate 
the trade referred to, it had been thought necessary, for several 
years past, "to permit taverns or public houses to be set up at or 
near the said landing" for the better "entertainment of the country 
people;" that "until about two years ago," one of the petitioners 

* The nambei- of dwellings here given establishes the prior date of the map given 
on page 40. 
f Probably what was aftei-wards known as Smith's dock, now Balmville. 



PARISH OF NEWBURGH. 



43 



had "been permitted to set up a tavern and retail liquors, and had 
kept "a very good and orderly house." * Notwithstanding these 
facts, "one James McClaghry, one of the Commissioners for 
collecting the duty of Excise for strong Liquors, &c., in the 
County," had refused to grant permits to the petitioners ; but had 

"granted a permit only to one 
Martin Wygantjf who pays three 
pounds for the Excise, whereas 
all the reta,ilers together in the 
' place when they wore permitted 
, did not . pay more than two 
pounds." The petitioners urged 
the "absolute necessity for at 
least three or four Taverns at 
the said Landing place, to accommodate the Country people, 
travellers and passengers ;" and that unless "so many Taverns 
are licensed," the place would "become of no account and be 
deserted by its inhabitants." The petition bears date February 
4th, 1161; and the statements contained in it are certified to by 
eighty-three persons "inhabitants of the County of Ulster." The 
following are the names ; 




Samuel Falls, 
Edward Palla, 
Isaac Hodge, 
Thomas Ore, 
Henry Smith, 
Thomas Smith, 
Jacob Gillis, 
Saml. Fowler, 
John Stilwill, 
James Demot, 
Joel Holmes, 
Isaak Demot, 
Daniel Denton, 
John Flewwelling, 
Able Flewwelling, 
Josiah Cone, 
Daniel Durland, 
Silas Leonard, 
Na1;hl. Conkliu, 
James Denton, 
John Alston, 
BuiTughs Holmes, 
Henry Terboss, 
John Porter, 
William Harding, 



Jacob Haiett, 
John Flewwelling, 
Mauris Flewwelling, 
Tunes Dalson, 
John Dalsen, 
Jacob Donchtout, 
Corneles Gale, 
Thomas Hard, 
John Elsworth, 
Benjamin Totten, 
Joshaway Conklin, 
John Truesdell, 
Gilbert Purdy, 
Nathan Purdy, 
Isaiah Pnrdy, 
Joshua Purdy, 
Leonard Smith, 
Luff Smith, 
Anning Smith, 
Daniel Smith, 
Gilbert Denton, 
Pete Ston, 
John Wier, 
Hen. A. Gamble, 
Nathan Purdy, 



Isaac Brown, 
Stephen Albertson, 
Obadiah Smith, 
David Wyatt, 
Hezekiah Wyatt, 
Thadeus Smith, 
John Wandle, 
Isaac Shults, 
John Carman, 
William Ward, 
Robert Morrison, 
Mary Wilson, widow, 
John Fox, 
Stephen Hooper, 
John Hallen, 
John Vangonder, 
Benjamin Smith, 
Elnathan Foster, 
William Booyls, 
Robert Car Harding, 
Thomas Morrel, 
Daniel AcCor, 
John Bride, 
Jacob Wandel, 
Jacob Ansell, 



* Joseph Albertson was the person here referred to. His house was on Liberty street, 
south of Broad. He subsequently sold the property to Peter Donnelly. A portion of 
the building is still standing, and now No. 392 Liberty street. 

t Martin Weigand's tavern, represented in the engj-aving, stood on the north aide of 
Broad street near Liberty. It was a mere log-cabin with a fiume addition. During 
the encampment at Newbnrgh, General Wayne had his quarters there. About 1780, 
Weigand removed to a more commodious building on Liberty street, just north of the 
Burying Ground; and the old tavern was occupied by the father of Genl. John B. Wool, 
and was the birth-place of that officer. 



44 PARISH OF NEWBURGH. 

Lemuel Conldjii, Klnah Carman, William Whlteheafl, 

Hendrick Cropsey, NeDemiah Denton, Riehard Albertson, 

Joseph Hallett, James Tonndsend, 

What answer was g'iven to this petition does not appear; but 
as the place has since become of some "account," it is reasonable 
to suppose that the prayer of the petitioners was .granted, and 
that the dire calamities predicted,- in case of refusal, were thus 
averted. It is a little amusing- to note the language of the 
inhabitants of this august village ef "about seventeen houses," 
and their reference to people "from the country." They evidently 
thought themselves far I'emoved from such a classification. 

We next have, under date of November It, 1'169, a petition 
to Cadwallader Golden, Lieutenant Governor, and at that time 
acting Governor of the Province, asking for a charter for the . 
Newburgh Mission. This petition is. signed by John Sayre, 
Missionary; Chas. Eobie, Cad. Golden, Jr., Samuel Fowler and 
Joseph Watkins, Vestrymen; and Eobert Garscaden, Andrew 
Graham and Josiah Gilbert, Church Wardens; and recites, "that 
by the pious donations of several persons" the mission was then 
in possession of sundry tracts of land "now held for the Church 
by deeds of trust only"; and that from "the inconveniences 
arising from this and sundry other matters" in which the good 
of the Church was essentially concerned, the petitioners humbly 
prayed for a Royal Charter. The endorsement is: "1169, Dec. 
12. Eead in Council and granted." 

In 1770, April 1 6th, John Sayre, Missionary, Samuel Fowler, 
William Ellison, John Ellison, Stephen Wiggins, Leonard Smith, 
Samuel Winslow and Nathan Purdy, petitioned Governor Golden 
for "a Eoyal Charter of Incorporation of St. George's Church, in 
the Parish of Newburgh, and County of Ulster." Endorsed: 
"1770, May 2d. Eead in Council and granted." 

We have thus far confined the attention of the reader to the 
settlement of the 2190 a^res of the German Patent, and we have 
done so from the fact that the local designation of Newburgh did 
not extend beyond that Patent. Several other Patents, besides 
that granted to the Palatines were included politically in the limits 
of MgMand Precinct, by an Act passed by the Governor, Council 
and Assembly in 1743. To define the precise bounds of this 
Precinct, without a map showing the location of the Patents 
embraced, would be exceedingly difficult, as it is to Patent 
bounds that the Act makes reference; but it is sufficient for our 



* This Charter is stai preserved in the archives of St. George's Chm'ch. 



PKECINCT OF NEWBUR6H. 46 

^purpose to state that the territory extended from the south 
bounds of the Paltz Patent to Murderer's creek, and westward 
from Hudson's river to the eastern- bounds of Colden's Patent, 
and embraced what are now the towns of Newburgh, New Wind- 
sor and Marlborough.* 

No change was made in this organization until 1162, when, (jn 
the 11th December, an Act was passed dividing the district into 
two Precincts to be known and ■ called Newburgh Precinct and 
Neiv Windsor Precinct, the latter embracing the territory south of 
Quassaick creek, and the former that north to the Paltz Patent.f 
Under 'this Act, the Precinct of Newburgh was organized by an 
election, held at the building now known as Washington's Head 
Quarters, then occupied and owned by Capt. Jonathan Has- 
brouck, on the first Tuesday in April, 1763, when the following 
officers were chosen, viz: Samuel Sands, Clerk; Capt. Jonathan 
Hasbrouck, Supervisor ; Richard Harper, John Windfield, and 
Samuel Wiatt, Assessors; Daniel Gedney, Constable; Henry 
Smith, Collector; Joseph Gedney and Benjamin Woolsey, Poor 
Masters; John McOrary, John Wandel, Burras Holmes, Isaac 
Fowler, Umphrey Merritt, and Thomas Woolsey, Path Masters; 
and Nathan Purdy and Isaac Fowler, Pence Viewers and Apprai- 
sers of Damages.^ 

But the Precinct was still large, and, as the population increased 
serious inconveniences were experienced in the transaction of 
public business. This led to another division, by which the 

* The district e^lb^ax^ed in the Precinct of Highland was originally attached to New 
Paltz. It was fiijt erected into a Precinct, Sept. 5, 1710, by an order of the Court of 
Sessions of Ulster county, with limits undefined. The Act of 1743 erected the Pre- 
cincts of Highland, Watlkill and Shawangunk. The bounds of Highland Precinct are 
thus stated: "Eastward by Hudson's river; Southwai-d by Murderer's creek; Westward 
by the East bounds of Colden's, Johnston's,' Van Dam's and Barbarie's Patents, and 
North by the South bounds of the Paltz Patent." The old Precinct records have, in all 
probability, been destroyed and with them much valuable ioformation in reference to 
the political affiiirs of the Precinct has been lost. By one of the sections of the Act 
referred to, the fli'st Precinct meeting was appointed to be held at the house of John 
Humphrey, in Little Britain, on the first Tuesday in April,. 1744; and another section 
defined the local ofScers — Supervisor, Clerk, &c. — to be elected. 

t "That the said Precinct, called by the name of the Highland Precinct, shall be and 
is hereby divided into two Precincts, by a line beginning at the month of Quassaick 
creek, and running from thence along the South Bounds of a Tract of Land commonly 
called the German Patent, to another Tract granted to Alexander Bau'd, and then along 
the Southerly Bounds of the said last mentioned Tract to the Walkill Precinct, And 
that all the Lands heretofore comprehended within the said Highland Precinct lying to 
the Southward of the aforesaid Dividing Line shall be called by the name of the New 
Windsor Precinct: And that all the Lands heretofore comprehended within the said 
Highland Precinct lying to the Northward of the aforesaid Dividing Line, shall, from 
and after the Publication of this Act, be called by the name of Newburgh Precinct." — 
Sec. 1, Chap. MCCV., Laws o/1762. 

This section proves how unfounded is the impression that Newburgh was originally 
compi'ehended in the Precinct of New Wmdsor. 

X In another place in this volume will be found a list of the principal officere of the 
Precinct and Town from 1763 to 1858. 



46 



PRECINCT OF NEWBURGH. 



Precinct of New Marlborough was erected from territory lying 
between the south line of the Paltz Patent, and the north line of 
the Patent to Francis Harrison and Company.* Under this 
division, the Precinct of Newburgh comprehended, in. addition 




to the 2190 (1) acres of the German Patent, 6000 acres granted 
to Alexander Baird and Company, (2); 1000 acres to Jacobus 
Kip and Company, (3); 1800 acres to Richard Bradley and 
William Jamison, (4); 2000 acres to James Wallace, (5); 811 
acres to Ann, Sarah, Catharine, George, Elizabeth and Mary 
Bradley, (6); 5900 acres to Francis Harrison and Company, (7); 
1000 acres to John Spratt, (8) ; 300 acres to MelchoiT Gillis, (9) ; 
and 300 acres to John Johnston, (10); making a total of 21,30'! 
acres, f 

These Patents were at first partitioned among the members of 
the several companies by whom they were taken, and afterwards 
sold by them or their heirs, or by attorneys. The Harrison 
Patent, for example, was first divided into five parcels, one of 
which was held by Francis Harrison, one by John Haskel, one 

* "AH the Lands heretofore comprehended within the said Precinct of Newbnrgh, 
lying to the Northward of the aforesaid Division Lines, (Harrison's and other Patents,) 
sliallbe called by the name of New Marlborough Precinct: And all the Lands hereto- . 
fore comprehended in the said Precinct of Newburgh lying to the Southward of the 
aforesaid Division Lines shall continue to be called Newburgh Precinct." — Sec. 11 of 
Lawofim. 

t The Census of 1855 shows 23,244| acres improved, and 4,078^ acres unimproved in 
the town, varying a little from the quantity named in the old Patents. The difference 
is probably the result of eiTors in sm-veys. The figures in parenthesis (1, 2, Ac.,) refer 
to the location of the Patents on the map. The lines of the Patents may not be strictly 
accurate, but are sufficiently so to define their general location. The Patentees, with 
one or two exceptions, were non-resident land-speculators and government officials. 



PRECINCT OF NEWBUBGH. 47 

by James Graham, one by Alexander Griggs, and one by William 
Bond. By subsequent transfers James Alexander and Samuel 
Gomoz* became interested in the Patent, while Graham's and 
Bond's interests were disposed of by their heirs. A similar dis- 
position was made of the Patent to Jacobus Kip and Company; 
while the Patent to Alexander Baird and Company passed wholly 
to Governor William Burnet, and was sold after his death by 
William Brown, of Salem. 

This general and frequent change in proprietors raises a 
serious obstacle in the way of tracing satisfactorily, in all cases, 
the transfer of the lands to actual settlers; and to this may be 
added, that in many instances the deeds are not recorded in the 
Clerk's office. The investigations that we have made, however, 
show that the first settlements outside of the German Patent 
were along the King's highway between the village of Newburgh 
and Marlborough. In the vicinity of Middlehope, Melchior Gillis 
settled, as previously noticed, as early probably as lt09. In the 
same vicinity, 1200 acres, being portions of the shares of 
James Graham and Alexander Griggst in the Harrison Patent, 
passed to Jurie Quick as early as 1119. Quick sold to Zach- 
arias Hofman, and after his death this tract, and the lots held 
by him in the German Patent, were sold to settlers, among 
others to' Joseph Bloomer, in 1754, and Michael Demott and the 
Dentons and Plewwellings in 1764. Another parcel of the 
Harrison Patent was sold as early as 1716 to James Ellsworth; 
which was for a time occupied by his widow, and then sold by 
William Ellsworth to Samuel Stratton in 1753, and by Strattonto 
Jehiel Clark. Another parcel was sold by James Alexander to 
Arthur Smith in 1751. Samuel Gomoz sold to .Samuel and John 
Fowler, November 6, 1747, one half of the fifth division of the 
Patent, consisting of 500 acres. The extreme northern portion 
of the Patent was held at an early date by Jacobus Van 
Blarcken, whose interest was purchased by Wolvert Acker at 
Sheriff's sale in 1772. The interest of William Bondf in the 
Patent descended to Susanna Bond, who sold 600 acres to 
William Wynant; 100 acres to James Hunter; 200 acres to 
Jurian Mackey, and 100 acres to Jane Wynant, wife of Jurie 
Wynant. These sales were all made prior to 1762. The Gillis 
Patent, or a portion of it, passed to John Fowler, and from him 
to Daniel Kniffen, in 1758, and afterwards to Underhill Merritt. 

* Written on the Tax-roll, "Gomoz, the Jew-" He was a merchant in New York, 
t Their shares were subsequent known as "Griggs' Patent" and "Bond's Patent." 



48 ' PRECINCT OF NEWBUEGH. 

The Patent to Alexander Baird and Company was divided into 
lots of 200 acres each, and the management of it was placed in the 
hands of William Brown Of Salem, Mass., with a view evidently 
to invito emigrants from that Province. Brown sold, on the 25th 
December, 1149, twenty-six of the lots, numbered from four to 
thirty, to Samuel Belknap,* who sold thirteen of the lots to his 
brother Thomas, in 1154 ; one lot to Morgan Powell, in 1761 ; part 
of a lot to Josiah Talket, 1165; part of a lotto Felix McLannen, 
in 1T65; part of a lot to James Stickney, in 1766; fourlots to 
Isaac Belknap, in 1763; and four lots to David Belknap,in 1766. 
Thomas Belknap sold one lot to Samuel Sprague, in 1761; part 
of a lot to Robert Beatty; and several lots to other persons. 
Brown also sold, in 1761, to Eobert Beatty lot No. 1. 

The Wallace Patent was purchased by Joseph Penny, and 
was henceforth known as the Penny Patent. Penny sold 200 or 
300 acres to Robert Ross, and settled upon the remainder in com- 
pany with his seven sons, John, William, Robison, Joseph, Peter, 
James and Allen. The Patent to John Spratt and Company, 
was purchased by Joseph Gidney and settled by his four sons, 
Joseph, Daniel, David and Eleazer. We can find no record of 
the transfers of the Kip and Bradley Patents, but wo presume 
that Nathaniel Poster, Silas Gardiner, and Thomas Edwards, 
who were early settlers, were the first purchasers. 

But it is not necessary to give further details. Most of the 
Patents appear to have been sub-divided, after the commencement 
of the last half of the century, and the Patentees were succeeded 
by those energetic pioneers of this region — the Belknaps, Fowlers, 
Beattys, Merritts,"-Tookers, Crowells, Gidneys, Fosters and others, 
whose descendants still occupy prominent positions in the town. 
Few districts promised more certain returns for labor. The 
western Patents were covered with a dense growth of timber 
especially suited for ship building, and a good market was within 
comparatively easy reach. In addition to these advantages, the 
pathway from New England to what was then the Great West, 
ran through this region, andfthus many ]emigrants were led to 
stop and rear their humble cabins here. 

Such was the condition of the Precinct of Newburgh when 
the discussions, which preceded and produced the Revolution, 
fixed the attention and engaged the sympathies of the people. 
When the news of the Boston massacre were wafted hither 



* Belknap paid £1600 for the tract, and sold to Thomas, his brother, one half for £826. 



REVOLimONAEY EVENTS. 49 

from New England, followed, as they were, by the tidings that 
patriot blood had been shed at Lexington — when the shock came 

"That hurled 
To dust, in many fragments dashed and strown, 
The throne, whose roots were in another world" — 

they embraced with quick and unflinching zeal the cause of their 
country. Yet few localities in the Province were more immedi- 
ately under the influence of officers of the Crown than was 
Newburgh. Lieut. Governor Golden had his residence within a 
few miles of the village, and in the vicinity there were other 
persons intimately connected with the government whose influ- 
ence tended to secure a degree of favor for the British ministry 
that would not otherwise have been obtained. Although, perhaps, 
not opposed to the cause of the Colonists on the questions 
immediately under discussion, Gov. Colden saw that the tendency 
of events was to independence; and from this he shrank, not 
because he thought it could not be achievedj but that it could 
not be permanently maintained. Aside from the influence he 
exerted, other causes contributed, more or less, to divide the 
people of Newburgh on the great issue presented for their 
consideration; and it is a matter of surprise that in a population 
like that which then occupied the Precinct, so many were found 
ready to peril life and fortune in the seemingly desperate strife. 

The drama of the Eevolution opened in Newburgh, as in so 
many other places, on the passage of the non-importation reso- 
lutions by the Provincial Congress in 1774, which resolutions 
led to the formation, in every City, Town and Precinct, of 
a "Committee of Safety and Observation." The City of New 
York took the lead by organizing a committee of one hundred, 
of which Isaac Low was chairman, and by sending circulars to 
all the Towns and Precincts in the Province urging the formation 
of similar committees. About the same time a pamphlet entitled 
"Free Thoughts on the Besolves of Congress" made its appear- 
ance and was scattered broadcast over the land. The people 
now had the question fairly before them, and in their local 
meetings discussed the points involved. The result was soon 
apparent., The Precincts of Shawangunk, Hanover, Wallkill, 
New Windsor, and Newburgh, in January, 1775, publicly burnt 
the pamphlet, and at the same time organized the committees 
proposed. In Newburgh, a meeting was held at the house of 
Martin Weigand, on the 27th January, 1775, when Wolvert 
Acker, Jonathala Hasbrouck, Thos. Palmer, John Belknap, Joseph 



C4 



50 REVOLUTIONARY KVENTS. 

Coleman, Moses Higby, Samuel Sands, Stephen Case, Isaac 
Belknap, Benjamin Birdsall, John Robinson, and others, were 
appointed a "Committee of Safety and Observation." 

The first duty devolving upon this committee was to attend a 
convention at New Paltz on the 1th of April, for the purpose 
of selecting delegates to a Provincial Convention to be held at 
New York on the 20th of the same month. Newburgh was rep- 
resented in the New Paltz meeting by Col. Jonathan Hasbrouck, 
Thomas Palmer, Wolvert Acker, and John Belknap, who voted 
to send Charles DeWitt, George Clinton, and Levi Pauling, to 
the Provincial Convention, "with full power to declare the sense 
of this County relative to the grievances under which His 
Majesty's American subjects labor." 

Another and still more decisive proof of the position occupied 
by the inhabitants of the Precinct soon followed. The com- 
mittee of New York drew up and signed, on the 29th of April, 
a Pledge to observe and maintain the orders and resolutions of 
both the Continental and Provincial Congress; and this Pledge 
was sent for signatures to all the Precincts and Counties in the 
Province.* All who signed it, were avowed friends of the 
American cause, whose eiforts and influence the patriot leaders 
could depend upon; while those who refused to sign were equally 
well known as the supporters of the ministry. The Pledge 
was in the following form : 

"Persuaded that the salvation of the rights and liberties of America depend, under 
God, on the firm union of its inliabitaijts in a vigorous prosecution of the measures 
necessary for its safety; and convinced of the necessity of preventing anarchy and 
confusion, which attend the dissolution of the powers of government, we, the freemen, 
free-holders and inhabitants of Newburgh, being greatly alarmed at the avowed design 
of the Ministry to raise a revenue in America, and shocked by tlie bloody scene now 
acting in Massachusetts Bay, do, in the most solemn manner, resolve never to becohk 
slaves; and do associate, under aU the ties of religion, honor and love to our country, 
to adopt and endeavor to carry into execution whatever measures may be recommended 
by the Continental Congress, or resolved upon by our Provincial Convention, for the 
purpose of preserving oui- Constitution, and opposing the execution of the several arbi- 
trary acts of the British Parliament, until a reconciliation between Great Britain and 
America on Constitutional principles (which we most ardently desire,) can be obtained: 
and that we will in all things follow the advice of our General Committee respecting 
the pui-poses aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of 
individuals and property." 

Immediately on receiving the proceedings of tlie New York 
committee, the Newburgh committee placed a copy of the 
Pledge at the hotel of Martin Weigand for signatures. The 
great mass of the people came forward voluntarily and > subscri- 
bed their names; but a few timid ones, anticipating the final 
result of the controversy, or unwilling to risk the displeasure of 
the Crown, shrank from the test, and the committee found it 



* America" Archives, Vol. TI., 471. ■Ith sei-ies. 



REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. 51 

necessary to adopt enei'getio measures to induce them to unite 
in the movement. For this purpose, a meeting of the committee 
was held at the house of Martin Weigand (May 16,) and 
AVolvert Acker appointed chairman, and Cornelius Hasbrouck, 
clerk. The proceedings read as follows: 

"This Committee, taking into consideration the present most alarming situation of 
our jiublic affairs, occasioned by the bloody measures of a ■wicked Ministry; and con- 
sidering the great utility of a General Association being fnlly signed by every male 
person, from the age of sixteen and upwards, in this Province; and whereas we have 
I'easou to lament that a number of persons in this Precinct are so lost to the preservation 
of themselves and their country, that they refuse, or neglect, to sign the Association 
with the rest of then' neighbors, fellow-sufferers and countrymen in this Precinct: 

1. Resolved, That this Committee, in their several Districts, as they or the major part 
of them shall agi'ee, respectively be, and ai'e hereby appointed to wait on such persons 
whb have neglected and refused to sign the said Association, and in the most ftiendly 
manner to invite them to sign the same. 

2. Resolved, That in case any person or persons, being males of the age aforesaid, 
shall refuse to sign the same, or does not come in and sign the same on or before the 
29th of this instant, he or they shall, and aie hereby deemed enemies to their country. 

3. Resolved, That any person or persons refusing as aforesaid, that it is the opinion 
of this Committee, that no pei'sou or persons whatsoever shall have any kind of connec- 
tion or dealings with such person or persons whatsoever; and thatwhosoever shall have 
any such connection, ought to be treated in like manner, and be considered as an enemy 
to his country, notwithstanding he or they may have signed the Association. 

i. Resolved, And we do recommend it to all our neighboring Towns, Precincts, 
Counties and Provinces, that they -vih in like manner treat such persons aforesaid. 

5. Resolved, That the name of such person or persons, who shall refuse as aforesaid, 
shall be made public in the Newspapers. 

6. Resolved, That any pei'son owning Negroes in this Precinct, shall not, on any 
account whatever, suffer his or their Negro or Negroes to be absent from his dwtUmg- 
honse or farm, after sun-down, or send them out in the day-time off their farm without 
a pass; and in case any Negroes shall be found abroad, contrary to the above resolve, 
(except it be in return with his or their master's team,) shall be apprehended by any 
person or persons whatsoever, who shall cause them to receive thirty-five lashes, or any 
number less, as the said Committee shall judge proper. 

7. Resolved, That the above resolves of the Committee shall be subject to the control 
of the Provincial and Continental Congresses, to their approbation and disapprobation. 

8. Resolved, That we will trnly adhere to and obey whatever Resolutions the Pro- 
vincial and Continental Congresses, or either of them, shall resolve and direct, with 
respect to this Precinct, or other matters which are to be observed in general until such 
times as His Majesty and His Lords and Commons shall repeal their present tyranical 
acts and measures, and again restore us to our former liberties and privileges, which by 
law and nature we are entitled to as natural-born subjects." * 

, On the 29th May, the Provincial Congress directed the com- 
mittees holding the Pledge to return the same before the 15th 
July "with the names of signers and those who refused to sign"; 
and, in accordance with this resolution, Wolvert Acker, the 
chairman of the Newburgh committee, made, on the 14th July, 
the return called for on behalf of the Precinct, viz: 

"At a meeting of the Precinct of Newburgh, on Tuesday the 6th of July, 1775, in 
compliance with a resolve of the Provincial Congress of New York, requesting us by 
the 15th of this instant to make a return of the names of those who have signed the 
Association, together with those who have not, — we lament, gentlemen, that it is our 
unhappiness that there is such a number of the latter, and a number among them who 
are the most daring, presumptuous villains, often threatenmg lives, properties and indi- 
viduals, damning Congress and Committees, declaring that they will join the enemy 
if opportunity presents, and by the general spirit they discover, we conceive ourselves 
exposed to their bloody principles, unless some method can be fallen upon for the 
preventing them in carrying into execution their wicked designs, — which we submit to 
your wisdom, conceiving ourselves safe under your wise protection. Enclosed you have 
a list of the names of those that have associated and those that have not." 

* Archives ROB, Vol. IJ., *th serieti. 



o:d 



RKVOI.UTION'AnY KVEXT.-i. 



Tlie signers of the Pledge were as follows: 



Col. Jona. Haabi'onclc, 
Thomas Palmer, 
Isaac Belknap, 
William Darling, 
Wolvert Acker, 
John Belknap, 
John Eobinson, 
Saml. Clark, 
Benj. Birdaall, 
Benjamin Smith, 
James Waugh, 
Abel Belknai), 
Moses Higby, 
Henry Cropacy, 
Wm. Harding, 
Joseph Bellmap, 
John Strattoii, 
Lewis Holt, 
Saml. Hallock, 
Samuel Spragne, 
Burroughs Holmes, 
Samuel Bond, 
Thomas Campbell, 
./ames Cosman, 
Lewis Clark, 
.Jonathan Swett, 
Beaben Tooker, 
David Belknap, 
Daniel Bh-dsall, 
Bobert Lockwood, 
Benj. Knap, 
Saml. West&ke, 
.Josiah Ward, 
Silas Gardner, 
.Tacob Gillis, 
Wm. Kencaden, 
.James Denton, 
John Foster, 
Hope Mills, 
John Cosman, 
Wm. Wear, 
Thomas Fish, 
Wm. Lawrence, Jr.. 
JohnKemoghan, 
Robert Hanmer, 
Robert Eoas. 
John Crowel, 
Obadiah Weeliii, 
Francis Hanmer, 
William Bloomer, 
Abraham Garrison , 
James Marston, 
Samuel Gardiner, 
Anning Smith, 
Richard Albertson, 
I3enj. La'wrence, 
Richard Buckingham , 
Jacob Morewise, 

The persons refusing 

Nehemiah Fowler, 
Stephen Wiggins, 
Isaiali Purdy, 
♦Gilbert Purdy, 
Nathan Purdy, 
*John Wiggins, 
* James Leonard, 
*Morri8 Flewwelling, 
*;Viithonv Bentlebron, 



Nicholas Stephens, 
Johannis Snider, 
Benjamin Robinson, 
Andrew Sprague, 
Thomas Beaty, 
.Solo. Backmgham, 
Wm. Bowdish, 
Jona. Belknap, 
.Jacob Tremper, 
Abraliam Smith, 
Cornelius Wood, 
.John Lawrence, 
George Hack, 
John Shaw, 
Corns. Hasbrourk, 
Isaac Demott, 
David Smith, 
.John Stratton, 
Absalom Case, 
Joseph Dunn, 
Daniel Morewise, 
.Jonathan Owen, 
Jehiel Clark, 
Iteuben Holms, 
Nath'l Coleman, 
George Leonard, 
Elnathan Fostei-, 
Xeal McLean, 
Wm. Palmer, 
Martin Weigand, 
Wm. Foster, 
Wm. Wilson, 
Wm.Stillwell,Jr., 
Peter Donally, 
Charles Tooker, 
Ijconard Smith, Jr., 
Henry Smith, 
James Wooden, 
Tliomas Smith, 
Caleb Chase, 
David Green. 
John Stillwell, 
Luff Smith, 
John Gates, 
Benj. Darby, 
Israel Smith, 
Thads. Smith, 
Jacob Myers, 
Saml. Concklin, 
Isaac Brown, 
Peter Tiltou, 
John Donaghy, 
Ste. Stephenson, 
John Griggs, 
Saml. Smith, 
•Jeremiah Ward, 
Wm. Ward, 
Wm. Eiissel, 

to sign were: 

Thomas Fowler, 
Stephen Wood, 
*Abel Flewwelling, 
Jonathan Pine, 
*Samael Fowler, 
Joseph Cope, 
Hazael Smith, 
.Jona. Brunbridgc, 
Joseph Hcadley, 



John Tremper, 
Charles Willett, 
.Jeremiah Dunn, 
Wm. Lawrence, 
Robert Waugh, 
Wiggins Oonklin, 
Robert Beatty, Jr., 
Abr'm Johnstpn, 
Silas Sperry, 
James Clark, 
David Mills, 
CalebCofEn, 
James Harris, 
Tho. Hagaman, 
Wm. Dunn, 
Nehemiah CaiTJcnter, 
Leonard Smith, 
Wm. Day, 
,lohn Wandel, 
Abel Thrall, 
Phineas Corwiu, 
Moses Hunt, 
Samuel Sands, 
Jacob Concklin, 
Joseph Price, 
.John Saundere, 
George Westlake, 
Burger Weigand, 
Tunis Keiter, 
Hugh Quigly, 
Daniel Daiby, 
Isaac Brown, Jr., 
Hezekiah Wyatt, 
Wm. Whitehead, 
Daniel Goldsmith, 
Gabriel Travis, 
Nathaniel Weed, 
John Weed, 
Daniel Duboisc, 
Arthur Smith, 
Isaac Fowler, 
Stephen Outman, 
Saml. Stratton, 
Joseph Cai'penter, 
Daniel Thiirstin, 
John Fowler, 
Daniel Clark, 
Isaac Donaldson, 
Wm. Concklin, 
Charles Tooker, 
.John Smith, 
Isaac Fowler, Jr., 
William Wright, 
Wm. WJiite, 
Daniel Kniffen, 
Rob. Morrison, 
John Dolson, 
Leonard Smith. 



Daniel Purdy, 
Daniel turdy, Ji'., 
John Hendriok. 
*Isaao Barton, 
William Eoach, 
David Horton, 
Theophilus Mojser, 
*JonaB Totten, 
Daniel Dorland, 



REVUJAI'flOXAKV KVKXTS. :)o 

*Daniel Hains, ISonj, Lewis, Dauiel Kounds, 

*Dantel Denton, Peter Aldrigc, .TolmMorrel, 

Daniel Denton, Jr., *Joliu Fiewivelling, Jloses Knap, 

*(Jeorge Merritt, Jacob Fry, Davicl Wyatt, 

Aflam Patrick, James Perrv, Samuel Denton, 

♦Gabriel Travis, .fas. Patterson, Thomas Orr, Jr., 

John Wiggins, Jr., David Gedney, *Daniel Gedney, 

Joseph Gedney, Jr., George Elms, .Tohn Elms. 

George Devoir, Nathan Purdy, J i-., Joseph Penny, 

On the day ou whicli this retui'n was forwarded, tlie persons 

whose names are marked in. the preceding list with au asterisk, 

came before the committee and made affidavit of their intention 

to abide by the measures of the Continental Congress. This 

paper is as follows : 

_ "Whereas, we the aubsci'ibers, have refused to sign the Association within tlie time 
Umited by the Provineial Congress; and whereas our troubles with the motlier country 
continue to increase, and we are now convinced that we have no other alternative left 
but to repel force by force, or submit to be slaves; sensible that this is our deplorable 
situation, and in order to continue to link our chain of friendship still more firm, and 
to convince our friSnds and the fiiends of American Liberty in general, we do hereby 
solemnly and sincerely swear on the Holy Evangelists that we will, from henceforth, 
heartily agree and consent to whatever our Continental and Provincial Congresses have, 
or may do, direct, ordain, and appoint, for the preservation of our constitutional liberty: 
and that we will, as much as in us lies, discourage the spirit of opposition that has too 
nnhappily prevailed in some parts of this counti-y. That we will, from time to time, 
beai" and pay our quota of all expenses mth the rest of our brethren in America, that 
has aheady or may hereafter apcrae in defending onr liberties aforesaid. And we do 
hereby further swear, that we make this declaration and oath of ovt own free will and 
voluntary consent; and in testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our hands tliis 14tli 
day of July, Anno Domini, 1775. 

James Leonard, George Harding, Jolm Tmesdill, 

Daniel Gedney, Stephen Wood, Thomas Ireland, 

Daniel Hains, Daniel Reynolds, Isaac Barton, 

Samuel Devine, Gabriel Traverse, Samuel Fowler, 

Jona. Totten, Daniel Denton, Gilbert Purdy, 

George Merritt, .Tohn Plewwelling, John Wiggins, 

Abel Plewwelling, Anthony Beatlebron, James Denton, 

The signers of tlie Pledge numbered one hundred and fifty-nine, 
and the number was subsequently increased by the declaration 
last quoted to one hundred and eighty. Thirty-eight persons 
refused to sign. The figures united give a total male population, 
of sixteen years of ago and upwards, of two hundred and 
eighteen. 

While the proceedings recited above were in progress, another 
convention of committees from the several Precincts was held 
at New Paltz, at the house of Mrs. Ann DuBois, on the 1 1th Maj-, 
for the purpose of selecting deputies to represent the County in 
a Provincial Convention to be held in New York on the 23d 
May. In the New Paltz convention, Newbnrgh was represented 
by Col. Jonathan Hasbrouck, John Robinson, and Benjamin 
Birdsall, who united in the ballot appointing Col. Johannes 
Hardenbergh, Col. James Clinton, Egbert Dumond, Esq., Doct. 
Charles Clinton, Christopher Tappen, John Nicolson, and John 
Hornbeck, Esqs., deputies, and who continued to serve as such 
for one year. 



54 RKVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. 

Moi'e active duties sooh devolved on the committee of the 
Precinct. A portion of those who had refused to sign the Pledge, 
as well as a few who had signed the subsequent affidavit, 
were guilty of acts which, in the opinion of the committee, 
deserved punishment, and which it was determined should bo 
administered. The first instance of this character is reported to 
the Provincial Congress of New York in a joint letter from the 
committees of Newburgh and New Windsor, read at a session 
of the Committee of Safety on the 18th July. The letter is 
signed by Wolvert Acker and Samuel Brewster, and states that 
John Morrel, Adam Patrick and Isaiah Purdy were not only 
"possessed of principles very inimical to the grand cause in 
which we are embarked, but whose conduct, ever since the com- 
mencement of these unhappy times, has been such- as to disturb 
the public tranquility."* The persons named were arrested and 
taken to New York under guard, where they were examined by 
the Committee of Safety. They admitted many of the charges 
against them, and were ordered to be confined in the barracks; but 
were subsequently released "upon their contrition and promise 
of amendment,'' and the Newburgh committee was instructed to 
treat them kindly unless they should commit further unlawful 
acts. 

Again, under date of October 21, 111b, it appears that Stephen 
Wiggins and David Purdy, being deemed guilty of unlawful acts, 
were arrested by order of the committee and sent to New York;"j" 
but the final disposition of their case does not appear. 

Of those who signed the affidavit, quoted above, Samuel 

* "Gentlemen: We are extremely sorry to be under the disagreeable necessity of 
troabling you on this occason. Nothing but dii'e necessity could have induced us to take 
any steps which may be construed by this honorable Congress to be aside from the path 
of duty. We herewith send you three persons, who not only possess principles very 
inimical to the grand cause in which we are embarked, but whose conduct, ever since the 
first of these unhappy times, has been such as to disturb the public tranquility and 
destroy that unanimity so necessary for the preseiTation of our liberties. Their names 
are John Mon'el, Adam Patrick and Isaiah Purdy. Herewith, gentlemen, you will also 
receive several depositions taken before John NicoU, Esq., relative to the matter, which 
is all we have the time to take at present; these we submit to the judgment of the hono- 
rable Congress, whether either or all of these persons accused be worthy of confinement 
or not." — Archives. 

t This is to certify, that we, the Committee of Safety and Observation for the Precinct 
of Newburgh, for the apprehension of two persons, viz: Stephen Wiggins and David 
Purdy, did request and command Capt. Samuel Logan, of the Minute Company at New 
Windsor, to assist with eleven of his men in apprehending the said persons, he having 
attended and assisted one day and a half; with himself at the head of the following 
persons, viz: John Robinson, Ensign; David Mandevill and John Scofield, Sergeants'; 
one Corporal; one Clerk, and six Privates. Capt. Logan's account, signed by Mr. Ackei', 
our Chairman, for the expenses of himself and men, for the time above certified, is just; 
and for his own and men's wages, we refer to be calculated by yon, ngi'eeable to the 
order of Congress." 

"N. B. The expenses are as follows, viz: Laid out for the above men, this 2"th dav 
of October, 1775, one pound five shillings and three 'pence."— Archives. 



REVOUUTIONARY KVESl'S, 00 

Devino,* Saiimel Fowlevand Daniel Dentonf reuouiiced itBtenuB 
and were arrested and confined. The Flewwellings were also 
disaffected, and one of them joined Claudius Smith's band of 
outlaws and was Imng- at Goshen in 1119. A few renegades 
were also found among those who had signed the Pledge, of 
whom Silas Gardiner'| was one. 

In some instances no doubt, these changes were honestly made, 
and were the result of the new and more advanced position 
occupied by the Whigs. At first, it will be borne in mind, that 
only the redress of grievances was demanded and a reconciliation 
with the Crown, on "constitutional principles," was "earnestly 
desired." This, however, soon gave place to the declaration that 
the Colonies were, "and of right ought to be, free and independent 
States." Many who were ready to embark in the effort to secure 
redress, regarded a struggle for an independent national existence 
as hopeless, and all engaged in such an enterprise as already under 
sentence of death. Hence they preferred to remain loyal to the 
King, although denouncing the acts of his ministry. The course 
pursued by the Committee of Safety and Obsei'vation, in carrying 
out the rule that those who wished to remain neutral, should 
be so beyond suspicion, and in arresting and confining persons 
on very slight provocations, no doubt contributed to drive some 
into the ranks of active opponents.! ^t is not for us, however, 

* "Ulster Couuty — Stephen Seymour, of full age, beiug sworn on the Holy Evange- 
lists, this 4th day of Jan y, 1776, aaith, that on Monday evening, the first inst, at the 
house of Daniel McGiden, he heard Samuel Devine repeatedly drink damnation to the 
Congress and all the Whigs; that last year was Whig year, but this would be Tory year; 
and likewise that all the Whigs would be hanged in the spring; and furthermore called 
the Whigs a pack of damned rebels — and further saith that he would not obey his officers 
more than he would a dog."' 

"Ulster County — Henry Lockwood, of full age, being duly sworn, saith, that on hk 
way home from Newburgh he met with some pei-sons, among whom was a certain 
Samuel Devine, who then asked him if he did not know there was a reward for taking 
up a Committee man and sending him on board a man-of-war; who then threatened to 
take this deponent, he being one of the Committee of Marlborough Precinct, and that 
he would have £40 cash, or 50 acres of land, for delivering him, &c Archives. 

t Aug. 18, 1778. — Samuel Fowler arrested as a person of "equivocal and suspected 
character" — refused the oath of allegiance to the State, and was confined by the Com- 
mittee. Sept. 4, 1778 Daniel Denton arrested as a person of "equivocal and suspected 

ed character" — ^I'efused the oath and was confined Clinton Papers. 

t Silas Gardiner was arrested in 1776, and confined in Connecticut. On the petition 
of Stephen Case and others, he was pennitted to visit his family; and on the further 
petition of Thomas Palmer, in 1778, he was permitted to remam in Newburgh. Palmer 
iitates that Gardiner's family wei'e in "distressing circnmstances, almost the whole of his 
personal property having been sold for their support." — Clinton Papers. 

* A single instance related by our venerable friend, Mr. James Donnelly, will serve to 
illustrate this point. George Harding, one of the signers of the affidavit visited New 
York, .soon after the English obtained possession of the city, and was detained there for 
three or tour weeks. Without waiting for an explanation, the committee seized his 
goods and tamed his family into the sti'eet. On Harding's return and discovery of the 
wreck made of his possessions, he resolved to follow the perpetrators of the act with 
his vengeance; and joining the loyalists, he acted as a spy during the whole war, caasinp 
the Whigs no little trouble. 



56 REVOLUTIONARY K VENTS. 

to assume that the verdict passed by the Whigs of '76 on the 
conduct of the "King's men" was erroneous. The struggle of 
the former was not only for independence, but for liberty and 
life; and therefore they had a right to expect that their neigh- 
bors should not join hands with their deadly foes. The testimony 
of history is, that many of the "King's men" proved themselves 
to be the worst and bitterest enemies of the Whigs; and it was 
natural that the latter should not only regard all of that party 
with suspicion, but treat them with severity. More than two 
generations, however, have elapsed since those stirring and 
trying times ; and the deep hostilities engendered during the 
war have passed away with those who were the actors in the 
struggle. In perfecting our form of government and in develop- 
ing the resources of our country, the descendants of many of thfe 
"King's men" have borne an honorable part, and should not be 
subjected to reproach. The course pursued by our fathers belongs 
to history; and it is for lis, and those who come after us, to 
cherish the devotion of and toils those engaged in the cause of 
freedom, and to avoid the error of those who sought to abridge 
the inalienable rights of man. 

Not only was the committee engaged in detecting and 
arresting the disaffected, but also in organizing the militia 
of the Precinct. Two companies* were formed in IflS, the iirst 
commanded by Samuel Clark, and the second by Arthur Smith, 
and rendered active service. In July, It 16, in conjunction with 
the general committee of Ulster County, the committee organized 
a company of Rangers. This company was composed of three 
divisions — of one of which Isaac Belknap was Captain — subject 
to the Orders of the general committee; and was in service during 
the war in guarding the frontiers, and on expeditions against the 
predatory bands of Tories scattered through the country.^ 

* "Honorable Gentlemen;— Agi-eeable to your direction of the 9th inst., the Militia 
Company of the South-east district of Newbnrgh, assembled on the ITth inst., at the 
house of Col. Jonathan Hasbrouck, and chose by a plurality of voices of the soldiers of 
said District, the following gentlemen for their Militia Officera: Samuel Clai-k, Captain- 
Benjamin Smith, 1st Lieutenant; James Denton, Senr., 2d Lieutenant: Martin Weijrand' 
Ensign. We are, &c. SAMUEL SANDS, ) Two of ' 

August 22, 1775. MOSES HIGBY, f Committee. 

"Honorable Gentlemen:— Agreeable to your directions of the 9th inst., the MUitia 
Company of the North Disti'ict of Newbnrgh Precinct, assembled on the 26th inst., at 
the house of Lemuel Concklin, and choQse, by a majority of voices of the soldiera be- 
longing to said District, the following persons for their Militia Officers, viz: Arthur Smith, 
Captain; Isaac Fowler, Jr., 1st Lieutenant; John Poster, 2d Lieutenant; Daniel Clai'k' 
Ensign. We are, &c. MOSES HIGBY, I . Two of 

August 26, 177S. JOSEPH COLEMAN, f Committee. 

t At the selection of officers, nine candidates were presented for Captains, and four- 
teen candidates for Lieutenants. The Captains selected were Isaac Beficnap, Jacob R 
DeWitt and Elias Hasbrouck Archives VI., \21i,ith Series. 



UK\ OLUTIONABY KVK>{TH. i) ( 

From its proximity to the iorts m the Highlands— which were 
properly regarded as "the key to America," and for the defence 
of which the local militia were held in readiness to march at ii 
moment's notice — the Precinct was kept in an almost constant 
state of anxiety, if not of alarm, by rumors of the incursions of 
the enemy. The history of the services of the militia of the 
Precinct cannot now be fully written from want of materials; 
but the records preserved, comparatively scanty though they be, 
as well as the general facts connected with the efforts of the 
British to obtain control of' the navigation of Hudson's river,* 
suffice to show that they were repeatedly called out during the 
war. In the still hours of the night, the beacon fires on the brows 
of the rugged hills flashed out the alarm, and ixi the busy hours 
of day booming signal guns responded to each other along the 
line of fortifications, calling the toiling patriots to arm for the 
defence of their firesides. Anxiously were those signals watched ; 
and as soon as seen, fathers hurried away, and mothers stood 
sentinel over the homes of their children.f 

Even the aged were not exempt from service in the ranks of 
the militia. The Provincial Convention, in 1778, invited those 
who, in ordinary circumstances, would be "exempts," to form 
companies to repel invasions and suppress insurrections, and the 
call was responded to by Martin Weigand, Humphrey Merritt, 
Samuel Stratton, William Bloomer, Joseph Albiertson, William 
Carscaden, Isaac Fowler, Reuben Holmes, William Ward, James 
Denton, James Waugh, and others. A company was formed of 
which Samuel Edmonds was Captain; Nathaniel Wyatt, 1st 

* ColoDial History, VIII., 707. 

-f The militia were to march to tlie defence of tlic foils, or other points of attacls, on 
the appearance of three beacon fires by night or a con-esponding number of signal guns 
by day. How frequently the militia of Newburgh were called out by these signals is 
shown by the following return made of the eervices of Col. Hasbrouck's regiment to 
which they were attached, viz: 

Dec. 12, 177fi — Alarm and service at Bamapo, 300 men 27 days. 

Jan. 7, 1777— do do do 100 " U " 

" 28, " do do do - 200 " 40 " 

" " do do at Port Montgomery, 150 " 12 " 

Meh. 7, " do do do " 130 " 90 " 

" " do do atPeekskill, 250 " 40 '■ 

July, " do do at Fort Montgomerj', 460 '• 8 " 

August, '■ do do do - - 500 ' 8 " 

October, " do do at Port Constitution, 200 •■ 10 ' 

" " do do at Burning of Esopus, 460 - 30 " 

Xovr. " do do at New Windsor, 120 '• 45 '■ 

April, " do do at West Point, 420 " 8 •• 

—Clinton Papers. 

At the reduction of Port Montgomery, the militia suffered severely in killed and tiiken 
nrisonew. The Poor taxes rose from £50 to £800, and special donations were collected 
for "such poor whose husbands or parents were kjHed or taken prisoners at Fort 
Montgomery." — Precinct Records, 



;"iy ItKVOIXTIOXAliY EVKNTS. 

Lieutenant, John Stratton, •2d Lieutenant, and Michael Lejwis, 
Ensign: and held itself in readiness for sei-vice.* 

But it was not merelj' by their services as a militia that, the 
people of Newbiirgh contributed to the wai-. A depot for stores, 
under the charge of Andrew Taylor, Deputy Quarter Master 
General, was established here in lilt, and was maintained until 
the peace. Of course it devplved upon the inhabitants of the 
district, in the absence of regular troops, to collect the various 
stores needed by the army, and to convey them to distant points. 
When the tidings of the terrible suiferings at Valley Forge were 
received, they came forAvard with every mode of conveyance in 
their possession, eager to transport provisions, and the extent of 
their services may be inferred from a letter of Col. Tajdor to 
Gov. Clinton, in which he states that "every sleigh and horse in 
this neighborhood is completely used up in this duty."' 

Nor was this all. The inhabitants of N.ewburgh were subjected 
to great inconveniences and privations from the fact that the 
militia of other sections were located here. This place was 
made a point of rendezvous by General Orders,! and the billeting 
of soldiers on the people was of frequent occurrence. To supply 
them with food involved a heavy tax on the inhabitants, and their 
own families were often reduced to want by complying with the 
demands thus made upon their stores. 

On the reduction of Forts Montgomery and Clinton, in 1111, 
in accordance with the suggestions of the Committee of Safety, 
the people living near the river removed their families and goods 
into the interior, expecting that the expedition under Vaughan 
and Wallace would lay waste the village; but in this they were 
fortunately disappointed. The expedition passed by, bestowing 
no other attention on the settlement than the discharge of a few 
cannon. What was then the village of Newburgh, was shielded 
J'rom these passing shot by its position on the hill beyond the 
range of ship guns, as well as by a dense growth of trees in 
many places along the vivcv bank. It hence escaped injury, 
the presence of the militia in the vicinity probably preventing 
the enemy from landing. 

The fleet, however, was not permitted to go on its way entirely 



* The peraons named in the reluvB had previously served in some one of the Compa- 
nies composing Col. Hasbronck's Eegiment Clinton Papers. 

+ "Newburgh, Dec. 18, 1775. 
Pursuant to the orders of Congress to tlie Uegiment under my command, to be in 
leidiness npon any proper alarm, I have appointed the place of general rendezvona to 
be at the house of Martin Weigand, in Newhnrgh Precinct. J. HASBKOUCK, Col. 
—Archives IV., 307, ith Series. 



RKVOLUTfOKARY KVKKTS. 59 

unmolested. A ccmipauy of lads under the lead oi' Isaac Jielknap, 
Jr., secreted themselves in the woods near what is now Mailler's 
dock, and as one of the transports neared the shore saluted the 
soldiers with a volley of miisketry. No harm was done, although 
the soldiers were evidently surprised to find a foe lurking there. 
Discharging a cannon at the unseen enemy, the transport filled 
away on the other tack. Elated with their success, the lads ran 
up the river to about where the leather-factory of Mr. Jennings 
is now situated, and, as the transport again neared the shore, 
fired another volley. This discharge created some confusion ou 
board the transport; and another cannon ball was sent crashing 
through the trees. The boys then abandoned the contest, and 
proudly boasted that they had played a part in the war.* 

Wlien the expedition returned, the militia moved along the 
river road and prevented a landing. A continual cannonade was 
kept up from the transports; andohe man was killed on board the 
ferry boat.f After passing the chevaux-de-frisc, one of the 
frigates anchored and remained for some time in taking sound- 
ings. The militia meanwhile was posted at Newburgli, New 
Windsor and other points in the vicinity, and kept watchful 
guard on the movements of the enemy.^ 

Such were the services rendered by the people of Newburgh — 
such their toils and sacriiices in the achievement of the inde- 
pendence of the Republic. The great battles of the Revolution 
were fought elsewhere, and hence to fields red with carnage, they 
cannot point; but in other and no less efficient methods they 
attested their devotion to the cause in which they had embarked. 
Well might the mothers -of that period exclaim, when the bow of 
peace again spanned the national horizon, "Peace ! peace ! 
blessed peace !" 

But Revolutionary events of more general interest cluster 
around the village and its immediate vicinity. From its secure 
and commanding position, the house of Col. Jonathan Hasbrouck, 

* Eager's Orange County, 1,53. 

t On tlie 18th of October, 1777, (ieu. James Clinton, writing from his Head Qnarters 
lit the house of Abel Belknap, says: "Five of the British ships returned this day down 
the river and fired many shots, but only killed one man oil the Ferry boat." 

t In a letter dated ".ibel Belknap's, October 23d," Gen. Clinton pyrites: "The enemy's 
frigate still lies below the ehcvanx-de-frise, and it was my opinion she was stationed 
there to prevent our sinking any more: bnt Gen. Winds informed me yesterday he 
thought she wanted to get higher up, as she has boats constantly sounding the channel. 
Gen. Winds' Brigade consists of about 500 or 600 men, and is still increasing. They arc 
stationed at New Windsor. Capt. Nichols and his company at the creek. Col. Thurs- 
ton's and Col. WoodhuU's Regiments from the County line to Butter Hill, and thence 
along the Clove road to Francis Smith's. Col. MoLaughry's Regiment at Hasbrouck'.'^ 
Mill, keeping their main guard at Newburgh. Major DuBois with his company from 
Newburgh along the rivev North." 



60 REVOLUTIOXAKY EVKXTS. 

which has heretofore been IVeq^iieutly ineutioued in our pages, 
was selected as the Head Quarters of AVashington, and here 
he continued to reside from April, 1T82, until August, 1183; 
and at no great distance from the spot were the Head Quarters 
of his principal officers- — of Hamilton, Wayne, Knox, Lafayette, 
and Steuben. On the ground where now are reared the homes of 
wealth, the tents of the encamped soldiers fluttered in the passing- 
breeze; and the heavy tread of the hosts of freedom, and the 
rumbling oS^ cannon, awoke vibrations on the air that now 
resounds only with the hum of industry. 

Soon after the successful termination of the siege of Yorktown, 
(October, 1781,) the main portion of the American army returned 
to the Hudson river; and Washington (April, 1182,) made his 
Head Quarters at the Hasbrouck house in Newburgh. For a 
short time in the autumn of 1782, the army was encamped. at 
Verplanck's Point, where a junction was effected with the French 
forces, which, until this time had remained in Virginia. Immedi- 
ately after this junction, the latter marched to Boston, while the 
American army crossed the Hudson and went into winter 
quarters above the Highlands — portions being stationed at New 
Windsor,* at Fishkill, and in the vicinity of Waldeii. Generals 
Knox and Green, •were quartered at the house of Mr. John 
Ellison, (now Capt. Charles Morton's,) Generals Gates and St. 
Olair were at the Edmonston house, near Ellison's; Lafayette 
was at the house of Mr. William Ellison; W^ayne was at the 
old hotel of Martin Weigand, in Newburgh; and the Baron 
Steuben at the house of Mr. Samuel Verplanck in Fishkill. f 
During the summer of 1783, a portion of the army was in tents on 
the plain now occupied by the upper streets of the village, and 
passed through the usual exercises of camp-life under the careful 
drill of the Baron Steuben. The army remained in camp 



* Octobei' 30, 1T82.— -It reveiUc, ou tlic 26tli inst.,tlie left wing of the army , under the 
command of General Heath, flecamped from Verplanck's Point and marched to the 
Highlands; took up our lodging in the woods, without covering, and were exposed to a 
heavy rain during the night and day. Thence we crossed the Hudson to West Point 
and marched over the monnta,in called Butter-hill; passed the night in the open field' 
and the ne.xt day reached tlie gTouud where we are to erect log huts for our winter 
quai-tera near New Windsor Thaclier's Journal, 323. 



oecup ^ 

which supplies could he procured. The troops stationed here' weTOthoNewEmtiaiul 
line, Van Cortland's New York Regiment, and the Maryland and part of the ViSrinia 
Ime. Another portion of the Virginia line was .stationed near the village of Walden- 
but the maui encampment was at New Windsor. ' 

t With the exception of the house occupied by General Wayne, these buildings are 
now standmg. It may be of interest to add that the Life-Guarxl of Washington ooomried 
tents where the old Malt-house, ou liberty street, now stands. The Store-house of 
the OommissaiT General was where the old PreBbvterian Church stands. 



IIEVOUITIOXAKY KVEXTfi. fil 

here until the 3d of JVovember, when, on tho lawn around 
Head Quarters, Washington's Farewell Orders were read, and 
the army was foi'mally disbanded. 

For a long time prior to the breaking up of the army, discontent 
had prevailed among the soldiers and officers respecting the 
arrearages in their pay. On the 30th October, ] 180, Congress 
had passed resolutions granting half-pay for life to the ofBcers, 
but these resolutions stood ou the faitli of a government with no 
funds to enable it to perform its engagements ; and after their 
passage, the Articles of Confederation had been adopted which 
made the consent of nine States necessary to give validity to 
any act appropriating public money; and nine States had never 
been in favor of the half-pay resolutions. Under these circum- 
stances, and, considering the very scanty supplies that were 
furnished to the array, it was quite natural that discontent should 
prevail. 

Complaints were frequently made to Washington, who was 
fully sensible of the sufferings of his companions in arms, and 
the most earnest appeals were made by him to Congress to 
satisfy their claim; but Congress depended entirely on the States, 
and thuswas powerless to accomplish the end desired. The 
army now resolved to take the matter into their own hands, and 
Colonel Nicola, an experienced ofScer and a gentleman of high 
character, was selected to communicate to Washington their 
wishes and fears. In May, 1182, Nicola addressed a letter to 
Washington at Newburgh, in which, after some general remarks 
on the deplorable condition of the army, and the little hope that 
their services would be rewarded by Congress, he discussed the 
different forms of government with a view to show that Republics 
were, of all others, the least stable, and the least adapted to secure 
the rights, freedom and power of individuals — and then made a 
formal tender to Washington, on behalf of those for whom he acted, 
of the title of King. "In this case," said the writer, "it will, I 
believe be uncontroverted, that the same abilities that have led us 
through difficulties apparently insurmountable by human power, 
to victory and glory — those qualities that have merited and 
obtained the universal esteem and veneration of the army — 
would be most likely to conduct and direct us in the smoother 
paths of peace. Some people have so associated the idea of 
tyranny and monarchy as to find it difficult to separate them. 
It may, therefore, be requisite to give the head of such a cousti- 



62 BEVOLUTIOXARy KVEXTS. 

tutioii as 1 propose some title apparently more moderate; but, 
if all other things were once adjusted, I believe strong arguments 
might be produced for admitting the title of King, which T con- 
ceive would be attended with some advantage." 

We are aware that it has been denied that this was an offer 
of the title of King, yet the whole tenor of the letter leads to the 
opposite conclusion. That it was so regarded by Washington, is 
evident from his reply, in which he says: "With a mixture of 
great surprise and astonishment, I have read with attention the 
sentiments you have submitted to my perusal. Be assured, Sir, 
no occurrence in the course of this war has given me more 
painful sensations than your information of there being such ideas 
existing in the army, as you have expressed, and which I must 
view with abhorrence and reprehend with severity. For the 
present the consideration of them will rest in my own bosom, 
unless some further agitation of the matter shall make a dis- 
closure necessary. I am much at a loss to conceive what part 
of my conduct could have given encouragement to an address 
which to me seems big with the greatest mischiefs that can 
befall my country. If I am not deceived in the knowledge of 
myself, you could not have found a person to whom your schemes 
are more disagreeable. At the same time, in justice to my own 
feelings, I must add, that no man possesses a more serious wish 
to see ample justice done to the army than I do; and, as far as 
my power and influence, in a constitutional way, extend, they 
shall be employed, to the utmost of my abilities, to effect it, 
should there be any occasion. Let me conjure you, then, if you 
have any regard for your country, concern for yourself, or pos- 
terity, or respect for me, to banish these thoughts from your 
mind, and never communicate, as from yourself, or any one else, 
a sentiment of the like nature." * 

On no occasion does the disinterested patriotism of Washingon 
appear in more unmistakable language. Occupying a position 
in which he could have consummated almost any political scheme, 
lie unhesitatingly rejected the offer of the scepter and the crown 
of royalty. The mind fails to grasp the magnitude of the results 
flowing from this act of moral heroism. The hand that thus 
nobly cast aside the scepter, consummated the liberties of an 
empire, whose future destiny no human eye can scan. 

But Avhile the rebuke administered by Washington effectually 
checked monarchial tendencies, it did not remove the evils under 

* .Sparks' Wmhington, VIII., SOO, .102. ~~ 



fiH l^EvnI,u'rIo^AKY kvrkts. 

wliich the army siifl'ered ; on the contrary, the groimds of dis- 
content continued rather to increase. Congress proposed to 
reduce the army, and to discliarge many of the ofiScers. Wash- 
ington, fearing the result of the measure, urged the compensation 
of the officers and men. "When I see," ho adds, "such a number 
of men, goaded by a thousand stings of reflection on the past, and 
of anticipation on the future, about to be turned into the world, 
soured by penury, and what they call the ingratitude of the public; 
involved in debts, Avithout one farthing of money to carry them 
home, after having spent the flower of their days, and, many of 
them, their patrimonies, in establishing the freedom and indepen- 
dence of their country; and having suffered everything which 
human nature is capable of enduring on this side death ; I repeat 
it, when I reflect on these irritable circumstances, unattended by 
one thing to sooth their feelings or brighten their prospects, I 
cannot avoid apprehending that a train of evils will follow of a 
serious and distressing nature. * * You may rely upon it, 
the patience and long-suffering of this army are almost exhausted, 
and there never was so great a spirit of discontent as at this 
instant." This letter explains fully the situation and motives 
of the army, and the power of the restraining influence of 
Washington. 

The negotiations for peace were now in the hands of Commis- 
sioners; and, in view of the speedy dissolution of the army, the 
officers determined upon one more effort to secure that which 
they claimed as their right. Previous to going into winter 
quarters, (December, 1782,) they presented a petition to Congresis, 
proposing to accept, instead of the money actually due to them, 
a commutation of the half-pay stipulated by the resolutions of 
October, 1180, which, they flattered themselves, would Ibc less 
objectionable than the half-pay establishment.. Some security 
that. the. engagements of the government would be complied 
with, was also requested. But in consequence of the divisions 
in Congress upon other subjects, the important point in this 
petition — the commutation of the half-pay of the officers — re- 
mained undecided in March, when intelligence was received of 
the signature of the preliminary and iinal articles of peace 
between the United States and Great Britain. Soured by their 
past sufferings, their present wants and their gloomy prospects; 
and exasperated by the neglect with which they believed them- 
selves to be treated, and by the injustice that they supposed was 
meditated against them, the ill-temper of the army was almost 



6i REVOIX'TIONABY EVENTS. 

universal, and seemed to require only a slight breath to cause 
it to burst forth into a flame. 

Early in March, a letter was received from the Committee in 
attendance upon the session of Congress, stating that they had 
failed to accomplish the object of their mission. On the 10th of 
the same month, an anonymous paper was circulated, requesting 
a meeting of the general and field-officers at the public building* 
on the succeeding- day; and stating' that an officer from each 
company, and also a delegate from the medical staff, would be 
expected. The object of the convention was avowed to be, "to 
consider the late letter from their representatives in Philadelphia, 
and what measures (if any) should be adopted to obtain that 
redress of grievances which they seemed to have solicited in 
vain." 

On the same day an address to the army was circulated, 
admirably adapted to work on the passions and to excite the 
most desperate resolutions. In this paper, the writer reviewed 
the services of the army — the toils and privations that had been 
encountered in securing the independence of the States ; adverted 
to the injustice with which the army had been treated, and urged 
the necessity of some decisive action. "I would advise you, 
therefore," he concluded, "to come to some final opinion upon what 
you can bear, and what you will suifer. If your determination 
be in any proportion to your wrongs, carry your appeal from the 
justice to the fears of government. Change the milk and water 
style of your last memorial — assume a bolder tone — decent, but 
lively, spirited and determined, and suspect the man who would 
advise to more moderation and longer forbearance. Let two or 
three men who can feel as well as write, be appointed to draw up 
your last remonstrance; for I would no longer give it the sueing, 
soft, unsuccessful epithet of memorial. Let it be represented, in 
language that will neither dishonor you by its rudeness, nor 
betray you by its fears, what has been promised by Congress 
and what has been performed — how long and how patiently you 
have suffered — how little you have asked, and how much of that 
little has been denied. Tell them that, though you were the 
first, you would wish to be the last to encounter danger, and 
though despair itself can never drive you into dishonor, it may 
drive you from the field; that the wound often irritated and 



* The "public building" here referrecl to was sometimes called the "new building" 
and "the Temple." It was situated on what is now the farm of Mr. William McGill. in 
New Windsor, and was used for public aRsemblies of various kinds. 



REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. 65 

never healed, may at length become incurable; and that the 
slightest mark of indignity from Congress now, must operate 
like the grave and part you forever; that in any political event, 
the army has its alternative. If peace, that nothing shall 
separate you from your arms taut death; if war, that, courting 
the auspices and inviting the directions of your illustrious 
leader, you will retire to some unsettled country, smile in your 
turn, and "mock when their fear cometh on." But let it represent, 
also, that should they comply with the request of your late 
memorial, it would make you more happy and them more respect- 
able; that while war should continue, you would follow their 
standard into the field, and when it came to an end, you would 
withdraw, into the shade of private life, and give the world 
another subject of wonder and applause; an army victorious 
over its enemies, — victorious over itself." •* 

Persuaded as the officers generally were of the indisposition 
of government to remunerate their services, this passionate 

* "To THE OfFICEBS OF THE AbMY : 

"Gentlemen — A fellow soldier, whose interest and affections bindhim sti-ongly toyou, 
whose past sufferings have been as great, and whose fature fortune may be as desperate 
as yours — ^would beg leave to address you. 

"Age has its claims, and rank is not without its pretensions to advise; but, though 
unsupported by both, lie flatters himself, that the plain language of sincerity and expe- 
rience wiU neither be unheard nor unregarded. 

"Like many of you he loved private life, and left it with re^-et. He left it; deter- 
mined to retire from the field, with the necessity that called him to it, and not until 
then — not until the enemies of his country, the slaves of power, and the hirelings of 
injustice, were compelled to abandon theu' schemes, and acknowledge America as 
terrible in arms as she had been humble in remonstrance. With this object in view, he 
has long shared in your toils and mingled in your dangers. He has felt the cold hand 
of poverty without a murmur, and has seen the insolence of wealth without a sigh. But, 
too much under the dh'eotiou of his wishes, and sometimes weak enough to mistake 
desire for opinion, he has until lately— very lately believed in the justice of his country. 
He hoped, that as the clouds of adversity scattered, and as the sunshine of peace and 
better fortune broke in upon us, the coldness, and severity of government would relax, 
and that more than justice, that gratitude would blaze tbrth upon those hands which 
had upheld her, in the darkest stages of her passage, from impending sei-vitude to 
acknowledged independence. But faith has its limits, as well as temper, and there are 
points beyond which neither can be stretched, without sinking into cowardice, or 
plunging into credulity. This my friends I conceive to be your situation. Hurried to 
the very verge of both, another step would rain you forever. To be tame and unpro- 
voked when injuries press hard upon you, is more than weakness; but to look up for 
kinder usage, without one manly eftbrt of your own, would fix your character, and shew 
the world how richly you deserve those chains you broke. To guard against this evil, 
let us take a review of the ground upon which we now stand, and from thence carry 
our thoughts forward for a moment, mto the unexplored field of eicpedient, 

"After a pui-snit of seven long yeai-s, the object for which we set out is at length 
brought within our reach — ^yes, my friends, that suffering courage of yom-s was active 
once — it has conducted the United States of America thi-ough a doubtful and a bloody 
war. It has placed her in the chair of independency, and peace returns again to bless 
— whom 1 a country willing to redress your wrongs, cherish your worth and reward 
yonr services ? a country oom-ting your return to private life, with teara of gratitude, 
and smiles of. admiration, longing to divide with yon that independency which your 
gallantry has given, and those riches which yom- wounds have preserved? is this the 
case ? or is it rather a country that tramples upon your rights, disdains your cries, and 
insults your distresses ? liave you not more than once suggested your wishes, and made 
known your wants to Congress ? wants and wishes which gi'atitude and policy should ■ 
have anticipated rather than evaded; and have you not lately in the meek language of 
entreating memorials, begged from their justice, what you could no longer expect from 



C6 



6ti IIEVOIA'TIOXAKY KVE.N'l'S!. 

address made h profound impressioa; and nothing seemed 
wanting but the assemblage fixed for the succeeding day to 
produce the most disastrous results. "Fortunately," says 
-Marshall, "the commander-in-chief was in camp ; and his charac- 
teristic firmness did not forsake him in this crisis. The occasion 
required that his measures should be firm, but prudent and 
conciliatory; evincive of his fixed determination to oppose any 
rash proceedings, but calculated to assuage the irritation which 
was excited and to restore a confidence in government." ' This 
course he at once adopted ; and in the general orders of the next 
<lay he noticed the anonymous paper, and expressed the convic- 
tion he felt that the good sense of the oflScers would guard them 
against paying any "attention to such an irregular invitation ;" 
but his own duty, he conceived, "as well as the reputation and 
true interests of the army required his disapprobation of such 
disorderly proceedings. At the same time, he requested the 

their favour ? how have you been answcreiJ ? let the letter ivUieh you are called to 
consider to-moiTOW reply. 

"If this, then, be your treatment while the awords you wear are necessary for the 
defence of America, what have you to expect from peace, when your voice shall smk, 
and your strength dissipate by division 7 when those very swords, the instruments and 
companions of yom- glory, shall be taken from your sides, and no remaming mark of 
military distinction left but your wants, infirmities, and scars ? can you then consent to 
be the only suflerers by this revolution, and retiring from the field, grow old in poverty, 
wretchedness and contempt? can you consent to wade through the vile mire of depend- 
ency, and owe the miserable remnant of that life to charity, which has hitherto been 
spent in honour ? If you can — go— and carry with you the jest of tones and the scorn 
of whigs— the ridionle, and what is worse, the pity of the world. Go, starve, and be 
forgotten ! but if your spu-it should revolt at this; it you have sense enough to discover, 
and spirit enough to oppose tyranny under whatever garb it may assume; whether it 
be the plain coat of republicanism, or the splendid robe of royalty; if yon have yet 
learned to discriminate between a people and a cause, between men and principles — 
awake; attend to your situation, and redress yourselves. If the present moment be 
lost, every future effort is in vain: and your threats then, will be as empty as your en- 
treaties now. . 

"I would advise you, therefore, to come to some final opinion upon what you can 
bear, and what you will suffer. If your determination be in any proportion to youi- 
wrongs, carry your appeal from the justice, to the fears of government. Change the 
milk and water style of your last memorial; assume a bolder tone— decent, but lively, 
sj)irited and determined, and suspect the man who would advise to more moderation 
and longer forbearance. Let two or three men who can feel as well as write, be 
appointed to draw up your last remotiatrance; for I would no longer give it the suemg, 
.^oft, unsuccessful epithet of memorial. Let it be represented in language that will' 
neither dishonour you by its i-udeness, nor betray you by its fears, what has been 
promised by Congi-ess, and what has been performed— how long and how patiently you 
have suffered— how little you have asked, and how much of that little has been denied. 
Tell them that, though you were the first, and would wish to be the last to encounter 
danger, though despair itself can never drive you into dishonour, it may di-ive you from 
the field: that the wound often irritated, and never healed, may at length become 
incurable; and that the slightest mark of indignity from Congress now must operate 
like the grave, and part you forever: that in any political event, the army has its alter- 
native. If peace, that nothing shall separate you from yom' arms but death; if war 
that courting the auspices, and invitmg the du'ections of your illnstrions leader yon 
.will retire to some unsettled country, smile in your tm-n, and 'mock when their feai- 
coraeth on.' But let it represent also, that should they comply with the request' of your 
late memorial, it would make you more happy, and them more respectable. That while 
war should continue, you would follow their standard into the field, and when it came 
to an end you would withdraw into the shade of private life, and give the world another 
subject of wonder and applause: nn army victorious over its enemies victorious over itself. 




REVOLUTION AHT EVKNTS. . 6T 

genei'al and field officers, with one officer from each company, 

and a proper representation from 
the BtafiF of the army, to assemble 
at twelve o'clock, on Saturday the 
15th October, at the new building, 
ito hear the report of the committee 
^deputed by the army to Congress. 
» After mature deliberation, they 
: will devise what further measures 
ought to be adopted as most rational and best calculated to aftain 
the just aud important object in view." 

These orders changed the whole aspect of affairs, and the 
meeting called by the anonymous writer was not held. By a 
master-policy, Washington had placed himself, as it were, at the 
head of the movement for redress, and had appointed in regular 
form a time and place of meeting. On the day succeeding the 
publication of these orders, a second anonymous address made 
its appearance, fi^om the same pen which had written the former, 
in which the writer affected to consider the orders in a light 
favorable to his views. "Until now," said he, "the commander- 
in-chief has regarded the steps you have taken for redress with 
good wishes alone; his ostensible silence has authorized your 
meetings, and his private opinion has sanctified your claims. 
Had he disliked the object in view, would not the same sense of 
duty which forbade you from meeting on the third day of the 
week, have forbidden you from meeting on the seventh ?" * 

On the 15th, the convention of ofiicers assembled at the new 
building, and General Gates took the chair. There was a full 
attendance of officers ; and deep solemnity pervaded the assembly 
as the commander-in-chief stepped upon the platform to read an 
address that he had prepared for the occasion. Amid the most 
profound attention Washington commenced reading: 

"Gentlemen : By an anonymous summons, an attempt has been 
made to convene you together. How inconsistent with the rules 

* The wi-iter of these letters was Major John Armstrong, at that time a young man 
of twenty-six, and aid-de-camp to Major General Gates. Some yeai-s after the letters 
were written, Armstrong acknowledged their aathorship; hut insisted that they were 
written "at the solicitation of friends, as the chosen organ to express the sentiments of 
the officers of the army, and were only an honest and manly though perhaps an indis- 
creet endeavor to support public credit, and do justice to a patient, long-suffering and 
gallant army." Although entertaining a different opinion at the time the letters ap- 
peared, Washington, in 1797, writes: "I have smce had sufficient reason for believing, 
that the object of the author was just, honorable and friendly to the conntry, thongh 
the means suggested by hhn were certainly liable to much misunderstanding and abuse." 
— Sparlui' Life of Washington. 



68 KEVOLUTIONAKY EVENTS. 

of propriety, liow iinmilitary, and how subversive of all order 
and discipline, let the good sense ef the army decide." 

Pausing for a moment, he drew out his spectacles, carefully 
wiped and adjusted them, and while doing so, remarked: "These 
eyes, my friends, have grown dim, and these locks white in the 
service; yet I have never doubted the justice of my country." * 
The effect was electrical. The whole scene, when we consider 
the time, the place, the man, the object of the convention, was 
hardly surpassed in interest by any other event of those eventful 
days. 

Resuming his address, Washington exhibited the anonymous 
letters as "designed to answer the "most insidious purposes," 
while their ostensible object was simply to secure the redress of 
grievances. He then noticed more particularly the remedies 
proposed in the letters for the assumed injustice of Congress, 
The alternative presented, said he, of "either deserting our 
country in the extremest hour of her distress, or turning our 
arms against it, which is the apparent object, unless Congress 
can be compelled into instant compliance, has something so 
shocking in it, that humanity revolts at the idea. My God! 
what can this writer have in view, by recommending such 
measures? can he be a friend of the army? can he be a friend to 
his country? rather is he not the insidious foe plotting the ruin 
of both, by sowing the seeds of discord and separation between 
the civil and military powers of the continent ?" 

He then explained what appeared to him to be the causes of 
delay in the action of Congress — pledged himself to exert what- 
ever abilities he possessed in order to obtain the demands of 
the army; and assured them that, previous to their dissolution 
as an army, Congress would cause all their accounts to be fairly 
liquidated, and that they would "adopt the most effectual 
measures in their power" to render ample justice to the army 
"for its faithful and meritorious services." 

Concluding with a direct appeal to those present, he exclaimed: 
"Let me conjrfi'e you in the name of our common country, as you 
value your own- sacred honor; as you respect the rights of 
humanity; and as you regard the military and national character 
of America; to express your utmost horror and detestation of the 
man who wishes, under any specious pretences, to overturn the 
liberties of our country; and who wickedly attempts to open 
the flood-gates of civil discord, and deluge our rising empire in 

* Am. Biol. Bie. 837. Ivving's Washington, iv. ' ~ 



REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. Oli 

blood. By tlius determining and acting, you will pursue the 
plain and direct road to the attainment of your wishes ; you will 
defeat the insidious designs of our enemies, who are- compelled 
to resort from open force to secret artifice; you will give one 
more distinguished proof of unexampled patriotism and patient 
virtue, rising superior to the pressure of the most complicated 
sufiferings; and you will, by the dignity of your conduct, afford 
occasion for posterity to say, when speaking of the glorious 
example you have exhibited to mankind — had this day been want- 
ing the world had never seen the last stage of perfection that human 
nature is capable of attaining!" * • 

These sentiments, says Marshall, from a person whom they 

* "Gentlemen,— By an anonymous summons an attempt has been made t<5 convene 
you together. How inconsistent with the rales of propriety, how nnmilitary, and how 
subversive of all order and discipline, let the good sense of the army decide. 

"In the moment of this summons, another anonymous production was sent into circu- 
lation, addressed more to the feelings and passions than to the judgment of the ai-my. 
The author of the piece is entitled to much credit for the goodness of his pen: and I 
could wish he had a& much credit for the rectitude of his heart; for, as men see through 
different optics, and are induced by. the reflecting feculties of the mind, to use different 
means to attain the same end, the author of the addi'ess should have had m6re charity 
than to maik for suspicion the man who should recommend moderation and longer 
forbearance; ov in, other words, who shonld not think as he thinks, and act as he 
advises. But he had another plan in view, in which candour and liberality of sentiment, 
regard to justice and love of copntry, have no part: and he was right to insinuate the 
dai-kest suspicion to effect the blackest design. That the address was drawn with gieat 
art, and is designed to answer the most insidious purposes; that it ia calculated to 
impress the mind with an idea of premeditated injustice in thS sovereign power of the 
United States, and rouse all those resentments which must unavoidably flow from such 
a belief; that the secret mover of this scheme, whoever he may be, intended to take 
advantage of the passions, while they were warmed by the recollection of past distresses, 
without giving time for cool, deliberative thinking, and that composure of mind which 
ia so necessai-y to give dignity and stability to measures, is rendered too obvious, by the 
mode of conducting the business, to need other proof than a reference to the proceedings. 

"Thus much, gentlemen, I have thought it incumbent on me to observe to yon, to 
show upon what principles I opposed the irregular and hasty meeting which was pro- 
posed to have been held on Tuesday last, and not because I wanted a disposition to give 
you every opportunity, consistent with your own honour, and the dignity of the army, 
to make known your grievances. If my conduct heretofore has not evinced to you, that 
I have been a faithful friend to the army, my ddclaration of it at this tune would be 
equally unavailing and improper. But as I was among the first who embarked in the 
cause of cm- common country; as I have never left your side one moment, but when 
called from yon on public dufy; as I have been the constant companion and witness of 
your distresses, and not among the last to feel and acknowledge your merits; as I have 
ever considered my own military reputation as inseparably connected with that of the 
army; as my heart has ever expanded with joy when I have heard its praises, and my 
indignation has arisen when the month of detraction has been opened against it; it can 
scai-cely be supposed at this last stage of the wai-, that I am ihdifferent to its interests. 
But how are they to be promoted ? The way is plain, says the anonymous addresser ! 
If war contmues, remove into the unsettled country; there establish yourselves, and 
leave an ungrateful country to defend itself! Bnt who are they to defend ? our wives, 
our children, our farms and other property which we leave bemnd us ? or in this state 
of hostile separation, are we to take the two first, (the latter cannot be removed,) to 
perish in a wilderness, with hunger, cold, and nakedness ? 

" 'If peace takes place, never sheath your swords,' says he, 'until you have obtained 
full and ample justice.' This dreadful alternative of either deserting om- country m the 
extremest hour of her distress, or tul-ning our aims against it, which is the apparent 
object, unless Congi'ess can be- compelled into instant compliance, has sometmng so 
shocking in it, that humanity revolts at the idea. My God ! what can this writer have 
in view, by recommendmg such measures ? can he be a friend to the ai-my ? can he be a 
friend to this country ? rather is he not an insidious foe ; some emissaiy, perhaps, from 
New York, plotting the ruin of both, by sowing the seeds of discord and separation 



10 RBVOLUTIONAKY EVENTS. 

had been accustomed to love, to reverence, and to obey; the 
solidity of vs^hose judgment, and the sincerity of vrhose zeal for 
their interests were alike unquestioned, could not fail to be 
irresistible. No sooner had the commander-in-chief withdrawn 



between the civil and military powers of tlie continent ? and wliat a compliment does 
he pay to our understandings, when he recommends measures, in ■ either alternative, 
impracticable in their nature ? but here gentlemen I will drop the curtain, because it 
would be as imprudent in me to assign my reasons for this opinion, as it would be insult- 
ing to your conception to suppose you stood in need of them. A moment's reflection 
will convince every dispassionate mind of the physical impossibility of carrying either 
proposal into execution. There might, gentlemen, be an impropriety in my falsing 
notice, in this address to you, of an anonymous production; but the manner in which 
that performance has been introduced to the army; the effect it was intended to have, 
together with some other circumstances, will amply justify my observation on the 
tendency of that writing. 

"With respect to the advice given by the author, to suspect the man who shall recom- 
mend moderate measures and longer forbearance, I spurn it, as every man who regards 
that liberty and reveres that justice for which we contend, undouotedly must; for, if 
men are to be precluded from offering their sentiments on a matter which may involve 
the most serious and alarming consequences that cin invite the consideration of mankind , 
reason is of no use to us. The freedom of speech may be taken away, and dumb and 
silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. I cannot in justice to my own belief, 
and what I have great reason to conceive is the intention of Congress, conclude this 
address, without giving it as my decided opinion, that, that honourable body entertain 
exalted sentiments of the services of the army, and from a full conviction of its merits 
and sufferings, will do it complete justice. That their endeavours to discover and 
cstabhsh funds for this purpose have been unwearied, and will not cease until they have 
succeeded, I have not a doubt. 

"But like all other lar^e bodies, where there is a variety of diflterent interests to 
reconcile, their determinations are slow. "Why then should we distrust them ? and in 
consequence of that distrust, adopt measures which may cast a shade over that gloiy 
which has been so justly acquired, and tarnish the reputation of an army which is 
celebrated through all Europe for its fortitude and patriotism ? and for what is this done ? 
to bring the object we seek nearer ? no; most certamly in my opinion, it will cast it at 
a greater distance. For myself, (and I take no merit in giving the assurance, being 
Induced to it from principles of gratitude, veracity, and justice, and a grateful sense of 
the confidence you have placed in me,) a recollection of the cheerful assistance and 
prompt obedience I have experienced from you, nnder every vicissitude of fortune, and 
the sincere affection I feel for an army I have so long had the honour to command will 
oblige me to declare in this public and solemn manner, that in the attainment of com- 
plete justice for all your toils and dangers, and in the gratification of every wish, so far 
as may be done consistently with the great duty I owe my country, and those powers 
we are bound to respect, you may freely command my services to the utmost extent of 
my abilities. 

"While I give you these assurances, and pledge myself in the most unequivocal 
manner, to exert whatever abilities I am possessed of in your favour, let me entreat yon, 
gentlemen, on your part, not to take any measures, which viewed in the calm light of 

reason, will lessen the dignity, and sully the glory you have hitherto maintained: let 

nle request you to rely on the plighted faith of your country, and place a full confidence 
in the purity of the intentions of Congress; that, previous to your dissolution as an 
ai-my, they will cause all your accounts to be fairly liquidated as directed in the resolu- 
tions which were published to you two days ago; and that they will adopt the most 
effectual measures in their power to render ample justice to you for your faithful and 
meritorious services. And let me conjure you in the name of our common country, as 
you value your own sacred honor; as you respect the rights of humanity; and as yon 
regard the military and national character of America; to express your utmost horror 
and detestation of the man, who wishes, under any specious pretences, to overturn the 
liberties of our country; and who wickedly attempts to open the flood gates of civil 
discord, and deluge our rising empire in blood. 

"By thus determining, and thus acting, you will pursue the plain and direct road to 
the attainment of your wishes; you will defeat the insidious designs of our enemies 
who are compelled to resort from open force to secret artifice. You will give one more 
distinguished proof of imexampled patriotism and patient virtue, rising superior to the 
pressure of the most complicated sufferings; and you will, by the dignity of your con- 
duct, afford occasion for posterity to say, when speaking of the glomus example you 
have exhibited to mankhid— had this day been wanting the world had never seen the 
last stage of perfection to which human nature is capable of attaining." 



REVOLUTIONARY EVEXTS. 71 

from the room, than General Knox moved, and General Futnant 
seconded, a resolution tendering the thanks of the convention to 
"His Excellency, and assuring him that the officers reciprocated 
his aifectionate expressions with the greatest sincerity of which 
the human heart is capable." This resolution was unanimously 
voted; and, on motion of General Putnam, a committee, consist- 
ing of General Knox, Colonel Brooks, and Captain Howard, was 
appointed to prepare resolutions on the business before the 
convention, and report in lialf on hour. 

The committee, after consultation, reported a series of reso- 
lutions which were passed unanimously. These resolutions 
expressed unshaken confidence in the justice of Congress; and 
that the representatives of America would "not disband or 
disperse the army until their accounts" were "liquidated, the 
balances accurately ascertained, and adequate funds established 
for payment;" and that in this arrangement the officers expected 
"that the half-pay, or commutation for it,, should be efficaciously 
comprehended." It was further resolved, "that the officers of 
the American army view with abhorrence and reject with disdain 
the infamous propositions bontained in a late anonymous address 
to the officers of the army, and resent with indignation the secret 
attempts of some unknown persons to collect the officers together, 
in a manner totally subversive of all discipline and good order." * 

* "Resolved, unanimously, That, at the commencement of the present war, the officens 
of the American army engaged in the service of their country from the purest love and 
attaclmient to the rights and liberties of human nature; which motives still exist m the 
highest degree; and that no circumstances of distress or danger shall induce a conduct 
that may tend to sully the reputation and glory which thev have acquired, at the price 
of their blood and eight years' faithful services. 

"Resolved, mumimously. That the army continue to have an unshaken confidence in 
the justice of Congress and then- countiy , and are fully convinced that the representatives 
of America will not disband or disperse the anny till their accounts are liquidated, the 
balances accurately ascertained, and adequate funds established for payment; and in 
this an-angement the officers expect that the half-pay, or a commutation for it, shonlil 
he efficaciously comprehended. 

"Resolved, unanimously, That his excellency the commander-in-chief be requested to 
write to hia excellency the president of Congress, earnestly entreating the most speedy 
decision of that honorable body on the subject of our late address, which was foi-warded 
by a committee of the anny, some of whom are waiting on Congress for the result. In 
the alternative of peace or wai-, this event would be highly satisfactory, and would pro- 
duce immediate tranquility in the minds of the army, and prevent any fm-ther machina- 
tions of designing men, t<) sow discord between the civil and militarv powers of the 
United States. 

"On motion, Resolved, unanimously. That the offlcei-s of the American anay view 
with abhon-ence, and reject with disdain, the jnftunous propositions contained in the late 
anonymous address to the officers of the army, and resent with indignation the secret 
attempts of some unknown persons to collect the officers together, in a manner totally 
subversive of all discipline and good order. 

"Resolved, unanimously. That the thanks of the officei'S of the army be given to the 
committee who presented to Congress the late address of the army, for the wisdom and 
prudence with which they have conducted that business; and that a copy of the pro- 
ceedings of this day be transmitted by the president to Major-General McDougall; and 
that he be requested to continue his solicitations at Congrefsa, till the objects of his 
mission are accomplished." 



12 EEVOLUTIONAEY EVENTS. 

The triumph of right was complete. The storm which had 
threatened to overwhelm the infant Republic, was hushed. 
Washington immediately enclosed to the President of Congress 
the whole proceedings, accompanied by a letter in which he 
ag^in urged prompt attention to the subject. Not only did he 
assume the entire justice of the claims of the army; but, for the 
first time in his history, he asked .a personal favor at the hands 
of Congress. "Having," he wrote, "from motives of justice, 
duty, and gratitude, spontaneously offered myself as an advocate 
for their rights, it now only remains for me to perform the task 
I have assumed, and to intercede in their behalf, as I now do, 
that the sovereign power will be pleased to verify the predictions 
I have pronounced of, and the confidence the army have reposed 
in, the justice of their country." 

Immediately on the reception of Washington's dispatches. 
Congress passed, with the concurrence of nin& States, the reso- 
lution commuting the half-pay of the ofiicers into a sum in gross 
equal to five years full pay; and the result was hailed by the 
army with unbounded satisfaction. 

Meanwhile the peace commissioners had concluded their labors, 
so far as arranging the articles between Great Britain and the 
United States was concerned; but the exchange of ratifications 
was contingent upon a similar exchange between the contending 
European powers. It was feared for some time that the obstacles 
to a general pacification would not be overcome. These fears, 
however, were entirely dispelled by a letter from LaFayette, in 
March, announcing a general peace. In April, oflScial notifica- 
tion was received of the exchange of preliminary articles, and 
the cessation of hostilities; and the commander-in-chief announ- 
ced the joyful intelligence to the army in his orders of April 18th. 
"The commander-in-chief," reads this interesting paper, "orders 
the cessation of hostilities, between the United States of America 
and the King of Great Britain, to be publicly proclaimed at the 
new building, to-morrow at twelve o'clock; and that the procla- 
mation which will be commimicated herewith, be read to-morrow 
evening at the head of every regiment and corps of the army; 
after which the chaplains, with the several brigades, will render 
thanks to Almighty God for all his mercies, particularly for his 
over-ruling the wrath of man to his own glory, and causing the 
rage of war to cease among the nations." 

Although the proclamation referred to extended only to the 
cessation of hostilities, yet it was regarded as the sure precursor 



RKVOLUTIONABY EVENTS. 13 

of an event to the accomplishment of which had been devoted 
the toils and sufferings of a long anddoubtfal contest; and as the 
morning sun of the 19th tinged the mountain tops it vi^as hailed 
with reverberating peals of rejoicing. In this feeling Washing- 
ton joined. "The commander-in-chief," continues the.orders, "far 
from endeavoring to stifle the feelings of joy in his own bosom, 
offers his most cordial congratulations on the occasion, to all the 
officers of every denomination, to all the troops of the United 
States in general, and in particular to those gallant and deserving 
men who have resolved to defend the rights of their invaded 
country so long as the war should continue ; for these are the 
men who ought to be considered as the pride and boast of the 
American army, and who, crowned with well-earned laurels, may 
soon withdraw from the field of glory to the more tranquil walks 
of civil life. While the General recollects the almost infinite 
variety of scenes through which we have passed with a mixture 
of pleasure, astonishment and gratitude — while he contemplates 
the prospect before him with rapture^— he cannot help wishing 
that all the brave men, of whatever condition they may be, who 
have shared in the toils and dangers of affecting this glorious 
revolution, of rescuing millions from the hand of oppression, and 
of laying the foundation of a great empire, might be impressed 
with a proper idea of the dignified part they have been called to 
act, nnder the smiles of Providence, on the stage of human 
affairs ; for happy, thrice happy, shall they be pronounced here- 
after, who have contributed anything, who have performed the 
meanest office in erecting this stupendous fabric of Freedom and 
Empire, on the broad basis of independency; who have assisted 
in protecting the rights of human nature, and establishing an 
asylum for the poor and oppressed of all nations and religions." 
* * "The adjutant-general will have such working parties 
detailed to assist in making the preparations for a general 
rejoicing as the chief engineer, with the army, shall call for; and 
the quarter-master-general will also furnish such materials as he 
may want." 

Full details of the public rejoicings at Newburgh on the 19th 
April, 1T83, we believe, do not exist; and we only know that, as 
had been done on a former occasion,* the army lined the 
banks on both sides of . the river, with burnished arms and 
proudly floating banners, and, at a given signal, paused and 
presented arms. The pealing of thirteen guns from Fort Putnam 
* The celebration of the birth of the Dauphin. 



14 BEVOLUTIOKAKY EVENTS. 

now awoke the echoes of the hills, and was followed by a feu 
de joie which rolled along the lines from West Point to the 
utmost limits of the camp. The 

"Thrilling fife-note and drums heart-kindling beat," 

then called the hosts of freedom to the place of prayer, and 
patriot knees bent low in thanks to the God of battles; and as 
the bowed heads arose, their voices joined in a hymn of praise 
addressed to the Eternal Throne.* These services concluded, the 
army returned to quarters and united in festivities suited to the 
occasion. As the day closed, the signal guns from Fort Putnam 
again called the soldiers to arms, and the feu dejoie again rang 
along the line. This was three times repeated, accompanied by 
the discharge of cannon, and the "mountain sides resounded and 
echoed like tremendous peals of thunder, and the flashing from 
thousands of lire-arms in the darkness of evening was like unto 
vivid flashings of lightning from the clouds." Then the Beacons 
on the hill tops, no longer the harbingers of danger, lighted up the 
gloom and rolled the tidings of peace on through New England 
and shed their radiance on the blood-stained field of Lexington. 
Released in a great measure from the cares and anxieties 
which had so long pressed heavily upon the commander-in-chief 
and the army, the discipline of the camp was relaxed, and the 

increased facilities for social 
intercourse were improved 
to the fullest extent. Enter- 
rtainments were given by all 
; the principal officers; while 
^at Head Quarters Mrs. 
^Washington was surround- 
fjed by all the court of the 
?camp. Many anecdotes are 
related of this period, which we should be pleased to embrace in 
our pages, but we can give only a few of them. At the social 
gatherings, the Baron Steuben was always a welcome guest to 
the ladies and the oflScers. Dining one day at Head Quarters 
with Robert Morris and other gentlemen, Mr. Morris complained 
bitterly of the miserable state of the treasuiy, "Why," said the 
Baron, "are you not financier ?~why do you not continue to create 

* April 19, 1783 — On the completion of eight years from the memorable battle of 
l./exington, the proclamation of Congress for a cessation of hostilities was published at 
the door of the public building, followed by three huzzas; after which a prayer was 
offered to the Almighty Bnlerof the world, by the Eev. Mr. Ganno, and an anthem was 
performed by voices and instnnnents. — Thacher'a Journal, SW, 




UEVOLTJTIONABY EVKKTS. 75 

funds'!"' "I have done all I can; it is not possible foi- uie to do 
more." "But you remain financier, though without finances?" 
"Yes." "Well, then, I do not think you are so-honest a man as 
my cook. He came to me one day at Valley-Forge, and said, 
' Baron, I am your cook, and you have nothing to cook but a piece 
of lean beef, which is hung up by a string before the fire. Your 
negro wagoner can turn the string and do as well as I can. You 
have promised me ten dollars a month; but, as you have netting 
to cook, I wish to be discharged, and not longer to be chargeable 
to you.' That is an honest fellow, Morris^" 

On another occasion, Mrs. Washington asked the Baron what 
amusement he had recourse to now, that the certainty of peace 
had relaxed his labors ? "I read, and write, my lady, and chess, 
and yesterday, for the first time, I went a fishing. My gentle- 
men told me it was a very fine business to catch fish, and I did 
not know but this new trade might, by-and-by, be useful to me; 
but I fear I never can succeed — I sat in the boat three hours, it 
was exceedingly warm, and I caught only two fish; they told 
me it was fine sport." "What kind of fish did you take, Baron ?" 
"I am not sure, my lady, but I believe one of them was a whale." 
"A whale, Baron, in the North river?" "Yes, I assure you, a 
very fine whale, my lady — it was a whale, was it not ?" appealing 
to one of his aids. "An eel. Baron." "I beg your pardon, my 
lady, but that gentleman certainly told me it was a whale." 
Washington joined heartily in the laugh that terminated the 
story. 

The social enjoyments at Head (Quarters were marked by 
peculiarities that were long rememberipd by those who partici- 
pated in them.* In the reception and dining hall, a, dinner 
and supper were daily served, as plentiful, as the country 

* Verplanck relates the following anecdote in oonneption with this, subject, as occur- 
ring in Paris: "The American minister (we forget whether it was Mr. Crawford, Mr. 
Brown, or one of their suocessors,) and several of his countrymen, together with 
General Lafayette, were invited to an entertainment at the house of a distingaisbed and 
patriotic Frenchman, who had served his country in his youth in the United States, 
daring the wai of our independence. At the supper hour the company were shown 
Into a room fitted up for the occasion, which contrasted quite oddly with the Parisian 
elegance of the other apartments, where they had spent their evening. A low, boarded , 
painted ceiling, with large beams, a single, small, uncurtained window, with numerous 
small doors, as well as the general style of the whole, gave at first the idea of the 
kitchen, oi largest room of a Butch or Belgian farmhouse. On a long rough table was 
» repast, just as little in keejjing with the refined kitchen of Paris, as the room was 
with its architectnre. It consisted of large dishes of meat, uncouth-looking pastry, and 
Avine in decanters and bottles, accompanied by glasses and silver mugs, such as indicated 
other habits and tastes than those of modern Paris. "Do you know where we are?" 
.•(aid the host to General Lafayette and his companions. They paused for a few moments 
iaBaspenBG. They had seen something like this before, but when and where? "Ah, 
the seven doors and one window," said Lafayette, "and the silver camp-goblets, such a^ 
our marshals of France used in my yonth ! We rps at Washington's Head Qnarters on 
the Hudson, fifty years ago." 



76 REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. 

could supply, and as good as they could be made by continental 
cooks.* The repasts ended, French wines for our French allies 
and those who affected their tastes, and more substantial Madeira 
for Americans of the old school, circulated freely, and were served 
in little silver mugs or goblets made in France for Washington's 
camp equipage. In the summer time, the guests soon withdrew 
from the table to the open grounds ; but in the autumn, the long 
evenings were frequently passed around the table, beside the 
blazing fire. On such occasions apples and hickory nuts mingled 
with the wine; and the amazing consumption of the former, by 
Washington and his staff, was a theme of boundless wonder 
to the French officers. 

But, while the officers thus amused themselves, the thoughts of 
W'ashington were mainly devoted to the future of his country; 
and, among his letters of this period, his circular letter (June 
8,) to the Governors of all the States, in which these thoughts 
are embodied, deserves to be specially noticed. "This letter," 
says Sparks, "is remarkable for its ability, the deep interest 
it manifests for the officers and soldiers who had fought the 
battles of their country, the soundness of its principles, and 
the wisdom of its counsels. Four great points he aims to 
enforce, as essential in guiding the deliberations of every public 
body, and as claiming the serious attention of every citizen, 
namely, an indissoluble union of the States ; a sacred regard for 
public justice ; the adoption of a proper military peace establish- 
ment; and a pacific and friendly disposition among the people of 
the States, which should induce them to forget local prejudices, 
and incline them to mutual concessions. for the advantage of the 
community. These he calls the pillars by which , alone indepen- 
dence and national character can be supported." 

In July, Washington was requested, by the President of 
Congress, to attend the session of that body at Princeton. In 
consequence of the illness of Mrs. Washington, however, he 
could not comply with the request until the I'Sth August, on the 
morning of which day he took his departure from Newburgh. 

* Washington was sometimes compelled to resort to expedients to supply his table. 
Continental billsiwere worthless, and coin could not always be obtained to exchange. 
On one occasion the specie ran out, and so did the supply of eggs. Washington was 
very fond of eggs, and when he learned the cause of their absence from the table, he 
issued an order on the Quarter-Master-General for a butt of salt. "As soon as the salt 
arrived al Head Quartfers, a messenger was sent through the country to give notice that 
salt could be had in exchange for eggs, at Head Quarters. This had the desired effect, 
for salt was scarcer than money, and hi a few days eggs were in store in abundance. 
This fact was related by Mr. John Phillips, father of Ilobert Phillips, who was one of 
the Life Guard and charged with the duty of obtaining supplies. 



REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. tl 

The army was drawn up on the lawn around Head Quarters, 
and the commander-in-chief passed along the lines, and parted 
with many of his subalterns and soldiers forever. 

The definite treaty of peace was signed on the 23d of September. 
After its ratification by Congress, that body issued a proclamation 
(October 18,) by which "that part of the army which had stood 
engaged to serve during the war, and by several acts of Congress 
had been furloughed, should be absolutely discharged after the 
3d of November from said service; and the further service in 
the field of the ofiScers on furlough, dispensed with, and permis- 
sion given to them to retire from service, no more to be called to 
command." * 

On the passage of this proclamation, Washington, then at 
Eocky Hill, N. J., prepared his Farewell Orders to the Army of 
the United States, which were dated in advance of their delivery, 
(November 3d,) that they might be read at the same hour at all 
the points of encampment. In these orders, Washington briefly 
reviewed the events of the past, and suggested the general 
line of policy which, in his opinion, should be pursued by the 
army in the future; and closed with these words: "And being 
now to conclude these last public orders, to take his ultimate 
leave in a short time of the military character, and to bid adieu 
to the army he has so long had the honor to command, the 
commander-in-chief can only again offer in their behalf his 
recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers to 
the God of armies. May ample justice be done to them here, 
and may the choicest of Heaven's favors, both here and hereafter, 
attend those who, under the divine auspices, have secured 
innumerable blessings for others ! With these wishes and this 
benediction, the commander-in-chief is about to retire from 
service. The curtain of separation will soon be drawn, and the 
militaiy scene to him, will be closed forever." 

On the morning of November 3d, 1183, the patriot army 
encamped at Ncwburgh assembled for the • last time on the 
grounds around Head Quarters. At the head of each regiment 
and corps the proclamation of Congress and the farewell orders 
of Washington were read, and the formal and last word of 
command passed along the lines. "Painful," says Thacher, 

* By a proclamation of Congress, adopted 18th October, all- officers and soldiers absent 
on farlongh, were discharged from farther sei-vioe; and ajl others who had engaged to 
serve daring the War were to be discharged from and after the 3d of November. A 
small force only, composed of those who had enlisted for a definite period, were to be 
retained in service until the peace establishment should be organized. — Irving, iv, 434. 



18 



REVOLCTIOKARY EVENTS. 




"was the parting scene ; no description can be adequate to the 
tragic exhibition. Both officers and soldiers, long unaccustomed 
to the affairs of private life, turned loose on the world to starve 
and become a prey to vulture speculators. Never can that 
melancholly day be forgotten when friends, companions for seven 
long years in joy and sorrow, were torn asunder, without the 
hope of ever meeting again, and with prospects of a miserable 
subsistence in future. Among other incidents peculiarly affecting 
on this occasion, were the lamentations of women and children, 
earnestly entreating that those with whom they had been 
connected in the character of husband and father, would not 
withdraw from them the hand of kindness and protection, and 
leave them in despair; but in several instances the reply was: 
' No. We took you as cornpaiiions during the war, and now we 
are destitute of support, and you must pi'ovide for yourselves.' "* 
Major North, who was also a participant in this parting scene, 
thus writes : "At the disbandment of the revolutionary army, 
when inmates of the same tent, or hut, for seven long years 
were separating, and probably forever, grasping each other's 
hand in silent agony, I saw the Baron Steuben's strong endeavors 
to throw some ray of sunshine on the gloom — to mix some drop 
of cordial with the painful djaught. To go, they knew not 
* Thacher's Journal, 34fi. 



RHVOLUTIONAKY K VENTS. ^9 

whither; all recollection. of the art to thrive by civil occupation 
lost, or to the youthful never known. Their hard-earned military 
knowledge, worse than useless; and with their badge* of 
brotherhood, a mark at which to point the finger of suspicion- 
ignoble, vile suspicion !— to be cast out on a world long since 
by them forgotten. Severed from friends, and all the joys and 
griefs which soldiers feel ! Griefs, while hope remained— when 
shared by numbers, almost joys ! To go in silence and alone, 
and poor and hopeless; it was too hard ! On that sad day how 
many hearts were wrung ! I saw it all, nor will the scene be 
ever blurred or blotted from my view.. To a stern old officer, a 
Lieutenant Colonel Cochran, from the Green Mountains, who had 
met danger and diflSculty almost at every step from his youth, 
and from whose furrowed visage a tear till that moment had 
never fallen; the good Baron said — what could be said to lessen 
deep distress. ' For myself,' said Cochran, ,' I care not— I can 
stand it; but my wife and daughters are in the garret of that 
wretched tavern. I know not where to remove, nor have I means 
for their removal !' ' Come, my friend,' said the Baron, 'let us 
go — I will pay my respects to Mrs. Cochran and ybur daughters, 
if you please.' I followed to the loft, the lower rooms being all 
filled with soldiers, with drunkenness, despair and blasphemy. 
And when the Baron left the poor unhappy cast-aways, he left 
hope with them, and all he had to give ! A black man, with 
wounds unhealed, wept on the wharf — there was a vessel in the 
stream bound to the place where he once had friends. He had 
not a dollar to pay his passage, and without it the vessel would 
not take him. Unused to tears, I saw them trickle down the 
good Baron's cheeks as he put into the hands of the black man 
the last dollar he possessed. The negro hailed the sloop, and as 

* "Head Qcabtbks, Nbwbcbgh, Wednesday, August 7th, 1782. 

"Honoraiy Badges of distinction are to be conferred on the veteran non-commiasioned 
officers and soldiers of the army who have served more than three years with bravery, 
fidelity and good conduct: for this purpose a narrow piece of white cloth of an angular 
form 13 to be fixed to the left arm on the uniformed coats — non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers who have served with equal reputation more than six years are to be 
distinguished by two pieces of cloth set in parallel to each other in a similar form. 
Should any who are not entitled to these honors have the insolence to assume the 
badges of them, they shall be severely punished. On the other hand, it is expected 
those gallant men who are thus designated will on all occasions be treated with particu- 
lar confidence and consideration. 

"The General ever desirous to cherish a virtuous ambition in his soldiers, as well as 
to foster and en>-ourage every species of Military merit, directs that whenever any 
singularly meritorious action is performed, the author of it shall be peimitted to wear 
on his facings over the left breast, the figure of a heart in purple cloth or silk, edged 
with narrow lace or bindmg. Not only instances of unusual gallantry, but also of 
extraordmary fidelity and essential service in any way shall meet with due reward. * * 
This order is also to have retrospect to the earliest stages of the war, and to he con- 
sidered as a permanent one," 



80 PRECINCT OP NKWBURGH. 

he passed from the small boat on board, ' Grod Almighty bless 
you, master Baron !' floated from his grateful lips across the 
parting waters." 

How tragic must have been the scenes of separation, when the 
scanty record of them is so touching. While we point to the 
Head Quarters, and repeat the story of Washington triumphing 
over the temptation to assume a Crown^ — of the victory of an 
army over itself — let us not forget that the soil has been baptised 
with the tears of veterans who had passed through the horrors 
of Valley Forge without a murmur — of men who had met the 
foes of their country on many a hard-fought battle-field without 
flinching; and may these recollections kindle a warmer gratitude 
and a deeper reverence for those, the fruits of whose toil and 
suffering we now enjoy. 

The population of the Precinct was considerably increased, 
after the occupation of New York by the English forces, by 
"refugees" from that city, whose participation in the struggle for 
liberty had compelled them to remove. Among these persons, 
Adolph DeGrove, Derick Amerman, Daniel Niven, and others, 
became permanent residents after the peace.* Besides these 
refugees, quite a large number of persons who had been in the 
army, took up their residence here, among whom were Major 
Joseph Pettingale, James Johnson, and others. This addition 
to the population, composed as it was of men of energy and 
enterprise, contributed largely to develope the business capacities 
of the village. Up to the commencement of the war, New 
Windsor had mainly absorbed the commercial enterprise of 
the settlers in this vicinity; but the shipment of stores to the 
army had demonstrated that Newburgh possessed much greater 
natural advantages for commerce, besides being nearer the 
centre of the populated districts ; and these advantages, in the 
hands of aa energetic people, soon began to change the current 
of population, lands were speedily taken up, wharves were 
constructed and the way was opened for that tide of prosperity 
which for years rolled in with a steady wave. 

Anticipating this influx of population, Mr. Benjamin Smith 
laid out in streets and lots, that portion of his farm lying east 
of Montgomery street, between South and First streets, under 

* The Clinton papera, in the State Libwyi contain the petitions of these and other 
refugees, prajjing tliat the houses and lands which they had owned and occupied in 
New York prior to the war, and from which they had been compelled to flee on the 
oconpation by the English, should be restored to them; but for reasons entirely unex- 
plained, so far as we have been able to discover, the petitions were never granted. 



TOWNSHIP OP WASHINRTON. 



81 



the name of the "Township of Washington," and gave a deed 

to the people of the lands now covered by Montgomery, Smith, 

„,^ a a 4 5 s 




streets designated by letters and figures. C— Colden's Dock. L— Continental Dock. 
Water, and Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth streets, from 
Montgomery street to the Eiver. The plot embraced seventy- 
two lots, the largest number of which soon after passed to the 
possession of other proprietoi^.* 

The streets dedicated to the public were not formally opened 
until 11.90, when the Eoad Commissioners of the Town, by virtue 
of a general- act of the Legislature, ordered the establishment 
of "a street called Wagon street, running from the S. W. corner 
of Lot 31, on Western Avenue, Easterly on that Avenue to the 
S. W. corner of Lot 16; thence N. E. to the N. W. corner of Lot 
9, in the Newburgh townshipf ; thence Easterly until it intersects 

* The lots were owned, in 1782, as follows: John Anderson, No.'s 1 and 6; James 
Denton, No. 2; Mr. Menge, No.'s 3 and 13; E. C. Lutherloh, No.'s 4, 10, 11, 23, 24 and 
35; JaoobUeader, No. 5; A. Fairohild, No.'s 7 and 20; Hugh Walsh, No.'s 8, 21 and 
36; Wm. Forbes, No.'s 9 and 22; Mr. Crosby, No. 12; Wm. Qnackenbush, No.'s 14 and 
15; S. Cl*-k, No. 16; B. Palmer, No. 17; Wm. Thurston, No. IB; Adolph DeGrove,No. 
19. The remaining lots were held by Mr. Smith. The deed given by Mr. Smith, and 
the map of the plot are still preserved in the office of the Clerk of the Village. The 
deed reads as follows: 

".Know all men by these Presents: That I, the underwritten Benjamin Smith, for my- 
self, my heirs, executors, administrators and assigns, do forever release, and quit claim 
all the lands in the said streets of the within map, according to the several widths as 
. marked or mentioned in said map, except First street and the place where my dwelling 
house now stands on Second street, which shall remain unmolested during the pleasure 
of myself, my heirs and assigns, or the proprietors of said place their heirs and assigns 
~forever. As witness my hand and seal this thirteenth day of August, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. BENJAMIN SMITH, [L.S.] 

"Witnesses present; Hugh Walsh, John DeGrove, Aaron Fairchild." 

t Old Town of Newburgh Plot. See ante page 33. The peculiar angles in all of our 
principal streets arose from this fact: Colden and his associates in laying out the Old 
Town of Newburgh Plot, commenced their streets on the natural plateaus. The Trus- 
tees of the Glebe laid out, their streets parallel with the river. When Smith came to open 
his land, Water street was placed nearer the river and a con'esponding division canied 
back in Smith and Montgomery streets. When the Eoad Commissionei-s took the duty 
in hand of joining together the streets thus dedicated, an angle was formed in Water 
street at thejunctions with Wagon and South streets; and also at the junction of High 
and Smith streets and of Montgomery and Hasbrouck streets. The angle is heoessarily iol- 
owed in Grand street, and mars Chamber and other streets more recently opened. The 
citizens of Newburgh thus have a perpetual memorial of the "Township of Newburgh," 
the "Township of Washington" and of the "Glebe." 



C6 



82 TOWN OF NEWBUKGH, 

Water street in the township of Washington, Also, a road 
beginning at the S. E. corner of High street and ruiining N. E. 
along that street to the N.W. corner of Lot 19, in the township 
of Newburgh; thence N. E. to First street in the township of 
Wa.shington; thence across said street intersecting Smith street, 
and thence Northerly to South street. Also, a street called 
Montgomery street in the township of Washington, beginning 
at the S. E. corner of a lot given by Benjamin Smith for the nse 
of the Presbyterian congregation, and thence Northerly to South 
street." Also, roads called First, Second, Third, Fourth and 
Fifth streets. Also, a road beginning in the S.W. corne? of Lot 
1, in the township of Washington, and running Southerly across 
the lands of the heirs of Richard Nicolls Golden in a direct 
course to the end of Water street in the township of Newburgh, 
between Lots 1 and 9. 

This order, it will be seen, opened Water street from South 
street to Western Avenue; Colden,or Wagon street from Water 
street to Western Avenue; High street; Smith street; Montgom- 
ery street; and First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth streets, 
the latter from the river to Montgomery streets. Wagon 
street intersected the " Wallkill road," as it was called ; while 
South street was opened from Water to Liberty street, and from 
thence its course changed,* and what is now Gidney Avenue was 
formed. Such, with the addition of Liberty street; were the 
opened streets of the present village of Newburgh in 1791. 

The Precinct of Newburgh continued to be recognized by that 
name until 1788, when, by an act of the Legislature "for dividing 
the Counties of tife State into Towns," passed March 7th* of that 
year, the title of "Precinct" gave place to that of "Town."f The 

* Minutes of Trustees of Glebe, Seg. 22, 1791. "Whereas, there is a vacancy of eight 
rods left on the south side of the Minister's lot for a street, which, running through wet 
ground and over a high hill, is impracticable-^agreed, to enclose said road, and allow a 
road of four rods wide to run through the lot from opposite Martin Weigand's to the 
northward of a piece of swamp land aijjoining said high hills." 

t This act, after reciting the bounds of New Cornwall, NeV Windsor and other towns, 
defines the bounds of the town of Newburgh as follows: "All that part of the said 
County of Ulster, bounded Easterly by Hudson's river. Southerly by New Windsor, 
Westerly by the East bounds of one thousand acres of land granted to John Johnston, 
and the Bast bounds of three thousand acres granted to Henry Wileman, and the East 
bounds of three thousand acres granted to Bip Van^Dam and others; and Northerly by 
a line beginning on the West side of Hudson's river^ at tlie North-east corner of a tract 
of land granted to Francis Harrison and Company, called the five thdusand acre tract, 
and running from thence Westerly along the North bounds of the said tract and the 
North bounds of another tract granted to the said Francis Hanison to the tract of land 
commonly called Wallace's tract, then along the same Nortlieily and Westerly to the 
North-easterly bounds of a tract of land granted to Jacobus Kip, John Cruger and others, 
commonly called Kip and Cruger's tract, thence Westerly along the North-easterly and 
Northerly bounds thereof, to the North-west corner thereof, and then Westerly to the 
North-east corner of said three thousand five hundred acres of land granted to Bip Van 
Dam and others — shall be, and hereby is erected mto a town by the name of Newburgh." 



THE GLEBE DIFFICULTIES. 83 

boTindaries, however, remained unchanged, and as they at 
present exist. 

We have already brought down the history of the Glebe to 
the period of the Eevolution. The Kev. John Sayer, the successor 
of Mr. Watkins, resigned the charge in 1715, qpd during the 
war the church had no minister. The school, however, was 
continued by Mr. John Nathan Hutchins,* who, in addition to his 
duties as teacher, read prayers in the old church on the Sabbath. 
On the death of Mr. Hutchins, in 1782, Mr. Kichard King was 
^elected as teacher; and in 1190, the Rev. George H. Spierin 
performed the duties of minister and school-master. Changes 
had also occurred in the trustees. Mr. Alexander Golden died in 
1*116, and his place had been filled by Isaac Belknap; and on 
the death of Mr. Albertson, Mr. Henry Smith was elected his 
successor. 

It was during the year 1790, that the discussions commenced 
which subsequently terminated the control of the Episcopal 
church oyer the Glebe. In June, of that year. Col. Cadwallader 
Golden, son of Lieut. Governor Golden, f was elected trustee to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Henry Smith; and 
almost immediately after his election, those opposed to the 
church raised the question of his eligibility, he being a non- 
resident although a free-holder on the patent. To meet the 
difficulty, Golden proposed an amendment of the charter so as to 
permit the election as trustees of persons residing within twelve 
miles of the patent who were free-holders thereon; and the 
trustees adopted a petition to the Legislature to that eflfect.J 

The opponents of the church immediately drew up a counter 
petition, asking the Legislature "that no act relative to the 



» The fact hei'e stated is from a MSB. f6antl among the papers of laaao Belknap. The 
paper recites, that owing to tlie scarcity of moBey and other difficulties in collecting the 
Glebe rent3,*Mr. Hatching' salary had not been tuUy paid, there being due him at the 
time of his death the sum of eighty-two pounds one shilling and sixpence. 

t June 4, W90. Col. Cadwallader Colden elected Trustee. Thu-ty-six votes were cast, 
thirty of which were for Colden and six for Isaac Hasbrouct — Minutes. 

±Jan.6 1791. Col. Colden stated that he had conferred with Messrs. Hoffman and 
Harris.AttomeySjinNew York; and that, in consequence of a line he had received from 
Mr Hoffman, he recommended that application should be made to the Legislature, by a 
petition from the inhabitants on the patent, praying that the Legislature would please 
to alter the letter of the patent inthat part where it directs the choice of Trustees; and 
to determine positively what portion of the rents* arising from the Glebe should go 
towards the support of a school, and how much to the minister; as also to alter the 
name and style of said ohai-ter, as should be agreeable to thepresent Constitution of the 
United States. And that the alteration in that part of the Charter which respects the 
choice of a trustee, shall be thus: ThM said inhabitants of the German patent shall have 
a right to elect any person residing within twelve miles of said patent, being a free- 
holder on said patent, as a trustee; and not be confined to those residing on the patent 
only. This proposition being agreed to, it was likewise agi-eed, that a petition for the 
above purposes should be handed about among the inhabitants — Mtrmtes. 



84 tHE GLEBE Dli'FICULTIES. 

premises be passed tiutil the collected sense of the Parish be 

taken." This petition, or remonstrance, was very numerously 

signed; and led to the calling of a meeting, by the trustees, to 

take the whole subject into consideratioa. The call was issued 

on the 7th, and the meeting held on the 10th of February, at the 

house of Martin Weigand, at 2 o'clock, P. M. The inhabitants 

of the patent, regarding the affair as an attempt on the part 

of the church to divert the revenues of the Glebe from the 

support of a school, to which they had been wholly applied since 

It 7 5, were thoroughly aroused and attended the meeting in large 

numbers. After a turbulent discussion of considerable length, 

the proposition to amend the charter was rejected by a majority 

of thirty-four votes.* 

The result of this meeting, viz: the defeat of the attempt to 

amend the charter, led to, in May following, the resignation 

of Golden as trustee, and of Spierin as school-master.f Colden's 

resignation was accepted ; and, on the 1 6th May, Isaac Hasbrouck 

was elected his successor, having received fifty-one votes and 

William Seymour sixteen. The resignation of Spierin produced 

no other action than a resolution to divide the income of the Glebe 

equally as compensation for the duties of minister and school- 

* Feb. 10, 1791. A motion was made, that in order to open the meeting, the adver- 
tisement should be read, which was agreed to and done accordingly. Col. Colden then 
went on to inform the inhabitants of the measures they had talten m electing him their 
trustee. Also, how far they bad proceeded in the business with him; and that, from the 
opposition of cei-tain persons hostile to his election, he had been under the necessity of 
employing certain attorneys in New York, in consequence of whose advice a petition to 
the Legislature, praying aa explanation and amendment of the charter, had been drawn 
up and signed by sundry of said inhabitants.. That another petition was handed about, 
and signed by a number of inhabitants, requesting the Legislature that nothing might 
be done in favor of the before-mentioned petition until the sense of the inhabitants might 
be taken thereon coUe.ctively; and was going farther to remark that such conduct, 
after having chosen him, tended to injm'e his character, and only served to gratify a few 
desigeing persons. Col. Colden was now interrupted by Phineas Howell, and informed 
that his character as a gentleman and citizen was not impeached; that it was a subject 
. foreign from the business of the day, and therefore moved, that a vote be taken whether 
Col. Colden shall undertake to vindicate his character in this meeting or not. The 
motion being seconded, was put to the people and voted, that he shall notr A motion 
was then made and seconded, whether Col. Colden shall speak on the business of the 
day or not. Voted, he shall. Col. Colden then went on and asserted that falsehoods 
were contained in the last mentioned petition; and denied the charges held up therein. 
Here he was again interrupted, so he said no more. A motion was then made and 
seconded, whether there shall be an alteration of the charter or not. After some debate 
upon the question, it was agreed that the sense of the people should be taken by ballot, 
and was earned in favor of those against the alteration by a m^ority of thirty-four. — 
Minuies. 

t May 3, 1791. The Trustees met at the house of Martin Weigand, and being opened, 
Col. Colden observed that upon consideration of the difficulties that seemed to attend 
the trusteeship since he had been elected, and in all probability were likely to be con- 
tinued, it appeared that tha inhabitots of said patent were very much divided; and 
thei'efore concluded that it might tend to restore peace and harmony among them, and 
so be for the public good of the parish, for him to resign his office as trastee; and ac- 
cordingly he delivered his resignation. The Eev. Mr. Spierm proposed not to have any 
thing to do with the Glebe school any iUrther, which the trustees agreed to. Agreed, 
also, by said trustees, that the income of the Glebe lands be equ^ly divided between Mr. 
Spierin and the school-master. — Minvtea. 



THE GLEBE DIFFICULTIES. 85 

master respectively, until the 28th of May, when the trustees 
conferred with Spierin on the subject^ and obtaineid his consent 
to be inducted agreeable to the charter.* 

Mr. Spierin continued to serve as minister and school-master 
until 1793 or '94. Meanwhile the subject of the disposal of 
the revenues of the Glebe was more or less discussed. The 
membership of the Episcopal church had dwindled away until 
very few of that denomination remained; and the inhabitants 
belonging to other religious denominations renewed their efforts 
to, get. the revenues exclusively applied to the support of a 
school-master. The old trustees insisted upon maintaining their 
agreement with Mr. Spierin; and, having no other alternative, 
the people held a meeting and elected William Seymour and 
Phineas Howell trustees, and voted that the Glebe rents 'Should 
be paid to them. This action led to a compromise of the diflS- 
culties, in virtue of which both the old and the new trustees 
resigned their places, and Timothy Hudson and Phineas Howell 
were chosen tneir successors.f 

In this way the revenues of the &lebe passed from the control 
of the Episcopal church. The very means — the elective franchise 
conferred on the inhabitants by the charter — which the Episcopa- 
lians had employed to wrest the privileges.of the patent from the 
Lutherans, had been successfully used for the overthrow of their 
own power. The Glebe now passed wholly into the hands of the 
people; and a limited but useful system of free education for the 
children of the poor, began to diffuse its blessings. 

The concluding years of the century were marked by the 
formal incorporation of the Presbyterian and Associate Eeformed 
churches; J and by the establishment' of the Newburgh Academy. 
An attempt had been made to organize the latter institution in 
1191, and for that purpose authority was asked from the Legis- 
lature to establish a Lottery! — a mode of raising money for such 

* Minutes, May 28, 1791. t Minutes, Sept. 22, Oct. 13 and 27, 17M. 

i A more particular account of these cluwohes will he given in another chapter. 

§ "The petition of the inhabitants of the town of Ne-vburgh and parts adjacent, most 
humbly sheweth: That in the year 1751, a tract of 500 acres of land on the banks of 
Hudson's river at Newburgh, was granted by Government as a Glebe, for the use and 
support of a minister of the Church of England, and a school for the education of youth: 
That from the poverty of the inhabitants to whom the grant was first made, and other 
inauspicious circumstances, the benevolent intentions of Government have been in a 
great measure frustrated: That the healthy situation of Newburgh and other well-known 
natural advantages, make it a very eligible spot tor a public school: That the present 
inhabitants, sensible of those advantages, and wishing to co-operate with the good in- 
tentions of Government, by making the said grant extensively useful, have given en- 
couragement to the Rev. George H. Spierin to settle on those lands as minister, and also 
to undertake the superintendence of an Academy, for both of which charges he is well- 
known to be amply qualified: That they hibour under great inconveniences for want of 



86- VILLAGE or NEWBUEGH. 

purposes very common at that time. This petition failed, and 
during the pendency of the difficulties in regard to the Glebe, 
little was done. In 1195, however, the public took the matter 
in hand with energy. Mr. Elnathan Foster gave a lot of land; 
and the building was erected by means of private subscriptions, 
the title and management of the property being vested in the 
trustees of the Glebe. 

Population poured in rapidly, and mercantile, commercial and 
mechanical enterprises were established and prosecuted with 
vigor. The heavily timbered lands in the western part of the 
town gave employment to fourteen saw-mills, and large quantities 
of ship timber, planks and staves were forwarded to market. 
The foot of North street, where Major Pettingale had established 
a wharf, was alrnost entirely devoted to the shipment of lumber, 
and vessels were loading there constantly for New Yerfc.— Ship- 
building was also carried on to a consider.able extent by William 
Seymour and others ; and Newburgh ships entered into the Liver- 
pool trade, and her smaller vessels engaged in coasting and in 
trade with the West India Islands. 

In 1797,. the village had attained to such size that it was 
found necessary to establish a Fire Department; and for this 
purpose a law was passed by the Legislature defining the fire 
limits of the village, and directing the election of five trustees, 
"to be called the Trustees of the Fire Company in the Village of 
Newburgh." * The fire limits defined by this act included that 
portion of the town lying south of an east and west line running 
six rods north of the Academy; and the district thus defined was 
"to be called the Village of Newburgh," the free-holders in which 
were empowered to elect annually not less than three nor more 

a building sufficiently large to keep such a school as the extent of this generous grant 
certainly merits, and which they are unable to erect : — Your petitionere therefore humbly 
pray, that they may be indulged with leave to set on foot a Lottery to raise a sum not 
exceeding to be expended in raising convenient buildings tor the purposes afore- 
said. And your petitioners will ever pray." Dated, Newburgh, January, 1791. 

* The third section of this act reads as follows: '"The said Trastees, to be chosen as 
aforesaid, or a major part of them, shall have full power and authority to nominate and 
appoint a sufficient number of firemen (willing to accept,) not exceeding twenty to every 
fire engine now provided, or hereafter to be provided, for the use of the said village, out 
of the inhabitants being free-holders or persons renting property to the value of one 
hundi-ed dollars per annum, to have the care, management, working and using the said 
fire engines, and the other tools and instruments now or hereafter to be provided for the 
extinguishment of fires within the said village, which persons so to be nominated and 
appointed as aforesaid, shall be called the firemen of the village of Newburgh, who are 
hereby requh-ed to be ready at all fires, as well by night as by day, to manage, use and 
work the other tools and instruments aforesaid." 

By other sections of the act, firemen were exempted from service as constables or as 
jurors of inquest; and the Trustees had power to remove firemen for cause, to make aU 
necessary rules and regulations, and, in case of fire, to command the assistance of all 
'.'able-bodied inhabitants in said village" to extinguish the same. The inhabitants of the 
village were also requhed to furnish their houses with suitable fire-buckets. 



INFIDELITY. 81 

than five trustees, who should have the appointment of firemen and 
the control and management of a fire department. This was 
the first crude form of the village authority. 

In September, 112'^, the publication of The Mirror — the second 
newspaper printed in the present village of Newburgh — was 
commenced by Philip Van Home, and, in 1799, passed into the 
hands of Joseph W. Barber. In 1798, The New Windsor Gazette 
was published at New Windsor by Jacob Schultz, but was soon 
after removed to Newburgh and called The Orange County Gazette. 
This paper was subsequently sold to David Denniston, the name 
being changed to The Citizen. It was afterwards merged in The 
Bights of Man* a paper established by Elias Winfield, for whom 
it was printed by. Benoni H. Howell. The Mirror gave place to 
The Becorder of the Times, and the latter to The Political Index. 

We paention these papers in their order,, for the purpose of 
introducing the facts in the religious history of the town which 
led to their publication. As the Eevolution had "severed the old 
connection between church and state, the people of America 
were naturally led to consider what should be the future political 
relation of the church. These discussions finally subsided on the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, as that instrument expressly 
declared that Congress should "make no law respecting an 
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." 
But besides these debates, there were other and mightier agencies 
operating in the direction of scepticism. Voltaire and his friends 
had already begun the work of unsettling the religious faith of 
Europe; they shook, as it were, the very pillars of the church, 
and desolated France with the terrible Revolution of '98. 

The doctrines taught by Voltaire and Paine were accepted by 
many prominent and able men in the United States; but at no 
place did these anti-religious sentiments prevail to a greater ex- 
tent than in Newburgh. The Citizen first, and subsequently The 
Bighis of Man, hoisted the infidel flag; there was a regularly 
organized society of infidels, and a blind man, by the name of 
Elihu Palmer,f was induced to visit the village weekly and deliver 

* In the Autobiography o{ Rev. Doct. Johnston, a paper under the title of The Tem- 
ple of Reason is mentioned, (p. 94.) The paper referred to wa.-! probably The Rights 
of Man, which, we aire informed by Mr. Schultz^ was the only infidel paper published 
at that time. 

t In a little book entitled "The Pate of Infidelity," written by Abner Cunningham, 
it is stated that Elihu Palmer was bom at Norwich, Conn., about the year 1763, and 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1 787. He was early settled as a minister of the Gospel ; 
but he subsequently changed his faith to Universalism, and from that passed over to Infi- 
delity. Iiil793,he was attacked by Yellow Fever which left him. entirely blind. He 
died at Philadelphia in 180S. 



88 INFIDELITY. 

lectures at the Academy in opposition to the Bible. Besides the 
above-named newspapers, Paine's "Age of Reason," Tyndal's 
"Christianity as Old as the Creation," and works of a similar 
character, were re-published under the auspices of the society and 
circulated with all diligence. 

"That thez'e was infidelity, and organized infidelity," says Doct. 
Johi;>son,* "I have no reason to doubt. Nay, I have my informa- 
tion from one who was a member of what was styled "The Druid' 
Society." It was one of the branches of the "Illuminati Society," 
at the head of which was Weishaupt, of Germany, the leading 
object of which, according to his representations, was, destruction 
to all organized governments, 'civil and divine.' Hence the Bible 
was the avowed object of their hatred, as well as all that pertained 
to the church of God and her institutions. I have a number of 
facts, dates and particulars on this subject, which would help 
posterity to know more of the sad effects of infidelity in New- 
burgh, the latter end of the last and the commencement of this 
century, than is generally known at present. A clergyman 
informed me, that after preaching here, he was attacked in the 
evening by a fierce dog, set on by several who were reputed 
members of the Druid Society. The place where the attack was 
made was near the large elm tree on Liberty Street. I presume 
many have heard it stated, (and I have never heard it contro- 
verted,) that in the afternoon or evening of the day in which the 
ordinance of the Lord's Supper was dispensed by our officiating 
clergyman, a mock administration was performed at a springf 
within the limits of the Corporation, by formally presenting to a 
little dog a cracker and a small quantity of water, using the 
words of our blessed Redeemer when he instituted the holy 
supper." 

"It ought to be known," continues Dr. Johnston, "that the prin- 
cipal actor in this impious transaction did not long survivie. On 
the following Sabbath evening he was found in his room, with 
the door locked, apparently in a fit. The door was forced, and 
he was seen lying on the floor, convulsed with awful spasms, 
and he died without being able to utter a word. Whether he had 
taken anything with a view to self-destruotion, or whether it was 
the immediate act of God, without his voluntary agency, we 
know not. This occurred in July, 1198. In the grave-yard there 

* A aeries of sermons delivered by the Rev. Join Johnston, D. D., deceased. 

t The place refen-ed to is saad to have beon the spring on the premises mow owned to 
Edward K. Johnes, Esq. 



INFIDELITY. 89 

is a stone with the following inscription: "The Tomb of ■ 

, who died July 2d, in the year of the Christian Era, 1799, 

aged 34 years." For a time it seemed as if these infatuated men 
had determined that there should not remain in Newburgh and 
its vicinity a vestige of Christianity; and they employed every 
means in their power to accomplish their object." 

Dr. Johnston's account of the objects and doings of the infidels 
of Newburgh, comes to us somewhat colored perhaps by religious 
prejudice; but the main facts are generally conceded to have been 
as he states them. There are, we believe, but three living wit- 
nesses of the events referred to, Mr. James Donnelly, a member 
for a short time of "The Druids," Mr. Jacob Schultz> the editor of 
the first anti-infidel paper, and Mr. Daniel Niven. We have 
conversed with Mr. Donnelly and Mr. Schultz on the subject, and 
they both agree that the accounts given by Dr. Johnston and by 
Abner Cunningham* are exaggerated, especially in reference to 
the deaths of several of the participants in the scenes described. 
"The Druids," says Mr. Donnelly, "first organized as a debating 
society, and was composed of the best men in the place. Many 
of the members became infidels after they had joined the society, 
and then changed the association into an infidel club. A good 
many withdrew at this time and myself among the number. It 
is a great mistake to assert that all the infidels were bad men 
and came to violent deaths." Mr. Schultz states that Dr. Phineas 
Hedges, whose sudden death -Dr. Johnston refers to, "it was 
always understood, died in a fit brought on by nervous excitement. 
The circumstances were these: I printed an article in my Gazette 
in which Dr. Hedges and the infidels were handled severely. The 
Dr. was very much excited over it, and came down to New 
Windsor to ask the privilege of a reply. I told him that I must 
see his reply before I wou4d agree to print it; but that if it was 
couched in proper terms, he might expect its publication. The 
next I heard was that the Dr. had died in a^ fit. Some of the 
more ardent anti-infidels said it was a visitation of God; but 
this was not generally believed. f The discussions of that period 

* "Fate of Infidelity," ty Abner Canningliam, in which the author professes to reveal 
the fate of several of the prominent Newburgh infidels. The fiies of our village papers 
show conclusively that the statements made are incon'ect in mjny instances. "D. D." 
says Cunningham, referring to David Denniston, "a printer, three days after fell in a fit, 
and died immediately." This is not true, for Denniston edited The Rights of Man aStei 
this, and was subsequently connected with the American Citizen and Watch Tower, a 
paper printed in New York. He died Dec. 13, 1803, of a malignant fever, 

t The Mirror, of July 9th, thus speaks of Dr. Hedges: "In justice to his memory, it 
ought to be observed, that he was a man possessed of a strong mind, and this mind 
highly improved and cultivated by the principles of general science and the knowledge 
of the philosophy of nature." 



RECOELECTIONS. 90 

will always be remembered by me; and after the lapse of sixty 
years I have come to regard the acts of my contemporaries in a 
softer light than that in which I then looked upon them." 

While these corrections are due to the memory of the dead, the 
files of The Rights of Man and of The Recorder of the Times — 
the first the advocate, and the latter the opponent of the doctrines 
taught in Paine's "Age of Reason" — give ample evidence of the 
violence of the discussion, and of the efforts made to overthrow 
all religious worship. According to a statement in The Recorder 
of the Times, in 1803, these efforts gradually subsided after the 
close of the century, and now, after the lapse of fifty years, we 
behold the scene of these old contests decked with the spires of 
fifteen churches. 

In 1198, the political relations of the town were changed by 
an act of the Legislatui'e making a new division of the original 
counties of Ulster and Orange and erecting the present county 
of Orange, with Newburgh and Goshen as half-shire towns. 
Under this law Courts were held in the Academy, the upper 
rooms of which were fitted up for the purpose; and this arrange- 
ment continued until the erection of the present Court House. 

— We have now traced the history of the town and village 
of Newburgh from the first settlement down to the close of the 
century; and have enumerated the leading events occuring in 
their progress. We have noted the settlement by the Palatines 
of the Parish of Quassaick — the transfer of the Patent to other 
settlers under the title of the Parish of Newburgh — ^the settle- 
ment of adjoining Patents and their incorporation in the Precinct 
of Highland — the erection of the Precinct and subsequently of 
the Town of Newburgh — the participation of the people in the 
struggle for national independence, and the discussions in which 
they engaged and the enterprises which they fostered. We 
cannot close the record more appropriately than by giving place 
to the following recollections, prepared for our pages, by our 
venerable townsman, Mr. James Donnelly: 

"When I look bacJk almost eighty years and think of our village 
as it was then and compare it with the present, I can scarcely 
realize the change. It certainly was one of the most forlorn 
looking places that I ever saw. It had but one street — a very 
good one to be sure — along which was scattered a few old look- 
ing brown houses ; and that was the village, for below the hill 
you could hardly set your foot for the mud. Water street was 
not worthy to be called a street, as it only extended from about 



91 RECOLLECTIONS. 

opposite where the Steam Mills are nearly to where the Bank of 
Newburgh is, I have often seen the continental wagons pried 
ont of the mud with rails when four large horses could not draw 
them out. The side hill was coveredwith orchards principally. 
A strip of land along the river, commencing where the upper 
malt houses stand and reaching to the west side of Water street 
and north to Pettingale's landing, was called the Dismal Swamp. 
It was a deep swamp, covered with a dense thicket of black 
alders and alive with pilots (snakes.) No one thought of going 
there, except in the winter when the boys sometimes caught 
rabbits there, and they were plenty. 

"On the hill were the old church, the parsonage and the school- 
house, Martin Weigand's hotel, which stood just opposite Gidney 
Avenue, and a few houses on the Glebe. At the south end of 
Liberty street was Hasbrouck's house, and on beyond him were 
the residences of Henry Smith and his brother Leonard. Has- 
brouck's and Smith's were considered quite out of town. 

"I believe that I was born in the first frame house that was 
built here, from facts that I noticed when I demolished the old 
house, although I had forgotten them for many years until you 
roused my memory by your inquiries about Albertson's tavern. 
Now I recollect all about it. It was very old at the time I took 
it down, but could have been repaired by putting in new sills. 
It had a poor foundation, and bore the appearance of having been 
built in a hurry. The reasons why I think it was the first frame 
house, and built before there were any saw mills in this part of 
the country are, that there was not an inch of sawed stufi" in the 
•whole house in its original state, that is before the kitchen, piazza 
and window-shutters were added. One side of the frame was 
hewed smooth enough to nail the sidings on, but the bark was 
left on in the garret. The siding was split oak about three feet 
long — shingles the same, only not so long, and lapped lengthways 
like the siding. The chimney was flat stone laid in loam moi'tar. 
It was completely cemented when removed. The walls were loam 
and not a particle of lime, hair or bristles in it. Whoever built 
it made the loam mortar adhere better than we do lime and hair 
mqftar. It was the only frame house in the place that had no 
sawed stuff in it. ■ It had' beams over-head and a floor water 
tight. The kitchen- was built by Albertson I believe — at least I 
was told so. The piazza and shutters were made at the same 
time, I presume, for they were the same style of workmanship, 
The piazza was a smart" affair for those days — it had a cornice 



rzff..J 



92 EECOLLECTIONS, 

and neat posts. The kitchen is still standing. I see by my old 
deeds that the lots were designated as No. 6 and. 18, on the Glebe, 
and were conveyed in 1768 by .Cad. Golden to Joseph Albertson; 
and by Joseph Albertson, cordwainer, to Peter Donnelly, of New 
York, currier, in 1774. It is over sixty years since I took down 
the main building. 

"After Albertson sold to my father, he built an addition to 
Henry Bend's house, on lot No. i, and kept a public house there. 
Jeremiah Smith, father of Daniel Smith of Balmville, bought the 
place of Albertson and kept a tavern there sometime after the 
war. The . house is still there. John Mandeville afterwards 
bought it and buUt an addition to it. 

"During the war the fife and drum were heard almost con- 
stantly, and soldiers were quartered on us nearly all the time. 
When they came, the sergeant would open the door and tell you 
that you must take in the soldiers, while the soldiers stood dripping 
in the snow or rain, anxiously waiting for shelter. My father 
. frequently gave up the whole house to them ; and when the out- 
kitchen and house were full, I have known him to be at the baru 
until ten o'clock at night making places for them to sleep. They 
were compelled to lie on the floor to sleep, and I thought no 
more of walking over them, than I now do of walking on a 
carpet. The soldiers were generally militia men called out on 
alarms. Sometimes they remained a long time, but generally 
only a night or so. My father always tried to make them com- 
fortable ; he gave them potatoes, apples and cider. They never 
would steal from him, but would go to the fences of the neigh- 
bors and take rails and burn them ; but they were regarded as 
privileged to take such things. It was a tight fit for some of 
the King's folks to take in American soldiers, but they had to 
do it. We had no trouble withihe soldiers from bad conduct. 
They were a little mischievous, and to amuse themselves one 
would hold me up and tell me to kick another. I expect I kicked, 
for I am told that I was a good boy to mind. Father would say, 
"Boys, boys, you are spoiling that child," and then they would 
stop ; but as soon as his back was turned, I would be hoisted up 
again for the same trick. 

"At the time the British saikd up the river and burned King- 
ston, those that had anything worth preserving hid it in the 
woods. My mother had some things hid away across King 
street. Among the rest was a small table, which we have still 
in a good state of preservation. Almost all the male portion of 



RECOLLECTIONS. 93 

the population was off to the defence of the forts, and my father 
among the number. My mother took us children down cellar to 
avoid the shots, two or three of which lodged in the bank oppo- 
site the house. The British fired a good many shot. I do not 
recollect being taken down cellar, for the reason, I suppose, that 
I was used to going there, and there was nothing imnsual in it 
to make me remember it. 

"I recollect distinctly, however, the Hessian prisoners who 
were brought here after the surrender of Burgoyne. The officers 
wore long blue cloaks. They were in charge of a company of 
Morgan's riflemen, a part of whom were billetted at my father's 
house. The riflemen were certainly the wickedest men that it 
was ever my lot to see or hear for profanity. Ask them their 
pedigree, and the reply was, "My father was high Dutch and my 
mother Irish," or "My father was Irish and my mother Dutch." 
So it ran through the company. 

"One blessing was, that provisions were plenty; but clothing- 
was difficult to obtain. A wool hat was a fine affair. I never 
went without shoes; but I remember being without a hat, from 
the fact of hiding once with some other boys, when we saw 
General Washington coming, so as to burst out when he came 
by and throw up our hats and hurrah for him. Those of us who 
had hats threw them up, and those who had none threw up their 
hands, which done just as well. Every family made their owji 
clothing, but they could not make hats very well. 

"The Hard Winter of 1180, made a very deep impression on 
my mind. We were fourteen days without bread. Owing to 
the severity of the weather, the mills could not run much of the 
time, and when they did run it was on flour for the army. We 
had plenty of everything else, but missed the bread. Wheat 
was so plenty that the horses were fed with it; but we could not 
get flour. My father sent over the river to DePeyster's mill and 
had a barrel brought over on a hand-sled. In three days it was 
all gone— lent out — ^for the neighbors devoured each other, like 
the Kilkenny cats. The destitution was universal. After that 
there came a thaw, and we never wanted for bread again. The 
mills were poor affairs. There were only two— Hasbrouck's and 
Nehemiah Denton's ; the latter on one of the streams north of the 
village. For forty days that winter the water did not drop from 
the eaves. It snowed almost every day.. We did not see the 
sun until ten o'clock in the morning, and then it was only visible 
for a short time, and looked as if it was wallowing through a 



94 RECOLLECTIONS. 

snow bank. The snow was even with the roof of our piazza. 
Between the war and the weather, we had such times as we 
would not be likely to forget. 

"The appearance of General Washington is familiar to me. 
He seemed different from any one else. He was of a commanding 
form, and calm, majestic countenance. He was a splendid rider; 
and we boys reverenced him, and extended a due share of respect 
to his horse and his servant, Will. Will was a handsome black, 
somewhat in years, and always rode a short distance behind his 
master on a brown horse. The General rode a bay horse. Mrs. 
Washington was short and stout. I thought she was homely, 
and that she never could have been a handsome woman. 

"General Wayne had his Head Quarters at Mrs. Wool's house, 
which was near my father's, and I saw him almost every day. 
He was short and heavy set, and had red eyes. I remember his 
eyes because we had a cross dog that had red eyes, and the 
soldiers swore he had Mad Anthony's eyes. They called the 
dog Mad Anthony altogether. Trip was a tory in feelings, for 
he hated the sight of a soldier because they teazed him. 

"The Life Guards often visited at my father's house to discuss 
the events of the war, and after the peace those who had been 
soldiers used to gather there and talk and tell stories. When 
the news of peace came, my mother said, "Peace, blessed peace." 
"Mother, what is peace ?" I asked. I- thought times had always 
been as they were then. 

"Mrs. Wool's house, which must have been Martin Weigand's 
old hotel, was torn down by Benjamin Darby who built part of the 
house subsequently known as the Downing house. Darby was- a 
tanner and had one vat under an apple tree. I suppose he was 
frightened away from here, as he had been a tory during the war. 
At all events he went away and left his wife destitute. My father 
took her to his house, and finished and sold the leather for her 
that Darby left, and she went away with the proceeds. Eichard 
Hudson owned the place afterwards and enlarged Darby's house. 
Mr. Downing purchased the place some thirty years ago. 

"Martin Weigand, Col. Palmer and Col. Hasbrouck each had 
a wagon, and these were all there were in the place. A few 
persons had ox-carts in and about the village ; and Capt. Coleman, 
up at the brook, had a Nantucket calash. Those who had horses 
had sleighs ; but the usual mode of traveling was on horseback 
and on foot. I don't remember when I first saw umbrellas used. 
When I was a boy the men had hoods on their over-coats to wear 



RECOLLECTIONS, 95 

"over thek heads when it rained; but there was not much business 
then to call people out in the rain. 

"Those who had beef to sell, used to drive it under an apple 
tree, and kill, dress and sell it there. The best cuts sold for six 
coppers (twenty-four coppers to a shilling) a pound; and pork 
sold for three coppers a pound. These coppers were made by 
Capt. Machin, out at the Big Pond. I took about a peck of them 
once down to Schultz's mill and got two bushels of flour. I 
remember it because Schultz sat down on the floor to count them, 
and I had to wait until he was done. The very highest price for 
mutton was six shillings a head for a large fat sheep of the old 
fashioned breed. Good horses averaged seventy-five and eighty 
dollars. My father bought one of Hugh Stevenson and paid one 
hundred dollars for it. This was an extraordinary price, but it 
was an extraordinary horse, and had been taken from the Indians. 
We called him the Sturdy Beggar. This purchase was during 
the war; but the butchering business was long after it. 

"Broad street only extended about three hundred feet below 
Grand. It was there fenced in and Mr. Guthries had his black- 
smith shop in the middle of it. There was no house below Grand 
street, on the Glebe, when I first remember it. There might 
have been one or two before the war. The houses that were 
standijig after the war were poorly built, and being generally 
without foundations, didn't last long. The old Ward house stood 
in the hollow. It must have been as old a house ours, but I 
don't remember whether it had any sawed stuff in it or not. 
There is nothing to mark the spot where it stood except a 
chestnut tree, very old, on the land of J. J. Monell. The Wards 
had a cider mill of very primitive construction. The apples 
were. pounded in a trough and the cheese pressed by placing a 
heavy beam on it. The chestnut tree that I have referred to was 
80 large, when I was a boy, that they used to saw the limbs off 
to get the nuts. The elm tree in Liberty street is about my age. 
I remember it when it was a mere whip and so slender that it 
could scarcely bear the weight of the mower's scythes while . 
they rested from their work in the meadow. 

"The old story of the seizure of the Palatine church, and the 
carrying off of the bell, I have heard repeated a good many 
times years ago. It was always said that it was Burger 
Meynders that was buried under the falling door during the 
fracas. The old bell was the smartest little bell that I ever heard. 
You could hear it ring clear down to Murderer's creek. Burger 



96 RECOLLECTIONS. 

Meynders owned the Head Quarters property> and I always 
understood that he built the oldest part of the house. The old 
church was used as a cooper's shop by Morgan Cole before it 
was fitted up for a school-house. Once during the war the 
soldiers stabled their horses in it. After the war, Martin 
Weigand, who had a deep regard for the old church, proposed to 
have it repaired. The project was agreed to by others, and a 
bee was held and the repairs made. After that the Methodists 
and preachers of other denominations held service there. The 
school-master's house was taken down, and Mr. Mandeville made 
a blacksmith shop out of part of the frame. 

"The first dock was called Denton's Landing, and was probably 
built by Alexander Golden long before the war. It was after- 
wards George Gardiner's dock, and is now Mr. Eamsdell's. The 
next dock was built during the war, and was called the Continental 
Dock because the Continental Ferry used to land there. It was 
where Mailler's dock now is. Where the north-eaist corner of 
Water and Third streets now is, were barracks for the soldiers, 
and across the street, back of the Orange Hotel, were more 
barracks. They were subsequently removed to the west side of 
Smith street, and were burned down some years ago. What 
was known as Oakley & Davis' dock was built during the encamp- 
ment here expressly for the use of the army; and north of it was 
an enclosure for cattle, and a slaughter-house, &c. After the 
war. Major Petting-ale established What was called Pettingale's 
Landing. It was near the foot of North street, which was 
then a good road. Large quantities of ship-timber, staves and 
shingles were sent off from this landing. There was no dock- 
vessels were loaded from scows. Pettingalc moved a building 
from the neighborhood of Powell's down there and a man by the 
name of Hogan lived in it. The landing was in the cove just 
north of the Powder magazine, and the road to it is yet there. 
John Peter DeWint built the dock between Mailler's and Oakley 
& Davis, and also the brick house opposite the Bank of New- 
burgh. It was the first brick house built in the village. A road 
ran down to the dock and the brick house was on the corner of 
it. Front street was not here then. The river ran up in places 
nearly to Water street, and the docks were small affairs. 
Water street, north of Fourth, ran up the hill in an angular 
direction, and intersected South street. 

"There were but five houses below the hill, besides the conti- 
nental blacksmith shop which extended from Mr. Tyler's corner 



RECOLLECTIONS. 97 ' 

. to Mr. Carter's store. David Howell finished it and lived there 
after the war. One of these houses was Mr. Denton's, afterwards 
Judge Gardiner's, and is still standing on Water street near the 
Whaling house. Another was where Isaac Belknap lived, 
nearly opposite the Gardiner house. The third, was a house on 
the north side of Denton's dock, where John Harris afterwards 
commenced the hatting business. The fourth was the residence 
of Alexander Golden, and was called the Newburgh House. It 
stood at the head of the gore between Golden and Water street. 
Th^e fifth, was a house where Benjamin Smith lived, built by his 
father, on Smith street near the corner of Second.* The houses 
below the hill clustered in tbe vicinity of First street, probably 

from the fact that Colden's 
old ferry boats landed 
there. Colden's house was 
a two-story frame build- 
ing, with dormer windows. 
, It was thirty or thirty-five 
I feet square, and had four 
rooms on the first floor and 
a hall through the centre. 
It stood fronting the rivev. Benjamin Eoe, the first harness- 
maker in town, lived there. The Square, as it is now called, used 
to be known as Colden's Gore. It was formed by opening Water 
and First streets, and the prior course of Wagon now Golden 
street. Old Wagon street ran down about as far as the intersec- 
tion of Golden and Water streets and then wound down the hill 
south to Denton's dock. While the army was here, Adolpli 
DeGrove built a tavern on the west side of Water street, corner 
of Third, and several other buildings were put up about the same 
time. Not long after the war, John Anderson built a store on the 
south-east corner of Water and Third streets. Eobert Ludlow 
afterwards bdbght the place. Adolph DeGrove sold his place to 
John McAuley, and built a house on the east side of the street, 
about half-way between Second and Third streets,* where Jie kept 
a tavern, and where he opened the first bakery in the place. John 
and Joseph Hoffman afterwards carried on the baking business 
at the same place. They subsequently dissolved partnership, and 
Joseph started a new shop on the north-west corner of Water and 




* See Seed of Benjamin Smith, page 81. We add a few notes to Mr. Donnelly's 
paper for the purpose of giving concurrent facta from other sources which throw some 
additional light upon the siibjeots noticed hy him. 



C7 



• 98 BECOLLECTIONS. 

Second streets.* Daniel Niven, Jr., and Marsli & Ferris were^ 
the principal tailors. John Shaw kept a store on the east side 
of Third street, opposite the Market; and Hugh Walsh kept a 
store on the west side of the Market. The Market stood at the 
foot of Third street, and the street ran down to the dock on each 
side of it. Robert Gourlay, John McAulay, George Monell, and 
Denniston & Abercromhie had stores in Water street, the latter 
firm on the corner where the Orange Hotel now standi. John 
McAuley kept his store in DeGrove's old tavern. Matthew 
DuBois was the first tobacconist. His shop was in Smith street, 
and the business was continued after his death by David M. 
DuBois. Jonathan Carter was the next tobacconist. But time 
would fail me to enumerate a tithe even of the changes that have 
occurred in the progress of the village. There are, I believe, 
only three of the descendants of the old business men now in 
Water street — the Chapmans, at Joseph Hoffman's old place; 
James S. Brown, who succeeded John Brown in the hardware 
business, and Enoch Carter who keeps his shop where his father 
and grand-father did. 

"I have said that the river ran up to aearly where Water 
street now is. The bank of the river formed a curve, setting 
in south of South street, and the water, at about Second street, 
was within a hundred feet of Water street.f I have rowed 
boats on the beach where the United States Hotel stands. The 
channel was very abrupt, and at high-tide sloops sailed almost 
up to Water street. 

"The Druids were first organized as a debating society. 1 
joined it under the impression that it was to be conducted for 
the mutual benefit and instruction of the members. The laws 
said that neither politics nor religion were to be discussed. I 
met with the society four or five times, and finding that politics 
were discussed, I quietly withdrew and never troubled myself 
about them afterwards, as I did not approve of a secret political 
society. Perhaps two-thirds of the members were infidels. Dr. 
Johnston makes a sweeping charge that they were all infidels, 
and all came to violent deaths. It is a great mistake. I have 
heard of vile acts attributed to some of the members, as well as 

* "Joseph Hoffman, baker, respectfully informs the pul^Jlo and his friends that be has 
removed from the house owned by Mrs. DeGrove, where he fonnerly lived, to the corner 
of Water and Second streets, two doors south of John Brown's store." — Adv. in Recor- 
der, May 7, 1804. 

t In an advertisement of mortgage foreclosure, dated January 1, 1805, we find Lot 
No. 5, in the Township of Washington, now the north-west corner of Water and Second 
streets, described as "m depth from the east line of Water street to the river, 100 feet." 



RECOLLECTIONS. 99 

to some who were not. A great many withdrew after I left. 
They are all gone now but myself. When I met with the society 
it held its sessions in the upper part of William L. Smith's house, 
now Eli Hasbrouck^s, in a room that had been occupied by a 
Masonic lodge. Mr. Smith was a member. Alexander Falls was 
Secretary of the society for some time.* When I joined there 
was no initiation form or fee. I understood afterwards they used 
a ceremony similar to the Masons — administered an oath, &c. 
The society afterwards met in a room iinished off for it in the 
building which now stands on the south-west corner of Smith 
and Third street. I don't know anything about the society 
holding meetings in the old Mcintosh house, although it might 
have done so after I withdrew. I never knew how the society 
broke up, but always supposed it died out with the infidel move- 
ment. It may have broken up in a quarrel, as you say you have 
heard it stated ; but if so it must have' been a quarrel got up for 
that purpose. 

"I see that the house occupied by Richard Rikeman, adjoining 
Doct. Morrison's old place, is still standing. I do not know 
whether Rikeman built it or not — it was built before ray recol- 
lection. Rikeman was a shoemaker. , 

"James Johnson built the first house on the corner where^ the 
Orange Hotel stands. Benjamin and Daniel Birdsall opened the 
first regular store in the village. It was on Denton's, now 
Ramsdell's, dock. It was robbed, and I found the stolen goods 
down by the river in a clump of bushes — about ten dollars worth 
of thread, tape, Dilworth's spelling books, and other articles. 

"During the war salt was very scarce. I have seen farmers 
who were wealthy obtain salt from my father; and they would 
wrap it up and carry it home more carefully than they would 
money. My father obtained salt, and many things that others 
could not get, from his intimacy with Hugh McConnell, father of 
our present Surrogate, who had charge of the public stores at 
Fishkill. 

"The first Pest-house stood near where John W. Brown's 
residence now is. It was a building erected by Capt. Coleman 
for his Nantucket trade, as I have understood. It stood in a 

* The "Society of Ancient Draias" was organized September 22, 1803, a? appears by 
a notice in tiie Recorder of the Times of that year, and also by the following advertise- 
ment in the Rights of Man of September, 1804 : 

"Society op Ancient Dbuids. — The members are requested to meet at the Lodge 
RoomonSaturday, the22d-inst., at three o'clocic in the afternoon, to celebrate their 
anniversary festival; at which time and place an Oration will be delivered by one of the 
members. Sept. 7, 1804. ALEXANDER PALL8,'Secy." 



100 BECOLLKCTIONS. 

grove of pines, and was a solitary place. The people then 
regarded the small-pox, and other contagious diseases, with great 
horror, and when persons were attacked they were immediately 
removed to the Pest-house. 

"Speaking of the small-pox reminds me, that I have often heard 
it stated that the first case of that disease here was in the 
Birdsall family. It was during the war, and caused no little 
alarm among the inhabitants. The circumstances of the case I 
do not remember.* 

"Martin Weigand's tavern, during my recollection, stood on 
Liberty stteet just north of the grave-yard. It was a frame 

building,- two-stories high, and 
had a stoop in front. I don't 
know when it was built. The 
soldiers used to gather there 
during the war, and it was a sort 
of rendezvous for old people 
to meet and tell stories. The 
; Justices of the Peace had their 
courts there, and the town meet- 
ings were held there for a long- 
time. It was the best tavern in the place for a good many years. 
Weigand was a good citizen, although not a man of any educa- 
tion. His wife was Susan, daughter of Joseph Albertson. I 
believe they never had any children. 

"My father, Peter Donnelly, was the iirst person who manufac- 
tured leather here. He commenced in 1174, and had a currying 
shop only. Many of the farmers tanned their own leather and 
brought it to him to finish. He worked during the war at 
dressing leather for the army whenever they needed it, and 
received no pay until after the peace. Phineas Howell was the 
first tanner. He had a shop back in the lot on the north-west 
corner of Smith and Third street. 1 sunk my tan-yard (now 
Jennings & McKinstry's) forty-eight years ago. It was then n 

* We find the following letter among the Clinton papers in the State Libraiy: 

"Newbubgh, Feb. 26, 1778. 

"I think It proper to inform you, that one Birdsall, who was taken prisoner and 
brought to Pouehkeepsie goal, but had llbei-ty to come to Newburgh to his brothers, 
some way or other has got the small-pox, upon which Isaac Belknap's and two other 
families became innooulated in that neighborhood, near the dock a little south of tlie 
Continental feiTy. As soon as I heard it I endeavored to prevent it, but I understand 
their Committee has consented to it, though they have promised not to suffer any more 
to be innooulated in Newburgh town or near it, where the troops might be exposed; 
but 1 am informed they have not complied with that promise. Dr. Higby is the person 
who innoculates. * * JAS. CLINTON. 

"To Goveraor George Clinton." 




EKCOLLECTIONS. 101 

part of the DiBmal Swamp partially reclaimed. 1 used to jump 
ff om bog to bog to get to it, and have helped to lift many a cow 
out of the mud there. When the village was laid out, Water 
street reached as far as Mr. Barclay's morocco factory, where 
there was a gate not fifty years ago. Robert Gardiner was the 
first man who worked the street through. 

"The building of ships and other vessels was quite .actively 
prosecuted here both before and after the war. The vessels owned 
by G-eorge Gardner were built at his yard, just north of First 
street. I believe he had three sloops built — two I know. His 
ship-wright was William Holmes. Jason Rogers established a 
ship-yard between Fourth and Fifth streets, where he built a 
brig of two or three hundred tons burthen. The stocks for this 
vessel were laid on Water street north of Fifth. When she was 
launched, the hill was so steep that when she struck the water 
she went taffrail under. She was built for a company of farmers, 
of whom Isaac Fowler, I believe,^ was one, and sailed to the 
West Indies. William Seymour — Mr. Bailey, ship-wright — built 
one ship and other vessels at the same yard. David and Walter 
Burling afterwards built a ship there and called her the Robert 
Burns. Richard Hill had a ship-yard where the Mansion House 
(now Chandler's and other stores,) stood. He contracted to 
build ships and other vessels. This was some sixty years ago. 
After that the building of vessels became so common as not to 
attract much attention. 

"I knew all the principal men of the town who were living- 
seventy years or so ago. The Rev, Mr. Sayer, the last minister 
who occupied the parsonage, was imprisoned during the war— 
whether in New York or Goshen, I don't know for certain, but I 
am under the impression that it was in Goshen. While he was 
there the dysentery broke out among the soldiers somewhere in 
the vicinity, and, being a skillful physician, they gave him his 
liberty in order that the soldiers might have the benefit of his 
attendance. He afterwards went over to the British. This is 
the substance of conversations between my mother and others 
when I was a boy. As my parents were Episcopalians, I would 
be likely to hear the truth on the subject. 

"The Rev. Mr. Spierin, the last Episcopal minister under the 
old Glebe charter, was a good preacher, a fine reader, very 
pheasant and social in his disposition, and a man of noble 
appearance; but he was as ignorant of household afiairs as any 
one could be. One day when I was going to mill, he asked mc 



102 RECOLLECTIONS. 

if I would get some meal for him. 1 told him 1 would. He 
immediately called to his wife for a bag. Said he, "James iS 
going to mill and will get us some Indian meal, and we will have 
some, nice Buckwheat cakes." His wife laughed heartily, and 
exclaimed, "Ahull! ahull! an Irish bull!" His look of aston- 
ishment was amusing; but we did not explain the matter to him, 
and he turned on his heel, saying that we both acted like fools. 
Mr. S. and his wife were natives of Ireland. He lived in the 
house now occupied by C. F. V. Eeeve, on the corner of Grand 
and South street, where he taught a few scholars preparatory 
for college. William Eoss was one of his pupils. 

"The first Methodist minister who preached here was a Mr. 
Gillespie, an Irishman by birth. He was rather a fine looking 
man, although he wore a very unclerical red handkerchief around 
his neck. The first Methodist meeting was held in the old 
clothing store-house, then occupied by the Presbyterians. After 
that they held meetings in the old Glebe church, except when 
the weather was very cold. Their meetings were well attended, 
as it was not only a privilege to hear preaching, but a Methodist 
parson was a curiosity in those days. Ezekiel Cooper was the 
next preacher on the circuit, and John Cooper next. They were 
a source of annoyance to Mr. Close, the Presbyterian minister, 
who complained to deacon Eeeve that the Methodists were 
gaining ground very fast. "Yes," replied the deacon, "and if 
you do not preach better than you have done, they will have all 
the ground." 

"Mr. Close was a very dry preacher. I have been told that 
he preached to the soldiers during the war, but where I do not 
know. Mr. Graham, a Presbyterian minister, came from Pishkill 
and preached sometimes during the war and after. He preached 
in High street after the war. His son married a daughter of 
Elnathan Foster. Mr. Lewis was stationed here before Mr. 
Johnston. Deacon Lawrence was a leading man in the Presby- 
terian church. He was chorister in the old store-house, and 
wore a white cap, as did all the very old men at that time. He 
continued to sing until some Yankees came here and introduced 
singing by note, which caused great dissatisfaction and opposi- 
tion. He was a very good man. He lived in the old house still 
standing on High street, near the corner of First street. 

"Mr. Hartwick, of Hartwick's patent, was the last Lutheran 
minister here. He preached in the old church, by permission, 
before the war, and a few times afterwards. One of his sermons 



KECOLLECTIONS. 103 

was declared monarchical. He preached until he was very old — 
ninety years or so. He used to go to church and cry like a 
child. One day he met the Methodist minister at Mr. Foster's. 
"Come," said he, "take the Bible and let us go into the church." 
They went, and the Methodist preached and he listened. When 
he died he willed his .property to his "heavenly master, Jesus 
Christ;" but I believe the property passed to his tenants then in 
possession. 

"Mr. Penny, the teacher in the Glebe school, was a native of 
Yorkshire, England. He came to this country with thirteen 
children, and had another born here which he called his "Amera- 
can." He must have been a very odd teacher, as he spoke the 
Yorkshire dialect. He taught before my remembrance, but I 
knew him well when he lived at Eossville. He brought from 
England a recipe for the prevention of hydrophobia, which is 
still preserved among his descendants of the Everett family of 
Modena, Ulster county. Some one found a nest of caterpillars 
on a tree and asked Mr. P. what they did with them in England. 
"Whoy," said he, "we call them rabels, ond we just tak' them 
ond crash them onder our feet, just soo," stamping his foot on the 
ground. I have known several instances where his medicine 
has prevented hydrophobia. There was a great deal of hydro- 
phobia here during the war and aft^r its close. Animals went 
mad without number, and even the foxes went mad. It was 
attributed to the severity of the winters, animals being unable 
to procure water. 

"Mr. John Nathan Hutchins lived in the parsonage house 
during the war and taught school in the back room. He founded 
what was long known as "Hutchins' Family Almanac," for which 
he made the astronomical calculations. He was a learned man; 
but he would read the church of England prayers literally. This 
gave offence to some of the whigs, who (Jid not like the idea of 
praying for the king. Major Isaac Belknap took him to task on 
the subject. "Tut, tut, friend Isaac," replied Hutchins, "does 
not the Bible command us to pray for our enemies." "Yes," said 
Belknap, "I know that, but I don't believe it." 

"Mr. King succeeded Mr. Hutchins in the Glebe school, and 
also lived in the parsonage. He was a very gjave man in his 
mauners, tall and light complexioned, of English descent but a 
native of Bermuda. 

"I do not recollect seeing Col. Jonathan Hasbrouck, but I have 
often seen Mrs. Hasbrouck. They kept a sort of a store, and I 



104 KECOLLECTIONS. 

was sent there sometimes to make purchases. Mrs. Hasbrouck 
waited on customers. She was tall, thin, and dark, and always 
laced up in stays. She always carried a great bunch of keys 
by her side, and held all her conversation with her servants in 
Dutch. The old Head Quarters house had a post and rail fence 
around it, and an orchard on the west and south side. A large 
barn and monstrous hay-barracks stood south-west of the house. 
The Life Guard used to parade in the door-yard west of the 
house. They were a fine body of men — every one six feet or 
over in height. 

"Wolvert Acker was a very prominent man. He was a large, 
dark complexioned man, and spoke with a Dutch accent. He 
was a zealous whig, and, together with John Simpson and Brom 
Johnson, was noted for hunting tories. The boys had a song 
commencing — 

"Gallu3 Bi'om Johnson rides up and down, 
Bringing the poor tones to Newburgh town." 

"Major Isaac Belknap was a staunch whig, and was one of 
those who entered into the agreement not to use goods of British 
manufacture. He was a generous, open-hearted man, hasty to 
a flash to resent an insult, and as quick to do a kind act. I 
remember an anecdote that illustrates the Major's disposition. 
It was the custom for the people during the winter to take turns 
in breaking the roads after a heavy fall of snow. On one 
occasion, while the Major was thus engaged, Joseph Albertson 
came along and the Major reminded him that it was his turn to 
work the road. Albertson replied very deliberately, "Major — 
you — ^lie" — a blow from the Major laid him floundering in the 
snow, but on regaining his feet he completed the sentence, 
"under — a — mistake." "I am very sorry I struck you," said the 
Major, extending his hand, "but you must learn to put your 
words closer together." ' 

"Major Pettingale, the proprietor of Pettingale's landing and 
of a farm adjoining, was one of the officers who took leave of 
Washington at Fraunce's tavern in New York. He was a 
Massachusetts man, large and rather fine looking/ very jocose 
and pleasant, but, like many of our ofBcers, army life had injured 
his habits. He Ijved where the old Poor-house now stands, and 
died there. His son sold the farm to William Seymour. His 
wife was a very amiable woman, small in person, fair complexion 
and blue eyes, and looked too delicate to bear the fatigue of 
camp life, which she did with her children during the war. 



, RECOLLECTIONS. 105 

They had three sous, Joseph, Henry and Fry, and three daughters. 
One of the daughters married Col. Price, who had charge of 
West Point at thp time. The other two married Thomas Cars- 
caden as his fii^1? and second wife. 

"Mr. Ward — the first and only one of that name that owned 
iiny Glebe land, except his sons, to my knowledge — liTed and 
died in the hollow, now on the lands of J. J. Monell. I have 
already spoken of the Ward house. He left four children, two 
sons and two daughters. One of his daughters married a Mr. 
Whitehead, of Marlborough, and the other married Doct. Morrison. 
The sons, William and Jerry, died bachelors. They moved from 
the hollow into a house on Liberty street, where they lived when 
I first knew them. They were quite old men then, and I think 
they were both over eighty at the time of their death. — 
Affairs did not prosper with them in their old age-^by some 
means they lost all their property. They were kind and easy in 
their disposition. Jerry was fortunate enough to die at home. 
William lived alone about three years after Jerry's death, and 
then had a room at Weigand's tavern where he died. They were 
in all probability the children of William Ward, Jr., although I 
never knew their father's name. Doct. Morrison had thi'ec 
children, two daughters and one son. One of his daughters 
married a ship-carpenter named Bradley and lived here — ^the other 
married a Mr. Hawkins and removed to Ballston. His son, Hugh, 
was a physician. 

"Col. Bowman was one of the first lawyers who settled liere. 
He had been a colonel in the army during the war. In person 
he*was short and rather corpulent, largs, head and face, and a 
mouthfiil of teeth as black as ebony. He always wore a cocked 
hat. He was a man of fine talents and gentlemanly manners; 
but was very intemperate during the last yeasrs of his life. His 
principal competitor was Mr. Sleight, and afterwards Judge Pisk. 
Bowman's only child, Mary, married Ben. Anderson, a lawyer 
but a worthless fellow. 

"The first tailor that had work done at his shop or house, was 
Mr. Cooper, father of Gilbert Cooper, and grand-father of Mrs. 
Stephen Hyatt. He removed from New York, at the close of the 
war, and took up his residence in High street. We had tailors 
before his time, but, like the shoemakers, they used to whip the 
cat around the country — ^that is, they traveled from one house to 
another as their services might be required, Mr. June was our 
first fashionable tailor. A lawyer friend of Col^ Bowman's lost 



106 RECOLLECTIONS. 

some buttons from his vest and asked him where lie should go 
to get them put on. "Go down street^' said Bowman, "and the 
first man you meet that looks like a gentleman and wears a 
cocked hat, ask him and he will do it for you."' He referred to 
Mr. June, who was exceedingly neat and fashionable in his dress. 

George Gardner was a blacksmith by trade, and a man of no 
little force of character. He married a widow Wyatt. They 
had three children — two sons and a daughter. William married 
a sister of Capt. Henry Robinson. The other son (I forget his 
name) married a Miss Crissey. The daughter married Doct. 
Smith, and, after his death, Eev. Dr. Luther Halsey. 

"Edward Howell kept the first tavern where the Orange Hotel 
now stands. It was a frame building, two stories high and had a 
side entrance by stairs on Third street. Benjamin Case kept a 
tavern on the south-east corner of Water and Fourth streets. 
Benj. Case, Jr., I believe, built the brick building now standing 
there. The Mansion House was the next principal hotel. 

"In regard to the Balm of .Gilead tree, my own observation 
confirms the statement given by Isaac Demott, in Eager's Orange 
County, page 200. Mr. Demott says that "the tree grew there 
naturally — that when it had grown large enough for a rail, he 
cut it down and used it for that purpose — that it sprouted from 
the root and he let it grow." Mr. Demott owned the place on 
which the tree stands, and hence would know more about it 
than any one else. I first saw the tree when I was between 
eight and nine years of age, which is spventy-six years ago. 
The trunk then was six or eight inches in diameter, and the top 
large and spreading. I remember the tree, and visited it ofteb, 
as there was considerable talk then about its medicinal virtues. 

"I might give you some more information, perhaps, if I knew 
just what you wanted, but my memory is failing me and the past 
comes back slowly. It seems but a little while ago since our 
village was almost nothing, and I can hardly realize that it is the 
same place where I played when a boy. I am sorry that your 
History was not commenced while there were more of our old 
citizens living, that you inight have had the benefit of their 
conversation; but you are doing the work well, and I wish you 
ample success. Yours, &c., 

JAMES DONNELLY." 



CHAPTEK III. 

VILLAGE OF NEWBDRGH AMENDED GLEBE CHARTER — WAR OF 1812 

PUBLIC ENTERPRISES GENERAL PROGRESS. 

1800—1859. 

"A tew years circle by. The talisman 
Of toil has waved above this forest scene — 
Kich meadows, spotted with dense wavmg woods, 
Slope to the sun-lit surface of the stream 
Whose plashings mingle with the village din, 
Where glitter walls and cluster roots of men. 
With ten-aced gardens, leaning to the wave, 
IleUgion rearing spires, and Learning domes 
To the bright skies that arch this Eden spot." 

Stbeet. 

At the opening- of the present century, the village of Newburgh 
had increased in population to an extent sufficient to demand a 
municipal organization for the better regulation of its internal 
aiFairs. In response to an application for that purpose, the 
Legislature passed, on the 25th of March, 1800, an act of 
incorporation, defining the bounds of the village and authorizing 
the election of trustees and other officers. The act further 
provided that the trustees should have power to make, ordain 
and publish such by-laws, rules and regulations as should bo 
deemed meet and proper, particularly in reference to public 
markets, streets, alleys and highways; to abate slaughter-houses 
and nuisances generally; to determine the number of inns or 
taverns, and grant licenses to the same ; to restrain the running 
at large of geese, cattle, hogs and other animals ; to erect and 
regulate hay-scales, and to have general powers "relative to 
anything whatsoever" that should concern the "public and good 
government" of the village thereby created.* 

This act took immediate effect, and on the first Tuesday in 
May after its passage, seven trustees, three assessors, three 
fire-wardens, a collector, and a treasurer, were elected; and 
the board of trustees organized under the presidency of 
John Anderson. The immediate duties devolving upon them 
were comparatively light, and beyond the erection of a public 

* Newburgh was the second moorporated village in the state. The village of Lan- 
smgburgh was the first. 



108 VILLAGE OF NEWBURGH. 

market aud the leasing of the stalls, the partial g'rttdiiig of 
Water street, and the adoption of a few general regulations, 
very little was done.* 

Immediately after the incorporation of the village, an act 
was passed (March 20, 1801,) constituting and appointing 
Robert Bowne, John DeWint, William Seymour, Levi Dodge, 
Johannes Miller, Hugh Walsh, George Clinton, Jr., Jacob Powell, 
John McAuley, Charles Clinton, William W. Sackett, George 
Gardner, and all such others as should associate for that purpose, 
a body corporate and politic by the name of "The President, 
Directors and Company of the Newburgh and Oochecton Turn- 
pike Eoad," with a capital of $125,000, for the construction of a 
road from Newburgh to the Delaware river. The stock was 
soon taken and the road constructed. In its effect upon the 
prosperity of the village, this act was of far greater importance 
even than that of municipal organization, as it opened an avenue 
of trade extending for many miles into the interior, and connected 
the southern tier of counties with the city of New York, via 
Newburgh. 

Meanwhile the aftairs of the Glebe demanded attention. The 
trustees under the charter were acting, in a measure, in defiance 
of its provisions by denying to the church any participation in the 
revenues, and by appropriating the whole income to the support 
of schools. To remove the legal disabilities under which the 
trustees labored, the Legislature passed, in 1803, "an act to alter 
■ and amend the charter of the Glebe lands in the German patent, 
in the village of Newburgh," by the terms of which the inhabi- 
tants residing on the patent were empowered to elect, on the 
second Tuesday m May, annually, three persons to "officiate as 
trustees of the aforesaid Glebe." The act also ordered, that the 
monies arising from the annual income should forever thereafter 
be approprated solely to the support of schools, that $200 should 
be paid annually to the trustees of the Academy, and that the 
remainder of the income should be paid to other schools which 
were then, or should be thereafter, established on said Glebe: 
"Provided," that if at unf time thereafter, "a minister of the 
Episcopal church should be inducted on said patent," then the 
trustees should have power to "pay annually for the support of 

*The records of the trustees, from the passage of the act of incorporation until tlic 
aunnal election in 1804 , have Ijeen lost. We gather the facts stated from a report of the 
receipts and expenditures for the yeaiB 1801-2, signed by John Anderson, president. In 
1803, Jacob Powell wis president of the board; and, in 1804, George Monell. A list of 
tlie ofBcers of fhe village will be given in a subsequent chapter. 



AStBNDED GLEBE CHAKTEK. lOi) 

said minister" such proportion of tlie monies as should be 
"reasonable, according to the true intent and meaning- of the 
charter." Under this act, an election was held at the honse of 
Edward Howell, (May 10, 1803,) when Daniel Smith, William H. 
Smith and John Harris were chosen trustees. 

Thus the matter remained until 1805, when the members of 
the Episcopal church determined, if possible, to regain possession 
of the income of the Glebe, and to re-establish the provisions of 
the old charter. With xi view to accomplish this, the bishop 
appointed the Rev. Cave Jones agent for the church, and Messrs. 
Jonathan Fisk and Walter Case were employed as counsel. To 
allay public excitement, a card was issued by the agent and the 
cpunsel for the church, in which they pledged themselves that 
in case the church should succeed in establishing her claim 
to the Glebe, the income therefrom should be appropriated 
according to the true intent and meaning of the charter for the 
support of a free school for the children of the poor residing on 
the patent; and that in renewing the leases, all things should bo 
made "commodious and agreeable to the parties concerned." * 

To this card was appended a call for a meeting of the male 

* "To ilte Inhabitants of tlie German Patent : — In order to satisfy thfi public mind 
with regard to the appropriation of the property, in case the church be saccessfnl in the 
establishment of her claim tfl the Glebe, in the town of Newburgh— We, the undereigned, 
make the following Declaration, for the scrupulous and religious fulfilmentef which, we 
solemnly pledge ourselves, as far as Providential cu-cumstances will permit — 

1. The proceeds shall be applied according^ to the true intent and meaning of the 
chai'ter, to the establishment and support of an Episcopal church in the town of New- 
burgh, and of a regular clergyman for the same, subject to the discipline of the Protestant 
Episcopal church in the State of New York, and in the United States— the said clergy- 
man to receive such a proportion of the income of the property, as, according to the 
true intent and object of the charter, the Trustees shall appoint and stipulate. 

2. Provision shall be mode for an instructor of youth , according to the true intent and 
spirit of the charter, who shall be suy ect to the directions and discipline of the said church , 
and for Whom an appropriation shall be made in like manner, by the Trustees aforesaid. 

3. The Academy shall be put under such regulations, sulgect to the authority of the 
said- church in Newburgh, in conjunction with the bishop and convocation of the clergy, 
as shall promise best to promote the literary advantage of the town of Newburgh afore- 
said, and of the state at large. 

4. As soon as the income from the property shall be found sufficient, provision shall 
he made, by the Trustees, for the support of a free school, for the children of the poor 
residing on the Patent, at the discretion of the Trustees, according to the spirit of the 
cliarter, which school shall be confined to a certain number, to he enlai'ged, however, 
from time to time, as the funds will pei-mit. 

5. The Trustees shall appoint a Treasurer and Collector in one person, who may be 
one of themselves; who shall be allowed a reasonable per centum, to. be fixed by the 
Vestry in session; and the Trustees shall regulai-ly render every year to the Vestry in 
their corporate capacity|, an account of the pi'oceeds and expenditures; which account 
shall not be allowed as just, unless audited and passed by the Vestry, or by a committee 
of their appomtment. 

6. In order to make all things commodious and agreeable to all parties concerned, the 
leases, if renewable, shall be renewed on reasonable terms, on the thi'ee hundred acres, 
accordmg to the true intent and meaning of the charter, and in all cases the present 
lease-holders shall be first considered, and their convenience shall in all points be pro- 
moted: exceptmg only where it shall be made to appear that the said lease-holdei-s have 
made the property an object of speculation, to the unjust disadvantage of the church. 

In testimony of our religious detormination to carry the above Declaration into 



110 AMENDED GLEBE CHAKTEK. 

inhabitants of the patent, who were members of the Episcopal 
church and entitled to vote at other elections, to be held at the 
old Episcopal church building, on Monday, November 4th, for the 
purpose of choosing "two Trustees of the Parish of Newburgh, 
according to the true intent and meaning of the charter granting 
the Glebe on the said Patent." * 

The meeting was held — ^the votes offered by those jvho were 
not mefiibers of the Episcopal church were rejected — eleven votes 
only were received, and Jonathan Pisk and Joseph Hoifman 
were chosen trustees. They then proceeded to re-organize the 
church, by the election of wardens and vestrymen, so that it 
might be in a proper position to maintain its authority by an 
appeal to the courts. 

For the purpose of determining the legality of the law of 1803, 
an action of ejectment was immediately brought by the church 
against Michael Nestle, who held a portion of the Glebe by virtue 
of a*lease from the trustees elected pursuant to that act. The 
cause was tried November 26th, 1806, at the OrangeCircuit Court, 
before Mr. Justice Tompkins, and the church was non-suited. 
At the succeeding term, a motion was made to set aside the 
non-suit, and argument was heard before Justices Van Ness' and 
Spencer. Mr. Pisk, on the part of the church, held, that the 
original iptention in granting the Patent evidently was, that 
members of the Episcopal church alone should be permitted to 
vote at elections for trustees, and that to deny this position 
would be to defeat the intention of the charter. The act of 1803, 
he held, was void, as the Legislature had no power to divest the 
church of any rights vested by the charter in the original 
grantees of the Glebe. J. Radclifif and T. A. Emmet, on thte part 
of the frustees under the act of 1803, held, that the original 
charter was to "German Lutherans. On their removal from the 
tract, the remaining inhabitants being of the church of England 
or Episcopstlians, met together, elected trustees, surrendered 
the original patent and obtained a new charter to them and their 

complete falfilment, in all points in good faith, according to the best of our abilities : 
We have hereunto affixed our hands and seals, in Newburgh, this 31st day of October, 
m the year of our Lord, 1805. ' CAVE JONES, Agent for the Church, 

W. CASE, [ Co^sel for the Church. 'W°'»**^ "^ *« B'^^^P- 

* "Notice. — All the male mhabitants, above the age of twenty-one years, residing on 
the tract of land known by the name of the German Patent, and who belong to the 
Protestant Episcopal church, are desh-ed to give their attendance, at the old Episcopal 
church in the village of Newburgh, on Monday the 4th day of November next, at 12 
o'clock at noon, in order to choose two Trustees of the Parish of Newburgh, according 
to the true intent and meaning of the chai'ter granting the Glebe on the said Patent. 

October 31, 1805." 



AMENDED GLEBE CHARTER. Ill 

successors. If none but persons of the same religious denomi- 
nation with those named in the original grant had a right to 
vote, then the Episcopalians, in 1750, had no right to elect 
trustees"; that there was as "much ground to object to the 
charter of 1752, under which the plaintiff claims, as to the act of 
1803, under which the defendant holds"; and that the Episcopa- 
lians, in 1750, acted in the same manner towards the Lutherans, 
as the Presbyterians, in 1803, acted towards the Episcopalians." 

But while in the argument of counsel the case was made to 
depend entirely upon the question of the right of the inhabitants 
of the Patent, irrespective of church membership, to vote at 
elections for trustees, the point raised was not decided by the 
court. In his opinion, Mr. Justice Van Ness avoided the issue 
presented, for the avowed purpose of leaving the matter open to 
a compromise; but held that the trustees elected under the act 
of 1803, were the trustees d£ facto, and were hence clothed with 
competent authority to grant the lease to Nestle, and that a 
new trial ought to be denied.* 

Mr. Justice Spencer, however, met the question presented, and 

* "Van Ness, J. On the ai'gument, several nice and delicate questions were raised 
for oar decision. The property in dispute is understood to be valuable, and being 
appropriated for religious and other beneficial public purposes, it is desirable that a 
compromise should be eaected between the parties, upon pflnoiples of mutual Concession 
whereby the ends of the original gi'ant may, in some way, be attained. My opinion will 
leave the door to compromise open, and if the parties shall not avail themselves of this 
opportunity to a^'ustthe controversy by amicable an'angement among themselves, they 
must abide the oonaequenoes of such decisions as the court shall, in the course of future 
litigation, feel itself bound to pronounce. 

The lessors of the plaintiff found their right to a recovery, upon the legality and 
validity of the election of trustees, in November, 1805, conducted, as they contend, in 
conformity to the original charter. They deny the right of the legislature to make the 
law of 1803 ; but even conceding that the legislature had the right, they allege that the 
law was obtained by fraud and misrepresentation, and ought, thevefoie, to be avoided. 

The defendant denies the legality of the election of 1805, inasmuch aa episcopalians, 
exclusively, were permitted to vote thereat. But, admitting that the charter gave to 
episcopalians only the right to vote, he says, that the act of 1803 has altered and modified 
the charter, and that he derives his possession from trustees chosen pursuant to that act. 

The trustees of the parish of Newbm-gh are a body coi^jorate, and it is taken for 
gMted, on all hands, that" the title to the land in controversy is vested m that corpora- 
tion, or those claiming under it. And, in view of the subject, the only question pre- 
sented by the case is, who are the members composing this corporation. 

To determine that question, the counsel on both sides have proceeded on the idea, that 
a decision as to the validity of one or both of the election of trustees, is necessai-Uy 
involved. I thmk differently. The question in this action is not, who are the trustees 
rfejure, but who are the trustees dc/octo. As long as the conflicting clauns of these 
different sets of trustees, both elected under color of right, to the exercise of the corpo- 
rate rights, remain undetermined, so long the possession held under either ought not to 
be disturbed. I am satisfied, that in the present suit these claims cannot be tiled. If an 
inquiry into the qualifications of the persons, who were permitted to vote at the election 
of 1805, can be made, the same inquiry is equally proper, as to the qualification of those 
who voted at the election of 1803. In fact, the regularity of every part of the elections 
would be open to investigation. This would be, not only an unprecedented mode of 
proceeding, but contrary, in my opinion, to known and well-settled rules. 

The defendant is in possession, wider tlie trustees elected pursuant to the act of 1803. 
I intend, that he is in possession under a lease, sealed with the ooiTporate seal; and those 
trustees.asitrespectsthisportion.atleast.of the lands belonging to the corporation, 
must be regarded as the trustees rfc/octo. They were elected brfore the other set of 



112 AMENDED GLEBE CHARTER. 

held, that "the right of election'' was "expressly given by the 
charter, to all male inhabitants of the German patent who were 
above the age of twenty-one years"; and that, "the plaintiff 
having failed to show any title," the defendant could not be 
disturbed in his possession.* 

Although not regarded as a decision on the merits of the case, 
these opinions destroyed all hope of re-establishing the jurisdiction 

tnistees, under an existing law of the legislatm-e, and until they are ousted, the court i.s 
bound to protect the possession of then- tenant. 

The only way in which the legality and regularity of those elections can be settled, is 
by information, In the nature of gua vian-anto, under our statute. This is the appro- 
piiate remedy, in all cases of contested corporation elections; and either of the present 
parties may resort to it, to have their rights fully investigated and finally determmed. 

Until it shall have been determined by this mode of proceeding, Tho are the rightful 
and le^timate representatives of the corporation, I shal! be unwilling to disturb the 
possessions of either of the parties. My opinion, accordingly, is, that a new trial ought 
to be denied. 

* "Spenckb, J. The plaintiff having been non-suited at the trial, it becomes a ques- 
tion, whether a title has been deduced under either of the demises. The firet demise is 
from the religious incoi-poration, formed under the statute, on the 4th November, 1805, 
and their title is supposed to have commenced, at the time of the incorporation, and to 
extend to such real estate, as the original trustees. Golden and Albertsou, held under 
the grant of the 26th March, 1752. Upon the principles of the common law, this reli- 
gions incoitioration could take such property only, as had been granted to it, by ifa 
corporate style, and not bemg in esse, when the ftrst grant was made, it could not ac- 
quire any interest by relation. If, therefore, it became infested with any property in the 
lands granted to Coldeu and Albei-tson, it can only be under the provisions of the gene- 
ral statute. To acquire a title by that statute, it is necessary that the gitint should have 
been to the corporation, to the congregation, or society, or to Golden and Albei-tson for 
their use. By a reference to the chai'ter, it will be seen that although Colden and Al- 
bertson were trustees, they were not trustees exclusively for the benefit of that society, 
but for the benefit of a minister of the church of England, and a school-master, in the 
proportion which the trustees shall think meet and convenient; so that the trustees had 
a discretionaiy control over the fund, the profits of which they could distribute as they 
thought proper. It appears to me, that under the charter, tlierefore, it cannot he con- 
tended, that the coi-poration acquired any legal interest in the land itself, they not being 
cestui que trusts, for the entirety, nor for any definite portion of it. 

The second and third demises involve the same question, except so far as respects 
Cave Jones, and that is, whether the election of November, 1805, was a valid election 
and confeiTed on the lessors the legal estate to the lands in controversy. The case states, 
that a large majority of the inhabitants of the German patent, who assembled to vote, 
were not episcopalians, and for this reason only their votes were refused, and that none 
but episcopalians, who did not compose one-tenth part of the inhabitants, wei-e allowed 
to vote at that election. The light of election is expressly given, by the charter, to all 
male inhabitants of the Gei-man patent, who are above the age of twenty-one yeai-s. The 
trustees, when elected, have the disposal of the revenues of the glebe, and are to "dis- 
tribute them, as they think mee,t between the minister and school-ma^r; the minister 
is required, by the charter, to be of the chui-ch of England, and lias the care of souls of 
all the inhabitants on the patent, whilst the school-master may be of any religious de- 
nomination, and it is Ms duty to instruct the children of all the inhabitants. 

From this statement, it would seem to me, most conclusvely , that no oonrt of law, 
called upon to pronounce, not to make the law, can hesitate in saying, that all the in- 
habitants of the German patent have an important right secured to them by the charter, 
of electing trustees, to make, not only the selection of a school-maSter, but to decide on 
his salary. Of this right, they ought not to be deprived, from a supposed inponsistency 
that persons of various religions may .under the words of the chaiter, mterfere in the choice 
of an episcopal clerg;^man, or may be averse to the employment of one of that order. 

It must have been foreseen, when the charter was granted, that there wonld be persons 
of dififerent modes of religious woi-ship on the German patent; yet, still, they were to be 
admitted to a pai-ticipation in the elections. It cannot be requisite to advert to other parti 
of the charter to enforce the propriety of the opinion I have formed ; if it was necessary, my 
opinion wonld receive additional force from that part of the charter which enables the 
trusteesto hold fairs, in which, as well as in the ohoiceof a school-master, all the inhabi- 
tants have a vested interest, by the charter and, consequently cannot, and ought not, to he 



WAK or 1812. 113 

of the church over the income of the Glebe, and further proceed- 
ings were stayed. 

^ The records of the trustees of the village contain many proofs 
that they were not neglectful of the duties devolved upon them by 
the charter. In 1804, a public meeting was called by them for the 
purpose of adopting a plan for supplying the Ajillage with water; 
and during tlie same year a night-watch was organized. In 1806, 
public hay-scales were erected; and several improvements made 
in the streets. Private enterprise, too, began to yield its fruits. 
Turnpikes were opened in different directions,* thus increasing 
the commercial facilities of the town; and the Bank of Newburgh 
was established in 1811. The results of these, and kindred 
enterprises, are forcibly illustrated in the fact that, from the 
overwhelming indebtedness, which rested like an incubus on the 
town at the close of the war of Independence, in thirty years it 
had attained such a position of wealth that it paid one-fourth of 
the tax of the entire county. 

But while the citizens of Newbuargh were thus engaged in 
these various enterprises, the cloud of war again darkened the 
national horizon. The stirring up of the Indian tribes to the 
commission of hostilities, and the impressment of American sea- 
men, were followed, on the part of England, by the famous Orders 
in Co,uncil, which declared that all American vessels going to and 
from the ports of France and her allies, without first touching 
at or clearing from an English port, should be considered lawful 
prizes. These Orders provoked the Berlin and Milan Decrees, 
on the part of France, by which all vessels that had touched 
at an English port, or submitted to be searched by an English 
cruizer, were pronounced to be the property of Prance; while 

deprived of the right of choosing their trustees, on the propriety and fidelity of whose 
conduct their rights, in a, great measure, depend. 

With respect to the demise from Cave Jones, there is no pretence to say, that he 
acquired any legal title to any portion of the lands, under his mduction and settlement. 
The only claim he had, was to such part of the revenue of the glebe as the trustees 
thought proper to give him. 

The plaintiff having failed to show any title, the defendant cannot be disturbed in his 
possession. This view of the case renders it unnecessary to consider the objections 
raised to 1*^ot of the 6th April, 1803. My attention has not been particularly directed 
to the consideration, whether the legality of the election of trastees can be tried in this 
collateral way, inasmuch as both parties have considered the validity of the election of 
November, 1805, fairly before the court, without any objection to the manner in which 
it has been presented. In my opinion, the non-suit ought to be confirmed; and that, 
consequently, the plaintiff must take nothing by his motion." 

The case may be found at length in 3 John. Eep. 115, and also in Eoger's Orange 
County, 112, &c. 

* In 1808, the Newburgh and New Windsor turnpike was chartered, connecting at 
New Windsor with turnpikes to Cornwall and Mom-oe. In 1810, the Newliurgh and 
Sullivan turnpike penetrated the heart of the present county of Sullivan; and, in 1812, 
the Newbargh and Plattekill turnpike opened to the Newburgh market a rich agricultu- 
ral section of southern Ulster. 



C8 



114 WAR OF 1812. 

British goods, wherever found, were made subject to seizure and 
confiscation. 

Under such circumstances the American government could nqt 
remain inactive, or allow its commerce |o be ruled or ruined by 
the policy or the pride of Britain or of France. Accordingly in 
December, 1809, Congress resolved to retaliate by laying an 
embargo upon all American vessels and merchandize. This 
embargo prohibited American vessels from sailing from foreign 
ports, and all foreign ships from carrying away American cargoes ; 
and its efiect was suddenly to Suspend commerce, to expose 
thousands of merchants to the risk of bankruptcy, and to check at 
once the flow of produce from the interior to the sea-board — ^results 
which were severely felt by the people and which tried their 
patriotism to the utmost. 

But while these measures — so disastrous to our trade in all its 
branches, and which issued in the Second War of Independence 
with England — were in progress, the citizens of Newburgh never 
wavered in their devotion to their country. From first to last, by 
resolutions passed in conventions, by the expression of their 
sentiments through the ballot-box, by the prompt oifer of volun- 
teers and by the contribution of men to actual service, they 
evinced their unfiinching purpose to resist the "attacks of domes- 
tic enemies, and the insolent aggressions of foreign powers." 

The first formal manifestation of the sentiments of the people 
of Newburgh occurred in 1801, when the local militia tendered 
their services to the Governor of the state, as volunteers.* 
This was followed by the overwhelming defeat of the Federal 
party, which was supposed to have some English sympathies, at 
the election in 1808. In March, 1809, the Republicans held a 
county convention at Goshen, preparatory to the State election 
— Gen. Hathorn, chairman, and Jonathan Fisk, Esq., Col. John 
Nicholson, Gen. Eeuben Hopkins, Capt. Josiah Brown, and Judge 
White, committee on resolutions — and resolved, "That we view 
the laying of an Embargo as a wise and patriotic measure, 
imperiously demanded by the exposed condition of our seamen, 
shipping and trade, to the audacious outrages ,of foreign powers 
— that it has saved thousands of our seamen from imprisonment 
and slavery, and millions oT property of our countrymen from 
capture and confiscation." 

This convention was followed by another representing the 

* Beferenoe is made to the "Republican Bloes," a company of Light Infantry, oom- 
manded by Alex. Denniston. 



WAR OF 1812. 115 

Federal party — Daniel Niven, chairman, and John Barber, Alex. 
R. Thompson, Alanson Austin, John Bradner, G. N. Phillips, John 
Morrison, John Duer, Samuel Sayer, Jonas Storey, Solomon 
Sleight, John Decker and Samuel B. Stickney, committee on 
resolutions— which resolved, "That the act for enforcing the 
Embargo, passed January 9th, 1809, in our deliberate opinion, 
is unjust, illegal and oppressive — subvei'sive of the rights and 
dangerous to the liberties of the people." 

The issue was thus fairly joined, and the electors of Newburgh 
responded by a vote of three hundred and twenty-seven for the 
Republican, and one hundred and twenty-one for the Federal 
candidates. When war was declared, the people of Newburgh 
approved the act, holding it to be "just and necessary to redress 
our grievances and avenge our violated rights ;" and this position 
they continued to maintain until peace was restored.* 
» Soon after the declaration of war, the local military companies 

* At a meeting of the citizens of Newburgh, held at Farnam's tavern, Nov. 16, 1812, 
Isaac Belknap, Jr., was chosen chairman, and Ward M. Gazlay, secretary. After some 
desultory debate, the following gentlemen, viz: Hezekiah Belknap, Selai Reeve, Joseph 
Morvell, Isaac Belknap, Jr., and Daniel Smith, were named as a committee to form and 
report proper matter for adoption; and, for the purpose of receiving such report, the 
meeting was adjourned to the 19th. At the adjourned meeting, the committee reported an 
address and resolutions which were unanunously adopted. The resolutions were as follows : 

Remhied, That we consider the war in which we are engaged, to be. founded on as 
just cause as ever existed between nation and nation. That its honorable termination 
can be effected only by a vigorous prosecution: this the nation expects, and this the 
nation will have; and when congress and the people shall have equalled the president in 
the 'discharge of their duty, the enemy mast begin iofeel tliat our terais are admissible. 

Resolved, That our confidence in the president remains undiminished; his each suc- 
cessive act gives additional splendor to his character, and alfords new proof of his 
devotedness to his country's cause. His late communication to congress bespeaks a 
mildness of character that sighs for peace, whilst it displays a nobleness of soul that 
would spurn a dishonorable one. It will elevate him upon the proud column of the con- 
fidence of the nation, far above the reach of the calimmy of the British party, that the 
war is in obedience to French dictation. 

Resolved, That the conditional repeal of the British orders in comicil , whilst it partially 
removes one of the causes of the war, demonstrates the 91timate efficiency of our re- 
strictive system, and points out to the statesman the vulnerable point of the enemy. 

Resolved, That should any of the christian commanders of his majesty's frigates 
approach our sea ports and lay them in ashes, it would be oonstitutional for the gover- 
nor, if he were Strong, to order out the forces of the state to repel the pious enemy 
after he was gone. , 

Resolved, That if congress, contrai-y to the recommendation of the president, has 
neglected to place the country in that "armour and attitude of defence which the nation 
expects" before they declared war, it is more wise, more honorable, atid more to our in- 
terest to redeem the fault by redoubling our exertions, than to seize upon the occasion 
to distract and divide for party sake, or to withdraw our aid, that calamity may be 
doubly sure. 

Resolved, That the pure and disinterested patriotism of the five companies of volun- 
teers, and four companies of enlisted regulars, besides three companies now on duty at 
Staten Island, that have stepped forth from this county at their country's call, deseiTes 
the praises of the patriot and will receive the plaudits of the nation. Orange can act 
as well as resolve. 

Resolved, That Daniel D. Tompkins, governor of this state, for his independence and 
patriotic eilorts in aiding and supporting the government of our country, for the able 
and indefatigable discharge of the important trust reposed in him, of rtrawi.ig forth and 
disposing of the militia to protect the frontier and maritime parts of the state, merits 
our highest esteem and gratitude; the malignity of his enemies to*the contrary not- 
withstanding Political Index. 



i company of Artiilery under tlie command of Capt. Henry Butterworth, and the 
I companies of Light Infantry under the command of Captains Alexander Den- 



116 WAK OF 1813. 

were ordered on duty and stationed at Staten Island;* and, at a 
later period, Newburgli was temporarily made the rendezvous of 
the companies of Grenadiers, Light Infantry and Eiflemen of the 
34th Brigade.f ' 

Among the many facts which showed the temper of the 
people of Newburgh during the war, we notice the contribution 
of clothing, by the ladies of the village, to the volunteers in 
service on the northern frontiers;! the detestation expressed, on 
all public occasions, of those who sympathized with the common 
enemy, or who esteemed the blessing of peace paramount to 
national honor; § and the very spirited celebration of Perry's 
victory on Lake Erie. On the latter occasion, the trustees of 
the village, acted with a committee of citizens, viz: Solomon 

* Thee 
uniform ( . „ . 

niston and Charles BurdsaU, of this town, have been ordered by his excellency the Gov^ 
ernor, to be in readiness' to march to New TTort on the 15th inst. — Index, Aug. 11, 1812. 

t General Oedeks— Albany, Sept. 1, 1813 — The companies of Grenadiers, Light 
Infantry and Eiflemen of the 34th Brigade, will rendezvous for service at Newbm'gh, on 
the 8th September inst., at ten o'clock in the forenoon. * * 

i "Newbubqh, Dec. 5, 1812. 

"Sib: Accompanying this, your Excellency will iind a package of two hundi'ed and 
eighty woolen stockings and eighty mittens. They are forwarded to you by the Ladies 
of this village, with the request that you will send to those of the Volunteer corps now 
on duty on our northern frontiers whom your excellency may suppose to be most in 
want of them. The um'emitting attention which has marked your excellency's conduct 
since the declaration of war, towards the protection of our northern frontier and mara- 
time coast, and your constant endeavor to alleviate the situation of our fellow-citizens 
who are in the military service, will, I hope, sufficiently apologize for troubling you with 
the disposition of this small tribute of respect to those brave and patriotic defenders of 
their country's rights. 

With considerations of much respect, and esteem, I am yours, sincerely, 

W. BOSS. 

His Excellency, Gov. Tompkim. 

Albany, Dec. 9th, 1812. 

Gentlemen : I have foi'warded to the militia of this State remaining in service on the 
Champlain station, the following quantity of woolen stockings, socks and mittens, 
presented to them by the amiable and benevolent ladies of Hndson and Newburgh. 

674 socks, 100 stockings, and 40 mittens, tiy the ladies of the city of Hudson, 280 
stockmgs and 80 mittens by the ladies of the Village of Newburgh. 

Our faithful and patriotic fellow citizens who are engaged in the arduous duty of 
protecting the exposed inhabitants of the northern frontier, took the field in a mild 
season, without a competent supply of warm clothing for a winter campaign. Their 
wants and suffei-ings will be greatly alleviated by the seasonable donation of the ladies 
of Hudson and Newburgh. 

Besides the comfort m point of clothing which the militia on duty will derive from 
this example of female tenderness and generosity, it evinces an approbation of their 
conduct and a mindfulness of their services which will cheer and support them under 
fatigues and hardships, and will animate othera to emulate their courage and constancy. 

As the articles came to this place under your dii-ection,I take the liberty, in behalf of 
our brethren in arms of desirmg you to tender to the fair donors, a respectful acknowl- 
edgment of their bounty, and an assurance that it will be recollected with gratitude and 
affection. 

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, with great respect und esteem, your obedient 
seiTant, DANIEL D. TOMPKINS. 

John Hathaway, Esq., Hudson, and William Ross, Esq., Newburgh." 

§ One of the resolutions adopted in 1813,Ss as follows: "Resolved. That we consider 
the tories of the present war as havmg a much better title to the halter than the tones 
of the revolution, because they have had a longer time to get wteaned from their un- 
natural mother." 



WAR OF 1812. Ill 

Sleight, William Ross, Isaac Belknap, Jr., John S. Hunn, John 
Anderson, John Mandevill, Seth Belknap, John W. Morrell, 
Joseph Reeve and Hezekiah Belknap. The national flag was 
displayed in all public places in the village and from the masts 
of the vessels lying in the harbor ; there was a public collation 
and sundry patriotic toasts at the Newburgh Coifee House, and 
a procession and a very general illumination in the evening. 
These arrangements were entered into heartily by all classes of 
citizens, and the exercises on the occasion were long held in 
remembrance.* 

The general appearance of the village has almost entirely 
changed since the war of 1812. The old wooden building^ 
where the Orange Hotel now stands, and those on the same side 
of Water street as far south as the old stand of Joseph Hofirnan, 
which was the last to fall before the march of improvement,f 
were removed to give place to the present structures; while 
fires swept off those on the east side of Water street, from 
Third street south to the middle of the block, and from First 

* The Political Index of September 30, 1813, contains a lengthy aocount of this 
celebration. "Never," says that paper, "did such universal joy pervade the breasts of 
American citizens, as has been manifested on a recent occasion; and never has that joy 
been more distinctly, unequivocally and universally expressed bj; the citizen* of New- 
bttrgh and its vicinity, than has been done on receiving the official letters announcing 
the late af&ir on lake Erie. * * On the arrival of the news, a federal salute was fired 
from the U. S. corvette John Adams, moored opposite the village, which vessel was 
decorated with the flags of different nations dming the progress of the celebration. * 
At one o'clock, P.M., the trustees, with upwards of one hundred citizens, partook of a 
collation at the Newburgh Cofiee House, after which, Joseph Mon'ell being chosen pre- 
sident, and Solomon Sleight, vice president, toasts were drank, and a song written for 
the occasion by the editor of the Index, was sung by Joseph "Eeeve. * * At seven 
o'clock, P. M., at the signal of a cannon, all the windows in the village were brilliautly 
illuminated, some were ornamented with transparent paintings designative of the occa- 
sion; others inscribed with the names of our naval heroes, whose deeds are destmed to 
illume tljp historic page: all of which had a handsome effect, arid, connected with the 
occasion, fired the soul with a proud satisfaction of being an American, and made the 
conscious heart to swell with forebodings of the rising glory of America. A numerous 
procession of citizens, headed by the band of music, now marched through the principal 
streets of the village. At nine o'clock, the lights were extinguished and the village 
enrobed in darkness." 

A tradition connected with this celebration relates, that the official news of Peny's 
victory was brought to Newburgh by the corvette John Adams, referred to by the Index, 
and that that vessel arrived in the bay on Sunday morning, and Immediately fired a salute. 
The people, many of whom were in attendance upon divine service, were in great con- 
sternation and rushed into the streets, fearful that an,enemy'a vessel had passed the 
Highlands and had commenced a boiflbardment of the village. Presently, the Adams 
ran up the "stars and stripes," and sent a boat on shore with the news, which was 
received with cheer after cheer. In the general joy the Sabbath was forgotten. 

t That venerable old yellow wooden building, on the corner of Water and Second 
streets, with its humble front and moss-covered roof— its sign of a fdieaf of wheat, 
denoting its occupant as one who furnishes the staff of life — ^has been knocked into 
rubbish under the impulse of improvement. After having served nearly half a century 
as a place of business to that patriarch among our citizens, Joseph Hoffman, it has had 
to move the way of many sublunary things, to make room for a more costly and elegant 
specimen of art. Workmen are now employed in laying the foundation of a substantial 
brick edifice on the spot which so long sustained the old yellow wooden building and 
around which were clustered so many associations connected with the history of New- 
burgh. — Telegraph, July 15, 1841. 



118 GENERAL PBOGRESS. 

street north to the brick building south of the Highland Bank, 
as well as the barracks on the west side of Water street, north 
of the Orange Hotel.* 

To note all these changes as they occurred would be a task 
beyond our power, and we shall only attempt a brief review. For 
several years, the vicinity of Colden's gore was the business 
centre of the village; and when the Bank of Newburgh was 
chartered, an effort to locate the banking house there, was only 
defeated by a majority of one vote in the board of directors. 
In 1812, the stores on the west side of the gore were erected 
9,nd were occupied — counting from First street north — the first 
by James Denniston, the second by Selah Reeve, the third by 
Lett & Chambers, the fourth by John Anderson, Jr., the fifth by 
Samuel Williams, f and the sixth by William H. Smith, beyond 
which came the old stand of James W. Miller. On the opposite 
side of the street was the brick store of Jacob Carpenter, then 
occupied by A. Gourlay & Co.,{ now the corner of Water and 
Carpenter streets, and beyond this, on the corner of the old road 
to Gardiner's dock, was the brick store of Chauncey Griswold, 
while at the head of the gore stood the old Colden house. Water 
street was then extended south, and the old Colden house, falling 
partly within its line, was removed; and about the same time 
the old road to Gardiner's dock was closed, and First street 
opened. Soon after, John D. Lawson erected, on the north-east 
corner of First street, a block of wooden buildings, which were 
destroyed by fire and were succeeded by the ware-house of Daniel 
Farrington and other stores. These buildings were again de- 
stroyed by fire, and the present block took their place, ^bout 
1835, the Colonnade Eow was erected by Col. Alex. Denniston, 
and the banking house of the Highland Bank by John Ledyard. 
The buildings on the east side of Water street, south of Third 
street, were destroyed by fire, and a new row was erected 
by Messrs. Reeve & Falls, John Lawson and others. Of the 
remaining buildings of the block, several were subsequently 
taken down, and those now standing were put up in their place 

* An account of these and other fires will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

t Amekioan Manufactured Goods. — The subscriber respectfully informs the public 
that he has opened a store in Colden street, where he has a general assortment of Gotten 
Goods, which he will sell at the factory prices for cash or approved credit — among which 
are, Bed ticking, Ginghams, Stripes of different kinds, &c. Nitting, twist and colored 
Yarn from No. S to 40, a general assortment of European, East and West India Goods, 
which he will sell on advantageous terms to the purchaser. S. WILLIAMS. 

Newburgh, June, 1812. — Adv. in Political Index. 

t A. GouELAY & Co., have removed to Capt. Jacob Carpenter's brick store, in Wat«r 
street, where they are now opening a very general assortment of Bry Goods Adv. 



GENERAL PROGRESS. 



119 



by Joha Jamison, John Clugston and Samuel G. Sneeden, and 
the block was completed in its present form by Benjamin 
Tyler. On the west side of Water street, between Second 
and Third street, the first brick house was built by John 
Brown — now occupied by his son, 'James S. Brown ; and the row 
of buildings north to Third street, including the old store of 
John McAuley, gave place to the present structures erected by 
William Walsh, C. A. Jones, and others. On the cast side of 
the street, the Messrs. Crawford erected, in 1827,*the building now 
standing on the north-east corner of Third street. The block 
between the Orange Hotel and the Bank of Newburgh, was 
erected by John P, DeWint; and the old Coffee House of Kobert 
Gardiner has given place to the buildings owned by the Messrs. 
Fowler and by *George Sneed. More recent improvements by 
William Colvill, John C. Tartiss, Jacob Brown and others, have 
filled up the northern part of Water street and have, given to it 
its present appearance. 




Equally great changes have been made in all of the other 
streets. Front street was opened in 1833. Prior to this time the 
extensive brewery of Law, Beveridge & Co., had* been erected 
close by the river side, and the present bed of the street was , 
covered with water, or occupied by the wharves of the freighting 
companies. In 1828, the Messrs. Crawford erected their large 



120 GENERAL PKOGKESS. 

store-house,* and, in 1829, a similar building was put up by 
Benjamin Carpenter. In 1833, Isaac R. Carpenter commenced 
the erection of the United States Hotel and the construction of 
the long wharf.f At the south end, the large brick house known 
as the Bath Hotel, built by Thomas Colden, was for several years 
a prominent land-mark; but the Erie rail-road, and the extensive 
iron works of Messrs. Stanton & Co., have changed the whole 
aspect of that part of the village. 

For the beauty of its private residences, Newburgh had not a 
high reputation thirty years ago. ' The Ruggles house, on the 
south-east corner of Washington Place, was then regarded as 
one of the most elegant, and views taken from it found their way 
into the sketch-books of the times. Then came the residences 
of David Crawford, James S.Brown andWilliaift Roe; and now, 
charming cottages and sumptuous villas are to be seen in every 
direction, and year by year our hills are more and more crowded 
with the abodes of wealth. 

But the general progress of the town and village has been 
comparatively slow. From 1T82 to 1820, the increase in popu- 
lation averaged a fraction over one hundred annually, or about 
eleven hundred each decade. This increase may be regarded as 
the result of the natural advantages of position which the town 
enjoyed. It was a period during which not only the trade of the 
large district adjacent to Newburgh, but a very considerable 
portion of that of the southern tier of counties, found here its 
natural mart. No impulse, comparatively speaking, was given 
lo this trade; but it sprung from and was the result of the 
laws of commerce. Regarding it in this light, the people. It must 
confessed, failed to put forth those eiforts which, if made at the 
proper time, would have established, at an early period, on 
a spot so favored by nature, a flourishing commercial city. 

* "Among the improveaients of the present season, we ought not to forget the sub- 
stantial and commodious ware-house erected by the Messrs. Crawford, as it seems to 
indicate that thelncrease of business in the village requires extended accommodations." 
—Index, Oct. 18, 1828. 

t "The improvements on the Ferry Wharf are on the most extensive, and, we might 
almost term it, magnificent scale. This wharf is being constructed by Col. I. E. Car- 
penter, and is to be extended tn the utmost limits warranted by the State gi'ant of the 
land under water, that is to say five hundi-ed feet from high water mark. Its increased 
breadth at the outer extremity, one hundred feet, will add much to the convenience and 
safety of passengei-s going on board , or landing from the steamboats ; while the splendid 
new hotel which Qol. C. is also erecting at the junction of the wharf with the main 
laud, will not only offer a noble object to all who pass the village on the river, but will 
be of essential comfort to persons waiting for steamboats, or whose business confines 
them to the water's side. The enterprising projector of the above named improvements 
must be viewed aa a public benefactor, as no work of the same magnitude has ever been 
undertaken by a single individual, in the town, without a prospect of more certain pri- 
vate gam."— Gazette, Nov. 23, 1833. 



GENERAL PKOGEESS. 121 

In 1819, the trade of the village had extended itself as far west 
as Canandaigua, with which place Newburgh was connected by 
turnpikes over which passed stage-coaches, conveying passengers, 
and freight wagons Jaden with goods. Jiuring the summer of this 
year, a company was organizec^forthe purpose of constructing a 
steamer on Cayuga lake, with a view to extend the route south- 
ward to Ithaca. The first meeting of the stopkholders of this 
company was held at Ithaca, December 20th, and David Wood- 
cock, Oliver Phelps, James Porapelly, Joseph Benjamin, and Lewis 
Tooker, were chosen directors, who appointed David Woodcock, 
president; Chas. W. Conner, treasurer; Chas. Humphrey, secre- 
tary, and Oliver Phelps, agent. To this enterprise the people of 
Newburgh were asked to contribute the sum of one thousand 
dollars. Thirteen hundred dollars, however, were immediately 
subscribed and paid; and, in 1820, the first steamer on Cayuga 
lake plied iii connection with stage lines from Newburgh, "per- 
forming the route to Ithaca in two days." =" 

This western trade, however, was almost wholly cut off by the 
construction of the Erie canal, althougii considerable travel by 
stage-coach continued until the opening of rail-roads through the 
centre of the state. In common with other towns on the river, an 
effort was made by the citizens of Newburgh, in 1825, to secure 
the construction of a Macadamized state road from Buffalo to the 
Hudson, through the southern tier of counties. The proposition 
was favorably received by the Legislature, and commissioners 
were appointed to survey the different routes. Strenuous efforts 
were made by the people of Catskill and Poughkeepsie to secure a 
terminus of this road on the Hudson which should be favorable to 
their interests, and similar steps were taken by the people of 
Newburgh; f but the com.missioners reported in favor of Catskill, 
and the bill authorizing the making of the road was defeated 
in the Legislature in March, 1826. 

The effect on the prosperity of Newburgh of the construction 

* This line was subsequently (1834) extended from Newburgh to Geneva and Buffalo, 
and the entire route from New York to Buffalo was performed in sixty-five hours — ^"the 
shortest and most expeditious route from the Hudson river to the western country." — 
Adv. in Gazette. 

t At a meeting of a number of gentlemen of the town of Newburgh, held at the 
Orange Hotel, on the 18th day of January, 1826, pursuant to previous notice, Thomas 
Powell was chosen chairman, and Ward M. Gazlay , secretary. 

After the meeting was called to order, the Hon. Jonathan Fisk addressed it in an able 
speech demonstratiag the propriety and expediency of the state road terminating at this 
place. Mr. Euggles and other gentlemen addressed the meeting on the same subject, 
and after some consultation, it was resolved: That a committee of five, consisting of 
David Buggies, Selah Keeve, Jonathan Fisk, Ward M. Gazlay, and Thomas Phillips, Jr., 
was appointed to take charge of the interests of this plape in relation to the state road. 



122 GENERAL PROGRESS, 

of the Erie canal, and the openiug of new routes of travel to 
the west, is shown in the census returns, which exhibit a reduction 
in tlie average increase in population to six hundred and twelve 
during the decade ending with 1830. Notwithstanding this 
loss, a large trade still remained -prith the south-eastern counties 
of the state and the north-eastern counties of New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania; but, like the approaching trenches of a besieging 
army, the influence of internal improvements was again felt — 
the Hudson and Delaware canal penetrated this district and 
bore ofi" another source of wealth upon which much reliance had 
been placed. Efforts were made to repair the loss thus sustained 
by the organization of a company for the purpose of engaging 
in the whale fishery, and by endeavoring to secure the establish- 
ment here of a government navy-yard. The former enterprise, 
however, met with limited success, and was abandoned; and- 
the latter failed to receive the attention desired at the hands of 
the federal authorities. 

The principal trade now remaining to the village was that 
drawn from north-easteyn New Jersey and from the nearer- 
district embracing the counties of Orange and Ulster; but this 
trade was rapidly increasing and very valuable. The years 
1835, '36 and '3T were marked by more than usual business 
activity, and the village participated to a considerable extent in 
the speculations which culminated in the revulsions of the latter 
year. Speaking of this period, the Eev. James R. Willson, in 
QiU address delivered before the Newburgh Library Association, 
remarked: "The average arrivals and departures daily, estimated 
together, cannot fall much short of three hundred, or eighty-four 
thousand in one season. The sections of country in the interior, 
occupied by those travelers, are generally connected with this 
village by some- commercial ligament. Great numbers of them 
transact much business here. Prom late estimates of the amount 
of daily exports, from Newburgh, it would seem that in one 
season, they cannot fall much below four and a half millions of 
dollars." * 

It was during this period that the construction of the New 
York and Erie rail-road was commenced ; and the Legislature 

* Becords like the foUoTring frequently occur in the Tillage papers from 1834 to 1840: 
"Yesterday, Water street was blocked up with country teams for four or five hours, 

and twice daring the afternoon they were so jammed in that it was impossible to pass." 

—Telegraph, Ifw. 13, 1834. 

"We learn that $300 per foot are offered for vacant lots on the new street (Front 
street) extending north from the whale dock, in this village."— Tci., Nov. 6, 1836. 



GENEKAL PROGRESS. 123 

was asked to aid the project by a loan of the credit of the state. 
Previous to this application, the citizens of Newburgh had 
secured a charter for a road from the Hndson to the Delaware 
river, with a view to reach the coal beds of Pennsylvania; but 
this charter had been permitted to become void. When the 
loan to the Erie road was proposed, an effort was made to 
connect the Newburgh road with the, Erie, and thus give to 
Newburgh the eastern terminus, but this effort failed. The 
road to the Delaware, however, was re-chartered, and a portion 
of the route was graded. 

Under the financial revulsions of 1831, work was suspended 
on both the Erie and Delaware roads; but on the former it 
was soon resumed and the road completed from Piermont to 
Goshen. The effect of the opening of this section of the road 
was even move disastrous than had been anticipated. The 
census returns, which, for the decade ending with the year 1840, 
had exhibited an increase in population of twenty-five hundred 
and nine, gave only sixty-eight as the increase for the five years 
ending with 1845. Real estate fell off one half in value, and 
depression pervaded all branches of business.* 

At this time diflSculties arose in* the prosecution of the work 
on the Erie road, and fresh efforts were made to secure to 
Newburgh some of the advantages of its construction. This was 
accomplished by an agreement on the part of the Erie com- 
pany — confirmed by the act of the Legislature releasing the 
company from its liabilities to the state — to construct a branch 
road to Newburgh. This road was completed in 1849, and 
proved an immediate and powerful stimulant to business, under 
the influence of which other sources of prosperity have been 
developed, giving to the village mechanical and manufacturing 
establishments, in addition to its commerce ; and the sound of 
the axe, the hammer and the saw, and other implements of the 
mechanic arts, now mingle with the music of the shuttle and the 
.shrill whistle of the locomotive. The long struggle against 
unpropitious circumstances has, apparently, closed; and the 
of the business village again has found its old connections with 
the west, and from our wharves its staple commodities go to find 
a market in our sea-board cities, or more distant regions. 

The past ten years have been marked by many evidences of 

* Mr. Eager, writing at this period, remarks: "Such were the deadening influences of 
the constrnction of this road, for a few years, that it prostrated the business of theplace. 
Houses were tenantjess, men shut up their shops and removed to more favorable locali- 
ties, and the whole trade of the mechanic arts stood stilh" 



124 DISPOSITION OP THE GLEBE. 

substantial progress. At an outlay of about one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand dollars, water has been introduced; and 
about forty thousand dollars have been expended on our alms- 
house. Plank roads have been constructed at a cost of about 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars; and extensive 
improvements have been made in the public streets. Education 
has been promoted by the establishment of a liberal system of 
free schools ; and religion has reared new and costly temples of 
worship. 

During the period extending from the close of the war of 1812 
to the present time, many events of historical interest have 
occurred, which properly belong to a subsequent portion of our 
work. In concluding this part of our task, however, a brief 
notice of the present condition of the Glebe lands is necessary. 
It is a remarkable coincidence that, at the close of each half 
century since the granting of the charter, these lands have been 
subjected to some important change. After remaining for nearly 
fifty years in the hands of the Palatines, the income passed to 
the church of England, where it legally remained until the passage 
of the law of 1803. Prom this time until the passage of the act 
establishing free schools, in 1852, the revenues were confined to 
the support of schools on the Glebe, but, by the law referred to, 
they were devoted to the public schools without distinction. By 
an act passed April 10, 1855, persons holding the lands by lease 
were enabled to obtain titles in fee simple, by the payment of such 
sums of money as would yield an annual interest equal to the 
annual rent. Under this act, a considerable portion of the leases 
has already been converted into fee simple titles; and it is but 
reasonable to anticipate that, after the lapse of another half 
pentury, Glebe leases will be a matter of history, and that the 
only monument remaining of the Palatine settlers will be the 
proud one of a free school fund, limited in amount, it is true, but 
sufficiently large to render essential aid in the education of the 
children of the poor. 



CHAPTER IV. 

LOCALITIES CENSUS RETURNS SUPPORT OF POOR — TURNPIKES ANP 

PLANK ROADS RAIL-I^pAD ENTERPRISES BANKING INSTITU- 
TIONS INTRODUCTION OP WATER STOCK 

COMPANIES' — COURT HOUSE, ETC. 



LOCALITIES. 

The town of N*ewburgh is located on Hudson's river, in the 
extreme north-eastern part of the county of Orange. It has a 
front on the river of nine miles, and extends westward from 
eight to eleven miles. It is in latitude 41:30; and is about sixty 
miles in a northerly direction from New York, eighty-three miles 
south of Albany, fifty miles east of the Delaware river, one 
hundred and twenty miles from the head of Cayuga lake, and 
two hundred and fifty miles from lake Erie in a straight line. 
It contains 2J,323 acres of land, and had, in 1855, a population 
of 12,113. The surface'of the town is stony, and is broken 
into high hills which run north-east and south-west. The soil 
is composed of deposits of clay, sand and loam, and, along 
the river, is warm, productive and well cultivated. In the 
western part of the town the soil is not so deep and warm, and 
requires more laborious culture. The rock formations are prin- 
cipally slate and lime. 

The village of Newburgh has a river front of about two miles. 
Its harbor is the best on the Hudson, and extends from the Quas- 
saick ci-eek on the south, to the Dans-Kammer on the north, a 
distance of about eight miles, is in width from one mile to one 
mile and a quarter and in depth from five to seven fathoms, and 
is protected from storms by a high range of mountains, which, 
extending from the I'iver in a northerly and westerly direction, 
describe nearly a semi-circle. It is remarkable for the healthful- 
ness of its climate, and for the variety and beauty of its natural 
scenery. The returns made to the Eegents of the University, 
embracing the observations taken during a period of thirteen 
years, give the average temperature as 49:16, or a fraction of a 
degree colder than the temperature due to latitude and elevation. 
Shadbush is in bloom here six days earlier than in other portions 
of the valley of the Hudson; Peach, eight days; Plum, five days; 
Cherry, eleven days ; Apple, eight days ; and Lilac, two days ; 



128 LOCALITIES. 

while the first killing frost occurs thirteen days later than at 
other points. 

As we have previously stated, the village was originally 
settled by German Palatinates, and other parts of the town by 
English emigrants from the eastern Provinces and from the 
county of Westchester. The charactei- of the population of the 
village was gradually changed, and that of the town became 
divided into English, Dutch, Scotch and Irish nationalities. The 
site of J;he village was first called by the Indian title Quassaick, 
a word formed from the Algonquin root terms Qussuk, signifying 
stone or rock, and ick, land — literally, stony land.* The present 
name was first applied by Alexander Golden in lt43, and is from 
Newburgh, a town in Scotland, on the river Tay, which it resem- 
bles in many of its physical features.f 

Balmville. — A small collection of houses two miles north of 
the village of Newburgh, and named from a large tree'^rowing 
there, commonly called Balm of Gilead, which is remarkable.for 
the strong balsamic scent of its leaves and buds.f The place 
was formerly called Hampton, and was the comifiercial centre 
of the town as early as ItBl.g In later times, the freight- 
ing business was conducted here by Daniel Smith, and subse- 
quently by the Messrs. Butterworth. The village has a district 
school, a burying ground, and one or two shops. The Glenburn 
vineyards of Arthur Potts are also located here, and in the 
vicinity are several fine country seats. The first settlers here 
were Johannes Fyscher and Andries Volck, who sold to Zacharias 
Hoffman. 11 

MiDDLEHOPE. — A small hamlet four miles north of the village 
of Newburgh, and formerly called Middletown because half-way 
Isetween Newburgh and Marlborough. It has a Post OfiBce and 
a store; a Methodist and a Presbyterian church, and a district 

* Sclioolcraft's Indian Tribes of the United States, Partl;291. In reply to an inquiry 
as to the meaning of the word Quassaick, Dr. E. B. O'Callaghaii , of Albany, has kindly 
sent us the following: "In Elliott's Indian Grammar, (Mass. Hist; Coll. second Se*. ix. 
258,) a stone is Hussun; a rock, Qassuck. Next, turning to Elliott's Indian Bible, I 
find in Gen. 31:46, missak&nash, stones: (anash seems to be the plural termination.) 
In Joshua 4:5— giMsuA:, a stone; same chapter, 7.9 — ipissuckajxash, stones. In Dent. 
27:S — quisukquane, altar, an altar of stones; saine'chapter, 8 — miasukqaa hehtu, upon 
the stones. In Isaiah 28:16 — qussuk, a stone. Quassaick may, therefore, according to 
this authority, be rendered — the stony place or locality: ick being the termination signi- 
fying locality." 

t See ante p. 39. Also, Harper's Gazetteer. The first application of the present 
name of the town was by Alexander Colden to that portion of the village owned by 
him, and which was long known as the "Old Town of Newburgh Plot." It was next 
applied tothe Parish, (1752,) then to the Precinct, (1763,) then to the Town, (1788,) 
and lastly to the village at its incorporation, (1800.) 

ifAntep. lOG. Also, Bagcr's Orange County, 199. § Ante p. 42. || Ante p. 33,47, 






LOCALITIES. 



129 



school ; and recently a fine Cemetery has been laid out here, nnder 
the title of "Highland Cemetery," which is owned by an associa- 
tion organized under the general statute of the state. After the 
establishment of a Post Office here, cousiflerable difficulty arose 
out of the fact that there was another Post Office of the same name 
in the county; and, at the suggestion of the Post Master General, 
a meeting of the residents in the neighborhood was held for the 
purpose of changing the title. At this meeting, several names 
were proposed and rejected, until finally Mr. James P. Brown, 
recollecting that there was a village in Scotland, the land of his 
birth, by the name of Hopeton, proposed that of Middlehope, 
which was adopted.* The first settler in this vicinity was 
Mclchior Gulch, in llOQ.f 

The Dans Kammek. — "De Duyfel's Dans Kammer !" (the Devil's 
Dance Chamber,) so the point of land forming the north-western 
head of Newburgh bay was described by some Dutch skipper 
more than two centuries ago. It has ever since borne the title 
of The Dans Kammer. The first notice of the spot that we 
we have met with, occurs in the journal of DeVries, under date 

of April 26th, 1640; and 
as DeLaet, in his very 
minute description of the 
river, written in 1624, 
makes no mention of the 
Dans Kammer, the name 
must have originated be- 
tween 1624 and 1640. 
We find an explanation 
of the origin of the name 
in certain religious rites 
of the Indians, which 
were often performed on 
this very point of land. 
These rites consisted in 
the worship of their god 
BacMamo, and were de- 
nominated "devil wor- 
ship," by the Dutch. — 
For the celebratioa of this worship, the Indians held meetings 
prior to starting on expeditions of hunting, fishing, or war, to 

* Eager's Orange County, 202. t Ante pages 34, 47. 




C9 



130 LOCALITIES. 

ascertain whether they would be successful or not. "At these 
meetings," says a paper describing the natives of New Nether- 
land, written in 1671, "conjurors act a wonderful part. These 
tumble, with strange contortions, head over heels; beat them- 
selves, leap with a hideous noise through and around a largo 
fire. Finally they all. raise a tremendous caterwauling, when 
the devil appears (they say) in the shape of a ravenous or 
harmless animal — the first betokens something bad, the second 
something good." Lieut. Couwenhoven witnessed an exhibition 
of this character at the Bans Kammer, during the war vS-ith the 
Esopus Indians, in 1663.* The spot was dedicated to this rude 
worship, and was so employed for perhaps a hundred years after 
the discovery of the river. In point of fact, there were two dance 
chambers — the first being the rocky point which juts out into the 
river, called in the original deed, "the little dans kammer;'' 
and the second, the plateau now occupied by the residence of the 
Messrs. Armstrong, which is specified in the same instrument as 
"the large dans kammer." The little dans kammer has a level 
surface of perhaps half an acre, and is separated from the main 
land by a marsh over which the water flows at times, while the 
large dans kammer embraces a plot of ten acres or more. 

Hampton. — A landing on the Hudson in the extreme north- 
eastern part of the town. The place was first known as Acker's 
Ferry, from Wolvert Acker who established a ferry here soon 
after the Ee volution. The present name was given by William 
Acker, son of the original proprietor, and is said to mean, "a house 
or farm on a hill." While the new name was very appropriate to 
a part of Mr. Acker's possessions, it is to be regretted that 
the original title of Acker's Ferry has not been retained, as 
it would have helped to preserve the memory of a patriot and a 
• worthy man. 

FosTKRTOWN. — The district known as Fostertown was originally 
embraced in the patent to the Bradley children,, and which was 
known as the Bradley patent. This patent was purchased and 
settled in 1168, by John Foster, William Foster, Kichard AVard 
and John Griggs ; and the Fosters being the most numerous, the 
settlement was called Fostertown. The lands of John Foster 
were sold by him to James Innis, the father of William Innis; 
and the place owned by William Foster is now occupied by 
David Wyatt. The descendants of Richard Ward and John 

♦ Ante p. 15. 




LOCALITIES. 131 

Griggs continue to hold the lands of their fathers. The Foster- 
town M. E. Church is in this neighborhood. There is also a 
district school. 

Rossville: — I'his is the name of a section of the town about 
six miles north-west of the village of Newburgh, and was 
originally covered by the Wallace patent. As previously stated,* 
this patent was purchased by Joseph . Penny, who sold about 
two hundred acres to Robert Ross. The remainder of it Mr. Penny 
divided among his sons, William, John, James, Peter, Joseph, 
Robinson, Allen and Isaac. Mr. Ross, we believe, was the first to 
settle on the patent, where he established a tannery. As early, 
probably, as 1710, he built a substantial stone 
house, which is still standing and forms a part 
of the residence of John L. Aderton, who now 
owns the place. The sons of Robert Ross 
-Alexander and William — subsequently oc- 
cupied a prominent position in the town, and their birth-place 
was called Rossville. There is a M. E. Church here, besides 
a district school, and a Post Office and store. The Post Office ad- 
dress is Savill, a name of no local significance, was but applied by 
the Post Master General to avoid confusion, as there are various 
other places bearing the name of Rossville. 

Gardnertown — Is a small settlement four miles north-west of 
the village of Newburgh, so called from Silas Gardner, one 
of the first settlers, many of whose descendants still reside in 
the town. There is a neat M. E. Church here, also a store or tavern, 
a district school, and one or two shops. A 
short distance south of the church, stands the 
old residence of the original proprietor — a 
massive stone structure of a style of archi- 
tecture'very prevalent a century or so ago. 
In the same vicinity is the mill owned for many years by David 
Bond. 

• 

RocKY-FoEEST. — This district embraces a large portion of the 
patent to Jacobus Kip and Company, and lies in the north-west 
part of the town adjoining Orange Lake. The name is derived 
from the physical features of the region, a large portion of which 
was originally and emphatically a rocky forest. A part of 
the disti-ict has, of late years, been called Luptondale, from one 
of the owners of an interest in the patent. There is a tradition 
* See ante page 48. 




132 



LOCALITIES. 



that the first settler in this vicinity was Jacobus Kip, one of 
the propi'ietors of the patent, who was induced to go there by 
the Coldens, the owners of adjoining lands; but we have not 
been able to verify the tradition. 

GiDNEYTOWN. — The settlement known as Gidneytown originally 
embraced the patent to John Spratt, which was purchased about 
the j-ear 1160 by Eleazer Gidney, whose four sons, Joseph, Daniel, 
David and Eleazer, about that time settled upon it. A part of 
the original purchase remains in the possession of the family. 

Belknapville. — This neighborhood is about seven miles west 
of the village of Newburgh, on the Newburgh and Cochecton 
turnpike. The name is given to it in honor of Samuel Belknap, 
the ancestor of the Belknap family of this town, who purchased 
and settled on the Baird patent in 1749-'50.* The Coldenham 
Post Office is now located here, although the village of Colden- 
ham is about two miles farther west in the town of Montgomery. 
The hamlet has two hotels and one or two shops. 

Dubois' Mills. — The water power of the Quassaick creek was 
first applied to practical use at the place now known as Dubois' 
Mills, about one mile and a half west of its confluence with the 
Hudson. Alexander Golden erected a mill f here as early, 

probably, as 1143. — 
This mill was one of 
the oldest, if not the 
p first built, in this re- 
^^ gion. Mr. Golden sold 
it, and lots No. 1 and 
; No. 2 of the German 
[patent, to Jonathan 
fHasbrouck by deed 
^dated May 8d, 1158.J 
It remained in the 
possession of the Has- 
brouck family until after the Kevolution, and during the war was 
frequently occupied by the militia when called out on alarms. 
The Hasbroucks sold it to a Mr. VanKeuren. Prom him it 
was bought by a Mr. Dickonson, who occupied it in 1198. 

* Ante p. 48. t This old mill was taken down by Mr. Dickson, October, 1859. 

t The price paid by Hasbrouck was $1050, and the deed specifies lots 1 and 2, of the 
GeiTiian patent, including the house where Burger Meyndertse formerly dwelt, and the 
"Grist Mill and appurtenances, mil! house and mill dam and dams." — Ulster Record of 
Deeds, B.E., 501. 




LOCALITIES. 133 

Subsequently it became the property of Gen. Nathaniel Dubois, 
who erected in connection with it a saw mill and a fulling mill. 
It remained in his hands upwards of forty years. After the 
deatli of Mr. Dubois, the property was purchased by a Mr. 
Weygant, who sold it to James R. Dickson, the present owner. 
Mr. D. has recently very much enlarged the water power by 
the erection of a substantial stone dam, thus forming a lake 
that covers some twenty-nine acres. He has also completed a 
large brick flouring mill with six run of stone, capable of turning 
out two hundred and fifteen barrels of flour daily. 

New Mills. — The second enterprise of this sort, in the vicinity 
of Dubois' Mills, was undertaken by Chancy, Joseph, Thomas and 
Daniel Belknap, under the firm of C. Belknap & Co., who erected, 
in 1183 or '84, a large flouring mill, and constructed a canal — 
the first, probably, in the state — to supply the water power. 
New Mills is the name now generally applied to the whole neigh- 
borhood. The mill of the Messrs. Belknap was, in its day, one 
of the largest in the state; and, for several years, they were 
the only Newburgh firm represented on 'change in New York. 
The mill was purchased by James Halstead, from whom it 
passed to William H. Beede. The old mill was destroyed by 
fire, (Oct. 6, 1846,) and a new one was erected by Mr. Beede 
in 1841- The present proprietors are James Koss and Napoleon 
B. Beede. 

PowDEH Mills. — About four miles north-west of the village of 
Newburgh, are the Powder works owned by Daniel Kodgers. 
They were first erected at this place by Asa Taylor, in 1816, 
and were subsequently purchased by Mr. Eodgers. They are the 
most complete and extensive works in the country. 

Okange Lake. — This body of water lies in the north-western 
part of the town, and covers about four hundred acres. The 
aboriginal name was probably Qussuk* or stony pond, from the 
large number of boulders on its western shore. It was called 
Binnin Water by the Dutch, a name signifying a "water between 
other waters, or, a water within land." It was next called 
Mouse Pond, from an old settler of that name; and was subse- 
quently known as Machin's Pond, and then as Big Pond. The 
present name was conferred, we believe, by the Rev. Dr. James 
R. Willson, who resided in the vicinity some thirty-five years 

* Ante p. 22, 128, 131. 



134 LOCALITIES. 

ago.* The lake is fed by internal springs, and by small streams 
which flow into it. Its outlet is the Quassaick creek. 

The principal fact of historical intei-est, in connection with 
this lake, is the erection of a coinage mill, near its outlet, 
by Capt. Thomas Machin, about the year 118f-'88. Capt. Machin 
began to build a grist and a saw mill here in 1784, and gave 
the name of New Grange to the place.f In 1781, he formed a 
co-partnership with several residents of the city of New York, 
for the purpose of coining money. The firm was afterwards 
incorporated with a similar company in the states of Vermont 
and Oonnecticut.f The mill and the manner in which coins 

* Eager's Orange County, 205. 

t"On the 18th of April, 1787, Capt. Maehin foi-med a co-partnership with Samuel 
Atlee, James F. Atlee, David Brooks, JamesGrier, and James Giles, all of New York. 
The term specified for its continuance was seven years, with a capital of £300. The firm 
seems to have been formed for the avowed purpose of coining copper, provided 
Congress, or any of the State legislatures, enacted a law allowing Individuals to coin 
money. As the object was to make money, a small capital was considered sufficient for 
the undertaking. On the 7th of June following, that firm foimed a copartnership with 
one then existing, which consisted of four partners — Reuben Haiinan, Esq., William 
Coley , of Bennington county, Vermont, Elias Jackson, of Litchfield county, Connecticut, 
and Daniel Van Voorhis, goldsmith, of the city of Ne"v York — for a term of eight years 
from the first of the following July, that being the limitation of an act of the legislature 
of Vermont to said Hannaa, for the coinage of copper. The first mentioned firm was 
to fuiTiish a capital of £500 for the concern; £200 of which capital, with £400 more, 
New York currency, to be paid to the latter firm two years after, was to be theirs as an 
equivalent for admitting the New York firm into communion with them — the latter 
being required to fm'nish no capital. The ten partners were to enjoy equally "the 
benefits, privileges, and advantages arising from the coinage of copper in the State of 
Vermont, to be coined in that State, and also in Connecticut, New York, and elsewhere, 
as the parties should see fit. On or before the first day of July, the first mentioned, or 
New York firm, were required, by the co-partnei'ship, "to complete, at their own cost, 
the works then erecting at the mills of the said Thomas Machin, near the Great Pond, 
in the county of Ulster," while the other part of the firm agreed, in the same time to 
complete works they were then erecting, at Rupert., in the county of Bennington, 
Vermont. Agreeably to the written contract, Giles was to have charge of the writing 
and book-keeping; Harman and Coley were to manage the money changers at Rupert; 
and Machin and J. F. Atlee were to "manage, act, and perform that part of the trade 
which concerned the coinage of money and manufacturing hardware," at Machin's 
mills; Grier was to be "cashier of the money coined at Rupert;" Van Voorhis, "cashier 
of the money coined at Machin's mills;" Grier and Jackson were to have the general 
management of the expenses, purchase of neoessaiy articles, &c., while other joint 
business was to be performed by Brooks and Samuel Atlee. It was further stipulated 
that Giles should keep a "certain book of resolutions;" that the firm should meet, either 
in person or by proxy in other members, agreeably to a written form of authority 
incorporated, on the 1st day of February, June, and Octoberof each year, at Rhinebeck, 
New York, unless otherwise agreed upon. In case either of the partners obtained a 
grant from Congi-ess or any of the states to coin money, the profits resultmg from such 
act were to be shared by all the partners, who also bound themselves personally, "in the 
penal sum of one thousand pounds," for the punctual performance of the contract. 

At Machin's mills perhaps a thousand pounds of copper was manufactured, as appeal's 
by his papers, in the year 1789; previous to which time little seems to have been done. 
The business appears to have been discontinued in 1790, for in a letter from J. F. Atlee 
to Mr. Machin, dated Vergennes, October 14, 1790, he expresses a wish that the concern 
might arrive at a settlement on equitable tenns, and compromise their matters without 
a tedious and expensive law suit.'^— Sjmms' Histm-y of Schoharie County, 596. 

Capt. Machin died at Charleston. Schoharie cmmty, April 3d, 1816, aged 72 yeare. 
During the Revolution, he superintended the construction of the chain and other ob- 
structions to the navigation of Hudson's river, and rendered other important service. 
He settled in Newburgh at the close of the war, and subsequently removed to Schoharie 
county. "In the camp and in retirement, his qualifications were holden in very high 
consideration." 



LOCALITIES. 135 

were manufactured, were recently described by Thomas Machin, 
a son of the proprietor, to Doct. F. B. Hough, of Albany, to whom 
we are indebted for the following particulars: 

"The coinage mill was from forty to fifty rods below the pond, 
on a canal dug for the purpose. The building was of wood, 
thirty by forty feet, and two stories high. The metal used was 
copper, obtained by melting up cannon and leaving out the zinc 
in the alloy. The copper was then run into moulds, rolled into 
flat sheets of the thickness of the coin and from one to two feet 
wide. It was then punched with a screw, moved by a lever, so 
adjusted that half a revolution would press out a disk of the 
size of the coin. The blanks were then put into a cylinder and 
revolved with sand, saw-dust and water. They were generally 
left revolving through the night; and the coiners circulated the 
story that the devil came by night to work for them. They also 
sometimes worked in masks to create a terror in the neighbor- 
hood. One night in the cylinder would wear the edges of the 
blanks smooth. The coining press was a screw, with an iron 
bar about ten feet long through the top. On each end of this 
bar was a leaden weight of perhaps five hundred pounds. The 
threads of the screw were large and square and worked through 
an iron frame. Ropes were attached to each end of the bar, and 
it was swung about half way around by two men pulling upon 
the ropes ; two other men pulled the lever back, and a fifth laid 
on the blank and took off the coin with his fingers. The last 
operative named sat in a pit so that the lever would not touch 
his head. The coinage was about sixty per minute. A little 
silver was coined, but mostly copper, and the work was con- 
tinued four or five years. Atlee, the engraver, wore a horrid 
mask, and frightened some boys who came to fish so that they 
never ventured near the mill again. The machinery was removed 
to New York, and the building was afterwards used as a grist 
mill. Machin abandoned the enterprise probably about ItQC't 

QuAssAicK Creek. — This stream is composed of the outlet of 
Orange Lake and of the Fostertown and the Tent Stone Meadow 
creeks. The Indian name was ^mssm&j* signifying stony. It is 
sometimes called Chambers' Creek, from the fact of its having 
been the north bounds of the patent to Chambers and Sutherland; 
but the Indian name, both for its antiquity and appropriateness, 
should supersede every other. Its water power is very durable, 

* Written Quasek in 1709, ante p. 23. 

t Operations were probably suspended on tlie adoption of the Federal constitution. 



136 LOCALITIES. 

as it has Orange Lake for a reservoir. In lt98, the following 
mills were located on this stream, viz: Schultz's, near its con- 
fluence with the Hudson; Dickenson's, formerly Hasbrouck's; 
Niven's, about one mile west of Hasbrouck's ; Foster's, Gardner's, 
(2) and Belknap's saw mills, and Burns' grist mill formerly 
Machin's coinage mill. In 1199, Hugh Walsh erected extensive 
paper mills, and in 1816, Peter Townsend established a cannon 
foundry and made the first cannon manufactured in the state.* 
Mill privileges are occupied at the present time as follows, viz; 
C. H. Havemeyer, cotton mill; J. Longking, daguerrian instru- 
ments; J. D. Walsh, paper; J. R. Dickson, flour, plaster and 
woolen; Beede & Ross, flour; J. Standring, file; D. Rodgers, 
powder; J. Bond, flour. 

FosTERTowN Ceeek. — This stream rises in Ulster county, flows 
through Fostertown and Gidneytown and empties into the 
Quassaick creek at Niven's mill. It is called Fostertown creek 
until it reaches Gidneytown when it takes the latter name. 
In 1198, Smith's and Denton's saw mills were on this stream. 
The Gidney mill was erected at a later period, and is still 
standing. 

Tent Stone Meadow Ceeek. — This creek rises in a large swamp 
in Ulster county, known many years ago as the Tent Stone 
Meadow. It flows through Rossville, and empties into the 
Quassaick at the Powder mills. In 1198, the Pennys had two 
saw mills upon it, Hartshorn one, and Hasbrouck one. The 
name of the creek we give as we find it recorded on a map of 
the town made by W. Sackett in 1198, now on record in the 
office of the Secretary of State, Albany. 

Bushfield's Creek. — This creek has its source in a swamp in the 
town of Plattekill, known as the Stone Dam Meadow from the 
fact that across the south end of the swamp is a stone dam about 
one hundred and fifty yards long, three feet high, regularly built 
and now in good preservation. Neither the period at which it 
was erected, nor the person by whom it was built, are known.f 
The creek issues thro ugh a sluice way in this dam and empties into 

* During the Bumtner past, Mr. Peter Townsend has been engaged in bnilding a Can- 
non foundry at Chamber's creelt, just below this village. It is now in complete operation. 
On Tuesday last, the castmg of cannon was commenced.— /ndea:, Dec. 3, 1816. 

T ?®?J^„?^ ^ '™J "'' '''^ cannon cast by Mr. Townsend, the National Intelligencer of 
July 17, 1817, remarks: "The first cannon ever manufactured in the state of New York 
and of metal and accuracy of firing, were never excelled." 

* The early settlers attributed the erection of this dam to the beavere. The work is 
certamly not beyond the skill of those ingenious animals. 



LOCALITIES. 13t 

Orange Lake. Its original name was Beaver Dam creek — the 
present name was given in honor of James Bushfield. 

Denton's Creek. — A small stream near Balmville and so called 
from Nehemiah Denton, who had a grist mill and landing at its 
confluence with the Hudson. 

Acker's Ceeek. — A small stream which runs through the north- 
ern part of the town for a short distance and joins the Hudson 
in the town of Marlborough. It was formerly called Jew's creek 
from a Mr. Gomaz, a Jew, who held a portion of the Harrison 
patent. The present name is a memorial of Wolvert Acker who 
had a grist mill and a saw mill upon it. 

Trout Brook.— This brook flows north through Middlehopc 
and empties into Acker's creek. 

Taggert's Pond. — A sheet of water between Newburgh and 
the New Mills, south of the turnpike, and owned by James 
Taggert. It is principally valued for the ice which it supplies. 
It was long known as Pol. Rose's pond. 

King's Hill. — An eminence in the north-west part of the town, 
over the crown of which passes the boundary line between the 
towns of Newburgh and Montgomery. The name is derived 
from a Mr. King, an old settler, whose descendants still reside 
in the town. 

Racoon Hill — Is north of King's hill, and is so called from its 
having been infested with racoons. 

Ceonomer's Hill — Is about three miles north-west of the village 
of Newburgh, and is so called from having been the residence 
and hunting ground of an Indian chief named Cronomer, the 
last of his tribe, prior to the war of the Revolution. One of the 
lots on the farm of J. Cornish is still known, we are told, as "the 
hut lot," where Cronomer lived. Tradition affirms that Cronomer 
once pointed out to Martin Weigand a deposit of lead ore on this 
hill, the location of which the latter soon forgot, and for which, 
during the war, he searched in vain. 

Belknap Ripge — Is about three and a half miles west of the 
village of Newburgh, and is named from the Belknaps. 

Muoh-Hattoes Hill. — A mountain near the south boundary 
of the town of Newburgh, in the town of New Windsor. The 
name is Indian, and, like other Indian names, describes some 
physical or other peculiarity. This hill had three remai-kablc 
features — its bold, rocky face; the "swallow-hole," which re- 



138 LOCALITIER. 

ceives the water from Little Pond, and, for many years, a great 
abundance of rattle snakes and pilots, a circumstance which gave 
it the title of Snake Hill* Our impression is that the word 
is from the same root as Manhattoes, the Indian name for the 
island of New York, which Mr. Schoolcraft renders, "bad, dan- 
gerous, frightful." Thus interpreted, Much-Hattoes would signify 
"dangerous hill," from the venomous reptiles which had here 
their abode. The Newburgh Alms-bouse is situated on the 
north-eastern spur of this hill; and along its eastern base are 
several finely cultivated farms and vineyards. An extensive 
deposit of iron ore has recently been discovered upon it, and 
arrangements have been made for opening it. 

Lime Sto\-e Hill. — A ridge of lime stone, about two miles 
north-west of the village of Newburgh. 

The Vale. — A beautiful valley extending up the Quassaick 
creek for half a mile from its mouth. A few years ago it was a 
favorite resort for the citizens of the village, but recently the 
proprietors have denied them the privilege. There is a tradition 
that, in the house once occupied by Mr. Richard Trimble, and 
more recently by Mr. Hale, Mr. Roe, and others, but which was 
known in the days of the Revolution as Ettrick Grove, au attempt 
was made to betray Washington, whose head quarters were then 
at the Ellison house, New Windsor. Ettrick Grove was then 
occupied by a Col. Ettrick, a zealous tory. The story goes, 
that Washington had accepted an invitation to dine with Col. 
Ettrick, who had, meanwhile, made arrangements with a com- 
pany of tories to take him prisoner. Washington, warned of 
the design, ordered a detachment of the life guard, dressed in 
the English uniform, to be on the ground before the arrival of 
the tories. When this detachment made its appearance, Wash- 
ington's host, supposing them to be his tory friends, stepped up 
to him and accosted him as his prisoner. Washington looked 
at the troops for a moment and replied, "I believe not, sir, but 
you are mine." The treacherous host was spared his life, through 
the intercession of his daughter, who had betrayed her father's 
intention, and he was permitted to remove to Nova Scotia.f 

* In Bome letters on the natural liistoiy and internal resources of the state of New 
York, written by DeWitt Clinton in 1820, it is stated, that "the rattle snake, among 
other localities, is found at Snake Hill, in Orange County." Mr. Eager relates the tra- 
dition "that an old resident of the last generation was known to kill fifty snakes in one 
day, ill this -vicinity." (p. 610.) 

t We find this tradition referred to in one of our village papers in 1837, and we have 
read the story in some one of our files, but we have not been able to recover the paper. 



CENSUS. 



139 



CENSUS RETURNS. 

Although enumerations of the inhabitants of the several Pre- 
cincts of the Province of New York were made at an early 
period, the returns are very imperfect. The early tax-rolls, 
however, give more complete statistics, and in examining those 
relating to the Precinct of the Highlands, we find the following 
statement: 

"The Freeholders, Inhabitants, Residents and Sojouri;ers of the County of Ulster, theire 
real and personal estates are Bated to be assessed by the Assessors (on theire Oath) 
chosen for the same on the 20th day of January 1714-5, and are to pay after the rate 
of one penny half per £ to discharge this years payment of said County's Quota* Layd 
by an Act of the P. Assembly Entitled an Act for Levying the same of Ten Thousand 
pounds, viz 

Precinct of Highlands. 





Rated. 




Tax. 




Rated. 




Tax. 


Peter Magregory 


£30 


£0 


3s 9d 


Wm Elawortha widow £5 


£0 


Oa 


7i 


Swerver 


5 





7i 


Dennis Eelje 


3 








4 


William Sutherland 


45 





5 1% 


Alexander Sriggs 


35 





4 


4ff 


Michael Wynant 


15 





1 10* 


Thomas HaiTis 


5 








7j 


Burger Myndertsen, 


10 





1 3 


Capt. Bond 
Melgert the Joyner 


15 





1 


loj 


Jacob Weber 


15 





1 loi 


15 





1 


lol 


Peter LaEoss 


10 





1 3 


Christian Henrick, 


3 


n 





4i 


John Fisher 


10 





1 3 


Jaoolt Decker Jnn 


10 





1 


3" 


Andres Volck 


12 





1 


Cornelia Decker 


i 








n 


George Lockste 


10 





1 3 













Pieter Jansen 


10 





1- 3 




293 


1 


Ifi 


n 


Henry Eennau 


25 





3 IJ 













With the exception of Peter Magregory and William Suther- 
land, who held patents for lands in New Windsor, and the 
Deckers, Jansen and Harris, who probably resided near the Paltz 
purchase, the persons above named were residents or free-holders 
in the present town of Newburgh, and, with the exception of 
Griggs, Bond, Myndertsen, Elsworth, LaRoss and Relje, they were 
the original Palatinate settlers. Siniilar returns for the years 
171T-8, l'724-5, and 1726-9, exhibit the increase of residents 
and free-holders in the Precinct, as follows: 

1717-8 
Henry Eeimau, 
Widow Elsworth, 
Denis Belje, 
Wm. Bond, 
Alexander Griggs, 
Melgert de Schrynwerkei', 

1724-5 
Doct. Golden, 
Geo. Elmes, 
Tobias Waggont, 
Valentyn Breasure, 
John Humphrey, 



Peter Magregory, 
Wm. Sutherland, 
Michael Wynant, 
Jacob Weber, 
John Fischer, 
Andres Volck, 

Wm. Chambers, 
John Lawrence, 
His Ek. William Burnett, 
Widow Elsworth, 
Phineas Mcintosh, 



Col. Mathews, 
Mr. Gomez, 
Burger Myndertsen, 
A. Graham. 
Mr. Chambers, 
Peter Jansen's estate, 

Z. Hoffman, 
Michael Bolls, 
Henry Wileman, 
Daniel Denes, 
John Slater, 



* The total tax laid on the several Precincts of the county of Ulster are given in this 
return, as follows : 



Kingston, 
Foxhall Manor, 
Hurley, 
Marbletown, 
Rochester, 



Valuation. 
£9176 
1322 
4398 
6142 
3523 
Totals, 



Tax. 
£57 7s Od 
8 5 3 
27 9 
32 2 
22 



9 
9 



New Palles, 
Shawangonck, 
Wagackkemeck, 
Highlands, 



Valuation. Tax, 
£2075 £12 198 4^ 



848 
105 
293 



5 6 

13 U 

1 16 'li 

168 3 



140 


CENSUS. 




Thos. Ellis (on) 


Pavid Sutherland, 


John Filips, 
Robt. Kirkland, 


George Lockstead, 


John Davids, 


Jeuvian Quick, 


John Willson, 


John Alsop, 


William Bond, 


Old Denes, 


Peter Long, 


Burger Minders, 


William Fountain, 


Peter Mulliner, 


Thomas Brainer, widow, 


Gomez the Jew, 


Melcher Gillis, 


'(Villiam Ward, 


Christopher Febb, 


Hemy Hedsel, 


Geo. Waggont, 


John Askell, 


Eenj. Elsworth, 


Wm. Sanders, 


John Armtyne, 


Nathaniel Poster. 


Alexander Mackel, 


Thomas Edwards, 




Wm. Chambers, 


1726-9. 
John Davis, 


Burger Meynderse, 


Phineas Mcintosh, 


Melgert Gillis, 


Wm. ,Sa,nnders, 


Thomas Ellison, 


Geo. Speedwell, 


Alex. Mackie, 


James Elsworth, 


Bcnj. Elsworth, 


Cad. Golden, 


Jurie Quick, 


Nathl. Foster, 


John Slaughter, 


Wm. Bond, 


Francis Harrison, 


George 


Gomaz the Jew, 


J. Mackneel, Jr., 


Tobias Wagagont, 


Burger Meynderse, Jr., 


.Tames Gam well. 


Robert Strickland, 


Moses Elsworth, 


Stephen Bedford, 


John Umphrey, 


John Haskell, 


Thomas Shaw, 


Peter Long, 


John Alsop, Esq., 
William Ward. 


Joseph Gale, 


Davis Sutherland, 


Henry 


Peter Muliner, 


John Vantine, 


John Mond, 


Christian Chevis, j 



Geo. Wagagont, (Weigand) 

The most complete of the early enumerations of the inhabitants 
of the Precinct was taken in 1782, pursuant to an act of the 
Provincial Convention entitled, "An Act for taking the number 
of white inhabitants within this State/' passed March 20, of that 
year. It g-ave a population to Newburgh of 1,487, divided as 
follows: Males under 10, 429; over 16 and under 60, 252; over 
60, 37. Females under 16, 368; over 16, 371. Number of per- 
sons making Newburgli their place of abode "by reason of the 
invasion of the enemy," 154, viz: Males under 16, 36; over 16 
and under 60, 26; over 60, 6. Females under 16, 42; over 16, 
44.* The several census taken since 1782, exhibit the following 
results : 



Year. 


Population. 


Increase. 


Year. 


Pcmdation. 


Increase 


1790 


2,365 


878 


1830 


6,424 


256 


1801) 


3,258 


893 


1835 


7,783 


1,359 


1810 


4,627 


1,369 


1840 


8,933 


1,150 


1814 


5,107 


480 


1845 


9,001 


68 


1820 


6,812 


705 


1850 


11,416 


2,414 


1825 


6,168 


356 


1855 


12,773 


1,358 



These returns include the population of the town and village. 
Statistical tables prepared in the year 1814, gave the population 
of the village as 2323; in 1817, 2464; in 1821, 2877; in 1822, 
3566; in 1855, 9256. The census of 1855 gave- the' following 

statistics: 

TOWN OP NEWBUKGH. 

Nationalities^— CimaAa,, 22; New Brunswick, 12; Nova Scotia, 12; New Foundland, 
1; England, 329; Scotland, 196; Ireland, 2,809; Wales, 8; France, 24; Holland, 1; 
West Indies, 2; Mexico, 2; South America, 4; Germany, 214; Prussia, 16; Spain, 1; 
Poland, 3; Sweden,!; Africa, 1; Turkey and Greece, 2; Islands, 2; Asia, 2; at sea, 
1; unknown, 4; United States, 5,437; native and natuiulized, 9,106; Aliens, 3,667; of 
foreign birth, 7,338; native, 5,437; total, 12,773. 



CENSUS. 



141 



X>«)e//mg«.— Stone, 31, value $226,250; Brick, 314, value 11,058,050; Frame, 1,360, 
value, $1,897,755; other,4, value $42; total, 1,729; value, $3,185,097. 

/^ond.— Acres improved, 23,241 3-4; unimproved, 4,078 1-2; total, 27,323 1-4. Value 
of Farms, $1,904,630; Stock, $227,839; tools, $63,860; total, $2,196,329. 

Churches. — Number of Churches, 24; seating 11,600; value, $195,600; attendance, 
7,730; communicants, 3,246. (These figures are estimated.) 







Value 


Value 


Value 


Value 


No. 


Manufactures. 


No. 


Real Estate. 


Tools. 


Raw Mat. 


Manf. Goods. 


Men. 


Farnaoes, 


4 


$17,400 


$24,500 


$68,912 


$141,500 


98 


Cotton Factories, 


1 


50,000 


50,000 


65,900 


114,984 


309 


Shoddy Mills, 


2 


1,000 


1,000 


5,000 


10,000 


15 


Woolen Cloth. 


1 


5,000 


4,000 


10,500 


19,500 


10 


Brewers, 


1 


50,000 


25,000 


181,050 


195,950 


37 


Soap Factories, 


4 


29,700 


5,200 


103,360 


152,075 


13 


Gas, 


1 


60,000 


6,000 


4,200 


11,300 


5 


Oil Cloth, 


1 


12,000 


1,000 


17,085 


24,000 


16 


Boiler Factory, 


1 


6,000 


3,000 


17,500 


29,500 


33 


Ship Yard, 
Sash and Blinds, 


1 


20,000 


10,000 


37,435 


55,500 


20 


1 


4,500 


2,300 


800 


6,000 


3 


Coach, 


1 


5,000 


250 


1,975 


4,375 


5 


Flour Mills, 


7 


45,200 


13,600 


138,400 


156,280 


24 


Cooper Shops, 


1 


1,500 


150 


2,400 


5,155 


4 


Saw Mills, 


1 


30,000 


10,000 


150,000 


200,000 


50 


Brick Kilns, 


8 


61,000 


22,000 


21,105 


74,450 


215 


Harness Makers, 


u 


10,000 


450 


3,784 


27,200 


10 


Plaster, 


2 


1,000 


500 


5,100 


8,200 


.1 


Stone Cutters, 


1 


700 


200 


1,100 


3,000 


4 


Glove Makers, 


1 








1,500 




Morocco Factory, 


1 


5,000 


400 


20,035 


31,000 


16 


Tanneries, 


2 


14,000 


4,000 


35,430 


65,458 


24 


Furniture, 


3 


4,600 


3,050 


7,750 


22,550 


30 


Piano Factory, 


2 


15,000 


1,300 


7,567 


20,000 


14 


Tailor Shops, 


1 


5,000 


50 


10,000 


18,000 


15 


Tobacco, 


1 


5,000 


300 


5,000 


9,000 


10 



53 458,600 187,250 819,388 1,406,477 983 

The census of 1860 will undoubtedly show a considerable 
increase in the population, as well as in the mechanical and other 
business pursuits of the town. 

NEWBUKGH POOE SYSTEM. 

Provision for maintaining the poor was included in the act 
creating the Precinct of Newburgh. The first record in relation 
to the subject, aside from the annual election of Overseers of 
the Poor, occurs in 1169, when £30 were raised "for the support 
of the Poor for the year ensuing." In 1711, the following rules 
were adopted at the annual Precinct meeting, viz: 

"KuLB pftiST ^Voted, as ah encouragement to ail succeedmg Poor Mastoi-s, the more 

faithfully to discharge theu: duty in their ofiSce, by preventing all unnecessary charges 
and needless costs on the inhabitants of the Preomct, and also as a reward for their 
good services, we freely vote them the sum of £10 each, to be paid out of the money 
voted to be raised for the use of the poor or out of such fines as may be raised for the 
same use. 

. "Edlk thibd Voted, that no Poor Master for the time being shall for any cause 

whatever, relieve or cause to be relieved, or made chargeable, any person or persons 
whatever, that may by law be transpoi-ted; or any private person who can be made 
accountable according to law; on pain of peiiury, and making themselves liable to pay 
all such charges, and forfeit to the vise of the poor twenty shillings and charges of 
prosecution, to be recovered before any of his Majesty's .Tustices of the Peace.'' 

In 111b, £50 were raised for the poor; in 1111, £100; in 11t8, 

£200, and 

"Voted, That donations be collected in this Precinct to be applied to such poor whose 



142 SUPPORT OF POOR. 

husbands or parents were either killed or taken prisoners at Fort Montgomery." 
1780.— "Voted, That £800 be raised for the poor." 
1800. — "Voted, To hire a house for the accommodation of the Poor." 
1805 "Voted, That the Overseer of the Poor be authorized to contract with one or 

more peraons to talce the whole of the poor, and to put out the children as they shall 

see best for the town." 

The increase of population made it necessary to provide 

larger accommodations for the poor; and, in 1814, an act of 

the Legislature was passed authorizing the construction of a 

town Poor House. The town voted, (April 1,) a tax of $1500 

for that purpose ; and appointed John Mandevill and Benoni H. 

Howell, Overseers of the Poor, to act with Andrew DeWitt, 

John D. Lawson, Eleazer Gidney and Henry Butterworth, 

commissioners, "to direct the building of the house and to take 

the whole management of the same." A site was selected on 

Water street, and a building completed in the course of the year. 

The system was conducted with success and economy, as the 

following figures from the annual reports will show, viz: 

Eeccipt!5: 

$780 00 
385 Hi 
17 81| 



1827 — House expenses: 






Victualing, Clothing, &c. 


$297 71 


Tax, 


Wood, 


81 87 


On hand, 


Doctor's bill. 


63 19 


Pines, &c 


Keeper's wages. 


50 00 




Temporary relief. 


651 75 





1,153 23 



l,ia 52 

In 1830, the receipts were $2,172 64 3-4, and disbursements, 
$1,158 58 1-4. In 1831, receipts, $3,160 691-2; disbursements, 
$1,648 64; expenses of alms-house, $812 12 3-4. 

In 1830, the Orange county Poor House was erected at a cost 
of $12,000; and on the 22d April, 1831, the Legislature authorized 
the sale of the Newburgh Poor House and lands, which was soon 
after effected, and the proceeds were applied to the payment 
of the county poor tax. 

The county system of supporting the poor continued until 
1855, when the rapidly increasing charges for temporary relief 
aroused public attention and investigation. The subject was 
first brought before the Board of Supervisors by Mr. Enoch 
Carter, supervisor from Newburgh, and the abuses of the county 
system were thoroughly exposed. At the instance of Mr. Carter, 
the Board adopted the following resolution, viz: 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Board of Supervisors, it would be for the mutual 
interest of the citizens of Newburgh and of Orange county, that an application be 
made to the Legislature by the citizens of the town of Newburgh for the passage of an 
Act paying to the town of Newburgh her proportionate interest in the present County 
House, and also empowering said town to provide a town House for her own poor the 
expenses of which shall be boi-ne by the town of Newburgh." ' 

The inhabitants of Newburgh immediately responded to the 
action of -the Board of Supervisors by a public meeting held at 



SUPPORT OF POOR. 143 

Crawford's Hall on the evening of the 11th of December, Mr, 

George Cornwell, chairman, and James W. Fowler, secretary. 

The subject was discussed by Messrs. N. Reeve, J. J. Monell, 

Wm. C. Hasbrouck, and G. C. Monell; and a series of resolutions 

oifered by J. J. Monell, were adopted. A committee of twelve 

persons,— viz: Messrs. John W. Brown, David W. Bate, Wm. C, 

Hasbrouck, J. J. Monell, John Beveridge, Homer Ramsdell, 

Gilbert C. Monell, Lewis W. Young, Charles Drake, Enoch Carter, 

Charles U. Cushman, and Rev. Jno. Forsyth, — was appointed to 

prepare, and report at a subsequent meeting, an act to be passed 

by the Legislature to re-establish a town system for supporting 

the poor. 

At a meeting held December 30th, Mr. Brown, from the 

committee for that purpose, submitted the draft of a law, 

accompanied by an able report illustrating the necessity of the 

movement, from which we select a single paragraph: 

"Previous to 1840, the sums expended in tempoi-aiy relief seldom, if ever, exceeded 
$1600, for the county, and $500 for this town. The Superintendent's Report for 1838 
exhibits this item at $1589 27, for the county, of whion $560 90 was for the towtt of 
Newbnrgh. The report tor 1839 exhibits the same item at $1658 45 for the county, of 
which $585 90 was for the town of Newburgh. This item of expenditure has grown 
with a steady and rapid growth, until we find it set down in the Superintendent's Eeport 
for the year 1852, at $12,802 13 for the county, of which $6,451 90 is set down as 
expended in the town of Newburgh. But it is due to the occasion to say, that notwith- 
standing the figures of this report, and the known integrity of its authors, the committee 
have good authority for saying that the expenditure for temporary relief for the last 
year was little short of $14,000 for the county, and $8,000 for the town of Newburgh." 

The act applied for passed the Legislature, M?irch 23, 1853. 
By its terms the town of Newburgh was established as a 
separate and distinct Poor District; and a corporation created 
by the name of "the Commissioners of the Aims-House of the 
town of Newburgh." The commissioners named in the act,— 
viz: Henry Wyckoff, David W. Bate, David H. Barclay, George 
Gearn, Alfred Post, and Eugene A. Brewster, — immediately 
entered upon the discharge of their duties, and a farm was 
purchased and the erection of suitable buildings commenced 
under contract with Mr. John Little, Jr. The building was 
completed and opened December 10th, 1853, and was occupied 
by six persons from the town of Newburgh and forty-nine 
(exclusive of insane) from the County House, being the number 
apportioned to Newburgh under the act of separation. 

The general results of the system are stated in the annual 
report of the commissioners, submitted November 1st, 1857, 
from which it appears, that an expenditure of 121,100 had then 
been made in the purchase of land and in the erection of buildings 
&c., and that the cost of maintaining the poor had been $19,690 



144 TURNPIKES AXD PLANK ROADS. 

92, during the five years that the system had been in operation 
— or about $4,000 per year. 

TURNPIKES AND PLANK ROADS. 

We have already referred to the organization of the Nevyburgh 
and Cochecton, Newburgh and New Windsor, Newburgh and 
Sullivan, Newburgh and Plattekill, and the Snake Hill turnpike 
companies.* In the autumn of 1849, the construction of a plank 
road from Newburgh to Ellenville was proposed. In January, 
(14th) 1850, a meeting of citizens was held at the United States 
Hotel, Homer Eamsdell, president, and Robert Proudfit, Jr., secre- 
tary, — -and on motion of David Crawford, a committee of twenty- 
five was appointed "to go out to Ellenville, in company with 
engineers, and inquire into the practicability of constructing a 
plank road thither, and the best route for the same." The com- 
mittee employed Mr. W. A. Perkins, engineer, to make a survey 
of the route, who, on the 13th March, submitted a report at a 
public meeting. The report presented a survey of three routes, 
southern, northern and middle, with an estimate of the cost of 
each; and, on motion, it was resolved, that "measures be taken 
to organize a company for the construction of a plank road to 
Ellenville with a capital of $100,000." Committees were appointed 
to ascertain the amount of stock that would be subscribed, and 
the land damages claimed, by persons residing on each of the 
proposed routes. On the 24th March, a meeting of subscribers 
to the stock of the "Newburgh and Ellenville Plank Road Com- 
pany," was held at the United States Hotel,— Homer Ramsdell, 
president, and E. Pitts, secretary, — and, on motion, proceeded to 
the election of nine directors, and the following named gentlemen 
were chosen: 

Newburgh — Homer Bamsdell, B. W. Farriiigton, David Crawford, Thornton M. 

* The Newburgh and Cochecton turnpike company was organized in 1801. (Ante p. 
113.) The Newburgh and New Windsor tnrnpilie company was incorporated by Act of 
the legislature passed April 2d, 1806. Capital $5,000. Charles Clinton, Daniel String- 
ham, John McAuley, George Monell, Hugh Walsh, Isaac Hasbronck, Selah Eeeve, 
Joseph Monell, Abraham Schultz, Biohard Trimble, Jonas Williams, John D. Nicol! and 
Samuel Lockwood, first directors. The Orange and Ulster Branch turnpike company 
was incorporated in 1808. Capital S90,.500. The Newburgh and Sullivan turnpike 
company was incorporated March 30, 1810. Capital, $35,000. Cornelius Bruyn, James 
Rumsey, Abraham Janaen, John D. Lawson, John McAulay, Moses Roseki-anse, Nichola.s 
Hardenburgh, Johannes T. Jansen, dneetors. The route was through Rocky Forest and 
New Hurley to Sallivau County by way of Sam's Point. The Newburgh and Plattekill 
turnpike company was iacoi-porated April 5, 1810. Capital $14,000. Jacob Powell, 
Daniel Smith, John Wells, Jonathan Bailey, Justus Cooley and Henry Butterwovth, 
directors. The Snake Hill turnpike company was incorporated March 24, 1815. Capi- 
tal, $14,000. Jonathan Hasbrouok, William Taylor, Hiram Weller, Nathaniel Dubois 
and Jonathon Hedges, directors. With the exception of the Newburgh and Cochecton 
and Newburgh and New Windsor, these turnpikes have been ahandoned and opened as 
common highways. 



KA1J,-U0AD EMTERPKISESi. 145 

Niveii, WiUiiini FuUerton; VMermlk—k. E. Taylor; PValden—A. i'. Sohofleld; 
Shawangunk — James G. Graham; Bi-uj/nawick — ftiohard Jackson. 

At a subsequent meeting of the directors, Homer Ramsdell 
was elected president; E. W Farrington, vice president; T. ]\l. 
Niven, secretary; and David MoOre, treasurer. 

At a meeting of the directors, held April 5tb, it was resolved 
to adopt the southern route; and at a meeting on the 11th, it 
was agreed to put the Avork under contract as soon as $100,000 
should be subscribed. 

Immediately after this action, those in favor of a northern route 
organized the "Newburgh and Shawangunk Plank Road Compa- 
ny," and, at a meeting held on the 18th April, they elected 
Robert A. Forsyth, Cornelius C. Smith, John B. Jamison, -Odell .S. 
Hathaway, Richard A. Southwick, Jacob V. B. Fowler, of Xew- 
burgh, and James G. Graham, S. M. Brnyn and Jas. N. Mitchell, 
of Shawangunk, directors. At a subsequent meeting of the 
directors, Jacob Y. B. Fowler was elected president; Robert A. 
Forsyth, treasurer; and R. A. Southwick, secretary. 

Both companies were organized under the general statute of 
May "I, 184'?, and the roads were completed in December, 1851.* 
The capital stock of the EUenville road, paid in, was.$79,7'?0. To 
complete the work and pay existing indebtedness, the Legislature 
passed an act authorizing the issue of $44,000 in preferred stock, 
and fixing the whole capital at $124,000. The capital stock of the 
Newburgh and Shawangunk road, paid in, is $30,000. Although 
both of these roads afford great accommodation to the section 
of country traversed by them, neither of them have, we believe, 
yielded a dividend. 

raiiaBoaii enterprises. 

The organization of a company for the construction of a rail- 
road to connect Newburgh with the "coal mines of Pennsylvania, 
was first proposed in 1829, and an act was passed by the Legis- 
lature, on tlie 19th of April, 1830, constituting and appointing 
David Crawford, Christopher Reeve, John P. DeAYint, Thomas 
Powell, Joshua Conger, Charles Borland, William Walsh, John 
Forsyth, and their associates, "a body corporate and politic by 
the name of the Hudson and Delaware Rail-Road Company," 
for the purpose of constructing a single or double rail-road or 
way, from any part of the village of Newburgh, through the 
county of Orange to the Delaware river. The capital of the 

* The opening of the south plank road was celebrated af KUeiiville, \'vi-. 2'i. A large 
delegation from Newburgh was present. 

CIO 



146 



RAIIrROAD ENTERPRISES. 



company was fixed at $500,000, with power to increase the same 
to $1,000,000, if necessary; and David Crawford, Charles Borland, 
Peter Cuddeback, Thos. Powell, J. P. DeWint, Jos. Kernochan, 
Peter H. Schenck, and John W. Knevels were appointed commis- 
sioners to open subscriptio'ns. 

This act, however, became void — no effort having been made 
to build the road "within three years" after the time of its pas- 
sage. Nothing more was done until the 30th of September, 1835, 
when a meeting of citizens was held at the Orange Hotel, pursuant 
to a call signed by David Eugglgs, John Forsyth, Nathl. DuBois, 
Chas. H. Bellows," Oliver Davis and David Crawford, of which 
Gilbert 0. Fowler was chosen president; Nathaniel DuBois, vice 
president, and John W. Knevels, secretary. The subjects dis- 
cussed at this meeting were, mainly, these two, viz: What course 
should be pursued in reference to an application to the Legislature 
for a subscription on the part of the state to the New York and 
Erie rail-road company ; and the feasibility of uniting the Hudson 
and Delaware road with that of the New York and Erie. The 
meeting 

"Resolved, That we will unite in the application to the legislature for.a subscription 
on the part of tlfe state to the stock of the New York and Erie rail road companj-. 
That we will also join in a petition to the legislature for the grant of a charter upon 
liberal tenns incorporating a company to oonstract a rail way from this village to the 
Delaware river, and that we will bear our proportion according to our several means in 
subscription to the stock. , 

"Resolved, That a committee of five persons be appointed to communicate with the 
directors of the New York and Erie rail road company, and present to them a 
proposition (aa detailed to the meeting) for uniting the efforts of the inhabitants of this 
vicinity with that company in the successful prosecution of the project for constracting 
a rail road fi-om Lake feie to the Hudson river. 

On this committee the following persons were placed, viz: 

John W. Knevels, Nathl. DuBois, Oliver Davis and G. 0. Fowler. 

The following resolution was also unanimouslj'^ concurred in, viz: 

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed whose duty it shall be to give the required 
legal notice in the public newspapers of our intention to apply for an act of incorpora- 
tion for the construction of a rail way from the village of Newburgh to the Delawai-e 
river; to prepare and cii-culate petitions to the legislature in behalf of this application; 
to draft the act of incoi-poration, and report their proceedings to the meetmg at the 
time to which it shall stand adjourned." 

The following persons were appointed upon the last mentioned 
committee, viz: John W: Knevels, Abraham if Smith, John 
Forsyth, John Thayer, Benjamin H. Mace. 

Now began the long struggle to secure the eastern terminus 
of the Erie road at Newburgh ; and the interests of the Delaware 
road, as a distinct project, awaited the issue. When it became 
known that those prominent in the Erie company had decided 
in favor of the Piermont route, the citizens of Newburgh again 
took up the Delaware road; and, on the Slst of April, 1836, the 



BAIL-ROAD ENTERPBISES. 141 

Legislature passed an act "to renew and amend" that of 1830. 
By this act, "David Crawford, ChristopherKeeve, Oliver Davis, 
John Forsyth, Thomas Powell, Joshua Conger, David Euggles, 
Benjamin Qarpenter, and their associates," were constituted a 
Body politic and corporate, by the name of "The Hudson and 
Delawai'e Rail-Road Company," for the purpose of constructing 
a road "commencing in the north part of the village of Newburgh, 
and running from thenco along the Hudson river in front of said 
village as far as the trustees of the said village" should deter- 
mine; and thence to the Delaware river. The_ capital stock of 
the company was fixed at $500,000; and Gilbert 0. Fowler, Chas. 
Borland, John Forsyth, Thomas Powell, Benj. H. Mace, John P. 
DeWint, Abraham M. Smith, James G. Clinton and John W. 
Knevels were appointed commissioners fo open subscriptions. 

On the 15th June, 1836, the first election for directors, under 
the amended act, was held at the Orange Hotel, when Thomas 
Powell, John Forsyth, David Crawford, Benjamin Carpenter, 
John P. DeAVint,John Ledyard, Christopher Reeve, Gilbert 0. 
Fowler, James G. Clinton, Nathaniel DuBois, Samuel G. Sneden, 
David W. Bate, and Oliver Davis, were chosen. At a subsequent 
meeting of the directors, Thomas Powell was elected president; 
David W. Bate, vice president; John Ledyard, treasurer; and 
James G. Clinton, secretary^ 

A survey of the route was "made soon after by Jc^n B. 
Sargeant, who reported the length of the proposed road as 
thirty-eight miles, and the cost as $10,000 per mile. Stock to a 
sufficient amount having been subscribed,* steps were taken to 
grade the section between Washingtonvillo and the Quassaick 
creek. Ground was broke on the 3d of November, 1836, with 
approjpriate ceremonies, and the atispicious event was celebrated 
by a general illumination of the village.f In response to a 

* The Telegi-aph of August 26, aays: "Great liberality in ceding lauds for the track 
we understand ia manifested in many instances. A large landholder in one instance, 
whose extensive lands are traversed for some distance by the line, (we allude to the 
Hon. R. Denniston,) gave the company permission to talte without price, any route 
except through his house. Such a spirit as tliis will huild the road speedily."' 

t A general illumination by the citizens of the village tooic place on Thursday 
evening last, to celebrate the commencentent of the Hudson and Delaware railroad — 
the netice for which, to many was first announced by the bteing of tar barrels throngh- 
ottt the streets; but no sooner was it generally known than every window in the village 
from the cellar t j.tlie garret which could show, a light was filled with blazing candles. 
The spirit with which the storekeepers vied with each other on the occa.sion was well 
displayed, for having placed caudles in every pane of glass in their windows, they 
paradetf them in rows on the awning rails — which gave to the closely populated part of 
the village a most splendid appearance. The private residences of the mcr' h iiits and 
wealthy residents on the upper sti-eets are also deserving of notice, ;imi ..i:r tuosewho 
who had something extra both in point of position and brilliancy of ettect, were Thomas 
Powell, Esq., W. Roe, Esq., H. Robinson, Esq., and in a nln^t eminent degree James S. 



]48 RAIL-UUAD ENTERPRISKS. 

general petition on the part of the citizens interested in the road, 
the Legislature, in the early part of the sessioii of 1831, passed 
an act enabling the trustees of the village to purchase at par 
$150,000 of the stock. The siibscr-iption was made in accordance 
with the provisions of the act; and on the 10th of January, 1838, 
the trustees paid their first and last instalment of $10,000. 

The financial reverses of 183t prostrated the enterprise; and, 
although a considerable portion of the section placed under 
contract in August, 1836, was graded, the work was not con- 
tinued. However, in 1840, the Erie company having asked the 
aid of the state, the whole infl:uenee of the citizens of Newburgh 
was exerted to compel that company, as a condition of aid, to 
construct a branch road to Newburgh.* The effort was unsuc- 
cessful — the Erie company received a loan of the credit of the 
state to the amount of $3,000,000. The progress of the Erie 
road, however, was arrested in 1845; and, the company having 
again applied to the Legislature for aid, the citizens of Newburgh 
again, and this time with success, pj-essed the subject of a branch. 
The Legislature passed a law releasing the Erie company from 
the payment of the $3,000,000 loan, on condition that the 
company should secure within eighteen months a bona fide 
subscription of $3,000,000, and should construct, within six 
years, a branch to Newburgh. The bill passed Maj' 14, 1845. 
The (^tizens of Newburgh agreed to raise one-third of the amount 
necessary to construct the branch — the original stock of the 
Hudson and Delaware company being received in payment at a 

Brown, and Samuel Noyes, Esq., who with all the enthusiasm with which his liberal 
spirit ia endowed kept up two bonfires on the end of his dock and continued the firing of 
cannon from early in the evening till after ten o'clock. 

.John Ledyard, Esq., with his usual promptitude, was moat active in the dischai'ge of 
Ills ofBoial duty, and continued till the last at the bonfire; to him, for his immediate 
compliance with the wishes of the citizens, and Mr. Jonathan H'aabrouck, in grantuig 
the use of his gi'ound, are the inhabitants particularly indebted. 

.J. P. DeWint, Esquire, of Fishkill Landing, had his residence most brilliantly illumi- 
nated, which had a most beautiful appearance from the heights on the soutii of the 
village. 

On the mountain south of the village of Canterbury there was a large bonfire early in 
the evening, and we believe throughout the whole county a general rejoicing has taken 
place Gax., Nov. 10,183(5. 

* At a meeting of citizens of Jfewbnrgh, held March 4t!), 1840, — Moses H. Belknap, 
president, and Solomon Tuthill, clerk, — it was 

Resolved, That if the Legislature shall grant fu^'ther aid to the New York and Erie 
rail-road company by any former or future law, to bo passed for that purpose — in such 
case the expenditure thereof shall be ma^e under the more immediate supervision of the 
state — and upon the middle and western sections of said road, where the same would 
connect with works already constructed, such as the Delaware and Hudson, the Che- 
nango and Chemung canals, and the Ithaca and Owego rail-road, and yield an Immedi- 
ate profit, which cannot be effected by constructing the eastern end of said road in the 
first place, as is now being done. , 

Resolved, That no such farther aid be granted, unless it be accompanied by Legisla- 
tive provision for the construction of a branch of said road terminating at Newburgh. 



BANKINfi INSTITUTIONS. 149 

stipulated rate.* The law required that the branch road should 
be.finished by Mg,y, 1851; but the directors of the Erie company 
proposed that if the people of Newburgh would make a further 
subscription, they would complete the work without delay.f 
The proposition was accepted — the additional subscription was 
made; and, ou the 8th of January, 1850, the people of Newburgh 
celebrated, with appropriate festirities, the opening of the branch 
I'oad to Chester — the first link in the road to the coal mines 
■ of Pennsylvania. 

The old Delaware and Hudson company left behind, as the only 
memorials of its existence, a partly graded track, and the stock 
subscription of the village of Newburgh ($10,000,) upon the debt 
for which the interest has been annually paid since 1838; but its 
record is a proud one, illustrating as it does, the indomitable 
energy of a comparatively feeble people in thus undertaking 
single-handed a work of such magnitude. 

. ' BANK OV NEWBBBGH. 

# 

The Bank of Newburgh was incorporated by act of the 
Legislature, passed March 22, 1811, on the petition of Jacob 
Powell, John McAulay, Chancy Belknap and Jonathan Fisk.J 
The capital named was $120,000, in shares of $50 each; and the 
state reserved the right to subscribe to the stock any amount not 
exceeding one thousand shares. The first director's -weie: Isaac 
Belknap, Jr., Jacob Powell, Selah Reeve, Chancy Belknap, 
Freegift Tuthill, Leonard Carpenter, Saml. S. Seward, Jonathan 
Hedges, Francis Crawford, James Hamilton, John D. Lawson, 
and Richard Trimble, elected by the stockholders ; and William' 
Ross and Jonathan Fisk were appointed directors on the part of 
the state. The stock was all taken soon after the passage of the 
act of incorporation; and on the 11th June, the corner-stone of the 
present banking house was laid. The building was completed 

* It would have afforded us pleasure to have given the names of the subscribers to 
this stock; but the list can only be obtained with difficulty from the books of the Erie 
company. Too much credit, however, cannot be awarded to such men as Forsyth, 
Powell, Beveiidge, Crawford, Carpenter, Smith and others who were prominent ftiends 
of the enterprise, and without whose aid and influence, the effort would have failed. 

t We leam that the company required, in order thus to finish the Branch, a loan, or 
endorsements which would guarantee a loan, of $145,000 from capitalists in this place; 
and that that requirement has been, or vrill be complied mth. We are gratified in 
believing that the branch will now be prosecuted to an early completion. — i^eleeraph, 
Jan. 18,184,9. 

f Notice is hereby given, that the subscribers and others, intend to petition the legis- 
lature of this state, at their next session, for a law of incorporation to establish a bank 
in the village of Newburgh, in the county of Orange, the capital stock to consist of 
Four Hundred Thousand Dollars. Dated, Newburgh, Janunry 1st, 1811. 

CHANCY BELKNAP, JACOB POWELL, 

.JONATHAN FISK, .TOHN McAULAY. 



150 BANKING INSTITUTIONS. 

and tlie Bank was opened for business on the 9th of September.* 
The charter of 1811 continued until 1830, wl^on the stock held 
by the state was withdrawn, the Bank was re-organized under the 
Safety-fund law, and the capital was increased to $140,000, In 
1851, the capital was farther increased to $200,000, when the 
Bank was re-organized under the "general banking law. In 
September, 1852, the capital was increased to $300,000.f 

The first president of the Bank was Isaac Belknap, Jr; and 
the first cashier, John S. Hunn. Wm. Walsh succeeded Mr. 
Belknap in 1827, and served until his death, in 1839, when John 
Chambers was elected. Mr. Chambers served until his death, in 
1854, when George AY. Kerr was elected. Mr, Hunn was 
succeeded in the cashiership by Frederick W. Farnum; Mr. 
Farnum by Wm. M. Vcrmilyea; Mr. Vermilyea| by Levi Dodge; 
Mr. Dodge, in 1836, by George W. Kerr: and Mr. Kerr, in 1854, 
by Francis Scott. 

BE.INCH BANK 01" NEWBURGII. 

In 1818, the directors of the Bank of Newburgh determined to 
establish a branch at Ithaca; and the arrangements for this 
purpose were perfected and the institution went into operation 
on the 15th Feb., 1820, under the folio wing oifioei-s: Luther Gore, 
president; Charles W. Connor, cashier; Benjamin Johnson, Jos. 
Benjamin, Levi Leonard, Calvin Burr, Herman Camp, and Chas. 
A. Morrell, directors. The branch continued in operation until 
1830, when, on the expiration of the old charter, it was dis- 
continued. 

HIGHLAND BANK. 

In 1833, application was made to the Legislature to incorpo- 
rate the Highland Bank; but the bill was lost in the senate. 
This result was followed by a meeting of citizens at the Mansion 
House, April 20, 1833, "to take into consideration such measures 
as might be deemed necessary to -obtain an increase of the 
banking capital of Newburgh." Of this meeting Selah Keeve 
was chosen president; Daniel Farrington and Robt. Lawson, vice 
presidents ; and Abraham Tsl. Smith and Aaron Belljnap, secreta- 

* On Saturday, June 15, 1811, the president and directors of the Bank of Newburgh, 
assisted by the master mason, laid the corner stone of the banking honse, in Water 
street. The buUding is to be of brick, thirty feet fi-ont, forty-six deep, three stories 
high, and finished in a handsome style. — Inacx. 

t The increase of the capital of tlie Bank, here referred to, was made by the sale by 
auction of the stock, on Tuesday, September 2d, 1852. The increase was mainly taken 
by the old stockholders, and yielded a premium of $14,130 75. 

f Mr. Vermilyea tendered his resignation for the purpose of accepting the appointment 
of cashier of the Merchant's Exchange Bank of New York, which commenced business 
in September, 1831. 



BANKINS INSTITUTIONS. 151 

1-ies, After the passage of a resolution regretting the loss of 
the bill incorporating the Bank, Benjainin H. Mace, Samuel G. 
Sneden and Christopher Reeve were appointed a committee to 
prepare a petition to the next Legislature; and James Belknap, 
H. W. Dobson, Tooker Wygant, H. Coleman, Geo. Corn-well, 
Wm. Thayer, Jonathan Gidney, A. C. Mulliner, I&aac Schultz, S. 
J. Parnum, Wm. L. F, Warren, Jas. W. Miller, Wm. K. Slailler, C. ' 
Cropsey, D. Brojwn, Chas. Keeve, J. P. Gedney, J&hn Farnam, 
Geo. Reev^, J. Oakley, J. Jamison and R. Clugston, were 
appointed a committee to circulate the same.. 

The petition was granted, and the Highland Bank was char- 
tered April 26, 1834. The capital fixed by the charter was 
$200,000. Nathaniel Jones, Egbert Jansen, Robert Fowler, 
Nathl. P. Hill, John Forsyth, James Belknap, Aaron Noyes, 
Noah Mathewson, and Christopher Reeve were appointed com- 
missioners to receive stock subscriptions. In a few weeks nearly 
double the capital required was subgcribed, and a pro rata dis- 
tribution of the stock became necessary. 

The Bank was organized on the 21st of July, 1834, under the 
following officers, viz: Directors — Gilbert 0. Fowler, Samuel 
Williams, Jackson Oakley, Thomas Powell, Charles Borland, 
Jr., Daniel Farrington, Benj. H. Mace, James Belknap, Benj. 
Carpenter, Nathl. Jones, Abm. Vail, Robert Fowler. Gilbert 0. 
Fowler, president, and James Belknap, cashier. • Mr. Belknap 
subsequently resigned, and Thos. C. Ring was elected. Mr. 
Ring resigned in 1838, and Robert Burnett held the office until 
his death, in 1840, when (March 10) Alfred Post was elected. 
Mi;. Fowler served as president until his death, when George 
Cornwell was elected. 

POWELL BANK. 

The Powell Bank was organized December 12, 1838, as an 
associated bank — with a capital of $135,000. The first directors 
and officers were: Directors — Thos. Povell, Samuel Williams, 
Daniel Farrington, Benj. Carpenter, Charles Halstead, Homer 
Ramsdell, Wm. L. F. Warren. Thomas Powell, president; Saml. 
Williams, vice president; Thos. C. Ring, cashier; Nathaniel R. 
Belknap, teller. I'he capital stock was held by Hiram Bennett, 
A. & M. H. Belknap, Benj. Carpenter '& Co., Daniel Farrington, 
A. P. Johnes, H. Ramsdell, Roe & Darby, Thos. Powell, George 
Sneed and Samuel Williams. 

In J>anuary, 1843, the- stockholders, with the exception of 
Thos, Powell and Homer Ramsdell withdrew their stock; and the 



152 BANKING rNSTITUTIONS. 

institution became an individual bank, with a capital of $110,000. 
Thos. Powell, president; Homer Eamsdell, vice president; and 
T. C. Ring, cashier. Messrs. Pbwell and Ramsdell subsequently 
increased the capital to $115,000. The Bank was discontinued 
in -the autumn of 1857. 

QUASSAICK BANK. 

The organization of the Quassaick Bank was based entirely on 
the necessity for a larger banking capital to accommodate the 
business of the village. The directors of the Bank of New- 
burgh endeavored to supply this want by increasing the capital 
stock of that institution $100,000; but this addition proved 
inadequate to the demand. On Thursday evening, September 
4th, 1851, a meeting of citizens was held at the Orange Hotel 
for the purpose of considering the subject. David Crawford was 
chosen chairman, and 0. M. Smith, secretary. The meeting was 
addressed by Wm. Fullerton, W. E. Warren, S. W. Eager, T. M. 
Niven, and others, and at the conclusion of their remarks, it was 

Resolved, That the chairman appoint a committee of seven to name suitable persona 
for directors, a»d also to fix upon a name for the new institution. 

The following gentlemen were named by the chair as Said 

committee, viz: 

Thornton M. Niven, Wm. K. Mailler, Col. 1. K. Carpenter, John Jamison, W. E. 
WaiTen, Robert Sterling, John P. Van Nort. 

On the report of the committee, the following gentlemen were 

unanimously chosen directors, viz: 

B. W. Parrington, David Crawford, A. M. Sherman, Cornelius C. Smith, Asa Sterling, 
Wm. K. Mailler, John Jamison, Wm. h. F. Warren, E. B. Johnes, Isaac S. Fowler, 
Charles U. Ciishman, Wm. B. Jarvis, Adam Lilburn, of Newburgh; A. B. Preston, 
EUenville; Miles J. Fletcher, Marlborough; George Weller, Walden; B. S. Warner, 
Washingtonville; Isaiah Townsend, Cornwall. 

The name or title for the Bank, reported by the committee, and 
adopted by the meeting, was, "The Quassaick Bank," being the 
aboriginal name"of Newburgh. 

A meeting of the directors was held on Tuesday, Sept. 9th, 
when Mr. CO. Smith and Mr. I. S. Fowler, having declined to 
serve, Stephen Hayt and William E. Warren were substituted, 
in their place. 

On the 31st March, 1852, the Bank was formally organized 
by the adoption of articles of association, and commenced busi- 
ness with acapital of $130,000 in the Spring of that year. The 
first officers were: Directors — E: W. Parrington, J. I. Crawford, 
I. R. Carpenter, Asa Sterling, Isaiah Townsend, Charles I'. 
Cushman, John Jamison, W. K. Mailler, Jas."Patton, John J. 
Monell. E. W. Parrington, president; Jonathan N. Weed, 



HANKING INSTITUTIONS. 163 

cashier; W. H. Gerard, 'teller'. The capital of the Batik was 
increased to $200,000, Sept. 1852; and to $300,000-, March, 1854. 

XEWBUBGH SAVINGS BANK. 

The Newburgh Savings Bank was incorporated by act of the 
Legislature passed April 13, 1852. By the act, E. W. Farring- 
ton, John J. Monell, Charles U. Cushman, Uobert L. Case. Robt. 
A. Pol-syth, Richard A. South wick, Odell S, Hathaway, Gilbert 
C. Monell, David 'H. Barclay, Adam Lilburn, Samuel W. Eager, 
Cornelius C. Smith, Robert Sterling, Robert 'D. Kemp, Charles 
Drake, David Moore, John H. Waters, James I. Crawford, James 
Patton, William K. Mailler, Benjamin Carpenter, T. M. Niven, 
and their successors, were constituted "a body corporate and 
politic, by the name of The Newburgh Savings Bank." The 
Bank commenced business January 1, 1863, with the following 
officers, viz: Robt. L. Case, president; 0. S. Hatha-ttray and E.W, 
Fai-rington, vice presidents, and Charles U. Cushman, secretary 
and treasurer. In 1854, E. W. Farrington was elected presi- 
dent; Charles Halstead, Jr., treasurer; and G. C. Monell, 
secretary. In 1858, Daniel B. St. Johii, president; ThoS. C. Ring, 
treasurer; and J. R. Wiltsie, secretary. The business of the 
Bank is now conducted at the rooms of the Powell Bank. The 
deposits on the 1st July, 1859, were $150,000. 

BANK SUSPENSIONS. 

The Bank of Newburgh and Highland Bank suspended specie 
payments. May 12, 1831. On the morning of that day, the 
directors and officers held a meeting and passed the following 
among other resolutions: 

"Resolved, That during the suspeasion of specie payments by the New York City 
Banks, it will be prndent and necessary for the Village Banks to retain their specie for 
the use of the town and county, to be used in the ordinary business of the county. 

"Resolved, That the Banks will, therefore, for the present, suspend paying specie for 
the redemption of their bills — other than such as may be offered by our citizens to 
obtain small suras for the prosecution of their accustomed business." 

At 1 1 o'clock, the same day, a meeting of citizens was held at 
the Orange Hotel — John Ledyard, chairman; Christopher Reeve 
and David Sands, secretaries. After reading the I'esolutions 
adopted by the Banks, it was 

"Resolved, That we cordially approve of the couree taken by the Banks in Kewburgli 
lis announced this morning." 

In consequence of this action, the Banks were able to supply 
specie to the business public during the whole of the period of 
suspension. On the 1st of September, 1831, the Bank of 
Newburgh held $23,921 in specie, and the Highland Bank 
$15,450. The suspensions of 1857, were made in a similar man- 



154 STOCK COMPANIES. 

ner. While amply prepared to redeem their circulation in gold 
and silver, the suspension of the city banks rendered the same 
course necessary on the part of the village bants; but, so far 
as the wants of the business public were concerned, our banks 
suspended in name rather than in fact. 

NEWBURGH WHALING COMPANY. 

Among the enterprises in which the citizens of Newburgh 
have engaged, a company for the proseciition of whale fishery 
was for several years prominent. The precise date of the 
organization of this company cannot now be ascertained; but the 
first entry of stock was made on the 31st December^ 1831. On 
the 24th of January, 1832, the Legislature passed an act incor- 
porating the company, by the terms of which "William Koe, 
John P. DeWint, Abraham M. Smith, John Harris, Benoni H. 
Howell, Samuel Williams, Benj. Carpenter, Christopher Keeve 
and Augustus F. Schofield," and such others as were then or 
might thereafter be associated with them, were empowered to 
engage "in the whale fishery in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 
and elsewhere, and in the manufacture of oil and spermaceti 
candles." The capital stock was fixed at $200,000 in shares of 
$50; but the company was authorized to commence business 
as soon as $50,000 should be subscribed and paid in. The 
persons named in the act were to be the first directors of 
the company, and were also to act as commissioners to receive 
subscriptions to the stock. Directors were to be elected on the 
first Tuesday in January of each year; the company authorized 
to purchase and hold real estate to an amount not exceeding 
twenty-five thousand dollars, and to have and perform all the 
rights and privileges of an incorporated company, with the only 
restriction that "no foreigner" should "ever be a stockholder, or 
in anywise interested in said company."* 

The company was immediately organized under this act, and 
William Roe appointed president; Aaron Belknap, secretary, 
and Abraham M. Smith, agent. The books were opened for 
subscriptions and $109,000, or 2186 shares, of the capital stock 
taken. On the 1st of April, the company purchased the ship 
Portland, for $15,250— in August, the ship Russell, for $14,500, 
and in May following, the ship Illinois, for $12,000. During the 

* The act encountered considerable opposition in the Assembly, as appears from the 
debate on tlie 18th January. Mr. King, in reply to Mr. Myers, said, tlmt "the reason 
why an act of Incorporation was asked for, in this instance, was because the present 
stock company in Newburgh was unable in any other way, to collect the necessary 
capital for the prosecution of their business oa such a scale as they could wish, or as 
would be advantageous to the company." — Telegraph, Jan, 26, 1832. 



ai'OCK COMPANIES. • 155 

same year, they also erected a large store-house on Water street, 
near First street, and a commodious wharf. The ships purchased 
were fitted out and made two voyages each. The Portland was 
under command of Capt. Cook; the Russell, under Gapt. Brock; 
and the Illinois, first voyage, Capt. Leonard — second voyage, 
Capt. Merchant. 

The business of the company was continued until 183*1. In 
1834, Charles Ludlow, David W. Bate, John Harris, Edmund 
Sanxay, Abraham M. Smith, James G. Clinton, Daniel Parrington, 
David M. DuBois and John Chambers were chosen directors. 
In the presidency, John D. Lawson succeeded Mr. Eoe, in 1833, 
and Charles Ludlow succeeded Mr. Lawson, in 1834. Uriah 
Lockwood succeeded Mr. Belknap, and James Belknap, Mr. Lock- 
wood, as secretary. The last voyage made was by the ship 
Portland, Capt. Cook, which arrived in New York in March, 
1831, with 2100 barrels whale oil, 350 barrels sperm oil, and 
19,000 pounds of bone. This cargo sold for about $40,000. 

The enterprise, however, failed to yield the profit anticipated 
and was abandoned. Receivers were appointed, the ships and 
other property sold, and the stockholders paid back their original 
subscriptions with the addition of a small dividend. The exist- 
ence of the company ceased in 1840; and in 1846, its books, with 
the exception of an imperfect day-book, were destroyed by the 
fire which consumed the store of Daniel Farrington, in which 
they were deposited.* 

XEWBURGH STEAM MILLS. 

In the early part of the year, 1844, a stock company was 
formed for the purpose of erecting mills for the manufacture of 
cotton goods. The capital agreed upon was $100,000, and the 
subscriptions to the stock were completed on the 25th of May. 
On the 5th of June, the company was formally organized, and 
John Forsyth, Hiram Bennett, David Crawford, Aaron P. Johnes, 
Homer Ramsdell, Benjamin Carpenter, Christopher Reeve, Uriah 
Lockwood, and Daniel Farrington, elected directors; Hiram 
Bennett, president; Homer Ramsdell, vice president; Daniel 
Farringtora, treasurer; and Uriah Lockwood, secretary. On the 
12th of June, the directors selected the site and soon after com- 

* In addition to this company, an act waa passed by tiie Legislature, on tlie 29th of 
April, 1833, "to incoiporate the North River Whaling Company." The capital of this 
company was fixed at $300,000. John Forsyth, Alexander Falls, John Ledyard, James 
Halstead, Jonathan Hasbrouok, Edmund Sanxay, John W. Kjievels, John D. Phillips 
and William C. Hasbroack, were named as directors in the act. This company, we have 
been told, owed its origin to Jonathan Hasbrouck. Beyond incorporation, however, we 
believe nothing was ever done in its name. 



150 ■ STOCK (JOMPANIES" 

meuced the erection of the necessarj' builditigs.*' The works 
were completed and the manufacture of cotton coraraenced in 
1845, since which time the mills have continned in operation, and 
partial time kept during the most trying revulsions. A large 
portion of the original stockholders have disposed of their inter- 
est, and a majority of the stock is now held by Thos. Garner. 

The mills give employment to three hundred and fifty persons; 
and the average payments for wages amount to about $1200 per 
week. The main building is two hundred and fifty feet long by 
fifty feet broad, and has five floors besides the basement — one 
floor being devoted to each of the main processes of cotton 
manufacture. In addition to this building is another, ninety by 
forty feet. The entire establishment contains 11,000 spindles, 
producing 110,000 yards of muslin per week. The officers in 
1858, were: Robert A. Forsyth, president; D.R.Mangam, secre- 
tary; James Whitehilj, agent. 

NEWBURGH GAS-LIGHT COIIPANT. 

This company was organized in May, 1852, with a capital of 
$65,000. The following gentlemen composed the first board of 
directors, viz: Homer Ramsdell, David Crawford, E. W. Farring- 
tou, and John J. Monell, of Newburgh, and J. A. Sabaten, of 
Albany, and S. Sabaten, of Newark, N. J. David Crawford was 
elected president, and J. J. Monell, secretary and treasurer of 
the board. Gas was first lighted in the latter part of SeptetnbeT, 
1852. The present officers of the company are: Lewis D. Lock- 
wood, president; George W. Kerr, secretary and treasurer, and 
Ohas. Halstoad, Jr., superintendent. 

XEWBURGH roUl!T HOUSE. 

The project of erecting a Court House in Xowburgh, was 
discussed contemporaneously with the proposition to divide the 
counties of Orange and Ulster and erect a new county, in 1793. 
Upon the town records of that year (April 2,) appears the 
following: 

" Voted, That a committee be appointed to meet a body of delegates ti-om different 
towns in the county, at Ward's Bridge, on Monday, the 6th inst., to consult about 
building a Court House at this end of the county, and that Daniel Niven, Hugh Walsh, 
and William Seymour be that committee." 

* The trustees of the "Newburgh Steam Mills" held a meetmg on Tuesday last to 
seleQt a site for their cotton factoiy from the several locations offered. We learn that 
they unanimously accepted the proposals of Messrs. J. Beveridge & Co., and have taken 
their lot at the north part of the village on the immediate bank of the Hudson. It is 
205 feet in front on Water street and 760 feet on the river. The trustees have secured 
an <idvantageons site for their works, and obtained the property for the trifling conside- 
ration of $3,000— Messrs. Beveridge & Co., in connection with the other holders of real 
estate in that vicinity, engaging to build a BuUioient road on the eho?e and a suitable 
wharf for the establ^jiment Gazette, June 15,1844. 



-VEWBURGH COtrRT IIOI'HK, 167 

The iuction of the meeting at Ward's Bridge un the 6th of 
April, 1Y93, is reported in the town records under date of Febru- 
ary 1, 1194, as follows: 

"At a special towu meeting, lieldat the liouse of William Willis, at the request of two 
magistrates and the petition of twelve respectable free-holders, for the purpose of 
consulting each other upon the subject of annexing the south end of the county of Ulstei' 
to the north end of the county of Orange, agreeable to advertisement dated January 
36th, 1794 — the people being collected, and the meeting opened by Daniel Niven, Esq., 
Isaac Fowler was unanimonsly chosen mioderator. 

"Daniel Niven, Esq., having* been one of the committee chosen to convene with 
delegates from other towns at Ward's Bridge to consult on the above subject, proceeded 
to make a report, to the town , and informed the inhabitants that there was some prospect 
of Orange county joining mth us, or rather that the members from Orange had agreed, 
or seemed inclined to agree, that in case the two ends of the counties might be united 
together to form one distinct county, that then a Court House might be erected at 
Newburgh and Goshen. 

"After discnssion, it was voted to appoint a committee of nine to meet others from 
Orange county, on Wednesday next, at the house of John Decker at Otterkill; and that 
'Daniel Niven, Isaac Fowler, Moses Higby, Hugh Walsh, Timothy Hudson, Robert Ross, 
Uriati Brake, John Belknap, and David Fowler, be that committee. 

" Voted, That eight active persons be appointed to hand petitions about with dispatch 
and that four of them shall he in each District as divided by the Assessors; and that 
John Fowler, Arthur Smith, William Drake, and John Orowell, be the Committee fi-om 
the North District; and Levi Dodge, Eleazer Gidney, .Joshua Goldsmith and Samuel 
Weed, the Committee from the South District. 

"In case a union should not be agreed upon on the conditions before mentioned (the 
building of a Court House at Newburgh,) then the Committee be instructed to decline 
any union at all." 

These proceedings, however, do not appear to have led to any 
definite action, on the part of the Legislature, until 1798, when 
the act dividing Ulster and Orange, and erecting the coiinties 
'of Kockland, Orange, and Ulster, was passed. Tbis act provided 
for the holding of courts at Goshen, where a Court House had 
been erected in 1773,* and at Newburghf alternately. Greater 
facilities were thus supplied for the transaction of legal business. 

Under the arrangement of 1798j*the people of eastern Orange 
rested content until 1823, when the rapidly increasing population 
and the consequent necessity for better legal accommodation, 
together with an eiFort on the part of the citizens of Goslien to 
erect a new Court House there^ induced the people of the towns 
of Newburgh, New Windsor, Crawford, and Montgomery, in 
Orange, and Marlborough, Plattekill and Sliawangunk, in Ulster, 
to apply to the Legislature for the erection of a new county 
to be named Jackson. Meetings were held in all these towns, 

* The fii-st Court House and Jail at Goshen was erected in 1737. It was built of stone 
and wood and was three stories high. The first floor was occapied by debtor's cells, the 
.second by the court room, and the thu-d by dungeons for prisoners. The second Court 
House and Jail was erected in 1773. It was built of stone and was two stories high. 

•j- The Courts were held at Newburgh in the Academy. .The Legislatm-e, on the 8th of 
April, 1808, passed a law authorizing a tax of five hundred dollars to repair the Court 
room and the constracting of one for the Grand Jury, and another for the confinement 
of prisoners during the sitting of Courts. The money wa^ expended by Isaac Belknap, 
Jr., of Newburgh, Joseph Morrell, of New Windsor, and Reuben Hopkins, of Goshen, 
commissioners. For a number of -years, persons arrested for petty offences were tempo- 
rarily confined in the cellar, under the Golden Street Hotel, which was cabled the "Coul 
Hole." It was a dismal place. 



158 



NEWBUKGH COURT HOUSE. 



and the very general desire of the people was expressed in favor 
of the change proposed. The county seat, it was agreed, should 
be located at Newburgh, the commercial centre of the district. 
The proposition was opposed by the people of Goshen, in Orange, 
and of Kingston, in Ulster; and although pressed with much 
vigor, it failed of success. 

In 1832, the question of erecting anew Court House at Goshen 
was again agitated, and an application made to the Legislature 
to authorize a tax on the county for the sum of $25,000 to be 
expended for that purpose. The proposition was opposed by 
Newburgh, although it came "sweetened with the bonus of a jail 
or necessary cells," in that village; and the scheme failed. The 
spirit of rivalry between the towns now ran so high, that 
improvements, which all conceded to be necessary, were arrested; 
and so the matter remained until 1840, when the condition of the 
county buildings had become such that the erection of new ones 
could no longer be delayed. The people of Newburgh now 
renewed their application for the erection of a new county, 
to be named Newburgh. A large public meeting was held at the 
Orange Hotel, Tuesday evening, Feb. 18, 1840, — William M. 
Wiley, president, Robert Wardrop and John Forsyth, vice presi- 
dents, and William Fullerton, secretary, — and a report and 
resolutions submitted by John M. E^ger, in which the necessity 
for new county buildings was urged as a prominent reason for 
the formation of a new county. Application for this purpose 

was made to 
the Legisla- 
ture, which 
again failed.- 
lu December, 
the board of 
s u p e r V i sors 
hold an extra 
session (Doc. 
T,) and adopt- 
ed, by a vote 
of ten to four, 
:i resolution to 
apply to the 
legislature for 
power to laj- a 
tax of $30,000 on the county for the purpose of building court 




SUPPLY OF WATER. 159 

honses at Newbur^li and Goshen — seventeen thousand dollars to 
be expended in the latter town and thirteen thousand in the former. 
The act appRed for was passed by the Legislature in April, 
1841; and the corner-stone of the court house at Newburgh was 
laid in September, of the same year. The building was erected 
under the direction of Alexander Thompson, David W. Bate and 
Eoswell Mead, committee of the board of. supervisors; T. M. 
Niven, architect and superintendent; Thomas Kimball & son, 
contractors. The following paper, deposited in the corner-stone, 
explains itself : 

"The Board of Supervisors of the county of Orange, having authorized the erection 
of a Court House in tlie village of Newburgh and selected for a site therefor the south- 
east corner of this lot: It was proposed that an effort be made by voluntary contributions 
of the citizens of the village of Newbnrgh, and its vicinity, to raise a sum suificient for the 
purchase of the balance of the lot with a view of changing the location of the building 
from the corner to the centre thereof ; and to have the grounds laid out and to be 
forever kept open as a public square:— which object, through the most commendable 
liberality of Thomas Powell, John teter DeWint, Henry Robinson, artd many others* 
was successfnlly accomplished.'! 

The deed for the lot was taken in the name of the trustees of 

the village, and the express reservation made by and in the name 

of the subscribers, that the ground should "he forever kept open 

as a pvhlic square." 

SUPPLY OF WATER. 

Prior to 1811, the village of Newburgh was mainly supplied 
with water by wells; but, ^s it Ijecame more compactly settled, 
it became necessary to procure a supply from other sources. 
Private enterprise, for a time, relieved the more pressing de- 
mand;f and, in 1804, the board of trustees took the subject in 
hand, and submitted to the inhabitants a plan for forming a stock 
association,! which resulted in the incorporation, by an act of 

* A list of the subscribers and the sums may be found in the minutes of the clerk of 
the board of trustees. 

t Under date of August 3d, 1803, we find the following advertisement of the first 
water-works: * 

"Watek.— The proprietor of the works on the tenement formerly the property of 
Francis Brewster, of this village, hereby informs his neigMors, that water may be liajl 
at the works until other arrangements are made, on the following easy terms, to wit — 
For every S pails of water, or less quantity, 6 cents; for each 'barrel filled at the works, 
6 cents. All persons who come to the works for water, will, hi future, be so obliging as 
to call on some of the tteaily, in order that an account may be kept. Promipt payment 
will be expected at the end of every month. For workmen to drink, who are employed 
in erecting any building in the town, or such as are at work improving the streets, or 
other public labor, water gratis." 

t " A meeting of the inhabitants of the village ol Newburgh is requested at the house 
of Edward Howell, in said village, on Saturday next, at 7 o'clock in the afternoon 
precisely, J» devise a suitable plan to supply this village with good and wholesome water 
for all family pui'poses, and to supply the engines with water in cases of fire. 

In the meantime the following plan is submitted to their consideration; 

That the amount of the expense of the proposed measure (estimated not to exceed 
3000 dollars) be divided into 600 shares, of five dollars each; that each inhabitant shall 
be at liberty to subscribe as many shares as he as he may think fit, not exceeding 20 in 
number, during the first ten days after opening the subscriptions; that none but inhabi* 



1 60 SUrPLY OF WATKK. 

the Legislature, passed March tth, 1806, of the "Newburg-h 
Aqueduct Association." Beyond this, however, nothing appears 
to have been done until 1809, when, on the 27|h of March, the 
Legislature passed an act empowering the trustees to procure a 
supply of water for the use of the village, and for that purpose 
to enter upon the possession of any springs or streams of water 
within the corporate bounds; provided, that there should, "in all 
cases, be left a sufficiency of water in said spring or springs so 
taken, for the use of the owner of the lands whereon the said 
spring or springs are situated, and his heirs and their assigns 
forever;" and further, that compensation should be made for the 
property so taken. Two hundred and fifty dollars were to be 
raised annually by tax to meet the expenses incurred, and the 
act of 1806 was repealed. The sum named in this act proved 
to be insufficient, and no further pr©ceediiigs were liad until 
1812, when* a meeting of the citizens was held (Feb. 29,) who 
sanctioned the levying of a higher tax, by the trustees; but 
the latter regarded a compliance with the wishes of the former 
as illegal, and directed the raising of only the amount specified. 
This was the first water-tax levied. 

In May, 1813, the trustees determined to contract with Jona- 
than Hasbrouck, the owner of the Cold Spring, and Walter Case 
and Jacob Powell were appointed a committee for that purpose. 
No arrangement, however, was made with Mr. Hasbrouck, and 
the subject rested until the 20th of June, 1814, when the trustees 
"Resolved, That we will proceed with all convenient speed to 
supply the inhabitants of the village of Newburgh with pure 
and wholesome water;" and, as Water street was about to 
be paved, that water-logs be laid before that work was done. 
In 1815, the difficulties under which the trustees labored were 

tanta of the vSlage, or persons holding real estate within the same, shall be permitted 
to subscribe any stares during the fli^t ten days aforesaid; that subscription books be 
provided by the Trustees of the village, and the subscriptions be made payable to the 
Treasurer of the Corporation at such times and in such proportions as the board of 
trustees may from time to time dnect, and emergencies may require; but to be appro- 
priated only to the object of the institution; that the purchases of spring and sources 
of water, and the soil necessary for this purpose be made by the trustees m their corpo- 
rate capacity, and be held by them and their successors, in trust for the exclusive benefit 
of the subscribers, their legal representatives, or assigns, until the income of the works 
shall be equal to the amount of the subscriptions, and interest after the rate of fourteen 
per cent, per annum; that the works shall be carried on and when completed be, and 
always remain, under the sole direction and control of the trustees for the time being, 
and that they may at all times make and ordain such prudential by-laws and lobulations 
concerning the same, as shall be just and right; and that the whole interest, rights and 
emoluments of the institution shall bo vested in the trustees for the time being, for the 
use of the inhabitants, when the subscribers shall have received the aanount of their 
subscriptions and Interest after the rate of U per cent, per annum. By order of the 
Trustees. (^. MONBlX. President. 

m- Newburgh, June 30. 1804. 



SUPPLY OF WATEE. 161 

partially removed by an amendment to the charter of the village 
by which two thousand dollars could be annually raised by tax, 
for contingent expenses and for the introduction of water. An 
effort was then made to purchase a spring owned by Mr. Mandevill, 
now the property of J. J. Monell; but it was not successful. 
Nothing further was done until 1816, when the trustees appointed 
a committee to examine the water-lots of Jacob Ritchie, in the 
vicinity of Grand and Third Streets, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the extent of the supply which could be obtained from 
that source. Experiments were made by this committee, who 
subsequently reported that the yield was not sufficient. The 
proposition to take the Cold Spring was then renewed, and an 
agreement was made with Mr. Hasbrouck for that purpose. The 
water was to be taken from a "pen-stock," which had been 
erected on Liberty street for supplying the brewery of Eobert 
Dunlop, and conveyed "from thence down Ann street to Golden 
street, thence through Golden and Water streets as far north as 
the store of Harris & Miller." * 

At this stage of the proceedings, the court of chancery, (Au-g. 
26, 1816,) on the application of George Gardner, through whose 
lands the outlet of the spring passed, granted an order restraining 
the trustees from further action, as, under the act of 1809, they 
were required to leave sufficient water in the spring for the use 
of those interested in it as a source of private supply. The 
trustees referred the subject to their counsel, Mr. Henry, of 
Albany, who, after examining the act, advised them that he 
considered it inexpedient to make a motion to dissolve the 
injunction. The trustees then agreed (Jan. 10, ISIT,) to ask the 
Legislature to "repeal the act of 1809, and substitute, in lieu 
thereof, a law for the same purpose based upon more just and 
constitutional principles as to the mode and extent of contracting 
for or taking the water to be introduced into the village." This 
action was approved by the citizens, at a public meeting held 
on the 29th of Marqh, and the act applied for passed the Legisla- 

* "Resolved, That a committee lie appointed to contract witli Jonatliau and Eli Has- 
brouck for tlie right of entering their pea-stock, which contains the water from the 
Cold Spring, with an inch auger, and to agree with them for the quantity of water to 
fill said hole for the pnrpose of supplying the village with water, for the term of seven 
years or longer; and that Francis Crawford, Jonathan Carter and John Anderson, Jr., 
be that committee." — Mimitea, July 6, 1816, 

"Proposals for digging the ditch for the logs of the aqueduct by the rod, from the 
place contemplated in the contract witji the Messrs. Hasbrouck, read. Resolved, That 
the proposals of William Hill be accepted." — Minutes, July 13, 1816. 

"Resolved, That a contract be made with Mr. J. Gilerist for preparing and laying 
down water logs."— iWinuies, July 16, 1816. 



lie 



162 SUPPLY OP WATER. 

ture on the 7th of April. This act authorized the trustees to take, 
for the use of the village, such sources of supply as they might 
deem necessary. In case of disagreement with the owners of the 
property so taken, the subject of damages was to be referred to 
Wm. Thompson, Daniel C. Verplanck and Abm. H. Schenck, who 
should fix the amounts to be paid. The trustees immediately 
made application to Jonathan and Eli Hasbrouck, George Gard- 
ner, and Patrick McGahey (the guardian of the infant heirs of 
Charles Mackin,) for the sale of their several rights in the Cold 
Spring. Jonathan Hasbrouck demanded $10,000 ; Eli Hasbrouck, 
$5,000; George Gardner, $5,000, and the heirs of Charles Mackin, 
$500. The trustees, regarding these sums as altogether too 
large, applied to the commissioners named in the act, who 
awarded to Jonathan Hasbrouck, $2,000; to Eli Hasbrouck, 
$100; to George Gardner, $1500, and to the heirs of Charles 
Mackin, $50. The award was accepted by the trustees, and 
the several sums paid. The deed from Jonathan Hasbrouck, 
however, was made subject to a previous contract with Robert 
Dunlop, then held by James Law, for supplying his brewery with 
water.* The construction of the works was then resumed, and, 
in addition to those already named, logs were ordered laid through 
Smith and Liberty streets. In 1819, the Legislature passed 
an act enabling the trustees to fund the water debt, then amount- 
ing to $5,000.f In 1821, a larger supply of water being deemed 
necessary, the trustees purchased the Ritchie lots, on Grand 
street, from John Ledyard, for the sum of $450; and, in 1829, 
sold the property, with the exception of the spring, | for $4,115. 
.Subsequently, an additional source of supply was found on the 
lands of Wm. P. C. Smith, and a reservoir built near the late 
residence of Rev. Doct. Johnston. 

Such — with the addition of several large reservoirs — were 
the Newburgh water works prior to the introduction of a supply 
from the Little Pond. In regard to this source, we briefly re- 

* The release of Mr. Law was subsequently obtained from J. Beveridge & Co., his 
successors, for the sum of $2,000. 

t The reason assigned in the petition to the Legislature for the passage of this law, 
was, that "the general pecuniary emban-assment" of the citizens rendered ifextremely 
oppressive to raise the money by tax," as reqdired by the law under which the debt had 
been created. The original debt,however, was subsequently lai-gely increased by expen- 
ditures for other purposes. Having no power to issue any other bonds, when money 
was requii'ed a "water Bond" was issued, until the debt reached some $20,000. 

i Ritchie's spring is situated in Third street, between Grand and Liberty streets. At 
the time of its purchase, the lots in the vicinity were covered with a pond which it 
supplied. When the lots were filled in and Third street opened, the spring was arched 
and covered over and its outlet conducted to a resei-voir in Liberty street. The water 
from it is now, we believe, conducted into the sewer in Third street. 



SUPPLY OF WATEK. 163 

mark, that the proposition to secure it was first made in 
1835, and was renewed, in various forms, until its final adop- 
tion in 1852. To trace the several plans which were, from time 
to time, submitted to the public on the subject, is unnecessary. 
It is sufficient to say, that after a full examination of the 
Powelton springs, the Gidneytown creek, and the Little Pond, 
the people of the village almost unanimously approved the latter 
as a source of supply; and, in March, 1852, an act appointing 
commissioners for the purpose of constructing the works, was 
passed by the Legislature. In accordance with the terms of 
this act, on the report of the commissioners, an election was held 
(Nov. 15, 1852,) when eight hundred and twenty-one ballots 
were cast for, and sixteen against, the plan of supplying the 
village with water from Little Pond. The works were put under 
contract in 1853, and $93,976.91 were expended by the commis- 
sioners.* In addition to this sum, the trustees expended in 
1852, $950.16; in 1854, It.OOt.ST; in 1855, $2,178.60; in 1856, 
$750.16; in 1857, $1,646.88; in 1858, $4,796.01; in 1859, $1,541,^ 
36; and from March 1st, of the latter year, until January 1st, 
1860, about, $2,000— making a total of $115,448.75. The act, 
however, contemplated an outlay of only $100,000, for which 
sum bonds were issued, $92,000 of which is in six per cents, and 
$8,000 in seven per cents. The number of buildings supplied 
is 1,331, and the present annual revenue, $10,000. 15,200 feet 
of twelve inch pipe; 5,720 feet of six inch pipe, and 24,758 feet 
of four inch pipe, have been laid. More ample details are given 
in an able statement recently prepared for the board of trustees 
by Wm. L. F. Warren, Esq., to which reference can be made. 

* The commiBsioners named in the act were Lewis W. Young, George Cornwell and 
James Belknap. Mr. Cornwell subsequently resigned, and Eli Hasbrouck was appointed 
to fill the vacancy. 



NOTE Post-office at iJossuiHc— See page 131, 

We learn from Thomas George, Esq., that the title of Savill was given to the Post 
Office at RosaviUe, by Chaunoey F. Belknap, Esq., deceased, in honor of his son, Savill 
Belknap, The circumstances were these: An old gentleman from Eoasville called at 
Mr.- Belknap's office, and in conversation on neighhorhood matters, Mr. B. jokingly 
asked him why they did not have a Post Office there. The gentleman replied that he 
did not suppose one eonid be obtained. "Nothing easier," said Mr. B., and turning to 
his desk he drew up a petition, which was signed by himself and Mr. George and for- 
warded to Washington, expecting that that would be the last of it. The Department, 
however, regarding the application as having been made in good faith, established the 
office and appointed a Post-master. 

NOTE.— -Breciion of the New MiUa.—See page 133. 
We are informed by Eufus Belknap, Esq., that the mill of the Messrs. Belknap was 
erected in 1802, instead of 1798. The site was selected on the opening of the Cochecton 
Turnpike. At the time of the erection of the mill, there was only one dwelling— a log 
house — ^between the mill and the village. 

NOTE.— JEttncfc Groc'c— See page 138. 

The following paragraph in reference to - visit of the National Grays, of New 
York, is from the Telegraph of July 25, 1839: 

"One of then- numerous marches, in the neighborhood of our village, to receive the 
well-deserved hospitality of our citizens, was to Ettrick Grove, the beautiful seat ot Mr. 
Hale, a mile below the village, taking in their way "Washington's Head Quarters," to 
which the company wished to pay a last visit before their departure. The entire march 
was over consecrated ground— Washington himself had known and traversed every foot 
of it — in the neighborhood was the ground where the army was stationed, and in the 
ravine below, was the revolutionary cannon foundry, traces of which are still visible.* 
These were all pointed out, as also the remaining portion of the house (now Mr. Hale's 
kitchen) to which Washington was invited to an entertainment, in order to his betrayal 
by a band of conspirators against his life and his country's hopes." 

* In the vicinity of the village of New Windsor, and at the head of the Vale, Mr- 
Robert Boyd lived before and at the close of the Revolution, and had a forge in opera- 
tion between that and the residence of Mr. Wakh, on the Qnasssick creek, as early as 
1775 . The spot is, and has for many years been overgi'own by woods. Mr. Boyd manu- 
factured cannon, muskets, bayonets, scabbards, &c Eager a Orange County, &20. 



CHAPTER V. 

STOCKS AND WHIPPING-POST NEWBURGH POST-OFFICE MARKET — 

HAY-SCALES XEWBUKGH FERKY FIRE DEPARTMENT — FOR- 
WARDING LINKS-^MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS — ■ 
REGATTAS — FIRES, ETC. 

PUBLIC STOCKS. 

By an old colonial law, minor ofiences were punished _ by 
confinement in the public stocks, or by public whipping. In 
1695, a law was passed forbidding "traveling, servile laboring 
and working, shooting, fishing, sporting, playing, horse-racing, 
hunting, or frequenting tipling houses," by any of the "inhabi- 
tants or sojourners within the province of New York, or by any 
of their slaves or servants, on the Lord's day," under penalty, 
if a free white person, of a fine of six shillings or confinement 
in the public stocks for three hours, or, if a slave or Indian, 
thirteen lashes upon the naked back. Each town and precinct 
had its whipping-post and stocks. Those erected in Newburgh 

were situated on what is 
now known as the square, 
or triangle, at the junction 
, of Golden and Water streets, 
and were standing after the 
commencement of the pres- 
ent century. A map of the 
property of Thomas Golden, 
made in l'I91, shows the 
location of the stocks, and an outline representation, from which, 
as well as from a description by Mr. Benj. Carpenter, our en- 
graving is drawn. Mr. Carpenter states that the stocks consisted 
of a frame resembling a heavy square box, on the edge of which 
were seats, and that the bar for confining the feet of prisoners 
was about fourteen feet in length and was secured by heavy pad- 
locks. Near the centre of the frame stood the whipping-post, 
which was some ten feet high with arms placed in an angular 
position. The stocks were probably removed in 1810 or '12. 

NEWBURGH POST-OFFICE. 

In reply to an inquiry in relation to the establishment of the 




166 POST-OFFICE MARKET. 

Post Office at Newburgh, Horatio King, First Assistant Post- 
Master General, writes as follows: 

"From the loss of the oldest records of this office, by the fire 
which consumed the building in 1836, it is not within the -means 
of the Department to furnish the exact date of the appointment 
of the first Post-master, or of the establishment of the office; 
but, on referring to the records of the Auditor's office, in which 
the accounts of the Post-masters are kept, the books of which 
were preserved, it is ascertained that the office at Newburgh 
commenced rendering accounts on the 1st of January, 1796, and 
that Ebenezer Foote was the first Post-master. From this it is 
highly probable that the office was established sometime during 
the month of December, 1195. As the best means of giving you 
all the information in the possession of the Department, a list of 
all the Post/masters is annexed, each Post-master holding the 
office up to the time of the rendering of accounts by his successor, 

to wit: 
Ebenezer Foote, from 1st January, 1796 I Daniel Birdsall, from Ist October, 1802. 
Harry Caldwell, from 1st October, 1797 | Chester Clark, from 1st July, 1810. 

From this time forward,' the records of this office furnish the 
exact date of the appointment of each Post-master, as follows: 

Oliver Davis, June 17, 1841, 



Aaron Belknap, March 26th, 1812, 
Tooker 'Wyga.at, Nov. 26, 1830, 
A. C. MuUiner, May 23, 1833, 
Benjamin H. Mace, Nov. 23, 1836. 



James Belknap, May 18, 1843, 
Samuel W. Eager, lug. 6, 1849. 
Joseph Casterline, Jr., May 4, 1853. 



NEWBURGH MARKET. 

The act of incorporation gave the board of trustees power 
to establish a market and lease the stands, and a building for this 
purpose was erected at the foot of Third street soon after the pas- 
sage of the act. The first leasing of the stands occured in 1811, 
when Jas. Lyon, Ed. Griswold, Chas. Birdsall and David Tice 
were licensed as butchers — ^Birdsall and Griswold occupying two 
stands each. A¥m. Mathewson also occupied one for several years. 

The building, we have 
been told, was of wood, 
one story high and open 
as represented in the 
engraving. Third street 
divided and ran on the 
.north and south sides 
of the market to the 
ferry and public land- 
ing. During the winters, when the stands were not occupied, 
young lads had merry times in riding down "McAuley's hill," as 




HAY-SCALES FERRY. 



16t 



Third street was called, and shooting straight through the 
market. The building was probably removed in 1822 or '23, and 
about the same time a new market of peculiar architecture was 
erected by John Neely, on Third street, east of the Alansion 
house. The amended charter of 1836, relieved the trustees from 
the duty of providing a market building; and, although the 
subject has since been frequently discussed, the village remains 
without a public market. 

HAY-SOALES. 

The hay-scales were a land-mark on Western Avenue for over 

a quarter of a century. They were 
erected in 1806, and by the sub- 
sequent opening of Grand street, 
were left standing on a small 
triangle at the junction of that 
street and the avenue, where they 
remained until the 8th of January, 
1838, when thej^ were prostrated 
during a heavy gale of wind. — 
The scales were of peculiar con- 
struction, and were composed of a 
a beam from which chains were 
suspended for raising the teams 
which were to be weighed. The north end was enclosed for a 
weighing room, and the roof was extended south to cover the 
beam. The engraving which we give is from description by 
John H. Corwin, Esq. 

newburgh ferry. 
On the 24th May, 1748, Alexander Golden presented a petition 
to the Hon. George Clarke, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, 
and Council, for letters patent enabling him to establish a ferry 
between Nowburgh and Fishkill. This petition, after reciting 
the patent to the Palatinates, states: "That as there are now 
many settlements on both sides of the Hudson river, persons 
frequently have occasion to cross over from one side of the river 
to the other, but are often obliged to wait a considerable time 
for a passage over. the same, there being no ferry established on 
either side thereof: That your petitioner is willing to provide 
proper boats and persons constantly to attend for the transpor- 
tation of passengers, horses and goods across the said river to 
and from the aforesaid tract of land, now commonly called the 




168 NEWBUEGH TEREY. 

Newburgh Patent; and has obtained liberty of the owners of 
the land on the easterly side of the said river to land or take on 
board" any passengers that shall have occasion to cross the said 
river with their horses and goods, which will be of great use and 
benefit to travelers and other persons that may have occasion to 
cross said river." The petitioner asked that the letters patent 
be issued to himself, his heirs and assigns forever, for "all the 
soil under the water one hundred feet into the river from the 
high-water mark, the whole length of the patent, (219 chains,) 
that he may be enabled to make proper wharves and landing 
places;" and also that "His Honor and the Council" should 
establish "such ferriage fees" as they should deem reasonable. 

The petition was accompanied by a statement showing the 
"Eates heretofore taken by way of Ferriage for crossing Hud- 
son's river above the Highlands," as follows: 

"For every Man and Horse, £0 6s Od 

For every person without a Horae, 2 

And if bad weather, a Man and Horse, 10 0" 

The following were the "Bates proposed to be taken: 

"For every Man and Horse, £0 2a 6d 

But if three or more together, for each Man and Horse, 2 

For a single person only, 10 

For each footman, (if three or more together,) 9 

For every Horse or single beast, , 16 

But if three or more together, for eaoKi * 13 

For every Calf or Hog, 6 ;- 

For eveiy Sheep or Lamb, 4 

For every toll Barrel, 10 

For every empty Ban-el, 4 

For every Pail of Butter, 3 

For every Firkin or Tub of Butter, 6 

For every bushel of Salt or Grain, 3 

For every hundred weight of Iron, Lead, &c., 9 

For every Chaise, Kitterin or Sleigh, 4 

For every Wagon and Cai-t, 6 
and so in proportion for all thmgs accordmg to their bulk and weight." 

The minutes of the Council, under date of May 24, are as 
follows : 

"His Honor withdrawing, the gentlemen of the Council resolved themselves into a 
committee to consider the aforesaid petition. The committee having taken the said 
petition, and the rates proposed, into consideration, and being agreed as to ,the report 
to be made thereon, and his Honor acquainted therewith: 

"His Honor returned to the Council Chamber and took his seat. 

"Ordered, That the said Report be made immediately — 

"The committee are of opinion that His Honor do grant to the petitioner, Alexander 
Colden, His Majesty's Letters Patent for the sole keeping of a Ferry between any and 
every part of the said Tract, and for the soil under the water, so far only as his own 
land runs, 100 foot into the water from high-water mark, under the yearly Quit Kent of 
five shillings, and under the following rate^ — (See above "Eates proposed.") 

"Eeport approved accordingly." 

Immediately after receiving the charter, Colden complied with 
its provisions, and continued for several years in the exercise of 
its privileges. Sail and row-boats were used for the purpose of 
ferriage ; a landing-place was constructed at the foot of First 



NEWBURGH FERRY. 169 

street, and the enterprise conducted with considerable system. 
The charter, however, was defective from the fact that it did not 
grant exclusive privileges to convey passengers, &c., from the 
Pishkill shore. This defect led to the establishment of a ferry from 
Pishkill to New Windsor, by Martin Wiltsie and Daniel Carpen- 
ter. This ferry was continued until the Eevolution; and, during 
the early part of the war, it was placed under the charge of the 
continental officers at Newburgh, of whom Isaac Belknap was 
one, and was called the "Continental Ferry." The place of landing 
was fixed near the foot of what is now Third street, where the 
buildings and dock for the use of the army were situated; and 
the Colden ferry thus superseded. 

This arrangement was continued until 1181 or '82, when, for 
the purpose of establishing more direct communication between 
the main points of the army encampment at Fishkill and New 
Windsor, the ferry-boats were run directly from the former to the 
latter place. This plan was not satisfactory to the people 
of Newburgh; and, as chartered privileges 'were then without 
effect, a new ferry was established, from Newburgh to Pishkill, 
by Peter Bogardus, of Pishkill, and John Anderson and James 
Denton, of Newburgh.* We have not been able to ascertain 
how long this ferry continued in operation; but as by the terms 

* This is to inform the public in general, that we, the subscribers have erected a pri- 
vate ferry, at Fishkill and Newburgh Landings, where the public Ferry was fonnerly 
kept, and mean to give full satisfaction to every person who chuse to favor us with 
their custom. We have built boats for the purpose of attending said ferry, on the best 
construction for transpoi-ting of wagons and horses, with the greatest safety, and a 
good scow is provided for the convenience of transporting loaded wagons. Proper 
attendance will be given- both day and night. A good convenient store-house is also 
provided for the receiving of goods at the Landing; and the prices of ferriage is as it 
was before the war, which is one third less at this time than any other Ferry near this 
place, viz: 



Four horse Wagon, fourteen shillings, 
Loaded do one pound, 



Phaeton and pair, twelve shillings. 

Ton of Iron, eight shillings, 

Hogshead of Rum, five shillings, 

Good entertainment will be furnished both 



For a footman, one shilling, 

Man and horse, two shillings. 

Two horse Wagon, ten shillings, 

Loaded do twelve shillings, 

Biding Chair, six shillings, 

and 30 in proportion for every other article, 
for man and beast, on both sides of the river, by the subscribers. 

PETER BOGARDUS, Fishkill Landmg, 

JOHN ANDERSON, | vr„„, ^ r „„ ,. „ 

-N. Y. Packet, July i, 1782. JAMES DENTON, f Newburgh Landmg. 

This advertisement received the following reply from the owners of the "Continental 
Ferry," viz: 

"ME. Loudon: Please to give the following a place in your next issue. 

"Whereas, we have observed an advertisement in your paper, signed by Peter Bogar- 
das of Fishkill Landing, John Anderson and James Denton, of Newburgh Landing, 
setting forth, that they have erected a Ferry, where the public Ferry was formerly kept, 
as if that Ferry was no more. Those advertisers do not stop here, they are pleased to 
publish their prices of Ferriage, and say that "their prices are as they were before the 
war, which are one third less, at this present time, than any other Ferry near this place." 
As the subscribers have kept a Ferry for a number of years, we must be the persons 
pointed at. We beg leave to inform the public that this last clause, respecting the 
prices being one third cheaper than any other Perry near this place, is absolutely false. 

"We are greatly obliged to all those who have formerly favored us with their custom; 



IIQ NEWBUKGH FERRY. 

of the treaty of peace with England all chartered privileges, 
existing prior to the war, were confirmed — and as Mr. Bogardus 
was afterwards associated in the continental ferry company— 
we infer that the ferry from Newburgh was resumed and contin- 
ued under the Golden charter. 

On the death of Alexander Golden, the charter of the Newburgh 
ferry was sold by his heirs, on the 15th December, 1802, to 
Leonard Carpenter for the sum of $2,600. On the 24th October, 
1804, Leonard Garpenter sold to Jacob Carpenter one half of the 
charter for the Sum of $1,250. In August, 1805, the Continental 
and the Newburgh ferries were combined, the joint owners being 
Leonard and Jacob Carpenter, Martin Wiltsie, Martin Wiltsie, 
jr., and Peter Bogardus. 

Sail and row boats alone were used until 1816, when a horse- 
boat was launched at Newburgh, (July 16,) and commenced 
her trips on the 8th of August. The Poli- 
tical Index of Aug. 10th, says: "The team- 
boat Moses Rogers, passed from this village, 
on Wednesday last, to Pishkill Landing 
with the following' load — orie coach and 
horses, a wagon and horse, seventeen 
chaises and horses, one horse, and fifty passengers." The Rogers 
Was a flat-bottomed boat with a wheel in the centre. The engra- 
ving which we give is from a plate published at the time. 

On the 26th October, 1825, Ann and Catharine Bogardus, heirs 
of Peter Bogardus, sold their interest in the ferry to Benjamin 
Thorne for $200; and on the 9th of November, Mr. Thorne sold the 
interest thus purchased to J. P. DeWint, for the same sum. On 
the 1st of April, 1826, Bridget, widow of Leonard Carpenter, sold 
to Alexander L. Carpenter her right in the ferry for the sum of 
$300. On the same day, Alexander and Jane B. Carpenter sold 
to Isaac B. Carpenter their interest in the ferry — the former for 
the sum of $2,800, and the latter for the sum of $2,500, tlie differ- 

and we hope for a continuance of it from them and all others. The hest attendance 
shall be given. We have furnished ourselves with excellent new Pettyaugers for that 
purpose. We have now larger Scows building with great expedition, for transporting 
loaded wagons. All such as chuse to cross at this Ferry, at the prices set forth under- 
neath, which are as cheap as the other Perries. 

"For a foot man, one shilling ; Man and Horse, two shillings; Two Horse wagon, 
nine shillings; Loaded do. twelve shillings; Riding chair, six shillings; Pour Hoi'se 
wagon, fourteen shillings; Loaded do. one pound; Photon and pair, twelve shillings; 
Ton of Iron, eight shillings; Hogshead of Bum, five shillings." 

This FeiTv bemg opposite to New Wihdsor, is the most convenient for travellei-s. 

MARTIN WILTSIE, 
DANIEL CARPENTER. ■ 

Pishkill Landing, July 15, 1782 FUhkill Packet, July 18. 




NEWBUKGH FERRY. Ill 

ence in the sums being made by the addition of the third held by 
the widow to that of Alexander. Isaac R, Carpenter was now the 
owner of the entire interest held by his father; to which he added, 
by purchase, on the 1st of March, 1827, from Henry B. Carpenter, 
the interest formerly held by Jacob Carpenter. The deed from 
Henry B. Carpenter recites the sale of one half part in a lot of land 
and dock at the foot of Second street, one equal fourth part in the 
horse boat called Caravan, the fourth part of a stable at Fishkill 
Landing, one half part of the sail boat called the Mentor and of 
the row boats used in and about the ferry, and one half part of 
the ferry privileges, for the sum of seven thousand dollars. 

Under the management of Isaac E, Carpenter, the ferry 
assumed a very complete arrangement. Boats were in readiness 
to convey passengers every five minutes, and every accommoda- 
tion provided. Heretofore the boats had landed at different points 
along the shore ; but now the place of arrival and departure was 
fixed at the foot of Second street.* The old horse-boats, too, 
were corppelled to give place to steam.f The first boat of this 
class was called, we believe, the Jack Downing. Anotlier steam- 
boat, the Post-Boy, was subsequently purchased. 

On the 25th February, 1832, Mr. Carpenter purchased from the 
heirs of Martin Wiltsie, senr., all the right, title and interest of 
their, father, for the sum of $8,000; and sold (Nov.. 27,) one half 
of the interest purchased to J. P. DeWint for the sum of $6,000. 
On the 1st of March, 1833, Martin Wiltsie, jr., sold to Mr. DeWint, 
and Isaac R. Carpenter, by whom the ferry was now conducted 
in partnership, all his right, title and interest in the ferry for 
the sum of $5,000; and 'on the 26th of March, of the same year. 
Carpenter purchased the entire right of DeWint, and became sole 
proprietor. On the 1st of May, 1835, Mr. Carpenter sold the 
fe^ry to Mr. DeWint for the sum of $52,000; and on the 30th 
of May of the same year, Mr. DeWint sold the whole to Thomas 

* The foot of Second street was selected as the landing place, in 1833, as appears from 
the Gazette: "It must be gratifying to our citizens to learn that arrangements are now 
making to put the ferry between this village and Fishkill Landing upon a more effective 
footing, and also to make a material reduction in the rates of toU. We believe this plan 
will be found as beneficial to the spirited proprietors as it will be advantageous to this 
place; the crossing and transportation will no doubt increase and consequently augment 
the revenue in a far greater degree than the abatement in the charges would tend to 
reduce it. Another circumstance which will have a favorable influence in the communi- 
cation between the two shores, is the confining the running the boats between the Ferry 
Wharf on this shore, and the Long Wlarf on the Fishkill side. ' 

t The Gazette of August 30, 1828, has the following: "The enterprising owners of 
the ferry have built a commodious boat to ply between this village and Fishkill. A 
steam engine is in preparation at Philadelphia, and we are informed that the boat will 
be in operation about the first of October. The owners of the ferry wharf have done, 
and are doing much for the convenience of travelers. We hope they will be amply 
rewarded. 



112 



NEWBURGH FERKY. 



Powell for the sum of $80,000. Mr. Powell continued the owner 
until 1850, when, on the 15th of October, by deed of gift, the 
property passed to his daughter, Mrs. Frances E. L Kamsdell. 

Mr. Powell placed upon the ferry the steamer Gold-Hunter, and 
subsequently the Fulton. The WilHamsburgh, we believe, was 
purchased by Mrs. Eamsdell, by whom the ferry bridge was also 
erected. Under the deed from Mr. Carpenter, the proprietors of 
the ferry are required to continue the landing at the foot of 
Second street, and to preserve an open and free passage to and 
from the public street. 

FIKE DEPARTMENT. 

The first formal organization of a fire department in Newburgh 
was in 1191, when, on the 24th of March, the Legislature passed 
an act authorizing the election of trustees with power to appoint 
firemen and to have the general control and direction of fire 
companies.* No record exists of the proceedings under this 
act; and it is not until after the incorporation of the village, 
that we find any other reference to the department. Under the 
act of incorporation, the trustees of the village became vested 
with the powers granted by the act of 1191, and their minutes 
show that, in May, 1806, there were two fire engine compa- 
niesf composed of the following members: 
n ,av .. NO.l. 



Wm. L. Smith, 
Enoch E. Tilton, 
Walter Burling, 
Henry Tudor, 
Ward M. Gazlay 

John Harris, 
Jonathan Fisk, 
John Bichardson, 
Selah Reeve, 
Joseph Beeve, 
John Anderson, Jr. 



Gilbert N. Clement, 
Minard Harris, 
John Garshaden, 
Caleb Sutton, , 



Geo. E. Hulse, 
John Coleman, 
John Hoagland, 
Wm. Adee, 



NO. 2. 
Leonard Carpenter, Jonathan Carter, 



Jas. Hamilton, 
Saml. I. Gregory, 
Wm. Gardiner, 

Nathl. Burling, 
Solomon Sleight. 



Hiram Weller, 
Saml. Wright, 
Hugh Spier, 
ThoB. Powell, 
Cornelius DeWitt. 



on. 

Andrew Preston, 
Nicholas Wright, 
John Forsyth, 
Walter Case, 



Joseph Hoffman, 
Cadwallader Boe, 
Daniel Niven, Jr. 
Benoni H. Howell, 
SylvauuB Jesanp, 



The house of company No. 1, was ordered established (July 
11, 1806,) "near the house of Eobert W. Jones, on Eight-rod 
street;" { and the house of No..2, (May 11, 1810,) was located on 
"the north-east corner of the Presbyterian church lot." On the 

* Ante page 86. 

t In 1805, an independent organisation was formed under the title of the "Bagmen." 
Members of this company were required to attend all fires for the purpose of taking 
charge of goods, for which purpose each member wm to furnish himself with a bag. 
Theimifoimof the company consisted of a"hat, the crown thereof to be painted white, 
and the rim or brim thereof black, and a large letter B, black, in front of the crown, 
standing for Bagman." The officers of the company were: John MoAulay, Foreman; 
Wm. H. Smith, Secretary; Alexander FaDs, Collector. Private members: Thomas S. 
Lookwood, John Shaw, Eobert W. Jones, John Chambers, Jacob Powell. How long 
the company continued in existence cannot now be ascertained. 

:f The place designated was the south-west comer of Water and South streets. South 
street was called Eight-Bod street at that time. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 11$ 

3d pf March, 1810, a hook and ladder company was organized* 

with the following members, viz: 

Jacob Carpenter, James Donelly, Thos. Phillips, Jr., Natlil. Boyd, 

Elijah Boardman, Benj. Anderson, Wm. Thayer, Saml. Burtis. 

We find nothing further in reference to the department, in the 
minutes of the trustees, — except the oflScers of the companies in 
1821, — until the 9th of December, 1823, when a meeting of 
citizens was held at Crawford's hotel, and a resolution adopted 
requesting the trustees to "purchase a new engine for the 
protection of the village against fire." In compliance with this 
request, the trustees, on the 1st of January following, contracted 
with E. Force, of New York, for a new engine at a cost of $750., 
On the 20th of the same month, they purchased the lot on the 
north-east corner of Montgomery and Second street for the sum 
of $92, and subsequently laid a tax of $1200 for the erection of 
an engine house thereon and to pay for the engine. In addition 
to this sum, the Washington Insurance Company, of N. Y., con- 
tributed $100; the Fulton Insurance Company, $100; and the 
North Eiver Insurance Company, $50, towards the purchase of 
the new engine. 

The new engine was completed inMarch, 1824,'andthe question 
at once arose among the firemen, which company should be 
honored with its use and preservation. After a sharp discussion, 
the question was decided by the trustees (March 18,) in favor 
of company No. 1, by the casting vote of the president of the 
board. The company immediately re-organized under the title 
of No. 3; and a new Company was soon after raised for the old 
engine. During the same year, the engines were removed to 
the new engine-house. 

In 1828, (Aug. 5,) three persons were selected from each fire 
company and organized as a hook and ladder company. Previ- 
ous to this time this company had only had a nominal existence, 
the trustees having no power under the charter to make a sepa- 
rate organization. An amendment of the charter, however, was 
now passed and the company was regularly organized. A few 
rudely constructed ladders were procured and a truck, for the 
protection of which a shed was erected in the rear of the engine 
house. These appointments were continued in use until about 

* "Jleaolved, That an addition of eight men be made to the two fire companies.which 
eight men shall be under a foreman and vice foreman, and it shall be their duty to take 
in charge the fire hooks and ladders, and exercise with them each and every day that 
the Are company No. 2, exercises with their engine — and further, it shall be their duty 
to attend at all fires with their hooks^ and sabmit, when on daty, to the directions and 
orders of the trustees." — Minutes of Trustees, March 3, 1810. 



IH riEE DEPARTMENT. 

1853, when new ladders, &c., were purchased and a suitable bouse 
erected on First street. 

In 1835, (May 6,) on the petition of John McClelland, James 
G. Clinton, Francis Bolton, and others, the trustees organized 
Washington engine company. No. 4, and ordered a new engine 
from James Smith. On the 1st of July, they purchased a lot on 
Western Avenue, for $300, on which a suitable building was 
erected for the company. The new engine was delivered in a 
rough coat of paint, and was subsequently finished in a very 
complete manner at the expense of the company. 

In 1837, (July 4,) Niagara engine company. No. 5, was 
organized by the trustees, on the petition of Samuel J. Farnum, 
Albert Noe, C. A. Gardiner, and others. On the 22d of August, 
a lot was purchased on South street, a house was ordered to be 
erected thereon, and a contract was made for the construction of 
an engine. 

From 1838 to 1840, the department was in. its most palmy 
days ; and the rivalry between companies No. 4 and No. 5, was 
carried on with great spirit. In 1840, the membership of several 
of the companies exceeded the number fixed by the trustees, and 
it was proposed that the surplus should be permitted to act-as 
volunteers. The trustees referred the subject to a committee, 
who reported (July 18,) against the plan. This result led to an 
"indignant parade," on the part of the volunteers of company 
No. 5; but the excitement soon subsided, and the cause of com- 
plaint.was removed by the adoption, (Sept. 14,) on the part of the 
trustees, of a resolution permitting each company to have a 
membership of fifty. 

In 1844, (Aug. 22,) a meeting of citizens authorized the pur- 
chase of a new engine for company No. 3; and the trustees 
(Dec. 2,) contracted with James Smith, of New York, for its 
construction. This engine was delivered in the spring of 1845, 
and was finished in an elegant manner by the company. In 
1849, (April 23,) a new engine was purchased for company No. 
4; and, in 1850, one for company No. 5. 

The introduction of water from Little Pond superseded, in a 
measure, the necessity for fire engines, and has led to the organi- 
zation of hose companies. Engine company No. 1, was changed 
to Excelsior hose company No. 1, and subsequently (Sept.. 6th, 
1852,) to Columbia hose company. No. 2. Einggold hose com- 
pany was organized February 1st, 1854, and Neptune hose 
company, September 6, 1858. These companies have been 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. It 5 

supplied with carriages of an improved and elegant construction, 
and, together with engine companies Nos, 3, 4, and 5, and hook 
and ladder company, No. 1, render the department very complete 
and eificient. 

CHIEF ENGINEER. 

The duties of chief engineer, for several years after the 
organization of the fire department, were performed by the 
president of the board of trustees and by the fire wardens. We 
have not been able to ascertain the date of the first appointment 
of an engineer. Benoni H. Howell, we believe, first served in 
that capacity; and, subsequently, Benj. ¥. Buckingham, who 
filled the station for six years^prior to 1851. 

In 1851, the trustees gave to the fire department the power to 
nominate a chief engineer and two assistants; and, (May 1,) 0. 
A. Gardiner was elected chief, Isaac Wood, Jr., 1st assistant, 
and John W. Thomas, 2d assistant. On the 1st of May, 185$i, 
Isaac Wood, Jr., was elected chief; John W. Thomas, 1st assist- 
ant, and J. A. McCartney, 2d assistant. In 1853, the firemen 
failed to elect, and the trustees appointed B. F. Buckingham, 
chief; Aikman Spier, 1st assistant, and James T. Hamilton, 2d 
assistant. In December, 1854, the trustees adopted more strict 
regulations for conducting the nomination, under which, in Jan; 
uarj5 following, the department elected John K. Lawson, chief; 
J. A. McCartney, 1st assistant, and John Proudfoot, 2d assistant. 
In 185'!, John D. Kelley was elected chief; J. H. H. Chapman, 1st 
assistant, and J. J. S. McCroskery, 2d assistant. In 1859, J. H. 
H. Chapman was elected chief; J. J. S. McCroskery, 1st assistant, 
and Hugh McGutcheon, 2d assistant. 

FIEE DEPARTMENT FUND. 

In 1851, an incorporation of the fire department became neces- 
sary, in order to make available the provisions of an act of the 
Legislature, passed the previous year, requiring the payment by 
Insurance companies of a certain per centage of their receipts for 
the benefit of local fire departments. To accomplish this object, 
the several companies appointed committees, who agreed to the 
terms of an act of incorporation, which was submitted to the 
Legislature and became a law, July 1, 1851. This act directed 
the organization of a board of trustees, composed of representa- 
tives from each company, to "manage the affairs and dispose of 
the funds of the corporation ;" and the corporation, by its by-laws, 
established a "Fire Department Fund," the income of which 
should be appropriated to the relief of indigent or disabled 



I'le FORWARDING LINES. 

firemen, or their families, if such cases should arise. This fund, 
on the 24th of July, 1851, amounted to$l'I5.68, and on the 1st of 
January, 1860, to about $1200. 

FORWARDING LINES. 

The forwarding o f produce to market has been the leading 
commercial business of the village for nearly or quite a century. 
As early as 1167, we find it recorded that "Many People from the 
Back parts of the Country bring their Produce to send to New York, 
having at leaft three three Boats belonging to the Place that conftantly go 
from thence to New York and return back again with Goods, which 
creates a very considerable Trade." The names of the persons who 
were engaged in thetradeat this period are lost. Mr. Donnelly, 
with whom we have conversed on the subject, says: "I know 
nothing about events before the war of the Revolution ; but I 
have been informed, by those who were old men when I was 
young, that Major Belknap sailed a sloop prior to that time. 
Another sloop was sailed by a Capt. Donoughue, or Donaghy; 
and a third, by William Harding. Richard Buckingham and 
Lewis Clark each owned a sloop during the war, but I presume 
they were not in the New York trade. Their sloops and Hard- 
ing's, however, were frequently in the public service; and just 
before the British sailed up the river, they were sent to Albany 
to carry troops to reinforce Genl. Gates. It was a fortateate 
occurrence for their owners, as the British would have destroyed 
them if they had found them here. The sloops were built 
at Albany, were of Dutch model, fast sailers and easily managed. 
They were built of red cedar, and were subsequently planked 
and re-planked until they were so spike-eaten that nothing more 
could be done with them. There was also a sloop sailed from 
here to Nantucket, commanded by Capt. Coleman, a native of 
that place; and Major Belknap and others were engaged in some 
trading ventures with the West Indies.* Belknap's sloop sailed 
from what is now Mr. Ramsdell's dock, and it was here that my 
father landed on his removal to Newburgh in 1174. One of the 
sloops received part of her cargo at Denton's landing near 
Balmville, and the other at what was afterwards Pettingale's 
landing near the foot of North street." 

During the Revolution the business was, of course, suspended; 

* Among the papers of Major Belknap we find statements confinning Mr. Donnelly in 
reference to the sloops of William Harding, Richard Buckingham and Lewis Clark: and 
also a paper showing that on the 28th of Jan. 1771, the sloop NewBern, Isaac Belknap, 
captain; Edmond Jones, mate, and Silas Howell, mariner, while on her passage to the 
Island of Antigua, was driven on the rocks on the west coast of the Island of Bermuda 
and, although considerably injured, succeeded in reaching Mangi'ovet bay. ' 



FORWARDING LINES. lit 

and, although resumed at the close of the war, was not probably 
prosecuted to any considerable extent until after 1190. 

The docks which were first built were small and were princi- 
pally located on the west side of what is now Front street. The 
first dock was unquestionably that built by Alexander Golden at 
the foot of First street; and the second, that afterwards owned 
by Daniel Smith at Balmville. Mr. Donnelly states that, "prior 
to the waT, the dock at Balmville was owned by Nehemiah 
Denton;" and that "the Golden dock was then occupied by Isaac 
Belknap. After the war, Benjamin Birdsall occupied the Golden 
dock, and, subsequently, George Gardner. Col. Jonathan Has- 
brouck built a small dock — afterwards known as tbe "red store- 
house" — on his own property, just below the Head Quarters, for 
the purpose of receiving grain and shipping flour. During the war, 
the "continental dock," near the foot of Third street, was built 
for military purposes. During the year in which peace was pro- 
claimed, the dock since known as Oakley & Davis's was built, 
together with a store-house for provisions for the army. After the 
close of the war, David Howell built a dock near the foot of Second 
street. Then came Walsh's dock, now Mailler's, and afterwards 
the dock of Jacob and Leonard Carpenter south of the present 
ferry. The Oakley & Davis .dock was. first owned by a Mr. 
Grosiby, I believe. DeWint's dock was , ,|;he old "continental 
dock;" and John Anderson's dock was "just south of Walsh's.* 
The docks were such as we now see occasionally along the river 
at some old brick-yard. A great depth of water was not 
required, for the vessels employed were generally flat-bottomed." 
We have referred to the construction of the present. wharves in 
a previous chapter.f 

Prom l'I98-'99 to the present time, the names ©f forwarders, 
captains, and vessels, are fully set forth in their published 
advertisements, from which it appears that the leading forward- 
ers during that period have been as follows : Prom Colden's dock, 
foot of First street — Geo. Gardner (1198), Geo. Gardner & Son 
(1822), T. Powell & Co. (1835), Eeeve, Moore & Co. (1845), 
Powell, Eamsdell & Co. (1845, Pall), H. Eamsdell & Co. (1858). 
Prom Walsh's dock, foot of Third street — Hugh Walsh, Derick 

* Mr. Donnelly's statement does not entirely correspond with the map of the Town- 
ship of Wa^lngton given on a previous page, which shows that Mr. Walsh then (1783) 
owned the river front where DeWmt's and Oakley & Davis's docks were afterwards 
situated; and that the Continental dock was directly at the foot of Third street. Mr. 
Crosby, too, then owned the lot now occupied- by the Brewery; and Aaron Fairchild 
that now occupied by Mailler'a dock. John Anderson's location corresponds with the 
map. The lota in qaeation, however, may have changed hands at the time of which 
Mr. Donnelly speaks. f Ante page 120. 

12 C 



118 FORWARDING LINES. 

Amerman, Crawford & Harris and others until 1808, F. Crawford 
and C. Belknap & Co. (1817), F. & D. Crawford (1827), D. Craw- 
ford & Co. (1831), Crawford, Mailler'& Co. (1838), W. K.Mailler 
& Co. (1855), W. K. Mailler & Son (1858), Wm. 0. Mailler 
(1860). From John Anderson's dock, foot of Third street— r 
John Anderson (1801), Jacob & Thomas Powell (1804), Eeeve 
& Falls (1814), Eeeve & Son (1825), C. & G. Eeeve (1827), C. 
Eeeve (1830), who sold to D. Crawford & Co. From DeWint's 
dock— Geo. Gardner (1815 to '22), Miller & Smith (1822 to '24), 
E. Case (1835), Houston, Johnston & Co. (1838), Christopher 
Eeeve (1842), Eeeve, Moore & Co. (1843-'44). From dock foot 
of Fourth street— Farmer's Company* (1806 to '14), B. & I. 
Case (1814 to '21), Abm. Stagg & Co. (1821 to '24), John Mount 
& Co. (1824 to '27), and by Oakley & Davis (1827.) From Car- 
penter's dock— James & Leonard Carpenter, B. Carpenter, and 
B. Carpenter & Co. From Balmville — Daniel Smith and others 
until 1818, H. & J. Butterworth (1819), Selah Tuttle & Son 
(1820), who were the last occupants. In 1845, the firm of 
Wardrop, Smith & Co., was organized and commenced business 
from the foot of Fifth street. This firm was continued until 
1858, when C. C. Smith sold his interest to Hiram Falls. In 1860, 
on the death of Mr. Wardrop, the firm was dissolved and Falls 
& Johnston became its successors.f Of the present firms, Benj. 
Carpenter and Charles Halstead have been identified with the 
trade for over forty years, the former having entered it in 1817, 
and the latter in 1815. 

The business was conducted entirely by sloops until 1830. 
The introduction of steam vessels, however, was proposed in 1825, 
at a meeting of sloop owners, (June 6,) and a committee appointed 
for the purpose of making inquiry "relative to the building of 
a good and sufficient steamboat or boats, for the purpose of 
conveying freight or passengers from this village and landings 

* This Company appears to have been a regularly organized asaociation and its 
business was conducted by directors who were geneiully changed annually. After the 
dissolution of the company, a similar association was organized by an act of incorpora- 
tion.passed by the Legislature, April, 1823. This company originated, we believe, with 
Mr. Jonathan Hasbrouok, who was its principal manager. The "Chancellor Livingston" 
was run for a few trips, in the name of the company, from the old Red Store-house; and 
then the project was abandoned. Mr. Eager, in his "Orange County," (p. 70 ) gives the 
names of the members of the company. 

t A statement, compiled from the advertisements of the several firms, may be found 
in the Telegraph, December, 1858. The advertisements of 1798, announce that "Caleb 
Coffin will continue to .sail George Gardner's sloop on alternate Fridays;" that "Daniel . 
Smith and William Wilson, owners, Daniel Smith, master, will sail the sloop Mornmg 
Star, from Daniel Smith's dock, on alternate Fridays;" that "John Anderson will sau 
the sloop Eliza on alternate Tuesdays;" and that "Deriok Amerman will sail the sloop 
Ceres on alternate Tuesdays." The Ceres was owned by Hugh Walsh. 



FORWAKDINO LINES. 119 

adjoining." * This action was doubtless intended to allay the 
feeling against sloop navigation which had grown out of the 
disaster to- the- "Neptune," in November of the previous year.f 
Whatever may have been its object, however, the movement was 
not productive of the result desired. Here the 'matter rested 
until the winter of 1829-30, when Mr. Christopher Eeeve 
purchased the steamer BaUimore, which was placed on the 
Newburgh line in the spring of 1830, and ran from the wharf 
of the Messrs. Reeve and that of D. Crawford & Co, J Mean- 
while Mr. Benjamin Carpenter had laid the keel, at the ship- 

* A meeting of sloop ownera was held June 6, 1825, — Selah Beeve, chairman, and 
David Crawford, secretary, — ^to consider the expediency of placing a steamboat on the 
Newburgh line. After discussion, it was "Resolved, That a committee, consisting of 
James Wiltsie, John P. DeWint, Uriah Lockwood, John Wiltsie, Christopher Keeve and 
David Crawford, be authorized to make the necessary inquiry and obtain all the infor- 
mation in their power relative to the building of a good and sufficient steamboat or 
boats, for the purpose of conveying freight or passengers from this village and landings 
adjoining." — Index, June 7. 

t loss OP THE SLoor Neftune. — On Nov. 24, abont noon, the sloop Neptune, on her 
way from New York to this village, a short distance below Pallapel's Island, was upset, 
filled and sunk; At the time of this melancholy event, it is understood she had on 
board from fifty to fifty-five passengers, a majority of whom were drowned. It appears 
that the vessel left New York under the command of her first hand, Mr. John Decker, 
(Capt. Halstead being detained in the city,) with from forty toififty tons of plaster and 
some eight or ten tons of merchandize on board. About half of the plaster was put in 
the hold, and the remainder piled on deck. In the Highlands the wind was high , which 
induced the commander, when below West Point, to take a double reef in the mainsail, 
and other measures of caution for the sare delivery of his thavge. When off Little Stony 
PoinVrwith very little way on the vessel, a flaw struck her and hove her down. This 
causeH the plaster on deck to shift from windward to lee*ard. Most of the male pas- 
sengers were on deck, and one or two of the females, and some ten or twelve women 
and six or seven children in the cabin. The shifting of the plaster created the utmost 
confusion on board. The water rushed into the scuttle of the tbrecastle, which was to 
leeward, then into the cabin; and consternation, dismay and death presented their ap- 
palling features to all on board. In a few minutes she filled and plunged headlong to 
the bottom. All in the cabin perished. Those on deck were plunged into a cold and 
turbulent element or had been carried down with the vessel. The boat was afloat, and 
when the sloop was going down was occupied by Decker and Woolsey, but without oars 
— ^they were supplied by Mr. Storm, whose oyster boat was just ahead of the sloop; and 
they made the utmost exertions to save the unfortunates. Seventeen persons were res- 
cued by them and the other boats which came to their assistance; but the rest perished. 

The following are the names of those who were saved: — John Decker, Levi D. Wool- 
sey, Mr. Thorne, of Newburgh; Joseph Mullock, A. Carey, Jesse Green, of Minisink; 
Alfred Crawford, Alexander Crawford, John Rose, of Crawford; Mr. Sprague, Mrs. 
Bowers, Mr. Smiley, Mr. Anderson, of Sullivan county; Lewis Broom, Patrick Kelly, 
of Wallkill; A. Pierson of Montgomery, and a lad from Blooming-Grove — total, 17. 

The following persons were known to have been on board the sloop: — Mrs. Couch and 
two children, J. Loveland and J. Smiley, of Sullivan county; Mrs. Graham and two 
children, of Crawford; John Leader, of Blooming-Grove; Saml. Carlisle, Jacob Polhe- 
mus, Mrs. McClaughery, of Newburgh; Mrs. Rush, of Wallkill; Messrs. McCurdy,Weed, 
Hensler, Mrs. Churchill and Cochrane, of Montgomeiy; John Greenleaf, George Evei-t- 
son, Matilda Helms, William Kelly and child, of Minisink; Mrs. Dean, of Cornwall, P. 
W. DeCondres and Mrs. Trout, of New York— total 26. 

It is supposed that a number of others were on board, which would make the whole 
equal to the number first stated, whose names and connections have not yet been dis- 
covered. The sloop sunk in fifty or sixty feet water. The owners, Messrs. Miller & 
Smith, succeeded in raising her Index, Nov. 1824. 

:f Half of the excellent steamboat Baltimore, has b.eea purchased by D. Crawford & 
Co., and we understand that she will start alternately from Reeve's and from Crawford's 
docks, towing a sloop and taking passengers from each dock twice a week. We have 
already spoken of a steamboat in a state of forwardness, owned by Benjamin Carpenter; 
and probably the other sloop owners will make similar arrangements Gaz.Feb.l, 1830. 



180 FOEWAKDING LINES. 

yard of Cornelius Capman, Low Point, of the steamer William 
Young. This vessel was launched July It, 1830, and commenced 
running in September of the same year. She was considered 
to be of perfect model, and her owner claimed that she had 
"power sufficient to make her average trips in about six hours." 

Messrs. Eeeve and Crawford continued the Baltimore one year, 
when, some dissatisfaction arising, Mr. Keeve sold his interest 
to Mr. Crawford, who continued her on the line until 1834, when 
she was transferred to the route between Newburgh and Albany. 
The Messrs. Eeeve (1832) supplied the place of the Baltimore in 
their line, with the steamer Legislator; * and during the same 
season Oakley & Davis put on their line the Providence. In the 
summer of 1833, D. Crawford & Co. built the steamer Washington 
and commenced running her in November of that year. This boat 
was far superior to any on the line, and the competition created 
aroused the energies of Mr. Carpenter, who built, in 1835, the 
James Madison, a steamer in many respects superior to the Wash- 
ington; while Oakley & Davis changed their boat for the Superior. 
Mr. Powell, too, who for several years had been living in retire- 
ment, now again entered the list of competitors, and built the 
Highlander, which commenced running in Sept., 1835. She was 
a boat of the first class in speed, her only rival being the Boches- 
ter, a boat then on the i^ew York and Albany line. As their days 
of sailing from New York were the same, races were always in 
order; and the story is, that to settle the point of speed, a bet 
of $1,000 a side was made. The race came off and the Highlander 
lost by half a minute from New York to the Newburgh wharf. 
The steamer Oseola, a neat and swift craft, next attacked the 
Highlander. Both boats ran on the- morning line — the former 
from Poughkeepsie, and the latter from Newburgh and Fishkill; 
but the Highlander was victorious. In 1846, Powell, Ramsdell 
& Co., built the Thomas Powell, which was placed on the morn- 
ing line. 

The use of steamboats, however, soon gave place to barges. 
The first vessel of this description— the Jfmmnyfc— was placed 
on the line by Crawford, Mailler & Co., in 1841. In 1842 



season 



* Farmers and_ freighters will be abundantly aocommodat«d with steamboats this 
_-jMon. In addition to the William Young, which will continue to im from Cai-penter's, 
and the Baltiniore, which will run this season from Crawford's dock, will be added the 
Legislator, which will tow from Eeeve's dock, and the Providence from OaMey & Davis's. 
We understand vessels will depart from this village on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thurs- 
days, Fridays and Saturdays. The enterprismg spirit evinced by these arianeements 
deserves, and we confidently hope will meet with a corresponding liberality f?om the 
public — Gazette, Feb. 26, 1832. j' i » luio 



MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 



181 



Christopher Reeve re-entered the trade with the barge Union, 
In 1845, Wardrop, Smith & Co., put on the steambarge Caledonia, 
and, in 1851, the barge WallMll. B. Carpenter & Co., in 1846, 
purchased the barge Superior. In 1848, Powell, RamsdeU & Co., 
built the barge Newburgh, and, in 1851, the barge, Susquehanna. 
Subsequently the Newburgh was transferred to Wm. K. Mailler 
& Co., and the Minisink to B. Carpenter & Co. 

The amount of produce shipped by the Newburgh lines has 
always been heavy, and at the present time averages about 
$1,000,000 annually. 

MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS.* 

The first military organization in the district of which New- 
burgh now forms a part, was made prior to 1738, and was one of 
the companies of the Ulster regiment, of which A. Gaasbeck 
Chambers was colonel; Wessel Ten Broeck, lieutenant colonel; 
Coenradt Elmendorf, major, and Cornelius Elmendorf, quarter 
master. The regiment was composed of nine companies which 
were located as follows: Kingston, 3; Marbletown, 1; Wallkill, 
1 ; Hurley, 1 ; Rochester, 1 ; New Paltz, 1 ; and the precinct of 
the Highlands, 1. The names of the officers and privates com- 
posing these companies are given in the Documentary History of 
New York, (iv. 226, &c.,) frota which we copy the following: 

UISTER j A list of the foot Company of Militia of the Preaenck of the Highland 
COUNTY. .( under the command of Capt. Thomas Ellison. 17?8. 
Capt. Thoa. Ellison, Jeremiah Poster, David Oliver, 
Ensign John Yoang, Charles Beaty, Avthar Beaty, 

Sergt. David Davids, Amas Poster, . Matthew Davis, 

Sergt. Mosas Garitson .Alexander Denniston, John Nicoll, Jr. 



Sergt. P. MoCloghery,James Young, 
Corp. Jacobus Bruyn.Jamea Nealy, 
Corp. Jas. Stringham,Bobert Feef, 
Corp. Jona. Hazzard, Joseph Buttei'ton, 
Claflt, Chas. Clinton, Samuel Luckey, 



John tJmphrey, 
Alexander Palls, 
David Bedford, 
William Coleman, 
Joseph Sweezer, 
Thomas Coleman, 
JohnMcVey, 
John Jones, 
Patrick Broderick, 
Joseph Shaw, 
Caleb Curtis, 
William Sutten, 
Daniel Coleman, 



John Markham, 
John Read, 
Joseph McMikhill, 
David Umphrey, 
James Gamble, 
John Gamble, 
Cornelius McClean, 
John Umphrey, Jr, 
James Umphrey, 
Peter Mulinder, 
Robert Burnet, 
Archibald Beaty, 



Alexander McKey, 
Robert Sparks, 
Jeuriah Quick, 
Thomas Quick, 
Jacob Gillis, 
Joseph Simson, 
James Clark, 
John Clark, 
Lodewick Miller, 
Peter Miller, 
George Waygant, 
William Ward, 
William Ward, Jr. 



Jerry Manse, 
Thomas Johnston, 
Casparis Stymas, 
John Monger, 
James Luckey, 
Thomas Williams, 
Johannis George, 
Jeremiah Tompkins, 
Isaac Tompkins, 
Tlfilliam Watts, 
Josiah Elsworth, 
James Elsworth, 
Anthony Preslaer, 
Jonathan Tomkins, 
Robert Banker, 
Thomas Fear, 
Frederick Painter, 



John MattysKimberg Mosas Elsworth, 
William Smith, Jnr, John Marie, 
James Edmeslon, Jonathan Owens, 
Tobias Waygant, Andrew McDowell, 

Total, 86. 



This regiment was subsequently divided, as appears from a 
return made to Sir William Johnson, under date of September 5, 

* We have not been able to make this department of our work as complete as we could 
wish — especially in reference to the early unifoi-med companies — although we luve ex- 
hausted all the sources of information accessible to us, and have embodied the facts 
collected. The material for a perfect history cannot now he obtained. 



182 MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 

1113, at -whicli time the southern regiment was under the fol- 
lowing officers, viz: Thomas Ellison, colonel; Charles Clinton, 
lieutenant colonel; Cadwallader Golden, Jr., major, and Johannes 
Jansen, adjutant. The first company in the regiment was located 
in Newburgh and was composed as follows, viz: Jonathan Has- 
brouck, captain; Samuel Sands, 1st lieutenant; Wolvert Acker, 
2d lieutenant; Cornelius Hasbrouck, ensign; four sergeants, four 
corporals, one drummer, and one hundred and forty-one privates.* 
On the 22d of August, 1175, the Provincial Congress of New 
York passed a law for re-organizing the militia, under the pro- 
visions of which the counties of Ulster and Orange formed the 
fourth brigade, which was composed of four regiments command- 
ed respectively by Cols. Johannes Hardenbergh, James Clinton, 
Levi Pauling and Jonathan Hasbrouck. The officers in Col. 
Hasbrouck's regiment were: Johannes Hardenbergh, Jr., lieu- 
tenant colonel; Johannes Jansen, Jr., and Lewis DuBois, majors; 
Abraham Schoonmaker, adjutant, and Isaac Belknap, quarter 
master.-f- The several companies of the regiment were also re- 
organized, two of which were located in Newburgh and were 
commanded respectively by Samuel Clark and Arthur Smith.J 
In March, 1115, the regiment was composed of eleven companies, 
as appears from the following return, viz: 

"Newbtjkgh, March 20th, 1775. 

"A trae state of the regiment of Militia in the County of Ulster, whereof Jonathan 
Hasbrouct ia colonel, consisting of eleven companies. 

"My whole regiment consists of six hundred and eight men, officers inclndsd; like- 
wise four hundred and fifty fire-locks; two hundred and ninety-three swords; one hun- 
dred and eighty-eight catridge boxes; thirty-two .pounds of powder, one hundred and 
twenty pounds of lead. 

"A true state of my regiment after the fourth man was selected as a minute man, 
according to the resolves of your Honorable House. Given under my hand the day and 
date above mentioned. J. HASBROUCK, Col." 

It will be borne in mind, that, during the war, each State was 
required to furnish a certain quota of ti-oops to the continental 
line, which was made up by enlistment, and by drafts upon the 
several regiments of militia, while the latter were expected to be 
in service to resist invasion as well as to furnish men for special 
purposes connected with the defence of the State. Neither the 
number nor the names of the men drawn from Col. Hasbrouck's 
regiment for the regular service, can now be ascertained; but 
we have already shown that it was actively employed during 
a l^Tge portion of the war in guarding the Highlands, and shared 

* We give all the names embraced in the return. See Ellison Papers, Head Quarters. 

t The commissions were dated October 25th, 1775. Mr. Belknap, however, did not 
fill the post to which he was appointed— the name of another person having been acci- 
dentally inserted in the commiseion. | Ante page 56. 



MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 



183 



largely in the memorable defence of forts Montgomery and 
Clinton, Oct. 6, 1111. 

Since the revolution, several changes have occurred in the 
boundaries of this military district, and the regiment has been 
variously numbered the 4th, the 14th, and subsequently the 19th; 
but, as our duty is confined to the military organizations of the 
town, it is not necessary that we should trace these changes. 
The field officers, however, have been as follows, viz: _ 

Colonel. 
George Denniston, 
Leonard Smith, 



Date. 

1792 

1798 

180i 

1808-12 

1813 

1814-16 

1817 

1818 

1819-20 

1821-22-23 

1824-25-26 

1829 

1830 

1831-32-33 

1834-35 

1836-37 

1838-40 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1845-57 

1858-59 

1860 

B^gadier Generals. 



Isaac Belknap, Jr. 
Chauncey Belknap. 

do 
William H. Falls.t 

do 
John W. Brown.t 
Gardiner Thompson,J 

do 

do 
Isaac E. Carpenter,! 
John D. Phillips.t 
Odell S. Hathaway ,t 

do 

do 
Stephen C. Parmenter, 

do 

do 



Liieut. Colonel. Major. 

George Denniston, commanding. 
Leonard Smith, 

do command. 
Isaac Belknap, Jr. 

do command. 
Chauncey Belknap, 
Edmund Griswold,t 
William H. Falls, 
James Butterworth, 
Daniel Tooker, 
Gardiner Thompson, 
Isaac K. Carpenter. 

do 

do 
John D. Phillips, 
Odell S. Hathaway, 
Nelson Houston, 

do 
Stephen C. Parmenter, 
Adam Lilburn,|{ 

do 
William E. Brown, 

do 



Sly. 

Chauncey Belknap. 
Edmund Griswold. 
William H. Falls. 
James Butterworth, 
Daniel Tooker. 
Zadoch Lewis. 
Chai-les H. Sly. 

John D. Phillips. 

do 
Wm. C. Haabrouok.§ 
Orson Tarbell. 

do 
Stephen C.Parmenter 
Adam Lilbarn, 
Peter M. Jones.|| 
William K. Brown. 
James Low. 

do 



1798, Joseph Hasbrouck; 1808, JosiahEobinson; 1813, Leon- 
ard Sinith; 1816, Isaac Belknap, Ji-.; 1819, Chauncey Belknap; 1823, John Jansen; 
1825, Gilbert 0. Eowler; 1827, Daniel LeFever; 1830, Charles Borland; 1837, John 
MoBride; 1843,110863 L Decker; 1845, Alfred D. Hurtin; 1846, William C. Little; 1854, 
Henry A. Samson; 1857, William W. Sorugham; 1860, Stephen C. Parmenter. 

Following the example of New England, the Province of New 
York, on the 5th of August, 1775, adopted a plan for organizing 
companies of minute men. This plan provided that counties, 
cities and precincts should be divided, by their respective local 
committees, so that in each district a company should be formed 
composed of eighty-three able-bodied men, including oflicers — the 
latter to consist of one captain, two lieutenants, one ensign, four 
sergeants, four corporals, one clerk, one drummer, and one fifer. 
The companies thus organized were to be embodied in regiments 
within their respective regiment districts, or as a distinct branch 
of the militia, and held in readiness to march at a moment's 
notice. In the southern district of Ulster, three companies 
were speedily organized, one at Newburgh, one at New Windsor 



t Resigned. § Appointed Brigade Inspector. || Removed from District. 

J Col. Thompson was thrown upon the pommel of his saddle, at the annual parade, 
October, 1833, and received injuries which terminated his lite on the 6th of January, 1834. 
He held a non-commissioned office in 1810, and was on duty on Staten Island in 1812. 



184 MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 

and one at New Marlborough, the former under the command of 
Uriah Drake, captain; Jacob Lawrence, 1st lieutenant; William 
Erwin, 2d lieutenant; and Thomas Dunn, ensign. Companies 
were also organized in other parts of the district, and the regiment 
was placed under the following officers, viz: Thomas Palmer, 
colonel; Thomas Johnson, Jr., lieutenant colonel ; Arthur Parks, 
1st major; Samuel Logan, 2d major; Severyn Bruyn, adjutant; 
Isaac Belknap, quarter master. The plan, however, was not 
satisfactory in its operation, and it was abolished, June, ItlB.* 

On the 23d of July, 1116, the Provincial Convention directed 
the organization of companies of Rangers, for the protection of 
the inhabitants of the northern and south-western frontiers of 
the State. These companies were to hold themselves in constant 
readiness for service, with a view especially to prevent the in- 
cursions of Indians and Tories. They were, however, to be 
confined entirely to the counties in which they were organized, 
unless by the mutual consent of the committees of adjoining 
counties, or unless otherwise directed by the Convention. For 
this service, 201 men were raised in the county of Ulster, and 
were divided into three companies, each composed of one captain, 
two lieutenants, three sergeants, three corpprals, and fifty-eight 
privates. A bounty of $25 was offered to each person enlisting, 
and the pay was regul9,ted as follows, viz: Captains, 16s; lieuten- 
ants, 14s; and 10s to non-commissioned officers and privates, per 
week, in addition to expenses and subsistence. 

The three companies for Ulster county were formally organized 
in July, when Isaac Belknap, Jacob E. DeWitt and Elias Has- 
brouck were appointed captains.f Gapt. Belknap's company was 
in service until May 31, 1711, when, from the difficulties experi- 
enced in recruiting, it was disbanded. While in the employ of 
the State, however, the company adhered pretty closely to that 
part of the agreement which confined its service to its own 
county. As the incursions ' of the enemy were only occasional, 
the company found plenty of leisure and good pay. This did 
not altogether please Gov. Clinton, who solicited the Convention 
to place it under his command that he might "work the gentry a 
little." The request was granted, and the Governor kept the 
company busy at the forts in the Highlands and in chasing Tories 
through Duchess county.J 

The close of the war of the revolution brought with'it a relaxa- 

* Joamal Proy. Con., 114, 135, 188, 203, 229, &c. 

tAnte page 59. t Jo™- Prov- Con., 53S, 698, 728, Ki, 790, 813, &a. 



MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 185 

tion of military discipline, and it is probable that prior to the 
adoption of the federal constitution, very little attention was 
given to the organization of the militia. Under the provisions 
of that instrument, as well as the laws passed by the State legis- 
lature on the subject, however, the military spirit of the heroic 
age of the Republic soon revived, and led to the organization of 
uniformed militia companies. In the regimental district of which 
Newburgh was a part, five companies of this class were formed 
prior to the year 1806, which we notice in their order, viz: 

1. The Orange Hussars. — This company was organized in 1193. 
At that time it had its head quarters in the town of Montgomery, 
but subsequently removed them to Belknapville in Newburgh. 
It was for many years under the command of William Wright, 
of this town.. It was on duty in 1812, and it was again called to 
the field during the anti-rent troubles. It was detached from the 
2d regiment of cavalry, August 30, 1844, and attached to the 14th 
regiment. The history of the company was referred to by Mr. 
HughB. Bull, in an address delivered by him, at the presentation 
of a stand of colors to the corps, August 9, 1855, as follows : 

"This company of oavaliy has been in existence for more than six decades of years 
without an iutervegiwim. It was organized shortly after the Eevotationary war, under 
the auspices of Joseph Barbour, a patriotic citizen of the town of Montgomery, who 
some thirty years or more since, went tQjthat rest which awaits the soldier, equally with 
othera of our race. His descendants ana kindred are among the most respectable and 
homna^le of our county. His commission bears date October 9, 1793, under the hand 
anffseai of his excellency George Clinton, the then Governor of our state. This compa- 
ny has presei-ved an actual existence irom that until the present period. It has been 
majshalled in succession under Barbour, and Milliken; and, in what is called the war 
of 1812, when the design was formed by the perfidious foe, to humble and crush our 
infant nation, this troop rallied on Brooklyn Heights, and bore their part in turning 
back the invader, and avei-ting the tide of desolation that was about to flow over our 
domains; Also, under Hill, Waugh, and that indomitable and energetic soldier, William 
Wright, who, for a quarter of a century or more, caused his ardent soldieiy to appear at 
his call, and they in turn responded with alacrity. He has sustained this corps during 
tliat period through good and evil report, under adverse and favorable legislation. His 
mantle has now fallen on the present commandant, Capt. William C. Brewster, who is 
resolved to wear it manfully and with the true spirit of the soldier." 

2. Capt. Acker's Company of Cavalry. — A company of cavalry 
was organized under the command of William Acker, about the 
year 1804, and continued in existence until 1837 or '38. It was 
composed of members residing in the north part of the town and 
in the adjoining towns of Ulster county; and was in service 
on Long Island in 1812-13. Capt. Acker was succeeded, we 
believe, by Nathaniel DuBois who served as captain for several 
years. The last captain of the company was Robert D. Mapes, 
of Marlborough. The uniform of the company consisted of red 
coats with buff facings, and buff pantaloons. 

3.' The BepuUican Blues. — This company was probably formed 
about the commencement of the present century. It appears to 



186. MILITARY OROANIZATIONS. 

have been in a yery flourishing condition in 1807, (when it stood 
on the roll of the regiment as company No. 1,) and to have 
continued so until 1812-14. It was composed almost entirely of 
natives of Ireland or their descendants, and hence was familiarly 
known as the "Irish Blues.'' Very few companies in the State 
exhibited a more patriotic spirit than did the Blues. In 1807, 
during the discussions which eventuated in the second war with 
England, it tendered its services to the Governor to aid in the 
public defence, and from that time until 1812, when it was order- 
ed to Staten Island, if stood ready to take the field. From the 
time of its organization until 1813, it was under the command of 
Alexander Denniston.* Its officers, in 1809, were: Alex. Dennis- 
ton, captain; George Gordon, 1st sergeant; James Alexander, 
2d; Paul Stewart, 3d; Thomas Kelso, 4th; William Camack, 1st 
corporal; John Kernochan, 2d; James Coleman, 3d; Isaiah Titus, 
4th. From 1813 to 1815, it was under the command of James 
Hamilton. Its uniform consisted of a blue dress, and caps 
made in the form of a Koman helmet. The organization of 
the company was so broken up during the war, that its disband- 
ment took place June 3, 1815, "in consequence of not having a 
complement of men agreeable to the statute." 

4. Capt. BirdsaWs Company. — THe date of the organization of 
this company cannot now be ascertained. In 1809, it stood 'on 
the roll of the regiment as "company No. 2," and was then under 
the command of the following officers, viz: Chas. Birdsall, captain; 
Abel Belknap, 1st sergeant; John Polhamus, 2d; Jere. Albertson, 
3d; Briggs Belknap, 4th; George Marvin, 1st corporal; Wm. P. 
Hatch, 2d; David Sands, 3d; Joseph Albertson, 4th. These 
officers served until 1814, when Robert Gardiner was elected 
lieutenant, and Sylvester Roe, ensign. The uniform of the com- 
pany was the same as that worn by the "Republican Blues," with 
the exception of the facings of the coat; and like its contempo- 
rary, it was was in service on Staten Island in 1812.f The same 
causes which led to the disbahdment of the former, struck the 
latter from the roll of the regiment, June 3d, 1815. 

5. Capt. Butter-worth's Artillery Company. — This company was 
organized November 2d, 1804, and had its head quarters at 

* In 1812, (Nov. 30,) Capt. Denniston proposed the organization of a company of 
volunteers, to sei-ve for one year or daring the war, and succeeded in enlisting about 
fifty men, who elected Jonathan Gidney captain. The company went to New York, 
and there formed part of a detatched regiment of riflemen. Denniston was appointed 
major in tliis regiment, and the vacancy thus created in the captaincy of the "Blues" 
was 'filled by James Hamilton. 

t Ante pages 114, 116 



MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. . 187 

the Mcintosh house on Liberty street. It was first under the 
command of William Ross, who served as captain until 1810 
or '11, when he was succeeded by Henry Butterworth. Its head 
quarters were then removed to Balmville, where an artillery house 
was erected. In 1812, while under the comm,andof Capt. But- 
terworth, the company was stationed on Staten Island. We 
have not been able to obtain any positive facts in reference to 
its -subsequent history, but have been informed that Charles 
Clinton was its captain in 1819 or '20; in 1822, James Kelso, 
captain; Robt. Lockwood, 1st lieutenant; Gilbert Holmes, ensign; 
1829, John B. Cromwell, captain; and afterwards Thornton M. 
Niven. As the artillery was embraced in a separate regiment,' 
(of which T. D. Lander was colonel,) the roster of the 19th con- 
tains very little in reference to this company.* 

In addition to the uniformed companies, there were three com- 
panies of militia which, in 1812, were known as follows, viz: 
"No.- 4, or Capt. Daniel T, Smith's Company"— Daniel T. Smith, 
cap.tain; Daniel Tooker, 1st sergeant; Nathl. Tooker, 2d; James 
Waring, 3d; Henry Cosman, drummer.- "No. 5, or Capt. Seth 
Belknap's Company" — Seth Belknap captain; Chas. Humphrey, 
1st sergeant; Sovreign B. Anderson, 2d; James Crawford, 3d; 
Wm, Belknap, 4th; Hezekiah Fairchild, Ist corporal; Jas. Way- 
land,[5 2d; Robt. Gourlay, 3d; John Wood, Jr., 4th. "No. 7, or 
Capt,Palls' Company" — William H.Falls, captain; Robt. Lawson, 
lieutenant; James Belknap, 1st sergeant; James M. Gardiner, 2d ; 
Wm. W. Sackett, 3d; Stephen Belknap, 4th; Gilbert W. Crissey, 
1st corporal; Samuel G. Sneden, 2d; Gardiner Thompson, 3d; 
Daniel Gidney, 4th. These companies continued in existence, we 
believe, until 1846.t 

In 1817, James Belknap, John W. Brown and others succeeded 
in effecting the organization of a company of infantry, which 
was subsequently known as "The Bell-Button Company." The 
first officers of this company were; James Belknap,f captain; 
William Smith, lieutenant; John W. Brown, ensign. In 1822, 
William Smith§ was captain; Samuel G. Sneden, lieutenant; and 

* The cavalry were also organized in. a separate regiment, which will explain the 
absence of those companies from the roll of this regiment and the difficulty of procuring 
authentic information-. 

t The uniformed companies failed to make up the quota ordered from the regiment, 
in 1813, and the militia were ordered out to supply toe deficiency. Under this order, 
these companies were stationed at Harlem Heights for three months. 

i Mr. Belknap was appointed Adjutant in 1812, and held the station until the close of 
the war. In 1821 or '22 he was appointed Brigade Inspector. 

§ William Smith was a son of Daniel Smith, of Balmville. He was captain of the 
steamer "Black Hawk" when the difBoulty occurred between that vessel and theCutan 
authorities, during Mr. Fillmore's administration. 



188 



MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 



Frederick W. Parnam, ensign. In 1824, Charles Niven,- captain; 
Thomas Smith, lieutenant; and E. W. Farrington, ensign. The 
uniform of. the company consisted .of a blue short jacket orna- 
mented with bell-buttons, blue pantaloons, and a cap with orna- 
ment and plume. , It was disbanded, we believe, in 1824, and its 
active members united with the other military associations of 
the town which were — ■ 

1. The Village Guards. — This company was organized in 1822, 
under the command of Henry B. Myers. Its uniform consisted of 
a blue cloth coat, white vest and pantaloons, a black stock or 
cravat, white webbing cross and waist belts, a leather cap trim- 
med with an armory or scale chain plate, with a black vulture 
plume and cockade. This company preserved its organization 
until 1846, when it was disbanded under the militia law of that 
year. The following list of the officers of the company is from 
the roster of the regiment, viz: 

Captain. 
Heniy B. Myers, 

do 

do 
William C. Hasbrouck, 

do 

do 

do 
Odell S. Hathaway, 
Walter W. Weed, 

do 



Date. 

1822 

1825-6 

1827) 

18271 

1828 

1829 

1831-33 

1834^35 

183S 

1839 

1840 

1843 

1844-46 



Adam Lilburn, 
Eichard J. Whitney, 
Addison W. Brown, 



lAeutenant. 
John D. Phillips, 
Nathaniel Vail, 
William C. Hasbrouck, 
Alanson Randall, 
David Harris, 
William Butterworth, 
0. S.Hathaway, 
Waltei-W.Weed, 
Cyrus S. Hawkins, 
Thos. MoCuUough, 



JSnstgn. 
Ezra B. Sweet. 



Richard J. Whitney, 
Chas. H. Ball, 
Benj. B. Hawkins, 



do 
David Harris. ' 

do 
William Butt«rworth. 
Odell S. Hathaway. 
Walter W. Weed. 
Qyms S. Hawkms. 
Thos. MoCullough. 
Wm. H. Roberson. 
Chas. H. Ball. 
Wm. I. Underbill, 

do 



2. The Newburgh Volunteers. — This company was organized 
October 30th, 1824 — John D. Phillips, captain; John Johnson, 
lieutenant; and Thomas Smith, ensign. Its uniform was the 
same as that adopted by the "Village Guards," with the exception 
of the plume. which was white. The company was disbanded 
under the militia law of 1846, at which time it numbered about 
seventy muskets. The following list of its officers is from the 
books of the company, viz: 

iMutenant. 



Date. 


Captain. 


1824 


John D. Phillips, 


1829 


do 


1830-31 


John Johnson, 


1831 


Cicero A. Gardmer, 


1832-33 


do 


1834-35 


Orson Tarbell, 


1836 


Oscar Marsh, 


1837-38 


do 


1839-40-^1 


do 


1842 


do 


1843 


Lewis W. Gardiner, 


1844 


do 


1845-46 


do 



John Johnson, 

do 
Orson Tarbell, 

do 

do 
Oscar Marsh, 
Nelson Kelley, 
Alanson Miller, 
Adam Lilburn, 
Lewis W. Gardiner, 
N. P. Emett, 
John P.Baldwin, 
Westlake Cannon, 



JBnsign. 
Thomas Smith. 
Orson Tarbell. 
John McAuley. 

do 
Oscar Marsh. 
Nelson Kelley. 
Alanson Miller. 
Moses Camack. 
Selah T. McCollum. 
Joseph A. Stan\ 

do 
Westlake Cannon. 
John S. Wear. 



The operation of the law of 1846, was disastrous to the uni- 



MILITARY OEOANIZATIONS. 189 

formed companies of Newburgh. This law provided for the or- 
ganization of only one company of this character in each company 
district; and, by its re-arrangement of the regimental districts, 
confined the 19th to the county of' Orange, thereby cutting off 
such members of the Newburgh companies as resided in Ulster 
county. The Orange Hussars alone survived the measure, and, 
with, the Montgomery and the Middletown Guards, composed the 
organized companies of the regiment. The amendments to the 
law passed in 1854, however, were more favorable-, and have led 
to the organization of four companies as follows, viz: 

1. The Washington Continental Guards. — This company was 
originated by Mr. -R. D. Kemp, who, with nineteen others, per- 
fected its organization on the 22d November, 1855. It adopted 
the continental uniform, which was procureji at a cost of $3,400; 
but was subsequently compelled to substitute, on general parade, 
the regular uniform of the militia. The company now numbers 
forty-two members ; and during its whole career has maintained 
with vigor its position as the pioneer company under the new 
law. The following have been its officers, viz: 

Date, Captain. lAeatenants. 

1855 E. D.Kemp, John Blizard, 1st, Jas. W. Purdy, 23, 

1855 do Geo. M. Van N9rt, Isaac Wood, Jr., 

1857 J I. Wood, Jr., do ^ I. JenkiJison, J.A.Eaney, CVd. 

1858,0e do I. Jenkinson, M. Do^ie, 

1859 M.Doyle, do W. M. Hathaway, ^T. Atwood -Ens. 

2. The Powell Corps. — The Powell Corps was Organized Dec. 
1st, 1851, and soon gave evidence of its military spirit by inviting 
the Milwaukie Light Guards to become its guests, while on the 
visit of that company to Newburgh in 1859. The company now 
numbers 42 men. Its officers have been as follows, viz: 

Bate. Captain. Lieutenants. 

1857 J.N.Arnold, Wilson Bruyn, 1st, E. G. Fowler, 2d. 
1859.60 Eli H.Evans, do do 

3. The Newburgh Guards. — This company was organized Dec. 
23d, 1858. A prominent feature in its history has been the noble 
effort to erect a monument to the memory of Uzal Knapp, and 
which will undoubtedly be successful. The company numbers 68 
men, and its officers have been: 

Date. Captain. Lieutenants. 

1858 JohnD. Kelly, James O'Neil, 1st, Jos. Wilson, 2d. 
1859-^60 JamesA.Eaney, John H. Toohey, P.Day. 

4. The Parmenter Bi/lemen — This company was organized in 
December, 1858. The following have been its officers, viz: 

Date. Captain. Lieutenants. 

1858 E. D. Kemp, E. A. Jones, 1st, H. F. Adams, 2d. 

1859-60 do James Smiley, Alex. Mann. 

The 19th regiment now embraces the county of Orange and 



190 REGATTA ASSOCIATION. 

consists of ten companies, five of which are located in Newburgh. 
Participating in the war for independence, and in that of 18l2r, 
it has illustrated the power and efficiency of the militia system 
of the nation; while the steady front which it has presented amid 
the seductive influences of peace, warrants the prediction that it 
will maintain its historical reputatioH, in the future. 

NEWBURGH REGATTA ASSOCIATION. 

The Newburgh Regatta Association was organized in the 
spring of 1831, through the exertions of Capt. Henry Robinson. 
Gapt. Chas. Ludlow was elected president, and J. J. Monell, 
secretary. The first regatta took place June 21, 1837, when the 
following four-oared boats were entered, viz: 

1. Gazelle, scarlet, red and wMte dress, red and white cap, New York. 

2. Highland Wave, black, white dress, blue and white cap, Newburgh. 

3. Gull, blue, blue and white dress, straw hat, New York. 

4. Wave, black, blue and white dress, blue and white cap. New York. 

6. Halcyon, green, green and white dress, green and white cap, New York. 

6. Pearl, white, blue and white checked dress, straw hat. New York. 

7. Minerva, East India Particular, red and white dress, red and white cap, N. Y. 

8. Corsair, black, green and white dress, red cap, Newburgh. 

The distance rowed was five miles, and the time made by the 
winning boats as follows, viz: Wave, 32m. 38s.; Gull, 33m. 58s.; 
Corsair, B5m. The prizes were awarded by J. J. Monell, who 
delivered an appropriate address on the occasion. 

The regatta in 1838, was for the benefit of the Newburgh 
Library Assoqiation. ,^ The following were the boats enterel^Viz: 
Galatea, Highland Wave, Corsair, and Scilla. Time: Galatea, 
2'4m. 35s.; Wave, 24m. 50s.; Corsair, 25m. 46s.; Scilla, 21m. 
Another regatta was held, we believe, in 1839; but we have not 
been able to obtain any particulars in reference to it. 

The Association was re-organized in 1856, and a regatta was 
held July 4th, of that year. Three races wore run, viz: By four- 
oared boats ; two pair scull-boats, and one pair scull-boats. For 
the first race, the W. H. Terboss, the Jacob Swartzer, and the 
Whitehall, of New York, and the Witch of the Wave, of Cold 
Spring, were entered. The first prize was taken by the Terboss 
in 21 minutes; the second by the Swartzer in 21>^ minutes, and 
the third by the Whitehall. For the second race, the Enoch 
Carter, the T. C. Ring, the Geo. W. Shaw, the S. Roach, and the 
Fanny Fern, were entered. The first prize was won by the Carter 
in 30 minutes, the second by the Ring and the third by the Shaw. 
The third race was won by the Gale in 86 minutes. 

Regattas, held under the auspices of the Association, formed 
attractive features in the celebrations of the national anniversa- 
ries in 1851 and 1858. The officers of the association at the 



FIRES. 191 

present time are: Henry Eobinson, president; T. 0. Ring, vice 
president; I. Wood, Jr., secretary. 

FIRES. 

The annexed particulars in reference to some of the principal 
fires that have occurred in the village, are copied from the files 
of the papers to which they are credited. 

Fire. — About two o'clock, on Thursday morning last, a fire accidentally broke out 
in the book-bindery of Mr. B. F. Lewis, in a block of wooden buildings— nearly all of 
it, which fronted on Water street was consumed. The following is as accurate an ac- 
count of the loss sustained as we have been able to collect. 

Commencing then, at the corner of Water and Third streets, the first four stores were 
owned by Messrs. Eeeve & Falls, and were entirely consumed — the first was occupied 
by them as a store, and dwellmg house for Mr. Falls. A large portion of their good«i 
in store and Mr. Falls' furniture was saved— their loss altogether is estimated at about 
five thousand dollars; a part of this loss was insured. The next store was occupied 
by Mr. Robert Lawson as a saddler's shop — nearly all his goods were saved — he lost 
about three hundred dollai-s. The next store was occupied by Mr. B. P. Lewis as a book 
store and bindery. As the fire commenced in the bindery on the second floor, every 
article in It was consumed; in the story below nearly aU the bound books were removed 
and saved; a quantity of sheet work consumed — amount not ascertained.. 'The last 
store of Reeve & Falls was occupied by Messrs. Lawson & Eabb as a hardware and 
grocery store; a large portion of their goods removed— loss about three hundred dollars. 

The next fifty feet of building was occupied by Mrs. DeGrove, and in part occupied 
by her as a dwelling, the whale of which was lost — amount not ascertained. Jonathan 
Carter occupied a part of this building as a tobacconist shop and dwelling house — the 
principal part of his goods saved— his loss about five hundred dollars. Mrs. Randol 
and Miss Merritt occupied a room under Mrs, DeGrove's roof, as a milliner's shop — goods 
removed and very little loss sustained. The next house was owned by Messrs. Forsyth 
& Byi-am, and occupied by the latter as a bakery; there was little property in the house 
—the building and all destroyed together. The next house was occupied by Mr. E. 
Sauxay, as a tailor shop— his goods were saved and the house pulled down. ' The next 
house, owned by Mr. Owen MoGahey, and occupied by George Mecklem as a shoema- 
ker'sihop, was nearly pulled down. And here, in the midst of a solid block of wooden 
buildings fronting on Water street, with a number of valuable stores in the rear, by the 
extfaondinaryaotivity of the firemen and citizens, the flames were allayed and finally 
extinguished. There were very few persons present who did not .exert, themselves to the; 
utmost to allay the destroying element. Nor was exertions confined to men; the Ladies 
volunteered their services in the case of preservation, and were distinguished in every 
place they could be useful, by their industry and perseverance. 

The stores and houses of Mr. McAuley, of Mr. B. H. Howell, and a number of others 
were emptied of their goods and furnitui'e on account of the danger from fire, and all 
received more or less damage." — Index, Tuesday, August 26, 1817. 

INDUSTBY — Only seven days had elapsed after the fire before we were called upon to 
witness the laying of the corner stone of two brick stores by Messrs. Reeve & Palls. 
The stone was laid on Thm-sday, Aug. 28, with appropriate ceremonies; and contains 
an inscription in commemoration of the fire. — Index, Sept. 2. 

The buildings referred to are situated on the south-east corner 
of Water and Third streets, and were occupied in more modern 
times by George Reeve and Hiram Falls. 

Fire — A fire broke out about i o'clock on Wednesday morning last, in the row of 
wooden buildings in this village, owned by Mr. John D. Lawson, which were entirely 
consumed. They were tenanted by William King, band-box maker; Lawson & Buck- 
ingham, saddlers; David Wright, tailor; John Van Nort, baker; Messrs. Belkuaps, tal- 
low chandlers; James B. Reynolds, tailor; Adna Treat, looking-glass maker; Michael 
Bird and John Pope, Jun., grocers. The fire accidentally originated in the shop of 
Lawson & Buckingham, from which nothing was saved. The Messrs. Belknap saved 
nearly all their goods, as did Mr. Wright and Mr. Reynolds; from the other tenements 
very little was saved. The buildings were aU of wood, and the fire had made such pro- 
gi'ess before it was discovered, that it was impossible to save any part of them. The 
industry and activity of the firemen and citizens, prevented its extension to the neigh- 
boring baMuigs.— Index, Feb. 20, 1821. 

FiBE. — On Friday night last, a fire broke out in the store of William Danskin, toy and 
fancy dealer, near the centre of a wooden block belonging to J. P. DeWint, Esq., bo- 



192 riRES. 

tween tlie Orange Hotel and the Newburgh Bank. Mr. Danskin barely escaped with 
his family, leaving clothes and all else to the devouring element. Partly insured. Dx-. 
Wm. Johnson's office and drag shop adjoining on the south — all lost. No insurance. 
Wm. B. Jarvis, hatter, next south, escaped with his family and the largest portion of 
his stock, but with the loss of all his furniture, clothing, and $100 in cash. Partly in- 
sured. John McCroskeiy, grocer, lost his whole stock of, goods, fixtures, &c., save $60 
or t70 worth. No insurance. N. P. Emmett's bakery and dwelling, with almost their 
entire contents, were destroyed. No insurance. Mrs. Harrison, toy and fancy dealer, 
saved nearly her entire stock. Teller & Bloomfleld, leather dealers, saved most of their 
stock. Wm. G. Gillespie, cabinet maker, adjoining the Bank, saved most of his stock. 
The buildings destroyed have been for some years, a nuisance to their neighborhood 
and are no loss. The loss of stock, <fcc., however, falls heavily, and the sufferers should 
and doubtless will be assisted to begin anew their various callings Tel. Jan. 26, 1837. 

PiEE.^-OBr village was visited by a disastrous fire on the morning of Saturday last. 
It broke out at half-past 2, in the stables south of Blizard's hotel, in Front street, and 
spreading to the adjoining buildings soon consumed the south end of the block on First, 
between Front and Water streets. The loss amounts to some $30,008, on which there 
was an insurance of $13,900. The buildings destroyed were owned by Thos. Po-vell, 
A, & M. H. Belknap, Daniel Parrington and John Ledyard. Those of the Messra. Belk- 
nap and Parrington were valuable. Several shop-keepers and mechanics have met with, 
for them, heavy losses, among whom are Daniel Parrington, Jr., painter; J. MoFarlan, 
chair maker; J. B. Grnmmun, hardware; A. Dezendorf, carpenter; J. Lynch, black- 
smith; Mrs. Strachan, millineiy. The loss, beyond insurance, of the Messrs. Belknap is 
over $9,000, and that of Mr. D. Parrington about $9,000. Mr. Powell's loss is about 
$1,500 — no insurance. Mr. Ledyard's $2,000 — insurance, $1,600. 

Our firemen are entitled to high praise for their exertions. The fire companies from 
Fishkill Landing and Matteawan rendered essential aid in checking and subduing the 
fire. Within an hour from the first breaking out of the flames they were here in good- 
numbers with then- engines to aid in saving the property of our citizens. Our Board of 
Trustees have very properly passed resolutions thanking them, in the name of the in- 
habitants of the village, for the invaluable assistance rendered Tel., Sept. 2, 1847. 

Pike. — About 9 o'clock on Tuesday evening last, a fire broke out in this village, in 
the stables of the Union Hotel, in Front street, owned by D. Crawford and occupied by 
John Richards. Mr. R. loses upwards of 500 ^ushels of oats and several tons of hay, 
upon which there was no insurance. The loss on the stables is fully covered by insu- 
rance. Prom the stables the fire communicated to the rear of the buildings contiguous 
on Water street, owned by Eli Hasbrouck, Chas. W. Post, Wm. B. darvis and Le^fis W. 
Young. The occupants of these buildings were: Chas. H. Hasbrouck, dry goods; C. 
W. Post dry goods; Mr. Jarvis, hat store; Jno. W. Wai'ren, shoe store; and Sands & 
Raymond, superintended by Chas. Erwin, hat store; and their stocks of goods were 
materially injured by water and by removal. The buildings were saved from destruc- 
tion by the intrepidity of our firemen, aided by the firemen of Fishkill Landing and 
Matteawan. The whole amount of damage, we presume, will not reach $8,000 and is 
coveted by insurance, except the loss sustained by Mr. Young. Stephen Hayt and seve- 
ral others were put to some loss and a great deal of inconvenience by a removal of their 
effects, among whom wei-e FuUerton & Fowler, law ofBce, and the proprietor of this 
paper. The wind was high when the fire broke out, and a wide-spread conflagration 
seemed certain; but a heavy fall of rain with a falling of wind fortunately interposed, 
and we have compai-atively a light disaster to record.— 2'cZ., Oct. 10, 1848. 

Pike. — A large frame building on Front street, in this village, foi-meriy occupied by 
Oakley & Davis, but at the time in part by Mr. Charles Barnes as a grocery, and in part 
by Capt. Bullis as a store-house, was destroyed by fire on Tuesday morning. The build- 
ing belonged to the Highland Bank, and was insured for $2,400, which fully covers the 
loss. Mr. Bames was insured for $1,500. Several persons had articles on storage in the 
building, most of which they lost, amounting perhaps to $600, — TeL, Dec. 20. 1848. 

FiBE On Tuesday morning last, at about half-past 4 o'clock, a fire broke out in this 

village in the Steam Grist Mill, at the south end of Colden street, belonging to and just 
erected and put in operation by Edward Haslehnrst. The mill, machinery, &c., were 
consumed, with the two buildings which they occupied, and a blacksmith's shop and 
many of its tools, adjoining, belonging to Mr. J. M. Smith. Mr. Smith's loss has been 
estimated at about $500 — no insurance. The mill fixtures, grain. &c., of Mr. Hasle- 
hnrst, may have been worth $1500— insurance only $300. The buildings occupied by the 
mill were owned by Richard Williams, and were probably worth $400— insurance $300. 
It was with considerable difficulty and the best exertions of our fire department that 
the new dwelling house of Benjamin Van Nort, and those of Messrs. Tilford and Young 
adjoining, were saved from the flames. — Telegraph, Oct. 13, 1836. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

NEWBURGH CHURCHES — RELIGIOtlS AND LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS 

SCHOOLS NEWSPAPERS, ETC. 

The ecclesiastical history of Newburgh properly commences 
with the first settlement of it by the German Palatines. They 
were all Lutherans, or at least Protestants; they had a Pastor; 
and measures were taken for the support of religion by the 
infant colony. But all the facts connected with the religious 
history of the Palatines which we have been able to collect, have 
been given in an earlier chapter and need not be again narrated. 
In process of time, as we have seen, the English portion of the 
population of the town exceeded the German in point of number; 
and as the prominent men on the German Patent sympathised 
more or less with the Church of England, the property originally 
given for the support of Lutheranism, was appropriated to the 
maintenance of the Episcopal church. Probably the majority of 
the inhabitants of the Patent, at the time when the change was 
made, would willingly, have accepted a clergyman of the Church 
of England. But with the growth of the population there came 
diversity of religious opinion, and thus the foundations were laid 
of the various denominations and churches now existing in 
Newburgh. 

ST. George's episcopal church. 

The early history of this church is closely connected with that 
of the Glebe Lands.* 

In noi, the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," was formed in England, by prominent members 
of the established church, and obtained a royal charter from 
William III. Its special object was to extend Episcopacy, and 
its chief field of operations, at the time of its origin, was the 
American'colonies. From its records it appears that application 
was made for a missionary, by the inhabitants of New Windsor, 
in the county of Ulster, in 1728. It was referred to the Eev. Mr. 
Vesey, of New York, who, in 1729, reported that the district 

* la gathering materials for this sketch, we are indebted to a Seruiou by the Eev. Dr. 
Brown, Eector of St. Georges, published in 1837; to the Documentary History of New 
York; to Eager's History of Orange County, and to original documents found among 
the papers of the late Hon. Jonathan Fisk. 

13 



194 ST. George's church. 

which it was proposed to embrace in the New Windsor Mission, 
included that settlement and "parts adjacent, 20 miles from north 
to south and 16 from east to west;" and further, that the popula- 
tion amounted to about 400. The Society immediately commis- 
sioned the Kev. Mr. Charlton, at a salary of £50 per annum, who 
served the mission until ITSl. He was succeeded by the Eev. 
Mr. Kirkpatrick, who remained in the field until 1134. During 
the next ten years the mission was unoccupied. 

About 1134 "the English and Dutch new inhabitants," as they 
are styled in the old records, began to settle at Newburgh, and 
in 1141 they had become so numerous that they were enabled to 
elect trustees of the Glebe, and even went so far as to shut the 
doors of the Palatine church against the Lutheran minister, who 
occasionally visited the German families. The Rev. Mr. Watkins, 
who had been appointed in 1144 to the New Windsor mission, 
preached on Sunday, 19th July, 1141, in the Palatine church; 
and on that day performed divine worship, according to the 
Episcopal form, for the first time within the limits of the German 
Patent.* In 1153, the Governor and Council issued Letters 
Patent to Alexander Golden and Eichard Albertson, as trustees 
of the Glebe, and confirmed the use of it, and of the church of 
the Palatines, to the Church of England. 

Prom the reports of the Society for Propagating the Gospel, 
it appears that, in 1153, the inhabitants of "Newburgh Parish" 
had repaired the church, and had erected a housef for the minis- 
ter Mr. Watkins, who had "good hopes of seeing the Newburgh 
Parish populous and flourishing in a short time." Mr. Watkins 
occupied the mission until 1165, and during his incumbency, he 
is reported to have baptised 199 persons; the number of com- 
municants being about 100. He is said to have been "a single 
man, of an easy disposition, so that he lived happily with his 
people until his death; but his talents as a preacher were not of 
a popular cast." J 

In 1169, the Rev. John Sayre was appointed to the vacant 

* Dooumentaiy Hist. N. Y., iii 593. Ante page 31. 

t Views of tlie Church and of the Parsonage are given on ante p. 29, 41. 

t Eager's Hist. Orange Co. Hezekiah Watkins, of Newburgh, published in a paper 
printed by I. Parker and W. Weymana, 15th March, 1765, "Observations on the circum-' 
stances and conduct of the people in the Counties of Orange and Ulster," in which the 
Provincial Assembly was taken to task. The printers were summoned to appear at the 
bar of the Assembly; but, after a short confinement, they were reprimandedand let go. 
Watkins, however, was not liberated until the next year, when, having acknowledged 
the authorship of the article, he was reprimanded and set free. (Doc. Hist., 1.) "Of 
this faithful and laborious servant in the Gospel," says Dr. Brown, (Sermon p. 15,) 
"there are now in this county many respectable ftiends and relatives bearing the same 
name." 



ST. geoege's chubch. 195 

charge; and in November of that year, the "Minister, Church 
Wardens and Vestrymen" petitioned the Governor (Golden) and 
Council for a charter for the Newburgh Mission. This petition 
states, "that by the pious donations of several persons, the 
mission is already in possession of tracts of land, which, for 
want of a royal charter constituting them, the Minister, Wardens 
and Vestrymen, a body corporate, are now held for the church 
by deeds of trust only. The inconvenience arising from this and 
sundry other matters in which the good of the Episcopal church 
is essentially concerned and which might be obviated by a royal 
charter, have induced your petitioners humbly to pray, that your 
Honor would be pleased to grant — His Majesty's Charter of 
Incorporation," &c. Dated, Coldenham, Nov. 11th, 1169. The 
petition is signed by John Sayre,* Missionary; Chas. Robie, 
Cad. Colden, Jr., Samuel Fowler, and Joseph Watkins, Vestry- 
men; and Robert Garskaden, Andrew Graham, and Josiah Gilbert, 
Wardens. It is endorsed: "1169, Dec. 12. Read in Council and 
granted." The charter, however, for some reason was not issued, 
and, on the 16th of April, 1110, another petition was sent to the 
Governor, by the Rev. Mr. Sayre, and Messrs. Samuel Fowler, 
Willia,m Ellison, Stephen Wiggins, Leonard Smith, Saml Wins- 
low, and Nathan Purdy. This also is endorsed: "1110, May 2d. 
Read in Council and granted," On the 30th July, 1110, a charter 
was issued, which is still preserved, incorporating the church as 
St. George's. 

The prosperity of the church was very seriously affected by 
the Revolution. Indeed the society was virtually, if not in form, 
disbanded. In 1115, Mr. Sayre resigned his ofHce. Many of his 
parishioners conscientiously adhered to the cause of the King 
and thus excited against the church the popular feeling, but the 
majority enlisted in the war for Independence. When the war 
was ended, the "St. George's Parish" of 1110 had neither minis- 
ter, nor wardens, nor vestry, and practically it had ceased to 
exist. No attempt to resuscitate the church appears to have 
been made until 1190, when the Eev. George H. Spieren was 
elected to discharge the double duty of minister and school- 
master; but his election was resisted by a large portion of the 
inhabitants of the. German Patent, and he only served until 

* Mr. Sayre was a man of talent and a popular preacher. He was very successful in 
his ministrations, and gathered large congregations at the different stations where he 
preached. He succeeded in obtaining a charter of incorporation for each of the three 
churches under his care, viz: St. George's church, of Newburgh; St. Andrew's church, 
of Montgomery; and St. David's church, of Blooming-Grove. 



196 ST. georqe's church. 

1*193,* when the station again became vacant and so remained 
for more than ten years. 

On the 4th November, 1805, the church was re-organized under 
its old name of St. George.f "So fearfully small," says Dr. 
Brown, "was the number of her friends here, that it was found 
necessary to resort to the neighboring parishes for a sufficient 
number even to form an incorporation." At this time, the special 
purpose of the re-organization was a. legal one, such a step being 
deemed necessary in order to a recovery of the old church and 
Glebe. Of the trial at law which ensued it is unnecessary to 
speak, as a full account of it is given in a previous chapter. 

In 1806, the churches of New Windsor, Coldenham, (now 
Walden,) and Goshen, agreed to unite in the support of a minis- 
ter whose time should be divided between the four. The Eev. 
Frederick VanHorne, who resided at St. Andrews, (at that time 

* Mr. Spieren accepted a call from the congregation of Poughkeepsie, and removed 
to that place in 1793. 

t The following records of the pariah meetmgs for the purpose of re-organizing, were 
found among the papers of the late Hon. Jonathan Pisk: 

"J!fov. 4, 1805. At a meeting of the persons attached to the Protestant Episcopal 
Chm-oh in the United States of America, it was unanimously agreed, that the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the Parish of Newburgh, should be known, as heretofore, by the 
name of St. George's Church; and that the election for Chnrch Wardens and Yeattymen 
of said Church should be held annually on Tuesday in Easter week, at the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, on the German Patent, in the said Parish of Newburgh. 

The following Wardens and Vestrymen were elected: Arthur Smith and Geoi-ge 
Merritt, Wardens; Wm. W. Sackett, Gilbert Coldeu Willett, Saml. Floyd, Thos. Carskad- 
den, John Garrit, David Fowler, Hem-y Caldwell, and Justin Foot, Vestiymen; and 
Jonathan Fisk and Joseph Hoffman, Trustees of the Glebe." 

"Jan. 28, 1806. On motion. Resolved, That Mr. Sackett, Mr. Fisk, and Mr. Carskad- 
den be a committee to wait on Mr. Poster for his consent that our minister, next time he 
preaches in this Pariah, preach in the Academy. 

"On motion, Eesolved, That Mr. Fisk, Mr. Hoffman and Mr. Garskadden be a com- 
mittee to open and repau- St. George's Church in this Pariah." (The old Lutheran 
Church.) 

' ' April 8,1808. At a meeting of the Wardens and Vestrymen of St. George's Church, 
in the Parish of Newburgh, held on Tuesday, the 8th day of April, 1806, at the house 
of Robt. R. Dolph, in the Parish of Newburgh, for thepm-pose of electing two Wardens 
and eight Vestrymen: George Menitt in the Chafr; J. Fisk, Clerk. The foUowmg were 
chosen: Henry Caldwell and David Fowler, Wardens; Wm. W. Sackett, G. C. Willet 
Saml. Floyd, Thos. Carakadden, Justin Foote, Francis Smith, John Gamt, and Wm! 
Taylor, Vestrymen. 

"On motion. Resolved, That Mr. Pisk be Clerk to the Vestry and Wardens. 

"On motion, Resolved, That Henry Caldwell be Treasurer of this Church. 

"Onmotion, Resolved, That Messrs. Floyd, Hoflman, Fowler, and Willet be a com- 
mittee to procure subscriptions and solicit donations for the pm-pose of enabling this 
Church to support a clerCTman. 

"Mr. Graham and Mr. Golden, a committee from St. Andrew's .■applied to St. George's 
to ascertain if this Church will unite with them in the support of a clergyman On 
motion, Resolved, That this Chm-ch will unite with St. Andrew's in the support' of a 
clergyman; and that Mr. Fowler, Mr. Caldwell, and Mr. Pisk, be a committee to confer 
with the said committee from St. Andrew's, and conclude the terms on which such 
clergyman shall be employed by our united support, and that the said committee also 
confer with the Episcopal Church at Goshen and asoertam if that Church will unite with 
this and St. Andrew's to support a clergyman." 

"July 28, 1806. Committee on Pastor reported, that they had not been able to meet 
with committees from St. Andrew's and Goshen." 

"Aug. 4, 1806. Committee reported that the Church at Goshen, St. Andrews, New 
Windsor, and Newburgh, had agreed to unite in supporting a clergyman." 



ST. George's church. 191 

probably the strongest congregation in the proposed circuit,) 
was chosen and served these churches until 1809, when he 
removed to Ballston, The Rev. Mr. Mackin succeeded him, but 
he remained in the field ■ only a few months, as we find that in 
1810 an agreement was made with the Eev. Mr. Powell, Eector 
of St. Andrew's, Coldenham, by St. George's church, for the one 
third of his time. This state of things continued until 1815, 
when the Rev. Dr. John Brown entered upon the duties of Rector 
of St. George's church, having preached his inaugural sermon 
on the 24th Dec. 1815. Dr. Brown, then only in Deacon's orders, 
had just commenced his ministerial labors in Trinity church, 
Pishkill. By the advice of the late Bishop Hobart, he was 
induced to perform a third service in Newburgh for many Sun- 
days in succession, during which period "the Holy Communion 
was administered for the first time in the parish since the revo- 
lutionary war, to the small number of three." During the first 
year of Dr. Brown's incumbency, the number of persons con- 
firmed was 3t, and 28 were admitted to the Holy Communion. 
From that day to this the congregation has grown steadily, and 
has long been one of the largest in the village. 

The first edifice occupied by the congregation of St. George, 
as before mentioned, was the one erected by the Lutherans, and 
long known as the old Glebe school house.* When the Episco- 
palians ceased to occupy this church is uncertain, but it was 
probably very soon after the war of the revolution began. This 
old building, which had fallen into decay during the war, was 
subsequently repaired, and was occupied both by the Methodists 
and the Episcopalians. 

In 1815, the congregation of St. George's was temporarily 
accommodated, through the kindness of the late Mr. Thomas 
Ellison of New Windsor, in the old building on Liberty street, 
formerly known as the Mcintosh house, more recently owned by 
the Shiloh Baptist church. Here it remained for some years. 
The church edifice (St, George's) was begun in 1816, and was 
consecrated by Bishop Hobart, 10th November, 1819. The 
increase of the congregation rendering more room necessary, a 
gallery was put up in 1826, and at the same time an organ was 
purchased. In 1834, the building was enlarged, and the steeple 
was added, in which a fine toned bell was hung. The church 
was again enlarged and beautified in 1853, at an expense of 
$9,000. At that time the tasteful and commodious Sunday 

Ante page 29. 



198 



ST. George's church. 



School Eoom and Vestry was built on the south side of the 
church. The Church edifice is the Doric style [of architecture. 



J 7 , 





' '», P — ^ ?'■■ ' 'i' Jl 3^1 111 



It has a front on Grand street of 45 feet, and is 90 feet in depth. 
Its pews furnish accommodations for 650 persons. 

The accommodations furnished by the enlargement of the 
Church, however, failed to meet the requirements of the congre- 
gation, and in March, 1859, the Eector and Vestry of St. George's 
purchased the edifice 
then occupied by the 
congregation of the - <> v 
Union A. R. Church. '» 
This building was 
thoroughly refitted 
and improved in its 
architecture, and in 
the following May it 
was consecrated for 
Episcopal worship 
under the name of 
St. John's Chapel. 

During Dr. Brown's ministry in St. George's, the number of 
confirmations has been 422; baptisms, 1481; admitted to com- 
munion, 751; marriages, 432; funerals, 1111. Families in the 
parish, 220. The labors of Dr. Brown have been nobly seconded 
by his congregation, and to assist him in the duties of the parish, 




FIEST PEESBYTEEIAN CHUECH. 199 

they have employed the Eev. Dr. 0. S. Henry and the Kev. 
Hobart Chetwood. 

FIRST PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH. 

The records of this church go back no farther than to July, 
1184; but the recently published Autobiography of the Kev. Dr. 
Johnston, for nearly half a century the pastor of the church, as 
well as the records of the "Marlborough Society," as it was 
called, and the papers relating to the church which are to be 
found in the State Library, have furnished us with many import- 
ant facts connected with its earlier history. 

The adherents of the Presbyterian faith who first came to 
Newburgh were connected with the church of New Windsor. 
This church was organized Sept. 14, IT64, on which occasion 
the sermon was preached by the Eev. Mr. Moffat, and Joseph 
Wood, William Lawrence, Samuel Brewster, and Henry Smith 
were chosen elders. The Eev. Timothy Johnes,* afterwards and 
for many years pastor of the church of Morristown, New Jersey, 
was appointed stated supply of this church by the Presbytery of 
New York, and remained in that capacity from the 5th May, 
1166, until October, 1161, when he was succeeded by the Eev. 
Francis Peppard, who continued to serve the church until 1113. 
During the pastorate of Mr. Peppard, the church was divided 
into four districts, viz: New Cornwall, Murderer's Creek, New 
Windsor, and Newburgh, in eacli of which trustees were appoint- 
ed for the purpose of raising funds and taking charge of the 
temporal affairs of the church in their respective neighborhoods, 
thereby creating, as it were, four informal societies. The with- 
drawal of Mr. Peppard left the station vacant, and measures 
were immediately taken to secure the services of the Eev. John 
Close. f While these arrangements were pending, however, the 

* The Rev. Timothy Johnes was the grand-father, we beliere, of Edward R. and Aaron 
P. Johnes, of Newburgh. 

t At a meeting of the Elders and several of the members of the congregation of New 
Windsor, the 22d Augast, 1773, for setting on foot a subscription for raising a salary for 
the Rev. John Close, in order to the calling of him as the stated Teacher and Pastor of 
the united congregations of Bethlehem and New Windsor— 

"It is agreed, that the congregation stand divided into four districts, as in Mr. Pep- 
pard's time (i.e. 1767) : That Trustees be appointed in each district in whose names the 
subscriptions shall be taken for the use of the said Mr. Close; and the following persons 
were named as Trustees, viz: 

"New Cornwall District— Joseph Wood, Reuben Clark, Joseph Smith, Daniel Wood, 
Jeremiah Clark. 

"Murderer's Creek District— Francis Mandevill, Saml. Brewster, William Roe, Ben- 
jamin Case, William Williams. 

"JVeu) Windsor District— John NicoU, James Clinton, David Halladay, Saml. Brew- 
ster, Leonard NiooU, George Clinton, Jndah Harlow, Saml. Logan, Charles Booth. 

"Newburgh Dwjrict— Jonathan Hasbrouck, Abel Belknap, Moses Higby, Elnathan 
Foster, Isaac Belknap."— Clinton Papers, State lAbrai-y. 



200 FIRST PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH. 

Marlborough Society invited the trustees of the Newburgh 
district to unite with them in temporarily settling the Rev. John 
McCallah over both districts. This invitation was accepted, and 
Mr. McCallah entered upon his duties September 26, 1713.* But 
his labors in Newburgh could have been only for a few weeks, 
as in November of the same year, the arrangements for that 
purpose having been perfected, Mr. Close was invited to take 
the vacant charge, and soon after entered upon the duties of 
pastor. The war of the revolution, however, prevented his 
formal installation, and, a large portion of his time being occu- 
pied as chaplain in the militia, the public services of the church 
were very irregular. In consequence of these facts, the informal 
society in Newburgh appears to have maintained a separate 
organization during the war. Elder William Lawrence perform- 
ing the pastoral duties. 

Immediately after the war, this informal society, strengthened 
by the addition of several persons who became permanent resi- 
dents after the disbandment of the army, obtained the building 
which had been erected by the army as a store-house for clothing, 
where it appears to have held public worship in the winter of 
1783, or spring of 1784. The records of the church state that 
divine service was held here in 1784,. and that the congregation 
was formally organized in the same year. The minutes of the 
meeting held for the purpose of organization, are as follows, viz: 

"In pursuance of an act entitled "An Act to enable all Beligious Benommations in 
the State to appoint Trastees, who shall be a body corporate for the purpose of taking 
care of the Temporalities of their respective congregations, and for other purposes," 
passed the 6th day of April, 1784, the congi-egation or Religious Society desirous of 
forming themselves into a regular well-constituted congregation or society, agreeable to 
the Canon of the Church of Scotland, at Newburgh, did, on the 12th day of July last 
past — being stated attendants on Divine worship by Elder William Lawrence — advertise 
a meeting of the said congregation, agreeable to the said Act, to meet at the house of 
Adolph IJeGrove, for the purpose of electing, according to the true intent and meaning 
thereof, Trustees for the good purposes intended and mentioned in the said Act; and 
being convened at the time and place aforesaid, did, in the first place, by plurality of 
voices, nominate and appoint Mr. Asa Steward to act with the said William Lawrence 
as Returning ofBcers, who proceeded to open the poU, and after taking that part of the 
said congregation or society convened on the occasion and present agreeable to said 
Act — Adolph DeGrove, Daniel Hudson, Thomas Palmer, Joseph Coleman, and Isaac 
Belknap, were appomted and legally elected Trustees for the said congregation or society, 
agreeable to the said Act. 2d. We then proceeded to elect a Clerk to insert the certifi- 
cate of the Returning officei's. 

"Be it remembered, that we, William Lawrence and Asa Steward, having been legally 
elected and appointed the Returning officers at the election held at the house of Adolph 
DeGrove, at Newburgh, the 12th day of August, 1784, for the purpose of electing Trus- 
tees for taking care of the Temporalities of the congregation or Religious Society at 
Newburgh, aforesaid, agreeable to an Act entitled "An Act," &c., do hereby certify, that 
Adolph DeGrov^e, Daniel Hudson, Thomas Palmer, Joseph Coleman, and Isaac Belknap, 
were legally and unanimously elected as Trustees for the purposes aforesaid, and that 

* "Sept. 24, 1773. This day hired the Rev. Mr. John McCallah for six months, to 
preach one half of the time in the meeting house and the other half at Newburgh the 
two trustees accountable to him for the sum of £20 — 12s, and the Lower or Newburgh 
Society accountable for the remainder of his salary."— JMin. Marlb. Society. 



FIRST PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 201 

tlie said persons so elected, and their successors forever hereafter, shall be known by the 
name, style and title of the Trustees of the Presbyterian Congregation at Newbm-gh. 
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals the 12th day of August, 
in the year of our Lord, 1784." 

As the congregation was quite too feeble in means and mem- 
bership for the support of a pastor, it was resolved, at a meeting 
held 8th Feb. 1785, to unite for this purpose with the church of 
New Windsor. The records declare that, "the congregation 
assembled at the meeting house, William Lawrence, Euling 
Elder, being Moderator. It was agreed 

1. To join in union with the congregation of New Windsor. 

2. That the Trustees for the congregation of Newbnrgh be empowered to form a union 
with the Ti-ustees of New Windsor congregation, for promoting the preaching of the 
Gospel, not exceeding seven years, nor under five." 

A joint meeting of the above named trustees was soon after 
held, (Feb. 11, 1785,) at the house of Adolph DeGrove, at which 
Mr. Abel Belknap presided. Messrs, Daniel Hudson, Joseph 
Coleman, Isaac Belknap, and Adolph DeGrove, represented New- 
burgh; and Abel Belknap, Samuel Logan, Leonard Nicoll, Silas 
White, Benjamin Birdsall, Isaac Sohultz, and Samuel Brewster, 
represented New Windsor. After conversation it was "unani- 
mously agreed between the Trustees of the said congregations 
for joining the union for seven years." 

In April, 1'785, application was made to the Presbytery for the 
appointment of Mr. Close to be the stated supply of both Churches. 
The request was granted, and he continued to labor here until 
1196.* During the first year of his service, Mr. Close preached 
in Newburgh one third of his time, for which he was paid ^£23. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. Isaac Lewis, who served the con- 
gregation as stated supply until the spring of 1800, when he 
became the pastor of the Presbyterian church of Gooperstown.f 

On the 6th of May, 1800, the Eev. Jonathan Freeman was 
installed pastor of the united church, and the first pastor of that 
of Newburgh.J He resigned his charge in 1804. His succes- 

* Mr. Close was a native of Greenwich, Conn., was born in 1737, gi'aduated at Prince- 
ton in 1763, was licensed by the Presbytery of Duchess county in 1765, and ordained as 
colleague of the Eev. Bben Prime at Huntington, L. I., in 1766. He removed to Water- 
ford m 1796, and died there in 1813. 

t In 1806, Mr. Lewis was called to the pastoral care of the church at Goshen, where 
he remamed until 1811 or '12. After laboring in sundry places as a stated supply, he 
was settled as the successor of his &ther, over the church at Greeawioh, Conn., m 1818. 
After a successful ministry of a few years, he resigned this charge and became pastor 
of the church in Bristol, E. I, Here he lost his voice, in 1831, and though he occasion- 
ally preached, he was never again a pastor. He died in New Yort, 2d September, 1854, 
in hia 82d year. — /^irague's Annals, i, 667. 

t Mr. Freeman was pastor of the Church of Hopewell (Crawford, Orange Co.,) from 
Ang. 1793, until April, 1798, where his labors were very successful. (.Bager's Orange 
County, 341.) He wasa m!»n of more than ordinaiy ability, as his published sermons 
attest; but the tone of his preaching was perhaps more polemic than it should have 
been, and he is said to have excited the bitter hostility of the skeptics who were then 



202 FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

sor was the Rev. Eleazer Burnet, who was ordained and installed 
pastor, 20th Nov. 1805,* and who held the station until his death 
in 1806. 

The Rev. Dr. Johnston, then a licentiate, iirst preached in 
Newburgh about the time of Mr. Burnet's decease, and occa- 
sionally supplied the united churches during the winter of 1806-1. 
He was ordained and installed as pastor on the 5th August, 1801. 
The following contemporaneous notice of this event is taken from 
the Political Index, August 15th: 

"On Wednesday, 5th inst., Mr. John Johnston was ordained to the work of the holy 
miniatiy and mstalled over the united congregations of Newbm-gh and New Windsor. 
The exercises were as follows: Eev. Isaac Van Doren made the prayer; the Rev. Isaac 
Lewis delivered the sermon from Col. iii. 11, "But Christ is all in all." The Eev. Methu- 
selah Baldwin gave the charge to the ordained minister; and the Eev. Ebenezer Grant 
gave the charge to the people. The several exercises were appropriate and were con- 
ducted mth great solemnity." 

In the spring of 1810, the connection between the two churches 
was dissolved; and the services of Mr. Johnston were henceforth 
confined to Newburgh. Here he continued to labor with un- 
wearied diligence and great success until February, 1855, when 
he was prostrated by severe illness, and, after six months of 
suffering, entered, we doubt not, into eternal rest. 

The congregation was supplied during Dr. Johnston's illness 
and until the summer of 1856, by Mr. S. H.McMullen, a licentiate 
of the Presbytery of Philadelphia. On the 20th September of 
that year, the Eev. W. T. Sprole, D. D., was chosen pastor, and 
on the 28th October following, he was installed.^ 

The building in which public worship was first held, was one 
erected by the Commissary General, as a clothing store-house, 
while the army of the revolution was encamped here. It stood 

somewhat numerous and influential. He resigned his charge in 1804. In connection 
with Silvanus Haight, he conducted "The Cliosophic Hall," an educational institute, at 
his residence in Montgomery street, (now the residence of Mr. Samuel Williams,) which 
was organized in 1799. He was afterwards for many years pastor of the Presbyterian 
church of Brighton, N. J., where he died in 1824 or '25. "He was," says Dr. Carnahan, 
"an able theologian of more than common talents, of detei-mined character, some- 
times suffering himself to act from the impulse of his feelings rather than deliberate 
judgment. He engaged in a newspaper controversy which embittered the feelings of 
many of his congregation. During his ministry thirteen members wei-e added to the 
church." — Memorial, 87, 88. 

* This was probably the fli'st ordination service that had ever taken place in Newburgh. 
The sermon on this occasion was preached by the Eev. Ebenezer Grant, from Malachi 
ii. 6. Mr. Burnet was a graduate of Princeton College (1799), an amiable, pious, and 
devoted young man, but feeble in health at the time of his settlement. Indeed, he was 
even then laboring under the disease— consumption — which soon ended his labors and 
his life. He was compelled to seek a more congenial climate, early in the antomn of 
1806. On his way to the South, he was taken so ill as to be obliged to stop at the house 
of a friend in New Brunswick, where he died on the 22d Nov. 1806. 

t The services were conducted by the Eev. Mr. Bowers, Moderator of the Presbytery. 
The disooui-se was delivered by Eev. Mr. Phillips, of Rondout, from Exodus xxxii. 15, 
16. The charge to the pastor was delivered by the Eev. Mr. Jagger, of Marlborough, 
and the charge to the people by the Eev. Mr. SmuUer, of Kingston. 



FIEST PBESBYTERIAN CHUBCH. 203 

on the site now occupied by the old iirst church, and was de- 
sti'oyed by fire about the year, 1190. Dr. Johnston says it was 
burnt on a Sabbath day, after service had been held in it. From 
an inventory of their corporate property in a return made to the 
Legislature,* the building appears to have belonged to the con- 
gregation in lis*!, and, from the statement in the records that 
the "congregation assembled at the meeting house," (ItSS,) it 
is probable that it was transferred to them soon after the waJ^. 

There seems to have been some difference of opinion in regard 
to the location of the church, after the old building was burnt; 
but, in February, 1791, the trustees voted that "the lot of land 
where the house formerly stood, with the addition that Mr. Smith 
pi'oposes to make, be accepted in preference to any other loca- 
tion" as the site for a new church. On the 20th December of 
the same year, the trustees agreed to erect a church 50x55 feet, 
with the addition of a steeple.f The ground was staked out on 
the 25th May, 1792, and on the 31st of the same month the deed 
for the lot was executed by Mr. Benjamin Smith.J During the 
interval between the destruction of the old building and the 
occupation of the new church, the minutes state that the meet- 
ings of the congregation were "held at St. George's church" — 
i. e. the old Lutheran church. The new building must have been 
occupied in 1793, as we find that during that year pews were 
erected and sold.§ But the interior of the building remained in 
a half finished condition until after the settlement of Dr. John- 

* The inventory is aa follows, viz: 

"Meeting house church out of repair, £40 

Land belongmg thereto, 200 by 180 feet, 60— £100." 

f This steeple was at first simply a square tower which stood on the south side of the 
church, and formed the entrance into the gallery until 1828. A rude drawing of the 
building, on a map of the property of Thomas CoMen, made in 179'7, represents an en- 
trance to the main building near the centre of the east side; but whether this was the 
main entrance or not we have not been able to ascertain. 

1 The deed referred to shows the grant by Benjamin Smith to ChiistopherVauDuzer, 
Selah Keeve, John DuBois, Daniel Smith. and Derick Amerman, "for and in considera- 
tion of the sum of five shillings," of a part of the farm whereon the gi-antor then resi- 
ded, being a lot one hundred and thirty-eight feet by one hundred feet, on the corner of 
Montgomery and First streets, "for the proper use, benefit and behoof of the Presbyte- 
rian Church at Newburgh, provided that they shall erect a building thereon for the use 
and accommodation of the Presbyterian Church and Congregation at Newburgh, and to 
no other use whatsoever, unless the Ministers and Elders of said Church shall thereto 
consent." 

§ Mr. Eager relates (Hist. Or. Co., 145,) that at the time of the erection of this church 
the congregation "was too poor to finish and place pews in it," and that the plan devi- 
sed to seat it was, "that every person who choose to do so should have the privilege of 
putting up their own pews with a choice of location for so doing. The first person 
availing himself of this privilege was Mr. John MoAulay, whose example was soon fol- 
lowed by Mr. Hugh Walsh and Mr. Richard Wood. Others at intervals, did the same, 
and received deeds. This erection of seats went on for some time, and- pews were scat- 
tei-ed around the building without reference to order or taste. Finally the eongi-egation 
took hold of the matter and completed and systematized the work." 



204 FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

ston, who says that it was without gallery, plastering, or pulpit, 
"a mere shell." "I often preached standing on a carpenter's 
bench with a few boards standing in front on which to rest the 
precious Bible." Very soon after Dr. Johnston was settled, the 
interior was properly fitted up, and the whole structure assumed 
the shape in which it remained until it was altered into its pres- 
ent form.* In 1821 an unsuccessful effort was made to erect a 
new^church of stone, 66x70 feet, at a cost not exceeding $9,000. 
Finally, as more accommodation was imperatively demanded, it 
was determined to repair the old church, which was done in 
1828. Formerly the pulpit was at the north end, and the pews 
were old fashioned square ones. Though the audience room is 
unchanged in size, the introduction of slips enabled it to hold a 
larger number than it did before, f 

So matters continued until the 25th July, 1857, when the 
trustees, at a regular meeting, adopted the following preamble 
and resolutions: 

"Whereas, The cu-cumstancea of the church and congregation render it imperative that 
a new edifice be erected for their acoommodatiou, and having the assent and concurrence 
of the pew-holders and membei-s, as appears from then: subscriptions for said obieot 
therefore •■ ' 

"Resolved, That we proceed to accomplish the same, according to the plan and speci- 
fications drawn by Mr. P. C. Withers, which have been submitted for the consideration 
and adoption of the subscribers; and that the following persons be a Building Commitr 
tee to supervise the same and cany itfonfard, viz: S. E. Van Buzer, E. H. Johnes J 
J. Monell, Henry Ball, Isaac Stanton, and George Clark. ' 

"Resolved, That the church edifice be erected upon the lot on the north-west comer 
of Grand and South streets." 

The site fixed upon was purchased, and a contract was made 
with Mr. George Veitch, builder, for the construction of the new 
edifice for $27,500. The work was begun, on the 8th of August, 
1867. The building was dedicated November 4th, 1858,t and 
on Thanksgiving morning (Nov. 18,) the iron cross was fixed 
on the spire. 

The building is in the early geometrical style of Gothic art, 

* See engravmg given in connection with "The Union Church." 

t The Session House or Lectm-e Room was built about 1812, (Memorial, 105,1 but it 
was not fitted up with permanent seats until 1828. 

t The dedicatonr services were conducted by the Presbytery of North River, and 
wereopenedbytheRev.BF Phillips, of Rondout, in a short Invocation, which was 
followed by the Sentence, "Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth," by the choir. The Rev. John 
Lillie, D. p., of Kingston, then read the 132d Psalm; after which the choir sang the 
Anthem,' And It shall come to pass in the last days that the mountain of the Lord's 
House shall be established." The Rev. Mr. Lillie then addressed the Thi-one of Grace 
in an earnest Prater; and the congi-egation joined in singmg Hymn 509, "How beaute- 
ous are their feet,^' &c. The Rev. Mr. Phillips then delivered the'dedication sermon from 
the text. Mat. xxvi, 8 "To what purpose is this waste?" Rev. Boot. Sprole followed in 
a few bnef remarks, showing the necessity that had compelled the ei-ection of the new 
edifice, and, after concluding, made an impressive dedicatory prayer. The choir then 
«a°gth«.Authem, "How beautiful mZion.fi and the audience wai dismissed Si the 



FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



205 



and is composed of a nave with clerestory, north and south 
aisles, a tower and stone spire at the east end of the north aisle, 
and a porch on the south. A lecture room and a minister's room 
are provided at the west end of the building. The walls are of 
blue stone laid in random courses, and gray stone dressings to 
the copings, windows, doorways, buttresses, water-tables, &c. 
The pews are of yellow pine, and afford comfortable accommoda- 
tions for 830 persons. The principal dimensions of the building. 




internally, are as follows, viz: Nave, 97 feet long, 60 feet high, 
and 25 feet wide. The aisles are 84 feet long and 11 feet wide. 
The lecture room is 42 feet long and 26 feet wide. The tower is 
20 feet and 8 inches square at the base, and its height is 63 feet, 
making, with the spire and cross, a total of 135 feet from the 
ground. The extreme length of the building, including lecture 
room, is 159 feet; and its \yidth, including porch, 85 feet. The 
total cost of the building, with interior fittings complete, inclu- 
ding land, iron fence, bell, &c., was about $43,t50. An organ, 
built "by Geo. Jardine & Son, of New York, and costing $3,000, 
is to be placed in the building by the 1st of September, 1860. 

It only remains to add, that the congregation resolved to sell 
their old place of worship, which was accordingly done to the 
Union Church in March, 1859. 



206 



SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The proposal to organize a Second Presbyterian Church was 
first discussed in 1831, but nothing was done until April, 1838, 
when Dr. Johnston preached an earnest and forcible sermon on 
the subject. At his suggestion, a meeting was held to consider 
the propriety of sending a colony from the old church. The 
meeting was held in the 1st church, May 15, 1838, Mr. William 
Walsh being chairman, and Mr. John H. Wells, secretary. After 
some discussion, it was unanimously 

"Resolved, That measures be immediately taken to forward the enterprise." 

Accordingly Messrs. J. H. Corwin, Abel Belknap, and 0. M. 
Smith, was appointed a committee to ascertain the number of 
persons willing to unite for this purpose. On the 22d May, at 
an adjourned meeting, the following named persons were report- 
ed as ready to associate and walk together as a church, viz: 



Hh:am K. Chapman, 
Jane Chapman, 
Peter H. Foster, 
Mary S. Poster, 
Wm. Townaend, 
Lydia C. Parkham, 
George T. Hoagland, 
Betsey Harris, 
Mary E. Waterfield, 
Jas. H. Beynor, 
Job Clark, 



0. M. Smith, John H. Coi'win, Abel Belknap, 

Helen M. Smith, Cyntha Corvrin, Sarah M. Belknap, 

Saml. Tnthill, Jas. P. Buchanan, Henry Tice, Jr., 

Sarah Tuthill, Sarah Buchanan, Charlotte Tice. 

Jefferson Eoe, Daniel D. T. Blake, Edgar Perkins, 

Mary Roe, D. MoDowall, Ann Forsyth, 

Eliza C. Boice, Abigail Waters, Abigail Wells, 

Wm. H. Wells, J. E. Hardenburgh, William Waller, 

Robert Sterling, Wm. M. Johnson, Henry Vail, 

Isabella Sterling, Jane E. Johnson, Seth Belknap, 

Asa Sterling, Eli Corwin, Jr., Geo. M. Gregory, 

It was immediately and unanimously resolved to apply to the 
Presbytery, which was to meet on the 9th of June, for an organi- 
zation as the Second Presbyterian Church of Newburgh. Mr. 
William Sterling was deputed to present the application and to 
ask for supplies for six months from the Presbytery. The request 
was granted, and the church was organized on the 15th June, 
by a committee of the North River Presbytery, consisting of the 
Rev. Messrs. Johnston, Prime, and Ostrom. The following per- 
sons were chosen Ruling Elders, viz: J. H. Corwin, Hiram K. 
Chapman, Abel Belknap, Jas. P. Buchanan. Mr. Ostrom gave 
the charge to the Church, and Mr. S. I. Prime to the Elders. 

The first public service was held in the old court room in the 
Academy, when Mr. (now Dr.) S. I. Prime preached from Amos 
vii, 5, "By whom shall Jacob arise for he is small." The pulpit 
was for some time supplied by the Presbytery. On the 20th 
August, Messrs. Peter H. Poster, Jefferson Eoe, Edgar Pertins, 
Samuel Tuthill, 0. M. Smith, and Henry Tice, Jr., were chosen 
trustees. 

During the greater part of 1838 and '39, the Kev. Abram C. 
Baldwin supplied the pulpit. In the former year the prospects 



CALVAEY PRESBYTEBIAN CHURCH. 207 

of the infant church were very serionsly affected by the disrup- 
tion of the Presbytery. Most of those concerned in starting 
it, who had strong Old School afSnities, returned again to the 
old church, which adhered to the 0. S. Assembly. The second 
church i-ecognized that which styled itself the Constitutional. 
Though weakened by this cause, the church made vigorous efforts 
to grow. The Eev. William Hill was the first pastor, and filled 
the office until the winter of 1843, when he was deposed by his 
Presbytery for what was deemed heretical doctrine on the sub- 
ject of christian perfection. After a vacancy of some months, 
the Rev. John H. Lewis (now of Monticello) became the pastor, 
and discharged the duties of the office very acceptably until 
called to Bethlehem in 1845. He was succeeded, for a short time, 
by the Rev. J. C. Beach, and next by the Rev. John Gray who 
remained as supply until the spring of 1851, when a division 
arose in the congregation on the question of his settlement 
formally as pastor. Before this matter was adjusted, a vote of 
the church was taken, and, by a majority of one, it was resolved 
no longer to receive supplies. This vote closed the doors of the 
meeting house which were never again entered by a Presbyterian 
minister; and it virtually disbanded the society, which had never 
become strong. 

In 1840-'41, the meeting house was erected at the corner of 
High street and Western avenue, at a cost of $6,600, in which 
divine worship was observed until the church ceased to exist. 
The building was sold, in 1852, to the Second Methodist Episco- 
pal Church.* 

At the final disbandment of the Church, the members made a 

formal expression of mutual respect and forgiveness. The 

record of the last meeting of Session contains the following: 

"Eesolved, That we do cordially forgive each other our trespasses, and forever bury 
all matters of difference." 

It would be wrong to bring this brief history of a well intend- 
ed though unsuccessful enterprise to a close, without stating 
that the Church would have died long before it did, if it had not 
been for the unwearied and self-sacrificing zeal and effijrts of Mr. 
John H. Corwin. Prom its birth to the last hour of its existence, 
he stood manfully by this Church. Such men have their reward 
even when they seem to fail. 

CALVARY PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The circumstances which led to the organization of this con- 
* See engraving in connection with article on Second M. E. Church. 



208 



CALVARY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



gregation, as well as its subsequent history, are briefly stated 
in a historical sketch which was published by the trustees, in con- 
nection with their annual report, Aug. 1851. Prom this paper 
we learn that the Kev. S. H. McMullin, who had served as sup- 
ply during the illness of the pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, performed the duties of his engagement until about 
three months after Dr. Johnston's death. After hearing several 
other candidates for the vacant pastorate, "a day was iixed," 
says the sketch to which we have referred, "on which, according 
to notice given, the congregation were to select a pastor. When, 
however, all had assembled, a question arose as to whether 
females should be permitted to vote, which was decided in the 
affirmative. The vote was then taken and resulted, one hundred 
for Mr. McMullin and seventy-four for another person. Messrs. 
William K. Mailler and Robert Sterling were then appointed 
commissioners to prosecute the call before the Presbytery; and 
the meeting adjourned. • 

"At the meeting of the Presbytery, when the call was consid- 
ered, a remonstrance was presented, by the minority of the 
congregation, against the settlement of. Mr. McMullin. In con- 
sequence of this remonstrance, the Presbytery intimated to the 
commissioners that they would not, in all probability, permit the 
call to be prosecuted; and it was withdrawn without any formal 
action being taken. 

"Immediately after the return of the commissioners, a meeting 
of the congregation was held to hear their report; when it was 
resolved, by a majority of votes present, "that the commissioners 
be directed to prosecute the call." The Presbytery, however, 
continued to regard the call as inexpedient; and a meeting, 
called for the purpose of its consideration, failed to accomplish 
the result desired. 

"The situation of affairs becoming known, the following paper 
asking for certificates of membership and dismission, was pre- 
sented to the Session of the Church on the 21th day of August: 

" To the Session of the First Presbyterian Church of the Village of Newburgh: 

The undersigned, members in full communion of the First Presbyterian Church of the 
Village of Newburgh, do hereby respectfully request you to grant them certificates of 
memberehip and dismission, for the purpose of being organized into a Church, to be 
known as the Presbyterian Church of the Village of Newburgh: 

John McClelland, Mary Albertson, E.L.Spalding, Eliza Rogera, 

Abigail W.MoClelland Alexander Hargrave, Catharine Sly, Jerusha Gerard, 

James C. McClelland, Mary Ann Hargrave, M. W. N. Johnston, Sarah Ludlow, 

Sally E. Logan, Amelia Birdsall, Robert Wallace, Delia Smith, 

Abby L. Scott, Wm. G. Gillespie, Mary Ann Wallace, Hugh S. Banks, 

J. Ferguson, Wm. MoClughan, Mary G. Starr, Rosalie H. Banks, 

Sarah MoBlrath, Mary D. McClughan, Eliza P. Spier, HaghMoKissock, 



CALVAEY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 209 

Ann Pettie, Hannah Andross, Sarah Waugh, Agnes McKissock, 

Anna M. Clugston, Mary Burnett, L. Bradford, Laura A. Gorham, 

Margaret Strachan, Catharine HamUton. Eunice MoKune, Rachel Clugston, 

Amanda L. DuBois, Anna B. Roe, Rebecca Brown, Sarah Hildreth, 

ElizalDeth Blake. 

"On the first day of September, 1856, the church Extension 
Committee of the Presbytery of North River, met in the session- 
room of the First Presbyterian church: Present — ^B. T. Phillips, 
Wm. H. Kirk, F. T. Williams, Ministers; and Peter V. B. Fowler 
and Benj. Tyler, Elders. The petition of the persons above- 
named was presented, asking to be organized into a Presbyterian 
church, to be known as "The Calvary Presbyterian Church of 
Newburgh;'' and, after the examination of their certificates, it 
was, on motion, "Eesolved, That the request be granted." The 
applicants then formally agreed and covenanted to walk together 
in a church relation, according to the acknowledged doctrine 
and order of the Presbyterian church. Messrs. Wm. G. Gillespie 
and John McClelland were then unanimously elected Ruling 
Elders, by the congregation. Mr. Gillespie was duly ordained ; 
and Mr. McClelland and Mr. Gillespie (the former having previ- 
ously sei'ved as an Elder in the First Presbyterian church,) were 
formally installed as Elders of the Calvary Presbyterian church 
of Newburgh. 

"On the 15th day of September, Rev. S. H. McMullin was 
unanimously elected pastor of the church. The call was pre- 
sented to him at a meeting of the Presbytery, held at Buttermilk 
Palls^ on Tuesday, October tth, and accepted by him; and, on 
the 16th day of the same month, he was ordained to the work of 
the Gospel Ministry, and installed pastor of the church, in the 
Court House at Newburgh. The services ou the occasion were 
conducted by Rev. Dr. Jones of Philadelphia, who preached the 
sermon; Rev. B. K. Bower, who offered the ordaining prayer 
and proposed the constitutional questions; Rev. B. T. Phillips, 
who gave the charge to the people; and Rev. P. R. Masters, 
who gave the charge to the pastor.* 

"On the 20th October, an election for trustees was held in the 
Court House — Elders John McClelland and Wm. G. Gillespie 
presiding — which resulted in the choice of Messrs. Moses Up- 
right, Wm. K. Mailler, Walter H. Gorham, Wessel S. Gerard, 
Peter Ward and Charles Johnston. 

"The first meeting of the Session of the church was held on 
Friday evening, October 11th, at the residence of Mrs. C. Sly, in 

* Mr. McMullin resigned the charge, May 1st, 1860; and on the 6th of June a call was 
made on the Ber. Alex. H. Thompson, of Bridgeport, Conn., bnt was not accepted. 

14 C 



210 CALVARY PKESBTTERIAN CHURCH. 

High street. At the meeting of the Session, on the 31st October, 
the following persons were admitted on profession of faith: Mrs. 
E. 0. Gillespie, Mrs. M. A. Casement, Miss M. Casement, 
"And the following persons by certificate: 

Asa sterling, Wm. K. Mailler, Soaan A. Jessap, Julianna Tyler, 

Phoebe E. Sterling, Hannah P. Mailler, Margaret Shields, Mary Boyd, 

Margaret Sterling, Mary E. Halstead, Jane Shields, Marietta Watkins, 

Mary Sterling, Zipporah Clark, John Little, Jane Ellen Roe, 

Nancy Sterling, Ann Barr, Ann Little, Maria Minor, 

Eobert Sterling, John L. Westervelt, Isabella M. McMnllin, Deboi'ah Blake, 

Maria Sterling, Catharine Westervelt,Benj. Tyler, Wm Gervin, 

Sarah Oervln. 

"The first communion of the church was celebrated on the 
first Sabbath in November, 1856, at which time the membership 
had reached eighty-one. 

"Soon after the organization of the church, it was determined 
to erect a suitable edifice — the public services, in the meantime, 
being held in the Court House. A subscription was opened to 
which not only the members of the church and congregation 
contributed liberally, but which embraced the names of many in 
other connexions. A sufiScient sum was subscribed, during the 
winter of 1856, to justify the trustees in purchasing a site on 
Liberty street, and procuring a plan for the building. 

"From different plans which were submitted, one drawn by 
Messrs. Gerard & Boyd was selected; and estimates having been 
invited, the contract for erecting the building was awarded to 
Mr. John Little. A building committee of three trustees, viz: 
Messrs. Mailler, Gorham and Ward, was appointed; and Mr. 
Withers, Architect, was engaged to superintend the work. The 
ground was broken in the month of April, 1851; and the corner- 
stone laid, with appropriate exercises, on the 9th of July, follow- 
ing, at 2 o'clock, P. M. The services commenced by singing the 
hymn entitled, "Beyond the starry skies." Rev. Dr. McLaren 
followed with a very appropriate address to the Throne of Grace, 
and a portion of the Scripture was read by the Rev. Dr. McCar- 
rell. Chas. Johnston, on behalf of the trustees, then read a 
statement showing the organization and progress of the church, 
which was followed by the hymn, "Let every heart rejoice and 
sing." The Rev. Mr. Growell, of Philadelphia, then delivered an 
address, which was followed by the laying of the corner-stone 
by the Rev. Dr. Forsyth, who, in consequence of the feeble health 
of Mr. McMuUin, had been selected by the trustees for that 
duty. Dr. Forsyth introduced the ceremony by a short address, 
and was followed, at its conclusion, by Rev. Alex. R. Thompson, 



OALTAKY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



211 



of Staten Island. The exercises closed with an anthem by the 
choir, and the benediction by Eev. Dr. Forsyth. 

"The building was dedicated on the 24th of February, 1868. 
The services were opened by an anthem by the choir, and invoca- 
tion by the pastor. The Rev. Dr. Sprole then read a selection 
from the Scriptures, which was followed by singing the 504th 
hymn. Prayer was then offered by Rev. Dr. McOarrell, and the 
502d hymn sung. Rev. Dr. Murray, of Elizabeth, N. J., then 
delivered a discourse from 1st Kings, 6:4, and 8:63. At the 
conclusion, the congregation arose, and, with solemn and impres- 
sive words, the speaker dedicated the house to the worship of 
God. The services were concluded with prayer by the pastor, 
and the singing of a hymn. 







"The style of the church edifice is that sometimes known 
among architects as the Flemish, having, however, many of the 



212 



FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MIDDLEHOPE. 



peculiarities of the Gothic. It has a front of 56 feet on Liberty 
street, running back to the depth of 96 feet, with a lecture-room 
in the rear. The audience-room is 72 by 52 feet — the lecture- 
room 62 by 22 feet. The aspect of the interior is that of severe 
simplicity. A tressle-work supports the roof, obviating the 
necessity for pillars, thus affording an unobstructed view from 
every part of the house. All the wood-work is grained, the pews 
being of chestnut oiled and grained so as to retain the natural 
color and grain of the wood; and the finish throughoiit has a 
pleasing efiect. The cost of the building, lot, fencing, furniture, 
&c., was about $21,500. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MIDDLEHOPE. 

The project of building a Presbyterian church at Middlehope 
was proposed in January, 1859, and was readily embraced by 
several of the active members of the Presbyterian church at 
Marlborough. The enterprise having received sufScient encour- 
agement to warrant further proceedings, a meeting was held 
(March 12,) at which Nathaniel T. Hawkins, Peter V. B. Fowler, 
Jas. Eodman, and Jas. 0. Conklin, were appointed "to contract 
for and build a church, and to take such measures to raise funds 
and to carry out and finish the work as they may think proper." 
This committee soon after awarded the contract for building to 
Jameg D. Purdy, and that for painting to Ward & Leonard.. 

The building was 
completed in Septem- 
ber, 1859, and it was 
dedicated on the 6th of 
Oct., at an adjourned 
meeting of the Presby- 
tery of North Elver. — 
The dedicatory sermon 
was delivered by Eev. 
Doct. W. T. Sprole; 
reading of the Scrip- 
tures by Eev. B. T. 
Phillips, and the dedi- 
catory prayer by Eev. 
S. H. Jagger. The 
building is 30x40 feet, with a lobby 8x20 feet. Its cost, including 
furniture, was about $2,500. 

FIRST ASSOCIATE REFORMED CHURCH. 

Until near the close of the last century, the adherents of the 




PIKST ASSOCIATE REFORMED CHURCH. 213 

Aesociate Reformed chtircb. resident in Newburgh, were connect- 
ed with the church of Little Britain, •wliich was founded in 1158. 
Measures were taken to gather a congregatioii in 1191; and a 
church was formed consisting of the following persons, viz: Mr. 
Hugh Walsh, and his wife, Mrs. Catharine Walsh; Mr. Daniel 
Niven, and his wife, Mrs. Jane Niven; Mr. Robert Boyd, and his 
wife, Mrs. Eleanor Boyd; Miss Janet Boyd; Mr. Robert Uourlay, 
and his wife, Mrs. Margaret Gourlay; Capt. Derict Amerman; 
Mr. Robert W. Jones; Mrs. Elizabeth Belknap, wife of Isaac 
Belknap; Mr. Samuel Belknap; Mr. Hugh Speir; Mr. Alex. Tel- 
ford and Mr. George Telford. The exercises in connection with 
the formal organization of the church were proba,bly conducted 
by the Rev. Thos. G. Smith, at that time pastor of Little Britain. 
The legal incorporation of the congregation did not take place 
until Feb. Itb, 1803, when Messrs. Derick Amerman, Hugh 
Walsh, Daniel Niven, Robert Gourlay, Robert Boyd, John Brown, 
Isaac Belknap, Jr., John Coulter, and Robert W. Jones were 
elected trustees. The Ruling Elders at this period were Daniel 
Niven, Samuel Belknap, Hugh Speir, John Shaw, and Derick 
Amerman. Many of the persons above named were among the 
most prominent and influential residents of the village and the 
vicinity; whose enterprise and enetgy helped to make Newburgh 
the centre of business which it has been since the close of the 
Revolutionary war. 

The iirst pastor of this church was the Rev. Robert Kerr, who 
is reported to have been a preacher of more than usual ability. 
He was a native of Ireland, and had been settled in the ministry 
in that country. He came to the United States in 1191, and was 
received by the Associate Reformed Presbytery of New York, on 
the 10th of October, 1191, and probably began his labors in 
Newburgh at that time, as steps were taken at that meeting of 
Presbytery to give him a regular call. He was installed pastor 
on the 6th of April, 1199. He resigned his charge on the 14th 
January, 1802. He subsequently removed to the South, and 
. labored "with great diligence, approbation and success" within 
the bounds of the Associate Reformed Synod of Carolina, until 
his death, which occurred in Sa;vannah, 11th June, 1805, when on 
his way to the General Synod. 

Mr. Kerr was succeeded by the Rev. James Scrimgeour, who 
was installed as pastor on the 11th August, 1803. He was a 
native of Scotland, and had been settled in the ministry for seven 
or eight years at North Berwick. The loss of health obliged 



214 FIRST ASSOCIATE BEFORMED CHURCH. 

him to resign his charge and the work of his profession for some 
years. Up to this time he had been one of the most popular 
preachers in Scotland. Having recovered his health in a good 
degree, he was induced by the Rev. Dr. John M. Mason to 
emigrate to America in 1802. He remained in the pastoral care 
of the church of Newburgh until 1812, when he accepted a call 
to Little Britain and was installed there on the 24th of June of 
that year. In this charge he remained until his death in 1825.* 

A vacancy occurred after Mr. Scrimgeour's removal, of about 
four years, during which time various unsuccessful efforts were 
made to obtain a pastor. Calls were addressed to Mr. (now Dr.) 
Robert McCartee, and to Mr. (afterwards Dr.) John Knox, 
licentiates and graduates of the Theological Seminary; but 
finally an invitation was given to the Rev. Arthur I. Stansbury, 
minister of Graham's church in this county, which he accepted, 
and he was installed 4th December, 1816. Mr. Stansbury was 
exceedingly popular, and had he remained here, the congregation 
would speedily have become the largest in the village. But his 
pastorate in Newburgh was very brief He resigned his charge 
in April, 1811, having accepted a call to the First Presbyterian 
church of Albany. 

The Rev. James Chrystie, minister of the Reformed Dutch 
church of Union Village, Washington county, having been 
invited to succeed Mr. Stansbury, accepted the call, and was 
installed 20th September, 1818. He remained here as pastor, 

* The following obituary we copy from the Political Index of Feb. 15, 1825: 
"Departed this life on Friday morning, the l«h of Feb., Bev. James Sorimgeour 
minister of the gospel at Little Britain, in the 68th year of his age. He studied theology 
under the direction of John Brown, of Haddington, and was settled as pastor of a 
congregation in the Burgher connexion, at North Berwick. He was one of the ministers 
that came to this country with Dr. Mason, at the Instance of the Associate Reformed 
Synod m the year 1802. In August, 1803, he accepted a call from the Associate 
Reformed congregation at Newburgh, and was for some time pastor of that confei-ega- 
tion. The last twelve years of his mmistry and of his life, were spent in Little Britsun 
having been called by that congregation, and installed in this charge, the 24th of Jan.' 
i ■:£•<• n-*-^ ^™1"' i?^ ™ ^''^'^^' sincere and friendly—as a son, a husband and a father! 
faithful and afffectionate— as a Christian, an Isi-aelite indeed, in whom there was no 
guile— and as a preacher of the gospel, as thousands both in Scotland and America who 
have been long edified and delighted with his ministrations can witness, simble Eiand 
sincere- "Ji/iv, gioiiu, 

"In doctrine incorrupt, in language plain, 

And plain in manner; decent, solemn, chaste. 

And natural in gesture; much impressed 

Himself, as conscious of his awful charge, 

And anxious mainly that the flock he feeds 

May feel it too. Affectionate in look, 

And tender in address, as well becomes 

A messenger of grace to guilty men." 
The theme on which he most delighted to dwell was the person and wol-k of the 
Redeemer, exemplifymg the apostolic determination, to know nothing among his people 
but Jesus Chnst and him crucified. He died in the faith of that gospS whfore 
preached, and left to his friends, who bless his memory, the cheering hoSe that when 
fchrist who was his life shall appear, then shall he also appear with Wm in'^ory " 



FIRST ASSOCIATE REFORMED CHURCH. 215 

winning the warm attachment of the congregation, until October, 
1821, when he joined the Eeformed Presbyterian church and 
removed to Albany. 

The present pastor, the Kev. Dr. McCarrell, commenced his 
labors here as a supply on the 4th Dec, 1822. He was ordained 
and installed pastor, 14th March, 1823. The sermon was 
by the Rev. Dr. John McJimpsey; the ordination prayer was 
offered by the Rev. James Scrimgeour; the charges to pastor 
and people were delivered by the Rev. James Mairs, of Galway, 
N. y. How faithfully and successfully Dr. McCarrell has 
discharged the duties of the sacred office during a period exceed- 
ing that of the service of all his predecessors put together, it is 
not necessary for bb to say. 

The first edifice occupied by the church was erected on a lot 
given by James Renwick, of New York, and which now forms 
part of the farm of Capt. Henry Robinson. The church stood a 
little to the north and west of the gambrel-roofed house — with 
its side to the river — which forms so conspicuous an object on the 
hill west of the shipyards, It was surrounded by magnificent 
old apple and pear trees, and in form was very similar to the First 
Presbyterian church at that time — ^having a square tower on the 
south end. Mr. Renwick deeded the lot, which was 200 feet 
square, to William Renwick, Dr. John Kemp, Rev. John M. 
Mason, Alexander Robertson, Alexander Hosack, John Turner, 
Jr., George Lindsay, Robert Gosman, of the city of New York; 
and Hugh Walsh, George Gardner, Robert Gourlay, Daniel 
Niven, Robert Boyd, Robert Ferguson, Thomas Tait, Robert 
W. Jones, and Alexander Murray, of Newburgh as "Trustees 
appointed by the said James Renwick, for the Presbyterian 
church of Newburgh in connection with the Associate (Reformed) 
Synod in the U. States of America,— -for the sole use and intent 
that the trustees and members of said church should erect a 
church for Christian worship, and also a school house for the 
instruction of youth." The church was completed in 1198,* but 

* There is au anecdote connected with the building of this church edifice, which, as 
it shows a heart to have been in the right place, we relate. • When the building was 
heiag finished, the trustees and others could not agree about placing a window in the 
garret : some wanted it on the ^ound of appearance; some that it would ventilate and 
preserve the building; others objected to the expense and that it was not needed — one 
suggested that a blind or false window would answer all purposes of appearance and 
cost comparatively nothing. Daniel Niven, Esq., in reply to this last proposition said, 
"that as long as he had anything to do with the church there should be no more 
hypocrisy outside than inside of it." The argument was closed, and a very large 
window, more expensive than any in the building, placed in the ganet. When this 
edifice was taken down^ the large window was preserved, and it now lies in the garret 
of the new church, embalmed in the pious fragrance of the above remark. — Eager' a 
Orange County, 213. 



216 



FIRST ASSOCIATE HEFORMED CHURCH. 



no effort was ever made to erect a school house, the locality 
being wholly unsuited for such an edifice. As the growth of the 
village was more towards the north than the south, the church 
came to be quite out of town, and very inconveniently located 
for the great mass of its members. Accordingly, in 1821, 
measures were taken towards the erection of a new church 
within the village; the old building was taken down in the year 
just named, and while the new one was being built the congre- 
gation met for worship in the old court room. The present 

church was dedicated with appro- 
"priate services on the 4th of Janu- 
;ary, 1822, on which occasion the 
[^Eev. James Scrimgeour preached 
from Hosea, viii. 17. The lot on 
; which the church was erected was 
^the gift of Mr. Hugh Walsh, one 
s,of the founders of the society, and 
llwhose memory deserves to be grate- 
^fully cherished by its members as 
1 one of its greatest benefactors. Mr. 
I Walsh also gave the largest por- 
■ition of the lot on which the Par- 
sonage stands and which was erected upon it in 1820. 

Internally, the church is unaltered, but externally some change 
has been made since its erection. The cupola was completed in 
1834 and a bell procured. The lecture-room on the north side of 
the church was built about 1840. 

UNION CHURCH (sECOND ASSOCIATE REFORMED.) 

In 1836 the growth of the first church suggested to a number 
of its members the propriety of enlarging the edifice or of 
erecting a new congregation. The latter alternative was adopt- 
ed, and on the 30th of July, 183T, Union church was constituted, 
consisting of a colony of twenty-seven persons who belonged to 
the old church. Their names are as follows: 




E. W. Parrington, 
Thornton M. Niven, 
John Wise, 
John Beveridge, 
Arnold McNear, 
James Johnson, 
Matthew Sims, 



Mrs. Farrington. 
Mrs. Niven, 
Mrs. Wise, 
Mrs. Beveridge, 
Mrs. MoNear, 
Mrs. Johnson, 
Mrs. Sims, 



James Blacklaw, 
James Danslcin, 
Stewart Kelly, 
John James Monell, 
Mrs. E. Pardy, 



Mrs Catharine Stewart 
Miss N. Barclay, 



Mrs. Blacklaw, 
Mrs. Danskin, 
Mrs. Kelly, 
Miss E. Cypher, 
Miss C. AnflersoB. 



The following persons were elected as Euling Elders, viz: John 

Beveridge, E. Ward Farrington, Thornton M. Niven, John Wise. 

The Kev. James Mairs, formerly of Galway, Saratoga Co., 



UNION GHURCH. SIT 

delivered the first discourse to the newly organized church, on 
Lord's Day, the 13th of August, 183t, in the old court room in 
the Academy, where the congregation met for ■worship, until the 
completion of the church at the corner of Clinton and Water 
streets. On the 5th of December following, the Eev. John 
Forsyth, Jr., was installed pastor — the services heing held in the 
court room. The Eev. Dr. McJimpsey preached the sermon; the 
Eev. Drs. Wallace and McLaren gave the charges to the people 
and the pastor. 

The location of the church — below the hill and at the northern 
extremity of the village — was not wisely determined, though the 
choice was prompted by the purest motives. The design was to 
accommodate the numerous families residing at the upper end of 
Water-street and the vicinity, and it was hoped that not a few of 
those whose distance from the other churches hindered their 
attendance in the sanctuary might be drawn to it. These hopes 
were to a considerable extent realized. But the experience of 
congregations in Newburgh and elsewhere goes to prove that in 
towns of eight or ten thousand inhabitants, the true position for 
a church edifice is one as near the centre of the town as possible. 

Notwithstanding this and other obstacles in the way of the 
growth of the church, it steadily advanced in memliers. In the 
spring and summer of 1843, this church, in common with others 
in Newburgh, enjoyed a season of revival, and a very large 
number was added to the list of communicants. 

Dr. Forsyth was elected to a professorship in the College of 
New Jersey at the end of the year 1846, but he did not retire 
from the pastorate until near the autumn of 1841. He was 
succeeded by Mr. Abraham E. Van Nest, a recent graduate of 
the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick, who was ordained 
and installed pastor in the Spring of 1848. Mr. Van Nest 
remained here about a year. He was called by the Eef. Dutch 
church, 21st street, New York, and having accepted the invita- 
tion he removed thither in the Spring of 1849. Almost immedi- 
ately upon his departure, the Eev. Dr. Eobert McCartee, formerly 
of Oanal-st. church, but at this time of G-oshen, was called, and 
having accepted the invitation he was installed in May, 
1849. Dr. McCartee labored here with great acceptance and 
success until 1855, when he removed to New York to take the 
pastoral charge of the 25th-st. A. E. church. This society was 
subsequently incorporated with another Scottish Presbyterian 
church in 22d-st., of which Dr. McC. is now pastor. Union 



218 



UNION CHURCH. 



church was supplied by various persons during the first six 
months or more after Dr. McCartee's removal— particularly by 
the Rev. Mr. Cunningham, now of Indianapolis, who preached 
here with great acceptance. Finally, the Rev. Mr. Jack — who 
had graduated in the Seminary in the Spring of 1857 — ^was 
called, ordained, and installed in June, 1857, by the Presbytery 
of New York. On this occasion the sermon was preached by the 
Rev. John Brash, of New York, who also proposed the usual 
questions to the candidate, and offered the ordaining prayer. 
The charge to the pastor was given by Rev. G. M. McBachron of 
Mongaup Valley; and that to the people by Rev. Dr. Forsyth. 

A church edifice was erected on a lot at the corner of Water 
and Clinton streets, which had been given to the congregation 
for this purpose. Ground was broken on the 2'Ith of July, 1837, 
and the building was dedicated on the 1st day of May, 1838, 
when a suitable sermon was delivered by the Rev. Dr. M. N. 
McLaren, then of Hamptonburgh. Here the congregation 
continued to worship until the month of March, 1859, when the 
property was sold to the Rector and vestry of St. George's 
church. The last time it was used by Union church, the sermon 
was preached by the first pastor. Dr. Forsyth. 

The old First Pres- 
byterian edifice was 
purchased in March 
1859, by the Union 
church, and has 
been since occupied 
by this society. — • 
By this change of 
location one great 
obstacle in the way 
of growth was re- 
moved, as. the pres- 
ent state of the con- 
gregation proves. 

It only remains to 
add that in conse- 
quence of the union 
of the Associate Re- 
I \) .^\iv«\.s — =^a:=^-^::ssj^s::^s^p=t^ ' formed and the As- 

sociate churches, out of which the United Presbyterian church 




REFORMED DUTCH CHDRCH. 219 

grew, the congregation of Union church was induced to unite 
in October, 1859, with the Old School branch of the Presbyterian 
church, and is now a component part of that body. 

REFORMED PROTESTANT DUTCH CHURCH. 

The history of this church dates from October, 1834, when 
the Rev. Wm. Cruickshank, on the application of some of the 
members of the Reformed Dutch church in the city of New 
York, was induced to visit Newburgh and undertake the estab- 
lishment of a church. His efforts were successful, and, on the 
24th February following, the church was formally organized by 
the Classis of Orange, at which time Isaac Belknap, Thomas G. 
Stansborough, Isaac A. Knevels, and John W. Knevels, were 
ordained Elders ; and Cornelius Bogardus, Thos. Jessup, Daniel 
Corwin, and Albert Wells, Deacons. Eighteen persons were 
then received into its communion by certificate. 

On the 13th of April, 1835, the Consistory invited the Rev. 
William Cruikshank to become their pastor; and the call having 
been approved by the Ckssis of Orange, he was installed as 
the first pastor of the church on the 23d of April of the same 
year. In December, 1831, Mr. Cruickshank resigned; and, on the 
13th of June, 1838, a call was addressed to the Rev. Isaac M. 
Fisher, which was accepted, and he was installed in July. He 
remained pastor only until the 5th of October of the same year, 
when he resigned, on account of failing health. On the Itth May, 
1839, the Rev. F. H. Vanderveer was called, and continued the 
pastor of the church until the 19th August, 1842, when he resign- 
ed. On the 13th Sept., 1842, a call was mrde upon the Rev. A. B. 
Van Zandt, and he was installed by a deputation of the Classis of 
Orange on the 14th of December following. He resigned in June, 
1849; and was succeeded by the Rev. M. N. McLaren, who was 
installed Nov. 12th, 1850.* He resigned the charge Feb. 5th, 1859, 

* The Rev. Malcolm N. McLaren was installed as Pastor over the Reformed Dutch 
Church in this place on Tuesday evening last. The intrpdnctory exercise was the 
chanting of the 19th Psalm; this was followed by reading of the Scripture and a very 
appropriate prayer by the Rev. Mr. Schoonmaker. The hymn, "Go preach my gospel, 
saith the Lord," was sung; and the sermon was then delivered by Bev. Mr. Alliger from 
1st Cor. 2:4 — "My preaching was not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in 
demonstration of the Spirit and of power." The choir then sung, 
"Come in, thou blessed of the Lord, 

Oh come, in Jesus' precious name; 

We welcome thee with one accord. 

And trust the Saviour does the same." 
The installing form was read by the Rev. Mr. Lee, after which was sung a quartette 
and chorus, "How beautiful are them that preach the gospel of peace; that brmg glad 
tidings of good things. Let thy priests, God, be clothed with salvation and let thy 
saints rejoice in goodness." Then followed the Doxology, "Praise God from whom all 
blessings flow," and the exercises closed with the benediction. — Gaz., Nov. 19, 1850. 



220 EEFORMED DUTCH CHURCH. 

and on the llth June, a call was made upon the Eev. G. H. 
Mandeville, of Flushing, L. I., who entered upon the duties of 
pastor August 21st, of the same year.* 

The church was organized in the Associate Reformed church f 
edifice; and its subsequent meetings, until the completion of the 
building now occupied by it, were held in the Academy. Mr. 
Cruickshank, the first pastor, devoted all his energies to the 
interests of the infant church, and its early success was due, in 
a great measure, to his indefatigable exertions. He obtained 
from his congregation, and from New York, a handsome sub- 
scription for the erection of a church edifice; the site for which 
was selected on the corner of Grand and Third streets. The 
building was commenced about the 1st of October, 1835. J Mr. 
Warren, of New York, was the architect, and Gerard & Halsey, 
masons, and A. Whitmarsh, carpenter, were the contractors. Ser- 
vice was first held in the basement on Sunday, August 13th, 
1837, by the Rev. Mr. Cruickshank; § and on the 1th December 
following, the edifice was dedicated with the usual ceremonies. \\ 

The financial reverses of 183T, seriously affected the temporal 
interests of the church ; and the Consistory were compelled to 

* During the vacancy between the resignation of Dr. McLai-en and the installation of 
Mr. Mandeville, the pastoral duties of the Church were performed by the Eev. John 
Forsyth, D. D. 

t The seiTices on this occasion were conducted by the Eev. P. H. VandeiTeer, who de- 
livered the sermon, and by the Eev. Samuel Van Veohten, who addressed the members 
and congregation. 

J Eev. Wm. Cruickshank was "installed October 22d, 1835. Eev. J. H. Bevier, of 
Shawangunk preached from Isaiah Ixii— 6. The services were held in the Academy 
building, then occupied by the Church for its regular worship. After the Installation, 
the congregation moved in procession to the foundation walls of the Church, preceded 
by the architect, builders, clergy, &c., presenting a handsome sight. 

The comer-stone was then laid. Eev. Wm. Cruickshank first read a history of the 
organization of the Church, and a list of papers, &c., which had been placed in a box 
prepared for the occasion. EeV. Wm. S. Heyer offered prayer. The box was then put 
into the place made for it by Elder Isaac Belknap, who made some feeling remarks. — ■ 
Eev. Doct. Brodhead then delivered an address, standing on the top of the stone butti-ess. 
Eev. Thomas DeWitt, D. D., followed in an address which called up the deep feelings of 
the heart and earned the imagination from the earthly to the heavenly temple. Services 
concladed by prayer and benediction by Eev. John Landon of theM.E. Church. — Chris- 
tian Intelligencer, Oct. 31, 1835. 

§ The basement room of the noble and imposing edifice erected by the Eeformed 
Dutch congregation of this Village, was opened for public worship last Sunday morning. 
The services were performed by the pastor, the Eev Mr. Cruickshank, who, in the early 
part of the services, solemnly dedicated it to the service of Almighty God, as a place of 
social prayer, for Sabbath School instruction, and for Lectures, or the exposition of the 
sacred Scriptures. — Telegraph, Nov. 17, 1837. 

II The Eeformed Dutch Church of this Village was, on Thui-sday last, dedicated with 
appropriate and interesting ceremonies. The beautiful edifice — interior and exterior — 
was a subject of admiration to a very large concourse of people assembled on the occa- 
sion. The services consisted of a dedicatory address by Eev. Wm. Cruickshank; and a 
sermon by Eev. Thomas DeWitt, D. D., from Psalms Ixxxvii : 3. Eev. E. P. Lee, Eev. 
Wm. S. Heyer, and Eev. P. H. Vanderveer, engaged in other parts of the services of the 
day. Yesterday a sale of pews took place, the proceeds of which amounted to abont 
$3,000— Telegraph, Dec. U, 1837. 



REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHUCRH. 



221 



submit to a sale of the cliurch. property, (April, 1839,) which 
was purchased by Mr. Daniel Farrington, on behalf of the credi- 
tors for the sum of $10,053. An arrangement, however, was 
soon after effected by which Matthew V. B. Fowler became the 
purchaser of the property in trust for the church. The debt was 
gradually reduced, and, in 1859, the Consistory was enabled to 
resume the title. 




The church edifice is of Grecian architecture, and was origi- 
nally surmounted" by a massive dome. It is built of stone, and 
is 50x80 feet with a portico of 20 feet, making the whole depth 
100 feet. The cost of the building, lot, &c., was about $20,000. 
During the year 1851, the parsonage was built on the east side 
of the lot on Third street, at a cost of $3,227. 

FIRST RErOEMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The origin of this congregation may be traced to the self- 
denying exertions of a few individuals in the communion of the 
Kefoi-med Presbyterian church, whose lot was cast, by Divine 
Providence, in the village of Newburgh and vicinity, among 
whom James Clark, 0. Gailey, Robert Johnston, and others, 
were prominent. A society for prayer and other devotional 
services was formed and regularly attended as early as 1816 or 
'17, which proved the means of gathering together and combi- 
ning the efforts of a sufficient number to warrant an application 
for occasional preaching. From 1817 until 1824, the society was 
supplied with preaching by the Eev. J. E. Willson, D. D., at that 



222 



REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHDROH. 



time pastor at Coldenham. Increasing in numbers, and desirous 
of obtaining a fuller supply of ordinances, the members of the 
Newburgh branch of the Coldenham congregation, as it came 
to be called, were, by deed of Presbytery, separated from the 
Coldenham congregation and, in 1824, organized as a distinct 
church, of which Samuel Wright and John Lawson were Elders, 
and William M. Wiley and John Crawford, Deacons. Soon after 
the organization, Mr. Matthew Duke was added to the Elders, 
and Mr. William Thompson to the Deacons. 

The first pastor of the church was the Rev. Jas. R. Johnston, 
who was ordained and installed in 1825. His connection with it 
was dissolved in 1829. On the 8th of June, 1830, the Eev. Moses 
Roney became his successor, and served with great acceptance 
until 1848, when he was compelled to resign on account of 
declining health. On the 14th November, 1849, the present 
pastor, the Rev. Samuel Carlisle, was installed. 

The first public services of the 
church were conducted in the 
Academy. Arrangements were 
made for the erection of a church 
edifice in 1818, which was com- 
l pleted the following year and is 
still occupied by the congrega- 
■ tion. In 1852,- it was re-built, 
' during which time the public ser- 
vices of the congregation were 
held in the Court House. It aifords accommodations for about 
five hundred persons. 

SECOND, REFORMED PRESBYTERI.IN CHURCH. 

The Second Reformed Presbyterian church of Newburgh was 
organized by a commission of the New York Presbytery, on the 
12th December, 1854. The original membership was composed 
of William Thompson, James Frazier and William Johnston, 
Elders; and John Lawson and James Hilton, Deacons; together 
with twenty-six private members. Since the organization, the 
membership has increased, (1858) to about one hundred and 
twenty-five. 

In accordance with a call made by the congregation, the Rev. 
J. Renwick Thompson was installed pastor, Dec. 19, 1855, and 
still has the care of the church. 

The public services of the church were first held in the Court 
House. Arrangements for the erection of a church edifice, 





FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 223 

however, were made soon after the organization, and the build- 
ing was completed in November, 1855, and dedicated on the 25th 
of that month. The morning services were conducted by Rev. 
Dr. Christy, of New York, who delivered an able lecture on the 
12th chapter of Isaiah. In the afternoon, the discourse was by 
the pastor of the church, from Genesis 28 — 17; and the evening 
^ services were conducted by Dr. 
v4k'-, Christy. The church building is 
j '■,^^^5^1 without much ■ architectural char- 
•''■'^^-\f acter. It is constructed of brick, 
*^ and is capable of accommodating 
f- six hundred persons. It is situa- 
ted on Grand street, north of Cath- 
arine street. 

The present officers of the church are William Thompson, 
James Frazier, William Johnston and Francis Wilson, Eiders; 
and John Lawson, James Hilton, Andrew Little and William 
Cameron, Deacons. 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The facts relative to the early history of the Baptist church in 
Newburgh, are very limited and devoid of detail. From Bene- 
dict's "History of the Baptists," we learn that from ItiO to 1780, 
the Rev. Mr. Halstead, who was then pastor of the Baptist 
church at Fishkill, performed missionary labors at different 
places in Duchess and Ulster counties; and, in 1182, succeeded 
in organizing a branch of the Fishkill society in the northern 
part of the town of Newburgh. In 1185, this society assumed 
an independent organization, and took its place under the charge 
of the Warwick Baptist Association as the "Church at New- 
burgh." The pastors of this church, up to 1818, were as follows: 

Jonathan Atlierton, 1785 to 1788 I Jethro Johnson, 1799 to 1800 

William Brundage, 1788 to 1796 | Luke Davis, 1803 to 1811 

William C. Thompson, 1812 to 1818 

From the minutes of the Warwick Baptist Association, the 
following additional facts have been obtained, viz: 

CHUBCH AT NBWBUKGH. 

Date. Delegates. iVb. Members 

1791 William Brundage, Nathaniel Wyatt, . 27 

1792 do James Gray, 33 

1793 do do 32 

1794 do Gilbert Kniffen, 32 
1793 do Peter Tharp, Benjamin Ellison, 32 
1796* Theophilos Asherton, Jacob Witer, Benj. Ellison, Peter Tharp, 28 

*In this year the following queiy was received from the Church at Newburgn, viz: "Is 
it consisteat with the Gospel to hold commaniou with a person whom we judge to be a 



224 FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 

1797 TheopMus Asherton, Nathaniel Wyatt, . 26 

1798 Noreturng. 

1799 Jethro Johnson, TheophiluB Aahei-ton, 28 

1800 do Peter Thai-p, Oliver Cosman, 30 
1803* Luke Davis, Oliver Cosman, Joseph Cauldwell, John Caufield, 39 

1804 do Oliver Cosman, 43 

1805 do John Caufleld, William Winterton, 3a 

1806 do Oliver Cosman, Joseph Cauldwell, 36 

1807 do do do 32 

1808 do Joseph Cauldwell, 32 

1809 do William Winterton, 32 

1810 do 36 

1811 do John Caufleld, 39 

1812 Wm. C. Thompson, Joseph Cauldwell, William Winterton, 34 
1814 do Joseph Cauldwell, 32 
1816f do Oliver Cosman, Joseph Cauldwell, 29 
1817 John Ellis, Joseph Cauldwell, 19 

In 1818, the "Church at Newburgh" was united with that at 
Pleasant Valley, under the title of the "Pleasant Valley and 
Newburgh Church," and its separate existence ceased.J 

No effort appears to have been made to organize a church in 
the village of Newburgh until 1821. Baptist missionaries, 
however, frequently visited the place, and among others the 
Rev. Mr. Price, Chas. Mais, and Thomas Powell, the latter after- 
wards, or at that time, (1820,) pastor of the church at Cornwall. 
In 1811, the Hudson River Baptist Association made arrange- 
ment to supply the village with missionaries for one year.§ The 
Rev. Lewis Leonard held the first service under this arrangement 
in the Academy on the 14th December. 

Prom the records of the present church we learn, that "on 
Wednesday evening, February 21st, 1821," a meeting was held 

Chi-istian baptized by immersion, although the administrator thereof wns unbaptized?" 
Answer — "As this subject is now in debate, both by American and European Churches, 
wethiakprndent to defer our final opinion until next Association, and that our breth- 
ren be requested to prepare their sentiments in writing." 

* In 1802-3, the Bev. Luke Davis labored here as a missionary and succeeded ingath- 
ering a small congregation, which was subsequently united with the old Church, as 
appears bythe following extract from the minntes of the Association, viz: "A Church 
recently raised under the ministry of Bro. Luke Davis, having united with the Church 
at Newburgh, are hereby recorded as one Church, to be known as the 'Church at New- 
burgh.' " 

t The committee appointed to deliberate on the letter received from brother Price, on 
the subject of Missions, reported, that in their opinion the object of his wishes is worthy 
of the respectful attention of this body. Thereupon, Resolved, That we approve of the 
exertions of our esteemed brother Price, to form Missionary Societies, auxiliary to that 
formed at Philadelphia, May, 1814, for the purpose of extending the Gospel to the Hea- 
then World; and we recommend it to the Churches composing this Association, to aid 
the object of said Society in such ways as they shall judge most expedient. — Minutes. 

t The reports of the "Pleasant Valley and Newburgh Church" are continued in the 
minutes down to 1827. 

§ At a meeting of the Hudson River Baptist Association, the following gentlemen 
agreed to supply their brethren and others who may wish to attend their improvement 
in the village of Newburgh, with preaching for one year, viz: Revds. John Williams, 
Archibald Maclay, Johnson Chase, Jacob Brouner, Mr. (John) Ellis, Aaron Perkms, 
Lewis Leonard, Avary Briggs, Joshua Bradley, Chas. G, Somei-s.Mr. Wiley. 

Agreeably to the above resolution, the inhabitants of this Village are informed that 
Mr. Leonard will preach in the Court House (Academy) on Lord's Day, the 14th of the 
present month. Exercises to commence at 10 o'clock, A. M. Newbm-gh, Deo. 9, 1817. 
— Adv. Politifal Index. 



FIRST BAPTIST CHUBCH. 225 

at tho residence of Lydia Ann Hill, for the purpose of consulting 
in reference to the organization of a church. "As the result of 
this meeting, an invitation was sent to Elder Daniel 0. Stears to 
visit the brethren and give them such counsel as circumstances 
required. On the fourth Wednesday in March following, a com- 
mittee was appointed to draft articles of faith and covenant, 
which were presented and adopted at a meeting held on the 
11th of April. On the 16th of May, the church was formally 
organized — Wm. Pierce acting as moderator, and Lewis Leonard 
as clerk. There were fourteen members at the time of its con- 
stitution, five of whom were brethren. 

"This church survived, with all the attending diificulties usual 
to weak churches, until July 12, 1828. During its existence 
forty-four persona united with it, of whom only four were by 
baptism. The few members attached to the church at the time 
of its dissolution removed their membership, and gradually all 
trace of it vanished." 

From 1828 until 1834, there was no Baptist church organiza- 
tion in the village. On the 28d of December, 1834, however, a 
meeting was held "in the brick meeting house, then owned by 
the Methodists, for the purpose of organizing a church. There 
were four ministers present, viz: Parkinson, Bernard, Martin, 
and David James. Having resolved to constitute a church, it 
was agreed that Elder Parkinson preach the sermon. Elder 
Martin was appointed clerk. Elder Bernard gave the charge, 
and Elder Parkinson the right hand of fellowship. Elder David 
James was the first pastor of this church, it having been formed 
under his charge. The number of members at the time of its 
constitution is said to have been thirteen. At the first church 
meeting, held Jan. 10, there were present three brethren and 
seven sisters. The three brethren were David James, the pastor; 
Wm. Mitchell, deacon, and Joseph Chase, clerk." 

Mr. James continued to serve as pastor until Jan. 1838, when 
he resigned. The church does not appear to have gained much, 
in point of numbers, during his ministry — the largest attendance 
upon church meetings, for several months prior to his resignation, 
having been three brethren and four sisters. In April, 1838, 
Elder Spencer accepted a call to the pastorate, and served in that 
capacity until August following, when he resigned. The pulpit 
was temporarily supplied by Elder James until December, when 
Elder Van Gilder took the charge. He served until July, 1839, 
when Elder Daniel T. Hill accepted an invitation to supply the 



16 C 



226 FIRST BAPTIST CHUKCH. 

pulpit every Sabbath morning. This arrangement continued for 
only a few months. In July, 1840, Elder Geo. Phippen accepted 
the pastorate and remained in the charge until Nov. Ist, 1842, 
when he resigned. During his ministry the condition of the 
society considerably improved. "Some old difiBculties were re- 
moved, some prejudices which had long existed were broken 
down, and, as a denomination, some progress was made in gain- 
ing a more favorable opinion on the part of the community." ' 
An important change was also made in the place of worship 
occupied by the church, which had, soon after its organization, 
purchased from the Methodists the old brick building on the 
corner of Gidney avenue and Liberty street. In the spring of 
1842, this building was sold for $925; and on the third Sabbath 
in May, the church commenced worship in Washington Hall. 

The Rev. 0. A. Eaymond succeeded Mr. Phippen, and entered 
upon his duties on the first Sabbath in November, 1842. He was 
a young man of superior talent and great energy, and under his 
ministry the church rapidly increased in membership. He re- 
signed the charge in 1844. The Rev. W. S. Clapp, and the Rev. 
Thos. Applegate, served the church as supplies until April, 1841. 
In November of that year, a call was extended to the Kev. Jas. 
Scott, who entered upon the duties of the pastorate in December, 
and held the station until September 11, 1855, when he was remo- 
ved by death. On the 4th of May, 1856, the Rev. J. H. Castle 
accepted the vacant pastorate and served until March, 1859. 
His successor, Rev. Isaac Wescott, tlie present pastor, entered 
upon the charge May 1st, 1859. 

The first church edifice erected by the Baptists, was by the 
"Church at Newburgh." * This building is still standing, and is 

* Since the preceding pages 223 and 224 were printed, we have ascei'tained that the 
statements made therein in reference to this church, as well as to the movements of the 
early Baptists in this vicinity, are eiToneous in several particulars. Mr. Joseph Divine, 
of Pleasant Valley, has placed in our hands the records of the "Pleasant Valley Church," 
from which it appears that a Baptist Church was established at that place at an early 
period. The date of its constitution is not given. The statement in "Benedict's History 
of the Baptists," that it was organized in 1782, and was caUed the church at Newburgh, 
may be correct, but it is difficult to reconcile it with the fact that the location of the 
church was in New Marlborough Precinct, and that it is not usual to apply the name 
of a town to a church not within its limits. In the minutes of the Pleasant Valley 
church, the church to which Mr. Benedict evidently refers is spoken of as "a branch of 
the Baptist Church at Fishkill," and that, in 1785, it was under the pastoral care of 
Elder James Phillips, At a regular meeting of the branch church, held on the 24th of 
May, 1785, at the house of Eeuben Drake, a petition was presented by Nathan EUetand 
WiUiara Purdy, on behalf of themselves and others, asking that "the society be consti- 
tuted a separate church, and that Jonathan Atherton be ordained pastor." The appli- 
cation was granted. The ordination services, as well as the services constituting the 
church, were held on the 27th May. Elder Dakens preached the ordiuatiqn sermon 
from Timothy 4 : 8. After prayer by Elder Colo, Elder Dakens gave the charge to the 

Eastor and to the church. The minutes say: "Elder Phillips gave Bro. Atherton the 
and and said, in presence of the whole congregation, that he owned him as an Elder; 




FIEST BAPTIST CHURCH. 22t 

situated, on the farm known as the "Rodman farm," near Luptou- 
dale, on the Newburgh and Shawangunk Plank-road. It is a 
building about thirty feet square, with 
walls aboiit twenty feet high, ten feet 
of which are stone, and is covered by 
what is called a "barrack roof" which 
rises to about twenty-five feet in the 
'■'* centre. It was erected about the year 
1806, and was abandoned in 1831 or '32. It was subsequently 
sold to Mr. Rodman, and has since been used as a hay-house. 

The first Baptist services in the village of Newburgh were 
lield in the Academy. Subsequently the old Mcintosh house, the 
old Methodist church, and Washington Hall, were successively 
occupied. In 1849, a church edifice was erected on the corner 

and so Elder Phillips went to prayer. When done, Elder Cole gave out an exhoitation 
to Bro. Atherton, and then to the church, and then to the whole congregation. When 
done, they sang a Psalm, went out, and now we are left to ourselves." 

The "Baptist Church at Pleasant Valley," as the new organization was called, was 
oomposcd of the following members, viz: John and Mary Lester, Josiah and Sarah 
Baker, John and Hannah Coller, David and Hannah Martain, Nathan and Mary Ellet, 
Bartholomew and Hannah Balser, Jonathan Atherton, Jediah Atwood, John Glan, 
Thaakful Maokey, Phebe. Drake, Billaga Jones, Wm. Purdy, and Abraham Strickland. 
The membership increased rapidly, and, in 1789, a branch chui'ch was established at 
. Latintowu, and another at New Paltz. On the 24th April, 1790, "a number of mem- 
bers were set off by themselves," and, on the 2d of June following, were constituted the 
" Church at Newlmr gh." The members of this church were as follows, viz: William 
Bruadage, Elder, Oliver Cosman, Nathaniel Wyatt, Archibald BUet, Matthew Cropsey, 
Gilbert Kniffin, Lavina Kni£Bn, Elizabeth Cosman, Phebe Merritt, Anna Wyatt, Eliza- 
beth Ellet, Anna Bloomer, Eachel Cropsey. 

• The list of pastors of the "Church at Newburgh" (p. 223,) also requires correction. 
Jonathan Atherton was the pastor of the Pleasant Valley church from 1785 to 1790. 
He never held pastoral connection with the church at Newburgh. The pastors of the 
Newburgh church were as follows, viz: Wm. Brundage from 1790 to 1795; Levi Hall 
from 1796 to 1799, holding service one-third of the time; Jethro Johnson from 1799 to 
1803; Luke Davis from 1803 to 1811; Wm. C. Thompson, a licensed preacher but not 
an ordained minister, from 1812 to 1815 ; and John Ellis from 1815 to 1817, whose time 
was equally divided between the Newburgh and the Pleasant Talley church. On the 18th 
Nov. 1817, the two churches were united, as we have previously stated, and, under the 
title of the "Union Church of Pleasant Valley and Newburgh," continued iu existence 
down to Deo. 5, 1840, when the last entry is made in the minutes. From 1817 to 1832, 
meetings were held alternately at Pleasajit Valley, where a church edifice had been 
erected in 17S6, and in the "Stone Meeting House," as it was called, in Newburgh. — 
After 1832, meetings were held at Pleasant Valley only. The last pastor of the church 
was John Barrett, who was chosen Aug. 26, 1832. The old "Stone Meeting House" 
was sold to Mr Rodman sometime about 1836 or '37. The church organized by Mr. 
Davis in 1803, (note p. 224,) was, we are told, a small society near Fostertown, and to 
effect the nnion of the two societies, Mr. Johnson resigned the pastorate of the old 
chm'ch. Mr. Davis lived for several years in a small parsonage house which stood on 
the church lot, and had the charge of the church property. 

We have already given, in the list of delegates to the Warwick Baptist Association, 
the names of several of the more prominent members of the church, which, with the 
names of the original membersliip, are all that can now be rescued from oblivion. Ad- 
jiMning the deserted church is a cemeter-y lot, and among the tall rank weeds by which 
it is overgrown are numerous headstones and little hillocks which mark the resting 
place of many. Only a few of the stones bear inscriptions, and among them the most 
prominent arc those which record the death of Deacon Joseph Cauldwell, and of Deacon 
William Winterton — the former having died Nov. 24, 1822, aged 56 years, and the latter, 
Feb. 18, 1814, agpd 47 yeai's. . Slowly but surely is the visible church mingling its ashes 
with that of its buildera, and before many years shall have elapsed the plough-share may 
course its way over all. 



228 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 




of Montgomery and Third streets, and was opened for public 

worship in the spring of 1850.* In the fall of 1859, the church 

purchased a site on South 
street and commenced the 
erection of the edifice which 
it at present occupies. It 
is 52 by 90 feet, and is in the 
Roman style of architecture. 
The tower and spire are It 5 
feet high; audience room, 
50 by 12 feet in the clear; 
height of ceiling, 32 feet. 
The audience room has 156 
pews, and will seat about 
800. The lecture room in 
the basement is 50 by 55 feet, 
and has 100 pews.f The cost 
of the building and lot was 
about $19,500. A mission 
house, recently erected by 
-^^-,sj5^^,^j^mHW^^^»M^- the church on Washington 

street, was opened for public worship and for Sabbath school 

purposes, on the 12th of August. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 

The society known as Methodists originated in England in 
1129. Its founders wore John Wesley, Charles Wesley, a Mr. 
Morgan, and a Mr. Kirkham, who united in what they denomina- 
ted a "Holy Club," and adopted a system of discipline of so rigid 
and peculiar a character that they were called "Methodists" by 
the students at Oxford, where the club was formed. It sprang 
as it wore from the very bosom of the Church of England, of 
which its leader, John Wesley, was a presbyter, and claimed to 
be a branch of that church. It spread rapidly in England and 
Ireland, where it soon became an established sect; and the title 
which had been applied to it in derision, was subsequently 
proudly accepted by its followers. 

In 1136, the Wesleys visited America, through the invitation 
of Gov. Oglethorpe of the Georgia colony, with a view to labor 
for the conversion of the Indians ; but the enterprise failed, and 

* See engi'aving given in connection with the "United Presbyterian Church." 

t This building was dedicated on Wednesday, August 15, 1860. Dr. Hague, of New 

York, preached in the morning, from Ephesiana 3 : 19. Dr. Gillette preached in the 

evening, from Luke 2 : 49. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 229 

they returned to England in 1738. No farther effort was made 
to introduce the new sect in this country for several years. 
Bitter persecution at home, however, sent many of its followers 
hither, and before the close of half a century it had assumed a 
prominent position among the religious bodies of the republic. 

A brief review of the progress of the Methodist society in this 
country, and of the system which was adopted to carry forward 
its missionary labors, is perhaps necessary to a proper under- 
standing of the manner in which it was introduced in this town. 
In 1*166, a company of Irish emigrants, of whom Philip Embury 
was one, organized a society in New York; and, in 1168, they 
erected in that city the first Methodist church in America.* 
About the same time Eobert Strawbridge, who was also a native 
of Ireland, organized a society in Maryland, and built a log 
meeting-house near Pipe creek, in that province. Other emi- 
grants from the British Isles who had settled in Philadelphia, 
laid the foundations of a society in that city, which soon rivalled, 
in point of numbers and active zeal, the one in New York. 
Encouraged by the progress of the sect in America, Mr. Wesley 
sent over two additional laborers, in 1169, viz: Richard Board- 
man and Joseph Pilmore,t *he former being stationed at New 
YoVk, and the latter at Philadelphia. In 1111, Francis Asbury| 
and Richard Wright were added to the work; and in 1113, 
Thomas Rankin and George Shadford. Rankin was appointed 
by Mr. Wesley "General Assistant of the Societies in America," 
and soon after his arrival he issued a call for "a conference of 
all the preachers in America," with a view to systematize the 
work. The meeting was held at Philadelphia, July 4, 1113, and 
was the first "conference" that ever assembled in this country. 
The society then embraced 1160 members, of whom 500 were in 
Maryland. 

During the war of the Revolution, the society gradually de- 
creased in New York and Philadelphia, but continued to spread 
rapidly in the southern states, so that while its total membership 
at the close of the war was 13,140, only about 1100 were resi- 
dent north of Philadelphia. After the peace, Wesley suggested 

* This bnilding was then called "Wesley chapel." It suhsequently became known as 
the "John Street church." 

t Dr. Pilmore afterwards joined the Episcopal chnroh, and was for many years Rector 
of St. Paul's. 

i After his arrival at Philadelphia, Asbury wrote to Wesley that ho had found 300 
members of the society in New York, 250 in Philadelphia and a few in New Jersey, 
in all about 600, without including those in Maryland, of whose numbers at that time 
he was ignorant. 



230 METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 

to his followers in the United States that they should make an 
organization independent of the society in England. This was 
accordingly done in 1185, and the title of the "Methodist Epis- 
copal Church" was adopted to designate the new denomination.* 
Thomas Coke and Philip Asbury were appointed bishops, or 
superintendents, and the society was divided into districts over 
which "elders" were stationed under whose charge two or more 
preachers were placed. The preachers were then styled "assis- 
tants," and the fields in which they labored were called "circuits." 
The itinerant principle, which is still one of the distinctive 
features of the Methodist church, was adopted, and the preach- 
ers held their "circuits" only for a year. In this way the work 
was zealously prosecuted, often amid extreme hardships, and 
the society regained the ground which it had for a time lost, and 
won new triumphs in the north as well as the south. 

In It 86, New York and New Jersey were divided into two 
"el4er districts," one of which embraced the East Jersey, New- 
ark, New York city, and Long Island, "circuits," and formed the 
extreme northern limit of the society in the United States at 
that time. The East Jersey "circuit" bordered on Orange county, 
and had stationed on it as "assistants," John McClaskey and 
Ezekiel Cooper. While Mr. Cooper was on this circuit, (lt86) 
one of his public services was attended by Col. David McCamley, 
who invited him to preach at his residence in the town of War- 
wick. Mrs. Arthur Smith, a sister of Col. McCamley, was visiting 
her brother at the time of the service there, and at her solicitation 
Mr. Cooperf accompanied her to her residence in Middlehope, 
where he held the first Methodist service in the town of New- 
burgh. The date at which it was held cannot now be ascertained, 
but it was probably in October, 1186. Mr. Cooper, accompanied 
by Samuel Purdy, also visited at this time Jolin Woolsey, near 
Milton, and having established here an out-post for missionary 
labor far beyond the bounds of his cij-cuit, he returned to New 
Jersey. Six weeks later, John McClaskey and John Cooper 
passed over the same route, and extended the new circuit to the 

* "Therefore, at this Conference, we formed ourselves into an independent clmroh; 
and following the counsel of Mr. John Wesley, who recommended the Episcopal mode 
of church government, we thought it best to become an Episcopal church, making the 
Episcopal otBoe elective, and the elected superintendent, or bishop, amenable to the 
body of ministers and preachers." — Min. Am. Con. 1, p 22. 

f Ezekiel Cooijer wa.9 born Fob. 22, 17C3, in Caroline county, Maryland. His name 
first appears in the Conference minutes in 178.5, though he was previously employed by 
Bishop Asbury. He was the Drat "editor and general book steward", of the society, 
having received that appointment in 1800 Sixty-four years of his lif^ was spent ik the 
ministry, and ho was long regarded as one of the brighteat lights . of the Amerioaa 
pulpit. He died on the 21st of February, 1847, at the age of 84 years. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 231 

Paltz, where they held service at the residences of Hendrick 
Deyo and Andries DuBois. They also stopped in the village of 
Newburgh, and preached at the house of Elnathan Foster,* where 
a "class" was soon after formed. In January, Ezekiel Cooper 
again visited the district, and held service at the house of Saml. 
Fowler in Middlehope, which was henceforth a regular preaching 
station until 1813. From 1813 to 1822, the meetings were held 
in a barn owned by Daniel Holmes in the summer, and in Mr, 
Fowler's house in the winter. 

The success which had attended the efforts of Mr. Cooper and 
his associates, led to- the organization, in ItSS, of the Flanders 
(N. J.) circuit, which embraced this section of country. The 
preachers on this circuit were Jesse Lee, Aaron Hutchinson, and 
John Lee, and it had 543 members. In 1789, it was again 
divided and the Newburgh circuit established, its preachers 
being Nathl. B. Mills and Andrew Harpending. It embraced 
261 of the membership of Flanders circuit,f and was divided 
into the following "classes" or informal societies, viz: 

Warwick Glass, at Warwick. 

John Ellison's Class, :j: at New Windsor. 
Luft Smith's Class, near Marlborougli. 



Saml. Fowler's Ctes, at Middlehope. 

Elnathan Foster's Class, at Newburgh. 

Uvmson Ward's Class, at Fostertown. 

Geo. Stanton's Class, at Gardnertown. 

Daniel Holmes' Class, at Middlehope. 

Jacob Dayton's Class, near Latintown . 

Latintown Class, at Latintown. 

Samuel Wyatt's Cla^, at Keytown. 

Schaltz's Class, at Dolsentown. 

Widow Ellison's Class, at Poohuck. 



David Ostrander's Class, at Plattekill. 

David Stephens' Class, in the Clove. 

Eichard Garrison's Class, in the Clove. 
Saml. Ketcham's Class, near Sugar Loaf. 
Arter's Class, Barton's Class, 

John McWhorter's Class, 
Long Pond Class, 



These classes continued to be visited by the circuit preachers 
until they ripened into societies of suflScient strength to support 
located ministers, or until that end was attained by the union of 
two or more classes in a short circuit. To trace these changes 
would require a volume, and one which we trust will be written 
at no distant day. We confine our attention, therefore, to a few 
leading facts in the history of Methodist churches in this town. 

1. The First M. E. Church.~In 1808, the "Newburgh," or 

* Mr. Donelly states (ante p. 102) that the first Methodist preacher who visited the 
village of Newburgh was "a Mr. Gillespie, and Irishman by birth. Ezekiel Cooper was 
the next, and John Cooper the next." From the fact, however, that the name of "Gil- 
lespie" is not to be found on the Conference register, we infer that McClaskey was the 
man, and that Mr. Donelly's has fallen into an error from the similarity in the sound of 
the two names. 

t 'The Flanders chrcuit was left with a membership of 282 persona, which fully corrobo- 
rates the statement that the Newburgh circuit was previously embraced in its bounds. 

t This Class held its services in the upper part of a house which Mr. Ellison erected 
expressly for the purpose in 1790 or '91. The building is still standing, and is .situated 
about three hundred feet west of the residence of Charles P. Morton. In 1807, the Class 
was organized into a regular society under the title of the "Methodist Kpi-icnpal Church 
of New Windsor." A suiteble edifice was erected during the same year. This was the 
first M^hodist church in the present county of Orange, and is still occupied by the 
New Windsor society. Several changes, however, have been made in its appearance. 



232 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHUKCHES. 



Date. 


Name. 


Date. 


1820 


Samuel Fowler. 


1841-42 


1821-22 


Tobias Spioer. 
William Jewett. 


1843 


1823 


1844-45 


1824-25 


John D. Moriarty. 


1846-47 


1826-27 


Thomas Mason. 


1848-49 


1828-29 


Robert Seney. 
Stephen L. Stillman. 


1850-51 


1830-31 


1852-53 


1832-33 


James Covell. 


1854-55 


1834 


William Thatcher. 


1856-57 


1835-36 


Seymour Landon. 


1858-59 


1837-38 


John Kennedy. 


1860-61 


1839-40 


Eobert Seney. 





"Elnathan Poster's class," as it was originally called, was organ- 
ized into a church under the title of the "Methodist Episcopal 
Church of the Parish of Newburgh." Its trustees were Morgan 
Cole, Lewis Carter, Wm. Baker, Joseph Cole, and Geo.Westlake.* 
It continued to be supplied by circuit preachers until 1820, when 
Samuel Fowler,f its first located pastor, was appointed to the 
charge. Since that time the following ministers have been 
appointed to the station, viz: 

JVaine. 
Edmund E. Griswold. 
Friend TV. Smith. 
Davis Stocking, 
Zephaniah N. Lewis. 
John L. Gilder. 
Abiathar H. Osbon. 
Charles B. Sing; 
Luther W. Peck. 
Edwin E. Keyes.- 
John W. Beach. 
Charles Shelling. 

The "class" from which the society sprung held its first meet- 
ings (1T86) at the house of Elnathan Foster, which occupied the 
site on which the first Presbyterian church edifice has been 
recently erected. The old Lutheran church and the old clothing 
store-house were also used when the circuit preachers visited 
the station, and after the erection of the Academy the services 
were held in the upper room of that building. | Subsequently 
the old Mcintosh house was occupied. Immediately after the 
organization of the society, it was resolved (June 8, 1808,) to 
erect "a house of worship, 45 by 35 feet," and George Westlake 
and Morgan Cole were appointed to "circulate subscription 
papers, as well as to have the general direction in erecting the 
building." The sum of $773 was subscribed for the purpose, and 
a lot on the corner of Gidney avenue and Liberty street was 

* The records of this church, under date of March 14, 1808, are as follows: 

"By a resolve this day of the members of the society of the Methodist Episcopal 
church in Newburgh, in order to take into consideration (he election of Ave trustees, 
agreeable to an act of the Legislature of this State, to take charge of the temporal 
concerns of an house for religious and divine worship, to be known by the name of the 
Methodist Episcopal church — 

"Resolved, therefore, That one of the official members do publish, on Thursday eve- 
nmg next, being the 17th day of March, instant, and the stated night for public worship, 
that a meeting will be held at the house of Morgan Cole on Friday, the let day of Apnl 
next, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, to elect five trustees for the above purpose." 

t Samuel Fowler was the son of Samnel Fowler at whose residence the first "class" 
in this town was formed. He was admitted to the ministry in 1791, and continued in 
active service until his death, which occurred on the 2d of February, 1831, at the age of 
74 years. 

t This statement is made on the authority of Mr. Donelly, (ante p. 102) and of the 
historical sermons of the late Rev. Dr. Johnston. There is also a tracution that Elnathan 
Foster, in subscribing to the finishing of the upper rooms of the Academy for the use of 
the courts made a condition that the Methodists ahonld be permitted to occupy them, 
which was accepted. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHnECHES. 



233 




purchased from Elnathan Foster for a merely nominal considera- 
tion. The trustees note their first meeting in this building, 
which was calkd the "Brick Chapel," under date of Feb, 18th, 
1811, but it was undoubtedly occupied for public services at an 
earlier date. Even then, however, the interior of the edifice was 
not finished, nor was it completed until 1816 or '17. 

In 1833, (Dec. 23,) the trustees of the church resolved to build 

"a new meeting house, to 
be 50 by 62 feet, after the 
plan of the Washington 
street M. E. Church, Brook- 
lyn, capable of accommo- 
dating 1000 persons." A 
suitable site was purchased 
on Second street, and on 
the 29th July, 1834, the 
corner-stone of the edifice 
now occupied by the society was laid with appropriate ceremo- 
nies.* The building was completed in 1835, and was dedicated 
April 1st of that year. Its cost was about $10,000. f 

2. The Middlehope M. E. Church. — The old original "Samuel 
Fowler's class" and the "Daniel Holmes' class," were organized 
into a church, Dec. 14, 1821, and Wm. Smith, Daniel Holmes, 
David Wyatt, Gilbert Holmes, and Daniel Merritt, were elected 

its first trustees. Arrangements 
were soon after made for erect- 
ing a church edifice, which was 
dedicated Dec. 29, 1822, under 
the title of "Asbury Chapel." % 
It has always been supplied by 
circuit preachers, and is now 
associated with the M. B. church at Fostertown, the two churches 
forming the "North Newburgh circuit." 
, 3. The Gardneriovm M. E. Church.— In 1825, the old "George 

* The building waa erected by Sylranns Loud, builder, and Henry Veltman, mason. 
The tmsteea of the church at that time were Levi P. Dodge, Robert Phillips, Sylvanus 
Loud, Allen Lockwood, and Alanson Bandol. 

t The church is now (1860) engaged in erecting a new edifice, on the comer of Liberty 
and Third streets, which is estimated to coat about J35,O00. Eembiant Lockwood is the 
architect, and Little & Kelly the builders. 

t "Dedicatiou — ^The Methodist Meeting-house, to be known by the name of the 
Asbury Chapel, lately erected about three miles north of this village, was dedicated to 
the worship of Almighty God, on Sabbath, 29th inst. During the daythree very appro- 
priate discourses were delivered. Eev. E. Smith, Eev. A. Soolefleld, and Eev. S. Arnold 
officiated on the occasion Political Index, Dec. 31, 1822. 




234 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHUKCHES. 




Stanton's class" was organized into a church and (Dec. 15) 
Burroughs Westlake, Joshua Marston, David W. Gidney, Silas 
B. Gardner, and Robert Lockwood were chosen "Trustees of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Gardnertown." A suitable edifice 

was erected the 
same year, and 
was dedicated 
on the 20th of 
November. A 
new church was 
built by the so- 
ciety jn 1858, 
and dedicated 
Nov. 24th. Its 
cost was $2750. 
The society is 

still supplied by circuit preachers, and with the societies at 
Eossville and Galeville now forms the "West Newburgh and 
Galeville circuit." 

4. The Rossmlle M. E. Church.— The M. E. church at Ross- 
ville was organized Oct. 8, 1830, when Thomas Aderton, Alvah 
Waring, Wm. Penny, John Bushfield, Nehemiah Fowler, Thomas 

Bushfield, and Gilbert Lockwood, were 

ai elected trustees. The edifice now oc- 

Icupied by the society was erected in 

1831. It is 30 by 42 feet, and cost 

• originally about $600. The society 

cannot be satisfactorily traced to any 

of the original classes. 

5. The FosteHovm M. E. Church.— On the 31st Dec. 1833, the 
old "Munson Ward's class" was organized as the M. E. church at 

Fostertown ; and David Wyatt, Jethro 
i Allison, John F. Williams, Jacob Gillis, 
i and Wm. S. Holmes, were elected its 
i trustees. In 1834, the building now 
[occupied by the society was erected 
■ and was dedicated in September of 

that year. 

6. The Second M. E. Church, Newhurgh. — The organization of 
this church was effected fhrough the instrumentality of Joseph 
Longking, Henry Cornell, and James Martin, who proposed to 
the trustees of the 1st M. E. church (1851) that that body should 





METHODIST EPISCOPAI, CHURCHES. 



235 



hire for the use of such a society the building formerly occupied 
by the second Presbyterian church — the applicants agreeing to 
pay the interest on the debt then existing on that building for 
one year. The trustees, however, declined to take any steps in 
the matter. After further consideration, and with the approval 
of the presiding elder of the district and of Rev. A. M. Osbon, 
the preacher stationed in Newburgh, Mr. Longking and his asso- 
ciates determined to prosecute th'e enterprise; and in compliance 
with their request the presiding elder appointed Rev. Aaron F. 
Palmer, a local deacon, preacher in charge until the ensuing 
session of the New York Conference. The society was formally 
organized on Sunday, May 23d, 1852, at the residence of Mr. 
Cornell, at which time certificates of membership were received 
from seven persons. 

Previous to this time, however, arrangements had been made 
for the use of the second Presbyterian church edifice, and, on 
the 9th of June following, Henry Cornell, James Martin, John 
H. Waters, Nelson Austin, and Joseph Longking, were unani- 
mously elected trustees, and the articles of corporation were 
formed. At the annual session of the New York Conference 
for 1852, Rev. Rufus C. Putney was appointed to the charge. 
The church edifice was dedicated on the 13th of June, and on 
the 25th of that month the society had a membership of 129 
persons, nearly all of whom had been previously connected 
with the First church. 

The building which had 
been rented for the society 
at the time of its organi- 
zation, was purchased by 
its trustees in March, 1853, 
foi $5,000,which was prin- 
cipally paid by subscrip- 
tions; and at about the 
same time arrangements 
were made for erecting a 
parsonage and also a build- 
ing for lectures and class 
meetings. These buildings 
were completed Sept. 12th, 1853 — the former at a cost of $2,349, 
and the latter at $2,109. The church edifice is of brick and has 
accommodations for about 600 persons. 




236 ST. Patrick's catholic church. 

The following have been the pastors of the church, viz: 



Date. 


Name. 


Date. 


Name. 


1852-53 


Kufos C. Putney. 


1858.59 


B. L. Prentice. 


1854-55 


L. W. Walaworth. 


1860.61 


John P. Hermance 


1856-57 


David Buck. 







ST. Patrick's catholic church. 
The history of the efforts for the introduction of Catholicism 
in this state during the colonial period possesses a deep interest, 
embracing as it does the incidents of the French and Indian 
wars which were waged from 1681 until the termination of 
French rule in Canada. The work was commenced in 1608, and 
was attended with considerable success among the more northern 
Indian tribes. The efforts for the conversion of the Six Nations, 
however, met with very little encouragement until after the 
accession of James II to the throne of England, who instructed 
the governors of the province to extend to the French missionaries 
every facility for the prosecution of the enterprise. The privi- 
leges thus granted, however, were soon employed by the French 
to secure the ascendancy of their own national interests among 
the Iroquois,* and compelled even James himself to materially 
modify the zeal which he had manifested for the propagation of 
the faith which he professed. 

The accession of William and Mary was followed by an entire 
change in the policy of the English government. Even the tole- 
ration of Catholicism was forbidden; and the instruction to the 
governors of the provincef on this point were followed (1100) 
by an act of the provincial assembly punishing with death every 
Catholic priest who should voluntarily come into the province.^ 
This act remained in force until after the commencement of the 
war of the Eevolution, when it was so far relaxed, by the terms 
of the first constitution of the state, as to permit freedom of 
opinion to all who should subscribe the oath of allegiance.§ 
Although many Catholics availed themselves of this act, it was 
not until about the beginning of the present century that mis- 
sionary efforts were renewed. Since that time the progress of 
the church in this state has been remarkable. 

In 1808, New York was erected into a "Suffragan See," and 

* Colonial Hist. N. Y. iii, 799, 836— iv, 3i9, 368. 

t "And you are to pennitt a liberty of Consoienoe to all persona (except Papists) so 
they be contented with a quiet and peaceable enjoyment of the same, not giving offence 
or Scaudall to the Government."— Co/. Hist. N. V., iii, 689, 822. 

t Among the laws passed in 1700, was "one for hanging every popish prioat that came 
voluntarily into the province, which was occasioned by the great number of French 
Jesuits, who were continually practicing upon our Indians." — Smith's Hist. iV.F.,159. 

§ Sec. 38, Constitution of 1777.— Journal Proy. Conv. 897. 



ST. Patrick's catholic chuhgh. 231 

missionaries soon began to spread along the Hudson. Tradition 
and written testimony give tlie date of the first service held 
by Catholic priests in Newburgh as 1816-'18, when the Rev. Mr. 
Kinna said mass at the house of Henry Gilmore, on Western 
Avenue. The attendants upon his ministrations, which were 
only occasional, were as follows, viz: Mark Mclntyre, John 
Fitzpatrick, Henry Gilmore, Daniel Devlin, Dennis McCool, Enos 
McAlister, Michael Bird, George McCahill, Charles Mackin, Owen 
McGahey, Patrick McGahey, and Thomas and Hugh Riley, and 
their families. 

Missionary labors were continued here until 1826, when the 
present church was formed. The number of Catholics did not 
then exceed thirty, and mass was said every six months. Soon 
after this time, the circuits of the traveling missionaries being 
reduced in extent, the Rev. Philip O'Reilly was stationed on 
the Newburgh district and said mass here once every month. 
In 1836, the Rev. Patrick Duffy was appointed to the station, 
and for seventeen years remained Catholic pastor of Newburgh. 
He died in 1853. After an interval of one year, during which 
time the church was ministered to by the Rev. Mr. Gallagher, 
the Rev. E. J. O'Reilly, the present incumbent was appointed 
permanent pastor. 

The service of mass was first said in Mr. Gilmore's house, as 
already stated. Afterwards, and for a number of years, the 
Mcintosh house was used by the congregation. In 1838, the 
preliminary steps were taken for the erection of a church edifice, 
and the site now occupied was purchased by subscriptions from 
resident Catholics, aided by outside collections and contributions 
from members of other denominations. The building was com- 
pleted and opened for service in December, 1842. Its value was 
then estimated at about $12,000. It was a stone structure, about 
100 by 60 feet, with no architectural features. It was neatly fitted 
up with pews and a small gallery, had an organ and two fine oil 
paintings, about 14 by 9 feet, representing the birth and the 
entombment of the Saviour, painted by Rembrandt Lockwood. 

In 1852, a field was purchased, at the corner of First and 
Stone streets, and a Cemetery opened. In 1854, a lot was pur- 
chased adjoining the church and a pastoral residence erected 
thereon — the house and lot costing about $10,000. The year 
1858 was signalized by the erection of a commodious school 
house, situated immediately west of the church, which was 
completed and opened on the 29th of November of that year. 



238 FIRST UNIVERSALIST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The church, we should remark, has maintained a free school since 
1846. It is now under the charge of Mr. John Ashhurst and 
competent assistant teachers. In 1855, a Library Association 
was organized, and some 600 volumes collected. For four years, 
ending with August, 1860, this association published a very 
spirited monthly magazine, edited by Mr. Ashhurst. A Subbath 
school and other organizations peculiar to the Catholic faith, are 
also connected with the church. 

The church is now (1860) engaged in making extensive 
alterations and additions to its house of worship, which, when 
completed, will render it one of the finest ecclesiastical structures 
on the Hudson river. The plan is in the style known as the 
Decorated Gothic of the 13th century. The building will be 
cruciform, the front ornamented with pinnacles and parapets of 
rich crochet and quatrefoil work. A noble tower, surmounted 
by a spire of open tracery work, will be added to the front. 
The windows are to be of heavy carved work and will be iilled 
with richly stained glass. The ceiling will be arched and ribbed, 
and the finish throughout will be of the highest order. The plans 
were furnished by Rembrandt Lockwood, and the work is being 
executed under his direction by J. Gill, mason, and Little & 
Kelly, carpenters. The following will be the dimensions of the 
building, viz: Length, 150 feet; length of transept, 75 feet; front, 
55 feet 3 inches; height of ceiling, 29 feet; spire, 135 feet.* 

FIRST UNIVERSALIST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The facts relative to the early efforts for the introduction of 
Univcrsalism in Newburgh, are almost wholly traditional. It is 
said that thirty or forty years^ ago, the Rev. Mr. Mitchell, of New 
York city, preached here a few times. He occupied the ball-room 
of the old Mansion House, and it is remembered that he always 
had a medallion hung on the wall behind his pulpit, on which 
was inscribed, in letters of gold, "God is Love." His meetings 
were well attended, but no society was formed, and tlie effect of 
his labors was only transient, borne fifteen years ago, the Rev. 
Mr. Parker, now of Troy, as well as the Rev. Mr. Lyon, of New 
York, are said to have preached to small audiences here. 

In 1858, a few friends of Univcrsalism resolved to make an 
attempt to establish the ministry of that faith in Newburgh, and 
for that purpose they invited the Rev. T. Borden, then of Hudson, 
to hold service here. He accepted the invitation, and preached 

* The work of altering the church edifice is not sufficiently advanced to enable us to 
obtam a suitable engraving. 



rlEST UNITED PKESBYTEKIAN CHDECH. 



239 



his first discourse in Newburgh on the 21st November, at the 
Court House. The services w^ere well attended; and on the 22d, 
a meeting of those friendly to that church was held and a com- 
mittee appointed to secure a regular supply of ministerial labor. 
The informal organization continued to gain strength, and, on 
the 21st of February, 1859, the society was regularly organized, 
in accordance with the statute, under the title of the "First 
Universalist Congregational Church of the village of Newburgh.'' 
In October, the Rev. W. B. Cook was chosen pastor of the church 
and has since continued in the charge. 

The services'of the church were held in the Court House until 

July, 1860. In July, 
1859, a lot was pur- 
chased on Liberty-st., 
and the erection of a 
church edifice was 
commenced soon after. 
The building was com- 
pleted in July, 1860, 
and was dedicated on 
Wednesday, Aug. 1st. 
It is in the Italian 
style of architecture, 
and was constructed 
_ from plans furnished 
>'by John D. Kelly, of 
Newburgh, It is neat- 
ly finished and furnish- 
^.^ es accommodations for 
about 300 persons. 

FIRST UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

On the 25th May, 1858, a union, with reference to which nego- 
tiations had long been pending, was consummated at Pittsburg, 
Pa., between the two branches of the Presbyterian family known 
as the "Associate" and the "Associate Reformed" churches, under 
the title of the "United Presbyterian Church." 

On the 9th of Nov. 1859, the friends of the new organization 
residing in Newburgh, joined in a petition to the Presbytery of 
New York for the constitution of a congregation to be known as 
the "First United Presbyterian Church of Newburgh." This 
petition having been granted, Rev. Alexander Mc Williams was 
appointed by the Presbytery to organized the church, which then 




240 



ST. Paul's episcopal chubch. 







embraced 36 members. George Gearns, George Lendrum, John 
Geddes, senr., and Dr. Matthew Stevenson, were elected ruling 
elders, and Andrew Johnston, B. W. Chambers, Thomas M. 
McCann, Jas. S. Strachan, Robert Hyndman, George Lendrum, 
George Gearns, John Geddes, senr., and John Brown, were 
chosen as trustees. On the 31st December, the trustees pur- 
chased the edifice then 
occupied by the Bap- 
tist church, situated on 
^ Montgomery-st. , (cor- 
ner of Fourth street,) 
where the congrega- 
tion has since held pub- 
lic worship. Although 

as yet destitute of a 

settled pastor, the membership of the church has been steadily 
increasing and now numbers 60 persons. 

ST. Paul's episcopal church. 
The organization of this church sprang from an ardent desire, 
on the part of several members of St. George's parish, to extend 
the influence of the Protestant Episcopal faith over a field wider 
than that which it was thought could be successfully embraced 
under a single church jurisdiction. The proposition to divide the 
old parish and erect an additional one, was made in 1858, but no 
steps were then taken to accomplish that object. On the 12th May, 
1860, the proposition was renewed, and a formal application was 
made to the rector of St. George's, in accordance with the laws of 
the Episcopal church, for his official consent to the organization 
of a new congregation within the limits of his parish.* 
The application received the consent of the Rev. Dr. Brown, 

* "Newbcbgh, N. Y., May 12th, 1860. 
Tothe Rev. John Brown, D. D., Rector of St. OeorgeH Church: 

Kevbkgnd and deab Sib: — The undersigned, members of the Pariah of St. Gccorge'a 
Church, Newburgh, and deeply interested in the cause of church-extension within our 
own immediate borders, hereby respectfully request your official consent to tho organi- 
zation of a new Parish, in the village of Newbnrgh, to which we propose to attach 
ourselves. 

We pledge ourselves to provide a competent support for the Hector whom we may 
call, without additional aid or stipend from any quarter; and only ask of the mother 
Parish that, for two or three years, or until we sh^ll be able to erect a church edifice 
for the new Parish, she will allow ns the free use of St. John's Chapel for our Church 
services and Sunday school. 

It is not without due consideration of its importance that we propose a measure which, 
if your permission be granted, will divide into two bands the Ciiurchmen of our Village, 
hitherto one united family under you, and which will, to some extent, remove ua ft-om 
that pastoral care which has watched over many of us from our spiritual birth until 
now. We are encouraged, however, by the conviction that the numbers, zeal and 
strength of our Church have now reached a point where the interests of the Great 
Cause, in which we are all engaged, demand the creation of another Parish within her 



ST. PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



241 



and the congregation of St. Paul's church was soon after infor- 
mally organized. On the 5th of June, the members of the 
proposed new congregation extended a unanimous call to the 
Eev. Hobart Chetwood, at that time assistant minister of St. 
George's church, to be their pastor. This call was accepted by 
Mr. Chetwood — the acceptance to take effect at the termination 
of his engagement to the old parish, Nov. 1st, 1860. By the 
subsequent action of the vestry of St. George's, Mr. Ohetwood's 
connection with that parish ceased on the 23d of June; and, on 
the 25th of June, he consetited to enter at once upon his duties 
as minister of St. Paul's. The organization of the church was 
completed on the 11th September, by the election of David M, 
Clarkson and William E. Warren, wardens ; and F. 0. Withers, 
Hiram Falls, H. H. Bell, Wm. Bogert, E. V. K. Montfort, John 
Gordon, E. W. Gray, and G. J. Appleton, vestrymen. 

The vestry of St. George's having deemed it inconsistent with 
the true interests of their parish to grant to the new enterprise 
the use of St. John's chapel, as had been requested, a room was 
engaged in the Highland Academy, where the first service was 
held on Sunday, July 1st. Within a fortnight after that date, 

a lot was pur- 
chased on 
Grand sti-eet, 
at a cost of 
$4100, and a 
contract o n - 
t e r e d into 
with Mr. Jno, 
Little for the 
erection of a 
chapel. The 
building was 
opened for di- 
vine worship 
on the first 
Sunday in Oc- 
tober, (Oct. 1, 
1860.) The building is of brick, and is designed to seat about 

borders; and We are persuaded tjiat'it'will be, to you, a source of the highest gratifica- 
tion, as a proof of the siiooess of yoor life-long labors among Us, that we, who are but 
a small portion of the fruits of your ministry, have been brought, by you, to that de- 
gree of strength that we ai:e well able to walk alone; and though there may well be, to 
one who has rf long and SO tenderly watched over us, some sUrmking from the thought 
that a number of your flock Should pass away from your immediate pastoral charge to 




16 



242 THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

two hundred persons. Its cost, including furniture, was about 
$2300. After the completion of the church edifice, which is to be 
erected on the same lot, the chapel will be used for the Sunday- 
school, and for other parish purposes. 

— In addition to those already enumerated there are three 
churches composed of colored men. The first of these — the 
"African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church" — has a neat edifice on 
Washington street; the second — the ShUoh Baptist Church — 
occupies the old Mcintosh house on Liberty street, and the 
third occupies a small building on Campbell street. There are 
altogether twenty-five churches in the town, and the aggregate 
value of the property held by them is about $300,000. 

THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

The Theological Seminary of the Associate Reformed church 
was the first institution of the kind in the United States- There 
were indeed Professors of Divinity (most of whom we/e connec- 
ted with colleges) who were accustomed to deliver lectures on 
the science of Theology to such students as pleased to attend; 
but there was no institution expressly designed for the training 
of candidates for the ministry, and formally organized on an 
academic basis, in existence in this country previous to the erec- 
tion of this Seminary. 

The first steps towards its establishment were taken by the 
Associate Eeformed Synod, in 1796, on the suggestion of one of 
its youngest members, . Mr. afterwards Dr. John M. Mason, of 
New York, then in the early dawn of his brilliant career. At 
the meeting of Synod, in 1196, an act was adopted "concerning 
a Synodical Fund," — the main object of which fund was to aid 
poor and pious youth in their studies for the ministry, and to main- 
tain a Professorship of Theology. The church was small, the 
country was very poor in those days, and the growth of the fund 
was necessarily slow; but the ideas thrown out by Dr. Mason 
had taken root in the minds of his brethren, and at the meeting 
of Synod in 1801, it was resolved, after much discussion, to erect 
a Theological Seminary on a peculiar plan, and of a higher order 
than any "school of the prophets" then in being. Dr. Mason was 

that of another, yet we confidently trust that all regret will disappear when we assure 
you, as we do from our heai'ts, that no new organization can ever for a moment wean 
us from the affectionate respect which we shaJlJ ever bear to you, the true Spiritual 
Father of so many of us; and we doubt not that the clergyman whom we may call to 
minister to us in sacred things, will rejoice to look up to you, always and at all times, 
with filial reverence and respect. 

With sentiments of sincere and affectionate respect, we subscribe ourselves your 
faithful friends and parishioners, DATED M. CLARKSON, ft 

WILLIAM E. WABEEN, P. C. WITHERS, (and twenty-six othera.) 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINAEY. 243 

sent to Great Britain to ask help from the churches of the father 
land, and he obtained the handsome sum of about $5,500, which 
was chiefly expended in the purchase of a noble library. Among 
the British friends (and founders as they may be called) of the 
Seminary, the names of William Wilberforce, John Thornton, 
Joseph Hardcastle, Drs. John Hunter, Jolm Erskine, James Hall, 
James Peddie, and Henry Belfrage, deserve to be held in perpetual 
remembrance. Dr. Mason returned in 1802, and was unanimously 
chosen to preside over the infant institution, which was at first 
located in New York, where it was opened in 1805. The number 
of students rapidly increased, and considering the size of the 
denomination, it continued to be unusually large, until the sus- 
pension of the Seminary in 1821. This unfortunate result was 
mainly owing to the failing health of Dr. Mason, which had com- 
pelled him to retire from a sphere in which he had spent the best 
years of his life, and to which he was enthusiastically devoted. 
By a vote of the General Synod of the Associate Eeformed 
church in 1822, (which was judicially declared a few years after- 
wards to have been illegal) the library was transferred to the 
Seminary at Princeton. 

The operations of the Seminary were suspended until the 
summer of 1829, when the A. R. Synod of New York determined 
to resuscitate the institution and to locate it at Newburgh. The 
Rev. Joseph McCarrell, D. D., of Newburgh, was elected Profes- 
sor of Theology, and the Rev. Drs. John McJimpsey, Alexander 
Proudfit, Robert Forrest, and D. C. McLaren, were chosen Super- 
intendents. During the following year, the necessary steps were 
taken (after sundry fruitless appeals to the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian church) for the recovery of the library and funds 
removed to Princeton in 1822, and, after a protracted lawsuit, 
they were restored to their old owners. 

Another important movement was made in 1836, viz: for the 
erection of a suitable edifice for the accommodation of the stu- 
dents and professors. For so small a body as the Synod of New 
York, the undertaking was an almost herculean one. Money 
was collected from various sources, an admirable site covering 
thirteen acres of land was purchased, and a charter of incorpo- 
ration was granted by the Legislature of this statf; on the 25th 
May, 1836. The trustees named in the act were Hon. John Wil- 
la^d of Salem, Hon. Wm. M. Oliver of Penn Yan, Hon. Archibald 
C. Niven and Alpheus Dimmick of Monticello, Hon. Robert Den- 
niston of Salisbury, Hon. John W. Brown, and John Forsyth, D. 



244 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

W. Bate, and Daniel Farrington, Esqs., of Newburgh, James 
Waugh and William Wear, Esqs., of Little Britain, James D. 
Bull, Esq., of Hamptonburgh, and Benjamin Parker, Esq., of 
Kortright. The foundation of the Seminary was laid in 1831 * 
and the building was completed in 1839 at a cost (including 
land) of about $25,000. 

The library embraces about 5,000 volumes, many of them 
rare and valuable works. The Professors have been as follows: 

Systematic Theology— Bjbv. John M. Mason, D. D., 1805—1821. Rev. Alexander 
Proadfit, D. D., 1820—1821. Rev. Joseph McCarrell, D. D., 1829— now ProfesBor. 

Biblical Literature — Bev. James M. Mathews, 1809 — 1816. Rev. James Arbuokle, 
Assistant, 1820— 1821. Bev. John Forsyth, Jr., 1837—1845. Rev. David L. Proadfit, 
1840—1842. 

Church History, ^c— Rev. John Forsyth, D. D., 1852—1859. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Glebe School. — The first public school in Newburgh- was that 
contemplated in the charter to the Glebe, and which was known 
for many years as the Glebe school. The time at which it was 
first opened cannot now be ascertained, but it was probably 
soon after the settlement of the Eev. Hezekiah Watkins. Nor 
is it possible to determine who was the first school-master. 
The offices of minister and school-master, however, were not com- 
bined in one person, as has been generally supposed. This is 
evident from the setting apart of a lot for the minister and 
another for the school-master, and the erection of dwellings")" 
thereon respectively, as well as from the books of the trustees of 
the Glebe. During a portion of the time that Mr. Watkins held 
the office of minister, a Mr. Palmer performed the duties of school- 
master.J In 1168, Lewis Donveur conducted the school; § in 
1169, Joseph Penny; and in 1113, Thomas Gregory.|| In 1114, 
John Nathan Hutchins was employed, and continued in the school 
until a short time prior to his death, which occurred in 1182. 
His successor was Eichard King, who served from September 
18, 1182, until the settlement of the Kev. Mr. Spierin, in 1190.1f 

* The Theological Seminary, under the auspices of the Associate Reformed church, 
is now permanently located in Newburgh, and a splendid building for its accommodation 
is about to be erected here. The plan of the building- which is to be 104 feet front by 
40 deep— is by Mr. T. M. Niven, and the site selected is an eminence on the farm lately 
owned by Henry Walsh, west of the Village.— TeicgrapA, Feb. 23, 1837. 

t Engravings of the dwellings refen-ed to, will be found on pages 41 and 42. In 1778, 
"the house and barn, and that part of the school lot next to the road," was rented to 
Richard Albertson. At the commencement of the present century, the old parsonage 
was rented to the town and was occupied as the poor hou8e.~^ccoun« Book of the Glebe. 

t "Sept. ye 18, 1765. Then settled the above account with the Executor of Hezekiah 
Watkins, deceased, and with the school-master. Palmer, in full," &c. (£19. 8. 6.) 

§ "Sept. 16, 1768. Then paid Lewis Donveur, school-master, ye sum of £17 17s lOd." 

II "Paid the above half sum to Mr. John Sayres, and the other half to the school- 
master, Thomas Gregory, for me," &o. — Account Book of the Glebe. 

IT Account Book of Trustees of the Glebe, p. 33. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 245 

Mr. Spierin's engagement contemplated the combining of the two 
offices of minister and school-master, and gave rise to the difficul- 
ties which eventually terminated the jurisdiction of the Episcopal 
church over the Glebe.* He resigned in 1793. The records of 
the trustees fail to show the name of Mr. Spierin's successor, or 
indeed that of any teacher for several years. It is probable, 
however, that the school was conducted in the Academy from 1796 
to 1804, during which time that school was under the charge of 
the trustees of the Glebe. The "act to amend the charter of the 
Glebe," passed by the Legislature in 1803, directed that "the sum 
of |200, of the revenues arising from the Glebe," should be "paid 
annually to the trustees of the Academy;" and that "the remain- 
der of the money arising from such annual income," should be 
"paid to the trustees of the other schools which are, or may here- 
after be, established on the Glebe," as the inhabitants should 
direct. The jurisdiction of the trustees of the Glebe being thus 
terminated, the old Glebe school ceased to exist. 

No division of the revenues from the Glebe, as required by the 
act of 1803, appears to have been made until 1809, when what 
was called "the juvenile school in old town," was established. 
This school was subsequently known as the Glebe school, from 
the fact that the trustees of the Glebe were directed by the in- 
habitants of the patent to pay to it that portion of revenues not 
appropriated to the Academy. It also received one half of the 
public money after the creation of the common school fund. It 
was conducted for several years by Mr. Adams ; and for a few 
years prior to 1830, by John P. Tarbell. Mr. John Goodsell suc- 
ceeded Mr. Tarbell and continued the school until 1846 or '47. 

The first building occupied by the school was that which we 
have previously spoken of as the "school-master's house.'' All 
the teachers appear to have occupied this building prior to 1774. 
Mr. Hutchins and Mr. King (the latter at least part of the time) 
held the school in the "parsonage house." In 1789, the trustees 

* "Agreed, that the Eev. Geo. H. Spierin shall be entitled to receive the whole of the 
rents and benefits arising from the Glebe lands, while he continues to officiate as minis- 
ter, and teach the children of the inhabitants of the German patent on the following 
terms, viz: Beading, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography, History, and English Grammar, 
at 123 per quarter, Reading, Writing, and Aritlimetio, at 83 per quarter. Provided 
always, that no children incapable of studying the above branches shall'be admitted or 
received into the school. And, that should a poor child come properly recommended as 
such, he shall be received into the Enklish school gratis. And if a youth of strong 
natural abilities of the like description offer, he shall be received into the Classical school 
also gratis. Providedalso,thatshould the rents and privileges of the Glebe hereafter 
become more valuable, that then, in such case, the terms of teaching the children living 
on the patent shall be reduced in such manner as to be equivalent to said advantages, so 
far as may relate towards the supporting of a school, and as the trustees shall deem 
proper." — Mirtutea of the Trustees. 



246 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

rented a house for the school from James Van Orsdall; * and Mr. 
Spierin held it in a house which now forms part of the residence 
of Chas. P. V. Keeve. We next find the school (under the title 
of "the juvenile school of old town") occupying the old Lutheran 
church, where it was continued down to 1846 or '47, when it was 
removed to the Academy. 

On the 6th of April, 1848, the Legislature passed an act to 
divide school district No. 13, and to erect district No. 15. The 
law also directed the levying of a tax of $5,000 upon district 
No. 13, as it existed prior to the passage of the act; and that 
$3,000 of the money so raised should be applied to the extinguish- 
ment of a debt on that district, and that the remainder should be 
expended in the erection of a school building in district No. 15. 
The trustees of the new district were also empowered to receive 
such portion of the Glebe monies as the inhabitants should direct 
and apply the same to the reduction of rate bills. 

The new district was immediately organized under this law; 
and a site was selected and the erection of a school building 
commenced. BefoTe the building was completed, the inhabitants 
were called to determine what disposition should be made of the 
Glebe revenues beyond the amount directed by law to be paid to 
the trustees of the Academy. The trustees of the Glebe at that 
time, viz: John Bcvridge, Samuel J. Farnum, and T. M. Niven, 
proposed that the unappropriated balance should be devoted to 
the payment of scholarships in the Academy; but the suggestion 
was not favorably received, and, at a public meeting held on the 
13th of April, 1849, it was rejected. At the same meeting a 
resolution was adopted directing the trustees of the Glebe to pay 
to the trustees of school district No. 15, whatever revenue might 
be derived from the Glebe, "over and above the sum I'oquired bj' 
law to be paid to tlio Academy." The resolution also declared, 
that "the said district school, No. 15, shall hereafter be known 
as the Glebe school ;" and this designation continued until the 
adoption of the present free school system. 

Newburgh Academy. — The Newburgh Academy was erected in 
1195-'6. On the settlement of the Rev. Mr. Spierin, in 1790, 
he announced his intention to open "an Academy for the instruc- 
tion of youth in the Greek and Latin languages, and the different 

* The trustees purchased new furniture for the school at this time. The account of 
the treasurer contains the following items, viz: 
"To cash paid D. Howell for hoards, &o., for awriting table for the school, £0 5s Od 
" " Geo. Gardner for 1 lb. nails for the school, Is Od 

" " David Howell for 1 lb. nails for the school, 11 

" " William Niools for 5 slabs for seats for the school, 7g6d." 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 247 

other branches of literature;" and with a view to encourage the 
establishment of a school of the character proposed, the trustees 
of the Glebe stated that "a subscription would be set on foot for 
the building of a convenient house for a Seminary." * In 1191, 
an effort was made to carry this promise into effect, and to that 
end an application was made to the Legislature for permission to 
establish a lottery; but for reasons already stated,f the applica- 
tion failed. The trustees again took up the matter in 1195; and, 
with the aid of private subscriptions,! succeeded in completing 
the erection of the building in 1196. 

The institution continued under the charge of the trustees of 
the Glebe until 1804, when a meeting of the inhabitants of the 
patent was held (June 2d,) at which the following persons were 
elected "trustees to take charge of the school in the Academy," 
viz: James Bate, Anthony Davis, William W. Sackett, Daniel 
Birdsall, James Coulter, William Ross, Richard Hudson, Charles 
Clinton, and Edward Howell. In 1806, it was incorporated under 
the general statute of the state. The trustees named in the 
charter were Daniel Niven, Jas. Scrimgeour, Danl. Birdsall, Jonas 
Storey, Abm. Schultz, David Fowler, John Johnston, John Mc- 
Auley, John Brown, Hugh Spier, Derick Amerman, Wm. Ross, 
and Daniel C. Verplanck. 

The names of the first and of several of the succeeding teach- 
ers of the Academy, cannot now be ascertained. In 1799, Saml. 

* To the Public. — The Eev. George H, Spierin having lately settled at Newburgh, ia 
tlie county of Ulster and state of New York, on the lands formerly granted by the gov- 
ernment lor the support of a Minister and School — this is therefore to inform the public 
that he proposes opening an Academy for the instruction of youth in the Greek and 
Latin languages, and the different other branches of literatni'e, so soon as a sufficient 
number of pupils shall offer themselves. Proper accommodations for their reception 
will be prepared. Boarding, waaliing, and lodging, at £20 per year, (or $1 per week,) 
and £6 for tuition. A subscription will be set on foot for the building of a convenient 
house for a Seminary, and in the meanwhile convenient rooms for the purpose will be 
provided. The agreeable and healthy situation of the town of Newbm'gh.its easy com-, 
munication with every state in the IJnion, with various other concurring circumstances, 
render it a most desirable spot for such an institution. Gentlemen incUning to encourage 
this undertaking, will be kind enough to signify the same by sending then' names to the 
Eev. Mr. Spierin, or to Isaac Belknap and Oadwallader Golden, Trustees of the Glebe 
lands at Newburgh Adv. in Goshen Repository, July 13, 1790. 

t Minutes of the Glebe, ante p. 85. 

i The subscriptions, as shown by the books of the trustees, were much more limited 
than has been generally supposed. In reference to the laud on which the building was 
erected, the account of Elnathan Foster has the following: "Dr. To a lot of land adjoin- 
ing the parsonage, £80." "Cr. By 100 feet of land bought of him for enlarging the 
Academy yard which has never been paid hiei as yet, £14. By a lot of land sold to the 
trustees to the north of the Academy for enlarging the yard thereof, £40;" and the ac- 
count is balanced by "boai-ds,"&c., received from Foster. The land given by Mr.Foster, 
if he gave any, could not have been much more than sufficient for the accommodation of 
the building. In regard to other subscriptions, some idea of their amount may be in- 
ferred il'om the fact that the account of Andrew Lyons, the builder, only reached £350, 
and of this sum Hugh Walsh advanced £215, and was not fully paid in several years. — 
The traditions upon this subject evidently relate to the subscriptions which were made 
in 1798 for ftoishing the upper rooms of the building for the use of the courts. 



248 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




Gillespie was the principal; 1802, James Lawremor; 1803-'4, 
Nathan H. White; 1805, Joel Cooper; 1806, Mr. Brackett; 180T, 
R. W. Thompson; 1809, Jabez Munsel. The more recent princi- 
pals were Luther Halsey, Rev. J. T. Halsey, E. T. Benedict, E. 
Bnrt, J. Stark, Mr. Perkins, Rev. Dr. Prime, and the Rev. R. B. 
Hall. The school was very successfully conducted by several of 
its principals, and especially during the administrations of Mr. 
Halsey, Mr. Perkins, and Mr. Prime. 
The Academy building is located on the west side of Mont- 

gomery-st., a short 
distance north from 
South-st. When it 
was erected only the 
principal floor was 
finished for school 
purposes. In 1798, 
the courts of the 
county were direct- 
ed by law to be held 
at Newburgli and at 
Goshen alternately, 
and for their accommodation the upper floor was finished. A stair- 
way was placed on the north side of the building, and two jury 
rooms, a hall, and the court room, occupied the floor. Courts 
were held here from 1798 until 1843, or about fortj'-five years. 
The court room was also used for public meetings; the general 
and town elections were held there, and, as we have already 
shown, it was tlie cradle of several of our churches. A few 
changes have since been made in the external appearance of the 
building, as well as in its internal arrangement It is now held 
by the Board of Education, and is occupied by the senior depart- 
ment of the public schools. 

High School. — This institution was incorporated April 23d, 
1829, and was constituted the common school for district No. 13, 
wliich then embraced the whole village of Newburgh. For the 
erection of a school building, $1,400 was raised by a tax on the 
inhabitants of the district, and $3,600 by a loan which was divi- 
ded into shares of $25 each. The building was completed and 
opened for scholars in February, 1830, at which time John P. 
Tarboll and Miss Mary Ross were employed as teachers. The 
following persons composed the first board of trustees, viz: Wm. 
M. Wiley, Edmund Sanxay, and James Belknap; Thos. C. Ring, 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 249 

clerk, and David M. DuBois, collector. Orville M. Smith sue- , 
Deeded Mr. Tarbell in 1834, and held the position of principal 
with great credit until the close of the Decemher term in 1848, 
when he resigned. His successor, James P. Brown, served until 
March, 1852, when S. G. McLaughlin was appointed principal 
and held that position until the system of free schools was 
established and the old organization dissolved. 

Few schools in the state have been more successfully con- 
ducted than was the Newburgh High School. Its trustees and 
.its teachers were rarely changed, and not a few of its pupils are 
now occupying positions of trust and influence. One of the most 
commendable features in its management was the appropriation 
of the public money exclusively to the education of poor children. 
A large number of children were thus enabled to avail themselves 
of school privileges who would otherwise have been excluded. 

Free Schools. — The movement which resulted in the adoption 
of the present free school system, was commenced in the spring 
of 1851, when, by the passage of the general free school law, 
the necessity of furnishing increased school accommodations was 
thrown upon the trustees of the several school districts. With 
a view to meet the requirements of the new system, and to ex- 
tend the principle upon which it was founded beyond the provi- 
sions of the state law, so far as the village of Newburgh was 
concerned, Moses H. Belknap, Nelson Haight, and Robt. Sterling, 
trustees of district No. 13, and John Bevridge, A. Gerald Hull, 
and Nathan Reeve, trustees of district No. 15, held a joint meet- 
ing in May and passed the following resolution, viz: 

"Resolved, That the inhabitantg of the village of Newburgh he invited to attend a 
meeting, to be held at Washington Hall on Monday evening, the 12th inst., to consider 
the propriety of applying to the next Legislature for a law to unite the whole village in 
one district — to make all schools in the district free schools — the same to be under the 
charge of a Board of Education to be elected by the people, in manner similar to other 
cities and villages in the state," 

At the meeting held pursuant to this resolution, Mr. Haight 
and Mr. Reeve united in a report showing the necessity for in- 
creased school accommodations, and proposing a system of free 
schools and the establishment of a free Academy. The report 
was accepted, but definite action was postponed until the 23d, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the probability of securing the 
co-operation of the trustees of the Academy, with a view to make 
that institution the free Academy suggested. Mr. Reeve then 
submitted the draft of a law for the purposes embraced in the 
report, which was referred to a committee for examination. 

The meeting held on the 23d adopted the plan proposed, and 



250 PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

. the trustees of the Academy signified their willingness to unite 
in the movement. In this shape the subject remained until 
February 21, 1852, when it was again considered at a public 
meeting and the law prepared in 1851 recommended for passage 
by the Legislature. On the 6th of April, the "Act to provide for 
the establishment of Free Schools in the village of Newburgh," 
passed the Legislature ; and the Academy, the High school, and 
the Glebe school, ceased their separate organization. 

The first election under the law of April 6th, was held on the 
3d of May, when John Bevridge, John J. Monell, Nathl. Jones, 
Chas. F. V. Reeve, Geo. W. Kerr, D. G. Leonard, L. B. Gregory, 
Rev. John Brown, and Thos. C. Ring, were chosen "trustees of 
common schools," and constituted "The Board of Education of 
the Village of Newburgh." The first meeting of the board was 
held May 12th, when its organization was completed by the 
election of John Bevridge, president, and Nathl. Jones, clerk. 

The schools were soon after re-organized under what is known 
as the "graded system." The Academy was made the "senior," 
or highest department, and "intermediate" and "primary" schools 
were opened in the High school and in the Glebe school. The 
accommodations for the attendance of pupils have been materially 
increased since the organization of the system. A commodious 
building has been erected on Washington street; the Clinton 
street building has been enlarged, and a building for a "primary" 
school has been fitted up adjoining the Academy. A school for 
colored children has also been established; and an ample system 
of evening schools is maintained during the winter months. 

Six buildings are now devoted to the pnblic schools, and the 
total value of the school property of the village will probably 
reach $40,000. The expense of the system, which is about $10,000 
annually, is met by the income of the Glebe, the proportion of the 
state tax, and by a special tax upon the district. Twenty-two 
teachers are now employed and over 1800 pupils are registered. 

District Schools.— In addition to the free school system of the 
village, there are in the town twelve school districts under the 
general school law of the state. These schools employ twelve 
teachers and have over 700 pupils. 

Gatholic School. — A free school is also maintained by the 
Catholic church, a more extended reference to which has already 
been made in connection with the article on that church. 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

Several very creditable private schools have been conducted 



PUBLIC LIBEAEIES. 



251 



in the village. The first of this class, with the exception of that 
opened by Mr. Spierin, was established by Kev. Jonathan Free- 
man and Silvanus Haight, April 11, 1802, under the title of 
"Cliosophic Hall." It was a boarding and day school, and was 
held in the building now the residence of Mr. Samuel Williams. 
A private school conducted by Robert Gardiner, about the same 
time, attracted a fair patronage. Female seminaries have been 
conducted by Mrs. DeVendel, (1820,) the Misses Phillips, the 
Rev. Mr. Raymond, Mr. A. Barker, and others. An institute for 
young men was presided over for several years by the Rev. Mr. 
Phinney, and a similar school was established by M. L. Doman- 
ski and is now continued by H. S. Banks. A mixed school 
established several years since by J. J. Brown, is still under the 
superintendence of that gentleman. There have also been several 
other mixed and primary schools. 

The most prominent of the private schools at the present time 
is the Highland Academy, a boarding and day school, which was 
established by Wm. N. Reid. This school occupies the building 
which was erected in 1837, for a boarding house in connection 




with the Academy. It was purchased by Mr. Reid in the autumn 
of 1858, and has since been occupied by him. The location is 
one of the finest in the village ; and, under the thorough system 
of instruction adopted by its principal, the school can scarcely 
fail of becoming a permanent institution. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

Newburgh Library Association. — The Newburgh Library asso- 



252 PUBUC LIBKARIES. 

ciation was organized December, 1836, by stock subscriptions. 
A. J. Downing, Abm. M. Smith, John W. Enevels, J. J. Monell, 
M. V. B. Fowler, D. Q. Leonard, and Alfred Post, were the first 
trustees. A, J. Downing, president; Alfred Post, treasurer; 
Chas. U. Cushman, librarian. 

The first books held by the association were donated to it by 
individuals. Subsequently funds were raised by fairs. In 1838, 
a regatta for the benefit of the library yielded $300; and during 
the same year, Abm. M. Smith, by will, gave $500 to the associa- 
tion. It continued in existence until 1847, when it was united 
with the Mechanics' Library association. 

Newburgh Mechanics' Library Association. — This association was 
organized Nov. 21, 1888, by the joint exertions of a few individu- 
als who felt deeply the necessity for an institution which should 
combine the advantages of a well-selected library with that of a 
debating society. A plan of organization having been agreed 
upon, a meeting of the mechanics of the village was called at 
Nicholson's hotel, on Wednesday evening, Dec. 5th. At this 
meeting, which was well attended, a constitution was adopted 
and officers for the association elected. 

The minutes of the association have only been preserved since 
Dec. 4, 1839; hence the names of its first officers do not appear. 
The officers elected in 1839 were as follows: President, Miles 
Warren; Vice Presidents, Chas. TJ. Cushman, David H. Barclay; 
Recording Secretary, John R. Wiltsie; Corresponding Secretary, 
John Oaughey; Librarians, Robert Sterling, John Little, Jr.; 
Treasurer, John B. Jamison; Executive Committee, Robert Ster- 
ling, John Filkins, Eleazer G. Woolsey, Calvin S. RusSell, James 
S. Young, 

On the 29th March, 1842, the association was incorporated, by 
act of the Legislature, under the name of the "Newburgh Me- 
chanics' Library Association," for the "purpose of establishing 
and maintaining a library, reading room, literary and scientific 
lectures, and other means of promoting the moral, intellectual 
and mechanical improvement" of its members. 

The association established its first course of public lectures, 
Jan. 6th, 1846, and continued them annually until 1858. The 
library of the association was collected by the contribution of 
books, and by purchases made from the proceeds of several fairs. 
On the 23d Sept. 1847, an arrangement was effected with the 
stock-holders of the Newburgh Library, by which the books and 
property of that association were transferred to the Mechanics. 



NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS. 253 

This arrangement established a library of upwards of 3000 vol- 
umes. No effort has since been made to increase the number of 
books; and the revenue of the association has only been sufH- 
cient to replace worn out volumes and to supply annually a few 
of the current standard publications. 

Public School Library. — By the act establishing the present 
system of free schools, the several school district libraries of the 
village were consolidated, and a single library established. The 
collection of books embraces some 3000 volumes, principally 
standard works ; and the number is increasing rapidly by annual 
purchases from the public school revenues. It is a free library, 
and now circulates about 500 volumes weekly. During the 
present year (1860) a very neat library building has been erected-, 
on Grand street, by the Board of Education ; and the institution 
bids fair to become permaaent. 

Newburgh Catholic Library Association. — This association was 
organized in 1855 by several members of St. Patrick's church. 
It embraces some 600 volumes of standard and miscellaneous 
works, about 200 of which are in weekly circulation. 

In addition to the public libraries named, there are in the town 
twelve school district libraries containing an aggregate of 2604 
volumes; and the Sunday-school libraries of the several churches, 
probably embrace not less than 5000 volumes. The library of 
the A. tt. Theological Seminary, embracing some 5,000 volumes, 
is also located here. 

NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS. 

The first newspaper published in Newburgh was The Newburgh 
Packet, which was printed by Lucius Carey in 1T95,* The next 
paper was The Mirror, the publication of which was commenced 
by Philip Van Home in 1197. In 1799, Jacob Schultz removed 
to Newburgh The New Windsor Gazet(e,f the name of which he 

* It has hitherto been supposed that The Mirror was the first paper printed in New- 
burgh. The publication of TAe Newburgh Packet was revealed accidentally. In 1850 
or '51, a family, whose name cannot now be ascertained, while moving through the 
village, dropped a bundle from their loaded wagon. The package was not observed 
until after the family had crossed the river oh the feny. On examination the package 
proved to be a file of The Packet. The thoughtless hands into which it had fallen soon 
divided it up among friends, and scattered it beyond the 'JiossibUity of recovery. The 
copy which we saw was dated Tuesday, Feb. 20, 1795. It contained an account of a 
fire which "broke out in the store of Mr. John McAuley, but by the exertions of the 
citizens the flames were happily extinguished without any material damage to the build- 
i ng;" and forcibly urged the necessity of having an "Engine in town." Among the 
advertisers were the names of John HaiTis — then but a short tune in business — 
Eobert E. Burnet, Levi Dodge, Wm. Miller, Gen. James Clinton, Isaac Hasbroack,Hiigh 
Walsh, Leonard Carpenter, and William Sackett. 

t A copy of this paper (Vol. 1, No. 10, Jan. 16, 1798,) was presented, to us by its 
editor, Jacob Schultz, in 1858. The paper was printed for Mr, Schultz by Abraham 
Lott. 



254 NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS. 

changed to The Orange County Gazette* This paper was pur- 
chased by David Denniston, and its name changed to The Citizen. 
In 1199, a paper called The Bights of Man was established by 
Elias Winfield, for whom it was printed by Benoni H. Howell. 
This paper was also purchased by David Denniston and in- 
corporated with The Citizen. The Mirror was continued until 
1803, when it was merged in The Becorder of the Times, a paper 
published by Dennis Coles. On the 10th April, 1806, the Becorder 
was purchased by Ward M. Gazlay and the name changed to 
The Political Index. This paper was continued until 1829. 

The Mirror and The Citizen were the advocates of Paine's 
infidel teachings. The Gazette was strongly anti-infidel. Thf, 
Bights of Man, the successor of The Citizen, was an uncompro- 
mising opponent of Christianity, and in politics claimed to be of 
the republican school. . Elias Winfield, its first editor, was a 
physician and druggist, and made himself somewhat notorious, 
in 1803, by his advocacy of the theory that the yellow fever 
was of "domestic origin," and that it was "not a contagious 
disease." David Denniston, who succeeded Dr. Winfield in the 
editorial charge of the paper, was a man of strong prejudices 
against Christianity. In 1802, he was connected with the Ameri- 
can Citizen and Watch Tower, a paper printed in New York. He 
died in Newburgh, (Doc. 13, 1803,) of "malignant fever." Tlie 
Becorder of the Times maintained the Christian religion and a 
pure standard of republicanism. The papers were all small — 
about half the size of those now published in the village. The 
Political Index had more of a local than a political character, 
although it advocated republican doctrines. It gave a hearty 
support to the administration of Jefferson, and of Madison, 
and to the war of 1812. Its only competitor was The Orange 
County Patriot and Spirit oflQ, a new series of which was com- 
menced at Newburgh, in 1812, by Lewis & Crowell. This paper 
professed to be "open to all parties, but influenced by none." It 
was subsequently removed to Goshen. 

The Political Index was purchased, in 1829, by Charles U. 
Cushman, who changed its name to The Orange Telegraph, and, 
subsequently, to The Newburgh Telegraph. It continued under 
the management of Mr. Cushman until October, 1839, when it 

* The title of this paper was revived, in 1805, and its publication re-commenced by 
Gabriel Denton, at Goslien. The fii-st paper printed at Goshen wrs the Goshen Reposi- 
tory, of which we have a copy — ^Vol. 5, No. 236, July 30, 1793, — indicating its establish- 
ment in 1788. It was printed by David M. Westoott in 1793. The present /nrfcpendent 
Republican was commenced May 6, 1806. It was then called the Orange County Re- 
publican, and was printed at Ward's Bridge, now the village of Montgomery. 



NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS. 255 

passed into the hands of Henry H. Van Dyck. In the winter of 
1840, Elias Pitts became the editor, and continued the publication 
of the paper until May 1, 1850, when it was purchased by E. M. 
Ruttenber. Mr. Euttenber sold the establishment to Joseph , 
Lawson, Oct, 1, 185'7, and re-purchased it May 1, 1859. 

The publication of The Newburgh Qazdte was commenced by 
John D. Spalding, June, 1822. Its publishers since that time 
have been as follows: Spalding &Parmenter,* from 1825 to 1832; 
Knevels & Spalding, 1832 to 1836; Knevels &Leslie,t 1836 and 
'31; Wallace & Sweet, 1831 and '38; Samuel T. Callahan, 1838 
to 1852; William L. Allison, 1852 to 1856; Royal B. Hancock, 
1855 to Feb. 1866, when Eugene W. Gray, the present editor of 
the paper, became the proprietor. 

In 1833 or '34, Mr. Spalding commenced the publication of The 
Newburgh Journal, which he continued until 1843, when he 
change the name to The Highland Courier. The Courier was 
continued by Mr. S., until his death, Aug. 22, 1853, and subse- 
quently by his widow, Mrs. E. L, Spalding, who sold it, in 1855, 
to William E. Smiley. In August, 1858, Edward Nixon became 
the proprietor. In 1859, Rufus A. Reed, the present proprietor, 
purchased the establishment and changed the name of the paper 
to The Highland Ckkftain. 

In addition to these papers, Thomas George commenced. In 
1849, the publication of The Newburgh Excelsior. This paper 
was purchased by E. M. Ruttenber, May, 1851, and merged in 
the Telegraph. In 1855, the publication ot The Newburgh Ame- 
rican was commenced by R. P. L. Shafer, and continued three or 
four weeks. In March, 1856, the publication of The Newburgh 
Times was commenced by Royal B. Hancock, as agent for an 
association of gentlemen. It subsequently passed into the hands 
of E. Bloomer, the present proprietor. 

In the autumn of 1856, Mr. Gray commenced the publication 
of The Daily News, a small paper mainly designed for political 
purposes. It was discontinued in December, and resumed again 
in January. In February, the Gazette printing establishment 
was united with that of the Telegraph, and the publication of the 
News was continued by Ruttenber & Gray; subsequently by 
Gray & Lawson, and again (1859) by Ruttenber & Gray. 

There have also been several religious publications. In 1824, 
the Rev. J. R. Wilson commenced the publication of a monthly 

* Samuel Parmenter, the father ot Genl. S. C. Parmenter. 

t Jolm W. Knevels and William, Leslie. Mr. Leslie was the father of Mr. Alex. Leslie. 



256 MISGELLANEOnS SOCIETIES. 

magazine of forty-eight pages, under the title of The Emngelical 
Witness. It was devoted to the exposition of the fiiith of the 
Reformed Presbyterian church, and was continued four years. It 
was succeeded by the Christian Statesman, which lasted only one 
year. On the 1st of March, 1836, by the appointment of the Synod 
of that church, the Eev. Moses Roney commenced the publication 
of The Reformed Presbyterian, a monthly magazine of thirty-two 
pages. Mr. Eoney removed this magazine to Pittsburg, Pa., in 
1849. Here he published it until his death in 1854; it was sub- 
sequently continued there by Mrs. Roney, and is now conducted 
by the Eev. Thos. Sproul. In October, 1859, the Eev. David L. 
Proudfit commenced the publication of The Family Visitor, a 
monthly quarto, which ho continued one year. In 1845, he pub- 
lished the first number of The Christian Instructor, a monthly 
magazine of thirty-two pages, which he continued for two years. 
It was then sold to the Eev. J. B. Dales who removed it to Phila- 
delphia, where its publication is still continued. In 1856, the 
Catholic Library Association commenced the publication of The 
Catholic Library Magazine, John Asbhurst, editor, which was 
continued monthly until August, 1860. 

Literary serials have been limited in number and without any 
success. In May, 1832, John W. Knevels issued the first number 
of a monthly quarto called Tablets of Rural Economy. It was 
only continued for a few months. In 1855,. R. B. Denton com- 
menced The Literary Scrap-Book, a monthly magazine of forty- 
eight pages; but it failed in a short time. The last of the 
publications of this character — The Acorn — was commenced by 
an association of students, in 1851, and was discontinued in 1859. 

LITEBARY, RELIGIOUS, AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

Newburgh Lyceum of the Natural Sciences. — ^This society was 
organized Sept. 1, 1824, and had an active existence for several 
years. Its first officers were as follows: President, Wm. Ross; 
Vice Presidents, David E. Arneli, Albert Christie, A. M. Smith, 
S. E. Betts, David Fowler; Corresponding Secretaries, James R. 
Wilson, Luther Halsey, Jr.; Treasurer, William Seymour; Cura- 
tors, John T. Halsey, John Johnston, George G-ordon. 

Newburgh Lyceum Association. — The first meeting in reference 
to the organization of the Newburgh Lyceum was held in the 
High School on the evening of Dec. 18, 1837, when a committee, 
of which Eev. Doct. Johnston was chairman, was appointed to 
confer with leading citizens on the subject. At a meeting held 
on the evening of the 20th, Dr. Johnston made a favorable report. 



MISCELLANEOUS SOCIETIES. SSt 

A constitution and by-laws were submitted by S. W. Eager, N. 
S. Prime, J. W, Knevels, Saml. Phinney, A. J. Downing, Victor 
M. Watkins, Jas. H. Perry, A. B. Belknap, and J. J. Monell, who 
were a committee for that purpose, which was adopted. The 
first lecture before the association was delivered by Eev. N. S. 
Prime, Dec. 21, 183t. The association continued a course of 
lectures annually until 1844 or '45. 

Newhurgh Historical Society. — -This society was organized in 
February, 1845, by Eev. John Forsyth, Rev. A. B. Van Zandt, 
Saml. W. Eager, Peter F. Hunn, G. 0. Monell, A. J. Prime, M. 
Stevenson, and other gentlemen. At its first meeting. Rev. Dr. 
Forsyth was elected President; Doct. A. J. Prime, Secretary; 
and Doct. M. Stevenson, S. W. Eager, and P. F. Hunn, Curators. 

The society had an active existence for about two years, during 
which time many interesting historical papers were read by the 
members, and a considerable collection of manuscripts, coins, 
minerals, &c., made. It is to the existence of this society that 
the public are indebted for the collection of many of the facts 
contained in Mr. Eager's "History of Orange County." The society 
still has a nominal existence; but its active operations have been 
suspended for several years. 

Newburgh Bible Society. — This society was organized Sept. 9, 
1818, at which time a constitution was adopted and its first 
board of oflScers elected. Its object is "to encourage a wider 
circulation of the holy scriptures, without -note or comment." 
It still has an active existence. 

Newburgh Mission Society. — "The Newburgh Society for aiding 
Missions in the propagation of the Gospel," was organized in 
1823, and continued in existence for several years. Its object 
was "to be auxiliary to the cause of missions in general." 

Newburgh Sabbath School Society. — This society was formed in 
1816, It was one of the first agencies employed to awaken an inter- 
est in Sabbath schools and to promote their establishment in con- 
nection with the several churches. A union Sabbath school was 
conducted for several years under its auspices in the session 
room of the 1st Presbyterian church, and it continued in existence 
until the object had in view by its founders was accomplished.* 

Benevolent Society. — An organization entitled "The Benevolent 
Society of Orange County," was formed in Newburgh, Jan. 1 6, 
1805— Hugh Walsh, president; John McAuley, treasurer; Wm. 

* For a more extended notice of tliis society, as well as of the "Newbnrgli Bible So- 
ciety," and the "Newbnrgli Mission Society," see Eager's Orange County, p. 186, 189. 



258 MISCELLANEOUS SOCIETIES. 

Gardner, secretary. Its object was to furnish pecuniary aid to 
those in destitute circumstances, and to guard the community 
against "an abuse of their charity by artful impostors." How 
long it continued in existence cannot now be ascertained, 

Ancient Druids.— The Society of Ancient Druids was organized 
Sept. 22, 1803. Its object has already been explained in the 
preceding pages of this work. 

Jfosonic— The first Masonic Lodge in this section of the state 
was that which followed the army. It was called "American 
Union Lodge," and during the encampment of the army here 
its sessions were held at the head quarters of the different officers 
alternately. It was in this lodge and at Newburgh that LaFay- 
ette united with the fraternity. 

The first located lodge in Newburgh was "Steuben Lodge, No. 
18." Its charter was applied for by P. A. Morris and nine others, 
June 5, 1188, and it was constituted Sept. 21, of that year. We 
have not been able to obtain any further facts in reference to its 
history or memberhip except that Ebenezer Foot, Levi Dodge, 
and Chas. Clinton, were P. M.'s in 1191. Its charter was probably 
surrendered soon after the commencement of the present century. 

In 1806, "Hiram Lodge, No. 131," was constituted— Jonathan 
Fisk, M.; Chas. Baker, S. W.; John R. Drake, J. W. Its charter 
was surrendered in 1831. In 1842, (Sept. 1,) the charter was 
revived and the number changed to 92— Peter F. Hunn, M.; 
Minard Harris, S. W-; James Belknap, J W. It was again 
surrendered in 1844. In 1853, (June 11,) "Newburgh Lodge, 
No. 309," was constituted and is now in a flourishing condition.* 

Odd-Fellows.— 'The following lodges of this order have been 
located in Newburgh, viz: 



Highland Lodge, No. 65, Inst. 1842 

Orange County Lodge, No. 74, " 1842 
Hudson River Lodge, No. 281, " 1847 



Kossuth Lodge, No. 129, Inst. 1850 

Myrtle Degree Lodge, No. 20, " 1845 
Mt. Carmel Encampment, No. 21, " 1845 



The order was in a very flourishing condition here for several, 
years. We believe that "Highland Lodge" is the only organiza- 
tion of the order now remaining here. 

Temperance Societies. — Three "Divisions" of the Sons of Tempe- 
rance, viz: "Orange," "Quassaick," and "Fraternal," have been 
organized here; also, "Avoca Tent" of "Rechabites," a "Social 
Union" of the order introduced by Col. E. L. Snow; a "Section" 
of the "Cadets of Temperance"; and a "Tent" of "Good Templars." 
None of these societies, however, are now in existence. 

* The oldest located lodge in this section of the state, was constituted at Fishkill. 
Juue 7, 1786, on the petition of Hugh McConnell and others. It bore the title of "St. 
Simon and St. Jude Lodge." 



§i0gra||kri. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BIOGRAPHICAL AND GEXKALOGICAL SKETCHES. 

In addition to the facts given in the previous pages of this 
Avork, we have not been able to obtain much information in 
veferenco to the personal history of any of the members of the 
company of Palatine emigrants* by whom the settlement of the 
town was commenced. Wc notice briefly, however, a few of the 
principal families. 

Joshua Kockeethal. — Joshua Kockerthal, or "de Kockerthal," 
as we find the name sometimes written, was called by the "Lords 
of Trade" the "High German Minister." He appears to have 
been the leader of the little band of emigrants, but he was only 
a resident of ^^ewburg■h a short time, if at all. The larger 
company of Palatines who came over in 1110, and who were 
settled in the present county of Columbia, received much of his 
attention, and the last eight or nine years of his life was almost 
wholly spent among them. At the time of his lemoval to Ame- 
rica (1108), his family was composed of himself, his wife, and 
three children, whose names and ages are recorded in the return 
made to the Lords of Tradef as follows, viz: 

.Joshua liookerthal, Mim.ster, Age 39 I BenignaSibylle Kockerthal, Child, Age .10 
Sibylle ICoolserthal, Wife, " 39 | Christian. Joshua Koclterthal, ''^ ^'^ 7 

Susanna Sibylla Kockevtbal, - . " " .1 

Two Other children, Cathalina, and Louisa Abigail, were born 
to him after his settlement in this country. He died sometime 
about the year 1119, and his wife did not probably long survive 
him. Christian Joshua, his son, received an appointment as 
clerk, or superintendent, of one of the Palatine settlements in 
Columbia county. He died in 1131, without issue, and the family 
name became extinct. Benigna Sibyllo married William Christo- 
pher Berkenmyer, (the Lutheran minister who performed pas- 
toral services at New York and Newburgh in 1125,|) and settled 
in Albany county. Susanna Sibylle married William Heurtin, 
goldsmith, of Bergen county, X. J. Cathalina married Peter 
Lynch, merchant, of New York; and Louisa Abigail married 
John Brovort, goldsmith, of New York. 

The daughters became the heirs to the lands in Newburgh, 
which were patented to the family,— Benigna and Susaima hold- 

* Ante p. 22, 23, U, 26, 2', 34. t Col, Hist. .-; , 52. t Ante p. 28. 

17 C 



262 PALATINE SETTLERS. 

ing an interest by virtue of the terms of the patent; Catha- 
lina succeeding to the interest held by her mother, and Louisa 
Abigail to that held by her brother,— and they united in a sale 
of the property to James Smith, July 13, 1141. 

Michael Weigand.— The family of Michael AVeigand, another 
of the Palatine emigrants, was composed as follows, viz: 

Michael Weigand, Husbandman, Aged 52 I Anna Maria Weigand, Child, Aged 13 
Anna Catharine Weigand, Wife, " 54 | Tobias Weigand, " || i^ 

George Weigand, - " ■■ " .. 

Mr. Weigand located permanently in Newburgh. His son, 

Tobias, was chosen one of the trustees of the Glebe in 1125, 

and served in that capacity for several years. Martin, the son 

of Tobias, opened the first principal tavern in the place,* and 

this occupation he continued to follow until his death, which 

occurred in 1192, without issue. George, the second son of 

Michael Weigand, had sevei'al children of whom Michael, 2d, 

Avas the father of Capt. Martin Weigand, who is still remembered 

by many of our older citizens, and of whom the late Doct. J. M. 

Gardiner furnished us with the following particulars, viz: 

Martin Weigand followed for many years the joint occupations of dock-builder and 
fwherman. He was a thorough "practical joker," and always punished any little acts 
of meanness that might be perpetrated against him, with a never-to-be-forgotten lesson. 
I remember many instances of thlti character. On one occasion a close-flated farmer 
called upon him and oftered him a load of excellent wood, "taken as it rnn.'' On this 
recommendation Weigand pureliased the wood without examination; but on his return 
home he found that he had been badly cheated. He kept liis own counsel, however, 
and meeting the farmer, sometime afterwards, he appealed to his avarice by suggesting 
the purchase in the Fall of a quantity of Shad to be "taken as they run" the following 
Spring. The farmer accepted tlie ofliir, and paid for the Shad in advance. In the 
Spring he visited Weigand's stand for his purchased Bsh. "You were to take them as 
they run, I believe?" said Weigand. "Yes." "Well," replied Weigand, pointing to the 
river, "they are running there and you can take them as fast as yon plea.se." The farmer 
was caught in his own trap, and after storming a little to no purpose, he refunded to 
Weigand a fair deduction on the wood, and received his Sliad to the fullest extent of 
the contract. 

On another occasion Weigand had a little account to settle with Capt. Smith Havens, 
who was at that time master of George Gardiner's sloop,, the Vice President. He ac- 
cordingly advertised that he wished tu obtain a quantity of Cats for exportation, and 
thathe would "pay sixpence for grown Cats and three cents for Kittens," whioh were 
to be delivered on one of the sailing days of the Vice President. About 10 o'clock of 
the day named, Weigand planted himself in the street to watch his cu.stomers, and wa.s 
soon after hailed by a farmer: "Hallo, Captam, I have brought you a load of Cats." 
"Take them down to the Vice President," replied Weigand, "and Havens will pay yon 
for them." It happened, however, that Havens was not on board the sloop, and the 
men were at a loss what to do with such singular freight. Something must be done, 
however. The sloops, in those days, had no ladies cabin, but a simple curtain separated 
the saloon, and into tliis saloon they dumped the Cats and closed the door. A most 

* Ante p. 43. 



BURGER MEYNDERS. 263 

musical time soon occui-red among the "tommys" and "tabbeys," in the midst oi which 
Havens came on board, and was politely requested by the faimer to "pay for the Cats," 
stating tliat Weigand liad sent him there. The Captahi saw at a glace how the matter 
stood, and seizing a gad he drove the farmer from the dock to settle the account with 
"Weigand; and spent the remainder of the day in getting the saloon in order. Weigand 
paid the farmer for his Cats ; but he was not yet out of the scrape. Before night he was 
hailed by a boy who had a large bag swung across his horse, filled with Cats and Kittens. 
"All right?" asked Weigand, as he thrust in his hand and drew out aKitten. "Oh, dear, 
how stupid ! These won't do. Von must take' them home and get them shod— I want 
them to travel." And the boy did travel joyfully with a pound of candy that Weigand 
gave him, after emptying his Cats and Kittens in the street 

AVeigand was a good natm-ed, honest man, notwithstanding his peculiar proclivity. 
He died about the year 1834. 

MELcnioK Gulch. — The Palatine carpenter, Melchior Gulch, 

settled in Newburgh on a tract of land near Middlehope, and 

his name appears in tlic tax-rolls of the Precinct down to 1129. 

At the time of their emigration to America, tlic names and ages 

of his family were as follows: 

xMelchior Gulch, Carpenter, Age 39 1 Margaret Gulcli, Child, Age 12 

Anna Catharine Gulch,Wife, " 43 | Heinrioh Gulch, " " 10 

As already stated, the name was changed to Gillis.* Margaret, 
the daughter, married William Ward, and was a resident 
of the Precinct in 1750. The genealogy of the family, however, 
cannot now be ascertained. 

— ^The other members of the original company of emigants did 
not reside in Newburgh for any considerable number of years. 
Tlieir lands, however, were purchased hy others, prominent 
among whom were Bnrgor ^feynders, Zacharias Hoffman, and 
Alexander Golden. 

Burger Mey.vders. — Burger Meynders was a blacksmith by 
trade, and first settled at Kingston where he owned a lot, house, 
and shop, in 1686. Ho sold liis property there to Frederick 
Phillipse (1692), and subsequently (ITie) purchased from Peter 
Eose his interest in the lands at Newburgh, where he settled. 
He had two sons, Burger, Jr., and Frederick. The former was 
elected one of the trustees of the Glebe in 114:4, and held that 
position until 1752. He resided on the property (for which he 
received a deed from his father, March 2, 1726,) which afterwards 
passed into the hands of the Hasbrouck family, and erected the 
south-east division of the building known as Washington's Head 
Quarters. He sold the Newburgh property in 1753, to Jonathan 
Hasbrouck, and removed to Shawangunk, where he erected the 
mill, afterwards occupied by James Bate, at the mouth nf the 
Dwaarskill. We have no farther trace of the family, although 



* Ante p. 34. 



264 HOFFMAN GOLDEN. 

we are informed that there are persons of the name still residing- 
in Ulster connty. 

Zacharias Hoffman. — Wn were in error in assuming that Zacha- 
rias Hoffman, (or Hofman, as it is written in the old records,) 
"was the son of Hermanns Hofman, who came over with the 
Palatine emigrants in 1110,"* as we have since ascertained that 
he was a resident of Ulster .county several years prior to that 
time. Who his ancestors were, or at what time they settled in 
this country, we have not been able to determine satisfactorily. 
In 1106, (May 11,) he entered into a contract of marriage 
with Hester Bruyn, of Shawangunk, who brought to him, as a 
dower from Severyn Tenhout, a tract of land called by the 
Indians Mascaks, and for which he subsequently obtained a 
a patent. He was married to Miss Bruyn, Oct. 19, 1101, and had : 
1. Gertrude, born Sept. 18, 1109; 2. Margaret, married Thomas 
Jansen; 3. Zacharias, married Maria Terwillagor; 4. Jacobus, 
married Margretta Lefever; 5. Ida, married Cornelius Bi-uyn.| 
He was a large land-holder in Newburgh, and was one of the 
trustees of the Glebe from 1122 until his death, which occurred 
in 1144, although he did not probably reside here any considera- 
ble number of years. The old homestead in Shawangunk, yet 
called Hoffmantown, Avas divided between his sons, Zacharias 
and Jacob, who each received 536 1-2 acres. The stone house 
which he built, subsequently occupied by Zacharias, Jr., is 
standing, as well as the house in which his son Jacob lived. 

Alexander Colden.^ — Probably none of the early settlers of 
Newburgh occupied a more prominent place in its affairs than 
did Alexander Golden. Exercising the full influence of his 
father's name and position in inviting settlers to locate here, he 
succeeded in securing to the town the Fowlers and Merritts from 
Westchester county, the Dentons and Albertsons from Long- 
Island, and other leading families, and he also contributed mate- 
rially to its early commercial prosperity. Ho was the oldest son 
of Gov. Cadwallader Golden, J and removed to Goldenham with 
his father in 1128. § He was appointed Eanger of Ulster county 
in 1131, and soon after removed to the Parish of Quassaick, 

* Ante p. 28. t Records Brnynswick Cliurch. 

% A biographical slvetcli of Gov. Golden may be found in "Eager's Orange County,'' 
237, &c., and also in the "Documentary History of New York," lii. 829,— the latter ac- 
companied by his portrait, autogi'aph, and coat of arms. 

§ In a letter to Mr. OoUinson, of London, dated May, 1742, Gov. Colden writes: "My 
family being considerably increased, I left the city at the time Mr. Burnet was removed 
from the Government," &c. Gov. Burnet was removed in 1728, which fixes the date of 
(jov. Colden's settlement in this county Eager's Or, Co., 237. 



THE SMITH FAMILY. 



265 



wliere he had purchased lands, in company with his father, ex- 
Governor Burnet and others; erected a wharf and store at what 
is now known as Powell's dock, as well as the iouring mill sub- 
sequently known as "Hasbrouck's Mill," and engaged in milling, 
forwarding and mercantile pursuits. In 1T43, he obtained a 
patent for the Newburgh Ferry, by virtue of which the privilege 
is now held ; and about the same time divided the lands owned by 
him into lots under the name of the "Town of Newburgh Plot." 
He was active in the movement to wrest the Glebe from the 
Lutheran church, and was instrumental in securing what is 
known as the Golden and Albertson charter, in which the title 
that he had given to his "Plot," was extended to the Parish, as 
it subsequently was to the Precinct and to the present town of 
Newburgli. He erected what was known as the old "Newburgh 
House," at tlie junction of Golden and Water streets, where he 
resided with his family until about l'I62, when he was appointed 
Joint-Surveyor-General with his father, and removed to New 
York. He was subsequently appointed Post-master of that city, 
and held that office until his death, which occurred in ITTS, in 
the 59th year of his age. He had four daughters and two sons, 
but the relations which they sustained towards the Grown, during 
the Eevolutiou, compelled their removal to England, and his 
branch of the family became extinct in this country. * 

— Passing from the first settlers, we notice more at length and 
in their order, some of the principal families who located here 
at an early period, as well as several who have occupied prominent 
positions in the town in more modern times. 



THE BlIITH rAMlLY. 

James Smith, the ancestor of the Smith family in this town, 
was a native of England, and came to this conntry some- 
time about the year ITSS. He settled temporarily in New 
York, but subsequently removed to Newburgh, having pur- 
chased from the heirs of Joshua Kockerthal, in 1141, lot No. 
5, in the original division of the German, patent.f He erected 
a log-house near a spring on what is now Smith street, between 
First and Second streets, and engaged in clearing the land and 
in the general pursuit of husbandry. On his death, the farm 
descended to his son Benjamin, who resided in the old homestead 

* Oadwailaaei- Colden, the second son of Gov. Golden, vesifled at Coldenham until his 
death. He was also interested in lands in Newburgh, and was active in many of the 
local affairs of the village, especially in connection with the old St. George's chnrcli 
and the Glebe lands. The Coldens residing in Newburgh at the present time are his 
descendants, we believe. + Ante p. 33. 



260 THK SMITH FAMILY. 

house until after the war, when he erected the dwelling house at 
present occupied by Mr. Eli Hasbrouck, on Liberty street. lie 
subsequently sold the western part of the farm to Thomas Wool- 
sey, and laid out (1'782) the eastern part in lots under the name 
of the "Township of Washington." * He appears to have con- 
tributed liberally to the establishment of churches and schools, 
and to have been a citizen of considerable enterprise. During the 
earl J' part of the controversy with the mother countrj^, he main- 
tained the character of an ardent Whig, and was one of the first 
signers of the "Pledge of Association," and also au officer in the 
local militia. After the Declaration of Independence, however, it 
is said that he refused to be a party to the separation from royal 
authority, and while on his way to Xew York, in company with 
several persons who were known to be disaffected (111*1), lie 
was arrested on a charge of intention to join the enemy and, 
with his associates, was confined in the jail at Kingston, f 
and the goods found in his possession were confiscated He was 
soon after released on parole, and resumed his residence in Xew- 
burgh. He strongly afBrmed his innocence of any intention to 
join the enemy, and subsequently brought a suit against the 
Committee of Sequestration to recover the value of the property 
taken from liim at the time of his arrest; but the Legislature- 
passed an act (1182) forbiding the courts from entertaining it,| 
and it was not prosecuted farther. We shall not undertake to 
review the judgment of Mr. Smith's contemporaries in this 
matter, but we cannot avoid the conviction that liad there been 
no good cause of action against the Commissioners, legislative 
interference for their protecticm would ]iot have been thought 
necessaiy. 

Benjamin Smith married, June 16, 1 161, Elizabeth Leonard. Ho 
died in 1813. His children were: 1. Betsey, who married Aaron 
Fairchikl; 2. Mary, who married John Anderson; 3. Jane, who 
married Robert Gardiner; 4. William L., who married Maria 
Cole, of Kingston; 5. Abigail, who married Thomas Hinds; 6. 
James, who was lost at sea; 1. Benjamin, who died unmarried; 
8. Bridget, who married Jonathan Carter; and 9. Catharine, who 
married Henry Tudor. 

William L. Smith was the principal heir to the estate of liis fatlier. He erected the 
homestead house on the corner of Liberty and South streets, where he resided for seve- 
i-al years, and was engaged in mercantile and agricultural pursuits. He enjoyed the 
confidence of his fellow-citizens to a high degree, and repeatedly held stations of local 
official trust. His children were : 1. Benjamin, h. July 30, 1803; 2. Catharine C, b. 

* Ante p. 87. t Proceedings Frov. Conv., 872. f Laws of New York, 1782. 



THE BELKNAP FAMILY. 26t 

April 29, 1805 ; 3. William P. 0., h. Deo. 11, 1807; 4. John Fletcher, b. Deo. 23, 1809; 
.5. Garainier.b. Nov. 30,1812; 6. Elizabeth L., b. Feb. 24,1815; 7. Cornelius C.,b. 
Aug. 6, 1817; 8. Maria C, b. Jan., 1820; 9. Richard C, b. Dec. 14, 1823; and 10. Anna 
Eliza. Benjamin married Caroline Knox Thaclier, grand-daughter of Genl. Knox, and 
now resides at Kingston; Catharine C, married John B. Parmelee; William P. C, 
married Gloriamm Butterwortli— he died in 1858; John F., married Nancy Thompson- 
is now deceased; Gardinier married Jane Cole, of Kingston; Elizabeth L., unmanned; 
Cornelius C, married Margaret DeWitt, of Kingston, where he now resides; Maria C, 
married Thomas H. Booth, died July 11, 1854; Anna Eliza, died young; Richard C, 
unmarried, resides at Newbnrgh. 



THE BELKNAP FAMILY. 

The Belknap family— or Belknappe,* as the name was origi- 
nally written — -is of Norman origin, and can be satisfactorily 
traced back to the time of William the Conqueror (1066). 
They maintained considerable distinction in England at an early 
period — Sir Robert Belknappe having been created Chief Jus- 
tice ill the reign of Edward the Third (13T5). In 163'7, Abraham 
Belknap, from whom the branch of the family in this couritry 
trace their descent, emigrated from England and settled in Lynn, 
Mass. He subsequently removed to Salem, where he died in 
1643, leaving four sons and a daughter, viz: 1. Abraham; 2. 
Jeremy; 3. Joseph; 4. Samuel, and 5. Hannah. Joseph was 
born in England about the year 1630. He settled in Boston, 
where he was admitted a freeman in 1655. He was one of the 
founders of the "third" or "old South Church," in 1668, from 
whence he took dismission to Hatfield, where he lived in good 
esteem from 1682 to 1696. He returned to Boston during the 
latter year, and died in that city Nov. 14, lUS, at the age 
of 82 years. Ho had three wives, viz: 1st. Euth, by whom he 
had: 1. Joseph, b. Jan. 26, 1658; 2. Mary, b. Sept. 25, 1660; 3. 
Nathaniel, b. Aug. 13, 1663; 4. Elizabeth, b. July 1, 1665. 2d. 
Lydia, by whom he had:. 5. Kuth, b. Nov. 21, 1668. 3d. Hannah, 
by whom he had: 6. Thomas, b. June 29, 1610; 1. John, b. June 
1, 1612; 8. Hannah, b. June 8, 1613; 9. Kuth, b. Ma,rch 11, 1616; 
10. Abigail, b. June 21, 1618; 11. Abraham, b. April 26, 1681; 
12. Samuel, the date of whoso birth is uncertain. 

Thomas Belknap (6) married Jane, daughter of Thomas Cheney, 
of Cambridge, Mass., and settled in Woburn, where he purchased 
(June 29, 1698,) a tract of land at a place called "forty pound 
meadows." His children were: 1. Thomas, date of birth un- 
known; 2. Jane, b. Nov. 4, 1699; 3 . Be njamin , b. May 3, 1102 ; 

* The etymology of the name is Bel {belle), tlie feminine of 6co«— fine, beautiful, 
pleasant, (Boyeis) and Knap (knappe), orknowl of a hill. Literally rendered, "the 
people of the beautiful hill." 



268 THE BELKNAP FAMILY. 

4. Hannah, b. May 18, 1104; 5. Samuel, b. May 24, 1101; and, 
it is supposed, 6. Joseph. Four of these children, viz: Thomas, 
Benjamin, Samuel, and Joseph, removed to and settled in New- 
burgh, and its vicinity,* at diiferent dates extending from 1749 
to 1163. The first settlement was made by Samuel, who pur- 
chased (1149) nearly all of the tract known as the "Baird 
patent," which, with the exception of a few lots, he divided between 
his sons, Isaac and David, and his brother Thomas. f 

The genealogy of the family is so voluminous that we are 

compelled in justice to others, who would be excluded from 

notice iu these pages by its publication, to abidge it materially. 

^ // ^*» if / Samuel Belknap, the 

f0kyt/%AA^ Jj ^yLj^yX. (^^ immediate ancestor of 
-,, 1/ the principal part of 

the family in this town, married Lydia Stearns, by whom he had: 
1. William, b. May 21, 1130; 2. Euth, b. Nov. 11, 1131; 3. Isaac, 
b. Dec. 14, 1133; 4. Samuel, b. Oct 18, 1135; 5. Lydia, b. Feb. 
28, 1131; 6. Abel, b. Jan. 13, 1139; 1. Mary, b. Jan. 9, 1140; 8. 
Euth, b. May 14, 1142; 9. David, b. Jan. 14, 1144; 10. Abigail, 
h. April 11, 1145; 11. Jonathan, b. Sept. 1, 1148; 12. Olive, b. 
April 5, 1151. Of these children — 

(1) William married first Hannah Flagg, by whom he had: 
William, Hannah, Abel, Samuel, Josiah, (died,) Josiah, Lydia, 
Gersh6.m,and a twin daughter. His second wife was Mary 
Flagg, by whom he had: Cyrus, and Mary. The only member 
of this branch of the family who settled in Newburgh was 
William, who married Martha Carscadden, July 20, 1185, by 
whom he had: William, Lydia who married Edmund Sanxay, 
Hannah, Stephen, Eobert, George, Nancy, and Susanna. 

(2) Euth died young. 

(3) Isaac married first Bridget Richardson, of W^oburn, Mass., 
by whom he had: Bridget, Isaac, Mary married Dorick Amor- 
man, J Elizabeth married John Warren, Olive, Bridget married 

* Thomaa, Joseph, and Benjamin , settled in New Windsor, wliere Joseph was Clerk 
of the Precinct in 1763, and subsequently Assessor. Thomas married Sarah Hill, Dec. 
14, 1726, and had: 1. Thomas; 2. Sarah; 3. Joseph; 4. John; 5. Jonathan. Benjamin 
married Hannah Richardson, and had: 1. Abraham; 2. Euth; 3. Isaac; 4. Hannah; 5. 
Jednthan; 6. Sarah; 7. Olive. Joseph man-led Margaret Eussell, of Watertown, Mass., 
April 9, 1754, and had: I.Thomas; 2. Joseph; 3. Phebe; 4. Lydia; S.Daniel; 6. James. 
Joseph (2), son of Joseph (1), manied Sarah Clement, and had 1. James; 2. Haniet; 
:i. Ann Eliza; 4. Sarah; 5. Elsie; 6. Thomas; 7. Amanda— of whom James (1) was 
born in the town of Crawford, March 24, 1793. He manied Clarissa Ring, daughter of 
SamuelElng, of Cornwall, June, 1816, and settled in Newburgh where he has since 
resided. He sei-ved with credit in the militia during the war of 1812, and has filled, 
with CTeat satisfaction to the public, several local official stations, among which has 
been that of Post Master. f Ante p. 48. 

I For a sketch of Deriok Amerman, see Eager's Orange County, 163, &c. 




/j/l/l^j/o£^r2AJo^ 



THE BELKNAP FAMILY. 269 

Leonard Carpenter, Ricbardson, Abel, William, and Olive.- — 
Mrs. Belknap died Aug. 8, 1*111, and he married, second, Mrs. 
Deborah Coffin,* widow of Capt. Caleb Coffin, Sept. 10, 1118, by 
whom he had: Amelia married Charles Birdsall, Alden, Briggs, 
Judah, Lydia, and Deborah. He died April 29, 1815, aged 82. 

Is.iAO Belknap was one of the 
truest sons of America during liis 
whole life, and especially throughout 
the dreary struggle for Independence. 
Previous to the war he was enga- 
ged in the freighting husiness between Newburgh and Now York, and not unfre- 
quently extended his commercial ventures to the more eastern ports as well as to 
the West India Islands. When the troubles with the mother country came on, he 
entered into active service in defence of the cause of the colonists, and was early ap- 
pointed Captain of a company of Eangere. He was afterwards in the regular service 
as Assistant Deputy Quartermaster General. After the war he resumed the freighting 
business and continued in it as long as he was able to follow the arduous occupation. 
The following is from the record on his tomb-stone: "He was a film friend to his country 
in her darkest times, a zealous supporter of American liberty, a kind and aiTectionate 
husband, a tender and indulgent father. Two years before his death he became a bright 
example of real piety, and died in the faith of the Lord Jesus Christ." 

His son, Isaac Belknap, Jr., was bom Oct. 3, 1761, He married, first, Elizabeth 
Coleman, daughter of Joseph Coleman, of Newburgh, foi-merly of Sherbiirn, Nantucket 
Island, and had: Elizabeth, Richardson, and Fanny C, who man-led David Crawford. 
Mrs. Belknap died Jan. 9, 1816, and he married, second, Mra. Susan Smith, widow 
of William H. Smith. He was a man of great pereonal worth and high moral character. 
He died Jan. 26, 18i5, aged 84, years. From a notice of his life and character, which 
appeared in the village papere at the time of his decease, we copy the following: "The 
deceased has long been widely known as one of our oldest and most substantial citizens. 
At an early age he was engaged in the service of his coimtry, dnring her Eevolutionary 
struggle, and subsequently filled with credit many important posts of honor and useful- 
ness. As a member of the State Legislatnre, Judge of the County Com-t, and Presi- 
dent of the Bank of Newburgh, he had established in former years a reputation for 
integi-ity, sound sense, and good feeling, which secured for him the sincerest respect 
and esteem of all who knew him. But as the crowning excellence of his character, be 
was for many years distinguished as a devoted and consistent follower of the Lord Jesus 
Christ. He was an accepted and honored Elder of the Eeformed Dutch Chm-ch from 
the time of its organization until his decease, and those who were associated with him 
in this capacity, as well as others, can bear honorable testimony to his practical wisdom, 
piety and worth." 

(4) Samuel married, first, 3[rs. Abigail Lewis, and had: 
Abigail, Timothy, and Ilutli. His second wife was Abigail 
Flagg, by whom he had: Kaphael, Samuel, Olive, Elizabeth, 
Lydia, Seth, and Charles. He died March 31, 1821. 

^ /; / Samuel Belknaf, prior to the 

/^ qJ^ Iq ^ f-Jyi i^ a Ja/ Eevotation, resided at Wobm-n, Mass. 

JtkyyyxTZ f^COnHa/'^ ,„^, „,,„pi,a the homestead and 
mills which were erected bv his father', and to which was attached a large and produc- 
tive farm situated on the piiblio road leading to Concord. In the early part of the eon- 



* Mrs. Coffin was a daughter of Col. Briggs Alden, of Duxbury, Mass., and a lineal 
descendant from John Alden, one of the pilgrims by the "May J lower. 



atO THK BEI.KNAP FAMILY. 

troversy witli Bnglaml, he was active in tlie cause of tlie colonists; and, in 1775, he 
organized a company, of which he was Captain, and took part in the conflict at Concord. 
During the following year, he was in the engagement at White Plains; and subsequently 
rendered much efficient service in the field. After the war he was elected to the Leg- 
islature of his native State, where he served to the ample satisfaction of his constituents. 
He afterwai'ds removed to Newburgh- where he resided until his death. 

His son, Samuel Belknap, Jr., was born Dec. 10, 176.5. He married Mary Goldsmith, 
April C, 1790, by whom he had: Lucinda, Ira, William Goldsmith, Samuel, and Fanny. 
He died May 19, 1845. His son, William Goldsmith Belknap, was born Sept. 7, 1794. 
He married Ann Clark, daughter of Joseph Clark, of Newburgh, and had: Anna Mary, 
Clara, William Worth, and Frederick Augustus. He entered the railitiry sei-vice at the 
age of 18 years, and took part in the \^ar of 1812, through which he served as an officer 
with distinction to himself and lienor to his country. His conduct during the attack 
by the British on Fort Erie, (Aug. 15, 1814,) drew from Gen. Eipley the following re- 
marks in his report, viz: "The manner in which Lieutenant Belknap, of the 23d, retired 
witli his ]iicquet guard from before the enemy's column, excites my j)articular commen- 
datiiin. He gave orders to fire three times as he was retreating to the camp, him.5elf 
bringing up the rear. In this manner he kept the light advance of the enemy in check 
for a distance of two or three hundred yards. I have to regret, that when entering our 
lines after his troops, the enemy pushed so close upon him that he received a severe 
wound with tiie bayonet." In the war with Mexico, he .shared largely in the battles of 
Palo Alto and Eesaca dc la Palma, and was subsequently promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant Colonel. The citizens of N'ewburgh, at a public meeting held on the 27th 
of -lune, 1846, caused a sword to be made and presented to him in their name, as a 
marlv of their appreciation of his distinguished services.* He died near Fort Washita, 
in the Chickasaw Nation. Xov. 10, 1851, of disease contracted during the campaign in 
Mexico. 

(5) Lydia married Edward Riggs, Nov. 25, 1782, and settled 
in New York, but subsequently removed to Xewburgli, where 
she died Jan. 9, 1824. 

Mrs. Riggs was a school teacher, and it 

! said that she taught DeWitt Clinton hii 

Jtters. She was present at the inaugura 
tion of Washington, at the old Federal Hall, j 

corner of Wall and Nassau streets. New " 

York. She was a woman remai-kable for her jiiety, education, and virtue; and it is 
said of her, that she maintained "that distinction under a democracy wliich a regal 
government would confer upon rank." 

(0) Abel married, first, Molly Kichardsoii, Oct. 4, lltio, by 
whom he had: Stephen, Chancey, Sarah, and Molly. He married, 
second, Hannah AVilliams, of Huntington, L. I., June 6, 1776, 
and had Rachel Fleet. His third wife was Hannah Williams, of 
Sharon, Conn., by whom lie had: Abel, Moses Higby, Aaron, 
Margaret, Edwin Starr, and Julia Ann. He died Nov. 15, 1804, 
in the 66th year of his age. 

The flig?it.t o.r Man, of Nov. 19, 1804, referring to the death of Abbl Belknav, re- 
marks: "This venerable, useful and truly pious citizen, enjoyed the esteem of all who 
knew liim. As a magistrate, he conscientiously performed the important duties of his 
office; as a husband, parent, relative, and friend, he attained to patriarchal yeai-s, not 

* Eager's Orange County, 190, &c. 



said that she taught DeWitt Clinton his / J ' A 

letters. She was present at the inaugura- a/ J J £AA_^(X_ •■ 'I f ff/l I 



THE, BELKNAl' FAMILY. 



211 



only withovit roproucli, but susk was the blameless tenor of his life, that his decease is ■ 
a subject of general regret." 

The sons of Abel Belknap — Stephen, Chancey, Abel, Moses H., and Aaron, — enjoyed 
for many years the high esteem and coufldence of the community. The business enter- 
prises of Stephen and Chancey were extensive, and contributed in no small degree to 
tlie early commercial prosperity of the Tillage. Stephen was born Aug. 4, 1766, and 
died Oct. 28, 1S4S. He married Mrs. Sarah Mace and had: Dr. Savilian, who died im- 
inarried at Mobile; Mary C, who married Aaron B. Gardiner; Chauncey F.,ana Rufus 
R. Chancey was born March 13, 1768, and died in June, 1840. He married, first, (July 
a, 1788,) Sarah, daughter of Jonathan Belknap, by whom he had: Mary, d. unmarried; 
Stephen, d, in infancy; Sarah, who married, first, James Black, and second, David 
Brown; and Rebecca, d, unmarried. By his second wife, Mercy, who was also a daugh- 
ter of Jonathan Belknap, ho had: Bufus E., b. Dec. 9, 1797; Thomas, d. in infancy; 
Clarissa; Mercy; Cornelia, m. AIsop Stewart; Clementine; Rachel; Chancey; Jane 
Ann, m. David E. Fowler; and Lynde, m. Sarah Titus, of Jamaica, L. J. He seiTed 
successively in the military grades of Lieutenant, Captain, 1st Major, Colonel, and Bri- 
gadier General; was one of the corporators of the Bank of Newburgh; Elector of Pre- 
sident and Vice President in 1812, and, as already remarked, was extensively engaged 
in milling, freighting, and other branches of business. Abel was bom Dec. 30,1785; 
died Oct. 19, 1854; m. first, Mary, daughter of Samuel 0. Gregory, who died, Jan. 19, 
1833, without issue; and second, Sally D. Mnnn, who died in 1855, also without issue. 

Moses H., was born Sept. 23, 1787; died 
Jan. 4, 1855; ni. first, Margaret, daughter 
of Saml. 0. Gregory, who died Feb. 27, 
1824, leaving two children, Ruletta G.,who 
died Aug. 11, 1850; and Abel W., who 
manied Sai'ah, daughter of Capt. Samuel 
Johnson, died June 26, 1847, leaving one 
child, Abel W,, now living. His second 
wife was Ruth P. Cook, who died Oct. 23, 
1833, leaving one child, Moses Cook, now 
living. He was for many years a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees, and Presi- 
dent of that body; was one of the founder's 
of the Newburgh High Soliool, and held 
many local official stations with credit. — 
To his public and private worth, the pages 
of this work bear ample testimony. Aaron 
was born July 20, 1789; died March 14, 
1847. He married Mary Josepha L, S., 
daughter of Samuel Belknap (4), and had: 
Ethelbert B., died young; 
SamuelM.,died in infancy; 
Aaron Betts, now a resident 
of New York. He was a 
lawyer of considerable eminence, and was favored with several official trusts. Edwin 
StaiT, the youngest son of Abel (1), was born Dec. 11, 1794; married Rachel T. Price, 
and settled in the city of New York, where he now resides. 

(1) Mary, born Jan. 9, 1139, died July 15, 1820. 

(8) Euth died May 6, 1145. 

(9) David married Sarah Case, and had: Olive, David, Daniel 
C, Hezekiah, Sarah, Justin, Fanny, Charlotte, and Oliver. He 
died March 11, 1831. 




212 THE MERRITT FAMILY. 

Hezekiah Belknap, the son of David, was born Jnly 20,1781. He graduated at 
Princeton College in 1805, with high standing in his class, and was subsequently em- 
ployed as tutor for the Sophomore class ih that institution. This station he resigned in 
1807, and commenced the stndy of law. He died May 23, 1814. EefeiTing to his de- 
cease, the Political Index, of May 24, remarks: "We are called on to perform the last 
tribute to one of the most valuable and respectable young men of our village, f ne who 
i from his youth upwards has sustained a character worthy of emulation. We look upon 

the departure of age and infirmity as the destiny of mortality; but here we have to 
lament the loss of one .jnst ripening into maturity, to whom genius had lent her vivify- 
ing aid, and learning all her decorations and embelishments. But ii few weeks since, 
Mr. Belknap commenced his professional career, with a mind stored with useful knowl- 
edge, unimpeached integrity, of amiable manners and una.ssnming deportment, and had 
the fau'est prospects of acquiring wealth and honor in his profession. In his political 
character he possessed all that was worthy of respect and support. He was a Republican 
in principle and in practice. He had ju.st been honored by hLs native county with a seat 
in the next Legislature of the State, and bid fair to be one of its most useful members. 
But what do all these avail ? The frailty of our nature passed and plucked the fairest 
flower." 

(10) Abigail married Josiah Talcott, by whom she liad: Lydia, 
Josiali, Jeffrey, Samuel, Olive, Jonathan, David, and Abigail. 
She resided in Newburgh only a few years after her marriage, 
but removed to Hancock, Mass., where, with her husband, she 
united with the society of Shakers. She died in May, 119S. 

(11) Jonathan died unmarried, May 9, 1114. 

(12) Olive died unmarried, March 14, ItlO. 
— It would afford us pleasure to trace the family through all 

its branches, but, as already intimated, our space will not permit 
us to do so. AA^c may remark, however, that the descendants of 
those we have enumerated have filled almost all callings, profes- 
sions and walks of life, and, with here and there an exception, 
have been distinguished for their enterprise, energy, and probity 
of character. It is rarelj' that we find a family maintaining for 
so many generations its original characteristics, 



TUE irEKRITT FAMILY. 

George Merritt, the ancestor of the Merritt family in this town, 
was born in the year 1102, and died Feb. 2, 1150. It is presumed 
that he was the son of John Merritt, Senr., a native of England, 
who settled in the town of Eye, Westchester county, as early as 
1680, and who was one of its proprietors in 1115.* He married 
Glorianna Purdy, (who died Sept. 13, 1166, aged 51 yrs., 5 mos., 
13 days,) and removed to Xewburgh sometime about the year 
1141, in company with the Purdy and Fowler families, with 



* Bolton (Hist. West. Co., 11. 32, 95.) gives the names of John MeiTitt, Senr., (1680), 
and contemporaneously with him, that of Thomas Merritt-subsequently stating that the 
latter was the son of the former. The original homestead of the familv was in the 
possession of one of the descendants of John, Senr., as late as 1848. 



THE MERRITT TAMlr.Y. 213 

whom be was connected by marriage. His children were: 1. 
George; 2. Samuel; 3. Caleb; 4. Gabriel; 5. David; 6. Josiah; 
T. Humphrey; 8. Elizabeth, married Thomas Merritt;* 9. Jane, 
born Sept. 25, lUT, died March 2, 180T, married 1st, Morris 
Plewwelling; and 2d, Elnathan Foster; 10. Glorianna, married 
Joseph Morey.f 

(1) George married 1st, Mary Fowler (who died July 5, 
1199, in her 66th year), and had: 1. George; 2. Gabriel; 3. 
Samuel; 4. Humphrey; 5. Fowler; C. John; 1. Charlotte; 8. 
Jane; 9. Glorianna; 10. Marj'. He married, 2d, Sarah, widow 
of Wolvert Ecker. 

(2) Samuel married Phila Townsend, and had several chil- 
dren. He died Dec. 26, 1811, in his 14th year. 

(3) Caleb, born July, 1135, died Nov. 29, 1193, married 
Martha Furdy, (born Jan. 1136, died June 24, 1183,) and had: 1. 
Abigail, married George AVeygant; 2. Elizabeth, married Dr. 
David Fowler; 8. Glorianna, married Isaac Fowler. 

(4) Gabriel died in 1116, without issue. 

(5) David married Nelly Weygant, and had: 1. Jane, who 
married John Halt; 2. Elizabeth, who married Nathaniel Harcourt. 

(6) Josiah died March 12, 1811; married, 1st, Anna Purdy, 
(who died Jan. 9, 1186, in her 30th year,) and had: 1. Gabriel; 
2. Josiah; 3. Esther, who married Zephania Northrop ; 4. Nancy, 
who married Mowbray Carpenter; 5. Alathea, who married John 
Browcr. He married, 2d, Kachel Sherwood, and had : 6. David ; 
1. Joseph; 8. Phebe, who married Andrew Cropsey. 

(1) Humphrey,^ born May 11, 1131; purchased (1158) part 
of the farm on which his grand-son, Daniel Merritt, now resides, 
at Middleliope. His children were: 1. Glorianna; 2. Mary; 3. 
Underbill; 4. Caleb; 5. Charlotte; G. Moses. Underbill (3) 
was bom Feb. 1, 1169, and died Nov. 19, 1804.§ His children 
were: 1. Martha, b. July 8, 1194, married Gilbert Holmes, settled 
in Newburgh, died Sept. 14, 1848; 2. Josiah, b. Aug. 21,1196, was 

* "A Colonel of Cavalry in the Queen's Eangers, 1780. He died at St. Catharines, 
Canada, May, 1842, aged 82 years." He was a grandson of the first John Merritt. 

t We are not certain that the names here given are arranged in the order of birth. 

i The names "Humphrey" and "Underhill," are from Humphrey Underhill, one of 
the original proprietors of the town of Eye, with whom the Merritts were connected. 

§ "Mr. tlnderhill Meiritt, the father of Daniel Men'itt, Esq., came by accident to a 
most horrible death, in November, 1804. His neighbor, Mr. Caleb Fowler, had a frolic, 
drawing wood, and Mr. Merritt was among the number assisting him. After being 
loaded and on his way to Mr. Powier's, he was walking beside his wagon, and in an 
attempt to get on, as was supposed, his feet caught in the lines, which started his horses 
and threw him under the wheels of the wagon, which ran over his arm and head. His 
arm was broken in two places, and his brains crushed so that they laid in the road. He 
was found dead in that situation." — Eager's Orange Cmmty, 88. 



214 THE FOWLER FAMILY. 

the father of Caleb Merritt; 3. Haniel, b. March 10, 1199, has four 
children, viz: Hiram, }*[ary J., Daniel H., and Theodore ; 4. Eliza- 
beth, b. March 12, 1199, (twin sister to Daniel,) married John 
Goodsell, died Dec. 28, 1824, leaving Charles W. Goodsell, (since 
deceased,) and Elizabeth M. Goodsell, (now Mrs. J. N. Weed,) 
children her surviving;* 5. Charlotte, b. Sept. 19, 1801, married 
Joseph Furman, settled in Plattekill, died Aug. 24, 1824; 0. Mary, 
b. April 24, 1804, married Robert Phillips, and has three children, 
viz: Jeanette Y., married Richard A. Olmstead; Mary A,, married 
Wm. A. Owen: and AVillard M. 



THE FOWLER FAMILY. 

The Fowler family of this town is of English ancestry. Mon- 
umental records at Islington, near London, show tlie death of 
John Fowler, at that place, in 1538, and it is added in tlie 
work from which this fact is taken, that "divers of this family 
lie here interred, the ancestors of Sir Thomas Fowler, Knight 
and Baronet, living, 1630." f The oldest branches of the family 
in this country appear to have descended from Philip Fowler, 
who was admitted a freeman of jMassacliusetts Colony m 1634, 
and who settled at Ipswich; and from William Fowler, who 
came over in 1637, and settled at New Haven, where being- one 
of the few emigrants who liad received a classical education, lie 
soon became a man of distinction, and is known, historically, as 
"the first magistrate of New-Haven." The relationship existing 
between Phillip and William cannot now be ascertained, nor can 
tiieir desccjidants be positively traced except in a few instances. 
It is presumed, however, from the predominant given names in 
the different branches of the family, as well as from the proximity 
of the localities where they settled, that "all of this name in 
Connecticut and New- York, originated from William Fowler, of 
New-Haven, the magistrate of 1631." J 

The genealogy of the Fowlers of Newburgh is traced from 
Joseph, who is mentioned as a first settler near Mespat Kills, L. 
I., 1665, and who is supposed to have been a sou of William, Jr., 
fif New Haven. § Joseph had William, who had: 1. John; 2. 
Jeremiah. John (1) was born at Flushing, L. I., in 1686, and 

* "Mrs. Goodsell was a person of an amiable temper, a pattern of piety, and a worthy 
member of the cliuroli of Christ. She died in the fall triimiph of the christian faith, 
which faith she had for years experienced to be the power of God, t^) the salvation of 
her soaV— Index, Dec. 28, 1804,. 

t Weever's Funeral Momiments. § Riker's Annals of Newtown, L. I. 

t Bolton's History of Westchester County , ii. 519. See, also, "Genealogical Memoir of 
the Descendants of Ambrose Fowler, of Windsor, Conn." 



THE FOWLER FAMILY. 215 

was the fatliei- of 1. Samuel; 2. Isaac; 3. John; 4. James; 5. 
Nehomiali. His sons, Samuel and John, having- purchased a por- 
tion of the Harrison Patent in 1747,* ho removed, witii the other 
members of his family, to Newburgh and continued his residence 
here until his death, which occurred in 17fi8. Jeremiah (2) 
settled at Rye, Westchester county, where ho died in 17G6. We 
notice first the descendants of John (1) in their order, viz: 

(1) Samuel was born in ihe year 1720; married Charlotte 
Purdy, grand-daug'hter of Joseph and Elizabeth (Ogden) Purdy, 
and had: 1. Mary, married George Merritt, Jr.; 2. Elizabeth, 
married Samuel Clark; 3. Cliarlotte, married Daniel Gidney; 4. 
Martha, married Reuben Tooker; 5. Abigail, married Abel Plew- 
welliug; 6. Glorianna, married Jolin Fowler (nephew of 
Samuel); 7. Samuel. He died Oct. 13, 1789, aged 69 years and 
1 day, and his wife, Charlotte, died Julj^ 30, 1791, aged 74 years 
and 10 months. 

Samuel Fowlek was a prominent and infliiential ©itizeu of this toivu for some thirty 
years, and bis name frequently occurs in the pages of this work in connection with the 
organization of St. George's cliurch and other local events. His son, Samuel (7), was 
for forty years a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and his residence (the old 
homestead of his father) was the cradle of Methodism in Newburgh.f He was born in 
tbe year 1757, and died Jan 22, 1830. By his first wife Eebecca Gidncj', be had: 1. 
Purdy; 2. Mary, married George Wandel; 3. Charlotte. His second wife was Mary 
Clapp by whom he had: i. Henry; 5. Eebecca, married George Grove; 6 Electa, mar- 
ried Dr. James Smith; 7. Samuel; 8. Charlotte, married Henry Cox. Purdy (1) mar- 
ried Charlotte Toolcer, and had six children; Henry (4) married Eliza Ann Thorne and 
had one child. Samuel (7) maiTied Susan Phillips. 

(2) Isaac married Margaret Tlieall, and had Isaac, Jr., who 
married Glorianna, daughter of Caleb iterritt, and sister of Eliza- 
beth, the wife ot Doct. David Fowler. The children of Isaac, 
Jr., and Glorianna were: 1. Caleb, born Feb. 8, 1775, died 
March 8, 1826; 2. Martha; 3. Doct. Charles; 4. Gilbert; 5. 
Nehemiah; 6. David; 7. Doct. Francis; 8. Doct. Isaac. Caleb (1) 
married Catharine Sebring, a grand-daughter of Isaac Sebring 
and Catharine Van Benschoten, and had: 1. Peter V. B., married 
Eliza Dubois; 2. Caroline, married James E. Slater; 3. Gilbert 
S., M. D., born April 11, 1804, died April 30, 1832; 4. Ann Catha- 
rine, born 1806, died 1833; 5, Amelia, married Wm. D. Weygant, 
died Dec. 30, 1834; 6. Martha B., died in infancy; 7. Margaret, 
died young; 8. Matthew V. B., married Elizabeth F. Seymour; 9. 
Jacob V. B., married, first, Susan Jane Briuckerhoff, and second, 
a daughter of John Currie; 10. Elizabeth, born 1819, died 1830; 
11. Isaac Sebring-, married Mary Ludlow Powell. 

* Ante p. 47. t Ante p. 231, 2.12. 



276 THE fowi.ee family. 

The members of this branch of the family have for many years 
been among the most substantial citizens of the town, and dis- 
tinguished alike for their public and private worth. We regret 
our inability to trace the descendants of John (3), James (4), and 
Nehemiah (5), brothers of Samuel (1) and Isaac (2), as well as 
the descendants of the brothers of Caleb, the son of Isaac, Jr. 
We may mention, however, that Doct. Charles, the third son of 
Isaac, Jr., was for many years a physician of high reputation in 
the town of Montgomery, where he left descendants. 

Jeremiah (2), son of William of Flushing, died at Rye, West- 
chester county, in 1760. He left a son David (born lt28, died 
1806), who had David, Jr., born Dec. 28, 1155, died Oct. 20, 1835. 

David Fowler, Jb., better known as Doct. David, was born at Crom Pond, West- 
chester county. He received a liberal education, and after completing his medical 
studies in the city of New Yorlv, removed, soon after the close of the Revolution, to 
Newbnrgh, where he settled upon lauds composing part of the fiirm,and built the house 
now occupied by David E. Fowler, on the road leading from Newburgh to Marlborough, 
Here he continued to reside until about 1828, when he removed to the village of New- 
burgh. He was an earnest supporter of St. George's church, and served in its Vestry 
for several years; enjoyed a very considerable reputation as a skilful physician, and 
had an extensive practice; while in his social intercourse his liberal and expanded views 
and varied information were so happily blended with gi'eat suavity and affability of 
manners, hospitality and kindness of heart, as to stamp him a true gentleman of the old 
school, and made his society widely courted. The following obituary notice, which is 
copied from the New burgh Telegraph, is regarded as a just tribute to his character: 

"Doct. Fowler lived respected, esteemed and beloved, and died regretted. His amiable 
manners, his correct deportment, and the distinguished virtues which adorned his char- 
acter, secured him an extensive circle of friends. He was the cheerful companion, the 
unwavering friend, the kind and affectionate husband and father. He was a blessing to 
his friends, an honor to the community, and one of the highest ornaments of our nature. 

Of him it may be truly said, that he was a man without guile and without reproach 

He was just, generous, humane, and benevolent. The strictest honor, probity, and in- 
tegrity, were happily blended in his character. The law of God was his constant guide, 
and the day-star of his noble and cultivated mind. Those who knew him, will often 
turn with melancholy pleasure to the remembrance of his virtues, and drop a tear to 
his memory." 

Doct. Fowler married Elizabeth, daughter of Caleb Merritt, Oct. fi, 1785, and had: 1. 
James, horn Jan. 18, 1787, died in infiincy; 2. Gilbert Ogden, born Dec. 10, 1788, died 
Dec. 27, 1843; 3. Abigail, born Dec. 27, 1789, married Samuel Sands Seymour, died May 
3, 1817; 4. Hannah, born May 11, 1791, died Mai'ch 20, 1792; r>. Martha Elizabeth, born 
Dec. 11, 1792, man'ied Joseph Carpenter, died May )0, 1854. 

Gilbert Ogden Fowler, the second son of Doct. David, was for many years a useful 
and prominent citizen of Newbm-gh. He graduated with honor at Columbia College, 
and subsequently pursued the study of law at Newburgh, witli Solomon Sleight. He 
was licensed to practice in 1810; appointed Master in Chancery in 1816; Judge of Orange 
Cimmoji Pleas in 1828, and First Judge of that Court (in place of Samuel S. Seward,) 
in 1833. In the autumn of 1833, he was elected to the Legislature, and as a member of 
that body was instrumental in securing the passage of the chiu-ter of the Highland Bank, 
and also of the Delaware and Hudson Rail-road. He was elected President of the High- 
land Bank, on the organization of that institution, aud occupied that position until his 
death. He also held several important military commissions; was Aid-de-camp to Gen. 
Leonard Smith in 1813; Quarter-master of 34th Brigade in 1815; Aid-de-camp to the 
Major General of the 2d Division of Infantry in 1816; Brigade Major and Inspector in 



THE PUEDY FAMILY. 



211 



1818; Brigadier General of 34th Brigade in 1826 (elected in 1825); and Major General 

of 5th Brigade in 1827. Few men enjoyed 
to a greater degi'ee the confidence of his 
fellow-citizens or more worthily performed 
the duties of the pnhlic stations which he 
held. The Highland Courier, of Deo. 30, 
contained the following paragraph in refer- 
ence to his death, viz: "Gen. Fowler had 
been somewhat unwell for several days, 
but was not considered seriously sick, and 
was sitting up and conversing cheerfully 
until about an hour previous to Ms death. 
Gen. Fowler has been for many years a, 
citizen of Newburgh, and has occupied 
many stations of trust and responsibility. 
He was equally respected and esteemed in 
private life, and his death leaves a wide 
hlanlc in the social ch'olein this village." 

Gen. Fowler married Bachel Ann, daugh- 
ter of James and Ann "Walter, of the city 
of New York, Dec. 21, 1812, and left 
issue: 1. Ann, married Leonard D. 
NiooU, has two sons, GUhert 0. F., 
and Edward; 2. David E., married 
Jane Ann, daughter of Chanoey Bel- 
knap, has Isaac W., Chancey B., 
Edwai-a, and Annie; 3. Isaac Van- 
derbeck, unmarried; 4. James Walker, married Mary Frances Brown, of New York, has 
Frederic Culbert and Frances Elizabeth; 5. Elizabeth, unmanied. 




THE PUEDY FAMILY. 

This family descended from Francis Purdy, of Yorkshire, Eng., 
one of the early settlers of Fairfield, Conn., where he died in 1658. 
He had two sons, Francis and Joseph, born in Yorkshire, who 
held commissions from the Crown as surveyors. Francis, Jr., 
left Joseph, the father of David, the father of David, Jr., and 
Nathan Purdy, who settled in Newburgh prior to 116B, and 
whose descendants now reside in Ulster county. Joseph, the 
second son of Francis of Fairfield, married Elizabeth Ogd*i and 
had: 1. Samuel; 2. John; 3. Francis; 4. Daniel; 5, Joseph. 

(1) Samuel married Charlotte Strang and had: 1. Glorianna, 
married George Merritt, Senr.;* 2. Samuel, married Winifred 
Griffing and had Samuel, Henry, Jacob, Gabriel, and Lavina who 
married Capt. Eleazer Gidney; 3. Caleb, married Hannah Brown 
and had Caleb, Samuel, Josiah, Andrew, Nehemiah, Sylvanus, 
Elias, Caroline, Hannah, Lavina, and Anna; 4. Gabriel, married 
Bethia Miller and had James, Gabriel, Anthony, Gloriamia, Lewis, 
Henry, and Bethia; 5. Charlotte, married Samuel Fuwler, Senr.;t 



* See sketch of Merritt family. 



h See sketch of Fowler family. 



18 



218 THE HASBEOUCK FAMILY. 

6. Henry, married Mary Foster, grand-daughter of Major Pauld- 
ing, and had Elizabeth, William, Anna, Henry, and Samuel who 
was born at Yorktown, 1151, died at Newburgh, 1836, married 
Charlotte, daughter of Abel Flew welling, and had Henry, Abigail, 
Elizabeth, Mary, Anna, Esther, Martha, and Abel Guilford; 1. 
Elizabeth, married Josiah Fowler and had Glorianna, Gabriel, 
Esther, and Martha; 8. Josiah, married Charity Wetmore and 
had Seth, Alathea, Anna, and Esther. 

(2) John had three sons, Elisha, Joseph, and Nathaniel. 

(S) Francis had a son David, and three daughters, viz: Abigail, 
who married Nehemiah Fowler; Elizabeth, who married Arthur 
Smith; and Martha, who married Caleb Merritt. He died in 
Newburgh, June 2, 1160, aged 63 years. 

(4) David had Isaiah, Nathan, David, Gilbert, Samuel, Josiah, 
Martha who married Daniel Denton, and Lavina who married 
Eobert Denton. 

— ^The branches of this family are quite numerous in West- 
chester, as will be seen by reference to Bolton's history of that 
county. 



THE FLEWWELLING FAMILY. 

The Flewwellings were of Welsh origin, and were among the 
early settlers of Long Island, from whence John Flewwelling 
removed to Newburgh about 1160. He married Elizabeth 
Smith, and had: 1. John, married Deborah Denton and had 
ten children, all of whom died young; 2. Morris, married Jane 
Merritt and had one daughter, Elizabeth, who married William 
Palmer; 3. Abel, married Abigail Purdy and had Charlotte who 
married Samuel Purdy, Elizabeth who married William Harding, 
Samuel who married Julia Caulfield,' Clarissa who .married John 
Fowler, John who married Eunice Palmer, Abigail who married 
Thomas Fowler, Amelia who married Richard Taylor, Guilford 
who married Leah Harding, and Jane who married Geo. Harding; 
4. Sarah, married Nehemiah Denton; 5. Mary, married Cornelius 
Polhamus; and 6. Hannah, married George Winslow. 

— The name is extinct in this town, but it has representatives 
in Ulster county. 



THE HASBROnOK FAMILY. 

The Hasbrouck, or Hasbroug, family is of French origin 

Abraham and Jean, or John, the first who bore the name in 
this country, were natives of Calais, France. Long before 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, their father had suf- 



THE HASBKOUCK FAMILY. 219 

fered so much from religious persecution, that he removed, with 
his two sons and a daughter, into Germany. In IGTS, John 
came to America; and in 1615, Abraham followed him to the 
New World, leaving his father with his daughter, who had 
married one Pierre Hayaar. In a diary kept by Abraham 
Hasbrouck,* the grand-son of Abraham the brother of John, it is 
stated that Abraham, with several of his acquaintances and other 
followers of Peter Waldus, went from the Palatinate to "Rotter- 
dam, and from thence to Amsterdam, where they embarked for 
England, April, 1675. Prom England they sailed to America, and 
arrived at the town of Boston; from Boston they sailed to New 
York, and from New-York to Esopus, in Ulster county, and arrived 
there, July, 1675." Abraham found, at Esopus, his brother "Jean, 
who had gone to America two years before him, and likewise 
several acquaintances." He married, in 1676, "a young woman 
named Maria Duyouf (Deyo), the daughter of one Christian 
Duyou, with whom he had been acquainted in the Palatinate, and 
who was one of the passengers with him to America." Having 
determined to settle in the Esopus country, Hasbrouck and his 
associates selected a tract of land to which they gave the name 
of "The New Paltz," and appointed twelve of their number 
to extinguish the Indian title and to procure a Patent. The first 
Avas accomplished withoait much difficulty, and in 1677, Governor 
Andros issued the Patent. The twelve associates were •chosen 
to act in behalf of the company not only in obtaining the land, but 
in managing the civil affairs of the community. At their head 
stood Abraham Hasbrouck.J The next step was the organization 
of a religious congregation, which they called the "Walloon 
Protestant Church," after the "manner and discipline of the 
church at Geneva, according to the tenets of John Calvin." 

In preparing this brief sketch of the family we have been 
compelled to confine ourselves strictly to the genealogy of the 

* Abraham Hasbrouck was bora Aug. 21, 1707, died Nov. 10, 1791. He married, July 
5, 1738, Catharine Brayn, bom June 24, 1720, died Aug. 10, 1793. He removed to 
Kingston in 1735, where he commenced mercantile business. He was a member ot the 
Colonial Assembly from 1739 to 1745,1748 to 1750,1769 to 1778; was commlsBioned 
Colonel of the Ulster militia, in 1757; occupied a prominent position in the political his- 
tory of Ma time, and took an active part in the movements of the patriots of the Revo- 
lution. His wife, Catharine Bi'nyn, was the daughter of Jacobus Bruyn. She was of 
Norwegian extraction— her grand-father on her father's side, having been a native of 
Noi-way, and settled in the Esopus while the Province was in the possession of the 
Dutch. 

t So spelled in MSS. diaiy. Doyaux is probably the origmal French. 

i This committee bore for a long time the title of the Duisine (dnzen). Their names 
were Abraham Haabrouolt, Louis Dubois, Christian Duyou, Andvos Le Febre, John 
Hasbrouck, Peter Du/ou, Louis Bevier, Anthony Crispel, Abraham Dubois, Hugo Frier, 
Isaac Dubois, Simon Le Fevre. 



280 THE HASBROUCK FAMILY. 

branches of it that settled in JSTewburgh; and in doing so, we re- 
mark, that Abraham Hasbrouck, the patentee, died March 7, 
1711, of an apoplectic fit. His wife, Maria, died MarCh 21, 1141, 
in her 88th year. His surviving children were: 1. Joseph; 2. 
Solomon; 3 Daniel; 4. Benjamin; 5. Eachel, who married Louis 
Dubois. 

(1) Joseph married Elsie Schoonmaker, in 1706. He died 
Jan. 28, 1724, aged 40 years, 3 months; and his wife died July 
27, 1764, aged 78 years, 8 months, 8 days. "He was,'' says the 
diary already quoted, "a gentleman much respected by those 
with whom he was acquainted, and he served in several public 
stations in Ulster county. He was very affable and agreeable 
in company, eloquent in speech, spoke French-Dutch and very 
tolerable English. He was of middle stature, of fine physiog- 
nomy, black curled hair, fair skin, with a bloozing color, dark 
blue eyes." He left ten children — six sons and four daughters — 
of whom, 

Jonathan Hasbbouck (1),— bora April 12, 1722, died Jiilj 31, 1780,— man-ied. May, 
1751, Tryntje (Catharine) danghter of Cornelius Dubois, and left three sons and two 
daughters, viz: 1. Cornelius, who went to Canada; 2. Isaac; 3. Jonathan, who died 
unmarried; 4. Eachel, who married Daniel Hasbrouck, son of Abraham (1), and 
6. Mary. He removed to Newburgh soon after his maniage (1751), and pm'chased 
(1753) the property now known as Washington's Head Quai-ters, where he continued 
to reside during the remainder of his life. He was elected Supervisor, on the organiza- 
tion of the Precinct of Newburgh (1763), and held various other local ofaces. He also 
"bore several military commissions in his life time — fii-st an Ensign's, then a Captain's, 
and afterwards a Colonel's commission, which latter he received Oct. 25, 1775." His 
regiment was often called out, hut from the ill health of Col. Hasbrouck, it was comman- 
ded much of the time by Lieutenant Colonel Johannes Hardenburgh, Jr., under whom 
it participated in the defence of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, in 1778. In conse- 
quence of continued ill-health, Col. Hasbrouck resigned Ms commission in 1778. His 
death was caused by an aggravated form of gravel. From the diary of his brother 
Abraham, we quote the following description of his person and character, viz: "He waa 
a loving husband to his wife, a tender and loving father towards his children, a loving 
brother to his brother and sisters, an obedient and dutiful child to his parents, a kind 
master to his servants, a good neighbor, a hospitable man, a good, industrious, sober 
man, and a very good liver, and a vei-y good commonwealth's-man (Whig). He was a 
pious worthy man, paid a good deal of reverence in hearing and reading the word of 
God. He was good natured, not soon ruffled or put in a passion, but with a great deal 
of forbearance. He had very good sense, and strong natural parts and understanding 
—especially in divinity, and very knowing in common affairs of life. He' was a man of 
stature above six feet four inches, well shaped and proportioned of body, good features, 
full visage of face, but brown of complexion, dark blue eyes, black hair with a slight 
curl, strong of body, arms, legs; was inclined to be corpulent and fat in his younger 
days, but meeting so many sicknesses and disorders he was not so fat the last thii-ty 
years of his life as he was in his youth. He had a great many good qualities that I don't 
write down here. He died on Monday morning and was buried on Tuesday in the 
burying place on his own land, between his house and the North River, lying along side 
two of his sous who lay buried in the same ground." 

The descendants of Col. Hasbrouck, now residing in this town, are through his son 



PENNY — HBTCHINS. 281 

Isaac (2),whowas bora Sept. 23, 1761; died August 21, 1806. He married (1784) 
Hannah Birdsall, wlio died Deo. 27, 1807, aged 45 years. His children were: 1. Jona- 
than, who occupied for many years the Head Quarters homestead; 2. Sarah, who 
married Walter Ceise; 3. Israel, died unmarried; 4. Eachel, died unmarried; 5. Eli, 
who has been married twice and has Charles H., Eli, Jr., and other children; 6. Mary, 
died unmarried. 

(2) Benjamin married Elsie Schoonmaker and left three sons, 
1. Benjamin; 2. Cornelius; 3. Joseph. Cornelius married Jane 
Kelso in 1799. Ho left, 1. William C; 2. Benjamin C; 3. Mar- 
garet, who married Oapt. Eli Perry. 

William C. (1), was born Aug 23, 1800; married Mary E., daughter of William Roe, 
June 22, 1831; has three sons, viz: William H., Henry C, and Roe, andthi-ee daughters: 
Maria H., Emily A., and Blandina. He entered active life, we believe, as a teacher in 
the public schools, and was principal of the Fai-mev's Hall Academy, Goshen, in 1822. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1826, and rose rapidly to the front rank in his pi-ofession, 
a position which he continues to occupy. He was elected to the Assembly in 1847, and 
was chosen speaker of that body. Few men have a more unblemished reputation, both 
at home and abroad. 



THE PENNY FAMILY. 

Joseph Penny was born in Wales, Eng. The time of his 
emigration to this country is not known. He was a school- 
master, and in that capacity he was employed by the trustees 
of the Glebe prior to the Kevolution.* He purchased the Wal- 
lace Patent, where he settled with his sons, William, John, 
James, Peter, Joseph, Eobinson, Allen, and Isaac. His oldest 
daughter married Daniel Everett, of Ulster county; his second 
daughter, Polly, married James, son of Robert Eoss; Betsey 
married William Wilson, and Nelly died unmarried. William, 
his oldest son, was born May 29, 1159, and died December 7, 
1832; his wife, Hannah, was born June 20, 1161, and died 
January 20, 1833. William Penny, 2d, died Jan. 31, 1849, aged 
60 years, 2 months, and 11 days; and his wife, Mercy, died Nov. 
4, 1851, aged 66 years. The descendants of Joseph Penny, 
Senr., are quite numerous in this town, in Ulster county and in 
the city of New York. 

JOHN NATHAN HUTCHINS. 

To the account already given,f in reference to the old teacher 
of the Glebe school, John Nathan Hutchins, we add the follow- 
ing obituary notice of him, taken from the New York Packet of 
July 8, 1182, viz: 

"Died— On Monday, 8th inst., in the eighty-second year of his age, after a short ill- 
ness, greatly lamented, that reputable and useful citizen, noted mathematician and 
astronomer, Mr. John Nathan Hutchins. He was a person of an excellent understand- 

* Ante p. 48, 108, 131, 244. + Ante p. 108, 244. 



282 THE ECKEE FAMILY. 

ing, faoetioui and cheerful in hia temper, charitable to the poor, a faithful husband and 
an obliging neighbor. He lived a pious and exemplary life; and as he lived, he died 
a sincere Christian; and has left his aged consort, who with his numerous acquaintan- 
ces, regret his loss. His remains were decently inteiTed in Newburgh the day following 
his death." 



WOLVERT ACKER, OR EOKER. 

Wolvert Acker — or Ecker, as the name should be written,*— 
was the great-grand-son of Jan Ecker, one of tlie early Dutch 
settlers of Greenburgh, Westchester county, and was born there 
Jan. IT, 1732. f He purchased, in 1112, a portion of the Harrison 
Patent, and soon after removed to Newburgh, where he continued 
to reside until his death, which occurred on the 11th Jan. 1199, 
at the age of 61 years. J 

Mr. EoKEK was a man of generous heart and patriotic impulses. He entered warmly into 
the struggle for Independence; contributed freely his time and his money to the cause, and 
from first to last was one of the most reliable men in the Precinct. He was appointed 
chaii-man of the Committee of Safety for the Precinct, in 1775, and took especially under 
his cognizance the northern part of the town, where a strong feeling existed in favor of 
the Crown. His house soon became a favorite resort of the Wliigs in that section of the 
countiy, and especially would they gather there on the Sabbath to loam the progress 
of events. On such occasions, he would wait until a fair audience had assembled, and, 
after reading a chapter from his old Dutch Bible, he would detail all the intelligence that 
he had received. Then the New York Packet, the Whig paper of the times, was read, 
and the affairs of the country discussed. In this manner he continually strengthened 
the hands and hearts of the friends of Liberty during the whole war. The toriea 
he hated intensely; watched then- movements with untiring zeal, and punished many 
of them for their depredations. After the war he engaged in millmg, and in the manu- 
facture of brick. He established the landing on the Hudson now known as Hampton, 
and also a ferry between that place and Wappinger's Falls. His death was occasioned 
by a cancer on the face, from which he suffered for several yeai's. 

Mr. Ecker was married twice. His first wife died without 
issue; his second was Sarah, daughter of William Pugsley, of 
Westchester county, by whom he had: 

* It is so written in the early records of Westchester county, and by his son, Capt. 
William Ecker. In the previous part of this work we have given the name Acker, as 
it is usually so spelled in the records of this town. The name was probably Acker, and 
the change in the orthography evidently had its origin in the fact that the accented A 
has the sound of E, in Gei-man. Wol/ert and Wotoert are both -used— as in Gei-man v 
has the sound of our/. 

t Bolton, in his "Histoi-y of Westchester County," has the following reference to the 
Ecker family, and to the homestead originally held by them but more recently by Wash- 
ington Irving, and known as "Sunny Side," viz: "Van Tassel house occupies the site of 
' Wolfert's Eoost,' which was built by Wolfert Ecker, an ancient Dutch burgher of this 
town (Greenburgh). In 1697, we find recorded the name of Jan Ecker, fli-st accepted 
Deacon of the Dutch church, Sleepy Hollow, which office he appears to have held for 

several years. By his wife, Magdalentje, he left issue Wolfert, Cornelis, and others 

The Will of Wolfert Ecker bears date 1763, wherein he bequeaths to his ' son, Stephen, 
a cow, or the worth thereof, more than the others, for his bu-th-right,' and to his grand- 
son, Wolfert Ecker, son of Sybout, twenty shillings, besides other bequests." Irving, in 
his ' Wolfert's Eoost,' has immortalized both the homestead and the name of its ancient 
proprietor. 

jf Inscription on monument in the burial ground at Marlborough: "In memory of 
Wolvert Ecker, who died Jan. 17, 1799, aged 67 yeai's. 'A man of sorrows and acquain- 
ted with giief.' " 



THE INNIS FAMILY. 283 

(1) Isaac died unmarried. 

(2) Susan married first, Joseph Williams, and had: Wolvert 
A., James, and Glementine; and second, Leonard Smith, and had 
William, who was drowned, with so many others, in the sloop 
Neptane in 1824. 

[&) Deborah married Doct. John Pinckney, of Duchess county, 
a branch of the South Carolina stock of that name, and had: 
Isaac, Caroline, Harriet, Edward, Julia, Theodore, and Deborah. 

(4) William married Sarah Badger, of Poughkeepsie,- and had: 
Theodore, Clara, Phebe, Susan, George, and Charies. He was 
a man justly esteemed for his many virtues ; held several mili- 
tary commissions; served in the war of 1812, and died while a 
member of the Legislature in 182*7, in his 48th year. His daugh- 
ters, Susan and Phebe, married a Mr. Mead, of St. Louis — Susan 
being his first wife, and Phebe his second. His sons, Theodore 
and Charles, now reside in California. 

(5) Phebe married Hon. John P. Jones, of Sullivan county, and 
had: Samuel, William, Perthenia, Mary, Henrietta, and Phebe. 

(6) Sarah married James Lockwood, of Norwalk, Conn., and 
had: Catharine F., Harriet C, William E., Emma C, Helen M. 
(married Alex. Bell), Morris W., and John E. 

Mrs. Susan Ecker (his widow) married second, Geo. Merritt. 



• THE INNIS FAMILY. 

James Innis was brought to this country from Ireland, while 
an infant, about the year 1T3T. His mother and her sisters settled 
in Little Britain, where he received an education in the ordinary 
English branches, from George and James Clinton. He married 
Sybil Eoss, of Morristown, N. J., and settled in Newburgh in 
1*180. His children were: 1. James; 2. Jane; 3. Keziah; 4. 
Lydia; 5. Peter; 6. Benjamin; T. Elsie; 8. Sarah; 9. William; 10. 
Aaron. James (1) died unmarried. He was a soldier in the 
army of the Eevolution, and was in the battle of Monmouth. 
Jane (2) married William Irwin and removed to Ohio. Keziah 
(3) married James Owen. Lydia (4) married Moses Hanmore. 
Peter (5) died unmarried. Benjamin (6) married Margaret Den- 
ton. Elsie (1) married Thomas Aldrich. Sarah (8) married 
Anthony Presler. Aaron (10) married Euth, daughter of Luif 
Smith, and settled in Milton. William (9) married Elizabeth, 
daughter of James Warring,* and had: Sally, married Isaac 
Demarest; Eoss, married Catharine Cook; Eebecca, married Eich- 

* Mrs. Innis was killed by being accidentally thrown from a wagon, Jan. 18, 1846. 



284 



THE WARBEN FAMILY. 



ard Ward, Jr.; Wygant, unmarried, resides in Wisconsin; Wil- 
liam, Jr., married Catharine Jessup, resides in Wisconsin. 

This family was one of the first that settled on the Bradley 
Patent, and the homestead farm is still held by William (9). 



THE WARREN FAMILY. 

The Warrens, who are supposed to be of Norman origin, were 
among the earliest emigrants of New England. Eichard Warren 
was one of the pilgrims by the "May Flower," and settled in 
Plymouth. John Warren came to America in 1630, and settled 
in Watertown, Mass. Another John Warren, supposed to have 
been a brother to Kichard, settled in Salem in 1630. Peter War- 
ren, who was probably a son of John of Salem, settled in Salem, 
and from him Genl. Joseph Warren, the patriot of Bunker Hill, 
was a lineal descendant.* 

The earliest mention of the name in this town, that we have 
met with, is in the records of the First Presbyterian church, 
viz: under date of July 23, ItSS, the marriage of "John Warren, 
of Massachusetts, and Elizabeth Belknap, of Newburgh." In 
reference to the genealogy of this branch of the family we 
have learned the following facts, viz: John Warren came to 
America in 1630, and settled in Watertown, Mass. His children 
were John, Mary, Daniel, and Elizabeth, who were probably all 
born in England. Daniel married Mary BarrCn, Dec. 10, 1650, 
and had nine children, of whom the seventh was John, b. March 
5th, 1665, and who married Mary Brown. He had three children, 
of whom John (b. March 15, 1684-5,) had two children, viz: 
Beulah, b. Aug 23, 1125, married John Hobbs, of Brookfield; and 
Josiah, b. Feb. IT, 1114-15. The latter married Hepzibah Hobbs, 
by whom he had ten children. f 

John Warkbn, the youngest child of Josiah Warren, was left an orphan during Iiis 
infancy, and was talcen by his aunt, Beulah, wife of John Hobbs, of Brookfield, where 
he resided until he anived at the age of nineteen years, when he joined the army of the 
Revolution, and participated in its struggles until the peace in 1783. He was engaged 
in several of the most important battles of the war, and received particular commenda- 
tion for his bravery at Bunker Hill and at Monmouth, and was subsequently raised to 
the rank of Captain. He came with the Massachusetts line to the encampment at New 
Windsor. Here he became acquainted with Miss Belknap, a lady remarkable for her 
intelligence and personal attractions.^ to whom he was married at the date already 
given. After the disbandment of the army, he engaged in business pursuits in New- 
burgh; but subsequently removed to Troy, and afterwards to Saratoga Springs, where 
he died, Dec. 25, 1823— his wife surviving him until June 21, 1837. Their children were: 

* Genealogy of Warren, by J. 0. Warren, M. D. f Bond's Genealogies of Watertown. 

i Miss Belknap was the partner of Gen. Washington, in the opening set of the ball 
given at the Temple, April, 1783, on the announcement of the exchange of the prelimi- 
nary articles of peace. (Eager's Orange County, 618.) 



THE WARREN FAMILY. 285 

1. John H., b. 1786, died at Montezama, N. Y., 1823, married Fanny Kellogg, and 
had one child, William L. F.; 2. Cynthia M., b. Aug. 2, 1788, married Miles Beach, of 
Saratoga Springs; 3. Stephen H., b. Nov., 1790 ; 4. William L. P., b. Feb. 4, 1793, 
now a prominent lawyer at Saratoga Springs ; 5. Elizabeth B., b. 1795, mairied Doet. 
R. R. Davis, late of Syracuse ; 6. Caroline S., b. 1798, married Benjamin Cai-penter, of 
Newbm-gh. 7. Mary A., b. 1800, married Jas. H. Dmtow, of Saratoga Springs. 

William L. P. Wakeen, the son of John H.Warren, came to Newburgh early in life, 
and engaged as clerk with his uncle, Mr. Carpenter. In 1837, he became, aa he still is, 
a member of the firm of B. Carpenter & Co. He has filled for several terms, and with 
maitod ability, the post of President of the Boai'd of Trustees of the village. Pos- 
sessing great energy of character and thoroughly schooled in business transactions, 
he has brought to the discharge of his public duties qualifications in which he has few 
equals, and which have won for him the confidence of the people whom he has served. 
He has also taken a prominent part in promoting various public and private eutei-prises, 
and in all positions in life he has ever acted as an upright and honorable citizen. Pew 
of the elements of popularity, as that term is generally understood, reveal themselves in 
his intercourse with others. He is a man of few words, with a certain austerity of man- 
ner, more apparent, however, than real , as those who know him well can testify. While 
he watches the pubjio interests with the fidelity of a Plagg, he knows how to combine 
the suaviter in modo with the fortiier in re. In a word, he has 
"Courage, force, and hai-dinesse. 
Good adventure, and famous manlinesse;" 
and is one of those rare men to whom the oommuniiy look for protection against foolish 
or oppressive legislation, which the party hack or political charlatan is often so ready to 
sanction for a oonsideratioii. 

Mr. Wari'en married Catharine, daughter of John H. Walsh. 

Another branch of the family is that of Miles Warren, who 
has also been a resident of our village for many years. His grand- 
father was James Warren, of Woodbridge, (now Bethany,) Conn., 
who married Abigail Thomas and had: Jason, Sarah, Rachel, 
Abigail, Nathaniel, Jemima, Edward, and Eichardson.* He died 
during the Kevolution, probably at Ticonderoga, where he had 
gone to take care of his son Edward, then a soldier and sick. 
His son Richardson, was killed during the Revolution, on board 
of the American frigate "Trumbull," by a cannon ball which 
passed through both thighs. His son Nathaniel, was born Jan. 
15, 1155, and married Susanna, daughter of Isaac Johnson, of 
Seymour, Conn., by whom he had six children, viz: Betsey, Char- 
les, Marshall, Isaac, Miles, Susan. Miles was born at Bethany, 
Conn., July 4, 1790. He married, first, Sally Ooe (1810) by 
whonihe had: George T., William S., Edward M. (died), Ed- 
ward R. M. (died), Sarah A. H. (died), and John W. Mrs. 
Sally Warren died April 13, 1855, and he married (1856) Ruth, 
daughter of James Miller, formerly of Crawford, Orange co., by 
whom he has: Anson Miles, b. May 13, 1858. 

Isaac, the fourth son of Nathaniel Warren, was born in Beth- 
any, Conn., Dec. 523, 1T87. He married, Sept. 12, 1812, Leonora, 

* New Haven Records. 



286 THE EEEVK FAMILY. 

daughter of Israel Perkins, and had : Israel P., William E., 
Susan H., Isaac W., Harris P., Cornelia A., and George P. 

Willi AM E. Waeben, the second son of Isaac, came to Newburgh in the Spring of 1836. 
Having previously served an apprenticesliip of three years as clerk in a manufacturing 
establishment at Waterbury, he readily obtained a situation with D. Crawford & Cd., as 
book-keeper and cashier, with whom he remained until the Spring of 1841. He subse- 
quently engaged in mercantile business in Newbm-gh and in New York, from which 
he retired in 1851. He soon after received the appointment of Auditor of the N. Y. & B. 
Eail-road Co., which post he resigned in 1853, to accept that of Secretary and Treasurer 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western E. R. Co., of which he was afterwards 
elected a Director. He resigned his connection with this company in the Spring of 
1858; and in 1859, he received the appomtment of Deputy Comptroller of the city of 
New York, which station he now (1861) Alls. 

Mr. Warren has been the architect of his own fortune, and is indebted almost entirely 
to his natural force of character for his elevation from obscurity to the position which 
he now occupies in the respect of the community. The ruling traits in his character, 
as exhibited in his official career, are great activity of mind, a thoroughly cultivated 
judgment, cautiousness, and strict integrity — qualities which fit him in an eminent 
degree for stations of financial responsibility. To his worth as a piivate citizen, all can 
bear honorable testimony, who are acquainted with the encouragement which he 
has extended to private and public enterprises in the town of his adoption, as well as to 
its social, religious and literaiy elevation. It is to men of his stamp that our country is 
indebted for its rail-roads, its churches and schools, and for the development of all the 
agencies that have contributed to its prosperity. 

Mr. WaiTen married, March 25, 1840, Lydia Eiggs, daughter of Charles and Amelia 
Birdsall, and has one daughter, Mary Cushman WaiTen. 



THE REEVE FAMILY. 

Prom "Griffin's Journal" * we learn that "the first of the family 
of the name of Reeve came to America from Wales, not far from 
1660, and settled at Mattituck, L. I. Tradition says there were 
two brothers; their names Thomas and James. James, the pro- 
genitor of the Newburgh family, died at Mattituck in 1139, aged 
60 years. His children were: 1. James; 2. Selah; 3. Isaac; 4. 
Nathaniel; 5. Ebenezer." Selah (2) settled on a farm near 
the old homestead. WKen the British obtained possession of 
Long Island they endeavored to enlist the inhabitants in favor 
of the King by offering them the oath of allegiance, accompanied 
with the assurance that if they would accept it they should not 
only be exempt from molestation, but supplies for the troops 
would be purchased from them and paid for in gold. If the 
oath was rejected, however, the troops would seize whatever 
they might require. To secure ease and peace, many of the 
settlei-s embraced the terms offered; but there were those who 
esteemed the cause in which they were engaged too sacred to be 
bartered away thus lightly, and who refused the proffered terms. 
Selah Eeeve was among the latter class. The British oflScers 

* Griffin's Journal. First Settlers of Mattituck, L. I., &c., by Augustus Griffin. 



THE REEVE FAMILY. 281 

gave him three w^eeks to reconsider his determination, and in- 
timated that if, at the expiration of that time, he still refused 
the oath, they would take possession of his property. Du- 
ring the interval granted, Mr. Reeve gathered together a small 
sum of money, obtained a fishing-scow, placed on board sdme 
provisions and clothing, and informed his family that they must, ,, 
be in readiness to leave their home the moment that the officers 
made their appearance. 

Prompt to their appointment, the officers returned at the 
expiration of the time which they had fixed; but Mr. Reeve 
discovered their approach in time to make his escape. The 
sound of the dinner-horn was the signal of alarm agreed upon, and 
his men instantly repaired on board the scow, while he hastened 
the departure of his family. Entering the door of his dwelling, 
he found his wife busily preparing the noon-tide meal, and his 
boy, Selah, then an infant, asleep in the cradle. He grasped the 
child and placed him under his arm, Very much as he would have 
handled a bag of flour, simply said to his wife, "Come," and 
strode out of the back door. The infant soon made the air ring 
with his cries at this unceremonious handling, and its mother 
remonstrated; he gave little heed to either, but at last, after re- 
peated solicitations from the latter, he handed her the child with 
the remark, "There, carry him yourself," and then hastened on. 
The vessel was reached and cast off from the shore, just as 
the ofScers were emerging from the back door of the house. 
Waving his hand to his baffled pursuers. Reeve steered for 
the Connecticut shore, where he landed, and subsequently 
purchased an inland farm in that State. After the war, he 
bought (1784) a farm situate^d about three miles north of the 
village, of Newburgh, to which" he soon after removed his family. 
He died Feb. 21, 1196, in his 55th year; his wife died January 
21, 1829, aged 84 years. His sons were: 1. Selah; 2. James; 
3. Joseph. We notice them briefly in their order, viz: 
Selah Ebevb (1), whose unceremonious removal from his infant cradle on Long 

Island we 
have men- 
tion ed, 
eng aged 
in the 
m illing 
-bBsiness 

at Hunting-Grove (now Baskirk's mills), on the Otterkill, in the town of New Wind- 
sor, about • the year 1798 or '99. After a few yeai's, he returned to Newburgh and 
commenced the manufacture of brown earthen ware— a new business at that time, and 




288 THE REEVE FAMILY. 

an article of manufacture in great demand. Mi'. Burling afterwards became his partner 
in this business, and in connection with it they opened a crockery, glass, and earthen- 
ware store. He next entered into the mercantile and forwarding business, in company 
with William H. Palls, and subsequently with his son, Christopher Beeve. He died April 
11, 1837. The Newburgh Telegraph ot April 13, 1837, contains the following notice, in 
connection with the announcement of his death, viz: 

"Mr. Eeeve was one of the oldest merchants and earliest citizens of Newburgh. He 
added to a strong mind and good judgment, those habits of industry and perseverance 
which render business men so useful in communities dependent, as this has been, upon 
enterprise for their advancement. He knew our village in its infancy, and has witness- 
ed and gi'eatly contributed to its growth and prosperity. In sustaining churches and 
schools, the organization of banks, the construction of roads, and other enterprises, he 
devoted a large share of his time and capital. No man had a higher reputation for 
integi'ity , and he died enjoying' the full confidence of the community in which he lived." 

Mr. Eeeve married Elizabeth, daughter of Christopher and Julia (Tusten*) Tan Duzer, 
of Newburgh,in 1795,and had: 1. Millioent, d. in infancy; 2. Christopher; 3. Charles 
F.V.; 4. Julia Ann; S.George; B.Eliza; 7.Jane; S.Nathan; O.HametM.; 10.MaryE.,d. 
in infancy; 11. Selah. Christopher (2) married Maria Hasbrouck. He was engaged in 
the mercantile and forwarding business in Newburgh for several years, and is now in the 
lumber trade at Detroit. Charles P. V. (3) , mamed Adaline Amos, of New York; and 
after her death, Julia Ann Ferguson. He was an importing merchant in Charleston, S. 
C, for several years; subsequently engaged in busmess with his brother Christopher, in 
Newburgh, and more recently in milling and farming at Shawangunk, Ulster county. 
He now resides in Newburgh. Julia'Ann (4) manied Daniel S. Tuthill. George (5) 
maiTied Cai'oline IngersoU. He continned the mercantile business, at the old stand of 
his father, until his death in 1853 or '54. Ehza (6) married Hon. John W. Brown. 
Jane (7) married Alexander C. Mulliner. Nathan (8) mamed Mary, daughter of Selah 
Reeve Hobbie, of Washington. He studied law with Hon. John W.Brown; practiced 
his profession in Newburgh for several years; in now in the lumber trade at Detroit. 
Harriet M. (9) , married the Eev. Wm. McLaren; resides at Fall Eiver, Mass. Selah (10) 
married Lilly Snow, of Providence, E. I. ; is now engaged in the lumber trade at Chicago. 

James Eeeve (2) was a mariner from his yonth. He was taken prisoner by the 
British, during the war of 1812, when within two days sail of New York, and was 
carried to England and confined in Dartmoor prison. *He shared in the scenes enacted 
there on the 4th of July, 1813, and April 6th, 1814, as well as in all the hoiTors of that 
most honible place. He escaped without injury from the massacre of April 6th, and 
on the final release of the piisoners, he returned to his native village. Not long after, 
however, he was seriously injured by the bursting of a lime-kiln, and died in the course 
of a year. He was never mamed. • 

Joseph Eeeve (3) engaged in the manufacture of whalebone whips, of which he was 
the patentee. "No small manufacture," remarks Mr. Eager, "ever had greater success 
than Mr. Eeeve in this. His whips were in the hand of every person in town and countiy 
who rode a horse or drove a carnage." He also conducted the gold and silveremith 
business with considerable success. "During the war of 1812," continues Mi-. Eager, 
"when the militia of this section of country were called out to defend the city and har- 
bor of New York, Joseph Eeeve accompanied them, and discharged the duties of Adju- 
tant. Having nothing to do, beyond the usual routine of camp duty, the officers did not 
confine themselves very strictly to quarters. One night a number of them attended the 
Park Theatre. The boxes were crowded, and they were compelled to enter the pit. 
The orchestra played some airs which were new to the Newburgh boys, and which they 
thought were foolish and unmeaning, and they called for something that they could un- 
derstand and appreciate. The call not being responded to, Eeeve, at the instigation of 

his friends, rose upon his seat, and to the sui-prise of all present began to sing 

"Let Britain sing, God save the King, 
And play it on the fiddle." 



* Julia Van Dtizer was foi-merly Julia Tusten, a sister of Col. Benjamin Tusten who 
was killed in the battle of Minisink. 



PHINEAS BOWMAN. 



289 



The oi'ohesti'a ceased their labora, and the house in a moment was quiet. Reeve poured 
out the song in full, rich volume of tone, and when he ended the house rang with loud 
encore. Reeve responded to the call and repeated the song, and was again greeted with 
rapturous applause." He died in September, 1828, after an illness of several months, 
from an injury on the head caused hy Mows inflicted by two ruffians in the street. His 
wife was Eunice Sayer, by whom he had: 1. Charles, married Katura Wilson; 2. Deca- 
tm-, married Frances A. Horton; 3. Anthony D., mai-ried a Miss Yeltman; i. Caroline, 
married Doct. J. D, Sloan; 5. John, died unmarried. 

— The descendants of Selah Reeve can point with just pride 
to their family record as embracing, in its several generations, 
men who have taken an active and prominent part in local enter- 
prise, as well as men of strict integrity and public worth. 




PHINEAS BOWMAN. 

Among the lawyers who first es- 
tablished themselves in Newburgli, 
was Phineas Bowman. He had ser- 
ved in the army of the Revolution, 
and had attained the rank of Colonel. 
He came to the encampment at New 
Windsor with the army, and either 
remained upon its disbandment, as 
was the case with several of his 
contemporaries in the service, or re- 
turned here not long after that event. 
He was a man of high legal attain- 
ments; was admitted to practice in the courts of Ulster county in 
1190; rose rapidly in his profession, and rendered his constituents 
valuable service, as a member of the Legislature of 1198, by se- 
curing the passage of the law which gave the county of Orange 
its present bounds. During the last few years of his life, however, 
he lost character and fortune by habits of intemperance; and his 
memory is now preserved only through the medium of anecdotes, 
and traditional stories of occurrences in which he was a party. 

It is related of him, that in the early part of the war, when 
discipline was quite lax, he happened to offend, by some famil- 
iarity, the commanding officer of his regiment. The matter 
was promptly investigated by a court martial, and he was 
sentenced to ask tbe pardon of the offended ofBcer in the pres- 
ence of the troops at the next general parade. On the morning 
appointed for the ceremony, he dressed himself and his horse in 
new and glittering trappings of his rank, and riding in front of 
the line, passed to the staff of the ofBcer of the day, where he 
was to meet the complainant. Arriving there, he removed his 



290 PHINEAS BOWMAN. 

hat very gracefully and gravely addressed his offended superior 
as follows: "Sir, in obedience to the sentence of a court martial 
passed upon me, I do hereby ask your pardon ; and will simply 
add, that had the court so ordered, I would, with equal readiness, 
have asked pardon of your horse." Then, replacing his hat, he 
rode leisurely back to his post. The insulted ofiScer was, at first, 
very indignant at the manner and matter of Bowman's apology; 
but the latter was a favorite with the line, as well as with his 
brother oflScers, and another court martial was not deemed advi- 
sable in the case. The story was current in the camp for a long 
time, and is well authenticated. 

At the time Bowman entered the legal profession, and Icfng 
afterwards, practical jokes were liberally indulged in by both the 
bench and the bar, and in these affairs he was a leading spirit. 
On one occasion. Judge Morgan Lewis, who had been holding a 
circuit court at Goshen, found it necessary, in order to meet his 
appointment at Poughkeepsie, to make the journey from Goshen 
on horseback on the Sabbath, Traveling on the "first day of 
the week'' was, by statute, punishable with detention or fine. 
Bowman accompanied the Judge on his trip, but when they 
arrived near Newburgh he rode on in advance of his companion, 
and stopped at 'Squire Niven's just long enough to pay his own 
fine and to enter a complaint against the Judge for violating the 
Sabbath, and then went on his way. As soon as the Judge came 
along, Niven arrested him, and compelled him either to submit to 
detention or pay his fine. In vain he pleaded the necessity which 
compelled him to violate the statute; Niven was inexorable; so 
he paid his fine and resumed his journey. 

But the Judge was very angry at the insult which had been 
offered to his dignity, and breathed vengeance against Niven. 
It soon came out, however, that Bowman was the real author of 
the mischief; and it also happened that he had an important case 
before the Judge, at the very next circuit at Goshen. The case 
came on and was given to the jury on Saturday afternoon, and 
pending their deliberations the court temporarily adjourned. 
The members of the bar scattered themselves in all directions, 
expecting that when the session was resumed in the evening, 
the verdict would be rendered and the final adjournment made. 
The Judge, however, had not forgotten his fine; and entering the 
court room in the evening, and finding no one present to question 
the proceeding, deliberately ordered an adjournment to Pough- 
keepsie. Even the jury was not aware of the fact, and after 



PHINBAS BOWMAN. 291 

waiting for some time to be called into court, retired for the 
night. Early in the morning, the Judge mounted his horse and 
started for Poughkeepsie ; and several hours had elapsed after 
his departur-e before the jury or Bowman were aware of the 
position in which they were placed. No alternative was left to 
them, however. They must either overtake the Judge on his 
journey, or be compelled to appear before his honor at Pough- 
keepsie, and there render their verdict. To avoid the latter con- 
tingency they mounted horses and gave chase, led on by Bowman. 
Justice Niven, however, had been advised of their coming, and 
promptly arrested and compelled them all to pay the penalty of 
the law. In consequence of this detention they did not overtake • 
the Judge until he Was stepping on board the ferry-boat at New- 
burgh; but the boat remained at the wharf long enough for him 
to hear the application that their verdict might be received and 
themselves discharged, and to assure them that the court could 
not lawfully transact business on th% Sabbath day, and that 
they were a pack of fools for the trouble they had taken. 

After the Judge had departed, Bowman learned that the verdict 
was in his favor, and being aware that, although it was usual, 
under extraordinary circumstances, to transport a jury from one 
circuit station to another, there was no law or precedent which 
justified such a step after they had retired for deliberation, he 
told the jury to enclose and seal their verdict, and he would see 
that it was received by the court; that the conduct of the Judge 
had been prompted entirely by a desire to punish him (Bowman), 
for a fancied insult arising from some pleasantry in which he had 
indulged at the Judge's expense; that if the Judge wished to 
carry on the matter, he should have the opportunity, and that they 
need give themselves no farther trouble in the premises. Bow- 
man started for Poughkeepsie early on Monday, and when he 
arrived there he dressed himself in full military costume, entered 
the court-room, and throwing the sealed packet on the Judge's 
bench, exclaimed, "There is your verdict !" then turned on his 
heel and walked out. The Judge pocketed the insult, and directed 
that the verdict should be regularly entered, well-knowing that 
in playing his'joke he had gone beyond the pale of the law. 

When Jonathan Fisk came to Newburgh, Bowman was the 
only man who could make any headway against him, and numer- 
ous anecdotes are related of their encounters. Pisk relied upon 
law and precedents, and won his cases by his clear and logical de- 
ductions from them. Bowman therefore found it necessary some- 



292 WILLIAM SEYMOUR. 

times to cast both law and precedents aside and employ other and 
less dignified means of success. On one occasion, Ben. Anderson 
had a suit of considerable importance, and Fisk was rapidly 
using him up. To save his case, Ben. started for Bowman, but 
found him sadly intoxicated; nevertheless he dragged him into 
court, where, while listening to Pisk's quotation of precedents, 
he became passably sober. He saw that Fisk had the case fairly; 
but Ben. insisted that he should make an efiort to defeat him. 
Accordingly, when Fisk had concluded. Bowman tottered up to 
him and asked him for the loan of his book and his spectacles, as 
he had unfortunately left his own at his oflSce. Fisk complied with 
the request, though suspicious that there was evil in the wind ; 
and Bowman commenced reading the quotations already cited,, 
but changed the punctuation and accent materially. Then turn- 
ing to the jury he reminded them that the true construction of pre- 
cedents depended very much on whose nose the spectacles rested 
while they were being read, and ably contended for the interpre- 
tation which he had given. The jury were so confused that they 
failed to agree, and Anderson was temporarily successful. 

Poor Bowman, when his self-respect became blunted, would, 
on his rounds of intoxication, gather his pockets and the 
bosom of his shirt full of stones, and when he could carry his 
load no farther, would sit down in the street and throw the 
stones without regard to direction or consequences. If a store 
was bombarded or windows were endangered by the missives, 
the occupant had only to hurry out, seize him by the legs and 
turn him around, and the stones would then fly harmlessly down 
the street. In a fit of intemperance he finally died, and was 
laid to rest in a nameless grave.* 

Bowman owned the property now occupied by William Roe, 
on Montgomery street. His residence, however, was taken down 
by Mr. Eoe, and removed to the south-west corner of Montgomeiy 
and Third streets, and is now occupied in part as the parsonage 
of the 1st M. B. church. We believe he left one daughter, Mary, 
who married Benjamin Anderson. His wife, Mary, died March 
22, 1813, in her 58th year, universally esteemed by all who en- 
joyed her acquaintance. 

WILLIAM SEYMOUR. 

William Seymour was the son of Samuel Seymour, of Green- 
wich, Conn., where he was born April 13, 1158. His wife was 

* Ante p. 105. The engraving given in connection with this sketch is from a profile 
lilteness talceu in 1798, while Mr. Bowman was a memljer of the Legislature. 






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E. M. KUTTENBEK & CO., PKINTEKS. 




THE CARPENTER FAMILY. 293 

(first) Esther Sands, of Long Island, by whom he had: 1. William, 
2. Samuel Sands, 3. Drake, and 4. Esther.* He married, second, 
Eliza, daughter of Henry Powell, of Long Island, and had: 5. 
Margaret, who married Joseph Kernochan, and 6. Mary Powell, 
who married James S. Abeel, of U. S. Army. He removed to 
Newburgh about' the year 1790, and commenced the mercantile 
business on the north-west comer of Watej and Fourth streets, 
and soon after opened a branch store at Plattekill. He subse- 
quently engaged in ship-building here, and constructed, first, the 
Liverpool Packet; second, the WMiam Perm, and third, the Ontario. 
These vessels were among the most successful in the Liverpool 
trade. The Ontario was of five hundred tons burthen, and was 
the largest ship that sailed from New York at the time of her 
construction. He was also largely interested in real estate in 
Newburgh and its vicinity, and was active in promoting the inter- 
ests of the town. In 1805, he accidentally fell into the hold of 
the ship Ontario, and received injuries which rendered him unable 
to walk during the remainder of his life. This accident obliged 
him to withdraw from business. He died in 1811. 

It is due to Mr. Seymour to say, that none of the early settlers 
of the town contributed more to developo its business and com- 
mercial interests, or was more highly esteemed by his fellow- 
citizens. Men of the generation which succeeded that in which 
his active years were spent, have received much of the credit due 
to him and to his contemporaries, whose enterprise laid the foun- 
dations of the prosperity which the town has since enjoyed. The 
present generation should bo just to their memories. 



THE CARPENTER FAMILY. 

The Newburgh family of this name are thu descendants of 
Benjamin Carpenter, who was born in England in lT30.f He 
emigrated to this country at an early age, and settled on Long 
Island, from whence he removed to Latintown (then in the town 
of Newburgh), Ulster county, where he resided until his death. 
He married (1164) Jane, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Leonard, 
of Goshen, and had six children, "of whom," says Mr. Eager,! 
"Jacob and Leonard Carpenter were two. These gentlemen, 
when young, were ship-builders, and contributed largely to pro- 



* Drake Seymour was accidentally shot while on a hunting excursion, June 1824 
William resides in Brooklyn (1861). 

t The "Man-iage Bonds" in the office of the Secretary of State at Alljany, record the 
issue of "Man'iage Licenses" to seven persoas Of the name of Benjamin Carpenter. 
I Eager's Orang&County, IGl, &c. 



19 C 



294 THE DEGROVE FAMILY. 

mote the interests of Newburgh. They were afterwards the 
owners of the Newburgh ferry, and were also engaged in mer- 
cantile and commercial pursuits." Leonard Carpenter married 
Bridget, daughter of Isaac Belknap, and had seven children, viz: 

(1) Benjamin, born Feb. 14, 1193, married Caroline S., daughter 
of John Warren, of Saratoga Springs, and had: 1. Mary ¥., 
who married Lewis M. Strong, of Northampton, Mass.; 2. John 
W., died in infancy; 3. Warren, died in 1849; 4. Alida Josepha, 
married Horatio B. Reed. Mr. Carpenter has been engaged in 
the forwarding business in Newburgh since 1811, and has sus- 
tained during his whole career an unblemished reputation. Mrs. 
Carpenter died April 5, 1856. 

(2) Elizabeth, married Wm. Thayer,* April 2, 1812, and had: 
1. William L.; 2. John S., married Catharine, daughter of Jirah 
Stearns, formerly of Pittsfield, Mass.; 3. Elijah C, married Mary 
J., daughter of Hamilton Morrison, of Montgomery; 4. George 
A.; 5. Charles F., married Anna F., daughter of Lewis Miller, of 
New Windsor; 6 Anna B., married Henry W. Dolson; 1. Caro- 
line M., and 8, Elizabeth C. 

(3) Isaac E., unmarried, resides in Newburgh. 

(4) Jane Belknap, unmarried, resides in Newburgh. 

(5) Alexander L., married Elizabeth Lawrence, of Fishkill. He 
died at his residence in Ohio, Oct. 1, 1848, leaving Sarah L., 
Isaac L., and Lawrence F. 

(6) Sarah Lydia Stearns, unmarried, resides in Newburgh. 
fl) Cynthia Warren, married Francis Crawford, of Newburgh, 

now resides at Detroit, Mich. 



THE DEGROVE FAMILY. 

Peter Adolph DeGrove, the founder of the American family 
of this name, was one of the French (Huguenot) settlers of New 
York, where he conducted mercantile business. He had three 
children, viz: 1. Adolph, who removed to the Island of Jamaica, 
where he died leaving issue Peter, who returned to America and 

settled in Boston; 2. Peter, who married Eebecca , and 

had Peter, who died unmarried, Adolph, who settled in New- 
burgh, Rachel, who married Capt. John Anderson, and who has 
no surviving descendants, and Rebecca, who married an Albert- 
son, and has descendants in the Stryker, Lawrence, and Crolius 

* William Thayer was born in Brooklyn, Windham county. Conn., Sept. 21, 1784. He 
settled in Newburgh about the commencement of the present century, and, in company 
with his brother, John Thayer, was engaged in an extensive and successful business for 
several years. He died April 9, 1865. 



THE DEGROVE FAMILY. 



295 



families of New York; 3. Aefie, who married Garret Schuyler, a 
merchant of New York. 

Adolph, the son of Peter DeGrove (2), was one of the refugees 
from New York, at the time of the occupation of that city by the 
English forces. He settled in Newtaurgh in IITT or '78, and 





W~C 



J^ 







fc*'»7 





established a hotel (p. 9Y, 98), and a bakery, which he conducted 
for many years. He took an active part in the organization of 
the first Presbyterian church, in this town, of which he was .i 
member. He died Nov, 29, 1T96, in his 76th year. 
Mr. DeGrove married first, a Miss Lawrence, and had: 

(1) Adolph, Jr., who was an Assistant Quarter-master at New- 
burgh (1780), and had charge of the stores which were accumu- 
lated herefrom time to time for the use of the army. He married 

(1780) 
Rhoda 
Co I es, 
of Queens 
county, and had: 
1. Robert C , mar- 
ried a Miss Smith and left one son, who died without issue; 2. 
Adolph L., married Catharine Gallow, of Newburgh, and had 
eight children, viz: Edward AV., now resides in New York, has 
two sons; Stephen C, died unmarried; Charles H., now deceased, 
has one child living; Adolph L., unmarried; Eliza, married Doct. 
Wooster Beach; Catharine, married Noah Tompkins; Rebecca 
Jane, married William Clark; and Sarah, unmarried; 3. John; 
4. Coles; 5. Samuel (all of whom died unmarried); and 6. Sarah, 
who married John Mitchell, of L. I., and left no surviving issue. 

(2) William, who left issue two sons, Michael and Qninsey, and 

one daughter, Sarah. — 

"% yj y^ ^.^v^j^-r^itv^ Quinsey died without 

)^^M'70ey\^_^\mxi&, Dec. 1860. Mi- 

,/ chael is still living, and 

// has several children. Sarah married ii 

1/ Mr. Sobietes; is still livinp,-. 

(3) John, who probably married and left issue. 

(4) Sarah, who married 1st, a Mr. Rivers, by whom she had 




296 THE, WALSH FAMILY. 

Sarah (who married a Mr. Hartwich) ; and 2d, Enoch Carter. 

(5) Mary, who married a Capt. Smith, and left issue Benjamin 
and Eebecca. 

—The second wife of Mr. DeGrove was Mary, sister of Enoch 
Carter, by whom he had no issue. 




This gentleman, whose family was of English origin, emigra- 
ted from the vicinity of Belfast, Ireland, in the year 1T64. He 
settled at Philadelphia, Pa., where he was employed in the oiEce 
of a Mr. Buchannan, a shipping merchant, but subsequently re- 
moved to New York, where he commenced business, and where 
he married (IIIS) Catharine, daughter of Mrs. Jane Armstrong. 
In 1789, he came to New Windsor, where he purchased (1790) 
from Gov. George Clinton a tract of land on the south side of 
Quassaick creek, comprising the property now owned and occu- 
pied by Thos. W. Chrystie, Phillip Verplanck, and Charles S. 
McKuight, Esqs., as well as the farm oa which his son, the late 
John H. Walsh, resided from 1809 until his death in 1853.* Mr. 
Walsh's intention, at the time of making this pur.chase, was to 
engage in business in the village of New Windsor, which was 
then a commercial centre of considerable importance; but finding 
that the proprietors of the land and water fronts there were not 
only unwilling to sell, but were opposed to the introduction of 
any enterprises which might come in competion with their own, 
he abandoned the project. In 1191, he removed to Newburgh, 
and purchased the property' on the north-east corner of Water 
and Third streets, including the lands under water, and imme- 
diately built a dock and store-house (the former no%v occupied in 
part by Mr. Mailler), and commenced the mercantile and freight- 
ing business (the latter from Newburgh to New York and 
Albany) which he continued for several years. 

Mr. Walsh also engaged in several other business enterprises. 
In 1792, in company with James Craig, •(- he erected the paper 

* The price paid by Mr. Walsh for the property refeiTed to was £1500, N.Y. cniTenoy. 
t The father of the late Hon. Hector Craig, of Craigville — Eager's Orange Co., 546. 



THE CARTER FAMILY. 29T 

mill, afterwards for many years owned by his son, John H. 
Walsh, and now by his grand-son, J. DeWitt Walsh. This 
mill was among the first of the kind in the state, and has always 
maintained a very high reputation. About 1194, he erected a 
large dwelling on Water street (afterwards the famous "Mansion 
House"), whore he resided until 1808, when he removed to a more 
retired residence which he had built on the comer of Western 
Avenue and Liberty street. Here, surrounded by his family, and 
dispensing his hospitalities to his neighbors and friends, and 
especially to the clergy, among whom his house was well known 
as the "clergyman's home," he spent the evening of his life. He 
died in 1817, in the I2d year of his age. 

Mr. Walsh was one of the most active citizens of Newburgh in 
every thing relating to its improvement, and more especially in 
advancing its educational and religious interests. This fact, 
however, is so amply shown in other parts of this work that it is 
not necessary to do more than refer to it here.* His/amily con- 
sisted of eight children, viz: 1. Jane; 3. Mary Ann; 3. Eliza, 
married Solomon Sleight (afterwards Judge of Common Pleas), 
and 4eft no surviving issue ; 4. Catharine, married David Andrews 
of New York; 5. Charlotte, married the Eev. Jas. M. Matthews, 
first Chancellor of the University of New York; 6. James, mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Alex. Robertson, settled in New 
York and engaged in mercantile business. He died suddenlj-^, 
while on a visit to Richmond, Va., leaving five children, some of 
whom now reside in New York. 7. Samuel Armstrong, who was 
a physician and for many years the surgeon of the West Point 
Military Academy. Ho married Hester G., daughter of Pascal 
N. Smith, of New York, and died without issue in 1829. 8. John 
H., late of New Windsoi', whose character as a man of business, 
an upright citizen, and a conscientious christian, was widely 
known. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John DeWitt, for- 
merly of Duchess county, and left issue seven children, some of 
whom are settled in this town and vicinity. He died in 1853; 
his widow still survives. 



THE CARTER FAMILY. 

Enoch Carter, from whom the family in Newburgh of that name 
descended, was a native of Philadelphia — a Quaker in creed, 
raising his children in that faith, and of English ancestry. He 
had one brother, Joseph Carter, who was an officer in the English 

* Ante p. 216, 247, &c. 



398 THE CARTER I'AMILY. 

navy and wlio died nnmam'ed, and one sister, Mary Carter, wlio 
was the second wife of Adolph DeGrove.* He removed in New 
York prior to the revolution, and prosecuted there the occupation 
of a tanner and currier. Although restrained by his religious 
creed from taking an active part in the struggle for independence, 
he made no concealment of his political sympathies, and hence, 
when the English obtained possession of the city, he was com- 
pelled to abandon his property there and to seek personal safety 
within the American lines. He located near Fort Montgomery, 
where lie constructed vats and resumed the manufacture of lea- 
ther; but returned to New York, after peace was declared, and 
resided there until his death in It 92. 

Mr. Carter married Sarah Kivers, a widowed daughter of 
Adolph DeGrove by his first wife, and had six children, viz: 1. 
Jonathan; 2. Adolph, who married Ann McDowell, of New York, 
and liad: George, Joseph, Sarah, Ann, Mary, Margaret (married 
Samuel Reeve), Richard, and Elizabeth; 3. Margaret, who mar- 
ried R. Henry Richards, and who had two children, viz: Henry, 
who died at the age of 13 years, and James, who died at the age 
of 31 years leaving issue Sarah, now the widow of Doct.'Chas. 
Feck, and Henry W., both of New York. 4. Mary, who married 
Benjamin Halstead, eldest brother of the late Capt. Charles 
Halstead of Newburgh. She died in her 29th year leaving one 
child, Margaret R., now the wife of Saml. T. Callahan, of New 
York. 5. Enoch, who died at the age of 20 years, without issue. 
6. Rebecca, who married a Mr. Rose, and who has descendants 
residing in the town of Cornwall. 

Jonathan, the oldest son of Enoch Carter, was born in New 

York, Nov. 2, 1172. He continued the business which his father 

/p" '^^^y^ ^y^^ —/—- ^^^^ conduct- 

^// f ^^ York, and 

\^^ provided for 

the support of his father's family, until 1798, when the latter 

* Mrs. Maiy (Cai-ter) DeGrove died April 20, 1824, in her 85th yearT Refen'ingtolier 
death, the PoliUeal Index of April 27, remarks: "Few persons have sustained along life 
sonsefallyand irreproachably aa the subject of this notice. Mrs. DeGrove was almost 
the last of that class of exalt«d females which adorned the society of our village in foi-mer 
times. The dames Dubois, DeGrove, Eiggs, Cai-penter, Bowman, and a few othera who 
imght be named, mamtamed by their education, virtues and piety that distinction under 
a democracy whi.h a regal government confeiTed upon rank. Their manners were foi-med 
m the higher circles before the revolution, and were admirably maintained. Those who 
have enjoyed their society will long remember the high-toned urbanity, the excellent 
education, the exalted piety, the charity of feeling and benevolence of action which mark- 
ed all their intercourse with society and commanded its admiration . But it is a part of 
our nature to perish; and they have been gathered to the home of their fathei's full of 
years, full of honors, and we hope, crowned with immortal glory." ' 



THE CARTER FAMILY. 



299 



was broken up under the panic caused by the yeilow fever. He 
then came to Newburgh, where, with the assistance of his aunt, 
Mrs. DeGrove, he opened a store for the manufacture and sale of 
tobacco, and ho continued in that business until his death. He 
was thrice married — 1st. To Elizabeth, daughter of John Ander- 
son, who died (1199) in her 11th year without issue; * 2d. To 
Bridget, daughter of Benj. Smith, who died (1803) leaving one 
child, Elizabeth, who married Ward M. Gazlay; 3d. To Jane 
Linderman,t who died Nov. 1830, and who left issue: 1. Enoch; 
2. Margaret, who married Levi D. Woolsey; 3. Catharine, who 
married Henry Eyer, and 4. Charles. Mr. Carter died May 30, 
1820, in his 48th year. He was highly esteemed by the commu- 
nity, and "in all his relations he sustained an upright and worthy 
character.'' 

Enoch Caktek, the son of Jonathan 
Carter, has been for several years promi- 
nently identified with the political and 
social histoiy of Newburgh, and has an 
extended local reputation. His character 
is two-fold — the outward, springing from 
impulse and man'ed by the impress of 
associations by sea and land into which 
many are led who are early deprived of 
the restraining influences of a father; 
jnd the internal, actuated by Wndly 
sympathies and a sound judgment. Of 
the first it is not necessary to speak, as 
)t is that in which he is most frequently 
met; but in the latter, he has given so 
many evidences of a strong, quick and 
original mind, developed by habits of 
thought and observation, that we shall 
be pardoned, by those who know him 
well, for referring to it briefly. 
Perhaps none of the active men of the present generation have evinced a deeper inter- 
est in the prosperity of the town than Mr. Carter, and certainly none have been more 
self-sacrificing in advancing measures designed to give to it character abroad. He was 
the originator of the plan for separating the town from the county in the support of the 
poor; and more recently he has been one of the most devoted advocates for the erection 
of a new county. To local improvements of evei-y kind he has been a hberal contribu- 
tor; while to his antiquarian tastes and to his reverence for the memory of the founders 
of the Nation , the public are mainly indebted for the valuable collection of manuscripts 
and other relics which are deposited in Washington's Head Quarters, as well as for the 
care with which that venerable mansion has been preserved. He was also one of the 
foundevs of the Mechanics' Library Association , and he has manifested a deep interest in 
the success of our system of free schools. Indeed, the predominant trait in his dispo- 

* Mrs. Carter died of yellow fever — the first and, we are infbi-med, the only case of 
that disease in this town. 

t The Lindevmans are of German ancestry. They were among the early settlers of 
the town of Crawford, and the family is still numerous in this county and in Ulster. 




300 THE HOFFMAX FAMILY. 

sition is to be practically useful ; to be instrumental in conferring permanent benefits 
upon the community, and especially to surround the young with incentives to lead woiiJiy 
lives and with advantages and associations of which his own experience has taught him 
the necessity. Of him the indignant apastrophe of the Gennaji poet — 

"But thou ! what hast thou done with all the powers 

That lavish nature wasted on thy soul ? 
■VThat object hadst thou in thy happiest hours 

Of in.sph'ation, but the paltry goal 
Thyself? What hast thou brought to pass for Truth, 

For Man's Improvement, — Country, — Liberty 1" 

— will never be written. We do not speak of the future of any man; and in the few 
references which we have made in the pages of this work to the living, we have only 
given to them the character which they have thus far presented. We may be mistaten 
in our estimate of many men, and especially in that of Mr. Carter; but our beUef is, that 
his final record will be one that will erase the asperities which his faihngs naturally 
engender, and dive.st the diamond of its rude setting. 




JOSEPH HOFFMAN. 

Joseph Hoffman was bovu in New York about 
IttS. Although very little is positively known in 
Ireference to the subject, it is believed that he was 
/a descendant of one of the early Dutch* burghers 
of that city; while it is a well ascertained fact that 
his mother was a sister to the renowned General 
Wolfe. He came to Newburgh in 1T93, in tlie employ of Mr. 
Adolph DeGrove; but soon after, in company with his brother, 
John Hoffman, he purchased Mr. DeGrove's bakery. He contin- 
ued with his brother until 1804, when he erected a building on 
the corner of Water and Second streets, and commenced business 
on his own account,f and lie remained there until his death, 
Nov. 16th, 1852, at the age of 79 years. 

Mr. Hoffman was eminently a just man. He was educated 
in the Lutheran faith, and was attached to that church until he 
became a resident of Newburgh. As there was no organization 
of that denomination hei'e, however, he united with St. George's 
church at the time of its re-organization (1805), and held an 
active and influential membership in that body during the re- 
mainder of his life. He was a quiet, unassuming man, an upright 
citizen and a sincere christian. Indeed, he appeared to have been 

"Formed on the good old plan, 
A true, and brave, and downright honest man ! 
He blew no trumpet in the market-place. 
Nor in the church, with hypocritic face, 
Supplied with cant the lack of christian grace; 
Loathing pretence, he did with cheerful will, 
What othera talked of, while then- hands were still." 

* The Hoffmans were of Swedish origin. In the time of Gustavus Adolphus they 
removed to Germany and became distinguished in Dutch and German literature In 
Scandanavian, the name is Hoppmau— in German, Hoffman, or "Child of Hope "—Hot- 
gate. 

t Ante p. 98, 117. John Hoffman removed to the Province of New Brunswick 



THE GARDIx\ER IfAMILY. 301 

Mr. Hoffman was a member of the Board of Trustees for 
several terms, and was also one of the Trustees of the Glebe. 
In tbese and in several less important public trusts, he was 
remarkable for the faithful manner in which he discharged his 
duties. Ho was a man of good common sense, had a thorough 
appreciation of right, and above all he possessed a disposition 
that was not easily ruffled. These traits in his character ex- 
hibited themselves in his every act, and won for him the respect 
of all. In his personal appearance and in his habits, especially 
during the latter part of his life, lie was a good specimen of the 
ancient Knickerbockers from whence he sprung, and had his 
dress been less modern the resemblance would have been com- 
plete. 

Mr. Hoffinan married Maria, daughter of Abraham W. Van 
Deusen, of New York, and had: 1. Eliza Ann, who married 
Robert Reeve and had Fanny M., Catharine, Adaline H., Hen- 
rietta H., Hoffman, and Robert. 2. Mary, who married Paddock 
Chapman* and had Mary E., who married William H.Gerard; 
Joseph H. H., who married Lydia W. Sanxay; Catharine M.; 
Susan A., who married a Mr. Phelps; Deborah A.; Isaac C, who 
mai-ried Letitia Kennedy; Thomas P., who married Lydia Crist; 
Charles P.; Caroline J.; William G., and Louisa. 3. Catharine, 
who married William Scott, f and has Maria, Cornelia, Sarah E., 
and Anna. 4. Abraham Van Deusen, who died in his 14th year. 
5. Susan, who died young. 6. Harriet Amelia, who married 
John D. Phillips, and has Maria H., Joseph W., John D., Ade- 
laide, Clark, and Edmund. "I. Adaline, who married David 
Howell — died without issue. 8. Cornelia Ellen, who married 
Edmund S. Sanxay, J and left issue Frederick D., Charles D., and 
George W. 9. Cecelia Amanda, who married Nelson Haight, 
and has Henry Milton, Robert W., Joseph H., Abraham, and 
Charles E. 10. Sarah A., and 11. Jane. 



THE GAKDINiiR FAMILY. 

James Gairdner, the paternal ancestor of this family, was a 

native of Glascow, Scotland. His wife was a Miss M'Nair; 

and their children were: 1. Robert; 2. James; 3. Margaret; 4. 

Cecelia — of whom 

EoBEKT Gakdineb (1) was born May 31, 1769. He emigrated to America in 1789 or 

* Mr. Chapman is a native of Putnam coanty. 

t William Scott malTied, first, Sarah, daughter of John Spier, who left issue Francis 
Scott. 

i Edmund S. Sanxay married, first, Eliza, daughter of Mark Mclntyre, who left issue 
Edmund S. Sanxay. 



302 



THE GARDINER FAMILY. 



'90, and settled temporarily in Duchess county, but soon after removed to Newburgh, 
whei-e he was first employed as a clerk in the store of Mr. Hugh Walsh, and afterwards 
with John Anderson and John McAuley. To conform his family name to the American 
idiom, he transposed the letter i, placing it after the letter d, rendering it Gardiner. 
He relinquished the occupation of clerk in 1795, and opened, on the south-west corner 
of Water and Fourth streets, what was then termed a "Coffee House" — ^the firot estab- 
lishment of the kind in Newburgh— and was first to introduce the drinking of A le beer. 
His house soon became a favorite resort; and his pewter pint mugs, with their engraved 
wreath enclosing the initials, "E. G.,'' are still a pleasant memory to many of our older 
citizens. In 1802, he became a citizen, and from that time until 1812, was variously 
engaged as a school-master, captain of a sloop, painter, and merchant; and finally estab- 
lished, in connection with his Coffee-Honse, an extensive gi'ocery, confectionery, and 
toy store. In 1812, he was ordered, with the company of infantry of which he was 1st 
Lieutenant, to Staten Island, where he remained about three months. Soon after his 
return to Newburgh, the reign of shin-plasters commenced, and "among the many indi- 
viduals and corporations by whom they were issued," remarks Mr. Eager, "none had 
a greater cu-culation than Robert Gardiner's small bills. Some idea may be foi-med of 
the extent of the circulation of shm-plastei-s at that time, when the fact is stated, that 
the average weekly amount taken in exchange for bank bills and his own, together with 
what he received in the course of business, amounted to no less than $2,000." * 

Mr. Gardiner married,.first (1791), Jane, daughter of Benj. Smith, and had: 1. James 
M., born Oct. 24, 1792; 2. Robert S , died young; 3. Robert S., born Oct. 29, 1795; 4. 
Cecelia B., bom July 11, 1799. Mrs. Jane Gardiner died in 1803, and he married, Feb. 
19, 1804, Sybil Buit, and had: 5. Jefferson V. V.; G. Arabella J. G. V. T.; 7. Cicero A . ; 
8. Demosthenes C; 9. Iduella T. R.; 10. Lawrence L.; 11. Marion A.; 12. Zelima; 13. 
Franklin M.; 14. Lewis W., married Prances Emily Ferry; 15. Baron Steuben; 16. An- 
astesia M., maraed Lewis H. Stausbrough. He died March 3, 1831, on a small farm, 
which he had named Mount Airy, situate a short .distance west of Newburgh. His 
wife, Sybil, died in 1854. 

James M'Naib Gardineb (1), the 
oldest son of Robert and Jane Gardiner, 
received his early education iu New- 
burgh. At the age of 16 years, he 
commenced the study of medicine under 
Doct. Gidney; and was subsequently a 
private pupil to Doct. Mott, of New 
York, for eighteen months. He com- 
menced practice in 1813, and his services 
were iu constant requisition from that 
time until Oct. 1st, 1857, when he was 
confined to his residence by a chronic 
illness which terminated his life (Dec. 
8th) the following year. In a convei-sa- 
tion with him a short time prior to his 
death, he informed the wi-iter that, be- 
fore he had been a pupil for one year, 
so gi'eat was the demand for the services 
of a physician, that he was thrust for- 
ward by his instructor into practice; and 
t'aat, before he was 17 years of age, he had attended with success several difficult cases of 
child-birth. "May God forgive me for any en-ora in practice that I may have committed 




The issue of small bills, referred to by Mr. Eager, was occasioned by the scaj-city of 
specie which was drawn from circulation to meet the requirements of the ai-mv The 
Board of Trustees of the village printed and okculated several reams of this currency 
ranging from 6i to 50 cents, which was redeemed at the Bank of Newburgh '"='"'■'' 



THE BROWN FAMILY. 303 

then," said he, "but I done the best for suffering humanity that I could. And since that 
time, how many of the first accents of the living, and the farewells of the dying, have 
fallen upon my ear. I have seen suffering in all its forms; have had, what few physicians 
can claim, two oases of triplets— one all boys, and the other all girls — pass through my 
hands into thia toeathing world; and, as a general rale, I may claim,— and I am too 
near my grave to be accused of boasting, — a most successful practice." 

The concun-ent testimony of the community in which Doct. Gardiner practiced for 
nearly half a century, establishes beyond question his thorough acquaintance with dis- 
ease in all its forms; and the demand for his services, at all tunes a-s great as he could 
respond to, attests Ms skill. In his interconi-se with society, or with his patients, he 
was always pleasant and agreeable; and many instances arc related where the sick for- 
got their pains, and rallied into new life, as he impai'ted cheerfulness to the chamber of 
suffering by his queer stories, which few knew better how to relate. In a word, he wa.s 

"Pithy of speech, and men'y when he would; 
A genial optimist, who daily drew 
From what he saw his quaint moralities.'' 

He was a man of good literaiy taste 'and cultivation; was familiar with most of the 
standard writers of Great Britain, as well as his own country; quoted with fecility from 
Shafcspeare and Scott; and was a frequent contributor to the literary associations of 
which he was a member, and to the public press. He married, first, Maria, daughter of 
JosiahTail, of Wallkill, and had: 1. Robert W.; 2. Lucy Ann Cecelia, manied Doct. 
Daniel Wells, of New York. Mrs. Maria Gardiner died in 1824, and he married, second, 
Caroline H., datigliter of David Havens, of Cornwall, and had: 3. Maria A., married 
Charles Smith, of Newburgh, died May 2, 1855; i. James H., died young; 5. Walter S.; 
6. Caroline H. ; 7. James H., died young; 8. Emma Jane, married Charles Stewart, of 
Newburgh; 9. James M.; 10. Henry C. 



THE BRO'WN FAMILY. 

John Brown was a native of Monaghan, Ireland, where he 
conducted business as a dealer in hardware and books and sta- 
tionery. In the events preceding the Irish Rebellion of 1198, he 
expressed his sympathies with the reforms demanded, and as 
freedom of opinion was not tolerated by the English, he soon 
found the officers of the government on his track. Knowing his 
fate if arrested, he slipped a roll of guineas in his pocket and 
secured a passage in a vessel on the eve of sailing for New York. 
His wife and family remained in Ireland, closed up his business 
there, and followed him to America in 1800. 

Mr. Brown came to Newburgh almost immediately after his 
arrival in this country; and, with the assistance sent on by his 
wife, opened what he called a "Universal Store." * It was the first 
store of the kind in Newburgh, and he enjoyed a very large trade. 
He subsequently erected the building now occupied by his son 
Jas. S. Brown : sold his books and confined his attention mainly to 



* The character of the business which was conducted by Mr. Brown will be better 
understood by stating, that he kept for sale "Hardware, Jewelry, ,Iron-mongei-y, Nails, 
Hollow-ware, Looking-Glasses, Window Glass, Paints and Oil, Chma, Glass, Delft, Biis- 
tol and Stone-ware, Bibles, School Books, Novels, Histones, Dr. Owen's Prophetical 
Sermon, Groceries, Wines, Brandy, Gin, and Spirits." 



304 THE POWELL FAMILY. 

hardware. He died Oct. 1, 1825, in his 67th year. The Gazelle 
of that date refers his decease as follows, viz: 

"The death of Mr. Brown will be sensibly felt by the community, of which he was au 
honorable and esteemed member; and the church to which he was attached, has suffered 
a lo.ss which will be long remembered with painful emotions. Possessed of ample means 
and a heart always open to the calls of charity, he was a father to the fatherless; and 
the'afflicted never called on him in vain. His grave will be watered with the teai-s of 
gi-atitnde, and his memory will be cherished with respect for his virtues, and affection 
for his benevolence." 

Mr. Brown married Alice Chichester, a lady of Scotch parent- 
age. She died Sept. 14, 1829. Their children were: 

(1) Chichester, born January 20, 1783, died August 8, 1849, 
married Catharine, daughter of Doct. Graham, of Shawangunk, 
and had: 1. John James, married Mary E. Van Arsdale, who died 
March 5, 1855, leaving one son, Chichester; 2. George, married 
Jeanet, daughter of George Bruce of New York, has Bruce B. 

Chiohestek Bkown (1) received a liberal education, and entered active life as a 
teacher of Latin and Greek in the Newbargh Academy, and subsequently stood at the 
head of a large classical school in Albany. The profession of teaching, however, he soon 
relinquished for that of physician, and commenced his studies under Doct. Graham, of 
Shawangunk, an eminent physician and surgeon. In 1808 or '9, he entered practice in 
the western part of the town of Newburgh; and in 1812 or '13, removed to the village, 
where he continued to reside until his death. 

Doct. Brown was one of the most devoted physicians that ever practiced in Newburgh. 
No hardship was too great for him to encounter, and the voice of suffering always found 
him ready at its call. Especially was he kind and attentive to the poor. The wealthy 
he knew could command attendance and comfort, and that the poor were too frequently 
permitted to suffer and die without a thought for their condition. This evil he labored 
to correct; and in his mission of good never paused to inquire into the pecuniary circum- 
stances of his patient. He fell a martyr to this noble trait in his character— contracted 
disease in the humble cabin of the immigi-ant, and after a short illness, rested from his 
labora. If it be true, that 

"All our actions take 

Their hues from the complexion of the heart;" 

then is his memory justly cherished. He was, in some respects, what would be called 
eccentric; but his face half shrouded in green spectacles, a fan, an umbrella, and a cane, his 
usual costume in the street; and the silver drinking-cnp which he cai-ried in his pocket, 
lest at any time he should take more of the refreshing beverages of life than would be 
conducive to his good, are all pleasant pictures in the history of his useful life. 

(2) John, married Eliza Case of Goshen. He died in 1852, 
without issue. 

(3) James S., married Sarah Haiues; has Hannah Jane, Ann 
Eliza, Sarah, John C, Isabella, and Achsah. 

(4) Isabella, married Eobert "Wilson; died in 1821. 

(5) Anna Jane married John Forsyth; died in 1852. 

(6) Edward, died in 1820. 



THE POWELL FAMILY. 

This family descended from Thomas Powell of Wales, Eb"-., 



THE POWELL FAMILY. 305 

wlio was one of the purchasers and patentees of Huntington, L. 
I., in 1664. On the 18th August, 1695, the same gentleman 
purchased from "Mawmee, alias Serewanus, William Chepy, and 
and ye rest of ye Indian proprietors," foi- and in considpration of 
£14:0, the tract of land whereon the village of Bethpage is now 
situ9,ted.* This Thomas had a .son Thomas, who was probably 
the father of Henry Powell (born in 1741), the immediate ances- 
tor of the Newburgh branch of the family. 

Henby Powell inherited a large portion of tlie estate acquired by liis father, and 
which he enjoyed until the British forces obtained possession of Long Island, when he 
was subjected to the tyranny and persecution so mercilessly exercised at that time by 
the minions of the Englishgovernment. At the commencement of the struggle for Inde- 
pendence, he took an active part in the cause of his country, and was soon selected as 
a yictim for sacrifice at the royal altar. Flattery, promises, and threats, were sncces- 
sively employed to secure his influence for the King; and when these failed, his estate 
was confiscated and his pei-son incarcerated in the Jereey Prison Ship, from which he 
was subsequently removed to the old Sugar House. The sufferings endured by the 
patriots who were confined in those prisons will never be fully told. Ten thousand 
persons perished within their walls by staiTation, siekuess and ill-treatment; and the 
number of victims would have been largely increased, had not the hand of charity sup- 
plied their wants. Among those- favored in the latter respect was Mr. Powell, whose 
release or exchange was subsequently effected. He returned to Long Island, sti-ipped 
of all earthly wealth except an unblemished name, and succeeded in obtaining a lease 
of part of Shelter Island, where he resumed the pui-suit of agriculture. Here he re- 
mained until 1781, when he gathered together the fruits of his farm and started, 
accompanied by his son James, on an ordinai-y sail-ferry-boat, for the New York market. 
In crossing the channel, a sudden flaw of wind cast the vessel on her beams end, sprink- 
ling the waves with men and -horses. Mr. Powell succeeded in mounting' one of his 
hoi-ses while in the water, and, after searching in vain for Ms son, turned his steed 
towai-ds the shore, but was arrested in his progress by a cry for help, and turning saw 
his boy clinging to the prostrate sail and rapidly floating out to sea with the wreck; 
and in the effort to rescue his ofispring, he perished with him. 

Henry Powell married (1762) Mary Keen, a lady of Irish ex- 
traction, and had: 1. Freelove, who married Jacob Parish and 
had Henry, Mary, James, Nancy, Daniel, Thomas, Benjamin, 
Elizabeth, and Martha; 2. Jacob, died unmarried; 3. Thomas; 
4, James, drowiaed; 5. Martha, who married Benj. Townsend and 
had Betsey, Mary, Jacob, Nancy, and Benjamin ; 6. Eliza, who 
married William Seymour. 

Jacob (2) and Thomas (4) Powell, the former 16 yeara of age and the latter 12, at 
the time. of the death of their father, were alone capable of maldug any exertions for 
the support of theu' widowed mother and her children, and nobly did they struggle for 
the accomplishment of this duty.' With that energy which ever after distinguished their 
career, they grappled manfully with adversity, and triumphed. Jacob was placed at 
the head.of his father's farm, and, assisted by Thomas, and suppoi-ted by the counsels 
of a.good mother, he succeeded in obtaining a comfortable support for the family until 

* Gov. Andros issued a patent to Thomas Powell, and others, purchasers of Hunting- 
ton, in 1664. In 1685,. Gov. Dongan issued another patent for part of the same lands, 
in which Thomas Powell, Jr., is named. In 1695, Thomas Powell, Jr., removed to and 
was one of the purchasers of Bethpage. — Thompson's L. /., i. 467, 469, flOfi. 



306 JONATHAN FISK. 

the expiration of tlie lease. A new home and a new theatre of operations now became 
nccessaiy. In 1788, in company with their mother, they removed to the county of 
Orange, and settled near Washmgtonville, where their industry led to some increase of 
property. In 1791, they removed to Marlborough, Ulster county, where they opened a 
small store, and erected lime kilns, and were again successfully employed. In the spring 
of 1798, they removed to New York, and engaged in mercantile business, but, being 
driven away by yellow fever, the succeeding summer, took up then' residence in New- 
burgh at the suggestion of their brother-in-law, Mr. Seymour. Here they engaged in 
the mercantile and forwarding trade, and acquired the reputation which has so intimate- 
ly associated theur names with the history of our village. 

Jacob Powell died in 1823, from a cancer on the face. "In relation to this mdividual," 
says Mr. Eager, "we have the unbroken voice of all who knew him, to Justify ns in say- 
ing, that he was not only sagacious and truly philanthropic in the operations of his 
mind, but upright in his commercial transactions." He died unmaiTied, in his 58th year, 
and his brother, Thomas, succeeded to his estate. 

Thomas Powell retired from business soon after the death of his brother; but again 
re-entered active life in 1833-'34, and from that time until his death (May 12, 1856), he 
contributed largely, — by the enterprises in which he engaged, and those which he fos- 
tered and encouraged, — ^to the prosperity of the village.* His worth as a citizen lias been , 
perhaps, over-rated by many, while others may have refused to award the tribute which 
is justly due to his memory. We think all will concede, however, that whatever may 
be the motive which prompts any man to employ his wealth in the risks of business in 
any community, he confers a greater degi-ee of benefit upon that community than he who 
invests his capital upon bonded security. This rule is almost without an exception; and, 
applying it to Mr. Powell's career, as a proper basis from which to fonn a correct esti- 
mate, we are compelled to concede to him a high position as a public benefactor. This 
conclasion detracts nothing from the credit due to his contemporaries, but gives to each 
his own in proportion to his means and opportunities for usefulness. 

Mr. Powell was a man of unusual energy and activity of both mind and body, and 
possessed keen perceptive powers, with a large share of prudence. In person, he was 
of medium height; and in his manners he was plain and unostentatious. He was not 
a great man in any sense. The knowledge derived from books, and taught at the 
schools, was denied to him; nor was he honored by political prefei-ment. But he was 
a useful man, and as such his memory is justly cherished. 

Mr. Powell married Mary, daughter of Robert Ludlow, and had: 1. Henry T., died in 
1834; 2. Robert L., manied Louisa A. Orso, and had Prances E.L., now deceased, Mary 
L. (manied Isaac S. Fowler) , Henrietta (married Doct. W. A. M. Culbei-t,) and Fanny, 
now deceased; 3. James A., was drowned in 1828; 4. Jacob, died in 1816; 5. Frances E. 
L., manied Homer Ramsdell, and has Mary L., Frances J. (married Major George ^\. 
Rains), Thomas P., James A. P., Heni-y P., Homer S., and Leila R. 



.lONATHAN FISK. 

Jonathan Fisk was born at Amlierst, X. II., Sept. 26, 1773. 
He was the son of Jonathan Fisk, who subsequently resided at 
Williamstown, Vt., and became a member of the Legislature of 
that State, and a Judge of Probate. Jonathan Fisk, Senr., was 
the son of Major-General John Fisk, of Salem ; who was the s»n 
of Eev. Samuel Fisk, of Salem; who was the son of Rev. Moses 
Fisk, of Braintree; who was the youngest son of Rev. John 
Fisk, who came to Salem in 1637, settled at Wenhara, afterwards 

* See "Obituary Addresses," &c., delivered at a public meeting, held on the occasion 
of Mr. Powell s death, by Hon. John W. Brown, Hon. Thos. McKissock, and othei^s. 



JONATHAN FISK. 



301 




removed to Chelmsford, Mass., and died in his charge in 1616* 

Jonathan Fisk, the subject of this 
sketch, left the home of his father at tlie 
age of 19 years, and commenced the oc- 
cupation of school teacher, qualified, 
according to a letter of recommenda- 
tion signed by Moses Bradford, Dec. 12, 
1792, to teach "writing, English gram- 
mar, and arithmetic." We next find 
liim at Ware,N. H., in 1793, with a cer- 
tificate stating that he had lived for 
several months in the family of Amos 
Wood, of that place, where he had "read 
Greek and Ijatin, and attended to other 
branches of study, by which he ap- 
^ peared well-qualified to teach a school;" 
and that he "maintained a good moral 
character." In 1V98 or '97, lie entered 
the office of Peter Hawes, in New York, 
and commenced the study of law. He 
was without other means of support than 
such as his own industry could furnish, but he was enabled to complete his studies by 
occasional remuneration for services as an amanuensis, and by giving instruction to a 
class of young men in the evening. In 1799, he was admitted to practice in the court 
of Common Pleas of Westchester county; in 1800, in the Supreme court of the State, 
and during the same year, in the courts of Common Pleas of the counties of Orange 
and Ulster. In 1802, he was examined by Chief Justice Morgan Lewis, and "regularly 
admitted as a Coansellor of Law, In all the courts of the State of New York." 

Mr. Pisk removed to Newburgh, Feb. 4, 1800. His professional business, during the 
first year of his residence here, as stated by hunself, was as follows, viz: "I have com- 
menced 26 suits in the Common Pleas of Orange county, and have been retained to 
defend 17 more— in all 43 suits. I have also commenced 6 suits in the Supreme Court, 
and have been retained to defend 14 more— in all 20; and my costs and counsel fees have 
amounted to $650." In 1801, he states his receipts at $938; and in 1802, at $1579. 
These sisnple facts show the rapidity with which he rose in the public estimation. 

In 1809, Mr. Fisk was elected representative in Congress from the YIth District, which 
was composed of the counties of Orange and Westchester; and again in 1814.t Parties 
were then known by the titles of Democrats and Federalists. Mr. Fisk was a Democrat 
and an ai-dent supporter of the administrations of Jefierson and of Madison. While in 
Congi'ess, he sustained the war of 1812; opposed the re-charter of the Bank of the 
United States;. t proposed a plan for a National 'Printing office, and during his whole 

* This genealogical statement is from a memorandum found among Mr. Fisk's papere. 
Bond, in his Genealogies of Watertown, Mass., says: "There was a considerable number 
of early immigrants of the name of Fiske who settled in Massachusetts; and there is 
good reason to suppose that they were all descendants of Robert and Sybil (Gold) Fiske, 
who lived at Broad Gates, Loxford, near Framhngham, Suffolk co.,Eng. The Eev. John 
Fiske of Wenham, afterwards of Chelmsford, and his brother William, of Wenham, 
were grandsons of William, the eldest son of Robert and Sybil. Many of their descend- 
ants have changed the original, correct orthogi-aphy (Fiske) for Fisk." 

t Mr. Fisk's opponent, in 1808, was R. Hatfield. The vote in Newburgh was: Fisk, 
298: Hatfield, 27; and in the county, he had 483 majority. In 1814, vote in Newburgh 
stood: Pisk, 324; Storey, 97. In the county, Fisk received 2345 votes, and Storey 660 

± It should, perhaps, he stated, that Mr. Fisk opposed the re-charter of the Bank in 
the form which the bill prescribed. His speech on this subject was delivered Jan. 18, 
1811 and incurred the displeasure of the eccentric John Randolph, who replied to it 
in his usual sarcastic manner. Fisk rejoined and handled his opponent with such force 
that he won from him a tribute of respect and secured his friendship. 



308 JONATHAN FISK. 

cai'eer lie commanded the confidence of his fiiends and the respect of hia opponents. 

In 1815 (March 21) , he was appointed by President Madison, attorney for the United 
States in and for the Southern District of New York , and this appointment was renewed 
Jan. 6, 1816. Here lie was very dilligent and etBcient in prosecuting tliose who evaded 
the law in regard to the sale of foreign merchandize without a license, and so exaspera- 
ted did this class of offenders become that they threatened him with pei'sonal punish- 
ment. Failing to intimidate him, they appealed to Congress on a question of fees, for 
the pui-pose of securing his removal from ofBce. The subject was referred to the Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary, who reported that while Mr. Pisk's fees had been large, and in 
some instances unsustained by law, he had nevertheless been governed by the usage of 
the former incumbents of the ofBce; and the subject died "on the table." He remained 
undisturbed until the expiration of Madison's administration, in 1820, when his succes- 
sor was appointed. 

As a citizen, Mr. Fisk was highly esteemed. The town recorda,the files of our public 
journals, and his own manuscripts, bear testimony to the commanding position which 
he occupied, and to the superiority of his abilities. The most important legal cases 
were submitted to his care; while on the various local questions of the times, his views 
received the highest consideration. In 1803 or '4, he manied Sarah Van Kleeck, of 
Poaghkeepsie, and soon afterwards erected the mansion recently occupied by Charles 
HaIstead,Senr., deceased, in Golden street, where he resided until his appointment as 
District Attorney, when he removed to New York. At the expiration of his official 
term, he retunied to Newburgh, and purchased the farm now owned and occupied by 
Lynde Belknap, where he resided until his death. His house was always the abode of 
hospitality, and for years the waves of time strewed his path with honors and happiness. 
Storms, however, arose; and, one by one, domestic tranquility, parental respect, wealth, 
and fame, withered and died. 

Family history, we know, is sacred; and especially should it be so when, if erroneous 
statements are inadvertently made, no living friend exists to make the proper correction. 
The history of Mr. Fisk, however, is an exception to this rule, from the fact that he left 
a record with the evident intention that others might examine his chai'tof life, and learn 
to avoid the rock on which he made shipwreck. In 1830, he writes: "I am fallen from 
the proud and envied eminence I once occupied as a lawyei-, a politician, and a citizen. 
Alas, it is but too true. No one feels it and realizes it with the moi-tiflcation, pain and 
regret that I do. Many of my early associates in life, with less acquirements and talents 
than, without vanity, I may say belonged to me, are now filling a large space in public 
estimation, whilst I am scarcely thought of. * * How comes it that others, my former 
associates, none of whom are superior to me in abilities, have attained elevated stations 
in society, whilst I am so depressed ? It is an old maxim, that a man must ask his wife 
if he should be rich; and it is not less true that a man must ask his wife if he shall be 
contented, ambitious to excel, be respectable and honored. In vain may a husband and 
father attempt regularity of life, and government for himself and family, unless seconded 
and cheerfully supported by his wife.' The indiscretions of the wife and mother will 
inevitably ruin the children and their father. All domestic history supports this asser- 
tion. I am now unable to prosecute any business but farming, and scarcely this. My 
deafness renders intercourse with my neighbors and old acquaintances exceedingly dif- 
ficult; and my wife and children refuse to comfort me." 

A more lengthy quotation is not necessary. Suffice it to say, that Mr. Fisk was one 
or the moot indulgent husbands. Nothing was too good for his wife and his children. 
The round of fashion and the festivities of life, were at their bidding. T%is education 
he gave to them— (/m was his error. On his return to Newburgh in 1820, he determined 
to retire to a farm; but his wife and children, schooled now in the excitements of fasli- 
ionable life, remonstrated, and finally refused to share the home that he had provided. 
JVds was their error; and its consequences were the separation of husband and wife, 
parent and children; well-earned laurels tarnished by the breath of scandal, and decli- 
ning years of unhappiness and dishonor. The les.son is one that all should heed. 



JONAS STOEEY. ' 309 

In person, Mr. Pisk was large and of a presence that impressed all with whom he had 
interoonrse with a sense of his superiority— 

"A combination, and a form indeed, 
Where every God did seem to set his seal, 
To give the world assurance of a man !" 

His wife was a lady of more than ordinary personal attractions, lively, witty, and not 
withont fair literary abilities. His family record is as follows, viz: Jonathan Fisk, horn 
Sept. 26, 1773; died July 13, 1833. Sarah, wife of Jonathan Fisk, bora March 18, 1773; 
died June 6, 1832. Children: Theodore S., found dead in the street in New York in 
185i of '55; James L., died at Pensacola in 1835; DelpMne R. E., married J. C. Bisbee, 
died July 22, 1846; Mai'y M., died June 8, 1822; and an infant son who died at the age 
of two months, 



JONAS STOREY. 

Jonas Storey* was bom in Norwich, Conn., July lltb, 1778. 
He early manifested a strong desire for the legal profession, 
and notwithstanding the 'opposition of his father, was enabled 
by his own exertions to enter William's college, where he gradu- 
ated with honor. Wliile reading law he was at the same time 
an instructor in the Poughkeepsie Academy. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1802, soon after he removed to Newburgh, where 
he maintained for forty years a distinguished place among the 
members of his profession. 

Mr. Storey was one of those old-fashioned jurists who regar- 
ded law as a science; he was ever searching for its principles, 
but he was none the less skillful in their practical application. 
With the best of the old English classics he was familiar. He 
was also exceedingly fond of metaphysical studies, and this ten- 
dency of his mind, perhaps, led him to spend too much time 
speculating about the more abstruse points of Christian doctrine. 
So extended were his studies in this direction that he might 
properly be called a theologian as well as a lawyer. He took a 
prominent part in the discussions on the subject of religion, which 
prevailed here at the commencement of the present century. 
He had probably heard more sermons preached than any other . 
man of his age in the village; and he retained for years the out- 
line of any that had particularly interested him. 

Mr. Storey held the office of Justice of the Peace tor several 
years, and his prompt and even-handed administration of the law 
made his court a terrer to evil-doers. He was a candid man, 
and sometimes gave utterance to his thoughts with a freedom 
which bordered upon bluntness; btit beneath this bluntness of 
manner there was a heart full of all kindly sympathies. He 
retired from the active duties of his profession a low years 

* The eovi'ect orthography is Storer— the last letter was changed by Mr. Storey, 
» 

20 



310 JOHN FOESYTH. 

previous to his death, but the change was disastrous; his miBd, 
released from its long routine of toil, appeared to turn inward 
upon itself, and reason forsook its throne. He died Sept. 22, 
1848, in the 11th year of his age. 

Mr. Storey married Mary, daughter of Isaac Schultz, of New 
Windsor, and had: 1. Henry E.; 2. Edwin (now deceased), who 
married Abby Basset Clark; 3. Helen E., who married Orville M. 
Smith; 4. Mary B., who married Daniel Smith; 5. Nathan S., who 
married Harriet Smith. 



JOHN FOESYTH. 

John Forsyth was born near the city of Aberdeen in Scotland, 
in 1186 or '81. His parents were in comfortable circumstances, 
but the death of his father in the meridian of life, and the sub- 
sequent misconduct of some persons with whom he had been 
associated in business, left his widowed mother with a family of 
young children, for a time in a straightened condition. Her son 
was sent to the grammar school of Aberdeen, where he had for 
a school mate the famous Lord Byron, but from the cause before 
mentioned he was deprived of these educational advantages 
sooner than he would otherwise have been. 

Mr. Forsyth came to this country in 1 805, intending to proceed 
to North Carolina or Georgia, in both of which states some bran- 
ches of his fathei-'s family were settled. But by the advice of 
Prof Kemp, of Columbia College, to whom he had a letter of 
introduction, and Mr. Robert Gosman, he was induced to remain 
in the North. He came to Newburgh in 1810, simply to visit 
the Rev. Mr. Scrimgeour, pastor of the Associate Reformed 
cliurch, and an old friend of his mother, but with no idea of 
remaining here. Here, however, he was induced to settle, and 
here he spent much the largest portion of his life. He soon 
found employment, and until 1825 was largely engaged in busi- 
ness as a builder. In the year just named he became a partner 
in the firm of Law, Bevridge & Co. — afterwards and more widely 
known as J. Bevridge & Co. — in which he continued until his 
death, April 22, 1854. 

Mr. Forsyth was a man of singularly robust frame, and for 
many years his life was one of great activity. He was si man 
of presence,— one of those whose face and form would arrest the 
attention of a stranger, and his mental and moral qualities were 
accordant with the impression thus made. He was a wise coun- 
selor, and there were few men whose advice was more sought 



THE CHAWFOED FAMILY. 311 

by persons of all classes ; and none who knew him could doubt 
his unbending rectitude, liis large heartedness, or his rare sagaci- 
ty. If his counsels had been heeded, Newburgh, we have reason 
to believe, would have been the terminus of the Delaware and Hud- 
son Canal. Ho was for years a director of the Bank of Newburgh, 
and a trustee of the Academy. He Iiad a good deal to do with 
the establishment of the Newburgh Steam Mills — of which com- 
pany he was president — and of the Branch Eail-road. Indeed to 
every public improvement he was ready to lend a helping hand. 

Prom early manhood, Mr. Forsyth was an exemplary christian 
and was long a ruling elder in the 1st Associate Eeformed church. 
Truly catholic in spirit, he was yet warmly attached to his own 
denomination, and was widely known in it as one of its most 
zealous and generous members. 

Mr. Forsyth was twice married, viz: 1. To Jane, eldest daugh- 
ter of Mr. John Currie, who settled in Newburgh in 1802; 2. To 
Anna Jane youngest daughter of Mr. John Brown. Of his child- 
ren (there were none by the second marriage) only two survive, 
1. John, 2. Robert A. 



THE CEAWFORD FAMILY. 

There are several branches of the Crawford family in this 
country, all 'of Irish origin, and all more or less remotely con- 
nected. The Newburgh family of that name, are the descend- 
ants of James Crawford, who came to America in 1118. He 
settled at Little Britain, in this county, soon after the Clinton 
emigrants located there. His children were: David, who suc- 
ceeded to the homestead farm, and had Francis, for many years 
a resident of Newburgh; Mary, married to John Van Arsdalo; 
Jane, married to James Denniston; and Janios, who settled in 
what is now the town of Crawford.* 







Francis Cbawford, son 
of David, remained on the 
homestead at Little Britain 
. until 1806, when he removed 
to Newburgh and engaged in 
the mercantile and freight- 
ing business with John Har- 
ris. He retired from the trade in 1810, but re-entered it again in 1817, and continued in 
it until his death, 23d of April, 1829, in the G7th year of his age. "There were traits in 
his character well desei-ping notice and imitation. From the uniform tenor of his 
conduct through life, it is believed tliat he lived and died without a single personal 
enemy. Blessed with a natural temper almost peculiar to himself— an utter stranger to 
petulence, passion, and the inordinate love of gain, he was the same man under all cir- 

* Biker's Annals of Newtown, 307. Eager's Orange County, 271, 332. 



312 



THE CRAWFORD FAMILY. 



onmstances; no one was ever wounded by his tongue, or made the victim of his avarice. 
He received the bounties of Providence as they were bestowed, and reaped the benefits 
of his prudence and industry, and thereby secured to himself and to his associates in 
business, the universal confidence of the public, and the esteem and admiration of innu- 
merable friends. In short, he lived as a man should live, in relation to his fellow-man; 
and he died as a man should die, in relation to his God and his Eedeemer. 

■ " 'Tis only noble to be good; 

Kind heai'ts are more than coronets. 
And simple faith than Norman blood." * 

Francis Crawford was thrice married — first, to Eunice Wat- 
kins, by whom he had: 1. Samuel; 2. Thomas; 3. David; 4. 
James. Mrs. Eunice Crawford died in lYOl, in her 28th year. 
Second, to Lydia, daughter of Jeduthan Belknap, Dec. 1, l'I92. 
Third, to Fanny Denniston, widow of Capt. Isaacs, born Jan. 20, 
1180, died Feb. 26, 1829. His sons, David and James, came to 
Newburgh with him in 1806, and were associated with him in 
his business until 1810. James afterwards opened the "Mansion 
House/' of which he was for several years the proprietor. 
David, however, continued with his father, and at his death 
received the principal portion of his estate. 

David Ceawpokd was born at Little 
Britain, about the year 1788,— the pre- 
cise date cannot now be ascertained, in 
consequence of the destruction of the 
family records by fire. He received such 
educational advantages as the country 
schools at that time afforded, and, in 
1806, entered the store of his father as 
clerk. In 1810, he was appointed deputy 
Sheriff of Orange county, and discharged 
the duties of that office for about one 
year. When the war of 1812 brolte out, 
he promptly responded to the call of 
Congi-ess for volnnteera, and raised a 
company of artillery, of which he was 
elected Captain, in which capacity he 
served for about one year, when he 
received a conijnission in the army of 
the United States, and remained in the 
sei-vice until the close of the war in 
1815. He re-entered 
the mercantile and 
forwarding business 
with his father in 
1817, and prosecu- 
ted it until 1851. 

His business career, however, is sketched in a previous part of this work, and need not 
be repeated here. He died July 23, 1856. 
As a citizen, Mr. Crawford was highly esteemed, and for several years held positions of 




' Newburgh Telegi-aph, April 23, 1829. 



THE HATHAWAY FAMILY. 313 

honor and trust in our variona public institutions. He liacl a controlling desire to be a 
useful member of the community in which his lot was oast. His integrity was undoubted, 
and throughout his long business career his reputation was unsullied. Always ready to 
lend a helping hand to otherB, there are those among our citizens who can look back 
with grateful remembrance to the kindly aid which he rendered to them when as- 
sistance was needed. In his business and social intercourse, he was extremely affable 
and agreeable. The sun-light of a pei'petually happy disposition seemed to be his. He 
was blessed with a capacity to extract tlie bright and cheerful from almost every occur- 
rence; indeed,he possessed that rare endowment, "a heart that never grows old." His 
pleasant smile and friendly greeting, evinced a nature over-flowing with good will and 
kindly feelings to all. The Yorick of a thousand jests, his genial humor was irresisti- 
ble, and would chase the clouds away from the gravest face. 

It may be proper to add, that he was unosually well iaformed in dramatic literature. 
At one period of his life, he had a decided passion for this kind of reading. With the 
plays of Shakspeare he was very familiar, and he could recall their scenes, characters, 
and many of their choice passages, at will. There were but few dramatists, at all 
celebrated, from the time of Elizabeth to the close of the reign of the Georges, whose 
writings he had not carefully perused. Hia library contained a very considerable 
collection ift this department of literature. His love for childi'en was another char- 
acteristic. His kind words and beaming smile have gladdened the heai-t of many a little 
one. He delighted in their presence, sympathized in their amusements, and always 
■ seemed to eater into the very spirit of their youthful frolics and gambols. 

David Crawford married Fanny C, daughter of Isaac Belknap, 
May 15, 1822, and had: 1. Isaac B. (died young); 2. Mary Eliza- 
beth, married Sands McCamly, Aug. 6, 1844, died July 8, 1845, 
leaving Mary B. C. McCamly; S.James Thomas (died young); 
4. Anna, married Richard A. Southv\rick, Oct. 11, 1849, has Fanny 
C, Anna C, and Florence, 



THE HATHAWAY FAMILY. 

The genealogy of this family is traced from Benjamin Hathe- 
way, as the name was formerly written, who came from Scotland, 
about lIGY, and settled at Morristown, N. J., where he died. His 
only son, Clemens Hathaway, removed to Newhurgh, where he 
died, Sept. 1801, aged 56 years and 4 months, and where his 
wife, Hannah, died June 8, 1809, aged 56 years and 10 months. 
Their children were Ebenezer and Josiah. Josiah was born Dec. 
8, 1711. He married, Aug. 13, 1T94, Mabel, a sister of Samuel 
0. Gregory. He followed for a few years the occupation of a 
cabinet-maker, but afterwards engaged in the coasting-trade, 
and commanded the sloop BepuUican, owned by Geo. Gardiner. 
He was subsequently associated with Caleb Coffin,* in the same 
trade, and sailed from New York to Washington, N. C, where 
he died, July 19, 1811. His wife, Mabel, died at Morris Plains, 
N. J., July 13, 1811. His children were: 1. Rhoda, who died in 
infancy; 3. Frederick A., born April 1, 1801, married Phebe 

* Ante p. 99. 



314 



THE MAILLER FAMILY. 




Stackhouse and had Frederick A., and Stephen Sneden ; 3. Odell 
Samuel, born Sept. 1, 1802. 

Odell S. Hathaway (3) was bora 
in Newburgh, at the residence of his 
father on the corner of Smith and Fourth 
streets. Left an orphan at the age of 
seven years, he was taken by his uncle, 
Seth Gregory, of Morristown, N. J., with 
whom he remained a few years, and at- 
tended a common school. He then re- 
turned to this town and entered the store 
of Samuel G. Sneden, as clerk, in which 
capacity he served until he attained his 
majority, performing his duties faithfully 
and acceptably "for and in consideration 
of his board and clothes." This was the 
rule of the times, and one which, we may 
here remark, schooled the apprentice 
into habits of frugality, and thus laid 
the foundation of the successful career 
of many of our most useful and wealthy- 
citizens. After serving his time, young Hathaway was employed by Mr. Sneden, and 
received for his sei-vices his board and $60 per annum. Many of the young men of the 
present day would scorn such a paltry remuneration; not so, however, Mr. Hathaway. 
He knew that his future was in his own hands, and that success depended entirely upon 
the fulfilment of his duties in a manner that would promote the interests of his employer. 
The result of this course the reader may have anticipated; Mr. Hathaway 's sei-vices 
became indispensable; he was soon raised to the position of partner, and, on the death 
of Mr. Sneden, he succeeded him in the entire business. 

" liet all, then, heed the lesson. Industry . 
Hews its own place amidst this crowded world; 
And standing in its humble path, sheds round 
Life, comfort, by its presence." 

Mr. Hathaway's career forcibly exemplifies the result of right principles of action. 
In his business transactions, he has ever been prompt and reliable, and he has from the 
first commanded the respect and confidence of the community. He has repeatedly held 
the office of Supei-visor, member of the Board of Trustees, &c., and bears the military 
rank of Colonel. He has also discharged the duties of Bank dU-ector, and of similar 
trusts requiring the exercise of mature judgment and known integrity; and in all posi- 
tions he has evinced capacity and worth. 

Mr. Hathaway maiTied Helen Maria, daughter of Charles Birdsall, Sept. 27, 1827, 
and has: Amelia, who married Nathaniel B. Hayt; Harriet Ann; Josiah Augustus; 
William Mott; Sarah Sneden; Odell Sneden; Charles C; Hu-am P.; Helen Maria, and 
Edward W. 



THE MAILLER FAMILY. 

John Mailler, or Mailard, the ancestor of this family, emigrated 
from Scotland soon after the Ke volution; he resided for a few years 
in New York and in Westchester county, and then settled perma- 
nently in the town of Cornwall, Orange county. His children were 
James, George, John, William, Bartholomew, Jane, Mary, and 
Sarah. Bartholomew married Julia, daughter of Samuel Ketch- 



THE SCHULTZ FAMILY. 



315 



am, of Cornwall, and had one child, William Ketcham Mailler. 

WitLiAM K. Mailleb waa born in 
the town of Cornwall, August 17, 18Q5_ 
At the age of 18 years, he came to New- 
burgh and entered the semce of Francis 
Crawford & Co. His business habits and 
sound judgment soon rendered him a de- 
sirable acquisition to the firm, and, in 
1827, be became one of its members under 
the title of P. & D. Crawford & Co. From 
that time until 1859, he remained a prin- 
cipal in the forwarding trade, and shared 
largely in the flnctuations to which it has 
been subjected. 

J[r. Mailler's energies have been devo- 
ted not only to his own business, but to 
advance the prosperity of the village — 
I the establishment of industrial enterpri- 
' ses, and the opening of new channels of 
commerce. Entirely unostentatious in 
his disposition, he has never sounded the 
trumpet of bis own worthiness, but he has the satisfaction of seeing the community 
around him smiling with prosperity, content to know that he has helped to secure these 
I'esults. 

In private as well as in public life, Mr. Mailler is plain and unassuming. Liberal in 
his charities, kind in the discharge of Ms parental duties, and cheerful in the social 
circle, his example is worthy of imitation. The jostling and javrings of life have planted 
the lines of care on his brow, and affliction has entered frequently at his door-and added 
a shade of sadness to his features, but his manly impulses and active energies remain 
in their full vigor. 

Mr. Mailler manied Hannah P., daughter of Jacob Oakley, of Coldenham, June 1, 
1830, and has had twelve children, all of whom died in infancy except William Oakley, 
born May 26, 1831; Mary Hannah, bom Nov. 27, 1834, married Moses Cook Belknap, 
June 16, 1857, died May 31, 1858; and John Dales, born June 9, 1845. 




THE SCHULTZ FAMILY. 

Christian Otto Schultz was born Jan, 22d, 1112, at Bredenfelt, 
in the Dukedom of Mecklenburgh, Germany; and his wife, Mar- 
garet Sharpenstien, was born in April, 1113, at Sagendorp, 
Germany. They emigrated to America in 1135; settled at Fish- 
kill, Duchess county, and had: Anna, Abraham, Isaac, Chris- 
topher, Margaret, Christian, Frederick, Peter, William, Jacob, 
and John. From these children have sprung the several families 
of the name in Duchess and Orange counties. Those in Orange 
county are the descendants of Isaac Schultz, born Jtily 28, 
1140, and of his wife, Mary Kilborne, whom he married in 
1165. He first followed the occupation of school-teacher; and, 
having saved a small sum of money, he opened a store in New 
Windsor, and soon became comparatively wealthy. He after- 
wards established what was long known as "Schultz's Mill " 



316 WARD M. GAZLAY. 

near the mouth of Quassaick Creek. He died June 9th, 1811,. 
leaving Sarah, Elizabeth, Abraham, Peggy, Jacob, Susanna, 
Joanna, Mary, Deborah, Abigail, and Isaac, his children. His 
wife died ilay 25, 1803. Abraham succeeded liis father in the 
store at Xew "Windsor, and carried on an extensive forwarding 
business. Isaac became heir to the mill. JIary married Jonas 
Storey, Esq., of Xewburgli. 

Jacob Schui-tz was bom Apiil 23, 1776. He manied, Feb. 14, 1799, Anna, dangUter 
of John Denniston, of Xew Windsor. His first appearance in bnsiness was as tbe editor 
and proprietor of the Nod Windsor Gazette. This paper was anti-infidel in its teach- 
ings, and was conducted with considerable ability.* In 1810, Mr. Schnltz opened a dry 
goods and grocery store in Newbnrgh, in company with Andrew DeWitt, and was engaged 
in this trade until 1814, when he purchased from his brother, Isaac, the old mill of his 
&ther, but afterwards sold it to Peter Townsend, came back to Newburgh and commen- 
ced bnsiness in company with George Betts. He retired, in 1818, to a small farm in the 
town of Xew Windsor, erected a substantial stone-house, and in the quiet independence 
of agricultural pursuits spent tbe remainder of his life. He died in 1859. 

The children of Jacob and Anna Schnltz were: 1. John D., married Sophia Halsey, 
of Xew York, and had fifteen children; 2. Fanny W., mai-ried John Latham; 3. Mary 
Ann, married Thomas J. Fulton, of Xew Windsor; 4. Catharine if.: .5. Jacob K., mai-- 
ried Helen J. Howser. 

WARD II. GAZr.AY. 

The following sketch of Ward il. Gazlay, was furnished for 
this work by the late Charles U. Cushman. Although evidently 
written in haste, we have concluded to publish it without correc- 
tion, as it was, probably, the last article ever prepared by him 
for publication — his death occurring only a few days after it was 
written. 
"I find in the "Newbnrgh Telegraph" of April 21, ISjii, the following notice : 

'•Died — In this village on Wednesday laj~t. aged about 54 years. Ward IT. Gazlay, 
E.s<j., for many years a magistrate of Newbnrgh, and editor and proprietor of the "Po- 
litical Index," from about the year 1806 to 1829, at which latter period the pi-esent pro- 
prietor of the "Newbnrgh Telegraph" purchased his establishment and changed the 
political character of the paper. To some peculiarities, and a few fanlts, Mr. Gfazlay 
united many excellent qualities both of head and heart. His early career as a magis- 
trate was marked by strict probity, and a sound, discriminating judgment, nnited to a 
fixedness of pnrpose and an impartiality in his decisions which saw no difference 
between the rich and the poor — the peasant and the king. A wide circle of friends 
deeply sympathize with the family." 

] "To the above, little can be added from facts in my possession, ilr. G. was not an 

ambitious or an industrious editor. He wrote Uttle, and that little usually limited to 
home or local matters, dispatched with great brevity. If a steam boiler burst at the 
dock and killed a dozen of his neighbora and friends, a few brief lines told the whole 
sad tale in his columns. He was never excited; never lost his imbounded self-i'espect, 
nor his self-possession; was never disconcerted. He presided m his court with Oriental 
dignitj'; and in the presence of delinquents his austerity was a terror which few had 
the courage to brave a second time. His decisions and sentences, upon all such, came 
like successive claps of thunder after frightful lightning, dealing summary and irrevoca- 
ble justice. A glance from his sunken and lustreless eye often made evil-doei-s quail. 



I 



JOHN D. SPALDING. 31t 

Indeed, it was his boast, tliat he 'oould awe tlie lion-hearted rogue with the power of 
his eye.' 

"Mr. Gazlay's personal appearance was not remarkably prepossessing. His stature 
was under medium size; shouldei's and whole man broad and thin; can'iage ungainly; 
gait sliuifling, the heels of his untied shoes clapping the pa-cement audibly as he sidled 
along; his head hugged his right shoulder, and in his mouth was always seen the stump 
of a cigar, the smoke of which curled up into his enormous nose and half closed eyes, 
with the greatest possible apparent satisiUction to their complacent owner. All these 
unamiable and even forbidding aspects, however, belied the inner men. He had a 
glowing heart towards poverty, misery, and suffering, and would beg or die before 
doing a mean or a dishonest act to win gold or favor. 

"Of liis birth-place I know nothing, but I thinic he hailed from Pennsylvania. Thai, 
and bis age, family, &o., were topics which he thought it puerile to dwell upon. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Jonathan and Bridget Carter, and left three sons." 



JOHN B. SPALDING. 

The subject of this sketch was connected with the Newbui'gh 
press for about thirty-eight years. He was born in Salem, Mass., 
in Jan., 1800. He removed to Newburgh in 1815, in company 
with his father, the Eev. Joshua Spalding, and was soon after 
apprenticed to Ward M. Gazlay, then of the Political Index, with 
whom he remained until 1822, when he commenced the publica- 
tion of the Newburgh Qazetle. His connection with this paper 
was continued until 1833 or '34, when he sold out his interest, 
and started the Newburgh Journal, which he continued (subse- 
quently under the title of the Highland Courier,) until his death. 

As a journalist, we may say of him, that few men have ever 
occupied that position, in the same locality, for a longer term of 
years ; or who, having done so, passed from the stage leaving a 
more favorable record, than Mr. Spalding. His pen was ever 
ready to advance the cause of morality, and to sustain public 
improvements in the community of which he was a member. 
Educated in political life at a time when party lines were not 
rigidly drawn-, party fealty sat lightly upon him. During his 
connection -with the Gazette, he opposed Jackson's election, and 
thus for a time he was thrown into the political arena; but during 
the largest portion of his editorial career . his paper was inde- 
pendent of politics. 

Mr. Spalding possessed a sound judgment — was urbane and 
kind in his disposition, and liberal in his charities. By these 
qualities he secured friends and retained them through many 
years. In person, he was over six feet in height, light in frame 
and in flesh, and ungainly in his carriage. He married Eliza- 
beth L., daughter of Rev. John Johnston, D.D., of Newburgh, 
and had several children. He died on the 22d of August, 1853, 
in the 54th year of his age, after an illness of about two days. 



318 SAMUEL PARMENTEE. 



^^i-i^fT^^t-oe^ Q/(^C4'-T>'yz.^-'i!'t^^^^ 



The genealogy of Samuel Parmenter is given in a "History of 
the Town of Framingham, Mass., by Rev. Wm. Barry," pullifihed 
in 184T, as follovirs: 

1. John Parmenter, emigrated from England prior to 1639; settled in Sudbury, 
Mass.: took the Freeman's oath, May 13, 1640. ,,,.„, » 

2. John Parmenter, Jr., born in England; admitted a Freeman ot the Colony ot 
Massachusetts, May 16, 164:3. , ,„,„ 

3. Benjamin Parmenter, son of John Parmenter, Jr., bom about 1()46. 

4. David Parmenter, son of Benjamin Parmenter, born April 12, 1686. 

5. Bamnel Parmenter, son of David Parmenter, bom May 11, 1722. 

6. Ezra Parmenter, son of Samuel Parmenter, born June 16, 1760.* 

7. Samuel Parmenter, son of Ezra Parmenter, born March 2, 1791. 

Mr. Parmenter was born in the city of Boston, March 2, 1791. 
He married (1818) Eliza, daughter of Stephen Crane, of Newton, 
Mass., and soon after removed from Massachusetts to Warwick, 
Orange county, N. Y., where he resided until 1821, when he 
removed to Newburgh, where he died, June 29, 1841. His wife, 
Eliza, died Sept. 14, 1849. His children were Charles J., born 
1822, died in 1826; Susan E. C, born 1830, died in 1856; and 
Stephen C, born in Warwick, April 9, 1819, married Catharine 
A. McDowell, Oct. 16, 1844, and has five daughters, viz: Caro- 
line E., Cornelia A., Alginette D., Gertrude A., and Geneveive C, 
and one son, Samuel J. 

Mr. Parmenter was a man of superior talents and great energy 
of mind, and as a mathematician had few equals. He was for 
many years surveyor of the village, by appointment of the Board 
of Trustees, and at the time of his death was one of the magis- 
trates ol the town. In 1822, he compiled and published "A 
Concise View of the United States," a very useful work and one 
which was eagerly sought for throughout the country. About 
the same year he made a map of Poughkeepsie, for the authori- 
ties of that town, to which reference is frequently made in the 
old conveyances of property there. In 1835, in pursuance of a 
resolution of the Board of Trustees, he made a series of maps of 
the village of Newburgh and vicinity, showing the outlines, 
streets, property, &c., from the year 1152 to the year 1835. 
These maps are now on file, and are among the most valuable 
and important papers in the archives of the corporation. In 

* The children of Ezra Parmenter were Samuel, James, William, Mary, Elizabeth, 
Sarah, Nancy (died), James, and Nancy. Elizabeth married Col. Gai'diner Thompson, 
of Newburgh, and had Ezra P., Catharine G.. Gardiner G., Mary B., William P., Nancy 
F., Maria T., Helen, Susan P., Charles F., George J., and Julia, all of whom are living 
except WilUam and Julia. Mi-s. Thompson, and William Pamienter (now Hon., he 
having sei-ved several years as a representative in Congress from Mass.) , are still living. 



CHARLES U. CUSHMAN. 319 

1836, he compiled and published "A Statistical Map of the United 
States," which was highly commended, and which met with such 
ready sale that three editions were printed. From 1825 to 1832, 
he was the editor and one of the proprietors of the Newburgh 
Gazette. He was an active Episcopalian, and was the organist 
of St. George's church for about seven years. 

Mr. Parmentfer's principal occupation was that of a surveyor 
and land agent, and his superior attainments, knowledge of 
property, and irreproachable honesty, secured to him an exten- 
sive patronage. His accuracy as a surveyor was universally 
admitted, and in all difficult cases he was called upon from all 
parts of the state. He was an accomplished scholar, a useful 
citizen, and a good man, and he died universally beloved. 

CHARLES U. CUSHMAN. 

Charles Underhill Cushman was born in Hartford, Washington 
county, N. Y., March 20, 1802; and was a lineal descendant of 
Eobert Cushman, one of the original company of Pilgrims, who 
sailed for the New World, Augast 5th, 1620, 0. S.* His father 
was Charles Cushman, of Bennington, Vt., and his mother, Mary, 
daughter of Augustine Underhill. His mother died the tenth 
day after his birth; and Charles became the foster-child of a 
kind and affectionate aunt, and subsequently of his grand-father 
Underhill. He enjoyed only such advantages of education as a 
common school in a thinly settled district afforded; but, on the 
death of his grand-father, he removed to the residence of his 
father, iu Bennington, and attended the Academy at that place 
during four winter sessions. At the age of seventeen he entered, 
as an apprentice, a book-store and printing-office at Eutland, Vt., 
and at nineteen he removed to Boston, and found employment in 
printing and in mercantile pursuits for four years. During a 
portion of this time he was in the employ of the father of N, P. 
Willis. He subsequently passed some time as proof-reader and 
jobber in the American Tract Society's printing rooms, in New 
York. Here, learning that a press and newspaper establishment 
at Newburgh were for sale, he left the city, and after a few 
months residence in Newburgh, purchased the Political Index, 
and established the Orange Telegraph — subsequently the New- 
burgh Telegraph — ^the first number of which was issued March 
20, 1829. In the autumn of 1839, having become tired of the 

* Eobert Cushman, with hia family, took passage on the "Speedwell," a vessel that 
sailed in company with the "Mayflower." The "Speedwell" proving rmseaworthy, 
returned to London, and it was not until November 21, 1621., that he landed In America. 



320 WILLIAM LKSLIE. 

incessant labors of an editor, he sold the establisbment, which soon 

afterward passed into the hands of H. H. Van Dyck. Mr. Cush- 

man subsequently held a position in the New York custom house, 

but was removed on the change of the federal administration in 

1841, when he entered the mercantile business in New York, and 

afterwards in Newburgh. He retired in 1852 with a competency. 

At the election in 1853, he was chosen Member of Assembly 

from the first Assembly District of Orange county, and filled the 

station with credit to himself and to his constituents. In 1858, 

he removed to Ehinebeck, Duchess county, where he died, June 

1st, 1859, after an illness of only a few hours. 

Mr. Gushman was a man of strong natural abilities, industry, 

perseverance, independence of mind, and strict integrity. As a 

writer, his style was vigorous and compact. He used but few 

words, and in expressing his thoughts his language was plain 

and unmistakable. His pen was ever ready to expose wrong, 

and to rebuke alike political friends and foes if their conduct 

failed to reach his standard of capacity and honesty. The path 

to success which many journalists follow, was not his, for 

"He would not flatter Neptnne for Ms trideBt, 
Or Jove for Iiis power to thunder." 

He seldom indulged in personal attacks, however, and never unless 
he was assailed or when no other method was available to bring 
the offender to the bar of public opinion. The first to erect the 
standard of abstinence from intoxicating drinks, in the village 
of his adoption, he consistently illustrated the principles he 
taught; and he joined heartily in every effort to elevate public 
intelligence and morals. While he was a member of the "corps 
editorial," the great questions of the United States Bank, Inter- 
nal Improvements, an Independent Treasury, and other leading 
measures, were before the people, and on these subjects he 
sustained the administrations of Jackson and Van Buren, and 
was strongly attached to the Democratic party pf that day. 

As a private citizen, Mr. Gushman was active in advancing the 
interests of the community in which he lived. He was one of 
the founders of our public Libraries, and also helped to establish 
the Quassaick Bank, and the Newburgh Savings Bank. In all his 
public and private walks he aimed to accomplish practical results, 
and exhibited the traits of a good citizen and an honest man. 

In person, Mr. Gushman was nearly six feet, clear complexion, 
blue eyes, rather fleshy, and well-formed. He always dressed 
with extreme neatness, and walked with an erect carriage and 



WILLIAM LESLIE. 321 

firm tread. He married, June^ 1832, Mary, fourth daughter of 
Capt. Charles Birdsall, and grand-daughter of Isaac Belknap. 

WILLIAM LESLIE. 

This gentleman was the father of Alexander Leslie, of New- 
burgh. He conducted, for a short time, the Newburgh Gazette. 
He died on the 17th Feb., 1838. The Telegraph of the 23d Feb., 
refers to his death in language which, though brief, speaks vol- 
umes for his personal worth, and patient laboring and suffering. 
We copy: 

"la this village, on Saturflay morning last, of conauniption, Mr. William Leslie, late 
publisher of the Newburgh Gazette. Mr. L. was a native of Scotland, and an honest, 
industrious man. The labor and anxiety of mind attendant upon an attempt to sustain 
a whig press, against his begging, undermining, neutral competitor of the Journal, 
proved too much for his constitution. He has left a large family entirely destitute of 
every thing but friends." 

ELIAS PITTS. 

This gentleman was born in Columbia county, N. Y., in the 
year 1810, and received a liberal education at the Kinderhook 
Academy. He served an apprenticeship of a few years in the 
office of the Kinderhook Sentinel, and at its termination became 
associated in the editorial management of that paper. Subse- 
quently, he removed to Rochester, and was connected with the 
editorial department of the Advertiser of that city, a paper 
published by Henry O'Rielly. At the retirement of Mr. Van 
Dyck from the Newburgh Telegraph, in the winter of 1840, Mr. 
Pitts assumed the management of that paper, which he continued 
until 1850. From Newburgh, Mr. Pitts removed to Poiighkecp- 
sie, and there became the editor of tlie Poughkeepsie American. 
His connection with the public press terminated in the autumn of 
1853; and he soon after received an appointment to a clerksliip 
in the State Department at Washington, the duties of which he 
continued to discharge up to the time of his last illness. 

In his character as a writer, Mr. Pitts displayed much origi- 
nality and ability, maintaining a manly independence, and at the 
same time laboring zealously to promote the interests of the 
democratic party, to which he was attached. As a local politi- 
cal leader, the campaigns of 1840 and '44 bear witness to his 
efficiency. As a specimen of his style, we quote from an article 
from his pen, on the "Aristocracy of Labor," the following: 

"Heavily, heavily the labor of England is burdened to uphold the magnificence that 
rests upon it, but in which it shares no part, save that which Tantalus agonizes under, 
according to the old mythology. It forms an excellent pavement for the aiistocraoy 
to cut capers on: shall it form such a pavement here? Away with British institutions, 



322 ELIAS PITTS. 

or we shall have British distinctions — a class of oppressors, and a multitude of oppres- 
sed — a splendid government, and a magnifloeni upper-crust to the social pastry, .but a 
stai-ving people at the bottom ! The blood and sweat of the masses may be rich nutri- 
ment for capital to fat on; but, while the money power, like a hugh vampire, is, sucking 
the life-sprmg from the heart of labor, where will be the comfort, the prosperity, the 
freedom, the intelligence, of the myriad people whose muscles are wasted, whose 
sinews are over-taxed, whose lives are one gi-oaning age of toil; and not for their own 
profit, but to pay the usury that insatiate moneyism demands, extorts, aye, wrings from 
the cracking heart-strings of the human horde it tyranizes over, and makes to buy the 
privilege of bare subsistence at the price of all that life is worth ? Where, indeed ?" 

While Mr. Pitts held his political convictions with firmness, 
he nevertheless enjoyed the esteem of many of his political 
opponents. The pecuniary advantages which some secure by 
political service, never fell to his lot. He was content to labor 
and devote his means for the oflScial advancement of others 
without the slightest remuneration; and this disposition, as well 
as his habits of liberality, kept him constantly a slave in pecu- 
niary affairs. Had be acted upon a different principle, and one 
which, we regret to say, is too frequently indulged, he would 
have died possessing a competency. 

As a man, Mr. Pitts was the soul of good-fellowship. In the 
social circle he had few equals. To affable and gentlemanly 
manners and fine conversational powers, he added a mind stored 
with a fund of anecdote as well as useful information, which 
made his society sought after and appreciated. He was kind- 
hearted and generous. The appeal of charity never reached his 
ears in vain; while personal resentments were never cherished 
or maintained — in a word, his every-day life appeared to be the 
reflex of a heart filled with noble and generous impulses. Faults 
he had, but they were the result of the circumstances by which 
he was surrounded, rather than the fruits of his natural dispo- 
sition. Failings — wrong habits — he had; but over all these the 
hand of friendship will draw the veil of charity, and embalm his 
virtues as pleasant things to the memory. 

In person, Mr. Pitts was about five feet three inches, with a 
small but well-proportioned body; head large and well-developed; 
eyes black and full; hair naturally black, but, when we knew 
him, almost silvered. He was twice married. His first wife was 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Jamison, of Newburgh, by whom 
he had two children: Mary E. and John M. His second wife 
was Margaret, daughter of John Whited. He died at Washing- 
ton, Friday, July 21, 1854, from an attack of typhoid fever, at 
the age of 44 years. 



Note — For biographical sketches of James Renwick, Robert Ludlow, Daniel Niven 
DanielNiven, Jr., Jason Rogers, Hugh Spier, Doct. Moses Higby, Samuel Downinij' 
John McAnley, William Ross, and others, see Bager's Orange County. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

Rev. EtOHABD Ghahlton.— We find the following obituary notice of the Rev. Rich- 
ard Chai-lton, — the fli-st missionai'y of NewbuvgU and New Windsor, 1731— in Games' 
Mercui-y, of October 11, 1777, viz: 

"On Tnesday last, departed this life, at his house on Staten Island, aged seventy-two 
yeare, the Rev. Mr. Richard Charlton, missionary from the Society for Propagating the 
Gospel in Foreign Pai'ts. This worthy clergyman was born in Ireland, and received his 
education in Trinity College, Dublin. He came over to this country soon after he 
entered into Holy Ordera; and was the firat missionary of New Windsor, on Hudson's 
river. Prom thence he removed to New York, being chosen assistant minister of Trinity 
Church, and oateoliist; in which station he continued several years before his appoint- 
ment as missionai'y of Staten Island, in 1747, where he remained ever since. 

"Sincere and steady in friendship, charitable to the dislressed, and hospitable to all, 
he was deservedly esteemed and respected. Amidst the confusion of the present rebel- 
lion, his loyalty was unshaken; his attachment to the Constitution, in Church and State, 
unalterably firm. The great increase of his congregations, during his incumbency for 
thirty years at Staten Island, was an evidence of the assiduity with whicli he dis- 
charged the duties of his office; and the teara which were plentifully shed over his 
remains at the gi-ave, by the members of his flocli, were a sm-e indication that they 
considered themselves as having lost, ia him, a common father and friend." 

Died— In this town, on the 20th November inst., Daniel Nivkn, Esq., in the 67th 
year of his age, univeraally and justly lamented by aU who were acquainted with him. 
Few ever deserved the character of an upright man more than he. As a husband and 
a father, he was kind and indulgent— as afriend, he was sincere and steady— as a magis- 
trate, he was faithful and consoientions in the discharge of his duty — aa a patriot, he 
was firmly attached to the intei-Kts of America, and fought her batttea during the Revo- 
lutionaiy war; and as a Christiau, his convereation vm as it became the gospel of 
Christ. Firm and steady to whatever he considered his duty, neither the frowns nor 
the flattery of men could move him from it. Such wsis his conduct through life, and 
during his last illness he had no will of his own respectmg life or death, but always said 
the "will of the Lord be done." Amidst the pain which he suffered from an acoute 
distemper, his patience remarkably appeared— not a murmuring word did he utter, but 
frequently said, "when my heart and my flesh do faint and fail, the Lord is the strength 
of my heart and my portion forever." His death beai-s an honorable testimony to the 
realify of religion, and to the support and comfort which it administers in a dying hour. 
"Mark the perfect man and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace.'' 

—Political Index, Nm. 23, 1809. 

Died— On Tuesday morning last, Benjamin Landee, in the 41st yeai- of his age. He 
was a good citizen, rakmg a lively interest in every thing that relates to the moral, 
intellectual and general improvement of society, he was actively engaged in promoting 
the schools, churches, &o., of the village — and in spreading a healthy tone of moral 
sentiment around the circle in which he moved. He was a good man. The upright- 
ness of his deportment— his sterling integiity — ^liig exemplary piety — ^his scrupulous 
attention to all the duties of private and social life, leave the most abundant evidence 
behind, that though we have lost much, he has made a great and glorious gain. A large 
and sympathising assembly followed his remains to the grave on Wednesday afternoon , 
and testified a high regard for the character of him whose death has left a void in our 
society that will not soon be filled.— Jimma/, Sept. 21, 1839. 

In the death of William Walsh, Esq., which took place at his residence in this Vil- 
lage, on Saturday evening last, our community is called to deplore the loss of one of its 
most respected and useful members. Mr. Walsh was, at the time of his decease, as he 
had been for several years previous, the President of the Bank of Newburgh; and it is 
not too much to say, that to his prudence, sagacity, and paternal care, that institution 
is mainly indebted for the distinguished confidence which it holds in the estimation of 
the public. With the business interests ot this place, Mr. Walsh has been long and 
closely identified; and its advancement in the scale of wealth, population and improve- 
ment, was to him always an object of solicitude as well as gratulation. Honest and 

upright in his dealings— courteous and benevolent in his iuteroom-se with society he 

has left behind him the savor of a good name, whilst his death has occasioned a vacuum 
in society, as well as in his family circle, which will be long felt and deplored. But we 
would not fail to add this crowning excellence, that he died in the faith and supported 
by the cljeermg assurances of that Gospel, which, living he had professed, and dying 
found an unfailing support. In the various relations, public and private, which he sus- 
tained, he verified emphatically the truth of a poet's declaration, 

"The man who consecrates his hours 

By vig'rous effort and an honest aim. 

At once he draws the sting of life and death; 

He walks with Nature, and her paths are peace." 
—Telegraph, Nm. 7, 1839. 



CONCLUSION. 

Kind reader, our task is ended. We have placed before you 
the fruit which we have gathered by patient investigation and 
the toil of many hours. We have done the best we could to 
make our work accurate, and we firmly believe that every essen- 
tial statement that we have made is true. Errors in grammar, 
in rhetoric, and in typography, you have probably found ; very 
few books are without such blemishes. We shall not point out 
these inaccuracies, but leave to you that task; presuming that 
the critic is competent to correct. If any one there be who is 
not satisfied with the repast that we have set before him, we 
earnestly invite him to enter the same field of labor, and will 
cheerfully extend to him the free use of our garner of facts. In 
some respects our work is not what it would have afforded us 
pleasure to have made it, especially in the number of its engrav- 
ings; but we have lacked the pecuniaryabilityto supply more than 
we. have given. Indeed, our expenditures upon the work are 
far in advance of the income which we have already derived from 
its publication, or that we may anticipate in the future. There 
may also be omissions of fact, as well as of biography, which 
some may have expected to find recorded; but in prosecuting 
our determination to gather the perishing history of the past, 
we have found the limit assigned to the volume altogether insuf- 
ficient to admit many sketches that we had prepared for its 
pages. Our own, or some other hand, will, perhaps, take up the 
broken thread hereafter. 

We have labored faithfully to give to the people of Newburgh 
some return for the multiplied acts of kindness which we have 
received at their hands, and we are certain that they will not 
permit the imperfections in our ofiering to outweigh the intention 
in its presentation. Whatever of good may be found in it, will, 
wo believe, be cherished ; and in this we shall find ample reward. 






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