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Full text of "History of Morris County, New Jersey"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

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PROMINENT CITIZENS AND PIONEERS, 



NEW YORK: 
W. W. MUNSELL & CO., 

36 Vesey Street. 




1882. 



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PRESS OF GEORGE MACNAMARA, 36 VESEY STREET, NFW YORK. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OUTLIl^E HISTORY OF ^^ JERSEY. 



PAOE. 

CHAPTER I. 
The Indians of New Jersey— Discovery 

and Settlement of the State T,8 

CHAPTEB TI. 
New Jersey under the Dutch and English 

Governors— Slavery 8-10 

CHAPTEH lir. 
New Jersey's part in the French and Rev- 
olutionary Wars 11, 12 

CHAPTEK IV. 
Participation of the State in the Wars of 
this Centnry 12, 13 

CHAPTER v/ 
Educational, Governmental and Benevo- 
lent Institutions— The State Administra- 
tion 13-15 

CHAPTER VI. 
Mineral Resources— Industries— Canals 
and Railroads— Population 15,16 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 

CHAPTER I. 
The Indians in Possession— Early Boun- 
dary Lines-The First Settlements 17-20 

CHAPTER II. 
The Formation of Morris County and its 

Division into Townships 20-23 

CHAPTER III. 
The Prelude to the Revolution— Patriot 

Leaders of Morris County 22-27 

CHAPTER IV. 
Morris County Troops in the Continental 

Army 27-31 

CHAPTER V. 
Morris County Militia in the Revolution 

—Incidents of the War 32-37 

CHAPTER VI. 
Recovering from the Revolution— Mor- 
ris County Men in the War of 1812 37-39 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Iron Industry of Morris Countj'— 
Early Enterprises- Forges and Bloomaries 39-48 
CHAPTER VIII. 
Charcoal Furnaces— Pompton, Hibernia, 

Mt. Hope and Split Rock 48-56 

CHAPTER IX. 
Slitting and Rolling Mills— An tiiracite 

Furnaces and Foundries 56-62 

CHAPTER X. 
Iron Mines of Morris County 62-68 



PAGE 

CHAPTER XI. 
Travel and Transportation— Turnpikes— 

The Morris Canal— Railroads 66-71 

CHAPTER XII. 

Religious and Educational Interests 71-73 

CHAPTEK XIH. 
Political Parties and Candidates— Officers 

and Representatives 73-80 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Opening of the Civil War— First Volun- 
teers—Ladies' Aid Societies 80,81 

CHAPTER XV. 
Company K 7th N. J.— Captain South- 
ard's Engineers— Captain Duncan's Com- 
pany,. 81-85 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The 11th N. J. Regiment— Battles and 

Losses of Companies E and H 85-88 

CHAPTER XVIL 
The Brilliant Record of Companies C and 

F 15th N. J. Volunteers 88-93 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
History of the 27th N. J. Volunteer In- 
fantry— The Cumberland River Disaster... 93-97 
CHAPTER XIX. 
Drafting— "Emergency Men "—Company 

K 1st N. J.— Company I 33d N. J 97-100 

CHAPTER XX. 

The 39th N. J. Volunteers— Roll of Com- 
pany K— List of Patriot Dead 100-102 

CHAPTER XXI. 

A Sketch of the Geology and Physical 
Geography of Morris County 10.2-1C8 



CITY A^D TOWr(SHIP HISTORIES. 

Boonton 177-186 

Chatham 187-210 

Chester 211-216 

Hanover 217-228 

Jefferson 229-240 

Mendham 341-248 

Montvil le 249-253 

Morristown 109-176 

Mount Olive 254-259 

Passaic 260-264 

Peguannock 265-289 

Randolph 290-330 

Rockaway 331-363 

Roxbury 364-371 

Washington o72-;!iriS 



VILL/GES. 

Bartley ville 255 

Boonton 178 

Budd's Lake 255 



PAGE 

Butler 396 

Chatham 199 

Chester 211 

Dover 313 

Drakeville 366 

Ferromonte 310 

Flanders 255 

Hanover 231 

Littleton 221 

Madison 200 

McCain ville 366 

Mill Brook 310 

Mine Hill 310 

Morristown .' 109 

Mount Freedom 310 

Mount Olive 355 

New Vernon 26,') 

Parsippany — 231 

Port Morris 366 

Port Oram 309 

South Stanhope 255 

Stanley 200 

Sucoasunna 365 

Troy 221 

Walnut Grove 310 

Whippany 221 

BIOGI|APHIC/L SKETCHES. 

Allen, Jabez L 328 

Allen, Job 341 

A.xtel 1 Family 242 

Baker, Henry 360 

Baker, William H 362 

Barnes, Rev. Albert 136 

Beaman, David 342 

Bergen, Rev- John G 208 

Boisaubin, Vincent 203 

Brown, John P 24U 

Budd, Daniel 315 

Butterworth, Joshua H 326 

Byram Family 243 

Campfield, Jabez .si 

Chandler, L. A ,362 

Condiet, Silas 26 

Cook, Ellis 26 

Cook, Silas 252 

Cooper, Daniel 263 

Cooper, Nathan A 211 

Darby,John 220 

Darcy , John 31 

De Hart, William 24 

Diclcerson, Jonathan 321 

Dickerson, Mahlon 321 

Dickerson, Peter 25, 321 

Dod Family 243 

Drake, Jacob 25 

Faesch, John Jacob 53, 281, 337 

Fairchild Family 2'28 

Fisher, Rev. Samuel 136 

Ford, Jacob sen.. 23, 114, 115 

Ford, Jacob jv 115 

Ford, Rev. John 22U 



a4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Gaines, Nathaniel 252 

Garrison, Samuel L 18G 

Green, Kev. Jacob 334 

Hager, John S 377 

Hager, Lawrence 376 

Halsey, Samuel B 361 

Hancock, Rev. John 210 

HannFamil3' 374 

Harcouv, Hev. Samuel 213 

Hasenolever, Peter 43 

Hinchman Family 334 

Hinchman, Guy M 58, 335 

Hinchman, Joseph 324 

HofE Family 361 

Horton, Kev. Azariah 205 

Hull, Aurelius B 170 

Jaekson, John Darby 361 

Jackson, Joseph 360 

Johnes, Rev. Timothy 131, 133 

Kanouse Family 269 

Kearney, Michael 318 

King, Andrew 43, 298 

King, William L 171 

Kitchel, Aaron 3 19 

Kitchel, Abraham 20 

Lefevre, William B 237 

Lefevre, William Jeff 392 

Littell Family 261 

Marsh, Ephraim 380 

McBowell, Rev. William A 136 

Megie Family 388 

Moylan, Stephen 51 

Neighbour Family 375 

Ogden, Abraham 24 

Ogden, Samuel . . . -. 24 

Oram, Robert F 328 

Randolph, T.F 168 

Richards, George 337 

Richards, Hev. James 135 

Sanders Family 343 

Sohenok, Rev, J. V. N 383 

Segur, Thomas B 336 

Spencer, Oliver 31 

Stickle, Hubbard S 362 

Stiles, Jonathan 24 

Stoddard, Rev. E. W .370 

Stotesbury, John 53 

Stoutenburg Family 382 

Thompson, David 36 

Tuthill, Samuel 34 

Tuttle, Rev. Joseph F 344 

Tuttle.Rev. Samuel L 308 



PAGE 

Vail, Alfred 160 

Vail, George 175 

Vanatta, Jacob 172 

Ward, L. B 176 

Welsh Family 375 

Wick, Henry 35 

Winds, William 24, 399 

Woodhull, Rev. William 213 

Young, David 319 



P0RTI\A1TS. 

Baker, Henry, Rockaway 360 

Biker, William H., '• 363 

Bruen, James H., " 312 

Budd, Daniel, Shester 315 

Butterworth, J. H., Dover 336 

Cobb, Andrew B., Hanover 319 

Cooper, Nathan A., Chester 311 

Cooper, Mary H., " 312 

Dickerson, Mahlon, Randolph 331 

Drake, Nelson H., Mt. Olive 375 

Fairchild, E. M., Hanover 329 

Fairohild, R. V. W., " 337 

Fairchild, Stephen, " 328 

Garrison, S. L., Boonton 186 

Hager, John S., German Valley 377 

Hager, Lawrence, " " 376 

Hinchman, G. M., Dover 328 

Hull, Aurelius B., Morristown 170 

Johnson, William C„ Chatham 199 

King, William L., Morristown 171 

Lindsley, Oscar, Passaic 199 

Marsh, Ephraim, Schooley's Mountain 380 

Stoddard, E. W., Succasunna 370 

Ward, L. B., Morristown 176 

Vail, George, Morristown 175 

Vanatta, Jacob, " 173 



ILLUSTI^ATIONS, 

PAGE 

Baker, William H., Homestead, Rockaway 363 

Hartley, William & Son, Machine Shop, Bart- 

leyville 255 

Beach, Columbus, Residence, Dover 316 

Brown, John P., Hotel, Newfoundland 240 

Chovey, Charles L., Residence, Madison 204 

Cole, J. P., Residence, Montville 351 

Cooper, N. A., dec— late Residence, Chester. . . 213 



PAGE 

Crowell, D. A., Belmont Hall, Schooley's Mt... 283 

Elliott, Alex., Residence, Dover 316 

Evans, Mrs. J. D., Residence, Chester 202 

Fairchild, Mrs. R. V. W., Residence, Hanover. . 163 

Frontispiece ^ 

George, Richard, Residence, Dover 314 

Green, William S., Residence, Denville 312 

Guerin, B. C, Hotel, Morristown 147 

Hance, John, Residence, Randolph 312 

Hopper, Peter, Residence, Pompton Plains.... 282 
Howland, Mrs. William H., Residence, Montville 163 

Hurd, Edward C Residence, Dover 293 

Hurd, Lewis C, Residence, Hurdtown 230 

Johnson, William C, Residence, Chatham 199 

King, V. B., Residence, Morristown 173 

Lanning, G. M., Residence, Afton 300 

Leddell, S. W., Residence, Mendham 279 

Macwithey, A. A., Residence., Pompton 282 

Map of Morris County 8 

Marsh, William W., Residence, Schooley's Mt. . 380 

McParlan, H., Residence. Dover 292 

Moller, Daniel, Opera House, Dover 312 

Oram, Robert F., Residence, near Dover 328 

Post, John F., Residence, Pompton 279 

Richards, George, Residence. Dover 337 

Richards, Samuel E., Residence, Afton 200 

Komondt, C. D. V., Residence. Pompton 279 

Rubber Comb and Jewelry Works 396 

Scenery in Morris County (frontispiece) 1 

Sharp, J. M., Hotel, Budd's Lake 255 

Simpson, James H., Residence, Dover 318 

Stickle, B. K.&G.W., LumberYard, Rockaway 358 

Thebaud, Edward, Residence, Madison 200 

Thebaud, E. v., '• '' ..; 200 

Todd, Edward, " " 208 

Vanatta, Jacob, dec, late Residence, Morris- 
town 173 

Washington's Headquarters, Morristown 166 

Webb, James A., Residence, Madison 202 

Welsh, John C, Residence, German Valley 375 

Zabrislcie, A. J. B., Residence, Montville 251 



/PPENDIX. 

Financial History— Reformatory Institutions. 389 

Abstract of the Proprietors' Title 393 

The 11th New Jersey Volunteers 395 

The Village of Butler 396 

INDEX TO NAMES 398-407 



PREFACE 



To one whose own neighborhood has been the theater 
of events prominent in the nation's annals, the history of 
those events is the most interesting of all history. To 
the intrinsic fascination of stirring incidents is added 
the charm of their having occurred on familiar ground. 
The river is more than a volume of water irrigating its 
banks and turning mill-wheels — more than a blue ribbon 
woven into the green vesture of the earth — to one who 
knows how it has affected the course of events along its 
valley for a century or more, determining the location 
first of the Indian camp and then of the white man's vil- 
lage; the line, first of the red warrior's trail and finally 
of the railway and the canal; now the route of an army's 
march and anon that of a nation's domestic commerce. 
The road that has been traveled unthinkingly for years is 
invested with a new interest if found to have followed an 
Indian trail. The field where one has harvested but 
grain or fruit for many a season brings forth a crop of as- 
sociations and ideas when it is understood that il was the 
camping ground of the patriots whose labors and endur- 
ance founded the nation. The people will look with 
heightened and more intelligent interest upon ancient 
buildings in their midst — already venerated by them, they 
hardly know why — when they read the authentic record 
of events with which these monuments of the past are as- 
sociated. The annals of a region so famous as that of 
which these pages treat give it a new and powerful 
element of interest for its inhabitants, and strengthen 
that miniature but admirable patriotism which consists 
in the love of one's own locality. 

It has heretofore been possible for the scholar, with lei- 
sure and a comprehensive library, to trace out the writ- 
ten history of his county by patient research among vol- 
uminous government documents and many volumes, 
sometimes old and scarce; but these sources of informa- 
tion and the time to study them are not at the command 



of most of those who are intelligently interested in local 
history, and there are many unpublished facts to be res- 
cued from the failing memories of the oldest residents, 
who would soon have carried their information with 
them to the grave; and others to be obtained from 
the citizens best informed in regard to the various inter- 
ests and institutions of the county, which should be 
treated of in giving its history. 

This service of research and compilation, which very 
few could have undertaken for themselves, the pub- 
lishers of this work have caused to be performed; 
enlisting in the effort gentlemen whose standing in 
the community, whose familiarity with local events, 
and whose personal interest in having their several 
localities fitly represented, afford the amplest guaranty 
for the trustworthiness of their work. The names of 
these gentlemen appear in connection with the sec- 
tions of the history contributed by them. They have 
therein acknowledged the aid derived from the au 
thorities most serviceable to them. In addition to 
such acknowledgments the author of the history of 
Chester would mention the loan of books to him by 
Hon. Samuel H. Hunt, and of a historical discourse 
by Rev. Frank A. Johnson, from which he derived 
his account of the Congregational church of Chester. 
It should perhaps be said that the authors of the 
city and township histories in most cases did not 
write the biographical sketches attached to those his- 
tories. 

While a few unimportant mistakes may perhaps be 
found in such a multitude of details, in spite of the care 
exercised in the production of the work, the publishers 
confidently present this result of many months' labor as 
a true and orderly narrative of all the events in the his- 
tory of the county which were of sufficient interest 
to merit such record. 



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Scale- 3% inches io -I miley. — 



OUTLINE HISTORY 



OF THE 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE INDIANS OF NEW JERSEY — DISCOVERY AND SETTLE- 
MENT OF THE STATE. 




fT the time of its discovery by the whites the 
region which includes New Jersey was inhab- 
ited by the Delaware Indians, or, as they 
termed themselves, the Lenni Lenapes — a 
name which has had various interpretations, 
among which are those of " original people " 
and " unmixed people." They were a portion 
of the people who were known by the generic name of 
Wapanachki, which according to Heckewelder means 
" people at the rising of the sun," or eastlanders. 

Notwithstanding the eastern name which they bore 
their traditions related that they came from the western 
part of the American continent, where they had resided 
during many centuries and whence they came eastward 
with the Mengwe or Iroquois, whom they encountered on 
their journey. Their traditions further related that the 
Lenape and Mengwe people dwelt peacefully together 
during several centuries, but that they separated and the 
Lenapes came to occupy the region bordering on the 
great salt water lake and watered by four great rivers, the 
Delaware, Hudson, Susquehanna and Potomac. 

The government of the Lenape Indians was somewhat 
similar to that of the Iroquois, and like them the Lenapes 
were divided into totemic tribes. In the case of the 
latter these were called the Unami, the Unalachta and 
the Minsi, or the Turtle, the Turkey and the Wolf. In 
the case of the Iroquois there were eight of these divis- 
ions, each with its totemic designation. The relation 
of these tribal divisions to each other was such as to give 
great cohesive strength to the nation. Although these 
Indians were untamed savages, who had not the advan- 
tages of the recorded experience of past ages, yet with 



the Iroquois and to a less extent with the Lenapes a civil 
system existed which could not fail to challenge the ad- 
miration of the students of both ancient and modern sys- 
tems of government. It may truly be said of these 
people that, with all their savagery, so long as they were 
uncontamihated by the vices of civilization they were in 
their domestic and social relations far better than many 
who have sought to impose their civilization on them. 

At a period which is not definitely fixed the Lenapes 
were subjugated by th-eir powerful and warlike neighbors 
the Iroquois, and, although they had previous to this 
subjugation been a warlike people, they were degraded 
from their position as warriors; or, in the language of 
their savage conquerors, "made women." Through the 
instrumentality of Sir William Johnson they were in 1756 
rehabilitated, or " made men again." 

The Indians of New Jersey on several occasions be- 
came hostile to the whites, either on their own account 
or as the allies of tribes with whom they were on friendly 
terms. As in the Indian wars of later times, however, 
the causes of these outbreaks could usually be traced to 
some act of injustice on the part of the whites. Such an 
outbreak occurred in 1643, during the administration of 
Governor Kieft, in which the Hackensacks and Tappans 
made common cause with their neighbors in revenging 
some injuries that had been inflicted on them by the 
Dutch in the autumn of the same year. A still more 
serious war broke out, in which the New Jersey Indians 
again made common cause with those of Long Island 
and the Hudson River. In this instance peace was not 
finally concluded till the summer of 1645. 

It is said that the shores of North America were first 
visited by the Northmen, in the year 986, and that several 
voyages were made by them to this country during the 
twenty-five years immediately following. These alleged 
discoveries led to no practical results. The first effectual 
and important discoveries on this continent were made by 
Christopher Columbus, in 1492 and the few succeeding 
years. It is not necessary to speak in detail of the many 
voyagers who came to this country after its discovery by 



8 



OUTLINE HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 



Columbus but who failed to discover this portion of the 
continent. It is said that in 1624 John de Verrazano, a 
Florentine navigator, sailed to America and proceeded 
along the coast from Florida to the fiftieth degree of 
north latitude, and that he entered the harbor of New 
York. If so, no practical result followed his discovery, 
and during almost a century the region was not again 
visited by Europeans. 

In 1609 Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service 
of the Dutch East India Company, while seeking for a 
northwest passage to Asia, entered the Delaware Bay, in 
which he sailed but a short distance on account of the 
shoal water. Sailing thence northward along the eastern 
shore of New Jersey he anchored his ship (the " Half- 
Moon ") within Sandy Hook September 3d of that year. 
On the 5th he sent a boat's crew ashore within Sandy 
Hook, and they penetrated some distance into the region 
now included in Monmouth county. The next day a 
crew of five was sent to make explorations and soundings 
in the Narrows. It is stated by the writer of the ship's 
journal that they found " a large opening and a narrow 
river to the west," which was probably the Kill von Kull, 
the channel between Bergen Point and Staten Island. 
On the return of the crew they were attacked by the na- 
tives in two canoes, and one man, named John Coleman, 
was killed. His body was interred the next day on what 
was called from that circumstance Coleman's Point — 
probably Sandy Hook. Hudson sailed up the river which 
bears his name, as far as Albany, whence he returned, 
and on the 4th of October sailed for Europe. 

In 1614 a fort and trading house were erected on the 
southwestern point of Manhattan Island, which was 
named New Amsterdam, and the Dutch colony here was 
called New Netherlands. 

It is not positively known when the first European set- 
tlement was made within the limits of New Jersey. It is 
believed that a number of Danes or Norwegians who 
came to New Netherlands with the Dutch colonists com- 
menced a settlement at Bergen about the year i6i8. In 
1614 a redoubt was constructed on the west shore of the 
Hudson River, probably at Jersey City Point. 

The first attempt to establish a settlement on the east- 
ern shore of the Delaware River was made in 1623, by 
Captain Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, in the service of the 
" Privileged West India Company." He sailed up Dela- 
ware Bay and River, and built a fort (Fort Nassau) at 
Techaacho, on a stream which empties into the Delaware 
a few miles below Camden. 

The West India Company, to encourage settlement 
here, granted the right of pre-emption to large tracts of 
land, and the grantees accordingly purchased the lands 
from the Indians. In 1630 they formed an association 
and sent a vessel, under the command of David Peiter- 
son de Vries, with settlers. They arrived early in 1631, 
to find that Fort Nassau was possessed by the Indians 
and none of the settlers were there. De Vries erected a 
fort and left a colony, which was soon afterward mas- 
sacred by the Indians. He returned shortly afterward 
with a new company, and narrowly escaped a similar 



fate. The Dutch soon abandoned the Delaware, and 
during some years the country remained without Euro- 
pean inhabitants. 

In 1637 the Swedes settled on the Delaware. Two 
ships with settlers came during that year, followed after- 
ward by others, and in 1642 John Printz was sent over 
as governor of the colony. He established himself on 
the island of Tennekeng, or Tennicum, where he erected 
a fort, church, etc. Soon afterward the Dutch re-estab- 
lished a settlement at Fort Nassau and made settlements 
elsewhere on the river, and for a time the country was 
occupied by the two nations in common. Differences 
arose, however, which led to general hostilities, and the 
Swedes were in 1655 dispossessed by the Dutch. This 
was the termination of the Swedish authority here. 

From this time till 1664 the country on the Delaware 
was wholly under Dutch control, and was governed by 
directors appointed by the governor of the colony at 
New Amsterdam. These directors were, in the order of 
their succession, Johannes Paul Jaquet, Peter Alricks, 
Hinojossa and William Beekman. " These officers 
granted lands, and their patents make part of the titles 
of the present possessors. At this period the Dutch ac- 
quired large tracts of country upon the eastern side of 
New Jersey, and it may be reasonably supposed that 
there was some settlement on the road between the 
colonies on the Hudson and Delaware." 

The English laid claim to this territory on the ground 
of prior discovery by Cabot, and on the additional 
ground that Henry Hudson, though in the service of the 
Dutch when he discovered the region, was born an Eng- 
lishman; and it does not appear that they ever abandoned 
the claim. 

Their attempts to form settlements on the Delaware 
were resisted by the Dutch and Swedes, and even vio- 
lence was resorted to, which gave rise to controversies 
between the New England and Dutch governments. 



CHAPTER II. 



NEW JERSEY UNDER THE DUTCH AND ENGLISH GOVERN- 
ORS — SLAVERY. 




N 1664 Charles II. of England sent a force 
under Sir Robert Carr and Colonel , Richard 
Nicoll to dispossess the Dutch of their terri- 
tory in the New World. Governor Stuyve- 
sant, of New Amsterdam, was by reason of 
his defenseless condition compelled to surrender 
without resistance, and the conquest of the colony 
on the Delaware was accomplished by Sir Robert Carr 
"with the expenditure of two barrels of powder and 
twenty shot." At this time an extensive grant of terri- 
tory was made by King Charles to his brother, the Duke 



NEW JERSEY UNDER THE COLONIAL GOVERNORS. 



of York, and lie on the 23d of June 1664 conveyed to 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret the territory now 
comprising New Jersey, by the following instrument, 
which first definitely described its boundaries: 

" This Indenture, made the three-and-twentieth day 
of June in the sixteenth year of the feign of our Sover- 
eign Lord Charles the Second by the gface of God of 
England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King Defender 
of the Faith — Anno Dominie 1664 — between his Royal 
Highness James Duke of York and Albany, Earl of 
Ulster, Lord High Admiral of England and Ireland, 
Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque 
Ports and Governor of Portsmouth, of the one part, John 
Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton and one of his Majes- 
tie's most honorable privy council, and- Sir George Car- 
teret, of Stratturm, in the county of Devon, Knight and 
one of his Majestie's most honorable privy council, of 
the other part,,Witnesaeth that the said James Duke of 
York, for and in consideration of the sum of ten shillings 
of lavyrful money of^ England, to him in hand paid, by 
these presents doth bargain and sell unto the said John 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret all that tract of 
land adjacent to New England and lying and being to 
the westward of Long Island, bounded on the east part 
by the main sea and part by Hudson River and hath 
upon the west Delaware Bay or River, and extendeth 
southward to the main ocean as far as Cape May, at the 
mouth of Delaware Bay, and to the northward as far as 
the northernmost branch of said bay or river of the Dela- 
ware, which is in forty-one degrees and forty minutes of 
latitude; and worketh over thence in a straight line to 
Hudson River — which said tract of land is hereafter to 
be called by the name or names of Nova Csesarea or New- 
Jersey." 

The feudal tenure was recognized by the agreement to 
pay an annual rent of one pepper corn if demanded. 
The proprietors formed a constitution, or, as it was 
termed, "concessions and agreement of the lords pro- 
prietors," which secured equal privileges and liberty of 
conscience to all, and it continued in force till the divis- 
ion, of the. province in 1676. Philip Carteret was ap- 
pointed governor, and in 1665 he made Elizabethtown 
the seat of government. The constitution established a 
representative government and made liberal provision 
for settlers.. In a few years domestic disputes arose, and 
in 1672 an insurrection occurred compelling Governor 
Carteret to leave the province. 

In 1673 England and Holland were at war, and a 
squadron was sent by the Dutch to repossess New Neth- 
erland, which was surrendered without resistance by 
Captain Manning in the absence of Governor Lovelace. 
On the conclusion of peace between England and Hol- 
land New Netherland was restored to the former. The 
governor of New York, Major Edmund Andross, claimed 
jurisdiction over New Jersey, insisting that the Dutch 
conquest extinguished the proprietary title ; but early in 
1675 Governor Carteret returned and resumed the gov- 
ernment of the eastern part of the province. He was 
kindly received by the people, who had become dissatis- 
fied with the arbitrary rule of Governor Andross. A new 
set of concessions was published and peaceable subordi- 
nation was established in the colony. Governor Andross, 
however, continued his efforts to enforce the duke's 



jurisdiction, and at last sent a force to Elizabethtown to 
arrest Governor Carteret and to convey him to New 
York. 

A second grant was made to Sir George Carteret, but 
previously to this it appears that Lord Berkeley and he 
had partitioned the province; for the country described 
in this grant was bounded on the southwest by a line 
drawn from Barnegat Creek to the Rancocus. Thus 
the province became divided into East and West New 
Jersey. 

Lord Berkeley was not satisfied with the pecuniary 
prospects of his colonization venture and sold his inter- 
est to two Quakers, John Fenwicke and Edward Byl- 
linge, for the sum of one thousand pounds. Byllinge, 
who was the principal proprietor, became embarrassed, 
and his share was conveyed far the benefit of his credi- 
tors to William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas, 
who were also Quakers. These trustees sold shares to 
different purchasers, who thus became proprietaries in 
common with them. A constitution or form of govern- 
ment similar in many respects to the " concessions " of 
Berkeley and Carteret was adopted by those proprietaries, 
and on the ist of July 1676 a line of division between 
New West Jersey and New East Jersey was determined 
by Sir George Carteret and the trustees of Byllinge. 
This line was defined as extending " from the east side 
of Little Egg Harbor straight north through the country 
to the utmost branch of Delaware River." 

Many settlers were attracted hither, nearly all of whom 
were of the Society of Friends. Land was purchased 
from the Indians, and the town of Burlington — first called 
New Beverley, then Bridlington — was established. The in- 
dustry and patience of the settlers met their reward and 
prosperity prevailed among them. 

As in the case of East Jersey, Governor Andross, of 
New York, claimed and sought to enforce jurisdiction 
over the western part of the province, and finally imposed 
a tax of five per cent, on European merchandise im- 
ported. This led to protests and representations which in- 
duced the duke in 1680 to abandon all claims on West 
New Jersey and confirm the rights of the trustees of Byl- 
hnge and the assignees of Fenwicke. 

The proprietor of East New Jersey, Sir George Carteret, 
died in 1679. By his will he directed the sale of that part 
of the province for the payment of his debts, and it was 
accordingly sold to William Penn and eleven others, who 
were termed the twelve proprietors. A fresh impetus 
was given to the settlement of the country, especially by 
people from Scotland. Each of the twelve proprietors 
took a partner, and they all came to be known as the 
twenty-four proprietors, and to them the Duke of York, 
on the 14th of March 1682, made a fresh grant. A notable 
difference had been observed in the character of the laws 
enacted in East and West Jersey, and it is an instructive 
fact that under the milder and more merciful laws of the 
latter crime was less frequent than under the severe 
enactments of the former. 

Under the new regime in East Jersey Robert Barclay, 
one of the proprietors, was chosen governor for life, with 



OUTLINE HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 



power to name his deputies. These were, in succession: 
Thomas Rudyard (1683), Gawen Lawrie, Lord Niel 
Campbell and Alexander Hamilton. 

In West Jersey Samuel Jennings was commissioned 
deputy governor by Byllinge in 1680, and during the next 
year he convened an assembly, which adopted a consti- 
tution and form of government. His successors were 
Thomas Olive, John Skene, William Welsh, Daniel Coxe 
and Andrew Hamilton. 

In 1 701 the condition of things in both provinces had 
come to be such that the benefits of good government 
were not attainable. Each had many proprietors, and 
their conflicting interests occasioned such discord that 
the people became quite willing to listen to overtures for 
a surrender of the proprietary government. "The pro- 
prietors, weary of contending with each ottier and with 
the people, drew up an instrument whereby they sur- 
rendered their right of government to the crown, which 
was accepted by Queen Anne on the 17th of April 1702. 
The queen at once reunited the two provinces, and 
placed the government of New Jersey as well as of New 
York in the hands of her kinsman Lord Cornbury." The 
commission and instructions which Cornbury received 
formed the constitution and government of the province 
until its declaration of independence. The new govern- 
ment was composed of the governor and twelve councilors, 
nominated by the crown, and an assembly of twenty-four 
members to be elected by the people for an indefinite 
term. Among the instructions given to the governor was 
the following: " Forasmuch as great inconveniences may 
arise by the liberty oi printing in our said province, you 
are to provide by all necessary orders that no person 
keep any press for printing, nor that any book, pamphlet 
or other matters whatsoever be printed without your 
especial leave and license first obtained." 

Cornbury's rule was terminated by the revocation of 
his commission in 1708. It was characterized by mean- 
ness, extravagance, despotism, bigotry, avarice, and pub- 
lic and private injustice. He was succeeded by John 
Lord Lovelace, who soon died, and the functions of gov- 
ernment were discharged by Lieutenant Governor In- 
goldsby till 17 10, when Governor Hunter commenced 
his administration. It is said of him that "he assented 
to most of the laws the people wanted, and filled the 
offices with men of character." He was followed in 1720 
by William Burnet, who was removed to Boston in 1727. 
John Montgomerie then became governor, and so con- 
tinued till his death, in 1731. His successor, William 
Cosby, was removed by death in 1736. The government 
then devolved on John Anderson, president of the coun- 
cil, who died in about two weeks and was succeeded by 
John Hamilton (son of Andrew Hamilton, governor un- 
der the proprietors), who served nearly two years. In 
1738 Lewis Morris Esq. was appointed governor of New 
Jersey " separate from New York. He continued till 
his death, in the spring of 1746. He was succeeded by 
President Hamilton. He dying it devolved upon John 



Reading, Esq., as the next eldest councilor. He exer- 
cised the office till the summer of i747> when Jonathan 
Belcher, Esq., arrived. He died in the summer of 
1757 and was succeeded by John Reading, Esq., 
president. Francis Bernard, Esq., appointed governor 
in 1758, was removed to Boston, and succeeded 
here by Thomas Boone, Esq., in 1760." He was 
succeeded by Josiah Hardy, and in 1763 by William 
Franklin, the last royal governor and a son of Dr. 
Benjamin Franklin. 

From the first settlement of New Jersey slavery existed 
here. No measures were adopted for its prevention, and 
with the sentiment that then prevailed concerning the 
slave trade and the institution of slavery it is not reason- 
able to suppose that it could be prohibited. In the "con- 
cessions " of 1664-65 "weaker servants or slaves" were 
spoken of, and for every such servant above the age 
of £4 brought into the province 75 acres of land were 
allowed the master. When Lord Cornbury was made 
governor of the province he was instructed as follows : 
" And whereas we are willing to recommend unto the 
said company that the said province may have a con- 
stant and sufficient supply of merchantable negroes at 
moderate rates in money or commodities, so you are to 
take especial care that payment made be duly made and 
within a competent time, according to agreement." "And 
you are to take care that there be no trading from our 
said province to any place in Africa within the charter of 
the Royal African Company, otherwise than prescribed 
by an act of Parliament entitled ' An act to settle the 
trade of Africa.' " 

Barracks once stood near the junction of Smith and 
Water streets in Perth Amboy for the reception and con- 
finement of slaves when imported. Much of the labor 
of families was for many years previous to the Revolu- 
tion performed by slaves. 

As early as 1696 the Quakers of this province united 
with those of Pennsylvania to discourage the importation 
and employment of slaves, but their example was not 
followed by others. 

In New Jersey as elsewhere severe penalties were in- 
flicted on negroes for crimes, and these often followed 
closely after the commission of the crimes. Whipping, 
branding, hanging and even burning alive were among 
the punishments inflicted. The peace of the province 
was disturbed it is said by several risings or attempted 
insurrections among the slaves, but these were promptly- 
suppressed. 

February 24th 1820 a law was enacted making every 
child born of slave parents subsequent to July 4th 
1804 free, the males on arriving at the age of twenty- 
five years and the females at twenty-one. Under this- 
law and that of 1846 slavery has disappeared from the- 
State. ' 

In 1790 there were in the State 11,423 slaves; in i8oq> 
12,422; 1810, 10,851; 1820, 7,557; 1830, 2,254; 1840, 
674; 1850, 236; i860, 18. 



EARLY REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. 



II 



CHAPTER IlL 



NKW JERSEY S PART IN THE FRENCH AND REVOLUTION- 
ARY WARS. 




'N 1744 war was formally declared between 
France and Great Britain. Masked hostili- 
ties had been for some time carried on. In 
1746 the Assembly of New Jersey resolved 
to furnish five hundred men to assist in the 
conquest of Canada. In response to the call for 
this number 660 offered themselves, and one com- 
pany was transferred to the quota of New York. In the 
French and Indian hostilities which succeeded this 
period, and which were not terminated till 1763, New 
Jersey nobly sustained her part. In response to the call 
of the English minister, Mr. Pitt, on the colonies it is 
said: " The Assembly of New Jersey, instead of raising 
reluctantly five hundred men, doubled that number; and 
to fill the ranks in season offered a bounty of twelve 
pounds per man, increased the pay of the officers and 
voted a sum of _;£'5o,ooo for their maincenance. They 
at the same session directed barracks to be built at 
Burlington, Trenton, New lirunswick, Araboy and Eliza- 
bethtown, competent each for the accommodation of 
three hundred men. * * * This complement of one 
thousand men New Jersey kept up during the years 1758, 
1759 and 176c; and in the years 1761 and 1762 fur- 
nished six hundred men, besides in the latter year a 
company of sixty-four men and officers especially for 
garrison; for which she incurred an average expense of 
_;^4o,ooo per annum." 

It is neither practicable nor desirable in a brief sketch 
like this to discuss the causes which led to the Ameri- 
can Revolution. New Jersey bore a prominent and 
honorable part in that memorable contest, and not only 
was her soil the scene of active military operations, 
but it was more than once made red by the blood of the 
defenders of American liberty. 

Action was taken by the Legislature of New Jersey in 
opposition to the oppressive acts of the British govern- 
ment as early as February 1774, when a State committee 
of correspondence was appointed, with instructions to 
watch and make known all matters which might affect 
the liberties and privileges of the colonists. 

In July of the same year conventions of the people 
were held in the various county towns, and resolutions 
were adopted condemning in strong terms the oppressive 
acts of Great Britain. Deputies were also chosen to a 
convention for the election of delegates to the General 
Congress at Philadelphia. These delegates were James 
Kinsey, William Livingston, John De Hart, Stephen 
Crane and Richard Smith. The convention was held be- 
cause of the refusal of the governor to summon the 
Assembly when requested to do so. At its next session, 
in January 1775, the Assembly approved the proceedings 
of Congress, and chose the same representatives for the 



future Congress. A convention called by the committee 
of correspondence assembled at Trenton on the 23d of 
May 1775, to consider and determine such matters as de- 
manded attention. This convention or provincial Con- 
gress, '' reflecting the majesty of the people, assumed as 
occasion required the full power of all the branches of 
government." It provided for the formation of one 
or more companies, of eighty men each, in every town- 
ship or corporation, and to defray necessary expenses 
voted a tax of _;^io,ooo. 

On the 5th of August in the same year this provincial 
Congress reassembled and provided for the organization 
cf fifty-four companies, each of sixty-four minute men, 
allotting to each county a certain number. A resolution 
was adopted to respect the rights of conscience of the 
Quakers, but askin;; them to contribute to the relief of 
their distressed brethren. The Congress made provision 
for the perpetuation of the authority which it had as- 
sumed, and directed "that during the continuance of the 
present unhappy dispute between Great Britain and 
America there be a new choice of deputies in every 
county yearly, on the third Thursday of September." 

The Legislature was convened on the i6th of Novem- 
ber 1775 by Governor Franklin, and he addressed it at 
some length. He seemed desirous to be assured of his 
personal safety, and of the fact that the Assembly did 
not intend to declare independence, both of which as- 
surances were given him. " On December 6th 1775 ^^^ 
house was prorogued by the governor until the third day 
of January 1776, but it never reassembled, and thus 
terminated the provincial Legislature of New Jersey." 

Although at the close of 1775 the feeling was strong 
against a declaration of independence by the colonies, 
yet the experience of a few months wrought an entire 
change; and when, on the fourth of July 1776, the Con- 
tinental Congress adopted such a declaration the senti- 
ment of a majority of the patriots in New Jersey, as else- 
where, approved it. 

On the loth of June 1776 the Provincial Congress of 
New Jersey assembled, and oa the 21st of the same 
month resolved by a vote of 54 to 3 to organize a colo- 
nial or State government, pursuant to a recommendation 
made by the Continental Congress on the 15th of May. 
On the 26th of June a constitution was reported, and on 
the 2nd of July it was adopted, thus virtually, though 
not in words, severing the connection between the colony 
and the mother country. The declaration of independ- 
ence by Congress was approved on the 17th of July. 
Governor Franklin was thus reduced to the condition of 
an idle spectator of the doings of the Provincial Con- 
gress. He made an impotent attempt to exercise his au- 
thority, but he was finally arrested and sent to Connecti- 
cut, whence he sailed to England. 

Here as elsewhere of course there were many loyalists. 
Lenient measures toward them were at first adopted, but 
as time went on severer measures were found necessary. 
The tories here as elsewhere were more malignant in their 
hostility than the British soldiery, and by reason of their 
acquaintance with the country were able to inflict on the 



12 



OUTLINE HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 



patriots great injuries. Laws were enacted declaring the 
forfeiture of their estates and disfranchising thera. 

It is not practicable to give even a distinct outline of 
the military operations of which New Jersey was the 
theater during the Revolution. Active hostilities were 
carried on here for several years" of the struggle; import- 
ant battles were fought on the soil of the State, many 
minor engagements occurred, and there is hardly a town 
along the track of the armies which crossed and recrossed 
the State that was not rendered historic by some enter- 
prise or exploit. The losses of New Jersey in the Revo- 
lutionary struggle, both in men and property, in propor- 
tion to her wealth and population, were greater than 
those of any of her sisters. " When General Washington 
was retreating through the Jerseys, almost forsaken, her 
militia were at all times obedient to his orders, and for 
a considerable time composed the strength of his army. 
The military services performed by the soldiers of New 
Jersey and the sufferings of her people during the Revo- 
lutionary war entitle her to the gratitude of her sister 
States. By her sacrifices of blood and treasure in resist- 
ing oppression she is entitled to stand in the foremost 
rank among those who struggled for American freedom." 



CHAPTER IV. 



PARTICIPATION OF THE STATE IN THE WARS OF THIS 
CENTURY. 




?T is not necessary to discuss at length the 
causes which led to the war of 1812 with 
Great Britain. It may, however, be stated 
that the principal of these were the assump- 
tion by that power of the right to search 
American vessels and impress seamen into the 
British service, and the violation of the rights of 
neutrals on the high seas. War was declared on the 19th 
of June 1812; but five months previously the State of New 
Jersey had by resolutions in the I>egislature placed her- 
self on the record in its favor. Though. this State did not 
become the theater of active hostilities prompt measures 
were adopted to meet any emergencies that might arise. 
In 1812 all uniformed companies within the State were 
called on to hold themselves in readiness to take the 
field on short notice, and the call was obeyed with 
alacrity. Subsequently calls were made for men to guard 
the coast in times when danger was apprehended, and in 
every case prompt response was made to these calls. 
Troops were sent to Marcus and Paulus Hooks and to 
Staten Islsnd for the defense of those points, and the 
.quota of the State for the war was furnished at an early 
period. About four thousand men were called into 
actual service, for terms averaging about three months, 
and the pay from the State to these men, in addition to 
that which they received from the government, amounted 
to $36,000. 



Peace was concluded at Ghent on the 17th of February 
1815, and in this State as elswhere the event was hailed 
with lively demonstrations of joy. 

In 1846, by reason of the annexation of Texas to the 
United States, difficulties with Mexico arose which re- 
sulted in war. To aid in the prosecution of this war 
many troops from New Jersey were raised in companies 
and admitted as volunteers directly into the service of 
the United States. These volunteers accompanied Gen- 
eral Taylor in his campaigns in Mexico. In May 1846 
a call was made on Governor Stratton of this State for a 
corps of volunteers, which was very promptly furnished. 
The troops from this State participated in all the cam- 
paigns of this war, and shared its hardships and priva- 
tions and its triumphs. It may be remarked that the 
commander-in-chief. General Winfield Scott, Colonel 
Phil Kearney and Commodore Robert F. Stockton, all of 
whom bore an honorable part in this war, were Jerseymeii. 

December 20th i860 a convention of delegates chosen 
by the people of South Carolina under authority of the 
Legislature adopted an ordinance of secession from the 
Union. Other Southern States soon followed the ex- 
ample of South Carolina, and in February 1861 a con- 
vention of delegates appointed by the conventions of six 
seceding States adopted a form of government, termed 
the " Confederate States of America." 

On the 29th of January 1861 the Legislature of New 
Jersey adopted a series of resolutions, setting forth the 
duty of the citizens to sustain the Union, and declaring 
that the government of the Uuited States is a national 
government and not a mere compact or association. 

On the 12th of the following April Fort Sumter, in 
the harbor of Charleston, was bombarded, and compelled 
to surrender to the rebels on the 13th. On the 15th 
President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,- 
000 men to suppress the rebellion. Under this call the 
quota of New Jersey was 3,120. On the i7lh Governor 
Olden received from the War Department the requisi- 
tion for these men, and he immediately issued his proc- 
lamation calling for individvals or organizations to re- 
port for service within twenty days. 

In New Jersey as in other Inyal States a spontane- 
ous uprising at once took place. " In every town and 
village the people, assembled in public meetings, pledged 
their utmost resources in behalf of the imperiled gov- 
ernment. The banks came forward with liberal offers 
of money, leading citizens proffered their- assistance to 
the authorities, every fireside shone with the lustre of 
patriotic feeling, and even schools shared in the absorb- 
ing excitement. It was a carnival of patriotism from 
one end of the State to the other." 

On the 23d of April the first company— the Olden 
Guards, Captain Joseph A. Yard, of Trenton — was 
mustered into the service of the United States. Quickly 
following this were other companies, so that by the 30th 
of the same month the brigade was full. An extra 
session of the Legislature was convened on the 30th of 
April and a loan of $2,000,000 was authorized to defray 
the expenses of the troops. Within sixty days the banks 



CIVIL WAR RECORD— SCHOOL HISTORY. 



13 



in the State had subscribed to this loan the aggregate 
sum of $705,000, and individuals had taken $76,000, 
making a total of $781,000. 

On the sth of May the New Jersey troops reached 
Annapolis, and on the 6th they reported for duty to the 
War Department in Washington. 

On the 3d of May 1861 a call was issued by the Presi- 
dent for thirty-nine regiments of infantry and one of cav- 
alry, to serve three years or during the war. Under this 
call the quota of New Jersey was three regiments. Such 
had been the enthusiasm of the people that not only had 
the first quota been filled, but about five thousand men 
had enlisted in New York, and nearly a sufficient number 
of companies were organized to fill this second quota. 
The regiments were organized at once and were uniformed, 
clothed and equipped at the expense of the State, amount- 
ing to $177,000. On the 28th of June they were sent to 
Washington. 

On the 3d of August a requisition was made by the 
President on this State for five regiments of infantry and 
one company of artillery, and on the Sth of September 
another company of artillery and a regiment of riflemen 
or sharpshooters, of twelve companies, were added to the 
requisition. These regiments and companies were at 
once raised. 

A regiment of cavalry was also recruited in twenty 
■days, under authority of the President, by Hon. William 
Halstead, of Trenton, then seventy years of age. These 
regiments and companies were also furnished with equip- 
ments by the State, and they were organized and 
equipped at an expense of $557,000. Another regiment, 
the loth, was recruited by authority of the War Depart- 
ment without authority from the State, but was afterward 
credited on the quota of New Jersey. 

Under the call of July 7th 1862 for 300,000 volunteers 
the quota of New Jersey was five regiments. Of these 
four were mustered into service before the end of August, 
and one on the 6th of September. 

August 4th 1862 an enrollment and a daft of 300,000 
militia were ordered by the President. On the 3d of 
September, the day fixed for the draft, there were in 
camp in this State 236 men more than the number called 
for. Although the men of these nine months' regiments 
were transferred almost at once from civil life to active 
military service they discharged their duties efficiently. 

Under the conscription act of 1863 the quota for New 
Jersey was fixed at 8,783. Six places of rendezvous 
were established on the 3d of August, all of which were 
closed within about two months. Ten companies of 
thirty-day men also were mustered for service in Penn- 
sylvania during 1863. 

Under the call of May i6th 1864 for " hundred-day 
men " a regiment was organized, and it served till Oc- 
tober of that year. 

Under the call of July i8th 1864 for 500,000 troops 
the quota of New Jersey was 15,891. 

During the war New Jersey sent to the field forty regi- 
ments and five batteries. Her total number of men liable 
to military duty was 98,806. Of these 78,248. men were 



called for by the government, and 88,305 were furnished, 
of whom 79,348 were credited to the State and 8,957 
served in regiments of other States. The surplus over 
all calls was 10,057. The expenditures made by New 
Jersey in supplying troops during the war amounted to 
$2,894,384.99. 

The historian Raum says: " During the entire war 
New Jersey had ample reason to be proud of her citizen 
soldiery, for on every battle field that their services were 
called into requisition they acquitted themselves nobly, 
and ably sustained the reputation of Jersey Blues." 



CHAPTER V. 



EDUCATIONAL, GOVERNMENTAL AND BENEVOLENT INSTI- 
TUTIONS THE STATE ADMINISTRATION. 




LTHOUGH from the well known character of 
the Dutch and Swedes who first settled New 
Jersey it is reasonable to suppose that they 
had schools as soon as there were among 
them a sufficient number of children, no 
record of the fact remains. 
The English immigrants in East Jersey estab- 
lished schools in connection with, their churches. The 
Quakers who settled West Jersey were exceedingly care- 
ful to educate their children, and the first school fund in 
the province was derived from the rent or sale of lands 
on an island in the Delaware opposite Burlington set 
apart for that purpose. 

Action in Newark concerning schools was first taken 
in 1676, and in 1693 the General Assembly of East Jersey 
authorized the election of school commissioners in the 
towns and recognized the principle of taxation for the 
support of schools. 

,A school fund of $15,000 was created by an act of the 
Legislature in 1816, and this was increased the next year. 
In 1818 the amount was increased to $r 13,238.78. In 
1820 the inhabitants of townships were authorized to 
raise money by taxation for educational purposes, and in 
1828 to raise funds in the same manner for the erection 
of school-houses. 

In 1824 the Legislature enacted that the school fund 
should be increased by the addition to it each year of 
one tenth of all the State taxes. 

In 1829 a school system was established, and in that 
year an appropriation of $20,000 was made for school 
purposes. This was followed by appropriations in sub- 
sequent years. In 1838 the school system was remodeled 
and the annual appropriation increased to. $30,000. The 
constitution of 1844 prohibited the diversion of the 
school fund to any other purpose than the support of 
schools. An act of the Legislature in 1846 provided for 
the appointment of a State superintendent of public 
schools and for the election of township superintendents. 
It also modified the school system. 



14 



OUTLINE HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 



The annual appropriation was increased to $40,000 in 
185 1 and to $80,000 in 1858. Teachers' institutes were 
established by law in 1854. The State normal school 
was established in 1855, at Trenton, and the Farnum 
preparatory school at Beverly was founded in 1856, by 
Paul Farnum, who donated $70,000 for that purpose. 

The State Board of Education was constituted in 1866 
and in 1867 was revised, remodeled and greatly inl- 
proved. 

Of the higher institutions of learning in this State its 
citizens are justly proud. In 1756 the College of New 
Jersey, which had been incorporated m 1746, was per- 
manently established at Princeton. A theological sem- 
inary was also founded at Princeton, by the Presbyterian 
denomination, in 181 1. 

The Queen's College was established at New Bruns- 
wick in 1770, under a charge from King George III. of 
England. In honor of Henry Rutgers its name was 
changed by act of the Legislature to Rutgers College. 
The Reformed Dutch Church founded a theological 
school at New Brunswick in 1771. 

Burlington College, at Burlington, was chartered in 
1846. It is under the management of the Episcopalians. 
Seton Hall College, founded at Madison in 1856 and 
removed to South Orange in i860, was chartered in 1861. 
It is a Roman Catholic institution. An ecclesiastical 
seminary is connected with it. 

In addition to these there are many academies, theo- 
logical, commercial and special institutions. located in dif- 
ferent portions of the State, the character of which will 
not suffer by comparison with those of any other part of 
the country. There is probably no State in the Union 
which in proportion to its size affords educational facil- 
ities equal to those of New Jersey. 

Previous to 1798 there was in this State no place of 
confinement for criminals except the county jails. In that 
year a prison was erected at Lamberton, at an expense 
^^9,852. In 1820 it was enlarged by the addition of a 
wing. In 1838 a new prison was completed, at a total 
cost of about $180,000. Acts for the enlargement of this 
prison were passed in 1847, i860, 1868 and 1877, and the 
entire cost up to that time was about $500,000. 

In 1837 an act was passed making the old State prison 
a public arsenal. The building has been from time to 
time repaired and refitted, under authority of acts of the 
Legislature. 

In 1791 the seat of government was fixed at Trenton, 
and in 1792 a State-house was erected, at a cost of about 
;^4,ooo. The building was repaired in 1799, 1801, 1806, 
1845 and 1850. Additions were made in 1863-65, 
1871-73 and 1875. 

The first action for the regulation of the State library 
was taken in 1804, when 168 volumes had accumulated. 
From this humble beginning the present State library 
has grown. 

The first effective movement toward the erection of an 
asylum for the insane was made in 1844, when a com- 
mission for the selection of a site was appointed by the 
Legislature. " A site was selected about two miles from 



Trenton. A building was erected within a few years, 
and additions have from time to time been made to it as 
necessity has required. 

In 1868 an act was passed authorizing the appointment 
of a commission to select a site for an additioual lunatic 
asylum and to commence its erection. A site was selected 
three miles from Morristown, and 430 acres of land were 
purchased. An extensive building was erected, at a 
cost, including land, furniture, etc., of $2,250,000, and in 
1876 292 patients were removed to it from the Trenton 
asylum. 

A solciers' children's home was incorporated in 1865, 
and in 1866 it became a State institution. It was closed 
in 1876, the State having expended on it more than 
$346,000. 

An act for the establishment of the " New Jersey Sol- 
diers' Home " was passed by the Legislature in 1865, 
and a building in the city of Newark was completed in 
1866, at a total cost of more than $32,000. It has been 
supported by annual State appropriations. 

By an act of the Legislature in 1865 a reform farm 
school for boys was established. The farm is near James- 
burg, Middlesex county, and includes nearly five hundred 
acres. 

A State industrial school for girls was established in 
187 1, and a farm of about 80 acres in the township of 
Ewing, near Trenton, was purchased in 1872. 

In 1854, by an act of the Legislature, a geological sur- 
vey of the State was authorized, and since that year 
annual appropriations have been made for the prosecution 
of the work. This survey has not only added valuable 
contributions to geological science, but has aided ma- 
terially in the development of the mineral and agricultural 
resources of the State. 

The New Jersey Historical Society, which was organ- 
ized in 1845, was incorporated in 1846. It has its library 
and collections at Newark. 

The constitution of New Jersey which was adopted 
July 2nd 1776 continued to be the fundamental law of the 
State till 1844, when a convention of delegates assembled 
on the 14th of May to frame a new constitution. They 
concluded their labors on the 29th of June. The con- 
stitution which they formed was submitted to the people 
on the second Tuesday in the following August, and 
adopted by a large majority. A more complete sep- 
aration of the different departments of government 
and an extension of political and civil privileges 
were the notable changes which were made from the 
former constitution. No further change was made till 
1873, when the wants of the Slate seemed to require 
further modifications of its fundamental law, and a com- 
mission was appointed by authority of the Legislature to 
propose amendments to the constitution. Twenty-eight 
amendments were proposed, and they were submitted to 
the people at a special election September 7th 1875, and 
all were adopted. Although no radical change was made 
by these amendments many provisions were introduced in 
keeping with the progress of the age, among which were 
the elimination of the word " white " from the constitu- 



GOVERNORS OF NEW JERSEY— INDUSTRIES. 



15 



tion and the substitution of the word "free " for " public" 
in the paragraph relating to schools. 

The following is a list of the governors of New Jersey 
under the different regimes, with the year of their ap- 
pointment or election: 

Previous to the division of the province: Carstiansen, 
1614; Peter Minuit, 1624; Wouter Van Twiller, 1633; 
William Kieft, 1638; John Printz, 1642; Peter Stuy- 
vesant, 1646; Philip Carteret (English) 1664; Edmund 
Andross, 1674. 

After the division: East Jersey — Philip Carteret, 1676; 
Robert Barclay, 1682; Thomas Rudyard, 1682; Gawen 
Lawrie, 1683; Lord Neil Campbell, 1686; Andrew Ham- 
ilton, 1687; Edmund Andross, 1688; John Tatham, 1690; 
Joseph Dudley, 1691; Andrew Hamilton, 1692; Jeremiah 
Basse, 1698; Andrew Bowne, 1699; Andrew Hamilton, 
1699; West y^rj-ify^Commissioners, 1676; Edward Byl- 
linge, 1679; Samuel Jennings, 1679; Thomas Olive, 1684; 
John Skene, 1685; Daniel Coxe, 1687; Edward Hun- 
loke, 1690; Society of Proprietors, 1691; Andrew Hamil- 
ton, 1692; Jeremiah Basse, 1697; Andrew Hamilton, 
1690, 

Province of New Jersey under the English govern- 
ment: Lord Cornbury, 1702; Lord Lovelace, 1708; Rich- 
ard Ingoldsby, 1709; Robert Hunter, 1710; William 
Burnet, 1720; John Montgomerie, 1728; Lewis Morris, 
1731; William Cosby, 1732; John Anderson, 1736; John 
Hamilton, 1736; Lewis Morris, 1738; John Hamilton, 
1746; John Reading, 1746; Jonathan Belcher, 1747; John 
Reading, 1757; Francis Bernard, 1758; Thomas Boone, 
1760; Josiah Hardy, 1761; William T. Franklin, 1763. 

Governors of the State: William Livingston, 1776; 
William Paterson, 1791; Richard Howell, 1794; Joseph 
Bloomfield, 1801; John Lambert, 1802; Joseph Bloom- 
field, 1803; Aaron Ogden, 1812; William S. Pennington, 
1813; Mahlon Dickerson, 18 [5; Isaac H. Williamson, 
1817; Peter D. Vroom jr., 1829; Elias P. Seeley, 1832; 
Peter D. Vroom, 1833; Philemon Dickerson, 1836; Wil- 
liam Pennington, 1837; Daniel Haines, 1843; Charles C. 
Stratton, 1844; Daniel Haines, 1848; George F. Fort, 
1851; Rodman M. Price, 1854; William A. Newell, 1857; 
Charles S Olden, i860; Joel Parker, 1863; Marcus L. 
Ward, 1866; Theodore F. Randolph, 1869; Joel Parker, 
1872; Joseph D. Bedle, 1875; George B. McClellan, 
1878; George C. Ludlow, 1881. 



CHAPTER VL 



MINERAL RESOURCES — INDUSTRIES — CANALS AND RAIL- 
ROADS — POPULATION. 




'EW JERSEY is rich in mineral deposits. 
Among the best mines of zinc in the United 
States are those of Sussex county, which have 
been long and extensively worked. Copper 
is also found in several places. As early as 
[719 a mine was discovered in Morris county 
lat had evidently been worked by the early 
Dutch settlers. Iron is the most important mineral in 
the State. It is found in the counties of Morris, Sussex, 
Warren, Passaic, Hunterdon and elsewhere. In Morris 
county mines were worked as early as 1685, and there 



are mines in the State that have been worked for a cen- 
tury and a half and that still are productive. A smaller 
proportion of the ore mined in this State is smelted here 
than formerly. As facilities for transportation have in- 
creased larger and larger quantities have been taken away, 
especially to the coal producing regions. Many hundred 
thousand tons are annually produced. In Monmouth 
county there was a smelting furnace and forge as early as 
1682, and what was then a large business was carried on. 
Space will not permit an account in detail of the mines 
that have been worked or of the furnaces and mills that 
have been established in the State. The value of the ore 
mined and of the iron produced amounts to many millions 
of dollars annually. 

The surroundings of New Jersey have greatly influenced 
the character of its industries, as in the case of other 
regions. In early times its agriculture was similar to that 
of the first settlements elsewhere; but as time went on, 
and the cities of New York and Philadelphia increased 
in size and the facilities for transportation to these cities 
became greater, the productions of the soil were gradu- 
ally changed to meet the demands in these cities, till 
New Jersey has come to be not inappropriately termed 
the " market garden of New York and Philadelphia." 
The cultivation of small fruits has within a comparatively 
recent period become an important industry in many lo- 
calities, and the sterile soil in some of the lower counties 
has been made productive by the use of fertilizers, par- 
ticularly of the marl which abounds along the coast. 

At an early period only such manufactures were en- 
gaged in as were necessary to supply the wants of the 
settlers. Saw-mills, grist-mills and clothieries of course 
sprang up in all settled parts of the State. The excel- 
lent water power furnished by the streams, the natural 
facilities for transportation existing here, and the exist- 
ence of an abundance of raw material led to the estab- 
lishment of different kinds of manufactories in various 
localities before the commencement of the present cen- 
tury. 

The introduction of steam as a motor, and the increase 
of facilities for bringing hither material and carrying 
away manufactured products, led to the establishment of 
other branches of manufactures and the extension of 
those already existing; and as time went on and the 
population of the State increased manufacturing inter- 
ests assumed a constantly increasing importance, till 
New Jersey has become one of the most important 
manufacturing States in the Union. It may reasonably 
be predicted that, with the advantages of location and 
facilities for transportation possessed by New Jersey, it 
will maintaifi its position in the front rank among manu- 
facturing States. 

Of the many canals which have been chartered by 
the State the principal were the Morris and the 
Delaware and Raritan. The former was chartered in 
1824 and was completed between Phillipsburg and Jer- 
sey City in 1836, connecting the waters of the Hudson 
and Delaware rivers. The Delaware and Raritan was 
finally chartered in 1830, and the canal was completed 



i6 



OUTLINE HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 



between Bordentown, on the Delaware, and New Bruns- 
wick, on the Raritan, in 1834. 

As early as 181,5 ^ railroad, either of wood or iron," 
was chartered from the Delaware river near Trenton to 
the Raritan near New Brunswick. This was the first rail- 
road chartered in America. It was never built. 

The Camden and Amboy Railroad Company was char- 
tered in 1830, and in 1831 was consolidated with the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal Company. The first train 
of cats passed over its entire length in 1833. 

By reason of the proximity of New Jersey to the great 
commercial metropolis of the country the railroad system 
of the State has grown to far greater proportions than 
that of many States. There are now within its limits 
nearly two thousand miles of railroad. 

The rapid growth of the city of New York has come to 
exert a potent influence on the portions of New Jersey 
contiguous thereto. The numerous lines of railroad thai 
diverge from points on the Hudson river opposite to that 
city afford to people engaged in business there such 
facilities for quick transit that thousands of such have 
their residences along these avenues of travel, and pass 



daily to and from the city. It is not extravagance to 
look forward to a time when the entire region for many 
miles from New York will become practically a part of 
that city. 

Seaside summer resorts have sprung up at various 
points along the coast, and these too are annually in- 
creasing in number and importance. Anticipations which 
may at first be considered wild can also reasonably be 
entertained concerning these. 

The population of the State by counties in 1880 was 
as follows: 



Atlantic 18,706 

Bergen 36,79c 

Burlington S5.403 

.Camden 62,941 

Cape May 9,765 

Cumberland 37)694 

Essex 189,81.9 

Gloucester 25,886 

Hudson 1 87,950 

Hunterdon 38,568 

Mercer 58,058 



Middlesex 52,286 

Monmouth 5S>S3S 

Morris 50,867 

Ocean 14.455 

Passaic 68,716 

Salem 24,580 

Somerset 27,161 

Sussex 23,553 

Union 55,57i 

Warren 36,588 

Total 1,130,892 



HISTORY OF 



MORRIS COUNTY 



By Hon. Edmund D. Halsey. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE INDIANS IN POSSESSION — EARLY BOUNDARY LINES — 
THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS. 




EFORE the year 1700 the territory now called 
Morris county was probably in the undis- 
turbed possession of the Indians. During 
the times of the Dutch supremacy in New 
York people of that nationality had settled 
upon the flat lands bordering on the Hudson 
and spread themselves northward into the coun- 
ty of Bergen. After 1664 the English from Long Island 
and New England, by way of Elizabethtown and Milford, 
as Newark was then called, began to dispute with the 
Hollanders the settlement of the eastern part of the State. 
The English, Quakers, Swedes and Dutch had become 
established upon the Delaware and were commencing to 
look inland; but there is no evidence that an actual set- 
tler had as yet disturbed the aborigines in their posses- 
sion of the unbroken wilderness which extended from 
Orange Mountain to the " Great Pond." So distinct 
were the settlements upon the Hudson and the Delaware 
that their separation into East and West Jersey, so sin- 
gular to us now, was a natural one. The line between the 
two divisions, described as a " streight lyne from the said 
Creeke called Barnegat to a certaine Creeke in Delaware 
River next adjoyneing to and below a certaine Creeke 
in Delaware River called Rankokus Kill, and from 
thence up the said Delaware to ye northermost 
branch thereof, which is in fforty-one degrees and 
fforty minutes of Latitude," was a fruitful source of 
dispute. In 1687 Keith, the surveyor-general of 
East Jersey, ran this line from Little Egg Harbor 
as far as the south branch of the Raritan, but it 
was deemed by the West Jersey proprietors too far west, 
and they objected to its continuance any farther. On 
September 5th 1688 Governors Coxe and Barclay, repre- 



senting the opposite sides, stipulated that the line should 
be extended to the north branch of the Raritan, near 
Lamington Falls; thence up the river to its rise on Suc- 
casunna Plains, and from there to the " nearest part of 
Passaic River;" thence up the Passaic and Pequannock to 
the 41st degree north latitude, and thence due east to the 
partition point on the Hudson River between New Jersey 
and New York. This line passed about five miles north 
of Morristown, and seemed to be regarded as the division 
line, but not invariably or for any length of time. The 
line run by John Lawrence in 1743, which passes 
through Budd's Lake (the " ninety-three mile tree " 
standing just north of the lake), was finally settted upon 
as the true one; but until after the Revolution the pro- 
prietors of West Jersey claimed to the compromise line of 
Coxe and Barclay, or to a line running from Barnega:t 
Inlet to Port Jervis, and the proprietors of East Jersey 
claimed to the line of Keith, continued to the Delaware. 

John Barclay, Arthur Forbes and Gawen Lawrie, writ- 
ing to the Scots proprietors March 29th 1684, say : "We 
cannot positively answer, to give an account of the whole 
length and breadth of the province. But we are informed 
that it is a great deal broader than ye expected, for those 
who have traveled from the extent of our bounds on 
Hudson River straight over to the Delaware River say it is 
100 miles or upwards. We shall know that certainly after 
a while, for the line betwixt us and New York is to be 
run straight over to Delaware River, about three weeks 
hence, and after that the line betwixt us and West Jer- 
sey; after which we shall be able to give a true account 
of the bounds of that province. * * * There are 
also hills up in the country, but how much ground they 
take up we know not; they are said to be stony, and cov- 
ered with wood, and beyond them is said to be excellent 
land." Endeavoring to give as flattering an account as 
they could of the settlements in the province and their 
extent, in their reports to their friends in the old country, 
no mention is made of any nearer Morris county than 
Newark. 

As late as January 21st' 1707 the Legislature passed 



i8 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



an act defining the boundaries of the then nine counties 
of the State, and exhibited an ignorance of the geography 
of the upper portion of the State only to be accounted 
for by the fact that that region was uninhabited except by 
Indians and wandering hunters. The bounds of Essex 
county ran up the "Rahway River to Robeson's branch; 
thence west to the division hne between the Eastern and 
Western division aforesaid, and so to follow the said di- 
vision line to Pequaneck River, where it meets Passaick 
River; thence down Passaick River to the bay and sound." 
The lines of Burlington county followed the same par- 
tition line " to the northernmost and uttermost bounds 
of the township of Am well; thence by the same to the 
River Delaware;" thence down the Delaware to the place 
of beginning. This arrangement placed part of Morris 
county in Essex and part in Burlington. The division 
line referred to was evidently the Coxe and Barclay line, 
as Keith's division line of 1687 or its continuation did 
not run within miles of the Pequannock or any of its trib- 
utaries. Lawrence's line, still farther to the east, inter- 
sected only the head waters of the Walkill. 

March tith 1713-14 all the upper part "of the said 
Western Division of the province of New Jersey lying 
northward of, or situate above, the brook or rivulet com- 
monly called Assanpink" was created a county, to be 
called Hunterdon. 

The Indians who inhabited northern New Jersey at the 
time of the first settlement by the whites were the Lenapes 
or Delawares, who are treated of on page 7. The Minsi 
tribe, called by the English Muncys, extended from the 
Minisink, on the Delaware, where they held their council 
seat, to the Hudson on the east, to the head of the Sus- 
quehanna and Delaware rivers on the north, and on the 
south to the Musconetcong and Lehigh hills. Tribes of 
the Iroquois or Mengwe also roamed through the country 
at will. The different tribes of these Indians were often 
called by the whites after the Indian names of the rivers 
along which they dwelt. Hence we have the Whip- 
panongs, the Pomptons, the Rockawacks, the Parsippa- 
nongs, the Minisinks, the Musconetcongs. A very favor- 
ite place with these aboriginal tribes was the Great 
Pond, now called Lake Hopatcong; and the traces of 
their sojourn there are treated of in the history of Jeffer- 
son township. 

The Indians who inhabited this region appear to have 
been very peaceably disposed, as there are no records or 
traditions of any fights or massacres with or by them, and 
no settler appears to have been disturbed by them. The 
scene of Tom Quick's wonderful adventures is laid far- 
ther west and north, on the head waters of the Delaware. 
The aborigines lingered in the neighborhood until the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when they seem to have 
finally disappeared from the coi^nty, but not from the 
State. As late as 1832 an act was passed authorizing the 
purchase, from the Delaware Indians who had removed 
from this State to Michigan, of all their rights in all the 
territory of New Jersey. The Indian paths from one 
lake to another or from the seashore westward were the 
first roads of the county, and are often referred to in old 



deeds and land titles. The Pequannock valley was one 
of their traveling routes, as there was a path, called the 
Minisink path, running through "the Notch," crossing 
the Passaic at Little Falls, thence passing along the foot 
of the hills to Pompton and so up the Pequannock river 
toward the Delaware. 

The first actual settlement by the whites was probably 
in the northeastern part of the county, near Pompton 
Plains. On the 6th of June 1695 Arent Schuyler, in be- 
half of himself and his associates. Major Anthony Brock- 
hoist, Samuel Byard, George Ryerson, John Mead, Sam- 
uel Berrie, David Mandeville, and Hendrick Mandeville, 
purchased from the Indians all the territory lying between 
the Passaic on the south, the Pompton on the north, and 
between the foot of the hills on the east and on the west; 
and in November of that year purchased 5,500 acres ly- 
ing east of the Pequannock river, of the proprietors 
of East New Jersey. The next year Schuyler, Brock- 
hoist and Byard purchased a tract of 1,500 acres or there- 
abouts, and other lands, on the west side of the river, 
including all the present Pompton Plains. The houses 
of these men, so far as can be ascertained, were built 
upon their first purchase, east of the river; but it is alto- 
gether probable that in 1700 settlers had begun to make 
improvements on the purchase of 1696 in Morris county. 
If this be the case the honor of the first settlement of the 
county is due to the Dutch. 

Following closely upon the heels of the Pompton 
Plains settlers the New Englanders, who had located 
along the Passaic, extended their boundaries to the west 
and entered Morris county by way of Caldwell and I^iv- 
ingston. Passing the extensive Troy meadows, then no 
doubt a dense swamp covered with a growth of original 
forest timber, they were attracted by the high lands of 
Hanover and Whippany. In the "History of the Han- 
over Presbyterian Church," written by the Rev. Jacob 
Green in 1767, when there were many alive who were eye 
witnesses of the events he recorded, it is stated that 
" about the year 17 10 a few families removed from New- 
ark and Elizabeth, etc., and settled on the west side of 
the Passaic river, in that which is nov/ Morris county. 
Not long after the settlers erected a house for the public 
worship of God on the bank of the Whippanong river, 
about one hundred rods below the forge which is and has 
long been known by the name of the Old Iron Works." 
This fact indicates the character of the.se first settlers, 
and that they had not forgotten the cause which brought 
them or their fathers over the water. September 2nd 
1718 a deed was made for this church lot by "John 
Richards, of Whippanong, in the county of Hunterdon, 
schoolmaster." The land is said to be situated in the 
" township of Whippanong, on that part called Percip- 
ponong, on the northwestward side of Whippanong 
river "; and the land was to be for "public use, improve- 
ment and benefit for a meeting-house, burying yard and 
training field and such like uses, and no other." 

In the records of Hunterdon county no mention is 
made of any township but Hanover within the present 
bounds of Morris county; and it is to be presumed that 



THE PIONEERS. 



19 



the settlement of Hanover gave name to the whole region, 
and that the county was comprised in one township, 
whose western boundaries were of the most vague' 
description. From Hanover or Whippany the settlers 
moved westward to Morristown, called at first New Han- 
over. 

Passing up the Basking Ridge neighborhood, which 
does not appear to have been occupied by actual settlers 
before about 1720, we come to the high lands of the 
southwest part of the county, which were peopled from 
the west. The renunciation of Protestantism in 1697 by 
Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, made it so un- 
comfortable at home for many of his subjects that in 
1705 they determined to leave their country. They 
went first to Neuwied, in Prussia, then to Holland, and 
in 1707 sailed for America, expecting to join the Dutch 
in New York. Carried south by adverse winds they 
entered the Delaware instead of the Hudson, and landed 
in Philadelphia. Determined still to join the Dutch 
settlements in New York they crossed the Delaware near 
Lambertville, and commenced their march across the 
State. But when they arrived at German Valley, and 
saw the goodness of the land and the beauty of its sur- 
rounding hills, they abandoned their original purpose and 
began to make a home for themselves where their de- 
scendants still live. 

In 1 7 13 James Wills, an Englishman, bought of the 
proprietors of East Jersey a large tract of land of what is 
now called Ralstonville, west of Mendham, and the 
actual settlement of the Mendham neighborhood proba- 
bly soon followed. In the same year the site of the vil- 
lage of Chester is said to have been laid out in lots for 
settlement. 

Thus from opposite sides, under different auspices and 
by men of different nationalities, the work of subduing 
the wilderness was begun. The energy and perseverance 
of these first settlers made rapid progress in the work of 
clearing up the forests, and bringing the soil under cul- 
tivation and developing the wealth of the country. 
These pioneers kept pressing forward until within a few 
years they met in the center of the county, and what had 
been in 1707 almost an unknown country had become in 
1725 explored and dotted with hamlets. The roads 
were still but bridle-paths and the houses were of logs; 
but the wants of the people were few and easily supplied. 
The streams were stocked with fish, and game of every 
kind was abundant. The first colonists in Morris had 
neither the sterile soil nor the cold climate of New Eng- 
land nor the malaria of the southern seaboard to contend 
with; and both by immigration and by natural increase 
the county grew wonderfully in numbers. 

From 1710 to 1715 the proprietors of West New Jer- 
sey, attracted by the richness of this new country, began 
to allot to themselves large tracts of its land. William 
Penn, John Reading, William Biddle, John Kays and 
otjiers took up in this way tracts of 1,200 acres and more 
at^a time, on West Jersey right, as far east as Morris- 
town. These locations do not appear to have extended 
further north than Budd's Lake, Dover and Rockaway 



Valley, the country north of these places seeming to 
these early speculators too forbidding and unpromising 
for their purposes. Titles to lands in this region are de- 
rived from locations on East Jersey right, after the divis- 
ion line had become more definitely settled; and of these 
locations the first were small, covering the streams, 
natural meadows and smooth land. They were made by 
actual settlers, who could not afford to purchase the 
surrounding rough hills, the mineral wealth of which was 
entirely unknown to them. Timber then was too plenti- 
ful to be desired, and it was not till after the Revolution- 
ary war that the hills were thought worth purchasing for 
the wood which covered them. 

The first location in the northern part of Jefferson and 
Rockaway townships was to John Davenport, in 1750, 
of 210 acres near Petersburg. Earlier than this by five 
years was the " Nevil tract," which extended from Berk- 
shire Valley only to Longwood and was the first in that 
neighborhood. 

In 1722 the settlements in Morris county had grown 
sufficiently to be thought worthy of the honor of bearing 
a part of the burden of government, and in the minutes 
of the Hunterdon county court of June sth of that year 
is this entry: " Whereas there is no assessor returned to 
this court to serve for the inhabitants of the township of 
Hanover, it is therefore ordered by the court that Elisha 
Bird serve assessor for the said township of Hanover for 
the ensuing year, to assess the tax to be levied upon the 
said inhabitants towards the support of his Majestie's 
government; and it is hereby ordered accordingly." 

The next year all the township officers were appointed 
by the court, and we see among them names from all sec- 
tions of the county. John Hayward and Samuel Vander- 
book were to serve as '" Comishoner of the Highways," 
Benjamin Hathaway and Morris Morrison were appointed 
constables, and James Hayward, Abraham Vandine and 
Benjamin Beach were to be the overseers of the highways 
and John Bigelow was to be collector for the township of 
Hanover. 

At this same court it was ordered that the commission- 
ers of Amwell and Hopewell attend those of Hanover 
" in order to lay out a road from Amwell to Hanover 
thorow the Western Division, betwixt this and the next 
court, and to meet at Mr. John Reading's the first day of 
October next for that purpose." 

In 1724 we find the names of Samuel Potter, William 
Shores and Abraham Vandine as town officers, and March 
r4th 1725 there were appointed for Hanover as freehold- 
ers Jonathan Gilbert and Abraham Vandine; as commis- 
sioners, John Cortland and Thomas Huntingdon; as 
overseers of highways, Joseph Lindly and Daniel Goble; 
as collector John Lyon, and as assessor Jonathan Gil- 
bert. 

The earliest town meeting of which we have any ac- 
count was that of March 14th 1726-7, and the record 
of it is as follows: "It being the General Town 
Meeting appointed by Law for Electing their Town 
Officers, and the Inhabitants of our Said County being 
met on that acct., proceeded to chose as follows: John 



20 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Morehouse asessor for ye Govener Tax, Joseph Lindsley 
Collector, Morris Morrison and Joseph Coe Freeholders, 
Abraham Vandine and Jonathan Stiles commissioners 
for laying out roads, Benjamin Beach and Matthew Van 
Dine, Thomas Huntington, Nathaniel Cogswell and John 
Courter overseers of ye H'ghway, John Morehouse Town 
clerk." 

Three years afterward Ephraim Rue, Stephen Tuthill 
and Paulas Berry were appointed constables. 

In 1732-3 for the first time another township is men- 
tioned within the bounds of what was afterward the three 
counties of Morris, Sussex and Warren. At that date 
officers were nominated for Walpack township. In Oc- 
tober 1737 among the associate judges of Hunterdon 
county appears the name of Abraham Kitchel, grand- 
father of Aaron and Abraham Kitchel, afterward so 
prominent in the history of Morris county. 

Hunterdon county, with its county seat at Trenton, 
had at this time a population of 5,288 whites and 219 
slaves, and of the aggregate it is likely that one-third 
only were within the boundaries of the northern section, 
which was about to be made into the new county. But 
there is evidence that these early settlers had become 
dissatisfied with their long journeyings to the distant 
court-house, and the .subject of a separation was being 
agitated. Though the population could have averaged 
hardly two persons to a square mile the measure was 
adopted, and in 1738 Morris county obtained a separate 
existence. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE FORMATION OF MORRIS COUNTY AND ITS DIVISION 
INTO TOWNSHIPS. 




HE act creating the county of Morris was 
passed by the Legislature March 15th 1738- 
9. Colonel Lewis Morris was at the time 
governoi-, having been formally appointed in 
February 1738 and publishing his commis- 
ion and taking up the duties of the office August 
29th. The act was introduced by John Embley, 
one of the members from Hunterdon, and seems to have 
met no opposition. Tiie name given the new county 
was in honor of the governor, who was the first governor 
of New Jersey distinct from New York, and one who 
had been largely instrumental in bringing about the 
separation from the sister colony. 

The act declared that " all and singular the lands and 
upper parts of the said Hunterdon county lying to the 
northward and eastward, situate and lying to the east- 
ward of a well known place in the county of Hunterdon, 
being a fall of water in part of the north branch of 
Raritan River, called in the Indian language or known by 
the name of Allamatonck, to the northeastward of the 



northeast end or part of the lands called the New Jersey 
Society lands, along the line thereof, crossing the south 
branch of the aforesaid Raritan River, and extending 
westerly to a certain tree, marked with the letters L. M., 
standing on the north side of a brook emptying itself 
into the said south branch, by an old Indian path to the 
northward of a line to be run northwest from the said 
tree to a branch of Delaware river called Muskonetkong, 
and so down the said branch to Delaware river, all which 
said lands being to the eastward, northward and north- 
eastward of the above said boundaries, be erected into a 
county; and is is hereby erected into a county, named 
and from henceforth to be called Moiris county, and the 
said bounds shall part and from henceforth separate and 
divide the same from the said Hunterdon county." 

The "Allamatonck " Falls were on what is now called 
the Black River, which formed the dividing line at that 
point between Hunterdon and Somerset, and not what 
is now called the north br;inch of the Raritan, which 
crosses the south line of Morris where the townships of 
Bedminster and Bernard, of Somerset county, corner. 
It will be seen that only a part of the southern boundary 
of the new county was fixed by this act, from the most 
southerly point of what is now Chester township, west. 
The line between the new county and Somerset remained 
uncertain until March 28th 1749, when the division 
line was fixed by act of Legislature, and directed to be 
as follows: "Beginning at a fall of water commonly 
called Allamatonck Falls, and also mentioned in the be- 
fore recited act; and from thence on a straight line, in a 
course east and by north as the compass now p( ints, to 
the main branch of Passaic River, and so down the said 
river as the before recited act directs; anything herein or 
in any other act to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. 

The territory thus described and made a new county 
included the present counties of Morris, Sussex and 
Warren. It comprised about 870,000 acres or some 
1,360 square miles. It was considered as a part of West 
Jersey, though two-thirds at least of it was east of Law- 
rence's line of 1743. In the letter of transmittal of the 
act to the Duke of Newcastle, dated May 26th 1739, 
Governor Morris says: 

" Among the acts herewith sent there is one to erect 
the northern parts of Hunterdon county, in the western 
division, into a new county by the name of Morris county. 
Their having of representatives is suspended till his 
Majestie's pleasure is known on that head. If his Majes- 
tic should think fit to grant them that favour it will be 
adding two representatives to the western division more 
than the eastern has; but if his Majestie will give me 
leave to add two to the eastern division, in such place or 
places as I shall judge most propper, to make them 
equall (as by his instructions it seems to be intended 
they should be), such is the scituation of this new county 
that I am in hopes by the addition of these four mem- 
bers to put the support of the government upon a better 
and more certain footing than it is at present; & to get 
money rais'd for the building a house and conveniences 
of a governour's residence, sitting of Assemblyes &c 
all w'ch are very much wanting." ' 

Notwithstanding the recommendation of Governor 
Morris representatives were not allowed to the new 



FIRST TOWNSHIP BOUNDARIES AND OFFICERS. 



21 



county, and May 22nd 1756 in the minutes of the As- 
sembly it appears that several petitions were presented 
to the house from the county of Morris, signed by 190 
hands, setting forth " the hardships they labor under 
by having no members allowed to represent them in 
General Assembly; praying the Legislature to grant them 
the usual privileges as the other counties enjoy in being 
represented by two members in General Assembly for 
the future; which were read and ordered a second read- 
ing." 

It was not till the last colonial Legislature, which 
met in 1772, and till after Sussex county had been set 
off from Morris that representatives were received from 
this new county. These representatives were Jacob 
Ford and William Winds, both exceedingly prominent 
and active in the stirring scenes soon to be enacted. 

On the 25th of March 174c, one. year after the act 
was passed constituting the county, we have the record 
of the first court, which met at Morristown, previously 
called New Hanover, probably at the hotel of Jacob Ford, 
one of the judges. The names of the judges present the 
first day are not given, but on the next day, the 26th, to 
which they adjourned, there were present Messrs. John 
Budd, Jacob Ford, Abraham Kitchel, John Lindley jr.i 
Timothy Tuttle and Samuel Swezy. Their first business 
was to divide the new county into three townships. The 
minute of their proceedings is as follows: 

" March 25th MDCCXL. 
"General Sessions of the Peace. 

"The Court, taking into consideration the necessity of 
dividing the county of Morris into Proper Townships or 
Districts, for having proper officers within every such 
Township or District, and more especially for such of- 
ficers as are to act in concert with other Townships, we 
therefore order and Determine that from henceforth a 
certain Township, bounded on Pissaic River, Poquanock 
River to the lower ead of the great pond at the head 
thereof, and by Rockaway River and the west branch 
thereof to the head thereof, and thence cross to the 
lower end of said pond, and shall henceforth be called 
Poquanock Township, District or Precinct. 

"And that a certain road from the Bridge, by John 
Day's, up to the Place where the same road passes be- 
■ tween Benjamin and Abraham Pierson's, and thence up 
the same road to the corner of Samuel Ford's fence, 
thence leaving Samuel Ford to the right hand, thence 
running up to the road that leads from the Old Iron 
Works towards Succasunning, and crossing Whippenung 
Bridge, and from thence to Succasunning, and from thence 
to the great pond on the head of Musconecung, do part 
the Township of Hanover from the Township of Morris; 
which part of the county of Morris. Lying as aforesaid, 
to the Southward and Westward of said roads, lines and 
places, is ordered by the Court to be and remain a Town- 
ship, District or Precinct, and to be called and distin- 
guished by the name of Morristown." 

These descriptions are absurdly indefinite in some 
respects, and impossible of identification in regard to 
some of the localities mentioned. But the general 
boundaries of the townships by modern landmarks were 
as follows: Pequannock township included the territory 
bounded north by the river of that name, south by the 
Rockaway River and west by Lake Hopatcong. Han- 



over township was bounded north by the Rockaway 
River, east by the Passaic River and south by a road 
passing through the present township of Chatham near 
the village of Madison, and so to and along the road 
which forms the present boundary between Morris and 
Hanover to the present Randolph line, and by a line 
thence across the mountains to Succasunna Plains, and 
from there to the lower end of Lake Hopatcong, where 
all the townships met. Morris township included all 
the rest of the county. 

The first township officers were appointed by the 
county court, and were as follows : 

For Morris township — Zechariah Fairchild, " town 
dark and town bookkeeper;" Matthew Lum, assessor; 
Jacob Ford, collector; Abraham Hathaway and Joseph 
Coe jr., freeholders; Benjamin Hathaway and Jona 
Osborne, overseers of the poor; Joseph Briddin and 
Daniel Lindsly. surveyors of the highways; Stephen Free- 
man and John Lindsley, Esq., overseers of the highways; 
Isaac Whitehead, Alexander Ackerman and William Day- 
less, constables. 

For Pequannock township — Robert Gold, " town dark 
and town bookkeeper;" Garret Debough, assessor; Isaac 
Vandine, Esq., collector; Robert Gold and Frederick 
Temont (De Mouth?), freeholders; Matthew Vandine and 
Nicholas Hiler, overseers of the poor; Henderick Mor- 
rison and Giles Manderfield, overseers of the highways; 
John Davenport, constable. 

For Hanover township — Timothy Tuttle, Esq., town 
clerk and town bookkeeper; David Wheeler, assessor; 
Caleb Ball, collector; Joseph Tuttle and Caleb Ball, 
freeholders; John Kinney and Jonathan Stiles, overseers 
of the poor; John Kinney and Samuel Ford, surveyors of 
the highways; Paul Leonard, Robert Young, Benjamin 
Shipman and Edward Crane, overseers of the highways; 
Joseph Herriraan and Stephen Ward, constables. 

Most of these names are still familiar in these town- 
ships and among these officers will be recognized the 
ancestors of many of the present generation. 

It is well in this connection to follow out the subse- 
quent changes in these townships up to the present time. 
December 24th 1740 the township of Roxbury was- 
formed from the township of Morris. This action of the 
court is thus set forth in their minutes: 

" A peticion to the Court from Sundry of the inhabit- 
ance of the Southwesterly part of this County of Morris, 
Praying they may be made a Township for several causes 
therein set forth, the Court grants there Petition and 
Bounds same Township, to be called henceforth Rox-. 
berry, from the bounds of Summerset County, thence up 
the River commonly called Pesack, and up the same in- 
cluding the same to that Branch or part thereof called 
Indian River, and thence Northerly and Westerly by the 
bounds of hanover to the Grate Pond; thence down by 
the same and Musconitcung to the Bounds of the County; 
thence by the Bounds of Hunterdon County, Essex and 
Summerset to the Place first mentioned." 

It is quite impossible to define exactly the limits of the 
township thus vaguely described, but it evidently in- 
cluded all the present townships of Washington, Mount 
Olive and Chester, and part of Mendham, Randolph and 
Roxbury, " Indian River " being what is now called the 
north branch of the Raritan. 

The next year Wallpack township is mentioned and 
officers appointed for it, and on March 23d 1741-2 there 



22 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



is the following quaint entry in regard to another town- 
ship of the region afterward known as Sussex: " Whereas 
the Court is informed that in time Past, before the Divis- 
ion of the County of Hunterdon, Grinnage Township 
was set apart and bounded on Dillaware river from Mus- 
conecung to Powlins Kill, being the bounds of Wallpack 
Township, be and remain from hence forth a Township 
or District by the name of Grinnage Township." 

March 29th 1749 Mendham township was created by 
the court, their action being recorded as follows: 

" A Petition From Sundry of the Westerly part of the 
inhabitants of the Townships of Morris and Hanover 
and Sunderie of the Easterly Part of the Inhabitants of 
Roxbury To This Court, praying that they may be made 
a Township or proccuts [precinct ?] for Sevrall Causes 
therein Sett forth. The Court upon Reading the same 
grants them their Petition and Bounds said Township as 
followeth: Beginning at Pasiak River, at the South Cor- 
ner of Henry Wick's Land, and from thence a straight 
Line to the Contry Road Between Ezra Halsey's and 
Stephen Lyon's Land; thence a Straight Line to the 
Mouth of Robert Young's Meddow Brook, up Rockaway 
River to the Uper end of Spruce Island in said River; 
thence to a River commonly called and known by the 
name of Black River, the nighest to Suckasona mine; 
thence down the same till an East point will strike the 
head spring of the Most Westerly Branch of Dorson's 
Bfpok, which is near the house where Sam'l Pitdney 
Lately Dwelt; and Down, the Stream issuing from said 
Spring till it comes to the Road Between James Wills 
and Noah Rude; from thence ten chain to the post of 
Joseph Casen's new dwelling house; from thence South 
to the Lines Between the County of Somersett and Mor- 
ris, and thence along said Line to pasiak River and by 
said River to the bounds first mentioned; and to be from 
hence forth called Mendham." 

This included not only the present township of Mend- 
ham but also Randolph, and nearly all of Chester. 

June 8th 1753 the act of the Legislature was passed 
which took from Morris county the territory west of the 
Musconet'^ong river. Lake Hopatcong and a line drawn 
northwest from the head of the " Great Pond," and 
formed it into the county of Sussex. The boundaries of 
Morris have remained unchanged since that time. 
There were in the new county the townships of Grinnage, 
Wallpack, Hardwick and New Town. In the old county 
were the five townships of Pequannock, Hanover, Mor- 
ris, Mendham and Roxbury; and for forty-five years 
there were but these five in Morris. The subsequent 
alterations are to be found in the laws of the State. 

Washington township was formed February 12th 1798, 
Chester township January 29th 1799, Jefferson town- 
ship February nth 1804, Randolph November 13th 1805, 
Chatham February 12th 1806, Rockaway March 5th 1844, 
Passaic March 23d 1866, Boonton and Montville April 
nth 1867, and Mount Olive March 22nd 1871. 

Changes were made in the township lines as follows: 
Between Randolph and Chester in 1806, between Ran- 
dolph and Pequannock in 1831, between Washington and 
Chester in 1840 and 1853, between Washington and Rox- 
bury in 1858 and 1859, and between Morris and Passaic 
in 1867. 

From the time of its separation from Hunterdon 



Morris county grew rapidly. In 1745 it had a population 
of 4,436, and seven years before the whole county of 
Hunterdon had but 5,570. 

In 1765, in a "short geographical description of the 
province," by Samuel Smith, the first historian of the 
State, the county was said to be populous for a " late set- 
tled county." " They raise grain and cattle chiefly, for 
New York market, and cut large quantities of timber of 
various sorts for exportation. In this county resides 
Peter Kemble, Esq., president of the Council. The 
places for worship in this county are — Presbyterians nine, 
Lutherans one. Anabaptists one, Quakers one, Separa- 
tists one, Rogerines one." 

In the thirty-five years between 1740 and 1775 the face 
of the country greatly changed. Instead of a few vil- 
lages (at Pompton, Whippany, Morristown, German Val- 
ley, Chester, Dover and Rockaway) the whole county 
had been opened up by actual settlers. Furnaces and 
a slitting-mill had been built. Forges, grist-mills and 
saw-mills were on all the streams, and every considerable 
fall of water turned a wheel of some kind. Only the 
roughest hills and the large lakes or little " gores " of 
land overlooked by the surveyor were left to the pro- 
prietors. No census was taken, or if taken has been pre- 
served, for the years immmediately preceding the war; 
but it seems probable that the population was not less 
than 10,000 at that time. They were an independent, 
self-sustaining people, raising their own bread, and manu- 
facturing all that their wants required. No county in the 
State was better prepared to be thrown upon its own re- 
sources, and it was owing quite as much to the character 
of the people as to its situation and natural defenses that 
during the eight years' struggle which was to follow no 
force of the enemy entered its bounds except as prisoners 
of war. 

The population of the county at the various census 
dates has been as follows: 1745, 4,436; 179c, 16,216; 
1800, 17,750; 1810, 21.828; 1820, 21,368; 1830, 23,580; 
1840, 25,861; 1850, 30,173; 1860,34,678 (680 colored); 
1870,43,161 (742 colored); 1875,49,019(788 colored); 
1880, 50,867. 

CHAPTER IIL 



THE PRELUDE TO THE REVOLUTION — PATRIOT LEADERS 
OF MORRIS COUNTY. 




N quick apprehension of and sturdy resistance 
to the tyrannical measures of the home gov- 
ernment which produced the Revolution, 
the people of New Jersey were in no way 
behind the other colonists. Though not so 
immediately injured by all the measures taken 
by the British ministry to repress their uneasy sub- 
jects, they were not slow to perceive that the cause was 
a common one, and that their only hope of success was 
in united resistance. The Legislature of 1772 consisted 



kEVOLUTtONARV LEADERS AND SENTIMENTS. 



of a House of Assembly, elected by and sympathizing 
wih the people, and a Privy Council, whose members 
owed their appointment to Governor Franklin, whose 
tastes were aristocratic and their sympathies altogether 
with the king.. In this Assembly Jacob Ford and William 
Winds represented Morris county. While the governor 
and Council could prevent the passage of a law in aid 
of the popular movement and the appointing of dele- 
gates to a General Congress who could be said to be ap- 
pointed by the Legislature of the State, the action of the 
Assembly alone was regarded by the people as their 
action and its recommendations were observed as laws. 
February 8th 1774 the Assembly appointed nine of its 
members a standing committee of correspondence, and 
requested them to place the resolutions appointing them 
before the assemblies of the other colonies. 

On the nth day of J.une 1774 a meeting of the free- 
holders and inhabitants of Essex county was held at 
Newark, and resolutions were adopted calling upon the 
other counties to hold similar meetings and to appoint 
committees who should meet in a State convention to 
appoint delegates to a General Congress of deputies to 
be sent from each of the colonies, to form a general plan 
of union, and pledging their support and adherence to 
such plan when adopted. This call met a ready response 
from the other counties. The minds of all the citizens 
of the province seemed to have been prepared for the 
step, and their thoughts only required this example to 
take form. 

In accordance with this movement "a respectable 
body of freeholders and inhabitants " of the county of 
Morris met at the court-house in Morristown on Monday 
June 27th 1774. Jacob Ford acted as chairman and the 
following resolutions were adopted: 

" ist — That George the Third is lawful and rightful 
king of Great Britain and all other his dominions and 
countries; and that as part of his dominions it is our 
duty not only to render unto him true faith and obedi- 
ence, but also with our lives and fortunes to support and 
maintain the just dependence of these his colonies upon 
the crown of Great Britain. 

" 2n^. — That it is our wish and desire, and we esteem 
it our greatest happiness and security, to be governed by 
the laws of Great Britain, and that we will always cheer- 
fully submit to them as far as can be done consistently 
with the constitutional liberties and privileges of free- 
born Englishmen. 

" ^d. — That the late acts of Parliament for imposing 
taxes for the purpose of raising a revenue in America are 
oppressive and arbitrary, calculated to disturb the minds 
and alienate the affections of the colonists from the mother 
country, are replete with ruin to both; and consequently 
that the authors and promoters of said acts, or of such 
doctrines of the right of taxing America being in the 
Parliament of Great Britain, are and should be deemed 
enemies to our king and happy constitution. 

" 4t/i. — That it is the opinion of this meeting that the 
act of Parliament for shutting up the port of Boston is 
unconstitutional, injurious in its principles to the general 
cause of American freedom, particularly oppressive to 
the inhabitants of that town, and that therefore the 
people of Boston are considered by us as suffering in the 
general cause of America. 

"5M. — That unanimity and firmness in the colonies 



are the most effectual means to relieve our suffering 
brethren at Boston, to avert the dangers justly to be ap- 
prehended from that alarming act commonly styled the 
Boston Port Bill, and to secure the invaded rights and 
privileges of America. 

" 6//i. — That it is our opinion that an agreement be- 
tween the colonies not to purchase or use any articles 
imported from Great Britain or from the East Indies, 
under such restrictions as may be agreed upon by the 
General Congress hereafter to be appointed by the colon- 
ies, would be of service in procuring a repeal of those 
acts. 

" yik. — That we will most cheerfully join our brethren 
of the other counties in this province in promoting an 
union of the colonies by forming a General Congress of 
deputies to be sent from each of the colonies; and do 
now declare ourselves ready to send a committee to 
meet with those from the other counties at such time and 
place as by them may be agreed upon, in order to elect 
proper persons to represent this province in the said Con- 
gress. 

" 8(A. — That it is the request of this meeting that the 
county committees, when met for the purposes aforesaid, 
do take into their serious consideration the propriety of 
setting on foot a subscription for the benefit of the 
sufferers at Boston under the Boston Port Bill above 
mentioned, and the money arising from such subscriptions 
to be laid out as the committees so met shall think will 
best answer the ends proposed. 

" 9M. — That we will faithfully adhere to such regula- 
tions and restrictions as shall by the members of said 
Congress be agreed upon and judged most expedient for 
avoiding the calamities and procuring the benefits in- 
tended in the foregoing resolves. 

" lot/i. — It is our request that the committee hereafter 
named do correspond and consult with such other com- 
mittees as shall be appointed by the other counties in 
this province, and particularly that they meet with the 
said county committee in order to elect and appoint 
deputies to represent this province in a General Con- 
gress. 

" iif/i. — We do hereby desire the following gentlemen 
to accept of that important trust, and accordingly do ap- 
point them our committee for the purposes aforesaid: 
Jacob Ford, William Winds, Abraham Ogden, William 
De Hart, Samuel Tuthill, Jonathan Stiles, John Carle, 
Philip V. Cortland and Samuel Ogden, Esquires." 

The committee appointed at this meeting was selected 
from all parts of the county, and its members were lead- 
ing men in the community. 

Jacob Ford was the son of John Ford, of Woodbridge, 
N. J., and was born at the latter place in 1704. He was 
one of the pioneers in the iron business of New Jersey, 
and from the year 1738, when we find him applying to 
keep an inn in " New Hanover," until his death, which 
occurred January 19th 1777, his name is frequently met 
in the public records and his influence was widely felt. 
He was no doubt the leading man in Morristown, keeping 
a store from which not only the community about him 
but his many employes in his different forges drew sup- 
plies. The first court, of which he was a member, met 
at his house, and " Washington's Headquarters " v/as 
built by him, probably in 1774, though his son Colonel 
Jacob Ford jr. resided there at the time of his death 
When made a delegate to the Provincial Congress he was 
an old man, and his son and namesake was succeeding 
him in his business and in his place in public regard. 



ttlSTOkY OP MORRIS COUNTY. 



Unfortunately the son died a few days before his 
fathier. 

General William Winds was in many respects a remark- 
able man. He was born in Southold, Long Island, in 
the year 1727 or 1728. Early in life he removed to New 
Jersey and settled near Dover, on the farm which he 
afterward willed to the Rockaway church, to which he 
was much attached. The car shops of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Railroad are built upon a part 
of this farm, and not far from where the mansion house 
stood. He was a man of great physical powers, tremen- 
dous voice, strong will and indomitable courage. Very 
impulsive, he was calculated to be a leader and foremost 
in every popular movement. He is said to have borne 
a commission in the French war in a New Jersey com- 
piahy. As colonel of the ist regiment ist establishment 
in the continental army, and as brigadier general of 
militia, he acquitted himself with honor, and the name of 
no other of our Revolutionary heroes has been so much 
honored as his by both his own and succeeding genera- 
tions. A very interesting sketch of his life was read be 
fore the New Jersey Historical Society by Dr. Tuttle in 
1853, and published in its proceedings, to which we 
must refer for a more detailed account of this ardent 
patriot. General Winds died October 12th 1789, and is 
buried in the Rockaway cemetery, where his monument 
rn'ay be seen. 

Abraham Ogden and Samuel Ogden were brothers, and 
sons of Judge David Ogden, of Newark, who graduated 
at Yale in 1728 and became one of the judges of the 
supreme court of this State. When the war broke out he 
espoused the side of the king and became a distinguished 
loyalist. One son, Isaac, sided with his father, and his 
interest in the old Boonton property was accordingly 
Confiscated and sold to his brother by the commissioners. 
Abraham and Samuel were active and ardent patriots. 
The former was a distinguished lawyer, and said to 
have had no equal before a jury. He was appointed 
surrogate for Morris in 1768. After the war he returned 
to Newark, was United States district attorney in Wash- 
ington's administration, was a member of the Legislature 
in 1790, and died suddenly in 1798, upward of sixty 
years of age. Samuel Ogden married a sister of Gov- 
ernor Morris, and lived at Old Boonton, where he was 
largely engaged in the iron business. He commanded a 
company of militia in the war. In 1805 he is described 
in a deed as being of Newark. He was the father of 
David B. Ogden, eminent at the bar, both in New Jersey 
and New York. 

William De Hart was a lawyer residing in Morristown, 
and one of its streets was afterward named after him. 
He was a son of Dr. Matthias De Hart, and had two 
brothers killed in the war. His name occurs frequently 
in the records of the court. He was licensed as attorney 
November ist 1767, and as counselor May 30th 1771. 
He was a major in the first battalion, first and second es- 
tablishments; afterward lieutenant-colonel of the second 
regiment continental army. He was born December 7th 
1746, and died June i6th 1801. 



Samuel Tuthill was a prominent citizen of Morristown, 
a son-in-law of Jacob Ford sen., and after the war clerk 
of the county and judge of the county court. He lived 
on South street, at the corner of Pine, where James Wood 
afterward lived. 

Jonathan Stiles was one of the county judges and had 
been sheriff of the county. He also lived in Morristown. 
Jonathan Stiles, named as a township officer in 1726, 
probably father of the delegate, died in Morristown No- 
vember isth 1758, aged 80 years. 

John Carle was one of the county judges, and resided 
in the southern part of the county. He was an elder in 
the Basking Ridge church and a man much respected. 

Philip Van Cortland was probably from the neighbor- 
hood of Pompton, and his name appears as colonel of 
the 2nd regiment of Essex county, and in 1776 as colonel 
of a battalion in Heard's brigade. There was a man of 
the same name — a delegate to the Provincial Congress of 
New York — who entered the military service of the king^ 
and who in 1782 was major of the 3d battalion N.J. (loyal) 
volunteers. At the peace he went to Nova Scotia. 

The committees of the several counties met at New 
Brunswick July 21st, and appointed five of their members 
delegates to the General Congress, which met in Phila- 
delphia September 5th. This General Congress, after 
adopting various resolutions, and after a general inter- 
change of views, resolved that another General Congress 
should be held on the loth of May following, to which 
all the colonies were requested to send delegates. Del- 
egates for this convention were chosen by the Assembly 
of New Jersey for the province, that body being urged to 
take the responsibility of that action by the people of the 
several counties. 

The committee of correspondence, appointed in June 
1774, after the adjournment of the General Congress in 
Philadelphia called a meeting of the citizens at Morris- 
town to endorse its action. The proceedings of this 
meeting, breathing the same spirit of resistance and ex- 
hibiting an appreciation on the part of the committee 
that their appointment was " by the people and for the 
people," were as follows: 

"At a meeting of the freeholders of the county of 
Morris, at Morristown, on Monday the 9th day of Janu- 
ary 1775, William Winds, Esq., chairman, the committee 
of correspondence for the county of Morris having pro- 
duced and read the association of the Continental Con- 
gress, the same was deliberately considered by the whole 
assembly and by them unanimously approved as a wise, 
prudent and constitutional mode of opposition to the 
late several tyrannical and oppressive acts of the British 
Parliament. Whereupon they unanimously determined 
strictly to abide by the same, and thanks to the delegates 
of this colony for their great attention to the rights and 
liberties of their constituents, and for the faithful dis- 
charge of the important trust reposed in them. 

"The assembly then unanimously agreed that the in- 
habitants of each several township in the county should 
meet, at their respective places of holding town meet- 
ings, on Monday the 23d day of January instant, at i 
o'clock in the afternoon, then and there respectively to 
choose (by those who are qualified to vote for repre- 
sentatives in the Legislature) a committee of observation. 



THE PATRIOT COMMITTEEMEN. 



25 



pursuant to and for the purposes expressed in the elev- 
enth article of the said association. After which the 
committee of correspondence declared to the assembly 
that they had thought proper to dissolve themselves, in 
order that their constituents might have an opportunity 
of a new choice, and that they were dissolved accord- 
ingly. Whereupon Jacob Ford, William Winds and 
Jonathan Stiles, Esquires, Messrs. Jacob Drake, Peter 
Dickerson and Ellis Cook, together with Samuel Tuthill, 
Dr. William Hart and Abraham Ogden, Esquires, were 
elected; and at the same time authorized to instruct the 
representatives of this county when convened in General 
Assembly to join in the appointment of delegates for this 
colony to meet in General Congress at Philadelphia; but 
if the said assembly should not appoint delegates for 
that purpose by the first day of April next, then the said 
committee of correspondence to meet with the several 
county committees of this colony and appoint the said 
delegates, at such time and place as shall be agreed upon 
by the said committees. 

" The assembly afterwards, taking into consideration 
the conduct of James Rivington, printer in New York, 
in publishing two certain pamphlets — the one entitled 
' A Friendly Address,' &c., &c., the other under the 
signature of ' A. W. Farmer,' and several others — 
all containing many falsehoods, wickedly calculated to 
divide the colonies, to deceive the ignorant, and to cause 
a base submission to the unconstitutional measures of the 
British Parliament for enslaving the colonies, do unan- 
imously resolve that they esteem the said James Riving- 
ton an enemy to his country; and therefore that they 
will for the future refrain from taking his newspapers, 
and from all further commerce with him; and that by all 
lawful means in their power they will discourage the cir- 
culation of his papers in this county." 

John Carle and Philip Van Cortland were left off the 
new committee for some reason, and Jacob Drake and 
Peter Dickerson appointed in their places. 

Colonel Jacob Drake was one of the earliest settlers at 
Drakesville, where he located a large tract of land, on 
which he resided the remainder of his life, selling off 
portions as the county became more thickly settled. He 
was born in 1730 and was of a Virginia family. At the 
breaking out of the war he took at once a leading part. 
He is described as of handsome physique, quick and 
active in his movements and of very popular manners. 
He was colonel of the " western battalion " of Morris 
militia, and resigned his commission to represent the 
county in the first State Legislature. He died at Drakes 
ville, September 1823, aged 93 years. Colonel Drake's 
second wife was Esther Dickerson, daughter of Captain 
Peter Dickerson, of the continental army, and his asso- 
ciate on the committee. By her he had six children — 
Clarissa, wife of Dr. Ebenezer Woodruff; Jacob Drake 
jr., of Drakesville; Silas Drake, who removed to the 
west; Hon. George K. Drake, judge of the supreme 
court of New Jersey; Peter Drake, and Eliza, wife of 
Dr. Absalom Woodruff. 

Peter Dickerson, son of Thomas Dickerson, was born 
at Southoid, Long Island, in 1724, and came to New 
Jersey about 1741 and settled in Morris county. He 
was an ardent patriot and his house in Morristown was 
from the beginning of the difficulties with Great Britain 
a gathering place of those of kindred mind. He was a 
member pf the Provincial Congress of 1776, and was 



captain of the sth company of the 3d battalion first 
establishment continental army, and of the ist company 
3d battalion second establishment, his men re-enlisting 
in a body. It is said that he paid all the expense of the 
equipment of this company out of his own pocket, and 
that the money he so advanced stands to his credit to- 
day in Washington, unpaid. He died May loth 1780, in 
the 56th year of his age, and is buried in the First 
Church burying ground in Morristown. By his first 
wife, Ruth Coe, he had eight children, one of whotn— 
Jonathan— was the father of Governor Mahlon Dicker- 
son, and another — Esther — married first George King, of 
Morristown, and afterward Colonel Jacob Drake. 

Who were chosen members of the several jtownship 
committees on January 23d cannot now be ascertained. 
It is only known that each township did elect such a 
committee. Matthias Burnet, Aaron Kitchel, David 
Biuen, Captain Stephen Day, Stephen Munson, Benja- 
min Howell and Captain James Keen were on the com- 
mittee for Hanover. The committee for Pequannock 
township was composed of Robert Gaston, Moses Tuttle, 
Stephen Jackson, Abraham Kitchel and Job Allen. 
David Thompson was chairman of the Mendham com- 
mittee. Each member of these committees exerted him- 
self -to obtain signatures to a form of association which 
pledged the signers to sustain the Provincial and Conti- 
nental Congresses, and none others were allowed to vote 
for delegates to the Congress of the province. The 
paper of Captain Stephen Jackson, with 172 signers, has 
been preserved and is printed in the " Revolutipnary 
Fragments " of Dr. Tuttle. While the committee for 
Hanover township is called a committee of safety and 
was in existence in February 1775, the form of the 
articles of association to which it was to obtain signa- 
tures was adopted by the Provincial Congress at its 
meeting on May 31st. . , 

This Provincial Congress, which met at Trenton May 
23d 1775, and continued its session through June and 
August, met in response to a call made by a committee 
of correspondence, and, assuming thejpowers of govern- 
ment, supplanted the former Legislature. The members 
of the Assembly were many of them members of th,is 
Congress, and the meetings of one body were held 
during the adjournments of the other. The delegates 
from Morris county were appointed at a meeting pf ^he 
inhabitants held May ist. The proceedings pf this 
meeting and of the meeting of the delegates the next 
day show the progress that had been made in the work 
of revolution. They are as follows: 

" Pursuant to an appointment of a meetingof the free- 
holders and inhabitants of the county of Morris, agree- 
able to notice given by the former committee of corre- 
spondence, the said freeholders and inhabitants did meet 
accordingly on Monday the first day of May anno Domini 
1775 — Jacob Ford, Esq., chairman; William De Hart, 
Esq., clerk — and came into the following votes and reso- 
lutions, to wit: 

" That delegates be chosen to represent the county of 
Morris, and that the said delegates be vested with the 
power of legislation, and that they raise men, money and 
arms for the common defense and point out tUe mode. 



26 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



method and means of raising, appointing and paying the 
said men and officers, subject to the control and direction 
of the Provincial and Continental Congress; and that 
afterward they meet in Provincial Congress with such 
counties as shall send to the same jointly with them to 
levy taxes on the province, with full power of legislative 
authority, if they think proper to exercise the same, for 
the said province; and the said Provincial Congress be 
subject to the control of the grand Continental Congress. 

"And they proceeded to elect the following persons 
to be their delegates as aforesaid, to wit: William Winds, 
Esq., William De Hart, Esq., Silas Condict, Peter Dick- 
erson, Jacob Drake, KUis Cook, Jonathan Stiles, Esq., 
David Thompson, Esq., Abraham Kitchel. 

" And pursuant to the above appointment the said 
delegates met at the house of Captain Peter Dickerson 
at Morristown, in the county of Morris, on the first day 
of May 1775. Present: William Winds, Esc^^., Silas Con- 
dict, Peter Dickerson, Jacob Drake, Ellis Cook, Jona- 
than Stiles, Esq., David Thompson, Esq., Abraham 
Kitchel. William Winds, Esq., was unanimously chosen 
chairman. Archibald Dallas was appointed clerk. ' 

" Voted, unanimously, that any five of the delegates 
when met be a body of the whole, and do make a board, 
and that a majority of them so met should make a vote. 

" Voted, unanimously, that forces should be raised. 

" Then the delegates adjourned till to-morrow at 9 
o'clock in the forenoon, to meet at the house of Captain 
Peter Dickerson, aforesaid." 

Having met pursuant to the adjournment the delegates 
voted that three hundred volunteers be recruited, to be 
equally divided into five companies, each to have a cap- 
tain and two lieutenants except the first two companies, 
which were to be commanded by two field officers. Wil- 
liam Winds was designated as colonel; William De Hart, 
major; Samuel Ball, Joseph Morris and Daniel Budd, 
captains; John Huntington, " captain-lieutenant " in the 
colonel's company, and Silas Howell ditto in the major's 
company. The captains were to appoint their lieuten- 
ants. 

It was ordered that the captains should discipline their 
men at the rate of one day every week till further orders, 
the times and places to be appointed by the captains. It 
was voted " that the said officers and men shall be paid 
as follows, viz.: Captains, seven shillings proclamation 
money per day;- first lieutenants, six shillings per day; 
second lieutenants, five shillings per day; sergeants, three 
shillings and six pence per day; private men, three shil- 
lings per day and found with provisions, arms and am- 
munition; and when only in discipline at home, the same 
wages and to find themselves; and their wages to be paid 
every two months." 

It was ordered that five hundred pounds of powder 
and a ton of lead be purchased and kept in a magazine, 
for the use of the new regiment, and William De Hart 
was appointed to make the purchase. 

It was voted " that the votes and resolves of this 
meeting shall be subject to the control of the Provincial 
and Continental Congresses, to take place after due 
notice being given to us by either of the said Congresses 
of their disapprobation of all or any of our proceedings; 
and the delegates, taking into consideration the unhappy 
circumstances of this country, do recommend to the in- 
habitants of this county capable of bearing arms to pro- 



vide themselves with arms and ammunition, to defend 
their country in case of any invasion. 

"Adjourned till the ninth day of this month, at 9 o'clock 
in the forenoon, to meet at the house of Captain Peter 
Dickerson, in Morristown." 

This resolution to raise three companies was antici- 
pating the first action of the Provincial Congress in re- 
gard to militia. On the 3d of June 1775 an act provid- 
ing a plan for regulating the militia of the colony was 
passed, directing that where companies and regiments 
were already formed and officers chosen and appointed the 
same were to be continued. The muster roll signed by 
recruits contained only the promise " to obey our officers 
in such service as they shall ai)point us, agreeable to the 
rules and orders of the Provincial Congress." Morris, 
county was to have two regiments and one battalion. 

Silas Condict, of Morristown, Ellis Cook, of Hanover, 
David Thompson, of Mendham, and Abraham Kitchel, 
of Pequannock, who were the new members of the Mor- 
ris county delegation, were men in every way worthy of 
the honor conferred upon them. 

Silas Condict was the son of Peter Condict, who came 
from Newark to Morristown about 1730 and lived first 
on the Doughty place, on Kimball avenue, and afterward 
in a house near the David Mills place. His son Silas 
was born March 7th 1738, and married first Phebe Day, 
and afterward Abigail Byram. He was a man of good 
education and fine ability, an active member and trustee 
in the Presbyterian church, and an ardent patriot. He 
was one of the committee of the Provincial Congress to 
draft the first constitution of the State, and was the repre- 
sentative of the county in the State council. He was a 
member of the council of safety in 1777-8, and in 1783 
represented the State in the Continental Congress. He 
was twice appointed one of the judges of the county, 
and was eight times elected to the House of Assembly, 
of which body he was four times the speaker. He died 
September i8th i8oi, leaving but one descendant, a 
granddaughter, afterward the wife of Colonel Joseph 
Cutler, and the mother of Hon. Augustus W. Cutler. His 
nephew. Dr. Lewis Condict, son of Peter Condict jr., was 
a member of Congress from this State, and speaker of 
the House. 

Ellis Cook was a very prominent public man and 
maintained the respect and confidence of a large con- 
stituency,for many years. He was a member of the Coun- 
cil for three years, and of the House of Assembly for 
fourteen years. 

David Thompson was a devout elder in the Mendham 
Presbyterian church, and noted for his eloquence in 
prayer and faith in the ultimate success of the patriots. 
He said in one of the darkest hours of- the struggle: "We 
can look to Jehovah when all other refuges fail;" and his 
wife declared to the numerous soldiers she entertained 
without charge that " nothing was too good for the use 
of those who fight for our country." Thompson com- 
manded a company of militia in the war. 

Abraham Kitchel was a son of Joseph Kitchel, of 
Hanover, and a brothe'r of Hon. Aaron Kitchel, the mem- 



REVOLUTIONARY LEADERS— CONTINENTAL TROOPS. 



27 



ber of Congress and United States senator. He was born 
August 26th 1736, and in 1768 was one of the supporters 
of the Rockaway church, to which he continued to be- 
long until his death. He lived at first on the " back 
road " from Rockaway to Hibernia, in a log house near 
the stone house occupied after his death by his son James. 
He was a man of better education than was common 
among men of his day, of strong good sense, and of firm- 
ness amounting to obstinacy. He had great independ- 
ence of character and more than ordinary physical 
strength. He built the Mansion House at White Meadow, 
and occupied it until 1799, when he sold it and the lands 
about it to Bernard Smith. He died at Parsippany, Jan- 
uary nth 1807. 

•Of the military officers chosen, Cologel Winds, Major 
De Hart and Captains Morris and Howell soon found 
their way into the " regular army " of that day, and were 
officers in the ist battalion ist establishment of the con- 
tinental army — "Jersey Line." Joseph Morris was made 
captain of the first company in this ist establishment, 
November 8th 1775, and captain of the first company in 
the rst battalion 2nd establishment November 29th 1776. 
He was promoted to be major, and severely wounded at 
the battle of Germantown, October 4th 1777, and died 
from his wounds, January 7th 1778. 

Captain Silas Howell was captain of the 2nd company 
ist battalion ist establishment, November 14th 1775; 
captain of the 2nd company ist battalion 2nd establish- 
ment, November 29th 1776, and retired September 26th 
1780. 

John Huntington was one of the organizers of the 
Rockaway church in 1758, and an elder in it for many 
years. His beautiful handwriting and fair composition 
in the church records show him to have been a man of 
considerable education. He lived near Shongum, and 
left at his death considerable estate. He was quarter- 
master in General Winds's militia brigade. 

Archibald Dallas, the clerk of the meeting, was com- 
missioned second lieutenant in Meeker's company 1st 
battalion ist establishment, December 9th 1775, and in 
Captain Howell's company ist battalion 2nd establish- 
ment November 29th 1776; captain in the 4th battalion 
2nd establishment, and also in Colonel Spencer's reg- 
iment, and was killed in action January 28th 1779. 

This first Provincial Congress on August 12th directed 
an election in the several counties, to be held on Thurs- 
day the 2 1 St day of September, for delegates to attend 
the Provincial Congress to meet at Trenton October 3d 
1775. The delegates to the latter from Morris county 
were William Winds, William De Hart, Jacob Drake, 
Silas Condict and Ellis Cook. It was the last Provincial 
Congress, and continued its sessions, with adjournments, 
to August 2ist 1776, when it adjourned without day, 
July 2nd 1776, two days before the declaration of inde- 
pendence, it adopted the first constitution of this State, 
under which the first State Legislature was elected, and 
which continued in force until supplanted by the consti- 
tution of 1834. On the committee to draft this constitu- 
tion was Silas Condict. 



CHAPTER IV. 



MORRIS COUNTY TROOPS IN THE CONTINENTAL ARMY. 




N the 9th of October 1775 the Continental 
Congress made its first call on New Jersey 
for troops. It was in the shape of the follow- 
ing resolutions: 

^^ Resolved, That it be recommended to the 
convention of New Jersey that they immediately 
raise, at the expense of the continent, two bat- 
talions, consisting of eight companies each, and each 
company of sixty-eight privates, officered with one cap- 
tain, one lieutenant, one ensign, four sergeants, and four 
corporals. 

" That the privates be enlisted for one year, at the rate 
of five dollars per calendar month, liable to be discharged 
at any time on allowing them one month's pay extra- 
ordinary. 

" That each of the privates be allowed, instead of a 
bounty, one felt hat, a pair of yarn stockings, and a pair 
of shoes; the men to find their own arms. 

" That the pay of the officers, for the present, be the 
same as that of the officers in the present continental 
array; and in case the pay of the officers in the army is 
augmented the pay of the officers in these -battalions 
shall, in like manner, be augmented from the time of 
their engaging in the service." 

These resolutions were laid before the Provincial Con- 
gress October 13th 1775, and that body on the 26th of 
the same month resolved that warrants be issued to the 
proper persons to raise the troops called for, and appointed 
mustering officers to review the companies when raised. 
The form of enlistment was in the following words: 

"I , have this day voluntarily 

enlisted myself as a soldier in the American continental 
army for one year, unless sooner discharged, and do bind 
myself to conform in all instances to such rules and 
regulations as are or shall be established for the govern- 
ment of the said army." 

Some delay was caused by the question whether the 
field officers should be appointed by the Provincial or 
the Continental Congress; but on the loth of November 
(only a month after the first call of Congress), this ques- 
tion being settled by the confirmation, by the Continental 
Congress, of the officers recommended by the State au- 
thorities, six companies were raised and ordered to gar- 
rison the fort in the Highlands on the Hudson; and No- 
vember 27th the rest of the two battalions were ordered 
into barracks in New York. December 8th both bat- 
talions were ordered into New York, and on the 26th 
they were ordered to be mustered. These troops were 
called the first or eastern battalion and second or western 
battalion of the first establishment. As stated hereafter 
a third battalion was afterward called for by Congress 
January loth 1776, which was raised for this establish- 
ment. The western battalion was in the western and 
southern parts of the State, but in the eastern battalion 
Morris county was largely represented. Lord Stirling 
was colonel, William Winds was lieutenant colonel, and, 



28 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



after Stirling's promotion, Colonel William De Hart was 
major. Three companies at least were from Morris, viz: 
The first company, of which Joseph Morris was captain, 
Daniel Baldwin first lieutenant, Daniel Brown second 
lieutenant, and Jonathan F. Morris ensign; the second 
company, of which Silas Howell was captain, John Mer- 
cer first lieutenant, Richard Johnson second lieutenant 
and Jacob Kemper ensign; and the fifth company, of 
which Joseph Meeker was captain, Yellis (or Giles) Mead 
first lieutenant, Archibald Dallas second lieutenant, and 
George Ross ensign. 

On the loth of January 1776 three companions of this 
first battalion were ordered to report to Colonel Nathaniel 
Heard, in command of minute men, for duty in arresting 
tories and disaffected persons in Queens county, N. Y. 
The rest of the battalion, Colonel Winds commanding, 
Were stationed at Perth Amboy and Elizabethtown until 
May 1776. On the 3d of May, with the third battalion, 
they left New York to join the expedition to Canada, 
and having been joined by the second battalion took an 
active part in the operations before Quebec. Later the 
first and second battalions were ordered into barracks at 
Ticonderoga, and remained at that place until directed, 
November 5th 1776, to return to New Jersey for dis- 
charge. 

January loth 1776 Congress directed another battalion 
to be raised in New Jersey on the same terms as the 
other two, and on the 6th of February the recommenda- 
tion was made by the Provincial Congress. The regir 
ment was organized at once, and left Elizabethtown 
April 29th for New York. On the 3d of May it sailed 
for Albany with the- first battalion, and served with it- in 
the campaign. The battalion left Albany March 7th 
1777, and was discharged at Morristown on the 23d. 
The regiment was commanded by Colonel Elias Dayton, 
and contained at least one Morris county company— the 
fifth — which was commanded by Peter Dickerson, of 
Morristown, Stephen Dunham being first lieutenant, 
David Tuttle second lieutenant, and William Tenbrook 
ensign. A list of the enlisted men of this company has 
been made up for the files of the adjutant general and 
is as follows: 

William Anderson, Stephen Beach, Woodrick Bilberry, 
William Bishop, Joseph Bolterhouse, Jacob Buttersop, 
Martin Crill, Andrew Culpet, Patrick Davis, Luke De 
Voir, John English, Jeremiah Fleming, Daniel Guard, 
Thomas Hathaway, John Hill, John Howe, Jacob Kent, 
Henry Kitchen, William Logan, Timothy Losey, Thomas 
Martin, Clement Martin, James Mathers, Robert Mc- 
Kindrick, William Mead, John Moore, Stephen Price, 
Adoniram Pritten, John Quill, Joseph Rose, John Sline- 
man, Peter Smith, Isaiah Tuttle, John Tway, Isaac 
AVard, David Watson, John White, Richard Williamson, 
Morris Wooden. 

The diary of Timothy Tuttle, a sergeant in the fiirst 
battalion in Captain Joseph Morris's company, has been 
preserved and has been printed. In it his daily doings 
are recorded from before January ist 1776 until he ar- 
rived at Albany on his way home, November 12th. From 
this it appears that he and his comrades arrived at 
Albany May Sth, after an eight days' sail, and marched 



from there to Lake George, where they arrived May 22nd. 
On the 26th of May they arrived at Crown Point, which 
they left on the 28th in boats for St. John. From there 
they marched up the Sorell River, and on the Sth of June 
were under fire of the enemy's cannon. They were en- 
camped on the Sorell until the 14th, when they began a 
retreat to Crown Point, which they reached on the 24lh. 
They remained in the neighborhood of Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point until November 6th, when Tuttle, with 105 
of the men of his battalion, left for home with General 
Winds. Recruiting had begun for the second establish- 
ment, which was enlisted for three years or during the 
war, and many of the officers and men of the first estab- 
lishment remained and were mustered into the second 
establishment. Tuttle notes under date of November 
5th: "Same morning our men seemed to persist to go 
home, and orders came out from the general that Col- 
onel Winds and what men is a mind to follow him to be 
off to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock. Some of officers 
say we go away with scandal, but Colonel Winds says 
[we] go with honor." Sergeant Tuttle was afterward en- 
sign and lieutenant in the Morris militia, and later a cap- 
tain in Colonel Sylvanus Seeley's eastern battalion of 
Morris militia. 

These three Jersey regiments of the firtt establishment 
did some hard service in this campaign, none the easier 
to endure because the movement was unsuccessful in 
that it did not accomplish what was hoped for it. A 
committee of the New Jersey Provincial Congress by 
direction of that body went to Crown Point, and there 
reviewed the Jersey troops October 25th. They re- 
ported that they "found the soldiers destitute of many 
articles of dress; supplies of every kind they want, but 
shoes and stockings they are in the last necessity for, 
many hiiving neither to their feet." They believed the 
troops were well furnished with provisions, and that they 
had plenty of arms. " Respecting the disposition of the 
officers to engage in the service" (meaning to re-enlist), the 
commissioners say, " It is with the greatest cheerfulness 
the most of the officers are ready on your appointment 
to serve their country during the war." 

Somewhat similar to the experience of later years. Con- 
gress found in the summer of 1776 that troops enlisted for a 
short time would not suffice to bring the war to a success- 
ful termination. Accordingly, September i6th 1776, a 
resolution was adopted that eighty-eight battalions be 
enlisted as soon as possible, to serve during the war, and 
that New Jersey furnish four battalions. 

The State Legislature appointed a joint committee to 
take the matter into consideration, who recommended 
that the first three of the new battalions be formed of the 
officers and men of the three batalions then in the field, 
so far as they were willing to re-enlist; and that the offi- 
cers of the fourth battalion be made up as much as pos- 
sible from the five regiments of militia then serving under 
General Heard. This recommendation was adopted, and 
the three battalions in the field formed the nucleus of the 
first three battalions of the new establishment. 

In the first battalion, Colonel Winds having retired 



COMPANIES OF CONTINENTALS— THEIR SERVICES. 



29 



Silas Newcomb and, on his promotion, Matthias Ogden 
was made colonel. Major William De Hart continued in 
service and was made lieiUenant colonel on the promotion 
of Ogden. Joseph Morris remained as captain of the 
first company (until made major of the battalion), with 
John Mercer, formerly first lieutenant of Captain 
Howell's company, as first lieutenant; Robert Robertson 
(who afterward resigned on account of wounds) as second 
lieutenant and Simon Mash as ensign. 

Silas Howell remained as captain of the second com- 
pany, with John Van Anglen (afterward captain) as first 
lieutenant, Archibald Dallas (formerly of Meeker's com- 
pany) as second lieutenant and John Howell (afterward 
captain) as ensign. 

Captain Meeker went home at the end of his enlist- 
ment. His lieutenant, Giles Mead, 'remained as lieuten- 
ant of the third company, commanded by Captain John 
Conway (afterward major of the fourth battalion); John 
Flanhaven was second lieutenant and Ebenezer Axtell 
was ensign of this company. 

Captain Peter Dickerson's company seem to have re- 
enlisted in a body and formed the first company of tlie 
third battalion. The lieutenants and ensign having quit 
th€ service their places were filled by others. Samuel 
Flanagan was first lieutenant until promoted to a cap- 
taincy; Jonathan Brewer second lieutenant, and Edward 
D. Thomas ensign until made first lieutenant. In addi- 
tion to the enlisted men of Captain Dickerson's first 
company the following were members of this his new 
company : Thomas Beedle, Josiah Beetle, David Brown, 
Jonathan Conkling, George Corwine, James Crane, John 
Cugo, Thomas Cugo, Cornelius Drake, Simeon Hatha- 
way, John Henry, James Joy, Conrad Kingfield, Jasper 
Langley, Enos Little, Abram Ludlow, Archibald McNich- 
ols, Solomon Munson, John Panton, John Price, Conrod 
Runyan, John Tuttle, and William Tuttle. 

In an affidavit made by Henry Clark in order to obtain 
a pension (preserved with others by Hon. Lewis Condict), 
he says he enlisted at Mendham in January 1776 for 
three years, in Captain Noadiah Wade's company, with 
Abram Hudson, Stephen Leonard, Stephen Frost, John 
Doughty, William Minthorn, Isaac Stark, William Brown, 
John Payne and others whom he does not recollect. 
Zophar Carnes was first lieutenant, John Pipes second 
lieutenant and Clement Wood ensign. Wood and Wade 
lived in Mendham, Carnes in Roxbury, and Pipes in what 
was then Pequannock. The company consisted of 60 
men, and was filled, the membership being as follows: 

Captain, Noadiah Wade; lieutenants, Zophar Carnes 
(cashiered April i6th 1777) and J»to JPipf^s, promoted 
first lieutenant June ist 1777. Second lieutenant, Ben- 
jamin Horn. Ensign, Clement Wood. Sergeants: 
Robert Logan, John Browne, Shadrack Hathaway and 
Abram Hudson. Corporals: Stephen Harriman, Ichabod 
Johnson, Richard Hedley and Jonathan Starks. Drum- 
Kier, John Cornelius. Fifer, WiUiam Stone. Privates: 
Adam Showers, Nathaniel Petty, George Clifton, Levi 
Shadwick or Shaddock, Samuel Freeman, Wilham Mun- 
son, Jesse Rodgers,. Samuel Davis, Philip Minthorn, 
Abram Mulct, Henry Blum, Jonathan Bailey, Gabriel 
Hutchings, Nathaniel Thompson, Price Thompson, 



Abram Losey, Robert Carson, Philip Hathaway, Lewis 
Alvord, John Potter, John Doughty, David Mott, Richard 
McGuire, William Finley, Ichabod Homans, Daniel 
Parks, Joseph Richards, Eleazer Perkins, Michael Hayes, 
John Davis, Benjamin Losey, Robert Hine, Charles 
Clarkson, Stephen Leonard, William Brown, Robert 
Minnis, Thaddeus Rice, Samuel Smith, Daniel Tuttle, 
Samuel Hazle, Jeremiah Day, David Mumford, Joseph 
Pipes, Stephen Frost, John Frost, Job Stiles, Jonathan Mc- 
Laughlin, John Williams, David Carter, Henry Dugan, 
Josiah Wynne, Benjamin Eaton, Dominick Hughs, Isaac 
Dickinson, John Milbiirne, John Woodcock, John Col- 
lins, Henry Clark, James Channel, John Stewart, Jona- 
than Crane, Dennis Cargriff, Thomas Perry, Joshua 
Pearce, John Berry, William Minthorn, James Knox, 
John Hardcastle, Alexander Campbell, Thomas Day, 
Benjamin Thorp, Thomas Rial, Charles Blumfield, 
Ephraim Cary, Andrew Phillips. 

The company was mustered June 12th i777» and 
marched to Westfield, where it was reviewed by Colonel 
Martin. It was the third in the fourth battalion second 
establishment. 

Besides those mentioned there were many other Morris 
county men in this brigade. John Doughty was captain 
of a company in the third battalion, promoted major, and 
resigned, probably to enter the artillery arm of the ser- 
vice, in which he afterward distinguished himself. 

The four regiments were ready for the field early in 
1777, the first battalion being organized as early as De- 
cember 1776, the second and third in February and the 
fourth in April 1777. They were brigaded together and 
placed under command of General William Maxwell, 
forming what was known as " Maxwell's brigade." It ^ 
was placed in the division of Major-General Adam 
Stephens, then encamped at Elizabethtown, Bound Brook 
and Rahway. The following extract from General Stry- 
ker's history of Jerseymen in the Revolutionary army 
shows the part these battalions took in the war: 

" During the summer of 1777 the division of General 
Stephens marched through Pennsylvania and Delaware, 
and on the morning of September nth a portion of the 
'Jersey line' opened the battle of Brandywine. They 
continued in the fight all that day, on the advance of the 
division. After the battle the brigade continued march- 
ing and countermarching, had a skirmish with the enemy 
at White Horse Tavern, on the Lancaster road, passed 
near Yellow Springs, Reading Furnace, Worcester, and 
then towards the enemy, and finally encamped at Ger- 
mantown. A battle took place at this post on the 4th 
of October. With the brigade of North Carolina troops 
commanded by Brigadier General Francis Nash, Max- 
well's brigade formed the corps de reserve and left wing 
of the American army. This division was commanded 
by Major General Lord Stirling, of New Jersey. The 
whole command distinguished itself in this fight, but 
especially the first battalion, which suffered severely in " 
both officers and men. Maxwell's brigade was most of 
the winter of 1777-8 with the army at Valley Forge, and 
on the evacuation of Philadelphia by the British, June 
i8th 1778, was detached from the main army, and with 
some militia was ordered to harass and impede General . 
Clinton's force. The British army marched towards 
New York by way of Moorestown and Mount Holly. 
The army under Washington crossed the Delaware River 
at Coryell's Ferry (Lambertville), and passed through 
Hopewell, Princeton, Kingston, Cranberry and English- 
town, and met the enemy near Freehold. Maxwell's 



3° 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



brigade was afterwards joined by six hundred continental 
troops, commanded by Colonel Daniel Morgan, of Vir- 
ginia, and again by fifteen hundred picked troops under 
Brigadier General Charles Scott, of Virginia, and one 
thousand under Brigadier General Anthony Wayne, of 
Pennsylvania. The entire force engaged in harassing 
the enemy was in command of General Lafayette. On 
the 28th of June 1778 the 'Jersey line' joined the left 
wing of the army, and the brigade, as well as the militia 
under Major General Philemon Dickinson, participated 
in the battle of Monmouth, fought on that day. The 
brigade after the fight was sadly in want of clothing, and 
many and urgent were the requests made therefor to the 
Legislature." 

The following is a list of recruits raised in the ist 
regiment foot militia, commanded by Colonel John Mun- 
son, in Morris county, who were to serve nine months 
from the day of their joining any of the four regiments 
raised by the State for the service of the United States. 
They joined the Jersey brigade June 5th 1778, at Mount 
Holly, and no doubt participated in the battle of Mon- 
mouth: 

Captain Luse's Company, 2nd Regiment — Aaron Bai- 
ley, John Clawson, William Cooper, John Hamler, Jacob 
Hinckle, Spencer Lake, Michael Pace jr., Benjamin and 
John Parr and John Smith, of Roxbury: Matthew Con- 
ner, James Gibson, Hiram Howard (unfit for duty on 
account of a wound), James Jordan and Andrew Mc- 
Roath, of Mendham. 

Captain Cox's Company, 3d Regiment — William Mapes, 
Roxbury; Joseph Bedford, Elijah Leonard and Reuben 
Wood, Mendham; Elihu Howard and Eleazer Perkins, 
Pequannock. 

Captain Ballard's Company, 3d Regiment — Elkanah 
Holloway, Lemuel Twigley and Eleazer Woodruff, Mend- 
ham; Timothy Morris, Roxbury. 

Others — Andrew Conard and John Turney, Penn., de- 
serted; Jabez Bigalow, Mendham, drum major 3d regi- 
ment; James Kenebough, Pequannock, Captain Patter- 
son's company, 3d regiment; Moses Losey, Mendham; 
Stephen Leonard, of Pequannock, and Stephen Arnold, 
of Mendham, Captain Morrison's company, ist regiment; 
William Halsey, Hanover, Captain Baldwin's company, 
ist regiment; David Sargent, enlisted in the continental 
service. 

" The above recruits marched from William Young's, 
Esq., in Mendham township." 

The winter of 1778-9 was passed mostly at Elizabeth- 
town, although a detachment of the second battalion was 
stationed in Newark, and a detachment of the fourth 
battalion in Spanktown (Rahway). 

In consequence of the "massacre of Wyoming " Max- 
well's brigade on the nth day of May 1779 was ordered, 
with the first or principal division, under Major General 
John Sullivan, of New Hampshire, to march up the Sus- 
' quehanna into the settlements of the Seneca Indians. 
Attached to the brigade at this time were Colonel Oliver 
Spencer's regiment. Colonel David Forman's regiment. 
Colonel Elisha Sheldon's (of Connecticut) regiment of 
light dragoons, and one battery of artillery. On the 9th 
of October the brigade was ordered to return to New 
Jersey. 

On the 23d of June 1780 the Jersey troops, continental 
and militia, took a prominent part in the fight at Spring- 
field. 



May 27th 1778 Congress made a new arrangement of 
troops, consolidating the battalions and reducing the 
number of field and other officers. March 9th 1779 it 
was resolved that the army should consist of eighty bat- 
talions, of which the Jersey troops should form three. 
This new arrangement was not finally consummated until 
the summer of 1780. In this new and last establishment 
Matthias Ogden was colonel of the ist regiment, Israel 
Shreve of the 2nd and Elias Dayton of the 3d. 

Recruits for the regiments of the continental line in 
the field were again obtained from the State militia, and 
the following lists have been preserved of these new lev- 
ies: 

" A return of recruits from the eastern regt. of the 
county of Morris, commanded by Colonel Sylvanus See- 
ley; mustered and past to serve in the State regiment 
until ye ist of January next, agreeable to a law of s'd 
State passed at Trenton 7th June 1780." (After the 
man's name come his place of abode and the name of 
the captain of the company to which he belonged. All 
enlisted in the first week of July.) 

Joseph Wade, Long Hill, Layton; Gilbert Bunnell, 
Chatham, Carter; Thomas Stagg, Parsippany, Bald- 
win; Daniel Simers, Pequannock, Minard; William Gar- 
ret, Hanover, S. Munson; Jesse Wood, Short Hill, 
Kitchel; John Harparie, Bottle Hill, J. Ward; Abraham 
Gobel, Morristown, Pearson; John Garrison, Pompton, 
Debow; John Robarts, Troy, J. Ward; Daniel Bates, 
Pequannock, Minard; Isaac Ross, Short Hill, Layton; 
John Parrott, Morristown, Jos. Beach; Gershom Liver, 
Morristown, Stephen Munson; George Gardner, Morris- 
town, W. Munson; Asa Beach, Morristown, Beach; 
Thomas Johnston (light horseman), Morristown, Arnold; 
Wriglit Reading, Chatham, Ward; John Lasier, Pomp- 
ton, J. Ward; David Parrott, Pompton, Debow; Eb. 
McDonald, Chatham, Carter; Conrod Esler, Pequan- 
nock, Minard; Benjamin Romer, Pompton, Arnold; 
Samuel Price, Troy, J. Ward; Samuel Seward, Rocka- 
way. Keen; Sylvanus Johnston, Rockaway, Hall; John 
Lane, Rockaway, Hall. 

"A return of recruits from the eastern regiment of 
Morris county, commanded by Colonel Sylvanus Seeley; 
mustered and approved to join the New Jersey brigade 
until ist of January next, under act passed June 14th 
1780. All enlisted between June 27th and July 20th 
1780." The company is indicated by the name of the 
captain, following that of the recruit: 

James Richardson, Chatham, Carter; Moses Broad- 
well, Morristown, Carter; Dunham Wilkerson, Morris- 
town, M. Munson; Jesse Crane, Hanover, S. Munson; 
Daniel Gould, Troy, J. Ward; Daniel T. Bunnell, Mor- 
ristown, M. Munson; Amos Crane, Parsippany, Baldwin; 
Cornelius McDermott, Elizabethtown, Layton; Anthony 
Palmer, Hanover, S. Munson; Martin Mitchell, Troy, 
Ward; Daniel Wilcocks, Long Hill, Layton; Philip 
Lunney, Chatham, J. W'ard; Isaac Garrigus, Rockawav, 
Hall; John Abnir (?), Rockaway, Hall; Benjamin Romer, 
Morristown, J. Beach; Abraham Ludlum, Morristown, 
L. Pearson; Robert McClean, Hanover, Kitchel; Daniel 
Bates, Hanover, Minard; Thomas Brannon, Morristown, 
Beach; George Cheshenounds, Morristown, Beach; 
Samuel Price, Pequannock, Du Bois. 

" List of bounties paid by Jonathan Stiles jr. on re- 
cruiting service according to an act of March nth 1780." 



OFFICERS IN THE "JERSEY LINE." 



31 



The bounty paid was ;^i,ooo to the soldiers and ;£2oo 
to their officer. In some instances half those amounts 
were paid. They were mustered by Lieutenant Colonel 
Benoni Hathaway and joined their companies in the 
continental line between March 30th and May 4th 1780. 
The residence of some of these rnen is found in a return 
of the same men made by Colonel Hathaway, and is given: 

Paul Rheam, Morristown; John Moor; Isaac Johnson, 
Andrew Thompson and George Carter, Morristown; Da- 
vid Gordon, Windsor Johnson, Joseph Yates, James Der- 
rick and Moses Headley, Hanover; James Ceaser, Sus- 
sex county; Isaac Wooley, John Williams and Watson 
Ludlum, Morristown; Robert Miller, Bernard's; 'William 
Wood, Sussex county; Moses and Jacob BroadweU, 
Morristown; Paul Clutter and James Wigan (or Wagen), 
Bernard's; John Beaufort (or Bellfort), Sussex county; 
Michael Coffee, Morristown; Thomas McMurtree; Isaac 
Ross, Bernard's; Isaac Price; Abraham Emmis; William 
Smith; Thomas Smith; William Worth; Henry Carragan, 
Morristown; John Jacobus and Jesse Losey, Roxbury; 
Jacob Cahoon, Samuel Ogden, Ezekiel Price, James 
Jones, Richard Hugg, George Smith, Thomas Reiler, 
Abraham Gaskall, Henry Flantan, Zechariah Rossel, 
Nathan Turner, George Laney, Michael Wood, Henry 
Moore, John Darwin, Reuben Mickel, Jedediah Mills, 
Jonathan Bailey, Elias Wood and Annanias Clark. Dan- 
iel Kiney is on Colonel Hathaway's list and not on 
Colonel Stiles's. 

General Maxwell continued to command the Jersey 
brigade until he resigned, in July 1780. Colonel Elias 
Dayton, as senior officer, then assumed command, and 
retained it until the close of the war. On the 21st of 
September 1781 the three regiments landed on James 
River, Virginia, about five miles from Williamsburgh, and 
they were employed in all the labor of the siege of York- 
town and were present at the surrender on the 19th of 
October. 

The news of the cessation of hostilities was announced 
in the camp of the brigade April 19th 1783, and the 
"Jersey line " were discharged November 3d 1783. 

During the summer and fall of 1776 soldiers of this 
State, as officers or enlisted men, began to join organiza- 
tions raised directly by authority of Congress or of other 
States. Men from Morris county were found particular- 
ly in two of these regiments, known as Spencer's regi- 
ment and the commander-in-chief's guard. 

By authority of Congress Colonel Oliver Spencer, an 
officer in the State troops as well as in the militia, organ- 
ized a battalion or regiment for the continental army 
about the time the second establishment was completed. 
Composed as it was, nearly if not entirely of Jerseymen, 
it is often referred to as the " fifth battalion, Jersey line." 
The strength of this command appears to have been 
about 170 men, although a return dated March 1779 
shows but 14c soldiers in the regiment. The following 
is a roster of its officers: 

Oliver Spencer, colonel; Eleazer Lindsley, lieutenant- 
colonel (resigned and William Smith was appomted); 
John Burrowes, captain and major; James Bonnell, ad- 
jutant; John McEwen, ensign and quartermaster; Jabez 
Campfield, surgeon; John Darcy, surgeon's mate; Benja- 
min Weatherby, captain; James Brodenck, captain; John 
Sandford, captain; William Bull, captain; William Crane, 



captain; Abraham Nealy, captain; Archibald Dallas, 
captain; Anthony Maxwell, lieutenant and captain; Rob- 
ert Pemberton, lieutenant and captain; James Bonnell, 
lieutenant, adjutant and captain; David Kirkpatrick, 
lieutenant and captain; John Orr, lieutenant; Peter 
Taulman, lieutenant; Finch Gildersleeve, lieutenant; Wil- 
liam Sitcher, lieutenant; Uzal Meeker, lieutenant; Barne 
Ogden, lieutenant; Andrew Thomson, ensign; John 
Reed, ensign; Moses Ogden, ensign. 

Colonel Oliver Spencer, who commanded this regiment, 
was the son-in-law of Robert Ogden, who was a member 
of the Continental Congress of 1765 and chairman of the 
committee of safety in 1776, and was a brother-in law of 
Robert Ogden jr. (prominent and zealous in the councils 
of the State and in advancing means to assist its cause), 
of Colonel Matthias Ogden, of the first regiment, and of 
Captain (afterward Governor) Aaron Ogden. One of his 
daughters, Elizabeth, married Ebenezer Blachly, and 
another, Sophia, married Major Mahlon Ford, prominent 
men in this county. 

Jabez Campfield, surgeon of the regiment, was a res- 
ident of Morristown, and for many years after the close 
of the war surrogate of the county. During Sullivan's 
expedition against the Seneca Indians Dr. Campfield kept 
a diary, which has been published by the New Jersey 
Historical Society in the third volume of its proceedings, 
New Series, and in which a detailed account of the move- 
ments of the troops is given. The doctor left Morristown 
to join the regiment May 23d 1779, and returning ar- 
rived at his own house October 2nd. 

John Darcy, surgeon's mate, was afterward a prominent 
physician of Hanover, and particularly successful as a 
surgeon. He commanded a brigade of militia in the war 
of 1812. He was the father of General John S. Darcy, 
of Newark. He was at this time under nineteen years of 
age, and, having studied medicine with Dr. Campfield, 
accompanied him to the war. Dr. Wickes, in a sketch of 
Dr. John Darcy, in his history of the medical men of 
New Jersey, says: "The regiment with which he was 
connected was in the army under immediate command of 
General Washington, concerning whom and General 
Lafayette the doctor during his life related to his friends 
niany incidents of interest which occurred while he was 
associated with these distinguished generals. When 
Lafayette visited this country in 1825 he inquired par- 
ticularly after 'young Surgeon's Mate Darcy;' and when 
on a certain occasion he was introduced to a relative of 
the doctor's the general, attracted by the name and being 
informed of the relationship to his old friend, embraced 
him cordially." 

The commander-in-chief's guard, continental army, 
called also "the life guard" and " Washington's body 
guard," was a distinct organization of picked men. It 
consisted of 180 men, and its first officer was Caleb Gibbs, 
of Rhode Island, captain, commandant. William Colfax, 
of Pequannock township, was a lieutenant at the organ- 
ization, and was the successor of Gibbs, ranking as cap- 
tain. The soldiers were all selected from the ranks of 
the army, their good character and soldierly bearing 
being a prerequisite to their receiving this honor. Every 
State was represented in the " guards." Its motto was 
" Conquer or Die." 



32 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



CHAPTER V. 



MORRIS COUNTY MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION — INCIDENTS 
OF THE WAR. 




HE militia organizations are not to be con- 
fused with the troops of the continental 
army. The act of the Provincial Congress 
regulating the militia passed August i6th 
177s provided for two regiments and one 
battalion for Morris county; and, "minute men" 
having been raised in the counties of Morris, 
Sussex and Somerset, Congress followed the suggestion 
and recommended all the counties to do the same. The 
two regiments of militia were called the eastern and 
western battalions. Morris county was to have six com- 
panies of minute men, who were held in constant readi- 
ness on the shortest notice to march to any point where 
assistance might be required. They were to furnish 
themselves with "'a good musket or firelock and bayonet, 
sword or tomahawk, a steel ramrod, worm, priming wire 
and brush fitted thereto, a cartouch box to contain 23 
rounds of cartridges, twelve flints, and a knapsack." 
Each man was to keep at his house one pound of powder 
and three of bullets. Many of these minute men having 
joined the continental army, on the 29th of February 
.1776 they were dissolved as a. separate organization, and 
incorporated in the militia. 

The following notes, taken from the "Boteler Papers," 
show the organization and officers of the Morris county 
minute men: 

"At a meeting of the committee of the county of 
Morris, at the house of Captain Peter Dickerson, at 
Morristown, on Thursday the 14th day of September 
A. D. 1775 (present, William Winds, Esq., William De 
Hart, Esq., Silas Condit, Ellis Cook, Peter Dickerson, 
Jonathan Stiles, Esq., Jacob Drake), the committee, 
having inspected and examined the several muster rolls, 
6 companies of minute men of the county of Morris, 
and finding that a sufficient number of minute men as is 
directed by the Congress have enlisted, do recommend 
to the committee of safety or the Provincial Congress of 
New Jersey the following officers to be commissioned, to 
wit: 

"William Winds, Esq., as colonel; William De Hart, 
Esq., as lieutenant-colonel; Mr. David Bates, as major; 
Mr. Joseph Morris, as adjutant; Mr. Timothy Johnes, 
as surgeon. 

"Of the first company: Captain, Samuel Ball; first 
lieutenant, Daniel Baldwin; second lieutenant, Moses 
Kitchel; ensign, David Tuttle. 

. "Of the second company: Captain, Silas Howell; first 
lieutenant, Joseph Lindsley; second lieutenant, Richard 
Johnston. 

"Third company: Captain, David Thompson; first 
lieutenant, Noadiah Wade; second lieutenant, Isaac 
Morris; ensign, Samuel Day. 

"Fourth company: Captain, Ebenezer Condit; first 
lieutenant, Benoni Hathaway; second lieutenant, Moses 
Prudden; ensign, Joseph Beach. 

" Fifth company: Captain, Jacob Drum; first lieuten- 



ant, Joshua Gordon; second lieutenant. Levy Howel; 
ensign, Caleb Horton jr. 

"Sixth company: Captain, Robert Gaston; first lieu- 
tenant, Josiah Hall." 

It is probable from the names of these officers that the 
first company was raised in the Hanover neighborhood, 
the second in Madison and Morristown, the third in 
Mendham, the fourth in Morristown, the fifth in Roxbury 
and the sixth in Rockaway. 

"At a meeting of the officers of the battalion of minute 
men of the county of Morris, on Thursday the 14th day 
of September, A. D. 1775. Present: William De Hart, 
Captain Ebenezer Condict, Lieutenant Moses Prudden, 
Ensign Caleb Horton, Ensign Richard Johnston, Ensign 
Samuel Day, Lieutenant Noadiah Wade, Captain Samuel 
Ball, Lieutenant Moses Kepore, Captain Jacob Drum, 
Lieutenant Josiah Hall, Lieutenant Daniel Baldwin, Lieu- 
tenant Joseph Lindsley, Captain Silas Howell, Ensign 
David Tuttle, Lieutenant Benoni Hathaway. 

" William De Hart, Esq., was chosen moderator, Jacob 
Drum clerk. ' Voted unanimously that we will nominate 
to the committee three field officers and an adjutant, 
which field officers when commissioned we will freely 
serve under. William Winds was unanimously recom- 
mended as colonel; William De Hart, Esq., was unani- 
mcpusly recommended as lieutenant-colonel; Mr. David 
Bates was recommended as major; Joseph Morris was 
recommended as adjutant. 

" The foregoing is an account of our proceedings this 
day, which we humbly offer to the committee of the 
county of Morris, and desire their recommendation of 
those officers therein nominated to the Provincial Con- 
gress or committee of safety of New Jersey to be com- 
missioned." 

In June 1776 the Continental Congress requested the 
colony of New Jersey to furnish 3,300 militia, to form 
part of 13,800 to reinforce the army at New York. 
Colonel Nathaniel Heard was appointed brigadier gen- 
eral to command these levies, which were to consist of 
five battalions. Morris and Sussex were to furnish one 
of these battalions, and the regimental officers were: 
Ephraim Martin, colonel; John Munson, lieutenant- 
colonel; Cornelius Ludlow, major; Joseph King, adju- 
tant; Joshua Gordon, quartermaster; Jonathan Horton, 
surgeon; David Ervin, surgeon's mate. 

Lieutenant-colonel Munson lived near Rockaway, on 
the Hibernia road, and was engaged in the iron business. 
He was afterward colonel of the " western battalion " of 
Morris. Major Ludlow had been first major of the 
"eastern battalion" of Morris. Surgeon Horton had 
been surgeon of the ''western battalion" of Morris, and 
was afterward a surgeon in the continental army. 
General Heard's brigade in September 1776 numbered 
160 officers and 1,762 enlisted men. 

On the i6th day of July 1776 Congress requested the 
convention of New Jersey to supply with militia the 
places of two thousand men of General Washington's 
army, who had been ordered to march into New Jersey 
to form the flying camp. On the i8th of July an ordi- 
nance -was passed detaching that number from the 
militia for that purpose. It was resolved that the two 
thousand militia should compose four battalions, con- 
sisting of thirty companies, of sixty-four men each. 



MILITIA ORGANIZATION— THE BATTLE OF SPRINGFIELD. 



33 



They were only to be held^for one month from the time 
of their joining the flying camp. 

One-half of the militia were ordered to be detached 
August nth 1776, and called out for immediate service, 
to be relieved by the other half every month. One di- 
vision of the militia, detached from every organization in 
the State, was ordered to march with all dispatch to join 
the flying camp, for one month's service. The second 
division was held ready to relieve them, to be itself re- 
lieved in turn. On this basis of monthly classes in 
active service the militia were held during the continuance 
of the war. 

An act for better regulating the militia was passed 
March 15th 1777. It organized the force more strictly 
than formerly, and defined the duties and powers of of- 
ficers, etc. The organization was still further improved, 
and the last ordinance was repealed by an act of April 
14th 1778. This also divided the militia into two brigades. 

On the 8th of January 1781 the militia were formed into 
three instead of two brigades. Those " of the counties 
of Bergen, Essex, Morris and Sussex, and of those parts 
of the counties of Middlesex and Somerset lying on the 
northern and eastern side of the Raritan River, and of the 
south branch of the same," were to compose the upper 
brigade. 

The governor of the State, June 27th 178:, was author- 
ized to call out a part of the militia, and continue them 
in service three months, for the purpose of co-operating 
with the continental army. Such men were exempted 
from service for nine months next ensuing. 

Companies of artillery and troops of horsemen from 
time to time organized in sundry townships or cities, by 
direction of the governor or by special law enacted by 
the General Assembly of the State. 

General Stryker well says: " The good service per- 
formed by the militia of this Stale is fully recorded in 
history. At the fights at Quinton's Bridge, Hancock's 
Bridge, Three Rivers, Connecticut Farms and Van 
Neste's Mills they born an active part; while at the bat- 
tles of Long Island, Trenton, Assunpink, Princeton, Ger- 
mantown, Springfield and Monmouth they performed 
efficient service in- supporting the continental line." 

The eastern battalion, Colonel Jacob Ford jr. com- 
manding, was detailed to cover Washington's retreat 
across New Jersey after the evacuation of New York in 
1776 — a service which was accomplished with honor and 
success. The campaign was known among the troops as 
"mud rounds." 

The most considerable engagement, however, in which 
the New Jersey militia were concerned was the battle of 
Springfield, where the attempt of Knyphausen to reach 
Morristown was met and foiled principally by militia. An 
excellent account of this battle is contained in the follow- 
ing letter to the governor from General Maxwell, who 
commanded the New Jersey brigade: 

" Jersey Camp, near Springfield, 

14th June 1780. 
" Diar Goxiernor, 

"You will find by the inclosed that I had written to 



your excellency on the 6th inst. The person who was 
to have delivered it halted at Elizabethtown, and before 
daylight was alarmed. We were alarmed also by 12 
o'clock, and had marched near your house when intelli- 
gence was received that the enemy were landing in 
force, with artillery and dragoons, and that their num- 
ber would be at least 5,000. I thought Elizabethtown 
would be an improper place for me. I therefore retired 
toward Connecticut Farms, where Colonel Dayton joined 
me with his regiment. I ordered a few small parties to 
defend the defile near the farm meeting-house, where 
they were joined and assisted in the defense by some 
small bodies of militia. The main body of the brigade 
had to watch the enemy on the road leading to the right 
and left toward Springfield, that they might not cut off 
our communications with his excellency General Wash- 
ington. Our parties of continental troops and militia at 
the defile performed wonders. After stopping the ad- 
vance of the enemy near three hours they crossed over 
the defile and drove them to the tavern that was Jere- 
miah Smith's; but the enemy were at that time reinforced 
with at least 1,500 men, and our people were driven in 
their turn over the defile and obliged to quit it. I, with 
the whole brigade and militia, was formed to attack them 
shortly after they had crossed the defile, but it was 
thought imprudent, as the ground was not advantageous 
and the enemy very numerous. We retired slowly 
toward the heights toward Springfield, harassing them on 
their right and left, till they came with their advance to 
David Meeker's house, where they thought proper to 
halt. Shortly after the whole brigade, with the militia, 
advanced their right, left and front with the greatest 
rapidity, and drove their advance to the main body. We 
were in our turn obliged to retire, after the closest action 
I have seen this war. We were then pushed over the 
bridge at Springfield, where we posted some troops, and 
with the assistance of a field-piece commanded by the 
militia the enemy were again driven back to their former 
station, and still further before night. Never did troops, 
either continental or militia, behave better than ours did. 
Every one that had an opportunity (which they mostly 
all had) vied with each other who could serve the coun- 
try most. In the latter part of the day the militia 
flocked from all quarters, and gave the enemy no respite 
till the day closed the scene. At the middle of the 
night the enemy sneaked off and put their backsides to 
the sound near Elizabethtown. Our loss was one ensign 
killed and three lieutenants wounded, seven privates 
killed, twenty-eight wounded and five missing. The 
militia lost several and had a number wounded. We 
have good reason to believe, from the number of dead 
left on the ground, and from the information of many of 
the inhabitants where they had their dead and wounded, 
that they lost three times the number we did. General 
Stirling is among their wounded and thought to be dan- 
gerous, with Count Donop killed, a son or nephew of the 
general who met the same fate at Red Bank. I am 
credibly informed that 47 of the enemy dead were found 
the next day scattered through the woods and fields, be- 
side those whom they themselves had buried and carried 
off the first day. The main body of the enemy now oc- 
cupy the ground by the old point and De Hart's house. 
Their advanced parties are as far' as the Elizabethtown 
bridge. 

" I am, with much respect and esteem, your Excellency's 
most obedient humble servant, 

"Wm. Maxwell." 

The following is a roster of the field and staff of the 
two Morris county battalions, first organized in 1775, but 
reorganized in 1776. 



34 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Eastern Battalion. — Colonels: Jacob Ford jr., Nov. 
27th 1776; died of pneumonia at Morristown, N. J., Jan. 
loth 1777, and was buried with military honors by order 
of General Washington. Ellis Cook; lieutenant-colonel 
Jan. 13th 1776; lieutenant-colonel " detached militia," 
July i8th 1776; colonel, Feb. ist 1777; resigned Nov. 
6th 1777. Sylvanus Seeley; captain in Colonel Martin's 
regiment June 14th 1776; first major eastern battalion 
May 23d 1777; colonel Nov. 13th 1777. 

Lieutenant-Colonels: Cornelius Ludlow; first major 
Jan. 13th 1776; major in Martin's battalion June 14th 
1776; lieutenant-colonel May 23d 1777; resigned Nov. 
13th 1777, disabled. Eleazer Lindsley; second major 
Jan. i3tli 1776; lieutenant-colonel 1777; also lieutenant- 
colonel continental army. Benoni Hathaway; captain in 
eastern battalion; second major ditto Sept. 9th 1777; 
lieutenant-colonel ditto Nov. 13th 1777; lieutenant- 
colonel of Van Dyke's regiment Oct. 9th 1779. 

First Majors: Richard Johnson; captain Eastern bat- 
talion; first major Nov. 13th 1777; resigned. Daniel 
Brown; captain in eastern battalion; first major Mch. 
27th 1776. 

Second Majors: Henry Axtell; resigned, Joseph 
Lindsley, Mch. 27th 1778. 

Adjutant, John Doughty, Jan. 13th 1776. 

Quartermaster, Frederick King. 

Surgeon, Timothy Johnes, Feb. 19th 1776. 

Western Battalion.— QoXontW. Jacob Drake; resigned 
to become member of General Assembly. William Winds, 
Nov. 30th 1776; brigadier-general of militia Mch. 4th 
1.777; resigned June loth 1779; also colonel ist battalion 
ist establishment continental army. John Munson; 
lieutenant-colonel in Colonel Martin's regiment June 
14th 1776; colonel western battalion May 15th 1777. 

Lieutenant-Colonels: Robert Gaston, May isth 1777; 
resigned. John Starke; second major May isth 1777; 
lieutenant-colonel Oct. 7th 1778; resigned May 23d. 
1782. Nathan Luse; captain; lieutenant-colonel June 
2ist 1782. 

First Major: Samuel Sears (or Sayres), May isth 

1777- 

Second Majors: Daniel Cook; promoted from captam 
Sept. 29th 1781; resigned May 23d 1782. Jacob Shuler, 
June 2ist 1782. 

Quartermasters: Mahlon McCurry and Matthew Mc- 
Courrey. 

Surgeon: Jonathan Horton, Feb. 28th 1776; also sur- 
geon in Colonel Martin's battalion June 29th 1776, and 
surgeon continental army. 

Besides the staff officers named in the above rosters 
there were from Morris county the following staff officers: 
Constant Victor King, ensign, lieutenant and adjutant; 
Cornelius Voorhees, ensign, adjutant and commissary of 
issues; Zebedee Cook, quartermaster; Jacob Arnold, 
John Stiles and Jonathan Stiles, paymasters; Barnabas 
Budd, surgeon in General Winds's brigade, September 
12th 1777. 

The following were captains of militia, but the com- 
pany, and in some cases the battalion, to which they be- 
longed cannot now be ascertained. The letter E or W 
following the name shows whether the man belonged to 
the eastern or western battalion: 

Job Allen, W. and E.; Jacob Arnold, E., also captain 
of a troop of light horse; Stephen Baldwin, E.; Elisha 
Barton, E.; David Bates, E.; Augustine Bayles, E.; Wil- 
liam Bayley, E.; Joseph Beach, E., April 19th 1777; 
Enoch Beach; Abner Bedell; John Bigelow' William 
Brittin, E.; Job Brookfield (also ensign); Ezra Brown; 



William Campfield; Zophar Games, W., first lieutenant 
continental army; Benjamin Carter, E ; Samuel Carter, 
E • Hugh Colwall, E. (also lieutenant); Ezekiel Crane, 
w'- Jacob Crane, E.; Joshua Crane, E.; Josiah Crane, 
E •' Artemas Dav, W.; Stephen Day, E.; John De Bow, 
E • Thomas Dickerson, W.; Peter Dickmson; Jacob 
Drum (also captain in Colonel Stewart's battalion of 
minute men, February isth 1776); Abner Fairchild, E.; 
Elijah Freeman; Jacob Card, W.; Robert Gaston (also 
captain in continental army); George Hager, W.; Josiah 

Hall, E. (of Denville); Isaac Halsey, E.; Harris, 

E.; Samuel Hinman, E.; Caleb Horton, W.: Nathaniel 
Horton, W.; Stephen Jackson; James Keen, E.; Thomas 
Kinney; Obadiah Kitchel, E.; Matthew Lane, E., also 
lieutenant; Peter Layton, E.; John Lindsley, E., also 
lieutenant; William Logan, also lieutenant, W.; Benjamin 

Minard, E.; Morris, W.; Moses Munson, E., also 

forage master; Stephen Munson, E., also lieutenant; 
Samuel Ogden;' John Oliver, E.; Samuel Oliver, E.; 
Garret Post; William Salmon, W.; Peter Salmon, W.; 
■ Slaight, W., also lieutenant; Peter Slingerland, 



Tieuter 



E., also TTeutenant; James Stewart, W.; Uriah Sutton, 
also lieutenant; Peter Tallman, W.; Nathaniel Terry, 
W. (also lieutenant); Jacob Theiiar; David Thompson; 
Timothy Tuttle, ensign August 6th 1777, captain April 
2nd 1781; Israel Ward, E.; Jonas Ward, E. (also cap- 
tain Essex Co., of Parsippany); Jonathan Ward, E.; 
William Welch, W.; Joseph Wright, E. 

The following were lieutenants from Morris county 
(battalion indicated by E or W, as above): 

Aaron Biglow, W.; George Bockover, E. (also in Sus- 
sex county); Caleb Crane; John Crane, first lieutenant, 
E., April 19th 1777, in Captain Beach's company; Wil- 
liam Fairchild; Phineas Farrand, Captain Minard's com- 
pany, E.; Ezra Halsey, E.; Matthias Harris, W.; Giles 
Lee^ first lieutenant; Paul Lee (also wagon master); 
Edward Lewis; Benjamin Lindsley, second lieutenant, 
E., April 19th 1777, Captain Beach's company; Eleazer 
Luse, W.; Howell Osborn, W.; J. Osborn, E.; Thomas 
Osborn, E., Captain Baldwin's company; John Pipes, 
first lieutenant, Heard's brigade, June i6th 1776, also 
continental army; Abraham Post, E.; Matthew Raynor, 
E.; John Robarts, E.; Simon Van Ness, E. (Captain 
De Bow's company); Christopher- Walmsley, E.; D. 
Wilson; Josiah Ward. 

The following were ensigns: 

Samuel Allen, April 19th 1777, Captain Beach s com- 
pany; Josiah Burnett, E., wounded in leg at Elizabeth- 
town, September isth 1777; Joshua Guerin, E.; James 
Lum; Abraham Rutan, E., Captain Layton's company; 
Martin Tichenor, E., Captain Baldwin's company. 

An independent organization, which was raised en- 
tirely in the county, and won for itself an enviable dis- 
tinction for its long and faithful service and brilliant 
achievements, was the company known as Arnold's Light 
Horse. The following is a copy of the original enlist- 
ment paper of this command: 

" We the subscribers do voluntarily enlist ourselves in 
the comjjany of light horse belonging to the county of 
Morris, Thomas Kinney, Esq., captain, and do promise 
to obey our officers in such service as they shall appoint, 
as agreeable to the rules of the Provincial and Continenal 
Congress. Witness our hands May loth 1775. Jacob 
Arnold, James Serring, Epenetus Beach, James Smith, 
Silas Stiles, Patrick Darcy, John Losey, Benjamin Free- 
man jr., Samuel Allen, Stephen Baldwin, Elijah Freeman, 
David Edmiston, John Crane, George O'Hara, Silas 
Hand, Jabez Tichenor, Jabez Beach, Robert Gould jr.. 



ARNOLD'S LIGHT HORSE— REVOLUTIONARY ANECDOTES. 



35 



James Ford, Samuel Denman, Peter Parret, George 
Minthorn, John Cook, Samuel Bolsbury. Adam Bosts, 
John Milen, Conrod Hopler, Abraham Ha'haway, John 
Winters, Samuel Wighton, John "Van Winker, Aaron 
Parsons." 

Captain Kinne)' shortly afterward resigned and Arnold 
took his place. While the above list shows the original 
members of the company there were many others who 
joined it afterward. John Blowers, Ephraira Carnes, J. 
C. Canfield, Joseph Butler, John Canfield and John 
Ester are named as some of these recruits. Blowers in 
an afifidavit found among the " Condict papers," before 
referred to, gives a good idea of the men who composed 
this force, and of the services they performed. He says 
he served first under Captain Jacobus: 

" The company of militia was drawn up to have a draft 
made from them to join the troops on Long Island. 
Blovvers stepped forward, saying he would not be drafted 
but would volunteer, and was at once followed by Samuel 
Farrand, John Ester, Philip Price and as many more as 
were required of the company. Jacobus had command. 
They were marched through Newark to New York, 
where they were six weeks laying up works, after which 
they were marched to Amboy, where there were other 
Jersey militia. 

" On his return home, finding militia duties likely to 
be frequent, he joined Arnold's force. Ste|)hen Baldwin 
was a trooper there and did duty as a sergeant — an active 
and good soldier. The whole company, except when 
the enemy were strong and in case of sudden alarm, was 
not often together, but was divided and subdivided 
— two, -four, five, eight, ten, etc., together — as circum- 
stances required. AVere often used as videttes to watch 
the movements and carry orders and tidings of the 
enemy. To tr<rin and discipline, were often assembled. 
Each man found his own horse and equipments. Knew 
Baldwin in service every month during the first two 
years. Troop lay at Morristown when Lee was made 
prisoner at Basking Ridge. Had his horse stolen from 
him at Parsippany, and the man who brought tidings of 
Lee's capture to Morristown rode it and Blowers recov- 
ered it. Blowers and a part at least of the troop served 
at Millstone, Second River, on Raritan River, at Spring- 
field, Connecticut Farms (where Hessians were taken, 
early in the war), at Elizabethtown often, at Newark, and 
Aquacknunk. He was in the battles of SpringSeld and 
Monmouth. In winter '76-7, when Winds lay at Van 
Mullinen's near Quibbletown, he was stationed on the 
Raritan at the house of one Ten Eyck. Did duty at 
Trenton and Princeton carrying orders. At Hackensack 
had like to have been taken prisoner near a British fort 
in the neighborhood of Hackensack. The troop did not 
do duty by monthly turns, as infantry, but were in con- 
stant watchful duty as videttes and express carriers to 
the end of the war." 

In the minutes of the Provincial Congress there is 
mention made of an appropriation to Thomas Kinney for 
expenses in escorting Governor Franklin to Connecticut 
— a service exceedingly hazardous. 

From these Condict papers many interesting facts con- 
cerning the services of the militia and the frequency with 
which they were called out can be gathered. Take for 
example the affidavits of James Kitchel, who entered the 
service at the request of his father, Abraham Kitchel, 
Esq., August I St 1776, when but seventeen years old, 
under Captain Isaac Halsey, in Colonel Ford's regiment. 



He marched first to Elizabethtown, where he remained 
until he was taken sick and brought home by his friends, 
being gone in all four months. He enlisted under Cai)- 
tain Josiah Hall in January 1777, for three months, 
when the British lay at New Brunswick, and was stationed 
at Quibbletown. He was in several engagements at Ash 
Swamp, Woodbridge, Quibbletown and other places. He 
served one month under Captain Charles Ogden in the 
summer of 1779, and lay guarding the lines at Pompton 
and building a fort there. One month he served under 
Captain Stephen Jackson, at Elizabethtown, in the sum- 
mer of 1777; one and a half months under Captain 
Joseph Beach, guarding Morris jail, when twenty-one 
men were confined there under sentence of death, and 
two were hung by Sheriff Carmichael. In the fall of 1777 
he served under Captain John Bigelow, near Hackensack, 
and was in the attack upon a British fort at Pollyfly 
under General Winds. In 1779 he served at Elizabeth- 
town, Blazing Star and Trembly 's Point, during the sum- 
mer and fall, under Captain Bates, Colonel Thomas and 
General Williamson. In 1780 he served at Elizabethtown 
one month, under Captain Horton. 

Henry Wick (on whose farm the Revolutionary army 
encamped in 1780-81} was at one time captain of a Morris 
county company of cavalry, which did good service dur- 
ing the war. He was frequently detailed as guard of 
Governor Livingston and of the privy council. At one 
time near Camptown one of the members of the Provincial 
Congress, Caleb Camp, was surprised by a party of 
British infantry at his own home, and while he was de- 
liberating as to the possibility of getting to his horse in 
the barn, and so away, Captain Wick's company charged 
in upon them and put the enemy to flight, though 
superior in numbers. The dead were found for three 
miles in the course of their flight. 

From Dr. Tutlle's " Revolulionary Fragments," pub- 
lished about thirty years since in the Sentinel of Freedom, 
we take these incidents of the war: 

Mrs. Eunice Pierson,. daughter of Abraham Kitchel, 
stated to the doctor that her uncle, Aaron Kitchel, was 
peculiarly obnoxious to the tories, and that on several 
occasions attempts were made to capture him. She said 
that a price was laid on his head. To one scene she 
was an eye witness. One dark night the family was sur- 
prised by the entrance of several noted tories, com- 
pletely armed. There could be no mistake about their 
intentions, and high words ensued, in which Mr. Kitchel 
gave them to understand that he was not afraid of them. 
At last, cooling down a little, they asked for cider, and 
he treated them liberally. In the meantime Mrs. Kitchel, 
with real womanly shrewdness, perceiving that no time 
was to be lost, pushing her little niece, Eunice, toward 
the bedroom door, said, aloud, "This is no place for 
you; you must go to bed." She followed her into the 
room, closed the door and raised the Avindow; Eunice 
was lifted out and told to hurry as fast as her feet would 
carry her to her grandfather's house, some rods distant, 
and tell Jiim to come up with all the help he could 
muster. " I tell you, I was a great coward in the dark 



36 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



in those squally times," said the old lady, " and I was 
not long in going." Fortunately three of his sons were 
with the grandfather, and the tories, waking up sud- 
denly to the sense of their having been caught napping, 
took to their heels. 

^ David Gordon, who lived to a- very great age and was 
for many years sexton of the Rockaway Presbyterian 
church, was in the service, and among the many anec- 
dotes he told was the following account of a march his 
company made to Newark from Morristown — a fine 
illustration of the democracy of the times, even among 
soldiers, and also the power of proper motives! The 
captain halted his company and thus addressed them- 
" Brother soldiers, we must get to Newark to-night, and 
we cannot do it and march in a body. Let every man 
make his way as best he can, and if we get there each 
one of you shall have half a gill of rum for tea." " Oh, 
captain," roared his followers, " call it a gill, and then 
we can do it !" "Well, a gill it shall be, then," said the 
captain; "but halt when you get this side of Newark, 
and let us march into town as brother soldiers should, 
together and in order !" The march was accordingly 
accomplished by each "on his own hook," and the 
valiant captain had the pleasure of entering Newark at 
the head of his company in the " brother soldier" way. 
In the night the men were roused up and embarked in 
boats, and were rowed down the Passaic in perfect 
silence. They landed on the salt meadows and marched 
up to a little village, probably Bergen. The object of 
this expedition Dr. Tuttle inferred to have been to break 
up a gang of tories, some of whom were captured ^nd 
carried to Morristown. 

Among the incidents of the battle of Springfield was a 
disagreement between General Heard and Colonel Hath- 
away, the latter accusing his superior of having unne- 
cessarily retired from the field. The following is a 
verbatim copy of the charges he preferred, which shows 
that the gallant colonel could use his sword probably 
better than his pen: 

" Morristown, 15 July, 1780. 
" To his Exelencey the Governor — 

" I send you in Closed Severel charges 
which I Charg B. D. Haird with while he comanded the 
Militare Sum Time in june Last at Elizebeth Town 
farms which I pray His Exilency would Call a Court of 
inquiry on these Charges if his Exilency thinkes it worth 
notising from your Hum 

Ser 
Benoni Hathaway 
" To exilencey the Governor Lut. Coll." 

" This Is the Charges that I bring against General 
Haird While he Comanded the Militia at Elizabethtown 
farms sum time in Jun last 1780. 

" I Charg is for leaving his post and Marching the 
Trups of their post without order and Leaving that Pass 
without aney gard between the Enemy and our Armey 
without giving aney notis that Pass was open Between 
three and fore Ours. 2 Charg is Retreating in Disorder 
Before the Enemy without ordering aney Reqr gard or 
flanks out leading of the Retreat Him Self. 3 Charg is 
for marching the Trups of from advantiges peace of 
ground wheare we mit Noyed them much and Lickley 



prevented thear gaining the Bridge at Fox Hall had not 
the Trups Bin ordered of which prevented our giving our 
armey aney assistence in a Time of great Destris. 

" 4 Charg is for marching the Trups of a Boat one 
mile from aney part of the Enemy and Taken them upon 
an Hy mountan and kept them thear till the Enemy had 
gained Springfeald Bridge. 

"List of Evidence: Coll Van Cortland, Wra. Skank 
the Brigad Major, Capt. Benjman Cartur, Capt. Nathanal 
Norton, Adjt Kiten King, Major Samuel Hays, Leutnant 
Backover." 



Dr. Ashbel Green, son of Dr. Green of Hanover, and 
afterward president of Princeton College, was a volunteer 
in the Morris county militia, and served under General 
Heard when he was left with three brigades to guard 
New Jersey; Washington, with the main army, having 
gone up to West Point. In his biography is a very 
graphic account of an unsuccessful attempt to drive the 
enemy from Elizabethtown Point, undertaken under a 
very false impression as to their numbers. The militia 
behaved with great steadiness, advancing under a heavy 
artillery fire, and only showed want of discipline in firing 
at some redcoats who were being brought in as prison- 
ers, supposing them to be the enemy advancing in force. 
He stated that his colonel, who was a very brave but a 
very profane man, rode forward and backward before his 
regiment, and in a loud voice threatened to kill the first 
man who should fire another gun until he gave the order. 
Mr. Green contrasts the conduct of his colonel with that 
of his captain, Enoch Beach, who was a deacon in his 
father's congregation, and a man of distinguished piety. 
He stood before his company with the greatest calmness 
and composure, and scarcely spoke at all, unless it was 
to drop now and then a word of encouragement to his 
men while they were waiting orders to advance. The 
troops were drawn off in good order by moving the mil- 
itia in such a way as to give the enemy the idea that an 
attack was to be made in another quarter. The enemy's 
numbers were far superior to those of General Heard. 

There were some tories in the county, and they did 
great damage to the people; not by their acts of open 
hostility, but by murdering and plundering, mostly at 
night and in small gangs. The party led by the infamous 
Claudius Smith was as much dreaded as any. At one 
time thirty-five of these men were confined in Morris 
jail. Two of them, Iliff and Mea, were hung, and the 
remainder were branded in the hand and released. Those 
of the more respectable citizens who espoused the royal 
cause left the country and their estates were confiscated. 
Alexander Carmichael and Aaron Kitchel, as commis- 
sioners, advertised for sale on Tuesday March 30th 1779, 
at the house of Jacob Arnold, in Morristown, the real 
estate of Thomas Millidge, Stephen Skinner, John Troop, 
John Steward, Ezekiel Beach, Joseph Conlifi^, John 
Thornburn, Asher Dunham, Richard Bowlsby, Philip 
Van Cortland, Samuel Ryerson, Jacob Demarest, Isaac 
Hornbeck, William Howard and Lawrence Buskirk, an 
inquisition having been found and final judgment entered 
against them. These men were the prominent loyalists 
of the county. Millidge had been elected sheriff and 



AFTER THE REVOLUTION. 



37 



but for his political sympathies would have been much 
respected and deservedly so. 

The women of Morris county were not at all behind 
the men in their patriotism and in genuine sacrifices for 
their country. They nobly sustained and encouraged 
their fathers, brothers, husbands and sons in their work; 
and in the care of the sick and wounded, in manufactur- 
ing clothing for the destitute, and in tilling the soil while 
the men were in the ranks, they contributed their full 
share to the good cause. The story of Anna Kitchel, of 
Whippany, sister of Captain Timothy Tuttle and wife 
of Uzal Kitchel, is well known. Being urged by a timid 
deacon to procure a British protection she told him, 
" Having a husband, father and five brothers in the 
American army, if the God of battles do not care for us 
we will fare with the rest !" 



CHAPTER VI. 



RECOVERING FROM THE REVOLUTION — MORRIS COUNTY 
MEN IN THE WAR OF l8l2. 




> HE war left the people of the colonies in a 
dreadfully impoverished state. Many who 
had. been wealthy when the war broke out 
were reduced to poverty. Officers and men 
. returned to their homes with very little but the 
glory of their achievements to console or support 
them. The money issued by authority of the Con- 
tinental Congress was so depreciated as to be practically 
worthless. The pressure from the outside which had 
kept the colonies united and made the general govern- 
ment respected was now withdrawn, and the sense of 
having delivered themselves from the control of a power- 
ful foreign nation made men independent in feeling and 
impatient of restraint. The country was in more danger 
in 1783 than in 1776, and the posterity of that genera- 
tion have reason to be more grateful for the good sense 
of the men of that day, which led them to unite in the 
formation of a constitution and in agreeing to live by it, 
than to their courage and self-sacrifice in the struggle with 
Great Britain, great as that courage' and self-sacrifice 
were. But not only was danger of anarchy and confu- 
sion to be dreaded. The war had had a demoralizing 
effect upon officers and men. The restraints of religion 
had become irksome, infidelity had made rapid progress 
and intemperance had greatly increased. It is the uni- 
versal report of the decade next succeeding the peace 
that the state of morals and religion which then prevailed 
was most alarming, and Morris county was no exception 
to the general rule. It was the day of Paine's '' Age of 
Reason," which found a soil well adapted to it in the 
minds of men flushed with victory and restive under 
control. Previous to the war liquors were imported from 
abroad, and were used in comparative moderation. After 



the peace distilleries were found established in all parts 
of the country, and drunkenness prevailed to an extra- 
ordinary extent and among all classes of people. Some 
particular industries had been unduly stimulated, others 
had been abandoned; and it was several years before 
business became readjusted and the old order of things 
resumed. 

But the people of Morris county were in many respects 
fortunate. The enemy had not devastated their fields or 
burned their dwellings. They had every element of wealth 
in themselves, and they were not long in turning their 
attention to developing the resources they possessed. Be- 
fore the end of the century the county had grown wonder- 
fully. Forges and mills were built or rebuilt on the many 
streams. Houses of a more comfortable and pretentious 
style took the place of the log cabins which had been the 
usual habitations of the people. New lands were cleared 
and better roads made. In 1794 a great revival of re- 
ligion swept over the country, to be succeeded by other 
revivals in 1806 and 1818. Schools were established 
throughout the country, and high schools at Morristown 
where young men were fitted for college. Newspapers 
were published, the first one in Chatham in 1781, called 
The New Jersey Journal, by Shepherd KoUock, a refugee 
from Elizabethtown; afterward, in 1797, the Morris 
County Gazette, and in 1798 the Genius of Liberty, at 
Morristown. 

In 1780 the funeral of Jacob Johnson, in Morristown, 
drew together a large concourse of people, who followed 
the remains from beyond Speedwell to the old church. 
In this procession there was but one vehicle, and that 
was used for carrying the body. All the rest were on 
foot or on horseback. Dr. Johnes and the attending 
physicians, each with a linen scarf around his shoulders, 
according to the custom of the times, led the procession 
on horseback. 

In the diary of Joseph Lewis, a wealthy citizen of 
Morristown, son-in-law of Dr. Johnes and clerk of the 
county, is the entry: July 23d 1784-— "Robert Morris, 
Esq., set out for Brunswick, being one of the committee 
appointed to meet committees from other counties to 
consult and devise some plan for establishing trade and 
commerce at Amboy." What came of this project is 
unknown. Elizabethtown no doubt continued to be the 
shipping point for this county until Newark was made 
nearer by its better means of communication. 

In this same diary, under date of October 3d 1786, 
Mr. Lewis says: " I went in company with the court and 
sundry of our respectable inhabitants to wait on the 
Chief Justice Brearly from White tavern to this place. 
We returned in procession, in the following order, on 
horseback: ist, the constables; 2nd, coroners; 3d, sheriff; 
4th, chief justice, in his carriage; sth, judges of the 
pleas; 6th, justices; 7th, clerks; Sth, citizens." No 
doubt the members of the procession were all on horse- 
back except the chief justice; and this attention to the 



judge coming to hold a general jail delivery was intended 
to impress the people with the majesty of the law. 

To show how elections were conducted in those early 



38 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



days take another quotation from this diary: Tuesday 
October loth 1786— "This day I served as clerk of the 
general election. Judge Stiles conducted the election. 
Colonel Hathaway, David Tuttle, Justice Ross, William 
Winds and Nathaniel Terry were inspectors, and Will 
Canfieldand Henry Can field as clerks: Abraham Kitchel, 
Esq., was elected a counselor; Aaron Kitchel, Esq., 
Colonel Cooke and Colonel Starke, assemblymen; Jacob 
Arnold, Esq., sheriff, and Enoch Beach and Victor King, 
coroners." The election of candidates for the State 
convention to ratify the federal constitution lasted from 
Tuesday November 27th to Saturday December ist 1787, 
and resulted in the election of William WoodhuU, John 
Jacob Faesch and General William Winds. 

The death of General Washington was the most notable 
event which closed the century. The newsi:^apers of the 
day were heavily lined and mark the very general ev- 
idence of sorrow throughout the land. In every town 
meetings were held and appropriate addresses made. 
Rev. John Carle's address, delivered at Rockaway, De- 
cember 29th 1799, was printed by Jacob Mann, and a 
copy is still in existence. The speaker drew a com- 
parison between his subject and Moses, and but echoed 
the sentiments of his hearers and of other orators in 
speaking of Washington as "the greatest man that hath 
graced the present century in any part of the world." 

When the war of 1812 broke out the militia of the 
county was organized in four regiments of infantry and 
one squadron of cavalry. The regiments of infantry 
were commanded by Lieutenant- Colonels Silas Axtell, 
John Smith, Joseph Jackson and Lemuel Cobb, and the 
brigade formed by them was coramancled by Brigadier- 
General John Darcy. Lieutenant-Colonel William Camp- 
field commanded the squadron of horse. The militia 
were assembled on the call of the general two or three 
times each year, and were in a fair state of efficiency. 
There were three uniforined companies — Captain Car- 
ter's company of riflemen from Madison or Bottle Hill, 
Captain Halliday's company of Morris rangers, and Cap- 
tain Brittin's fusileers, of Chatham. 

On the 15th of May 1812 Captain Carter's company 
paraded on Morris Green, with 250 of the militia, who 
were assembled for that purpose and were described as a 
well-disciplined, handsome body of inen. Both that 
company and the rangers stood ready to volunteer their 
services at a moment's warning. Meantime recruiting 
was going on for the United States service, and Captain 
Scott of the new establishment had about sixty men and 
Captain Hazard, of the new, about thirty enlisted. The 
Jersey regiment, to which no doubt many Morris county 
volunteers belonged, numbering in all about 800 men, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Brearly commanding, struck its tents 
at Fort Richmond, on Staten Island, on Tuesday August 
i8th, and embarked for Albany. It reached the encamp- 
ment at Greenpoint (Greenbush?), near Albany, "in good 
health and gpirit.s,'' on the 22nd, and on November 12th 
the camp there was broken up and the regiment marched 
northward to the Canada frontier. 

November i6th 1812 Governor Aaron Ogden, in view 



of particular instructions addressed to him by the gen-eral 
commanding at New York, called upon all uniformed 
companies to hold themselves ready on twenty-four 
hours' notice to take the field. The enemy's fleet threat- 
ened the city then, and at intervals afterward during the 
war. The militia regiments of this State relieved each 
other in duty at Jersey City, Sandy Hook and the High- 
lands, in readiness to meet the invader. 

In September the third regiment of Morris militia was 
called into active service and marched to Sandy Hook. 
It was in the United States service from September 17th 
to November 30th 1812, when the men were mustered 
out and returned home. The roster of the field and staff 
of this regiment was as follows: 

Lieutenant-colonel, Joseph Jackson; majors, Peter 
Kline and Daniel Farrand; adjutant, William McFar- 
land; quartermaster, Joseph Edsall; paymaster, Jonas 
Wade ; surgeon, Reuel Hampton ; sergeant major, 
Thomas C. Ryerson; quartermaster sergeant, Isaac 
Wade. 

There Avere six coinpanies, as follows: Captain John 
Hinchman's company, 81 men; Captain Samuel Dem- 
arest's, 64 men; Captain Abner Dodd's, 61 men; Captain 
William Corwine's, 74 men; Captain Stephen Baldwin's, 
70 men; Captain Peter Cole's, 75 men; total, 433 officers 
and men. 

August i2th 1814 General James J. Wilson, in command 
at the seacoast, accepted the service of the three volun- 
teer uniformed companies, together with 185 officers and 
men who were to be taken from the other militia. The 
militia of Morris and Sussex Avere to be formed into one 
regiment, and this regiment was to be one of three com- 
manded by Brigadier-General William Colfax. Agree- 
ably to orders of ihe governor of the State the three 
uniformed companies marched off on Saturday morning, 
September 3d, for Harsimus, near Paulus Hook, where 
they were to be stationed for a time. In the notice of 
their leaving it is added, " The greatest cheerfulness and 
animation prevailed among them, and they appeared to 
entertain a just sense of the nature of the duties re- 
quired of them and of the honor of performing those 
duties with resolution and firmness." 

The following are the rolls of these three companies, 
which formed part of Colonel John Frelinghuysen's 
regiment: 

Captain William Brittin's company, which was in the 
United States service from September ist 1814 to De- 
cember 3d 1814: Captain, William Brittin; lieutenant, 
Elijah Ward (appointed quartermaster September 7th); 
ensign, Lewis Carter: sergeants— Ichabod Bruen, William 
Thompson, Joseph Day, Alexander Bruen; corporals- 
Caleb C. Bruen, Ellas Donnington, Richard R. Elliot, 
Charles Townley 3d; drummer, Jonathan Miller; pri- 
vates—John T. Muchmore, Alva Bonnel (Joel Bonnel 
went as his substitute), Seth Crowell, Samuel M. Crane 




Robertson. 

Roll of Captain Samuel Halliday's Morris rangers, 
which company was in the service of the United States 



TROOPS IN 1812-14. 



39 



from the ist of September to the 2nd of December 1814: 
Captain, Samuel Halliday; lieutenant, Benjamin Lindsley 
jr.; ensign, Joseph M. Lindsley; sergeants — Matthew G. 
Lindsley, William H. Wetmore, Joseph Byram jr., Ber- 
nard McCormac; corporals — Stephen Sneden, William 
Dalrymple, Samuel P. Hull, Stephen C. Ayers (John 
Odell substitute); drummer, Stpplien James; lifer, Silas 
Ogden; privates — Samuel Beeis, Jerry Colwell, David 
Cutter, Charles M. Day, Benjamin Denton, Peter Dore- 
mus, Steplien P. Freeman, Lewis Freeman, Sylvester R. 
Guerin, Horatio G. Hopkins, Luther Y. Howell, Ezekiel 
Hill, John Hand, Joseph M. Johnson, Abraham Ludlow, 
David Lindsley, Ira Lindsley (David Beers substitute), 
Moses Lindsley, Roswell Loniis, Lewis March, John 
Meeker, John Nestor jr.', David Nestor, Elij.ih Oliver, 
Byram Prudden, Maltby G. Pierson, Eleazer M. Pierson, 
Jabez Rodgers, Ezra Scott, Ebenezer Slibbins, Peregrine 
Sanford, Seth C. Schenck, Charles Vail, Isaac M. Wooley. 
Roll of Captain Carier's riflemen, who were in the 
United States service from September ist to December 
2nd 1814: Captain, Luke Carter; lieutenants — David W. 
Halstead, William Brewster (discharged September 19th 
i8i4\ Charles Carter; sergeants — Benjamin F. Foster, 
Elijah Canfield, Harvey Hopping, David Tompkins; 
corporals — Calvin Sayres, Samuel Hedges, John B. 
Miller, Moses Baldwin; musicians — Daniel Brewster, 
Luther Smith; privates — Lewis Baker, Cyrus Hall, Squire 
Burnet, William Canfield (died October 3d 1814), Malilon 
Carter, Ellis Cook, Samuel Cory, Moses Condit, John 
Dixon, John Fairchild, Clark Freeman, John French, 
'J'horaas Genung, Elam Genung, Whilfield Hopping, 
Robert W. Halstead, Aaron M. Jacobus, Jacob Ogden, 
Richard Rikeman, Joseph Smiihson, John Simpson, 
Ephraim C. Simpson, William Tucker (deserted), Stephen 
C. Woodruff, John Glover. 

The regiment of militia which went to the Hook at 
about the same time was commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel John Seward, and was in the United States ser- 
vice from about September ist 18 14 to December gih 
1814. The following is a roster ofthe field and staff: 

Lieutenant-colonel, John Seward; majors — Jonathan 
Brown, John L. Anderson, Benjamin Rosenkrans; adju- 
tant, Ebenezer F. Smith; paymaster, David Thompson 
jr.; surgeon, Hampton Dunham; surgeon's mate, Timothy 
S. Johnes; sergeant major, Richard Reed; quartermaster 
sergeants — Jonas L. Willis, Nathaniel O. Condit (np- 
pointed quartermaster September 13th 1814); drum major, 
William Fountain; fifer, John S. Smith; waiters— Israel 
Seward, waiter to the colonel; Benjamin Ayres, waiter to 
the surgeon; Matto Derbe, waiter to the surgeon's mate. 

There were fourteen companies, which were in service 
as follows — the precise dates of their musters in and out 
not being the same: Captains William Vliet and Benja- 
man Coleman's company, September 9th to December 
6th; Captain Joseph Budd's, September 9th to December 
5th; tlie companies of Captains Vancleve Moore, Robert 
Perrine, Charles South, John S. Darcy, Thomas Teas, 
dale and George Beardslee, from September 6th to De- 
cember .sth; Captain Alexander Reading's, September 
8th to December 5th; Captain Abraham Webb's, Sep- 
tember 3d to December 4th; Captain Daniel Kilburn's, 
September ist to December sth; Captain William Drum's, 
September 3d to December 6th; Captain William Swaze's, 
September 8th to December 7th. 

On Sunday the nth of September the uniformed com- 
panies of General Colfax's brigade, numbering 1,200 



men, paraded and marched to " high ground " to hear 
Rev. Dr. Stephen Grover, of Caldwell, preach to them. 
About the 20th the brigade removed from Paulus Hook 
to the heights of Navesink, where and at Sandy Hook it 
remained until the last of November, when 'the men were 
paid off and ordered home. They arrived in Morristown 
Saturday evening December 7th 1814, and Halliday's 
Rangers paraded on the 8th and were given a public din- 
ner. 

A singular incident of this war was the volunteering on 
the part of about four hundred citizens of Washington, 
Chester, Mendham and Morris to labor a day on the 
fortifications of New York. In the A''c7cj York Gazette 
of September 10th 1814 is this acknowledgment of their 
service: "We have the satisfaction again to notice the 
distinguished and practical patriotism of our sister State 
New Jersey. Between four and five hundred men from 
Morris county, some from a distance of nearly fifty miles, 
headed by their revered pastors, were at work yesterday 
on the fortifications of Harlem. Such exalted and dis- 
tinguished patriotism deserves to be and will be held in 
grateful remembrance by the citizens of New York, and 
recorded in the pages of history, to the immortal honor 
of the people of that State." 

The war, as might have been expected, stimulated cer- 
tain manufactures, our commerce with foreign nations 
being almost entirely cut off. The Mount Hope furnace 
was started up, and Dr. Charles M. Graham advertised 
December 30th 1812 that the Hibernia furnace would be 
thereafter conducted by him. Matthias Denman, Abra- 
ham Wooley and Samuel Adams had been previously his 
partners in its operation. He also advertises thirty-five 
casks of New Jersey made copperas of the first quality, 
at the Hibernia store, for cash or grain at New York 
prices. The copperas was manufactured at the copperas 
mine near Green Pond, where Job Allen during the 
Revolutionary war carried on the business. The end of 
the war put an end to this industry and it never was re- 
vived. 



CHAPTER VIL 



THE IRON INDUSTRY OF MORRIS COUNTY — EARLIEST 
ENTERPRISES — FORGES AND BLOOMARIES. 




HE history of the iron industry of Morris 
county reaches back almost to its first set- 
tlement. We have no positive knowledge of 
any actual settlement in the county until 
about 1700. Yet in 17 14 the tract em- 
bracing the Dickerson mine was taken up on 
^ account of its minerals, from the proprietors of 
West Jersey, by John Reading, who in 1716 sold it to 
Joseph Kirkbride; and it is a matter of tradition that 
previous to that time the ore was manufactured into iron 
by the owners of forges, who were allowed to help them- 



40 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



selves without charge. The presence of the ore was 
known to the Indians yet earlier than this; and their 
name for the locality " Suckasuna " (or, as some have it, 
" Sock-Soona "), meaning "black stone" or "heavy 
stone," has been given to the plains which extend to the 
westward of the hills wherein the mine is situated. 
Arrow-heads and utensils of various kinds made of iron 
by the Indians have been picked up in the neighbor- 
hood. 

It is altogether probable that the presence of ore in 
great abundance, the forests which covered the whole 
land, ready for the collier, and the abundant waterfalls 
of the many rivers and brooks which traversed the 
mountainous region were the chief inducements which 
led the first settlers into its wildernesses. It is a circum- 
stance which has not failed to impress itself upon those 
familiar with the records of the proprietors of East Jersey 
that among the first lands to be taken up or purchased, 
especially in the northern part of the county, were the 
lots containing waterfalls, and where veins of ore cropped 
out on the surface, afterward pieces of natural meadow, 
and last of all the surrounding hills. 

In the " brief account of the province of East Jersey, 
in America, published by the present proprietors " in 
1682, it is said: "What sort of mines or minerals are in 
the bowels of the earth after-time must produce, the 
inhabitants not having yet employed themselves in search 
thereof; but there is already a smelting furnace and forge 
set up in this colony, where is made good iron, which is 
of great benefit to the country." This furnace and forge 
were probably the iron works at Tinton Falls, in Mon- 
mouth county, and the quotation shows that the minerals 
of Morris county had not yet been discovered. Of the 
seven " considerable towns " mentioned as being in East 
Jersey none are west of Orange Mountain, and the whole 
region was no doubt an unbroken wilderness. 

The first forge within the present bounds of Morris of 
which we have any knowledge was erected at Whippany, 
on what was then called, by its Indian name, the Whip- 
panong River, just above the bridge which crosses the 
stream nearly in front of the church. Tradition fixes as 
early a date as 17 10 for its erection. Mr. Green in his 
history of the Hanover church speaks of the old building 
in the Whippany graveyard as "about 100 rods below 
the forge which is and has long been known by the name 
of the Old Iron Works." It was no doubt a very small 
and rude affair, where good iron was made free from the 
ore by smelting it with charcoal, and without any of the 
economical appliances even of the bloomaries of a hun- 
dred years later. The ore was brought to it from the 
Succasunna mine in leather bags on horseback, and the 
iron was carried to market at tide water in bars bent to 
fit a horse's back — the only method of transportation. 
A single horse, it is said, would carry from four to five 
hundred pounds fifteen miles in a day. Not a vestige of 
this forge now remains, and its builder is unknown. The 
conjecture is that John Ford and Judge Budd built it. 
An aged Presbyterian clergyman. Rev. Isaac Todd, of 
Ocean county, who is still living, and is a descendant of 



Colonel Jacob Ford sen., says the ancestor of the Morris 
county Fords was John Ford, of Woodbri.dge. While in 
Philadelphia in 17 10, as a representative of his church to 
the presbytery, he made the acquaintance of Judge Budd, 
who had a large estate in Morris county. Budd offered 
Ford a large tract of land if he would remove to Monroe, 
between Morristown and Whippany, an offer which was 
accepted. 

Following up the Whippany River forges were erected 
soon after near the site of Morristown, of the same char- 
acter as the Whippany forge, and getting their supply of 
ore from the same source. One was located just north 
of what is now called Water street and near Flagler's mill, 
called the Ford forge. Colonel Jacob Ford sen., who 
probably built this forge, and afterward forges on the 
two branches of the Rockaway, was called by Peter 
Hasenclever "one of the first adventurers in bloomary 
iron works." All the forges near Morristown were ex- 
tinct in 1823. 

The first forge at Dover was built, it is said, by John 
Jackson in 1722, on what is still called Jacks9n's Brook, 
near the present residence of Alpheus Beemer. Jackson 
purchased a tract of 527 acres of one Joseph Latham, 
including the site of this forge and much of the land 
west of Dover. The venture was not a successful one, 
however, and in 1757 the forge passed into the hands of 
Josiah Beman, and the farm into those of Hartshorne 
Fitz Randolph. 

It is to be noted, however, that in 1743 a tract of 91 
acres was located by Joseph Shotwell which covered 
most of the village of Dover, on both sides of the river 
from where the Morris and Essex Railroad crosses it to 
below Bergen street, and it was said to be at a place 
called the " Quaker Iron Works." In 1769 Josiah Be. 
man, " bloomer," mortgages to Thomas Bartow the same 
tract, " being that which John Jackson formerly lived on 
and whereon the forge and dwelling house which was his 
did stand," and which land was " conveyed to him by 
Joseph Prudden by deed dated April 7th i76r; except- 
ing out of this present grant nine acres on which the 
forge stands sold by him to Robert Schooley." It 
further appears from other deeds that the indebtedness 
secured by this mortgage was contracted in 1761, prob- 
ably when the purchase was made of Prudden. In 1768 
Joseph Jackson and his son Stephen purchased of Robert 
Schooley one fire in this forge. The next year Joseph 
Jackson conveyed his interest in the forge to his son. 
Josiah Beman, the owner as it appears as early as 1761 
of this Dover forge, was a brother of David Beman of 
Rockaway, the brother-in-law of General Winds and the 
grandfather of the late Thomas Green of Denville. He 
lived in the long, low house in the village of Dover still 
standing on the north side of the mill pond. He is 
described as a man of great piety, a regular attendant 
upon the church at Rockaway and of very simple habits. 
Stephen Jackson learned his trade of him, and in 1764 
bought the last year of his tinie of him for ^100 — then 
considered a large sum — and with Andrew King leased 
ai5d carried on the forge for a time. If is said the two 



EARLY IRON FORGES. 



41 



young men kept bachelors' hall, doing their own cooking, 
which was of the simplest kind, by turns. In a few years 
they both had capital to go into business for themselves, 
and both became prominent iron manufacturers. Beman 
sold his forge to Canfield & Losey in 1792, and the new 
firm enlarged the business by the erection of rolling- 
mills, etc. 

In 1748 the land on both sides of the river at Rocka- 
way was located by Colonel Jacob Ford, and the tract 
was said to include " Job Allen's iron works." In 1767 
letters of administration of Job Allen's estate were granted 
to Colonel Jacob Ford, his principal debtor; tending to 
the conclusion that the pioneer ironmaster of Rockaway 
had been no more successful than his neighbor at Dover. 
These iron works were built,>as near as can now be as- 
certained, in 1730. 

The little dam in the middle of the upper pond and 
covered ordinarily by water was that on which this 
earliest structure depended for its supply of water. In 
1774 Joseph Prudden jr., of Morristown, conveyed to 
Thomas Brown and John Cobb one fire in this forge, ihe 
other being in the possession of David Beman. May 
30th 1778 Cobb & Brown convey the same fire, with the 
appurtenances, " coal yards, dams and ponds," to Stephen 
Jackson. In 1780, January 2nd, David Beman conveyed 
his half of the forge to John Jacob Faesch; and January 
ist 1782 Stephen Jackson conveyed his part also to him. 
Faesch retained possession of the works until his death, 
when they were bought back by Stephen Jackson. In 
181 2 Stephen Jackson devised this forge to his sons Wil- 
liam and John D. Jackson; but both interests were 
purchased by their brother Colonel Joseph Jackson, who 
had since 1809 been the owner of the lower forge 
at Rockaway. By him it was sold in 1850 to his 
son-in-law Samuel B. Halsey, to whose heirs it still 
belongs. 

It is evident that about the years 1748-50 a great ad- 
vance was made in the manufacture of iron. In 1741 a 
humble " representation " was made by the Council and 
House of Representatives to the governor of the province, 
Lewis Morris, setting forth the abundance of iron ore 
and the conveniences for making the same into pig and 
bar iron which existed, and that with proper encourage- 
ment they could probably in some years wholly supply 
that necessary commodity to Great Britain and Ireland, 
" for which they become annually greatly indebted to 
Sweden and other nations "; but that hitherto they had 
"made but small advantage therefrom, having imported 
but very inconsiderable quantities either of pig metal or 
bar iron into Great Britain, by reason of the great dis- 
couragement they be under for the high price of labor 
and the duties by act of Parliament on these commodities 
imported from his Majesty's plantations in America. 
That should it please the British Legislature to take off 
the duties at present payable on importations, and allow 
such bounty thereon as to them in their great wisdom 
might seem reasonable, the inhabitants of this and other 
of his Majesty's colonies in North America would be 
thereby the better enabled to discharge the respective 



balances due by them to their mother country, and greatly 
to increase the quantities of her manufactures by them 
exported (as their return would be in those only); where- 
by the annual debt by her incurred to Sweden and other 
foreign nations for iron would be considerably lessened, 
and the navigation and ship-building throughout the 
British dominions greatly encouraged and enlarged." 

This very humble petition seems to have had no im- 
mediate leffect; but in 1750 an act of Parliament was 
transmitted to the governor of the colony entitled " an 
act to encourage the importation of pig and bar iron from 
his Majesty's colonies in America, and to prevent the 
erection of any mill or other engine for slitting or rolling 
of iron, or any plating forge to work with a tilt hammer, 
or any furnace for making steel, in any of the said colon- 
ies." The act corresponded with its title; and, while it 
permitted the colonists to manufacture and send to the 
mother country pig and bar iron under certain regula- 
tions, it strictly forbade, under penalty of ;^20o, the 
erection of any such mill as was intended to be prohib- 
ited. They might make the crude article, but they must 
send it to the mother country to be reduced to such 
shape as to fit it for use. The forge man could make 
the iron bloom, but he must send it across the Atlantic 
to be rolled into the nail rods and horseshoe iron he and 
his neighbors required for their own use. 

The governors were ordered to report the mills, etc., 
then erected, and accordingly Governor Belcher reported 
that there were in New Jersey that year one mill for 
slitting and rolling iron, in Bethlehem township, Hunter- 
don county; one plating forge at Trenton and one 
furnace for making steel in Trenton — of which only the 
plating forge was then used; and besides these, the 
governor adds, " I do also certify that from the strictest 
inquiry I can possibly make there is no other mill or 
engine for slitting and rolling of iron, or plating forge 
which works with a tilt hammer, or furnace for making 
steel, within his Majesty's province of New Jersey." 

Whether as one of the effects of this law or not, several 
forges were built in the county about the time it went 
into operation. Colonel Jacob Ford, of Morristown, in 
1750 "took up "or located the falls of the east branch 
of the Rockaway at Mt. Pleasant, and proceeded to erect 
two forges there. The same year he purchased the falls 
on the same stream at Denmark, where the "Burnt 
Meadow forge " was built. It is called " John Harri- 
man's Iron Works " in 1764, but a few years afterward 
was owned by Jacob Ford jr. In 1749 Jonathan Osborn 
purchased the falls midway between Denmark and Mt. 
Pleasant, and built what is known as Middle forge — the 
site of which is now owned by the United States. All 
these forges were in the hands of the Fords before the 
Revolutionary war. 

There was also a forge about half a mile below Lower 
Longwood in existence at the time of the war, which was 
called " Ford's forge," which was extinct in 1823; but 
exactly when it was built cannot be ascertained. In a 
deed made in 1803 from Samuel Tuthill to John P. Losey 
mention is made of the bridge that crosses the Rockawpy 



42 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



River " a little above where the old Speedwell forge 
formerly stood." 

About this time, that is to say from 1750 to the break- 
ing out of the Revolutionary war, were also erected many 
other ancient forges. One stood on the Whippany River 
near Morristown, railed the Carmichael forge, and one 
at Malapardis, about three miles northeast of Morristown. 
Both of these were extinct before this century began. 
The Hathaway forge on the Whippany, close to the 
Morris and Essex Railroad, and about a mile west of 
Morris Plains station, was built by Captain James Keene, 
who was a captain in the Revolutionary army, and who 
ran it until 1780. Jonathan Hathaway, from whom it 
took its name, owned and ran it for over twenty-five 
years, then Benjamin Holloway until 1806, when it was 
burned down. It was rebuilt, but a fresliet in 1821 
broke away the dam and it was not again in operation- 

On Den Brook, a tributary of the Rockaway, were 
built Shongum forge, owned by Deacon John Hunting- 
ton; Ninkey forge (owned by Abraham and John Kin 
ney in 1796 and sold as their property in 1799 to Caleb 
Russel), built and rebuilt several times; Coleraine (or 
Cold-rain) forge, lower down the stream; and still lower 
Franklin forge, built by John Cobb, Thomas Brown and 
Stephen Jackson just previous to the war. Hubbard S. 
Stickle, who has just died at the advanced age of ninety- 
eight years, and who himself built one forge and assisted 
in building several others, said he could remember when 
all four of these forges were running. 

Colonel James W. Drake writes in 1854 that, "princi- 
pally for the purpose of consuming the surplus wood, 
four forges for manufacturing iron were at different 
times erected in the township of Mendham, but the fires 
of all of them have been long extinguished. The ore 
for their supply was almost entirely furnished by the 
well known Suckasunny mine. A small amount of ore 
was at one time supplied by a mine in the village of 
Water Street, but at length the use of it was abandoned, 
as iron could not be made of it." From an old map 
made in 1823, showing the forges active and extinct in 
Morris county at that time, it appears that these forges 
were the "Rushes" and "Mendham" forges, on the 
north branch of the Raritan; "Leddle's forge," on a 
branch of the Passaic; and " Rye" forge, on the Whip- 
pany river at Water Street, all extinct. The mine 
spoken of by Colonel Drake was reopened and worked 
extensively since the last war by Ario Pardee and other 
lessees of the owner, Madison Connet. 

In 1751 John Johnston bought of the proprietors the 
falls of the Beach Glen Brook at Beach Glen, and built 
the forge known for many years as '' Johnston's iron 
works." It was sold by Job Allen to Benjam.in Beach 
and Henry Tuttle December 30th 1771, and Beach 
shortly after bought out his partner and continued to 
operate it until his death. Benjamin Beach (son of 
Abner Beach) is described as a self-made man, who, 
beginning with very small means, by integrity, industry 
and systematic perseverance acquired a large estate, 
owning at the time of his death over a thousand acres of 



land. Beach Glen before it was so called, in honor of 
himself, was called Horse Pound, because the early set- 
tlers, by building a fence from one high hill to the other, 
formed a pound into which they drove their wild horses 
to catch them. From Benjamin Beach the forge de- 
scended to his two sons Chilion and Samuel Searing; 
and the site is still in the family, being owned by Dr. 
Columbus Beach, the son of Chilion. The dam was 
swept away by a freshet in 1867, and has never been 
rebuilt. 

There was also an old forge at Troy, near the present 
residence of Andrew J. Smith, built probably by John 
Cobb. It (or, rather, its site— for the forge has gone 
down) is still owned in part by some of the descendants 
of Cobb, one-half being owned by Andrew J. Smith, 
whose father, Ebenezer F. Smith, ran it as late as i860. 
There was also an old forge at the head of Speedwell 
Pond, and another at the present dam at Speedwell 
where Arnold & Kinney erected their slitting-mill. 
Colonel Ford is said to have been the builder of these. • 

White Meadow was also a place of importance at lh"s 
time. A lot was located here in 1753 by David Beman, 
probably for the purpose of building a forge, and he and 
Thomas Miller were, no doubt, the builders of one. 
They or one of them conveyed to John Bigalow and 
Aaron Bigalow; for in 1769 the Bigalows gave a mort- 
gage of one-half of the forge " which was built at the 
place called White Meadow." October i8th 1774 the 
Bigalows gave a mortgage on a tract of 142^ acres 
(including the lot returned to Beman), said to be a 
tract which Thomas Miller bought of Thomas Barton 
and David Beman, and conveyed to said Bigalows by 
deed of even date with the mortgage. From the Biga- 
lows it fell into the possession of Abraham Kitchel, who 
conveyed it to Bernard Smith (the friend of Faesch) in 
1792. Smith was obliged to part with it, and sold it to 
Isaac Canfield in 1802. 

About a mile below White Meadow was the forge well 
known as " Guinea forge," built by Colonel John Munson 
before 1774. A recital by Benjamin Beach and Abrahan 
Kitchel, in the minutes of the board of proprietors in 
1785, quotes an application of Munson and Benjamin 
Beach in 1774 for a large tract of land lying near these 
works, which tells the history of this forge for the ten 
years previous, as follows: 

" To the Honorable the Council of Proprietors — A 
tract of land [was] surveyed by Thomas Millige to Ben- 
jamin Beach and Colonel John Munson of about 2,600 
acres, but no deed has been given nor moneys paid 
except the surveying, recording, &c. Colonel Munson, 
being unable to carry on his forge, sold his forge and 
right to procure a deed in his name to Joshua Winget, 
who sold the same to Samuel Crane. Crane sold to 
Abijah Sherman, and when Sherman broke. Crane took 
the forge again and now Crane proves insolvent. Mr. 
Beach does not expect to take more than half of the 
land surveyed and recorded as above. Colonel Munson, 
not being able to attend, prays that his contract may be 
void. Abraham Kitchel and Mark Walton will take 
Colonel Munson's part provided they can have it for a' 
reasonable sum." 



EARLY FORGES— ANDREW KING— PETER HASENCLEVER. 



43 



With White Meadow forge Guinea forge fell into the 
hands of Abraham Kitchel, who conveyed it in 1791 to 
Bernard Smith, who conveyed it to Isaac Canfield in 
1802. Both these forges were afterward owned by 
Colonel Thomas Muir, whose family still own White 
Meadow and the mine and large tracts surrounding. 
Guinea forge was bought by Hubbard S. Stickle, who 
owned its site at the time of his death. Both forges 
have long been down. 

The capacity of the forges built before the Revolution 
may be judged from a petition presented to the House 
of Assembly in September 1751, by the owners of bloom- 
aries in the county oT Morris, " setting forth that they 
humbly conceive their bloomaries are not comprehended 
in the late law for returning the taxables of the province; 
and that there are many bloomaries in the said county 
that don't make more than five or six tons of iron in a 
year; and that therefore the profits of such forges cannot 
pay any tax, but m'any of them on the contrary must be 
obliged to let their works fall if any tax be laid on them; 
and praying the House will rather encourage so publick 
a benefit, and instead of laying a tax grant a small 
bounty upon every ton of bar iron fitted for market, and 
a receipt of the same being shipped for London pro- 
duced to the treasurer, according to a late act of Par- 
liament." No action appears to have been taken upon 
this petition. 

The ore for these forges continued to be taken princi- 
pally from the Dickerson mine, on account of its greater 
richness and purity, though the great Jugular vein at 
Mount Hope and the vein at Hibernia had become 
known. The forgemen constituted a class by them- 
selves, handing down in many instances from father to 
son the trade they lived by. It was a day of simple 
habits and men lived on the plainest fare. Morristown 
was the chief source of supply, and many of the men 
made the trip on foot from the upper part of the county 
to that place once a week to get their supplies. From 
Henry Baker, of Mt. Pleasant, we have this incident of 
his grandfather, Andrew King, who was one of Colonel 
Ford's forgemen at Mt. Pleasant, and who at one time 
leased, as we have stated, the Dover forge of Josiah 
Beman. 

On one of his visits to Morristown for supplies the 
store keeper recommended to him tea as a new article of 
diet, which he would find very agreeable. He took a 
package of it home, with a very general idea of the man- 
ner in which it should be prepared for the table, and his 
good wife, who had never seen the article before, attempted 
to make a pudding of it. The bag in ^yhich she had se- 
cured it burst in the boiling, and with great difficulty she 
succeeded in keeping it within bounds during the cook- 
ing. Of course no one could eat the unpalatable dish, 
and on being asked how he liked it when in Morristown 
again he replied they did not want any more of it. When 
he described the use they had sought to make of it, it 
created no little amusement in the store. He said they 
"could neither eat the pudding nor drink the broth." 
However, he was persuaded to make a new trial, and 



with more definite instructions, and with wooden cups 
and saucers and a new package the use of the beverage 
was inaugurated under more favorable auspices. 

This Andrew King was a man of excellent character 
and thoroughly understood his busiriess. By his industry 
and thrift he acquired considerable property, and he died 
when over 90 years of age, in Dover, where he owned a 
house and farm on the hill south of the Morris and 
Essex depot. One of his daughters married Jeremiah 
Baker, of Mt. Pleasant. A son, John King, acted as 
clerk for Faesch at Mt. Hope and for Stotesbury at Hi- 
bernia, and finally in 1802 went with Nathan and David 
Ford to Ogdensburg, where they were the pioneers. 
Preston King, who it will be remembered was at one time 
collector of the port of New York, and committed suicide 
by jumping from a ferryboat in the North River, was a 
son of this John King. 

An incident to illustrate the capacity of these early 
forges is thus narrated by the late William Jackson: — 
While Colonel Jacob Ford owned and worked the Middle 
forge he lived at Morristown. One Saturday evening he 
returned home in fine spirits and said to his wife: " Now, 
wife, you must make one of your largest short cakes, for 
I have made one of the largest loops ever made in the 
county. How much do you think it weighed ?" he asked 
his wife. Of course she could not tell and asked him 
how much. He answered, " It weighed 28^ pounds ! 
was not that a big one !" 

Peter Hasenclever, a German born at Remscheid, in 
1 7 16, came to this country about 1764 as the representa- 
tive of the London Company. Within three years he is 
said to have built a furnace at Charlotteburgh (on the 
borders of Morris county) and three miles further down 
stream a " finery forge," with four fires and two ham- 
mers, capable of making 250 tons of bar iron a year 
single handed and from 300 to 350 tons double handed; 
and a mile lower down still a second forge, of equal ca- 
pacity. He introduced many improvements in the manu- 
facture of iron and increased the capacity of the forges. 
Governor Franklin appointed a committee, consisting of 
Lord Stirling, Colonel John Schuyler, Major Tunis Day 
and James Grey, to examine into his acts in behalf of his 
company, with whom he had gotten into difficulty. This 
commission, reporting at Newark July 8th 1768, testified 
to the perfection of his iron works and to the fact that he 
had introduced many improvements in the manufacture 
of iron, some of which had been adopted in England. 
They said: " He is the first person that we know who 
has so greatly improved the use of the great natural 
ponds of this country as by damming them to secure 
reservoirs of water for the use of iron works in the dry 
season, without which the best streams are liable to fail 
in the great droughts we are subject to." They further 
said that he was the first to make old cinder beds profit- 
able; that he improved the furnaces by building the in- 
walls of slate instead of stones, which seldom lasted 
longer than a year or two, and by placing the stack under 
roof; that he only used overshot wheels, and " around 
the hammer-wheel, shafts with strong cast-iron rings, 



44 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



whose arms served as cogs to lift the hammer handle." 
The commission, whose members were all interested in 
iron works and mines, and so able to speak authoritatively, 
said these contrivances were new ones — " at least they 
are new in America." It may be interesting to know 
that Hasenclever was justified by a decision of Lord 
Thurlow in England after a long litigation, and that he 
was so successful as a linen manufacturer in Silesia that 
he refused as advantageous invitation from Benjamin 
Franklin to return to America. 

After the Revolutionary war, and especially in the de- 
cade preceding and in that following 1800, many new 
forges were built, of larger size and some of them prob- 
ably occupying sites of others which had gone down. 
In a letter written to Richard Henry Lee in 1777 Wash- 
ington states that in " Morris county alone tliere are be- 
tween eighty and one hundred iron works, large and 
small." Unless the writer counted each fire of every 
forge it is impossible to verify this statement by locating 
the iron works, or even then unless some of those known 
to have been built at a later period were built on sites of 
■ older forges. Charcoal furnaces had been built before 
the war, but while ore and charcoal were so abundant, 
and the work of refining so little understood, there was 
sufficient demand for bloomary iron to make work for all 
the forges; and the time of greatest prosperity among the 
bloomaries was the earlier part of this century and before 
anthracite coal came into use. 

Besides the forges mentioned, some of which were still 
in operation, the principal other forges of the county 
after the war were as follows: 

Beginning at the head waters of the west branch of the 
Rockaway River we have nearest its source the Hopewell 
forge, near the boundary line of, if not within, Sussex 
county. It was built, tradition says, by Colonel Samuel 
Ogden, of Boonton, and was probably rebuilt by Samuel 
G. I. De Camp about 181 2. It has long been idle, and 
is going to ruin. 

The next forge, a mile below Hopewell, called "Russia," 
was built before 1800, and was long known as William 
Headley's forge. Prof. Cook places its erection as early 
as 1775. It was an old forge in 1806, when it was owned 
by William Fichter. It was owned in 1828 by Joseph 
Chamberlain, and is now by Jetur R. Riggs. Colonel 
Samuel Ogden conveyed the land on vvhich it was built 
to Thomas Keepers in 1800; and Mrs. Davenport, 
Thomas Keepers's daughter, says that there were forges 
here and at Hopewell before 1800, which were called 
" Upper and Lower Farmingham forges." Situate as 
Russia forge is, just where the river issues from the 
mountains with a fall of twenty-five or thirty feet, the site 
was a most desirable one and was probably early taken 
up. 

The next forge, a mile lower down, was called the 
" Swedeland forge." It was built by John Dow, Cor- 
nelius Davenport and Jacob Riker, before 1800. Dow 
was the leading spirit in the enterprise. In 1806 Colonel 
John Stanburrough took possession of the premises, and 
he operated the forge more or less at intervals until his 



death, which occurred in 1862. He took the premium 
of the Morris County Agricultural Society over fifty 
years ago for making a ton of octagon iron in the shortest 
time. The premium was a silver oup, which is held as 
an heirloom in the family by his youngest daughter, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Dalrymple, of Branchville, N. J. The forge 
has been repaired by Albert R. Riggs, its present owner, 
and is now in a better state of preservation than any 
other forge in Jefferson township. 

The next forge, about one and a half miles below 
Swedeland, is Petersburg. This is a very old forge, some 
placing its erection as early as 1730. The land was lo- 
cated for Robert Hunter Morris and James Alexander, 
June 3d 1754. Jonah Austin mortgaged to Abraham 
Ogden, October ist 1777. one quarter interest in the 
forge and lot called " Petersburg." It has also been 
called " Arnold's " forge, having once been owned by 
Jacob Arnold, of the Speedwell iron works. It has been 
transferred many times, but has now gone to decay. The 
site is owned by Lev/is Chamberlain. 

On a branch of the Rockaway River which comes in 
from the east below Petersburg is built the " Hard Bar- 
gain " forge, now owned by Stephen Strait. It stands 
on the same tract originally as the Petersburg forge, from 
which it is distant only a quarter of a mile in an air line. 
It was built about 1795, by an association of persons 
among whom were John Dow, Christian Strait, John 
Davenport and others. Though a one-fired forge it had 
at one tmie nine partners. In 1828 it belonged to Adams 
& Dean. The buildings are still in good repair, but have 
long been disused. 

Passing down the Rockaway River about one and a 
half miles we come next to Woodstock forge. This is of 
comparatively recent origin, having been built about the 
year 1825, by Ephraim Adams, James L. Dickerson and 
Stephen Adams. The tract of land (1,748 acres) upon 
which it stands was returned to Skinner & Johnson for 
Thomas Kinney in 1774. This forge never made a large 
quantity of iron, the fall in the stream being insufficient 
to give proper hammering capacity to draw out the iron 
when made. It belongs to Zopher O. Talmadge, who 
uses it as a distillerv. 

The next forge below Woodstock is the Upper Long- 
wood forge, which stands in the same tract of 1,748 
acres as the Woodstock. It is a very old forge and 
large quantities of iron have been made there. John 
De Camp became its owner about 1798 and it is said to 
have been rebuilt by him on a new foundation, a' freshet 
having carried out the old works. De Camp, who carried 
on the forge until 1817, was a brother of Joseph, Lemuel 
and David De Camp, all of whom were more or less en- 
gaged in iron manufacture. An anchor shop was at one 
time attached to this forge, in which large quantities of 
anchors were manufactured and many men employed. 
The forge buildings have fallen or been torn down, and 
the property, containing some 2,00c acres of land, is now 
owned by John Kean, of Elizabeth. 

The next forge in order and a mile lower down the 
stream is the Lower Longwood forge, standing on the 



FORGES ON THE ROCKAWAY. 



45 



same tract of 1,748 acres above mentioned. It is said 
to have been built by Ebenezer Tuttle and Grandin 
Morris, about 1796, and bought by Canfield & Losey 
in 1806. From them it passed into the hands of Black- 
well & McFarlan. It is now the property of John Hance, 
but has long ceased to be a forf;,e. 

Below Lower Longwood was the old Speedwell or 
Ford forge, already spoken of. 

For much of the above information respecting the 
forges on the upper Rockaway we are indebted to 
Horace Chamberlain, of Oakridge, formerly a member 
of the Legislature from this county, a gentleman whose 
local knowledge and lifelong experience as a surveyor 
have made him very familiar with the history especially 
of the northerly part of the county. 

Next in order is the " Valley forge," within sight of 
the track of the Morris and Essex Railroad, which was 
built by Jared Coe and Minard Lefever, probably before 
or during the Revolutionary war. Prof. Cook places the 
date at 1780. It came into the hands of Canfield & Losey 
about 1800, and was burned down in i8r4. Jeremiah 
Baker, the son-in-law of Andrew King, and who had 
already commenced to acquire the large property which 
he afterward possessed, built it up with an agreement to 
purchase; but after working it for a year Canfield & 
Losey took it back, and Baker bought it a second time of 
Blackwell & McFarlan, who had succeeded to the bus- 
iness and property of Canfield & Losey, in 1817. This 
was with an understanding that Blackwell & McFarlan 
should take all the iron he made. In 1828 it again 
burned down, and was rebuilt by Mr. Baker. In 1875 it 
was burned a third time, \vhile rented by Messrs. Mc- 
Clees, of New York, from Henry and William H. Baker, 
to whom their father had devised it. It has not been 
rebuilt. 

The next forge on the west branch, and just before its 
junction with the east branch of the Rockaway, is Wash- 
ington forge, which was built by Charles Hoff and his 
brother-in-law Joseph De Camp about the year 1795. 
Charles Hoff sold his half to Joseph Hurd in 1808, and 
the De Camp heirs theirs 10 Joseph Dickerson, who owned 
the whole in 1828. It was run by Henry McFarlan 
until within a few years. 

Beginning at the head waters of the east branch of the 
Rockaway River, or, as it is called, Burnt Meadow 
Brook, the first forge was the " Burnt Meadow forge," or 
"Denmark," owned by Harriman & Sayre, and Jacob 
Ford jr., as we have seen, in its beginning. In 1806 the 
Fords sold to Benjamin Holloway, who built the present 
or last forge. Hubbard S. Stickle stated that he man- 
aged for Holloway from December 1806 to December 
1807, while it was being built. The old forge had then 
entirely disappeared. Holloway failed in 1818, and in 
1823 It was bought by George Stickle (father of Hubbard 
S. Stickle), who sold it in 182 r to John Hardy. John 
M. Eddy bought in 1841 and carried it on for several 
years, when it fell into the possession of Edward R. 
Biddle, then the owner of Mt. Hope. It finally, in 1858, 
came to the possession of Ernest Fiedler, of New York 



city, to whose heirs it still belongs. It has long been 
disused. 

About forty years ago " Big " Samuel Merritt built a 
forge on a little brook running out of Gravel Dam, 
on what is called the Garrigus place, near Denmark; 
but it was a small affair and soon abandoned. 

The next forge down the stream was " Middle forge," 
already mentioned. In 1773 Colonel Jacob Ford sen. 
conveyed this forge to Colonel Jacob Ford jr., and in 
1778 the executors of Jacob Ford jr. conveyed it to John 
Jacob Faesch, who ran it in connection with his works at 
Mount Hope until his death, June 28th 1800. General 
John Doughty, as commissioner appointed to sell the 
lands of Faesch, conveyed it to Moses Phillips jr.. who 
rebuilt and ran the forge for a number of years. Under 
him it was called the " Aetna forge." In 1839 it came 
into the hands of Samuel F. Righter, who conveyed it in 
r8s3 to his brother George E. Righter. He ran it till 
within a few years, when it was permitted to go to decay. 
The United States purchased the forge seat in 1880 with 
the large tract of land around it of Mr. Righter, and the 
government is now putting up extensive powder maga- 
zines there. For this purpose no other place was found 
to contain equal advantages. It was very easy of access 
to the seaboard, possessed a valuable water power, and 
the tract was as secluded as could be desired. 

The next forge is the Mount Pleasant forge, already 
spoken of. Here were at one time a four-fire forge 
above the bridge and a smaller one below. The upper 
or large forge was down before the beginning of this 
century; the lower one was standing to within a few 
years. 

The Rockaway River after the union of its two 
branches flows first through Dover, where were the old 
Josiah Beman forge and Schooley's forge (the Quaker 
iron works), already mentioned, and, it is said, a forge 
built by Moses Doty. Of these only one survived to 
the present century and became merged in the extensive 
iron works of Canfield & Losey, which will be spoken of 
hereafter. 

Below Dover the first forge on the Rockaway River 
was the old iron works of " Job Allen," where is the 
present forge at Rockaway, of which an account has 
been given. 

The lower forge at Rockaway was built by Stephen 
Jackson, after he had sold his interest in the upper one 
and found Faesch unwilling to sell it back to him. He 
had served as captain of militia cavalry in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and in the severe winter of 1780-1 was occu- 
pied with his company reconnoitering the enemy's lines 
below Short Hills. In this service he contracted a pul- 
monary disease which he supposed would terminate 
fatally, and in this belief sold his forge to Faesch. 
Afterward, recovering his health, he tried in vain to re- 
purchase it. A freshet in the winter of 1794-5 formed 
an ice dam below the upper dam and on his own land. 
He was prompt to act on this suggestion, building the 
next year the lower dam and forge at Rockaway, which 
he sold in rSog to his son Joseph. It remained in his 



46 



History of morris county. 



possession until 1852, when he conveyed it with the 
rolling-mill to Freeman Wood. It was never afterward 
used as a bloomary forge. It was used in the manufac- 
ture of steel, but only for a short time, and was then 
suffered to fall to pieces after the last war. 

A mile below the village of Rockaway a stream joins 
the Rockaway River, coming from the north, known as 
Beaver Brook. It is made up of three principal streams 
—the White Meadow Brook, upon which were built the 
White Meadow forge and Guinea forge already men- 
tioned; the Beach Glen Brook, upon which were the 
Hibernia forge and the Beach Glen forge (the old 
"Johnson iron works"); and the Meriden Brook, upon 
which were the Durham forge, the Split Rock forge and 
the two Meriden forges. 

Hibernia forge was built by William Scott after the 
furnace there went down. It ran but a short time, and 
has been gone for forty years at least. Of the Beach 
Glen forge mention has already been made. 

Durham forge, at Greenville, was built by Ebenezer 
Cobb, about the year 1800. Its site belongs to the estate 
of Andrew B. Cobb, deceased; but though the dam still 
retains a pond there is nothing left of the forge but the 
heavy castings, which vegetation has almost covered up. 

The Split Rock forge. was built about 1790, by a Mr, 
Farrand. It was bought by Colonel Lemuel Cobb, and 
formed part of that large tract of about 3,000 acres at 
Split-rock which was divided among his three heirs — 
Andrew B. Cobb, Mrs. William C. H. Waddell and Mrs. 
Benjamin Howell. The forge in the division fell to 
Andrew B. Cobb, and still forms a part of his estate. 
The old bloomary fires, however, have been replaced by 
a Wilson deoxidizer, which, by a process that introduces 
the ore heated and mingled with heated pulverized char- 
coal to three fires arranged around one stack, makes a 
charcoal bloom similar to that of the old-fashioned fire, 
but much more rapidly. 

Of the two forges at Meriden, one on the north side 
and the other on the south side of the public road, the 
upper one was built shortly after Split Rock and possibly 
by the same parties, the lower one by Peter Hiler, about 
1820. Colonel John Hinchman, of Denville, once owned 
this lower forge; from him it passed to John Righter, of 
Parsippany. Both forges have been down for many 
years. 

Below the mouth of Beaver Brook, at Denville, Den 
Brook enters the Rockaway from the southwest. Upon 
this stream were the Shongum, Ninkey, Cold-rain and 
Franklin forges, which have been mentioned. 

Near the Rockaway River in Rockaway Valley, on a 
brook coming from the hills on the west, James Dixon 
built in 1830 the forge which was operated for about 
thirty years by him and his two sons Cyrus and William. 

On another little stream which joins the Rockaway at 
Rockaway Valley, and about two miles north of the 
Valley church, a forge was built by John Deeker about 
1825 and called Deeker's forge. It was running to 
within a few years of the last war. 

Following down the Rockaway the next forge is 



Powerville forge, built in 1794 by William Scott. In 
1836 Scott built the rolling-mill on the same property. 
In the division of Colonel Scott's real estate this fell to 
his son Elijah D. Scott, who by deed and devise con- 
veyed it to Thomas Willis, in whose family the property 
still remains. The forge is yet in working order, though 
like the one at Rockaway used principally for working 
over scrap. 

Three miles below Powerville on the Rockaway is Old 
Boonton, of whose slitting-mill mention will be made 
hereafter. In connection with this mill was a four-fire 
forge, which long survived the other mills and was in op- 
eration until a late date. 

Besides the forges mentioned there were in the county 
several others. Benjamin Roome writes that Simon Van 
Ness had a forge on the Morris county side of the Pe- 
quannock River, about one and a half miles above Bloom- 
ingdale, which was worked by Robert Colfax as late as 
about 181 1, when a freshet tore it to pieces and it was not 
rebuilt. 

In 1821-2 Hubbard S. Stickle built the Montgomery 
forge, on Stone Meadow Brook, a tributary of the Pe- 
quannock, about two miles above Stony Brook. It is 
no longer in operation. < 

About the same time Timber Brook forge was built 
near Greenville, on Copperas Brook, a stream running 
north into the Pequannock, by John Dow. It was owned 
in 1828 by George Stickle, and afterward by Matthias 
Kitchel. Since the death of Mr. Kitchel it has been suf- 
fered to go to decay. 

On the stream running south into Lake Hopatcong 
were built two forges. The upper one, called the " Well- 
done " — since shortened into Weldon — forge, was built 
by Major Moses Hopping, probably about 1800. The 
land was located in 1793. The forge now belongs to 
Hon. William E. Dodge, of New York. The lower 
forge was built shortly before the other, probably in 
1795, by Daniel and Joseph Hurd, and called by them 
" New Partners." 

On the Musconetcong River there were several forges, 
but mostly on the Sussex side of the river. 

June 5th 1764 Benjamin and Thomas Coe deeded to 
Garret Rapalye " all one half of a certain forge with one 
fire, and one equal undivided half part of five acres of 
land which was surveyed for the use of s'd forge, with 
half of the stream or water only (excepting what the saw- 
mill now standing upon the same premises draw), stand- 
ing, lying and being upon Musconetcong River, in the 
province of New Jersey aforesaid, near the uppermost 
falls below the mouth of the Great Pond." January ist 
1768 Rapalye leased to Joseph and John Tuttle, who 
were brothers and living then in Hanover, his iron works 
for five years at ^300 a year, reserving the right to build 
a furnace on one end of the dam. The Tuttles were to 
deliver all the iron they made to Rapalye in New York 
for _;^28 per ton for refined iron, and ^^24 per ton for 
Whippany or bloomed iron, but the prices to vary with 
changes in the market. This lease was so onerous that 
it caused the failure of the Tuttles. 



FORGES ON THE RARITAN AND PEQUANNOCK. 



47 



In the New Jersey Gazette, 1778, is noticed the sale of 
a large tract of land " at the head of the Musconetcong 
River, about 35 miles from Elizabethtown and 4 from 
Suckasunny Plains, containing about 3,000 acres, having 
on it a large forge with four fires and two hammers, * 
* * which is now under lease for eight and a half tons 
of bar iron per annum." Rapalye mortgaged this forge 
to a London merchant, and on foreclosure of this mort- 
gage it was sold in 1809 by the sheriff to Thomas Cad- 
wallader, a lawyer of Philadelphia. September 25th 
181 1 Cadwallader sold it to James and John R. Hinch- 
man, for $1,000. 

William Jackson wrote that the Brooklyn forge was 
built by Phineas Fitz Randolph previous to 1800, and 
carried on by him and James Hinchman for many years. 
In 1828 it was said to be the property of Charles F. Ran- 
dolph. 

The Stanhope forges were built by Silas Dickerson, 
brother of Governor Mahlon Dickerson, soon after Brook- 
lyn forge was built. They were carried on by him until he 
was killed in the nail factory which he had just built, in 
1807. 

On the south branch of the Raritan there were at least 
three forges. William Stephens built one in 1840 about 
a mile below Budd's Lake, which was in operation but a 
few years, when it went down. George Salmon owned 
one at Upper Bartleyville, which was running as late as 
1862; and .at Bartleyville was the old forge known as 
" Welsh's forge," which ran down about 1840. Professor 
Cook gives the date of its erection asji79o. 

There is located on an old map (1823) the site of an 
"extinct forge," called Eaton, near Bartleyville, and 
another below the junction of the north and south 
branches, called " Casterline's." 

On the north branch at Flanders was an old forge, 
built by William Hinchman in 1802, and which ran for 
about forty years. In 181 2 he advertised in the 7l/i??-w- 
town Herald a large amount of property for sale, includ- 
ing " an excellent two-fire forge, in complete repair, for 
making bar iron, with workmen's houses, orchards, 
gardens, &c." 

On Black River were also three forges — one, whose 
ruins are remembered by old people — about a mile above 
the grist-mill of the late General Cooper; one at Hackle- 
barney, which was running until a late date, and one 
about a mile below Hacklebarney, which has long gone 

to decay. 

At Shippenport was built in 1844 a forge, to run by 
the waste water of the Morris Canal in summer and by a 
small natural stream at other seasons. This forge was 
greatly enlarged by Anson G. P. Segur a few years ago, 
and it is still in working order. 

Of the forges on the Pequannock River, which is the 
northerly boundary line of the county, it is proper to 
give some account, though the buildings were not on the 
Morris county side of the river. Horace Chamberlain 
has furnished the following information concerning them: 

Before the river leaves Sussex county, at the head waters 
was Canistear forge, worked at one time by 'Squire Adam 



Smith and the Day brothers. It has long since gone into 
disuse. Below this forge is " Margoram forge," so named 
from its former owner Stephen F. Margoram. It was 
carried away by the freshets of 1850. Mr. Margoram 
said to Mr. Chamberlain, after that event, that he had 
been trying to get out of the iron business, but the 
freshets had closed him out. Going down the river, just 
below the junction of its two branches, near Snufftown, 
are the ruins of another old forge — probably the creation 
of the enterprising spirit of John O. Ford, one of the 
leading forgemen of his day. It was called " New 
forge," and from this it may be supposed it was built 
after the others; but they were all of them comparatively 
recent. 

Farther down the river but still in Sussex county is 
" Windham forge." The corner of the counties of Mor- 
ris and Passaic in the line of Sussex county is a rock 
marked " M. S.," on the edge of the stream, about four 
chains below this forge. Windham was built by John O. 
Ford and run by him and his sons, the last one of whom 
was Sidney Ford, who finished his career as an iron- 
maker there. After Sidney Ford left it Frederick W. 
Dellecker, formerly surrogate of the county, became the 
owner, and from him it passed to Albert R. Riggs, its 
present owner. It is the only forge on the Pequannock 
which is still in working order. 

Next in order down the stream are the ruins of the 
old " Warner forge," so called from the Warner broth- 
ers, who, associated with a man named Hoops, under the 
firm name of " Warner & Hoops," purchased, improved 
and enlarged the forge about the year 1840, and after 
several years' unsuccessful operation vacated the prem- 
ises and returned to Pennsylvania, their native State. 
The site is now owned by Peter Tracy. 

Two or three hundred yards down the stream was the 
" Methodist forge,'' in after years known as " John Lewis 
forge." By whom and when it was built is unknown, 
but it was probably built by John O. Ford. After Mr. 
Lewis it came into the possession of Daniel Hulme and 
after him of Ebenezer W. Temple. It is now owned by 
his brother William Temple. 

Stockholm, next in order, some two or three hundred 
yards farther down the stream, was probably one of John 
O. Ford's enterprises. It remained in the Ford family 
until carried away by the freshets in 1850 while being 
worked by Horace Ford, one of the sons of John O. 
Ford. The three last mentioned forges are all on a tract 
of 492.22 acres returned in 1800 and known as John 
O. Ford's large tract. 

About three-eighths of a mile down said stream, where 
the mountains seemingly diverge to the right and left to 
give room for that valley of farming land known as 
Newfoundland, we come to what is called in common 
parlance the " Gregory forge," from its founder, Samuel 
S. Gregory, who gave it the more classic name of " Car- 
thage." One of the lots of this forge property was lo- 
cated in 1763. It now belongs to Jetur A. Riggs. 

The Pequannock River after leaving the mountains 
flows more slowly and sluggishly along, now to the right 



48 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



and now to the left, through the farming and meadow 
lands some six or seven miles to the village of New- 
foundland, the center of which is the hotel of John P. 
Brown. At this village a small forge was erected about 
forty years ago by an association of persons, among 
whom were the late Peter B. Brown and Ebenezer Cobb. 
It stands on a tract of 320.16 acres returned for James 
Alexander and Robert H. Morris, October 25th 1754. 
This forge has been called " 'Squire Cobb's forge," 
" Cobb & Bigalow's forge," and '" Bigalow & Dceker's 
forge," and sometimes " Tobacco forge " from its limited 
power. Its present owner, John W. Bigalow, has con- 
verted it into a saw-mill. 

About a mile above Brown's hotel Cedar Brook, flow- 
ing from the north, joins the Pequannock; up this brook 
about a mile was the celebrated Clinton iron-- works (so 
called in honor of De Witt Clinton), built by William 
Jackson in 1826 and in the six years following. Though 
entirely in Passaic county it was a Morris county enter- 
prise and undertaken by Morris county men. William 
Jackson was a son of Stephen Jackson of Rockaway, and 
had but recently, with his brother, built the rolling-mill 
there. Selling out his interest in the Rockaway mill he 
entered this then perfectly wild forest region, erected a 
saw-mill, forge and blast furnace, sawed timber and made 
iron, which he carted to Dover and Rockaway for mar- 
ket. The first blast was made under the supervision of 
John F. Winslow, a son-in-law of Mr. Jackson, afterward 
one of the i)roprietors of the Albany iron works. It 
commenced October 4th 1833 and continued until Feb- 
ruary 5th 1834. The second blast commenced May 9th 
1834, and ended April 29th 1835. The third and final 
blast commenced August 25th 1835, and ended January 
30th 1836. Mr. Jackson employed many men and teams 
in the transportation of his lumber and iron to their 
destination, and the returning trips were made with ore. 
He made roads and built dwelling houses and out-build- 
ings for his men and teams and such as were necessary 
for his business; also a grist-mill. An anchor shop was 
built and anchors were made. While the works were 
being constructed iron fell one half or more in price, ow- 
ing to the tariff legislation, and Mr. Jackson was obliged 
to stop operations. All the works have long been idle. 
Forge, saw-mill and grist-mill have disappeared, but the 
furnace stack still stands. The water power is a splendid 
one and the water, descending in three or four falls be- 
tween one and two hundred feet, presents a beautiful and 
romantic place to visit. 

Mr. Winslow went to Troy, N. Y., where he entered 
into partnership with Erastus Corning. The " Monitor," 
which met the " Merrimac " off Fortress Monroe in 1861, 
was built by them and" actually owned by them at the 
time of its wonderful victory. 

About two miles below Mr. Brown's is Charlotteburgh, 
or Charlottenburg, as it is generally called; so named, it 
is said, in honor of Queen Charlotte. Here, as has been 
said, the London Company had its furnaces, etc., before 
the Revolutionary war. The property was long in the 
possession of Chilion Ford De Camp and his son Edward 



De Camp, both Morris county men — the latter a son-in- 
law of Colonel William Scott, owner at one time of Hi- 
bernia, Povverville, etc. It is now owned by Hon. Abram 
S. Hewitt. 

A mile below Charlotteburgh was a small one-fire-forge, 
erected by the late John Smith in 1850, at a place called 
Smith's Mills. But little .iron was made here — hardly 
enough to make a cinder bank — and it long ago went 
to destruction. 

The next forge down the stream is the Bloomingdale 
forge, owned by Martin John Ryerson, near the old 
Ogden furnace. It is not now in operation. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CHARCOAL FURNACES — POMPTON, HIBERNIA, MT. HOPE 
AND SPLIT ROCK. 




HE first furnace within the present limits of 
Morris county was probably the one built at 
Bloomingdale, about a mile above Pompton, 
by the Ogdens. Benjamin Roome, for many 
years a deputy surveyor of the board of pro- 
prietors, and who has been engaged all his life in 
surveying and searching titles in Morris and 
Passaic, ascribes its erection to them. He states that he 
saw the stack still looking fair seventy years ago. It was 
close to the high bank, about one-eighth of a mile below 
where Stony Brook empties into the Pequannock. The 
Midland Railroad now passes just in front of its site. It 
has not been in blast since 1800, and must have been 
built many years before. It is now gone. The Ogdens 
were from Newark, and were the pioneers in furnace- 
building in this section, as well as in the manufacture of 
iron generally. April 15th 1740 Cornelius Board sold to 
Josiah Ogden, John Ogden jr., David Ogden sen., David 
Ogden jr. and Uzal Ogden, all of Newark and called the 
" Ringwood Company," sixteen acres of land at Ring- 
wood, where they built the furnace afterward purchased 
of them in 1764 by Peter Hansclever for the London 
Company. The Ringwood Company was thus the pre- 
decessor of the London Company. Josiah Ogden and 
David Ogden were brothers, and David had sons. John, 
David and Uzal. Josiah had a son named David and one 
named Jacob. It is quite probable that the David Ogden 
jr. was the son of Josiah Ogden, and the same afterward 
known as the Old Judge, and whose sons — Samuel, 
Abraham and Isaac — were men of mark in their day, 
Samuel being in partnership with or succeeding his father 
in Old Boonton. 

November 27th 1766 John Ogden and Uzal Ogden of 
Newark mortgaged to Thomas Pennington and Ferdi- 
nand Pennington, of Bristol, England, several tracts in 
the counties of Bergen and Morris, and among the rest a 
tract at Bloomingdale partly in Morris and partly in 



POMPTON AND HIBERNIA FURNACES. 



49 



Bergen, conveyed to them in two lots — one, containing 
137.64 acres, by Philip Schuyler and wife, August 
ist 1759; 'he other, containing 34 acres, by Guilliam 
Batolf, October 1765. It is altogether probable that on 
this tract the furnace stood and that the deeds to the 
Ogdens indicate when it was built. 

After the sale in 1764 to the London Company by the 
Ogdens we meet frequently with their names in the his- 
tory of the iron business of Morris county. Samuel 
Ogden resided at Boonton. April 17th 1776 Joseph 
Hoff speaks of a moulder whom he desired to obtain 
having been applied to by Messrs. Ogden, of Pompton 
furnace, to work at that business. It seems from this 
that the Ogdens after locating at Old Boonton still had 
their furnace at Pompton. 

HIBERNIA FURNACE. 

If the Bloomingdale furnace was not built before 1765 
then the first one in the county was the Hibernia furnace 
— styled in its beginning " The Adventure." A very in- 
teresting sketch of this enterprise during the Revolu- 
tionary war has been written for the May 1880 meeting 
of the New Jersey Historical Society by Rev. Joseph F. 
Tuttle, D. D., and published in the 6th volume of the 
society's proceedings. Much of the material used in 
making up this sketch is taken from that article. 

Hibernia is situated about four miles north of Rocka- 
way and is now connected with it by a railroad. Horse- 
pond Brook, coming from between high hills on the west, 
here falls into a little valley almost surrounded by other 
hills. On the northeast side of this valley and from the 
side of one of these hills the celebrated vein of iron ore 
outcropped. Here John Johnston obtained his ore for 
his " iron works " at Beach Glen, without troubling him- 
self as to ownership. May 17th 1753 Joshua Ball 
located the level ground on which is built the village of 
Hibernia, his tract covering both sides of the brook and 
a strip sixteen chains long up the face of the northerly 
hill, containing the outcrop, with a view, no doubt, of 
including the vein of ore for that distance. July ist 
1761 Colonel Jacob Ford located a lot of 1.87 acres 
on the vein next northeast of the Ball survey. It is de- 
scribed as "lying upon Horse Pond Mountain, which is on 
the east side of Horse Pound Brook;" and the metes and 
bounds begin ninety-four links from the northwest cor- 
ner of Ball's survey, " upon a mine called Horse Pound 
mine." The land about this tract was afterward located 
by Samuel Ford, and disputes frequently arose as to its 
boundaries, by reason of the uncertainty of its descrip- 
tion and the variations of the magnetic needle, by which 
the lines were run and which was entirely untrustworthy 
in the presence of such large bodies of magnetic iron 
ore. The mine on this lot is still called the " Ford 

mine." 

April 6th 1765 and June 25th 1765 five tracts were re- 
turned to Samuel Ford, four containing ten acres each 
and one containing 10.34 acres, which were "about 
one mile and a half above John Johnston's iron works." 
They were upon the vein of ore and upon the stream 



above the Ball survey. They were located evidently for 
the purpose of building the furnace, and the work was 
immediately begun; for November 23d 1765, in describ- 
ing a tract of land returned to Henry Tuttle, farther up 
the stream, it was said to be "about three fourths of a 
mile from the new furnace called the Adventure." 

Though the lands were returned to Ford alone, yet 
this was probably for greater convenience only, as Octo- 
ber 28th 1765 Ford and his wife Grace, by two deeds of 
that date, conveyed one third of the several lots so lo- 
cated to James Anderson and another third to Benjamin 
Cooper, retaining the other third. Of James Anderson 
very little can be gathered except the recital in the deed 
to him that he was from Sussex county. The other two 
partners became notorious for their crimes, which 
brought one under sentence of the gallows, and made the 
other a fugitive for his life. Samuel Ford was a nephew 
of Colonel Jacob Ford sen., and Cooper was a son of 
Daniel Cooper, one of the judges of the county. Both 
were found to be engaged in counterfeiting; and Ford is 
supposed to have been concerned in the robbery of the 
treasury at Amboy, in 1768. Ford was the master spirit; 
and Cooper, when convicted and sentenced to be hung, at 
the September term of the Morris court, in the year 1773, 
charged his misfortune to his partner. The history of 
this crime and the fate of its perpetrators is related in 
another part of this book. 

September 17th 1765 a lot of 20.39 acres adjoining 
the Ball survey was returned to Thomas Stites, and by 
him conveyed to Lord Stirling; and the next year and 
in 1768 and 1769 several other tracts in the neighborhood 
of Hibernia were returned to Lord Stirling. Three of 
them located in 1766 are said to be for the purpose of 
conveying them to James Anderson and Benjamin 
Cooper. There is no record of the transaction; but it 
would seem from these locations, and from the fact that 
in 177 1 a suit was brought against Stirling, Benjamin 
Cooper and Samuel Ford, that Anderson had sold his 
interest to Stirling about this time. From a letter 
written by Cooper while in Morristown jail under sen- 
tence of death it also appears that Ford had that year 
conveyed his interest to Stirling, and that he (Cooper) 
had done the same. The letter was written in his dire 
extremity with a view to interest Stirling in his welfare, 
and pretending that he could be of great assistance to 
him if his Hfe was spared, and could show him wherein 
Ford was overreaching him in the sales. Taking all 
these circumstances into account it is probable that m 
1 771 Stirling became the sole owner of Hibernia. 

William Alexander, or Lord Stirling, as he is generally 
called, was a man of high character and standing, and 
very prominent in the councils of the State. His biog- 
raphy, written by his grandson, Hon. William A. Duer, 
has been published by the New Jersey Historical Society; 
but a brief account of his life may properly be inserted 
here. He was born in 1726, in the city of New York, 
the son of James Alexander, a fugitive from Scotland on 
account of his adherence to the house of Stuart. On 
the- breaking out of the French war in 1755 young 



5° 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Alexander became the aide-de-camp of General Shirley, 
and he served in that capacity during the greater part of 
the war. In 1737 the earldom of Stirling became vacant, 
and on the death of his father, who made no claim to it 
although eniitled to do so, William Alexander preferred 
his claim, and in 1757 went to England to press his suit 
in person. In America his right to the title was never 
questioned. In 1761 he returned to America, and shortly 
after built the mansion at Basking Ridge in which he after- 
ward resided. He was chosen a member of the Provincial 
Council and held that office till the Revolution. He was 
also surveyor-general of the State. On the breaking out 
of the war he was commissioned as colonel of a regiment 
of Somerset militia by the Provincial Congress of New 
Jersey; but before the regiment could be gotten ready 
he was appointed by Congress to take command of two 
regiments in the continental service. March ist 1776 he 
was commissioned by Congress to be a brigadier-general 
and was stationed at New York. At the battle of Long 
Island he was captured, with a force of about four hun- 
dred Marylanders, part of his command, with which he 
had attacked a superior force under Cornwallis in order 
to enable the main body of his men to escape. On the 
19th of February 1777 he was promoted by Congress to 
be a major-general, and as such served with distinction 
until his death, which occurred at Albany, January 15th 
1783, in consequence of fatigue of body and mind, to 
which his arduous military service had exposed him. 

F'rom the building of the Adventure furnace in 1765 
until 1775 the business of making iron was carried on; 
but to what extent we have no record. After 1775 we 
have some account of its operations in the letters of Jo- 
seph and Charles Hoff, who were Lord Stirling's man- 
agers at Hibernia, and whose letters to their principal 
have been preserved. In that year Joseph Hoff, a 
brother-in-law of Benjamin Cooper, came from Hunter- 
don county to take charge of the works. He was assisted 
at first, and at his death, in 1777, succeeded by his 
brother Charles Hoff jr., who was in turn assisted by a 
younger brother John. Charles Hoff continued to be 
manager at Hibernia until 1781, when he removed to 
Mount Pleasant, at which place he continued to reside 
until his death, which occurred in 181 1. Extracts from 
his letters will best give the history of matters during the 
busy scenes of the war. The works of the London Com- 
pany had been burned, and the furnace at Hibernia and 
that recently erected at Mount Hope became important 
to both the army and people. 

On May 17th 1775 Joseph Hoff writes to Robert 
Erskine, the manager for the London Company at Char- 
lotteburgh, Long Pond and Ringwood, and in his letter 
says: 

" I lately received a letter from Messrs. Murray, N. Y., 
informing me that all the powder in that place had been 
secured for the safety of the province in case matters 
were to come to such desperate lengths as that they must 
have recourse to blows with the parent State. Alarmed 
at this piece of news I went immediately to New York to 
know what was to be done with the works, they being 
lately put in blast, a large stock of wood cut and great 



number of hands employed at the coaling and other 
business, and not more than five weeks ore now raised. 
They answered me that, although the most diligent 
search has been made for powder, not a single pound 
was to be had; but that a little before this general stop- 
page took place % cwt. had been sent for us to Eliza- 
bethtown, which they hoped would serve us as a tem- 
porary relief till more could be had. I went immediately 
to Elizabethtown, where I found the committee of that 
place had seized on all the powder we had there and 
would not suffer it to be removed in this exigency." 

The letter further states that in case the powder is not 
to be had he will be obliged to adopt a measure " disa- 
greeable to both of us," and prevent Erskine " from, tak- 
ing oar from the upper part of the mine called Lord 
Stirling vein," which he was doing under permit of 
Colonel Ogden. Colonel Samuel Ogden, who is the one 
referred to, claimed an interest in the Ford mine. But 
this threat did not produce the desired effect. Erskine 
visited Ogden at once at Old Boonton and Ogden main- 
tained his right to the ore. 

Under date of May 25th 1775 Hoff writes to Stirling: 
" The furnace goes well, as do all the other branches of 
business. We have made 70 tonus iron already, but not 
more than four or five tonns gone down. I wrote you 
we received two casks of powder from E. Town." 
Again he writes, " The furnace goes extremely well — we 
shall make at least twenty tons weekly." 

April 17th 1776 Hoff writes to Messrs. Murray that 
" Lord Stirling told me he would find us work at casting 
cannon that would weigh from 25 to 30 cwt., which are 
9 or 12 pounders; these we can do, but not heavier." 
He further inquires as to quantity and price, and says, 
" It will do to engage at 45' or 43;^ proc. [proclamation 
money] per ton provided we have the making the balls 
for the cannon, and they should alway go together." In 
May the manager drops the subject of cannon to write: 
" Our people are so distressed for rum that I believe I 
must have one hogshead, let the price be what it will. 
They must pay accordingly. I hope you will not forget 
about the powder." June 9th 1776 he writes: " All the 
miners have been quite idle for want of powder. The 
furnace will soon get ahead of us, using, the ore so fast, 
when it will be impossible for the miners to keep her 
going." 

Under the same date he writes that himself and Faesch 
are anxious to receive the moulds for the cannon, etc., 
which had not yet arrived. August 3d Mr. Hoff writes: 

" Last night we made a trial at casting one of the guns, 
but unfortunately for us we brought the furnace too low 
and it missed in the breech. All the rest was sound and 
good. We have had to make a good many preparations; 
our clay was bad. However, we are not discouraged, 
but willing to try again, being convinced that the iron 
will answer. I have now to inform you that we shall set 
about it with all the vigor imaginable. We shall not, 
however, cast any more till we have all things in readi- 
ness. We propose to have twelve or fourteen of the 
moulds ready by the last of next week, after which the 
moulder assures me he will make three or four a day till 
the whole are finished. But as a most enormous expense 
attends the business it will not be in our power to make 
the small guns under 7d.' York money per pound. If 



MILITARY WORK AT HIBERNIA— HESSIAN LABORERS. 



SI 



the general consents thereto you will please by the return 
of the post to inform." 

Under date of August 31st 1776 Mr. Hoff writes to 
Colonel Moylan: 

"A certain Mr. Thomas Ives apply'd to me to make a 
number — say 36 or 38 three-pounder cannon for the 
giindolers. We had two ready for trial some two days 
past. I wrote twice to Mr. Ives to come up for that 
end, but not hearing from him I yesterday charged the 
cannon with two full cartridges made up for the three- 
pounder and two balls, and have the pleasure to inform 
you it stood and is undoubtedly good. I made no agree- 
ment with Mr. Ives as to the price, and as a most enor- 
mous expense attends the business I do not choose to go 
on till I hear from you. I have consulted with Mr. 
Faesch and Messrs. Ogden, ironmasters, and we are clear 
that we cannot make cannon at less than ^^o proc. per 
ton and powder to prove them. If you consent to allow 
me that price I will immediately engage a set of mould- 
ers and drive on the business with spirit. We can make, 

1 believe, from three to nine and perhaps twelve-pound- 
ers. I would be much obliged for your answer by the 
return of the Morristown post." 

Colonel Stephen Moylan, to whom this letter was ad- 
dressed, was an Irishman, a brave patriot in the Revo- 
lutionary army, at Cambridge atWe de camp of Washing, 
ton, made commissary general in March 1776, but soon 
resigned for want of exact business habits, and re-entered 
the line as a volunteer. He saw much service and was 
brevetted brigadier general. He died in Philadelphia, 
April nth [811. 

Under date of November 14th 1776 Mr. Hoff writes to 
Colonel Knox (chief of artillery under Washington): " I 
wrote you a few days past that in consequence of your 
letter of 10th ult. we had got everything in readiness and 
had cast several tons of the shot, but that it was alto- 
gether out of my power to get them carted. We have 
now upwards of 35 tons made, and as the furnace is doing 
no other business shall, I hope [be able] to complete the 
order. Every preparation of moulds, flasks &c. for the 
grape shot is now finished, and we shall soon have a good 
assortment of each kind." 

The next letter is from Charles Hoff, is dated July 

2 7lh 1777 and is directed to Governor Livingston, beg- 
ging him to give Colonel John Munson — who had charge 
of the militia for that part of the county and was about 
to levy a draft for the army — such orders as would ex- 
empt his workmen. He speaks of a former exemption 
given by General Washington, and says, " We made the 
last year for public service upwards of one hundred and 
twenty tons of shot of different kinds." October 7th 
1777 an act was passed in the Legislature exempting 25 
men from draft at Hibernia. March 4th 1778, Charles 
Hoff writes to Lord Stirling: " The pig metal I have 
sold, some for ;^i2, some for ;^is, some for ;^2o and 
some for ;^3o per ton. The stipulated price according 
to the act is ;^2o; please inform me how I must act in 
that case. The forges in this part of the country many 
of 'em are turned from the blooming to refining, and pig 
metal of course in great demand. There is also a great 
demand for hollow ware of all kinds, also salt pans, forge 
plates &c." 



March 2olh 1778 Hoff wrote to Lord Stirling in regard 
to going into blast, thinking it better to put it off, owing 
to the scarcity of men, coal, &c. — "Don't your lordship 
think, as the blast is not likely to continue so long as 
usual, to put off blooming till the pasture become good, 
so that the teams can get their living in the woods, with- 
out being at the expense of feeding them ?" He also 
says, " If ye lordship could send us some of the regular 
and Hessian deserters that don't choose [to enlist] into 
the continental service and depend on working in the 
country, to amount to 30 or 40, I would do my endeavor 
to make 'em serviceable." 

The next letter in regard to the employment of de- 
serters and Hessians gives the reason why quite a large 
number of Hessians were sent to Morris county. There 
are descendants of these " hated foreign mercenaries " 
still living in the vicinity of the iron works to which their 
ancestors were brought to work a hundred years ago. 

"William Winds, Esq., Briadier-General. 

" Being in possession of .a furnace as manager thereof, 
commonly called and known by the name of the Hibernia 
Furnace, helongins to the Right. Hon. William Earl of 
Stirling, Major- General in the service of X.ht United States 
of America, situate in the county of Morris and State of 
New Jersey, which is employed for the continent in cast- 
ing all sorts of military stores, which we have engaged to 
furnish with as speedily as possible, I find it therefore es- 
sentialy necessary to employ a number of workmen for 
that purpose; and, as I am informed that a good many 
deserters both of the British troops and Hessians are 
come in and sent to Philadelphia, I have sent the bearer 
— my brother John Hoff — on purpose and given him full 
power hereby to engage as many men as he thinks proper, 
such as are used to cut wood in the winter season and 
can assist in the coaling business during the summer 
season, and a few other tradesmen; where they shall meet 
with the best encouragement and treatment, provided 
they make good several enagagements to which they will 
be called. And whatever agreements and promises the 
said John Hoff does make the same shall be punctually 
fulfilled by me the subscriber, 

" Charles Hoff Jun. 

"Hibernia Iron Works, July ^th 1778." 

In the written instructions which were sent with Ber- 
nard Smith, who represented Mr. Faesch, and with John 
Hoff it is said that they wanted for Hibernia from fifteen 
to twenty-five men used to wood-cutting, coaling and 
labor suitable for iron works, a good blacksmith, a good 
wheelwright, one or two good carpenters and one or two 
good masons, as many as possible to be Englishmen or 
those who could speak that tongue. 

July loth 1778 Mr. Hoff writes to Lord Stirling that 
" Mr. Taylor of Durham furnace, in Pennsylvania, wrote 
Mr. Faesch and me he had a complete set of moulds for 
hollow ware to dispose of reasonable. Mr. Faesch 
recommended it much to me to buy 'em, in partnership 
with him, for the works. We have done so and brought 
them from Pennsylvania; the price was_^20Q, and at this 
time we are sensible they would not be made under 
_^6oo; there is from a 2-o«nce grapeshot to a 32-lb. 
shot, moulds from i gall, pots to 40 or 50 gallons, 4 
different stove moulds and moulds of every other kind." 

In the same letter he comolains that he cannot get 



8 



52 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



supplied with flour and horse feed within 40 or 50 miles, 
and thinks, considering the public benefit of his work, 
that the quartermaster-general might supply him. 

The letters of the Hoffs end here, but it is well known 
that the furnace continued in operation throughout the 
war and manufactured war material for the army. The 
most notable event which happened in this period was 
the robbery of the Hoffs in the spring of 1781. A gang 
of robbers entered the house while the family were at 
supper and stole silver, jewelry, linen and clothing. 
They took horses also and got away safely with their 
plunder; but one at least, James Babcock, was afterward 
taken and hung. The county was infested with gangs of 
tories and lawless men, and others besides the Hoffs 
suffered from their visits. Robert Ogden, of Sparta, in 
Sussex county, was robbed in a similar way. 

It is supposed the same gang who robbed the Hoffs 
attempted to rob Colonel John Seward, but failed. It is 
said that the colonel fortified himself in a block-house, 
and that on one cold night at about midnight a man rode 
up to his door and hailed, desiring to see the colonel, 
who instead of opening the door caught up his rifle and 
opened a hole through which he could look out. He 
discovered a man mounted on a fine horse, without a 
saddle and with rope stirrups. He at once knew his 
man, and, placing his rifle without noise in the hole be- 
tween the logs, fired. Instantly all was still. The horse 
being frightened left the door, but was found the next 
morning eating at the colonel's haystack, with a dead 
man fastened in his rope stirrups under his feet. The 
horse proved to be a stolen one. How many other ras- 
cals accompanied the one killed was not known; but the 
colonel was avoided by the gang ever after. 

The history of the works at Hibernia for the twenty 
years succeeding the Revolution is involved in ob- 
scurity. Lord Stirling's affairs after his death were found 
to be so much involved that his property was publicly 
sold by the sheriff. In 1774 he had applied to the board 
of proprietors for the purchase of the large tract surround- 
ing his works at Hibernia, extending as far as Copperas 
Mountain and Greenville and known as the Hibernia 
tract. The board had consented to the sale and directed 
a survey to be made. April 15th 1785 Mr. Parker laid 
before the board a letter from Colonel Benjamin Thomp- 
son, which he received on the Monday previous, inform- 
ing him that he had purchased the Hibernia iron works 
of Messrs. Murray, Sanson & Co.; that he had been in- 
formed that the purchase money of 3,000 acres agreed 
for with Lord Stirling had never been paid, and that he 
was willing to purchase the same agreeably to the original 
contract. September 13th 1787 a report was made to 
the board that the surveys for Thompson were not yet 
completed; but April loth 1788 there was a report of a 
survey made by Lemuel Cobb of 4,365.43 acres, subject to 
deductions, to be conveyed to Benjamin Thompson and 
his associates at ^^20 per 100 acres. 

April 14th 1 791 an agreement was made by Mr. Ruther- 
ford, president of the board, and Mr. Parker to sell to 
John Murray and John Stotesbury lands surveyed by 



Lemuel Cobb, to accommodate Hibernia iron works with 
coal and wood, at £20 per 100 acre^, with interest from 
May ist 1788. The tract had been returned to John 
Stevens, late president of the board, in trust to convey it 
to Murray & Stotesbury, and a deed had to be made 
from his heirs-at-Iaw to Mr. Rutherford, then the presi- 
dent of the board, to carry out the agreement. The re- 
turn included 5,222.44 acres, but after deducting 866.86 
acres of prior locations included therein there were left 
4.355-58 acres. 

Prudden Ailing, sheriff of Morris county, on an execu- 
tion on a judgment obtained at the April term of 1768, 
by Waddell Cunningham and others against Lord Stirling, 
sold to Lemuel Cobb, by deed dated February i6th 1791, 
the several tracts which made up the Hibernia tract for 
;^3o. It was probably to complete the title about to be 
made to Murray or Stotesbury. 

William Jackscn stated that Ross & Bird carried on 
the Hibernia furnace until Stotesbury came into posses- 
session of it; but who they were or how long they had 
possession it is impossible to ascertain. John Stotes- 
bury, who appears to have come into possession in 1791, 
was of Irish descent, and is described as a high liver, of 
very genial habits and popular in the community. He 
was an officer in the continental army and had a brother 
in the British army, on Lord Howe's staff. He served 
at Trenton and Princeton, and was wounded at Brandy- 
wine. He owned a pew in the Rockaway church, where 
he attended with his family. He had two daughters, one 
of whom married Hon. Philemon Dickerson, of Paterson. 
Stotesbury introduced Irish employes at his works, sup- 
planting the Germans, who went over to Mt. Hope, ex- 
cepting those who found places in the mountains beyond. 
George Shawger, Charles Winters, William Barton, Pater 
Sanders and Jacob Bostedo were some of those who re- 
mained on their lands, and whose descendants continue 
to own and reside on them. Mr. Bostedo was a very 
good man, and was ordained by the Morris county pres- 
bytery to preach. Stotesbury failed in 1798 and died 
shortly afterward. 

The title of the property was made to John Murray 
for the large tract surrounding the Hibernia property, by 
Walter Rutherford, December 8th 1792, and the several 
lots on which the furnace stood by William Shute 
and his wife. May 9th 1796. After Murray's death, 
August isth [809, his executors made an agreement to 
convey thewhole property to Dr. Charles M. Graham, of 
New York. This gentleman was the ■ owner of the 
"Copperas tract" near Green Pond, where Job Allen 
made copperas during the Revolutionary war, and he 
himself carried on the copperas manufacture very exten- 
sively during the war of 1812. He was of Scotch descent, 
a strong adherent of the Stuarts and a man of great enter- 
prise. Graham built up the furnace, and then assigned 
his agreement for a conveyance to Samuel Thompson, 
Peter Thompson and William Spencer, who received the 
deed dated January ist 1815 from Murray's executors. 
The men who thus took possession of the property were 
described by Hubbard S. Stickle as young men, who 



MOUNT HOPE FURNACE— JOHN JACOB FAESCH. 



53 



undertook the business with spirit; but the times were 
against them and they soon failed. The furnace went 
down, and it has never been rebuilt. The mortgage 
given to Graham was foreclosed and the property bought 
by Benjamin Rogers in 1819. He sold off considerable 
of the land in lots, and May i8th 1821 conveyed the 
balance to Colonel William Scott, who built, a forge upon 
the old furnace dam. A freshet swept the dam away 
and the forge was suffered to go to decay. On the death 
of Colonel Scott, in 1842, this property, with a large 
amount of other real estate which he had gathered to- 
gether in the course of his busy life, was divided among 
his children. The Hibernia mines so divided, and which 
included all of the vein except the lower mine (which be- 
longed to Benjamin Beach) and the old Ford mine, have 
since developed immense wealth and are still among the 
chief mines in the county. 

MOUNT HOPE FURNACE. 



The third furnace built within the limits of Morris 
county was at Mount Hope, and it was running more or 
less continuously for a period of fifty years. When the 
large survey was made of what is called the Mount 
Hope tract in 1772, of 6,271.06 acres, there were some 
twenty-two prior locations within its limits. The tract 
began on the mountain between Rockaway and Dover, 
ran down to near the old Dr. King place in Rockaway, 
thence almost parallel to the Morris Canal to near the 
westerly side of the Rockaway Presbyterian cemetery, 
thence to near White Meadow and from there, with many 
turns, to a point between Denmark and Middle forge; 
thence down to Mount Pleasant, and so across by the 
Baker & Richards mine to a point on Mount Hope 
avenue in ihe easterly suburbs of Dover, and so to the 
Rockaway River near the " point of the mountain," and 
thence back on the Rockaway Mountain to the place of 
beginning. Nearly all the lots excepted were in the neigh- 
borhood of Rockaway and Dover, and at the Mount 
Hope mines. The earliest location near the present vil- 
lage of Mount Hope was the lot returned to Samuel 
Gardiner in 1749, at the same time and recorded on the 
same page as the Osborn location of Middle forge. By 
Gardiner it was sold to Abner Beach, and by him to 
Jacob Ford. It was on the northwest side of Rockaway 
River, and on a small brook which runs into the north- 
west corner of the "Hunting Meadow," as the great 
meadow at Mount Hope was then called, and contained 
26.26 acres. Probably after Jacob Ford had purchased 
this lot he proceeded to locate lands in its neighborhood, 
taking up in 1750, at the same time he took up the 
Burnt Meadow forge lot, 96.72 acres, "situate in the 
meadow well known as the Hunting Meadow," and 26.23 
acres adjoining the Gardiner lot. In 1754 he located ten 
acres more to the east of the Gardiner lot, in 1757 142 
acres more, and shortly afterward 58.80 acres on the 
road leading from " David Beman's to what is called the 
Middle forge," and 10.41 acres " on both sides of the 
road leading from David Beman's iron works to the 
Burnt Meadow forge." 



Colonel Ford no doubt purchased the property for its 
mines — which were then well known and which he needed 
to supply his forges — and for the meadow, which yielded 
abundant hay for his teams. In 1768, February 28th, he 
conveyed the whole property, including the seven lots so 
purchased or located by him, to his son Jacob Ford jr., 
who took up his residence there. In 1772, however, 
John Jacob Faesch, having severed his connection with 
the London Company, came to Mount Hope, and, taking 
a long lease of the lands owned by Ford, purchased from 
the proprietors the great Mount Hope tract surrounding 
them, already mentioned, and began the building of the 
furnace. He afterward purchased Middle forge and 
Rockaway forge, leased Mount Pleasant forge and the 
Boonton mills, and carried on the iron business on a 
large scale. 

John Jacob Faesch, who thus became one of the most 
noted ironmasters of the county, was a man whose in- 
fluence was long and widely felt. He was born in the 
canton of Basle, Switzerland, in the year 1729, and came 
to America in 1764, under an arrangement made with 
Francis Casper Hasenclever on behalf of his brother, 
Peter Hasenclever, the general manager and superin- 
tendent of the London Company, as the manager of their 
iron works. The agreement was for seven years, and 
Hasenclever stipulated to pay Faesch's, his wife's and 
servants' passage and deliver them and their goods and 
effects safely in America, with the expenses of Faesch 
from New Wood, where he lived, to Remsheid, where the 
agreement was made; to pay him 2,500 guilders per an- 
num Rhenish, to begin on the first day of his journey; to 
give him a tenantable dwelling house, with meadow for 
pasturing two or four kine; that he might engage in other 
business, but not to the prejudice of the company's inter- 
ests; and that he was not to be under command of any 
one except the members of the company, but should 
have direction over all the forges, mines and iron works 
that were erected or occupied or should thereafter be 
undertaken. In fact, it was a very liberal agreement 
and proves how valuable his services were thought to be. 
In accordance with this agreement Faesch came to 
this county, and was first placed by Hasenclever at Ring- 
wood, where he resided and acted as manager. In 1768 
the works at Charlotteburgh were placed in his charge, 
and afterward the works at Long Pond. Trouble arose, 
however, between Hasenclever and the other members of 
the company. He was considered too extravagant, and 
in other respects a bad manager. At all events Robert 
Erskine was appointed to succeed him, and arrived in 
this country June 5th 177 1. Faesch resented the treat- 
ment of his friend Hasenclever, and left the service of 
the company in June 1772, his term of seven years having 
expired. He had already made arrangements to take 
the Mount Hope property. 

Faesch is described as a very generous and large- 
hearted man, but very aristocratic in his ideas. He gave 
liberally to the church, so much so that in a subscription 
made in i78r a prominent man in the Rockaway congre- 
gation subscribed " as much as any in the parish except 



54 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Esq. Faesch." It is said, however, that he supported 
religion only as a means of keeping the lower classes in 
subjection. He and one Jacob Hertel were naturalized 
by a special act of the Legislature, in 1766. On the 
breaking out of the war he was an ardent Whig, taking 
an active part in the politics of his day. He was a mem- 
ber of the convention to ratify the federal constitution, 
held December nth 1787, and for many years was one of 
the county judges. Mr. Stickle described him as of 
medium stature, and said he had often seen him passing 
through Rockaway, his carriage driven by inen in livery, 
with outriders also in livery. He always stopped at 
Bernard Smith's, who was a countryman and friend of 
his. His first wife was Elizabeth Brinckerhoff, sister of 
George Brinckerhoff, who was the father of the late Mrs. 
Dr. Fairchild, of Parsippany. Mrs. Elizabeth Faesch 
died February 23d 1788 at Morristown, where Faesch 
had resided since the war, in the powder magazine, which 
he changed into a house. The next month after his 
wife's death he moved to Old Boonton, where he lived 
till his death. His second wife was Mrs. Susan (Kearney) 
Lawrence, widow of a brother of Captain Lawrence, 
U. S. N. 

The lease for Mount Hope was made by Colonel 
Jacob Ford, " of Pequanack," of the first part, and John 
Jacob Faesch and Daniel Wrisberg, of" the same place, 
of the second part; was dated February 23d 1773, vvas 
to continue forty-two years from the first day of Aprii 
then last past (1772), and reserved an annual rent of 
;^4oo at 8 shillings the ounce. The rent is indorsed as 
paid to January nth 1777, the date of Colonel Ford's 
death. In after years Faesch complained of the rent a^ 
burdensome and that the properly was not as- valuable at 
he had supposed. To this remonstrance Judge Gabriel 
Ford, son of Colonel Jacob Ford, made a written repl) 
which fully sets forth the condition of the property when 
the lease was made. He says: "There was then a 
meadow of 100 tons of timothy a year and the pasturage 
of the same after it was mowed, 60 or 70 acres of upland, 
an orchard 400 best grafted trees, an elegant dwelling- 
house, cost _^i,40o, a fine pond of water, dams and 
troughs, complete, and a good grist-mill, rented for _;^4o 
per year;'' that "Mr, Faesch was not ignorant of a con- 
stant confluence of water into it [the mine] while my 
father had it, inasmuch as a pump must be pretty con- 
stantly at Avork to leave the mines at liberty;" and while 
Mr. Faesch complained of spending ;^i, 200 "in driving 
on a level to draw off the water," near ;i£'8oo of it had 
been deducted from his annual rent; that if Mr. Faesch 
" had been as well skilled in farming as in the manage- 
ment of iron works the disasters (as he terms the failure 
of the hay crop) would not have happened in so eminent 
a degree;" that " in order to accommodate liim genteelly 
there was erected upon the premises an elegant dwelling- 
house, which, cost upwards of _;^i,4oo;" that "on the 
premises stood an exceedingly good hemp-mill and 
grist-mill, which together might have cost ;^8oo — these, 
being useless to Mr. Faesch, are demolished;" that "the 
prices of iron have been often double and sometimes 



considerably more and so stands at present." The reply 
concludes with an offer to abate ;;^ioo or ^^125 from 
the annual rent. 

Who Daniel Wrisberg was or what became of him is 
not known. After 1773 there is no mention of him, and 
the deed for the large tract was made to Faesch alone. 
There is a tradition that he died before the war and left 
;^ioo to the Rockaway church provided he should be 
buried under the pulpit, which was done. There is no 
record, however, confirming the story. 

The furnace was built in 1772, under the eye of its 
experienced owner, and was in good wo)king order when 
the Revolutionary war broke out. We have not a letter 
book giving the details of its operations, but from the 
frequent reference to Mr. Faesch in Hoff's letters fiom 
Hibernia, as well as from other sources, it is certain that 
large quantities of cannon, shot and iron utensils were 
manufactured there and that more men were employed 
than at Hibernia. 

The tories made many attempts to rob the house of 
Faesch at Mount Hope and to destroy his property; but 
after the battle of Trenton and the capture of the Hes- 
sians, it is said, he made an arrangement with General 
Washington to keep thirty of the prisoners until the close 
of the war. These he kept employed in chopping wood, 
etc., keeping trusty men about him who were furnished 
with 30 stand of arms by the government, which were 
always kept in perfect order. These secured him from 
molestation. In the "instructions" to Bernard Smith 
on the part of Faesch and to John Hoff on the part of 
his brother, already spoken of, when they were sent to 
engage these prisoners, 25 or 30 men were asked for for 
.Mount Hope, "such as are used to wood cutting, coaling 
and labor suitable for iron works, two good carpenters, one 
wheelwright, two blacksmiths, two masons; if you can meet 
with a young man or boy that can shave, dress hair, 
wait on table, take care of horses, etc., get him, if possi- 
ble an Englishman or one that talks both languages." 
" If any or all of 'em has guns advise them to bring them 
along; they'll be allowed a generous' price here for 'em, 
and also all accoutrements in the military way." "It 
would also be advisable for you to inquire for Captain 
Debauk and the rest of the gentlemen that were prison- 
ers at Mount Hope, as they'll be of infinite service to 
you." " Mr. Faesch wants a good beer-brewer and dis- 
tiller, that is a genteel, sober, honest and industrious 
man — if possible an Englishman — as he has good con- 
veniences for that business; he is willing if he can get a 
man he can confide in to take him into partnership." 

October 7th 1777 an act was passed exempting fifty 
men at Mount Hope and twenty-five at Hibernia from 
military duty. In the preamble it is stated " that it is 
highly expedient that the army and navy should be fur- 
nished as speedily as possible with cannon, cannon shot, 
refined bar iron, shovels, axes and other implements of 
iron, which the furnaces at Mount Hope and Hibernia, 
with the forges at Brookland, Mount Pleasant, Longwood 
and Middle forge, so called from their local situation and 
other circumstances, are well adapted to supply; and 



LATE MANAGERS OF MOUNT HOPE. 



55 



whereas John Jacob Faesch, Esq., the proprietor and con- 
ductor of Mount Hope iron works, and Charles Hoff jun., 
superintendent of the Hibernia furnace, by their memorial 
have set forth that the said works have been for some 
time past employed in providing the aforesaid articles for 
public use," the act provides that Faesch might enroll 
any number of men less than fifty to be employed in the 
iron works at Mount Hope, Brookland, Longwood, 
Mount Pleasant and Middle forge; and that Hoff might 
enroll twenty-five men to be employed at Hibernia fur- 
nace. These men were to be fully armed, equipped and 
disciplined by Faesch and Hoff, but were not to be 
obliged to attend musters or to leave the works unless 
the county should be invadrd. This act was repealed in 
1779 — probably after the Hessians had been introduced. 
After Faesch removed to Morristown, and no longer 
personally superintended his furnace, etc., his business 
became less profitable and finally brought him in debt. 

William Jackson stated as a fact of his personal knowl- 
edge — and we use his own language — that while Faesch 
was still carrying on Mount Hope, and Stotesbury 
Hibernia, Chilion Ford kept a store in Rockaway in the 
house south of the main street and near the Hibernia 
railroad, and on him orders were drawn by each company 
to its workmen, who came down each Saturday to draw 
their supplies for a week at a time. Every man appeared 
with his jug, and the first thing was a half gallon of 
rum to each man, and the balance of their orders in 
the necessaries of life. After their sacks were filled a 
general treating took place, after which they moved off 
over the bridge on their way home. When they crossed 
the race bridge and arrived at their parting point another 
big drink must be had all round, by which time " the 
critter " began to work, and then the national elements 
(Dutch and Irish, with a mixture of American by way of 
variety) brought on a general fight, which lasted a short 
time, when the hatchet was buried and all united in 
another drink and left — each on his winding way, the 
women and boys bringing up the rear. 

July 28th 1788 -Sheriff Arnold conveyed to Gabriel 
Ford, after a sale made under a judgment recovered by 
the executors of Jacob Ford sen. against the executors 
of Jacob Ford jr., deceased, the seven tracts of land 
" called and known by the name of Mount Hope, in the 
possession of John Jacob Faesch, Esq., as tenant there- 
of," and May loth 1793 Judge Ford conveyed the whole 
to Faesch, so ending the lease. Faesch died May 29th 
1799, and is buried at Morristown by the side of his wife 
and his two sons, John Jacob jr., who died in 1809, and 
Richard B., who died in 1820. The two sons and one 
daughter died single. Besides these Mr. Faesch left one 
daughter, who married William H. Robinson of New 
York, and who died leaving two daughters, one of whom 
married Robert J. Girard. 

After Faesch's death his two sons continued to carry 
on the business; but the creditors of their father became 
dissatisfied and filed a bill in chancery February 21st 
1801 to compel a sale of the lands of Faesch in satisfac- 
tion of their claims. A list of the property alleged to 



have belonged to him at his death includes the Mount 
Hope and Middle forge tracts (containing together 7,600 
acres), the Rockaway forge, the Jackson or Jacobs mine, 
a mine at Long Pond, a share in the Morris Academy 
and several small lots. His Mount Hope lands included 
the Richards, Allen and Teabo mines, none of which 
except perhaps the Richards were then developed. The 
result of this suit was the appointment of General John 
Doughty, of Morristown, a special commissioner to sell 
these lands. He was engaged for several years in divid- 
ing them up and disposing of them. The homestead at 
Mt. Hope, with 831 acres around it, including the mines, 
meadow and furnace, was sold September 25th 1809 for 
$7,655 to Moses Phillips jr., of Orange county, New 
York. The land so conveyed is what is generally known 
now as the Mount Hope tract. Then or soon after 
Moses Phillips became the owner of Hickory Hill tract, 
Middle forge tract, the Bartow tract, which lies south of 
Middle forge, and other lands, making up about 2,600 
acres. He did not reside at Mount Hope himself, but 
sent his sons Henry W. Phillips and Lewis Phillips to 
manage the property — giving them an agreement of 
purchase. 

In 18:4 the property was leased to a company consist- 
ing of Robert McQueen, Abraham Kinney and Eliphalet 
Sturtevant and known as McQueen & Co. They re- 
paired the old stack after it had lain idle for fifteen years, 
and did a thriving business, making pig iron and all kinds 
of hollow ware. Kinney and Sturtevant were not in the 
concern long and their place was taken by Colonel 
Thomas Muir, a brother-in-law of Mr. McQueen. The 
first lease lasted seven years, and it was renewed for five. 
Alexander. Norris, who then lived close by, fixes the date 
of the beginning of the lease by the fact that when peace 
was declared in 1815 they had a flag hoisted in the top 
of the furnace, which had not yet been started. Mr. 
Norris says the last blast was made in the fall of 1827, 
after which the furnace was permitted to lie idle, and 
finally to go down. While operating Mount Hope 
Colonel Muir purchased the White Meadow tract and 
made it his residence. He continued to reside there 
until his death, which occurred September 28th 1855. 

November 29th 1831, by act of Legislature, the Mount 
Hope Mining Company was incorporated, the incorpor 
ators being Samuel Richards, Moses Phillips, Samuel G. 
Wright and Thomas S. Richards. The capital stock 
was fixed at $60,000. In April previous Moses Phillips 
had conveyed to Samuel Richards and Samuel G. Wright 
a two-thirds interest in the tract of 831 acres, and two- 
thirds of all the minerals in the adjoining lands, owned 
by him at the time. After the incorporation of the com- 
pany all three of the owners conveyed to the company, 
which has ever since been the owner. The stock has 
changed hands, but no transfers have been made by 
ordinary deeds of conveyance. By supplements to its 
charter the company was allowed to build a railroad to 
Rockaway (which was done), to construct furnaces, mills, 
etc., and to increase its capital stock to $300,000. This 
is no longer a manufacturing property, but is one of the 



56 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



most extensive and productive mineral properties in the 
State. Edward R. Biddle became the owner of the stock 
several years after the formation of the company, and by 
him it was sold to Moses Taylor and his associates about 
the year 1855, for $80,000, which was considered a 
marvelous price at the time. 

SPLIT ROCK FURNACE. 

The only other charcoal furnace within the bounds of 
Morris county was built at Split Rock by the late Hon. 
Andrew B. Cobb, of Parsippany, about 1862. Mr. Cobb 
was a son of Colonel Lemuel Cobb, the well known sur- 
veyor of the board of proprietors, and both by inherit- 
ance and purchase became the owner of large tracts of 
land in the northern part of the county, much of it 
covered with wood. He was also the owner of. the Split 
Rock mine. To make his wood and ore available he built 
the furnace near his forge. It made but a few tons of 
iron, however, before it went out of blast, and has since 
been idle. It was found unprofitable in this day of an- 
thracite furnaces. 



CHAPTER IX. 



SLITTING AND ROLLING MILLS — ANTHRACITE FURNACES 
AND FOUNDRIES. 




HE act of Parliament passed in 1749, already 
alluded to, was intended to prevent the con- 
struction of any slitting or rolling mills in the 
province, and continued in force until the 
time of the Revolution. Every mill built 
while this law was in force had to be built covertly. 
In spite of the law, however, a slitting-mill was 
erected at Old Boonton, by David Ogden or his son 
Samuel Ogden, about the year 1770. In a deed given 
for it in 1805 the " slitting-mill lot " was said to have 
been conveyed to Samuel Ogden by Thomas Peer by 
deed dated August 6th 1770, and this was probably the 
date of its erection. The Ogdens had by this time sold 
out their Ringwood property to the London Company 
and turned their attention to Morris county. 

For the purpose of concealment the mill built by the 
Ogdens was so constructed that the upper part was a 
grist-mill, while the slitting works were underneath. It 
stood on the east side of the river; and the shape of the 
ground, which rose abruptly from near the river's edge, 
made the erection of such a building very feasible. The 
entrance to the mill was from the hillside, and in the 
room thus entered was the run of stones for grinding 
grain; and it was so arranged that the room below could 
be closed up entirely, and upon little warning, so as to 
give no sign of the purpose for which it was used. An 
Enghshman named Campsen, one of the ancestors of the 
Righter family at Parsippany, was the architect. It is 
said that Governor William Franklin visited this place, 



having been informed that one of the prohibited mills was 
being carried on here by stealth. Colonel Ogden received 
the governor and his suite with great hospitality, and iri- 
sisted on their dining immediately on their arrival. This 
the governor's party were not unwilling to do, as they 
had made a long and fatiguing journey. At the table, 
which was lavishly spread, choice liquors circulated 
freely; and the governor was not only unable to find any 
" slitting-mill " in Boonton, but indignant at the " un- 
founded slander." It was reported that Franklin had an 
interest in it himself, which might account for his not 
seeing too much. 

The mill was probably a small affair. At its best it 
was only an apology for an iron-mill, as they could only 
roll out bars of iron or slit them from the sizes drawn 
by the forgemen. Their heating furnace was designed 
to use dry wood, so that nothing better than a red heat 
could be produced, "leaving the rods or hoops when 
rolled or slit about as red as a fox," as one said who had 
seen the mill in operation. It was carried on by the 
Ogdens in connection with a forge and other works 
through the war and until 1784. In 1778 Samuel Ogden 
advertises in the New Jersey Gazette rod and sheet iron 
for sale at Boonton. It seems that Samuel Ogden was 
the principal owner, as his name most frequently occurs 
in connection with it; but Isaac Ogden and Nicholas 
Hoffman each owned a sixth interest, which was bought 
May I St 1784 by Samuel Ogden from Abraham Kitchel, 
agent for Morris county, on inquisition found January 
ist 1777 against Isaac Ogden, and September 21st 1777 
against Hoffman, they having joined the army of the 
king. Kitchel conveys as the property of each of these 
loyalists one-sixth of the slitting-mill, rolling-mill, coal- 
houses, dwelling-houses, raceways, dams, etc., and speaks 
of a forge — the property of Samuel Ogden. The same 
year, 1784, March ist, Samuel Ogden of New York, 
merchant, leases to John Jacob Faesch, of Mount Hope, 
the moiety of several tracts at Boonton for twenty-one 
years, under an arrangement that they should jointly 
erect a " four-fire forge and forge hammers with a trip 
hammer at the place wheire the old forge, which is now 
pulled down, at Boonton aforesaid, formerly stood," the • 
management of the forge and also of the grist-mill to be 
joint. The rent reserved was _;^5o New York currency 
in silver or gold, reckoning Spanish milled dollars at 8 
shillings each and English guineas at 37 shillings and 4 
pence each. Wood was to be furnished for the supply 
of " said forge, and other iron manufactories to be car- 
ried on at Boonton by the parties," off the premises of 
said Ogden at nine pence per cord. 

October 8th 1805, on the expiration of this lease, 
Samuel Ogden and Euphemia his wife, of Newark, con- 
veyed to John Jacob Faesch and Richard B. Faesch, the 
sons of John Jacob Faesch sen., who had died in 1799, 
the whole property at Boonton. They carried on the 
business but a short time, and the works, with the excep- 
lion of the forge, which continued to be operated by John 
Righter, then its owner, until a comparatively recent date, 
were suffered to fall into disuse. 



SPEEDWELL AND DOVER IRON MILLS, 



57 



Thomas C. Willis, of Powerville, whose father was 
superintendent of the heating furnace at Old Boonton in 
1800, and who was himself born there, said that in his 
childhood there were at Old Boonton, on the easterly 
bank of the river, a rolling-mill, a slitting-mill and 
a saw-mill. The iron used in these mills was taken 
from the healing furnaces, rolled and slitted on a 
single heat. On the westerly bank of the river, near the 
bend, were a large potash factory, a nail-cutting factory, 
a grist-mill and a blacksmith shop. On the same side, 
opposite the slitting-mill, stood a large bloomary, con- 
taining four fires and two trip hammers. A large build- 
ing containing eight refining furnaces stood upon the spot 
where the forge afterward stood. 

Another gentleman, whose memory reaches back 
almost as far, says that there were three dams across the 
river below the present road and one above. 

SPEEDWELL. 

The second slitting-mill in the county was built at 
Speedwell, by Jacob Arnold and John Kinney, about the 
time of the Revolutionary war. It is impossible to fix 
the date more exactly. .In the New Jersey Gazette, pub- 
lished in 1778, is notice of Arnold, Kinney & Co. opening 
a store in Morristown, " next door to Colonel Henry 
Remsen's," showing the partnership to have existed at 
that date. Both men had been and were prominent in 
the county. Arnold kept the hotel in Morristown where, 
in January 1777, Washington took up his winter quarters, 
and which is still standing, on the northwest side of the 
public square. He commanded, as has been stated, the 
troop of horse known as "Arnold's light horse," a detach- 
ment of which did duty as guard for Governor Livingston. 
Kinney had been sheriff of the county, and had had some 
experience in the iron business. The venture was a per- 
fect failure. It is said that after the whole had been con- 
structed, through some defect which they could not 
remedy, the machinery entirely failed to do its work. 
The debts contracted in its erection pressed the partners 
and the property was sold. Enoch Beach, as coroner 
(Arnold being sheriff) sold the interest of Jacob Arnold 
January nth 1796 to Dr. Timothy Johnes, who sold to 
Stephen Vail in 1807. The interest of Kinney had also 
been sold, and a deed from James C. Canfield and wife to 
Stephen Vail in 1814 for this half speaks of all the new 
buildings which Stephen Vail, William Campfield and 
Isaac Canfield have erected since the deed to Vail in 
1807, viz.: trip-hammer works, blacksmith shop, coal 
house, turning shop, etc. From the ruin of a second 
partnership Stephen Vail came out the owner of the whole 
property at Speedwell, and under his management it be- 
came an important manufactory. The work done here 
has been mostly for the southern and South American 
trade, in the shape of sugar-mills, coffee hullers, etc. It 
if said the boiler of the first ocean steamer that crossed 
the Atlantic was forged here and the first cast-iron plow 
made in America was made here. In 1853 the Speedwell 
iron works were being carried on by Hon. George Vail, 
son of Judge Stephen Vail, and Isaac A. Canfield, grand- 



son of the judge, and were visited by Dr. Tuttle, who 
wrote a description of them for the New York Tribune. 

At that time there was made at the works a great 
variety of articles — press screws, car wheels and axles, 
mill machinery, etc. Six moulders were employed in the 
foundry, eight men in the blacksmith shop, ten in the 
machine shops, and these with other laborers made up an 
aggregate of forty-five, whose wages would amount to 
some $14,400 per annum. The works used then annually 
200 tons of anthracite coal, 100 tons of bituminous coal, 
ICO tons of Scotch pig and 100 tons of American pig, 95 
tons wrought iron, 1,400 pounds of cast steel and 1,000 
pounds of brass, copper, etc. The annual product was 
estimated at $50,000. Judge Vail died in 1864, leaving 
these works to his executors in such a manner that they 
cannot be sold and can only be operated by certain per- 
sons who are named. For this or for some other reason 
they have lain idle for several years. 

DOVER MILL. 

The third slitting or rolling-mill erected in the county 
was at Dover. In 1792 Israel Canfield and Jacob Losey, 
forming the well-known firm of Canfield & Losey, bought 
from Josiah Beman his forge, etc. Soon afterward they 
built the dam where it is now, and erected the forge 
which was standing until within a few years, when the 
building was transferred to other use. They built also 
a rolling and slitting-mill after the model of the Old 
Boonton mill, and heated their iron with wood in the 
same way. Soon after the erection of their rolling-mill 
they built a factory for cutting nails, the heading of 
which was done in dies by hand. Besides the property 
in Dover they purchased and leased large quantities of 
land, mines and forges, and carried on the iron business 
on what was then considered a grand scale. It must be 
remarked, however, that while business flourished in 
Dover the place was notorious for its infidelity and con- 
sequent wickedness. Many of its prominent citizens 
were open adherents of Tom Paine, and they gloried in 
disseminating his sentiments among all classes. 

In 1817 the firm of Canfield & Losey failed, and 
Blackwell & McFarlan, iron merchants of New York, 
who were creditors of the concern, purchased the whole 
property. With the iron works passed also nearly the 
whole site of Dover, the Longwood forge and tract, and 
the mines which the old firm had developed. The village 
of Dover was laid out by Messrs. Blackwell & McFarlan 
as it is at present — on either side of the straight, wide 
street called Blackwell street, with other streets, named 
after the counties, crossing it at right angles. From an 
advertisement of the company in a newspaper published 
in 1827 it appears that the iron works, then in full opera- 
tion, consisted of three rolling-mills and two chain cable 
shops. Jacob Losey was the resident agent of the confi- 
ipany, the members of which still lived in New York. 

To the firm of Blackwell & McFarlan succeeded as 
owner of the Dover property Henry McFarlan, son of 
Henry McFarlan sen., one of the members of the old 
firm. Dr. Tuttle visited the works in 1853, and gives us 



S8 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



this statement of the business done for the year ending 
April J St of that year: Octagon bars rolled into rivet rods 
|4 to ^ inch; round and various sizes of merchant iron, 
392^ tons; boiler rivets made from the above, 735,746 
pounds, a little more than 328 tons; anthracite coal con- 
sumed, 1,000 tons. The octagon iron was worth $55 per 
ton, making the raw material used worth $21,287. The 
coal cost about $4,300.' The amount of wages paid was 
about $11,000, among twenty-five hands, and the product 
of the whole work was valued at $50,000. 

In addition to the rolling-mill and rivet factory Mr. 
McFarlan had furnaces for converting Swedes and English 
iron into steel. The following is the list for the year 
above specified: Converted and rolled into spring steel 
from Swedes and English iron, 1,000 tons; toe cork or 
shoeing steel. 32^ tons; American bar steel, 16 tons. 

The superintendent of the works, who furnished to Dr. 
Tutlle this information, was Guy M. Hinchman. He was 
born in Elmira, N. Y., November 29th 1795. I" 1810 he 
removed to Morris county, taking up his residence at 
Succasunna. When only 23 years of age he was the 
owner and operator of the Mount Pleasant mine. From 
1823 to 1834 he was engaged in business in New York, 
after which he returned to Dover, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life, acting as superintendent of the iron 
works until 1869, when Mr. McFarlan ceased to operate 
them. He was a man of great activity, a kind-hearted, 
courtly gentleman of the old school, yet keeping pace 
with and aiding in all social and public improvements. 
He died February 13th 1879, retaining all his faculties 
until the last. 

Henry McFarlan drove the mill from 1830, when his 
father died, to 1869. He leased the property in 1875 to 
Wynkoop & O'Conner, who ran it only a short time, 
claiming that the raising of a dam below the mill by the 
Morris Canal Company had so far affected the power of 
the mill as to render it comparatively useless. This 
question is now and has been for several years in the 
courts. In 1880 Mr. McFarlan sold the mills, and they 
are now operated by the Dover Iron Company, who have 
put in steam engines and are driving the works with 
vigor. Hon. George Richards is the president of the 
company, and under his efificient management ihe works 
give employment to a large number of operatives and 
turn out large quantities of fish plates and other railroad 
material. 

ROCKAWAY ROLLING-MILL. 

January 26th 1822 Colonel Joseph Jackson and his 
brother William entered into an agreement to build a 
rolling-mill on the colonel's land in Rockaway, to be 
driven by water from an extension of the lower forge 
dam. This agreement was to continue for twenty-one 
years, when the colonel was to have the mill at its ap- 
praised value. The brothers had previously rented a 
mill in Paterson, and William Jackson made the following 
memorandum: 

" The first bar of round and square iron ever rolled in 
this county was done by Colonel Joseph Jackson and my- 



self, in the old rolling-mill at Paterson, then owned by 
Samuel and Rosweli Colt, in the year 1820, under our con- 
tract to furnish the United States government with a cer- 
tain quantity of rolled round and hammered iron at the 
navy yard at Brooklyn, N. Y., in which we succeeded to the 
entire satisfaction of the government. Our experiments 
at rolling round and square iron induced us to build the 
rolling-mill at Rockaway in 1821 and 1822. Messrs. 
•Blackwell & McFarlan, owners of the Dover rolling-mill 
and forge, seeing our success, proceeded to alter and re- 
build their rolling-mill for rolling all kinds of iron, which 
they completed about the same time. We finished our 
rolling-mill in November 1822." 

In 1826 William sold out to his brother his interest 
and commenced the erection of the forge, furnace, etc., 
at Clinton. Left the sole owner of the mill Colonel 
Jackson proceeded to extend his operations, and devel- 
oped a large iron business. He was already or soon after 
became the owner of the two forges with five fires at 
Rockaway, and of the Swedes, Teabo and Jackson mines. 
In> 1830 he built a second mill upon the same dam. He 
expended money liberally but with judgment in new 
machinery, and in experiments to test the qualities of the 
various ores and the best methods of working them. His 
works were a market for the various forges in the county, 
and the finished product was mostly carted to tide water 
by his teams, which returned with supplies. The Morris 
Canal, during the boating season, brought anthracite coal 
from the Lehigh Valley; but so long as he continued his 
business his teams were on the road between Rockaway 
and Newark. He built a steel furnace near the canal, in 
which blistered steel was made from the iron bars. He 
was a man of great enterprise and determination, and 
continued to carry on his mill through the various vicissi- 
tudes of the iron business until 1852, when he sold the 
mill, lower forge and steel furnace properties to Freeman 
Wood. 

Mr. Wood proceeded to enlarge the mill, putting in 
steam engines, etc. February 12th 1855 the Rockaway 
Manufacturing Company was organized, its incorporators 
being Freeman Wood, George Hand Smith, Lyman A. 
Chandler, Theodore T. Wood and Nathaniel Mott. The 
property was transferred to it August 14th the same year. 
This company made a bad failure a few years after, and 
the Morris County Bank, one of the principal creditors, 
became the real owner of the mills as mortgagee. By 
the bank the property was rented to James Horner, who 
manufactured steel there until just after the war, when 
he removed his business to Pompton. November 3d 
1862 Theodore Little, as master in chancery, conveyed 
the property to John H. Allen, who, February 27th fol- 
lowing, conveyed it to Thomas E. Allen and Israel D. 
Condit. They ran it a couple of years, when Mr. Allen 
conveyed his half to his partner, Mr. Condit. Mr. 
Condit has been tlie owner ever since, with the exception 
of two or three years, when it vvas owned by Adoniram 
B. Judson, the deed to him being dated January 19th 
1867 and the deed back to Mr. Condit, which was made 
by the sheriff, being dated February 13th 187 1. Mr. 
Judson operated the works under the name of the Jud- 
son Steel and Iron Works, himself, James L. Baldwin 



POWERVILLE AND BOONTON IRON WORKS. 



59 



and George Neimus being the incorporators. The in- 
corporation act was approved February 26th 1868. The 
concern is now being operated by the American Swedes 
Iron Company, organized in August 1881, which is using 
Wilson's process for the manufacture of wrought iron 
directly from the ore, which is obtained from Block 
Island. The history of the works for the last eighteen 
years has been that of unsuccessful experiment for the 
most part — many new processes for making iron and 
steel having been attempted without profitable results. 
C. T. Raynolds, H. R. Raynolds and Colonel G. W. 
Thompson are the principal men in the present company. 

THE POWERVILLE ROLLING-MILL. 

This mill, which was early owned by Colonel William 
Scott, whose name has been frequently mentioned, was 
carried on by him until his death, when it fell in the di- 
vision of his estate to his son Elijah D. Scott. By him 
it was in part devised and in part deeded to Thomas C. 
Willis, who carried it on until his death, in 1864, in con- 
nection with his forge. Dr. Tuttle, in his review of the 
iron manufactures of the county in 1853, speaks of the 
admirable economy with which it was conducted. Per- 
• haps no mill in the county at that time paid better inter- 
est on the capital invested, which Mr. Willis estimated at 
$50,000. The profitableness of the concern was owing 
to the careful management and also to the kind of iron 
made, which was mostly hoop iron, then very profitable. 
It was estimated that the mill used about 500 tuns of 
blooms a year, of coal 600 tons, and the product in hoop 
and rod iron was about 450 tons, which averaged at that 
time $100 per ton. Mr. Willis was a man deservedly 
popular with all who had dealings with him and highly 
esteemed and respected throughout the county. 

The mill is now owned principally by Benjamin F. 
Howell, the son-in-law of Mr. Willis, who leases the forge 
for the manufacture of scrap blooms. The rolling-mill is 
not at present in operation. 

ANTHRACITE FURNACES. 

BOONTON. 

In 1830 the New Jersey Iron Company, incorporated 
under an act of the Legislature dated November 7th 
1829 (the incorporators being William Green jr., Apollos 
R. Wetmore and David W. Wetmore), commenced the 
erection of the extensive iron works at Boonton two miles 
above the old slitting-mill of the Ogdens. These have 
grown to be by far the largest and most complete in the 
county. At first the works were under the supervision 
and management of Messrs. Green and Wetmore, who 
were large iron dealers in New York; afterward of Wil- 
Jiam Green and Lyman Dennison, forming the firm of 
Green & Dennison. The whole village with the excep- 
tion of one store and two or three dwelling houses be- 
longed exclusively to the company. In the beginning 
most of the works were under one roof. They consisted, 
says Isaac S. Lyon in his sketch of the town, of a rolling- 
mill, a number of puddling and heating furnaces, an old 



fashioned trip-hammer, a slitting machine and a small 
foundry. They were mostly engaged in the manufacture 
of sheet, hoop and bar iron. There was a refinery also, 
below, on the bank of the river. 

There was a small furnace built in 1833, which was 
first lighted by the ladies residing at the agent's house, 
on the afternoon of February 27th 1834. What is now 
called No. i furnace, which uses anthracite coal, was 
built about 1848. The furnace of 1833 was of course a 
charcoal furnace; for George Crane of Yniscedwin iron 
works, in Wales, did not bring his experiments with an- 
thracite to success until 1838, the difficulty being in all 
previous trials that only a cold blast had been used. In 
the March 1838 number of the Journal of the American 
Institute the editor says in a note: "A sample has been 
shown us of good iron made solely by means of anthracite 
coal. It is the result of a long course of experiments, as 
we are informed." The next number of the journal con- 
tains a report from Mr. Crane of his successful work. 

David Thomas was with Mr. Crane in Wales, and as 
his agent came to this country and started the Crane iron 
works, at Catasauqua, Pa. His son Samuel Thomas su- 
perintended the erection of the Boonton furnace until he 
left it to build the Thomas Iron Company's furnaces at 
Hokendauqua, when he was succeeded by George Jen- 
kins, who continued till his death at Boonton in charge 
of the furnaces. 

For some reason the New Jersey Iron Company failed, 
and its property was sold by the sheriff July 19th 1852. 
The stockholders lost every cent of their investment, but 
every debt due to outsiders was fully paid. The pur- 
chaser was Dudley B. Fuller, the principal creditor, to 
whom it is said the company owed $165,000. Mr. Fuller 
some time after took into partnership with him James 
Cowper Lord, forming the firm of Fuller & Lord. This 
firm continued to own and operate the works until the firm 
was dissolved by the death of Mr. Fuller, which occurred 
in 1868. Mr. Lord died in 1869. The works were car- 
ried on a short time by the executors of the deceased 
partners, but at length, in 1876, the whole interest was 
purchased by the estate of J. Cowper Lord, which is still 
the owner. 

In 1853, when Dr. Tuttle visited these works, they 
were being operated by Fuller & Lord. The rolling-mill 
and puddling furnaces covered more than an acre of 
ground exclusive of the large nail and spike factory, the 
coopering mill and the blast furnace, then recently built. 
The Morris Canal and Rockaway River at Boonton run 
nearly parallel, and both make a rapid descent to the 
plains below. The canal by an inclined plane and locks 
makes a difference of 100 feet between its upper and 
lower levels, and the river falls a still greater distance in 
a series of cascades. These circumstances have been 
made the most of by the builders of the works which lie 
between the two. The coal, ore and limestone are taken 
from the upper level of the canal to the top of the fur- 
nace ; while the iron product passing through the pud- 
dling, rolling, heating and nail mills, is put up in kegs, 
made on the ground from the unsawed timber, and is 



6o 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



ready for shipment by the side of the canal at its lower 
level. The water from the river and the waste water of 
the canal furnish motive power. William G. Lathrop 
was then the general manager, and his long experience 
made the business profitable and constantly increasing 
during the lives of the two partners. 

From October ist 1852 to May ist 1853, a period of 
seven months, the following statistics show the extent of 
their operations: Pig iron puddled, 3,774 tons; nail 
plate, rolled, 3,000 tons; spike rods rolled, 885 tons; 
scrap iron used, 784 tons; ore used in the puddling fur- 
naces, 1,000 tons; anthracite coal consumed, 5,656 tons; 
amount of wages disbursed, about $36,000. During the 
same period six spike machines, employing 22 men and 
boys, made 1,874,000 pounds or 836 tons of iron spikes; 
73 nail machines, worked by 100 hands, produced 56,179 
casks of nails, of 100 pounds each, making a total of 
2,800 tons. At the cooper shop casks were made at the 
rate of 120,000 per annum. The whole establishment, in- 
cluding blast furnace, etc., gave employment to 400 
hands, whose annual wages amounted to $120,000. 

A correspondent of Harper's Monthly (J. R. Chapin), 
in the July i860 number of that magazine, gives a very 
graphic and correct description of the Boonton works as 
they then were, and substantially as they had been for 
the seven years previous. Up to that time there had 
been expended on the works about half a million of dol- 
lars. In 1864 the number of kegs of nails turned out 
was 173,000, then considered a larger product than that 
of any similar establishment in the United States. Just 
before the war the owners commenced the erection of 
the second blast furnace, which was completed after the 
war closed. In 1872-3 the works touched the highest 
point of their prosperity. There were then two blast 
furnaces, whose yearly capacity was 20,000 tons, under 
the management of George Jenkins, in wliich the con- 
cern continued until his death, when he was succeeded 
by his son H. C. Jenkins; the large mill, under Philip 
Wooten, was 375 by 275 feet in size and contained 12 
double puddling furnaces, one scrap furnace, five trains 
of rolls, two squeezers, four nut machines, etc., etc. The 
upper nail factory, under James Holmes, contained 100 
nail machines, producing 250,000 kegs of nails per 
annum. The lower nail factory, which was in charge of 
Nathaniel Jones and which commenced in 1855, con- 
tained 25 machines and produced 10,000 kegs of nails 
per annum. In 1875 this mill contained 50 machines, 
with a capacity of 30,000 kegs per annum, but of a 
smaller size than those made at the upper mill. The 
saw-mill, in charge of George M. Gage, turned out about 
3,000,000 staves and 400,000 keg heads per annum. At 
the cooper shop, of which Amzi Burroughs was the 
superintendent, the staves and heads were put up ready 
to be filled with nails. A new foundry built in 1857 
turned out about 400 tons of castings each year, making 
all that were required for the uses of the other mills, etc. 
It was under the superintendence of Paul Glover. G. W. 
Eaton was outside superintendent and Henry W. Crane 
had charge of the transportation. The whole establish- 



ment was thoroughly organized and complete in itself. 
Over 700 men and boys were given constant employment. 
The panic of 1873, occurring as it did shortly after the 
death of the two partners, brought about a complete stag- 
nation of business. This was too large a concern to be 
operated by any one man of less than enormous capital. 
The owners of the property could not agree upon a suit- 
able rent with any tenant who might be disposed to under- 
take it, so that except from 1873 to 1876, when it was 
run by the sons of Dudley B. Fuller, and a short time in 
1880, when one furnace was in blast, the works have lain 
idle. The town, depending upon this single industrj-, 
suffered terribly at first in the loss of its citizens and the 
depreciation of property; but silk mills and other indus- 
tries have since been set on foot which have restored to 
the place something of its former prosperity. 

PORT ORAM. 

• So far as railroad and canal facilities are concerned 
Port Oram is that place in the county best adapted for 
the manufacture of iron. The Mojris Canal and the 
Morris and Essex Railroad pass through the place and 
the Mount Hope and Chester branches terminate here. 
In addition to these within the last year the High Bridge- 
branch of the Central of New Jersey, and the Dover and 
Rockaway road, connecting with the Hibernia Railroad, 
have made this their junction. It is a place which has 
grown up almost entirely since the war, and is named 
from Robert F. Oram, who laid it out. 

The Port Oram Iron Company was incorporated March 
31st 1868, its incorporators being John C. Lord, Robert 
F. Oram, William G. Lathrop, C. D. Schubarth, James 
H. Neighbour, W. H. Talcott, J. Covper Lord, Henry 
Day and Theodore F. Randolph, and the possible capital 
$300,000. Nearly all these gentlemen were connected in 
some way with the owners of the Boonton iron works, 
who also owned the Mount Pleasant and other mines in 
the immediate neighborhood. The furnace was much 
larger than either of the ones at Boonton, its capacity 
being 150,000 tons yearly. It cost with the land and 
improvements over $200,000, and was built in the years 

1868 and 1869. It was first put in blast August 27th 

1869 by its owners, but May 4th 1872 Ario Pardee leased 
the furnace for four years, and during that time it was in 
very successful operation. During the last year in which 
it was run it produced nearly 13,000 tons of iron. 

The company originally issued stock to the amount of 
$150,000, which was entirely consumed in the construe-, 
tion of the furnace and it became necessary to raise 
$100,000 additional; this was done by issuing bonds to 
that amount, taken almost entirely by the stockholders. 
In January 1877 the furnace was sold under foreclosure 
of the mortgage given to secure these bonds, and bought 
in for the bondholders, who reorganized under the name 
of the Port Oram Furnace Company. It is now out of 
blast. 

Besides the furnace there is at Port Oram a forge built 
in 1877-8 by John Hance and Robert F. Oram, where 
pig iron is rapidly refined by modern and improved ma- 



PORT ORAM IRON WORKS— CHESTER FURNACE— UNION FOUNDRY. 



6i 



chinery. It was started August 5th 1878. The forge is 
now in operation, employing about 14 hands. The 
" run-out " connected with the forge has not been in 
operation recently. In detail, there are here one 6-twier 
run-out furnace, capable of producing 12 tons per day; 
four double-twiered fires for making anthracite blooms 
or blooms from pig iron, the four fires capable of produ- 
cing 200 tons of blooms per month; and four scrap- 
bloom fires, capable of producing 200 tons per month; 
all these estimates calculated upon double time, or run- 
ning day and night. Power is supplied by steam boilers 
of 80 horse power. The steam hammer has a drop 
weight of 2,200 pounds, stroke 30 inches. Blast is pro- 
duced by a double cylinder perpendicular blowing en- 
gine, built by Wrin & Brother, Lebanon, Pa., at a cost of 
$3,200. The capital stock of the company was $50,000, 
of which $32,000 was expended .in the erection of the 
forge, leaving $18,000 unissued. The officers of the com- 
pany are as follows: Robert F. Oram president; John 
Hance, vice-president; William G. Lathrop, treasurer; 
Edward Hance, secretary. 

THE CHESTER FURNACE. 

The Chester furnace, situated west of Chester village, 
was built in 1878 by the Jersey Spiegel Iron Company, 
for the purpose of making spiegel-eisen out of residuum 
which is the refuse of franklinite after the zinc is extracted. 

The project was abandoned, however, after the com- 
pletion of the furnace, and in the spring of 1879 it was 
leased for a term of years to W. J. Taylor & Co., who ran 
it on iron until the summer of 1880, when the original 
stack, which was 11 feet bosh and 40 feet high, was found 
to be too small to be profitable. It was torn down by 
the lessees and rebuilt 60 feet high and 13 feet bosh, and 
it is now in successful blast, averaging a production of 
240 tons per week red short mill iron, made from Chester 
sulphur ores after roasting in the Taylor kilns, brand 
"Jersey." The iron ranks very high as a mill-iron, and 
is used mainly for sheets and plates, and also as a mix- 
ture with poor cold-short English irons — one-third of this 
iron mixed with two-thirds of Middlesborough pig making 
a good common iron. 

STEPHENS FURNACE. 

On the north side of the Morris and Essex Railroad, 
iust before reaching Drakesville station from the east, is 
an iron furnace and smoke stack erected in 1877 by Wil- 
liam A. Stephens, after a patent of his own. The process 
consists in introducing the ore, pulverized and heated, 
from the top of the furnace to the main fires below, and 
its inventor claimed that he could make a ton of iron 
with a ton of coal. About twenty tons of iron were man- 
ufactured when the furnace was first constructed, but 
since then it has been lying idle. 

FOUNDRIES AND MACHINE SHOPS. 

Besides the foundries which have been mentioned in 
connection with furnaces and other iron works there have 
been several independent establishments. Some of these 
had but a comparatively short existence. About the year 



1835 Joseph C. Righter built one at Rockaway on Berry's 
Brook, and a little farther up the stream a manufactory 
for making iron axles. The foundry is still standing, but 
it has not been used for over twenty years for the pur- 
pose for which it was built. It belonged to the late 
Richard Stephens at the time of his death. 

THE UNION FOUNDRY. 

In 1845 James Fuller and Mahlon Hoagland erected a 
foundry on the bank of the canal in Rockaway, which 
was adapted to doing a large' business. They had hardly 
gotten their works in complete order before an unlocked 
for calamity came upon them. At half-past 10 in the 
evening of September i8th 1850 a fire broke out which 
in an hour or two reduced their buildings to ashes. A 
large quantity of finely pulverized charcoal was in the 
corner of the foundry, and it is supposed that while the 
workmen were pouring the molten iron into the moulds 
some sparks fell into this charcoal, which slowly ignited 
until it was all aglow and from which fire was communi- 
cated to the building. An insurance of $3,500 did little 
toward making up a loss estimated at $20,000. Sixty 
hands were thrown out of employment. Fuller & Co. 
had been filling orders frorn Nova Scotia and New 
Mexico. They were then preparing castings for the new 
planes of the Morris Canal. The fire broke up the firm; 
Mr. Fuller went to California, and died on his way home. 
Mr. Hoagland remained. Freeman Wood, purchasing , 
the property, built it over and rented it to Aaron D. 
Berry, with whom Mr. Hoagland was associated. In 
1853 they were employing forty-two hands, and con- 
suming 500 tons of coal and 500 tons of pig iron per 
annum. More than 100 tons of the castings for the 
Crystal Palace in New York were made here. 

From Mr. Wood the ownership of the property passed 
to the Morris County Bank, with the rolling-mill propeir- 
ty, and from the bank Mr. Hoagland rented for a time" 
and finally purchased. Associated with him in the 
ownership were Robert F. Oram and William G. Lathrop. 
The firm was called the Union Foundry Company, and, 
though in 1873 Mr. Hoagland became the sole owner, 
the buisness is still carried on in that name. For several 
years past the business has been constantly increasing, 
and throughout the dull times of 1874-7 the works were 
in constant operation. Heavy rolls etc. are made here 
for the foreign trade and for all parts of the United 
States. Here are manufactured also the ore and stone 
crushers patented by Chas. G. Buchanan, which have 
proved very successful wherever tried. Mr. Buchanan 
has very recently invented a train of magnetic rolls for 
the separation of ore from its impurities, which it is 
claimed will make many ores now worthless available for 
iron-making. The Swedish Iron Company, operating 
the Rockaway rolling-mill, uses these rolls to purify its 
sand ore at Block Island. 

THE MORRIS COUNTY MACHINE AND IRON COMPANY. 

This company was organized in the year 1868, and 
has erected its foundry and machine shop on Sussex 



62 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



street in Dover, near the site of the foundry which Mr. 
McFarlan sold to Alexander Elliott and which the latter 
operated until it was destroyed by fire a few years since. 
It is doing a large business and gives employment to, 
about sixty hands. Much of its work is for the mines in 
the vicinity of Dover, building pumps, engines, air-com- 
pressors, etc. Hon. George Richards is president, 
William H. Lambert treasurer, and D. B. Overton super- 
intendent. 

HARTLEY FOUNDRY. 

This very complete though comparatively small estab- 
lishment is built on the site of the old Welch forge, near 
the Bartley station of the High Bridge Railroad. Its 
machinery is moved by water. William Bartley, the pro- 
prietor, is the owner of the patent " Bartley water wheel," 
and his principal business is its manufacture. It is a 
turbine wheel of great excellence. For power, economy 
of water and convenience of adjustment it is unsurpassed. 



CHAPTER X. 



IRON MINES OF MORRIS COUNTY. 




>N speaking of the iron manufactures it has 
been necessary to give more or less of the 
history of some of the principal mines con- 
nected with them, such as the Dickerson, 
Mount Hope and Hibernia mines. Prior to 
about the year 1850 the ore mined in the county 
was manufactured largely in the county and was 
raised for that purpose. The charcoal furnaces of the 
last century, the anthracite furnace at Boonton and the 
charcoal forges — always running, but with their period 
of greatest activity in the earlier part of this century — 
were the principal consumers. The demand for ore was 
comparatively limited. After 1850 the demand for ore 
for shipment to other counties of this State and to other 
States began to assume importance, and that demand has 
increased until the mining of ore is now the principal de- 
partment of iron industry in the county. 

Professor George H. Cook, State geologist, in his re- 
ports for the years 1879 and 1880 has given very com- 
plete lists of all the mines in the county and of their ca- 
pacity. He arranges the mines of the State in four belts, 
nearly parallel with each other, running northeast and 
southwest. 

ist, the Ramapo Belt, which begins near Peapack, in 
Somerset county, and extends in a northeast direction by 
Pompton to the State line. It is about two miles wide at 
the southwest and at the New York line its width is five 
miles. Mine Mountain, Trowbridge Mountain, the low 
mountains between Denville and Boonton, the mountain 
extending from Boonton to Pompton and the Ramapo 
Mountain are all in this belt. The belt includes the| 



following mines in Morris county: the Connet mine in 
Mendham township, already mentioned, and supposed to 
have been worked in the last century to some extent; the 
Beers mine, in Hanover township, on the farm of John 
H. Beers, from which only a small amount of ore has yet 
been shipped; the Taylor mine and the mine on the 
Cole farm, Montville township; and the Kahart, Lana- 
gan, De Bow, Jackson and Ryerson mines in Pequannock 
township, which have not been operated to any extent 
since 1874. 

2nd, the Passaic Belt, next, to the northwest, which has 
a nearly uniform breadth of about five miles. It includes 
the principal mines of the county and State. In Chester 
township are the Pottersville, Rarick, Langdon, (R. D.) 
Pitney, Budd & Woodhull, Topping, Samson, Hotel, 
Collis, Creamer ist, Swayze, Cooper, Hacklebarney, 
Gulick, Creager, Hedges, Dickerson Farm, Creamer 2nd, 
De Camp, Leake, Daniel Horton and Barnes mines. 
Some of these mines have never been developed, others 
only partially. The Swayze, Gulick, Cooper and Hackle- 
barney have been worked successfully. The Cooper mine 
was opened in December 1879, on the farm of the late 
General N. A. Cooper, and is operated by the Cooper 
Iron Mining Company as lessee. It is under the super- 
intendence of John D. Evans. From the 14th of De- 
cember 1879 to the 1st of December 1880 over 12,000 
tons of ore was shipped, and the supply seems almost 
limitless. For the first eeventy-five feet the shafts pass 
through a soft granular ore, very much decomposed and 
of a reddish color, after which a rich granular blue ore 
was struck. The vein is from fifteen to thirty feet wide. 
The Hacklebarney mine is an old mine, but on account of 
the prevalence of sulphur in the ore was not worked ex- 
tensively until it came into the hands of its present 
owners, the Chester Iron Company. Over 20,000 tons of 
ore were shipped from this mine during each of the 
years 1879 and 1880. The low percentage of phosphorus 
admits the use of this ore in making Bessemer steel, and 
it has been worked continuously since before 1873. 
There are several veins and many openings on this prop- 
erty, which may be considered as not one mine but sev- 
eral. The High Bridge Railroad has a branch to this 
mine, largely facilitating the transportation of the ore. 

In Randolph township are the following mines: Hen- 
derson, George (or Logan), David Horton, De Hart and 
Lawrence (worked by the Reading Iron Company) Dal- 
rymple (worked by the Crane Iron Company), Trowbridge, 
Solomon Dalrymple, Cooper, Munson, Lewis, Combs, 
Van Doren, Bryant (owned by D. L. and A. Bryant, and 
worked by the Bethlehem Iron Company), Connor Fow- 
land, Charles King, King McFarland, Evers (worked by the 
Saucon Iron Company), Brotherton & Byram (worked by 
the Andover Iron Company), Millen (owned by the 
Boonton Company), Randall Hill (operated by the Crane 
Iron Company), Jackson Hill (supposed to be worked 
out), Canfield's Phosphatic Iron, Black Hills, Dickerson, 
Canfield, Baker, Irondale (owned by the New Jersey Iron 
Mining Company, and which includes the Spring, Sul- 
livan, Corwin, Stirling, Hubbard, North River, Harvey 



IRON MINES IN RANDOLPH. 



63 



and Hurd mines), Orchard (owned by the estate of J. C. 
Lord), and Erb and Scrub Oak (which are owned by the 
Andover Iron Company), 

The King, Dickerson, Black Hills and Canfield mines 
are on the property of the. Dickerson Suckasunny Min- 
ing Company, and include the famous Dickerson mine, 
which is still in succesful operation. In the Geology of 
New Jersey, published in 1868, the estimated product 
of this mine to that date is given as 500,000 tons, since 
which time 300,000 have been raised, making a grand 
aggregate of over three-quarters of a million of tons. It 
is at present leased by Ario Pardee, and the ore is shipped 
mostly to his furnaces at Stanhope. There are slopes in 
this mine over 900 feet in length, and the big vein is 
over 25 feet wide in some places. The ore commands a 
ready sale on account of its richness, and brings a large 
royalty to the owners of the mine. The Dickerson 
Suckasunny Mining Company was incorporated February 
24th 1854, with a capital stock of $300,000, its corpora- 
tors being Philemon Dickerson, Mahlon D. Canfield, 
Frederick Canfield, Jacob Vanatta, Edward N. Dicker- 
son, Silas D. Canfield and Philemon Dickerson jr., de- 
visees, or interested for the devisees of Governor Mah- 
lon Dickerson, the late owner of the mine; and their ob- 
ject was to continue the ownership of the property in 
the family, with more convenient management. This 
mine, as has already been stated, was " located " by John 
Reading in 1715 on West Jersey right, and sold by Read- 
ing to Joseph Kirkbride in 1716. Johathan Dickerson, 
the father of Governor Mahlon Dickerson, began to pur- 
chase of the Kirkbride heirs in 1779, and in partnership 
with Minard La Fevre he purchased nearly the whole. 
His son Mahlon purchased of his father's heirs in 1807 
and bought out La Fevre and the remaining Kirkbride 
heirs. During the remainder of his life he continued to 
operate the mine, residing on the premises after his re- 
turn from Philadelphia in 1810. It afforded him ample 
means for the indulgence of his literary tastes and be- 
nevolent projects, and to lead unembarrassed a public 
life embracing higher political distinctions than have 
been attained by any other citizen of the county. 

Dr. Tuttle, who visited the mine in 1853, the year of 
tne governor's death, says: "The appearance of the vein 
is very singular. It looks as if some powerful force from 
beneath had split the solid rock, leaving a chasm of from 
six to twenty-five feet, and that the ore in a fused state 
had been forced into this chasm as into a mould. But 
at the place where the ore was first seen there is a sort 
of basin with a diameter of thirty feet. This was full of 
ore, which looks as if the melted mass had gushed over 
the vein and flowed into this basin, as we sometimes see 
the melted iron run over from a mould which is full." 

Next to the Dickerson mine is the Byram mine, so 
called from John Byram, who purchased it about forty 
years ago, when its principal value seemed to be in a 
venerable apple orchard. His explorations for ore were 
very successful, and in the last thirty years, during 
which time it has been under lease, it has produced an 
immense amount of ore. The old mine slope is 900 feet 



long. The vein averages from six to seven feet in width. 
A narrow-gauge railway runs from the mine to Ferro- 
monte, carrying the ore to the High Bridge Railroad, by 
which it is sent to the furnace of the Andover Iron Com- 
pany, the lessee. 

The Millen mine, near the Byram, was sunk to a depth 
of 120 feet and produced about 4,000 tons of ore in 1853. 
It was then owned by Green cfe Dennison, and with their 
Boonton works it passed from them to Fuller & Lord, 
and thence to the estate of J. Cowper Lord, deceased. 

The Baker mine on the same range is on the farm pur- 
chased by Henry and William H. Baker from Stephen 
De Hart in 1847. It was not extensively developed until 
sold by the Bakers, June 6th 1873, to Selden T. Scran- 
ton and Isaac S. Waterman. It is now operated and 
owned by the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company. 

Of the Irondale mines all have been idle of late years 
except the Stirling and Hurd mines, which are leased to 
the Thomas Iron Company. Some of these mines — as 
for example the Stirling and one formerly called the 
Jackson mine, from its owner, Stephen Jackson — are of 
great antiquity, having been worked with profit in the 
last century. 

The Stirling mine shoot has been followed about 1,500 
feet, on a gentle pitch to the northeast, with an average 
thickness of six feet of ore. The height of the shoot was 
ninety feet in 1879, when it was producing about 1,200 
tons per month. 

The Hurd mine was opened in 1872, by the Thomas 
Iron Company. In 1874 a subterranean stream of water 
prevented working it to its full capacity and finally led 
to a stoppage. Similar difficulty was met with in the 
Harvey and Orchard mines. To relieve these mines and 
all those about Port Oram the Orchard and Irondale 
adit was projected. It was a tunnel, having its mouth 
between the canal and the Morris and Essex Railroad 
between Port Oram and Dover and extending westerly. 
In a description of it given by L. C. Bierwirth, mining 
engineer and agent of the New Jersey Iron Mining 
Company, in the geological report of 1879 it is stated 
that it was commenced in April 1877, by the New Jersey 
Iron Mining Company, the Thomas Iron Company and 
the trustees of the estate of J. Cowper Lord, to drain 
their mines. The mouth of the discharging ditch is on the 
west bank of the Rockaway River, and the ditch and main 
adit had been carried up in April 1879 on the southwest 
side of the railroad 3,667 feet, the ditch being 983 feet and 
the adit 2,684 feet. At present there are 795 feet of 
open cut, 2,888 feet of the main line and 1,100 feet of 
the Irondale branch, which will be 350 feet longer when 
complete. It is five feet wide and ascends three-quarters 
of an inch in 100 feet. The ground encountered has 
generally been coarse gravel, with numerous boulders 
and occasional beds of quicksand. The effect on mines 
over 1,500 feet distant has been remarkable, and wells in 
the neighborhood have been entirely dried up. 

In Rockaway township in the Passaic belt are the fol- 
lowing mines: Johnson Hill, Hoff, Dolan, Washington 
Forge, Mount Pleasant, Baker (Dolan), Richards, Allen, 



64 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Teabo, Mount Hope (including Hickory Hill), Swedes, 
Sigler, White Meadow, Beach, Hibernia, Beach Glen, 
Tichenor, Righter, Meriden, Cobb, Split Rock Pond, 
Greenville, Chester Iron Company, Davenport's, Green 
Pond or Copperas, Howell, Kitchel and Charlottenburg. 

The Johnson Hill and Hoff mines are on the Moses 
Tuttle property at Mount Pleasant, the one falling. to 
Mrs. Jane De Camp and the other to Mrs. Hannah Hoff 
in the division made in 1822 of the Tuttle property. The 
Johnson Hill mine is owned by Ephraim Lindsley, of 
Dover, and has not developed a large deposit. The 
Hoff mine has been worked almost continuously since 
1872 by the Chester Iron Company, who leased from the 
heirs of Hannah Hoff. The Company shipped about 
6,000 tons of ore in half of the year 1880, and the ca- 
pacity of the mine for the present year was estimated 
at 15,000 tons. The openings indicate a succession of 
shoots which pitch to the northeast. The ore is very 
solid and clean and said to be especially adapted to soft 
foundry iron. 

The Dolan mine, belonging to Bishop Dolan, has not 
been extensively developed. 

The Mount Pleasant mine is an old one, having been 
worked to some extent by Moses Tuttle. Guy Hinch- 
man purchased the property in 1818, and the mine was 
worked until the shafts reached a depth which prevented 
their being worked to profit at the then prices of ore 
and methods of mining. It afterward came into the 
hands of Green & Dennison, of the Boonton Company, 
and since then it has been in almost continuous success- 
ful operation. It now belongs to the estate of J. Cow- 
per Lord, deceased. The ore is very rich and clean. 
The depth of the east mine in 1879 was 600 feet. 

The Washington Forge mine, worked by the Carbon 
Iron Manufacturing Company, is on the old Washington 
Forge lot of Hoff & Hoagland. The length of the vein 
on this property is not very great and there is a prospect 
of its soon being exhausted. 

The Baker mine, to the northeast of the Mount Pleas- 
ant, was worked by the Allentown Iron Company until 
1877, when the large vein suddenly " pinched out " in 
the bottom and the lessees were unable to discover its 
continuation, if any. This large vein is to the east of the 
Mount Pleasant vein, which also crosses the property and 
which has been worked to some extent. The Allentown 
Iron Company was sued in 1877 by the Thomas Iron 
Company, which owns the Richards mine, adjoining, for 
alleged overworking; and the suit occupied the time of a 
court and jury for over a month in October and Novem- 
ber 1877, resulting finally in a disagreement. The suit 
was at last compromised and settled. The shafts on 
this large vein were sunk about 300 feet, and the vein 
was in its widest place twenty-five feet wide. The ore 
was exceedingly rich and pure, comparing favorably with 
the Dickerson and best Mount Hope ores. 

The Richards mine is very old and is named from 
Richard Faesch, who purchased it of his father's estate. 
This mine, the Allen, Teabo, Mount Hope, Hickory 
Hill and Swedes are all on the old Mount Hope tract 



purchased by Faesch in 1772. The Richards mine was 
worked and operated by the Dover Company and its suc-" 
cessors, Blackwell & McFarlan, and by Henry McFarlan, 
was sold to its present owners, the Thomas Iron Com- 
pany, October 30th 1856. It is only since the latter, 
change of ownership that its wealth has been fairly de- 
veloped. There are two veins in this property, as on the 
Baker; the southeastern is the larger and the one princi- 
pally worked. The ore is sent to the company's furnaces 
at Hokendauqua, Pa. 

The Allen and Teabo mines and the 820 acres on 
which they are found were purchased of General Doughty 
by Canfield & Losey in the sale of the Faesch lands. : 
From them the property passed to Goble & Crane, and 
by them it was conveyed to Joseph and William Jackson. , 
The Jacksons divided the property between them in 
1828, the Allen mine as it is now called falling to William 
and the Teabo to Joseph Jackson. The presence of ore 
was discovered on this tract by Jonathan Wiggins many 
years ago; but in 1826 Colonel Jackson marked out a 
place and set one William Teabo to work, with the 
promise that if he found ore the vein should be named 
after him. The vein was reached in about 30 feet and- 
Ihe name of Teabo has been attached to the mine ever 
since. Colonel Jackson worked the mine for his forges 
until 185 1, when he sold it to Samuel B. Halsey, who sold 
it the next year to the Glendon Iron Company, its present 
owners. For many years after the Glendon Company 
purchased it it lay idle and was supposed to have been 
exhausted; but the discovery that another vein crossed 
the property revived operations, and for several years it 
has yielded annually a large amount of very rich iron 
ore, 

The Allen mine was sold by William Jackson, June ist 
1830, to Caleb O. Halstead and Andrew Brown in ignor- 
ance of its mineral value, and December 27th 1848 it was 
sold to Jabez L. Allen, who developed the rich veins 
which crossed it. He sold it January loth 1868 to Con- 
rad Poppenhusen, for $100,000, and it is now owned by 
the New Jersey Iron Mining Company. It has been 
operated, however, for many years by the Andover Iron 
Company, and is under the management of Richard 
George. 

The Mount Hope mines have perhaps produced more 
ore than any other in the county. As we have stated, 
they were worked by Jacob Ford, to supply his forges on 
the east branch of the Rockaway, before 1770, and by 
John Jacob Faesch, to supply his furnace and forges, to 
1800. From Faesch they passed into the hands of the 
Phillipses, and from them to the Mount Hope Mining 
Company. Edward R. Biddle, owning or controlling the 
stock of this company, about 1852 transferred or sold it to 
the present owners, Moses Taylor and others, who are 
also the principal stockholders of the Lackawanna Iron 
and Coal Company. In effect the property is owned by 
the last named company. It is estimated that r,ooo,ooo 
tons of ore have been taken from this mine since it was 
first opened. The great Jugular vein originally jutted 
out of the ground like a cliff, on the north side of the 



IRON MINES IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP. 



65 



- road west of the Mansion House. It is of great width 
and developed for an enormous distance. Besides this 
vein there are at least four other large developed veins on 
the property. 

The Swedes mine, so called from the quality of the 
iron made from the ore, is on the original Mount Hope 
tract, but to the east of the range of the mines just men- 
tioned, and between Rockaway and Dover. It was dis- 
covered as early as 1792 or 1794 by one John Howard, 
who was in the employ of Stephen Jackson and mining 
at Hibernia. One Saturday he was returning to his home 
in Dover with his week's provisions when, instead of fol- 
lowing the road, he crossed through the woods. Setting 
down his provisions and a compass he carried, to rest, he 
"noticed the needle standing nearly east and west. He 
communicated the fact to his employer, who told Mr. 
Faesch. After Faesch's death Mr. Jackson purchased a 
large body of land from the Mount Hope tract near 
Rockaway, including the land on which this attraction 
was discovered. After the death of Stephen Jackson 
this property came into the possession of his son, Colonel 
Joseph Jackson, who developed the mine, driving in a 
'tunnel, etc. October ist 1847 Colonel Jackson sold it 
to Green & Dennison, of the Boonton Company, who 
operated it extensively. The Boonton blast furnace was 
run principally on this ore for one hundred and twenty 
weeks at one time. This mine was very convenient for 
the Boonton Company, because the mouth of the adit or 
tunnel was on the bank of the Morris Canal, and trans- 
portation was easy down that canal about ten miles to 
the company's furnace. Since the war, however, the 
mine has been abandoned. 

The White Meadow mine was known before the Revo- 
lutionary war, as is evidenced by the mine lot being 
'' taken up " at that early date. No doubt ore was 
obtained from it to use in the White Meadow and other 
forges by Beman, Munson and the other forgemen of 
that date. Still the vein is narrow, and though the ore 
is of excellent quality the mine has not been steadily 
worked. It was leased in 1853 to the Boonton Iron 
Company under a lease which obligated them to raise 
2,000 tons per annum. It then belonged to Colonel 
Thomas Muir, and is now owned by his son Peter Muir, 
his daughter Mrs. Ann J. Hoagland', and his son-in-law 
Mahlon Hoagland. 

Adjoining the White Meadow tract are lands of Dr. 
Columbus Beach, on which the White Meadow vein has 
been traced and an opening made called the Gidd mine. 
It was last operated by the Musconetcong Iron Company. 

The Hibernia mines are upon one vein, extending at 
least two miles in length. Where it cropped out of the 
south side of the hill at Hibernia it was operated by 
Samuel Ford, Stirling and those who preceded them, and 
adjoining to the northeast the " Ford mine '' was opera- 
ted as we have seen, by Jacob Ford and his lessees and 
grantees. But those operations were small compared 
with the mining of the last thirty years. Taking them in 
order, the mine to the southwest is the Beach mine, 
owned by the New Jersey Iron Mining Company, for- 



merly by Conrad Poppenhusen, who purchased of Dr. C. 
Beach. It was first opened about the close of the war, 
and is now being operated by the Andover Iron Com- 
pany. Next to this is the " Theo. Wood mine," the 
oldest opening of them all, and covering the vein on the 
side and foot of the Hibernia hill. It formerly belonged 
to the two sons of Benjamin Beach, Chilion and Samuel 
Searing Beach. The share of Chilion was bought by his 
son Columbus, and Thomas Willis, of Powerville, pur- 
chased the other half. Dr. Beach and Willis sold the 
mine, January nth 1853, to Theodore Wood for $14,000, 
which was supposed to be an excellent sale; but in 1865 
it was sold to Conrad Poppenhusen for five times that 
amount. It belongs now to the New Jersey Iron Mining 
Company, which leases it to the Andover Iron Company. 
With the other mines owned or leased by the latter com- 
pany it is under the management of Richard George. 
Next in order is the Old Ford mine, now owned by the 
Glendon Iron Company. This company, being the 
lessee of the mines beyond, has not driven its Ford mine 
so rapidly as those leased by the company, holding it in 
reserve. Next to this mine are the Crane mine, belong- 
ing to the estate of Mrs. Eliza A. Crane, one of the 
daughters of Colonel William Scott, and the De Camp 
mine, belonging to the heirs of Mrs. Augusta De Camp, 
wife of Edward De Camp and another one of the 
daughters of Colonel Scott. Both of these mines and 
the Upper Wood mine are and have been for many years 
leased and operated by the Glendon Iron Company, 
whose general superintendent' and manager is George 
Richards, of Dover. The Upper Wood mine, so called 
from having once been owned by Theodore T. Wood, 
and to distinguish it from the one under the hill, for- 
merly belonged to Elijah D. Scott, a son of Colonel 
William Scott. Beyond the Upper Wood mine is the 
Willis mine, which was once the property of Araminta 
Scott, another of the daughters of Colonel Scott. It is 
now operated by the Bethlehem Iron Company and be- 
longs, as does also the Upper Wood mine, to the New 
Jersey Iron Mining Company. 

An underground railroad has been constructed from 
the foot of the hill northeast upon or in the vein through 
the bowels of the mountain, which brings the product of 
all the upper mines to the terminus of the Hibernia 
Railroad, on which all the ore of the Hibernia mines 
goes to market. The tonnage of this road, almost en- 
tirely made up of the product of these mines, was 99,123 
tons in 1879. 

The Beach Glen mine is at Beach Glen, near the site 
of the old Johnston iron works and east of the old pond. 
It was formerly the property of Colonel Samuel S. Beach, 
who sold it to Samuel B. Halsey and Freeman Wood. 
They sold it for $4,000 to the Boonton Company, from 
whom it has come to the possession of the estate of 
James Cowper Lord, deceased. It was not in operation 
from 1875 to 1879. There are two large veins on the 
property, which have been worked to a depth of from 100 
to 130 feet. The mine has been very productive, yielding 
large quantities of ore. 



66 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



The Cobb mine, east of the Split Rock Pond is an old 
mine, owned and worked for many years before his death 
by Judge Andrew B. Cobb. It still belongs to his estate, 
and with the forge at Split Rock is under lease to William 
D. Marvel, of New York. 

The Split Rock Pond mine was opened within the last 
few years by William S. De Camp, on the property of 
Benjamin F. and Monroe Howell, at the head of Split 
Rock Pond. Two veins of good size not fifty feet apart 
have been opened upon, with a good quality of ore. 
Transportation must be by wagons to Boonton or Beach 
Glen, which prevents development except when prices of 
iron rule high. 

The mines of the Chester Iron Company (that on the 
Halsey tract now owned by A. S. Hewitt, the Canfield or 
Pardee mine, the Davenport mine, the Green Pond or 
Copperas mine, belonging to the estate of Andrew B. 
Cobb, Howell's mine, Kitchel's mine, lately Bancroft's, 
and the Charlottenburg mine) are all upon what appears 
to be one vein, having its principal openings at the Cop- 
peras works. The vein lies under and along the east side 
of Copperas Mountain, and extends with more or less in- 
terruption from the Pequannock River to Denmark. 
Most of the ore is strongly impregnated with sulphur, 
which prevented its being used by the old forges for 
making iron. The absence of phosphorus makes it very 
valuable, however, for making Bessemer steel. The 
mines were operated by Job Allen in the Revolutionary 
war, and by Dr. Charles Graham during the war of 1812, 
and large quantities of the ore taken out for making cop- 
peras. A little was probably also used for making iron. 
In 1873 leases were made of this mine to William S. 
De Camp, who transferred them almost at once to the 
Green Pond Iron Mining Company. A railroad was 
built to the Midland Railroad, and over 6o,coo tons of 
iron have been taken out by the tenants in the last eight 
years. The mines are not now in operation. 

The Musconetcong Belt covers t he remainder of the 
county to the northwest of the Passaic belt (the Pequesi 
Belt, the fourth mentioned by Professor Cook, lying en- 
tirely outside of the county). It includes the following 
mines in Morris county: In Washington township. Sharp, 
Kann, Hunt Farm, Stoutenberg, Fisher, Marsh, Dickin- 
son, Hunt, Lake, Naughright, Sharp, Rarick, Hopler and 
Poole; in Mount Olive township, Shouse, Cramer, Smith, 
Appleget, Smith Lawrence, Mount Olive or Solomons, 
Drake and Osborne; in Roxbury township. Hilts, Baptist 
Church, King, High Ledge and Gove ; in Jefferson 
township, Davenport, Nolands, Hurdtown, Apatite, 
Hurd, Lower Weldon, Weldon, Dodge, Ford, Scofield, 
Fraser, Duffee and Shongum. 

Many of these mines are simply opened and their real 
value not developed. Some of them in Jefferson have 
been operated extensively. The Hurd mine, leased by 
the Glendon Iron Company of the estate of John Hurd, 
has perhaps produced the largest quantity of the best 
ore. The shoot is 60 feet high and 40 feet wide, and the 
slope has reached a length of 1,450 feet. The ore is 
shipped by way of the Ogden Mme Railroad and Lake 



Hopatcong, and thence to the company's furnaces at 
Glendon, Pa. 

Through the kindness of G. L. Bryant, of the High 
Bridge Railroad, of H. W. Cortright, superintendent of 
the Ogden Mine Railroad, and of John S. Gibson, of the 
Iron Era, we have obtained the amount of ore shipped 
from the county or from one part of the county to Chester 
furnace for the year ending July ist 1881 over the High 
Bridge, Ogden Mine and Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Railroads — the Ogden Mine connecting through 
Lake Hopatcong with the Morris Canal. The amounts 
are as follows: Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Rail- 
road, 297,359 tons 9 cwt.; Ogden Mine Railroad, 72,668 
tons 13 cwt.; High Bridge to Chester, 18,386 tons; High 
Bridge to Phillipsburg, 161,135 '^""^ 5 cwt.; total, 549,- 
549 tons 7 cwt. 

Besides this amount should be added what is shipped 
from the Dickerson mine to Stanhope and that which is 
sent over the New Jersey Midland Railroad. Professor 
Cook estimates the entire ore product of the State for 
the year 1880 at 800,000 tons. If the amount is the same 
from July ist 1880 to July ist r88i then Morris county 
produces over two-thirds of all the ore mined in the State. 

From the " Census of the Production of Iron Ore in 
the United States " compiled from the official figures for 
the bulletin of the Iron and Steel Association, we extract 
the following: There were nineteen mines in the country 
which produced over 50,000 tons each during the census 
year, two of which are in Morris county. First in order 
is the Cornwall Ore Bank, in Lebanon county. Pa., with 
a production of 280,000 tons. The eleventh in rank is 
the Hibernia mine, in this county, with a production of 
85,623 tons, and the nineteenth is the Mount Hope mine, 
with a production of 50,379 tons. 

■ Eleven counties produce 55.14 per cent, of the entire 
product, of which Marquette county, Mich., is credited 
with 17.14 per cent. The three leading counties and 
their product are: Marquette, Mich., 1,374,812; Essex, 
N. Y., 630,944; Morris, N. J., 568,420. Thus it will be 
seen that the county of Morris produced about three- 
quarters of all the iron ore raised in New Jersey. Sus- 
sex county produced 70,365 tons, and Warren county, 
50,214 tons. 



CHAPTER XI. 



TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION — TURNPIKES — THE MOR- 
RIS CANAL RAILROADS. 




Y the end of the last century the increased 
business and population of the county de- 
manded better roads than had thus far suf- 
ficed. The pack saddle had been supplanted 
by wheels, and tolerable roads through the 
county had been built, but from the county to 
the seaboard the want of something better was 
The first turnpike company in the county was the 



TURNPIKES AND STAGE LINES. 



67 



Morris Turnpike Company, which was chartered March 
9th 1801. Its corporators were Gabriel H. Ford, David 
Ford and Israel Canfield, and its object was declared to 
be the erecting and maintaining of a good and sufficient 
turnpike road from Elizabethtown, in the county of Es- 
sex, through Morristown, in the county of Morris, and 
from thence into the county of Sussex. The act. of in- 
corporation is very much like a modern railroad act, and 
provided for tolls to be charged, condemnation of lands, 
etc., etc. The road was actually built, entering Morris 
county at Chatham, and, passing through Madison in 
almost a straight line, ran to nearly opposite Washing- 
ton's headquarters in Morristown; passed through Mor- 
ris and Spring streets and Sussex avenue in Morristown, 
and so on through Walnut Grove, Succasunna Plains, 
Drakesville and Stanhope to Newtown. 

February 23d 1804 Elias Ogden, Joseph Hurd and 
John De Camp were made corporators of a new turnpike 
company, to be called the Union Turnpike Comj^any, 
which had for its object the building a road from Mor- 
ristown through Dover and Mount Pleasant, and from 
thence to Sparta, in the county of Sussex. The com- 
pany was to commence building the road at Sparta and 
work eastward. Under the auspices of this company 
the pike was made which, coming east from Sparta, ran 
through Woodport, Hurdtown, Berkshire Valley, Mount 
Pleasant and Dover, to Morristown. February 4th 1815 
the company was allowed by act of Legislature to raise 
^7,500 by lottery to pay its debts, and it is of record that 
a road near Stanhope was built with money raised in 
this manner. 

March 12th 1806 the Newark and Mount Pleasant 
Turnpike Company was incorporated, its incorporators 
being Joseph T. Baldwin, Nathaniel Beach, Isaac Pier- 
son, Hiram Smith and Joseph Jackson. This road en- 
tered the county at Cook's Bridge and, passing through 
Whippany and Littleton, fell into the Union turnpike at 
Pleasant Valley, near Dover. It was abandoned as a 
turnpike before 1833. 

March 3d 1806 a company was chartered to build a 
turnpike from Morristown to Phillipsburg, with a branch 
from Schooley's Mountain passing by the celebrated 
mineral springs to Hackettstown. The incorporators 
were David Welsh, George Bidleman, Nicholas Neighbour, 
Ebenezer Drake, Israel Canfield, James Little, John Mc 
Carter, Edward Condict, Harry Cooper, and Samuel 
Sherred, and it. was ealled the Washington Turnpike 
Company. It built the road which, leaving Morristown by 
the court-house, is still the principal road to Mendham; 
running thence through Chester, by the late General 
Cooper's mills, to German Valley, and so up Schooley's 
Mountain, through Springtown, to the mountain hotels, 
where it branched, the " spur " going north to Hacketts- 
town and the main line continuing through Pleasant 
Grove toward Phillipsburg. In 1823 the property of this 
company was sold by the sheriff to James Wood, who 
owned the road until 1842, when he made a reconvey- 
ance to the company. Mr. Wood also owned the fran- 
chises etc., of the Union Turnpike Company, which had 



been sold to Sylvester D. Russel and by his widow re- 
leased to him. The executors of Mr. Wood sold his 
interest in it in 1852 to A. C. Farmington and others, 
who reorganized the company. 

At the same time, March 3d 1806, the Paterson and 
Hamburg Turnpike Company was organized, which 
built the turnpike that, beginning at Aquacknonk Land- 
ing, in Essex county, passed through Paterson to Pomp- 
ton, and so up the valley of the Pequannockto Newfound- 
land, and on to Hamburg in Sussex. The corporators 
named in the act were Joseph Sharp, John Seward, 
Robert Colfax, Martin J. Ryerson, Charles Kinsey, 
Abraham Godwin, Abraham Van Houten, John Odie 
Ford and Jacob Kanouse. 

November 14th 1809 the Parsippany and Rockaway 
Turnpike Company was incorporated, Tobias Boudinot, 
Israel Crane, Benjamin Smith, Lemuel Cobb, John 
Hinchman and Joseph Jackson being the incorporators. 
It began at Pine Brook, ran up through the Boudmot 
■ Meadows — the dread of all travelers until filled in through 
their entire length — Troy, Parsippany, Denville, Rocka- 
way, and across the mountain to Mount Pleasant, where 
it joined the Union turnpike. July' 22nd 1822 this turn- 
pike was abandoned as such and was laid out by survey- 
ors of the highway as a public road, and it is still the 
main thoroughfare from that part of the country to New- 
ark etc. 

February nth 181 1 the Newark and Morris Turnpike 
Company was chartered, John Doughty, Benjamin Pier- 
son, Caleb Campbell, Seth Woodruff, Moses W. Combs 
and Jabez Pierson being the incorporators. The road 
was to pass through South Orange to Bottle Hill (Madi- 
son) or to Morristown. 

The Columbia and Walpack Turnpike Company was 
incorporated in 1819. 

These turnpikes had a great influence in developing 
the resources of the county — how great they who live at 
the present day of steam railroads can hardly appreciate. 
They were not profitable to the incorporators, and the 
benefit which accrued from them was to the community 
at large. 

Some idea can be gotten of the means of communica- 
tion in those days by the stage route advertisements. 
April 3d 1798 Pruden Ailing and Benjamin Green 
advertise the Hanover stage to run from William Par- 
rot's to Paulus Hook (Jersey City) every Tuesday, 
stopping at Munn's tavern in Orange and William 
Broadwell's in Newark, returning the succeeding day. 
The fare was one dollar. At the same time Benjamin 
Freeman and John Halsey advertised stages to run from 
Morristown to New York every Tuesday and Friday, 
returning every Wednesday and Saturday. The stage 
started from Benjamin Freeman's at 6 in the morning, 
stopped at Stephen Halsey's at Bottle Hill and Israel 
Day's at Chatham, and from thence to Mr. Roll's, at 
Springfield, from whence the stage went to Paulus Hook 
by Newark, but passengers desiring to go by Elizabeth- 
town Point could have a conveyance furnished. The 
fare to the Hook was $1.25, and to Elizabethtown $1. 



68 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Ten years after, May 30th 1808, John Halsey adver-' 
tised a stage from Morristown to Elizabethtown Point, 
to start from his house at Morristown at 6 a. m. Mon- 
days, Wednesdays and Fridays, to arrive at the Point for 
the first boat and to return each succeeding day. The 
fare was ^r. A four-horse stage ran to " Powles Hook" 
as usual on Tuesdays and Fridays of each week; and the 
next year (April 4th 1809) John Burnet & Co. advertise 
a stage to run from Seth Gregory's tavern, on Morris 
Plains, through Morristown, Whippany, Hanover, Orange 
and Newark, to the " city of Jersey," starting at 6 a. m. 
Mondays and Thursdays and returning the succeeding 
days. They claimed that the route was shorter than any 
other and was on the turnpike nearly all the way. The 
fare was §1.50. 

In 181 2 William Dalrymple's stages were carrying 
people from Lewis Hayden's tavern to Elizabethtown 
Point three times a week for §t each, and from the Point 
they took steamer to New York. December 22nd of this 
year notice is taken of Governor Ogden's beautiful 
steamer, just completed, which went from Elizabeth to 
Amboy on Friday, December 19th, to take out papers. 
Returning she made the distance of thirteen or fourteen 
miles in iivo Jwurs. The machinery, " which differs in 
many respects from any heretofore built," was made by 
Daniel Dod, of Mendham, a very celebrated inventor and 
clock-maker. 

Sixteen years later, April 26th 1828 McCoury, Drake 
& Co. advertised a stage "to run through in one day and 
by daylight," for §2 fare, from New York to Easton, via 
Elizabethport, Morristown and Schooley's Mountain 
Springs. Passengers could leave New York by the 
steamer " Emerald " at 6 a. m., and returning leave 
Easton at 4 a. m. and arrive in New York at 6 p. m. 
While this was the through route the Morris and Ne^^' 
York mail stages left Morristown ^Mondays, Wednesdays 
and Fridays, and went by way of Hanover and Orange to 
Newark, whence passengers were taken to the city by 
steamboat. They arrived at New York at 3 p. m., and 
returning, at Morristown at 5 p. m. The fare through 
was $1.25. 

Ten years later the Morris and Essex Railroad was in 
operation, and there was an improvement in point of 
time and comfort, but, as will be observed, little in the 
cost of travel. 

The idea of making the Morris Canal was first con- 
ceived by George P. McCulloch, of Morristown, while on 
a fishing excursion to Lake Hopatcong, well known as 
the Great Pond. This lake was 925 feet above the level 
of the sea, and originally covered an area of five square 
miles. To dam up its outlet and luisband the winter 
rains, and then lead the accumulated waters westward 
down the valley of the Musconetcong to the Delaware) 
and eastward to and down the valleys of the Rockaway 
and Passaic to Newark, was the object he thought at- 
tainable. The region to be traversed was rich in its 
mineral products, and iron was manufactured in abund- 
ance in the fifty forges and three furnaces which were 
still in existence. Thirty forges and nine furnaces in 



this neighborhood had fallen into disuse, principally for 
lack of cheap transportation. Mr. McCulloch attempted 
to interest the State in his project, and by an act of No- 
vember 15th 1822 the Legislature appointed him, with 
Charles Kinsey, of Essex, and Thomas Capner, commis- 
sioners with authority to employ a scientific engineer and 
surveyor to explore, survey and level the most practicable 
route for this canal and to make an estimate of the cost 
thereof. The commissioners reported in 1823 and re- 
ceived the thanks of the Legislature; but the latter could 
not be induced to make it a State affair, and left it to 
private enterprise. 

Mr. McCulloch communicated an account of the 
enterprise to Cadwallader D. Colden in 1832, in which 
he speaks as follows of Professor Renwick, of New York, 
who planned the construction, as well as of others con- 
cerned in the business: 

" Be it here broadly stated that up to ihe time when 
the Morris Canal became a Wall street speculation lie 
was considered by every person connected with the en- 
terprise as the chief engineer; and that without his zeal, 
talent and science it would not within our day and 
generation have emerged beyond a scheme transmitted 
to a more liberal and enlightened posterity. 

"In April 1823 I went to Albany, and with Governor 
Clinton's concurrence obtained from the Legislature of 
the State of New York a grant of its engineers to join in 
the Morris survey. But even this co-operation did not 
seem to me sufficient to counteract the apathy of friends 
or the prejudices and party spirit of opponents. I there- 
fore wrote to Mr. Calhoun, then secretary of war, for the 
aid of General Bernard and Colonel Totten, heads of the 
U. S. engineer department. This reinforcement, with 
the volunteer services of General Swift, constituted a 
weight of authority sufficient to overpower cavil, igno- 
rance and hostility. From Albany I proceeded with 
Judge Wright, chief engineer of the Erie Canal, to 
Little Falls, for the purpose of engaging Mr. Beach to 
take the levels and survey the route, having previously 
conversed with him, and agreed with Professor Renwick 
to entrust him with that task. 

"The spring and summer of- 1823 were spent by me in 
collecting topographical and statistic information, as also 
in reconnoitering the various routes, in company with the 
inhabitants of their vicinity. Here a singular fact should 
be stated, that the plain good sense and local information 
of our farmers staked out the most difficult passes of the 
boldest canal in existence, and that in every important 
point the actual navigation merely pursues the trace thus 
indicated. In July 1823 Mr. Beach appeared for the 
first time on the scene of action, guided by Mr. Renwick, 
to whom the deliberative department was confided." 

December 31SI 1824 the "Morris Canal and Banking 
Company " was incorporated, with a capital of ^r, 000,000 
for the purpose, as stated in the preamble, of constructing 
a canal to unite the river Delaware near Easton with the 
tide waters of the Passaic. Jacob S. Thompson, of Sus- 
sex, Silas Cook, of Morris, John Dow, of Essex, and 
Charles Board, of Bergen, were the incorporators named 
in the act; and George P. McCulloch and John Scott, 
of Morris county, Israel Crane, of Essex, Joseph G. 
Swift, Henry Eckford and David B. Ogden, of the city of 
New York, were appointed commissioners to receive sub- 
scriptions to the stock. The company was also allowed 



MORRIS CANAL— MORRIS AND ESSEX RAILROAD. 



69 



to do a banking business in connection Avith its canal, and 
in proportion to the amount expended on the canal. 

Relative to the financial features introduced in the 
organization through stock-jobbing influences Mr. Mc- 
Culloch speaks as follows: 

" It may be well here to remark that, anticipating the 
danger of throwing the whole concern into the control of 
mere foreign capitalists, the draft of a charter provided 
that a certain number of directors should be chosen 
resident in each county penetrated by the canal. * * * 
Several gentlemen from Wall street had volunteered 
their good offices and very kindly took post in the Tren- 
ton lobby after my departure. Upon their suggestion 
the draft of the charter was transformed into its present 
shape, nor did I receive the most distant hint of any 
alteration until the bill was finally passed. A company 
was formed and myself included in its direction. 'J'he 
precarious position of a canal coupled to a bank and 
diri;cted by men of operations exclusively financial )vas 
obvious. The interests of the country and the develop- 
ment of the iron manufacture were merged in a reckless 
stock speculation. I did all in my power to arrest this 
perversion, but soon found myself a mere cipher, stand- 
ing alone, and responsible in public opinion for acts of 
extravagant folly, which I alone had strenuously opposed 
at the board of directors. * * * l clung to the sinking 
ship until every hope of safety had vanished, and then 
vacated my seat by selling out, thus saving myself from 
ruin, if not from loss. From_ the moment the charter, 
altered without my knowledge, was obtained, the whole 
affair became a stock-jobbing concern, the canal a mere 
pretext; my efforts to recall the institution to its duty 
were regarded as an intrusion, and every pains was taken 
to force me to retire." * * * 

" Not only was the project itself first conceived by me, 
but I employed five years in exploring the route and con- 
ciliating friends. The newspaper articles, the correspond- 
ence to obtain information, the commissioners' report, 
and an endless catalogue of literary tasks were from my 
hand. I claim to have single-handed achieved the prob- 
lem of rendering popular, and accomplishing, a scheme 
demanding vast resources and stigmatized as the dream 
of a crazed imagination." 

The route of the canal was selected and the estimate made 
by Major Ephraim Beach, under whose direction the work 
was executed. The greatest difficulty experienced was 
in the inclined planes, which were not in successful op- 
eration until many costly experiments were made. The 
first completed was at Rockaway, and passed a boat 
loaded with stone, computed to weigh fifteen tons, from 
the lower to the upper level, 52 feet, in twelve minutes. 
It was not considered complete either in mechanism 
or workmanship, and it was not till 1857 that the present 
plane was adopted there. 

The canal was completed from Easton to Newark, 90 
miles, iri August 1831. It was estimated to cost $817,- 
000-^it actually cost about ^2,000,000. The canal was 
adapted to boats of 25 tons only, whicli in many cases 
proved too heavy for the chains of the planes. The pas 
sage from Easton to Newark was said to have been per- 
formed in less than five days. There were twelve planes 
and 17 locks, aggregating an elevation of 914 feet, the 
highest planes being those of Drakesville and Boonton 
Falls, which were each 80 feet. The continuation of the 
canal to Jersey City was not completed until 1836. To 



meet the payments in constrticting the canal the company 
borrowed in Holland $750,000, which was known as the 
" Dutch loan," and secured its indebtedness by a mort- 
gage on the canal. This mortgage the company was un- 
able to pay, and a sale under foreclosure was had, by which 
the regular stockholders lost their stock, the unsecured 
creditors their debts, and the State of Indiana, which held 
a second mortgage, much of its loan. The canal was bought 
in by Benjamin AVilliamson, Asa Whitehead and John J. 
Bryant, October 21st 1844, for $1,000, coo. The pur- 
chasers reorganized the company under the same name, 
and the new company immediately undertook the en- 
largement of the capacity of the can:l, which has been 
carried on- more or less every year since. While in its 
beginning its boats carried loads of 25 or 30 tons, they 
now carry loads of 65 and even 70 tons. Its tonnage 
(as appears by the reports to the stockholder.s) had in- 
creased from 58,259 tons in 1845, when only open part 
of the year, and 109,505 in 1846, to 707,572 in 1870. 
Its receipts for tolls and other sources in 1845 were 
$18,997.45; in 1846 $51,212.39; in 1870 $391,549.76. 

On the 4th of May 187 1 the Morris Canal Company 
made a perpetual lease of the canal and works to the Le- 
high Valley Railroad Company, — a Pennsylvania cor- 
poration, that desired it as an outlet to tide water. This 
company has since operated and treated the canal as its 
own. 

The Morris and Essex Railroad Company was incor- 
porated by the Legislature of New Jersey January 29th 
1835, the incorporators named in the act being James 
Cook and William N. AVood, of Morristown, William 
Brittin, of Madison, Jeptha B. Munn, of Chatham, Israel 
D. Condict, of Milburn, John J. Bryan and Isaac Bald- 
win. The capital stock was fixed at $300,000, with 
power to increase it to $500,000, and the professed object 
of the company was to build a railroad from one or more 
places " in the village of Morristown " to intersect the 
railroad of the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation 
Company at Newark or Elizabethtown. The rate for 
freight was limited to six cents per ton for each mile, and 
for passengers at six cents for each passenger per mile. 
A provision was also inserted in the charter that the 
State might take the road at its appraised value fifty 
years after its completion. The next year the company 
was authorized to build lateral roads to Whippany, Boon- 
ton, Denville, Rockaway and Dover, and to increase its 
stock $250,000. In 1838 the company was allowed to 
borrow money for the jnirposes of its road, and in 1839 
to increase the par value of the shares from $50 to $75. 
Besides those named in the act of incorporation there 
were prominent and active in forwarding this enterprise 
from the beginning Hon. Lewis Condict, of Morristown, 
Jonathan C. Bonnel, of Chatham, and James Vanderpool, 
of Newark (father of Beach Vanderpool, afterward for 
so many years treasurer of the road). The difficulties met 
with in building the road were numerous and formidable, 
and were only overcome by enlisting in its behalf all who 
lived upon its proposed route. Changes were made in 
its location to gain it friends, and the directors exhausted 



70 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COtlNTV. 



every effort to carry the work to a successful termination. 
They frequently pledged their individual credit to supply 
the necessary funds. The engineer was Captain Ephraira 
Beach, who had been the engineer of the Morris Canal. 
The track was at first the " strap rail," consisting of a 
fiat bar of iron spiked on the edge of timb&rs running 
parallel with the road bed, and causing occasional acci- 
dents by loose ends curling under the wheels and some- 
times going through the bottom of the cars. There was 
at the outset no idea of its ever being a " through road " 
across the State, or of the immense traffic of the present 
day ever passing over it. The engines were small and 
two sufficed to do the work. The depot at Morristown 
was on De Hart street, the railroad approaching it 
through the present Maple avenue — formerly called Rail- 
road avenue and, before the time of the railroad, Canfield 
street. At Newark the cars were hauled from the depot 
on Broad street through Center street to the track of the 
New Jersey Railroad at tlie Center street depot. 

The business done by the new road was not sufficiently 
remunerative to pay for its construction or to induce 
capitalists to loan the company money as it needed, and 
in 1842 the road with its franchises was sold, chiefly to 
pay about $50,000 or $60,000 due its directors for money 
advanced by them. The sale was so made, however, 
that all the original stockholders had an opportunity to 
come in and redeem their stock (a privilege which a ma- 
jority availed themselves of) and all the debts of the 
company were paid. 

A reorganization followed, and the new company at 
once proceeded to relay the road with iron rails of more 
modern pattern, and to make other and greater improve- 
cents. In 1845 the continuation of the road to Dover, 
agreeably to the supplement of the charter passed in 
1836, was undertaken. There being some doubt as to 
the power of the company to build the road after the 
lapse of so many years, an act of the Legislature was 
obtained in 1846 reaffirming and continuing the com- 
pany's priviliges and allowing it to build a road from 
Dover to Stanhope. Work was at once begun, and in 
July 1848 the road was completed to Dover, an event 
which was celebrated by a grand dinner at the latter 
place. To get beyond Morristown the road was taken 
up from the "Sneden place," below Governor Randolph's 
to De Hart street, and laid anew where it still runs. Con- 
templating to run from Denville directly to Dover, the 
people of Rockaway contracted to give the right of way 
from Denville to " Dell's Bridge," where the switch is 
now between Rockaway and Dover, if the road was laid 
through their place, which agreement was fulfilled. 

Dover was the end of the route for a year or two, but 
in 1850 the further continuation of the road was begun, 
and in 1853 or thereabouts it was finished to Hacketts- 
town. Here the work rested until 1861, when the road 
was completed across the State to Phillipsburg. 

The tedious method of getting through Newark to 
the New Jersey Railroad by horse power was submitted 
to until 185 1, when the company was authorized to con- 
tinue its road to Hoboken. In did not, however, do 



this at once, but made an arrangement with the New 
Jersey Railroad to run a branch of that road over the 
Passaic to the present Morris and Essex depot, so that 
trains ran by steam uninterruptedly through Newark and 
so on to the New Jersey Railroad, and as formerly to 
to Jersey City. It was not until 1863 that the com- 
pany built its own road to Hoboken, getting an act 
passed in 1864 to enable it to buy the Passaic bridge, 
etc., of the New Jersey Railroad. 

In 1866 an arrangement was made to lease the road to 
the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad Company, and 
it was the intention to make it a part of a great through 
route to the west; an enterprise which entirely failed, 
owing to the failure of Sir Morton Peto or the other 
parties interested. December loth 1868 a lease was 
made to the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Rail- 
road Company, which is still in force. By it the lessees 
agree to operate the road, making it a part of their own 
line to tide water, and to guarantee the payment of inter- 
est on its funded debt and at least 7 per cent, per annum 
dividends on its stock. 

Many collateral or branch roads have been built to the 
main line. Shortly after the continuation to Hacketts- 
town the Sussex Railroad was built from Newton to 
Waterloo, hitherto owned and managed by a separate 
board of directors and kept entirely distinct from the 
main line. In 1864 the people of Boonton were accom- 
modated with a branch from Denville to take the place 
of the stage line which had previously been their means 
of conveyance. This was largely through the influence 
of J. C, Lord, half owner of the Boonton Works and a 
director in the Morris and Essex. The Chester Railroad 
was constructed in 1867, mainly through the efforts of 
Major Daniel Budd, by the Chester Railroad Compan)', 
an organization distinct in name but in reality an ad- 
junct to the Morris and Essex road. Shortly afterward 
the Hibernia Railroad, which was built during the war 
from Hibernia to the Morris Canal at Rockaway as a 
horse road, was extended to the Morris and Essex line 
and made a steam road. It is a separate corporation in 
every respect, the Morris and Essex not owning or con- 
trolling its stock. The Ferromonte Railroad is a spur of 
the Chester road built in 1869 to the Dickerson mine. 
The Mount Hope Railroad, from Port Oram via the 
Richards, Allen and Teabo mines to Mount Hope, was 
built just after the war, to carry the immense ore freights 
of these mines along its route. It supplanted in use a 
tram railway from Mount Hope to the canal at Rocka- 
way. 

Since the Morris and Essex has been under the con- 
trol of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad 
Company very great changes have been made in it. The 
Paterson branch, beginning at Dell's Bridge over Mill 
Brook between Rockaway and Dover, and running 
thence with double track to Denville, where it crosses 
the main line, thence to Boonton, mostly on the bed of 
the old "Boonton branch," and so by way of Paterson to 
the tunnel; the new Hoboken tunnel, and the double track- 
ing of the old road its whole length except between Mor- 



MINOR RAILROADS— EARLY CHURCHES. 



71 



ristown and Rockaway, have been the work of the lessees. 
The expense of these improvements and additions has 
been charged to the Morris and Essex road, so that, 
while its stock and bonds amounted at the time of the 
lease to about $12,000,000, they now amount to about 
$36,000,000. 

Besides the Morris and Essex Railroad and the 
branches mentioned in connection therewith, there are 
in the county of Morris the New Jersey Midland 
Railroad, which skirts the northern edge of Pequannock, 
Jefferson and Rockaway townships; the Greenwood 
Lake Railroad, which crosses Pompton Plains; the 
Green Pond Railroad, which is a branch of the New 
Jersey Midland running from Charlotteburgh to the 
Copperas mine; the High Bridge Railroad, a branch of 
the Central of New Jersey, running from High Bridge 
through German Valley and McCainsville to Port Oram, 
with a spur to Chester; the Dover and Rockaway Rail- 
road, connecting the High Bridge Railroad at Port Oram 
with the Hibernia Railroad at Rockaway; and the Ogden 
Mine Railroad, running from the Ogden and Hurd mines 
to Lake Hopatcong — all built since the last war, and 
which properly come within the province of the histories 
of the several townships in which they lie. 



CHAPTER Xn. 



RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS. 




JN 1765 there were in the county, according to 
the historian Samuel Smith, fourteen houses 
of worship. There were nine erected by the 
Presbyterians — those of Hanover, organized 
in April 1818, and then presided over by Dr. 
Jacob Green; Mendham, where Rev. Francis 
Peppard preached; Morristown, organized from 
Hanover in 1738, and whose pastor was the celebrated 
Dr. Timothy Johnes, who began his ministry in 1743 
and who maintained his connection with the church till 
his death, in 1798; Madison, where Rev. Azariah Hor- 
ton was pastor; Parsippany, Rockaway and Chester, at 
that time without settled pastors. The other two Pres- 
byterian churches were probably at Sucasunna and near 
Basking Ridge. The Evangelical Lutherans at German 
Valley had erected a church there in 1745. The Baptists 
had built a church at Morristown in 1752, and the Con- 
gregationalists a church at Chester in 1747. The Quaker 
meeting-house about a mile south of Dover, erected at 
that time, is still standing. The Rogerines, a peculiar, 
fanatical sect, had at that time an organization, most of 
the members living upon Schoole>'s Mountain. It be- 
came extinct before or about the beginning of the Revo- 
lutionary war. Not till 1771 did the Dutch Reformed 
church of Pompton Plains erect an edifice on the Morris 
county side of the riven 



Under the leading of Dr. Jacob Green, in 1780, he 
with three other ministers withdrew from the Presbytery 
of New York and formed what was called the Presbytery 
of Morris county. For twelve years it stood alone; but 
in 1792 the Westchester Presbytery was formed, and in 
1793 the Northern Presbytery, and the name "Associ- 
ated " was adopted. They were properly Congregational 
bodies, not holding the authority of synod and being 
Presbyterians in little but in their name. One of the first 
ministers ordained by this Morris County Presbytery (in 
1783) was Joshua Spalding, said by Dr. Johnson, of New- 
burgh, to have been the means of converting more souls 
than any other man since Whitefield's day. Rev. Albert 
Brundage, who was taken under care of the presbytery 
in 1715, was one of the last. In 1830 the Presbytery of 
Westchester, the last of this group of Associated presby- 
teries, ceased to exist. Their history has been only par- 
tially preserved; but enough remains to show that they 
were instrumental in doing a great amount of good in a 
region which required a class of ministers who were 
willing to endure hardship, and whose work was quite as 
acceptable although their education had been not of the 
best. These men were ordained by these Associated 
■presbyteries, and this was one cause of their separation 
from the synod. 

In Alden's "New Jersey Register" of 1812 it is said 
that the churches and pastors of that day were as follows: 

Presbyterian — Black River or Chester, Rev. Lemuel 
Fordham; Hanover, Rev. Aaron Condict; Mendham, 
Rev. Amzi Armstrong; Morristown, Rev. Samuel Fisher- 
Rockaway, Rev. Barnabas King; Pleasant Grove and 
Hackettstown, Rev. Joseph Campbell; Boonlon and 
Pompton, vacant. 

Baptist — Morris and Randolph, vacant. 

Methodist — Asbury charge, which embraced a part of 
this county, had as ministers James Moore, Charles Reed 
and John Van Schaick. 

Congregational — Split Rock and Newfoundland, Rev. 
Jacob Bostedo; Chester and Schooley's Mountain, Rev. 
Stephen Overton. 

The Society of Friends held meetings at Mendham. 

The history of these various churches and of those 
which were afterward organized will be found in more or 
less detail in the sketches of the different townships. 
The following is a list of all the churches at present in 
the county, and the names of their respective pastors: 

Presbyterian — Morristown, First church, Rev. Rufus S. 
Green (now resigned); Morristown, South street. church. 
Rev. Albert Erdman, D. D.; Chatham, vacant; Dover, 
Rev. W. W. Holloway; Boonton, Rev. Thomas Carter; 
Madison, Rev. Robert Aikman, D. D.; Whippany, Rev. 
David M. Bardwell; New Vernon, Rev. Nathaniel Conk- 
lin; Parsippany, vacant; Succasunna, Rev. Elijah W. 
Stoddard, D. D.; Chester, Rev. Jaines F. Brewster; 
Mendham, First church. Rev. I. W. Cochran; Mendham, 
Second church, Rev. James M. Huntting jr.; German 
Valley, Rev. E. P. Linnell; Mt. Freedom, Rev. W. W. 
Holloway sen.; Flanders, Rev. Daniel W. Fox; Hanover 
Rev. James A. Ferguson; Mt. Olive, Rev. O. H. Perry 



72 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Deyo; Rockaway, Rev. Jaraes O. Averill; Pleasant Grove, 
Rev. Burtis C. Megie, D. D. 

Methodist Episcopal — Rev. J. H. Knowles, presiding 
elder; Morristown, Rev. S. L.Bowman, D. D.; Rockaway, 
Rev. E. H. Conklin; Dover, First church, Rev. H. D. 
Opdyke; Dover, Second church, Rev. William H. Mc- 
Cormick; Dover, free church. Rev. Mr. Tamblyn; 
Walnut Grove and Mill Brook, Rev. C. L. Banghart; 
Port Oram and Teabo, Rev. J. B. McCauIey; Mount 
Hope, Rev. C. W. McCormick; Succasunna, Rev. J. 
Thomas; Flanders and Drakestown, Rev. D. E. Frambes; 
Mendham, Rev. J. R. Wright; Hibernia, Rev. G. T. 
Jackson; Denville and Rockaway Valley, Rev. W. Cham- 
berlain; Boonton, Rev. J. A. Kingsbury; Parsippany snd 
Whippany, Rev. John Faull; Madison, Rev. W. I. Gill. 
Protestant Episcopal — St. Peter's, Morristown, Rev. 
Robert N. Merritt; Church of the Redeem.er, Morris- 
town, Rev. George H. Chadwell; St. John's, Dover, 
Rev. David D. Bishop; St. John's, Boonton, Rev. John 
P. Appleton; Grace, Madison, Rev. Robert C. Rogers; 
St. Mark's, Mendham, Rev. Levi Johnston. 

Roman Catholic — Church of the Assumption, Morris- 
town, Rev. Joseph M. Flynn; St. Vincent's, Madison, 
Rt. Rev. W. M. Wigger, D. D., Rlv. Joseph Rolando; 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Boonton, Rev. Patrick F. 
Downes; St. Mary's, Dover, Rev. James Hanly; St. 
Joseph's, Mendham, Rev. James P. Poels; St. Elizabeth's 
Convent, Madison, Rev. Dennis McCartie; St. Cecilia's, 
Rockaway, Rev. Father Kennealy; St. Bernard's, Mt. 
Hope, Patrick A. McGahon. 

Baptist — Morristown, Rev. Addison Parker; Drakes- 
town, no pastor; Millington, Rev. Peter Sibb; Schooley's 
Mountain, Rev. M. M. Fogg. 

Reformed — Boonton, Rev. O. H. Walser; Montville, 
Rev. James Kemlo; Pompton Plains, Rev. J. H. White- 
head. 

Congregational — Chester, Rev. Frank A. Johnson; 
Stanley, Rev. Rollin G, Stone; Morristown, Rev. Mr. 
Pan n ell. 

Lutheran — German Valley, vacant. 
African Methodist Episcopal — Morristown, Rev. A. H. 
Newton. 

The Morris County Sabbath-School Association was 
organized about twenty years ago, and held its nineteenth 
annual meeting at Rockaway on October 5th 1881. 
The following are its officers; President, Hon. Nathan- 
iel Niles, Madison; vice-presidents. Rev. T. H. Landon, 
Succasunna; Hon. A. M. Treadwcll, Madison; Rev. F. A. 
Johnson, Chester; Robert N. Cornish, Esq., Gillette; 
Rev. R. S. Green, Morristown; Rev. J. H. Whitehead, 
Pompton Plains; Rev. A. Hiller, German Valley. Sec- 
retary and treasurer, George E. Righter, Parsippany. 
Recording secretary, George W. Howell, Littleton. Town- 
ship secretaries — Boonton, George D. Meeker, Boonton; 
Chatham, F. A. Bruen, Madison; Chester, P. J. Crater, 
Chester; Hanover, Joseph D. Doty, Littleton; Jefferson, 
J. S. Buck, Woodport; Mendham, Rev. I. W. Cochran, 
Mendham; Montville, Richard Duryea, Boonton; Morris, 
Walter A. Searing, Morristown; Mount Olive, D. A. 



Nicholas, Flanders; Passaic, John S. Tunis, New Vernon; 
Pequannock, John F. Post, Pompton; Randolph, D. S. 
Allen, Dover; Rockaway, E. P. Beach, Rockaway; Rox- 
bury, L. F. Corwin, Succasunna; Washington, Rev. E. P. 
Linnell, German Valley. The executive committee con- 
sists of the above named officers and township secretaries, 
the county secretary being chairman. 

The repoits of the township secretaries for the year 
1880 are summarized as follows. All but seven of the 
schools are held throughout the year. 



Township. 



Bonntoii 

Uhiitliiiiii 

CliuPtiir 

Hiuiiiver 

Jefferson 

Mendham 

Montville ... 

Morris 

Mount Olive 

Passaic 

Pequannock, 
liandulpb — 
Koolcaway... 

Koxbuvy 

Washington., 







& 


u 


















It 


i 

1 


■3 a 


C 
C i 


s 








ii.Oi- 


Si- 


OO) 


a CO 


c 




c 




.0 




nS 


•^ 


= 
> 


a; 


a 
3 


£ 2 


•z.-;:. 




< 


<! 


'^ 


z; 


4 


m 


50 


395 


115 


8 


11 


lit 


110 


0.22 


177 


7 


8 


f)i 


52 


300 


149 


ii 


n 


78 


12G 


402 


130 


20 


8 


41 


52 


273 


44 


1 


8 


57 


O'i 


281 


79 


8 


h 


44 


55 


234 


74 




11 


201) 


222 


1,008 


378 


22 


1 


48 


54 


2.59 


02 


G 





58 


04 


303 


47 


6 


4 


31 


43 


178 


00 


2 


14 


142 


130 


893 


300 


94 


13 


132 


13!l 


747 


298 


7 


6 


00 


00 


;i38 


74 


8 


8 


72 


TO 
1305 


390 


110 

2.097 


17 


127 


1.193 


0,023 


209 



lg 

To 

g c a 
o=:o 



?13fl0 
14.50 

7 00 
14.50 

5 50 

5 00 
24 00 

7 CO 

8 50 
2 75 

1125 

18 30 

4 00 

14 91 



EDUCATION. 

In every neighborhood in the county there is evidence 
of private schools having been established at the same 
time that churches were organized; and two high schools 
were established in Morristown before 1800. An account 
of these schools and of the progress in education in each 
township must be looked for in the local histories. A 
few words will suffice for such matters as pertain to the 
county at large. 

On the 29th of October 1799 tliere was a meeting of 
the citizens of the county at the hotel of George O'Hara, 
in Morristown, for the purpose of drawing up a petition 
or adopting some means to solicit of tlie Legislature then 
in session "the all important object, the establishment 
of public schools by law through the State." 

In 1817 an act was passed creating a fund for the sup- 
port of public schools, which act was modified by subse- 
quent enactments during the next ten years. The friends 
of education held a public meeting at the Slate-house in 
Trenton November nth 1828, which directed the appoint- 
ment of committees to thoroughly examine the public 
schools of this State. Charles Ewing, John N. Simpson 
and Theodore Frelinghuysen formed the central commit- 
tee, and made an elaborate and extensive report of the 
result of their investigations. Of Morris county the 
committee reported: 

" The committee have received an interesting report of 
the state of education in this county, from its active and 
zealous central committee. This report is complete as 
regards Morris, Hanover, Chatham, Jefferson, Roxbury, 
Washington, Chester and Mendham; deficient as it re- 
spects Randolph, and partial with regard to Pequannock 
townships. It is probable that this county more richly 



SCHOOLS— POLITICAL PARTIES. 



73 



enjoys the advantages and blessings of education tlian 
any other in the State. Sixty-nhie schools and 2,411 
scholars are reported, and making a probable estimate 
for the parts not reported there are about 82 schools and 
2,800 scholars in the co.unty. Many of these schools are 
kept up during the winter only. Female teachers are in 
many places employed to instruct small children in Ihe 
summer. The price of tuition varies from $1.50 to $2 
per quarter. Reading, writing and arithmetic are taught 
in the common schools; the languages and the higher 
branches of English education are taught in several 
academies, which are included in the above number. 
The character of the teachers is generally good. * * 
* Their qualifications are in too many instances not so 
good as might be wished, but it is not often that they are 
grossly deficient." 

"With respect to the number of children not educated, 
the committee are not able to state anything definite. In 
some townships there are said to be very few who are 
not sent to school a part of the year; in one about 30 
are mentioned who are destitute of instruction, in another 
120, many of whose parents are not able to give them 
such an education as would be proper in their station in 
life. A neighborhood in one of the townships, having 
about 25 children, is represented as destitute. In another 
township nearly 150 were ascertained who were not at- 
tending schools. The population of this county was 
21,368 at the last census. If we allow that one-fifth of 
this population ought to go to school at least a part of 
the year (in New York it is estimated that one-fourth of 
the whole population go to school a part of the year], 
then there ought to be more than 4,000 scholars instead 
of 2.800 above mentioned. The committee feel inclined 
to believe that tliey do not exceed the boundaries of 
probabih'ty when they estimate that there are at least 600 
children in the county destitute of adequate means and 
opportunities of receiving any valuable amount of edu- 
cation." 

As a result of this movement the first general common 
school act was passed, February 24th 1829, directing the 
trustees of the school fund to make appropriations among 
the several counties and ordering a division of the town- 
ships into districts and the appointment of three trustees 
in each district. 

This law was altered and amended from time to time, 
and education in each township was left almost entirely 
to the people of that township until, in 1867, the act pro- 
viding for a general system of public instruction was 
passed. Under this act county superintendents were ap- 
pointed, with a State board of education, and a more 
uniform system and practice were adopted. This law, 
modified by subsequent enactments, is still in force. Un- 
der it the first county superintendent for this county was 
Robert De Hart. He was succeeded by Remus Robin- 
son, and he by John R. Runyon. His successor was 
Lewis G. Thurber, who was appointed in 1875 and is 
the present incumbent. Mr. Thurber furnishes us the 
following statistics. of the public schools for the year: 

Number of school-houses owned, no, rented, 2, total 
IJ2: number of school rooms, 155; children from 5 to 
t8, inclusive, 14,120; value of school property, 1224,900; 
amount of money appropriated for schools for the year 
beginning September ist, 1881, $61,368.44; amount of dis- 
trict tax in 1881, $22,484.40; total amount appropriated 
and raised by tax, $83,852.84. 



CHAPTER XIIL 



POLITICAL PARTIES AND CANDIDATES — OFFICERS AND 
REPRESENTATIVES. 




HEN the Federal party lost its influence in 
the nation through the unpopular measures 
of the Adams administration, Morris coun- 
ty went with the current. In 1798 Abraham 
Kitchel was elected to the Council on the 
Republican ticket over Mark Thompson, the 
Federal candidate, by a vote of r,7S4 to 302, and 
the parties maintained about the same relative strength 
for a number of years. In 1808, on the Congressional 
ticket, the Republicans polled 2,412 votes and the Fed- 
eralists 487. In 1820 there was no Federal ticket in the 
field. Jesse Upson was elected to the Council without 
opposition, and the candidates for Assembly were all 
Republicans. What was called the "farmers' ticket" for 
Assembly succeeded, and the "convention ticket" for 
Congress was elected. 

When the contest arose between Jackson and Clay 
and the Republican party divided, Morris county at first 
sided against Jackson; but in the Congressional election 
of January 1831, when the State went " Republican " by 
r,ooo majority, the county gave the Jackson candidate 
40 majority. The Jackson townships were Morris, 
Washington, Roxbury, Jefferson, Randolph and Chester. 
The townships of Chatham,^ Hanover, Pequannock and 
Mendham were anti-Jackson. In the fifty years which 
have since elapsed the political complexion of these 
townships has changed but little. The strength of the 
Democratic party has been as a general thing in the 
townships which voted for Jackson in 1831, and the 
Whig and. afterward the Republican party have been 
strongest in the others. In 1832, when the State gave 
374 Jackson majority, Morris county gave 131. The fol- 
lowing was the vote (N. R. represents National Repub- 
lican; Jackson is designated by J.): Mendham — N. R. 
171, J. 70; Jefferson — N. R. 78, J. 170; Hanover — N. R. 
409, J. 216; Morris — N. R. 255, J. 303; Pequannock — 
N. R. 478, J. 209; Roxbury — N. R. 106, J. 221; Chester 
— N. R. 63, J. 183; Randolph— N. R. 98, J. 141; Chat- 
ham — N. R. 174, J. 104; Washington — N. R. 114, J. 191; 
total — N. R. 1,947, J. 1,811. Four years afterward the 
county gave 170 Whig majority. 

In.the "hard cider" campaign of 1840 the county went 
strong for Harrison. The townships in his favor gave 
the following majorities: Mendham 64, Chatham 131, 
Morris 118, Hanover 155, Pequannock 327 — total 795. 
For Van Buren Chester gave 74, Randolph 42, Jefferson 
77, Roxbury 155 and Washington 83— total 43T majority. 
When Clay ran against Polk in 1844 the county voted 
for Clay. The Whig majorities were: In Mendham loi, 
Chatham no, Morris 53, Hanover 203, Pequannock 298, 
Randolph 3 and Rockaway 96— total 865. The Demo- 



74 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



cratic majorities were: In Chester 97, Jefferson 67, 
Washington 72 and Roxbury 187— total 433. In the 
presidential campaign of 1848 the county gave 2,889 
votes for the Taylor electors, and 2,425 for his opponent. 

In 1852 the Pierce electors received 2,800 votes in the 
county and the Scott electors 2,548. George Vail for 
Congress received 2,822, and William A. Coursen, the 
Whig candidate, 2,515. 

In 1856 the Buchanan electors received 3,008 votes, 
Fillmore 696 and Fremont 2,309. William Alexander 
(Democratic) received 3,062, and William A. Newell (A. 
and R.) 2,961; George T. Cobb (Democratic) was 
elected senator by 184 majority. 

In i860, it will be remembered, there were four elect- 
oral tickets in the field. The Republicans had seven 
electors, who received 3,484 votes. There were four 
Democratic electors who were supported by all those 
opposed to the Republican ticket and who voted a fus- 
ion ticket, who received 3,304 votes. The three "straight 
Democratic" electors not on the fusion ticket received 
585 votes, and the fusion electors supported only by the 
fusionists received 2,735 votes. Edsall (Republican) for 
Congress received 3,480 votes against 3,315 for George 
T. Cobb (Democratic). The latter was, however, elected 
by the vote of the remainder of the district. 

During the war the county almost always was Dem- 
ocratic. In 1862 Governor Joel Parker received 3,359 
votes, and Marcus L. Ward 2,938. In 1863 William 
McCarty (Democratic) received 3,179 votes for clerk, 
against 2,742 for his antagonist, Richard Speer. In 1864 
the McCIellan electors received 3,587 votes and the 
Lincoln electors 3,222. 

In 1865 Marcus L. Ward, Republican candidate for 
governor, received 3,702, and Theodore Runyon (Dem- 
ocratic) 3,506; George T. Cobb (Republican) was elected 
senator over Milliard by 243 majority. 

In 1866 Hon. John Hill ran against Andrew Jackson 
Rogers for Congress, and was elected, Morris county 
giving him 652 majority. 

In 1867 the only officers running through the county 
besides the coroners were the candidates for sheriff. The 
Democrats elected their men — James W. Briant sheriff 
by 430 majority, and James W. Ballentine surrogate by 
548 majority. 

In the presidential election of 1868 the Grant electors 
received 4,283 votes and the Seymour electors 3,974. 
John I. Blair (Republican) received 141 majority for 
governor, Hill 355 majority for Congress over Rafferty, 
and George T.Cobb was elected senator by 425 majority. 

In 1870 there was an election for State senator to till 
the vacancy caused by the death of George T. Cobb. Dr. 
Columbus Beach was elected, receiving 4,844 votes, and 
his antagonist, j. W. Searing, 3,751. John Hiil for Con- 
gress beat Rafferty in the county by 1,355 majority. 

In 187 1 there were dissensions in the Republican 
party — the party dividing into the two factions of 
" Heavy Weights " and " Light Weights " — and the Dem- 
ocrats carried the county. Walsh, the Republican candi- 
date for Congress, carried the county by 38 majority, 



while Cutler (Democratic) was elected State senator by 
530 majority. 

In 1872 Grant carried the county against Greeley by 
1,387 majority; Phelps for Congress beat Woodruff by 
1,336 majority, but Charles A. Gillen (Democratic) was 
elected surrogate by 334 majority. 

In 1873 the only county officers running besides the 
coroners were the candidates for sheriff and clerk. Hoff- 
man (Dem.) for sheriff received 3,444 votes, and Phoenix 
(Rep.) 2,997; McCarty (Dem.) for clerk 3,523, and 
Nicholas (Rep.) 2,905. 

In 1874 George A. Halsey (Rep.) received 4,571 votes 
for governor, and Judge Bedle (Dem.) received 4,505. 
At the same timeHon. Augustus W. Cutler had 40 majority 
in the county over W. Walter Phelps, the Republican 
candidate for Congress, and John Hill (Rep.) was elected 
State senator. 

In 1875 there was no senator or congressman to elect, 
and Pierson A. Freeman (Rep.) was elected sheriff by a 
vote of 3,710 against 3,225 for Charles A. Harden (Dem.) 

In 1876 President Hayes received 64 majority in the 
county; but Augustus W. Cutler carried it for Congress 
by a majority of 115. 

In 1877 the Democrats carried the county for Gov- 
ernor McCIellan by 342 majority, and for Canfield, State 
senator, by 412. 

In 1878 the tide was reversed, Voorhees (Rep.) for 
Congress carrying the county by 693 majority. 

In 1879 there were no county officers voted for. Of 
the assemblymen two Republicans and one Democrat 
were elected, as has been the case for the past ten years 
and more. 

In 1880 there was a very active campaign, there being 
a president, governor, congressman and State senator to 
elect. Garfield received 682 majority; Potts for gov- 
ernor, 693 majority; Hill for Congress, 593 majority, 
and Youngblood for State senator, 551 majority — all 
Republicans. 

This is the proper point at which to introduce lists of 
the officers of the county and its representatives in State 
and national legislative bodies. They are as follows 
with the year of appointment or election: 

Sheriffs. — Prior to the Revolution sheriffs were ap- 
pointed by the governor and held their office during his 
pleasure. The appointments, so far as they can now be 
ascertained, were as follows: 

Thomas Clark, 1739; Elijah Gillett, 1744; Caleb 
Fairchild (filed bond), 1748; John Kinney, 1749; John 
Ford, 1752; Daniel Cooper jr., removed April 1761; 
Samuel Tuthill, wV^ Cooper, 1761; Daniel Cooper jr., 
1767; Jonathan Stiles (in office), 177 1; Thomas Kinney, 
1773; Thomas Millage, 1776. (The constitution adopted 
July 2nd 1776 provided for an annual election of sheriffs 
and coroners, but they were to be ineligible for re-election 
after three years; the following each served one or more 
series of three years, beginning with the year given.) 
Alexander Carmichael, 1776; Richard Johnson, 1779; 
Jacob Arnold, 1780, 1786; William Leddel, 1783; Pruderi 
Ailing, 1789; John Cobb, 1792; Hiram Smith, 1794; 
William Campfield, 1796; Israel Canfield, 1799; Lewis 
Condict, 1801; Edward Condict, 1804; David Car- 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 



75 



michael, 1807; David Mills, 18 10; Samuel Halliday, 
1813; David Mills, 1816, Jacob Wilson, 1819, 1825; 
Elijah Ward, 1822; Joseph M. Lindsley, 1827; Elijah 
Ward, 1828; George H. Ludlow, 183 1; Colin Robertson, 
1834; Benjamin McCoury, 1837; Jeremiah M. De Camp, 
1840; Thomas L. King, 1843; Henry D. Farrand, 1846; 
Abraham Tapi)en, 1849; William W. Fairchild, 1852; 
William H. Anderson, 1855; Samuel Vanness, 1858; 
Garrett De Mott, 1861; Joseph W. Coe, 1864; James W. 
Briant, 1867; James Vanderveer, 1870; Jesse Hoffman, 
1873 (under the amended constitution sheriffs were 
elected after 1874 for three years); Pierson A. Freeman, 
1875; William H. McDavit, 1878; William H. Howell, 
1881. 

County Clerks. — Samuel Governeur appears by the 
minutes to have been clerk from the formation of the 
county, in 1739, to 1765. He was appointed clerk of 
Morris county by Governor Hardy February 2nd 1762, 
to serve during good behavior. Augustus Moore was 
deputy clerk "in 1765 and to September 1766. Samuel 
Tuthill was clerk from September 1766 to October 1776. 
After the adoption of the constitution in 1776 the county 
clerks were appointed by joint meeting in the years men- 
tioned below: 

Silas Condict, 1776, 1781; Joseph Lewis, 1782; Caleb 
Russel, 1787, 1792, 1797, 1802; John McCarter, 1805; 
Edward Condict, 1808; Robert McCarter, 1813; Robert 
H. McCarter, 1818; Zephaniah Drake, 1823; David Day, 
1828; Joseph Dalrymple, 1833; David B. Hurd, 1838; 
George H. Ludlow, 1843. 

The constitution of 1844 provided for the election of 
the county clerks by the people every five years. Clerks 
were so elected as follows: 

Albert Stanburrough, 1848, 1853; Samuel Swayze, 
1858; William McCarty, 1863; Richard Speer, 1868; 
William McCarty, 1873; Melvin S. Condit, 1878. 

Surrogates. — Prior to 1784 surrogates were appointed 
by the governor acting as surrogate general, who named 
as many for the office as he saw fit, they being really his 
clerks. The appointments so far as can be ascertained 
were as follows: Uzal Ogden, surrogate of Morris and 
Essex, 1746; Jeremiah Condy Russell, Morris and Essex, 
1753; Richard Kemble and Abraham Ogden, surrogates 

of Morris county, 1768; Joseph Lewis, to 1785. 

By an act approved December i6th 1784 it was directed 
that the ordinary should appoint but one deputy or sur- 
rogate in each county. Under this act Jabez Canipfield 
served from 1785 to 1803; John McCarter 1803 to 1807; 
David Thompson 1807 to 1822. November 28th 1822 an 
act was passed directing that the surrogates should be 
elected in joint meeting, and should hold their office for 
five years. Under this act there were appointed: David 
Thompson jr., 1822 (resigned November 9th 1826); 
James C. Canfield, 1826; Jacob Wilson, 1827; William 
N. Wood, 1833, 1838, 1843. The constitution of 1844 
provided for an election of surrogates by the people, to 
hold their office for five years. They have been elected 
as follows: Jeremiah M. De Camp, 1847; Frederick 
Dellicker, 1852, 1857; Joseph W. Ballantine, 1862, 1867; 
Edwin E. Willis, 1872; Charles A. Gillen, 1877. 

Prosecutors of the Pleas.— Btiore 1824 the attorney 
general appears to have acted for the State, and in his 



absence the court appointed some lawyer of the county 
to act temporarily for him. After 1824 they were ap- 
pointed as follows: 

George K. Drake, Dec. 20 1824 and Dec, 7 1825; 
Jacob W. Miller, Dec. 27 1826; Henry A. Ford, March 
14 1832; James A. Scofield, Oct. 27 1837, Oct. 28 1842 
and Feb. 4 1847; Vancleve Dalrymple, March 12 1852; 
Augustus W. Cutler, March 17 1857; Henry C. Pitney, 
Feb. 6 1862; Alfred Mills, Feb. 6 1867; Frederick A. 
De Mott, Feb. 6 1872 and Feb. 21 1877; George W. For- 
syth, Jan. 27 1880. 

County Judges. — Prior to the adoption of the consti- 
tution of 1776 justices of the peace were appointed by 
the governor and acted also as county judges, a commis- 
sion being issued to them or some of them from time to 
time to hold courts of oyer and terminer. They held 
office during life or until superseded. From the record 
of their appointment or of their acting as judges we get 
the following list: 

March 25 1740, John Budd, Jacob Ford, Abraham 
Kitchel, John Lindley jr., Timothy Tuttle, Samuel Swe- 
sey; Sept. 16 1740, Gershom Mott, Daniel Cooper, Isaac 
Vandine, Ephriam Price, Abraham Vanacken; Sept. 20 
1743, John Anderson, Henry Stewart, David Luce; 
March 26 1745, James Stewart; March 24 1747, Abra- 
ham Van Campen; April 28 1749, Ebenezer Byram, 
Robert Gould, Benjamin Hathaway, John Pettet, Jo- 
seph Kitchel, William Henry; Sept. 17 1751, Samuel 
Smith; March 26 1754, Joseph Tuttle, Robert Goble; 
Dec. 21 1756, Joseph Hynds; March 11 1760, Samuel 
Tuthill, Lemuel Bowers, Thomas Day, John Carle, Jo- 
seph Beach, Israel Younglove; March 8 1763, Benjamin 
Day; Sept. 25 1764, Josiah Broadwell. 

The commission issued April 30 1768 seems to include 
all the above who were still acting, and was as follows: 

Joseph Tuttle, Daniel Cooper (superseded Aug. 18 
1774), Robert Goble, Samuel Tuthill, Robert Gould, Jo- 
seph Kitchel, Jacob Ford, David Luce, Samuel Bowers, 
John Carle jr., Benjamin Day, Josiah Broadwell, Sam- 
uel Wells; Benjamin Cooper (superseded Jan. 22 1774), 
William Kelly, Samuel Grandine, Moses Tuttle, Jacob 
Ford, jr.; Aug. 26 1768, Peter Kemble, Lord Stirling; 
March 29 1770, David Thompson, Samuel Ogden; Feb. 
15 i77r. Constant King; March 24 1773, Robert Ers- 
kine, John Jacob Faesch, Henry Mandeville; March 19 
1774, Johathan Stiles; March 18 1775, Philip Van Cort- 
land; April 28 1775, Abraham Ogden; May 31 1775, 
Thomas Eckley, Thomas Millige; July 27 1775, Daniel 
Cooper jr. 

Under the constitution of 1776 the county judges were 
to be appointed in joint meeting and to hold their offices 
for five years. In 1844 the number for each county was 
restricted to five, and in 1855 to three. The following 
are the appointments after 1776: 

Jacob Ford, 1776; Samuel Tuthill, 1776, 1788, 1793, 
1798; Joseph Kitchell, 1776; John Carle, 1776, 1781, 
1786, 1791; David Thomjjson, 1776, 1779, 1789, 1794, 
1796, 1797; Benjamin Halsey, 1776, 1781 (resigned in 
1785); Samuel Roberts, 1777; Jonathan Stiles, 1782; 
Abraham Kitchel, 1782, 1797, 1803; William WoodhuU, 
1782, 1788, 1793, 1798, 1803, 1808, 1813, 1818; Silas 
Condict, 1785, 1790, 1799; Aaron Kitchel, 1785; John 
Jacob Faesch, 1786, 1791, 1796; Ellis Cook, 1793, 1795; 
John Doughty, 1795, 1800, 1805, 1812; David Welsh, 
1798, 1801, 1804, 1809, 1814, 1819; Robert Colfax, 1799, 
1812, 1818, 1822; Joseph Lewis, 1800; Hiram Smith, 



11 



76 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



1800; John Cobb, 1803; Benjamin Ludlow, 1803; Jon- 
athan Ogden, 1805, 1812; Silas Cook, 1806, 1812, 1817, 

1821, 1826, 1833, 1838, 1843; Cornelius Voorhees, 1807; 
Edward Condict, 1807, 1824, 1829, 1834, 1839; William 
Munro, 1808, 1813, 1818, 1822, 1824, 1829, 1831, 1836, 
JesseUpson, 1808, 1813, 1818, 1823,1828; Benjamin Smith, 
1808, 1813, 1818, 1820; Mahlon Dickerson, 1811; Eb- 
enezer Coe, 1812; Benjamin Pierson, 1812; Israel Can- 
field, 1812; John G. Cooper, 1812, 1817, 1822; Eb- 
enezer H. Pierson, 1813; Joseph Jackson, 1813, 1818, 

1822, 1827, 1829, 1831, 1836, 1841; Henry W. 
Phillips, 1813; Lemuel Cobb, 1813, 1822, 1827; Lot 
Dixon, 181 5; Lewis Condict, i8r8; Joseph Hedges, 
1820; William B. Patterson, 1820; David Mills, 
1822; Daniel Horton, 1822, 1827; Cornelius Lud- 
low, 1823; - James Wood, 1825, 1830, 1837; 
David Thompson, 1828; Daniel Hopping, 1828, 1832, 

1837, 1842; Lemuel Neighbour, 1828; William Logan, 
1829, 1834, 1843; Silas Lindsey, 1829, 1836; William 
Brittin, 1829, 1833, 1839, 1845, 1850; Stephen Vail, 1829, 
1834; Isaac Quimby, 1829, 1834, 1836; Joseph Smith, 
1829, 1833, 1839; Thomas Dickerson, 1832; Benjamin 
Crane, 1832, 1850, 1854; Ephraim Marsh, 1832, 1837, 
1842; John Hunt, 1833, 1838, 1843; Andrew B. Cobb, 
1833, 1838, 1843; William Jackson, 1833; Francis Child 
jr., 1833, 1843, 1851; Stephen Congar, 1833, 1838, 1843; 
Charles Ford, 1833, 1838, 1843; Silas Condict, 1833, 

1838, 1843; Ebenezer F. Smith, 1833, 1839; David W. 
Miller, (833, 1838, 1843; Benjamin Roome, 1833; Jeptha 
B. Munn, 1833, 1843; William Dellecker, 1834; Nicholas 
Arrowsmith jr., 1835; John A. Bleecker, 1836, 1843; 
William Babbit, 1837, 1842; Stephen Salmon, 1839; 
Peter A. Johnson, 1839; John J. Young, 1840; Aaron 
Doty, 1840; Benjamin P. Lum, 1840; Samuel Hilts, 
1840; George R. Colfax, 1841; Joseph Lovell, 1841; 
Archer Stephens, 1843; Jacob Welch, 1843; Henry P. 
Green, 1843; Richard W. Stites, 1843; John F. Smith 
and Jacob Hann, 1843; Lawrence Hagar, Squier Lum 
and Nathan A. Cooper, 1844; Stephen Clark, Jacob 
Wilson, Joseph C. Righter and Cornelius W. Mandeville, 
1844; Samuel B. Halsey, 1846; William A. Duer, 1847; 
Calvin Howell, 1848; Robert F. Wilson, 1849; Joseph 
Dalrymple, 1852, 1857; Cummings McCarty, 1853; Sam- 
uel O. Breant, 1858; Ira C. Whitehead, 1859; James H. 
Fancher, 1862; John W. Hancock, 1864; Lewis B. Cobb, 
1867; James S. Fancher, 1868; David W. Dellecker, 
1869, 1877; John L. Kanouse, 1872; Benjamin O. Can- 
field, 1873; Freeman Wood, 1874, 1879. 

By an act of the Legislature February 26th 1878 ope 
of the three judges of the court of common pleas was to 
be thereafter a counselor at law, to be the president judge 
of the court and to hold his office for five years. Under 
this act Hon. Francis Child was appointed February 26th 
1878. 

Justices of the Peace. — From 1776 to 1844 the justices 
of the peace of each county were appointed in joint 
meeting, to hold their office for five years, and were con- 
sidered county officers. Besides those who were also 
judges, and whose names appear as such, there were ap- 
pointed for Morris county the following: 

Robert Gould, 1776; Aaron Stark, 1776, 1777; Samuel 
Wills, 1776; John Waldruff, 1775; Moses Tuttle, 1776; 
Jacob Doley, 1776; Constant King, 1776; Henry Mande- 
ville jr., 1776, 1777, 1781, 1783; Matthew Burnet, 1776; 
John Brookfield, 1776, 1781; Jonathan Stiles (resigned 
January loth 1779), 1776, 1781; David Brewin, 1776; 
Daniel Cooper jr., 1876, 1781; Benjamin Howell, 1776, 
1781; John Jacob Faesch, 1776, 1781; Elijah Horton, 



1776, 1782; Jacob Gould, 1777, 1782, 1787; Stephen 
Day, 1777, 1782; John Cobb (resigned October 2nd 1778), 
1777; William Young, 1777, 1782 (resigned August 13th 
1784); Aaron Kitchel, 1777, 1782; Seth Babbitt, 1777, 
1782; William Ross, 1778; William Woodhull, 1780, 

1790, 179s, 1803, 1806, 1808; David Thompson, 1781; 
Jacob Minton, 1781; Abraham Kitchel, 1782; Benjamin 
Lindsley (resigned August 3tst 1784), 1782; Joseph 
Wood, 1782; John Stark, 1783, 1789, 1794, 1799; Ebene- 
zer Tuttle (resigned June ist 1786), 1783; Eleazer Linds- 
ley, 1783; Daniel Cook, 1784, 1789; John Riggs, 1784; 
Jacob Shuiler, 1786; William Logan, 1786; Cornelius 
Voorhees, 1787; Caleb Russell, 1787; Hiram Smith, 
1788; Moses Tuttle (resigned November 23d 1790), 1788; 
David Welsh jr., 1789, 1794, 1799, 1804, 1809, 1814, 1819; 
Alexander Carmichael, 1790, 1795; Enos Ward, 1791; 
Nathaniel Terry, 1791; John Debow, 1791; John Salter, 

1791, 1796; Stephen Jackson, 1791; Artemas Day, 1791; 
William Corwine, 1792, 1797, 1803, 1808, 1813; John 
Kitchel, 1792; Abraham Fairchild, 1792, i797> 
1803; Ellis Cook, 1793; Ebenezer Cae, 1793, 1798, 
1804, 1809, 1814, 1819, 1824; Jabez Campfield, 
i793> 1798; Hiram Smith, 1793; Simeon Broad- 
well, 1793; George Bockover, 1794, 1799; John 
Cobb, 1794, 1799, 1803; Joseph Lewis, 1796; 
Benjamin Beach, 1796, 1801, 1806, 1811; Robert Colfax, 
1796, 1812, 1818, 1822; Ebenezer Drake, 1796, 1801; 
John De Camp, 1796, 1801, 1806, 1812, 1817; Joshua 
Jennings, 1797; Aaron Ball, 1798, 1803; Nicholas Em- 
mons, 1798, 1803, 1808; Ziba Hazen, 1799; Nicholas 
Mandeville, 1799, 1803, 1808, 1813, 1818; Nicholas 
Neighbour, 1799, 1804, 1809, 1814; Israel Lum, 1799, 
1804; Daniel Horton, 1801, 1806, 1812, 1816, 1821, 1826; 
Joseph Hedges, 1801, 1806, 1812; Abraham Kitchel, 
1803; Benjamin Ludlow, 1803; Richard Johnson, 1803, 
1808, 1813, 1818; Jesse Upson, 1803, 1808, 1813, 1818, 
1823, 1828; William Munro, 1803, 1808, 1818, 1822, 1824, 
1833, 1834 (resigned 1835); Benjamin Condit, 1803, 1808, 
1813, 1818, 1823, 1828; Daniel Hurd, 1803, 1808; Ben- 
jamin Lamson, 1803, 1808, 1813; Jacob Miller, 1804; 
John Doughty, 1805, 1812; Jonathan Ogden, 1805, 1812; 
David Pier, 1805, 1810; Silas Cook, 1805, 1812, 1817, 
1826, 1833, 1838, 1843; Peter Smith, 1805, 181 t; Daniel 
Hopping, 1805, 1810, 1816, 1820, 1825, 1832; Benjamin 
Smith, 1806, 1811, 1813, 1816, 1818, 1819 (resigned 1820); 
Preserve RigRS, 1806, 1811; Isaac Lindsley, 1806, 1811; 
Cornelius Voorhees, 1807; Edward Condict, 1807, 1812, 

1817, 1822, 1824, 1827, 1829, 1834; Lot Dixon, 1807, 

1812, 1817; Joseph Halsey, 1807; David S. Bates, 
1807; Ezekiel Kitchel, 1808; Philip Schuyler, 
1808; John Kelso, 1808; Henry Cooper jr., 1808, 

1813, 1818; William Spencer, 1809, 1813 (resigned 1814); 
Benjamin Pierson, 1809, 1814, 1819; Mahlon Dickerson, 
181 1 ; Thomas Van Winkle, 181 1, 1816, 1820, 1825, 1832, 
1837; Thomas Parrot, 1811, 1818; Thomas Logan jr., 
i8i2, T817, 1821; Stephen Dickerson, 1812, 1817, 1821, 
1826, 1831, 1836; John Smith, 1812, 1817, 1820; Israel 
Canfield, 1812; John G. Cooper, 1812, 1817, 1822; 
Ebenezer H. Pierson, 1813; Joseph Jackson, 1813, 

1818, 1822, 1827; Henry W. Phillips, 1813; Lemuel 
Cobb, 1813. 1818, 1822, 1827; John Stark "3d, 1813; 
Cornelius Davenport, 1813; Lawrence Henn, 1813; 
Jacob B. Drake, 1813; William Woodhull, 1813, 
1818; Elijah Ward, 1814, 1818, 1835, 1844; 
Leonard Neighbour, 1814, 1819, 1824; Obadiah Crane, 

1814, 1819; David Mills, 1814, 1818 (resigned 1819), 
1822; Silas Lindsley, 1815, 1820, 1825, 1830; Jacob 
Drake jr., 1815, 1820; Jacob Demouth, 1815, 1820, 1826, 
1832; Jonathan Miller, 1815, 1820, 1825, 1838, 1843; 
Lambert Bowman, 1815; William Babbit, 1815, 1820, 
1825, 1831, 1837, 1842; Samuel S. Beach, 1816; Aaron 



JUSTICES— MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 



77 



Ball, 1816; Paul Drake, 1816, 1825; Squier Lum, 1816, 
1821, 1826, 1831, 1836, 1842; David Miller, 1817; David 
Day, 1817, 1821, 1826, 1836, 1842; Abraham Cook, 1817 
Jacob Weise, 1817; Lewis Condit,i8i8; John Sharp 3d 

1818, 1824, 1829, 1834; Gabrier Johnson, 1819, 1823 
1828; Joseph Hedges, 1819; William Dellecker, 1819, 

1823, 1828, 1833; Ephraim P. Stiles, 1818; Joseph Smith 

1819, 1824, 1829, 1839; Ebenezer Smith, 1820; Robert 
"-Staght, 1820; Nicholas Arrowsmith jr., 1821, 1826, 1836 

John Smith of Roxbury, 182 1; Richard Grey, 182 1 
1826, 1830 (resigned); Benjamin P. Lum, 1822, 1827 

1832, 1837, 1841, 1842; Samuel Weise, 1822; Cornelius 
Ludlow, 1822, 1827; Benjamin Crane, 1822, 1827, 1832 
"Stephen Congar, 1822, 1827, 1832, 1837, 1842; Aaron 
Kitchel, 1822, 1827; William Logan, 1822, 1827, 1832 
David Thorp, 1822, 1827; John Hunt, 1823, 1828, 1837 
1842; Peter Kemple, 1823, 1828, 1833, 1839; Aaron Sal- 
mon, 1823, 1832, 1837, 1842; Isaac Quimby, 1824, 1829 
1834; William Thompson, 1824; Ebenezer F. Smith 

1824, 1829, 1833, 1834; Thomas Dickerson, 1824, 1829 
Samuel Sayre of Roxbury, 1825; James Wood 

1825, 1830, 1837; Azariah Carter, 1825, 1830 
1836, 1843; Benjamin Rome jr., 1825, 1833; Peter 
Freeman, 1825, 1830; Sylvanus Cooper, 1826, 1831; John 
Sherman, 1826, 1836; John F. Smith, 1826, 1831, 1832 
David Thompson, 1828; Lemuel Neighbour, 1828; George 
H. Ludlow, 1828; Daniel L. Tuttle, 1828; Zephaniah 
Drake, 1829; Matthias Kitchel, 1829, 1834, 1839; Wil- 
liam De Hart, of Pequannock, 1829; Andrew Pearce, 
1829; William Brittin, 1829, 1834; Nathaniel Corwin, 
1829, 1834; Jacob Welsh of Washington township, 1829, 

1834, 1839; Alexander Dickerson, 1829, 1834, 1839; 
Stephen Vail, 1829, 1834; John A. Bleecker, 1829, 1834; 
-Charles Freeman, 1829; Joseph Dalrymple, 1829; Robert 
K. Tuttle, 1829, 1834, 1843; Daniel Thompson jr., 1829; 
Simeon Lindsley, 1830, 1835, 1844; Henry Stephens, 
1830; Peter A. Johnson, 1830, 1835, 1840; George R. 
•Colfax, 1830, 1833, 1836, 1840; Moses Beach, 1831; John 
Righter, 1831, 1836; Isaac ISeach jr., 1831; John W. 
Hancock, 1831; George Trimmer jr., 1831, 1836; Daniel 
McCorraick, 1831; David Horton, 1831; Michael Arrow- 
smith, 1831; Joseph Jackson, 1831, 1836, 1841; Andrew 
Fleck, 1831; Nelson, Howell, 1832; Morris Hager, 1832; 
James M. Fleming, 1832, 1838; Cornelius Mandeville, 
1832; Isaac Whitehead, 1832; Robert Hand, 1832; Isaac 
Ball, 1832; Ephraim Marsh, T832; Stephen Salmon, 1833, 
1838, 1843; John Debow, 1833, 1838; Silas C. Clark, 

1833, 1838; Jacob Johnson, 1833; Daniel Runyon, 1833, 
1838, 1843; Francis Stickle, 1833; Samuel Sayre of Mor- 
ris, 1833; William Headley, 1833; Stephen O. Guerin, 
1833; John Welsh, 1833; Robert C. Stephens, 1833, 1838, 
1843; William O. Ford, 1833, 1838, 1839, 1843; Calvin 
Dixon, 1833, 1838; Loammi Moore, 1833, 1838; Francis 
Child jr., 1833; Silas Condict, 1833, 1843; Samuel Hilts, 
1833, 1838, 1843; Calvin Thompson, 1833; David W. 
Miller, 1833, 1843; Stephen R. Haines, 1833; William 
Jackson, 1833; John Seward jr., 1833, 1838; William 
Spriggs, 1833; Isaac Mead, 1833; John Mott jr., 1833; 
Nathan A. Cooper, 1834; John Hardy, 1834; Daniel P. 
Merchant, 1834; Calvin D. Smith, 1834; John S. Ballen- 
tine, 1834; Jeptha B. Munn, 1834; Jonathan Thompson, 

1835, 1843; Rheace Nicholas, 1835, 1843; James Ely, 1835; 
Samuel Hedges, 1835, 1843; John M. Losey, 1835; Moses 
A. Brookfield, 1836, 1843; Henry Kennedy, 1836; Mah- 
lon Pitney jr., 1836, 1841; Samuel C. Caskey, 1836, 1844; 
David Burnet jr., 1836; Josiah P. Knapp, 1836; Elisha 
Bard, 1836; John Garrigus jr., 1836, 1841; Henry Ste- 
vens, 1837, 1842; John T. Young, 1837; William Allen, 
1837; Nathaniel F. Douglass, 1837, 1842; Archer Ste- 
phens, 1837; 1842; Isaac Bird, 1838, 1843; Henry Cole, 
1838, 1843; Aaron Doty, 1838, 1843; Charles Ford, 



1838,1843; DavidT. Cooper, 1838, 1843; Henry J. Hoff- 
man, 1839; Calvin Howell, 1839; Martin S. Moore, 1839; 
Morris Sharp, 1839; Samuel Swayze, 1839; Robert Al- 
bright, 1839, 1844; Enos Davenport, 1839; John Dal- 
rymple, 1839; Silas L. Condict, 1839; James F. Hopping, 
1839; Benjamin L. Condict, 1840; David Crater jr., 1840; 
Jared Howell, 1840; William B. La Fever, 1840; Elisha 
B. Mott, 1840; Moses Cherry, 1840; Jacob Holloway, 
1840; Joseph C. Harvey, Abraham C. Canfield, Hubbard 
S. Stickle, John Wells, William Nichols and William P. 
Brittin, 1841; John J. Youngs, Andrew Flock, James R. 
Dennison, 1842; William M. Clark, 1843, resigned 1845; 
Wickliff H. Genung, John Seward jr., David Sandford, 
David Burnet, James Ely, John J. Ballentine, Jacob 
Swackhamer, Thomas Coe, Thomas Landron, Cummins 
McCarty, William Little, Michael McLane, Joseph Cole- 
man, David S. De Camp, Gilman T. Cummings, William 
B. Johnson, Josiah B. Knapp and William H. Dickerson, 
1843; Henry Kennedy, Cornelius W. Mandeville, Eli- 
phalet Drake, Moses Beam, John Gray, Alfred Vanduyne, 
Jacob Powers, William T. Munroe, Jacob Drake, Stephen 
W. T. Meeker, David Allen and Timothy Southard, 1844. 

The constitution of 1844 provided for the election of 
justices of the peace by the people of each township. 

Members of the Council (elected annually under the 
first constitution). — Silas Condict, 1776-80; John Carle, 
1781-84; John Cleves Symmes, 1785; Abraham Kitchel, 
1786-88, 1793, 1794, 1798-1800; William Woodhull, 1789, 
1790; Ellis Cook, 1791, 1792, 179s; David Welsh, 1801-6; 
Benjamin Ludlow, 1807-14; Jesse Upson, 1815-22 (vice- 
president 1818-22; Silas Cook, 1823-27 (vice-president 
in 1827); Edward Condict, 1828-30; James Wood, 1831, 
1832, 1840, 1841; Mahlon Dickerson, 1833; William 
Munro, 1834; Jeptha B. Munn, 1835, 1836; William Brit- 
tin, 1837, 1838; Jacob W. Miller, 1839; Ezekiel B. 
Gaines, 1842; John H. Stanburrough, 1843. 

State Senators. — John B. Johnes, 1845-47; Ephraim 
Marsh, 1848-50 (president in 1849 and 1850); John A. 
Bleeker, 1851-53; Alexander Robertson, 1854-56; An- 
drew B. Cobb, 1857-59; Daniel Budd, 1860-62; Lyman 
A. Chandler, 1863-65; George T. Cobb, 1866-70; Colum- 
bus Beach, 1871; Augustus W. Cutler, 1872-74; John 
Hill, 1875-77; Augustus C. Canfield, 1878-80; James C. 
Youngblood, 1881. 

Assemblymen. — Under the first constitution, adopted 
July 2nd 1776, each county was entitled to three assem- 
blymen, who were elected on the second Tuesday of 
October, the Assembly convening on the second Tues- 
day thereafter. In 1815 Morris county was authorized 
to elect four members of Assembly, but the number 
three was restored in i860. The county was first dis- 
tricted in 1852, Chatham and Morris townships com- 
posing the first district, Hanover and Pequannock the 
second, Jefferson, Rockaway and Roxbury the third, and 
Chester, Mendham, Randolph and Washington the fourth. 
In i860 the county was redistricted, to conform to the 
reduced representation, as follows: ist district, Chatham, 
Chester, Mendham and Morris; 2nd, Hanover, Pequannock 
and Rockaway; 3d, Jefferson, Randolph and Roxbury. The 
subsequent arrangement of districts has been as follows: 
1867 — ist district, Chatham, Hanover, Morris and Pas- 
saic; 2nd, Jefferson, Pequannock, Randolph and Rock- 
away; 3d, Chester, Mendham, Roxbury and Washing- 
ton. 1868 — ist district, Chatham, Hanover, Mendham, 
Morris and Passaic; 2nd, Boonton, Jefferson and Rock- 



78 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



away; 3d, Chester, Randolph, Roxbury and Washington, 
1871 — ist district, Chathann, Hanover, Montville and 
Morris; 2nd, Boonton, Jefferson, Pequannock and Rock- 
away; 3d, Chester, Mendham, Passaic, Randolph, Rox- 
bury and Washington. An act redistricting the county 
as follows in 1878 was repealed in 1879 — 1st district, 
Chatham, Chester, Mendham, Morris and Passaic; 2nd, 
Boonton, Hanover, Montville, Pequannock and Rocka- 
way; 3d, Jefferson, Mt. Olive, Randolph, Roxbury and 
Washington. By an act of March 21st 1881 Mt. Olive 
and Roxbury were attached to the 2nd district. In the 
following list of members of Assembly from Morris county 
the district represented by the ■ member is indicated by 
its .number following his name, and the territory repre- 
sented can be ascertained by reference to the dates 
above: 

Jacob Drake, 1776-78; Ellis Cook, 1776, 1777, 1779, 
1781-92; William Woodhull, 1776, 1777; Abraham 
Kitchel, 1778, 1779; David Thompson, 1778, 1795; 
Alexander Carmichael, 1779; William Winds, 1780; John 
Carle, 1780; Eleazer Lindsley, 1780; Aaron Kitchel, 
1781, 1782, 1784, 1786-90, 1793, 1794, 1797, 1801-04, 1809; 
John Starke, 1781-83, 1785-88, 1791, 1795; Jonathan 
Dickerson, 1783; Jacob Arnold, 1784, 1785, 1789, 1790; 
Hiram Smith, 1791, 1792; Silas Condict, 1791-94, 1796- 
98, 1800 (speaker 1792-94, 1797); John Wurts, 1792; 
David Welsh, 1783, 1784, 1786, 1797, 1800; John Debow, 
1795; John Cobb, 1796; William Corwin, 1798, 1799, 
1801-03; Cornelius Voorheese, 179,8, 1800; William Camp- 
field, 1799; Jonathan Ogden, 1802-04; Jesse Upson, 1804- 
06; Lewis Condict, 1805-09 (speaker 1808, 1809); George 
Tucker, 1805; Nicholas Neighbour, i8o6-c8; Stephen 
Dod, 1807-12; Jeptha B. Munn, 1810-12, 1814; Nicholas 
Mandeville, 1810, 1813-15; Mahlon Dickerson, 1811-13; 
Leonard Neighbour, 1813, 1831; David Thompson jr., 
1814-22 (speaker 1818-22); Benjamin Condit, 1815, 1816, 
i8ig; Ezekiel Kitchel, 1815, 1816; Samuel Halliday, 
1816-18; John S. Darcy, 1817, 1818; Benjamin Mc- 
Curry, 1817, 1821, 1822, 1824; William Brittin, 
1818, 1819-24, 1832; Silas Cook, 1819, 1820; Wil- 
liam Munro, 1820, 1821, 1823, 1828-30; Benja- 
min Smith, 1820, 1822, 1823; George K. Drake, 
1823-26 (speaker 1825, 1826); John Scott, 1824; 
Ebenezer F. Smith, 1825; Joseph Dickerson, 1825, 1826; 
Ephraim Marsh, 1825- 27; John D. Jackson, 1826; David 
Mills, 1827; Stephen Thompson, 1827; Walter Kirkpat- 
rick, 1827; Joseph Jackson, 1828-30; Charles Hillard, 
1828-30; John Hancock, 1828-30; Elijah Ward, 1831; 
Thomas Muir, 1831, 1833, 1834; James Cook, 1831, 1835; 
Samuel Beach, 1832; Jacob W. Miller, 1832; Joseph 
Smith, 1832; Joseph Dickerson jr., 1833, 1834; Henry 
Hillard, 1833-35; Silas Lindsley, 1833, 1834; Isaac 
Quimby, 1835; John D. Jackson, 1835; John A. Bleeker, 
1836; William Dellicker, 1836; Alexander Dickerson, 
1836; William Logan, 1836; Lewis Condict, 1837, 1838 
(speaker); Silas Tuttle, 1837, 1838; Robert C. Stephens, 
1837, 1838; Ezekiel B. Gaines, 1837, 1838; Abraham 
Brittin, 1839, 1840; Ebenezer F. Smith, 1839, 1840; Jacob 
Weise, 1839; Paul B. Debow, 1839, 1840; James W. 
Drake, 1840, 1841; Samuel B. Halsey, 1841, 1842 
(speaker 1842); William Stephens, 1841, 1842; Thomas 
C.Willis, 1841; David T. Cooper, 1842, 1848, 1849; 
James Clark, 1842, 1843; John M. Losey, 1843; Samuel 
Willett, 1843; George Vail, 1843; Timothy Kitchel, 
1845; Matthias Kitchel, 1845, 1846; Henry Seward, 1845, 
1846; George H. Thompson, 1845, 1846; Calvin Howell, 
1846, 1847; Richard Lewis, 1847; Charles McFarland, 



1847; Samuel Hilts, 1847; Samuel Van Ness, 1848, 1849; 
Edward W. Whelpley, 1848, 1849 (speaker 1849); An- 
drew J. Smith, 1848, 1849; John L. Kanouse, 1850, 1854; 
Andrew B. Cobb, 2, 1850, 1854; Freeman Wood, 1850; 
George H. Thompson, 1850; Cornelius B. Doremus, 
1851, 1852; Horace Chamberlain, 1851; Jonathan P. 
Bartley, 1851; Josiah Meeker, 1851; John D. Jackson, 
3, 1852, 1853; Cornelius S. Dickerson, 1852, 1853; Robert 
Albright, 1, 1852, 1853; William P. Conkling, i, 1854, 
1855; William Logan, 3, 1854, 1855; Aaron Pitney, 
4, 1854, 1855; Edward Howell, 2, 1855, 1856; Wil- 
liam M. Muchmore, i, 1856; William A. Carr, 
3, 1856, 1857; Daniel Budd, 4, 1856, 1857; Benja- 
min M. Felch, 1, 1857; Richard Speer, 2, 1857, 1858; 
Lyman A. Chandler, 3, 1858; John Naughright, 4, 1858; 
1858, 1859; A. H. Stanburrough, 1, 1859; James H. Ball, 
2,1859, i860; Eugene Ayers, i, i860; Nelson H. Drake, 
3, 1860-62; Nathan Horton. 4, i860, 1861; William W. 
Beach, i, 1861; John Hill, 2, 1861, 1862, 1866 (speaker); 
Jacob Vanatta, 1, 1862, 1863; William J. Wood, 2, 1863; 
Jesse Hoffman, 3, 1863-65, Henry C. Sanders, i, 1864; 
John Bates, 2, 1864, 1865; Alfred M. Treadwell, 1, 1865, 
James C. Yawger, 1, 1866, 1867; Elias.M. White, 3, 1866; 
1867; Lewis Estler, 2, 1867; Daniel Coghlan, i, 1868; 
George Gage, 2, 1868; Jesse M. Sharp, 3, 1868-70; 
Theo. W. Phoenix, i, 1869, 1870; Columbus Beach, 2, 
1869, 1870; Nathaniel Niles, 1, 1871, 1872 (speaker); 
William B. Lefevre, 2, 1871, 1872; Aug. C. Canfield, 3, 
1871-73; William H. Howell, 1, 1873, 1874; Jacob Z. 
Budd, 2, 1873, 1874; Elias M. Skellenger, 3, 1874-76; 
J. C. Youngblood, 1, 1875, 1876; Edmund D. Halsey, 2, 
1875, 1876; A. C. Van Duyne, i, 1877; C. O. Cooper, 2, 
1877, 1878; C. P. Garrabrant, 3, 1877, 1878; Joshua S. 
Salmon, 2, 1878; Charles F. Axtell, i, 1879, 1880; James 
H. Bruen, 2, 1879, 1880; Holloway W. Hunt, 3, 1879, 
1880; William C. Johnson, 1, 1881, 1882; John F. Post^ 
2, i88r, 1882; Oscar Lindsley, 3, 1881, 1882. 

United States Senators. — Aaron Kitchel, son of Joseph 
and Rachel Kitchel, born in Hanover in 1744, died June 
25th 1820. For a sketch of his life see Rev. H. D. 
Kitchel's history of Robert Kitchel and his descendants. 

Mahlon Dickerson, son of Jonathan and Mary Dicker- 
son, born April 17th 1770, died October 4th 1853; sena- 
tor from March 4th 1817 to March 3d 1833. 

Jacob W. Miller, born in 1802, died September 30th 
1862; senator from March 4th 1841 to March 4th 1853. 

Theodore F. Randolph, born in New Brunswick, June 
24th 1826; senator from March 4th 1871; to March ^d 
1881. ^ 

Congressmen. — Silas Condict, 1781-84; born March 7tb 
1738, died September 18th 1801. 

Aaron Kitchel, 1791-93, 1794-97. 1799-1801; also- 
United States senator. 

Lewis Condict, 1811-17, 1821-33; speaker of the 
House; born March 1773, died May 26th 1862. 

Bernard Smith, son of Bernard Smith, of Rockaway,. 
1819-21; died at Little Rock, Ark., July i6th 1835, aged 
59- 

George Vail, born in 1803, died May 23d 1875; repre- 
sentative 1853-57 (33d and 34th Congresses). 

George T. Cobb, born October 13th 1813, killed by a 
railroad accident near White Sulphur Springs Va. 
August 6th 1870; representative 1861-63 (37th Congress)' 

Augustus W. Cutler, born 1829; representative 1875- 
79 (44th and 45th Congresses). 

John Hill, born 1821; representative 1867-73, 1881-85 
(40th, 41st, 42nd and 47th Congresses). 

MILITIA OFFICERS. 

The militia of Morris county after the Revolutionary 



MILITIA OFFICERS AFTER THE REVOLUTION. 



79 



war was organized in four regiments of infantry, each 
commanded by one lieutenant colonel and two majors, 
to form one brigade, to be commanded by a brigadier 
general; and one squadron of cavalry to form, with a 
squadron from Essex county, one regiment, to be com- 
manded by a lieutenant colonel. June 5th 1793 the field 
officers of these regiments were all appointed in joint 
meeting — some of the appointments being no doubt re- 
appointments. In 1799 the militia act seems to have 
been revised, but the same number of field officers were 
retained. 

The following is a roster* of the militia as far as can 
be ascertained. Immediately following the name is the 
date of commission; "res." stands for resigned and 
" prom." for promoted. 

Brigadier Generals. — John Doughty, res. Oct. 30 1800. 
Pruden Ailing, Nov. 13 1800; res. 1806. Benjamin Lud- 
low, Mch. 12 1806; prom. maj. gen. 2nd div. Nov. 25 
i8og. John Darcy, Nov. 25 1809; res. Feb. 17 1815. 
Solomon Doughty, Feb. 17 1815. John Smith, Feb. 13 
1818; res. Dec. 9 1823. John S. Darcy, Dec. 9 1823. 
Cornelius W. Mandeville, Jan. 24 1834. 

FIRST OR MIDDLE REGIMENT. 

Colonels. — Charles T. Day, Oct. 31 1833. Jabez Beers, 
Mch. 10 1836. 

Lieutenant Colonels. — Jacob Arnold, June 5 1793; res. 
Oct. 31 1806. Nehemiah Losey, Nov. 25 1806; res. Nov. 
2 1809. Silas Axtell, Nov. 25 1809; res. Feb. 17 1815. 
Solomon Boyle, Feb. 17 1815; res. Feb. ri 1818. Wil- 
liam Brittin, Feb. 13 1818; res. Mch. i 1828. Stephen 
D. Hunting, Mch. i 1828; res. Nov. 8 1828. James W. 
Drake, Feb. 20 1828. 

Majors 1st Battalion. — Benjamin Ludlow, June 5 
1763; promoted Mch. 12 1806. David Lindsley, Mch. 
12 1806; res. Nov. 2, 1809. Solomon Boyle, Nov. 25, 
1809; prom. Feb. 17 1815. William Brittin, Feb. 17, 
1809; prom. Feb. 13, 1818. Halsey Miller, Feb. 17 
1819; res. Mch. i 1820. Charles Freeman, Mch. i 1820. 
Stephen D. Hunting, Dec. 20 1824; prom. Mch. i 1828. 
John S. Budd, Mch. i 1828; res. Feb. 20 1829. Wil- 
liam W. Clark, Feb. 20 1829. William R. Bradley, Mch. 
4 1835. Benj. R.Robinson. Mch. 10 1836. 

Majors 2nd Battalion. — John Kinney, June 5 1793; 
res. 1804. Nehemiah Losey, Nov. 29 1804; prom. Nov. 

25 1806. Silas Axtell, Nov. 25 1806; prom. Nov. 25 
1809. Grover Youngs, Nov. 25 1809; res. Feb. 6 1817. 
Samuel Halliday, Feb. 6 1817; res. Nov. 21 1820. Lewis 
Loree, Nov. 21 1820; res. Nov. 23 1822. Silas Miller, 
Nov. 23 1822; res. Oct. 26 1827. James W. Drake, Oct. 

26 1827; prom. Feb. 20 1828. Daniel C. Martin, Feb. 
20 1829; prom. Feb. 27 1830 to cavalry regiment. Wil- 
liam Tuttle jr., Feb. 27 1830. Samuel L. Axtell, Oct. 
31 1834. Philip Riley, Mch. 10 1836. 

SECOND, UPPER OR WESTERN REGIMENT. 

Colonels.— V)z.v\& W. Miller, Feb. 28 1838; res. Mch. 
12 1839. Henry Halsey, Mch. 12 1839. 

Lieutenant-Colonels.— ]d^r\ Stark; res. May 23 1782. 
Nathan Luse, June 21 1782. Amos Stark, June 5 1793. 
James Cook, res. Nov. 2 1809. John Budd, Nov. 25 



* The author acknowledges valuable services rendered in compiling 
these lists by James S. MoDanolds, State librarian; Adjutant General 
WUliam S. Stryker, Assistant Adjutant General James D. Kiger, and 
Hon. Henry C. Kelsey, secretary of State. 



1809; res. Nov. 2 1811. John Smith, Nov. 2 i8ii;prom. 
Feb. 13 1818. Benjamin McCoury, Feb. 13 1818; res. 
Nov. 23 1822. Nathan Horton jr., Nov. 23 1822; res. 
Oct. 28 1825. Hugh Bartley, Dec. 27 1825; res. Feb. 
26 1830. Charles Hilliard, Feb. 27 1830. 

Majors xst Battalion. — David Welsh, June 5 1793; res. 
Oct. 25 1793. David Miller, Feb. ig 1794; res. Oct. 30 
1799. Leonard Neighbour, Oct. 30 1799; res. Nov. 2 
1809. Benjamin McCoury, Nov. 25 1809; prom. Feb. 13 
r8i8. Nathaniel Horton, Feb. 13 1818; prom. Nov. 23 
1822. Elijah Horton, Dec. 9 1823; res. Mch. i 1828. 
Henry Kennedy, Mch. i 1828. 

Majors 2nd Battalion. — James Cook, June 5 1793. 
John Smith, Nov. 25 1809; prom. Nov. 2 181 1. Cad- 
wallader Smith, Nov. 2 1811; res. Mch. i 1820. Joseph 
Budd, Mch. I 1820; res. Dec. 9 1823. Hugh Bartley, 
Dec. 9 1823; prom. Dec. 27 1825. Charles Hilliard, 
Dec. 27 1825; prom. Feb. 27 1830. Thomas Landon, 
Feb. 27 1830; res. Feb. 15 1831. Arthur Valentine, res. 
Mch. 4 1833. John Caskey, Mch. 4 1835. 

THIRD OR NORTHERN REGIMENT. 

Lieutenant- Colonels. — Chilion Ford, June 5 1793; died. 
Kbenezer H. Pierson, Feb. 26 1801; res. Nov. i 1804. 
Joseph Jackson, Nov. 29 1804; res. Feb. 6 1817. John 
Scott, Feb. 6 1817; res. Nov. 15 1820. Samuel S. Beach, 
Nov. 15 1820; res. Dec. 9 1823. John H. Stanburrough, 
Dec. 9 1813; res. Oct. 28 1825. John C. Doughty, Dec. 
7 1825; res. Nov. 8 1828. Thomas Muir, Nov. 8 1828. 
Thomas Coe, Mch. 4 1835. Nathaniel Mott, Feb. 28 
1838. 

Majors ist Battalion. — Samuel Minthorn, June 5 1793; 
Benjamin Jackson, Nov. 23 1795; res. Joseph Jackson, 
Feb. 26 1801; prom. Nov. 29 1804. William Lee, Mch. 
12 1806; res. Feb. 19 1813. John Hinchman, Feb. 19 
1813. Samuel S. Beach, Feb. 6 1817; prom. Nov. 15 
1820. John P. Cook, Nov. 15 1820. Frederick De 
Mouth, Dec. 7 1825; res. Nov. 6 1829. Joseph Hinch- 
man, Feb. 27 1830. Peter Coe, Feb. 15 1831. 

Majors 2nd Battalion. — Cornelius Hoagland, June 5 
1793; removed. Joshua Jennings; Feb. 26 1801; res. 
Nov. 3 1803. Joseph Hurd, Nov. 3 1803. Joseph Hop- 
ping, Feb. 9 1814. John Lewis, res. Oct. 31 1816. Mo- 
ses Hopper, res. Nov. 15 1820. John H. Stanburrough, 
Nov. 15 1820; prom. Dec. 9 1823. John C. Doughty, 
Dec. 9 1823; prom. Dec. 7 1825. Thomas Muir, Dec. 
7 1825; prom. Nov. 8 1828. William Minton, Jan. 30 
1829; res. Mch. 4 1835. Rober: Muir, Feb. 27 1840. 

FOURTH OR LOWER REGIMENT. 

Lieutenant-Colonels. — Pruden Ailing, June 5 1793; 
prom. Nov. 13 1800. Hiram Smith, Nov. 13 1800; res. 
Feb. 26 1801. John Darcy, Feb. 26 1801; prom. Nov. 
25 1809. Lemuel Cobb, Nov. 25 1809; res. Feb. 17 1815. 
John S. Darcy, Feb. 17 1815; prom. Dec. 9 1823. Eze- 
kiel B. Gaines, Dec. 9 1823; res. Dec. 20 1824.. James 
Quiraby, Dec. 20 1824. Cornelius W. Mandeville, Mch. 
1 1828; Francis Nafee, Feb. 26 1834. Samuel Demo- 
rest, Feb. 28 1838. 

Majors 1st Battalion. — Hiram Smith, June 5 1793; 
prom. Nov. 13 1800. Lemuel Cobb, Feb. 26 tSoo; 
prom. Nov. 25 1809. Wm. A. Mandeville, Feb. 19 i8ri. 
Ezekiel B. Gaines, Mch. i 1820; prom. Dec. 9 1823. 
Cornelius' W. Mandeville, Dec. 9 1823; prom. Mch. i 
1828. Francis Neafer (or Nafee), Mch. i 1828; prom. 
Feb. 26 1834. Samuel F. Righter, Feb. 28 1838. 

Majors 2nd Battalion. — Evert Van Gilder, June 5 1793; 
res. Feb. 26 1801. Luke Miller, Feb. 26, 1801; res. Oct. 
30 1805. Daniel Farrand, Mch. 12 1806; res. Feb. 10 
1816. Josiah Winds, Feb. 6 1817. James Quimby, 



12 



8o 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Nov. 23 1821; prom. Dec. 20 1824. Stephen Young, 
Dec. 7 1825; res. Feb. 15 1831. David F. Halsey, Feb. 
28 1838. 

MORRIS CAVALRY. 

Lieutenant-Colonels. — Morris and Sussex: Abram Kin- 
ney. Abraham Shaver, Nov. 24 1801; res. Oct. 31 1806. 
William Campfield, Dec. 2 1807. 

Colonels ^ih New Jersey Cavalry. — Joseph Cutler, Feb. 
13 1818; prom, general of cavalry Feb. 23 1843. Nathan 
A. Cooper, Feb. 23 1843; pi'om. Daniel Budd, Sept. 8 
1857- . 

Majors of Squadron. — William Campfield, Oct. 30 
1799; prom. Dec. 2 1807. Isaac Campfield, Dec. 2 1807; 
res. Feb. 3 1811. David Mills, Feb. 3 1811; res. Feb. 11 
1818. William W. Miller, Nov. 23 1822. Timothy Con- 
diet, Dec. 9 1823. Daniel C. Martin, Feb. 27th 1830; 
res. Jan. 24 1834. Nathan A. Cooper, Jan. 24 1834; 
prom. Feb. 23 1843. Daniel Budd jr., Nov. 10 1843; 
prom. Sept. 8 1857. 

At the breaking out of the civil war there was a re- 
vival of the militia system, and the following appoint- 
ments were made in what was called the First regiment: 
George D.Brewster, lieutenant-colonel, Aug. 2 i86i;res. 
Richard M. Stites, major May 18 1863; colonel Mch. 2 
1862; res. Joseph B. De Camara, lieutenant-colonel 
April 12 1862; res. John R. Runyon, major Apr. 12 
1862; lieutenant-colonel Sept. 25 1862. James M. 
Brown, colonel May 18 1863; res. Edwin Bishop, col- 
onel Aug. 29 1863. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



OPENING OF THE CIVIL WAR — FIRST VOLUNTEERS — LADIES 
AID SOCIETIES. 




r^J-'SN the war of the Rebellion Morris county con 
tributed her full share. When Sumter was 
fired upon there were but three uniformed 
militia companies in the county — the Na- 
tional Guards of Boonton, Captain Edwin K. 
Bishop; the Morris Greys, Captain William Dun- 
can, and the Ringgold Artillery, Captain Richard M. 
Stites. The militia system had fallen into disuse, and 
the parade of one of these companies was a novelty. 

On Monday evening, April 22nd 1861, three days after 
the Baltimore riot, a mass meeting was held in Washing- 
ton Hall, Morristown, at which Hon. George T. Cobb 
presided. Speeches were made by Hon. Jacob W. 
Miller, Jacob Vanatta, Theodore Little, Rev. G. D. Brew- 
erton and Colonel Samuel F. Headley. Patriotic res- 
olutions of the most decided character were proposed 
and unanimously carried. Unqualified support was 
promised to the administration, and a committee consist- 
ing of AVilliam C. Baker, Dr. Ebenezer B. Woodruff and 
Jacob Vanatta was appointed to receive contributions of 
money to aid in equipping volunteers and providing for 
their families. Over $2,600 was subscribed on the spot. 



This meeting was the first of many held throughout the 
county. In every village mass meetings were held and 
flags were raised. A flag was raised upon Morris green 
May 31st 1861, when the companies of Captains Bishop, 
Duncan and Stites paraded together. They soon after 
disbanded. Many of the men had become impatient, 
and in squads had enlisted in companies which were 
going to the front. Captain Bishop with part of his 
company went from Newark with Company H of the 2nd 
New Jersey. 

For some reason no sufficient effort was made to raise 
a company within the county, and its young men enlisted 
as volunteers in companies organizing in Newton, Plain- 
field, Newark and New York. On Tuesday, May 21st, 
Captain Ryerson's Company B, from the 2nd New Jersey 
volunteers, passed through Morristown on its way from 
Newton to Trenton. In it and in Company I 3d New 
Jersey volunteers there vi'ere 32 Morris county men. 
Others had gone in Companies D of the 3d New Jersey, 
H of the 2nd New Jersey, the Excelsior brigade of New 
York, etc. The following partial list is taken from the 
papers of that time: 

Company B 2nd N. J. — F. D. Sturtevant, Joseph G. 
Sturges, Charles H. Carroll, Silas R. Roff, Charles H. 
Stephens, James Armstrong, John W. Armstrong, Thomas 
F. Anderson, George McKee (wounded in July 1862), 
Isaac I. Tompkins, Albert W. Thompson (died), Edward 
Snow, David Hart. 

Company H 2nd N. J. — Emery A. Wheeler, Daniel 
W. Tunis, John S. Sutton, Theodore A. Baldwin, Daniel 
Bowditch. 

Company D ^d N. J. — John H. Smith, George Blanch- 
ard, W. Scott McGowan, Anthony Perrv, Elijah Sharp, 
W. H. Cole (killed September 7 1861), Sergeant William 
S. Earles (afterward in the 15th N. J.). 

There had also gone to other companies or regiments: 

W. H. Alexander, W. Beers and Lewis B. Baldwin, 
Company K 2nd N. J.; W. H. Willis, Company I 3d N. 
J.; Mahlon M. Stage and Noah C. Haggerty, Company 
G ist N. J.; Isaac King, James M. Stone, John Ford jr., 
Daniel Guard, David Johnson, William Hedden, James 
Dolan, Edward Totten, Hampton Babbitt, James Quim- 
by, William Valentine; Excelsior brigade — John Starr 
Jabez Wingate, Peter H. Flick, W. H. Stickle, Charles 
H. Till, D. M. Farrand, Andrew Hand, Augustus C. 
Stickle (afterward adjutant 3d N. J. cavalry). Sergeant 
Sylvester L. Lynn, Co. C 8th N. J.; died Dec. 15 '64 of 
wounds received Nov. 5 '64. 

A Soldiers' Aid Society was organized by the ladies of 
Morristown, of which Mrs. Nelson Wood was president, 
Mrs. Sherman Broadwell vice-president, Mrs. Vancleve 
Dalrymple treasurer, and Miss Robinson secretary. The 
society throughout the war labored incessantly in making 
clothing etc. for the soldiers and raising money and com- 
forts for the sick in hospital. Similar societies, and al- 
most if not quite as efficient, were organized in all the 
other principal towns in the county. 

May 2nd 186 1 a home guard was raised at Morristown, 
consisting of some of the principal citizens, many of them 
exempt from military service. 

July nth 1861 a number of youth organized them- 
selves into a company called the Ellsworth Light Infantry 
and chose the following officers: Captain, Rev. G. Doug. 



FIRST UNION SOLDIERS. 



las Brewerton; ist lieutenant, Robert S. Turner; 2nd 
lieutenant, John R. McCauley (afterward of the i^th 
N. J.). 

Among officers from Morris county during the Rebel- 
lion whose records do not appear in the rolls below were 
Lindley H. Miller, major 46th infantry U. S. C. T.; S. 
G. I. De Camp, major and surgeon, retired from active 
service August 27th 1862; General Ranald S. Mackenzie, 
regular army, and Lieutenant Commander Henry W, 
Miller, U. S. navy; Alexander S. Mackenzie, lieutenant 
U. S. N.; Captain (afterward Commodore) John De 
Camp, U. S. N.; Captain W. L. Gamble, U. S. N.; Major 
Thomas T. Gamble, U. S. Vols. There were also many 
enlisted men scattered among organizations of which no 
account is here given. Admirals C. R. P. Rodgers and 
William Radford, U. S. N. were residents of Morris 
county previous to the war. 



CHAPTER XV. 



COMPANY K 7TH N. J. — CAPTAIN SOUTHARD S ENGIN- 
EERS — CAPTAIN DUNCAN'S COMPANY. 




N July 24th 186 1 the President made his sec- 
ond call for three-years men, and the quota 
allotted to this State was four regiments. 
Under this ■ call Captain James M. Brown 
raised Company K of the 7th N. J., the first 
distinctively Morris county company. In the 
first week 64 men were enlisted, and the company 
soon had its full complement. The first colonel of the 
7th was Joseph W. Revere; he was promoted brigadier 
general October 2Sth 1862, and was succeeded as colonel 
by Lewis R. Francine, and the latter in July 1863 by 
Francis Price jr., Colonel Francine having been killed at 
Gettysburg, where Colonel Price was severely wounded. 
The latter was brevetted brigadier-general. Timothy D. 
Burroughs, sergeant in Company D, was commissioned 
quartermaster sergeant September 6th 1864. 

The men were first together as a company at the First 
Presbyterian Church, Morristown, on the evening of 
October ist, when Captain James M. Brown was pre- 
sented with sword, sash and pistol, by Alfred Mills, Esq.; 
and Rev. David Irving presented each member with a 
copy of the New Testament and Psalms, in behalf of the 
Morris County Bible Society. The church was filled 
with the largest audience ever compressed within its 
walls, while hundreds left the doors of the building, 
unable to obtain standing room. 

The next morning the company started for Trenton, 
being escorted to the depot by Fairchild's drum corps 
and by No. 3 Fire Engine Company. A large assemblage 
was gathered to see the company off. It was mustered 
at Trenton the next day and left the same evening for 
Washington. There the 7th lay encamped at Meridian 



Hill till December 1861, when it joined General Hooker's 
force near Budd's Ferry, Md., and was assigned to the 
3d brigade of his division. 

The winter was spent in drilling and watching the 
enemy on the opposite side of the Potomac, with the 
monotony broken by frequent artillery duels. April 5th 
Hooker's division broke camp and took transports to the 
peninsula. April 23d found this brigade throwing up 
earthworks under fire of the enemy's artillery at York- 
town. May 5th the company fought at Williamsburg, in 
a drenching rain, where the men stood their ground after 
their ammunition was used up, taking more from the 
dead and wounded. They were under fire five hours 
without getting relieved. Captain Brown was very 
severely wounded; Corporal Joseph S. Watkins was 
mortally wounded, dying May 31st following. Several 
others were wounded. In the Excelsior brigade Jabez 
C. Wingate, Peter H. Flick and W. H. Stickle were killed, 
and four other Morris county men wounded. The 
company took part in the battle of Fair Oaks and the 
Seven Days' fight. After lying at Harrison's Landing 
until August isth the division retraced its steps to 
Yorktown and took transports, arriving at Alexandria 
August 24th. August 26th the 7th went by rail to War- 
renton Junction. Hooker's division marched the next 
morning down the Orange and Alexandria railroad to 
Bristow Station, attacked Ewell's division of Jackson's 
command, drove him toward Bull Run and captured his 
baggage. August 29th and 30th the 7th took part in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and September ist in the 
battle of Chantilly, where General Phil. Kearney was 
killed. After this the company did guard duty along the 
Orange and Alexandria railroad until November 28th, 
when it started for Falmouth, reaching that place some 
two weeks before the battle of Fredericksburg, and 
taking part in it. 

At Chancellorsville, May 5th 1863, the 7th regiment 
captured five colors and three hundred prisoners from 
the enemy. The flags were taken from the 1st Louisiana, 
2 ist Virginia, 2nd and i8th North Carolina and an 
Alabama regiment. The 2nd North Carolina regiment 
was captured almost entire. 

The next move for Company K was the long march to 
Gettysburg, and on July 2nd the regiment, supported a 
battery near the peach orchard, when the enemy charged 
on the 3d corps, of which the 7th was a part. Company 
K lost 15 men wounded (three mortally), and two taken 
prisoners, on the first day of the battle. The captain 
and both lieutenants were wounded. With a second ser- 
geant in command the company was in the fight of the 
next day. 

The next engagement in which the 7th took part was 
at Manassas Gap, Virginia, and after that it was engaged 
at McLean's Ford in the Bull Run River, with some 
mounted infantry. Next came the battle of Mine Run, 
and then winter quarters at Brandy Station. The New 
Jersey brigade was now in the 2nd army corps. 

May 4th 1864 the troops broke camp, and on May 5lh, 
6th and 7th we find Company K fighting in the Wilder- 



History of morris county. 



ness, a densely wooded tract of table-land stretching 
from the Rapidan almost to Spottsylvania Court-house. 
May 8th the regiment moved to a spot near Todd's 
Tavern, where it remained until the loth, when (our 
army having cleared the Wilderness and concentrated 
around Spottsylvania Court-house) it took a position 
on the right. On the nth the company was under 
heavy fire, and at dawn of the 12th of May the 
2nd corps charged the enemy, capturing 30 cannon 
and Johnson's rebel division. In this battle — the 
severest of the war — the 7th New Jersey met with 
severe loss in officers and men. The regiment 
aided in hauling off the captured guns, and Captain 
Crane, of Company C, of Morris county, with a squad of 
his men, succeeded in manning one of the captured 
guns and training it on the enemy. For hours the fight 
raged with unexampled fury, and it was not until mid- 
night that General Lee left the victors in possession of 
the works captured. On the 15th the brigade was called 
upon to repel an attack on our pickets, and met with 
some loss. May i6th, at North Anna River, the company 
was again under fire, a division of Longstreet's corps 
having possession of both sides of Chesterfield bridge. 
On May 26th the regiment took part in the flank move- 
ment toward Richmond, skirmishing along the Tolopoto- 
my and reaching Cold Harbor, where, on June 3d, it 
participated in the assault upon the enemy's main line. 
On the 7th of June the brigade was entrenched at Baker's 
Mills, and from this point it moved swiftly to the James, 
crossed the river June 14th, and arrived before Peters- 
burg the following day, supporting Smith's corps of 
Butler's army. On the 16th General Grant delivered an 
assault with all his forces. The fight was desperate, and 
the loss to the 7th N. J. was very severe. On the i8th 
General Grant ordered another assault, when the enemy's 
lines were pushed back three quarters of a mile. Later 
in the day the brigade charged again in front of the 
Hare House, but was swept back by a withering fire, leav- 
ing its dead and wounded between tlie two lines. Hun- 
dreds of the wounded died in sight and hearing of their 
comrades, crying out for help and for water; they could 
not be reached, the enemy refusing a flag of truce. 

June 23d, General Grant having determined to turn 
the enemy's right, the corps advanced through a wooded 
country, and, as it failed to make connection with the 
6th corps, the enemy got in the rear, capturing eight 
prisoners from Company K. The corps fell back and 
established a line a little further to the rear. The brig- 
ade remained in the trenches until July 12th. On the 
26th it crossed the James to Deep Bottom, where the 
corps attacked the enemy and captured four cannon. It 
then quietly returned to Petersburg, and held the front 
line of works when the mine was exploded, July 30th. 

August 1 2th the corps moved again to Deep Bottom, 
with more or less skirmishing and fighting. This was a 
feint to try to make the rebel authorities recall their 
troops from before Washington. August i8th the New 
Jersey 7th, with the rest of the corps, returned to the 
entrenchments. 



August 2Sth the regiment was moved to Ream's Sta- 
tion to help the remainder of the corps, which was en- 
gaged there. The next affair in which the 7th took part 
was the advance of the picket lines about i o'clock a. m. 
of September loth. The picket duty was dangerous here. 
The regiment when not on picket was quartered in Fort 
Davis, on the Jerusalem plank road, but even there 
stray balls would come into the tents at night, wound- 
ing men oftentimes while sleeping. 

October 7th Lieutenant Gaines and the old members 
of Company K — about eight in number — who did not re- 
enlist, were mustered out of service at Trenton, and, 
honorably discharged, returned to their homes. 

With Colonel Price still commanding, the regiment 
took part in the battle of Hatcher's Run, and in the last 
campaign, culminating in the surrender of General Lee, 
April gth 1865. 

During the war this company took part in the follow- 
ing engagements, all in Virginia excepting Gettysburg: 

Siege of Yorktown, April and May 1862; Williams- 
burg, May 5th 1862; Fair Oaks, June ist and 2nd 1862; 
Seven Pines, June 25th 1862; Savage Station, June 29th 
1862; Glendale, June 3olh 1862; Malvern Hill, July ist 
and August 5th 1862; Bristow Station, August 27th 
1862; Bull Run (second), August 29th and 30th 1862; 
Chantilly, September ist 1862; Centreville, September 
2nd 1862; Fredericksburg, December 13th and 14th 
1862; Chancellorsville, May 3d and 4th 1863; Gettys- 
burg, July 2nd and 3d 1863; Wapping Heights, July 24th 
1863; McLean's Ford, October 15th 1863; Mine Run, 
November 29th and 30th and December ist 1863; Wil- 
derness, May 5th-7th 1864; Spottsylvania, May 8th-i8th 
1864; North Anna River, May 23d and 24th 1864; To- 
lopotomy Creek, May 30th and 31st 1864; Cold Harbor, 
June ist-5th 1864; Before Petersburg, June i6th-23d 
and July 30th 1864; Deep Bottom, July 26th and 27th 
1864; North Bank of James River, August isth-i8th 
1864; Fort Sedgwick, September loth 1864; Poplar 
Spring Church, October 2nd 1864; Boydton Plank Road 
(capture of Petersburg), April 2nd 1865; Amelia Springs, 
April 6th 1865; Farmville, April 6th and 7th 1865; Ap- 
pomattox, April 9th 1865. 

COMPANY K.* 

OFFICERS. 

In the following record of the officers of Company K 
the first date given is that of commission or enrollment. 
If another immediately follows it is the date of muster. 
Where but one is given the two date were the same. The 
period for which the officer entered the service was three 
years, when not otherwise mentioned. 

Cfl/to«.f.— James M. Brown, Oct. 3 '61; wounded at 
Williamsburg and Fredericksburg; prom, major icth 
reg. July 21 '62. William R. Hillyer, July 21 '62 Jan 
13 '63; appointed ist lieut. Oct. 3 '61; dis. Sept. 9 '64 for 
wounds. Sylvester W. Nafew, Mar. 28 '65, Apr 20 '6<- 
m. o. July 17 '65. i' 3' 

First Lieutenants.— Michatl Mullery, July 21 '62 Jan 
13 '63; appointed 2nd lieut. Oct. 3 '61; captain Company 
1 July 24 63; wounded at Gettysburg; killed at Peters- 



* In all these lists the following abbreviations are used, besides tho=e 
which will be recognized as denoting the different ranks and arms of 
the service: pro., promoted; v.r. c, veteran reserve corps; die, dis- 
charged ; m. o., mustered out ; dr., drafted : tr., transferred. 



COMPANY K SEVENTH N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 



burg. Stanley Gaines, Aug. i '63, Mar. 31 '64; ap- 

appointed ist sergt. Sept. 15 '6j; 2nd lieut. July 21 '62; 

wounded at Gettysburg; m. o. Oct. 7 '64. Henry W. 

Baldwin, Apr. 29 '65, May 19th '65; m. o. July 22 '65. 
Second Lieutenants. — Ellis T. Armstrong, Dec. 21 '63, 

Mar. 31 '64; appointed sergt. Sept. 15 '61; ist sergt. July 

21 '62; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64; dis. Aug. 17 '64 for 

wounds. George H. Millen, Mar. 28 '65, Apr. 14 '65; 

m. o. July 17 '65. 

First Sergeants. — Napoleon B. Post, Aug. 22 '61; m.o. 

July 22 '65. 

Sergeants. — Merritt Bruen, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61; 

pro. Q. M. sergt. Nov. 22 '61; quartermaster June 27 '64; 

died at Petersburg. Ira W. Corey, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 

'61; pro. capt. Co. H nth reg. Aug. 15 '62. Samuel R. 

Connett, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61; pro. 2nd lieut. Co. C 
TSth reg. Aug. 12 '62; wounded at Williamsburg. 

Stephen H. Bruen, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61 ;• pro. 
com. sergt. Sept. i '62; quartermaster Aug. 26 '64. 
Timothy D. Burroughs, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64; pro. Q. M. sergt. Sept. 6 '64. Con- 
rad F. Smith, Mar. 2 '65, i year; m. o. July 17 '65. 
Julius B. Bartlett, Mar. 2 '65, i year; m. o. July 10 '65. 
Eugene Pollard, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61; appointed cnrp. 
Aug. 4 '62; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64; prom. com. sergt. Oct. 
2 '64; wounded at Gettysburg and Chesterfield Bridge. 

Corporals. — Calvin T. Stickle, Mar. 4 '65, i year; tn. o. 
July 17 '65. John P. Smith, Mar. 2 '65, i year; m. o. 
July 17 '65. Peter Fisher, Mar. 2 '65, i year; m. o. July 
17 '65. Patrick Cavanaugh, Mar. i '65, i year; m. o. 
July 17 '65. James E. Babbitt. 

JDischarged. — (These, as also those transferred and 
deceased, were all three-years men, and were commis- 
sioned or enrolled Sept. 15, and mustered Oct. 2, 1861.) 
Sergt. Joseph D. Marsh jr.; dis. Oct. 13 '62, for dis- 
ability. Corporals: George Kingsland; dis. Mar. 24 '63, 
for disability. Theodore W. Bruen; dis. Jan. 12 '63, for 
disability. John J. Gruber; dis. Feb. 5 '63, to join 
regular army; appointed corp. Aug. 4 '62. Musician 
James M. Woodruff; dis. Nov. 30 '61, for disability. 
Wagoner Charles B. Trelease; dis. June 15 '62, for dis- 
ability. 

Transferred. — Sergeants: William McKee; to v. r. c, 
Sept. 30 'dy, dis. therefrom Oct. i '64; wounded at 
Chancellorsville. Joseph Ward; to Co. C, Oct. i '64; 
re-enlisted Jan. 2 '64. Edwin Hall; to Co. C; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Sylvester L. Lynn; to Co. C; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64;' killed before Petersburg. George 
H. Millen; to Co. C; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Cor- 
porals: Theodore P. Bayles; to v. r. c, Sept. 30 '63; 
dis. therefrom Nov. 24 '65. George W. Derrickson; to 
v. r. c, Sept. 30 '63; re-enlisted Sept. 3 '64; dis. as sergt. 
July 6 '65. B. W. Dempsey; to Co. C, Oct. i '64; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64; prisoner at Andersonville. John L. 
Denton; to v. r. c, Mar. 31 '64; dis. Oct. 3 '64; wounded 
at Gettysburg. Abel Gruber; to Co. C; wounded at 
Gettysburg; captured before Gettysburg; confined at 
Andersonville. Musician A. L. D. Miller; to 5th reg. 

band. 

ZlzVi/.— Corporals : Joseph S. Watkins; at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., May 31 '62, of wounds. Andrew C. 
Halsey; at Washington, June 20 '64, of wounds; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64; appointed corp. Feb. 6 '64. Joseph 
O. Spencer; killed before Petersburg, Va., June 16 '64; 
appointed corp. Mar. i '()z; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Mu- 
.sician George W. Cranraer; at Budd's Ferry, Md., June 
24 '62, of typhoid fever. 

PRIVATES. 

In the following list the figure following the name indi- 
cates the number of years for which the man enlisted. 



Where not otherwise noted those who enlisted for three 
years were enrolled Sept. 15th and mustered in Oct. 2nd 
1861 and mustered out Oct. 7th 1864; and those who 
enlisted for one year were enrolled and mustered in the 
first week of March 1865 and mustered out July 17th 
1865. 

Henry Angleman. Andrew Anderson, i; m. o, June 
13 '65. Leo Bachtold, i. J. C. Ballentine, 3; pro. com. 
sergt. Nov. i '62. William Bassell, i. Henry Baum, i. 
William W. Brant, 3. Austin Brown, i. John N. and T. 
W. Bruen, 3. Stephen A. Cannon, 3. Joseph Carmon. 
David Cargill, i; m. o. July 14 '65. Waldemar Chris- 
tianson, i. John Cronin, i. George Curtis, musician, i. 
Christian Doublin, i. W. H. Dutcher. Hey ward G. 
Emmel, 3; wounded at Chancellorsville. Henry Feeder, 
i; m. o. July 22 '65. Charles Fischer, i. George 
Flandrow, i. Augustus I. FoUiot. John Gamble, i. 
Abraham Garrabrant, i. Christopher Gerhardt, i. Emile 
Grell, I. Edward Gross, i. Jacob Haider, i. John 
H. Haley, 3. William Harrison, i. Samuel Hess, i. 
Lewis Herman, i; enrolled and mustered in 
Aug. 29 '64; m. o. June 30 '65. George Hiller, i. 
Wesley D. Hopping. Daniel Jackson, 3. Jacob James, 
i; enrolled and mustered in Feb. 28 '65. Jacob John, 
i; m. o. Aug. 11 '65. John G. Kaut, i. Peter B. 
Kelly. Christopher Killian, i. William Killian, i. 
Jacob Koch, I. John Lay, i. William Lehman, i; 
m. o. Aug. 30 '65. James Lord, i. Andrew Mack, i. 
John McCasey, i. Lewis H. McClintock, i. Frederick 
Miller, i. J. L. Miller. John Murphy, i. Thomas 
R. Murray, x. John Narin, i. Charles W. Nelson, mu- 
sician, I. Loren Nichols, i. Calvin Nix, 3; wounded 
at Williamsburg. George Norton, i; m. o. June 5 '65. 
Joseph Parker, i. John Partenfielder, i. August Par- 
tushcky, I. Adolph Pineus, i. Francis A. Pollard, 3; 
appointed sergt. Sept. 13 '61; deserted Jan. 30 '63; re- 
turned Mar. 20; private Feb. i '63. Henry Roberts, i. 
Hugh P. Roden, musician, 3. Samuel Rushton, i. John 
Rutan, 3. August Sauer, i. Matthias Schmidt, i. 
George Schnabel, i. Frederick Schroder, i. Daniel 
Settler, i. Charles Smith, i. Gilbert Smith, i; enrolled 
and mustered in Feb. 28 '65. James Smith, i. William 
T. Spencer, 3; prom, sergt. maj. Nov. 5 '63. David 
Thompson, i. John Thompson, i. Headly Thompson; 
captured before Petersburg. William Till, 3. Charles 
Tucker, 3. John Wander, i; enrolled and mustered in 
Feb. 27 '65. Mark White, i. Joseph Ward; captured 
at Gettysburg. Henry Wilson, i; enrolled and mus- 
tered in Feb. 25 '65 for 2 years; m. o. May 31 '65. John 
Wolf, I. George Yetter, i; enrolled and mustered in 
Feb. 28 '65; m. o. June 5 '65. 

Discharged. — (These were all three-years men, and 
most of them were enrolled Sept. 15 and mustered in 
Oct. 2 '61; any other date of enrollment or muster is 
given after the name. The cause of discharge if not 
otherwise stated was disability). Isaac N. Abrams; dis. 
May 20 '62. Isaac J. Archer, Feb. 8 '62; dis. Oct. 9 '62. 
Nicholas Atkins; dis. June 9 '62. Charles Conklin; dis. 
Aug. 18 '62. William Cook, Aug. 19 '62; dis. Feb. 9*63. 
Alexander Davenport; dis. June g '62. George Dunster. 
Andrew W. Gary; dis. Nov. 5 '62. Orlando K. Guerin; 
dis. Oct. 13 '62. George Hedden; dis. June 13 '62. 
John Hunton, Apr. 12 '64; dis. May 28 '64. Charles 
Johnson; dis. Mar. 4 '63; wounded at Bristow Station. 
Hiram Kayhart; dis. June 13 '62. John F. Kent; 
dis. June 25 '62. John Knapp ; dis. June 13 
'62. Thomas Lynch; dis. Nov. 5 '62, from wounds 
received at Williamsburg, Va. James L. Marsh; 
dis. June 9 '62. Aaron Parsons; dis. Dec. 29 '62; 
wounded at Williamsburg. Theodore Searing, Aug. 18 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



'62; dis. Nov. 20 '63; wounded at Gettysburg. Thomas 
Seeley, Feb. 22 '64; dis. Apr. 2 '64. Henry Smith; dis. 
Nov. 30 '61. John C. Smith; dis. Sept. 2 '62; prom, lieut. 
33d N. J. Alonzo Tompkins; dis. Feb. 5 '63, to join 
regular army. Anthony Van Order; dis. June 23 '62. 
John H. Webb, Feb. 3 '64; dis. Apr. 2 '64. James 
Wright; dis. Dec. 12 '61. 

Transferred. — (The date immediately following the 
name in this list is that of enrollment; the second date, 
if any, is that of muster in; where but one is given they 
were the same. The figure following the date indicates 
the number of years for which the man enlisted. In 
most cases the transfer was to Co. C, Oct. i '64, and that 
will be understood to be the case where not otherwise 
stated). Lemuel Adams, Feb. 17 '62, 3. George F. 
Bayles, Dec. 11 '61, 3; to v. r. c; dis. Dec. 12 '64; 
wounded. Gilbert D. Blanchard, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 
'61, 3; died at Andersonville. Loran L. Bodeli, Aug. 
19 '63, Aug. 20 '63, 3; to V. r. c, Jan. 15 '64; cjis. as corp. 
July 25 '65. Elijah D. Bruen, Jan. 23 '62, 3; to Co. C, 
Oct. I '64; re-enlisted Feb. 14 '64; died at Ander- 
sonville. Nathan Buell, Oct. 7 '63, Oct. 8 '63, 
3. Orson T. Crane, June 15 '64, 3; to Co. 
C. John Cusick, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61, 3; 
re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Charles H. Davis, Aug. 18 '62, 
Aug. 19 '62, 3. Augustus De Forrest, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 
2 '61, 3; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Aaron S. Degroot, Jan. 
28 '64, 3; wounded near Cold Harbor. James Dona- 
hue, Feb. 3 '64, 3. Joseph J. Dunn, Jan. 28 '64, 3. 
Matthias Everson, Jan. 28 '64, 3. John Farrell, Dec. 29 
'63, Dec. 30 '63, 3. Abraham K. Ferris, Sept. 15 '5i, 
Oct. 2 '61, 3; to v. r. c. Mar. 31 '64; re-enlisted May 6 
'64; dis. Oct. 27 '66; appointed corp. Sept. 15 '61; private 
Nov. I '63. William J. Flanagan, Dec. 30 '63, Dec. 31 
'63, 3. Arthur Ford, Feb. 3 '64, 3; died at Andersonville. 
Daniel Frazier, Dec. 28 '63, 3. James Haley, Feb. 5 '64, 
]''eb. 6 '64, 3. Stephen D. Hall, Jan. 21 '64, 3. Daniel 
Hand, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '6r, 3; re-enlisted -Mar. 10*64; 
wounded before Petersburg. James Hart, Sept. 3 '64, 
I. Ansemas Helbert, Jan. 23 '64, Jan. 26 '64, 3. Theo- 
dore Jacobus, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. '61, 3; to v. r. c; dis. 
Oct. 5 '64. Peter M. Kane, Oct. 6 '62, 3; wounded at 
Gettysburg and Spottsylvania. Farrand S. Kitchel, Jan. 4 
'64, 3. John Landigan, Feb. i '64, 3. William E. Loper, 
Feb. 8 '64, 3. John L. Loree, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61, 3; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64. William Loughran, Mar.i6 '65,1; to Co. 
A. George T. Lynch, Dec. 30 '63, 3; to Co. B. Thomas 
Mack, Apr. 8 '65, 3; to Co. B.' James Maher, Apr. 8 
'65, i; to Co. G. James McKenzie, Mar. i '65, i; to 
Co. G. Thomas McKnight, Feb. 15 '64, 3; to Co. C. 
John Moran, Sept. 5 '64, 1; to Co. K, 12th reg. Pat- 
rick Murphy, Mar. 4 '65, i; to Co. D. Benjamin Norton, 
Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61, 3; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Wil- 
liam E." Phipps, Feb. 23 '64, 3. John J. Provost, Feb. 11 
'64, 3; to Co. H. John A. Recanio, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 
'61, 3; captured at Gettysburg; died in Belle Isle 
prison. John Sergeant, Feb. 2 '64, 3. Thomas K. Sex- 
ton, Feb. 22, '64, 3. Richard Shannon, Apr. 11 '65, i; 
to Co. G. Lionel Sheldon, Sept. 29 '63, Sept. 30 '63, 3. 
George Shipman, Nov. 7 '62, 3; to v. r. c. Feb. 15 '64; 
deserted Oct. 7 '64. John Slingerland, Sept. 15 '61, 
Oct. 2 '61; wounded at Williamsburg; deserted 
Nov. I '62 ; returned to duty Apr. 7 '63 ; re- 
enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Theodore F. Smith, Sept. 15 '61, 
Oct. 2 '61, 3; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. John Speer, Dec. 
31 '63, 3- Isaac Steelman, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61, 3; 
to V. r. c. Jan. 15 '64; dis. Oct. i '64. Chilion Thomp- 
son, Jan. 21 '64," 3. David H. Thompson, Sept. 15 '61, 
Oct. 2 '61, 3. John W. Till, Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61, 3; 
re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. De Witt Van Order, Sept. 15 '61, 
Oct. 2 '61, 3; appointed corp. Aug. 3 62; private May 



15 '63; re-enlisted Jan. 4 '64. Jacob C. Vanderhoof, 
Sept. 15 '61, Oct. 2 '61, 3; to V. r. c. Sept. i '63; dis. Oct. 
10 '64, Theodore Van Pelt, Jan. 27 '64, Jan. 28 '64, 3. 
Jacob F. Welsh, Apr. 8*65, i; to Co. E. John W. 
Wilday, Jan. 27 '64, 3. James H. Woodruff, Jan. 18 '64, 
3. John W. Wright, Feb. 2 '64, 3. 

Died. — (These, with two exceptions, which are indi- 
cated, were three-years men. The date immediately 
following the name is that of enrollment and muster in. 
When this is omitted the man was enrolled Sept. 15 and 
mustered Oct. 2 '61.) Theron A. Allen, of fever, at Jer- 
sey City, June 7 '62. Drake Aumick, Dec. 31 '63; died 
at Washington, D. C, June 24 '64. Edgar Barber, Dec. 
22 '63; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5 '64. Charles Y. 
Beers, Aug. 18 '62; died at Gettysburg, Pa., July 6 '63, 
of wounds. Jabez Beers, Jan, 28 '64; killed before 
Petersburg, Va., June 16 '64. Moses A. Berry, of pneu- 
monia, at camp on lower Potomac, Md., Jan. 29 '62. 
George W. Blakely, at New York, July 28 '62. Cyrus 
Carter, of disease, at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 6 '62. Albert 
T. Emory, Feb. i '64; died at Washington, D. C, July i 
'64. Jacob S. Hopping, at Gettysburg, Pa., July i6 '62,, 
of wounds received there. Robert L. Jolly; appointed 
corp. Sept. 15 '61; sergt. Aug. 4*62; private May 15 '63; 
died at Gettysburg, July 22 '(>i, of wounds received 
there. Hendrick Kinklin, Mar. 2 '65, i year; died of 
dysentery at Alexandria, Va., July 3 '65. William Long, 
at Fairfax Court-house, Va., Aug. 31 '62. John R. Lyon, 
Sept. 3 '62, of wounds received at Bull Run, Va. Lemuel 
A. Marshall, Mar. 22 '62; died at Washington, D. C, 
Nov. I '62. John McDonough, Dec. 22 'by, died at 
Washington, May 26 '64, of wounds received at Spott- 
sylvania, Va. Charles B. Molt; killed at Chancellors- 
ville, Va., May 3 '63. George W. Peer, at'Yorktown, 
Va., May 13 '62, of typhoid fever. Allen H. Pierson, 
near Petersburg, Va., June 19 '64, of wounds received 
before Petersburg June 17; re-enlisted Mar. 10 '64. 
Spafford Sanders, of typhoid fever, at Budd's Ferry, Md., 
Apr. 19 '62. John H. Tillotson, of typhoid fever, at 
Budd's Ferry, Md., Apr. 28 '62. Jacob Wilse)', Mar. i 
'65, I year; died at Alexandria, July 6 '65. Joseph C. 
Spencer; killed before Petersburg. James M. Woodruff; 
killed at Mine Run. 

CAPTAIN SOUTHARD'S ENGINEERS. 

The next company to leave the county was that of 
Major (then Lieutenant) H. M. Dalrymple, who raised a 
part of Captain Southard's company for the 8th engineer 
corps — Company K of the ist regiment of New York 
engineers. The company was entirely made up of New 
Jersey men. Its captain, Henry L. Southard, was a Jer- 
seyman by birth and son of the late Senator Southard of 
this State. He was killed while on duty at Bermuda 
Hundred, Va., in May 1864. Lieutenant Henry M. Dal- 
rymple, also adjutant of the regiment, succeeded to the 
command and retained it during the operations in front 
of Petersburg and Richmond, until mustered out of ser- 
vice in December 1864, at the expiration of his term of 
three years' service. 

The company served with the regiment in the Depart- 
ment of the South, engaging in all the various operations 
under Generals Sherman, Hunter, Mitchell and Gilmore. 
It participated in the siege of Pulaski, the battle of 
Pocataligo, the expedition to Charleston under Hunter, 
and the siege of Fort Sumter and Charleston under Gen- 
eral Gilmore, erecting the famous Swamp Angel battery, 



UNION COMPANIES FROM MORRIS COUNTY. 



85 



which threw the first messengers of death into Charles- 
ton. 

Early in the spring of 1864 the regiment was ordered 
to the Army of the James at Fortress Monroe and Ber- 
muda Hundred, and did hard work under General Grant 
in his operations in front of Petersburg and Rich- 
mond. 

The following is a list of names of the Morris county 
volunteers who entered this company: 

Henry M. Dalrymple, Frederic B. Dalrymple, John 
Franks, Samuel McNair, William H. Lounsbury, Hiram 
Tharp, Joseph Scudder, Wellinpiton Bryant, Amadee B. 
Pruden, Edward De Camp, Wesley Chidester, Mahlon 
Parsons, William H. Porter, Thomas M. Palmer, John 
Wright, Charles J. Pownall, William G. Denman, George 
W. Skillborn, Charles Stevens, Edward Tucker, William 
Thompson, John W. Mills, Elijah W. Grandin, Benja- 
min C. Durham, William Tuttle, Jacob B. Willis, Alvah 
Handville, John Oliver, Daniel Brown, William S. Can- 
non, Edward Cobbett, Edward W. Cobbett, Moses Corby, 
James K. Dalrymple, Caleb M. Emmons, Alonzo Edgar, 
Evans Jones, Abram Kinnecutt, Ira Lewis, George W. 
Lewis, George Lindsley, Thomas Levigs, Joseph Miller, 
James McCormick, William McQuaid, Theodore Nun- 
gesser, John N. Nungesser, Thomas N. Nichols, William 
H. Tucker, Edward Tester, James Tyms, Charles M. 
Thomas, Samuel Tebo, George Vanderhoof, Lewis Weise, 
John Powers, George L. Valentine, James C. Vale, 
Thomas E. Wolfe, Edward Wolfe, Charles Lewis, Manuel 
Decker. 

THE PRESIDENT'S GUARD. 

Captain William Duncan, of the Morris Greys, being 
unable to get his company accepted in a New Jersey 
regiment, raised one for the District of Columbia volun- 
teers, to be attached to the President's guard. On the 
28th day of January 1862 he left Morristown with 70 
men of whom 42 were from Boonton. On their departure 
they were addressed by the Rev. Mr. Ellison and Rev. 
Mr. Irving. A large concourse was assembled to see 
them off. The following is the roll of the company: 

Captain, William Duncan; first lieutenant, George 
"Willenbucher; sergeants — Theodore Riley (ist), W. W. 
Carroll, Abram Kingsland, Elias Millen, Joseph Smith; 
corporals — Jacob R. Peer, Jesse Jennings, Anthony 
Adams, John Moreland, Sam Brooks, Josiah Davison, 
Barney McMackin, A. M. Halliday; privates — W. M. 
Atkins, Daniel Benjamin, Aaron E. Bonnell, William Bab- 
cock, William R. Bishop, William Bryan. Henry Bronson, 
James Burk, Charles Conklin, Daniel Carey, Patrick 
Clark, John Conley, Daniel S. Cravet, James Daley, Ar- 
thur Drew, Franklin Eghan, Horace Elmer, Charles 
Evans, Henry C. Fedes, Charles Grinder, Abraham Gu- 
lick, William Gray, Nicholas Hill, William Hopler, S. B. 
Harrison, Samuel Horner, Robert Hudson, Joseph Hart- 
man, Henry D. lanson, John Jennings, Joshua Jenkins, 
Michael Kennedy, John W. Kelley, John Lovvery, James 
List, Cornelius Miller, G. B. Phineas Meyers, Thomas 
Murphy, Thomas E. Miller, David Marston, James Mc- 
Coy, Peter McFarland, James McNulty, George Oliver, 
Peter Peer, Nelson Peer, Merinus Peer, George W. Pier- 
son, Timothy L. Palmer, Mitchel Robear, Elias J. Roff, 
Harry Reese, George Sharp, Edward J. Smith, Garret 
Smith, Whitaker Taylor, Jacob N. Thatcher, Ira Van 
Orden, John Vanduyne, James T. Vanduyne, George 
Weir, George M. Whitehead, Frank Wildeman, James 
^\'■hit'ten, Theodore Wilkins, William Young. 



CHAPTER XVL 



THE ELEVENTH NEW JERSEY REGIMENT — BATTLES AND 
LOSSES OF COMPANIES E AND H. 




?N May 1862 the governor, in anticipation of 
™j( the call for 300,000 three-years men which 
VM^^ was made July 7th, authorized the recruiting 
S^^^i °^ ™^" for the nth New Jersey volunteers. 
Captain Dorastus B. Logan at once cora- 
ls ^ menced raising a company, afterward mustered as 
" Company H of that regiment. On the i8th of June 
he took 29 men to the rendezvous. Camp Olden at Trenton. 
When the call came from the governor, July 8th, in pur- 
suance of the President's call of the day before, for four 
regiments, this company was rapidly filled. At the same 
time Thomas J. Halsey of Dover began the raising of 
Company E for the same regiment. He was commis- 
sioned major September 14th 1863. Robert McAllister 
was colonel. The i ith was mustered into the United States 
service Aug. i8th and left Trenton for Washington Aug 
25th. After remaining near Washington till Nov. i6th the 
regiment was attached to Gen. Carr's brigade, Sickles's 
division Army of the Potomac. It served through the 
war, participating in the following engagements, all in 
Virginia excepting Gettysburg: 

Fredericksburg, December 13th and 14th 1862; Chan- 
cellorsville, May 3d and 4th 1863; Gettysburg, Pa., July 
2nd and 3d 1863; Wapping Heights, July 24th 1863; 
Kelly's Ford, November 8th 1863; Locust Grove, Nov. 
27th 1863; Mine Run, November 29th 1863; Wilderness, 
May 5th-7th 1864; Spottsylvania, May 8th-i8th 1864; 
North Anna River, May 23d and 24th 1864; Tolopotomy 
Creek, May 30th and 31st 1864; Cold Harbor, June ist- 
■5th 1864; Baker's Mills, June loth 1864; before Peters- 
burg, June i6th-23d and July 30th 1864; Deep Bottom, 
July 26th and 27th 1864; North Bank of James River, 
Aug. I4th-i8th 1864; Ream's Station, Aug. 25th 1864; 
Fort Sedgwick, September i8th 1864; Poplar Spring 
Church, Oct. 2nd 1864; Boydon Plank Road (capture of 
Petersburg), April 2nd 1865; Amelia Springs, April 6th 
1865; Farmville, April 6th and 7th 1865; Appomattox, 
April gth 1865. 

Following are the records of the Morris county com- 
panies in the nth regiment; 

COMPANY E. 

OFFICERS. 

The following ofificers were commissioned or enrolled 
at the dates immediately following their names, and all 
but one of them for the period of three years. Where but 
one date is given it was also that of muster-in. Where 
two are given the last is the date of muster-in. The date 
of muster-out, where not otherwise indicated, was June 
6th 1865: 

Captains. — Thomas J. Halsey, Aug. 19 '62; prom, 
major Sept. 14 '6-i,. Edward E. S. Newberry, Nov. 17 
'63, Jan. 7 '64; enlisted as private Co. D 3d N, J.; prom, 
ist iieut. Aug. 19 '62; resigned captaincy Jan. 28 '64 to 



86 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



accept commission in veteran reserve corps. Charles F. 
Gage, June 26 '64, July 20 '64; appointed ist lieut. Co. 
G Dec. 5 '63; brevet major Apr. g '65. 

First Lieutenants. — William H. Egan, Oct. 5 '63, Oct. 
3t '63; appointed ist sergt. July 22 '62; ist lieut. Co. H 
Oct. 5 '63; transferred from Co. H Jan. i '64; killed at 
Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 12 '64. Cyprian H. 
Rossiter, Oct. 25 '64, Nov. 19 '64; appointed 2nd lieut. 
Co. B Sept. 18 '64; commissioned captain Co. F June 13 
'65; not mustered. 

Second Lieutenants — Silas W. Volk, Aug. 19 '62; re- 
signed Dec. 10 '6t^. Joseph C. Baldwin, Feb. 18 '63, 
Mar. i6, '63; transferred from Co F Apr. 16 '64; killed 
at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 12 '64. Charles 
A. Oliver, June 26 '64, July 20 '64; formerly sergt. Co. I; 
pro. ist lieut. Co. K Oct. 23 '64. Titus Berry jr., Oct. 
23 '64, Nov. 19 '64; appointed corp. Aug. 9 '62; sergt. 
Sept. I '63; commissioned adj. June 18 '65; not mus- 
tered. » 

First ^i?r^i?a/?/.— Augustus Tucker, sergt. Aug. 18 '62; 
ist sergt. Nov. i '63. 

Sergeants. — Amos H. Schoonover, Sept. 13 '64, for i 
year; pro. 2nd lieut. Co. C Sept. 18 '64. Alpheus Iliff, 
Corp. July 15 '62; sergt. July i 'by, commissioned 2nd 
lieut. Co. B May 22 '65 and ist lieut. Co. H June 13 '65, 
but not mustered. Thomas D. Marbacker, July 19 '62; 
appointed corp. Aug. 20 '63; sergt. Nov. i '63. Edward 
J. Kinney, Aug. i6 '62; appointed corp. Aug. 20 '63; 
sergt. Sept. 8 '64; dis. May 3 '65. 

Corporals. — Morris L. Ackerman, Aug. 18 '62; dis. 
May 3 '65. Absalom S. Talmadge, Aug. 18 '62; dis. 
May 3 '65. George Zindle, Aug. 18 '65; appointed corp. 
July I '64; dis. May 3 '65. Leonard V. Gillen, Aug. 16 
'62; appointed corp. July i '64. James Brannin, Aug. 18 
'62; corp. Oct. I '64. Bishop W. Mainis, July 28 '62, 
July 29 '62; corp. Oct. 6 '64; dis. May 3 '65. Charles 
H. Johnson jr., Aug. 18 '62; corp. Nov. i '64. Frederick 
Cook, Aug. 16 '62; corp. Nov. i '64. 

Died. — Sergeants: Charles Brandt, Aug. 5 '62; died of 
scurvy at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 31 '64; appointed 
corp. Aug. 5 '62; sergt. Aug. i '53. James McDavitt, 
Aug. 16 '62; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3 '63. 
Eliphalet Sturdevant, August 18 '62; died in hospital at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 13 'b^,, of wounds received there. 

PRIVATES. 

The date of enrollment and muster-in and the number 
of years for which the man enlisted follow the name; the 
date of muster-out was June 6 '65 if nothing appears to 
the contrary. 

Charles H. Aber, Aug. 18 '62, 3. Joseph H. Berry, 
Aug. 18 '62, 3. Sarhuel Bozegar, Sept. 27*64, i; dr. 
Holmes Brittin, Sept. 26 '64, i; dr.; dis. May 3 '65. 
Oliver Bruch, Aug. 12 '64, 3. Thomas Bush, Sept. i '64, 
I. Lewis A. De Camp, Aug. 18 '62, 3. Patrick Gal- 
lagher, Aug. 14 '62, 3. Jacob Genther, July 22 '62; 3. 
John H. Gilbert, July 25 '62, 3. Charles E. Guard, Aug. 
18 '62, 3. Matthias and Peter Henderson, Sept. 21 '64, 
3; dr. Charles Hulse, Sept. 27 '64, i; dr. Philip Jayne, 
Aug. 18 '62, 3. Joseph C. Johnson, Sept. 27 '64, i; dr. 
Robert and Zacharinh Johnson, Sept. 28 '64, 1; dr. Ben- 
jamin H. Joiner, sergt. July 22 '62, 3; private Sept. i' 62. 
Jonathan C. Knowles, Aug. 2 '62, 3. John Litz, Aug. 8 
'64, i; dis. May 30 '65. Lewis M. Lorey, Aug. 30 '64, i. 
William Lowery, Sept. 27 '64, i; dr. Albert P. Lyon, 
Aug. 16 '62, 3. David Marley, Sept. i '64, i; m. o. Aug. 
13 '65. Joseph McNear, Sept. 5 '64, i; tr. from Co. G. 
George M. Merritt, musician, Aug. 18 '62. James P. 
Myers, July ig '62, 3. John O'Dell, Aug. 18 '62, 3. E. 
W. Philhower, wagoner, July 25 '62. Albert T. Phillips, 



Aug. 29 '64, I. Richard J. Porter, Sept. 26 '64, i; dr. 
Henry Rinkler, Mar. 2 '65, 3. Samuel Robinson, Aug. 
18 '62, 3; dis. May 3 '65. Samuel Rose, Sept. 27 '64, i; 
dr.; dis. May 3 '65. Alonzo B. Searing, Aug. 18 '62, 3. 
Lambert Sharp, July 23 '62, 3. Frank E. Shilstone, 
Aug. 16 '64, i; dis. May 3 '65. George Smith, Sept. 27 
'64, i; dr. James Smith, Sept. 21 '64, i; dr. Solomon 
Soper, Sept. 27 '64, i; dr.; dis. May 3 '65. William 
Throckmorton and Joseph E. Wainwright, Sept. 27 '64, 
I ; dr. Joseph W. Walton, Aug. 18 '62, 3; dis. May 3 '65. 
William Wood, Aug. 16 '62, 3. Gilbert D. Young, Aug. 
16 '62. 3. William Young, Aug. 16 '64, i. 

Discharged (for disability where no other cause is 
given). — George Apgar, July 29 '62, 3; dis. Dec. 28 '63. 
Henry C. Cook, Aug. 11 '62, 3; dis. Dec. 29 '62. Jacob 
Egerter, July 29 '62, 3; dis. Apr. 4 '64. James M. Ford, 
Aug. 16 '62, 3; dis. Sept. 25 '63. Marcus S. Ford, Aug. 
16 '62, 3; dis. Oct. 13 '63. James Henderson, Aug. 18 
'62, 3; dis. Mar. 19 '63. Louis Lambert, Sept. 27 '64, i; 
dis. Sept. 8 '64 to accept commission in 20th N. Y. 
Stephen Lefifler, Aug. 16 '62, 3; dis. Feb. 2 '()i. William 
Minton, Aug. 18 '62, 3; dis. Dec. 15 '64. Steinzilo 
Monice, Aug, 18 '62, 3; dis. Feb. 19 '63. William A. 
Murphy, Aug. 13 '63, 3; dis. Jan. 6 '64. Octavus L. 
Pruden, Aug. 16, '62, 3; dis. October 23 '63 to join reg- 
ular army. Richard Shauger, Aug. 18 '62, 3; dis. Nov. 
29 '62. Zadoc Sperry, Aug. 18 '62, 3; dis. Aug. 14 '63. 
John Talmadge, Aug. 18 '62, 3; dis. Jan. 15 '63. John 
H. Wilson, Aug. 16 '62, 3; dis. Apr. 14 '64. Joseph 
Zindle, Aug. 18 '62, 3; dis. Feb. 28 '63. 

Transferred. — David B. Alpaugh, Jan. 28 '64, 3; to v. 
r. c. Apr. 27 '65; dis. June ig '65. Elias H. Blanchard, 
Aug. 16 '62, 3; to V. r. c. Mar. 15 '64. Charles Bow- 
man, Aug. 5 '62, 3; to V. r. c. July i '64; dis. June 29 
'65. John Burk, Aug. 14 '63, 3; to v. r. c. Feb. 15 '64; 
dis. Aug. 14 '65. William Burns, Oct. 8 '64, i; to Co. B 
12th N. J. Charles Davis, Oct. 10 '64, i; to Co. I 12th 
N. J. John Farnum, Aug. 16 '64, 3; to Co. B 12th N. 
J. John W. Ford, Aug. 16 '62, 3; to v. r. c. Aug. i '63; 
dis. Nov. 12 '63. William F. Hogbin, Aug. 12 '64, 3; to 
Co. B 1 2th N. J.; dr. James Howden, June 15 '64, 3; to 
Co. B i2th N. J. Thomas Kelly, June 13 '64, 3; to Co. 
B i2th N. J. James King, Aug. 16 '62, 3; to v. r. c. 
Sept. I 'bT^. William King, June 16 '64, 3; to Co. B 12th 
N. J. Charles A. Kinney, Aug. 18 '62, 3; to v. r. c. Aug. 
10 '64; dis. June 29 '65. Joseph H. Lee, July 19 '64, 3; 
to Co. B i2th N. J.; dr. David Lundy, June 16 '64, 3; 
to Co. B 1 2th N. J. Henry McLane, Sept. i '64, i; to 
Co. B 12th N. J. Waldemar M. Melchert, June 11 '64, 
3; to Co. B i2th N. J. William Osborn, Aug. 18 '62, 3; 
to V. r. c. Sept. 30 '64; dis. July 13 '65. Armstrong 
Powell, Aug. 15 '64, 3; to Co. B 12th N. J.; dr. William 
Reiser, Feb. 24 '65, i; to Co. A 12th N. J. James Riley, 
Oct. 7 '64, i; to Co. B 12th N. J. Thomas Scattergood, 
Mar. 31 '63, 3; to V. r. c. Sept. 30 '64; dis. July 24 '65. 
George Schoonover, Feb. 25 '65, i; to Co. B 12th N. J. 
Killian Schulze, Sept. 2 '64, i ; to Bat. A. John Smith, 
Oct. 8 '64, i; to Co. B 12th N. J.; dr. John Sullivan, 
Aug. 16 '64, 3; to Co. A. John F. Sullivan, June 15 '64, 
3; to Co. B i2th N. J. Mahlon D. Talmadge, Aug. 16 
'62, 3; to V. r. c. Sept. I '63; dis. June 29 '65. Reuben 
E. Talmadge, Aug. 16 '62, 3; to v. r. c. March 15 '64; 
dis. June 30 '65. Samuel Taylor, May 10 '64, 3; to Co. 
B 1 2th N. J.; dr. Alva S. Valentine, Sept. i '64, i; to 
Co. M 3d N. J. cav. James J. Van Orden, Aug. 18 '62, 
3; to v. r. c. April 26 '65; dis. Jane 2g '65. Isaac Wool- 
verton, June 17 '62, 3; to v. r. c. Mar. 23 '64; dis. June 
23 '65; appointed sergt. June 17 '62; private Sept. i 'dj,. 
James'K. Youmans, Aug. 18 '62, 3; to v. r. c. Jan. 15 
'64; dis. July 3 '65. 

Died. — (With the exception of Mr. Atkinson these men 



COMPANIES E AND H ELEVENl^H N. J. 



entered the service for three years; the date of enroll- 
ment and muster-in follows the name). James Atkinson, 
Sept. 27 '64; dr. for i year; missing at Boydton Plank 
Road, Va., Oct. 27 '64. Joshua Beach, Aug. 18 '62; died 
of scurvy at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. i '64. John Cook, 
July 23 '62; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3 '63 
David Daley, June 17 '62; missing at Gettysburg, Pa , 
July 3 '63. James F. Gibson, July 24 '62; died of 
chronic diarrhoea at Trenton, N. J., Mar. 4 '65, while on 
a furlough. Peter Hann, Aug. 12 '62; killed at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 3 '63. William W. Hoffman, July 29 
'62; died of disease at Richmond, Va., Apr. 12 '64. 
William Horton, Aug. 18 '62; killed at Chancellorsville, 
Va., May 3 '63. Charles Mann, Aug. 5 '62; killed at 
Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 27 '63. John Mann, Aug. 12 
'62; died at Chancellorsville, Va., May 11 '6^, of wounds 
received there. Jacob Miller, Aug. 18 '62; missing at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 3 '63. Thomas Murray, June 17 
'62; died at Washington, May 28 '63, of wounds received 
at Chancellorsville. Riley O'Brien, June 17 '62; killed 
at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3 '63." Isaac O'Dell, Aug. 
16 '62; died of chronic diarrhoea near Falmouth Va., 
Mar. 9 '63. Daniel H. Palmer, Aug. 16 '62; died at 
Washington, June 23 '63, of wounds received at Chancel- 
lorsville. William B. Phillips, Aug. 12 '62; captured b_e- 
fore Petersburg, Va., June 22 '64; died at Florence, S. 
C, Nov. 15 '64. James Ridgeway, Aug. 10 '64; dr.; 
died of chronic diarrhoea, at New^ York, Nov. 9 '64. 
Elihu F. Rose, corp., Aug. 18 '62; killed at Spottsylvania, 
Va., May 10 '64. C. M. Shauger, Aug. 18 '62; died of 
typhoid fever near Falmouth, Va., March 29 '63. James 
W. Smith, July 29 '62; died of intermittent fever near 
Alexandria, Va., Nov. 26 '62. William H. Sweet, Aug. 
18 '62; missing at Chancellorsville, May 3 '63. Cyrus 
L. Talmadge, Aug. 18 '62; died at Andersonville, Ga., 
Sept. 2 '64. Thomas Tinney, Aug. 16 '62; killed at Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July 2 '63. Gilbert Young, July 16 '62; 
died of smallpox, at Washington, Dec. 8 '62. 

COMPANY H. 

OFFICERS. 

The following were commissioned or enrolled, and 
mustered in for three years' service, at the dates follow- 
ing their names: 

Captains. — Dorastus B. Logan, Aug. 13 '62, Aug. 14 
'62; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 %j,. Ira W. Cory, 
July 3 '63, Oct. 23 '63; appointed sergt. Co. K 7th N. 
J.; ist lieut. Aug. 13 '62; on detached service at draft 
rendezvous, Trenton; m. o. June 5 '65. 

First Lieutenants. — William H. Egan, Oct. 5 '()t„ Oct. 
31 '63; appointed ist sergt. Co. E; tr. to that company 
Jan. I '64. Alexander Cummings, Nov. 13 '63, Nov. 24 
'62,\ appointed ist sergt. June 17 '62; 2nd lieut. Sept. 20 
'63; tr. from Co. K Jan. i '64; dismissed May 8 '65. 

Second Lieutenant — William E. Axtell, Aug. 13 '62, 
Aug. 14 '62; resigned Sept. 29 '63, from wounds received 
at Gettysburg; commissioned ist lieut. July 2 '63; not 
mustered. 

First Sergeants. — Alonzo M. Merritt, sergt., July 26 
'62; ist sergt. Jan. i '64; sergt. major May 13 '64. Wat- 
son P. Tuttle, corp. June 17 '62; ist sergt. June i '64; 
sergt. major Sept. i '64. Michael J. Southard, July 5 
'62; pro. corp. May 4 'by, ist sergt. Oct. i '64; captured 
and paroled; dis. Apr. 28 '65. 

Sergeants.— '^\\X\2iXa. S. Stout, June 17 '6z; appointed 



corp. Sept. I '63; sergt. Jan. i '64; m. o. June 6 '65. 
Peter Stone, Aug. 6 '62; appointed corp. Jan. i '64; 
sergt. Sept. i '64; commissioned 2nd lieut. Co. B June 13 
'65; not mustered. George W. Hedden, June 26 '62; 
pro. corp. Feb. i '63; sergt. Oct. i '64; m. o. June 6 
'65. 

Corporals. — Nathaniel Clark, July 21 '62; pro. corp. 
May 4 '63; m. o. June 6 '65. Lambert Riker, June 17 
'62; pro. corp. Sept. i '63; m. o, June 6 '65. John J. 
Sites, July 5 '62; pro. corp. Aug. i '63; dis. May 3 '65. 
George A. Stevens, June 17 '62; m. o. June 6 '65. Wil- 
liam S. Goarkee, July 9 '62; pro. corp. Oct. i '64; m. o. 
June 6 '65. 

Musician. — William Y. Kelly, July 5 '62; m. o. June 6 
'65- 

Discharged. — Sergeant Thomas S. Mitchell, enrolled 
and mustered June 17 '62; dis. Mar. 19 '63 for disability. 
Musician William H. Egbert, enrolled and mustered Aug. 
14 '62; dis. for disability Jan. t6 '63. Wagoner David 
H. Thomas, enrolled and mustered June 17 '62; dis. Jan. 
9 '63 for disability. 

Transferred {dait of enrollment and muster following 
the name). — Sergeants: Silas C. Todd, June 17 '62; to 
v. r. c. Aug. 6 '64; dis. June 17 '65. Henry C. Wood- 
ruff, July 21 '62; to V. r. c. Sept. 30 '64; dis. July 6 '65; 
appointed corp. July 21 '62; sergt. Apr. i '6^,. Corporals: 
Erastus H. Rorick, Aug. 6 '62; to v. r. c. July i '63; dis. 
Aug. 19 '64; prom. corp. Sept. i '62. Oliver Ayres, July 
5 '62; to V. r. c. Dec. 7 '63; dis. Oct. 3 '64; prom. corp. 
Jan. I '63. 

Died. — John V. Lanterman, ist sergt., enrolled and 
mustered June 17 '62; killed at Spottsylvania Court- 
house, Va., May 12 '64. Daniel Bender, sergt., enrolled 
and mustered June 17 '62; killed at Chancellorsville,Va., 
May 3 '63. Charles W. Buck, corp.; enrolled and mus- 
tered July 30 62, died of debility, on furlough, at Wash- 
ington, Mar. 13 '63. John S. Harden, corp., enrolled and 
mustered July 14 '62; died of congestion of the brain 
near Fort Ellsworth, Va., Oct. 9 '62. John Fleming, 
Corp., enrolled and mustered July 9 '62.; appointed corp. 
Oct. 9 '62; killed in action near Petersburg, Va., June 
16 '64. 

PRIVATES. 

The date immediately following these names is that of 
enrollment and muster. The figure 1 after the date 
shows that the man entered the service for one year; in 
other cases the term of enlistment was three years. The 
date of muster-out was June 6 1865, where nothing ap- 
pears to the contrary. 

John Anderson, June 24 '62. Albert L. Axtell, July 
5 62. Solomon G. Cannon, June 17 '62; captured and 
paroled; dis. May 12 '65. John Caspar, Sept. i '64, i; 
dis. May 3 '65. Jacob S. Clawson, Aug. i '62. Christian 
Clevel, Aug. 17 '64; dis. June 12*65. Joseph L. Decker, 
July 19 '62. Timothy Furl, July 9 '62. Daniel C. Hig- 
gins, June 16 '64; dis. Apr. 8 '65. John Hoffman, Sept. 
I '64; dis. Apr" 28 '65. George Horton, July 5 '62. 
Joseph R. Mackey, July 5 '62; dis. May 3 '65. Lewis 
N. McPeake, Aug. 15 '62; dis. May 3 '65. Morris Myers, 
Sept. 28 '64, I. John Motti, Sept. 26 '64, i. George 
Murphy, corp. June 17 '62; private Jan. i '63: dis. May 
3 '65. Hans T. Olson, Sept. 28 '64, i. Bartley Owen, 
July 23 '62; captured and paroled; dis. May 12 '65. 
Michael Raiter, Sept. 28 '64, i. Jacob Schneider, Sept. 
28 '64, I. William Southard, July 5 '62. Antoine Stael, 
Sept. 28 '64, I, Henry Stibling, Sept. 26 '64, i. John 



13 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Stone, Sept. 28 '64, i. John V. Stout, June 17 '62. 
James Sweeney, June 20 '62. Thomas Welsh, Sept. 26 
'64, I. 

Discharged. — (The date of enrollment and muster fol- 
lows the name. All but one were three-years men. The 
cause of discharge was physical disability where no other 
is given). Joshua Barber, July 30 '62; dis. Oct. 20 '64. 
for wounds received at Spnttsylvania. Henry Bayard, 
June II '64; dis. May 30 '65, for woimds received at 
Boydton Plank Road, Va., Oct. 27 '64. George Brown, 
Sept. I '64; dishonorably discharged Mar. i '65. Dennis 
Crater, July 16 '62; dis. May 3 '65, for wounds at Spott- 
sylvania. Edward Emerson, Sept. 28 '64, i year; dis. 
July 12 '65, for wounds at Fort Morton, Va., Nov. 5 '64. 
George W. Jackson, June 17 '62; dis. Jan 14 '63. James 
N. Jarvis, June 26 '62; dis. Dec. 30 '62. Constant V. 
King, Aug. I '62; dis. Aug. 27 '63. Patrick King, July 
26 '62; dis. Dec. 3 'd^x,, for wounds at Gettysburg. Mar- 
shall Love, Aug. 14 '62; dis. July 21 '63. -George H. 
McDougall, June 17 '62; dis. Jan. 23 '63. Reuben 
O'Dell, June 28 '62; dis. Mar. 25 '65. Robert D. Owen, 
July 21 '62; dis. Jan. 9 '63. Timothy K. Pruden, June 
17 '62; dis. Dec. 15 'b^, for wounds at Gettysburg. Ed- 
ward Rich, July 5 '62; dis. Apr. 25 '63. David A. 
Riker, July 24 '62; dis. Dec. 24 '62. William Rowley, 
July 5 '62; dis. April 25 '63. William Shack, July 30 
'62; dis. Jan. 5 '63. William Sullivan, July 2 '62; dis. 
Jan. 5 '(iT,. John Wright, June 24 '62; dis. Aug. 15 '64. 
Theodore F. Wolfe, June 17 '62; dis. Jan. 5 'Qi2>- 

Died (The date of enlistment and muster follows the 
name. The period of enlistment was three years, except 
in a single case). — Levi P. Baird, July 5 '62; killed near 
Chancellorsville, May 3 '6^. Edward Barber; Aug. i '62; 
killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 '63. Simeon Brooks, 
July 2 '62; died of chronic diarrhoea near Falmouth, Va., 
Feb. I '63. Bingham Cartwright, Aug. i '61; died of 
debility near Falmouth, Va,, Jan. 18 'd^. Levi Cart- 
wright, Aug. T '62; died of diphtheria near Alexandria, 
Va., Dec. 15 '62. Timothy Cummings, Aug. 14 '62; died of 
dysentery near Fort Ellsworth, Va., Oct. 27 '62. Daniel 
Decker, June 28 '62; died- of typhoid fever near Falmouth, 
Va., Feb. 7 '62- William A. Decker, Aug. 6 '62; died at 
Washington May 30 '63, of wounds received at Chancel- 
lors-ville; prom. corp. May 4 '63. William De Groat, July 
5 '62; died of inflammation of the bowels near Falmouth, 
Va., Dec. 25 '62. Edward Dorsay, July 5 '62; died of in- 
flammation of the bowels near Fort Ellsworth, Va., Oct. 
16 '62. William Halsey, July 5 '62; missing at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July 2 '63. Francis M. Hendershot, July 18 
'62; died of chronic diarrhoea Sept. 26 '64, on James 
River. Peter Hendershot, July 5 '62; died of debility 
near Falmouth, Va., Jan. 2 '63. Richard Henderson, 
Aug. 6 '62; died of inflammation of the lungs near Fal- 
mouth, Dec. 30 '62. John Henry Klein, Oct. 10 '64, i 
year; missing at Boydton Plank Road, Va., Oct. 27 '64; 
died of fever at Salisbury, N. C, Feb. 7 '65. Ferdinand 
Martin, June 15 '64; died at City Point, Va., Dec. 4 '64, 
of woimds near Petersburg. William Potts, June 17 '62; 
died of chronic diarrhoea at Washington, Oct. i '63. 
Charles W. Prickett, June 28 '62; died of chronic diar- 
rhoea at Washington, May 18 '65. Joseph P. Robare, 
July 31 '61; died at Potomac Creek hospital, Va., May 
3 '6^, of wounds at Chancellorsville. John C. Sharp, 
June 17 '62; died of heart disease near Fort Ellsworth, 
Va., Nov. 18 '62. Henry South, July 2 '62; killed at 
Chancellorsville, Va., May 3 '6;^. David Talmadge, July 
30 '62; missing near Petersburg, Va., June 22 '64. Wil- 
liam W. Tuttle, July 26 '62; died of typhoid fever near 
Fort Ellsworth, Va.. Nov. 6 '62. James AI. Woodruff, 
Tune 17 '62; killed at Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 27 
•63. 



CHAPTER XVIL 



THE BRILLIANT RECORD OF COMPANIES C AND F 15TH 
N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 




HE 15th regiment of New Jersey volunteer 
infantry was raised in the summer of 1862, 
in the northwestern part of the State, three 
companies going from Sussex county, two 
each from Morris, Hunterdon and Warren 
and one from Somerset. The men were of a high 
grade of character and intelligence, and were dis- 
ciplined by veteran officers. The colonels of the regi- 
ment at different times were Samuel Fowler, A. C. M. 
Pennington jr. (never mustered) and William H. Pen- 
rose. Edmund D. Halsey was commissioned adjutant 
January ist 1864, having been first lieutenant of Com- 
pany D, second lieutenant of Company F, sergeant 
major, and private in Company K. 

The regiment was mustered in on the 25th of August 
1862 and immediately went to the front. Its first duty 
was building fortifications at Tenaliytown, Md., Lee be- 
ing then on his northern march which was stopped by 
the battle of Antietara. At the end of September the 
15th joined the army of the Potomac, and from this lime 
to the close of the war it shared the hard work, the de- 
feats and the victories of that great army, being attached 
to the first brigade, first division, sixth corps. 

The regiment was first under fire at Fredericksburg, 
December 13th 1862, having crossed the Rappahannock 
below the town and occupied a ravine, behaving admira- 
bly under a cannonade by which several were wounded. 
The next mornmg, before daylight, the isth was de- 
ployed as skirmishers, within hearing of the voices of the 
enemy. At sunrise the skirmish line opened fire. In the 
bloody battle thus introduced the Morris county com- 
panies fared less hardly than some portions of the line, 
but Sergeant Major Fowler and Alexander S. Sergeant 
of Company F were killed and several were severely 
wounded. The next morning the regiment was relieved 
by the 121st New York. 

The tedious "' mud march " which followed the Fred- 
ericksburg disaster preluded a dismal winter in camp at 
White Oak Church, typhoid fever prevailing and making 
sad inroads upon the companies from Morris, who were 
thereafter notably fortunate in the matter of health. 

The next fighting was the Chancellorsville campaign. 
This took the 15th across the Rappahannock River be- 
low Fredericksburg as before, the regiment forming the 
extreme left of the sixth corps in the action of May 3d, 
supporting a battery and aiding to prevent the enemy 
from turning the left flank of Hooker's army. In this 
service the 15th suffered considerable loss. Advancing 
in the afternoon to Salem Church this regiment drove 
the enemy by a gallant charge, and held its ground till 
ordered back at night. It is believed that after this" en- 



THE FIFTEENTH NEW JERSEY VOLUNTEERS. 



S9 



counter few regiments besides tlie isth New Jersey suc- 
ceeded in bringing off all their wounded. This noble 
achievement in the case of the 15th is largely credited to 
the brave and tireless exertions of the chaplain. The 
next day the army began its retreat to the old camp. 

In the movement at Fredericksburg in June to divert 
the attention of the enemy the 15th covered the crossing 
of the Rappahannock River, removing the pontoon bridge 
in the face of the enemy and in a driving rain. It fought 
at Gettysburg, and participated in the advances and re- 
treats that consumed the latter part of 1863. 

The following winter was passed in camp at Brandy 
Station, Va., in picket and fatigue duty, interrupted by 
an expedition of the brigade to Madison Court-house, 
which involved no fighting. A log church edifice was 
built in the camp, in which literary as well as religious 
exercises were held; a "church" of 130 members was 
organized, to which 46 were added by conversion. 

The regiment broke camp on the 4th of May 1864, 
and immediately plunged into the terrible Wilderness 
campaign. On the 8th, with the 3d N. J., the 15th made 
a splendid charge at Spottsylvunia Court-house, to 
develop the position and strength of the rebel force. It 
was repulsed with terrible loss, loi men being killed or 
wounded. The next day the 15th and the ist had a 
sharp encounter with the rebel skirmishers in a movement 
on the enemy's right flank. On the loth these regiments 
drove in the rebel skirmish line, but were stopped by the 
fortifications at the " bloody angle." They were re- 
inforced and renewed the attack, but were again repulsed, 
the entrenchments of the enemy at this point being one 
of the strongest field works ever attacked by the army. 
On the same day the sixth corps carried a part of the 
enemy's line, but had to abandon it and many prisoners, 
on account of the repulse of the other troops, attacking 
on either hand. The two regiments mentioned, however, 
held the ground taken by them till relieved after dark. 

On the 1 2th the 6th corps assaulted the "bloody 
angle," with the islh regiment on the extreme right of 
the front line. Charging through a murderous fire, this 
regiment broke through the strong line of the enemy, 
capturing prisoners and a stand of colors. Unsupported, 
and enfiladed from neighboring works not taken, the 
brave little Union force was compelled to retire, having 
lost more than one-half of the rank and file and seven of 
its best officers. " Out of 429 men and 14 line officers, 
who crossed the Rapidan on the 4th, only 122 men and 
four line officers remained." 

The isth shared in the advance to Petersburg which 
followed the retreat of the rebels from Spottsylvania, and 
afterward fought under Sheridan in the Shenandoah 
Valley. At Hanover Court-house the decimated ranks 
were in part filled with the re-enlisted veterans of the 
2nd, and at Cold Harbor the re- enlisted veterans of the 
3d were added, the original term of service of those or- 
ganizations having expired. On the 17th of August this 
regiment so stubbornly held in check the army of Early 
and Longstreet that the latter actually formed for an 
attack in the belief that Sheridan's whole force was be- 



fore them. One confederate brigade was enough to 
scatter the thin skirmish line of the Jerseymen, but the 
latter yielded only with the most stubborn resistance, 
some of the 15th holding their ground so long as to be 
surrounded and captured. 

At the battle of Opequan, on the 19th of September 
1864, this regiment, in the opinion of a division com- 
mander, saved the day by holding a hill and checking 
the advance of the enemy during a temporary reverse to 
the Union line, after which Sheridan's men rallied to one 
of the most important victories of the war. 

At Fisher's Hill, September 22nd, the ist New Jersey 
brigade, by a most brilliant charge, carried a rebel 
stronghold, capturing a num.ber o( guns; and at Cedar 
Creek on the 19th of October occupied the most advanced 
and difficult position, one of the field officers of the 15th 
being killed and the other two wounded, while the rank 
and file suffered severely. After this battle the regiment 
rejoined the army before Petersburg, and participated in 
the capture of that city and Richmond and other closing 
events of the war. It was present at the surrender of 
Lee at Appomattox, April 9th, and was mustered out at 
Hall's Hill, Va., June 22nd 1865. One of the field offi- 
cers of the 15th, from whom we have derived the fore- 
going facts, summarizes the brilliant record of the regi- 
ment as follows: 

" In the death grapples of army with army, from 1862 
to 1865, it bore the stars and stripes with honor and dis- 
tinction. No regiment fought with more tenacious cour- 
age, or presented a more steady and unbroken front to 
the foe. Where the fire was hottest, the charge most im- 
petuous, the resistance most stubborn, the carnage most 
fearful, it was found. It was never ordered to take a po- 
sition that it did not reach it. It was never required to 
hold a post that it did not hold it. It never assaulted a 
line of the enemy that it did not drive it. It never 
charged a rebel work that it did not reach it. * * * 
Such a record must be traced in blood. When the roll 
is called, three hundred and sixty-one times it must be 
answered — ' Dead on the field of honor.' " 

The statistics of this regiment are as follows: 
Officers at muster-in, 38; enlisted men ditto, 909; 
officers gained, 72; enlisted men gained, 852; total 
strength, 1,871; officers mustered out, 18; enlisted men 
mustered out, 398; died of disease, 99; died of wounds, 
247; died in prison, 15; total deaths, 361. 

The engagements in which the regiment participated 
were the following, all in Virginia where not otherwise 
indicated: 

Fredericksburg, December 13th and 14th 1862 and 
May 3d 1863; Salem Heights, May 3d and 4th 1863; 
Franklin's Crossing, June 6th-i4th 1863; Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2nd and 3d 1863; Fairfield, Pa., Jnly 5th 
1863; Funktown, Md., July loth 1863; Rappahannock 
Station, October 12th and November 7th 1863; Mine 
Run, November 30th 1863; Wilderness, May 5th-7th 
1864; Spottsylvania, May 8th-i6th 1864; North and 
South Anna River, May 24th 1864; Hanover Court- 
house, May 29th 1864; Tolopotomy Creek, May 30th 
and 31st 1864; Cold Harbor, June ist-iith 1864; Before 
Petersburg, J Lin& i6th-22nd 1864; Weldon Railroad, June 
23d 1864; Snicker's Gap, July i8th 1864; Strasburg, 
August 15th 1864; Winchester, August 17th 1864; 
I Charlestown, August 21st 1864; Opequan September 19th 



90 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



1864; Fisher's Hill, September 21st and 22nd 1864; 
New Market, September 24th 1864; Mount Jackson, 
September 2Sth 1864; Cedar Creek and Middletown, Oc- 
tober 19th 1864; Hatcher's Run, February sth 1865; 
Fort Stedman, March 2Sth 1865; capture of Petersburg, 
April 2nd 1865; Sailor's Creek, April 6th 1865; Farni- 
ville, April 7 th 1865. 

Below are rolls of the Morris county companies in the 
iSth regiment: 

COMPANY C. 

OFFICERS. 

These men entered the service for three years. Imme- 
diately following the name is the date of commission or 
enrollment; the date of muster-in was August 25th 1862, 
where no second date is given; and the date of muster- 
out- June 22nd 1865, if not otherwise stated. 

Captains. — Ira J. Lindsley, Aug. 15 '62; killed at Salem 
Heights, Va., May 3 '63. Lewis Van Blarcom, June 19 
'63, July I '63; appointed ist lieut. Co. D Aug. 15 '62. 
and captain May 8 '64; dis. Dec. 15 '64, for wounds, 
Herman Lipfert, Sept. 14 '62, Oct. 3 '62; tr. from Co E. 
2nd N. J. May 29 '64; dis. Aug. 10 '64, as supernumer- 
ary. James H. Comings, Dec. 31 '64, Jan. 26 '65; ap- 
pointed ist lieut. Co. A July 3 '64; brevet major Apr. 2 '65. 

First Lieutenants. — Erastus H. Taylor, Aug. 15 '62; 
dis. July 22 '63, for disability. William W. Van Voy, 
Nov. 4 'i>2,\ appointed 2nd lieut. Co. I Aug, 15 '62; 
killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 12 '64. 

Second Lieutenants. — Samuel R. Connett, Aug. 12 '62; 
appointed sergt. Co. K 7th N. J.; ist lieut. Co. A Apr. 
7 '63; resigned June 20 '63. George Martin, Apr. 7 '63, 
Apr. 24 '63; formerly ist sergt. Co. B; dismissed Oct. 5 
'63. Henry R. Merrill, July 3 '64, Dec. 1 '64; formerly 
ist sergt. Co. H. 

First Sergeant. — Andrew J. Brannin; corp. Aug. 8 
'62; ist sergt. Jan. i '65; died Aug. 19 '73. 

Sergeants. — John P. Crater, July 10 '62; pro. 2nd lieut. 
Co. D Mar. 18 '63; wounded May 3 '63; pro. ist lieut. 
Co. E Nov. 4 '63; capt. Co. K, July 3 '64; brevet major 
April 2 '65. William F. Parrish, July 10 '62; wounded 
at Salem Heights May 3 '63; pro. sergt. major Apr. i '65. 
Menrath Weyer jr., corp. Aug. 7, '62; sergt. Apr. 9 '63; 
ist lieut. Co. F July 3 '64. John Efner, July 10 '62; 
corp. July I '63; sergt. Nov. i '64. Robert Lyon, July 
31 '62; wounded at Salem Heights May 3 '63; sergt. 
Jan. I '65. Charles H. Guerin, July 29 '62. , George 
Hull, Aug. 9 '62; wounded at Spottsylvania, May '64; 
sergt. May i '65. Israel D. Lum, wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania, May 9 '64. 

Corporals. — Augustus S. Hopping, Aug. 13 '62; pro. 
corp. Apr. 9 '63. Lewis L. Davis, Aug. 9 '62; wounded 
at Spottsylvania, May '64; pro. corp. May i '65. Charles 
W. White, July 19 '62; dis. May 3 '65. Manuel Johnson, 
Aug. II '62; wounded May 12 '64; pro. corp. Jan. i '(it,; 
dis. June 28 '65. Cyrus Estill, Aug. 9 '62; pro. corp. 
May I '65. George F. Wardell, Aug. 14 '62; pro. corp. 
May I '65. John A. Clift, Aug. 11 '62; wounded at 
Opequan, Sept. 19 '64; pro. corp. May 12 '65; m. o. 
May 31 '65. Edwin A. Doughty; wounded at Salem 
Heights, May 3 '63. 

Discharged. — William Beers, corp. Aug. 9 '62; dis. 
Nov. 20 '63, for wounds received May 3 '63; arm am- 
putated. Thomas E. Bennett, musician, July 26 '62; dis. 
Jan. 14 '64. Albert C. Dildine, musician, July 30 '62; 
dis. Jan. 4 '64. 

Transferred. — John A. Brown, ist sergt., July 10 '62; 
wounded May 3 'di; tr. to v. r. c. Mar. 15 '64; dis. June 
30 '65. Samuel Rubadow, corp., Aug. 2 '62, to Co. H; 
sergt. Nov. 5 '63; color sergt.; killed at Spottsylvania, 



May 9 '64. David W. Kithcart, corp., Jan. 4 '64; from 
Co. D; appointed corp. Nov. i '64; tr. to Co. D 2nd N. 
J. June 21 '65. 

Died.—]Q\\x\ P. Van Houten, ist sergt., July 10 '62; 
killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va.,,May 12 '64; 
appointed ist sergt. Mar. i '64. Oscar Brokaw, corp., 
Aug. 7 '62; killed at Salem Heights, Va., May 3 '63. 
Lee Chardavayne, corp., Aug. 20 '61; killed at Cold 
Harbor, Va., June 3 '64; tr. from Co. E 2nd N. J. Wil- 
liam Trelease, Aug. 7 '62; missing (probably killed) at 
Laurel Hill, Va., May 8 '64; appointed corp. May i '64. 

PRIVATES. 

With a few exceptions, which are noted, these men en- 
listed for three years, in the latter part of July or early in 
August 1862: were mustered in August 25th following, 
and mustered out June 2nd 1865: 

William B. Bailey, missing at Spottsylvania May '64. 
Ezra T. Baldwin, appointed corp. Aug. 9 '62; private 
Jan. I '63. Emanuel Barton; wounded at Salem Heights 
May 3 '(^2,. William T. Boyd. John H. Brundage; dis. 
Aug. 24 '65. George P: Condict; on detailed service. 
John S. Cook. Edwin A. Doty; appointed corp. July 
30 '62; private Apr. 30 '64- William Efner. Silas P. 
Genung. Silas J. Guerin; dis. May 3 '61. James H. 
Hathaway. Dennis Heffern; wounded at Spottsylvania 
May '64. George W. Hiler. Hugh H. Layton. Charles 
H. Lewis. Israel D. Lum; appointed sergt. Aug. 7 '62; 
private Oct. 9 '64. Jacob L. Mattox. John R. Mc- 
Cauley jr., prom. com. sergt. Jan. i '64; ist lieut. Co. D 
Feb. 9 '65; brevet capt. Apr. 2 '65. Robert T. McGowan. 
James H. Mills. Jacob L. Morrison. Patrick B. Murphy, 
musician; wounded at Salem Heights, May 3 '63. John 
N. Naylor; dr.; mustered Mar. 21 '65 for one year; tr. 
from Co. D; dis. May 17 '65. Albert B. Nicholas. 
Henry Rose, enlisted and mustered July 8 '61; tr. from 
Co. K 3d N. J.; m. o. Aug. 10 '64. William Scott. 
Stephen Smith, wagoner. Silas Trowbridge; wounded 
at Spottsylvania, May '64. Lewis Turner; wounded at 
Spottsylvania, May '64. Samuel Tyler; enlisted and mus- 
tered Sept. 25 '61; tr. from Co. G 3d N. J.; m. o. Sept. 
25 '64. Henry A. Westfall; wounded at Strasburg, Va., 
Aug. 15 '64; dis. May 3 '65. Albert W. Whitehead. 
John B. Wilson, enlisted and mustered Aug. 26 '61; tr. 
from Co. E 2nd N. J. May 29 '64; m. o. Sept. 12 '64. 

Discharged (for physical disability if not otherwise 
stated). — Lorenzo Anderson; dis. Apr. 20 '63; died Apr. 
20 '63. Benjamin Booth, enlisted and mustered Dec. 31 
'63; tr. from Co. A; dis. Mar. 29 '64. Halsey Brannin, 
wounded at Salem Heights, May 3 '63; dis. Dec. 29 '64. 
James H. Cyphers; dis. May 4 '64. Mulford B. Day; 
dis. Apr. 28 '63. Robert Gray, enlisted and mustered 
Jan. 4 '64; tr. from Co. D; dis. Mar. 29 '64. Alfred 
Hopler; dis. Mar. 24 '63, from wounds at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., Dec. 13 '62. Cornelius ■ Hull, enlisted and 
mustered Jan. 4 '64; tr. from Co. D; dis. Mar. 29 '64. 
Joseph D. King; dis. Jan. 19 '63. Charles Maxfield; 
dis. Dec. 26 '62. Daniel A. Porter, enlisted and mus- 
tered Jan. 4 '64; tr. fromCo. D; dis. Mar. 29 '64. Erastus 
Rynearson; dis. Mar. 8 '64. Abraham Sawyer; dis. Jan. 
19 '63- John W. Thompson; dis. Apr. 22 '64. George 
Van Houten; dis. Jan. 19 '63. Robert Whitham; lost 
an arm at Fredericksburg May 3 '63; dis. Sept. 23 '63, 

Transferred. — (In this paragraph the dates of enlist- 
ment and muster immediately follow the name; in most 
cases they were the same. Next follows the number of 
years for which the man entered the service. The trans- 
fer was to Co. D 2nd N. J., June 21 '65, where not 
otherwise mentioned). Alfred M. Armstrong, July 29 '62, 
Aug. 25 '62, 3; wounded at Spottsylvania, May '61; tr! 
to V. r. c, Sept. 30 '64; dis. July 8 '65. George Baker, 



COMPANIES C AND F FiFtEENtH N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 



9i 



Mar. 24 '65, I. George Barnes, Mar. i '65, i; tr. from 
Co. K. Luke Barton, May 11 '64, 3. Frederick Bauer, 
Apr. 5 '65, i; tr. from Co. H. Robert Blair, Apr. 7 '65, 
3. Owen Boehen, Apr. 8 '65, i. William B. Brown, 
Mar. I '65, i; tr. from Co. K. James H. Bruen, Oct. 10 
'64, I. George Campbell, Sept. 21 '64, i; to Co. K. 
Albert Chaffer, Mar. i '65, i; tr. from Co. K. Nelson 
Cook, Aug. 13 '62, Aug. 25 '62, 3; to V. r. c, Jan. 15 '64; 
dis. June 24 '65. William Cook, Feb. 6 '65, i; tr. from 
Co. B. Aaron R. Corson, Apr. 3 '65, i; tr. from Co. B. 
Jacob D. Dalrymple, Aug. 25 '64; to Co. H. Samuel D. 
Doty, July 21 '62, Aug. 25 '62, 3; wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania. May '64; tr. to v. r. c, Jan. i '65; dis. Aug. 15 '65. 
Alonzo Dow, Aug. 25 '64, 3; to Co. H. Edward Flan- 
nery. Mar, i '65, i; tr. from Co. K. Jacob Fooze, Sept. 
3 '64, i; to Co. K. Corydon C. Force, Aug. 7 '62, Aug. 
25 '62, 3; to V. r. c, Jan. 7 '65; dis. July 21 '65. Clem- 
ens Gansz, Mar. 27 '65, i; tr. from Co. H. Michael 
Herwick, Apr. 5 '65, i; tr. from Co. K. John Hynes, 
Apr. 8 '65, I. David P. Ingle, Jan. 4 64, 3; tr. from Co. 
A. Patrick Kelly, Mar. 25 '61, i. Frederick Koblenz, 
Mar. 24 '65, i. Jacob Kramer, Mar. 24 '65, 3. Henry 
Laugers, George Lauf and Louis Long, Mar. 25 '65. 
George Mahoney, Apr. 8 '65, i. John J. Mason, Oct. 10 
'64, I. John McDowell, Mar. 23 '65. William B. 
McGill, Apr. 6 '65, i; to Co. G. Thomas McGovern, 
Mar. 24 '65. John McGraw, Apr. 7' 65, 3. John Miller, 
Feb. 14 '65, I. John H. Nicholas, Aug. 7 '62, 3; to v. 
r. c. Nov. 15 '63; dis. July 27 '65. Joseph Noe, Mar. 24 
'65, I. George H. Percy, Aug. 12 '62, Aug. 25 '62, 3; 
wounded at Salem Heights May 3 '63; tr. to v. r. c. Jan. 
15 '64; dis. July 13 '65. John Pettit, Apr. 8 '65, i. 
Patrick Roach, Mar. 25 '65, i. John M. Ryde, Mar. 24 
'65, I. David Sand and Lewis D. Sandborn, Mar. 25 
'65, I. Charles Schmidt, Mar. 24 '65, i. Francis 
Sheldon and Thomas A. Shipps, Mar. 25 '65, i. Walter 
A. Sidener, Jan. 4 '64, 3; tr. from Co. B. Stephen 
Smack, Aug. 5 '62, 3; to v. r. c. Apr. i '65; wounded 
May 3 '63, in hand; dis. June 21 '65. Sidney Stout, 
Aug. 25 '64, i; to Co. H. Crosby Sweeten, Mar. 22 '65, 
i; dr. John Tyson, Aug. 7 '62, Aug. 25 '62, 3; wounded 
May 3 '63; tr. to v. r. c. June 15 '64; dis. Sept. 26 '64. 
John Van Eren, Jan. 2 '64, 4; tr. from Co. A. Christian 
Wagner, Mar. 24 '65, i. 

Died. — (These men entered the service for three years, 
and in nearly all cases were enrolled in July or August 
1862 and mustered August 25th 1862. Where the dates 
were otherwise they are given). William B. Briggs; 
missing at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 '64; probably 
killed. Franklin Camp; died of typhoid fever, near 
White Oak Church, Va., Dec. 24 '62. I'rancis Cunning- 
ham; died of typhoid fever, near White Oak Church, 
Va. Dec. 16 '62. Edward M. Day; killed at Cold Har- 
bor' Va., June i '64. Randolph Earles; died at Wash- 
ington, b. C, Dec. '22 '62, of wounds at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 13 '62. Daniel Estill; died of typhoid fever near 
Brandy Station, Va., Dec. 28 '63. George Fenner, May 
29 '61; missing at Winchester, Va., Aug. 17 '64; tr. from 
Co. G 3d N. J. Edgar S. Farrand; killed at Spottsyl- 
vania Court-house, Va., May 12 '64. Smith C. Gage; 
died at Washington, D. C, May 14 '63, of wounds re- 
ceived at Salem Heights, Va., May 3 '63. John Gay, 
Tan 4 '64; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 
12 '64; tr. from Co. D. Andrew J. Genung; killed at 
Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 12 '64. Qumcy 
Grimes; died of disease at Warrenton, Va., Sept. 8 
'6^ Theodore Guerin; died of typhoid fever, near 
White Oak Church, Va., Feb. 23 '63. Jeremiah Hay- 
cock: killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 '64. Otto 
Heimelsback, May 28 '61; killed at Cedar Creek, Va., 
Oct 19 '64; tr. from Co. E 2nd N. J. James H. Hiler; 



killed at Salem Heights, Va., May 3 '63. Alfred Hopler; 
wounded Dec. 13 '62 at Fredericksbutg; died in hospital 
in Philadelphia, March 24 'dj, Virgil Howell; died of 
typhoid fever, near White Oak Church, Va., Dec. 20 '62. 
Moses Laramie; captured at Spottsylvania, May '64; 
died of scurvy, at Anderson ville, Ga., Nov. 20 '64. John 
Miller; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 
12 '64. William Oliver; killed at Cold Harbor, Va., 
June I '64. Thomas Phipps; died of typhoid fever, at 
"windmill Point, Va., Jan. 31 '63. Edwin H. Reger, Feb. 
27 '64; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va., May 12 
'64. William Reynolds; died of fever, near Petersburg, 
Va., Feb. 5 '65. John Rutan; killed at Spottsylvania 
Court-house, Va., May 12 '64. William M. Shipman; 
killed at Salem Heights, Va., May 3 '63. Samuel T. 
Sidener; died of typhoid fever, near White Oak Church, 
Va., Dec. 26 '62. William E. Simpson; wounded May 3 
'63; killed at Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 19 '64. Matthias 
Sona, Jan. 4 '64; died at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19 '64, 
of wounds received at Opequan. William Storms; killed at 
Salem Heights, Va., May 3 '63. Peter J. Vanderhoof ; died 
of typhoid fever at White Oak Church, Va., Dec. 28 '62. 

COMPANY F. 

OFFtCERS. 

Captains. — George C. King, mustered Aug. 25 '62; re- 
signed April 7 '63, at White Oak Church, Va.; died at 
Chester. Thomas P. Stout, pro. April 26 '(^t, from ist 
lieut. Co. A; wounded May 3d '63, at Salem Heights, 
Va.; tr. to v. r. c. Nov. i '63. Ellis Hamilton, pro. Nov. 
4 '63 from ist lieut. Co. E; wounded May 6 '64 in Wil- 
derness, . Va.; died of wounds May 27 '64. James W. 
Penrose, pro. July 27 '64 from ist lieut.; April i '63 
from private U. S. A. 

First Lieutenants. — Owen H. Day, pro. Aug. 25 '62 
from color sergt. 3d N. J.; pro. capt. Co. I Jan. ig '63. 
John H. Vanderveer, mustered as 2nd lieut. Aug. 25 '62; 
ist lieut. April 14 '63; resigned July 28 '63. Menrath 
Weyer, pro. July 3 '64 from sergt. Co. C; tr. to C(3. E 
2nd N. J. June 22 '65. 

Second Lieutenants. — Gaston Everit, April 14 '63 from 
Co. I 7th N. J.; resigned May 24 '63. Edmund D. Hal- 
sey, commissioned June '63; pro. ist lieut. Co. D before 
being mustered. James Van Antwerp, pro. from ist 
sergt. Co. E Sept. 28 '64; pro. ist lieut. Co. I Feb. 9 
'65. Morris S. Hawn jr., sergt. Co. B April 17 '65; tr. to 
Co. D 2nd regiment June 21 '65. 

Sergeants. — Enos G. Budd; wounded May 9 '64, at 
Spottsylvania, Va.; pro. ist. lieut. Co. C July 3 '64; not 
mustered; dis. May 3 '65. Manning F. McDougal, killed 
June I '64 at Cold Harbor, Va. Phineas H. Skellinger, 
wounded at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 '64; died from 
wounds, May 27 '64. Elias H. Carlisle; killed June 4 
'64, at Cold Harbor. Andrew F. Salmon, wounded May 
12 '64, at Spottysvania, Va.; died of wound May 20 '64, 
at Fredericksburg. 

Corporals. — Lewis H. Salmon; pro. sergt. April i '63; 
wounded May 12 '64 at Spottsylvania. ■ John L. Larri- 
son; wounded May 3 '63 at Salem Heights; pro. sergt. 
Oct. I '63; captured a rebel flag May 10*64. Alexander 
T. Beatty; died Feb. 10 '63, at Washington, D. C, of 
disease. John R. McCain; dis. for disability March 23 
'64; died of disease in June '64. William H. Bowman; 
died June i '63, of fever, at White Oak Church, Va. 
John Parliament. George W. Laskie: deserted Nov. 11 
'63, from hospital at Gettysburg, Pa. George S. M. 
WoodhuU; wounded May 3 '63 at Saleni Heights, Va. ; 
pro. sergt. Oct. i '64. 

Musicians. — William H. Smith and Theodore F. Swayze, 
drummers; dis. Feb. 17 '64, at Brandy Station, by special 
order of the War Department. 



02 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



PRIVATES. 

Lewis Ammerman; died of disease at White Oak 
Church, Va., Mch. 3r, '63. Joseph Anthony; wounded 
May 12 '64 at Spotlsylvania, Va. Amos G. Bali; tr. to 
V. r. c. Jan. 13 '65. John P. Bean; dis. Jan. 3 '63 at White 
Oak Church, for disability. Henry H. Berry; wounded 
May 12 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. John W. Berry; killed 
at Spottsylvania, Va. (Gault House), May 17 '64. Felix 
Cash; wounded at Salem Heights, Va., May 3 '63; died 
of wounds May 15 '63, at Potomac Creek. Warren N. 
Clawson; died at Washington, May 20 '64. Charles 
Covert; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 '64. John 
Carlile, wounded June 2 '64, at Cold Harbor, Va.; pro. 
Corp. March i '65. Thomas Clark; deserted Mch. 18 
'63, at White Oak Church. Henry B. Crampton; on 
detailed service. Josejih V. M. Crampton; dis. for dis- 
ability June 21 '63, at White Oak Church, Va. Joseph 
Crater; pro. corp. April i '6;^; wounded May 8 '64. 
Charles Davenport; tr. to v. r. c. March 15 '64. William 
Davenport; deserted Sept. 6 '62, from Camp Morris, D. C. 
John Dee; teamster. AVilliam H. K. Emmons; pro. corp. 
April I '63; tr. to color guard June i '63; wounded in 
foot May 12 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va,; returned to the 
guard Dec. 26 '64. George D. Foulds; killed at Spott- 
sylvania, Va., May 12 '64. Isaiah D. Frutchey; wounded 
May 12 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. Jeremiah Foley; tr. 
to v. r. c. Sept. 21 '63. George R. Geddes; wounded 
May 3 '63, at SaJem Heights, Va.; pro. corp. Sept. i '64. 
William Gulick; dis. for disability A])ril 21, '63, at White 
Oak Church, Va.; died Aug. 24 '8r. Jacob Guest; 
wounded Sept. 19 '64, at AVinchester, Va. John Grey; 
on detailed service. George R. and John Hall; team- 
sters. Charles Heck; died at Washington, D. C, March 
30 '64, of disease. Zeno A. Hawkins; dis. April 27 '6^, 
at White Oak Church, Va., for disability. Alonzo Hed- 
den; pro. corp. Dec. 29 '62; wounded May 8 '64, at 
Spottsylvania. James Hoover. Anthony Hopler; died 
Jan. 5 '63, at White Oak Church, Va., of fever. James 
M. Ingle; wounded May 12 '64, at Spottsylvania; dis. 
for wounds Jan. 10 '65. Abraham Jacobus; wounded 
May 7 2 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. Benjamin Kane; 
wounded May 3 '63, at Salem Heights, Va.; dis. for 
wound Oct. 23 '63. W'hitfield Lake; wounded and miss- 
ing (probably killed), May 12 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. 
Jacob Lamerson; died Feb. 18 '63, of disease, at White 
Oak Church, Va. David C. Lance; wounded May 12 
'64, at Spottsylvania. James Laterette; wounded May 
12 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. Daniel Morgan; lost arm 
May 3 '63, at Fredericksburg, Va.; dis. Oct. 27 '63. 
Charles Milligan; pro. sergt. Sept. i '64 from corp.; 
killed Sept. 19 '64, at Winchester, Va. Samuel L. 
Meeker; on recruiting service for one year. William W. 
Opdycke; wounded May 3 '63, at Salem Heights, Va.; 
after return detailed as teamster. Andrew Opdycke; 
wounded May 12 '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. Frank H. 
O'Neil; wounded and taken prisoner Aug. 17 '64, at 
Winchester, Va.; released Mch. 9 '65. Joseph Osborne; 
on detailed service. William H. Parliament; deserted 
July 10 '63, at Funkstown, Md. Jacob A. Peckwell; 
killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12 '64, George C. 
Reid; slightly wounded Dec. 14 '62; on recruiting duty 
one year. William H. Rarick; dis. for rheumatism 
March 17 '64, at Newark, N. J. Ezekiel Rarick. William 
H. Sergeant; died March 17 '63, at ^Vhite Oak Church, 
Va., of disease. Alexander S. Sergeant; killed at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., Dec. 13 '62. James Sprague; killed at 
Fredericksburg, Va., in the morning of May 3 '63. John 
Scales; on detailed service, quartermaster's department. 
Frederick Starr; ambulance corps; died at Rockawaj-, 
N. J., April 24 '74. Peter J. Sutton; missing in action 
Aug. 17 '64, at Winchester, Va.; died at Lynchburg, Va., 



Oct. 18 '64. John D. Salmon; died March 27 '63, at 
White Oak Church, Va., of fever. David Todd; died 
March 5 '63, at White Oak Church, Va., of general de- 
bility. Peter Van Arsdale; dis. Sept. 5 '63, at Washmg- 
ton, D. C, for disability. Isaac Van Arsdale; died Sept. 
22 '64, from wounds received Sept. ig '64. Benajah D. 
Wear; died May 9 '63, at White Oak Church, Va., of 
disease. Lawrence H. Weise; wounded May 12 '64, at 
Spottsylvania, Va. Elias Williamson; killed at Spott- 
sylvania, May 12 '64. John AVilliamson; dis. Nov. 28 
'6;^, for disability. 

RECRUITS. 

On Thursday, January 20th 1864, some twenty re- 
cruits from Morris county joined the 15th regiment, and 
during the winter others from Morris and Sussex. "J"he 
following is a list of them and the companies to which 
they were assigned: 

Wesley M. Ayres, Co. D, Jan. 4 '64; missing in action 
May 8 '64. William P. Bryan, Co. A, Feb. 29 '64; tr. to 
Co. F 2nd N. J., June 21 '65. Jonathan B. Bowman, Co. 
A, Jan. 4 '64;' tr. to Co. D; dis. Mar. 27 '64. Jacob 
Beam, Co. A, Jan. 21 64; killed May 8 '64. Benjamin 
Booth, Co. A, Dec. 31 '63; tr. to Co. C; dis. Mar. 29 '64. 
John Bowman, Co. D, Jan. 19 '64; died June 20 of 
wounds received June i '64. David Cantrell, Co. A, 
Dec. 15 '63; tr. to Co. I; transferred to Co. E 2nd N. J., 
June 21 '65. Andrew C. Clauson, Co. A; deserted 
Aug. 25 '62; returned. William C. Cearfoss, Co. H, Jan. 
6 '64; killed May 12 '64. Nelson L. Cole, Co. I, Jan. 4 
'64; tr. to Co. K 2nd N. J., June 21 '65. John Card jr., 
Co. K, Feb. 25 '64; tr. to C^o. H 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. 
.'Vndrew Deeker, Co. D, Jan. 4 '64; dis. Apr. 13 '64. 
David L. Denee, corp., Co. D, Dec. 29 '6;^; tr. to Co. I 
2nd N. J. Benjamin Drake, Co. D, Dec. 29 '63; died 
Feb. 22 '64 of disease. Levi Deeker, Co. K, Feb. 25 '64; 
tr. to Co. H 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. John Evans, Co. A, 
May '64; missing May 12 '64. Joseph C. Everett, Co. 
A, Jan. 6 '64; killed May 12 '64. Lorenzo D. Fulford, 
Co. D, Dec. 29 '63; missing May 8 '64. William Gulick, 
Co. A., Feb. 25 '64; tr. to Co. F 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. 
Robert Gray, Co. D, Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. C; dis. Mar. 
29 '64. John Gay, Co. D; tr. to Co. C; killed May 12 
'64. John M. Goucher, Co. D, Jan. 4 '64; died Mar. 24 
'64 of disease. Van Meter P. Hammitt, Co. A, Nov. 12 
'63; tr. to Co. G 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. Abraham Hen- 
dershot, Co. A, Dec. 17 '63; tr. to Co. D; died in rebel 
prison in Danville Jan. 6 '65. John Hopkins, Co. A, Nov. 
19 '63; tr. to Co. D; died June 18 '64 of wounds received 
May 12 Charles Hand, Co. B, Jan. 4 '64; dis. June 17 
'65. Cornelius Hull, Co. D, Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. B; 
dis. Mar. 29 '64 for disease. Gustave Hartwig; tr. from 
Co. E 2nd. Stephen Hawkins, Co. D, Jan. 4 '64; tr. to v. r. 
c. Jan. I '65. Patrick Hughes, Co. D, Dec. 30 '63; 
killed May 8 '64. Lemuel Hardick, Co. I Jan. 4 '64; tr. 
to Co. E 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. Uriah Hardick, Co. I, 
Dec. 29 '63; tr. to Co. E 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. George 
Heaney, Co. G, Jan. 2 '64; tr. to Co. G 2nd N. J. June 
21 '65. Henry J. Hendershot, Co. G Jan. 18 '64; tr. to 
Co. E 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. David P. Ingle, Co. A 
Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. C; tr. to Co. D 2nd N. J. June 21 
'65. Alfred B. Jackson, Co. A, Jan. 2 '64; tr. to Co. D; 
killed May 8 '64. Abram Johnson jr., Co. A, Nov. 19 
'63; tr. to Co. D; killed May 8 '64. Bernard Johnson, 
Co. A, Dec. 31 '6y, tr. to Co. D; died May 20 '64 of 
wounds received May 8. James M. Jervis, Co. D, Jan. 
2 '64; dis. at Camp Parole Apr. 28 '64. James Johnson, 
Co. D, Dec. 28 '63; died July 6 '64 of typhoidfever, at 
Philadelphia. Daniel W. Kithcart, corp. Co. D, Jan. 4 
'64; tr. to Co. C; tr. to Co. D 2nd N. J. June 2 '65. 
Amos C. Keepers, Co. C, Jan. 4 '64; dis. Mar. 27 '64. 



THE TWENTY-SEVENTH N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 



93 



John Knapp, Co. K, Dec. 22 '63; deserted May 10 '64 at 
Spottsylvania. William H. List, Co. I, Dec. 29 '63; 
killed June i '64. Joseph Langdon, Co. A, Dec. 14 '63; 
tr. to Co. I; tr. to U. S. N. Apr. 8 '64. Jacob Lawson, 
Corp., Co. I, Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. E 2nd N. J. June 21 
'65. Peter Langdon, Co. D, Feb. 12 '64; died June 25 
'64 of wounds received May 12; tr. from Co. C 2nd N. J. 
John Moser, Co. A, Feb. 24 '64; dis. June 7 '65 for 
wounds received May 12 '64. Thomas McGarvey, Co. 
A, Dec. 19 '63; tr. to Co. D; dis. Apr. 13 '64 by medical 
board. Patrick Mullens, Co. A, Nov. 19 '63; tr. to Co. 
D; killed May 12 '64. John H. Mott, Co. 13, Jan. 5 '64; 
dis. Dec. 24 '64 for disease. John Moran, Co. D, Dec. 
31 '63; killed May 12 '64. Mordecai Mott, Co. D, Dec. 
29 '63; died of consumption June 9 '64, on furlough. 
William Myers, Co. I, Jan. 2 '64; died of disease at Ciiy 
Point, July I '64. John Ozenbaugh, Co. I, Dec. 29 '63; 
dis. Mar. 27 '64 for disease. Daniel A. Porter, Co. D, 
Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. C; dis. Mar. 29 '64. Isaac Paddock, 
Co. K, Feb. 25 '64; tr. to Co. H 2nd N. J. 
June 2t '65. John Rouch, Co. A, Feb. 26 '64; 
deserted June 3 '64 at Cold Harbor. Edwin H. Reger, Co. 
C, Feb. 27 '64; killed May 12 '64. Ezekiel Rarick, 
Co. F, Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. F 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. 
Charles E. Smiley, Co. A, Feb. 24 '64; tr. to Co. F 2nd 
N. J. Charles B. Stewart, Co. A, Dec. 16 '63; tr. to Co. 
I; tr. to Co. E 2nd N. J. June 21 '65. John C. Staats, 
Co. A, Jan. 6 '64; died at Andersonville Sept. 17 '64. 
Theodore Stamcts, Co. A, Feb. 24 '64; missing May 6 '64; 
supposed killed. Walter A. Sidener, Co. B, Jan. 4 '64; 
tr. to Co. C; tr to Co. D 2nd N. J. June 28 '65. William 
F. Sidener, Co. B, Jan. 4 '64; killed May 12 '64. Mat- 
thias Sona, Co. C, Jan. 4 '64; died Sept. 19 '64, of wounds; 
tr. from Co. E 2nd. Samuel S. Str-ifford, Co. D, Dec. 31 
'63; dis. Mch. 31 '64, by medical board. Guthrie Strat- 
ton, Co. D, Dec. 28 63; tr. to Co. I; dis. Mch. 27 '64. 
Lewis Stalter, Co. I, Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. E 2nd N. J. June 
21 '65. Amzi Straight, Co. K, Feb. 25 '64; tr. to Co. H 
2nd N. J. June 2 1 '65. John Van Eiten, Co. A, Jan. 2 
'64; tr. to Co. C; tr. to Co. D, 2nd N. J. John White, 
Co. A, Feb. 24 '64; dis. June 20 '65. Watson "Wintermuie, 
Co. A, Feb. 29 '64; tr. to Co. D; tr. to Co. I 2nd N. J. 
June 21 '65. Augustus Whitney, Co. A, Jan. 4 '64; died 
June 14 '64, of wounds received May 8 '64; tr. from Co. 
E 3d N. J. William A. Ward, Co. D, Dec. 29 '63; killed 
May 12 '64. Jacob Wireman, Co. L Jan. 4 '64; tr. to Co. 
E 2nd N. J. William Wilson, Co. K, Oct. g '63; died at 
Sandy Hook, Md., Sept. 4 '64, of wounds received Aug. 
15 '64, at Strasburg, Va. Charles V. Young, Co. D, Jan. 
13 '64; died iu ambulance June i '64. 



CHAPTER XVHL 



HISTORY OF THE 27TH NEW JERSEY VOLUNTEER INFAN- 
TRY — THE CUMBERLAND RIVER DISASTER. 




*N accordance with the provisions of the act of 
July 22nd 1861 a draft of 10,478 nine-months 
men was made August 4th 1862 in this State, 
and the allotment for this county was, 650 
men. The arrangements for the draft did 
not interfere with volunteering, and from Morris 
county companies were at once raised in this way 
for the 27tli regiment, viz.: Company B, Captain John 



T. Alexander, from Randolph and Washington; Com- 
pany C, Captain Nelson H. Drake, from Roxbury; Com- 
pany E, Captain August D. Blanchet, from Chatham, 
Hanover, etc.; Company G, Captain James Plant, from 
Pequannock; Company I, Captain Alfred H. Condict, 
from Morris and Chester; Company L, Captain Henry 
F. Willis, from Rockaway. 

George W. Mindel was colonel of the regiment. Au- 
gustus D. Blanchet was commissioned major September 
23d 1862, being promoted from the captaincy of Com- 
pany E. J. Henry Stiger was assistant surgeon of this 
regiment, as also of the 33d. 

The regiment was mustered September 19th 1862, and 
left the State for Washington October loth 1862. On 
arriving there it encamped on Capitol Hill, and soon af- 
ter at Alexandria, where it was assigned to the 2nd bri- 
gade of Casey's division, defending Washington. On the 
ist of December it went to the front of the army of the 
Potomac, being assigned to the gih corps. In that con- 
nection it was engaged at Fredericksburg, December 
13th and 14th 1862. In February 1863 the corps went 
to Newport News, Va., to meet a threatened movement 
of the enemy. In the following month the 27th was de- 
tached from the 9th. corps and sent to the west. On its 
way home after the expiration of its term it remained in 
Pittsburg and Harrisburg ten days to aid if needed in 
repelling Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania. The regiment 
was mustered out at Newark, N. J., July 2nd 1863. 

The principal loss of the regiment occurred May 6lli 
1863, as related below substantially in the words of a 
member of the regiment, who wrote from near Somerset, 
Ky., four days after the affair: 

"Last Tuesday we received a lot of tents borrowed 
from a cavalry regiment. We had hardly pitched them 
when a most bountiful storm visited us, but my tentmates 
and myself were prudent men, for we built our house up- 
on a rock. The storm had just passed over when our 
adjutant ordered tents to be struck and line of march 
formed in fifteen minutes. In less than the allotted time 
the 27th was in line, ready for the word. The mud in the 
road was deep, and, as it is very 'unmilitary' to let down 
fences and walk on the sod, we splashed through it until 
about 3 o'clock p. m., when we encamped on a hill at 
whose foot flowed a splendid stream of clear cold water. 
Here Dayton and I fired a mammoth brush heap, by 
which we cooked our bacon, boiled our coffee, and dried 
our tents and blankets. 

" In the morning bright and early we started for the 
Cumberland River, a distance of thirteen miles. We 
reached its banks at 3 o'clock p. M. The means of 
ferrying us over was flat boats — or, rather, coal barges — 
thirty feet long. To prevent the boats being washed 
down by the current two ropes were stretched across 
like a letter V, the two uniting in one on the opposite 
shore. The means of propelling us consisted of six men 
placed in the bow of the boat, who would grab the rope, 
pull, let go and grab sgain. The upper rope was used 
by the infantry, while the artillery and transportation 
train were carried over by the lower boat. All the com- 
panies with the exception of parts of companies C, B, and 
L had passed over without accident. Fifty or sixty men 
were carried over at each trip. Captain Alexander was 
in command of Company L. The boat that contained 
these companies had reached within forty feet of the 07- 



94 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



posite bank when the men at the bow lost hold of the 
rope and could not regain it. The boat started down 
stream, driven by a rapid current. The men became 
panic stricken and rushed to the opposite end of the boat, 
which caused it to sink, and in less time than it has taken 
me to write this account the whole boat-load was swept 
by the lower rope into the rapid Cumberland. Those 
who could swim were seized by the death grasp of those 
who could not swim. It was an awful sight. May God 
spare me from being again a spectator of such a scene. 
The men had on their cartridge boxes, filled with sixty 
rounds, and were fully armed, and equipped with tents, 
overcoats, blankets etc., which hindered many from sav- 
ing themselves. I saw Captain Alexander and Orderly 
Sergeant Wiggins go down. Company B lost three men. 
Company C nine and Companies L and A twenty. 

"After the accident we remained on the bank a day for 
the purpose of recovering the bodies that might float to 
our side of the river, as the rebels held the otber side." 

The following are rolls of the Morris county com- 
panies in the 27th. The men named entered the service 
for nine months, and as a rule were enrolled or com- 
missioned September 3d and mustered in September 19th 
1862, and mustered out July 2nd 1863. The exceptions 
are indicated. 

COMPANY B. 

OFFICERS. 

Captains. — John T. Alexander, commissioned Sept. 6 
'62, mustered Sept. 19 '62; drowned in Cumberland 
River, near Somerset, Ky., May 6 '63. Nathaniel K. 
Bray, commissioned and rnustered May 7 '63; appointed 
ist lieut. Co. D Sept. 3 '62. 

First Lieutenant. — Jacob M. Stewart, commissioned 
Sept. 6 '62; mustered Sept. 19 '62. 

Second Lieutenant. — George Hance, commissioned Sept. 
6 '62; mustered Sept. ig '62. 

First Sergeant. — Theodore McEachron; appointed 
sergt. Sept. 3 '62; ist sergt. May 12 '63. 

Sergeants. — Morris H. Taylor, Jan. i '63; corp. Sept. 20 
'62. Isaac Clark, Sept. 20 '62; corp. Sept. 3 '62. Frank 
Merchant, Jan. i '63; corp. Sept. 3 '62. Charles Min- 
gus. May 12 '63; corp. Sept. 3 '62. 

Corporals (with date of commission as such). — Samuel 
Smith, Sylvester C. Hulbert and Daniel K. Henderson, 
Sept. 20 '62. Henry B. Allen, Nov. 15 '62; mustered in 
Oct. 16 '62. Joseph Hiler and William H. Ort, Feb. 7 
'62,- John Johnson, March 2 '63. Alexander L. Mott, 
May 12 '63. 

Died. — Albert D. Wiggins, ist sergt.; drowned in 
Cumberland River, near Somerset, Ky., May 6 '63. 

PRIVATES. 

Jacob Abers (musician). Peter K Abers (wagoner). 
Henry B. Anthony. Moses Beach. Theodore Beam. 
George Bolton; mustered in Oct. 16 '62. William Bon- 
nell. Joseph and William Bournan. Thomas S. Boyd. 
Samuel P. Broadwell. Isaac H. Burnett. Francis Cain. 
Johnson Clark. Charles Conrad. James Convey; must- 
ered in Oct. 16 '62. Charles Y. and Lewis H. Cook. 
David E. and Ira C. Cooper. John B Crane and Peter 
Cruyse; mustered in Oct. 16 '62. David Davenport. 
Cyrus and Martin Dixon. Patrick Donahue; mustered 
in Oct. 16 '62. David Eagles. Ezekiel A. Frace. Hud- 
son H. Gillen. Henry Hann. Joseph S. Hart. An- 
drew Hockenbury. Lemuel and Mannus Hoffman. 
Leonard N. Howell. George W. Hulburt; appointed 
sergt. Sept. 3 '62; private Jan. i '63. John H. Kaun- 



miller. Nathaniel Lawrence. George D. and James H. 
Losey. Andrew J. and James H. Miller. F. P. and 
Thomas A. Moore. Theodore F. Mott; appointed sergt. 
Sept. 3 '62; private Jan. i '6^,. Alfred and Samuel 
Nunn. Daniel Parks. David L. Powers. George W. 
Sayre, musician. John and William Schuyler. James 
Seguine. John Shawger; mustered in Oct. 16 '62. 
Erastus H. Sofield. Jacob B. Swayze; mustered in Oct. 
16 '62. Jacob J. Tallman. David A. Trowbridge. 
Garrett Vandroof. Peter Vanderveer; mustered in Oct. 
16 '62. Whitfield H. Voorhees. Leonard F. Wack. 
George H. Wolfe. Samuel A. Wolfe; mustered in Oct. 
16 '62. Hiram C. Woods. George H. and Ira W. Young. 

Discharged (for disability). — James Nunn; dis. Mar. 
16 '63; appointed corp. Sept. 3 '62; private Nov. i '62. 
William Pulis, mustered in Oct. 16 '62; dis. Feb. 2 '63. 
George W. Shaffer, mustered in Oct. 16 '62; dis. Mar. 
27 '63. David Squires; dis. Nov. 16 '62. James L. 
Talmadge; dis. Jan. 17 '()t,. Gabriel Tebo, mustered in 
Oct. t6 '62; dis. Jan. 5 '63. 

Died. — Erastus Brant, mustered in Oct. 16 '62; drowned 
in Cumberland River, near Somerset, Ky., May 6 '63. 
William Daly; at Newport News, Va., Feb. 20 '63. Wil- 
liam D. Hopler; of typhoid fever, at Aquia Creek, Va., 
II '63. Daniel D. Tuttle; of typhoid fever, at Washing- 
ton, D. C, Mar. i 'G^. 

COMPANY C. 

OFFICERS. 

Captains. — Nelson H. Drake, commissioned Sept. 6 
and mustered Sept. 19 '62; resigned Oct. 13 '(it,. David 
S. Allen, commissioned Oct. 14 and mustered Oct. 24 
'62; appointed 2nd lieut. Sept. 6 '62. 

First Lieutenant. — Ferdinand V. Wolfe, commissioned 
Sept. 6 and mustered Sept. 19 '62. 

Second Lieutenants. — Robert W. Simpson, commissioned 
Oct. 14 and mustered Oct. 24 '62; formerly sergt. Co. H 
2nd N. J.; pro. ist lieut. Co. K Dec. 23 '62. Henry 
A. McLaughlin, commissioned and mustered Dec. 23 '62; 
ist sergt. 3 '62; resigned Mar. 9 '(st,. Isaac Bonnell jr., 
commissioned Mar. 10 '63; formerly ist sergt. Co. D; 
prom, ist lieut. Co. D May 7 '63. George W. Price, 
commissioned and mustered May 7 '63; formerly ist 
sergt. Co. D. 

First Sergeant. — Thomas Ripley, appointed Jan. 1 '63; 
sergt. Sept. 3 '62. 

SergeantsX^-nxoWt^ Sept. 3 and mustered Sept. 19 '62). 
— Thomas L. King. Abram Skinner, appointed sergt. 
Apr. 24 '63. Thomas Canar, sergt. Jan. i '63; previously 
corp. Abram Magee, sergt. Jan. i '63; tr. from Co. F. 
Theodore Neighbour, appointed corp. Dec. i '62; sergt. 
Jan. I '63; pro. sergt. major Apr. 20 '63. 

Corporals (enrolled Sept. 3 and mustered Sept. 19 '62; 
appointed corp. at the date following their names).— 
Daniel Van Fleet, Apr. 24 '63. Marcus R. Meeker. 
Joseph Allen. Sherwood Culver, May 7 '()t,. William 
K. Caskey. David W. Welsh. Henry Salmon, Jan. i 
'63. Arthur Edner, Apr. 16 '62. 

i?/!?^.— Corporal Augustus W. Salmon, of direase, at 
Fairfax Seminary, Va., Nov. 30 '62. Corporal Charles 
Stephens, drowned in Cumberland River, Ky., May 6' 63. 

PRIVATES. 

Morris Aider. John L. Allen. Daniel P. Apgar. Edward 
S. Apgar. Jacob Appleget. James Arnet. David and Philip 
Beam. Peter Bird jr. Robert H. and William Blair. Mi- 
chael Brisland, mustered in Oct. 16 '62. Henry Case 
wagoner. Frederick S. Clawson. D. Judson Cook; pro! 
hospital steward Jan. i '63. Morris Coss; tr. from Com- 



ROLLS OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 



95 



pany A. Joseph K. Davis. Lee Davis; appointed sergt. 
Sept. 3 '62; private Jan. i '63. Marcus R. De Camp. 
John M. Dickerson. Zachariah D. Drake. Louis 
Fancher. David Fhike. Nathan C. French. Jacob 
Gess. Benjamin P. Jackson. John W. Jackson. Joseph 
W. Jones. George A. Lawrence. George R. Leport. 
Eliphalet Lyon. Robert McPhersop. Jesse Miller. 
Henry Niper. Thomas Patterson. Patrick Pepper. 
Stephen Pierson. Ezekiel Rarick. Thomas Reed. 
Edwin H. and Elisha E. Reger. Samuel M. Rheinhart. 
Jetur A. Riggs, corp. Sept. 3 '62; private Oct. 16 '62. 
Samuel Sharp. Charles and John Spencer. Elias H. 
Stephens. Peter Stump. David W. Thomas. George 
S. Trimmer. William Weire. Thomas Wilson. Alexander 
S. and John C. Woodruff. Charles Woolverton. Jacob 
W. Yauger. 

Discharged for Disalii/ity.^Anthony Hayward, at 
New York, Feb. 18 '63. John Hilts, at Washington, 
Mar. 10 '63. Elijah Niper, at New York, Jan. 9 '63... 

Died (where not otherwise stated, drowned in the 
Cumberland River, as related on page 93). — Joseph R. 
Arch, of disease, at Washington, Feb. 9 '63. Frederick 
Cratsley, of disease, at Somerset, Ky., May 31 '63. Ed- 
ward Dolen. Alonzo J. Jackson, of laryngitis, at Wash- 
ington, Mar. 17 '63. John B. McPeak. George W. 
Sovereign, of typhoid fever, at Washington, Jan. 27 '63. 
Amos G. Stephens. Benjamin Stoney. Andrew J. 
Willetts. Martin V. B. Williamson, of disease, at Wash- 
ington, Mar. 7 '63. Matthias Williamson, of disease, at 
Wheeling, West Va., June 19 '63. Andrew J. Youngs. 

COMPANY E. 

OFFICERS. 

Captains. — Augustus D. Blanchet, commissioned Sept. 
3 and mustered Sept. 19 '62; pro. major Sept. 23 '62. 
Hudson Kitchel, commissioned Oct. i and mustered Oct. 
16 '62; 2nd lieut. Sep. 3 '62; resigned Nov. 12 '62. 
George W. Crane, commissioned and mustered Nov. 11 
'62; ist lieut. Sept. 4 '62. 

First Lieutenants. — Edward S. Baldwin, Nov. 11*62; 
pro. capt. Co. K Dec. 23 '62; 2nd lieut. Co. K Sept. 13 
'62. James Peters, Dec. 23 '^2; 2nd lieut. Co. F Sept. 
II '62. 

Second Lieutenants.— Hzy'iA B. Muchmore, commis- 
sioned Oct. I and mustered Oct. 16 '62; dis. March i 
"63, for disability; ist sergt. Sept. 3 '62. Edward W. 
Schofield, Mar. i '6y, sergt. Sept. 3 '62; ist sergt. Oct. 
16 '62. 

First Sergeant.— K. H. Mulford, Mar. i '6y, sergt. 
Sept 3 '62. 

Sergeants. — Robert A. Halliday, Oct. 16*62; previously 
corp. John W. Brown. Philip M. Thompson. James 
Vannia, Mar. i '63; previously corp. 

Corporals. — Elias H. Carter. William H. Hyland. 
Thomas Woods; appointed Oct. 16 '62. Matthias Bur- 
nett. George M. Tuttle, Michael Cummings and Charles 
Noonan, appointed March i '63, Albert T. Tappan, dis. 
for disability, at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., March 19 '63. 
John H. Eldridge, dis. for disability, at Philadelphia, 
Jan. 29 '63. 

PRIVATES. 

John Ahrens; mustered in Oct. i6 '62. Louis Bassett. 
John M. Beach. Daniel Berry. Samuel J. Betts. 
Charles Brant. Manning C. Broadwell. Joseph L. 
Bryan. David Burr. Harman Ciscoe. Henry S. Clark. 
John Daily. Thomas Doyle. John Eakley. Hercules 
Edwards. Lewis Etsell. Theodore F. Garrison. Wil- 
liam Garrison. Barnabas C. Goucher. Lewis F. Greg- 
ory. Ezra P. Gulick. Bruno Hagg. Samuel L. Hop- 



kins. Moses W. Johnson. Warren S. Kelly. William 
Kincaid. Jared L. Kitchel, musician. Thomas Knowles. 
Lemuel Lawrence; died of typhoid fever, at Newport 
News, Va., March 19 '63. William Lockwood. John A 
Lyon. Samuel Magee. Daniel Maher. John McNeal. 
Michael Mohair. Benjamin C. Morris. Jared C. Morris. 
Sylvester W. Morris. James Noonan. John O'Brien. 
William H. O'Neill. Jacob Ortell. Samuel Par- 
sons, wagoner. Jacob Phoenix; corp. Sept. 3 '62; 
private Oct. i '62. Ion Rawlins. William H. Rick- 
ley. Philip Ryan. Ralph G. Schenck. George W. 
Shelly. Patrick Sheridan. Robert Smith. Elijah 
T. Squier. Aranon M. Stanford. Frederick Stein- 
hauser. Andrew J. Taylor. John M. Taylor. Henry 
D. Todd. Theodore D. Tompkins. David E. 
Totten. Charles H. Tunis; corp. Sept. 3 '62; private 
Oct. I '62. Harvey Tunis. Alexander Vandonia, mu- 
sician. Edmond Van Orden. Joseph H. Vreeland. 
James, John and Patrick Walsh. Luther T. Ward. John 
H. Whitehead. Lewis C. Wood. Charles Young. 

Discharged for Disability. — Nathaniel Haycock, at 
Washington, Feb. 27 '63. Ebenezer F. Lockwood, at 
Portsmouth Grove, R. L, March 19 '63. Peter Rawson, 
at Fairfax Seminary, Va., Dec. i '62. Hugh Wylie, at 
Washington, Jan. 26 '63. 

COMPANY G. 

OFFICERS. 

Captain. — James Plant, commissioned Sept. i '62. 

First Lieutenant. — George S. Esten, commissioned 
Sept. I '62. 

Second Lieutenants. — George Anthony, commissioned 
Sept. I '62; resigned Dec. 22 '62. Joseph A. Proctor; 
commissioned and mustered Dec. 23 '62; sergt. Sept. 3 '62. 

First Sergeants. — George Forbes; pro. 2nd lieut. Co. 
F Dec. 23 '62. Emmett L. Ellithorp; sergt. Sept. 3 '62; 
ist sergt. Dec. 23 '62; 2nd lieut. Co. K Jan. 15 '63. 
George Carlough; Jan. 15 '63; sergt. Sept. 3 *62. 

Sergeants (all but the last appointed corporals Sept. 3 
'63). — George W. D. Courter and Obadiah S. Parker, 
Dec. 23 '62. Charles Brezette, Feb. i *63. David 
Dawson. 

Corpo)-als. — Thomas T. Richards. Gabriel Parrott. 
Elijah B. Hamma. James H. Doremus. Cornelius H. 
Van Ness. George Gleason and Paul H. Mandeville, 
appointed corp. Dec. 23 '62. Thomas H. Northwood; 
prom. corp. Feb. i '63' 

PRIVATES. 

Joseph Bajoe. S. Y. Baldwin. Charles E. Blowers. 
Dennis Brown. Stephen Carman. David E. and Ed- 
ward Conklin. Asa, George S. and James H. Cook. 
Stephen A' Cooper. John W. Crane, musician. George 
B. Cummins. John K. Darrah. Hudson Davenport, 
Eli B. Dawson, musician. Peter Dempsey. Jeremiah 
Doremus. James Dwyer. Mark Evarts jr. Erastus 
Fields. John Filleo, John W. Fredericks. Robert 
Galloway. Peter J. and William Gould. John Grady. 
Henry J. Hill. Joseph and Joshua Hillas. Daniel 
Hines. James Holly. William Husk. A. R. and Gar- 
rett Jacobus. Cornelius H. and William H. Kayhart. 
Napolean Laflam, wagoner. John Lepard. Conrad 
Lines. Charles E. Looker. Lyman Mandeville. Edward 
McConnell. George McNeal. George and John Morgan, 
John, John H. and Joseph H. Myers. Louis Paradise. 
William P. Parrott. Joseph Peare. Peter Pero. Abra- 
ham Pierson. John J. Provost. Samuel Reeves. George 
Richardson. Michael Schaaf. Henry Shinehouse. John 
Stillwell. John and Thompson Taylor. Eugene Valley. 



u 



96 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



George G., Henry G., Martin B. and Richard H, Van 
Duyne. Henry J. Vanness. John H. Van Riper. John 
Walley. John and William Whitten. William Worman. 
John M. Yatman. 

Discharged. — William H. Conklin, May 28 '63, for dis- 
ability. William H. Davenport, April 10 '63, for chronic 
rheumatism. John U. Jacobus, March 12 '63, for disa- 
bility. 

Died. — Abraham Cooper, of consumption, at Washing- 
ton, Jan. 3 '63. Richard C. Hyler, of consumption, near 
Stanford, Ky., April 25 '63. Alfred Miller, of inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, at Fairfax Seminary, Va., Nov. 8 '62. 
Louis Robere, of consumption, at Fortress Monroe, Va., 
April 6 '63. 

COMPANY I. 

OFFICERS. 

Captain. — Alfred H. Condict; commissioned Sept. 4 
'62. 

First Lieutenants. — Peter Churchfield; commissioned 
Sept. 4 '62; resigned April 19 '63. David H. Ayres; 
commissioned and mustered April 20 '63; 2nd lieut. 
Sept. 4 '62. 

Second Lieutenant. — John H. Medcraft; commissioned 
and mustered April 20 'dy, sergt. major Sept. 19 '62. 

First Sergeant. — J. Warren Kitchel. 

Sergeants. — Charles T. Borland. David R. Emmons 
jr. William Van Houten. Stephen Pierson; mustered 
in Oct. 16 '62; Corp. Sept. 3 '62; sergt. Nov. i '62; 2nd 
lieut. Co. D March 4 '63. 

Corporals. — Jacob W. Searing. Amzi A. Beach. 
Walter Condict; pro. corp. Nov. 15 '62. James L. Willi- 
son. Charles A. Sutton. Theodore L. Cory. George L. 
McDowell. 

PRIVATES. 

Peter Ammerman. David Baird. Lewis A. and Wil- 
liam A. Bedell. James Booth. Thomas Bowman. Jo- 
seph G. Carpenter. Peter Carroll. Martin T. Clawson. 
Charles L. Clement; mustered in Oct. 16 '62. John 
Cody. Stephen Cooper. Henry H. Corwin. Caleb A. 
Cory. A. L. De Hart. Henry H. Emmons. Benjamin 
P. Ford. Chileon Goble. Lucius P Harmas, musician. 
William L. Hathaway. John G. Hempstead, wagoner. 
William Hodgson. William K. Hoffman. John T. Hor- 
ton. George P. Howard. William F. Jacobus; mustered 
in Oct. 16 '62. Lewis Johnson. Edward C. Jolly. 
Abraham M. Langes. Charles G. Loree. Cyrus Lyons. 
Patrick Maloney. Simon Marcell; mustered in Oct. 16 
'62. Frank H. McGoldrich. Newton A. Merritt. Wil- 
liam Moneypenny. Samuel and William H. Moore. 
William Morland. David Paul. William H. Percy. 
Eben N. and George H. Pierson. Amos and Edw'ard 
W. Pruden. Aaron Ralph. George W. Redding. 
Theodore F. Reeve; mustered in Oct. 16 '62. John 
Sanders. Thomas Scudder. James S. Skellenger. 
Samuel K. Smack. C. F. Smack; musician. Amos and 
Philip Smith. James S. and Seymour Teets. William 
Thomas. John H. and Stephen Totten. Joseph Trow- 
bridge. William J. Turner. Elijah Van Duyne. H. 
L. and Samuel E. Whitenack. Charles Williams. George 
N. Willis. Henry Witkoff. William Wortman. John 
D. Wyckoff. John Zimmerman. 

Discharged (for disability). — Theodore H. Egbert, 
June 19 'd'i. Gershom W. Gillum, Mar. 17 '63. John 
A. Hopkins, Feb. 6 'dT,. Andrew Morris, June ig '63. 
John T. Reed, Feb. 23 'dT,. Theodore L. Van Dorn, 
May 22 'dT,. Peter B. Whitenack, Nov. 30 '62. 

Died. — John Cogan, of apoplexy, March 23 'd-^, at 
Baltimore. Stephen Doty, of small pox, at Washington, 



Apr. 17 '63. W. H. H. Hames, of typhoid fever, at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., Mar. 7 'dj,. Harvey G. Howell, of bron- 
chitis, at Washington, Feb. 16 '63. William Sargeant, of 
congestion of the brain, at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., 
Feb. 28, '63. 

COMPANY L. 

OFFICERS. 

Captains. — Henry F. Willis; commissioned Sept. 2, '62; 
mustered Sept. 22 '62; pro. major May i '63. Jacob 
McConnell; commissioned and mustered May i '63; 
appointed 2nd lieut. Co. K, Nov. 11 '62; ist lieut. Jan. 

IS '63. 

First Lieutenants. — Stephen H. Marsh; commissioned 
Sept. 2 '62; mustered Sept. 22 '62; pro. capt. Co. F, 
Jan. 15, '63. Joseph C. Bower; commissioned and mus- 
tered May I '63; 2nd lieut. Sept. 2 '62. 

Second Lieutenant. — Henry Lumsden ; enrolled and 
mustered May i 'dy, ist sergt. Sept. 3 '62. 

First Sergeant. — Lemuel C. Smith, May i '63; sergt. 
Sept. 3 '62. 

Sergeants (all but the first appointed corporal Sept. 3 
'62). — Barnabas K. Hall. Thomas A. Zeak, Jan. 20 'dy 
William G. Mitchell, May i '63. John D. Allison, June 
8-63. 

Corporals. — David H. Gardner. Jacob H. Blanchard, 
Mar. I '63. George R. Todd. David Degraw, Mar. 15 
'63. Morris H. Shauger, Apr. 8 '63. William H. Daven- 
port, May I '63. Miller Smith and Wilmot D. Wear, 
June 8 '63. 

Discharged. — Jacob Van Winkle, corp., for disability. 
Mar. 10 'dT,. 

Died. — James M. Freeman, sergt., of typhoid fever, at 
Hickman's Bridge, Ky., June 8 '63. William Howell, 
Corp., of typhoid fever, at Baltimore, Apr. 1 1 '63. 

PRIVATES. 

Manning Blanchard. Jonathan Brannin. James Col- 
ligan. Owen Conley, mustered in Oct. 16 '62. James 
H. Crane. Edward Davenport. David Davis. James 
Gallagher. Abram L. Gordon. John Hamilton. Lewis 
Hamilton, mustered in Oct. 16 '62. C. H. Hopping, 
wagoner. Frederick F. Hulmes. Benjamin F. Knapp. 
Theodore H. Marsh. Edwin P. Merritt, musician. 
William C. Mills. John W. Morgan. Harrison Morse. 
Phineas B. Myers. John Partington. Calvin, Hezekiah 
and Peter Peer. Manning R. Roll. John Rowe. Wil- 
liam H. Savacool. Amos Sayre, musician. Thaddeus 
B. Schofield. William Scribner. William W. Shauger. 
Moses E. Smith, mustered in Oct. 16 '62. Thomas D. 
Smith. John Spear. Levi R. Stickle. Jacob Switzer! 
Andrew J. Tuers. John Vanderbilt jr. Anthony Van 
Orden. Lewis Ward. Charles W. Winget. 

Discharged {lor disability). — Abner Bastedo, Apr. 7 '63. 
Cyrus Demouth, Mar. 2 '63. James D. Kitchel, Dec. i 
'62. Nicholas Lash, June 19 '63. Anthony F. Snover, 
Feb. 22 '63. Caleb Winget, June 19 '63. Gilbert Zeak, 
Dec. I '61. 

Died. — Gideon Bastedo and Joseph Class, drowned in 
Cumberland River, Ky., May 6 '63. James H. Collard, 
of typhoid fever, at Washington, Jan. 8 '63. Joseph 
Degraw, of dysentery, near Stanford, Ky., May 2 '63. 
Lemuel Degraw and Jesse Demouth, drowned in Cum- 
berland River, Ky., May 6 'dy Thomas Demouth, of 
typhoid fever, at Washington, Jan. 26 'dy William 
Demouth, of chronic diarrhoea, near Newport News Va. 
Mar. I '63. John Denike, of pneumonia, at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., Mar. 31 '63. James H. Fuller and Levi O. 
Green, drowned in Cumberland River, Ky., May 6 '6^. 
William Haycock, of chronic diarrhea, near Newport 



" EMERGENCY MEN "—CO. K FIRST N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 



97 



News, Va., Mar 15 '63. Henry Kanouse, of pleurisy, 
near Stanford, Ky., Mar. 20 '63. John McCloskey. 
Barnabas K. Miller, Edward Nichols, William Ockobock, 
Thomas Odell, James O'Neil, Rolson Peer, Wilson Pit- 
tenger, Eliakim Sanders, George Shauger, James Shaw, 
Samuel H. Smith, and William H. Weaver, drowned in 
Cumberland River, Ky., May 6 '63. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



DRAFTINC 



EMERGENCY MEN — COMPANY K 1ST N. J. 
— COMPANY I 33D N. J. 




'UGUST 15th 1863 there was an allotment 
made of the draft; 3,026 white and loi 
colored men were required in the county. 
Some changes and credits were afterward 
made, and the number finally drawn was 
611, divided as follows: Morris 44, Pequan- 
nock 45, Chatham 64, Hanover 86, Randolph 4, 
Mendham 21, Chester 14, Jefferson 45, Roxbury 91, 
Washington 74, Rockaway 123. 

In February 1865 there were 333 men to be drafted 
for, but before the draft was completed the victory 
before Petersburg caused the order of April 13th that 
drafting should cease. 

March 26th 1864 Captain D. H. Ayers, who had 
served in the 27th and had been recruiting for the 33d, 
had filled a company for the 5th N. J. to the minimum 
number. He was mustered as captain in that regiment, 
April 13 th 1864. 

May 2nd 1864 a new company of "home guards" was 
organized at Morristown— Captain Fred. Dellicker, First 
Lieutenant Horace Ayers, Second Lieutenant D. D. 
Craig. 

June 15th 1863, the rebel army having invaded Mary- 
land, and then threatening Harrisburgh, Governor Cur- 
tin of Pennsylvania called upon the governors of the 
the neighboring States for aid. June 17th Governor 
Parker called for volunteers from this State, and ten 
companies of 30-day men volunteered for the " Pennsyl- 
vania emergency.'' A company was raised in Morris 
county, known as Company E N. J. militia. Captain 
George Gage, which was enrolled and mustered June 
27th and discharged July 24th. It went to Harrisburgh 
and remained there until the victory of Gettysburg ren- 
dered its stay no longer necessary. 

The following is a roll of the company: 

George Gage, captain; William A. Halstead, first lieu- 
tenant; J. E. Parker, second lieutenant; James L. Marsh, 
first sergeant; D. W. Tunis, John T. Kent, John C. 
Smith and John W. Phoenix, sergeants; James M. Bon- 
sall, Charles F. Axtell, George McKee, Joseph H. Tillyer, 
George Vanhouten, L. D. Babbitt, James Allen and 
Lyman B. Dellicker, corporals ; Elwyn Bentley and 
Charles H. Green, musicians; Erastus D. Allen, George 
W. Anthony, George F. Ballentine, Jabez Beers, Andrew 



Bennett, D. W. Bowdisb, Edward P. Brewster, George 
Brewster, Charles Burns, E. F. Cavanagh, Francis Childs, 
William Cook, S. B. Cooper, Marcus F. Crane, John S. 
and John N. De Hart, Aaron S. Degroot, Galin Egbert, 
William C. Emmett, Barnard Finegan, Arthur Ford, 
Edwin D. and Robert Green, Charles M. HoUoway, 
George H. Hutchinson, David Lewis, John Ross, James 
D. Stevenson, George E. Voorhees, George H. Welch- 
man, Robert Wighton, C. H. Wilson, Job Wright, James 
C. Youngblood. 

While Captain Gage's company of militia was absent 
in Pennsylvania a " peace meeting " was held on Morris 
green, which was addressed by Chauncey Burr and others. 
During the speaking news of the victories of Vicksburg 
and Gettysburg arrived, and the meeting dispersed in 
confusion. A large loyal meeting was held in the same 
place the same evening to celebrate the victories of the 
eastern and western armies. 

COMPANY K ist N. J. 

The same month two companies were recruited for the 
ist N. J., then in the field — Company G (Captain Ed- 
ward Bishop, First Lieutenant Daniel Dillen, Second 
Lieutenant Daniel L. Hutt) and Company H (Captain 
Richard Foster, First Lieutenant George Carlough, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant William Miller). As separate companies 
these men did not enter the service, but from them a new 
company was formed, under Captain Foster, which 
joined the ist N. J. as Company K in January 1864, in 
time to serve honorably and suffer severely in the " bat- 
tle summer," and to be in at the death. The company 
organization was disbanded at Cold Harbor, June 4th 
1864, and the men were transferred to Companies K and 
F 4th N. J. The following is the muster roll of the 
company: 

OFnCERS. 

Captain. — Richard Foster; wounded at Spottsylvania, 
Va., May 12 '64; died in hospital at Washington, June 

^5 '64- 

First Lieutenant. — William Muir; honorably m. o. Aug. 
9 '64. 

Second Lieutenant. — William Milnor; wounded at Cold 
Harbor, June 2 '64; dis. for disability. 

Sergeants. — Jacob L. Hutt (ist); tr. and reduced to the 
ranks in Co. K 4th N. J., June 4 '64; pro. ist lieut. Co. 
C 4th N. J., and assigned command of the ist bat.; pro. 
Capt. Co. A ist bat.; m. o. June 29 '65. William O. 
Smith; tr. and reduced to the ranks in Company K 4th 
N. J., June 4 '64. Samuel M. Mattox; in general hos- 
pital from Mar. 25 '64; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. and re- 
duced to the ranks. Samuel J. Nixon; missing at Spott- 
sylvania, Va., May 12 '64. Robert Galloway; tr. and re- 
duced to the ranks in Co. K 4th N. J. 

Corporals. — Richard H. Van Duyne (ist); wounded at 
Spottsylvania May 12 '64; died in hospital. William 
Jones; wounded at the Wilderness May 6 '64. John 
Whitten; killed at Spottsylvania May 12 '64. John B. 
Magee; wounded in the Wilderness May 5 '64. James 
McGory; killed in Wilderness May 6 '64. Anton Hubler; 
dis. for disability Mar. 18. John A. Peer; wounded in 
the Wilderness May 5 '64. Edward McConnel; tr. to 
Co. K 4th N. J. 

PRIVATES. 

John Agen; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. James H. R. Ap- 



98 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



gar; missing at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Ebenezer 
Apgar; wounded at Cold Harbor, June i '64. George 
Adair and Joseph Anson; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Jeter 
R. Auey; missing at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Thomas 
Beddon, com. clerk, and Dennis Brown, missing; wounded 
at Spottsylvania, May 9 '64. John Bowers; wounded at 
Spottsylvania, May 10 '64. Robert Beam; wounded at 
Cold Harbor, June 2 '64. John H. Beaman; wounded 
at Spottsylvania, May 12 '64. Jacob Z. Berry; rejected 
by examining board at Woolford Ford, Va. Edward 
Carty; wounded at the Wilderness, May 5 '64. Patrick 
Carey; killed at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. James Casey; 
detailed in ambulance corps. Abraham C. Conover; 
wounded at Spottsylvania, May 10 '64. John E. and 
Thomas H. Cook; wounded at the Wilderness, May 6 
'64; latter died. James H. Crane; killed at the Wilder- 
ness, May 5 '64. John W. Crane, drummer; absent, 
sick, from May 4 '64. George Crawford; killed at the 
Wilderness, May 5 '64. Peter Cassidy, Michael Cum- 
mings, Horace Dodd and William Drenner, tr. to Co. K 
4th N. J. Thomas G. Davis; killed at the Wilderness, 
May 5 '64. Samuel N. Ellsworth and Samuel T. Ellicks; 
tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Henry Fitzinger; wounded at 
the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Michael Fitzimmonds and 
John W. Ford; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. William W. 
Gearey; wounded at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Mil- 
berry Grandon and George Hilbert; deserted at Camp 
Perrin, Trenton, N. J., Feb. i '64. Jacob H. Hamma; 
tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Thomas Headland; wounded at 
Cold Harbor, June i '64. Ezra H. Hile; wounded at 
Spottsylvania, May 12 '64. Charles A. Hughson; wounded 
at Spottsylvania, May 12 '64; died in general hospital. 
Leonard N. Howell; wounded at Spottsylvania, May 12 
'64. James W. Howell; missing at the Wilderness, May 
6 '64. Patrick Healey; wounded at the Wilderness, 
May 6 '64. Emmanuel Holman and Peter Jackson; tr. 
to Co. K 4th N. J. John Kelley; missing at Spottsyl- 
vania, May 12 '64. Daniel Knott; wounded at Cold 
Harbor, June 2 '64. Jacob S. Kunckle; tr. to Co. K 
4th N. J. Jonathan P. Loree; wounded at Spott- 
sylvania, May 12 '64; died of wounds May 30 '64. 
Charles Munn; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. James Milner; 
missing at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Henry Maynard; 
wounded at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Daniel Mc- 
Henry; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. James McLucky; 
wounded at Cold Harbor, June 4 '64. Thomas Murphy; 
wounded at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. John Miller; 
missing at Spottsylvania, May 9 '64; died in Anderson- 
ville prison. George Nix; wounded at the Wilderness, 
May 5 '64; died in general hospital. Peter O'Conner 
and Jaremiah Oliver; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Clifton 
Peer; absent, sick, from March 26 '64. Thomas Ryan; 
wounded at the Wilderness, May 5 '64. Peter Rawson; 
absent, sick, from March 25 '64. Bernard Riley; wound- 
ed at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. Anthony Robertson; 
tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Mortimer Roberts; wounded and 
taken prisoner at the Wilderness, May 6 '64; died in 
prison. Martin Siver; wounded at the Wilderness, May 
6 '64. Hiram Siver; wounded at Cold Harbor, June 2 
'64. Patrick Sheridan; wounded at Spottsylvania, May 
12 '64. Michael Slam; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J.; killed 
at Winchester, Aug. 17 '64. Garret C. Smith; detailed 
in pioneer corps. Robert Smith; wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania, May 12 '64. John L. Stagg; tr. to Co. K 4th 
N. J. Garret Speer; absent, sick, in general hospital. 
Fordham 0. Schuyler; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Charles 
Schuyler; missing at the Wilderness, May 5 '64. John 
Smith ; deserted at Woodford's Ford, Va., Feb. 19. 
Nelson Teets; wounded at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. 
John Tice; absent, sick, from March i. Patrick Toole 
and John H. Tucker; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Peter Tur- 



ner and Ward Vanderhoof; absent, sick, from May 4. 
William S. Van Fleet; wounded at Spottsylvania, May 
12 '64; died of wounds in general hospital. Cornelius R. 
Van Voorhees; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. Richard Vincent; 
missing at the Wilderness, May 6 '64. John Van Ordeh; 
absent, sick, from May 4. Manning Wear and Henry 
Whitten; tr. to Co. K 4th N. J. William A. Wright; 
absent, sick, from May 5. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Killed in action, 7; died from wounds, 12; wounded 
and survived, 30; missing in action, 8; absent, sick, 
10; discharged for disability, i; deserted, 3; total, 71. 

Commissioned officers, 3; enlisted men, 99; total, 102; 
deduct 71; total for duty, 31. 

The following is a list of battles in which this company 
was engaged. All were fought in Virginia, and all before 
Hatcher's Run in 1864: 

Wilderness, May 5-7; Spottsylvania, May 8-10; Spott- 
sylvania Court-house, May 12-16; North and South Anna 
River, May 24; Hanover Court-house, May 29; Tolo- 
potomy Creek, May 30; Cold Harbor, June i-io: Before 
Petersburg (" Weldon Railroad"), June 23; Snicker's 
Gap, July 18; Strasburg, Aug. 15; Winchester, Aug. 17; 
Charlestown, Aug. 21; Opequan Creek, Sept. 19; Fisher's 
Hill, Sept. 21, 22; New Market, Sept. 24; Mount Jack- 
son, Sept. 25; Cedar Creek and Middletown, Oct. 19; 
Hatcher's Run, Feb. 5; Fort Steedman, Mar. 25; Cap- 
ture of Petersburg, Apr. 2; Sailor's Creek, Apr. 6; Farm- 
villc, Apr. 7; Lee's surrender, Appomattox, Apr. 9. 

COMPANY I OF THE 33d N. J. 

volunteer infantry was chiefly composed of Morris 
county men. The colonel was George W. Mindel. Wil- 
liam H. Lambert was adjutant for about six months from 
July 13th 1863, and was succeeded by Stephen Pierson. 
The regiment was mustered in at Newark, by com- 
panies, in August and September 1863, for three years or 
the war, and left the State September 8th for Washington. 
It soon marched into Virginia, and encamped at Warren- 
ton. Here it was assigned to the nth corps, and re- 
mained until September 25th, when the corps started for 
the west, to become a part of the Army of the Cumber- 
land. It 1864 it went " marching through Georgia" with 
Sherman. The engagements in which it took part were 
as follows: 

Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23d 1863; Mission 
Ridge, Tenn., November 24th and 25th 1863; Mill Creek 
Gap, Ga., May 8th 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 15th and 16th 
1864; New Hope Church, Ga., May 2Sth to June ist 1864; 
Pine Knob, Ga., June 15th and i6th 1864; Muddy 
Creek, Ga., June 17th and i8th 1864; Gulp's Farm, Ga., 
June 22nd 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27th 
1864; Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20th 1864; Siege of 
Atlanta, Ga., July 22nd to September 2nd 1864; Siege 
of Savannah, Ga., December iith-2ist 1864; Averys- 
boro, N. C, March i6th 1865; Bentonville, S. C, March 
i8th-2oth 1865. 

The following is a roll of Company I: 

OFFICERS. 

Where not otherwise mentioned in the following para- 
graphs the officers of Company I were enrolled or com- 



COMPANY I THIRTY-THIRD N. J. VOLUNTEERS. 



99 



missioned at the dates immediately following their names; 
mustered in August 29th 1863, for three years' service, 
and mustered out July 7th 1865. 

Captain. — Samuel F. Waldron, Aug. 29 '63; killed at 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 23 '63. Nathaniel K. Bray; 
commissioned Dec. 20 '63; mustered Jan. i '64; pro. 
major April'4 '65. Joseph P. Couse, commissioned April 
4 '65; mustered April 29 '65; appointed ist lieut. Co. A 
Sept 25 '64. 

First Lieutenant. — J. Warren Kitchel; commissioned 
Aug. 22 '63. 

Second Lieutenants. — Francis Child; wounded July 20 
'64; pro. ist lieut. Co. B Sept. 25 '64. Orlando K. 
Guerin; commissioned Nov. i '64; mustered Jan. 26 '65; 
appointed Q. M. sergt. Sept. 5 '63; transferred to Com- 
pany C; died in 1881. William L. Geary; commissioned 
May 16 '65; not mustered; brevetted capt. U. S. Mar. 

13 '65- 

First Sergeants. — John C. Smith, Aug. 13 '63; pro. 
ist lieut. Co. AJune6 '64. Theodore Manee, Jan. i'65; 
sergt. Aug. 24 '63. 

Sergeants. — James Connor, July i '64; corp. Aug. 20 
'6-3. Thomas Shephard, Apr. i '65; previously corp.; 
dis. May 3 '65. George Hager, Apr. i '65; corp. Aug. 
18 '63. Peter Dienen, May i '65; corp. Aug. 24 '63. 
Levi Smith, enrolled Feb.i6 '64; corp.; sergt. Jan. i '65; 
dis. May 3 '65. 

Corporals. — Edward Blake, Aug. 22 '63. Martin Dol- 
phin, Aug. 25 '63. John Phillips; enrolled Aug, 27 '63; 
corp. Apr. i '65. Michael Stager; enrolled Aug. 28 '6y, 
corp. May i '65. Frederick W. Studdiford; enrolled 
May 4 '64; corp. May i '65; tr. from Co. K. John M. 
Bennett; enrolled Aug. 22 '63; corp. May i '65. James 
A. Burr, Sept. 6 '64, for i year; corp. Jan. i '65; dis. 
Apr. 28 '65. 

Discharged. — William R. Frazer, sergt.; enrolled Aug. 
27 '63; dis. Mar. 31 '65, for disbility. 

Transferred. — Theodore F. Rogers, sergt.; enrolled 
Aug. 10 '63; tr. to V. r. c. Mar. 15 '65; dis. July 18 '65. 
Charles Fengar; enrolled Aug. 23 '63; tr. to v. r. c. 

Died. — David Russell, sergt.; enrolled Aug. 4 '63; 
died of disease at Annapolis, Md., Dec. 8 '64. John 
McArdle, corp.; enrolled Aug. 18 'by, killed at Pine 
Knob, Ga., June 16 '64. 

PRIVATES. 

The first date following these names is the date of en- 
rollment; the second, if any, that of muster-in; in most 
cases they were the same. The figure following the date 
indicates the number of years for which the man enlisted. 
The men were mustered out in June or July 1865. 

William R. Adams, musician, Aug. 10 '63, 3. James 
Allen, Aug. 12 '62,, 3; Aug. 23 '63; prom. com. sergt. 
Sept. 5 '6t,. John Anys, Jan. 9 '64, 3; Jan. 11 '64; dis. 
May 3 '65. George F. Ballentine, Aug. 10 '67,, 3; Aug. 
29 '63. William Bannon, Aug. 4 '6t„ Aug. 29 '63; dis. 
May 12 '65. Lawrence Bergen, corp., Aug. 26 '63, 3; 
private June 25 '65. Daniel Berry, Sept. 6 '64, i; dis. 
Apr. 28 '65. Charles Bird, Oct. 27 '64, i. George 
Bowen, Apr. 13 '65, i; dr.; dis. May 3 '65. Lionel 
Brooks, May 4 '64, 3. Milton Brooks, Feb. 8 '64, 3. 
Jefferson Brutzman, Oct. 11 '64, i; tr. from Co. B. 
J. A. Burr. C. H. Chapman, Sept. 7 '64, i; dis. Apr. 28 '65. 
Samuel D. Coombs, Aug. 21 '63, Aug. 29 '63, 3; dis. May 
3 '65. Samuel P. Davis; Apr. 11 '65, i. Peter Degraw; 
Dec. 29 '63, 3; tr. from Co. E. Christopher Devine, 
corp.; Aug. 25 '63; private June 28 '65. Thomas Dough- 
erty; Aug. 29 '63. Evan B. Edmunds; Apr. 12 '65, i; 
dis. May 3 '65. Horace B. Fletcher; Sept. 13 '64, i; dis. 



Apr. 28 '65. Mark Fobs, Aug. 28 '6y 3; musician. 
Barnabas C. Goucher; Nov. 24 '6y, Dec. 5 '6t„ 3; dis; 
May 4 '65. John W. Green, Aug. 25 '63, Aug. 29 '62,, 3; 
dis. May 3 '65. Michael Haggerty; Aug. 22 '62,, 3; 
dis. May 3 '65. Thomas Hayden; Aug. 29 '63, 3. 
dis. May 3 '65. Hugh Hefferman; Feb. 21 '65, i; 
transferred from Co. B. FredericK Holland; Aug. 
25 '63, Aug. 29 '63, 3. James Johnson, Sept. 
23 '64, i; dis. April 28 '65. Henry F. Jones; Aug. 26 
'63, 3; dis. May 3 '65. William Kaine; Jan. 17 '65, i. 
Nathaniel Kiser; Sept. 7 '64, i; dis. April 28 '65. Jo- 
seph Lang; Oct. 15 '64, i; dis. May 3 '65. John Lein- 
inger; Oct. 18 '64, i; dis. May 3 '65. Abraham Lynn; 
Aug. 1 8 '63, Aug. 29 '6y 3. Adolphe Machowof; April 

14 '65, 3; dis. May 3 '65; tr. from Co. K. Anthony 
Mares; June 15 '64,3; dis. May 3 '65. Andrew McCain; 
Aug. 20 '63, Aug. 29 '62, 3; dis. May 12 '65. John Mc- 
Donald; Aug. 18 '63, 3. Bernard McManus; Aug. 24 
'63, 3; dis. May 3 '65. William McNeil; Aug. 24 '63, 3; 
dis. May 3 '65. John L. Megill, musician; Aug. 15 '63. 
Ernst H. Meyers; Oct. 15 '64, i. Charles Miller; April 
13 '65, i; dis. May 3 '65. William Miller; April 7 '65, 
I. Nicholas Moore; Aug. 8 '6^, Aug. 29 '6^, 3. Josiah 
Mullen; March 29 '65, i; dis. May 3 '65. James Murchie; 
Oct. 15 '64, I. James Murtough; Oct. 19 '64, i; dis. 
May 3 '65. Gottlieb Prob; Aug. 28 '63, 3; m. o. July 
27 '65. John G. Propst; Aug. 27 '63, 3; dis. May 3 '65. 
Philip Y. Redding; Aug. 18 '63; wounded at Peach 
Tree Creek, Georgia, July 20, '64. Jacob Riker; Sept. 23 
'64, i; tr. from Co. E 35 th N. J. William Ryan; Oct. 

15 '64, I. Moody A. Sandburn; Sept. 21 '64, i; dis. 
April 28 '65. Valentine Sealand; Sept. 22 '64, i; dis. 
April 28; tr. from Co. D. Herman Seibert; April 6 '65, 
I. William Shiell; Oct. 15 '64, i. Edward Smith; Aug. 
19 '63, Aug. 29 '62,, 3; tr. to v. r. c, May 3 '64; returned 
to Co. March 2 '6.s. Richard D. Soden; corp. Aug. 25 
'63, Aug. 29 '63, 3; private May i '65; dis. May 3 '65. 
Lewis Stage; Jan. 30 '65, i; dis. May 3 '65; tr. from Co. 
C. William R. Stelling; Oct. 11 '64, i; dis. May 3 '65. 
Michael Taggart; April 12 '65, i; dis. May 3 '65. John 
Weiderberger; Oct. 19 '64, i. Joseph Weil; Aug. 12 '63, 
3. Peter Wendel; Oct. 21 '64, 1. Wilbur Wetsel; Aug. 
10 '63, Aug. 29 '63, 3; dis. May 12 '65. James Wood; 
Jan. 6 '65, i; dis. May 3 '65; tr. from Co. A. 

Discharged (for disability). — William Fagan; enrolled 
Aug. 17 '63; dis. June 14 '64. William Herbert; en- 
rolled Aug. II '63; dis. Aug. 3 '64. William H. Kelly; 
enrolled Aug. 10 '63; dis. April 2 '65. 

Transferred. — (The date of enlistment and muster and 
the number of years for which the man enlisted follow 
the name. The transfer was to Company C where not 
otherwise stated.) Joseph Aspinwall; Sept. 7 '64, i. 
Abraham Benjamin; Dec. 29 '63, 3; from Co. E and to 
V. r. c. Abner B. and Charles Bishop, i. Richard C. 
Burris,. I. Ambi and Lewis Conklin. Michael Conlon; 
Mar. 31 '65, i; to Co. A. Horace Davis; Sept. 7 '64, r. 
Erastus Degraw; Sept. 23 '64, i; to Co. H. William 
Drew; Sept. 7 '64, i. George Ely; Feb. 28 '65, 3; to 
Bat. E. John Fuller; April 4 '65, i. Michael Galey; 
Sept. 14 '64, i; to Co. A. Robert J. Harrison; Aug. 24 
'64, 3; to V. r. c, April i '65; dis. July 20 '65. William 
Healey; Sept. 28 '64, i; to Co. K. John Heusefall; 
Sept. 7 '64, i; to Co. K. John Kennedy; Oct. 11 '64, i; 
to Co. K. William Margeson; Sept. 7 '64, i. William 
Masker; Aug. 20 '63, 3; to v. r. c. Mar. 20 '65. Ernst 
Mayer; Sept. 9 '64, i; to Co. F 35th N. J. Charles E. 
Mayo; April 4 '65, i. Nathan Parliament; Sept. 7 '64, i. 
Charles Ryerson; Aug. 26 '63, 3; wounded June 23 '64, 
at Kenesaw Mountain; tr. to v. r. c, Jan. 16 '65; dis! 
July 25 '65. Charles H. Wood; Mar. 7 '65, i; to Co. d! 
Died. — (Enrolled and mustered in August 1863 when 



100 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



not otherwise stated, and for three years.) Charles 
Anys; Jan. 9 '64; died at Andersonville, Ga., Feb. 13 
'65, of wounds received at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 
20 '64. John Braan; Jan. 7 '64; died of disease, at 
Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 18 '64. Martin Braan; Jan. 7 
'64; killed at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20 '64. James 
Butler; of disease, at Hilton Head, S. C., Mar. 29 '65. 
Frederick Ehrnest; Dec. 29 '63; killed at Peach Tree 
Creek, Ga„ July 20 '64. Thomas Farrell; at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., July 12 '64, of wounds received at Pine Knob, 
Ga., June t6 '64. Andrew Folt; of typhoid fever, Jan. 
9 '64. Joel Jones; of chronic diarrhea, at Bridgeport, 
Ala., Nov. 5 '63. Martin Krom; of disease, at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Mar. 12 '64; Edmund Leaver; of typhoid 
fever, at Lookout Valley, Ga., Jan. 23, '64. John Per- 
sonett; of disease, at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 17 '64. 
August Shawagar; of wound, at Newark, N. J., Sept. 17 
'63. Abraham Vanderhoof; killed at Pine Knob, Ga., 
June 16 '64. Thomas Williams; enrolled Nev. 27 '63; 
killed at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20 '64. Arazi 
Willis; Jan. 5 '64; died of dropsy, at Andersonville, Ga., 
Sept. I '64. Louis Witte; drowned in Tennessee River, 
Nov. '6^. 



CHAPTER XX. 



THE 39TH NEW JERSEY VOLUNTEERS ROLL OF COMPANY 

K LIST OF PATRIOT DEAD. 




1 HIS regiment was raised in the month of Sep- 
tember 1864, the rendezvous being Camp 
Frelinghuysen, Newark, and was principally 
recruited in Essex county. Company K was 
raised in Morris county, recruited and commanded 
by Captain D. S. Allen. Although he was the 
last to obtain a recruiting commission, and labored 
under the disadvantages of distance from rendezvous, his 
was the first company of the command mustered into the 
United States service, having recruited its full quota in 
about fifteen days. Company K with four other com- 
panies, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel James 
Close, went to the " front " in October, encamping at 
City Point, Va., and in about two weeks these were 
joined by the remaining five companies of the regiment. 
They remained here working on entrenchments for about 
two weeks. A. C. Wildrick of the United States army 
came and took command as colonel, and William T. 
Cornish, formerly of the 15th N. J. volunteers, as major 
of the regiment. 

The force changed camp about November ist and 
went to Poplar Grove Spring, near Petersburg, where 
the 39th was assigned to the 9th army corps. There 
being at this time continuous picket firing and skirmish- 
ing the men got their first smell of gunpowder very soon, 
and listened to the roaring of artillery and musketry 
alternating with frequent calls of the long roll. Company 
K was in a few days called to support an engagement a 
short distance to the left; it was not called into action, 
but had an opportunity of witnessing the effects of an 



engagement, as many of the wounded were carried past 
the ranks. 

About the first of December the company moved into 
and took charge of Fort Davis, in front of Petersburg, 
the rebels shelling it "pretty lively." Here the men did 
picket duty in the entrenchments and drilled in the rear 
of the fort. They remained in this fort, with very little 
occurring except the regular incidents of camp life, and 
occasionally a man wounded on the picket line, until the 
2nd day of April 1865, when the final long roll was 
beaten, and the regiment marched out of the fort about 
1 1 o'clock at night to take its position for the attack on 
Petersburg the following morning. A detail of ten men 
from each company, making 100 men, under Captain D. 
S. Allen, preceded this movement and went forward to 
the skirmish line. Although it was dark a sharp engage- 
ment took place on the skirmish line, in which Captain 
Allen was disabled, and Lieutenant Mason, of Company 
H, was killed; this occurred about 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. The brigade containing the 39th made a short de- 
tour to the right, and in the general attack of that mem- 
orable morning planted the colors of the 39th N. J. on 
the rebel fort in its front. Company K had the position 
of honor, being the color company of the regiment by 
choice. After Captain Allen was detached and sent for- 
ward with the special detail to the skirmish line the 
command of Company K devolved upon First Lieuten- 
ant Jacob McConnell, who proved himself a worthy suc- 
cessor. In this two-days engagement Company K lost 
its share of killed and wounded. 

Although this regiment was recruited during the time 
of paying large bounties it can be said to the credit of 
Company K that there only three deserters, and Com- 
pany K reported a stronger and heartier lot of men and 
consequently more fit for duty than any other company 
in the regiment, being made up of hardy Morris county 
men. In recalling the career of this fine company Cap- 
tain Allen says: 

"Although seventeen years have passed away I have 
not forgotten the kindly feelings toward me entertained 
by the men of Company K, many of whom have answered 
the last roll call; I shall ever hold in grateful remem- 
brance all of this little band, and my devout wish is that 
we may all be registered on the roll of the Great Com- 



mander." 

Below is a roll of 



COMPANY K. 



OFFICERS. 



The ofificers of Company K were mustered in as well 
as commissioned or enrolled in September 1864, for one 
year, and with one or two exceptions were mustered out 
in June 1865. 

Captain. — David S. Allen. 

First Lieutenant. — Jacob McConnell. 

Second Lieutenant. — John Shippee. 

First Sergeant. — Francis D. Sturtevant. 

Sergeants.— ^o\iTi. N. Young. Edward Y. Trowbridge. 
George W. Harris. Caleb J. Broadwell. 

C<7;-/»w/y.— James H. De Poe. Daniel Matthews. 
Morgan R. Davies George Burtt; dis. May 3 '65. 



COMPANY K THIRTY-NINTH N. J.— THE DEAD. 



lOI 



Charles H. Emmons. John W. Nichols; dis. May 3 
Henry Parsons. Bernard J. Storms. 



'6S- 



PRIVATES. 



The following enlisted in September 1864, for one 
year's service, were mustered in September 23d 1864, 
and were mustered out in June or July 1865; with a few 
exceptions, which are noted. 

EstillBeatty; dis. May 3'6s. William J. Belcher. Wil- 
liam Bishop. John W.Blake; mustered Oct. i '64. Joseph 
C. Bower; dis. May 3 '65. Terrence Brannin. R. H. 
Brientnall; prom. Q. M. sergt. Oct. 11 '64. William 
Bugbee. John E. Burres. George Carey. Lewis H. 
Cook. William J. Cook. J. V. P. Coonrod 
Corby. John M. Crain. Jacob and Joseph Crum. 
Rinehart H. Davis; dis. Apr. 28 '65. David M. De 
Camp; dis. Apr. 28 '65. William Degraw. Isaiah De- 
mont. Cornet Deinouth; enlisted and mustered Jan. 5 
'65; dis. Apr. 28 '65. Amos J. and Edward L. Emmons. 
Albert C, Jacob H. and Joseph W. Fichter. Daniel S. 
Force. A. B. Ford; dis. Apr. 28 '65. John Gervin. 
Nathaniel Gillum; mustered in Oct. i '64. WilKam P. 
Hart. William Henyon. William S. Hulme. David 
Huyler. William H. Jones. Abiather L. Kynor. 
Marcus Lamison. Samuel Larue; mustered in Oct. i 
'64. Joshua A. Lobdell; mustered in Oct. i '64; prom, 
com. sergt. Oct. 11 '64. George D. Losey. John A. Love; 
dis. May 3 '65. Marshall Love. Charles L. Love, 
wagoner. Henry and William H. Marlatt. Charles W., 
Mahlon J. and William C. Mills. John More. John W. 
Morgan. James Morrison. John Morrison; dis. May 3 
'65. Joseph Morse jr. Joseph J. Nichols. Charles 
Nixon; dis. Apr. 28 '65. Silas H. Olmsted; dis. May 3 
'65. David Palmer. Isaac N. Pruden. Asher T. Quier. 
George W. Scripture. David S. Searing. Samuel Sharp. 
James Snyder. Charles Taylor. William Tillyer, mu- 
sician; dis. May 3 '65. George D. Totten. Israel Van 
Norwick. James S., Samuel and Silas B. Van Orden. 
.Horace F. Wallace. Henry Whitehead. William H. 
Williams. Hiram C. Wood. David and James O. Wright. 
Trans/erred (first date that of enlistment and muster). 
— John J. and Winfield S. Carter, Apr. 10 '65; from Co. 
A, and to 33d N. J. June 15 '65. John R. Cutting. Apr. 
8 '65; to Co. G. Theodore Demouth, Jan. 26 '65; to 
33d N. J. June IS '65. George Farling, Apr. 8 '65; to 
Co. G. Robert McNabb; Apr. 10 '65; to Co. H. John 
F. Reiley and Philip Ryan; Apr. 8 '65; to Co. C. Daniel 
Shawger, Feb. 9 '65 ; to Co. B. Leonard Sous, Apr. 8 '65 ; 
to Co. F. Aaron A. Tebo, Apr. 13 '65; to 33d N. J. 
, Jnne 15 '65. 

Died (these were one year's men, and, excepting the first, 
were enlisted and mustered in September 1864). — Noah 
O. Baldwin, enrolled Jan. 5 '65; killed before Petersburg, 
Va., Apr. 2 '65. John Conklin; died at Alexandria, Va., 
Apr. 10 '65, of wounds received before Petersburg Apr. 
2 '65. Abram Earl; died at Alexandria, Va.. May 6 '65, 
of wounds received before Petersburg. Thomas Plum- 
stead; killed before Petersburg, Va., Apr. 2 '65. 

THE DEAD. 



Besides the casualties noted in the foregoing records 
we are furnished with the following partial list of the 
soldiers of Morris county who died in the service- 

Seventh Regiment.— (Most of these men were from 
Morristown, and that fact is indicated by the letter M 
following their names. All but two were members of 
Company K.) Erastus J. Ackley; died at Georgetown, 



1861. Theron A. Allen, M.; died 1862. Charles Y. 
Beers, M.; killed at Gettysburg.' Jabez Beers, M.; 
killed at Petersburg, 1864. Merrit Bruen, Madison; 
died at City Point, Va., 1864. Moses Berry; died in 
Maryland, 1861. Cyrus Carter, 1862. James Brown, M. 
(Company C); killed at Gettysburg. John Dempsy 
(Company H); killed at Gettysburg. John Dougherty, 
Wilderness, 1864. Arthur Ford, M.; died in Anderson- 
ville prison, 1864. Andrew Halsey, M.; died at Peters- 
burg, Va., 1864. Jacob Hopping, Hanover; killed at 
Gettysburg. Robert Jolly, M.; killed at Gettysburg. 
Sylvester Lynn, Mendham; died at Petersburg, 1864. 
John R. Lyon, Bull Run, Va., 1862. William Long, 
New Vernon; died near Fairfax Court-house, Va., 1862. 
Charles B. Mott, M.; Chancellorsville, Va., 1863. Lemuel 

Caleb-| Marshall, 1862. J. Miller, killed at Chesterfield Bridge, 
Va., 1864. Allen Pierson, M ; Petersburg, 1864. George 
Pier, 1862. John A. Recanio, M.; Belle Isle prison, 

1862. Spafford Sanders, 1862. Joseph L. Spencer, 
Chatham; killed at Petersburg, 1864. John Tillotson, 
1862. Joseph Watkins, M.; died of wounds, Williams- 
burg, Va., 1862. J. Wright; died Sept. 8 1864, in An- 
dersonville prison. 

Fifteenth Regiment (Company F if not otherwise indi- 
cated). — John W. Berry, Flanders; killed at Spottsyl- 
vania, 1864. William Broad well, Co. B; lost arm at 
Salem Heights, Va., May 3 1863. EHas H. Carlile, 
Chester; killed at Cold Harbor, 1864. Felix Cash, 
Chester; died of wounds, Potomac Creek, 1864. War- 
ren N. Clausen, Flanders; died at Washington, 1864. 
Charles Covert, Fox Hill; killed at Spottsylvania, 1864. 
George D. Foulds, Roxbury; killed at Spottsylvania, 
1864. Charles Heck, German Valley; died at Washing- 
ton, 1864. Anthony Hoppler, German Valley; died at 
White Oak Church,' 1863. Whitefield Lake, Schooley's 
Mountain; Spottsylvania, 1864. Ira Lindsley, Morris- 
town, Company C; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., 1865. 
Manning F. McDougall, Chester; killed at Cold Harbor, 
1864. John R. McKain, Mount Olive, 1864. Charles 
Milligan; killed at Winchester, 1864. Jacob A. Peck- 
well, Flanders; killed at Spottsylvania, 1864. John D. 
Salmon, Flanders; died at White Oak Church, 1863. 
Andrew F. Salmon, Flanders ; Spottsylvania, 1864. 
Phineas F. Skellinger, Chester ; Spottsylvania, 1864. 
William H. Sergeant, Budd's Lake; died at White Oak 
Church, 1863. Alexander S. Sergeant, Budd's Lake; 
killed at Fredericksburg, 1863. James W. Sprague, 
Flanders; killed at Fredericksburg, 1863. Peter J. Sut- 
ton, Fox Hill; died in prison, 1863. David Todd, Lesser 
Cross Roads; died at White Oak Church, 1863. Isaac 
Vanarsdale, Lesser Cross Roads; died of wounds, 1864. 
John Van Houghton, Morristown, Company C; killed at 
Spottsylvania, 1864. Benjamin D. Wear, White Oak 
Church, 1863. Elias Williamson, Flanders; killed at 
Spottsylvania, 1864. Edward A. Simpson, Company C; 
Shenandoah, 1864. Lewis Aramerman, Chester; died at 
White Oak Church. Oscar Brokaw, Chatham, Company 
C; Chancellorsville. Alexander Beatty; died at Wash- 
ington, 1863. William Bowman, Ralstontown; Spottsyl- 
vania, 1864. Franklin Camp, Whippany, Company C; 
White Oak Church, 1863. Jacob Lamerson, Flanders; 
White Oak Church, 1863. Edward Day, Chatham, Com- 
pany C; killed at Cold Harbor, Va., 1864. Andrew 
Genung, Chatham, Company C; killed in 1864. James 
Hiler, Company C; Chancellorsville, 1863. Jeremiah 
Haycock, Mine Hill, Company C; killed at Cold Harbor, 
1864. Frank Cunningham and Virgil Howell, Company 
C; died at White Oak Church, 1863. Jonathan Loree; 
killed in the Wilderness, 1864. Thomas Phipps, Com- 
pany C; died at White Oak Church, Va., 1863. William 
Storms, Company C; killed at Chancellorsville, 1863. 



102 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Twenty-Seventh Regiment. — Stephen Doty, Morristown, 
Company I, 1863. Samuel Smith, Company K. and Al- 
bert Wiggins, Company B; drowned in Cumberland River, 
May 6 1863. W. H. H. Haines and John Cronan, New 
Vernon, Company I; died at Newport News. Louis 
Gregory, Hanover, Company E. Robert Lee. Lemuel 
Lawrence, Mendham, Company E. Augustus Salmon, 
Flanders, Company C; died at Washington 1863. 

Miscellaneous. — James M. Woodruff, Mendham, nth 
N. J.; killed at Mine Run, Va., 1864. D. B. Logan, 
Succasunna, nth N. J.; killed at Gettysburg. William 
Potts, Morristown, nth N. J.; died in hospital, 1862. 
John D. Evans, Morristown, Company G 8th N. J,; killed 
ai Cold Harbor. David Cooper, 8th N. J.; killed at 
Gettysburg. Isaac D. Dickerson, Malapardis, Company 
E i2oth N. Y; died near Bealton, Ya., Sept. 9 1863. 
Theodore Cooper, Morristown, 6th N. J.; killed at Fort 
Pickens, Fla., in Dec. 1861. Captain Charles W. Can- 
field, Morristown, 2nd U. S. cavalry, killed in Virginia. 
Alfred Axtell, Morristown, Company D i6th Mich.; 
killed at Petersburg, 1864. Charles Carrell, Morristown, 
Company B 2nd N. J.; died in hospital. Edward F. 
Cavanaugh, Morristown, Company B 2nd N. J.; died at 
Columbus, Kas. William Cole, Morristown, 3d N. J.; 
killed in 1861. J. L. Doty, Morristown, ist N. J. cavalry; 
died after leaving Belle Isle prison. Theodore Edwards. 
Morristown, ist N. J. cavalry; died in Belle Isle prison, 
James L. Freeman, Morristown, 2nd D. C. volunteers; 
died in 1862. John M. Lewis, Morristown, 9th N. J.; 
hospital steward; died at Beaufort, S. C, Nov. 7 1862. 
Willie Morehouse, Morristown, 37th N. J.; killed at 
Petersburg, Va. Lindsley H. Miller, Morristown, U. S. 
C. T., 1864. Patrick McShane, Company E 4th N. Y. 
cavalry. Samuel McNair, Morristown, Company K ist 
N. Y. engineers; died in South Carolina. John O'Don- 
nell, Morristown, Company B 2nd N. J.; killed at Salem 
Heights, Va. George A. Perrine, Morristown, Company 
B 162nd N. Y.; died in Louisiana, 1862. George B. 
Wear, Morristown, Company B 2nd N. J. cavalry; died 
Feb. 25 1864, from hardship in prison. Spencer Wood, 
Morristown, 4th N. J. cavalry; killed at Petersburg, 1864. 
Michael Cummings, Morris Plains, ist N. J. artillery; 
killed. James Mathews, Company B ist artillery. A. W. 
Thompson, Company B 2nd N. J.; died at White Oak 
Church, 1863. William Wottman, Chester, Company A 
5th N. J.; killed at Petersburg, 1864. William Wear, 
Company A sth N. J.; died in 1864. Albert Collins, 
Company B ist artillery; died at Fortress Monroe. Job 
De Hart, Morristown, N. Y. regiment; died at New Or- 
leans, 1864. Stephen D. Fairchild, 17th Wis.; died at 
Washington. Philip Keller, 3d N. J. cavalry. Moses 
Miller, Company A 32nd U. S. C. T.; died in hospital. 
Abram Earl, Company K 39th N. J.; died at Alexandria, 
Va., May 7 1865. Hampton Whitehead, 9th N. J.; killed 
Mar. 14 1862, near Newbern, N. C. John M. Powers, 
Company G ist Pa. reserve corps; killed at South Moun- 
tain, Sept. 14 1862. Corporal Ezra S. Day, 30th N. J.; 
died Feb. 21 186^, at Belle Plain. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



A SKETCH OF THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 
' OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



By F. a. CANiaJEtD. 




HIS county is located in what is known as the 
Highlands of New Jersey. The surface is 
quite irregular, varying from 175 feet above 
the sea level in the southeastern part to over 
1,200 feet in the northern. 
Commencing at the southeasterly boundary, the 
^ change in elevation of the surface is gradual 
until the bases of the mountain ranges running near Mor- 
ristown and Boonton are reached, beyond which the sur- 
face is very much broken. The distinction is drawn be- 
tween the terms " mountains " and "' mountain ranges," 
the " ranges " being made up of a series of partially de- 
tached mountains. The ranges run generally in a north- 
easterly and southwesterly direction, while the mountains 
themselves follow a more northerly course. The moun-- 
tains are peculiar in the fact that they rise gradually at 
the northeastern end, and, running with undulating crests, 
fall abruptly at the southwestern extremity. 

In point of size the chief mountain ranges are School- 
ey's and Green Pond, but by far the most important in 
an economic point of view is the range of hills that lies 
next to and to the southeast of the Green Pond mountain 
range. This belt bears nearly all the iron ore deposits 
of the county. A few deposits are worked in the moun- 
tains immediately west of the Green Pond range, of which 
the Hurd and Ford mines are the most important. 

The geological structure is not very complicated; for, 
while the different formations are divided by great periods 
of time, the members of the geological column are but 
few, as many of the intervening groups have no represent- 
atives among the rocks of this county. The greater por- 
tion of the county is underlain by rocks that belong to 
the oldest geological formation known in the world. 
This formation is termed the " Azoic " — meaning " ab- 
sence of life " — and includes all the syenites, gneiss, or 
granitic rocks, the crystalline limestones, and the magnetic 
iron ores. The magnetic iron ores constitute but an ex- 
tremely small percentage of the Azoic rocks, yet they are 
the most important member of the group, and occur in 
beds that are truly conformable to the inclosing rocks. 
These bodies of ore are not veins, according to the 
modern definition of the term, but are of sedimentary 
origin. Generally they are lenticular in shape. They are 
not continuous horizontally, and their extent vertically is 
uncertain. Considerable difference of opinion has long 
existed as to the origin of these deposits. Some experts 
believe that the beds are true veins of igneous origin, 
having been formed by the injection of mineral matter, 
while in a melted condition, between the walls of gneiss. 



FORMATION OF IRON ORE BEDS— THE AZOIC ROCKS. 



103 



It is true that there are evidences of the action of heat, 
but most geologists at the present day hold that these 
ores are as sedimentary in origin as the rocks in which 
they are found. 

A brief description of the probable process by which 
these ore beds were formed will not be without interest. 
Protoxide of iron exists in many rocks, and when brought 
in contact with carbonic acid or some organic acid it 
combines with it, forming what chemists call proto-salts 
of iron. These salts are readily soluble in water, which 
by leaching them out carries them to some pond hole 
where the current of the stream is checked. Continued 
exposure of these salts to the atmosphere causes them by 
chemical affinity to take up or combine with more oxy- 
gen, forming sesqui-oxide of iron, which is insoluble in 
water. This action takes place at the surface of the 
water and betrays its presence by a metallic film, show- 
ing the prismatic colors, which floats until the accumula- 
tion becomes so great as to sink to the bottom in the 
form of a yellow precipitate of sesqui-oxide of iron or, 
commonly speaking, iron rust. An ironmaster would 
call it bog ore or brown hematite; a mineralogist, limon- 
ite. Chemically pure limonite consists of 59.92 per cent, 
metallic iron, 25.68 per cent, oxygen, and 14.40 per cent, 
water. As soon as a film of sesqui-oxide of iron settles 
another begins to form, and this action goes on continu- 
ally. After this product the description of the process 
must necessarily become somewhat hypothetical. It is 
supposed that a great mass of this limonite has been de- 
posited on the bottom of some large sheet of water, and 
through some action of nature such as a subsidence of 
the surface, or an elevation of the surrounding country, 
or violent storms, the process of deposition ceases and an 
influx of mud and sand takes place, covering the limonite 
with material many feet in thickness. The weight of 
this covering would solidify the ore and force the greater 
part of the free water from it. Limonite in this condi- 
tion occurs at Beattystown, N. J. 

The 14.40 per cent, of water that is in chemical com- 
bination with the iron cannot be expelled by pressure 
alone, but another agent now acts in concert with pres- 
sure, namely heat. The source of this heat is uncertain, 
but its presence is proven by the products of fusion, 
found with the ore. Pressure and heat together expel 
the last traces of water from the limonite, and leave a 
residue that is an anhydrous sesqui-oxide of iron. This 
is true hematite, and if pure consists of 70 per cent, of 
metallic iron and 30 per cent, of oxygen. It is an im- 
portant ore, but is not found in this county in paying 
quantities. If while the ore is subjected to the above 
mentioned agencies some element like carbon — having a 
greater affinity for oxygen than the iron has — be present, 
a partial reduction takes place; the ore yields a small 
percentage of its oxygen to the carbon, becoming richer 
in metallic iron, and is then called magnetic iron ore, or 
magnetite — a name given on account of the property it 
has of influencing a magnetic needle or compass. Pure 
magnetite can contain but 72.4 per cent, of metallic iron 
ore and 27.6 per cent, of oxygen. 



The extent and importance of this ore to this county 
will be treated under a special heading. 

While all of the above mentioned reactions and trans- 
formations are taking place, the mud and sand that were 
above and below the ore have been subjected to the in- 
fluence of the same agencies, and what once existed in 
layers of soft material becomes a hard stratified rock. 
The cooling of the earth causes it to shrink, and the 
crust, being hardened by more rapid cooling, cannot 
contract sufficiently without forming wrinkles or folds on 
the surface. This throws the horizontal strata of rock 
and ore up on edge or in a partially inclined position, so 
that what once formed the bottom of a lake may have be- 
come a hill or mountain. 

The Azoic rocks of this county are almost without ex- 
ception stratified, with a general strike from the north- 
east to the southwest, and generally with a dip to the 
southeast, the dip varying from horizontal to perpendic- 
ular. The term " strike " means the direction of the 
edges of the strata with reference to the points of the 
compass, and in most cases it corresponds with the axes 
of the mountains. The term "dip" is applied to the 
vertical angle formed by the plane of the strata with a 
horizontal plane, and is always taken at right angles to 
the strike. The southeastern boundary of the Azoic 
rocks, after keeping a very direct course from the Hudson 
River, crosses Passaic county nearly on the line of the 
Ramapo River, and enters Morris county near Pompton; 
keeping the same course, it passes just east of Boonton 
and west of Morris Plains. A short distance west of the 
latter place the line makes a short turn to the east, the.n 
runs due south until it reaches Morristown, where it 
bends to the southwest and, resuming its general course, 
passes into Somerset county in the direction of Bernards- 
ville. A description of this boundary is necessarily 
somewhat inaccurate, and the line appears more regular 
than it probably is; in fact it is but a description of the 
bases of the mountains and hills on the eastern border of 
the formation. This indefiniteness exists because of the 
great burden of earth that covers the lower part of this 
formation. 

Following the line between the counties of Morris and 
Somerset in a westerly direction from the point where the 
eastern border of the gneiss leaves the county, no break 
in the formation occurs until a small patch of the mag- 
nesian limestone and a spur of Triassic sandstone are 
reached near the stream that flows through Peapack. 
This gap is a little more than two miles in width. On 
the west side the gneiss appears again, and may be fol- 
lowed continuously on the line between Morris and 
Hunterdon counties almost to the Warren county line, 
with the single exception of a bed of limestone, about 
half a mile in width, lying immediately west of the foot 
of Fox Hill, in German Valley. The Musconetcong 
River forms the boundary between Morris and Warren 
counties from a point just south of Stephensburg to Wat- 
erloo, and runs the entire distance on a narrow belt of 
blue limestone, which separates the county line from the 
northwestern border of the Azoic rocks by a fraction of 



104 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



a mile. The line between Morris and Sussex counties is 
formed by the Musconetcong River from Waterloo to 
Lake Hopatcong, and by the lake to Woodport, from 
which place an arbitrary line runs straight to a point near 
Snufftown, where it meets the head waters of the Pequan- 
nock River. This entire distance is underlain by Azoic 
rocks. The Pequannock River forms the division line 
between Morris and Passaic counties, and flows in a 
southeasterly direction. For a short distance after it 
becomes the county line the river passes over Azoic rocks, 
and then crosses a belt of more modern rcicks that be- 
long to the Lower Silurian period. These are known as 
Potsdam sandstone or Green Pond Mountain rock and 
Hudson River slate. This belt of Paleozoic rocks is 
about four miles wide. The stream leaves the sandstone 
just north of Charlotteburgh and, continuing its south- 
easterly course, flows over gneissic rocks until it reaches 
their eastern boundary near Pompton. The territory in- 
cluded in the boundaries that have just been described 
covers nearly three quarters of the total area of the county, 
and, after excepting a few deposits all of which are com- 
paratively small, the entire surface is underlain with 
gneiss or syenite. 

The last member of the Azoic rocks is the white lirne- 
stone, which occurs sparingly in two places. One deposit 
is near Montville, where it is associated with asbestos, 
fibrous (chysotile) and massive serpentine. This bed is 
worked by the Boonton Iron Company for limestone for 
the company's furnaces. The other deposit is on the 
Sanders farm near Mendham. 

Rising in the geological column, the next period repre 
sented by the rocks of this county is the Lower Silurian, 
which includes the Potsdam sandstone, the Hudson 
River slate and all of the remaining limestones. 

The sandstones, being the lowest, should be considered 
first. This material varies greatly in structure and tex- 
ture. In some places it consists of an extremely hard 
conglomerate made up of large pebbles, giving it a beau- 
tiful mottled appearance, and would make a fine building 
stone if it were less difficult to dress. Sometimes it oc- 
curs in large thin slabs, with fine grain and free from 
pebbles, and makes a fair substitute for rough flagging. 
This rock is also found in the form of sand. This for- 
mation, rising near Cornwall, Orange county, N. Y., runs 
in a southwesterly direction across that county, enters 
New Jersey just west of Greenwood Lake, crosses Pas- 
saic county, and passes into Morris county at Newfound- 
land. At this point the formation is about two miles 
wide and of low elevation, being crossed by the Pequan- 
nock River. The formation rises rapidly as it proceeds 
toward the southwest. Three miles from Newfoundland 
it forms two high ridges known as Green Pond Mountain 
and Copperas Mountain. The latter is parallel to and 
east of the former. Green Pond lies between tliem, at 
an elevation of 1,069 ^^^^ above sea level. 

Copperas Mountain rises just west of Charlotteburgh 
and runs about six miles, to Denmark, where it falls pre- 
cipitously^ allowing the passage of Green Pond Brook. 
The sides of the mountain are very steep, being often 



perpendicular cliffs or ledges of rock. It takes its name 
from the iron mines near its base, which were formerly 
worked for copperas — a sulphate of iron. Green Pond 
Mountain rises near Newfoundland, and continues with- 
out interruption until it reaches Baker's Mill, where it 
disappears below the level of the valley of the Rockaway 
River, which crosses the formation at this place. The 
west side of this mountain is very steep, being impassable 
in places. At Petersburg and Milton there is a ppur or 
offshoot of conglomerate on the west side of the valley. 
This forms what is known as Bowling Green Mountain, 
and is separated on the surface from Green Pond Moun- 
tain by a bed of slate, under which the formation is con- 
tinuous. South of the Rockaway River at Baker's Mill 
the sandstones are found in four isolated deposits. The 
first deposit makes its appearance between Duck Pond 
and the bridge where the Chester Railroad crosses the 
Morris Canal, extends in a southerly direction, and 
gradually rising forms a low hill, steep toward the east 
and sloping gently westward. The Morris Canal and 
the public highway follow the base of the hill closely 
as far as McCainsville, where the formation 
falls suddenly below the plain, allowing the passage 
of the Morris Carial, Black River, and a branch 
of the Longwood Valley Railroad. At this extremity 
the stratification is strongly marked, and quarries yield- 
ing good building stones have been opened. Fine spec- 
imens of curved slabs, formed by the folding of the rocks, 
are found here. To the northwest of the first deposit 
lies the second, on the foot of Brookland Mountain. The 
Morris and Essex Railroad crosses it a short distance ber 
low the Drakesville depot, by an excavation commorily 
known as the " White Rock cut," the name being sugr. 
gested by the color of the stone. At this place the rock 
appears as a typical sandstone, being fine-grained and 
friable. The third deposit forms the hill which rises near 
the canal, west of McCainsville. It forms the western 
boundary of Succasunna Plains, to a point a short dis- 
tance south of the road leading to Drakesville, and here 
it is lost under a heavy burden of earth. About a mile 
further south it reappears, forming the fourth deposit, 
the outlines of which are traced with great difficulty, ss 
the outcrops are rare. The fourth deposit stops at 
Flanders, and is the last of this series that is found in 
the county. In this deposit the last traces of a rocky 
texture have disappeared, and the material occurs in the 
form of white sand. Large quantities have been dug 
and sent away by the Boonton Iron Company and by 
private individuals, to be used as a lining for furnaces, as 
it is very refractory. 

Boulders of Potsdam sandstone occur near German 
Valley, and, although never found in situ, it may exist 
underneath the limestones of the valley. 

All of these deposits may be connected with one an- 
other, but the burden of earth which divides the outcrops 
is so great that the question of the continuity of the for^ 
mation will always be an open one. 

Mount Paul, near Mendham, is an isolated peak of this 
sandstone. 



MAGNESIAN LIMESTONE— HUDSON RIVER SLATE. 



105 



Immediately above the Potsdam sandstone comes the 
Magnesian limestone — a name given on account of an 
important constituent, it being nearly half carbonate of 
magnesia, pure limestone containing carbonate of lime 
only. The magnesian limestones of this county are gen- 
erally hard, compact and fine-grained, and are free from 
fossils. Their color varies from almost black to gray; 
generally it is of a bluish tint. The color is due to the 
presence of organic matter, as the limestone burns white. 

The largest deposit in the county is in German Valley, 
which place it underlies from the foot of Fox Hill to the 
foot of Schooley's Mountain. This bed is elongated, 
with an axis parallel to and nearly coincident with the 
prolonged axis of the Potsdam sandstones just described. 
It extends from about a mile northeast of Naughright- 
vilk to about a mile southwest of California in Hunter- 
don county, crossing the county line at Middle Valley. 
The extremities are about nine miles apart; its greatest 
width is about half a mile. It is extensively worked for 
lime for farming purposes, and considerable quantities 
are used in the blast furnaces at Chester and Boonton. 

The second bed of this variety of limestone in point of 
size is part of a large deposit which extends from south- 
west of Bloomsbury, in Hunterdon county, to Waterloo 
in Sussex county, a distance of some twenty-five miles 
along the valley of the Musconetcong River. The part 
which is in Morris county lies between the river and the 
foot of Schooley's Mountain. The brown hematite 
mined at Beattystown is found in this formation. 

The next in the scale of importance is the deposit that, 
rising a short distance south of Peapack, in Somerset 
county, runs northerly and enters the county just west of 
the line between Mendham and Chester townships. In 
crossing the county line it bends suddenly to the north- 
east, occupies the valley east of Mount Paul, skirts along 
the base of the mountain, crosses the valley of Indian 
Brook, and disappears about three-fourths of a mile 
northwest of the village of Mendham. The greatest 
length of the deposit is about six miles — four and a half 
&f which are in this county — and the greatest breadth 
about half a mile. It is partially bounded on the west 
and northwest by Triassic shales and Potsdam sandstones, 
while the remaining boundaries are gneiss. Quarries on 
this deposit have yielded large quantities of lime for fer- 
tilizing and building purposes. 

The remaining deposits are those at Middle Forge. 
Two of these have been worked; both are small and lie 
on the conglomerate. One is near the forge pond, on 
>the side next the Green Pond Mountain, and is about 
450 feet long. The other, farther south, lies at the foot 
of the same mountain, near the place where the highway 
from Berkshire Valley to Mount Hope turns to the east 
to cross the valley. These quarries were the source of 
the limestone used in the furnaces that were formerly 
operated at Mount Hope. The small deposit of magne- 
sian limestone lying on the west side of the road leading 
-from Stanhope to Budd's Lake is not in place, but is 
merely a boulder. 

Fossiliferous limestone lies above the magnesian lime- 



stone and below the Hudson River slate, and, while ex- 
isting in large deposits in other parts of New Jersey, it 
occurs but sparingly in this county. Its presence is 
worthy of note, as it is a member of the rocks of this 
period. The only deposits are found scattered along the 
western base of the Green Pond Mountain, from Upper 
Longwood to Woodstock, and along the eastern base 
between Newfoundland and Green Pond. The rock is 
very friable and full of indistinct fossils, and is generally 
too impure to be of much economic value. 

Hudson River slate is another rock noteworthy only 
on account of its representing a formation that has 
greater importance elsewhere in the State. Instead of 
appearing as a typical slate, valuable for roofing purposes, 
it occurs as a hard, dark colored rock, with crooked 
seams, which cause it to break in irregular masses. It is 
refractory, and resists the action of time to a great de- 
gree. The sole deposit of slate in Morris county rises at 
the State line, between Greenwood Lake and Bearfort 
Mountain; runs parallel to the mountain side, contracting 
on its approach to the town of West Milford; and thence 
gradually expanding to near the county line, spreads out 
and divides about the north end of the Green Pond 
Mountain formation. The eastern branch is narrow, and 
after crossing the county line ends, after following for 
about a mile the valley of the stream that rises near 
Green Pond and flows into the Pequannock River. The 
western branch is also narrow until it passes Newfound- 
land, when it suddenly expands to the west and enters 
the county with a width of about two miles. It holds 
this width as far as Russia, and then commences to di- 
minish in breadth; at Milton its western boundary jumps 
suddenly to the east, being crowded over by the sand- 
stone of Bowling Green Mountain, until it is only half a 
mile wide. From Petersburg it follows the valley of the 
Rockaway River, gradually growing narrower and dis- 
appearing at Upper Longwood. The eastern boundary 
is nearly straight, being formed by the foot of Green 
Pond Mountain, on which this deposit lies. 

A great break in the geological column now presents 
itself. None of the rocks belonging to the Upper Si- 
lurian, to the Devonian or Old Red Sandstone, to the 
Carboniferous with its coal measures, nor to the Permian 
period, have been found in the county. The next for- 
mation to be considered is the Triassic or New Red 
Sandstone. This is the age in which reptiles first made 
their appearance, fishes being the highest order of life 
that had existed heretofore. This name is given to the 
period because in Germany this formation is composed 
of three kinds of rock, viz.: Bunter Sandstein, Muschel- 
kalk and Keuper. 

In geographical extent the Triassic rocks of the county 
are exceeded only by those of the Azoic period. The 
northwestern border of the formation crosses Passaic 
county nearly on the line of the Ramapo River, and 
enters Morris county at Pompton; thence running on a 
very direct southwesterly course it passes through the 
city of Boonton, and on to Morris Plains; there it turns 
to the south and swings around the foot of Trowbridge 



io6 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Mountain, resumes at Morristown its former course, and 
follows the road to Bernardsville until it crosses the 
county line. This it will be seen is the eastern boundary 
of the gneiss. The sandstones lie upon the older rocks 
throughout the entire distance. There are no other boun- 
daries to this formation in the county, as the county line 
cuts off but a fragment, as it were, of a belt of sandstone 
which is from twenty to twenty-five miles wide, and 
which, rising near Cornwall, N. Y., crosses New Jersey, 
and passes into Pennsylvania. The materials composing 
this formation are either red shales or red sandstones, 
the latter being largely used for building purposes under 
the name of " freestone." A black shale is found at 
Boonton, which furnishes fine specimens of fossil fish, 
and small layers of bituminous matter resembling coal. 
Below the town and near the river slabs of rock may be 
obtained bearing tracks or the imprints of the feet of ex- 
tinct reptiles. These remains correspond exactly with 
those found in the Triassic rocks of Connecticut. 

Trap rocks in the form of dykes or ridges are char- 
acteristic of the Triassic formation. The largest out- 
crop of this material found in the county is the ridge 
which rises near the village of Chatham, runs south- 
westerly to Myersville, where it turns more to the west- 
ward, crosses the county line near Millington, and disap- 
pears at Liberty Corner. This ridge is known as " Long 
Hill." Its length is about eleven miles (eight of which 
are in this county) and the average width is about one- 
third of a mile. 

The outcrop of trap second in importance is part of a 
formation which rises near Pine Brook, and running 
north forms Hook Mountain; keeps this course for four 
miles, then turns with a large sweep to the east, and 
leaves the county at Mead's Basin. 

The only other deposits are two short ridges located 
in the southwestern part of the county; the larger, ris- 
ing near Green Village, runs northwesterly for a short 
distance, then turns due west and, widening gradually for 
two miles to about half a mile in breadth, continues on 
the same course for about another mile, widens rapidly to 
one and a half miles and then disappears. The other 
outcrop runs northerly from the same town for three 
miles; the southerly half is about half a mile in width, 
the other part swings to the west and narrows rapidly 
until it disappears. 

This ends the description of the fixed rocks, as none of 
the rocks of the later geological periods are found in this 
county. 

The remaining feature to be described is the structure 
of the surface, and in preparing this part of the geology 
of Morris county liberal drafts have been made on the 
State Geological Report for the year 1880. This report 
describes the results of glacial action throughout the en- 
tire State, and treats of the subject exhaustively. It is 
highly recommended to the reader who may desire a 
more detailed account than the following. 

Disregarding the ledges or outcrops of a rocky nature, 
the surface is made up of earth, clays, sands, gravels, and 
boulders. The earths may be the result of the decompo- 



sition and disintegration of the rocks lying in place under- 
neath, and such earths can readily be distinguished by the 
presence of rocky fragments having rough surfaces and 
sharp edges; or they are made up from materials brought 
from a distance and redeposited through the agency of 
water and ice. 

It is impossible to determine the time when the decom- 
position began from which the earths now in place are 
derived; probably as soon as the rocks were thrown into 
their present positions. The action of air, water and 
frost has never ceased, but goes on continually, and it is 
to this feature that the sustained fertility of the soil is 
greatly due. Certain elements essential to plant life are 
constantly set free and offered to the plant in such a con- 
dition that they may be readily absorbed. These earths 
may be termed " native," and are found only where the 
surface was not exposed to glacial action. 

The transported materials belong to what is known as 
the glacial period, and are included in the term "drift." 
During the glacial period the ice field now found in the 
extreme northern latitudes extended southward until it 
covered the northern part of New Jersey to a depth of 
nearly one thousand feet, but leaving the highest moun- 
tains bare. Farther north it reached a depth of several 
thousand feet. This field of ice moved from north to 
south with a creeping motion, the front part constantly 
melting away as it was pushed forward by the mass of 
material behind, and any movable object was irresistably 
carried along by the flow. By this means a vast quantity 
of rock was torn from its place and transported greater 
or less distances, often many miles. The action being a 
grinding one the corners and edges of the rocks were 
soon broken and worn off, forming boulders, and the 
fragments exposed to the same influence were ground 
into pebbles, gravels or sands. The surface of the rocks 
in situ suffered accordingly, and in many places in the 
county the summits of the mountains are worn and 
rounded, often showing grooves and scratches as evidences 
of the grinding action. The term " glacial drift " may 
be applied to all the debris resulting from the glacial 
action, but for convenience its use is confined to such 
materials as are thoroughly intermingled, while the term 
" modified glacial drift " is used to denote such mate- 
rials as have been subjected to the action of water, and 
by it have been rearranged in the form of stratified beds. 
There is no distinction made in regard to the materials 
composing the two kinds of drift; sometimes the two 
formations lie side by side. 

As the glacier melted away at the south and retreated 
northward it left the materials that it carried or pushed 
forward, depositing them somewhat as they had been 
grouped on or under the ice. The southern limit of the 
drift deposits is marked by a line of ridges, heaps, or 
mounds, which is known as the " terminal moraine." 

The most southerly point of the terminal moraine found 
in New Jersey is at Perth Amboy, from whence it takes 
a north-northwesterly course to the trap ridges near 
Scotch Plains; there it turns to the northeast, and keeps 
this course as far as Summit; turns at this point to the 



TEtE DRIFT FORMATION— WATEk COURSES. 



167 



west and northwest, and crossing the Passaic River 
enters this county at Stanley. Hugging the northeastern 
end of Long Hill it now swings to the northwest, turns 
at Morristown to the north, and follows the line of the 
gneiss and red sandstone as far as Morris Plains; thence 
it runs on the west side and near the track of the Morris 
and Essex Railroad as far as Denville. At Denville the 
line is broken, but from deposits of drift found near 
Ninkey and Shongum it would appear that the glacier 
had extended up the valley of Den Brook for several 
miles. From Denville to Dover the line of drift follows 
the contours of the hills, but not connectedly, the deposits 
being isolated in many cases. At Dover the formation 
is shown in the little tableland on which the Orchard 
street cemetery is located. Rounding the high hill west 
of Dover the line of drift follows up the valley of Jack- 
son Brook from the silk mill to the lower part of Iron- 
dale, and from here again turns to the north and swings 
by Port Oram and around Dunham's Hill as far as the 
Scrub Oak mine; thence runs across the north end of 
Succasunna Plains to a point near where the Chester 
Railroad crosses the canal, and thence swinging around 
by Duck Pond passes on to a point near the Drakesville 
depot. From here the course of the moraine passes by a 
tortuous route by Budd's Lake to Hackettstown, and 
there leaves the county. 

The limits of this article are too confined to allow more 
than a brief notice of the more striking features of this 
formation. The ridge from Long Hill to Morristown is 
quite level on top, and being of a light, porous soil, free 
from large rocks, it is well suited for building sites. These 
advantages have already attracted a large amount of 
wealth. Morristown and Madison are partly on this 
ridge. It forms the divide between the watersheds of 
the Whippany and the west branch of the Passaic River. 
Its average height above sea level is about 375 feet. 

Mount Tabor is also composed of drift material. The 
gravel pit at the intersection of Clinton and McFarlan 
streets in the city of Dover affords a fine section of drift. 
The tableland west of Dover on which St. Mary's church 
is built belongs to this formation. The moraine hill 
which extends from Dunham's hill toward Duck Pond 
forms the divide between the head waters of the Passaic 
and Raritan Rivers. The finest examples of moraine 
hills are found in Berkshire Valley. 

A noteworthy feature of the effect of glacial action on 
the topography of the county is seen in the changes that 
it has made in the drainage of the streams by reversing 
the direction of the flow. The original Green Pond 
Brook ran northeast to the Pequannock River, but a 
glacial dam prevents this and forces the water to make 
its escape at the opposite end of the lake. The natural 
outlet of Lake Hopatcong was through the Raritan 
River, but a bed of drift near Hopatcong station 
closed this channel and raised the water till it found an 
exit by the way of the Musconetcong Valley to the Dela- 
ware. Canfield Island was formed at the same time. 
The original outlet of Budd's Lake fed a stream which 
ran into the Musconetcong near Stanhope; a dam of 



drift shut this passage, and now the surplus water escapes 
to the Raritan. The drainage of Succasunna Plains was 
in pre-glacial times to the northeast to the Rockaway 
River, but the moraine above referred to turned the 
water in-to the Raritan. Burnt Meadow Brook once 
flowed into the Rockaway near Baker's Mill, but, being 
turned by a mass of drift, it passes over the lowest part 
of the dam at Mount Pleasant and meets the same river 
below Port Oram. 

This reversal of the water courses is easily explained 
when the condition of things during the glacial epoch is 
understood. The flow of the ice fields came from the 
north, and on reaching a river acted as a dam, and back- 
ing the water up forced it to find a passage in some 
other direction, which was necessarily to the southwest, 
the mountain ranges preventing its escape elsewhere. 
As the ice retreated it left behind the vast deposits of 
drift, which, though smaller than the glaciers, were 
sufficient to control the flow of the streams, and in 
many cases made permanent the changes effected by the 
ice. 

Morris county is well supplied with water; three of the 
largest streams in the State find their sources here, and 
with their tributaries so subdivide the surface that there 
are no large areas unprovided for. The system of water- 
courses may be divided into three parts, viz.: the water- 
sheds of the Musconetcong, the Raritan and the Passaic 
Rivers. 

The Musconetcong rises near the Ford mine, in Jeffer- 
son township, and there bears the name of Weldon 
Brook. It flows into Lake Hopatcong, and thus be- 
comes a feeder to the Morris Canal, which draws its 
supply from this lake. The Musconetcong receives the 
drainage of the west slope of Brookland and Schooley's 
Mountains, flows to the southwest and empties into the 
Delaware. 

The Raritan is split into three parts, viz.: the "south 
branch," Black or Lamington River, and the " north 
branch." The first flows through Flanders and German 
Valley; the second, or middle branch, flows through 
Succasunna Plains and Hacklebarney; and the third, or 
north branch, rising near Mount Freedom, flows through 
Calais and Roxiticus. All of these streams leave the 
county before they come together. 

The third system is that of the Passaic River, which 
may be divided into the Passaic River proper, the 
Whippany, the Rockaway and the Pequannock Rivers. 
The Passaic rises near Mendham, flows south for about 
two miles to the county line, which it forms from this 
point to Two Bridges, a distance of over forty miles, and 
receives directly all the drainage south of Morristown 
and as far east as Madison. The country north and east 
of Morristown forms the watershed of the Whippany, 
which, rising near Mount Freedom, flows through Brook- 
side, Morristown and Whippany, drains the Troy Mead- 
ows and empties into the Rockaway River at Hanover 
Neck. The Rockaway rises in Sussex county, enters 
this county near Hopewell, flows southwest through 
Longwood and Berkshire Valleys, following the west 



toS 



ttlSTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



base ot Green Pond Mountain, around which it turns 
at Baker's Mill, and taking a isoutheasterly course 
fempties into the Passaic River at Hanover Neck. It re 
ceives the Burnt Meadow Brook and Jackson Brook near 
Dover, and the Whippany River about half a rriile 
from its junction with the Passaic, and flows through 
Dover, Rockaway, Powerville and Bobnton, furnishing 
valuable water power at these places. The Pequannock 
River rises in the Waywayanda Mountains, in Sussex 
county^ and does not enter Morris county, but forms the 
boundary line from a point near Snufftown to Two 
Bridges, where it meets the Passaic, a distance of nearly 
thirty miles. This river receives the drainage of all the 



northeastern part of the county, and is largely used 
for manufacturing purposes at Bloomingdale and 
Pompton. 

The soils of this county are generally very productive, 
especially on the hills that furnish native earth, as this 
material seefns to have the power of resuscitating itself if 
allowed to test from time to time, and properly worked 
in the meantime. The yield of the limestone soils will 
compare favorably with that of any other part of the 
State. The open and porous soils are more easily ex- 
hausted, and require the renewal of fertilizers from year 
to year, which if furnished render the soil very pro- 
ductive. 



CITY, VILLAGE AND TOWNSHIP HISTORIES. 



MORRISTOWN. 



By Bbv. Rubus S. Geeen. 




^ORRISTOWN*, the county seat of Morris 
county, is, like Zion of old, " beautiful for 
situation." It nestles among tlje hills, of 
which no less than five ranges furnish most 
charming building-sites. The drives about 
the city are unsurpassed in variety and 
loveliness. Add to its natural beauty 
purity of air and water, and freedom from, debt, and 
we have the causes which have dotted these hills with 
elegant villas, and which are attracting rnore and more 
the wealth and culture of neighboring cities. The death 
rate is less than 15 for 1,000 inhabitants. The town 
lies thirty miles due west from New York city. The 
Green is 371 feet above the ocean level. 

The population of Morris township, with Morristown, 
has grown pretty steadily during the period of census 
returns. These have been as follows: 1810,3,753; 1820, 
3,524; 1830, 3,536; 1840, 4,006; 1850, 4,997; i860, 5,- 
985 (182 colored); 1870, 5,673 (239 colored); 1875, 6,- 
950 (285 colored); 1880, 6,837 (Morristown, 5,418). 

The statistics of property, taxation, etc., in 1881 were 
as follows: Acres in the township, 9,125; valuation of 
real estate, $4,360,000; personal property, $1,365,000; 
debt, $325,000; polls, 1,570; State school tax, $13,751; 
county tax, $12,832.42; road tax, $7,000; poor tax, $300. 
On the 29th of March 1684 David Barclay, Arthur 
Forbes and Gawen Lawrie wrote to the Scots proprie- 
tors respecting this part of the country: " There are also 
hills up in the country, but how much ground they take 
up we know not; they are said to be stony, and coverefj 



* In preparing the folio-wing pages for '.the " Illustrated History 
of Morris pounty " the compiler desires first of all to thank the many 
■who have cheerfully aided him. Without this aid it would have been 
impossible for him, burdened with the care of a large church 
ai}4 parish, to have performed $he work. He has made free use of the 
materials placed in his han^i "o* hesitating to adopt the language, 
where it suited his purpose, as well as to record the facts furnished. 
Tp stste this is due as much to himself as tp the friends who have as- 
sisted him. He will venture to say that, from the time and care he has 
expended, as well as from the trustworthy character of the materials 
he has had ^it his disposal, he hopes f ev., if any. iijf portant errors will be 
discovered. He has oonabi^ntiously sought to ma^e these pages a reli- 
able history. 



with wood, and beyond them is said to be excellent land." 
This would indicate that this region was at that tirrie 
ierra incognita. 

But little definite information can be obtained concern- 
ing the first settlers of the township of Morris. They 
probably came from Newark, Elizabeth, Long Island and 
New England. This much the names which first meet 
us would seem to indicate. The same uncertainty at- 
taches to the date of their settlement. In the year 1767 
the Rev. Jacob Green, third pastor of the Presbyterian 
church of Hanover, wrote a history of that church, which 
still survives in manuscript, in the preface of which he 
says that "about the year 17 10 a few families removed 
from Newark and Elizabeth, &c., and settled on the west 
side of the Passaic River, in that which is now Morris 
county." In the East Jersey Records, Liber F 3, p. 28, 
at Trenton, there appears the copy of a deed of a tract 
of land within the bounds of this township, consisting of 
967 37 acres, which was conveyed on the ist of June 
1769 by "the Right Hon. William, Earl of Sterling, and 
Lady Sarah, Countess of Stirling," for the sum of ^^2,902 
to Colonel Staats Long Morris, of New York. The deed 
says this tract was originally surveyed in 17 15. 

In the same year the land on which Morristown is 
built was surveyed to Joseph Helby, Thomas Stephenson 
and John Keys or Kay. The last named had 2,000 acres, 
and each of the others 1,250 acres. Keys's claim em- 
braced the land now occupied by the park. That of 
Helby ran from George W. Johnes's toward Speedwell, 
and southwest to the former residence of General 
Doughty. That of Stephenson included the Revere and 
neighboring farms. We append the deed to Kay: 

" By virtue of a warrant from ye Council of Proprietors, 
bearing date ye tenth day of march last past, I have sur- 
veyed this Tract or Lott of land unto John Kay within 
ye VVestern Division of ye Province of New Jersey, in ye 
Last indian purchases made of ye Indians by ye said 
Proprietors; Situate upon & near a Branch of Passamisfe 
River Called whipene. beginning at a small hickory 
corner standing near a Black oak marked K, ten cha: 
distance from a corner of Wm. Pens Lands; thence Nortji 



no 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



west one hundred sixty & fiva cha: crossing ye said 
Whipene to a corner white oak marked also K; thence 
South west one hundred twenty and seven cha: & twenty 
five link to a poast for a corner under ye side of a hill 
called mine mountain; from thence Southeast one hun- 
dred sixty & five cha: to a poast; then North East one 
hundred twenty seven cha: & twenty five links, & by 
ye bound of Govn. Pens land to ye place of beginning; 
Containing Two thousand acres of Land besides one 
hundred acres allowance for Highways; surveyed April ye 
28th 1 7 15 pr me R Bull Survy. 

"Ye 22 of August 1715 Inspected & approved of by 
ye Council of Prbprs. and ordered to be Entered upon 
Record. 

" Tests, John Wills clerk." 

We cannot be far out of the way in placing the date of 
the first settlement of Morristown back nearly or quite 
to 1 7 10, as found in the manuscript history of the Rev. 
Jacob Green. 

We know not when, where, or by whom the first house 
was built. It stood, no doubt, near the bank of the 
Whippany, where the grist-mill, the saw-mill and the 
forge were soon erected. The Indians had not then 
disappeared from the region ; while game abounded 
along the streams, and bears, wolves and panthers 
roamed through the forests. 

The motive which led to the settlement of the place 
by these early pioneers was probably the betterment of 
their temporal prospects^many of them being drawn 
hither by the iron in which the mountains abounded. 
To their praise be it said, however, that they were a 
God-fearing people. Religion had a controlling voice in 
all their movements. It was the religious element that 
led the New Englanders and the Scotch and the Irish to 
this province, whose fundamental condition guaranteed 
the largest liberty of conscience to all settlers; it was 
here that many came to be freed from the spiritual des- 
potism which galled them at home, and to certain locali- 
ties some repaired to test their favorite scheme of a pure 
church and a godly government in which power was to 
be exercised only by those who were members of the 
church, and where everything in active antagonism with 
this principle was to be removed. On this basis Newark 
and a few other towns were founded. Those who came 
into this region from older settlements where religion 
was deemed vital to the best interests of the people 
brought with them the sacred love of liberty and of 
truth, and the highest regard for religious institutions, 
which was operative here as elsewhere in honoring the 
Sabbath and the sanctuary and in regulating social and 
domestic life. 

Among the regulations made by the Duke of York for 
settlers in this province, under which regulations Morris- 
town was probably settled, we find the following, respect- 
ing the support of the gospel: " Every township is obliged 
to pay their own minister, according to such agreement as 
they shall make with him, and no man to refuse his own 
proportion; the minister being elected by the major part 
of the householders and inhabitants in the town." 

Such being the character of the people, we are not 
surprised to find a church established as early as 17 18. 



This was in Hanover — the church of which the Rev. 
James A. Ferguson is the pi-esent pastor. To this house 
of worship the people of West Hanover (Morristown) 
resorted until the year 1733. By that time, the number 
of inhabitants having largely increased and the distance 
being so great, the desire became general to have a 
church of their own, which was accomplished a few 
years later, when the First Presbyterian church began its 
long career. 

In 1738 the village, if it might be so named, was cen- 
tered mainly in Water street, though Morris street might 
boast of an occasional hut, and perhaps two or three 
might be found amidst the clearings of the Green. Else- 
where the forest trees were standing, and what is now the 
park could boast of the giant oak, the chestnut and other 
noble specimens of growth. The woods around were 
visited by the panther and the bear, while wolves in great 
numbers answered each other from the neighboring hills. 
The sheep and -cattle were brought into pens for the 
night. Roads were scarcely known. The bridle path or 
Indian trail was all that conducted the occasional trav- 
eler to Mendham, who saw on his way thither a mill, a 
blacksmith's shop and two dwellings — in three separate 
clearings. There was scarcely a better path to Basking 
Ridge. There were no postal routes, no newspapers and 
but few books to instruct and amuse. Life was then a 
reality. In the new settlement every one had to be busy 
in order to procure such comforts and necessaries as were 
required. Frugal habits and simple manners distinguished 
their every day life; and their domestic relations partook 
more of the patriarchal and less of the commercial, for 
worldly prosperity had not been sufficient to create that 
jealous distinction of rank with which we are so often 
charged as a community. Religion had a moulding in- 
fluence upon the household, and from dearth of news 
often formed the principal topic of converse between 
neighbors. The Sabbath was rigidly kept, and the church 
was regularly frequented. 

One church, as yet without a pastor, two public houses, 
a grist and saw-mill, a forge, a few scattered houses, an 
almost endless forest wherein still lingered the Indian 
and wild beast, a law-abiding and God-fearing people — 
these are the known conditions of that early time. 

TOWNSHIP HISTORY TO THE REVOLUTION. 

We come now to the second period of our history, — 
from the formation of the township to [|the beginning of 
the war of the Revolution. 

The original name of Morristown was West Hanover. 
This appears from]the minutes, of .the Synod ^,of Phila- 
delphia, to which we shall have occasion again to refer. 
As late as 1738 this name occurs in the synod's minutes. 
It was also called New Hanover, as appears from the 
licenses granted by the county court to keep public 
houses. A record in the first volume of minutes of the 
court of common pleas for Morris county, which is 
printed on page 21, fixes the date of the adoption of the 
present name of the township as March 25th 1740. 

Of this period between the formation of the township 



SUNDAY IN OLD MORRISTOWN— FORD THE COUNTERFEITER. 



311 



and the war of the Revolution little more need be said. 
The town grew but slowly. Some improvements were 
made. A Baptist church was organized and built and a 
court-house erected. A steeple was added to the Pres- 
byterian church and a bell placed in it. 

The needs of the people were few, and their mode of 
living was simple. Indications are not wanting, however, 
of the presence and gradual increase of families of wealth 
and culture, who gave to the town a reputation, which it 
still retains, of being " aristocratic." 

Sunday was the great day of the week.. Good Pastor 
Johnes, of the First Presbyterian Church, could see his 
congregation coming through the forest from the neigh- 
boring farms, not riding in wagons, but (if the distance 
was too great to walk) on horseback, the wife behind her 
husband on the pillion, while the children managed to 
cling on them as best they could. The women were 
clothed in homespun, from the fruits of that industry 
which has given the name of " spinster " to the unmar- 
ried daughters of the family, showing their constant oc- 
cupation. In the winter they brought their footstoves, 
filled with live coals, to put under their feet during ser- 
vice, while the men disdained such an approach to ef- 
feminacy. If there was an evening service each family 
brought one or two candles, and persons sat holding 
them during the meeting; for even candlesticks on the 
walls and pillars were not then provided. But though 
the men could bravely sit with cold feet in the winter, 
they did not hesitate to take off their coats in the heat of 
summer, and if sleep seemed likely to overpower them 
they would stand up and thus remain until the inclination 
to drowsiness had passed. The men sat together upon 
one side of the house, and the women and children upon 
the other side, separated from each other by the broad 
aisle. The young people occupied the galleries, the 
young men and boys upon one side of the church, the young 
ladies and girls upon the other. This necessitated the 
appointment of certain men of grave and staid aspect to 
sit m the galleries to preserve order. 

There is one item of history, however, which falls 
within this period, which can scarcely be passed over, 
and which we may place under the head of 

COUNTERFEITERS. 

It is not surprising that there should be at least one 
blot upon the fair history of Morristown. We would fain 
pass it by, but truth is inexorable, and the historian has 
no choice. The following account is for the most part 
a condensation from two articles, to which the reader is 
referred for fuller details — one by William A. Whitehead, 
on " The Robbery of the Treasury in 1768 " {Proceedings 
of the New Jersey Historical Society, Vol. V.,p. 49), and 
the other by Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D., on the 
" Early History of Morris County " {Proceedings of the 
New Jersey Historical Society, Second Series, Vol. II., 

P- is)- 

Samuel Ford was the leader of a notorious gang of 

counterfeiters, who infested this region just previous to 

the war of the Revolution. He was the grandson of 



widow Elizabeth Lindsley, the mother of Colonel Jacob 
Ford. His father's name was also Samuel. His mother 
was Grace, the daughter of Abraham Kitchel, of Han- 
over, and sister of Aaron, the Congressman. Her great- 
grandfather was Rev. Abraham Pierson sen., of Newark. 
His family connections were therefore of the best and 
most respectable. Most of his companions in villainy 
also stood high in society. These were Benjamin 
Cooper, of Hibernia, son of Judge Cooper, before whom 
he was afterward tried for his crime; Dr. Bern Budd, a 
leading physician in Morristown, and a prominent mem- 
ber in its society; Samuel Haynes, and one Ayres, of 
Sussex county, both, as was also Cooper, justices of the 
peace; David Reynolds, a common man with no strong 
social connections; and others whose names will appear 
as we proceed. 

Ford had followed the business of counterfeiting, 
which he pleasantly called a "money-making affair," for 
a number of years before he began operations in this 
vicinity. In 1768 he was arrested by the authorities of 
New York on a charge of uttering false New Jersey bills 
of credit; but we cannot find that he was ever brought 
to trial. Shortly after this he went to Ireland to improve 
himself in his profession, this being his second trans- 
atlantic trip in the prosecution of his business. Ireland 
was reputed to furnish at this time the most skillful 
counterfeiters in the world. Here Ford became, it is 
said, " a perfect master of the business." He returned 
to this country in 1772, and at once set to work on an 
extensive scale. He established himself about midway 
between Morristown and Hanover, in a swamp island on 
the Hammock. For the greater part of the year the sur- 
rounding water was a foot deep. Through this swamp 
Ford was obliged to creep on his hands and knees to get 
to his work. He would leave his house at daylight v/ith 
his gun, as if in pursuit of game, and thus unwatched 
would attain his secret resort; for this practice was so 
.much in accordance with the idle life he had apparently 
always led that it excited neither surprise nor remark. 
Still it was difficult for people to understand how a man 
whose only ostensible means of livelihood were a few 
acres of swampy land, the cultivation of which moreover 
was sadly neglected, could wear the aspect of a thriving 
farmer with plenty of money. In one way and another 
suspicion was aroused; and at last, on the i6th of July 
1773, Ford was arrested and lodged in the county jail. 
That very night, however, or the day following, he suc- 
ceeded in effecting his escape, being aided by a confed- 
erate by the name of John King, who in all probability 
was the same " John King" who was " late under-sheriff 
of Morris county." His position gave him, of course, 
every facility to aid his companion in crime. Nor did 
Sheriff Kinney escape the charge of implication in this 
matter. He was afterward indicted for remissness of 
duty in allowing the escape of so dangerous a prisoner. 
The privy council regarded him as "blamable for neg- 
ligence in his office, respecting the escape of Ford," and 
advised the governor " to prosecute the said indictment 
at the next court." 



16 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Ford first fled to a lonely spot on the mountain, be- 
tween Mount Hope and Hibernia, and hid himself in a 
deserted colliery, called " Smultz's Cabin." Sheriff Kin- 
ney with a posse of men sought him there, but so leisure- 
ly that when he reached the cabin the bird had flown. 
From Hibernia Ford fled southward, boldly paying his 
way with his spurious Jersey bills and counterfeit coin. 
At last he reached Green Briar county, among the moun- 
tains of Virginia, where he settled and assumed the name 
of Baldwin. Here he followed the trade of a silversmith, 
forming a partnership with another man. During a se- 
vere illness he disclosed his real history to his partner's 
wife, who so sympathized with him that after his recov- 
ery and the death of her husband she married him, and 
thus became his third living wife. His first wife, as we 
have seen, was Grace Kitchel, of Hanover. While in 
Ireland, perfecting himself in his " profession," he mar- 
ried an Irish girl, with whom he is said to have received 
considerable money. She came to this country with him, 
and was well nigh crazed on finding that he already had 
a wife and children. She is said afterward to have mar- 
ried an Irishman, and lived for many years in Whippany. 

The pursuit of Ford was not of a very diligent charac- 
ter. When his whereabouts became known in the course 
of time it does not appear that he was molested. His 
oldest son, William Ford, and Stephen Halsey (son of 
Ananias) visited him in Virginia,- where they found him 
with "a great property," a new wife, and some promising 
young Baldwins; and thus the possible ancestor, so the 
historian suggests of the Virginia Baldwins who have 
figured in public life. To his son and Mr. Halsey he 
seemed to be a " most melancholy man." He professed 
to them a deep penitence for his sins, and a grace which 
led to a religious life; the sincerity of which we may how- 
ever be permitted to doubt, as it did not lead him to 
abandon his adulterous relations and do justice to the 
excellent woman in New Jersey whom he had left to support 
herself and his family without a farthing's aid from him. 

At the time of Ford's arrest and escape several other 
persons were taken up on suspicion of being connected 
with him in his " money-making scheme." On the 4th 
of August 1773 ^ special term of oyer and terminer was 
held for the purpose of eliciting information respecting 
the parties implicated and the extent of their guilt. On 
the 14th one of those concerned, that he might mitigate 
his own punishment, made a partial confession, and was 
followed by another who gave a full and explicit state- 
ment of all the details. The swamp was examined and 
the press found, together with a set of plates for printing 
the bills of Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York and New 
Jersey; a quantity of type and other materials, and a 
leather wrapper in which the money was kept. The late 
Sheriff Robertson of Morris county became the owner of 
the house in which Ford lived, on the Hammock, and in 
repairing it found some of Ford's counterfeiting tools in 
the walls, where many years before he had secreted them. 
But the confessions of which we have spoken led to 
other results than the discovery of the counterfeiters' 
paraphernalia. Men who occupied high positions in so- 



ciety were arrested. Their names have already been 
given — Cooper, Budd, Haynes, Reynolds and Ayers. 
The last was of Sussex, and was tried in that county. 
The other four were arraigned in the old court-house at 
Morristown on the 19th of August 1773. A thousand 
people were thought to be within its walls, and among 
them all scarcely an eye could be found which did not 
exhibit some tokens of sympathetic sorrow. Having 
pleaded guilty, the sentence was now to be pronounced 
upon them, viz. that upon the 17th of September follow- 
ing they should expiate their crime upon the gallows. 
One of the magistrates before whom the case was tried, 
was father of one of the culprits. The best families and 
society in the county had representatives in the number 
of the condemned. But the sentence thus faithfully pro- 
nounced was not to be as faithfully executed. The re- 
spectability of the culprits and their influential connec- 
tions were made to bear with great effect upon the par- 
doning power. The day fixed for their execution ar- 
rived, and Reynolds, who seems to have been really the 
least guilty of the lot, but who alone unfortunately for 
himself had no influential friends, suffered the ignomini- 
ous death to which he had been sentenced; while the 
other three were remanded, and finally in December, 
after a number of respites, Governor Franklin gave them 
a full pardon. 

Dr. Budd continued to live in Morristown until his 
death, from putrid fever, December 14th 1777, at the 
age of thirty-nine. So great was his reputed skill in the 
practice of his profession that he still found many ready 
to employ him. One of his patients, a very inquisitive 
woman, the first time she had occasion for his services 
after his pardon, asked him very naively " how he kind 
of felt when he came so near being hanged." His answer 
is not recorded. 

This " money-making scheme " of Ford and his com- 
panions has a wider than local interest from its con- 
nection with the robbery of the treasury of East Jersey 
at Perth Amboy, on the night of the 21st of July 1768,' 
in which ^^6,570 9s. 4d. in coin and bills were stolen. 
Cooper, Haynes and Budd, under sentence of death for 
counterfeiting, as above narrated, made confessions 
which pointed to Ford as the planner and prime mover 
of this bold and successful villainy, the first of whom 
admitted having received ^300 of the stolen money. 
Ford strenuously denied the charge; but his denial could 
scarcely counterbalance the confessions just noticed. He 
was never tried for the crime, having fled, as already seen, 

beyond the reach of the law before the confessions were 
made. 

The career of this bad man is the one foul blot upon 
our local history, bringing disgrace to the town, and sor- 
row of heart to the estimable family of which he was a 
most unworthy representative. 

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

PATRIOTS OF MORRIS COUNTY. 

The period of the war of the Revolution forms a chapter 
by itself in the local history of Morristown, a chapter to 



MORRISTOWN PATRIOTS IN 1775. 



113 



which the leading historians of those eventful years have 
paid too little attention. This neglect will justify a 
somewhat full account of this memorable period. Rev. 
Samuel L. Tuttle, pastor of the Presbyterian church of 
Madison from 1854 to 1862, and Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, 
D. D., pastor of the Presbyterian church of Rockaway 
from 1848 to 1862, and since that time president of 
Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind., have done much 
to preserve the revolutionary history of this region. 
Valuable articles from their pens upon this subject may 
be found in The Historical Magazine, published at Mor- 
risania, N. Y., by Henry B. Dawson, in the numbers for 
March, May and June 1871. To these articles we are 
largely indebted in the preparation of this sketch. 

When the war of the Revolution began the village of 
Morristown numbered, it is said, about 250 inhabitants, 
while in the redion about was a thriving and somewhat 
populous farming community. From the rolls of the 
church, which good Pastor Johnes so carefully kept, and 
from the records of the court, we are able to determine 
pretty fully these early names. Colonel Jacob Ford sen., 
Colonel Jacob Ford jr., Dr. Jabez Campfield, Major Jo- 
seph Lindsley, Jacob Johnson, Silas Condict, Rev. 
Timothy Johnes and John Doughty were among the 
leading citizens, while the names of Prudden, Pierson, 
Fairchild, Freeman, Howell, Allen, Day, Dickerson, 
King, Wood, Lum, Cutler, Beach, Tichenor, Hathaway, 
Frost, Blatchley, Crane, Coe, Munson, etc., are of fre- 
quent occurrence. 

The Hathaway and Johnes families owned and oc- 
cupied property to the north of the town, the Ford fam- 
ily to the east. General John Doughty to the south, and 
Silas Condict and his brothers to the west. Colonel 
Jacob Arnold, of " Light Horse " fame, was keeping tav- 
ern on the west side of the park, in the building now 
owned by P. H. Hoffman; while Colonel Jacob Ford 
had just built the mansion in which Washington passed 
a winter, and which is now known as the " Head- 
quarters." 

The financial condition of the people at that time was 
far from prosperous, but they were none the less zealous 
in their attachment to the cause of freedom and desire 
for the prosecution of the war. While the great mass of 
the inhabitants were Whigs, there were nevertheless a 
few tories. An amusing incident is told of "an English 
immigrant," residing in Hanover, " a man of considerable 
property and not a little hauteur, who had drunk deeply 
into toryisra," who held " many an ardent controversy " 
with " Parson Green " on the subject of American inde- 
pendence. Ashbel Green, the parson's son, heard the 
talk and afterward saw this tory standing up in the church 
on a Sunday, while the minister read his confession of 
the sin of toryism; being earnestly moved thereto by the 
rumor that some of the hot bloods of Morristown had 
threatened him with a coat of tar and feathers. This 
was in the forenoon; in the afternoon the culprit rode 
rapidly to the said " neighboring town " to get Dr. Johnes 
to read for him the same confession there, which the 
doctor at last convinced him was unnecessary. The 



courts were less forbearing to tories, from the records of 
which it appears they had either to " repent or perish." 

On the nth of January 1775 the Legislature met at 
Perth Amboy. The representatives from Morris county 
were Jacob Ford and William Winds. It is quite 
evident from the proceedings that the Assembly and the 
governor were by no means in accord. In fact their 
views were as wide apart as the poles. Cortland Skinner, 
of Perth Amboy, was speaker. On the 13th of January 
the governor addressed the Assembly; his speech was 
short, but was pointed and filled with suggestive warn- 
ings of the fatal consequences of treason. The speech 
was read twice after its delivery and then "'committed" 
to a committee of the whole house. Before this action a 
" committee of grievances," consisting of ten members, 
was appointed, Jacob Ford, from Morris county, being a 
member. This committee or any three of them were 
authorized to meet at such times and places as they 
might think proper to appoint, either during the sitting 
of the Assembly or at any other time. The address of 
the governor had given the Assembly much trouble, as 
that body in a committee of the whole house had spent 
several days considering it and in preparation of a reply. 
In his rejoinder the governor declined further, argument. 
The following resolution, passed at a meeting of the 
county committee of observation held in Hanover, Feb- 
ruary 15th 1775, 's but the prelude to the drama of sacri- 
fice and suffering so soon to be enacted: 

^^ Resolved unanimously, that this committee will, after 
the first day of March next, esteem it a violation of the 
seventh article of said association if any person or per- 
sons should kill any sheep until it is four years old, or 
sell any such sheep to any person who he or they may 
have cause to suspect will kill them or carry them to 
market; and further that they will esteem it a breach of 
said article if any inhabitant of this township should sell 
any sheep of any kind whatsoever to any person dwelling 
out of this county, or to any person who they may have 
cause to suspect will carry them out of this county, with- 
out leave first obtained of this committee." 

No toothsome lamb to tickle the palates of these stout- 
hearted patriots, while the wool from the backs of the 
live animals was needed to make the necessary garments 
for themselves and their families. No woolen fabrics 
for them from the looms and factories of their oppressors, 
while they could shear and children could pick and wives 
and daughters could card and spin and weave the wool 
of the native sheep into cloth. No linen or cordage from 
across the water if they could raise hemp and flax. The 
same committee at the same meeting also provided pro- 
tection of a certain sort for the consumer of domestic 
manufactures. While they urged the care and growth of 
fabrics for home consumption and placed the tariff of 
public opinion most strongly on the wares of their great 
enemy, they protected the consumer from exorbitant 
prices. So they resolved that " if any manufacturer of 
any article made for home consumption or any vender of 
goods or merchandise in this township shall take advan- 
tage of the necessities of his country, by selling at an 
unusual price, such person shall be considered an enemy 
to his country; and do recommend it to the inhabitants 



114 



HISTORY OF kORRtS COUNTV. 



of this township to remember that after the ist of March 
next no East India tea is to be used in any case whatso- 
ever." 

At the beginning of the war one of the most enterpris- 
ing of Morristown's " leading citizens " was Colonel Jacob 
Ford. The past and present prominence of the Ford 
family in local history warrants the insertion of the fol- 
lowing genealogical note. In the diary of the late Hon. 
Gabriel H. Ford, son of Colonel Jacob Ford jr., was 
found the following entry: 

Thursday, 22sf Jicne 1849. — ^ census was taken in the 
years 177T and 1772 in the British provinces of America, 
and deposited, after the Revolution, as public archives, 
at Washington; but their room becoming much wanted, 
those of each province were delivered to the members of 
Congress from it, to cull what they chose, preparatory to 
a burning of the rest. General Mahlon Dickerson, then 
a member from New Jersey, selected some from the 
county of Morris, and sent rae yesterday a copy verbatim 
of one entry, as follows; "Widow Elizabeth Lindsley, 
mother of Colonel Jacob Ford, was born in the city of 
Axford, in old England; came into Philadelphia when 
there was but one house in it; and into this province 
when she was but one year and a half old. Deceased April 
2rst 1772, aged 91 years and one month." I always un- 
derstood in the family by tradition from her (whose short 
stature and slender, bent person, I clearly recall, having 
lived in the same house with her and with my parents, in 
my grandfather's family, at her death and before it) that 
her father fled from England when there was a universal 
dread of returning popery and persecution, three years 
before the death of Charles the Second, A. D. 1682, and 
two years before the accession of James the Second, in 
1684; that while landing his goods at Philadelphia he 
fell from a plank into the Delaware river and was 
drowned between the ship and the shore, leaving a 
family of young children in the wilderness. That 
she had several children by her first husband, whose 
name was Ford, but none by her second husband, 
whose name was Lindsley; at whose death she was taken 
into the family of her son, Colonel Jacob Ford sen., and 
treated with filial tenderness the remaining years of her 
life, which were many. I am in the 85th year (since Jan- 
uary last) of my age, being born in 1765, and was 7 years 
old at her death. 

Her son. Colonel Jacob Ford sen., was, as we have 
seen, one of the judges of " the inferior court of common 
pleas for Morris county" in 1740, and for many years 
thereafter he appears to have delivered the charges to 
the grand jury, and was not infrequently a member of 
the lower house in the Provincial Assembly. His second 
son and namesake was not less prominent than his hon- 
ored father. Though a young man he had been previous 
to the war intrusted with difficult missions by the State, 
which he had faithfully executed. But his name comes 
into special prominence as the builder of an important 
powder-mill, on the Whippany River, near Morristown, 
the exact location of which we regret we have been un- 
able to ascertain. Early in the year 1776, as may be 
gathered from the Boteler papers in the New Jersey his- 
torical library, he " offered to erect a powder-mill in the 
county of Morris, for the making of gunpowder, an article 
so essential at the present time "; and the Provincial 
Congress agreed to lend him ;^2,ooo of the public money 
for one year, without interest, on his giving " satisfactory 



security for the same to be repaid within the time of one 
year in good merchantable powder "; the first installment 
" of one ton of good merchantable powder " to be paid 
" on first of July next, and one ton per month thereafter 
till the sum of ^2,000 be paid." This " good merchant- 
able powder " did excellent service in many a battle 
thereafter, and wasone of the main reasons of the re- 
peated but fruitless attempts of the enemy to reach Mor- 
ristown. That the brilliant services of Colonel Ford 
were appreciated at the time may be seen by reference to 
the American Archives, Vol. III., 1,259, 1,278 and r,4ig. 

Such an attempt was made but a few months after the 
powder-mill was put into operation. But the man who 
was capable of making " good merchantable powder " 
was capable of using it and thus defending his invaluable 
mill. On the fourteenth of December 1776 the enemy 
reached Springfield, where they were met by Colonel 
Ford's militia, numbering seven hundred, with such 
spirit that they were glad to relinquish their design of 
reaching Morristown, and retreat the next day, under 
General Leslie, " toward Spank-Town." On the 13th of 
the same month, the day before the engagement at 
Springfield, a company of British dragoons had pene- 
trated as far as Basking Ridge, where they captured Gen- 
eral Charles Lee. 

These incidents lead to a correction of the prevalent 
mistake that no portion of the American army was 
in camp in this vicinity until after the battle of Prince- 
ton. On the 20th of December 1776 Washington wrote 
to the president of Congress that he had " directed the 
three regiments from Ticonderoga to halt at Morristown, 
in Jersey (where I understand about eight hundred militia 
had collected), in order to inspirit the inhabitants, and, 
as far as possible, to cover that part of the country." 
These were " eastern regiments," and were led hither 
under the command of Colonel Vose. They were: 
" Greaton's regiment, about 250 men; Bond's do., 100; 
Porter's do., 170; in all 520 men." In a letterof General 
McDougall to Washington, bearing date December 19th 
1776, he says he came to Morristown the day after Gen- 
eral Lee was captured at Basking Ridge, and that Vose 
arrived at Morristown " day before yesterday," which 
was therefore the 17th of December. General Washing- 
ton did not reach Morristown until the 7th of the follow- 
ing month. The importance of Colonel Ford's powder- 
mill in the estimation of both friend and foe was doubt- 
less the main reason why Washington ordered these 
eastern regiments to remain in Morristown at a time 
when he so greatly needed them. The absence of a Morris 
county regiment in the- north, who were in the regular 
service under the command of Colonel William Winds, it 
should be said, had largely diminished the local means of 
defense, and rendered necessary the presence of these 
eastern regiments. Colonel Ford's militia doubtless re- 
mained under arms until the- arrival of Washington. On 
the 22nd of December he led them home from Chatham, 
where they had remained to watch the movements of 
the enemy. On the 31st of the same month they were 
on parade, only a week before the arrival of Morristown's, 



WASHINGTON AT ARNOLD'S— THE SMALLPOX HOSPITALS. 



IIS 



greater guest. It is not probable that they had disbanded 
before that time. 

Washington's first winter in morristown. 

Washington reached Morristown January 7th 1777. 
The memorable campaign which had just closed; the re- 
treat through New Jersey, known as "the mud rounds;" 
the brilliant victories of Trenton and Princeton, need not 
be here related. On the 4th of January the battle of 
Princeton was' fought, and three days afterward the 
American army went into winter quarters at Morristown 
and vicinity... Washington himself located at the Arnold 
tavern. This historic building is still standing, though 
considerably altered since it sheltered its illustrious 
guest. It is situated on the west side of the Green, or 
what is now called Park place, and is occupied on the 
first floor by the grocery store of Adams & Fairchild, the 
clothing store of P. H. Hoffman and jewelry store of F. 
J. Crowell, At that time it was a two-storied house. 
The first floor was divided into four rooms, with a hall 
running through the center from front to rear. Wash- 
ington, according to Mr. Tuttle, occupied the two rooms 
on the south side, where is now the grocery store, using 
the front room as a general office and sitting room and 
the back for a sleeping apartment. 

The present owner of the building, P. H. Hoffman, 
says Washington slept in the front room over his store; 
where the grocery store is was only one room — the par- 
lor. The hall through which the great man was wont to 
pass was recently fitted up as a store, and is now occu- 
pied by the jeweler above mentioned. Among the tradi- 
tions concerning the occupancy of this house by Wash- 
ington is one that he was initiated into the mysteries of 
freemasonry in this building, though some accounts say 
it was in a different building but occurred while his 
headquarters were in this one. This tradition will, how- 
ever, appear further on to have no foundation in fact. 

Those were dark days for Washington and his fellow 
patriots. He had scarcely settled in his new quarters 
before trouble began. Four days after his arrival he was 
called to mourn the loss of the brave and noble Colonel 
Jacob Ford jr. On the parade of the 31st of December, 
to which reference has already been made. Colonel Ford 
was seized " with a delirium in his head and was borne 
off by a couple of soldiers, after which he never rose 
from his bed." He died January nth 1777, at the early 
age of nearly thirty-nine years, being born February rgth 

1738. 

Thus died, in the midst of his usefulness and in the 
vigor of his manhood, one of the most promising and 
brilliant men whom Morristown and Morris county ever 
produced. On January 27th 1762 he married Theodo- 
cia, daughter of Rev. Timothy Johnes, who afterward 
became the hostess of Washington in his second winter 
at Morristown, in the house now celebrated as the 
" Headquarters." Colonel Ford was buried, by the order 
of Washington, with the honors of war. On the igth of 
the same month his father. Colonel Jacob Ford sen., died 
of fever, at the age of 73, being born April 13th 1704. 



Death made fearful inroads that memorable winter, 
both in the army and among the citizens. On the nth 
of January 1777, the same day the younger Ford died* 
the death of Martha, widow of Joshua Ball, from small- 
pox, is recorded, the sad forerunner of the darkest year 
this community ever saw. There were two more deaths 
during the month from the same disease; and then the 
roll rapidly increased until in that one year it had reached 
68 deaths from smallpox. No age or condition was 
spared. The infant, the mother, the father, the youth, the 
aged, the bond, the free, were reckoned among its victims. 

But smallpox was not the only disease working havoc 
in that dread year. Putrid sore throat, dysentery, and 
other maladies swelled the death roll of the parish to the 
astounding number of 205, exclusive of all who died in 
the army. 

"An establishment," says Sparks, " for inoculation was 
provided near Morristown for the troops in camp; one 
at Philadelphia for those coming from the south, another 
in Connecticut, another in Providence." Rev. Samuel 
L. Tuttle, in his " Sketch of Bottle Hill during the Rev- 
olution " [Historical Magazine), however, has clearly 
shown that this was not " an establishment," but a series 
of inoculating hospitals in the towns of Morris and Han- 
over. From him we learn that one of these hospitals 
was the house which stood at that time on the farm of 
the late John Ogden, about two miles south of Morris- 
town. The house was -then owned and occupied by 
Elijah Pierson, and for several months it was continually 
filled with both soldiers and citizens, who repaired 
thither in order to guard themselves, by inoculation, 
against the smallpox. " I have been informed," says 
Mr. Tuttle, " by some of the Brookfield family, residing 
but a little distance from the Lowantica camp ground, 
that they received it from their Revolutionary ancestors, 
who lived and died on the ground, that during the same 
winter there was a small encampment on the hill back of 
the Bonsall mansion, a short distance north of the place 
last described [Pierson's]; and it has seemed to me not 
improbable that there was an arrangement also made for 
inoculating the army." 

The old First Presbyterian and Baptist churches, the 
predecessors of the present buildings, were not exempt 
from the necessities of this terrible scourge. They, too, 
were turned into smallpox hospitals for soldiers. Under 
date of September i6th 1777, when the plague had been 
stayed, we find in the trustees' book of the former church 
the following minute: 

"Agreed that Mr. Conklin, Mr. Tuthill, Mr. Lindsly 
& Mr. Stiles or any two of them wait upon some of the 
Docts. of the Hospital in Morristown & apply for a 
resignation of the meeting house, and if obtained then to 
apply to the Commanding Officer at this post to remove 
the troops thence; & at their discretion to proceed further 
in cleansing and refitting the house for Public Worship 
& to make report of their progress in the premises at their 
next meeting." 

It would appear that the progress made in the premises 
was not altogether satisfactory, for under date of July 
13th 1778 appears this entry: 



ii6 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



"July 13th 1778 the Trustees met at Doer. Tuthill's; 
present, Mr. Conklin, Mr. Tuthill, Mr. Stiles, Mr. Linds- 
ley, Mr. Mills & the President; agreed that Mr. Tuthill, 
Mr. Stiles & Mr. Mills be a committee to wait on Doct. 
Draper & inform him of the Law of this State Relative 
to Billeting of Soldiers, & that the committee or either 
of them be Impowered to prosecute such Person or Per- 
sons who may take possession of the meeting house or 
other property of the Trustees contrary to the said Law, 
& that they make report what they have done in the 
premises to this Board at their next meeting." 

As the army left here in May 1777 we may infer from 
this last minute that the church was retained as a hospital 
for those incapacited by sickness from the severities of 
active warfare. If this be so the pastor and people were 
obliged for a year and a half to worship, as we know 
they did a part of the time, in the open air. 

An incident of special interest to the ivriter of this 
article may be mentioned in this connection. He has 
heard his mother relate the old stories which her father, 
Nehemiah Smith, told her when a child of his experience 
in the Revolutionary war. Although she does not re- 
member the name of Morristown, yet these stories are so 
circumstantial as to leave no doubt in her mind that he 
was a smallpox patient in the old church of which the 
writer was lately the pastor. In the work of inoculation, 
to which the people seriously objected, Washington was 
greatly aided by the influence of the ministry, especially 
of Dr. Johnes and Parson Green. 

How large the death roll in the army was cannot now 
be ascertained, but that hundreds were swept away by 
the plague cannot be doubted. 

Disease, however, was not the only cause of anxiety to 
the guest of the " Arnold tavern." Very soon after 
reaching here he wrote the following letter, which reveals 
another serious source of alarm: 



"Headquarters, Morristown, January 31st 1777. 

" The great countenance and protection shown and 
given to deserters by persons in the different neighbor- 
hoods from whence they originally came has made that 
vice so prevalent in the army that, unless some very ef- 
fectual measures are fallen upon to prevent it, our new 
army will scarcely be raised before it will again dwindle 
and waste away from that cause alone. 

" I know of no remedy so effectual as for the different 
States immediately to pass laws laying a very severe pen- 
alty upon those who harbour or fail to give information 
against deserters, knowing them to be such, and strictly 
enjoining all justices of the peace and officers of the 
militia to keep a watchful eye over and apprehend "all 
such persons as shall return from the army without a 
discharge. 

" In order that this most salutary measure may be car- 
ried speedily into execution, I have not only desired 
Congress to recommend it to the different States, but 
have myself wrote circular letters to them all, pressing 
their compliance with my request. Desertion must cease 
of course when the offenders find they have no shelter. 

" I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obe- 
dient servant. Go. Washington. 

" To the Hon. the representatives of the State of New 
Jersey." 

Then, too, Washington was not altogether satisfied 
with the position of Morristown as a place for. locating 



his army. On reaching here he writes: "The situation 
is by no means favorable to our views, and as soon as the 
purposes are answered for which we came I think to re- 
move, though I confess I do not know how we shall pro- 
cure covering for our men elsewhere," That he did not 
soon remove, and that he returned here for another 
winter, would indicate that as he became more familiar 
with the topography of the county his early impression 
of " the unfavorable situation " was changed. 

January 13th, scarcely a week after his arrival here, he 
wrote two letters to Lord Howe, on the subject of " the 
barbarous usage " our soldiers and sailors were receiving 
in New York, " which their emaciated countenances 
confirm." " Did he not endeavor to obtain a redress of 
their grievances," he writes " he would think himself as 
culpable as those who inflict such severities upon them." 

The correspondence which passed between these two 
distinguished persons during the winter had in the midst 
of all its seriousness, if tradition may be believed, an oc- 
casional vein of humor. Howe is said to have sent to 
Washington, at one time, a copy of Watts's version of 
the one hundred and twentieth Psalm, as follows: 

" Thou God of love, thou ever blest. 
Pity my suffering state ; 
When wilt thou set my soul at rest 
From lips that love deceit ? 

" Hard lot of mine ! my days are cast 
Among the sons of strife, 
"Whose never ceasing brawlings waste 
My golden hours of life. 

" O ! might I change my place. 
How would I choose to dwell 
In some wide, lonesome wilderness. 
And leave these gates of hell !" 

To this, it is said, Washington returned Watts's version 
of the one liundred and first Psalm, entitled " The 
Magistrate's Psalm," containing the following pointed 
verses: 



" In vain shall sinners strive to rise 
By flattering and malicious lies ; 
And while the innocent I guard 
The'bold offender sba'nt he spared. 

" The impious crew, that factious liand. 
Shall hide their heads, or quit the land ; 
And all who break the public rest. 
Where I have power, shall be supprest." 

Rev. Dr. J. F. Tuttle states that he received the above 
tradition from two entirely distinct sources. 

Still another trouble weighed heavily upon the anxious 
heart of Washington. The term of enlistment of many 
of his troops was about to expire; and most earnest let- 
ters were sent " to the council of safety,'' '" to the presi- 
dent of Congress," " to the governors of the thirteen 
States," calling for more men and munitions. On the 
26th of January he wrote: " Reinforcements come up so 
extremely slow that I am afraid I shall be left without 
any men before they arrive. The enemy must be igno- 
rant of our numbers, or they have not horses to move 
their artillery, or they would not suffer us to remain un- 
disturbed." 

One of the members of " the council of safety " was 
Silas Condict, of this town. The following letter of his 
is not without interest: 



TORY SPIES AT MORRISTOWN— GAMBLING IN CAMP. 



T17 



" MoRRiSTOWN, April 7th 1777. 

" Dear Sir, — This day I received your favor of the 23d 
ult., wherein you acquaint me that I have been appointed 
one of the council of safety. I am much concerned that 
you have so few members attending at this critical season; 
and, although it is extremely difficult at present for me 
to leave home (my family being inoculated and not yet 
through the smallpox), yet I will come at any time 
rather than public business should suffer, on notice being 
given me that it is necessary. Colonel De Hart told me 
to-day that the battalion had arranged its officers, and 
only wanted an opportunity to present it for commission. 
The colonel says that he has at General Washington's re- 
quest examined several of the prisoners now in jail here, 
and that it will be best for the council of safety to sit in 
this county soon; and if this is thought proper I think it 
will be best to sit either at Mendham or at Captain 
Dunn's, in Roxbury, as the army is still at Morristown, 
and it will be inconvenient to sit there. 

" I am, with great respect, your most obedient and 
humble servant, 

" Silas Condict. 

" His Excellency Gov. Livingston." 

The jail, as Mr. Condict's letter informs us, was full of 
prisoners. These were spies, tories, and dangerous char- 
acters. The i)resence of such persons was another 
source of annoyance and anxiety. But their cunning was 
not always successful. Dr. Tuttle relates an anecdote 
which he had from G. P. McCulloch, who heard it from 
General Doughty, a Revolutionary soldier, residing in 
Morristown. A certain man was employed by Washing- 
ton af a spy, to gain information concerning the enemy, 
but it was suspected that he carried the enemy more 
news than he brought to those in whose employ he was. 
General Greene, who acted as quartermaster-general, oc- 
cupied a small office on the southeast corner of the Green, 
where the drug store of Geiger & Smith now is. One 
day Colonel Hamilton was in this office when the sus- 
pected spy made his appearance. The colonel had pre- 
pared what purported to be a careful statement of the 
condition of the army, both as to numbers and munitions, 
making the numbers much more flattering than the actual 
facts. Leaving this statement on the table, apparently 
by mistake. Colonel Hamilton left the office, saying he 
would return in a few minutes. The spy instantly 
seized the paper as a very authentic document, and left 
with it for parts unknown. It was supposed that this 
trick did much to preserve the army from attack that 

winter. 

Still another source of trouble is apparent from the 

following " general order:" 

" Headquarters, Morristown, 8th May 1777. 
" As few vices are attended with more pernicious con- 
sequences than gaming — which often brings disgrace and 
ruin upon officers, and injury and punishment upon the 
soldiery — and reports prevailing (which it is to be feared 
are too well founded) that this destructive vice has 
spread its baleful influence in the army, and in a peculiar 
manner to the prejudice of the recruiting service, the 
■commander-in-chief, in the most pointed and explicit 
terms, forbids all officers and soldiers playing at cards, 
dice, or at any games except those of exercise, for diver- 
sion; it being impossible, if the practice be allowed at all, 
to d'iscriminate between innocent play for amusement 
and criminal gaming for pecuniary and sordid purposes. 



" Officers attentive to their duty will find abundant 
employment in training and disciplining their men, pro- 
viding for them, and seeing that they appear neat, clean 
and soldierlike. Nor will anything redound more to their 
honor, afford them more solid amusement, or better answer 
the end of their appointment, than to devote the vacant 
moments they may have to the study of military authors. 

" The commanding officer of every corps is strictly en- 
joined to have this order frequently read and strongly 
impressed upon the minds of those under his command. 
Any officer or soldier, or other persons belonging to 
or following the army— either in camp, in quarters, on 
the recruiting service, or elsewhere— presuming, under 
any pretence, to disobey this order, shall be tried by a 
general court martial. The general officers in each 
division of the army are to pay the strictest attention to 
the due exercise thereof. 

"The adjutant-general is to transmit copies of this 
order to the diff'erent departments of the army. _ Also, 
to execute the same to be immediately published in the 
gazettes of each State, for the information of officers dis- 
persed on the recruiting service. 

" By his Excellency's command, 

" Morgan Connor, Adj. pro tem." 

It is not to be wondered at that under all these depress- 
ing circumstances the troubled heart of Washington 
turned for support and comfort to the God of all strength, 
to the God of nations and of battles. We are not sur- 
prised, therefore, that as the time of the communion 
drew near, which was then observed semi-annually, 
Washington sought good Pastor Johnes, and inquired 
of him if membership with the Presbyterian church was 
required "as a term of admission to the ordinance." 
The doctor's reply was, "Ours is npt the Presbyterian 
table, but the Lord's table, and we hence give the Lord's 
invitation to all his followers, of whatever name." This 
pleased and satisfied the general, and on the coming Sab- 
bath, in the cold air, he was present with the congrega- 
tion assembled in the orchard in the rear of the parson- 
age, the house now occupied by Mrs. Eugene Ayers, on 
Morris street; and in the natural basin still found there 
he sat down at the table of the Lord, and in the remem- 
brance of redeeming love obtained no doubt relief from 
the scenes that appalled and the cares that oppressed him. 
The common opinion is that the Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered in the church. This is so stated in Sparks's 
life of Washington and by other writers, but the true 
version is as already given. The church was occupied 
by invalid troops till the close of the year 1777, if not till 
some time in 1778, as the records of the trustees show. 
This was the only time after his entrance upon his public 
career that Washington is certainly known to have par- 
taken of the Lord's Supper. 

(For the proof of this interesting historical incidenl 
the reader is referred to The Record ior ]m\t a.x\A Kn- 
gust 1880.) 

Washington was a frequent attendant upon these open- 
air meetings. On one of these occasions, according to 
an account handed down by Doctor Johnes, Washington 
was sitting in his camp chair, brought in for the occasion. 
During the service a woman came into the congregation 
with a child in her arms; Washington arose from his 
chair and gave it to the woman with the child. 



ii8 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



The Rev. O. L. Kirtland, a former pastor in this town, 
in a letter to the Fi-esbyterian Magazine, and copied in 
The Record ior '^nne 1880, relates the following, which 
not only reveals the terrible trials of that winter, but the 
character of Washington, and the great secret of his 
power over the army: 

" Soon after I came to Morristown, in 1837 I think, I 
visit'ed ray native place, and met there an old man, 
bowed down with a^e, leaning tremblingly upon the top 
of his staff. His name was Cook. In my early child- 
hood he had been the physician in my father's family. 
As the old man met me, he said, ' You are located in 
Morristown, are you ?' ' Yes, sir.' ' I was there too,' 
said the doctor, once; ' I was under Washington in the 
army of the Revolution. It was hard times then — hard 
times. There was a time when all our rations were but a 
single gill of wheat a day. Washington used to come 
round and look into our tents, and he looked so kind, 
and he said so tenderly, ' Men, can you bear it ?' ' Yes, 
general, yes, we can,' was the reply; 'if you wish us to 
act, give us the word, and we are ready.' " 

Tradition relates that Washington amidst all his other 
troubles during that dreadful winter was not himself ex- 
empt from the hand of disease. He had, it is said, a 
dangerous attack of quinsy sore throat, so that his friends 
felt serious apprehensions about his recovery. In this 
fear they asked him to indicate the man best fitted to 
succeed him in the command of the army, and without 
hesitation he pointed to General Nathaniel Greene. 

Thus' that ever- memorable season wore away. The 
homes of our citizens vvere filled with the soldiers billeted 
upon them, and for whom they had to provide. Suffer- 
ing, deprivation, disease and death were upon every 
hand. Never were these combinations of evils better 
calculated to undermine the courage of all concerned in 
the struggle; and yet their faith in God never failed. 
Washington was not an unmoved spectator of the griefs 
about him, and often might be seen in Hanover and 
Lowantica Valley cheering the faith and inspiring the 
courage of his suffering men. His labors were very 
heavy in the southeast room of the "Arnold tavern:" 
urging on Congress the necessity of tendering an oath of 
allegiance to all the inhabitants and outlawing those that 
refused it; now advising and inspiring his generals — 
Benedict Arnold among them, but too base to be elevated 
by his communion with the great spirit of the age; now 
hurrying forward the enlistment of troops and the col- 
lection of munitions; now teaching Lord Howe some 
lessons in humanity by the law of retaliation; " although," 
says he, "I shall always be happy to manifest my disin- 
clination to any undue severities toward those whom the 
fortune of war may chance to throw into my hands." 
His situation is extremely trying, for on the 2nd of March 
he writes: " General Howe cannot have * * * less 
than ten thousand men in the Jerseys. * * * Our 
number does not exceed four thousand. His are well 
disciplined, well officered and well appointed; ours raw 
militia, badly officered and under no government." The 
balance sheet thus struck seemed to be against him. 
But then Robert Morris, the great finaneier of the 
Revolution, did not express himself too strongly in 



writing that very winter to Washington: "Heaven no 
doubt for the noblest purposes has blessed you with a 
firmness of mind, steadiness of countenance, and patience 
in sufferings, that give you infinite advantages over other 
men." 

About the end of May Washington led his army from 
Morristown to engage in the campaign of 1777, made 
memorable by the bloody reverses of Chad's Ford and 
Germantown. 

Washington's second winter at morristown. 

We pass over fhe intervening time between Washing- 
ton's leaving Morristown in May 1777 and his return to 
it in December 1779. The duty of selecting the winter 
quarters in the latter year had been committed to General 
Greene, who had reported two places to the commander- 
in-chief, the one at Aquackanock, the other within four 
miles of Morristown. Greene preferred the former, but 
Washington's preference was the latter. On the 7th of 
December 1779 he writes to Governor Livingston from 
Morristown that " the main army lies within three or 
four miles from this place." And on the 15th he ordered 
Generals Greene and Duportail " to examine all the 
grounds in the environs of our present encampment for 
spots most proper to be occupied in case of any move- 
ment of the enemy toward us," the positions to be large 
enough for the maneuvers of ten thousand men. 

On the ist of December 1779 Washington became the 
guest of Mrs. Ford, the widow of Colonel Jacob Ford jr. 
and daughter of the Rev. Timothy Johnes. 

On the 22nd of January r78o he wrote to Quarter- 
master General Greene, whose duty it was to provide for 
the comfort of the commander-in-chief: " I have been 
at my present quarters since the ist day of December, 
and have not a kitchen to cook a dinner in — nor is there 
a place at this moment in which a servant can lodge with 
the smallest degree of comfort. Eighteen belonging to 
my family and all Mrs. Ford's are crowded together in 
her kitchen, and scarce one of them able to speak for the 
colds they have." Soon a log kitchen was built at the 
east end of the house for the use of Washington's family. 
At the west end of the house, and but a little distance 
from it, another log cabin was built for a general office, 
which Washington occupied particularly in the day-time, 
with Colonel Alexander Hamilton and Major Tench 
Tighlman. This cluster of buildings was guarded night 
and day by sentinels. In the field southeast of the house 
huts were built for Washington's life guards, of whom 
there are said to have been two hundred and fifty, under 
command of General Colfax, grandfather of Schuyler 
Colfax, late vice-president of the United States. 

Several times in the course of the winter false alarms 
were given of the approach of the enemy. First a distant 
report of a gun would be heard from the most remote 
sentinel, and when one nearer, and so on, until the senti- 
nels by the house would fire in turn. From them it 
would be communicated on toward Morristown, until the 
last gun would be heard far to the westward at camp. 
Immediately the life guard would rush into the house, 



WASHINGTON AT THE "HEADQUARTERS." 



119 



barricade the doors, open the windows, and about five 
men would place themselves at each window, with their 
muskets brought to a charge, loaded and cocked ready 
for defense. There they would remain until the troops 
were seen marching, with music, at quick step toward the 
mansion. During one of these alarms an amusing inci- 
dent occurred tending to show the coolness of Washing- 
ton. One evening, about midnight, when some of the 
younger ofificers were indulging themselves over their 
wine, in the dining-room, an alarm was given. A guest, a 
young man from New York, something of a bon vivant, 
was in much trepidation, and rushing out into the entry 
exclaimed, " Where's the general ? Where's the general?" 
Washington, just then coming down stairs, met him, and 
in moderate tones said, " Be quiet, young man, be quiet." 

Timothy Ford, a son of Washington's hostess, was a 
severe sufferer all that winter from the effects of a wound 
received in a battle the previous fall; and among other 
pleasing courtesies we are told that every morning Wash- 
ington knocked at Timothy's door, and asked how the 
young soldier had passed the night. There was some- 
times scarcity at the headquarters as well as in the camp, 
as the following anecdote will show: '' We have nothing 
but the rations to cook, sir," said Mrs. Thompson, a very 
worthy Irishwoman, and housekeeper, to General Wash- 
ington. " Well, Mrs. Thompson, you must cook the ra- 
tions, for I have not a farthing to give you." " If you 
please, sir, let one of the gentlemen give me an order for 
six bushels of salt." "Six bushels of salt; for what?" 
" To preserve the fresh beef, sir." One of the aids gave 
the order, and next day his excellency's table was amply 
provided. Mrs. Thompson was sent for, and told she had 
done very wrong to expend her own money, for it was 
not known when she could be repaid. " I owe you," 
said his excellency, " too much already to permit the 
debt being increased, and our situation is not such as to 
induce very sanguine hope." " Dear sir," said the good 
old lady, " it is always darkest just before daylight, and 
I hope your excellency will forgive me for bartering salt 
for the other necessaries now on the table." Salt was 
eight dollars a bushel and could always be exchanged 
with the country people for articles of provision. 

A sketch of Washington now before me, says: "He 
(Washington) sometimes smiled, but is not recollected to 
have been seen laughing heartily except on one occasion. 
This was when he was describing Arnold's escape, and 
giving an account of his ludicrous appearance as he gal- 
loped from the Robinson House, near West Point, to 
embark on board the enemy's vessel." Dr. Tuttle in his 
paper on "Washington at Morristown," says: 

" The late General John Doughty of Morristown was 
an officer in the Revolutionary war, and knew Washing- 
ton both winters he spent at Morristown. He often told 
his friends that he never heard of Washington's laughing 
loud but once during the two winters. The exception 
was one that took place in the spring of 1780, when 
Washington had purchased a young spirited horse of 
great power, but which was not broken to the saddle. A 
man in the army, or town, who professed to be a perfect 
horseman, and who made loud proclamation of his gifts 



in that line, solicited and received permission from the 
general to break the horse to the saddle. Immediately 
back of Southside, below Market street was a large yard, 
to which Washington and his friends went to see the 
horse receive his first lesson. After many preliminary 
flourishes, the man made a leap to the horse's back, but 
no sooner was he seated than the horse made what is 
known as a ' stiff leap,' threw down his head and up his 
heels, casting the braggart over his head in a sort of 
elliptical curve. As Washington looked at the man, un- 
hurt but rolling in the dirt, the ludicrous scene overcame 
his gravity and he laughed aloud so heartily that the tears 
ran down his cheeks." 

Count Pulaski frequently exercised his corps of cavalry 
in front of the headquarters. He was an expert horse- 
man, and performed many feats of skill. He would some- 
times while his horse was on full gallop discharge his 
pistol, toss it in the air, catch it by the barrels, and throw 
it ahead as if at an enemy. With his horse still on a 
jump, he would lift one foot out of the stirrup, and with 
the other foot in, bend to the ground and recover the 
weapon. Some of the best horsemen in the army, be- 
longing to the Virginia Light Horse, attempted to imitate 
the feat; they would be successful in three or four trials 
as far as to catch the pistol; none, however, were able to 
pick it up, but in trying they got some severe falls. 

An officer who was with the army in Morristown thus 
gives his impressions of the commander-in-chief, while 
partaking of the hospitalities of his table : 

" It is natural to view with keen attention the counten- 
ance of an illustrious man, with the secret hope of dis- 
covering in his features some peculiar traces of the excel- 
lence which distinguishes him from, and elevates him 
above, his fellow mortals. These expectations are real- 
ized in a peculiar manner in viewing the person of Gen- 
eral Washington. His tall, noble stature and just pro- 
portions, his fine, cheerful, open countenance, simple and 
modest deportment, are all calculated to interest every 
beholder in his favor, and to command veneration and 
respect. He is feared even when silent, and beloved 
even while we are unconscious of the motive. The table 
was elegantly furnished and provisions ample, though 
not abounding in superfluities. The civilities of the 
table were performed by Colonel Hamilton and the other 
members of the family, the general and lady being seated 
at the side of the table. In conversation his excellency's 
expressive countenance is peculiarly interesting and pleas- 
ing; a placid smile is seen frequently on his lips, but a 
loud laugh, it is said, seldom if ever escapes him. He is 
polite and attentive to each individual at table, and re- 
tires after the compliments of a few glasses. Mrs. Wash- 
ington combines, in an uncommon degree, great dignity 
of manner with the most pleasing affability, but possesses 
no striking mark of beauty." 

Among the letters that were written by Washington 
that winter was one to "Major General Arnold" in an- 
swer to his letter asking " leave of absence from the army 
during the ensuing summer," on account of his health. 
Washington wrote, " You have my permission, though it 
is my expectation and wish to see you in the field;" 
then, alluding to the birth of a son, he says, " Let me 
congratulate you on the late happy event. Mrs. Wash- 
ington joins me in presenting her wishes for Mrs. Arnold 
on the occasion." 

How little either of the parties to these felicitations 



17 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



could forsee the future! Before that infant was six 
months older his mother was raving like a maniac over 
her husband's infamy, and the name of Arnold had be- 
come a stench in the nostrils of every American patriot. 

An important incident of that time must not be for- 
gotten. We learn that on the i8th of April i78o~the 
French minister, Chevalier de la Luzerne, and Don Juan 
de Miralles, a distinguished Spanish gentleman, repre- 
senting his court before our Congress, arrived at Morris- 
town. That was a great day in the Wick farm camp 
when these two distinguished foreigners were to be re- 
ceived. Even soldiers who had neither shoes nor coats 
looked cheerful, as if the good time so long expected was 
now at hand. Washington had many plans to lay before 
these representatives of two powerful allies, and of 
course time did not hang heavily. On the 24th Baron 
Steuben, the accomplished disciplinarian to whose severe 
training our army owed so much, had completed his 
preparations for the review of four battalions. This par- 
ade probably took place somewhere in the vicinity of 
Morristown. An eye witness makes a large draft on his 
stock of adjectives in describing the review. "A large 
stage " he says " was erected in the field, which was 
crowded with officers, ladies and gentlemen of distinc- 
tion from the country, among whom were Governor Liv- 
ingston of New Jersey and lady. Our troops exhibited 
a truly military appearance, and performed the evolu- 
tions in a manner which afforded much satisfaction to 
the commander-in-chief, and they were honored with 
the approbation of the French minister and all present. 

Our enthusiastic witness forgot to say whether Baron 
Steuben did or did not bring forward on that brilliant oc- 
casion any of the patriots who had no shoes or coats ; 
but probably they did duty in camp that day, while those 
who were better clothed, but no better disposed, flaunted 
before spectators their gayest war-plumage! In the even- 
ing General Washington and the French minister at- 
tended a ball provided by our principal officers, at which 
was present a numerous collection of ladies and gentle- 
men of distinguished character. Fireworks were also 
exhibited by the officers of the artilery, so that doubt- 
less that night of the 24th of April 1780 was a very 
merry night : rockets exploded, cannons occasionally 
roared like thunder, and some very curious inventions 
whirled and snapped to the delight of some thousands 
who did not attend the ball. O'Hara's parlors were as 
light as they could be made with good tallow candles, re- 
quiring to be snuffed. 

But while all this was passing where was " that distin- 
guished gentleman, Don Juan de Miralles?" We learn 
that he visited the Short Hills on the igth or 20th of 
April. When Baron Steuben on the 24th of April was 
reviewing the four battalions to the delight of Wash- 
ington, De la Luzerne, and others, and that night, while 
the fireworks were flashing their eccentricities in the 
darkness, and the sounds of music and dancing were 
heard at O'Hara's, Don Juan de Miralles was tossing 
with death fever. Four days afterward he died, and on 
Llie 29th of April his funeral took place, in a style never 



imitated or equalled in Morristown since. Dr. Thatcher 
exhausted all his strong words in expressing his admira- 
tion of the scene, and doubtless would have used more 
had they been at hand. Hear him: 

"I accompanied Dr. Schuyler to headquarters to at- 
tend the funeral of M. de Miralles. The deceased was a 
gentleman of high rank in Spain, and had been about 
one year a resident with our Congress from the Spanish 
court. The corpse was dressed in rich state and exposed 
to public view, as is customary in Europe. The coffin 
was most splendid and stately, lined throughout with fine 
cambric, and covered on the outside with rich black 
velvet, and ornamented in a superb manner. The^top of 
the coffin w^s removed to display the pomp and grandeur 
with which the body was decorated. It was a splendid 
full dress, consisting of a scarlet suit, embroidered with 
rich gold lace, a three-cornered gold-laced hat, a genteel- 
cued wig, white silk stockings, large diamond shoe and 
knee buckles, a profusion of diamond rings decorated 
the fingers, and from a superb gold watch set with dia 
raonds several rich seals were suspended. His excel- 
lency General Washington, with several other general 
officers, and members of the Congress, attended the 
funeral solemnities and walked as chief mourners. The 
other officers of the army and numerous respectable citi- 
zens formed a splendid procession, extending about one 
mile. The pall-bearers were six field officers, and the 
coffin was borne on the shoulders of four officers of the 
artillery in full uniform. Minute-guns were fired during 
the procession, which greatly increased the solemnity of 
the occasion. A Spanish priest performed service at the 
grave in the Roman Catholic form. The coffin was 
enclosed in a box of plank, and in all the profusion of 
pomp and grandeur was deposited in the silent grave in 
the common burying ground near the church at Morris- 
town. A guard is placed at the grave lest our soldiers 
should be tempted to dig for hidden treasure." 

This pompous funeral, so pompously described, was 
quite in contrast with the funeral procession which the 
previous week entered the same burying ground. The 
neighbors and friends of Jacob Johnson, who had been a 
bold rider in Arnold's troop of light horse, made a long 
procession. Dr. Johnes and the physician led the pro- 
cession on horseback, and the only wagon present was 
used to convey the coffin to the graveyard. At the house 
the pastor drew heavenly consolation for the afflicted 
from the word of God, and at the grave dismissed the 
people by thanking them for their kindness to the dead. 
And had Dr. Johnes officiated at the funeral of General 
Washington his services would have been just as simple 
and unostentatious. These two funerals made no un- 
interesting feature in the social life of Morristown when 
Washington spent his last winter there. 

No one has. studied more fully, or written more care- 
fully, the Revolutionary history of Morristown than the 
Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D., former pastor of the Pres- 
byterian church of Rockaway, and now president of 
Wabash College. In the interest of our readers we can 
not do better than to reproduce here, with his permission, 
a portion of an article from his pen, entitled " Washing- 
ton in Morris county, New Jersey," published in The 
Historical Magazine for June 1871. 

On the 30th of November 1779 General Greene, the 
quartermaster-general, wrote from Morristown to one of 



THE CAMP AT KIMBALL HILL. 



the quartermasters of New Jersey that " we are yet like 
the wandering Jews in search of a Jerusalem, not having 
fixt upon a position for hutting the army;" and he says 
that he has described two favorable positions to the 
commander-in-chief, " the one near Equacanock, the 
other near Mr. Kemble's, four miles from this place." 
The next day he writes to the same gentleman that " the 
general has fixed upon a place for hutting the army near 
Mr. Kimball's, within about four miles of this town. His 
reasons for this choice are unnecessary to be explained, 
but whatever they are they will prove very distressing to 
the quartermaster's department. * * * i beg you will 
set every wheel in motion that will give dispatch to 
business." His predictions concerning the commissary 
were fulfilled more literally than he himself dreamed of. 

The position actually chosen is one of the finest lo- 
calities in Morris county, and can be reached by two 
roads. The one principally traveled that winter is the old 
road to Mendham, over " Kimball's Hill," as it is called 
to this day. The camping ground is about four miles 
southwest from Morristown. Following the Basking 
Ridge road four miles, through a region famous for its 
excellent soil and fine scenery, with the mountain on 
your right, you come to the Kimball property, now owned 
by H. A. Hoyt, Esq. Here you turn to the right and 
ascend the highlands for a mile, and you are on the 
ground which must be considered as consecrated by the 
unparalleled hardships of the American army. The dif- 
ferent camps where were quartered the troops from New 
England, the middle and the southern States were on the 
lands which then belonged to Mr. Kimball and Mr. 
Wick, including some one thousand acres. The house 
on the Wick property is still standing, very much as it 
was in that winter, and it is worthy of a brief description. 
It is on the crown of the hill, whence you descend west- 
ward to Mendham and eastward to Morristown. In front 
of the house was an old oack locust — cut down in 1870 — at 
least two feet and a half in diameter; and at the east 
end is the largest red cedar I have ever seen. Both 
these trees were standing in 1780. In the immediate 
vicinity of the house are several immense black cherry 
trees, which belong to the same period. The house 
itself is nearly square, and is built in the old style of 
New England houses, with a famous large chimney-stack 
in the center. The very door which swung then is there 
still, hanging on the same substantial strap-hinges, and 
ornamented with the same old lion-headed knocker. 
Passing through this door, which fronts southward, you 
come into a hall some eight feet wide, its width being 
just the same as the thickness of the chimney. Turning 
to the right, you pass from the hall into the ordinary 
family room, and to the left into the parlor. A door 
from the family-room and the parlor leads you into the 
kitchen, which is about two-thirds the length of the 
house. The fire-places of these three rooms all belong 
to the one huge stone stack in the center; and every- 
thing about them remains as it then was. They would 
alarm modern economists by their capacity to take in 
wood by the cord. The spaces above the old mantel- 
trees are filled up with panel-work, and in the parlor 
evidently were once quite fine, especially for that day. 
On the north side of the parlor is a door leading into the 
spare bedroom, with which is connected an amusing in- 
cident. 

Great difficulty was experienced in the sprmg of 1780 
in procuring teams to remove the army stores, and horses 
for cavalry. Mr. Wick's daughter, Tempe, owned a 
beautiful young horse, which she frequently rode, and 
always with skill. She was an admirable and a bold 
rider. One day, as the preparations for removing the 
army vyere progressing. Miss Wick rode her favorite 



horse to the house of her brother-in-law, Mr. Leddel, on 
the road to Mendham; and on her return was accosted 
by some soldiers, who commanded her to dismount and 
let them take the horse. One of them had seized the 
bridle-reins. Perfectly self-possessed, she appeared to 
submit to her fate, but not without a vain entreaty not to 
take her favorite from her. She then told them she was 
sorry to part with the animal, but as she must, she would 
ask two favors of them; the one was to return him to 
her if possible, and the other was, whether they returned 
him or not, to treat him well. The soldiers were com- 
pletely thrown off their guard, and the reins were re- 
leased, they supposing she was about to dismount, than 
which nothing was farther from her intentions; for no 
sooner was the man's hand loose from the bridle than she 
touched her spirited horse with the whip, and he sped from 
among them like an arrow. As she was riding away, at 
full speed, they fired after her, but probably without in- 
tending to hit her; at any rate, she was unharmed. She 
urged her horse up the hill, at his highest speed, and 
coming round to the kitchen door, on the north side of 
the house, she sprang off and led him into the kitchen, 
thence into the parlor, and thence into the spare bed- 
room, which had but one window, and that on the west 
side. This was secured with a shutter. The soldiers 
shortly after came up and searched the barn and woods 
in vain. Miss Wick saved her horse by keeping him in 
that bed-room three weeks, until the last troop was fairly 
off. The incident, which is authentic, shows the adroit- 
ness and courage of the young lady, who afterwards be- 
came the wife of William Tuttle, an officer in the Jersey 
brigade during the entire war. 

The descriptions of the different camps which are to be 
given are quite imperfect, but interesting; and, such as 
they are, are derived from the late Captain William Tuttle, 
who was stationed with the Jersey troops during that 
winter. It cannot be sufficiently regretted that some 
friendly pen was not ready to record the conversations of 
this fine old soldier, an officer in the Third Jersey regi- 
ment and perfectly acquainted with all the localities of 
the encampment on Kimball Hill. He was 20 years old 
at the time, and from the conclusion of the war until his 
death, in 1836, he resided most of the time either on the 
Wick farm or in the immediate vicinity. Very often 
would he go over the ground, especially with his young 
relatives, pointing out the precise spots occupied by the 
different troops, and filling up hours with thrilling anec- 
dotes connected with that winter; but these conversa- 
tions no one was at the pains to record, and now they 
are hopelessly gone. He enlisted in the regular service 
in 1777, and remained in it until peace was declared. 
He suffered the exposures of winter quarters at Middle 
Brook, Valley Forge, and Kimball Hill; was in the bat- 
tles of Chad's Ford, Germantown, Brandywine, Mon- 
mouth, Springfield, and "others of less note;" was with 
Lafayette in his Virginia campaign; and was at the siege 
of Yorktown; and yet his careless relatives culpably have 
suffered his history to be shrunk into the compass of his 
own meager but modest affidavit in the pension office. 

As good fortune will have it, a former tenant on the 
Wick farm occupied it several years before Captain Tut- 
tle's death; and, in company with the old gentleman, 
frequently passed over the camp grounds. Under Mr. 
Mucklow's direction a small party of us passed over the 
various points of interest. Taking the old Wick house 
as the starting point, we crossed the road, and, following 
in a southwest direction, came into a tract of timber on 
an easy slope and extending to a living spring brook. In 
the upper end of the woods, near the brook, we found 
the ruins of several hut-chimneys. Following the side 
hill, in the same direction as the stream, that is in a 



122 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



southeast course, we found quite a large number of these 
stone chimneys, and in some of them the stones seem 
to be just as the soldiers left them. At qne point we 
counted two rows containing forty chimneys; some of 
them evidently belonging to double huts. Just below 
these we came into a fine level opening, almost bare of 
trees, and which may have been grubbed clean of stumps 
and roots for a parade ground. A few rods higher up 
the side of the hill were other ruins, extending with 
some degree of regularity around the face of the hill, in 
a curve, until the row was terminated at a brook on the 
east side, which puts into the stream already mentioned. 
On the crown of the hill is another row of ruins; and 
Captain Tuttle informed our guide that the cleared field 
on the hill was once covered with similar remains. Thus 
far we counted 196 of these and had been over the 
ground occupied by the Jersey brigade. Frequently did 
Captain Tuttle relate the fact that he had seen the paths 
leading from the Jersey camp to the Wick hoifse marked 
with blood from the feet of the soldiers without shoes! 

On the same side of the road, and near to it, is a 
cleared field. In this field a spring brook rises, around 
which the hill slopes in the form of a horseshoe. On the 
north side of this was a slaughter-house, and a little low- 
er down on the same side are the remains of the huts 
built for the commissary department, and in the vicinity 
of a beautiful spring. On the opposite side of the brook 
we found several ruins, which, with those just mentioned, 
amounted to 23. On the ground of the slaughter-house 
Mr. Mucklow plowed up an old bayonet. 

Crossing the road, directly opposite this point we came 
into a cleared field, which is in the southern slope of 
Fort Hill. Along the road fence is a row of stones 
which were in the hut fire-places, and which were drawn 
off to clear the ground for plowing; but higher up in 
the woods are several remains. East of this lot and lower 
down the hill is an open field, in which we saw several 
rows, in regular order, containing sixty fire-places; and 
thence, following the curve of the hill in a northeast 
course, in regular rows, we counted 100 more. We were 
informed that the remains are to be seen around the en- 
tire hill, but want of time forbade our pursuing the in- 
quiry farther. 

We now ascend Fort Hill, around the sides of which 
we had been walking for some time. It is shaped like a 
sugarloaf, and from the northeast to the southeast its 
sides are very steep, making the ascent not a little diffi- 
cult. I was on this point in the spring, before the leaves 
had put out, and the viev/ from it is surpassingly beauti- 
ful. Fort Hill is one of the most commanding points in 
Morris county. Westward you can see the Schooley's 
Mountain range, and, as I fancied, the mountains along 
the Delaware. Southward is a fine range of highlands, 
in the midst of which is Basking Ridge (where General 
Lee was captured), so distinct that with a glass you can 
tell what is doing in its streets. Southeast of you Long 
Hill and Plainfield Mountain stretch far in the distance, 
from the top of which you may see from New York to 
New Brunswick, if not to the Delaware. East of you 
are the Short Hills, so famous as the watchtower of 
freedom during the Revolutionary war, and on which 
night and day sentinels were observing the country along 
the Hackensack, Passaic and Raritan, and even to New 
York and the Narrows. Northeast you can see the two 
twin mountains in the vicinity of Ringwood, and beyond 
that the blue-tinged mountains toward Newburgh. Be- 
tween these prominent points are intervening landscapes 
beautiful as the eye ever rested on. 

At the east and northeast, on the top of Fort Hill, are 
some remains not like those we had previously examined. 
They evidently were not the ruins of breastworks, but 



seem to have been designed to prepare level places for 
the free movements of artillery; and a close inspection 
shows that cannon stationed at those two points on the 
hill top would sweep the entire face of the hill in case of 
an attack. This undoubtedly was the design. In the 
immediate vicinity are the remains of quite a number of 
chimneys, of huts probably occupied by a detachment of 
artillerymen. 

Passing down the west side of Fort Hill, toward the 
old house, we came into what has always been called the 
Jockey Hollow road, at a place which tradition points out 
as the spot where Captain Billings jvas shot, when the 
Pennsylvania troops mutinied, on New Year's day 1781. 
The aged mother of Robert K. Tuttle, of Morristown, 
pointed out a black oak tree by the roadside as near the 
spot where the unfortunate man was shot down and 
buried in the road where he was killed. Mrs. Tuttle was 
at the time living on a part of the Wick farm, so that 
the tradition is undoubtedly true. 

We now returned to the house in order to visit Hos- 
pital field, as it is still called, and also the Maryland field, 
so called because the Maryland troops were there en- 
camped during the winter of 177980. These fields are 
about half a mile north from the house. Hospital field is 
on the slope of a high hill, facing east and southeast; and 
at the bottom is a fine spring brook, in the vicinity of 
which were huts for the hospitals. Of these there are no 
remains, as the plough has long since obliterated them; 
but near by is a most interesting place marked by a grove 
of locust trees, planted to protect the graves from the 
plough. Here are two rows of graves where were buried 
:hose who died at the hospitals that winter. A granite 
monument ought to be built immediately there, to com- 
memorate those unnamed men who died in the service of 
their country. The length of space occupied by the 
graves, as far as can now be seen, is about one hundred 
and seventy feet, thus making a single row of graves 
about three hundred and forty feet long. The graves 
evidently are near together, so that quite a large number 
must have died in the hospitals that winter. Whether 
there was any other burying ground used it is impossible 
now to determine; but it is very probable that the hill- 
sides in the vicinity contain many graves which will re- 
main unknown until the morning of the resurrection. 

Directly east from Hospital field, on a hill opposite, 
the Maryland troops and perhaps the Virginia were 
" hutted;" but we were assured that no remains are left, 
as the ground has all been ploughed, so that we did not 
visit it. In all we had counted three hundred and sixty- 
five chimney foundations, marking the sites of as many 
huts, besides many which inadvertently we omitted to 
count. We must have seen more than four hundred in 
all; and I am thus particular in describing their positions 
because a few years more may entirely obliterate all traces 
of the camps on Kimball Hill. 

If we return to the top of Fort Hill, and cast the eye 
over the prominent points already mentioned, we shall 
perceive how admirably they are adapted for the purpose 
of spreading alarm by means of beacon-fires. The 
ranges of the Short and Long hills and Plainfield Moun- 
tain on the southeast and east, Schooley's Mountain on 
the west, the mountains near Ringwood and along the 
New York line on the north and northeast, all are as dis- 
tinct as light-houses. Very early in the war there was a 
beacon station on the Short Hills, near the country resi- 
dence of the late Bishop Hobart; but in the winter of 
1778-9 Washington communicated to the governor of 
New Jersey a plan for establishing these beacons 
throughout the State; and in accordance with his re- 
quest, on the 9th of April 1779 General Philemon Dick- 
erson, one of the most able militia officers in the State, 



THE PATRIOT BEACOJsr LIGHTS— StiFfERIKG AT KLIMBALL HILT,. 



1:^1 



was instructed to carry the plan into effect. Hitherto no 
traces of a written plan have been found, but there can 
be no doubt as to some of the locations. That on the 
Short Hills is remembered by persons still living [1854] 
from whom the Rev. Samuel L. Tuttle derived the 
account he gives of the matter. "On that commanding 
elevation," writes Mr. Tuttle, in his lecture on Bottle 
Hill during the Revolution, " the means were kept for 
alarming the inhabitants of the interior in case of any 
threatening movement of the enemy in any direction. A 
cannon, an eighteen-pounder — called in those times ' the 
old sow ' — fired every half hour, answered the object in 
the daytime and in very stormy and dark nights; while 
an immense fire or beacon light answered the end at all 
other times. A log house or two * * * were erected 
there for the use of the sentinels, who by relieving one 
another at definite intervals kept careful watch day and 
night, their eyes continually sweeping over the vast ex- 
tent of country that lay stretched out like a map before 
them. The beacon light was constructed of dry wood, 
piled around a high pole; this was filled with combustible 
materials, and a tar-barrel was placed upon the top of 
the pole. When the sentinels discovered any movement 
of the enemy of a threatening character, or such tidings 
were brought them by messengers, either the alarm gun 
was fired or the beacon light kindled, so that the tidings 
were quickly spread over the whole region. There are 
several persons still living in this place who remember to 
have heard that dismal alarm gun, and to have seen those 
beacon lights sending out their baleful and terrific light 
from that high point of observation; and who also re- 
member to have seen the inhabitants, armed with their 
muskets, making all possible haste to Chatham bridge 
and the Short Hills." 

That there was a system of beacon lights there can be 
no doubt, although, unfortunately, the most of those are 
dead who could give us information about it, and there 
are no documents describing the various points where 
these lights were kindled. Of one we have some knowl- 
edge. Seven miles north of Morristown, near the present 
railroad depot at Denville, is a mountain which rises 
abruptly to a considerable height, from which you can see 
the Short Hills. On this point there was a beacon light, 
managed by Captain Josiah Hall, whose descendants still 
reside in the vicinity. A fire from this point would be 
seen from the top of Green Pond Mountain, several 
miles farther north; and a fire on that mountain would 
probably reach the portion of Sussex county where the 
.brave Colonel Seward, grandfather of Senator Seward, 
resided. Tradition says that such was the case; and 
that often at night the tongue of fire might be seen leap- 
ing into the air on the Short Hills, soon to be followed 
by brilliant lights on Fort Hill, on the Denville moun- 
tain, the Green Pond Mountain, and on the range of 
mountains on the Orange county line. To many it has 
seemed inexplicable, and it was so to the enemy, that 
they could not make a movement toward the hills of 
Morris without meeting the yeomen of Morris, armed 
and ready to repel them. I have conversed with several 
old men who have seen the roads coverging on Morris- 
town and Chatham lined with men who were hurrying off 
to the Short Hills, to drive back the invaders. The 
alarm gun and the beacon light explain the mystery; 
and, as an illustration of scenes frequently witnessed, I 
may give an incident in the life of an old soldier, by the 
name of Bishop, who was living at Mendham. He was 
one morning engaged in stacking his wheat, with a hired 
man when the alarm gun pealed out its warning. ''I 
must go," exclaimed Bishop. "You had better take 
care of your wheat," said his man. Again they heard 
the dull, heavy sound of the alarm gun; and instantly 



Bishop slid down from the stack, exclaiming, "I can't 
stand this. Get along with the grain the best way you 
can. I 'm off to the rescue ! " Hastily he packed a 
small budget of provisions; and, shouldering his musket, 
in a few minutes he was on the way to Morristown. He 
says that on his way there he found men issuing from 
every road, equipped just as they left their fields and 
shops, so that by the time he reached town he was one 
of a large company. Here they were met by a messenger 
who said the enemy was retreating. It was by such 
alacrity that it came to be a boast of the Morris county 
people that the enemy had never been able to gain a 
footing among these hills. They frequently made the 
attempt, but never succeeded. Once, as it is said, for 
the purpose of exchanging prisoners, a detachment did 
reach Chatham bridge, which was guarded by brave 
General Winds, to whom the braggart captain sent word 
that he proposed to dine next day in Morristown. The 
message called out the somewhat expressive reply that if 

he dined in Morristown next day he would sup in 

(the place infernal) next night ! 

So far as possible let us now relate the facts which 
show the sufferings and heroism of our soldiers on Kim- 
ball Hill the winter of 1779-80. On the 9th of December 
General Greene wrote: " Our hutting goes on rapidly, 
and the troops will be under cover in a few days. The 
officers will remain in the open field until the boards 
[from Trenton] arrive, and as their sufferings are great 
they will be proportionably clamorous." The New Eng- 
land troops on the 9th of that month were at Porapton; 
and Doctor Thatcher, in his Military Journal, says: " On 
the 14th we reached this wilderness, about three miles 
from Morristown, where we are to build huts for winter 
quarters." The severity of the winter may be inferred 
from Doctor Thatcher's description: " The snow on the 
ground is about two feet deep and the weather extremely 
cold; the soldiers are destitute of both tents and blankets, 
and some of them are actually barefooted and almost 
naked. Our only defense against the inclemency of the 
weather consists of brushwood thrown together. Our 
lodging the last night was on the frozen ground. Those 
officers who have the privilege of a horse can always 
have a blanket at hand. Having removed the snow we 
wrapped ourselves in great coats, spread our blankets on 
the ground and lay down by the side of each other, five 
or six together, with large fires at our feet, leaving orders 
with the waiters to keep it well supplied with fuel during 
the night. We could procure neither shelter nor forage 
for our horses; and the poor animals were tied to the 
trees in the woods for twenty-four hours, without food 
except the bark which they peeled from the trees." 
" The whole army in this department are to be engaged 
in building log huts for winter quarters. The ground is 
marked, and the soldiers have commenced ;cutting down 
the timber of oak and walnut, of which we have great 
abundance. Our baggage has at length arrived; the men 
find it very difficult to pitch their tents in the frozen 
ground; and, notwithstanding large fires, we can scarcely 
keep from freezing. In- addition to other sufferings the 
whole army has been seven or eight days entirely desti- 
tute of the staff of life; our only food is miserable fresh 
beef, without bread, salt or vegetables." 

The general fact that that winter was one of terrible 
severity is well known; but we may obtain more vivid 
ideas of this fact by a few details. In the New Jersey 
Gazette of February 9th 1780, published at Trenton, the 
editor says: " The weather has been so extremely cold 
for nearly two months past that sleighs and other car- 
riages now pass from this place to Philadelphia on the 
Delaware, a circumstance not remembered by the oldest 
person among us." As early as the 18th of December 



124 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



1779 an officer who visited some of the smaller encamp- 
ments along the hills in the vicinity writes: " I found the 
weather excessively cold." On the 14th of January Lord 
Stirling led a detachment against the enemy on Staten 
Island; and on the morning of the isth he crossed on 
the ice from Elizabethtown Point. The Hudson was so 
bridged with ice as to permit foot passengers to cross 
from New York to Hoboken and Paulus Hook. 

But the unparalleled depth of snow added to the intense 
sufferings of the soldiers. On the 14th of December, as 
Thatcher says, the " snow was two feet deep." On the 
28th of December an officer says in the New Jersey 
Gazette, " While I am writing the storm is raging without." 
But the great storm of the winter began on the 3d of 
January, when the greater part of the array were not 
protected by the huts, which were not yet ready for oc- 
cupation. Doctor Thatcher thus describes the storm : 
" On the 3d inst. we experienced one of the most tre- 
mendous snow storms ever remembered; no- man could 
endure its violence many minutes without danger to his 
life. Several marquees were torn asunder and blown 
down over the officers' heads in the night, and some of 
the soldiers were actually covered while in their tents 
and buried, like sheep, under the snow. My comrades 
and myself were roused from sleep by the calls of some 
officers for assistance; their marquee had blown down, 
and they were almost smothered in the storm before they 
could reach our marquee, only a few yards, and their 
blankets and baggage were nearly buried in the snow. 
We (the officers) are greatly favored in having a supply 
of straw for bedding; over this we spread all our blankets, 
and with our clothes, and large fires at our feet, while 
four or five are crowded together, preserve ourselves 
from freezing. But the sufferings of the poor soldiers 
can scarcely be described; while on duty they are un- 
avoidably exposed to all the inclemency of the storm 
and severe cold; at night they now have a bed of straw 
on the ground and a single blanket to each man; they 
are badly clad and some are destitute of shoes. We have 
contrived a kind of stone chimney outside, and an open- 
ing at one end of our tents gives us the benefit of the 
fire within. The snow is now from four to six feet deep, 
which so obstructs the roads as to prevent our receiving 
a supply of provisions. For the last ten days we received 
but two pounds of meat a man, and we are frequently for 
six or eight days entirely destitute of meat and then as 
long without bread. The consequence is the soldiers are 
so enfeebled from hunger and cold as to be almost un- 
able to perform military duty or labor in constructing 
their huts. It is well known that General Washington 
experiences the greatest solicitude for the sufferings of 
his army and is sensible that they in general conduct 
with heroic patience and fortitude." 

This storm continued for several days, accompanied 
with violent winds, which drifted the snow so that the 
roads were impassable. So deep was the snow that in 
many places it covered the tops of the fences, and teams 
could be driven over them. Under date of January 22nd 

1780 an officer on Kimball Hill wrote the following lively 
description of the condition of the army in consequence 
of this storm : "We had a fast lately in camp, by general 
constraint, of the whole army; in which we fasted more 
sincerely and truly for three days than we ever did from 
all the resolutions of Congress put together. This was 
occasioned by the severity of the weather and drifting of 
the snow, whereby the roads were rendered impassable 
and all supplies of provision cut off, until the officers 
were obliged to release the soldiers from command and 
permit them to go in great numbers together to get pro- 
visions where they could find them. The inhabitants of 
this part of the country discovered a noble spirit in feed- 



ing the soldiers ; and, to the honor of the soldiery, they 
received what they got with thankfulness, and did little 
or no damage." 

The manuscript letters of Joseph Lewis, quartermaster 
at Morristown, prove this description to be truthful. On 
the 8th of January he wrote : "We are now as distressed 
as want of provision and cash can make us. The soldiers 
have been reduced to the necessity of robbing the in- 
habitants, to save their own lives." On the next day he 
wrote : " We are still in distress for want of provisions. 
Our magistrates, as well as small detachments from the 
army, are busy collecting to relieve our distresses, and I 
am told that the troops already experience the good 
effects of their industry. We are wishing for more plen- 
tiful supplies." And, in real distress, he writes under 
the same date: "The sixty million dollars lately collected 
by tax must be put into the hands of the superintendent 
for the new purchases. You will therefore have but little 
chance of getting cash until more is made. If none comes 
sooner than by striking new emissions I must run away 
from Morris and live with you at Trenton, or some other 
place more remote from this, to secure me from the al- 
ready enraged multitudes." 

On the 8th of January General Washington wrote from 
the Ford mansion, the comforts of which mubt have 
made the sufferings of his soldiers seem the more awful : 
" The present state of the army, with respect to provis- 
ions, is the most distressing of any we have experienced 
since the beginning of the war. For a fortnight past the 
troops, both officers and men, have been almost perishing 
for want. They have been alternately without bread or 
meat the whole time, with a very scanty allowance.^ of 
either, and frequently destitute of both. They have 
borne their sufferings with a patience that merits the ap- 
probation and ought to excite the sympathy of their 
countryman. But they are now reduced to an extremity 
no longer to be supported." This letter, which was ad- 
dressed to "the magistrates of New Jersey," is one of the 
noblest productions of his pen; and right nobly did those 
thus feelingly addressed respond to the appeal. And in 
this none were superior to the people of Morris county, 
on whom of necesssity fell the burden of affording imme- 
diate relief, and whose efforts did not cease when this 
was effected. On the 20th of January Washington wrote 
to Doctor John Witherspoon that " all the counties of 
this State that I have heard from have attended to my 
requsition for provisions with the most cheerful and com- 
mendable zeal; " and to " Elbridge Gerry, in Congress," 
he wrote: "The exertions of the magistrates and inhabi- 
tants of this State were great and cheerful for our relief." 
Irihis Military Journal (page 182) Doctor Thatcher speaks 
with enthusiasm of " the ample supply " of food furnished 
by "the magistrates and people of Jersey;" and Isaac 
Collins, editor of the New Jersey Gazette, on the 19th of 
January says : "With pleasure we inform our readers 
that our army, which, from the unexpected inclemency 
of the season and the roads becoming almost impassable, 
had suffered a few days for want of provisions, are, from 
the spirited exertions now making, likely to be well sup- 
plied." 

Provisions came with a right hearty good will from the 
farmers in Mendham, Chatham, Hanover, Morris, and 
Pequannock ; and not only provisions, but stockings and 
shoes, coats and blankets. " Mrs. Parson Johnes " and 
" Mrs. Counsellor Condict," with all the noble women in 
the town, made the sewing and knitting needles fly on 
their mission of mercy. The memory of the Morris 
county women of that day is yet as dehghtful as the 
"smell of a field which the Lord hath blessed ! " and this 
tribute to their worth is not woven up of fictions, but of 
facts, gathered from living lips; and therefore never may 



FESTIVITIES AT THE "HEADQUARTERS." 



those women perish from the memory of their admiring 
and grateful descendants. 

The generosity of which we have spoken is much en- 
hanced by the fact that the people supposed themselves 
to be giving, and not selling their provisions. According 
to the prices — continental currency — affixed to various 
articles by the magistrates of Morris county in January 
1780, they gave away thousands of dollars to soldiers at 
their tables ; and as for provisions, nominally sold, they 
were paid for either in continental bills or certificates, 
both of which they considered as nearly worthless. Their 
opinion of the bills was not wrong, since after the war 
hundreds of thousands of dollars were left on their hands, 
which were never redeemed; but many of them made a 
serious mistake in their estimate of the certificates, 
which were redeemed with interest. Yet many of 
these men threw these certificates away as worthless, 
and esteemed themselves as doing an unpaid duty to 
their country. 

It is interesting to ascertain the prices of various arti- 
cles used in the camp that winter. On the 27th of Jan- 
uary Quartermaster Lewis wrote: "The justices, at 
their meeting, established the following prices to be 
given for hay and grain throughout the county [of Mor- 
ris], from the ist of December 1779 to the ist of Febru- 
ary next, or until the regulating act take place. For hay, 
ist quality, ;!^ioo per ton; 2nd, ;^8o; 3d, ^50; for one 
horse, 24 hours, $6; for one horse, per night, $4; wheat, 
per bushel, $50; rye, $35; corn, $30; buckwheat and 
oats, $20. This certainly is rather a startling "price 
current;" but it was only in keeping with such signficant 
advertisements as frequently appeared in the papers of 
that day: " one thousand dollars " for the recovery of 
"my negro man Toney;" or "thirty Spanish milled 
dollars for the recovery of my runaway Mu- 
latto fellow Jack." " Forty paper dollars were 
worth only one in specie;" and the fact in- 
creases our wonder alike at the patriotism of the people 
and soldiers, which was sufficient to keep the army from 
open mutiny or being entirely disbanded. 

To leave this gloomy side of the picture a little while, 
it is well to record the fact that on the 28th of December 
1779, while the snow " storm was raging," Martha Wash- 
ington passed through Trenton, on her way to Morris- 
town; and that a troop of gallant Virginians stationed 
there were paraded to do her honor, being very proud to 
own her as a Virgmian, and her husband also. She 
spent New Year's day in Morristown; and now, in the 
Ford mansion, you may see the very mirror in which her 
dignified form has often been reflected. The wife of the 
American commander-in-chief received her company, 
did the honors of her family, and even appeared occa- 
sionally at the " assembly balls " that winter dressed in 
American stuffs. It is a pleasing anecdote which was 
once told me by the late Mrs. Abby Vail, daughter of 
Uzal and Anna Kitchel. Some of the ladies in Han- 
over, and among them " the stately Madame Budd," 
mother of Dr. Bern Budd, dressed in their best, made a 
call on Lady Washington, and, as one of them afterward 
said, " we were dressed in our most elegant silks and 
ruffles, and so were introduced to her ladyship. And 
dont you think, we found her with a speckled homespun 
apron on, and engaged in knitting a stocking! She re- 
ceived us very handsomely, and then resumed her knit- 
ting. In the course of her conversation she said very 
kindly to us, while she made her needle fly, that Ameri- 
can ladies should be patterns of industry to their coun- 
trywomen; * * * *" we must become independent 
of England .by doing without those articles which we can 
make ourselves. Whilst our husbands and brothers are 
examples of patriotism, we must be examples of indus- 



try!" "I do declare," said one of them afterward, "I 
never felt so ashamed and rebuked in my life!" 

From documents not very important in themselves we 
sometimes derive impressive lessons. The original of 
the following subscription for assembly balls in Morris- 
town that winter is still in possession of the Biddle family, 
on the Delaware: "The subscribers agree to pay the 
sums annexed to their respective names and an equal 
quota of any further expense which may be incurred in 
the promotion and support of a dancing assembly to be 
held in Morristown the present winter of 1780. Sub- 
scription moneys to be paid into the hands of a treasurer 
hereafter to be appointed." The sum paid in each case 
was "400 doll's," and the contributors were as follows: 
Nath. Greene, H. Knox, John Lawrence, J. Wilkinson, 
Clement Biddle, Robt. H. Harrison, R. K. Meade, 
Alex. Hamilton, Tench Tighlman, C. Gibbs, Jno. Pierce, 
The Baron de Kalb, Jno. Moylan, Le Ch. Dulingsley, 
Geo. Washington, R. Clairborne, Lord Stirling, Col. 
Hazen, Asa Worthington, Benj. Brown, Major Stagg, 
James Thompson, H. Jackson, Col. Thomas Proctor, J. 
B. Cutting, Edward Hand, William Little, Thos. Wool- 
ford, Geo. Olney, Jas. Abeel, Robert Erskine, Jno. 
Cochran, George Draper, J. Burnet. 

The amounts thus paid constitute the somewhat im- 
posing sum of $13,600 " for the support of a dancing 
assembly the present winter of 1780." Now I frankly 
confess that this paper produced an uncomfortable sensa- 
tion in my mind, by the somewhat harsh contrast between 
the dancing of the well-housed officers, at O'Hara's tavern 
and the " hungry ruin" at Kimball Hill. The assembly was 
not so well set off with gas-lights and fashionable splendor 
as many a ball in our day. No doubt it was rather a 
plain affair of its kind; and yet it reminds one that, while 
these distinguished men were tripping " the light fantas- 
tic toe " in well-warmed rooms, there were at that very 
time, as Captain William Tuttle often told it, a great 
many tents in which there were soldiers without coats and 
barefoot, shivering and perishing in the fearful storms 
and colds of that same "present wmter of 1780;" and 
that there were paths about the camps on Kimball Hill 
that were marked with real blood expressed from the 
cracked and frozen feet of soldiers who had no shoes! 

However, I do not allude to this contrast as peculiar 
to that place and those men, for feasting and starvation, 
plenty crowned with wreaths of yellow wheat and gaunt 
famine wreathed in rags and barefoot, dancing and dying, 
are facts put in contrast in other places beside O'Hara's 
and Kimball Hill, and at other times than "the present 
winter of 1780." 

The principal object of introducing the subscription 
paper here is to show the kind of currency on which our 
Revolution was compelled to rely. Here we find the 
leading men in Morristown paying a sum for the dancing 
master and landlord, the ministers of a little amusement, 
which nominally is large enough for the high figures of 
Fifth avenue millionaires; but a closer inspection shows 
that the sum $13,000 was not worth as much as three hun- 
dred silver dollars. Doctor Thatcher says significantly: "I 
have just seen in the newspaper an advertisement offering 
for an article forty dollars. This is the trash which is tend- 
ed to requite us for our sacrifices, sufferings, and priva- 
tions while in the service of our country. It is but a 
sordid pittance, even for our common purposes while in- 
camp; but those who have families dependent on them at 
home are reduced to a deplorable condition." The 
officers of the Jersey troops, in their memorial to the 
Legislature of New Jersey, declare that " four months' 
pay of a soldier would not procure for his family a bush- 
el of wheat; that the pay of a colonel would not purchase 
oats for his liorse; that a common laborer or express- 



126 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



rider received four times as much as an American offi- 
cer." 

If such were their circumstances let us rather admire 
than condemn these brave men at Morristown, who were 
striving to invest the stern severities of that winter with 
something of the grayer and more frivolous courtesies of 
fashionable life. 

As for fighting, there was but little, the principal expe- 
dition being the descent of a detachment on Staten Island, 
under Lord Stirling. The expectations raised by this 
expedition are quite flatteringly told in an unpublished 
letter of Joseph Lewis, quartermaster. He writes, un- 
der date of "January 15th 1780," that he had orders 
from General Greene to procure three hundred sleds to 
parade Friday morning at this post and at Mr. Kim- 
ble's. * * * * I (iifj not fail to exert myself on the 
occasion, and the magistrates gained deserved applause. 
About five hundred sleds or sleighs were collected, the 
majority of which were loaded with troops, artillery, &c. 
These sleds and as many more are to return loaded with 
stores from the British magazines on Staten Island, ex- 
cept some few that are to be loaded with wounded Brit- 
ish prisoners. About 3,000 troops are gone, under the 
command of Lord Stirling, with a determination to re- 
move all Staten Island, bag and baggage, to Morris- 
town!" 

This expedition failed of realizing its object, because 
the enemy,by some means,had been put on his guard. Still, 
Collins of the New Jersey Gazette was sure it would 
"show the British mercenaries with what zeal and alacrity 
the Americans will embrace every opportunity, even in a 
very inclement season, to promote the interest of the 
country by harassing the enemies to their freedom and 
independence." And on the 22nd of that January Quarter- 
master Lewis wrote in quite a subdued tone: "I sup- 
pose you have heard of the success of our late expedi- 
tion to Staten Island. It was expensive but answered no 
valuable purpose. It showed the inclination of our in- 
habitants to plunder." This expedition was at a time 
when " the cold was intense;" about 500 of the soldiers 
had their feet frozen. 

The enemy, by the way of retaliation, on the 25th of 
January crossed to Elizabethtown and burned the town- 
house and Presbyterian church. They also "plundered 
the house of Jecaniah Smith." The same night another 
party " made an excursion to Newark, surprised the 
guard there, took Mr. Justice Hedden out of his bed; 
and would not suffer him to dress; they also took Mr. 
Robert Niel, burnt the academy, and went off with pre- 
cipitation." Rivington's Royal Gazette speaks of this 
Justice Hedden as " a rebel magistrate remarkable for 
his persecuting spirit." 

It was marvelous that Hedden survived that march, in 
such weather, from Newark to New York; but the tough 
man was nerved thereto by his brutal captors. 

But have the troops enough to eat? General Greene's 
letter to " the colonel of the Morristown malitia " gives 
us a most sorrowful answer. " The army," writes Greene 
in January, "is upon the point of disbanding for want of 
provisions, the poor soldiers having been for several days 
without any, and there not being more than a suffi- 
ficiency to serve one regiment in the magazine. Pro- 
visions are scarce at best, but the late terrible storm, the 
depth of the snow, and the drifts in the roads prevent 
the little stock from coming forward which is in readiness 
at the distant magazines. This is, therefore, to request 
you to call upon the militia officers and men of your bat- 
talion to turn out their teams and break the roads frorn 
between this and Hackettstown, there being a small quan- 
tity of provisions there that cannot come until that is 
done. The roads must be kept open by the inhabitants, 



or the army cannot be subsisted; and unless the good 
people immediately lend their assistance to forward sup- 
plies the army must disband. The direful consequences 
of such an event I will not torture your feelings with a 
description of; but remember the surrounding inhab- 
itants will experience the first melancholy effects of such 
a raging evil." 

On the nth of January Greene wrote: "Such weather 
as we have had never did I feel," and the snow was 
so deep and drifted " that we drive over the tops of 
the fences." He then describes the sufferings of the 
soldiers, and adds: "They have displayed a degree of 
magnanimity under their sufferings which does them the 
highest honor." On the loth of March Joseph Lewis tells 
his superior officer: " I should be happy to receive about 
fifty thousand dollars to persuade the wagoners to stay in 
camp until May, which will prevent the troops from suf- 
fering." And on the 28th of the same month he again 
writes: " I am no longer able to procure a single team to 
relieve the distresses of our army, to bring in a supply of 
wood, or forward the stores which are absolutely neces- 
sary. * * * I wish I could inhabit some kind retreat 
from those dreadful complaints, unless I had a house 
filled with money and a magazine of forage to guard and 
protect me. Good God! where are our resources fled? 
We are truly in a most pitiable situation and almost dis- 
tracted with calls that it is not in our power to answer." 

But there is another fact which adds a deeper shade to 
this picture of suffering, since from Thatcher's Military 
Journal we have this sentence, in which, with no liftle ex- 
ultation, he says: " Having to this late season— February 
14th — in our tents experienced the greatest incon- 
venience, we have now the satisfaction of taking posses- 
sion of the log huts just completed by our soldiers, where 
we shall have more comfortable accommodations," and 
yet in March he says: " Our soldiers are in a wretched 
condition for want of clothes, blankets and shoes, and 
these calamitous circumstances are accompanied by a 
want of provisions." 

From these letters, written by actual witnesses, we are 
able to gather enough of facts to aid us in appreciating 
the condition of the army. 

I may appropriately close this historical monograph 
with an original letter of Washington, which has never 
yet been published, and which is a very striking com- 
mentary on the difficulties of his position the last winter 
he was in Morristown. It was found among some old 
papers in the possession of Stephen Thompson, Esq., of 
Mendham, a son of Captain David Thompson, who is re- 
ferred to in this article. It will be remembered that the 
great snow storm which caused such distress in camp 
began on the 3d of January 1780. The famine which 
threatened the army caused Washington to write a letter 
"to the magistrates of New Jersey," which is published 
in Sparks's edition of the Writings of Washington. A 
copy of that letter was inclosed in the letter which is 
now published for the fi-rst time. It is a valuable letter, 
as showing that Washington's " integrity was most pure, 
his justice most inflexible." 

Headquarters, Morristown, January 8th 1780. 

" Sir, — The present distresses of the army, with which 
you are well acquainted, have determined me to call upon 
the respective counties of the State for a proportion of 
grain and cattle, according to the abilities of each. 

" For this purpose I have addressed the magistrates of 
every county, to induce them to undertake the business. 
This mode I have preferred, as the one least inconvenient 
to the inhabitants; but, in case the requisition should not 
be coinplied with, we must then raise the supplies our- 
selves in the best manner we can. This I have signified 
to the magistrates. 



CLOSING REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS. 



127 



"I have pitched upon you to superintend the execu- 
tion of this measure in the county of Bergen, which is to 
furnish two hundred head of cattle and eight hundred 
bushels of grain. 

" You will proceed, then, with all dispatch, and call on 
the justices; will deliver the inclosed address, enforcing it 
with a more particular detail of the sufferings of the 
troops, the better to convince them of the necessity of 
their exertions. You will, at the same time, let them del- 
icately know that you are instructed, in case they do not 
take up the business immediately, to begin to impress the 
articles called for throughout the county. You will press 
for an immediate answer, and govern yourself accordingly. 
If it be a compliance, you will concert with them a proper 
place for the reception of the articles and the time of the 
delivery, which for the whole is to be in four days after 
your application to them. The owners will bring their 
grain and cattle to this place, where the grain is to be 
measured and the cattle estimated by any two of the 
magistrates, in -conjunction with the commissary, Mr. 
Voorhees, who will be sent to you for the purpose, and 
certificates given by the commissary, specifying the quan- 
tity of each article and the terms of payment. These 
are to be previously settled with the owners, who are to 
choose whether they will receive the present market 
price — which, if preferred, is to be inserted — or the mar- 
ket price at the time of payment. Immediately on re- 
ceiving the answer of the magistrates you will send me 
word what it is. 

" In case of refusal you will begin to impress till you 
make up the quantity required. This you will do with 
as much tenderness as possible to the inhabitants, having 
regard to the stock of each individual, that no family 
maybe deprived of its necessary subsistence. Milch cows 
are not to be included in the impress. To enable you to 
execute this business with more effect and less incon- 
venience, you will call upon Colonel Fell and any 
other well affected active man in the county, and en- 
deavor to engage their advice and assistance. You are 
also authorized to impress wagons for the transportation 
of the grain. 

" If the magistrates undertake the business, which I 
should infinitely prefer on every account, you will en- 
deavor to prevail upon them to assign mills for the re- 
ception and preparation of such grain as the commissary 
thinks will not be immediately needful in the camp. 

" I have reposed this trust in you from a perfect con- 
fidence in your prudence, zeal and respect for the rights 
of citizens. While your measures are adapted to the 
emergency, and you consult what you owe to the ser- 
vice, Jam persuaded that you will not forget that, as we 
are compelled by necessity to take the property of cit- 
izens for the support of the army, on whom their safety 
depends, you should be careful to manifest that we have 
a respect for their rights, and wish not to do anything 
which that necessity, and even their own good, do not 
absolutely require. 

" I am, sir, with great respect and esteem, 
" Your most obedient servant, 

" Go. Washington." 
Washington left Morristown in the early part of June. 
On the loth of June he was at Springfield, where he had 
his headquarters until the 21st, on which day, with the 
exception of two brigades under General Greene, the 
whole army was marching slowly toward the Hudson via 
Pompton. On. the 6th of June General Knyphausen had 
attempted to reach Morristown. He landed at Eliza- 
bethtown Point and proceeded as far as Connecticut 
Farms; but was met so warmly by General Maxwell and 



" his nest of American hornets " that he beat a hasty 
retreat. During this incursion Mrs. Caldwell, wife of a 
chaplain in our army, was wantonly murdered in her own 
house. When the enemy learned the troops were on the 
march they made another attempt to reach Morristown 
and on the 23d of June the vigilant sentinels on the 
Short Hills discovered signs of invasion and gave the 
alarm. On that day the battle of Springfield was fought. 
Washington heard of the invasion when near Pompton 
and hastened back, with a body of troops, to support 
Greene; but the enemy, after having forced back the 
Americans and burned Springfield, finding they were 
likely to be surrounded by a superior force, retired. 

The following pasquinade, in ridicule of this British 
attempt to reach Morristown, was publicly posted in New 
York city, August 12th 1780, and afterward printed in 
the Political Ma^avAne, London, 1781, pages 290, 291: 

" Old Knip— (Knyphausen) 
And old Clip— (Gen. Robertson) 
Went to the Jersey shore 
The rebel rogues to beat ; 
But at Yankee Farms 
They took the alarms 
At little harms, 
And quickly did retreat. 

Then after two da.ys' wonder 
Marched boldly to Springfield town. 
And sure they'd knock the rebels down ; 

But as their foes 

Gave them some blows. 

They, like the wind, 

Soon changed their mind. 

And in a crack 

Eeturned back 

From not one third their number !" 

The remarkable fact remains that the enemy never 
reached our county, except now and then a marauding 
party. 

MUTINY AMONG THE TROOPS. 

Although the main army left Morristown in the sum- 
mer of 1780, this point was of too great importance to 
leave entirely undefended. The local militia and some 
other forces still remained. It was on the first day of the 
following year, January ist 1781, that the mutiny of the 
Pennsylvania troops, under General Wayne, the " Mad 
Anthony" of the Revolution, occurred. These troops, 
2,000 in number, had enlisted for three years, "'or during 
the war." There was no thought that the war would last 
longer than three years; and the phrase "or during the 
war " meant, they claimed, that they should be dismissed 
at its expiration in case it did not last three years. 
Their officers gave to it the other construction, that they 
had enlisted for the war, no matter how long it might 
continue. 

Added to this cause of dissatisfaction was the fact that 
they had received no pay for twelve months, and were 
without necessary clothing and food. These circum- 
stances were sufficient to excite a spirit of insurrection, 
which on the date above mentioned manifested itself in 
open revolt. 

On a preconcerted signal the whole line, except a part 
of three regiments, paraded under arms without their 
officers, marched to the magazines and supplied them- 



18 



128 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



selves with provisions and ammunition; and, seizing six 
field pieces, took horses from General Wayne's stable to 
transport them. The officers of the line collected those 
who had not yet joined the insurgents and endeavored to 
restore order; but the revolters fired and killed a Captain 
Billing, and wounded several other officers, and a few 
men were killed on each side. The mutineers com- 
manded the party who opposed them to come over to 
them instantly, or they should be bayoneted, and the 
order was obeyed. 

General Wayne endeavored to interpose his influence 
and authority, urging them to return to their duty till 
their grievances could be inciuired into and redressed. 
But all was to no purpose, and on cocking his pistol they 
instantly presented their bayonets to his breast, saying: 
"We respect and love you; often have yau led us into 
the field of battle, but we are no longer under your com- 
mand; we warn you to be on your guard; if you fire your 
pistol, or attempt to enforce your commands, we shall 
put you instantly to death." 

Finding both threats and expostulation in vain. Gen- 
eral Wayne resolved to accompany his men, and ordered 
his quartermaster to supply them with provisions. 

That these troops were inspired by no traitorous sen- 
timents is evidenced by the fact that Sir Henry Clinton, 
hearing of the mutiny, sent two emissaries, a British ser- 
geant, and a New Jersey tory by the name of Ogden, to 
offer them flattering inducements to place themselves 
under the protection of the British government. These 
offers were spurned, and the two emissaries in due time 
handed over to General Wayne. They were eventually 
tried as spies, convicted, and immediately executed. 

On the 4th of January the mutineers reached Prince- 
ton, where they were met by a committee of Congress, 
and their demands satisfied. 

The Jersey troops were not proof against the example 
of their Pennsylvania comrades, as appears from the 
private journal of William S. Pennington. He writes: 

"Monday, zzd [oi January 1781), we received informa- 
tion that the Jersey line had followed the example of 
Pennsylvania in mutinying, in consequence of which a 
detachment of artillery, consisting of three 3-pounders, 
to be commanded by Captain Stewart, was ordered to 
parade immediately. I was ordered to join the above 
detachment vice Ailing. 

25th. — This day the detachment marched to Smith's 
Cove, and halted for the night. 

26th. — This day we marched to Ringwood, and joined 
a detachment under Major General Howe. 

"Saturday, 2-]th. — This day the above detachment 
marched at i o'clock, and at daylight surrounded the 
Jersey encampment near Pompton, where the mutineers 
were quartered. No other terms were offered to them 
than to immediately parade without their arms. General 
Howe likewise sent them word, by Lieutenant Colonel 
Barber, that if they did not comply in five minutes he 
would put them all to the sword, rather than run the risk 
of which they surrendered. Upon which the general 
ordered a court martial in the field to try some of their 
leaders, three of whom, namely, Grant, Tuttle, and 
Gilmore, were sentenced to suffer death. Grant, from 
■^ome circumstances in his behavior, was pardoned. 
Tuttle and Gilmore were immediately executed. The 



mutineers returned to their duty, and received a general 
pardon." 

THE MORRISTOWN GHOST. 

Shortly after the Revolution considerable local history 
was made by the appearance of the far-famed Morristown 
Ghost. 

It is not remarkable that the people of a century ago 
should have believed in witches and hobgoblins. We 
need not enumerate the causes of this superstitious 
credulity. The fact is that which now concerns us. The 
staid people of this vicinity were no exception to the 
general belief of that time in ghosts. The more recent 
freedom of our community from this superstition is 
probably due as much to the exposure of his ghostship, 
which we propose to relate, as to the advanced enlighten- 
ment of the age. 

In the latter part of the last century a book appeared 
of which the following is the title page: 

" The Morristown Ghost; an Account of the Beginning, 
Transactions, and Discovery of Ransford Rogers, who 
seduced many by pretended Hobgoblins and Apparitions, 
and thereby extorted money from their pockets. In the 
County of Morris and State of New Jersey, in the year 
1788. Printed for every purchaser — 1792." 

Who wrote and who published this pamphlet can not 
now be certainly ascertained. Some supposed that 
Rogers himself wrote it, in order to increase his revenues 
and also to punish the Morristown people for their 
treatment of him. From the resemblance of the type 
and paper to that used in the New Jersey Journal of 
that date the suspicion is not unwarranted that the 
pamphlet was published by Sheppard Kollock, of 
EHzabethtown. 

The names of many prominent persons in the com- 
munity figured in this pamphlet. It is not difficult there- 
fore to believe the tradition that the edition so far as 
possible was bought ^p and destroyed. Such things, 
however, refuse to die. David Young, " Philom.," whose 
name figured so conspicuously on the title pages of half 
the almanacs of forty years ago, accidentally found a copy 
of the work in Elizabeth; and thus in 1826 appeared 
"The Wonderful History of the Morristown Ghost; 
thoroughly and carefully revised. By David Young, 
Newark. Published by Benjamin Olds, for the author. 
J. C. Totten, Printer." 

In 1876 a fac-simile copy of the original history of the 
Morristown ghost, " with an appendix compiled from the 
county records," was pubHshed by L. A. and B. H. "Yoght 
and it can, we believe, still be secured from them. 

The affair created intense excitement at the time, and 
not a little merriment at the expense of those so cleverly 
duped. A few years later it furnished the materials of an 
amusing comedy, which was played at a public exhibition 
in Newark, the- author of which, if tradition may be 
trusted, was a son of Rev. James Richards, D. D., a 
former pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of this 
place. 

In the following account of this humbug we suppress 



THE MORRISTOWN GHOST. 



129 



the names of the duped, as they are not generally known 
and some of their descendants are with us unto this day. 
It was a common opinion at that time that large sums 
of money had been buried during the Revolutionary war 
by tories and others in Schooley's Mountain. It was 
supposed to be thus concealed to protect it on the one 
hand from confiscation by the colonists, or on the other 
from the demands of the war. Many of these tories 
never returned to their homes, while many of the other 
class died during the contest; their treasures being, so it 
was believed, still under the ground. 

Moreover these treasures were guarded by the spirits, 
so that no one could obtain them who did not possess 
the art of dispelling spirits. 

In the summer of 1788 two Morris county men, travel- 
ing through Smith's Clove, New York, fell in with a school 
teacher from Connecticut, one Ransford Rogers. These 
men had long been in search of some one who possessed 
sufficient power to recover the Schooley's Mountain 
treasure. Rogers professed to have a " deep knowledge 
of chymistry " and all the sciences, which gave him, he 
claimed, the power to raise and dispel good or evil 
spirits. Visions of speedy fortune rose before the two 
travelers, and they urged him to accompany them to 
Morristown; this, after a modest refusal, he consented 
to do, they promising him a school in the neighborhood. 
He accordingly came to Morristown and was installed as 
school teacher about three miles from the town, on the 
Mendham road; the school-house stood on the hill near 
where is now the residence of Samuel F. Pierson. He 
took charge of this school early in August, but being im- 
portuned to exhibit his art he found he needed an ac- 
complice and accordingly went back to New England for 
one, returning in September. Rogers now gathered his 
believers, to the number of about eight, and held a secret 
meeting; he assured them the treasure was there, and that 
it was absolutely necessary to raise and consult the guard- 
ian spirits before it could be obtained; this he assured 
them he was able to do, and at the close of the con- 
venticle enjoined them to refrain from all immorality 
lest the spirits should be provoked and withhold 
the treasure. The members of the company, trans- 
ported with dazzling, golden visions, communicated their 
hopes to friends, and their number was soon increased to 
forty. Rogers pretended to have frequent meetings with 
the spirits, and, to strengthen the faith of the weak, com- 
pounded substances Avhich being thrown into the air 
would explode, producing various extraordinary and 
mysterious appearances, which the spectators believed to 
be caused by supernatural power; others were buried in 
the earth, and after a certain time would occasion dread- 
ful explosioiis, which in the night appeared very dismal 
and caused much timidity. The company was impatient 
of delay, and wished to proceed in quest of the promised 
riches. A night was appointed for a general meeting, 
and though very stormy all were there, some riding as 
much as twelve miles for the purpose of attending. The 
spirit now appeared, and told them they must meet on a 
certain night in a field half a mile from any house, 



where they must form certain angles and circles, and not 
get outside the boundary of the same, on pain of extirpa- 
tion. On the appointed night they assembled, and 
about half past ten went within the circle, and forming 
a procession marched round and round. They were sud 
denly shocked by a terrible explosion in the earth, a 
short distance from them, caused as above stated but at- 
tributed by them to supernatural causes. Im.mediately 
the pretended ghosts made their appearance, hideous 
groans were heard, and they conversed with Rogers in 
the hearing of the company. The spirits informed them 
that in order to obtain the treasure it would be neces- 
sary for the members to deliver twelve pounds apiece to 
them (the spirits) as an acknowledgment. The company 
were adjured to acknowledge Rogers their leader. The 
pretended "ghosts" had machines over their, mouths 
which so changed their voices that they were unrecogniz- 
able. This was in November 1788. Frequent meetings 
were now held and at all some " manifestations " took 
place, such as groans, rappings, jingling of money, and 
sometimes a voice saying " Press Forward!" These 
spirits favored specie payment and refused to take the 
" loan paper " which was at that time current in New 
Jersey. But the members of the company, being confi- 
dent of speedy reimbursement, would give almost any 
discount to obtain the hard cash. In March, therefore, 
the money was nearly all paid, and several of the most 
credible gentlemen of the company were called out of 
bed at night by pretended spirits, and directed how to 
proceed. They now convened, privately as usual, and 
with various " manifestations " were told they should 
receive the treasure the first of May. The appointed 
time soon came, and the whole company assembled in an 
open field, in the aforementioned circles, and awaited the 
ghosts; these soon made their appearance, but at a small 
distance from the circle. " They exhibited symptoms of 
great choler and uttered the most horrible groans, 
wreathing themselves into various postures which ap- 
peared most ghastly in the circumambient darkness. 
They upbraided the company with the utmost severity, 
declaring that they had not proceeded regularly, that 
some of them were faithless, and that several things had 
been divulged which ought to have been kept profoundly 
secret "; that the wicked disposition of many of the 
company and their irregular proceedings had debarred 
them from receiving the treasures at present. The of- 
fended ghosts appeared so enraged that all thoughts of 
money were forgotten, and the members looked to Rogers 
only for protection. He appeared as much frightened 
as the rest, and was scarcely able to appease the spirits; 
after a variety of ceremonies, however, he succeeded in 
dispelling the apparitions, and tranquillity once more 
reigned within the circle. The company dispersed still 
believing in Rogers, and confident the spirit would re- 
turn and conduct them to their anticipated fortunes. So 
ended the first lesson. 

If Rogers had stopped here and now he might have 
been feared and respected to the end of the chapter. 
But such was not the case. During the winter in which 



13a 



History of morris county. 



the preceding events were taking place Rogers had given 
up his school and moved into Morristown. Here he be- 
came acquainted with two young men recently from 
Yankeedom, and they by some means became 
privy to his "ghostly" secrets. They wished to 
enter the company but he refused to admit 
them. They now persuaded him to undertake a second 
venthre. This he agreed to do, and accordingly met 
five persons whom they had induced to join in the enter- 
prise. The old. tricks of groans and peculiar noises 
were resorted to, also a new one, viz.: Each one of the 
company, the plotters included, took a sheet of paper 
from a pile, and wrapping it around his wrist held it out 
at the door, for the spirit to write upon. After holding 
them thus a considerable time they withdrew them and, 
having previously huddled the papers together, exam- 
ined them, when lo! on one was written a time when 
they were to convene and receive further directions 
from the spirit! It is needless to say one of the plot- 
ters had previously prepared this paper. On the ap- 
pointed night they met at Rogers's house, and having 
first united in prayer each took a sheet of paper again, 
and proceeding to a field near the house they drew a 
circle, and with one arm raised fell on their faces and 
continued in prayer with their eyes closed, that the 
spirit might enter the circle and write on the papers. 
After a time they returned to the house, when, after 
shuffling the papers together, one was found to contain 
writing, so elegant they did marvel exceedingly! The 
import of the paper was that the company must be in- 
creased to eleven members, each of whom must pay the 
spirit twelve pounds gold — the old amount. Rogers now 
determined the scheme should be conducted under a re- 
ligious garb, and he visited church members in the char- 
acter of "the spirit of a just man," enjoining them to 
join the company. In this way he increased the num- 
ber to about thirty-seven, mostly religious men. Indi- 
vidual members frequently received nocturnal visits from 
the "spirits" and were told to "pray without ceasing," 
" look to God " etc. All the old tricks were resorted to 
to keep up the faith. Finally, when part of the money had 
been paid, Rogers presented each man with a parcel of 
burnt bones, powdered, which he told them was dust of 
the spirits' bodies, which he had received from them as a 
sign of their approbation. This was to be carefully 
guarded and not to be opened. The spirits advised all 
to drink liquor freely, and as a quantity of this was al- 
ways provided it is to be feared these church members 
did not always return home sober. Rogers even com- 
pounded pills, of which each person must take one and 
then drink freely to prevent serious effects — this by the 
spirits' orders. 

All has worked well so far; now comes the explosion. 
One of the aged members, having occasion to leave 
home, through forgetfulness left his parcel of powder 
behind. His wife found it, and out of curiosity broke it 
open; but, perceiving the contents, feared to touch it, 
lest peradventure it should have some connection with 
witchcraft; she went immediately to Rev. Mr. , for 



his advice on the subject. When her husband returned 
he was terrified at what she had done, declaring he was 
ruined forever. She now insisted on knowing the con- 
tents, and, after promising to keep it secret, was told the 
story. She thereupon declared he was serving the devil, 
and refused to keep the secret, saying it was her duty to 
put an end to such proceedings. This alarmed Rogers, 
and he and his accomplices were now more busy than 
ever appearing as spirits. At last Rogers, having imbibed 
too much, appeared to converse with a gentleman one 
night, but made several blunders. The man's wife no- 
ticed this, but the man did not. Next morning, however, 
he arose early, and where the pretended spirit had been 
he had found tracks of a man, which he followed to a 
fence near by and there found a horse had been tied. 
Rogers was now tracked down, arrested, and confined in 
jail. He protested innocence, was bailed out and attempt- 
ed to leave the State, was again arrested, and confessed. 
Most of his followers remained firm before^ but were 
compelled to believe his own confession. Rogers soon 
made his escape, how is not related. He had kept up the 
imposture about a year, and swindled his dupes to the 
tune of $1,300. 

The moral of the Morristown Ghost is too apparent to 
need to be stated. 

THE CHURCHES. 

In our history for the present century we shall have 
occasion in detailing modern institutions often to go 
back for their beginnings to the last century. We begin 
with the churches. First in order of time is 

THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The desire of some to divide the Hanover church, re- 
ferred to on page no, was strenuously opposed by the 
eastern portion of the parish. To quiet matters a resort 
was. had to the casting of lots, which resulted against the 
proposed division. To this decision, however, this branch 
of the congregation would not submit. For their action 
in this matter, though they gained their point, yet the 
church when organized called them to account. A public 
confession was required from Joseph Coe, John Lindsley, 
Joseph Prudden, Matthew Lum, Uriah Cutler, Stephen 
Freeman, Peter Condit, Jacob Ford, Joseph Howard, 
Benj. Bailey, Philip Condit, &c. The whole affair was 
carried up to synod in 1733, who strongly disapproved 
of the casting of lots, and resolved that in their poverty 
and weakness it might be very advisable for the people 
of West Hanover, at least for some time, to join them- 
selves with the congregations of East Hanover and Bask- 
ing Ridge "as may be most convenient, until they as well 
as the said neighboring congregations be more able to 
subsist of themselves separately." Yet if reunion was 
impracticable "the synod judge that the people of West 
Hanover be left to their liberty to erect themselves into 
a separate congregation." No doubt knowing the tem- 
per and state of feeling in this part of his field of labor 
this deliverance of synod was in no way satisfactory to 
Mr. Nutman, the pastor at Hanover, for at the same ses- 



RELIGIOUS BfiGlNNINGS AT MORKlSTOWN. 



131 



sion of the body he asked for a dismission from his pres- 
bytery if this action was enforced of forming a separate 
congregation; whereupon the synod earnestly recom- 
mended the Presbytery of East New Jersey to labor with 
the people of West Hanover to effect a reconciliation, 
and if this was impossible then to dismiss Mr. Nutman 
upon his application. The next year the matter again 
came before the synod in the reading of the minutes, 
when the use of lots was condemned; and yet say they: 
"We are afraid that much sin has been committed by 
many if not all that people in their profane disregard of 
said lot, and therefore excite them to reflect upon their 
past practices in reference thereunto in order to their 
repentance." 

This implied censure in no way healed the breach. 
There had been too much said and done on both sides 
again to work in concert; so that, independent of the 
counsellings of synod, this branch of the congregation 
made application to that body on the following year for 
the ordination of one who had recently come among 
them. The synod referred the matter to the Presbytery 
of Philadelphia. In May 1736 the people pressed the 
presbytery to proceed in the ordination of Mr. Cleverly, 
when they directed the congregation to appoint a day 
and give them due notice, that they might attend properly 
to the business. For some cause no day was designated; 
so that the presbytery in August 1737 rhet here, but 
found opposition on the part of some of the people to 
his settlement. In virtue of this state of things they 
urged him to seek another field of labor, and wrote to 
the rector of Yale College to send a candidate, giving as 
a reason that they knew no other way to supply them. 
This advice to Mr. Cleverly was not taken, as he re- 
mained in Morristown till his death, in December 1776. 
He never married. His small property became nearly 
exhausted toward the close of life and he was reduced to 
hardships. 

The synod in 1738, finding the difficulties still existing 
and anxious to bring the case to a final issue, appointed 
a large committee, which met on the 26th of July, at 
Hanover. The members present were Andrews, of Phil- 
adelphia; Gilbert Tennent, of New Brunswick; William 
Tennent, of Freehold; John Cross, of Basking Ridge; 
Crowell, of Trenton, and Treat, of Abington. An open- 
ing sermon was preached by Gilbert Tennent from Ezek. 
xi. 19, " I will give them one heart." The eastern part 
were still anxious for a union if it could be had on rea- 
sonable terms. To this the western portion were how- 
ever averse, and represented according to truth that they 
were much increased in number, being nearly one-half 
abler than they were; and the committee, finding that 
they both were better able to support the gospel, unani- 
mously concluded that there should be two seperate so- 
cieties, and that no further attempts should be made to 
merge them in one, and in this dicision all parties ex- 
pressed their entire satisfaction. 

In those days, however, it was not an easy matter to 
find a pastor, and as Mr. Cleverly still resided here he no 
doubt officiated occasionally or regularly until, in 1742, a 



pastor was chosen. Previous to this time, apart from 
the minutes of the Synod of Philadelphia, we can find 
no trace of the state of this church in any of its eccle- 
siastical movements. 

The first pastor of the church was the Rev. Timothy 
Johnes, his pastorate beginning August 13th 1742 and 
continuing to the time of his death, covering over half a 
century. He was of Welsh descent; was born in South- 
ampton, Long Island, May 24th 1717, and graduated at 
Yale College in 1737, from whence in 1783 he received 
the degree of doctor of divinity. Mr. Webster, in his 
history of the Presbyterian church, says: "Of the period 
between his leaving college and going to Morristown we 
have seen no notice, except that in that perilous time, 
when some haply were found fighting against God, those 
who separated from the first parish in New Haven wor- 
shiped in the house of Mr. Timothy Johnes." From 
this it would appear that he studied theology at New 
Haven. He was no doubt licensed by the Congrega- 
tional body, and came to Morristown by means of the 
letter of presbytery to the president of the college or by a 
subsequent request to the same. Tradition asserts that 
he labored for a short period on Long Island in some of 
the vacant churches. With Mr. Johnes this church as- 
sumes historic character, shape and life, as from the 
date of his settlement the church records begin. Though 
for a time the entries of sessional business are meager, 
yet they are sufficient to indicate the presbyterial char- 
acter of the church in its government and relations. 

The strength of the church in numbers and wealth at 
its organization cannot now be learned. Rev. Samuel 
L. Tuttle, in his history of the Madison Presbyterian 
Church, another off-shoot of Hanover, a few years later, 
says: "In or about 1740 a small and very feeble church 
was organized and established in Morristown." But it 
would seem from the action of the committee of synod, 
as well as from the whole course of procedure of this 
section of the church, that they were able from the be- 
ginning to support the gospel. There were 102 in full 
communion when Mr. Johnes was installed pastor, by no 
means "a very feeble church;" small in comparison with 
the power it has since attained, but by no means to be 
ranked in those days among the feeble churches in the 
land. 

The names of these 102 members are appended, with 
the addition so far as we have been able to ascertain of 
the date of their death or burial: 

John Lindley, died March 9 1750, aged 50. Elizabeth 
Lindley, his wife, buried April 21 1772, aged 91. John 
Lindley jr., died September 10 1784, aged 56. Sarah 
Lindley, his wife. Jacob Fford, died January 19 1777, 
born April 13 1704. Hannah B ford, his wife, buried July 
31 1777, aged 76. Joseph Prudden, buried September 27 
1776, aged 84. Joanna Prudden, his wife. Caleb Fair- 
child, buried May 3 1777, aged 84. Anna Fairchild, his 
wife, buried April 8 1777, aged 86. Joseph Coe. Judith 
Coe, his wife. Joseph Coe jr. Esther Coe, his wife. 
Solomon Munson, buried February 8 1803, aged 78. 
Tamar Munson, his wife, buried January 28 1779, aged 79. 
Benjamin Pierson, died August 2 1783, aged 81. Patience 
Pierson, his wife, died January 7 1785, aged 77. Stephen 



132 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Freman, buried August 2 177 1, aged 84. Hannah Freman, 
his wife, buried July 22 1779, aged 85. Matthew Lum, 
buried May 21 1777, aged 70. Susanna Lam, his wife, 
died May 23 1758, aged 63. Peter Cundit, buried July 11 
1768, aged 69. Phebe Cundit, bis wife, buried July 26 
1768, aged 65. Philip Cundit, died December 23 1801, 
aged 92. Mary Cundit, his wife, buried September 30 
1784, aged 72. Joseph Howard. Mary Howard, his 
wife, buried January 30 1782, aged 79. Sarah, wife of 
Samuel Ford. Benjamin Bailey, buried March 20 
1783, aged 83. Letitia Bailey, his wife, buried 
August II 1781, aged 78. Samuel Nutman. 
Abigail Nutman, his wife. James Cole. Phebe Cole, his 
wife. Benjamin Coe. Rachel Coe, his wife, buried De- 
cember 20th 1776, aged 58. Thomas Kent. Ebenezer 
Mahurin. , wife of Ebenezer Mahurin. Uriah Cut- 
ler, buried February 5th, 1795, aged 86. Timothy Mills, 
died March 4th 1803, aged 85. Job Allen, of Rocka- 
way. John Clark. Abigail Clark, his wife. Benjamin 
Beach, of Rockaway; suspended May 26th 1756. Abner 
Beach, of Rockaway; suspended May 8th 1752. Jonah 

Arstin. , his wife. Zeruiah, wife of Isaiah Wines, 

" now of Captain Samuel Day," buried December 21st 
1776, aged 56. Sarah, wife of Isaac Price. Martha, 
wife of Cornelius Arstin. Susanna, wife of Caleb Tich- 
enor. Sarah, wife of James Frost. Mary, wife of Isaac 
Clark. Elizabeth, wife of David More. Ann, wife of 
Alexander Robards. Ann Allen, widow. Sarah, wife of 
Abraham Hathaway. Bethiah, wife of Thomas Wood, 
buried November 7th 1773, aged 74. Experience, wife of 
Benjamin Conger, buried September 30th 1784, aged 73. 
Charity, wife of Benjamin Shipman. Phebe, wife of 
Shadrach Hathaway. , wife of John Jonson. Cath- 
arine, wife of Peter Stagg. , wife of Eliacam Suerd. 

Mary Burt. Comfort, wife of Joseph Stiles, died June 
17th 1785, aged 76. Joanna, wife of Peter Prudden. 
Samuel Sweasy. Susanna Sweasy, his wife, buried Nov- 
ember 5th 1776, aged 80. Joseph Fowler's wife Hannah. 
Hannah, wife of Jeremiah Johnson. Martha, wife of. 
John Fford. Abigail, wife of Jonathan Conklin, " now 
of Samuel Bayles." Charles Howell, died June i8th 1759, 
aged 38. Deborah, wife of Charles Howell, died De- 
cember 19th 1765, aged 43. Daughter (?) of Charles 
Howell. Doctor Elijah Jillet. Jane, wife of Doctor 
Jillet. Elder Morris, of Basking Ridge. Mary, his wife. 
Abraham Campfield's wife (Sarah); buried July 22nd 1783. 
Phebe, Joshua Ball's wife. Elizabeth Kermicle, widow. 
Nathan Ward's wife. Jemima, wife of Deacon Matthew 
Lum. Samuel Baldwin, of Mendham. Rebecca, Zach. 
Fairchild's wife. Elizabeth, Captain Clark's wife. Wife 
of Samuel Mills (Sarah), buried January isth 1785, aged 
61. Elizabeth, wife of David Gauden. Mattaniah Lyon, 
died February 2nd 1794, aged 69. , his wife. Alex- 
ander Johnson's wife. Silas Halsey. Abigail, his wife; 
buried March 26th 1777, aged 60. Bathiah, Benjamin 
Halsey's wife, died January 23d 1785, aged 62. John 
MacFeran, buried November 22nd 1778, aged 80. Eliza- 
beth, his wife, buried September 13th 1778, aged 77. 
Nathan Price. Peter Prudden, buried A\m[ 21st 1777, 
aged 55. 

At the head of this list stands the following: 

"The number and names of the persons that were in 
full communion when the church was first collected and 
founded, together with the number of those that came 
since from other churches, with their removal." 

The first entry upon this roll after those above given is: 

"Aug. 15 1765, Naomi, wf. of John Laporte, turned 
from the Anabaptists and received on ye foot of her 
being a member of that ch. in good standing." 



Thus it would seem that all named previous to this 
date were in full communion when Mr. Johnes assumed 
charge of the church. 

The names on this list (and the same may be said of 
those upon deeds) clearly point, as already indicated, to 
a New England origin. 

On the 8th of September 1756 a charter of incorpora- 
tion was granted the church by Jonathan Belcher, the 
captain-general and governor of the province of New 
Jersey. This charter may be seen in full in TAe Record 
for January 1880. 

The following is the preface to the trustees' book, 
which then began to be kept: 

" A Record of the Transactions of the Trustees in and 
for the Presbyterian Chh & Congregation at morristown, 
in Vertue of a Charter granted to the said Chh. & Con- 
gregation by his Excellency Jonathan Belcher, Esqr., 
Captain General and Governor in Cheif in and over his 
majesties Province of Nova Cesarea or New Jersey and 
territories thereon Depending in America, Chancellor and 
Vice admiral in the same, &c., which Charter was granted 
the eighteenth of September, in the twenty-ninth year of 
his majesties Reign, 1756, the expense of which Charter, 
being about seven Pound Proc. was Raised by Publick 
Contribution Excepting the writing of Sd Charter, which 
was Generously done by Ezekiel Cheever, member of Sd 
Society. 

" The Incorporated Trustees, Viz.: messiurs. Benjamin 
Hatheway, President; Benjamin Bayles, Thomas Kent, 
Benjamin Coe, Charles Howell, Sam'l Robarts & henry 
Primrose, on the Receiving the Charter at the ministers 
hous from the hands of Mr. Johnes, who had Been De- 
siered and was Principally Concerned in obtaining the 
Sd Charter, the Trustees by a Vote did then and there 
appoint Sam'l Robarts the Corporation Clark." 

The first church edifice was no doubt reared before 
the coming of Mr. Johnes. It was a wooden building 
nearly square, with shingled sides, and stood a few rods 
east of the present structure, on land given by Benjamin 
Hathaway and Jonathan Lindsly for a parsonage and 
burial ground. On January 24th 1764 the trustees 
granted permission to erect a steeple, 125 feet in height, 
and agreed that Colonel Ford should have " the care, 
management and oversight " of the work. In this tower 
a bell was hung, the gift tradition says of the king of 
Great Britain. It had on it the impress of the British 
crown and the name of the makers — " Lister & Pack of 
London fecit." The same bell still rings out its sum- 
mons to the house of God, though recast some 20 years 
ago. The vane of the steeple was afterward given to the 
old academy at New Vernon. 

The increasing number of members made the enlarge- 
ment of the building a necessity, which was accordingly 
done in 1774. 

A still further increase of membership, the growing 
population of the town, and the hard usage to which the 
church had been put during the war of the Revolution as 
a hospital for the army, led after much discussion to the 
conclusion to build a new edifice. At a meeting of the 
parish, held October 8th 1790, the final plans were 
adopted and committees appointed. The church was to 
be 75 feet long, 55 wide, the steeple 20 feet square, 9 of 



MORRISTOWN'S FIRST CHURCH AND PASTOR. 



133 



which were to be taken from the main building, leaving 
an audience room 66 feet in length. Judge Condict, 
Dr. Johnes jr., Dr. Jabez Campfield, Squire Carraichael, 
Squire Lindsly, Mr. Phillips, Jonathan Dickerson, Major 
Lindsly, Deacon Allen, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Mills and Mr. 
Halsey were appointed a committee of direction. The 
said committee were to have leave to apply to the Legis- 
lature for the privilege of a lottery to raise a sum of 
money equal to the expense of building the new meeting- 
house — a method of procedure very common in those 
days. If this application were ever made it was refused, 
as we hear no more about it. ' 

In a memorandum book of one of the committee for 
the purchasing of materials we have the following entry: 
" Timber to be all white oak, cut in old moon of Dec, 

Jan'y or Feb'y, and delivered on the Green by the 

day of next. Nov. 1790." The work was com- 
menced in the spring of 1791. The head carpenter was 
Major Joseph Lindsly, assisted by Gilbert Allen, both 
elders in the church and men of great moral worth and 
highly beloved by the congregation. The frame was 
raised on September 20th 1791, and on several successive 
days, some 2cc men assisting in the work. 

The first site selected for the building was in the grave- 
yard not far from the old church; this fact is gathered 
from an account book of that date, which has been very 
mnch mutilated but in which is the following entry: 
"William Cherry Cr. by one day's work done in the 
graveyard towards the foundation where the house was 
first ordered to be built, 5s." The site was changed 
chiefly through the agency of Dr. Jabez Campfield, but 
the reason is not known. The location has never given 
satisfaction and several attempts have been made to 
move the church; but without success, and it will no 
doubt stand where it is until superseded by a new house 
of worship. 

From the diary of Joseph Lewis, Esq., we take the fol- 
lowing: "Thursday, Augt. 18 1791. — This afternoon, 
agreeably to notice given, the congregation met to lay 
corner stones of the new meeting-house. Rev. Dr. 
Johnes laid the S. W. corner of the house; Rev. Mr. 
Collins, by Rev. Mr. Cooly, S. E. do.; the deacon, N. E. 
do.; elders, N. W. do.; trustees, N. W. do. of the steeple; 
managers, S. W. do. 

Different parts of the work were sold at public vendue 
to the lowest bidder, with the provision that if any 
person's contract amounted to more than he had sub- 
scribed toward the building he should wait until the 
money could be collected, or take orders upon those sub- 
scribers who were not working out their subscriptions. 
The managers kept an account with every one who sub- 
scribed or worked; some of the entries are curious and 
interesting. Perhaps nothing could better illustrate one 
feature of the difference between the rehgion of the past 
and the present than the following entries, the first from 
the managers' day-book and the second from some stray 
leaves, which were probably connected with it: "Daniel 
Phoenix jr., cr. by 13 gills of rum furnished the hands 
t'lis day, 2 shillings 2 pence." This was in the beginning 



of the work; the next is February 2, 1794: " Meeting- 
House dr. to Joseph Marsh, for licker for raising gallery" 
13 shillings. 

On November 26th 1795 the congregation worshiped 
in this house for the first time, though it was not until 
several months afterward that the whole was completed. 
The pulpit was not finished and furnished until some 
time in 1796, when this fell, as in later times, to the 
ladies, who collected from their own sex the sum of $125 
" for the purpose," as their subscription paper ran, "of 
dressing the pulpit, getting curtains for the large win- 
dows of the meeting-house, a new funeral pall, and a 
gown for the minister.'' In the following year the walls 
were whitewashed and " the inside of the church ordered 
to be a light blue." Gradually the whole was finished, at 
a cost considerably over $10,000. We have heard the 
sum stated at $12,000. 

This for the times was a great undertaking. Com- 
menced soon after the close of the protracted war with 
Great Britian, when taxes were heavy and must be paid, 
when the country was burdened with debt, paper money 
the only currency, nearly every farm mortgaged, and 
when creditors ran from their debtors, afraid of the con- 
tinental money, when a silver dollar was scarcely seen 
and gold was if anything rarer — yet steadily was the 
work prosecuted in the midst of the most trying dis- 
couragements, while the willingness of the people to be 
taxed nearly f 10,000 for the purpose of defraying the 
expenditure shows a noble spirit; and the readiness with 
which so many came forward — over 360 persons in all — 
to contribute to the undertaking reveals the fact that 
more were willing to share and bear the burdens of the 
sanctuary than at present. The communicants at that 
time numbered but little more than half of the subscri- 
bers, as scarcely 40 pews were reserved for sacramental 
days. 

The later history of this church will be sufficiently no- 
ticed under the successive pastorates, which we now 
proceed to recount. 

I. Rev. Timothy Johnes, D.D. ,htgdin\\\s labors Au- 
gust 13th 1742; was ordained and installed February 9th 
1743; continued pastor until his death. In 1791 he 
fractured his thigh bone by a fall, which confined him 
for months to his bed, and made him a cripple for the 
remainder of his life. After more than a year's confine- 
ment he was able to attend public worship. Aided by 
one or two of his elders he reached the desk, where, 
seated on a high cushioned chair, he would occasionally 
address the people. In this condition he preached in 
1793 his half-century sermon to a crowded assembly, 
who came from all quarters to hear it. His text 
was, " I have fought a good fight, I have finished my 
course," etc. In the delivery of that discourse he mani- 
fested unusual animation, and in the closing prayer he 
seemed to breathe out his whole soul in fervent petition 
for the peace, prosperity and salvation of his people. 
The service was closed by singing the 71st Psalm — " God 
of my childhood and my youth," etc. In reading the 
first verse, said an eye-witness, "his voice began to falter 



134 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



and became tremulous. He proceeded with much emo- 
tion, while the tears trickled over his venerable cheeks, 
and before he could utter the last line his voice seemed 
to die away admidst the sobs and tears of the whole as- 
sembly." 

Seldom did he address his people after this. In the 
following winter, as he was riding to church on Sabbath 
morning, his sleigh was upset a short distance from his 
house, which broke his other thigh bone. He was car- 
ried to his home, and never left it till he was removed by 
the hands of others to the graveyard. He died Septem- 
ber isth 1794, in the 78th year of his age, the S2nd of his 
pastorate and 54th of his ministry. 

His tombstone bears the following inscription: "As 
a Christian few ever discovered more piety — as a minis- 
ter few labored longer, more zealously or more success- 
fully than did this minister of Jesus Christ." 

During his pastorate of over half a century he received 
into the church 600 members and 572 half-way members, 
officiated at 2,827 baptisms, and 948 marriages, and dis- 
ciplined 170 members. 

. Those who desire to see the first four of the above lists 
may find them in full in successive numbers of The 
Record. 

The last list contains many curious things. A few 
samples are given. 

Some difficulty seems to have early arisen between 
Timothy Peck and one Nutman on the one side and 
William Shipman on the other, and the two former must 
have wished to have the latter turned out of the church, 
and made an accusation against him with that intention; 
for the session declares it finds the charge groundless, 
and then goes on to say (intimating that Shipman had 
complained of losing a steer): "As to Peck and Nutman 
taking away .the steer, it doth not appear but that " 
they "had a toleration for their action, though at ye 
same time they are to blame in going at such a time 
when as appears they were apprehensive sd. Shipman 
was not at home; and also for saying they were sorry he 
was not at home, though it doth not appear the property 
of the steer was fixed to any." It was adjudged that 
said Peck and Nutman should " pay sd. Shipman for 
wintering the steer, according to his demands, and also 
that they should pay him forty shillings, as or in lieu of 
his quota of some household goods." 

Members were disciplined as follows: 

January 3d 1760, Mr. "and wife for partaking of 

stolen watermelon;" "July 26 1766, for a premedi- 
tated fist quarrel;" "January i 1772, for taking 

hold of an antient man & member of ye ch., and 
shaking him in an unchristian & threatening manner;" 

"June 30 1786, & wife for ye premature marriage 

of wife's sister after first wife's death." A frequent 
cause of discipline was intemperance, which slew its 
victims then as" now. In all these cases the record shows 
the kindly heart and wise discretion of the pastor. 

The moulding influence of this honored minister of 
Christ upon this whole section of country warrants a 
somewhat elaborate review of his official life and work. 



This cannot be better given than in the following sketch 
by the Rev. Albert Barnes, taken from a manual of the 
First Presbyterian Church, prepared and published by 
him in 1828, while pastor of the church: 

" Dr. Johnes has left nothmg except the general im- 
pression of his labors on the minds of the church and 
congregation, by which the nature and value of his ser- 
vices can now be distinctly known. [Only one of his 
sermons has ever been printed, which may be found in 
the Record iox October 1880. The writer of this has in 
his possession a number of MS. sermons, but few of which 
are still in existence.— R. S. G.] The fact, however, 
that he received the highest honors of a college deserved- 
ly ranking among the first in the United States, and that 
at a time when literary degrees were not conferred in- 
discriminately, and were therefore proof of merit, is a 
sufficient evidence that his standing in the ministry was 
of a very respectable order, and that he was well known 
in the American churches. He was a man of respectable 
literary attainments, but was rather distinguished for his 
fidelity as a pastor. As a preacher he is said to have 
been clear, plain, practical and persuasive. His dis- 
courses were rather an affectionate appeal to the heart 
than profound and elaborate disquisitions on ab- 
struse points of theology. He aimed rather to 
win men to the practice of holiness than to terrify and 
denounce them. Though faithful in reproving and 
warning, yet it was with mildness and in the spirit of 
true Christian affection. He suffered no public vice to 
escape without reproof; but the reproof was administer- 
ed in order that he- might show them a more excellent 
way. He. seemed to have come to his people, particular- 
ly towards the latter part of his ministry, as an affection- 
ate Christian pastor; their father, counsellor, and friend. 
No man could have had a better claim to the title of 
" father in the gospel;" and no man, probably, would have 
used the influence thus derived more to the practical 
benefit of the people. Though not elaborate, or remark- 
ably profound, or highly eloquent in the pulpit, yet Dr. 
Johnes had the faculty of instilling successfully the prin- 
ciples of religion into the minds of the people. He was 
much with them. He visited much from house to house. 
He had become acquainted with the circumstances of 
every family. He had the moulding and training of the 
congregation. He had the power, therefore, of stamping 
his own sentiments on their minds. Beloved as their 
pastor, and venerated as their spiritual father, his sen- 
timents on religion were always received with high 
respect, and almost uniformly with cordial approbation. 
He endeavored to bring religion home to the business 
and bosoms of men — to associate it with their ordinary 
notions of living — of bargain and sale — of social and polit- 
ical intercourse — with all their attachments, hopes and 
fears. By being much with the people, and by a faculty 
of adapting his instructions to their circumstances and 
capacities, he labored successfully to instill into their 
minds pure sentiments, to form them to good habits, and 
to train them up to the practice of holy living. The 
consequence was that at his death there were probably few 
congregations that were so thoroughly instructed in all 
that pertained to the practical duties of religion. Dr. 
Johnes was eminently a peacemaker. His respectable 
standing, his high character, his long experience, his 
practical wisdom, and his undoubted integrity secured 
the confidence of the people and led them to listen with 
profound deference to him as the arbiter of their dis- 
putes. Without interfering farther than became him as 
the venerable pastor of a people in the controversies 
which arise in neighborhoods, he yet contrived success- 
fully to suppress a spirit of litigation and to produce an 
adjustment of difficulties in consistency with the laws of 



REV, DR. TIMOTHY JOHNES— DR. RICHARDS'S PASTORATE. 



rSS 



affection and concord. Habits of litigation he regarded 
as eminently inconsistent with the spirit of the gospel, 
and he therefore labored that his people might endeavor 
to hold " the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace." 
Nor did he labor in vain. He was regarded as the tried 
friend of his people, and they unhesitatingly reposed 
with confidence on his judgment. 

" Dr. Johnes was a warm and decided friend to revi- 
vals of religion. He received his education in the time 
of President Edwards and Whitefield and the Tennants. 
He came to this place in the period of the greatest ex- 
citement on the subject of religion that this country has 
ever known. Many of the older inhabitants of this 
place can still recollect the interest with which he read 
to his congregation accounts of revivals in other parts of 
the country. He labored and prayed fervently that his 
own congregation might be brought also to a participa 
tion of the blessings that descended on other parts of the 
land. His sentiments on this subject are recorded in in- 
cidental notices attached to the names of those who 
were added to the church during these seasons of special 
mercy. In one place he says, ' These the sweet fruits 
of the wonderful effusion of God's adorable grace began 
on our sacrament day, July ist 1764.' In another, 
'those that follow the ingatherings of the divine harvest 
in 1774 — sweet drops of the morning dew.' 

" Few men have ever been more successful as ministers 
of the gospel than Dr. Johnes. To have been the instru- 
ment of founding a large and flourishing church; to have 
been regarded as its affectionate father and guide; to 
have established the ordinances of the gospel, and formed 
the people to respect its institutions; to have produced 
that outward order and morality and love of good insti- 
tutions now observable in this congregation, was itself 
worthy of the toils of his life. In being permitted to 
regard himself as, under God, the originator of habits 
and good institutions which are to run into coming gen- 
erations, he could not but look upon his toils as amply 
recompensed. 

" But he was permitted also to see higher fruit of the 
labor of his ministry. It pleased a gracious God, not only 
to grant a gradual increase of the church, but also at two 
different times to visit the congregation with a special 
revival of religion. The first occurred in 1764. This 
commenced, as has been noted, on the sacrament day, 
July ist. The fruits of this revival were the admission 
to the church, within the space of about a year, of ninety- 
four persons. Of the characteristics of this revival little 
is known, except that it was a work of deep feelmg, 
much anxiety, awful apprehensions of the nature of sin 
and of the justice of God, impressive solemnity, and 
sound and thorough hopeful conversions to God. The 
second revival commenced in 1774. As the result of 
this about fifty were added to the church. In 1790 there 
was another season of unusual excitement on the subject 
of religion, and about forty were united to the church." 

2. Rev. Aaron C. Collins was settled January 6th 1791 as 
colleague pastor of Dr. Johnes; he was dismissed after a 
brief and unpleasant pastorate, September 2nd 1793. 

3. Eev. James Richards, D.D., was settled May ist 1795, 
and dismissed April 26th 1809. Like Dr. Johnes, Dr. 
Richards was of Welsh descent. He was born at New 
Canaan, Conn., October 29th 1767. He labored first as a 
licentiate at Ballston, N. Y., and afterward supplied two 
small congregations on Long Island. On the 21st of 
July 1794 a call from this church was made and put into 
his hands, in which he was offered $440 salary in 
quarterly payments, the use of the parsonage and fire 



wood. This was in due time accepted by him, and on 
the ist of May 1795 he was ordained and installed pastor 
of the church by the Presbytery of New York. Dr. 
McWhorter, of Newark, preached the ordination sermon 
from Acts xx. 24. Dr. Rogers, of New York, presided; 
Mr. Austin, of Elizabeth gave the charge to the people. 
In the year 1801 he received the degree of Master of 
Arts from Princeton College, and in 1805, at the age of 
37, was chosen moderator of the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church. 

In November 1795 the old church was taken down, 
vacated, and sold in lots. A good part of it was con- 
verted into a distillery and cider-mill on Water street, 
So great, so it was said, was the attachment of many of 
the members for it that they could not refrain from vis- 
iting it in its new location. On November 26th 1795 Mr. 
Richards preached the first sermon in the new and pres- 
ent house. 

The old plan of rating and collecting was now discon- 
tinued; and in its place the pews were sold and assessed. 
The number purchasing or renting pews was 158, and 
the sum paid was $533-35. The expenses for 1797, ac- 
cording to an old memorandum, were: Salary, $440; 
sweeping the church, $15; sexton, $15; cake for wood 
cutters, $19; printing, $2; "Cyder," $5.62. Total, 
I496.62. Cake and cider formed it would appear no 
inconsiderable part of the sum total of expenses. The 
minister was promised so much salary, parsonage and 
fire-wood. The " wood-frolick," as it was called, was a 
great event in the parish. It brought together the 
greater part of the congregation, the ladies preparing 
supper at the parsonage, which was heartily enjoyed by 
those who were busy during the day in bringing together 
the year's supply of fuel for their minister, which aver- 
aged about 40 cords. We find the amounts expended 
by the parish, for these frolics in 1797, as seen above, 
to be for cake and cider, $24.62; in 1798, bread and beef, 
$18.94; in 1799, I cwt. of flour and 200 lbs. of beef, 
$10.83. 

The spinning visit was similar in character, though we 
do not find that it was attended with expense to the 
parish. By this means there were collected together 
various amounts of linen thread, yard and cloth, pro- 
portioned to the " gude " wife's ability or generosity. 
The thread was woven into cloth for the use and comfort 
of the pastor and his family, and as it was not always of 
the same texture and size it sometimes puzzled the 
weaver to make the cloth and finish it alike. 

The meagerness of Mr. Richards's salary was a 
source of great perplexity to him as the expenses of his 
growing family increased, and finally led to his accepting 
a call from the First Presbyterian Church of Newark, N. J. 
During his pastorate of fourteen years he admitted to the 
church on examination 214, and on certificate 29. He 
baptized 444, and solemnized 251 marriages. At the 
time of his dismission the church numbered 298 members 
in full communion. 

Mr. Richards remained in Newark fifteen years, when 
he resigned his charge to accept the professorship of 



136 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



theology in the theological seminary at Auburn, N. Y. 
Here he remained until his death, August 2nd 1843. 

4. Rev. Samuel Fisher, D. D., settled August gth 1809; 
dismissed April 27th 1814. 

Jonathan Fisher was a lieutenant in the Revolutionary 
army, was taken sick in the performance of his duties, 
and died of camp fever in this town in March 1777, 
three months before the birth of his son Samuel, the 
successor of Mr. Richards. He was buried in the old 
cemetery in the rear of the church. Samuel was born in 
Sunderland, Mass., June 30th 1777; graduated at Wil- 
liams College in 1799, and afterward filled the position 
of tutor in the college for some time. He was ordained 
November ist 1805, and settled over the Congregational 
church of Wilton, Conn., from whence he was called to 
this church. He was an able minister and laborious pas- 
tor, yet the political excitement of the time was such that 
he gave offense in certain sermons preached in 1812 
(which he afterward published to show the groundlessness 
of the charges made against him); this finally led to the 
resignation of his charge. The last person he receive'd 
into the communion of the church was an aged woman 
who. thirty-seven years before had attended his father in 
his last illness. While here he officiated at 86 marriages 
and 279 funerals. There were added to the church in 
thh same time 65 on profession and 32 by certificate. 
His congregation embraced and he visited in his pastoral 
work over 500 families. In the years 1811 and 1812 he 
took a census of the village and township, and found the 
number of white males to be 466, females 511, blacks 
134 — total, i,iii; inhabitants out of the village — white 
males 1,018, females 1,020, blacks 68 — total, 2,106; in 
3113,217. Number of baptized persons in the village, 
152; in the country, 378; total, 530. Church members 
in the village, 102; in the parish, out of the village, 206; 
total, 308. 

5. Eev. William A. McDowell, D. D.; settled Decem- 
ber 13th 1814; dismissed October 23d 1823. Dr. Mc- 
Dowell was born at Lamington, N. J., in May 1789; 
studied at Elizabethtown under Mr. Henry Mills, a son 
of this church and afterward professor in the theological 
seminary at Auburn, N. Y.; graduated at Princeton in 
1809 and was then tutor in the' same; entered the first 
class in the theological seminary at Princeton in 1812; 
was ordained and installed pastor of the church at Bound 
Brook December 22nd 1815, where he remained less than 
a year. His pastorate in Morristown was highly success- 
ful, and large numbers were added to the church, 130 in 
1822. The severe labors of this great revival seriously 
affected his health, never vigorous. He was obliged to 
go south; and shortly after this, receiving a call to 
Charleston, S. C, he felt constrained on the ground of 
health to accept it. He died in this place, September 
17th 1851, having shortly before returned here to put 
himself under the care of his old physician, Dr. Johnes. 
During his pastorate of nearly nine years 271 were added 
to the church on profession, and 46 by letter— 317 in all. 

In 1816 a Sabbath-school was established in connec- 
tion with the church. Before this a few active friends 



met on Sabbath to instruct the colored people, which 
may be considered as the first movement in this section 
for planting that institution which God has so much hon- 
ored and blessed to both teacher and scholar. The 
school of this church was first under the superintend- 
ance of one or two devoted ladies, assisted by an eflfi- 
cient corps of teachers, among whom we find the names 
Mills, Condit, Johnson, Johnes, Schenck, etc., all ladies. 

In 1819 a lecture room, the predecessor of the pres- 
ent one, was built under the management and super- 
vision of John Mills. 

In 1822 stoves and lamps were first introduced into 
the church. The former innovation was very much op- 
posed by a few as leading to effeminacy. Their fathers 
and mothers had faithfully attended the sanctuary with- 
out any such comforts, being satisfied with the smell of 
fire from the foot stoves. One good man affirmed that 
they had always trusted Providence for keeping warm 
and should do so still; opposition was slight, however, 
and stoves and lamps were soon fixtures in the church, 
at an expense of $254. Previous to this when the 
church was lighted, which was but seldom, it was done 
by candles taken by different members of the congre- 
gation. Opposition to stoves was on a par with the re- 
pugnance of many to insuring the church, which was 
deemed a wanton disregard of God's providence and an 
act that boded no good. These wood stoves continued 
till 1835, when they were found insufficient for warm- 
ing the building; coal stoves were then substituted and 
were used until the furnaces were introduced. The 
lamps remained until 1842, when others were purchased 
sufficient to give a fine light over the whole church. 
These were rendered useless by the introduction of gas. 

6. Rev. Albert Barnes; ordained and installed Feb. 
8th 1825, dismissed June 8th 1830. Mr. Barnes graduated 
at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., in 1820. His theo- 
logical studies were pursued at Princeton. This was 
Mr. Barnes's first pastorate, and to hisMaster's work here 
he consecrated all his powers. His sermons were close, 
pungent, discriminating and pointed, making no com- 
promises with sin, and fearlessly uttered. The greatest 
commotion was excited in the early part of his ministry 
by his decided and unflinching course on temperance. 
That great work was begining to occupy the thoughts of 
many. Here he found drinking customs in vogue, and 
distilleries dotted all over the parish. Within the limits 
of his pastoral charge there were 19 places where ardent 
spirits were made and 20 where they were sold. To arrest 
the evils that are ever associated with this vice, and re- 
move if possible the curse from the community, he early 
called the attention of his people to the subject by a se- 
ries of sermons in which he appealed to their reason, con- 
science and religion, and sought to lead them to an 
abandonment of social drinking usages, and of the 
places where intoxicating drinks were manufactured and 
sold. Some engaged in the traffic were first indignant 
at his interference and radical measures, and after listen- 
ing to his discourse determined never again to be pres- 
ent to listen to another; but at the time for the delivery 



PASTORS OF THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MORRISTOWN. 



137 



ot the next sermon they were in their places anxious to 
hear what he would say, and at last so convinced were 
they of the injury that they were doing to the morals of 
the place and the happiness of families that soon 17 of 
the distilleries were closed, and not long after his de- 
parture the fires of the other two went out. 

Here also commenced that system of early rising and 
literary labor which resulted in his well known commenta- 
ries on the Bible. He devoted the hours from 4 to 9 
o'clock in the morning to this work. Here also was 
■preached and published the sermon called "The Way of 
Salvation," which was greatly instrumental in his being 
called to the First church of Philadelphia, and which 
from its statements in regard to certain doctrines led to 
discussion, opposition, censure, trial and a temporary 
suspension of his ministerial duties and finally to the di- 
vision of the Presbyterian church into the Old School and 
New School branches. 

No man has left his impress upon this congregation 
more than Mr. Barnes. He came here in his youthful 
vigor, and God largely owned his labors, and few minis- 
ters have had a more attached people than his parish- 
ioners, who loved him for his excellencies, revered him 
for his piety and have followed his afterlife with undevi- 
ating interest; 296 were admitted to the church, 228 
on profession and 68 by certificate. 

He was installed pastor over the First Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia on the 2Sth of June 1B30, where 
he remained to his death, Dec. 24th 1870. 

7. Rev. Charles Hoover; settled February 8th 1832; 
dismissed March loth 1836. According to its report to 
the General Assembly the church under the pastorate of 
Mr. Hoover was the largest in the State of New Jersey. 
On June 26th 1833 Mr. Hoover assisted in the organiza- 
tion of a church at New Vernon, drawn mainly from this 
society; 30 were dismissed that year from this church 
and several during the next two years. That enterprise 
received material aid in the erection of a building from 
this church. 

8. Rev. Orlando L. Kirtlandj settled March 23d 1837; 
dismissed August 26th 1840. One of the first acts of the 
new pastor was to make a corrected list of the members 
of the church. The number found to be in actual com- 
munion was 453. Mr. Kirtland was dismissed to become 
the pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, organized 
under him in this place. 

9. Rev. A. Henry Diimont, D. D.j settled January 20th 
1841; dismissed July 9th 1845. During the four and a 
half years of this pastorate in were received by letter 
and on profession into membership of the church. 

On September ist 1845 a call was made and presented 
to Rev. Jonathan B. Condict, which was not accepted. 

10. Rev. Alexander R. Thompson; ordained and in- 
stalled January 14th 1846; dismissed July 28th 1847. 

11. Rev. James Richards, D. D.; settled December 
28th 1847; dismissed April isth 1851. Mr. Richards was 
the son of the second pastor of the church. He added 
to the church 19 on profession and 53 by letter. 

12. Rev. John H. Townley; settled December 27th 1851; 



died February 5th 1855. Mr. Townley came here from 
the church at Hackettstown. He labored faithfully and 
zealously, and God blessed his labors; but consumption 
had marked him as its victim, and cut him off in the 
midst of his usefulness and years. He was born at West- 
field, N. J., in March 1818. The following minute is 
quoted from the session-book: "That as a pastor his 
qualities of mind and heart and his excellencies of life 
and character have made him a rich blessing to this 
church and congregation." During his pastorate 85 were 
received into communion with the church, 50 by letter 
and 35 on profession. In February 1852 Hon. J. Phillips 
Phcenix presented the church with a town clock at a 
cost of $450. 

13. Rev. David Irving, D. D.; settled November 5th 
1855; dismissed May loth 1865. Dr. Irving's pastorate 
here was largely blessed; 376 were added to the church, 
168 by letter and 208 by profession. He largely stimu- 
lated the church in benevolence. Bringing with him the 
true missionary spirit from his experience as a missionary 
in India, he infused the same spirit into the people. 
Under him the church became noted for its liberality, 
a distinction which it has continued to maintain. It is 
unnecessary to say that since his dismission from this 
church he has been one of the secretaries of the Board 
of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. 

14. Rev. Gavin Langmuir; settled July 17th 1866; dis- 
missed September 9th 1868. Mr. Langrauir came here 
directly from Princeton Seminary. His health soon gave 
way; and after laboring about three months he was sent 
to Europe by the church, where he remained until his 
resignation. He is at present pastor of the American 
church at Florence, Italy. 

15. Rev. John Abbott French; settled December 21st 
1868; dismissed January 31st 1877. Mr. French's pastor- 
ate was highly successful. He added to the church 336 
in all, 128 by letter and 208 on profession. He resigned 
to accept a call to the Fourth Presbyterian Church of 
Chicago, 111. After laboring there for three years he 
was obliged to resign because of ill health, and he still 
remains for the same reason unsettled. 

16. Rev. Rufus Smith Green began his labors here 
June 17th 1877, and was installed on the i8th of the fol- 
lowing month. Under his pastorate, which closed Oc- 
tober nth 1881, 131 were added to the church, 77 by let- 
ter and 54 on profession. 

Officers of the Church. — The present officers are: 
Ruling Elders — Enoch T. Caskey, Joel Davis, Henry M. 
Dalrymple, Wm. D. Johnson, Wayland Spaulding, Wm. 
W. Stone, James Richards Voorhees, Lebbeus B. Ward, 
Aaron D.Whitehead, Joseph H. Van Doren, Theodore Lit- 
tle, clerk. Deacons — Victor Fleury, Henry M. Olmstead. 
Trustees — Aurelius B. Hull (president), Thos. C. Bush- 
nell, Wm. E. Church, Edward Pierson, Henry C. Pitney, 
Joseph H. Van Doren (clerk). Treasurer of parish, A. B. 
Hull; clerk of parish, James R. Voorhees; superintend- 
ent of Sunday-school, Wm. D. Johnson; sexton, Francis 
L. Whitehead. The present membership of the church 
is 600; number in the Sunday-school, 450; congrega- 



138 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



tional expenses for year, $6,500; beneficence for year, 
$9,000. 

We append a complete list of ruling elders of the First 
Church from its organization, with the date of taking 
office: 

1747 — Joseph Prudden, Matthew Lum, John Lindsley, 
Joseph Coe, Jacob Ford; 1752 — Abner Beach; 1754 — 
Solomon Munson, Daniel Lindsley; 1761 — Daniel Mor- 
ris, Timothy Mills, Matthias Burnet; 1769 — John Ayres, 
John Lindsley jr.; 1770 — Ezra Halsey; 1777 — Joseph 
Lindsley, Gilbert Allen, Philip Condict, Jonas Phillips; 
1785 — Joseph Prudden jr., Caleb Munson, Philip Linds- 
ley, Ezra Halsey; 1792 — Isaac Prudden, Samuel Free- 
man, Jesse Cutler, Matthias Crane; 1805 — Henry Vail, 
David Lindsley, Zophar Freeman, James Stevenson; 
1812 — Stephen Young, Jacob Pierson, Lewis Mills, Peter 
A. Johnson; 1826 — Timothy Tucker, William Enslee, 
George K. Drake, Frederick King, Jonathan- Thompson, 
Jonathan Oliver; 1832 — Stephen A. Prudden, Jonathan 
D. Marvin, John B. Johnes, M. D., John R. Freeman, 
Jonathan Pierson, Sylvester R. Whitehead, John W. 
Cortelyou; 1843 — Ezra Mills; 1846 — Ira Condict White- 
head; 1857 — David Olyphant, Richard W. Stevenson, 
M. D.; 1859 — Joel Davis, Theodore Little; 1870 — 
Henry M. Dalrymple, James D. Stevenson; 1871 — Leb- 
beus B. Ward, Austin Requa, William W. Stone, Enoch 
T. Caskey, Joseph H. Van Doren, William G. Anderson; 
1880 — Aaron D. Whitehead, James Richards Voorhees, 
William D. Johnson, Wayland Spaulding. 

THE BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The Baptist is the second of the Morristown churches 
in point of age. It was formed August nth 1752. On 
the 8th of the previous June eleven persons obtained 
dismission from the church at Piscataway, and were 
organized by Elders Isaac Eaton, Benjamin Miller and 
Isaac Steele into " The Baptist Church at Morristown.'' 
Their names were Daniel Sutton, Jonas Goble, John 
Sutton, Melatiah Goble, Jemima Wiggins, Daniel Wal- 
ling, Ichabod Tomkins, Sarah Wiggins, Mary Goble, 
Naomi Allen and Robert Goble. On the 19th of August 
they held their first meeting for business, elected a 
deacon and clerk, and although destitute of a pastor 
made arrangements for public worship and the observ- 
ance of the ordinances. The house occupied for wor- 
ship was a small building a mile or two south of the 
village, on the road to New Vernon, in which direction 
the principal part of the membership appears to have 
lived. This house was occupied until May 1771, when a 
new building was dedicated on the site upon which the 
present church stands. 

Malcom Brookfield, of Newark, has in his possession 
an old memorandum book, kept by his grandfather, John 
Brookfield, from which we learn that February 15th 1769, 
at a meeting of the Baptist church at Morristown, it was 
concluded that subscription papers be drawn up as 
soon as possible for the building of a new meeting-house 
" on Morristown Green." If ;^2oo were signed, ex- 
clusive of what the church members gave, they were to 
go on with the building. The following subscriptions 
were made: 

Zopher Gildenshaw, 13s. iid.; Jeams Brookfield, los. 
lod.; Jeams Miller, is. 9d.; Benjamin Goble, 9s. 8d.; 



Robard (Robert?) Goble, £2 sd.; Elijah Person, 9s. 2d.; 
Captain Stark, £1 3s. gd.; Ephriem Goble, £i is.; John 
Linsly, 6s. 2d.; Fradreck King, ;^2 i6s. 2d.; Joseph 
Wood, £2 los. 6d.; Garshom Goble, £1 6s. lod.; John 
Brookfield, £^ 2s. gd.; Samuel Serin and Zopher Free- 
man, in part, £1 i8s. gd.; Moses Monson, £\ 5s. lod.; 
Anais Holsey, £6 los. 4d.; Gilbard Allien, £1 4s. 3^.; 
William Goble, £1 gs. gd:; Hanah Lincton, ss. 6d.; Jon- 
athan Wood, 13s. 5d.; Solomon Monson, 4s. 2d.; Solomon 
Sbuthard, £z i8s. 6d.; Aaron Stark Jun., £(i 13s. iid.; 
Peter Jollomons, £(i 3s. 3d-; John Stark, £\ is.; Jacob 
Allien and John Allien, £z 17s.; Daniel Congar, ss. 
id.; Abraham Person, 2S.; John Lepard, gs. gd.; Thomas 
Wood, 2S.; Waitstill Monson, 19s. 6d.; Gorge Goble, is. 
id.; Joseph Fairchild, ss. iid.; Anney Wilkison, £\ 2s. 
2d.; Benjamin Goble by Jemimey Day, £1 7s. 7d.; 
Moses Person, £\ i6s. 6d.; John Conkling, £i 3s.; 
John Shadwick, is. id.; Abraham Ludlow, los. gd.; 
Jeams Hill, £1 153. 8d.; Robard Goble, i^s. sd.; Wil- 
liam CuUen, £2,. Total, ^76 igs. 

"Aaron Curnit also gave ^^8 Proc. and ;^i2 Lite." 

During the encampment of Washington here this 
building, like that of the First Presbyterian Church, was 
used as a hospital for the sick of the army. 

After seventy years of service a new edifice was felt to 
be a pressing necessity. It was thought best to change 
the location; and build the new house at Littleton. Ac- 
cordingly, at a church meeting held April 24th 1840, the 
trustees were " authorized to offer the meeting-house and 
lot for sale, and to give title therefor.'' In accordance 
with this decision they commenced negotiations with a 
committee of the Second Presbyterian Church (then 
about being organized) for the disposal of the property, 
at the price of $2,500, reserving the cemetery adjoining. 
The terms of sale were agreed upon, except that the com- 
mittee demanded a part of the cemetery. To this 
the church would not agree, and the negotiations were 
consequently concluded. This failure to dispose of their 
property prevented the removal to Littleton. They now 
commenced the erection of a new meeting-house, which 
was dedicated on the 8th of October 1845. During 
the time of building they worshiped by invitation in 
the session-house of the First Presbyterian Church. In 
1857 the church was improved and enlarged. On the 
27th of January the following year it was rededicated, 
and it is still occupied by the congregation. 

The church roll shows the following numerical 
strength: in 1752 organized with 11 members; in 1826, 
45 members; in 1834,35; in 1847, 42; in 1853, 116; in 
i860, 132; in 1868, 177; in 1872, ig4; present member- 
ship, 173. 

The list of pastors is as follows: 

1. Rev. John Gano, from May 1754 to Sept. 2Sth 
I7S7- 

2. Hev. Ichabod Tomkins, Nov. 6th i7Sg to Jan. 8th 
1761. Mr. Tomkins was one of the constituent members 
of the church. He was ordained on the first of the 
dates opposite his name, and died on the last, a prey to 
that then dread disease the smallpox. Some of his de- 
scendants are still counted as worthy members of the 
church to which he so briefly ministered. 

3. Rev. John Walton, from June 17th 1767 to Oct, ist 



PASTORS OF THE MORRISTOWN BAPTIST CHURCH. 



139 



1770. Like )iis predecessor he was ordained at the 
time of his installation over the church, and after a brief 
pastorate he fell a victim to the same foul disease. It 
was during his pastorate that the present site of the 
church was purchased and an edifice commenced, the 
completion of which he did not live to see. 

4. Rev. Reune Runyon, from Oct. 2nd 1771 to 1780. 
He was not ordained when he assumed charge of the 
church, and remained a licentiate until June 1772. His 
pastorate fell in those terrible times which tried men's 
souls. From the meager records which remain we judge 
that he was a brave man and true, loyal to his country, as 
well as faithful to his God. In 1780 he accepted a call 
to the mother church at Piscataway, of which he had 
formerly been a member. 

5. Rev. David Luffbtiry, from 1787 . Little is 

known of his pastorate. The year previous to his settle- 
ment, on the 27th of Sept. 1786, a considerable number 
of members residing in the neighborhood of Schooley's 
Mountain were dismissed to form an independent church, 
which was constituted under the name of Schooley's 
Mountain Church. 

6. Rev. Duvid J ayne supplied the church once a month 
during the year 1791. In August of this year it was voted 
to join the New York Association, and to send delegates 
to the convention of churches to meet in that city for the 
purpose of forming said association. From its organiza- 
tion to the present time the church has been united with 
the Philadelphia connection. 

7. Rev. William Vanhorne, from 1792 to 1807. Mr. 
Vanhorne, however, like his predecessor, supplied the 
pulpit only once a month, being during the time the pas- 
tor of the Scotch Plains church. The same arrangement 
was continued for another year by the 

8. Rev. John Ellis, from 1808 to 1809; he was serving 
the church at Mount Bethel as its pastor. 

9. Rev. John Lamb, from April ist 181 1 to 1812. 

10. Rev. Samuel Trott, from August 30th 1812 to June 

1815. 

11. Rev. John Boozer, from 181 7 to 1821. 

12. Rev. Samuel Trott, from 1821 to October 1826. 
Upon the resignation of Mr. Trott in 1815 he removed to 
Kentucky. Returning from that State about the time of 
Mr. Boozer's resignation, he was again called to the 
pastorate of the church, a mark of the high esteem in 
which he was held; though it was said he was not with- 
out enemies, owing to the rigid Calvinistic views with 
which his sermons abounded. 

Following the second dismissal of Mr. Trott the church 
remained for eight years without a pastor. The mem- 
bership was reduced to thirty- five, of whom only six were 
males, and of these six only two resided in town. The 
members were widely scattered, some living ten miles 
from the church. It seemed as though the organization 
must be abandoned. But a few brave spirits, among 
whom were Deacons John Ball, Ezekiel Howell and John 
Hill, with brother William Martin, were unwilling to see 
their beloved church die, and so they prayed and toiled 
. on. Near the close of 1834 a call was given to 



13. Rev. William Syni, who was pastor from 1834 to 
April ist 1839. Mr. Sym was a great help to the church, 
and succeeded in strengthening it. He went from here 
to the First Baptist Church in Newark, N. J. 

14. Rev. W. H. Turton, from 1839 to October 1847. 
During this pastorate the new edifice of which mention 
has already been made was built. Mr. Turton was a 
zealous pastor, and under him the church acquired a 
greater strength than it had ever before attained. He 
removed from here to Elizabeth. 

14. Rev. W. B. Tolan, from July 1848 to July 1853. 
On the i8th of July 1852 the church celebrated its hun- 
dredth anniversary, at which Mr. Tolan preached an 
interesting historical discourse. He was dismissed to the 
Baptist Church at Rahway, N. J. 

15. Rev. Washington Kingsley, from January 8th 1854 
to September 1854. 

16. Rev. Josiah Hatt, from October 4th 1854 to June 
i6th 1857. The latter date was the day of his death, he 
being the third minister who died in the service of this 
church. 

17. Rev. C. D. W. Bridgman, from January 27th 1858 
to April i860. Mr. Bridgman was installed on the same 
day that the renovated and enlarged church was dedi- 
cated. Though his pastorate here was brief yet his 
marked abilities greatly strengthened the church. He 
was dismissed to become the pastor of the Baptist church 
at Jamaica Plains, Mass. His successful pastorate at 
Albany, and more recently in New York city, where he 
now is, is too well known to need more than mention. 

18. Rev. G. D. Bremerton, from March 1861 to Sep- 
tember 1 86 1. 

19. Rev. J. B. Morse, from 1862 to October 29th 1863, 
when he was dismissed to Bunker Hill church, Charles- 
town, Mass. 

20. Rev. A. Pinney, from April ist 1864 to April ist 
1868. 

21. Rev. E. D. Bentley, from November 1868 to July 
6th 1873. Mr. Bentley was called from here to the 
pastorate of the First Baptist Church of Norwalk, Conn., 
where he still is. 

22. Rev. J. Henry Gunning, from February ist 1874 
to March 25th 1877. Titusville, Pa., was the next home 
of Mr. Gunning. He is now successfully laboring at 
Nyack, N. Y. 

23. Rev. J. V. Stratton, from October ist 1877 to 
April 30th 1880. In October of the same year Mr. 
Stratton removed to Waltham, Mass., where he was set- 
tled over the First Baptist Church. 

24. Rev. Addison Parker, the present pastor, came 
here in May 1881, removing from Palmyra, N. Y. 

The present officers of the church are: Pastor, Rev. 
Addison Parker; deacons, John O. Hill, David F. 
Moore, Isaac R. Pierson; church clerk, Isaac R. Pier- 
son ; trustees, L. C. Tompkins (president), James P. 
Sullivan (treasurer), Isaac R. Pierson (secretary), F. J. 
Mather, William Lewis, Jeremiah Stalter, William Hobbs; 
superintendent of Sunday-school, Isaac R. Pierson. 



140 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



The property of the church is unencumbered, and is 
valued at |25,ooo. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

This is the third oldest in the sisterhood of our local 
churches. The organization was effected in 1826, and 
rapidly advanced in numbers and influence. In the 
great revival of 1827-8 over two hundred joined the so- 
ciety on probation. It was a time of great excitement 
on the subject of religion. Stores were closed for sev- 
eral days, and the people gave their whole attention to 
religious matters. Anthony Atwood and the father of 
Dr. D. W. Bartine, afterward pastor of the church, con- 
ducted the services. Previous to this jMorristown was 
simply an appointment in a large circuit. 

The first church building erected by the, Methodists 
was a two-story brick structure, about 40 by 60 feet, with 
a gallery on three sides, pulpit on the north end, and 
choir gallery opposite; located where the brick stables 
are now, nearly opposite the Farmers' Hotel. It fronted 
on Market street. The corner stone was laid in 1827, 
and the dedication occurred on the 14th of October in 
that year. The Rev. Noah Levings, of New York, 
officiated, preaching from Eph. xi. 20-22. 

The second church was a white frame edifice, having 
a basement, erected on the lot of Jacob Mann; the cor- 
ner stone was laid in 1840, the dedication occurring in 
1841. Sermons were preached by Rev. Charles Pittman 
and Rev. Anthony Atwood. This building was donated 
by the family of Hon. George T. Cobb to the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and it is now in use by 
them on Spring street. 

The third church building was devised and the corner 
stone laid in 1866, Rev. J. T. Crane, D. D., pastor; and 
in 1870 Bishop Janes dedicated the church, assisted by 
Rev. Dr. John McClintock and Bishop R. S. Foster, then 
both members of the faculty at Drew Theological Semi- 
nary, Madison. Rev. Dr. Henry A. Buttz, now president 
of Drew Theological Seminary, was then the pastor. 
This magnificent structure is mostly the munificent gift 
of Hon. George T. Cobb, who died before its completion. 
Mr. Cobb contributed about $100,000 toward it. The 
church is built of conglomerate, or "pudding" stone 
(purple clay, interspersed with white pebbles), found in 
this vicinity, and so far as known nowhere else. It was 
doubtless deposited here in the glacial period of the 
earth's formation. The trimmings are of native and 
Maine granite. The style of architecture is the solid 
old Norman. Towering over the entrance is a noble 
spire 150 feet high. Inside everything is of the most 
solid description. The wood-work is butternut of a light 
shade, trimmed with black walnut. The windows are of 
stained glass. There are front and side galleries, and 
the total seating capacity is about 1,100. A wing, built 
across the rear of the church, contains Sunday-school, 
lecture and class rooms, and pastor's study. In a brick 
building in the rear are the sexton's residence and church 
parlors. The parsonage is next door to the church on the 
south side. The whole property is valued at $175,000. 



The Philadelphia Conference in 1826 embraced Mor- 
ristown; in 1837, by a division of that body and its terri- 
tory, Morristown fell into the New Jersey Conference, 
and in 1857, by another division, this church and 
charge were assigned to the Newark Conference, as at 
present. 

The following is a list of the successive pastors from 
the organization of the church to the present date, with 
the years of their respective service: 

George Banghart, J. Thompson, 1826; George Bang- 
hart, Anthony Atwood, 1827; D. Bartine, Anthony At- 
wood, 1828; Nathaniel Porter, 1829; John Potts, 1830, 
1831; John Kennady, 1832; D. Parish, 1833; J. Dandy, 
1834; Anthony Atwood, 1835, 1836; James M.Buckley, 
1837; Francis A. Morrell, 1838, 1839; William Hawley, 
1840; David W. Bartine, 1841, 1842; Lewis T. Maps, 
1843, 1844; Thomas M. Carroll, 1845, 1846; Manning 
Force, 1847; Jefferson Lewis, 1848; Caleb A. Lippin- 
cott, 1849, 1850; Samuel Vansant, 1851, 1852; Elwood 
H. Stokes, 1853, 1854; John K. Shaw, 1855, 1856; Rob- 
ert B. Yard, 1857, 1858; C. S. Vancleve, 1859; M. E. 
Ellison, i860, 1861; L. R. Dunn, D. D., 1862, 1863; J. 
T. Crane, D. D., 1864-66; Henry A. Buttz, D. D., 1867- 
69; J. K. Burr, D. D., 1870-72; D. W. Bartine, D. D., 
1873-75; S. Van Benschoten, D. D., 1876-78; S. L. Bow- 
man, D. D., 1879-81. 

The following have been the presiding elders of the 
district: Manning Force, 1826, 1833-40; L. M. Coombs, 
1827, 1828; Charles Pitman, 1829-32; John S. Porter, 

D. D., 1841-44, 1856-59; Daniel Parish, 1845-47; Thomas 
Sovereign, 1848-51; 'I'homas M. Carroll, 1852-55; C. S. 
Vancleve, i860, 1861, 1865; Alexander L. Brice, 1862- 
64; Charles Larew, 1866-69; M. E. Ellison, 1870-73; 
Thomas H. Smith, 1874-76; R. Vanhorn, 1877-79; J. 
H. Knowles, A. M., 1880, 1881. 

The Sabbath-school was organized in 1829, Rev. Na- 
thaniel Porter, pastor, acting as superintendent. He 
was followed in this office by James Cook, the first lay- 
man who assumed its duties, and he by Erastus Moses, 
John Reeves, Moses A. Brookfield, David Morrow, Asa 
A. Barnes, Thomas K. Ross, John V. Bentley, Samuel F. 
Headley, Isaac Bird, George T. Cobb, Ichabod Searing, 
and Francis A. Day, the present incumbent. The male 
teachers at the organization of the school were George 
King, James James, Daniel Meeker, Peter McDermot, 
Jacob O. Burnett, and George Adams (colored). The 
female teachers were Mary L. Mann, Martha Condit, 
Susan Guerin, Maria B, Laing, Emily S. Chamberlin, 
Phebe Towland, Eunice Minton, Ellen Humphreyville, 
Electa Vale, and Mary Halsey. The infant class was 
organized in 1854, with 15 scholars, by Mrs. I. H. Tot- 
ten, who in 1859 resigned the position; there were then 
80. The officers of the Sunday-school in 1881 were: 
superintendent, Francis A. Day; assistant, J. Searing 
Johnson; secretary, — Hall; treasurer, S. W. Vancleve; 
librarians, G. H. Quayl, Isaac Van Fleet, Charles Beach, 
W. L. Corriell, D. H. Rodney, C. G. Van Gilder. 

The church organization for 1881 was: Pastor — Rev. 
S. L. Bowman; trustees — James M. Bonsall (president), 

E. L. Dobbins, E. L. Pruden, Wilbur F. Day, W. B. 
Skidmore, Charles W. Roberts, James E. Parker; stew- 
ards — F. A. Day, S. W. Vancleve, Lewis A. Vogt, James 
V. Bentley, Samuel Eddy, Edwin Ross, Aaron Schenck, 



EPISCOPAL AND PRESBYTERfAN CHURCHES, MORRISTOWN. 



141 



David H. Rodney; recording steward, S. W. Vancleve; 
treasurers — Wilbur F. Day for the trustees, A. Schenck 
for the stewards; class leaders — George Green, J. Sear- 
ing Johnson, J. E. Parker, Mrs. W. L. Pruden, John W. 
Thompson, J. Hazen Stiles; local preacher. Rev. B. N. 
Reed; exhorters — Stephen Day, Thomas Fry, Abraham 
Van Gilder, W. Rosevear- The present number of 
members is 516; probationers, 40. 

ST. Peter's (episcopal) church. 

The first time the service of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church was used in Morristown, so far as is known, was 
in the summer of 1812. At that time Bishop Hobart, of 
New York, was visiting Mr. Rogers at Morristown, and, 
by invitation of the officers of the First Presbyterian 
Church, he officiated one Sunday in their church, preach- 
ing and using the Episcopal service. 

For two summers, in or about 1820 and 1821, the 
Episcopal service was used in the large room of George 
P. McCuUoch's boarding school on Sundays, by Mr. 
Cummins, the assistant teacher in the school, who was 
an Episcopal minister. 

For about two years previous to the establishment of 
the parish, in the year 1827, there was a missionary 
station here. Services were held in the old Baptist 
church. 

The first missionary was Rev. John Croes, son of 
Bishop Croes. He was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin 
Holmes, who became rector of the parish when it was 
started in 1827. While thus officiating here, as mission- 
ary and afterward as rector, he was in the habit of hold- 
ing service here on Sunday morning, and at Orange in 
the afternoon. At Orange he started St. Mark's church, 
and when he resigned the rectorship here he became 
rector of that church, where he remained until his death. 

From the Jerseyman we clip the following notices, the 
first from the issue of December 27th 1826: 

Public Notice. — The subscribers, members of the con- 
gregation of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Morris- 
town, in the county of Morris, and State of New Jersey, 
for the purpose of incorporating themselves, and becom- 
ing a body politic and corporate in law, agreeably to the 
laws of the State of New Jersey, do hereby give notice 
that a meeting will be held in the Baptist meeting-house 
in Morristown aforesaid, being their usual place of meeting 
for public worship, on Monday the first day of January 
next, at 10 o'clock a. m., for the purpose of electing a 
number of the said congregation, not exceeding seven, to 
be trustees of the same, pursuant to the laws of New 
Jersey in such case made and provided. Dated Morris- 
town Dec. 4th 1826.— Benjamin Holmes, Sylvester D. 
Russell, Henry A. Ford, Dayton I. Car.field, Mary Og- 
den, Elizabeth Kemble, Catharine Kemble, Catharine 
Doughty, Frances Ford, L. D. Parson, B. Shaw, Timothy 
S Johnes, Silas C. Cutler, L. Ayers, Samuel C. Burnet, 
J W Miller, John R. Brown, S. P. Hull, Jacob M. Kmg, 
Thomas Richards," Benjamin Douglass, John Nystrom, 
John Boykin, Wm. B. Paterson, Dan'l C. Martm, George 
P McCulloch, Abm. C. Canfield, Z. W. Conckhn, John 
E Canfield, John Young, James Cook, Lewis Hayden, 
Charles Freeman, Charles H. Ogden, Stephen Freeman, 
Henry Mooney, Jacob Drake, J. L. Jones. 

"The corner stone of the new Episcopal church m 



South street will be laid this afternoon. Service to 
commence at 3 o'clock precisely. — Jerseyman, Nov. 14th 
1828. 

"The Prostestant Episcopal Church, which has lately 
been erected in this town will, by divine permission, be 
consecrated to the service of Almighty God on Thurs- 
day the 4th of December next, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Croes. Divine service will commence at 11 o'clock 
A. M. A collection will be taken up to assist in defray- 
ing the expenses of the building. — Jerseyman, Novem- 
ber 26th 1828. 

The list of rectors of St. Peters is as follows: Benjamin 
Holmes.June ist 1829 to Feb.2ist 1831 ; Hewlet R. Peters, 
March 28th 1831 to Aug. 6th 1834; Wm. I. Kip, July 13th 
1835 to Nov. 2d 1836; Reuben L Germaine, April 30th 
1837 to Oct. 13th 1839; Wm. Stanton, May 13th 1840 to 
April 14th 1847; Chas. W. Rankin, Sept. 13th 1847 to 
June 13th 1853; Rev. Robt. N. Merritt, D. D., Sept. 28th 
1853 to the present time. 

St. Peter's Church was admitted into the convention 
of the diocese of New Jersey at the meeting of the con- 
vention held at Paterson the 30th and 31st of May 1827. 
Its first officers were: 

Trustees — Sylvester D. Russell, Dayton I. Canfield, 
Henry A. Ford, Timothy S. Johnes, John Boykin; 
wardens — Sylvester D. Russell and Dayton I. Canfield; 
vestrymen — Henry A. Ford, John Boykin, Samuel P. 
Hull, Timothy S. Johnes, John R. Brown, Jacob W. 
Miller, Charles H. Ogden. 

The church was reincorporated April 12th 1830, with 
the following officers: 

Wardens — Dayton I. Canfield and Henry A. Ford; 
vestrymen— John Boykin, Timothy S. Johnes, Jacob W. 
Miller, John R. Brown, Jacob W. King. Isaac W. Can- 
field, Jacob Wilson, John Nystrom, Edwin E. Ford. 

The present officers are: 

Rector— Rev. Robert N. Merritt, D. D.; wardens- 
Alfred Mills, Henry W. Ford; vestrymen— Charles H. 
Dalrymple, John D. Guerin, Henry W. Miller, Henry 
Shaw, John M. Cuyler, Charles Y. Swan, Edward V. B. 
Kissam, Winfield Poillon; superintendent of Sunday- 
school, Alfred Mills. 

The number of members is about 200. 

In 1858 the church was enlarged by adding a chancel 
at the southwest end, since which time it has been a free 
church. 

THE SOUTH STREET PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

is the fifth in our galaxy of churches. At a meeting of 
the session of the First Presbyterian Church, held Janu- 
ary 26th 1 841, the following paper, signed by 146 persons, 
was presented: 

" We, the subscribers, respectfully request of the ses- 
sion of the first Presbyterian Church, Morristown, a dis- 
mission from said church, with a recommendation to the 
Second Presbyterian Church to be organized in Morris- 
town." 

The action taken is best stated in the words of session; 
"Whereupon it was resolved, unanimously, that the above 
request be granted, and that the persons named be dis- 



142 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



missed to be organized into a new church, and when so 
organized their relation to this church will cease." 

At a meeting of session held June 8th 1841 60 other 
persons were dismissed for the same purpose. 

Rev. Orlando L. Kirtland was dismissed trom the pas- 
torate of the First church August 26th 1840, and became 
the pastor of the new organization, although he was not 
installed until some time after. 

The first service was held in the upper room of the 
old academy on Sunday February 21st 1841, in which 
place the meetings continued to be held until the 14th of 
October of the same year, when the new house of wor- 
ship was dedicated, and the pastor was installed. On 
the 17th of May 1841 the first board of trustees was 
elected, consisting of John B. Johnes, Lewis B. Stiles, 
Ephraim Young, Jonathan H. Smith, Francis Child, B. 
O. Canfield, and Stephen Vail. On the 27th of the same 
month Jabez Mills, John W. Poineer and William B. 
Johnson were elected ruling elders. On the ist of June 
1841 the church was duly organized under the name of 
" the Second Presbyterian Church," by a committee of 
the then presbytery of Elizabethtown, consisting of Revs. 
David Magie and Nicholas Murray and Elders Richard 
Townley and James F. Meeker. The first communion 
service was celebrated June 6th in the old Academy 
hall. 

At a meeting of the parish held May 17th 1841 it was 
unanimously agreed to proceed at once to the erection of 
a house of worship. Joseph M. Lindsley, Ephraim 
Young, Enoch Ketchum, John W. Poineer and William 
B. Johnson were chosen as a building committee. They 
selected Mr. Poineer as treasurer, at an annual salary of 
twelve and a half dollars. The first thing in order was 
to secure a site on which to build. Several lots were 
offered, among them one on the lower end of Elm street, 
near the depot; another on High street, about opposite 
Prospect street; the Baptist church property, and the lot 
upon which they finally built. At that time this lot was 
in a very different condition from that which it now pre- 
sents. Where the parsonage stands was a deep and muddy 
ravine, reaching across South street, and forming a very 
low hollow. The lot was owned by Israel Russel, and 
upon it stood an old frame building which had been 
used as a printing office by Henry P. Russel, the pub- 
lisher of the Palladium of Libei-ty and later of the Morris- 
town Herald. He had moved to better quarters on the 
Green, and the building was then occupied by a family. 
The trustees authorized B. O. Canfield and Francis Child 
to sell the building for what it would bring. Moses 
Cherry was the purchaser, for the sum of $25. He 
moved it to Bank street, where it still stands, being a 
part of the Fennel house, at the lower end of that street. 

On April 19th 1841 Israel Russell gave his deed to 
John W.Poineer for this property,which is described in the 
deed as containing 1.62 acres, having 196.02 feet frontage 
on South street. The price paid was $2,500. Poineer con- 
veyed it to the trustees of the church July 14th 1841. 

Ths plan for building adopted was that of the Third 
Presbyterian Church of Newark. Ground was 



broken on the 7th of April and on the 27th 
of May the corner stone was laid with appropri- 
ate ceremonies. Rev Alfred Chester delivering the ad- 
dress. Messrs. Lindsley and Young were the boss car- 
penters, with the following assistants: Ezra Cooper, Wm. 
L. Crowell, Sevalon Mulford, Charles Marsh, E. L. 
Lounsbury, Samuel Bailey, Enoch Ketchum and some 
others. Benj. H. Lindsley was the boss mason. The work 
was done by local mechanics, and largely without pay. 

Members of the church sent their teams, wagons, carts 
and men to aid in the work. Thus the cellar was dug, 
and the sand taken therefrom was used to fill the bog- 
hole where the parsonage now stands. Thus also the 
stone was quarried and hauled and the timber drawn, 
most of which was hewn in the big swamp, and sawed at 
Samuel Roberts's mill, near Green Village. John M. 
Moore oversaw this part of the work. Jarzel Turner 
made the iron bolts by which the rafters and beams 
were solidly secured. 

A bell was presented by Judge Stephen Vail, and a 
clock and Bible by Mrs. Vail. 

At the dedication, October 14th 1841, the music formed 
one of the chief attractions. Jacob Jenkins, a school- 
master, acted as chorister. The accompaniment consisted 
of a concert flute, played by W. W. Fairchild; a violin, 
played by James Noyes, and a bass viol, played by Wm. 
Day. The lady members of the choir numbered 22, 
all of whom were unmarried. Among them were Emily 
and Phoebe Day, Mary and Jane Conklin, Harriet and 
Henrietta Johnson, Mary WooUey, Anne and Abby 
Smith, Nancy Johnson (now Mrs. Lewis Pierson jr.), 
Abby Johnson (now Mrs. C. H. Johnson), Phebe Conk- 
lin (later Mrs. W. W. Fairchild), Kezia Elmer, Harriet 
Lindsley (later Mrs. H. Jones of Newark) and Miss Grey 
(now Mrs. Daniel Alexander). Among the gentle- 
men were Dr. Theodore Johnes, Stewart Elmer, Edward 
T. Lyon, John Smith, Lewis Pierson jr., C. H. Johnson, 
Aram Johnson, A. H. Condit, Wm. McMurty, Edward 
Thompson, Daniel Alexander and Wm. Jaggers. Such 
satisfaction did their efforts give that they afterward 
gave two grand concerts for the benefit of the church. 
The three instruments above named continued to be 
used in the choir for two years or more, until they 
were superseded by a seraphine. The seraphine in turn 
gave way to a small second-hand organ, which in i860 
was sold to the church at Branchville, Sussex county, for 
$200, and a new instrument, built by Hall & Labagh of 
New York, was purchased at a cost of $1,500. 

The cost of the building and lot was estimated at $10,- 
840, and upon this sum an assessment of 10 per cent, was 
fixed to meet current expenses. 

The pastorate of Rev. Mr. Kirtland continued to Oc- 
tober 185 1. During this time, not including the original 
207 from the First church, there were added to the church 
by letter T40 and on profession 123; total 263. 

Rev. James C. Edwards was the second pastor of the 
church. He was installed in January 1852 and dismissed 
in April i860. During his pastorate 143 persons were 
received into membership, 59 by letter and 84 on profes- 



SOUTH STREET PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MORRISTOWN— OTHER CHURCHES. 



143 



sion. Mr. Edwards died here June 28th 1880, aged, 73, 
having previous to his death resided in town about three 
years. 

Rev. Arthur Mitchell, D. D., the third pastor, was in- 
stalled in November 186 1, and dismissed in October 
1868. The additions to the church during his incum- 
bency were, by letter 91, on profession no; total 201. 

December 27th 1864 a parish meeting was held to con- 
sider the question of enlarging the church building. At 
an adjourned meeting, held January 5th 1865, the follow- 
ing were appointed a building committee: Dr. E. B. 
Woodruff, Messrs. Gordon Burnham, Matthew Mitchellj 
H. O. Marsh and S. S. Halsey. The original dimensions 
of the church were 46 feet front by 72 feet deep. They 
extended it 26 feet and 8 inches, added a wing and en- 
larged the tower. Silas Norris was the contractor for 
the woodwork, and John Thatcher did the painting. 
These improvements cost $11,032.83. A debt of $S,ooci 
remained on the work, which was paid off the following 
year. i 

Mr. Mitchell was called from here to the pastorate of 
the First Presbyterian Church of Chicago, 111., where hq 
remained until last year, when he accepted a call to the 
First Presbyterian Church of Cleveland, Ohio. In June 
1861 the church was transferred from the Presbytery of 
Passaic, and received under the care of the Presbytery of 
Newark, under the name of " The South Street Church 
of Morristown." 

Rev. Albert Erdman, D. D., the fourth and present 
pastor, was installed in May 1869. During his pastorate, 
up to September ist 1881, there were added to the 
church by letter 202, and on profession 244; total 446; 
making in all 1,260 persons who have been members of 
the church since its organization. 

In June 1872, by vote of the church, the plan of the 
limited term of eldership was adopted, with a session of 
nine elders arranged in three classes, the full term of ser- 
vice being three years. The year previous a bench of 
six deacons was chosen on the basis of the same plan. 

On Wednesday January loth 1877 the church edifice 
was totally consumed by fire. The cause was supposed 
to be a defective chimney, although some thought it the 
work of an incendiary — an attempt of this sort having 
been made a few months before. On Sunday January 
14th services were held in the public school chapel, when 
an appropriate sermon was preached by the pastor. The 
First church offered the use of its chapel for the Wednes- 
day evening meeting, which offer was accepted. At the 
completion of Lyceum Hall, May ist 1877, the church 
moved into it, and continued to hold its services there 
until the dedication of its new edifice. 

Stecs were immediately taken to build. The building 
committee consisted of J. W. Roberts, William L. King, 
Hampton O. Marsh, George H. Danforth, Dr. P. C. 
Barker, E. A. Graves and Matthew Mitchell. The com- 
mittee adopted the plans of J. C. Cady, of New York, 
and commenced work on the 21st of June, when ground 
was broken. 

The total cost of the building was $45,600,. towar4 



which the trustees received $23,000 insurance On the old 
building. The balance was raised by subscription in the 
congregation. The result is a building unsurpassed in 
beauty by any church edifice in the State. Being built 
at a time when materials and labor were at the lov/est 
point, it could scarcely be duplicated at the present time 
for $100,000. 

The style of the building may be described as late 
Byzantine. The auditorium will seat about 1,000 per- 
sons, and is without galleries. In the rear are the Sun- 
day-school rooms and pastor's study. The church was 
dedicated July 12th 1878, the sermon being preached in 
the afternoon of that day by Rev. Dr. Hoge, of Rich- 
mond, Va., from Psalm xxvi. 8. 

In the evening of the same day congratulatory addres- 
ses were made by the pastor, Rev. R. S. Green, Rev. 
Robert Aikman, D. D., Rev. I. W. Cochran, Rev. Theo- 
dore F. White, D. D., Rev. Thomas Carter and J. C. 
Cady. 

The following persons have served the-church as ruling 
elders: Jabez Mills, John W. Poineer, William B. John- 
son, Absalom Woodruff, M. D., Amos Prudden, Ezra J. 
Cooper, Amzi Cary, Edwin Graves, Isaac R. Noyes, Ed- 
ward J. Danforth, Heman Mead, J. W. Roberts, Charles 
G. Hazeltine, M. C. G. Witte. 

The present officers are: Pastor — Rev. Albert Erdman, 
D. D.; ruling elders, Matthew Mitchell, John C. Hines, 
P. H. Hoffman, F. G. Burnham, E. A. Graves, W. L. R. 
Haven, S. L. Young, Joseph F, Randolph; deacons — 
Wm. S. Babbitt, Theodore Ayres, F. W. Owen, Chas. W. 
Ford, F. H. Fairchild, A. G. Hazletine; trustees— E. A. 
Graves, president; P. C. Barker, M. D., George H. Dan- 
forth, P. H. Hoffman, Wm. L. King, H. O. Marsh, and 
J. W. Roberts; Sunday-school superintendent, Joseph 
F. Randolph; sexton, James Paul. 

The present membership of the church is 543; of the 
Sunday-school, 400; congregational expenses for year, 
$6,900; benevolent contributions, $7,121. 

A. M. E. CHURCH. 

t 

The colored people have a church of their own. They 
first organized in December 1843, and built a small 
church on Spring street, in which they worshiped uiitil 
1874, when the present place of worship was built. It is 
a neat frame building, with a basement, which is occupied 
by the colored school. There are 51 communicant 
members. Rev. A. H. Newton is the present pastor; 
George Yates is superintendent of the Sunday-school. 

CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION. 

The first Catholic church in Morristown was built in 
1847; it was a small wooden building capable of seating 
about 300 people, and is now used by the parish school. 
At that time there was but one Catholic church in the 
the county — at Madison — to which people used to go, on 
foot, from distances as great as 20 miles. The congre- 
gation was at first too poor to support a pastor, and was 
supplied from Madison for several years. A priest was 
finally stationed here, but had charge of churches which 



20 



144 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



had been established at Mendham and Basking Ridge 
also; this continued until 1871, when the congregation 
here had grown so large as to require all the time of the 
priest, and the other places were accordingly dropped 
from this charge. The increase in the congregation 
made a new and larger church necessary, and the present 
edifice was erected in 1772. It is of the best red brick, 
122 feet long by 52 wide. In front the appearance is 
very handsome, the roof rising to a sharp point, sur- 
mounted by a fine stone cross. There is a tower on the 
left hand, or Madison street corner, which reaches an 
elevation of 125 feet, capped by a spire. This tower is 
14 feet square at the base, and, like the building, 
is of brick with stone facings. The church proper 
has two side wings; the outer edges of the roof 
of which are twenty feet from the ground, while 
the inner edges are six feet from the lower sides of the 
roof of the main building. The roof is covered with 
slate in ornamental colored bands. The windows are of 
stained glass. Inside the church is finished in yellow 
pine oiled; handsome carved drop pillars support the 
roof. The main altar is in the center; on the right is 
one dedicated to St. Joseph, and on the left one to the 
Virgin Mary. Over the entrance is an organ and choir 
gallery. The pews of the church will seat nearly a thou- 
sand persons. The cost of the building was about $40,000. 
The congregation numbers one thousand. There is a 
parish school, with three departments, supported by the 
church. 

Father James Sheeran was priest from 187 1 until his 
death, April 3d 1881. He was succeeded in June of the 
same year by Father Joseph M. Flynn. 

CHURCH OF THE REDEEMER. 

The idea of forming a second Episcopal congregation 
in Morristown took shape in the year 1852. The origi- 
nators of the movement were Lieut. C. P. R. Rodgers, 
U. S. A.; Alfred Vail, Samuel P. Hull, E. T. Lyon, John 
Hone, W. A. Duer and Henry S. Hoyt. These, together 
with others not mentioned, met on the 17th of June to 
take the initiatory steps toward the formal organization 
of a parish, to be known under the name of The Church 
of the Redeemer. The vestry chosen on this occasion 
consisted of W. A. Duer and Alfred Vail, wardens; and 
Samuel P. Hull, Edward T. Lyon, Henry S. Hoyt, John 
Hone and C. P. R. Rodgers, vestrymen. Subsequently 
Dr. John. P. Schermerhorn was elected a member of this 
body. Meanwhile the necessary measures were adopted 
which resulted in securing the incorporation of the new 
parish in accordance with the requirements of the canons 
of the discese and the laws of the State. August 7th the 
Morristown Academy was secured for the purpose, and 
regular services begun, a lay-reader serving in the absence 
of any ordained minister. Some four weeks later the 
Rev. James H. Tyng, a presbyter of New Jersey, but re- 
siding in the city of New York, was requested to officiate. 
He accepted the invitation, and on the first Sunday in 
September preached and administered the holy com- 
munion. The next Saturday, at a meeting of the vestry, 



he was unanimously elected rector, and immediately as- 
sumed the duties of that position. At this time the 
trustees of the First Presbyterian Church came forward 
with the kindly offer of their session room as a temporary 
place of worship for the new organization. The hospi- 
tality thus considerately extended was gratefully received. 
In accordance with it the congregation removed from the 
academy to the above building, and continued to worship 
there so long as the necessities of their case required. 

Immediate effort, however, was begun to secure a 
more permanent home. During the winter plans were 
obtained, and a lot for a church edifice. The site se- 
lected was the one now occupied by the Church of the 
Redeemer, but the building itself has since then under- 
gone some alteration, an organ chamber being added to 
the west transept in 1879 and again in the present year, 
1881. Early in the spring of 1853 the actual work of 
erecting the structure determined upon was undertaken. 
By September 4th sufficient progress had been made to 
warrant occupation. Accordingly on this Sunday the 
first service was held in the almost-completed church. 
Somewhere about this date, it would seem, Mrs. Peter 
Stuyvesant presented to the parish a communion service. 
It is still in the church's possession though not now in 
use. Prayer books etc. for the chancel were donated by 
Mrs. August Belmont. The organ and other furniture 
were the gift of several ladies of the congregation. The 
edifice itself was completed in 1854, and on the 14th of 
October was visited for the first time by Bishop Doane 
and consecrated. The rectory which now stands in the 
rear of the church was placed upon the property so late 
as 187 1, during the incumbency of the Rev. W. G. 
Sumner, now professor of political economy at Yale 
College. 

We append a list of the successive rectors of the par- 
ish, prefixing to each name the date when the call was 
extended: September 1852, Rev. J. H. Tyng; September 
1858, Rev. S. F. Cornell; November 1861, Rev. J. Bolton; 
December 1863, Rev. John G. Ames; April 1866, Rev. T. 
G. Clemson; October 1868, Rev. Charles C. Fiske; Septem- 
ber 1876, Rev. W. G. Sumner; February 1873, Rev. 
Samuel Hall; July 1880, Rev. George H. Chad well. 

The parish now numbers 53 families and 114 com- 
municants. The present officers are: Rev. George H. 
Chadwell, rector; John Hone, senior warden; John E. 
Taylor, junior warden; vestrymen— George W. Colles, 
C. A. Edwards, J. J. Derry, J. Smith Dodge, Charles e! 
King, E. C. Lord, V. B. King, S. H. Little, James 
Maury; treasurer, John E. Taylor; clerk, George W. 
Colles; organist, C. A. Muir; sexton, Theodore Egbert; 
Sunday-school superintendent, J. E. Taylor; librarians, 
James Maury, Lemuel E. Miller. 

Officers of the Woman's Parochial Aid and Missionary 
Society: President, Miss Benson; vice president, Mrs. 
Chadwell; secretary, Miss J. E. Dodge; treasurer Mrs 
S. H. Little. 

MORRIS PLAINS PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

People upon " the Plains " attended until recently 



CHURCHES AND CEMETERIES. OF MORRISTOWN. 



145 



upon the services of the churches in town. A Sunday- 
school was early organized here, and taught almost ex- 
clusively by women. A few years ago Rev. Dr. Oliver 
Crane began to preach gratuitously to the people with 
good results. May loth 1874 a Presbyterian church was 
organized, and the Rev. R. S. Feagles was invited to labor 
in it as a stated supply. He remained with it nearly a 
year. He was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Gardner, 
who remained from May 1875 to June 1876. Qn the 
ist of October 1876 Rev. James W. Hillman was or- 
dained and installed as pastor of the church. Mr. Hill- 
man resigned his pastorate in the fall of 1878. 

Rev. R. S. Feagles was invited to take charge of the 
church for the second time,and began his labors December 
ist 1878. He resigned in August 1881, and the church is 
at present without a pastor. It has but two elders, Nehe- 

miah H. Johnson, and Colman. 

A neat and commodious edifice has been, built free of 
debt. It was dedicated Dec. 21st 1877. 

THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

was organized May i8th 1880, with 33 members, 21 
with letters from the Methodist Episcopal church and 
12 on profession of faith. 

The church was dependent upon supplies until the ist 
of May 1 88 1, when a call, which was accepted, was 
issued to Rev. C. H. H. Pannell of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The clerk is S.F.Beach. The superintendent of the Sun- 
day-school is D. L. Pierson. The present membership of 
the church is 38, that of the Sunday-school 75. The 
church meets in a hall on Market street. 

CEMETERIES. 

Previous to 1855 the Presbyterians interred their dead 
in the graveyard in the rear of the First church, the 
Baptists theirs in the rear of their church, the Episco- 
palians in the graveyard of St. Peter's church, and the 
Methodists in a graveyard on the Basking Ridge road. 
A list of burials in the two yards first named was kept 
between the years 1768 and 1806, and published in a 
quaint old book called the " Bill of Mortality," of which 
the following is the title page: 

BILL OF MORTALITY. 

Being a Register of all the Deaths which have occurred 
iu the Presbyterian and Baptist congregations of Morris- 
Town, New-Jersey, for Thirty-Eight Years past.— Con- 
taining (with but few exceptions) the cause of every de- 
cease.— This register, for the first twenty-two years, was 
kept by the Rev. Doctor Johnes, since which time by 
William Cherry, the present Sexton of the Presbyterian 
Church at Morris-Town.—" Time brushes off our hves 
with sweeping wings."— Hervey. Morris-Town, Printed 
by Jacob Mann, 1806. 

Note.— Those marked thus*were Church Members— 
thusfBaptists— thus*t Baptist Church Members. 

A supplement was afterward added bringing the list 
down to 181 2. 

After the formation of the Evergreen Cemetery Asso- 



ciation burials in the Baptist and Methodist yards were 
discontinued. The other two are still used. The " Bill 
of Mortality " contains a mournful list of 1,675 burials 
between the years 1768 and 1806. 

The Catholics have until recently buried their dead in a 
graveyard near their church, but in the fall of 1875 they 
secured fifteen acres of land on the Whippany road, a 
mile and a half from town, and had it dedicated as a cem- 
etery. 

FIRST CHURCH YARD. 

The oldest of our cemeteries is that in the rear of the 
First Presbyterian Church. The pastor of that church 
has an incomplete list of over 4,000 burials in it. Large 
numbers of soldiers were buried in it during the Revo- 
lutionary war, of whom he has no knowledge. Large 
trenches were dug, and the dead laid in them in rows. 
Old military buttons have been dug up in quantities. 
The same is true of the Baptist yard. 

The oldest stone in the cemetery has the following 
inscription: "Her Lyes ye Body of Martha Wife of 
Abraham Parson Aged About 23 Years Deed Janry 2d 
1731." Other epitaphs worthy of preservation abound, 
of which we note a few: — 

"SACRED To the memory of JOHN DOUGHTY, 
Captain of Artillery in the American Revolutionary 
Army. He died September i6th 1826, Aged 75 years." 

" IN Memory of PETER DICKERSON, Member of 
the first Provincial Congress of New Jersey in 1775, 
afterwards captain of the 2nd company 3d Regiment of 
the Jersey Brigade of the Revolutionary Army of 1776. 
He was born at Southold, on Long Island, in the year 
1724; removed to Morris County, New Jersey, with his 
three brothers — Thomas, Joshua and Daniel — and one 
sister, Elizabeth, about the year 1745; and died on the 
loth day of May 1780, in the'seth year of his age." 

" Sacred to the memory of Colonel Jacob Ford Jun., 
son of Colonel Jacob Ford Sen. He was born 19 Feb- 
ruary anno Domini 1738, and departed this life 10 Janu- 
ary A. D. 1777; and, being then in the service of his 
country, was interred with military honors." 

" This tomb is dedicated to the memory of our beloved 
brother Richard Brinkerhoff Faesch. He was second 
son of John Jacob and EHzabeth Faesch; was born igth 
of July 1778, and departed this life 25th of October 
1820." 

" Ici reposent les restes d' Elizabeth Madelaine Siette de la 
Rousseliere, epouse de Louis Paubelj nee a St. Benoit, Isle 
de Bourbon, le 6me Aout 1763, et decedee a Bottle Hill, 
Nouveau Jersey, le i2me Mars 1818. Sa grande piete et 
sa resignation a la volonte de Dieu font la consolation de 
son mari et de ses en/ants, qui ne cesseront de la pleurer." 

As usual in such'places, the poetrie muse was by no 
means neglected. On one stone appears the following 
pathetic exhortation: 

" Come see ye place where I do I7 
As you are now so once was I 
As I be now soon you will be 
Prepare for death and follow me." 



1 40 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Here is another: 

" O my dear wife, do think of me 
Although we'm from each other parted, 
O do prepare to follow me 
Where we shall love forever. 

Farewell, my children and my love, 
Till we do meet again above; 
But when in this yard my grave you see 
O, my dear friends, do think of me. 
My time was short, no warning given, 
And I hope to meet you all in Heaven." 

THE EVERGREEN CEMETERY ASSOCIATION 

was organized in May 1855, under the "act authorizing 
the incorporation of rural cemetery associations." Hon. 
George T. Cobb presented the association twenty acres 
of land about a mile north of Morristown on the Horse 
Hill road, now called Water street. Twenty-five acres 
more have since been added. The spot was happily 
chosen; the scenery presented to view from Landscape, 
Fountain and other avenues is highly picturesque, em- 
bracing a large portion of Morristown, the position of 
the churches, the court-house, the stately headquarters 
and many beautiful private residences. The Whippany 
river flows in the windings near the base of the grounds. 
Mount Washington or Ihe Kimball Mountain, with its 
historic interest, and varied undulations, can be seen as 
far as New Vernon. The Loantica hills, the Orange, 
Shongum and Watnong mountains in the distance fill up 
the background, and present to the visitor a scene of 
landscapes varied in interest and of extraordinary beauty. 
The natural beauties of the spot are enhanced by the 
good judgment used in artificial embellishments. There 
are many handsome monuments, among them that of 
Morristown's benefactor George T; Cobb. 

The cemetery is controlled by nine trustees, three of 
whom are chosen annually by the lot-owners. The pres- 
ent officers are as follows : President, E. B. Woodruff, 
M. D.; vice-president, Theodore Ayers; treasurer, By- 
ram C.Guerin; secretary, John B. Ayers; superintendent, 
Samuel Muddell. The number of interments to July 
i6th 1881 was 1,923. 

HOTELS. 

The first knowledge which we have of hotels in the 
town is derived from the records of the court. In 1738, 
at the May court of Hunterdon county, which then em- 
braced all the territory from Trenton (where the court- 
house was) to Port Jervis, we find that the petitions of 
Jacob Ford and Abraham Hathaway to renew their 
licenses to keep public houses in " New Hanover " for 
the ensuing year were granted, showing that the place 
was large enough at that time for two hotels, however it 
might be for one church. 

We have already spoken of two taverns which came 
into prominence during the war of the Revolution. One 
of these was owned and kept by Colonel Jacob Arnold, 
who, as commander of a squadron of light horse during 
the war, did efficient service. This hotel was the head- 
quarters of General Washington during the time of his 
first encampment here, in the winter of 1777, The, 



other caterer to the wants of the public was George 
O'Hara, at whose tavern were held the famous " assembly 
balls," already described, of the army during Washing- 
ton's second encampment here, in the winter of 1779-80. 

Nothing further under this head needs special mention 
until about the middle of the present century. By this 
time Morristown had become widely celebrated for its 
healthfulness, and had begun to be a favorite resort for 
invalids. The numbers became so great and the accom- 
modations so inadequate that the late William Gibbons, 
then of Madison, was solicited by gentlemen in New York 
to erect a suitable public boarding-house and hotel with 
modern improvements. After mature deliberation Mr. 
Gibbons acceded to the proposition, and during the 
years 1842 and 1843 he erected a splendid large brick 
and brown stone hotel on the south side of the public 
square, and called it the " Morris County House," after- 
ward changed to the " New Jersey Hotel,'' which was 
destroyed by fire in 1845. This was a magnificent struct- 
ure, and an ornament to the town, covering an area about 
equal to A. T. Stewart's up-town store in New York. It, 
together with the stables, etc. (all of which were built of 
brick, in the most substantial manner), cost its owner 
about $200,000, on which there was no insurance, and 
all of which was a total loss, except the stables. When 
this building burned the loss to Morristown was several 
times greater than to Mr. Gibbons. It was over twenty 
years before possession could be had of the ground 
to rebuild upon. At the time of the fire there were a 
large number of guests in the house, all of whom were 
saved but one (a Mr. Bailey), who was burned to death. 

On the 8th of December 1881 a similar fire oc- 
curred, of which one of the New York papers of the 9th 
gave substantially the following account: 

The only fire that has been attended with loss of life 
in forty years at Morristown, N. J., occurred yesterday 
morning. A large frame building in South street, near 
Elm, belonging to the Wood estate, rented for the past 
ten years by the Misses Hunter, and kept by them as a 
boarding-house, was totally destroyed, and two of the in- 
mates were burned to death. The alarm was given at 
6 o'clock by several of the servants, who had been to 
early mass and, on returning, found the flames under full 
headway. The rest of the large family were still in their 
beds, unconscious of danger. Lizzie Ketch, one of the 
servants, ran from room to room, as far as she could, 
alarming the inmates, many of whom were saved through . 
her exertions. The brave girl sacrificed her own life in 
this thoughtfulness for others. She was lost in the con- 
fusion. It is supposed that she was blinded by the smoke 
and flame and suffocated on her way out. The other 
victim was Mrs. Walsh, 40 years of age, the widow of a 
captain in the United States navy, and daughter of George 
Wood, of Fifth avenue in this city. Her escape was cut 
off by the fire, and while hesitating to jump from a win- 
dow she is supposed to have fainted and been overtaken 
by the flames. 

A partial list of present hotels and boarding-houses is 
appended: 

Mansion House; United States Hotel, Park place, A. 
E. Voorhees; Park House, Park place, S. W. Luse; Far- 
mers' Hotel, Market street, George Hedden; City Hotel, 



MORRISTOWN HOTfitS— fiARLY FIRE COMPANIES. 



'147 



Sweedwell avenue, John H. Halsted; Avenue House, 
Mendham avenue, Mrs. Nellie Duncan; Duncan House, 
Morris street, Mrs. J. C. Lindsley; Losey House, Mt. 
Kemble avenue, Mrs. Ogden; there are a number of 
others. During the summer months Morristown has in 
its various hotels, boarding-houses and private residen- 
ces ubout 1,500 transient residents. 




The Mansion House, Morristown. 

The Mansion House, situated on Washington street 
near the court-house, is probably one of the oldest hotel 
properties in the county. B. C. Guerin bought it in 1864, 
built new stables, sheds and carriage houses, and rebuilt 
and refitted the old house. He kept it until 1878. Then, 
in response to a desire of the citizens for a better hotel, 
Mr. Guerin undertook the construction of the present 
Mansion House. It accommodates from 80 to 100 
guests. It is of pressed brick, with hard wood floors, 
heated with steam, lighted with gas, and has electric bells 
connected with each room, a bath room on each floor 
and all other modern improvements. Mr. Guerin opened 
the old house December nth 1864, and the new one 
December nth 1878. He has always kept a large livery 
stable in connection with the house. This property was 
considerably run down when he bought it. Since then 
it has done a large business. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The first fire association of Morristown was organized 
July 26th 1797. Its officers were: Samuel Tuthill, mod- 
erator ; Joseph Lewis, clerk; Alexander Carmichael, 
Caleb Russell, Colonel Benoni Hathaway, Moses Estey, 
Captain David Ford, and Dr. William Campfield, execu- 
tive committee. How efficient this association proved 
and how long it continued we are unable to state. 

The next trace we find of a fire company is in the 
Palladium of Liberty, August i6th 1815, in the following 
notice: "The Morris Fire Company will please recollect 
that their annual meeting is the first Monday in Septem- 
ber; they will please to meet at N. Bull's [tavern] in the 
afternoon at 6 o'clock. It is hoped that there will be 
a general attendance of the inhabitants of the town, and 
that the committee appointed to procure ladders, hooks, 
&c. &c., will be able to make a full report." At this 
meeting the following officers were elected: President, 
Israel Canfield; treasurer, Henry P. Russell; secretary. 



William Beach ; directors, Daniel Phoenix, William 
Dixon, Charles Carmichael, David Mills, Andrew Meek- 
er, Benjamin Lindsley, William Campfield, Mahlon Ford, 
and James Willis. 

That this was a different company from the one organ- 
ized in 1797 is apparent from an editorial in the same 
paper a year or so before, urging upon the citizens the 
necessity of forming such a company, that the town 
might have some protection against fires. 

This second company was short-lived, as appears from 
an editorial in the Palladium April 17th 1817. After 
speaking of a fire in town it says, " We hope measures 
will speedily be taken to reorganize the sometime-since 
defunct fire company." This kindly advice was heeded. 
In December of the same year Lewis Mills, Charles 
Carmichael, and William Dixon, committee, called a 
meeting for the purpose of organizing and electing 
officers for the Morristown Fire Association. The after 
history of this association we have been unable to obtain. 

Anothercompany was organized in 1836, and purchased 
a hand engine for $250. A year later a second company was 
formed, and a second hand engine was bought. This same 
year (Feb. 27th 1837) an act was passed incorporating 
the Morristown Fire Association, which immediately took 
charge of the apparatus of the two companies. This asso- 
ciation had power to raise, by taxation, a small sum of 
money annually to meet its expenses. It continued in 
existence until the present Morristown Fire Department 
was organized under a provision of the charter. 

Aug. 7th 1867 the Morristown Fire Department was 
organized, under an act of the common council. Col. 
Richard M. Stites, to whose energy the department 
chiefly owes its existence, was appointed chief engineer. 
This office he held until Nov. 5th 1875, when he resigned. 
Chas. McCullum was his successor, but filled the office 
only until the following June, when Mr. Stites was reap- 
pointed by the council, at a salary of $300 per annum, 
the duties of the position being found to be too onerous 
to be performed without compensation. Mr, Stites again 
resigned on July 6th 1877, and was succeeded by Wm. 
Y. Sayre, who filled the office to June 1879. Wm. A. 
Halsted was chief engineer from June 6th 1879 to June 
1880, since which time James A. Bonsall has been chief. 
The salary of the chief is %\o per month. 

The first assistant engineers have been Ellis T. Arm- 
strong, 1867, 1868; Wm. H. Voorhees, 1869-73; Alfred 
Cranston, 1873-77; James M. Bonsall, 1877-80; Harrie 
A. Freeman, since June 1880. Second assistant engin- 
eers: Chas. McCullum, 1873-75; Wm. J. Cooper, 1877-80; 
Isaac G. Arnold, since June 1880. 

The department consists of the following organizations: 

I. Fire Wardens. — This company is limited to twenty 
men. It has no apparatus, but is appointed for the pur- 
pose of securing compliance with the fire ordinances and 
regulations of the council, inspecting or prohibiting the 
storage of combustible materials, protecting the appar- 
atus of the department when in use, and acting as police 
at times of fires. Organized August 13th 1867. The 
present number of members is 19. William Y. Sayre was 



148 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



foreman from 1867 to 1876; James W. Carrell, 1877-79; 
James Dixon, 1880; William Lewis, 1881. 

2. Itidependent Hose Company was organized August 
13th 1867. It is entitled to and has 30 members. The 
successive foremen have been George H. Doren, Mahlon 
Bayles, George W. Derrickson, Charles H. McCullum, 
Charles H. Green, Hayward G. Emmell, James M. Bon- 
sall, J. Frank Lindsley, James R. Voorhees, Eugene 
Carrell, George H. Quayle and Frederick E. Babbitt. 
The present officers are: Frederick E. Babbitt, foreman; 
J. Brad. Stevens, assistant; Frank Mulford, secretary 
and treasurer; Eugene Carrell, steward. The hose- 
house is on Market street. 

3. Washington Engine Company, No. 2, was reorganized 
May ist 1872. The foremen since the reorganization 
have been: John W. Hays, 1872, 1873; William J. Snud- 
den, 1873-75; John M. Moore, 1875-77; William J. 
Snudden, 1877, 1878; Theodore S. Mulford, 1878-80; 
Charles H. Green, since August loth 1880. The present 
officers are: Foreman, Charles H. Green; assistant fore- 
man, John Romaine; secretary, A. K. Field; treasurer, 
Amos Prudden; steward, Frank Chilar; engineer, D. L. 
Allen; assistant engineer, William J. Snudden. The 
number of men is 38. The steamer for this company 
was bought October 14th 1879, and is worth $3,000. The 
engine-house is on Market street. 

4. Niagara Engine Company, No. 2, was organized 
August loth 1869. The following foremen have served: 
George W. Crocker, 1869, 1870; Sidney W. Stalter, 1870- 
79; Thomas F. CHfford, 1879, 1880; James C. Mullen, 
1880,1881. The present officers are: Foreman, Thomas 
F. Clifford; assistant foreman, E. V. Dempsey; secretary, 
Thomas Welsh; treasurer, John W. Hess; janitor, Wil- 
liam McCombs; engineer, William C. Paul; assistant 
engineer, William T. Meeker. The present number of 
men is 39; the full number is 60. The cost of the engine 
was $3,750. The engine-house is on Speedwell avenue. 

5. Resolute Hook and Ladder Company, No. i, was or- 
ganized June 14th 1869. It is entitled to 60 and has at 
present 41 members. The foremen have been: William A. 
Halsted, 1869-76; E. D. Allen; WilHam Becker jr., 1877, 
1878; H. A. Freeman, 1879; E. J. Thatcher, 1880. The 
officers in 1881 were: Foreman, E. J. Thatcher; assistant 
foreman, F. B. De Bois; clerk, WilHam K. Norris; treas- 
urer, William A. Halsted; steward, Edward Babbington; 
committee of inquiry — William K. Norris, J. E. Stiles 
and George Udall. 

From 1876 to his death, April 20th 1881, Augustus W. 
Bell was president of the company. That office is now 
filled by H. A. Freeman. 

The cost of apparatus is about $1,200. The truck- 
house is on Speedwell avenue. 

''The Exempt Firemen's Association of Morristown " 
was incorporated February 2Sth 1875. The incorporators 
were William Y. Sayre, Isaac G. Arnold, Richard M. 
Stites, Charles McCullum, William H. Voorhees, Sidney 
W. Stalter, Samuel K. Smack, Isaac Van Fleet, Charles 
H. Green, Hayward G. Emmell, Mancius H. C. Jennings 
and Louis H. Atno. 



" The object of this association shall be to provide 
means for the relief of distressed, sick or disabled mem- 
bers thereof and their immediate families; and in case of 
fire to render such assistance as the officers of the asso- 
ciation may deem proper to direct, by the advice and 
consent of the constituted authorities of this town." 

Mr. Stites has been the only president. The following 
is the present board of officers: President, Richard M. 
Stites ; vice-president, Charles McCullum ; secretary, 
Charles H. Green ; trustees— B. C. Guerin, John Thatcher 
and Eugene Troxell; standing committee — E. D. Allen, 
John M. Moore and James Dickson. The number of 
members is 80. 

Fire Department Charitable Fund. — On the 9th of 
March 1869 there was passed " an act to incorporate the 
trustees of the Morristown Fire Department Charitable 
Fund for the relief of indigent and disabled firemen and 
their families." The fund began with $75, and has now 
reached the sum of $1,500. The following have served 
as presidents of these trustees: Richard M. Stites (1869- 
78), Isaac G. Arnold and John M. Moore. The follow- 
ing are the. present officers: President, William Y. Sayre; 
secretary, John M. Moore; treasurer, William R. McKay; 
trustees — William Y. Sayre, John M. Moore, John D. 
Guerin and Luther M. Baird. 

The present department is excellent and efficient. 
Many of the best citizens are members of it, and their 
constant aim is to maintain a high standard of morality 
and efficiency. 

SCHOOLS. 

That the advantages of higher education were appreci- 
ated by our early townsmen may be inferred from a 
record in the old session book of the first Presbyterian 
church, which shows that in 1769, the trustees of the 
College of New Jersey (Princeton) having represented to 
the presbyteries that the interest of their capital was in- 
adequate to the annual necessary expenses of the college, 
the following subscriptions were made by the church 
named: Rev. Timothy Johnes, ;^9; Jacob Ford, ;^2i; 
Deacon Matthias Burnet, £^^; Captain Timothy Mills, 
^6; Elder Daniel Lindsley, jQi; Abraham Ogden, j[^y. 
Elder John Lindsley, J[^y, Joseph Wood, ^d; Henry 
Gardiner, i6s.; Nathan Reeve, j[^i; John Ayres, £^<); 
Thomas Kenney, ^y, William De Hart, ^i; Thomas 
Morrell, ^^4 los.; Jonas Phillips, _;^4 los.; Isaac Pierson, 
jT^y, Jonathan Cheever, ^\; Peter Condict, Peter Prud- 
den, Moses Prudden and Joseph Prudden, £,2. iis. each; 
Benjamin Pierson, jC^^; Samuel Tuthill, jT^y, Silas Con- 
<^'ct, ;^3; Ezra Halsey, elder, £,\i.; Samuel Robarts, £^y, 
Augustine Bayles, ^^3; Mrs. Phebe Wood, ^^3; Jonathan 
Stiles, £^\ 15s.; Captain Benjamin Halsey, los.; total, 
i^i4o 5s. 

In 1787 further subscriptions were made for Princeton, 
of which the principal were the following: Caleb Russell, 
$22; Joseph Lewis, $11; Silas Condict, $42; Jonathan 
Dickerson, $16; John Mills, $9. 

The first authentic information which we can find con- 



MORRISTOWN'S FIRST SCHOOLS— MORRIS ACADEMY. 



149 



earning our local schools is in the trustees' book of the 
first Presbyterian Church, in the following minutes: 

"January 12 1767, the trustees being called and met at 
the School hous henry Primrose Joseph Stiles and Ben- 
jamin Coe absent Proseaded and chose Benjaman Bayle 
President and Gave Lieve than a school hous might be 
Built on the Green Near whair the old hous Now Stand- 
eth." 

" Octob 7 1 77 1 the trustees met at Doct tuthills Esq. 
Sam Robarts absent and agreed that the money that Mr. 
Watt Left to the town Should be Laid out towards Purt- 
chasing utensils for the communian Table also that the 
school hous how on Peter Hackees Land be Removed 
onto the Parsonage Land and there to Remain During 
the Pleasure of the trustees and then Lyable to be Re- 
moved." 

Who the teachers were we have no means of ascertain- 
ing. On the roll of members of the above named church 
appear the names of Mrs. Dow and Doritheah Coop- 
er, " school madams, "-who were received into the church, 
we judge in 1774, from some sister church. 

As a sample of what these early schools were we sub- 
join a description of a common school about three miles 
from Morristown, as given by Mahlon Johnson, who 
lived to the goodly age of four score years and two and 
died December 20th 1857: 

" The school building was constructed of logs, and in- 
stead of glass for windows sheep skins were stretched 
over apertures made by sawing off an occasional log. 
These windows had one virtue — they were an effectual 
screen to prevent pupils from being interrupted in their 
exercises by what was going on outside. The time was 
regulated by an hour-glass, and they drank their water 
from a tumbler made of cow's horn or ground shell. 
Arithmetic was not taught in classes, but the pupils 
ciphered when they were not reading, spelling or writing. 
The latter branches were taught in classes. A chalk 
line or a crack in the floor was the mark they were re- 
quired to toe. The common school was hardly consid- 
ered a school in those days unless the whack of the 
ruler or the whistle of the whip was frequently heard." 

THE MORRIS ACADEMY 

was organized November 28th 1791. This was done by 
24 gentlemen, who subscribed each one share of £2<^ 
for the purpose. The subscribers were Caleb Russell, 
Israel Canfield, Daniel Phoenix jr., Alexander Car- 
michael, Gabriel H. Ford, Timothy Johnes jr., Moses 
Estey, Jabez Campfield, William Campfield, Aaron 
C. Collins, Jonathan Hathaway, John Jacob Faesch, 
Richard Johnson, John Kinney, Abraham Kinney, Isaac 
Canfield, George Tucker, David Ford, Nathan Ford, 
Theodorus Tuthill, John Mills, Joseph Lewis, Jacob 
Arnold, Chilion Ford. 

The first board of proprietors consisted of Jabez 
Campfield, president; Caleb Russell, first director; 
Gabriel H. Ford, second director ; Nathan Ford, third 
director; Daniel Phoenix jr., treasurer; and Joseph 
Lewis, clerk. Mr. Campfield resigned at the expiration 
of one month, and was succeeded by Mr. Russell. 

The contract for building the academy was let to 
Caleb Russell for ;^S20. The lot was purchased from 
the First Presbyterian Church, as appears from the 
trustees' book: 



" At a meeting of the trustees at the house of Caleb 
Russell, Esq., 5th day of September 1792, the president, 
Mr. Lindsley, Mr. Ford, Mr. Mills, Mr. Johnson and Mr. 
Ogden being met, a deed being made out for one hun- 
dred feet of land in front and one hundred and thirty 
feet deep on the hill opposite the Conners land, agree- 
able to a vote of the parish requesting the trustees to act 
discretionary on this affair, the 22nd Feb. 1792 — the 
said deed was then signed, conveying twenty-nine hun- 
dredths of an acre of land to the proprietors of the 
intended academy for the sum of thirty pounds Jersey 
money. Caleb Russell, Esq., gave his obligation for 
said sum." 

After the building was completed Caleb Russell, 
although he was clerk of the county and had a variety 
of other business to attend to, consented to take charge 
of the academy as principal. On the 5th of November 
1792 the school opened, with 33 scholars, as follows: 
Elias Riggs, Stephen Thompson, Anthony Day, Henry 
P. Russell, Henry Axtell, David Bates, Munson Day, 
Charles Russell, Ezra Halsey, Richard B. Faesch, Jacob 
Stiles, Jacob Lewis, Timothy J. Lewis, James Wood, 
Nancy Lewis, Betsey Estey, David Estey, Phcebe, 
daughter of Jeduthan Day, Sally Conklin, Hannah 
Hathaway, Eleazur Hathaway, George W. Cook, Thomas 
Kinney, Henry Mills, David Stites, William Beach, John 
B. Johnes, Alexander Phoenix, Silas Day, Robert M. 
Russell, Eliza P. Russell, Charles Freeman, Chilion 
Stiles. 

Mr. Russell continued in full charge of the school 
until the close of 1795, and in partial charge until Aug- 
ust 1797. He graduated in 1770 at Princeton College, 
and studied law with Judge Robert Morris, of New 
Brunswick. He was appointed clerk of Morris county 
four terms of five years each. He died in office June 
8th 1805, aged 56 years. Under him the academy took 
a very high rank, attracting scholars from New York, 
Philadelphia, Trenton, New Brunswick, Amboy, Charles- 
ton, S. C, and many other places. From November 5th 
1792 to April 1795 ^^ ^'^^ ^ total of 269 scholars. In 
the eighth volume of the Proceedings of the New Jersey 
Historical Society the names of these students, together 
with those of their parents, are given in full. Among 
them will be found many who afterward distinguished 
themselves in Church and State. 

Mr. Russell was assisted by Elias Riggs, Henry Ax- 
tell, and John Ball, who were among his first pupils, and 
also by John Woodruff. 

The prices of tuition were: For languages, mathemat- 
ics and surveying, 2Ss. per quarter; for French, 3os.@4os. 
per quarter; for English studies, 12s., iss.@i6s. per 
quarter. 

Mr. Russell was succeeded in August 1797 by Rev. 
Samuel Whelpley, who continued in charge until 1805 
He was a New England man, and until coming here was 
a Baptist. Here he relinquished his intention of becom- 
ing a Baptist minister, and united with the Presbyterian 
church. In 1802 or 1803 he delivered a discourse in the 
First church, in which he gave the reasons for his change 
of views. He was quite widely known as a writer. In 
1806 he published " An Historical Compend," in two 



'5° 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



volumes, which were printed by Henry P. Russell of this 
place. He removed from here to New York city about 
1810 or i8ii, and shortly afterward published a volume 
called the " Triangle," a theological work in which the 
leaders and views of what was afterward known as the 
Old School theology were keenly criticised and ridiculed. 
The book caused a great sensation in its day, and did 
not a little toward hastening the division in the Presby- 
terian church into Old and New School. 

Mr. Whelpley was too strict a disciplinarian to give 
entire satisfaction to all the patrons of his school. Op- 
position to him became so marked that in 1800 and 1801 
a new institution was organized, called the Warren 
Academy, and opened under the charge of James Steven- 
son, who was succeeded in the principalship by John 
Ford. The building, which stood in the northeast part 
of the town, was accidentally burned March 6th 1803. It 
was rebuilt with brick on the Morris Green, on a lot 
purchased from the trustees of the First church, where 
now stands the Park House. It continued, however, but 
;i few years, and the property was sold. 

After the resignation of Mr. Whelpley, in 1805, he 
opened a private select school in his own house, which 
was well patronized, principally by familiesfrom New 
York and the south. Among his students were two of 
his sons, who afterward became ministers; one of them, 
Philip Melancthon, becoming the pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church of New York city. Mr. Whelpley 
died in New York city, July 15th 1817. 

From 1793 to 1820, with the exception of three or four 
years, an annual theatrical exhibition was given by the 
scholars of the academy. The popularity of these exhi- 
bitions may be judged from the fact that the average 
yearly income from them was about $210, which 
sufficed to keep the building in excellent repair, and 
purchase many needed articles, among other things a 
bell in 1798, from John Jacob Faesch's Boonton iron 
works 

The following advertisements, copied from the Palla- 
dium of Liberty, 1809, will serve as a specimen of these 
popular theatricals: 

" Dramatic Exhibition. — On Thursday and Monday 
evenings, the 5th and 9th of October next, will be repre- 
sented by the students of Morris Academy Cumberland's 
Celebrated Comedy of The West Indian; to which will 
be added High Life Below Stairs, an excellent farce. 
Doors will be open at half-past five. Admittance 25 
cents." 

" Exhibition. — On Monday, the third day of April, 
the students of the Warren Academy will present Kotze- 
bue's Much-Admired Comedy The Wild Goose Chase. 
To gratify the wishes of a respectable body of people, 
instead of a Farce, on this occasion, a few select iieces will 
be spoken before and after the Comedy; and on Friday, 
the 7th, the Wild Goose Chase repeated, to which will 
be added The Weather-Cock." 

The expenses of these entertainments were not great, 
as we may see from the following: 



" Morristown, N. J., Sept. 8, 1795. 
" Proprietors of Morris Academy, DR. 

£ s. 

" To 6 lb. candles at is. lod., o 11 

" I gal. wein, o 10 

Paid door keepers, i 12 " 

Who drank the " wein " we are not informed, but 
suppose it was the door keepers, as it was customary in 
those days thus to stimulate these dignitaries to the faith- 
ful discharge of their official. duties. 

Space forbids dwelling at length upon the administra- 
tion of the successors of Mr. Whelpley. The academy 
continued for more than sixty years to be the great insti- 
tution of the town, attracting large numbers of scholars 
from near and far, and exerting an influence which has 
given this town a high reputation for intelligence. 

Previous to the opening of the public school in Decem- 
ber 1869 J. Henry Johnson, then principal, had over 100 
pupils. The academy was then for a time closed, and 
the building unused. The proprietors finally sold the lot 
to the directors of the library and lyceum for $10,000, 
taking stock to that amount in the new enterprise, on 
condition that rooms be reserved in the new building for 
a classical school for boys. The school was reopened in 
September 1878, under the principalship of Wayland 
Spaulding, a graduate of Yale College. Mr. Spaulding 
severed his connection with the academy in June 1881, 
after which the directors secured the services of An- 
drew J. West, a graduate of Princeton College, who 
assumed charge in September 1881. 

The successive presidents of the proprietors of the 
academy have taken the office as follows: Jabez Camp- 
field, January nth 1792; Caleb Russell, 1792; Alexan- 
der Carmichael, 1793; Jabez Campfield, 1800; John 
Doughty, 1805; Gabriel H. Ford, 1815; Rev. Wm. A. 
McDowell, 1816; Sylvester D. Russell, 1823; Rev. 
Albert Barnes, 1826; Rev. Chas. Hoover, 1832; Lewis 
Condict, 1834; Rev. H. A. Dumont, 1839; Lewis Mills, 
1841; Henry A. Ford, 1854; Rev. R. N. Merritt, 1865. 

Since the transfer of the property to the directors of 
the library and lyceum the school has been under the 
care of a committee of that body, consisting of A. B. 
Hall, H. C. Pitney and Alfred Mills. 

We wish we might be as explicit with reference to the 
principals of this institution. The minutes of the pro- 
prietors are singularly lacking in information concerning 
the teachers employed in the school. 

The appended list of principals is, we fear, inaccurate. 
The minutes being deficient we have sought the files of 
newspapers, but in vain. The memories of the "oldest 
inhabitants " conflict so essentially that we cannot rely 
upon them; only where we have been sure of dates have 
we incorporated them. 

Caleb Russell, 1792-97; Samuel Whelpley, 1797-1805; 
Daniel Mulford; Henry Mills; Wm. A. Whelpley, 181 1; 
Ira C. Whitehead; James'D. Johnson, resigned in 1821; 
Rev. Asa. Lyman, engaged in 1821; Rev. Alfred Chester; 
D. A. La Rue; James L. Baker; Mr. Blauvelt, resigned in 
1852; John Paul, engaged in 1852; Mr. Harrison; E. A. 



MORRISTOWN SCHOOLS. 



151 



Allen, resigned in 1855; Herman Mead, 1855; J. Henry 
Johnson, 1861 to 1870; (interregnum;) Wayland Spauld- 
ing, 1878-81; Andrew J. West, the present principal. 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOL 

on Maple avenue was opened in December 1869. The 
school is principally due to the generosity of the late 
George T. Cobb, to whose large-hearted liberality Mor- 
ristown owes so much. He gave the lot on which the 
building stands, and in addition f io,occ in money. 

In the chapel is a beautiful tablet dedicated to his 
memory. 

The whole cost of the building was $55,000, and it is 
an ornament to the town. 

The control of the school is vested in a board of edu- 
cation, of nine members, three of whom are chosen 
yearly, which has power to make rules, expel disobedient 
scholars, appoint teachers, &c. The present board of 
education is: John D. Guerin, president; Stephen Pier- 
son, M. D., treasurer; Hon. Augustus W. Cutler, Hamp- 
ton O. Marsh, George W. CoUes, Joseph W. Ballentine, 
Joseph F. Randolph, George W. Forsyth, and L. Dayton 
Babbitt. The secretary, Edward C. Lyon, is not a mem- 
ber of the board. 

The teachers are: W. L. R. Haven, principal; Miss 
Minnie L. Bottom, vice-principal; Mrs. Ophelia K. Dix, 
Misses Rebecca W. Thompson, Mary L. Easton, Hattie 
C. Youngblood, Phebe A. Day, Emma E. Hackett, Mag- 
gie T. Daly, Kate S. Fennell, Etta M. Briant, Annie F. 
Shaw, Florence Hawthorne, Clara E. Brown, and Mr. 
W. L. Brown (colored). 

Mr. Haven has been principal since the opening of the 
school. The scholars number about 600. The expenses 
for the year ending June ist 1881 were 115,326.71. 

The colored children are taught separately in the base- 
ment of the A. M. E. church building on Spring street, 
and are under the control of the board and subject to the 
same rules as the others. Before the erection of the 
present public school building there were three small 
district schools in the town, one at the corner of Speed- 
well and Sussex avenues, one at the corner of the Green 
and Water streets, and one on Franklin street. 

THE PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

of Morristown have been numerous and of a high grade. 
Early in the present century Mrs. Phebe Scribner 
(widow of Captain Nathaniel Scribner, an officer in the 
Revolutionary army) came here with her daughters 
Esther, Elizabeth, and Anna, and opened a boarding 
school for young ladies. They removed in 1814 to New 
Albany, Ind., and were succeeded by the Misses Gallau- 
det. Miss R. D. Jenison, and after "her by John M. Bene- 
dict, then again by Mrs. Stone, and more recently by the 
Misses Emmell, Miss Woodward, and Miss Longwell. 
This school was during the summer of 1881 finally 

closed. 

A rival school tc Mrs. Scribner's was established by 
Mr?. Wetmore in the next house, the one now owned by 
George W. King, on South street. 



Miss M. L. Mann and her sister, daughters of Jacob 
Mann, taught for a dozen years or more a very successful 
school. At the same time with the Misses Mann, in 1822, 
Miss Phebe Babbitt opened a school on Bridge street 
(now Speedwell avenue), nearly opposite Mrs. Schenck's. 
A little later a Lancasterian school was established by 
William Woolley. Miss H. M. Mills opened a school in 
1831. The following advertisements taken from the 
Palladium of Liberty bear a still earlier date. 

"Mr. Barthelemy continues to teach the French and 
Italian languages at the new Warren Academy, in which 
the trustees have granted him a convenient room for 
that purpose. — April 21st 1808." 

Another of about the same date: 

" Morris-Town French Academy. — Mr. Martin, 
lately from New York, informs the Ladies and Gentle- 
men of Morris-Town and its vicinity that he will open 
his French school on Thursday the 26th inst. [June 1808] 
from five to eight in the morning for young men, and 
from nine to twelve for young ladies. A few young gen- 
tlemen may be received as boarders in the family, where 
French is generally spoken. Private lessons in the course 
of" the day. English taught to foreigners." 

Query — how many young men of to-day would Mr. 
Martin be able to induce to rise at 5 for the charms of 
French ? 

" Evening School.— On Monday the 2nd November 
next [i8o8] Mr. Dutton will open his evening school in 
the Warren Academy, for the purpose of teaching read- 
ing, writing, arithmetic and Italian book-keeping on mod- 
erate terms, and in the most approved methods." 

The Morris Female Institute was incorporated in August 
i860. The original subscription amounted to $16,050, 
of which $15,600 was collected. The trustees were 
William C. Baker, George T. Cobb, Theodore Little, E. 
W. Whelply, John Hare, Theodore T. Wood and Jesse 
Smith. 

The lot cost $3,800. The main building (the plan being 
modified on account of the depression of businesss follow- 
ing the commencement of the war) was let by contract 
to Cyrus Pruden, in behalf of himself, Muchmore and 
Lounsbury and other mechanics, who formed a syndicate, 
for $11,960. The property had cost, prior to the recent 
addition, which was substantially a completion of the 
original plan, $17,700 in round numbers. It was leased 
to Mr. Charles G. Hazeltine for five years, commencing 
May ist 1862. 

He continued to occupy it until it was leased, April 
ist 1877, to Miss Elizabeth E. Dana, who is its present 
successful principal. The recent additions cost $ti,ooo. 

Successful boys' schools have been taught by George 
P. McCulloch, Rev. Alfred Chester, Rev. Samuel N. 
Howell and others. 

The city has at present among others the following 
schools: Morris Academy, South street; public school, 
Maple avenue; Morris Female Institute, South street; 
young ladies' school, Maple avenue, Mrs.^. W. Steven- 
son preceptress; Miss Bostwick's school for young ladies. 
Maple avenue; kindergarten, De Hart street, Miss Em- 



152 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



ma Campbell preceptress; Sisters of St. John the Baptist 
school (Episcopal), Maple avenue; Roman Catholic 
school, Maple avenue. 

EDITORS AND PRINTERS. 

On the 24th of May 1797 the first number of the first 
newspaper of Morristown was issued. Caleb Russell was 
the prime mover in this' enterprise, having purchased a 
printing press and secured the services of Elijah Cooper, 
a practical printer, to attend to the details of the busi- 
ness. The name of the paper was the Morris County 
Gazette, and it was issued by E. Cooper & Co. Cooper re- 
mained until November of the same year, when he left, 
and Mr. Russell continued sole editor. Early in 1798 he 
invited Jacob Mann, who had learned the printing busi- 
ness of Sheppard Kollock in Elizabethtown, to come to 
Morristown and take charge of the paper. The Morris 
County Gazette was continued until the 15th of May 1798, 
when the name was changed to the Genius of Liberty. 
This paper was edited by Jacob Mann until May 14th 1801, 
when he retired and went to Trenton, where he con- 
ducted the Trenton True American, in company with 
Jarnes J. Wilgon. Mr. Russell then gave the entire estab- 
lishment of the press and newspaper to his son, Henry 
P. Russell, who continued it for several years. 

The Genius of Liberty was succeeded by the Morris- 
town Herald, which was edited and published by Henry 
P. Russell from 1813 to 1820, when Mr. Russell removed 
to Savannah, Ga., and the paper was discontinued. 

In 1808 we find Jacob Mann once more in Morristown, 
and the editor of a new paper called the Palladium of 
Liberty, the first number of which was issued March 31st 
of that year. Mr. Mann continued to edit the Palladium 
until January 1832, when he was succeeded by N. H. 
White. Mr. White probably proved a failure, as Mr. 
Mann in a few months resumed charge of the paper, and 
toward the close of the year made room for E. Cole and 
J. R. Eyers. Early in 1833 Cole retired, leaving Eyers 
sole editor and proprietor. June 4th 1834 Mr. Eyers 
changed the name of the paper to the Morris County Whig. 

The Jerseyman made its first appearance October 4th 
1826, under the editorship of Samuel P. Hull. He con- 
tinued in this position until 1852, when he was succeeded 
by Alansoii A. Vance, who purchased the paper in that 
year and became its editor. In 1869 Mr. Vance sold a 
half interest to L. O. Styles, who still continues its pub- 
lication. The Jerseyman is the leading Republican paper 
in the county. The office is on Park place. 

The True Democratic Banner is owned by Mrs. L. C. 
Vogt, and edited by her two sons, Louis A. and LeClerc. 
It was established in 1838 by Louis C. Vogt. Mr. Vogt 
came here about 1836, having learned the printing busi- 
ness in the office of the Commercial Advertiser of New 
York. He started a paper in that year, called The Demo- 
cratic Banner. Some misunderstanding arising with his 
patrons, he started The True Democratic Banner in the 
year aboved named. This is the leading Democratic 
organ in the county. Its office is in the Banner building 
on Washington street. 



The Morris Republican was established May 8th 1872, 
by F. L. Lundy. It was short-lived, continuing only 
until July 1877, when Mr. Lundy removed from town. It 
was very ably conducted during its brief existence. 

The Morris County C^rtf;2zV/(f was begun November 2nd, 
1877, under the charge of T. J. O'Donnell. He was suc- 
ceeded after a few months by D. H. Prime & Co. Joshua 
Brown, the present editor, took charge of the paper 
January 21st 1880. The Chronicle is independent in 
politics. Its office is at the corner of Washington and 
Court streets. 

The Record can scarcely be called a newspaper, being 
devoted entirely to local history. It was begun in 
January 1880 under the editorship of Rev. R. S. Green, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, and issued 
monthly. It has printed a list of nearly 1,000 marriages, 
2,000 baptisms of children, and 2,000 deaths in the last 
century, besides a list of members of the First church 
up to 1800, two historical sermons by the Rev. David 
Irving, D. D., and many other valuable articles. It has 
been largely serviceable in the writing of the present 
history. 

Before passing from this subject, although not directly 
belonging to it, two or three facts deserve mention. In 
the early part of this century Morristown achieved con- 
siderable distinction for the number of books here printed. 
Jacob Mann, Henry P. Russell and Peter A. Johnson 
took the lead in this worthy enterprise. 

One of these books is a complete Bible, together with the 
Apocrypha, published by Jacob Mann in 1805. Though 
not as famous as the " Wicked " and the " Breeches " 
Bibles, it has nevertheless attained quite a notoriety from 
a mistake which has secured for it the name of " the 
Arminian Bible." The mistake occurs in Heb. vi. 4, 
which in this Bible reads, " For it is possible for those 
who were once enlightened, * * * jf (j^gy gj^^jj f^jj 
away, to renew them again unto repentance." 

Another is " An Historical Compend," in two volumes 
by Samuel Whelpley, A. M., principal of Morris Academy, 
printed at Morristown in 1806, by Henry P. Russell. 
These volumes becam.e deservedly popular iti their day 
and reached a goodly circulation. At the end of the 
second volume is appended a list of 233 subscribers to 
the work, with the places of their residence. 

Another of these early issues of the local press was " A 
Syllabus of Lectures on the Visions of the Revelation," by 
Rev. Amzi Armstrong, A. M., " Minister of the Presby- 
terian church in Mendham, N. J.," which was published 
in 1815 by Peter A. Johnson, and printed by Heilry P. 
Russell. 

Another fact worthy of mention in this connection has 
to do with one whose inventive genius and artistic skill 
may be said to have revolutionized the art of printing. 
In January 1818 Joseph A. Adams came to this town and 
entered the printing office of Jacob Mann as an appren- 
tice. He remained here seven years, during, which time 
he mastered all the details of the business, and if we may 
judge from his after history a good deal in addition 
thereto. He went from here to New York city, where he 



THE INVENTOR OF ELECTROTYPY— THE MORRISTOWN WATERWORKS. 



^53 



soon became a skillful wood-engraver. Some of his at- 
tempts in this line while still here are preserved by his 
old friends. In 1839 he commenced experiments in 
electrotyping plates from wood-cuts, and succeeded so 
well that in 1841 an engraving was reproduced by this 
process and printed in Mapes's Magazine. In this great 
invention of 

ELECTROTYPY 

the name of Joseph A. Adams, the apprentice of Jacob 
Mann, publisher of the Palladium of Liberty, takes first 
rank. Not only was he the inventor, but to him belongs 
the chief credit of bringing it to its present state of per- 
fection. By continued experiments he secured at last a 
full and perfect current for a long time, and an equaliza- 
tion of the action of the battery until it was nearly ex- 
hausted of its acid. He also invented an entirely new 
process for covering wax moulds in a few minutes with a 
coat of copper, for which, on the 29th of January 1870, a 
patent was granted him. 

On the igth of April in the same year he patented 
the " Electric Connection Gripper," whereby the metal 
pan is taken entirely out of the current of electricity, and 
the copper is precipitated only upon the mould. 

For a long time he was connected with the Harpers, 
and he had the whole charge of the engravings in their 
famous Bible of 1843. In iht American Art Review {yo\. 
I., number 6, April 1880), published by Estes & Lauriat, 
of Boston, is an article from the pen of W. J. Linton, 
which describes the work of Mr. Adams and accords to 
him the highest praise, not only for his inventive genius, 
but for his marked ability as an artist. Mr. Adams 
died September 17th 1880, aged 78 years. He was the 
uncle of James Sylvester Adams, of the firm of Adams & 
Fairchild, Morristown. 

POST-OFFICE. 

Morristown has had but few postmasters. The first 
was Frederick King, commissioned early in 1782 by Post- 
master General Ebenezer Hazard. Henry King, his son, 
succeeded him on the 14th of June 1792, receiving his 
commission from Postmaster General Timothy Pickering. 
He held the ofifice 42 years, and was succeeded by Ed- 
ward Condict, who was commissioned the loth of April 
1834 under the administration of Andrew Jackson. 
Since then the following have held the ofifice: Jacob M. 
King, Augustus Carmichael, Jason King, Joseph I. Roy, 
Philip W. Crater, Nathan B. Luse (1853-61), A. A. Vance 
(1861-75), and John R. Runyon, the present incumbent. 

The business of the office has considerably more than 
doubled in the last ten years. For the quarter ending 
December 31st 1880 it amounted to $2,048. 

WATERWORKS. 

Among the attractions and advantages of Morristown 
as a place of residence its excellent and abundant water 
supply is not the least prominent. 

On Nov. i6th 1799 a charter of incorporation was 
granted to the following "proprietors of the Morris 



Aqueduct:" John Doughty, Wm. Campfield, James Rich- 
ards, David Ford, Aaron Pierson, John Halsey, Wm. 
Johnes, Gabriel H. Ford, Henry King, Caleb Russell, 
Daniel Phoenix jr., Israel Canfield, Benjamin Freeman, 
David Mills, George O'Hara, Rodolphus Kent, Joseph 
Lewis, Lewis Condict, Abraham Canfield, Samuel Og- 
den, Elijah Holloway, Edward Mills, Wm. Tuttle, Mat- 
thias Crane, Jonathan Dickerson, and Daniel Lindsley. 

From an editorial in the Genius of Liberty, Nov. 21th 
1799, we condense the following: " An aqueduct, four 
miles in length including its various branches, has been 
laid and completed in this town since the 20th of June 
last. The fountain is 100 feet above the town, on the 
north side of a small mountain covered with wood_ 
The pipe has been laid 3 feet under ground, at an ex- 
pense of between $2,000 & $3,000. The work was execu- 
ted by Pelatiah Ashley, of West Springfield, Mass." 

This " fountain " was on the " Jockey Hollow " road 
(about one mile from town), where one of the reservoirs 
is now situated. The water was conducted from there to 
the town through brick tile. How many years this was 
continued we cannot say, but are informed that for many 
years the aqueduct was a dry one, and Morristowu'" was 
again left dependent on wells, and so continued until the 
chartered right was purchased by James Wood, who re- 
paired it and laid chestnut logs of two inches bore as the 
aqueduct, and had a small distributing " reservoir " — a 
wooden cistern, capable of holding one hundred barrels 
of water— in town, on the Jockey Hollow road, now 
Western avenue. 

In 1846 John F. Voorhees became the proprietor of 
the aqueduct; he relaid it with cement pipe, and built a 
distributing reservoir eighteen feet square, on Fort Non- 
sense, where the present one is situated. 

In 1869 the present proprietors — still ajoint stock com- 
pany — purchased it, and under their care the supply has 
been steadily enlarged. There are besides the distribut- 
ing reservoir, which is on the eminence southwest of the 
court-house, three other reservoirs; viz., one near the 
Jockey Hollow road, of the capacity of forty thousand 
barrels; one in Jones's Ravine, near the Mendham road, 
capacity sixty thousand barrels; and a third, by far the 
largest, a few rods above the last mentioned in the same 
ravine, which is of the capacity of five hundred thousand 
barrels and was completed during the year 1880. Great 
pains are taken to exclude all stagnant and surface water, 
and to keep the reservoirs perfectly free from mud and 
vegetable matter and filled with pure spring water, which 
before entering the mains is exposed to the action of the 
atmosphere in the form of spray as far as practicable. 

This aeration has been found to be of the greatest im- 
portance and the result is a quality and purity of water 
believed to be unsurpassed elsewhere. 

There are twelve miles of mains, supplying all districts 
within the city limits, and as the supply of water is ample 
and the head of sufficient altitude the contiguous neigh- 
borhoods and towns will naturally seek to share in the 
advantages presented, of which disposition there are 
already important indications. 



154 



HtSTORY OF MORRIS COUNTS?'. 



The directors of the company are Henry C. Pitney, 
president; Hampton O. Marsh, William L. King, Aurelius 
B. Hull and Edward Pierson, secretary and treasurer. 

COUNTY BUILDINGS. 

The first Morris county court-house and jail was built 
in 1755. It was a small log building, and is said to have 
stood near the middle of the present Green. 

The wants of the county, however, soon outgrew this 
primitive structure. From the trustees' book of the 
First Presbyterian Church we append the following min- 
utes: 

"May 17 1770 the trustees being Duely Called and 
met at the county hous and agreed to Convey a Part of 
the meating hous Land to the freeholders of the County 
of morris for the Benefit of the Court hous 

" June 7 1770 the trustees met & Gave a Deed for one 
acre of Land on which the Court hous Standeth to three 
majestrets and the Freeholders of the County of morris." 

The house was shortly afterward built, and stood 
nearly opposite the United States Hotel, the front stand- 
ing about the middle of the present street, which was 
then only a narrow lane. It was a one-story frame build- 
ing, the sides as well as the roof of which were shingled. 
In 1776 a second story was added. Near it stood the 
pillory, which was last used in 1796. The county paid 
the trustees of the church ^5 for this one acre of land, 
" strict measure." 

A feature of the jail was the " debtors' room." In 
this room was an old-fashioned open fireplace of the 
times; about half way up the chimney iron bars were 
placed across to stop unlawful egress. One Uriah Brown, 
being placed, in " durance vile " by his creditors, was 
left locked in for the night, but early next morning the 
deputy sheriff, whose apartments were in the building, 
was awakened by a knock at his door, and there stood 
Brown, waiting to come in, as he said he was afraid of 
being arrested as a jail breaker. He refused to tell how 
he got out, so the deputy supposed some one had stolen 
his keys and let him out; but next morning, and again 
the next, Brown was at the door; then they thought he 
had a devil in him and were going to chain him, when he 
acknowledged he had succeeded in loosing a bar in the 
chimney, which enabled him to get out, but he could not 
get back the same way. 

The court-house and jail answered the purposes of the 
county until 1827, when the present building was com- 
pleted. 

In the July term of that year the dedicatory services 
took place, as appears from the books of the court, as 
follows: 

"Mom's Commnn Pleas, July Term 1827. — The Hon. 
George K. Drake, William Halsey, Theodore Freling- 
huysen, Henry A. Ford and Jacob W. Miller, Esqs., the 
committee appointed by the court to form a plan of 
arrangements to be carried into effect at the opening of 
the new court-house in Morristown, in the term of Sep- 
tember next, having met, and appointed Hon. George 
K. Drake chairman, and Jacob W. Miller secretary, the 
following arrangements are respectfully submitted to the 
court: 



" That the procession be formed in the following 
order: i, music; 2, sheriff; 3, board of chosen free- 
holders; 4, building committee; 5, master builders; 6, 
clergy and orator; 7, gaoler and crier; 8, constables; 9, 
coroners; 10, justices of the supreme court; 11, judges 
of the common pleas; 12, justices of the peace; 13, clerk 
and surrogate; 14, attorney general and prosecutor; 15, 
members of the bar; 16, grand jury; 17, petit jury; 18, 
county collector and assessors; 19, citizens. 

" Order of dedication: i, open with prayer; 2, address; 
3, prayer; 4, opening the courts in due form of law; 5, 
calling and swearing the grand jury; 6, charge to the 
grand jury; 7, adjournment of court to the next day." 

The programme was carried out as above given. The 
address was delivered by Henry A. Ford, and was 
printed in full in The Jerseyman of October 24th 1827. 

The court-house is on the south side of Washington 
street, between Western avenue and Court street. It is 
of brick, painted white, with brown stone trimmings. It 
is partly of the Ionic style in architecture, two stories 
high, with basement. A cupola in which hangs a bell 
ornaments the roof. Over the entrance is a statue of 
Justice with the traditionary sword and balance in her 
hands. The natural beauty of the building is increased 
hy its surroundings; standing on high ground it overlooks 
the Green and the main part of the town. On the first 
floor are, at the right of the hall, sheriff's private apart- 
ments; left, the sheriff's offices; in the rear on either side 
are cells. A separate building of , stone, containing the 
work-house and additional cells, is in the rear, on the 
west side. The court-room occupies half the second 
story and has a gallery. In the other half are jury rooms 
and rooms of the sheriff's family. In the front part of 
the basement are the kitchens, etc., in the rear the dark 
and dismal dungeons, where contumacious prisoners are 
subdued. 

The surrogate's and clerk's offices are separated from 
the court-house by the jail yard; they face on Court 
street, and were built in 1847. The building is of red 
brick, two stories high. Each office has two fireproof 
vaults. On the second story is a hall called the County 
Hall, and in it meet the board of freeholders and grand 
jury. 

TRAVELING FACILITIES. 

The younger generation knows little or nothing of the 
pleasures of stage coaches and bad roads. Previous to 
1838 Morristonians reached the outside world only by 
this luxurious method of travel. 

Benjamin Freeman claims the honor of running the 
first stage from this place to Powles Hook (Jersey City). 
This was in 1798, or possibly 1797. For $1.25 the trav- 
eller could start from here at 6 a. m. on Tuesday or 
Friday, and be drawn by four horses through Bottle 
Hill (Madison), and thence to Chatham, where "if he felt 
disposed he could take breakfast," thence to Springfield, 
Newark, reaching Powles (also spelled Paulus) Hook 
some time the same day according to circumstances. On 
Wednesday or Saturday he could return by the same 
route, and at the same price. 

John Halsey soon entered into partnership with 



LIBRARIES AT MORRISTOW'N— TRAVELING FACILITIES. 



155 



this primitive Jehu. The profits of the enterprise must 
have been considerable, for the following year, 1799, 
Matthias Crane started a rival stage. We doubt however 
whether the rivalry of Matthias gave the original firm 
much anxiety, as he could only muster two horses. But 
other competitors arose. The columns of the papers of 
those early days abound with flaming advertisements of 
these rival concerns, not omitting descriptions of the 
beauties of tlneir various routes. The majority of them 
ran to Powles Hook, but some only to Newark, and 
others to Elizabethtown Point, from which places the 
passengers were transported by boat to New York. 

In 1838 the Morris and Essex Railroad was complet- 
ed as far as Morristown, which was then the terminus. 
The depot was in DeHart street near Maple avenue and 
the route taken was along Maple avenue until near the 
Catholic church, thence across to Madison avenue and 
then to the line of the present route. Eleven trains ar- 
rive at this station daily for and from New York. Seven 
trains daily leave for stations westward, and the same 
number arrive here from those stations. The time table 
distance of Morristown from New York, via express 
train, is one hour and twenty-five minutes. An elegant 
new depot is at this writing (September ist 1881) rapidly 
approaching completion. 

LIBRARIES. 

The first library in Morris county was established in 
1792. On the 2ist of September of that year 11 inhabit- 
ants of the county met at the house of Benjamin Free- 
man, at Morristown, and " advised and consulted " upon 
the propriety of organizing a society which should be 
called " The Morris County Society for the Promotion 
of Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures." 

Captain Peter Layton (a relic of the Revolution) was 
chosen chairman, and Colonel Russell clerk. The con- 
stitution presented was rather defective. A committee 
•was appointed to revise it. The meeting then adjourned 
to meet at Mr. Freeman's house on September 25th 

1792. 

One hundred people were present at this meeting. Sam- 
uel Tuthill was installed chairman, with Colonel Russell 
again clerk. The constitution was read as revised, and 
was adopted. From it we take (Art. VIII.) the follow- 
ing: " Upon the application of any member of the society 
for a book he shall deliver him one, and at the same 
time take a promissory note for the same, to be returned 
in one (i) month from the time, on paying one shilling 
for every week over time." On October 7th 1793 this 
was amended, and the librarian was only to keep an ac- 
count of the book taken. Article XL informs us that 
the dues were one dollar a year, " to be paid on the first 
Monday in October of each year," and that the stock 
was transferable. Ninety-seven of those present then 
signed the constitution, and a good portion of these paid 
several dollars over the dues for the sake of encourage- 
ment. The total receipts were $227. 

On October ist 1792 the election of officers came off. 
Samuel Tuthill was elected president; Joseph Lewis, 



vice-president; Dr. William Campfield, secretary; W. 
Canfield, librarian; Israel Canfield, treasurer. Six gentle- 
men were then elected a committee of correspondence. 

It was resolved that the society purchase three books, 
and a stamp for marking all books. " They then ad- 
journed." The next meeting was April ist 1795, at 
which the by-laws were read and adopted, from which 
we learn that the librarian was to be at the library to de- 
liver books on all days, Sundays excepted, from 6 a. m. to 
9 P. M.," and "that he shall collect all dues in specie." 
The society started with 96 volumes. At the end of the 
year the treasurer reported $35.47 on hand, and an addi- 
tion of 20 volumes to the library. 

MORRIS LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 

The society thus organized went along swimmingly 
until 1812, when a "Morris Library Association'' was 
started, and the " Association for the Promotion of Agri- 
culture and Domestic Manufactures " merged in it. 

February 3d 1812 a party of gentlemen met at Bull's 
Hotel and agreed to the measures necessary for the or- 
ganization of a library, and adjourned until February 
24th, on which day G. H. Ford was elected president 
and secretary. A seal was ordered to be engraved. At 
the next meeting, April 6th, they elected Jabez Campfield 
librarian. They received also a communication from 
the president of the "Society for the Promotion of Agri- 
culture and Domestic Manufactures," who wished to sell 
out the old organization. The proposition was duly ac- 
cepted. The inventory showed 123 names, which were 
to be placed on the new company's books, together with 
396 volumes, and other articles, amounting to $656.55. 
At this meeting a code of laws was read and adopted 
which was to govern the library. It allowed a person 
holding a share to have a book out not longer than one 
month, for which each year he was to pay 50 cents. 

It also recognized strangers and non-possessors of 
shares, but charged them extravagant prices for allowing 
them the use of books. No subsequent meeting is re- 
corded until February nth 1815, but all this time the 
library was in good running order. This meeting was of 
little importance. In 1820 an amendment was made to 
the code of laws that any person paying one dollar was 
entitled to all the privileges of a stockholder. From the 
report of the librarian for 1820, the first report since its 
organization, we gather the following: The amount of 
script taken was $417. The first year (1812) 144 
books were taken out, at a fee to the librarian of six 
cents each, and in 1820 600 were taken out, at two cents 
each. 

In 1823 a number of shares were confiscated by the 
association and advertised for public sale in the Palladi- 
um of Liberty. They were all sold except four. In 
1825 the trustees presented Rev. Albert Barnes, pastor 
of the First Presbyterian church, with one of these 
(No. i) shares, " to be used by him so long as he may 
remain pastor of the said church," and not subjected to 
yearly annuity. Mr. Barnes accepted the share, and was 
elected a trustee. 



is6 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



APPRENTICES LIBRARY. 

The next library for public benefit at Morristown was 
instituted June i6th 1848. The books and chattels of the 
former organization were purchased by the infant asso- 
ciation, which started with the brightest prospects im- 
aginable. This library was begun solely for the benefit 
of the apprentices of Morris county. 

From the constitution, which is a finely written article, 
by Dr. R. W. Stevenson, we learn that the capital stock 
of the association was limited to fifteen hundred dollars, 
divided into shares of three dollars each, half of which 
was in three months subscribed. 

The library started with fifteen hundred volumes, rang- 
ing, with many and frequent gaps, from Mother Goose 
to the English Encyclopedia, and was considered for the 
times a very good collection. The library rooms were in 
the building now used by James Douglas as a drug 
store. 

The association with various vicissitudes lived from 
1848 until 1851. This library did without doubt a great 
deal of good. It had at closing some twenty-five hundred 
volumes, from the ancient books of the "Society for the 
Promotion of Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures " 
to the '' latest edition of Shakespere, in eight volumes." 

THE MORRIS INSTITUTE 

succeeded the Apprentices' Library Association. It 
lived, however, but a short time. It was founded 
February nth 1854, with G. T. Cobb as its president 
and J. R. Runyon its secretary. They rented rooms 
in "Mr. Marsh's building,'* which is now called 
Washington Hall. They purchased or rented all the 
books of the Apprentices' Library, and in addition had a 
reading room with some of the prominent weekly and 
monthly periodicals. But the enterprise was not a suc- 
cess, the books were old and the privilege of reading cost 
so much that but few availed themselves of it. The so- 
ciety dissolved in two years and all the books were stored 
away in the building on the corner of Court and Wash- 
ington streets. Soon afterward this took fire and about 
half of the books were destroyed. The rest were stored 
in a safer place, where they remained until they were 
claimed for the "new library." 

MORRISTOWN LIBRARY AND LYCEUM. 

The subject of a public library began to be agitated in 
1861. A number of meetings were held by those most 
interested; but the excitement of those days of war pre- 
vented action for some time. In 1865 interest in it took 
definite shape. Toward the close of the year a circular 
was sent out to prominent citizens, as follows: 

"Dear Sir, — At a meeting held at Washington Hall on 
Tuesday evening December 26th, with reference to a 
public library, the undersigned were appointed a com- 
mittee to mature and report a plan. They will not be 
prepared until a later day than the one to which the 
meeting was adjourned. Their report will be ready to 
be presented at a meeting to be held on Monday evening 
January 8th, at 7^ o'clock p. m., at Washington Hall. 
The subject of a public library is one of the greatest 



importance, and you are particularly invited to attend 
the meeting on Monday January 8th 1866." 

This was signed by John Whitehead, John F. Voor- 
hees, William C. Caskey, William S. Babbitt, R. N. Mer- 
ritt, J. T. Crane, E. J. Cooper, George T. Cobb and 
Alfred Mills. 

The charter of incorporation was granted March 6th 
1866, and Alfred Mills, John Whitehead and William C. 
Caskey were appointed commissioners to receive sub- 
scriptions to the capital stock, which was restricted to a 
sum not exceeding $50,000. When ten thousand of this 
amount had been subscribed a meeting of stockholders 
was held and a board of seven directors chosen. 

The directors hold office one year, and elect a presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer. The stock is divided into 
shares of $25 each, and is free from all taxation. When 
the time came to look for a building site it was found 
there was none on the Green except at a price which was 
considered impracticable. The Morris Academy was 
standing, dilapidated and unused, on South street, and 
the stockholders therein offered to assign their stock to 
the Library and Lyceum for an equal nominal value in 
its stock — the lot to be taken at a valuation of $10,000 — 
on condition that a room be reserved in the new build, 
ing for a classical school for boys. This was agreed to, 
and it was decided that a stone building should be 
erected on this site. Plans were submitted, and that of 
Colonel George B. Post of New York city was adopted. 
A beautiful specimen of stone, found on the property of 
the proprietors of the Morris aqueduct, near ihs Jockey 
Hollow road, was selected; this the aqueduct company 
generously gave. Ground was broken in February 1875, 
and the laying of the foundation was begun in the follow- 
ing May; work was pushed rapidly, and the building was 
inclosed early the ensuing winter. The building cost 

$S5.°°°- 

The public opening occurred August 14th 1878. Each 
member of the board of directors has been from the con- 
ception of the enterprise until the present time active and 
efficient; and the result is a noble institution, unsurpassed 
by any in the State, and of which the citizens may well be 
proud. Special praise is due to J. Warren Blatchly, now 
deceased, for his donation by will of $5,000 for the 
purchase of books; to William L. King for his untiring 
energy in the interest of the library, and for his generous 
gifts to it, amounting in all to about $20,000; to John 
Whitehead for the time and pains bestowed in the selec- 
tion, purchase and arrangement of books, and preparation 
of the catalogue; and to William S. Babbitt, the efficient 
secretary of the institution. 

Oil portraits of Messrs. King and Blatchly, painted by 
J. Alden Weir, have recently been placed in the library 
by friends of the institution. 

From the last annual report we take the following: 
Total number of accounts during the year, 332; volumes 
in library, 8,280; added during the year, 557; issued 
during the year, 14,078; visits to the reading room, 
11,170; more recent additions make the present number 
of volumes about 10,000. 



MASONIC LODGES AT MORRISTOWN— FEMALE CHARITABLE SOCIETY. 



157 



The board of directors consists of William L. King, 
president; John Whitehead, vice-president; W. S. Bab- 
bitt, secretary; John E. Taylor, treasurer; Henry C. 
Pitney, Alfred Mills, Theodore Little, Aurelius B. Hull, 
Samuel Eddy. 

The board was increased in June 1879 from seven 
members to nine, the present number. At the same time 
the capital stock vi^as increased from ^50,000 to $100,000. 

LODGES AND SOCIETIES. 

FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 

Cincinnati Lodge, No. 3. — The "American Union 
Lodge " — an army lodge — had its warrant granted Feb- 
ruary 15th 1776 by Colonel Richard Gridley, deputy 
grand master of Massachusetts, to certain brethren of the 
"Connecticut line.'' At the close of the year 1779 it 
was located with Washington's army at this place. 

On the 27th of December 1779 a meeting of the above 
named lodge was held to celebrate the festival of St. 
John the Evangelist; and the record shows the presence 
of sixty-eight brethren, including General Washington. 
There is a tradition that Lafayette was initiated at this 
meeting. 

It is very commonly stated that General Washington 
was initiated into the mysteries of masonry while in camp 
here, and the room in the old Arnold tavern where the 
ceremony of initiation took place is pointed out. Truth 
compels us to disturb this pleasant local tradition. Gen- 
eral Washington was a mason previous to the Revolution- 
ary war, at Fredericksburg, Va. The books of Freder- 
icksburg Lodge, No. 4, have the following entries: " Nov. 
6th 1752. — Received George Washington; his entrance 
^2 3s." "March 3d 1753. — George Washington passed 
fellow-craft." "Aug. 4th 1753.— At a meeting of Fred- 
ericksburg Lodge, No. 4, transactions of the evening are: 
George Washington raised Master Mason; F. P. Willford, 
W. M.; R. S. Chew, S. W.; C. B. Willford, J. W." While 
in Morristown steps were taken by the members of the 
American Union Lodge for the appointment of a grand 
master over all the colonies, and it was signified by the 
committee having the matter in charge that General 
Washington was their choice for general grand master. 
Nothing, however, ever grew out of it, each State after- 
ward establishing a grand lodge of its own, presided over 
by a separate grand master. 

On December i8th 1786 a convention of master ma- 
sons was held at New Brunswick for the purpose. of es- 
tablishing the grand lodge of the State of New Jersey. 
At a communication held at New Brunswick January 
30th 1787 a dispensation was granted for three months 
to certain master masons to open a lodge at Morristown, 
to be distinguished by the name of Hiram Lodge, No. 4. 
On the 2nd of April 1787 the dispensation was canceled, 
and a warrant issued by the grand lodge, which warrant 
was subsequently (on the sth of July 1796) returned on 
account of the non-attendance of members. 

A warrant was issued November loth 1812 to twelve 
master masons to open and hold a lodge at this place, 



under the name St. Tammany's Lodge, but this was also 
returned after a few years. 

On the Sth of November 1803 a warrant was granted to 
James Burras, W. M.; Wm. Bailey, S. W.; and John 
Sturtevant, J. W., to hold a lodge at Montville, in this 
county, to be called " Cincinnati Lodge, No. 17," No- 
vember nth 1806 permission was granted by the grand 
lodge to change the place of meeting to Hanover (Whip- 
pany), where it continued to meet until December 26th 
1844, when it was removed to Morristown, under dispen- 
sation of the M. W. grand master. The number of the 
lodge was changed from 17 to 3 November 8th 1842. 

The following is the list of W. masters of the lodge 
since its organization: 

1803, 1804, James Burras; 1805-8, John T. Bentley; 
1809-14, Jeptha B. Munn; 1815-18, Abraham Reynolds; 
1819, John S. Darcy; 1820-22, William Scott; 1823, 1824, 
Royal Hopkins; 1825, 1826, James Quinby; 1827, William 
McFarland; 1828, Stephen Fairchild; 1829-34, 1842-45, 
1848, 1849, James Clark; 1835-37, 1846, George Vail; 
1838, Albert G. Hopping; 1847, 185 1, 1854, Jabez Beers; 
1850, W. C. Mott; 1852, 1853, Davis Vail; 1855, 1856, 
Thus. B. Flagler; 1857, Wm. H. James; 1858, 1859, Job J. 
Lewis; 1860-63, John S. Stiger; 1864, 1865, Alanson A. 
Vance; 1866, 1867, 1869, 1876, James V. Bentley; 1868, 
Chas. H. Dalrymple; 1870, Roswell B. Downing; 1871, 
Henry M. Dalrymple; 1872, Richard M. Stites; 1873, 
Jacob O. Arnold; 1874, Eratus D. Allen; 1875, John W. 
Hays; 1877, James W. Carrell; 1878, 1879, Wm. Becker 
jr.; 1880, 1881, Sidney W. Stalter. 

THE FEMALE CHARITABLE SOCIETY 

of Morristown was organized on the 13th of August 
1813. Mrs. Samuel Fisher, wife of the pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church, was first directress, Mrs. 
Israel Canfield second directress, Mrs. Arden treasurer, 
and Miss A. M. Smith secretary. The board of mana- 
gers were Mrs. Mills, Mrs. Ford, Mrs. Phoenix, Mrs. 
Edwards, Mrs. Mann and Mrs. Vail. Mrs. Silas John- 
son succeeded Mrs. Fisher as first directress, but re- 
signed the office at the end of two years, and Mrs 
McDowell was chosen in her place. 

In the year 1830 Mrs. George P. McCuUoch was elected 
first directress of the society, and she remained its 
honored and beloved head for nearly thirty-four years. 
Mrs. McCulloch died in 1864, and Mrs. George T. Cobb 
was chosen to fill her place. 

The semi-centennial of the society was held in 1863. 
At the annual meeting in November 1879 Mrs. Cobb 
resigned the presidency of the society .because of ill 
health, and Mrs. J. W. Miller was elected first directress. 
Mrs. Miller has been a member of the charitable society 
sixty years, filling the various offices of manager, second 
directress, etc. She is the daughter of Mrs. McCulloch, 
who for so many years directed the society's affairs. 

The present officers are: Mrs. J. W. Miller, first 
directress; Mrs. Albert Erdman, second directress; Mrs. 
R. W. Stevenson, secretary; Mrs. Eugene Ayers, treas- 
urer; board of managers— Mrs. L. N. Hitchcock, Mrs. 
Henry Shaw, Mrs. L. B. Ward, Mrs. Theodore Little, 
Mrs. H. C. Pitney, Mrs. E. C. Lord, Miss Benson, Mrs. 
F. G. Burnham, Miss Rowe, Mrs. S. F. Headley, Mi. s 



158 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Watson, Mrs. G. Werts; honorary managers — Mrs. R. N. 
Merritt, Mrs. R. S. Green, Mrs. Chadwell, Mrs. Bowman. 
The society distributed during the past year $616.82 
in charities. 

ODD FELLOWS. 

Roxiticus Lodge of I. O. of O. F. was instituted Sep- 
tember nth 1849 and continued to 1863. It was re- 
organized in March 187 1, and is still in existence. We 
judge that it is quite unappreciative of the importance of 
its history to after generations, as we made not less 
than six applications to it, but all in vain, for whatever 
is worthy of record in its past and present existence. We 
regret this for the sake of those unborn generations. 

Its present officers are: N. G., Alfred M. Armstrong; 
V. G., Edward Cobbett; secretary, Charles R. Lindsley; 
treasurer, John McGowan; district deputy of Morris 
county, William Lewis. The present number of members 
is 50. 

The lodge meets Wednesday nights in the Bell build- 
ing. 

GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

The first post of the grand army in Morristown was 
organized September 3d 1868, and was known as Phil. 
Sheridan Post, No. 18, Department N. J., G. A. R. 
The name was afterward changed to Ira J. Lindsley 
Post, No. 18, in honor of Captain Ira J. Lindsley, Com- 
pany C isth N. J. volunteers, who fell in the battle of 
Chancellorsville, May 3d 1863. The officers of the 
post were: Commander, Samuel J. Hopkins; S. V. C, 
James M. Brown; J. V. C, Heyward G. Emmell; adju- 
tant, George W. Uerrickson; quartermaster, Ellis T. 
Armstrong; S. M., Charles P. Case; Q. M. S., John 
Moreland. 

The post surrendered its charter in 1874. 

Winfield Scott Post, No. 24, was organized July 14th 
1879. The name of the post was changed on the death 
of General Torbett to A. T. A. Torbett Post, No. 24, 
G. A. R., there being a large number of his old brigade 
members of the post. The present officers are: Com- 
mander, Heyward G. Emmell; S. V., William S. Earls; 
J. v., James Shawger; surgeon, Stephen Pierson, M. D.; 
chaplain, Theodore Searing; adjutant, L. P. Hannas; 
quartermaster, William Becker jr.; officer of the day, 
Edward Cobbett; officer of the guard, Alonzo Hedden; 
Q. M. S., George Pierson; S. M., E. A. Doty. 

The post numbers about fifty men. 

women's EMPLOYMENT SOCIETY. 



This society was organized in 1873, for the purpose of 
aiding poor and' worthy women in town by giving to 
them such work as they could perform and paying them 
a generous price for it. It was designed thus to culti- 
vate a proper self-respect among the poor, and remove 
the pauperizing influence of alms-giving. In this respect 
the society has done an excellent work. According to 
the last annual report it paid out for work during the 
year over $700, and sold garments to the amount of 



nearly f8oo. Its total receipts for the year ending 
November ist 1880 were $1,338.66, and expenditures 
$1,288.81. 

The officers are: First directress, Mrs. C. H. Hunt; 
second directress, Mrs. P. C. Barker; treasurer, Mrs. E. 
C. Lord; secretary. Miss J. E. Dodge; managers — Mrs. 
W. E. Bailey, Miss Benson, Mrs. G. W. Colics, Mrs. J. 
Smith Dodge, Mrs. H. W. Ford, Mrs. Hillard, Miss M. 
Lord, Mrs. R. W. Lyon, Mrs. H. W. Miller, Mrs. Henry 
Shaw, Mrs. George Vail, Mrs. L. B. Ward; honorary 
manager, Mrs. J. W. Miller. 

YOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION. 

For a number of years before the organization of this 
association its various branches of work (including read- 
ing-room) were carried on by the young men of the two 
Presbyterian churches. The reading-room was over the 
store of W. S. Babbitt. The expenses of this organiza- 
tion were jointly borne by the churches just named. 

The Young Men's Christian Association had its rise in 
a preliminary conference of young men of the different 
churches at a private house in December 1873. This 
led to the formal organization of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association on the 2nd of January 1874, in the Bap- 
tist Church of Morristown. On that occasion over 100 
men assembled and 61 members were enrolled. 

The presidents of the organization have been as fol- 
lows: J. V. Bentley, Wm. E. Church, Frederick Wooster 
Owen, Jonathan W. Roberts, George E. Voorhees, James 
P. Sullivan and John Edward Taylor, the present incum- 
bent; vice-presidents, Isaac R. Pierson, Wm. E. Church, 
W. F. Day, J. E. Parker, Wm. D. Johnson, Isaac Pierson 
and Kiliaen Van Rensselaer. The first recording secre- 
tary was M. W. Stoll, the first treasurer the lamented 
George L. Hull. The first executive committee consis- 
ted of Geo. E. Voorhees, J. J. Davis, L. E. Miller, E. E. 
Marsh, Isaac R. Pierson, Levi J. Johnson, W. F. Day, J. 
Searing Johnson, W. S. Babbitt and E. A. Muir. 

The year 1876 saw the association initiating and suc- 
cessfully concluding the scheme for freeing the African 
M. E. church from debt. It is a significant fact that 
Morristown at large contributed through the Y. M. C. A. 
$3,800 for that purpose, fully acquiring the church prop- 
erty and vesting its official control in the association. 

In this same memorable year the association held 361 
prayer meetings in Morristown and vicinity, induced the 
citizens to feed the poor on Thanksgiving day at an ex- 
pense of $200, prepared the way for the " mission 
chapel" movement, and distributed loo Bibles and about 
1,500 tracts. 

In 1877 the association became an incorporated body. 
In January i88o the "coffee-room and gymnasium " and 
" evening school " movements were inaugurated, and 
they have proved highly successful. The committee in 
charge of the former was Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, T. B. 
Nutting and J. E. Parker; of the latter, J. H. Van Doren, 
W. L. R. Haven, S. Moore and Theodore Little. 

The receipts of the association during the year 1880 
were $1, 589.58; the expenditures $909.32. 



ASSOCIATrONS AT MORRISTOWN— THE GREEN. 



159 



The officers during the year 1881 were- J. E. Taylor, 
president; Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, vice-president; W. S. 
Mulford, corresponding secretary; U. H. Rodney, re- 
cording secretary; H. T. Hull, treasurer; executive com- 
mittee — J. H. Van Doren (chairman), George G. Ely 
(secretary), William K. Norris, George W. Colles, William 
Lewis, George N. Yates, I. R. Voorhees, William S. 
Babbitt, W. F. Day, T. B. Nutting jr., Lansing Furman. 
Charles A. Edwards, J. D. Guerin; devotional committee 
— Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (chairman), Truman H. Scott 
secretary), (T. B. Nutting jr., James Welsh, Isaac R. 
Pierson, William D. Johnson, P. H. Hoffman, H. H. 
Fairchild, Walter N. Coriell; corporation — F. W. Owen 
(president), I. R. Pierson (secretary), H. T. Hull (treas- 
urer), J. E. Taylor, George E. Voorhees, P. H. Hoffman, 
W. F. Day, A. A. Schenck, William D. Johnson, George 
Yates. 

THE MORRISTOWN LYCEUM 

was organized in September 1879, having previously ex- 
isted for a few years as a debating society under the 
name of " Young Men's Lyceum." Its object was to 
preserve the best features of the debating society, to add 
a reading room for newspapers etc., a course of lectures, 
and other literary entertainments. 

The first officers were: President, Paul Revere; vice- 
president, E. A. Quayle; treasurer, W. B. Wood; record- 
ing secretary, Mahlon Pitney;' corresponding secretary, 
F. Schraudenbach. 

The office of president has since been filled by W. W. 
Cutler, C. F. Randolph and J. B. Vreeland. 

The present board of officers is as follows: President, 
J. B. Vreeland; vice-president, W. B. Wood; recording 
secretary, H. Hillard; corresponding secretary, W. P. 
Fennell; treasurer, A. W. Bell; members of executive 
committee— T. C. Bushnell, W. W. Cutler. 

The meetings are held on Monday evening, during the 
winter. A commodious and well-furnished room in the 
library building is the place of meeting. A course of 
lectures has been given each year, and a public debate 
held just prior to adjournment for the summer. 

"THE MORRISTOWN GREEN." 

In the year 1771 (September 7th) " the trustees, Henry 
Primrose, Benjamin Bayles, Benjamin Cox, Samuel Rob- 
erts, Joseph Stiles, Samuel Tuthill and Stephen Conkling, 
in consideration of ;£5 and also for and in consideration 
that the justices and freeholders of iVEorris county and 
successors do constantly and continually keep full and in 
passable repair that part of the hereafter mentioned lot 
of land commonly called the Gully " (a portion of the 
present " Green "), deeded " one acre, strict measure, for 
the sole use and purpose of a court-house, gaol," etc- 
This deed specifies "that if the court-house aforesaid 
shall be removed to any other place then this indenture 
and everything herein contained to be void, and title to 
the aforesaid lot of land to revert to said Henry Prim- 
rose," etc. 

About 1816 the project of inclosinT the remainder of 



the land now embraced in the park for the purposes of a 
common was mooted. It was owned by the First Pres- 
byterian Church. An old surveyor by the name of Ed- 
ward Condict, however, laid claim to it as unlocated 
land. Finally he was induced to forego his claim in view 
of the fact that the church was ready to sell the land for 
a green to certain citizens. The price paid was f 1,600. 
The deed bears date of April ist 1816. It is signed by 
John Mills, president of the board of trustees, and by 
those who had subscribed to the purchase fund, with the 
amounts given. These names ought to be preserved, and 
we consequently append them. The parties of the sec- 
ond part were the original subscribers; those of the third 
part later subscribers. 

Parties of the second part: Daniel Phoenix, $100; 
Lewis Mills, $100; James Wood, $150; Israel Canfield, 
$200; Samuel Halliday, $50; P. A. Johnson, $50; Henry 
King, $25; Ebenezer H. Pierson, $50; David Mills, $25; 
Theodore F. Talbot, $25; Jonathan Ogden, $100; Syl- 
vester D. Russell, $35; Andrew Hunt, $25. 

Parties of the third part: William M. O'Hara, fio; 
Henry P. Russell, $30; the bank, Daniel Phoenix presi- 
dent, f5o; Henry I. Browne, $25; Abm. C. Canfield, 
$25; William H. Wetmore, $25; Loammi Moore, $50; 
Stephen Halsey, $5; William Dixon, $50; Charles A. 
Pitney, I5; Lewis Hayden, $50; Stephen J. Ogden, $35; 
George K. Drake, $ro. 

This deed is recorded in Book O of deeds, page 
417, etc. 

The deed provided '' that no dwelling house, store, 
shop or barn, or any other building of any kind should 
be thereafter erected on the aforesaid green or common, 
except a meeting-house, a court-house and jail, and a 
market-house." These last specifications did not seem 
so important to the more recent trustees as to those 
whose names are above recorded. Accordingly in 1868 
they reconveyed the property to the trustees of the 
church, who immediately transferred it back to the trus- 
tees of the Green, with the objectionable specifications 
omitted, thus prohibiting building of any sort upon it; 
also agreeing when a new church is built to place its 
front line forty feet further back than the front line of 
the present edifice. 

The Green is in shape a square, divided by walks into 
eight triangles. It contains about two and a half acres, 
and the distance around it is a quarter of a mile. Around 
this square are situated the principal business places 
and three of the churches. In the center of the Green 
are a " liberty pole " and a rustic summer-house for the 
band, and at the northeast corner the soldiers' monu- 
ment, of which notice is taken elsewhere. 

LAFAYETTE'S VISIT TO MORRISTOWN. 

Thursday the 14th of July 1825 was a great day for 
Morristown and vicinity. Preparations had for a long 
time been makiug for it. As far back as the previous 
September a pressing invitation had been extended to 
General Lafayette, " the nation's guest," to visit this 
place. The invitation had been in due time accepted, 
and the above date appointed as the time of the. visit. 
The following large committee, consisting of the fore- 



9') 



i6o 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



most men of the community, had been chosen to make 
the necessary arrangements: General John Doughty, 
chairman; Gabriel H. Ford, James Wood, James C. Can- 
field, Cornelius Ludlow, Colonel Lemuel Cobb, Colonel 
John H. Glover, Joseph Dickerson jr., Hon. Mahlon 
Dickerson, Lawrence Hager, Captain Richard Reed, 
Abraham Brittin, Hon. Lewis Condict, George K. Drake, 
Captain Daniel C. Martin, S. D. Russell, General John 
S. Darcy, Silas Cook, Robert Colfax, Major William Hunt, 
Samuel Sayre,Colonel Benjamin McCurry,Doctor Jephtha 
B. Munn, Lewis Mills, Jacob Mann, secretary. 

The arrangements were all completed, the stand was 
erected, the speakers appointed, the military in readiness 
under General Darcy, the tables in Mr. Sansay's long 
room spread in readiness for an epicurean feast for all 
who could pay three dollars for a dinner ticket, while the 
parlor of Mr. Ogden (by whom General Lafayette was 
to be entertained while here) was put in readiness for the 
ladies of the town to whom the honored guest was after 
the dinner to be introduced. 

Early in the afternoon a booming cannon announced 
his arrival at Whippany; and an hour later a second 
salute told the expectant throng that he was approaching 
Morristown. He came accompanied by Governor Wil- 
liamson, Colonel Ogden and William Halsey, a joint 
committee from Paterson and Morris, a deputation from 
the committee of arrangements who met him at Whip- 
pany, and a military escort of the Morris cavalry, who had 
joined him at the county line. He was conducted 
through the throng directly to the platform, where an, 
address of welcome was delivered, to which he briefly 
responded. 

The band played, the choir sang patriotic airs, the 
people cheered, and the general no doubt felt satisfied 
with the reception which Morristown tendered him, 
honorable alike to himself and to the people whose guest 
he was. 

THE SPEEDWELL WORKS 

were built about 1812, by Stephen Vail. They were 
closed shortly after his death, which occurred on the 
12th of July 1864, and have not since been in operation. 
Their importance, however, during the period of their 
activity warrants a somewhat extended account. They 
are located a mile north of the Morristown Green. They 
have been the principal, and we may say the only, manu- 
facturing interests in the town. 

THE VAIL INVENTIONS. 

Speedwell may be called the home of the electro-mag- 
netic telegraph. The following letter from Prof. Morse 
has, we believe, never before been published: 

" New York, November 25th 1862. 
" My Dear Sir: 

"Your favor of the 21st inst. is this moment received. 
On the subject upon which you request some observa- 
tions I would say that I well remember the trials made 
at Speedwell of the operations of the telegraph. The 
date, January 6th 1838, I believe to be correct in regard 
to those experiments. In 1835 the telegraph was operated 



in my rooms in the university, but with only a short line 
of wire. Your nephew, Alfred Vail, was shown my ex- 
periments in 1837, he being then a student in the 
university, and he took from that time a strong interest 
in the invention, and became associated with me in labors 
and expenses and profits of the invention. Through this 
interest of Mr. Alfred Vail I was furnished with the pe- 
cuniary means to procure a greater length of wire and 
more effective instruments, which were made under my 
superintendence at Speedwell. Ten miles of wire, in two 
spools of five miles each, were prepared at the university 
to exhibit to Congress the operations of the telegraph at 
Washington, and the trial at Speedwell was made when 
about three miles of the wire had been completed. You 
will see in Mr. Alfred Vail's work, " The American 
Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," at pages 74 and 75, the re- 
sults of an experiment on a short wire of 1,700 feet, which 
I made on the 4th of September 1837, in the university; 
but the line of about three miles at Speedwell was the 
longest which at that time had been used. 
" Yr. mo. ob. sert., 

"Sam'l F. B. Morse." 
" To Dr. William P. Vail, 

"Johnsonburg, N. Jersey." 

On the nth of January 1838, five days after the trial 
above mentioned was made, the public was permitted to 
see the wonderful performance, when hundreds came 
from the surrounding country to witness it. 

It is in point here to state that the public has never 
done justice to Alfred Vail for the part he took in this 
great enterprise of giving the telegraph to the worl'd. 
Nor did Prof. Morse himself pursue that generous course 
toward him which Mr. Vail had the right to expect. He 
claimed, or at least allowed himself to receive, all the 
honor of the inventions of Mr. Vail, which the latter ab- 
stained from claiming, owing to a delicate sense of ob- 
ligation incurred by his contract with Prof. Morse, "to 
devote his personal services and skill in constructing and 
bringing to perfection as also in improving the mechan- 
ical parts of said invention, * * * without charge 
for such personal services to the other proprietors, and 
for their common benefit." 

Alfred Vail first produced in the new instrument the 
first available Morse machine. He invented the first 
combination of the horizontal lever motion to actuate a 
pen or pencil or style, and the entirely new telegraphic 
alphabet of dots, spaces and marks, which it necessitated. 
The new machine was Vail's, not Morse's. To Alfred 
Vail alone is due the honor in the first place of inventing 
an entirely new alphabet; secondly, of inventing an en- 
tirely new machine, in which was the first combination 
of the horizontal lever motion to actuate a pencil or pen 
style, so arranged as to perform the new duties required 
with precision, simplicity and rapidity; and, thirdly, of 
inventing, in 1844, the new lever and . grooved roller, 
which embossed into paper the simple and perfect alpha- 
betical characters which he had originated. 

Space forbids adducing proofs of the above claims; 
for them we would refer those interested to the follow- 
ing works, where they will find the claims abundantly 
substantiated. 

" Up the Heights of Fame and Fortune," by F. B. 
Read, 8vo. Cincinnati, 1873. 



INVENTIONS BY ALFRED AND STEPHEN VAIL. 



i6i 



New York Sun for September z5th 1858; an article by 
its editor, Moses S. Beach. 

Scribner's Hours at Home, 'SiZ'^X.zmhe.x \Z(>()\ an article 
by Dr. William P. Vail. 

A pamphlet entitled " History Getting Right on the 
Invention of the American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 
1872. 

An Historical Sketch of Henry's Contribution to the 
Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, etc.; by William B. Taylor 
(from the Smithsonian Report for 1878), Washington; 
Government Printing Ofifice, 1879; pages 84-87. 

From the last named work we quote the concluding 
paragraph (p. 87): "Surely it is time that Alfred Vail 
should receive the tardy justice of some public acknowl- 
edgment of his very ingenious and meritorious inven- 
tions in telegraphy, and of grateful remembrance par- 
ticularly for his valuable contribution to the ' Morse 
system ' of its practically most important element." 

Mr. Vail died January i8th 1859. At a meeting of the 
directors of the Magnetic Telegraph Company, held at 
Philadelphia on the i6th of February 1859, ifor the pur- 
pose of giving expression to their feelings in view of his 
death, the Hon. Amos Kendall said: "If justice be done 
the name of Alfred Vail will forever stand associated 
with that of Samuel F. B. Morse in the history of the in- 
vention and introduction into use of the electro-magnetic 
telegraph. Mr. Vail was one of the most honest and 
scrupulously conscientious men with whom it has ever 
been my fortune to meet." 

Mr. Read in his book already mentioned relates a con- 
versation between a friend of Mr. Vail and Professor 
Morse during the last sickness of the latter, in March 
1872. " In a conversation of two hours," says this friend 
of Mr. Vail, " he [Professor Morse] several times said, 
' The one thing I want to do now is justice to Mr. Vail' 
* * * Just four weeks from that day he passed from 
earth; and I have never heard that he left one word for 
it. Indeed, I did not expect that he would." To this 
statement Mr. Read adds: " Here we leave Professor 
Morse and his relations to Alfred Vail. Our only pur- 
pose has been simply to bring the facts concerning this 
wonderful invention to the light of day." 

On March 3d 1843, one minute before midnight and 
the adjournment of Congress, the " telegraph bill "passed 
the Senate, having already been acted upon by the lower 
house. Prof. Morse, utterly discouraged and wearied 
out by his anxiety, had gone to his lodgings, having given 
up all hope, as at 9 o'clock in the evening nearly a hun- 
dred bills still remained upon the docket. The next 
morning, as he was about to sit down to breakfast, the 
servant announced that a young lady desired to see him 
in the parlor. It was the daughter of Henry L. Ells- 
worth, a college classmate of Prof. Morse. She had 
called at her father's request to announce the passage of 
the telegraph bill. As an appropriate acknowledgment 
of her kindness and sympathy Prof. Morse promised that 
the first message by the first line of telegraph between 
Washington and Baltimore should, be indited by her. 
When the line between these two cities was completed he 



apprised her of his readiness to comply with his promise. 
A note from her enclosed these words: "' What hath God 
wrought." And this was the first dispatch sent over the 
electro-magnetic telegraph, the date being Monday May 
27th 1844. Alfred Vail was the operator at the Wash- 
ington station, and H. J, Roger at Baltimore. The only 
one remaining of these two original instruments has been 
until recently preserved at the " Headquarters " in Mor- 
ristown, and is now at the Metropolitan Museum, New 
York city. 

An item from Dr. William P. Vail may not be out of 
place in this connection: 

"Allow me to call attention to a matter which deserves 
a place in the History of Morris County. In the begin- 
ning of this century Jeremiah H. Pierson, of Ramapo, 
N. J., started the first nail factory in the United States, 
and the first cut nail ever made in this country was made 
there. Stephen Vail, then a very young man and a born 
mechanic, who could understand a machine at sight, 
heard of this strange thing and he longed to see it. 
Accordingly he went to Ramapo, but how to get the 
coveted sight was the question, as it was against the law 
of the establishment to admit spectators. However by 
some means he found his way inside, in the character of 
an unskilled, curious country boy, and wandered around 
in apparently stupid wonder at what he saw. At length 
Mr. Pierson, who had just come into the factory, saw the 
country lad intently looking at the cut nail machine. 
Instantly waving a bandana handkerchief, he beckoned 
him to the entrance, telling him very bluntly that he had 
no business there. Making an affectedly awkward 
a'pology he took his leave, but he took that cut nail ma- 
chine away with him, in his head. He had seen enough. 
Not long afterward a cut nail machine was at work in 
Dover, Morris county, N. J. When Mr. Pierson heard 
of it for the life of him he couldn't tell how it got there. 
Many years afterward Mr. Pierson and Mr. Vail, both 
bting iron men, formed an acquaintance. One day Mr. 
Vail asked Mr. Pierson if he knew how the nail factory 
in Dover came to be started. Of course Mr. Pierson 
didn't know; whereupon Mr. Vail, who loved a joke and 
a hearty laugh, told him all about it, and then they en- 
joyed the joke and the laugh together. This history 
Judge Vail gave me many years ago, and at my request 
he repeated it to me a short time before he died, which 
was in 1864, at the ripe age of 84, still a hale, vigorous 
man." 

FIRST STEAMSHIP BOILER AND CAST-IRON PLOW. 

The fame of Speedwell is not confined to the tele- 
graph. It has the honor of having manufactured the 
first boiler for the first steamship which crossed the 
Atlantic. 

The London Times of June 30th 1819 says: "The 'Sa- 
vannah,' steam vessel, recently arrived at Liverpool from 
America, the first vessel of the kind that ever crossed the 
Atlantic, was chased a whole day off the coast of Ireland 
by the ' Kite', revenue cruiser on the Cork station, which 
mistook her for a ship on fire." 

The same paper on June 21st 1819 contained the fol- 
lowing, credited to Marwade's Comtnercial Report of that 
week : 

" Among the arrivals yesterday at this port we were 
particularly gratified and astonished by the novel sight of 
a fine steamship, which came around at 7^ p. m. with- 



162 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



out the assistance of a single sheet, in a style which dis- 
played the power and advantage of the application of 
steam to vessels of the largest size, being 350 tons bur- 
den. She is called the ''Savannah,' Captain Rogers, and 
sailed from Savannah, Georgia, United States, the 26th 
of May, and arrived in the Channel five days since. 
During the passage she worked the engine eighteen days. 
Her model is beautiful, and the accommodations for pas- 
sengers elegant and complete. She is the first ship of 
this construction that has ever undertaken a voyage 
across the Atlantic." 

Some of the lighter machinery of the " Savannah " was 
made at Elizabethtown. The heavier parts were made 
at Speedwell by Judge Stephen Vail, the father of Alfred 
Vail. Dr. William P. Vail, the brother of Stephen, 
writes : " I well remember seeing parts of it [the engine] 
from time to time loaded on wagons for the transporta- 
tion to Elizabethtown Point, there to be shipped to New 
York." This was in 1819. 

Tradition also says that the first cast-iron plow was 
made at Speedwell. In answer to a letter of inquiry on 
this point Dr. William P. Vail writes : 

" As to when, where, and by whom the first cast-iron 
plow was made, I can tell only what I have heard from an 
honored relative, Mr. Jacob Johnson, who lived many 
years an active, useful and respected citizen of Newark, 
N. J., but who was a native of Morris county, N. J., 
learned the trade of a printer with Jacob Mann, of Mor- 
ristown, the editor of the old Palladium, and who now 
sleeps there in the old cemetery of the First Presbyter- 
ian church. He assured me that his father, Mahlon John- 
son, of Littleton, Morris county, N. J., was the real in- 
ventor of the cast-iron plow, which was afterward pa- 
tented by Freeborn, of New York, whose name it bore. 
This statement I have no doubt is altogether correct." 

It seems a pity that after the noble history of the 
Speedwell works they should now stand disused and for- 
saken. 

BUSINESS CORPORATIONS. 

BANKS. 

On the, 17th of March 1812 Aaron Kitchel, Edward 
Condict, Jonathan Ogden, Charles Carmichael, and 
Ebenezer H. Pierson, commissioners, opened subscrip- 
tion books for the State Bank at Morris. The officers 
were: President, Daniel Phoenix; directors — John Res- 
to (?), David Welsh, Isaac Southard, Richard Hunt, Wil- 
liam Brittin, Solomon Doty; cashier, H. J. Browne. 

This bank continued business for a number of years, 
in the building on the corner of Park place and Bank 
street, now belonging to the estate of Aug. W. Bell. It 
finally went into bankruptcy. 

The same fate overtook the old Morris County Bank, 
which for a considerable time carried on a flourishing 
business in the building now occupied by F. S. Freeman 
as a hardware store. It was incorporated February 24th 
1836. The incorporators were Henry A. Ford, Dayton 
I. Canfield, George H. Ludlow, Joseph Jackson, Richard 
S. Wood, James Wood, Henry Hillard, Jephtha B. Munn, 
Silas Condict, Timothy S. Johnes, Jonathan C. Bonnell, 



George Vail, and William Brittin. The capital stock was 
$100,000. James Wood was the first president. After 
his death he was succeeded by his son Nelson Wood. 

For a long time this was the great bank of the county. 
In the financial troubles of 1857 it was obliged to sus- 
pend for a while, but was able to meet its obligations 
in full. At last, however, about 1865 or 1866 it finally 
closed its doors. 

National Iron Bank. — This bank was started at Rocka- 
way in 1855 or 1856, under the name of the IronBankof 
Rockaway. It was moved to Morristown in February 
1858. Its first directors after the removal were Simeon 
Broadwell (president), Horace Ayers (cashier), C. S. Hulse, 
Samuel W. Corwin, John Bates, James Holmes, George S. 
Corwin, Francis Lindly and Henry C. Pitney. Its original 
capital stock was $50,000, which was increased to $100,000, 
and again in July 1871 to $200,000, at which figure it 
still remains. Up to 1865 this was a State bank, since 
which time it has been a national bank. Mr. Broadwell 
remained president until 1869, when he was succeeded 
by the present incumbent. Mr. Craig became cashier in 
1861. In 1870 the present banking house was built, at a 
cost (including lot) of $40,000. 

The present officers are : President, Hampton O. 
Marsh; cashier, Daniel D. Craig; directors — Henry C. 
Pitney, George E. Voorhees, H. B. Stone, Edmund D. 
Halsey, James S. Coleman and Byram K. Stickle. 

The First National Bank of Morristown was organized 
April 4th 1865. May 27th 1865 authority was given by 
the controller of the currency to commence the business 
of banking. June 21st 1865 it commenced business, with 
a capital of $100,000. The first board of directors con- 
sisted of Daniel Budd, William G. Lathrop, John 
F. Voorhees, J. Boyd Headley, Henry M. Olmstead, 
Theodore Little, Columbus Beach, George T. Cobb, and 
Louis B. Cobb. The first officers were: Theodore Little, 
president; Louis B. Cobb, vice-president; Joseph H. 
Van Doren, cashier. 

The present capital is $100,000. The directors are 
Theodore Little, Alfred Mills, William G. Lathrop, 
Charles H. Dalrymple, David A. Nicholas, Charles E. 
Noble, Edward C. Lord, Augustus Crane, and Robert F. 
Oram. 

The present officers are: Theodore Little, president; 
Augustus Crane, vice-president; Joseph H. Van Doren, 
cashier. 

The bank is located at the corner of Park place and 
Washington street. 

The Morristown Institution for Savings was incor- 
porated April 9th 1867, by George T. Cobb, Austin 
Requa, Lebbeus B. Ward, Joseph W. Ballentine, Augustus 
W. Cutler, Louis B. Cobb and William C. Caskey. The 
first deposit was made May 25th 1867. The first officers 
were: President, Louis B. Cobb; vice-president, Joseph 
W. Ballentine; secretary and treasurer, J. B. Winslow. 

The present officers are: President, Charles E. Noble; 
vice-president, William G. Lathrop; counsel, Thodore 
Little; treasurer, D. A. Nicholas; secretary, E. E. 
Crowell; managers— William G. Lathrop, Henry M. 



-N^ 



-^j'wr.-.--r*-S= 




MAPIE CUTTA&L, RESIOCUCE Or MRS WILLIAM H HOVkLA\ID ^iOhRISTOWN VJ 




iigas. -.. 



■5=#^= 



RESIDEMCEOK iVIPii.R.V W, FAIR C .-ILD, HAMOVEB ,TP, MORRIS., CO. N.J 



M^ 



MORRISTOWN BANtCS— GAS COMPANY— CORPORATE HISTORY. 



163 



Olmsted, Robert F. Oram, John R. Runyoii, Augustus 
Crane, P. C. Barker and Alfred Mills. 

The business of the bank is now being closed up. One 
hundred cents on a dollar have already been paid to 
depositors, and there will be a surplus of about $30,000. 
From May 25th 1867, when the first, deposit was made, 
to February ist 1881, when deposits ceased, there were 
deposits amounting to over $1,520,000. The largest 
amount of deposits at any one time reached above 
$540,000. 

The Morris County Savings Bank was incorporated 
March 3d 1874, by William L. King, Henry W. Miller, 
Theodore Ayers, George E. Voorhees, Henry C. Pitney, 
Thomas B. Flagler, James A. Webb and Augustus C. 
Canfield. Mr. King was elected president and John B. 
Byram secretary and treasurer on the 7th of the same 
month. Mr. King was president until the ist of January 
1881. Mr. Byram still occupies the position to which he 
was first elected. The president is Henry W. Miller; 
vice-president, Aur.eliuS B. Hull; managers — Augustus C. 
Canfield. Aurelius B. Hull, Henry C. Pitney, Charles Y. 
Swan, George E. Voorhees, Philip H. Hoffman, James S. 
Coleman and Hampton O. Marsh. 

The deposits were about $200,000 until February ist 
1881, when the Morristown Institution for Savings began 
to wind up its business, since which time they have in- 
creased until at present (September ist 1881) they are 
$500,000. 

THE MORRISTOWN GAS LIGHT COMPANY 

was chartered February 19th 1855, Messrs. John F. 
Voorhees, William N. Wood, Albert H. Stanburrough, 
Augustus W. Cutler and George T. Cobb being the in- 
corporators. The first. gas was not made until October 
1859. The business of the company has so increased that 
it has been necessary to augment the capital stock to $40,- 
000. Most of the stores and the more opulent private 
houses have discarded the lamp for the safer, more 
pleasant and more brilliant gas. In 1874 the receipts of the 
company was $17,628, the price of gas being $4.50 per 
thousand feet. In 1875 the receipts were $17,347, the 
price being $4 per thousand. Seventy street lamps are 
supplied with gas and light the town at night. The gas 
works are at the corner of Water and Spring streets. 

January ist 1879 the price was again reduced, being 
now $3 per thousand feet. The gross receipts for 1880 
were $14,650. 

The present officers of the company are: President, E. 
B. Woodruff, M. D.; secretary and treasurer, Edward 
Pierson; directors— E. B. Woodruff, M. D., H. B. Stone, 
E. D. Halsey, James R. Voorhees, Samuel Pierson, M. D. 

MORRISTOWN'S MUNICIPAL HISTORY. 

The act to incorporate Morristown was approved April 
6th 1865. The city limits are as follows: 

'^ Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of 
the State of New Jersey, That all that tract of land situ- 
ate lying and being within the limits and boundaries 
hereinafter mentioned and described— that is to say: be- 



ginning on the Basking Ridge road, at and including the 
house of Joseph Thomson; thence in a straight line to' 
the New Vernon . road, to and including the house of 
William H. Howland; thence in a straight line to the 
Spring Valley road, to and including the house formerly 
owned by the Rev. J. M. Johnson (and known as the 
Bellevue House); thence in a straight line to the Madi- 
son road, to and including the house of John Sneden; 
thence in a straight, line to the Whippany road, to and in- 
cluding the house of Mrs. Joseph M. Lindsley; thence in 
a straight line to the Horse Hill road, to and including 
the house of Mrs. G. Meeker; thence in a straight line to 
and including the house of E. Boonen' Graves; thence in 
a straight line to the Morris Plains road, to and includ- 
ing the house of Gordon Burnham; thence in a straight 
line to the Walnut Grove road, to and including the 
house of Byron Sherman; thence in a straight line to the 
Mendham road, to and including the house of Jacob T. 
Axtell; thence in a straight line to the place of begin- 
ning on the Busking Ridge road, containing about one 
thousand acres — shall be and the same is hereby ordained, 
constituted and declared to be a town corporate, and 
shall henceforth be called, known and distinguished by 
the name of Morristown." 

This act was amended March 15th 1866 as follows: 
" r. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of 
the State of New Jersey, That the first section of the act 
to which this is a supplement shall be so amended as to 
include within the boundaries of Morristown the dwell- 
ing-house of John T. Foote and the dwelling-house of J. 
Cowper Lord; and that next after the words 'Joseph 
Thomson ' in said section the words 'thence in a straight 
line to New Vernon road ' shall be stricken out, and the 
words ' thence in a straight line to and including the 
house of John T. Foote; thence in a straight liiie across 
the New Vernon road,' be inserted; and further, that the 
words in said section ' to and including the house, of 
Gordon Burnham' be stricken out, and instead thereof 
the words ' to and including the house of J. Cowper 
Lord' be inserted." 

The city is governed by a mayor, recorder, two alder- 
men and five common councilmen — all unsalaried offi- 
cers, and elected every two years. A marshal and two 
assistants comprise the police force. The other ap- 
pendages of local government machinery are clerk, treas- 
urer, assessor, collector, street commissioner, city sur- 
veyor and police justices, all of whom are appointed by 
the common council. The only indebtedness of the city 
is $11,000 fire bonds. 

On the other hand the city owns unencumbered prop- 
erty worth $35,000. The city tax levy for the year end- 
ing April 1st 1881 was a little more than $14,000; 

The following is a register of the several common 
councils of Morristown. 

Council of 1865 (term of office one year; council elected 
May 8 and sworn May g). — Mayor, George T. Cobb; re- 
corder, J. Boyd Headly; aldermen — William C. Baker, 
Isaac Bird; councilmen Edwin L. Lounsbury, Sam- 
uel S. Halsey, Silas D. Cory, Victor Fleury, Sherwood S. 
Atno; clerk and treasurer, James V. Bentley. 

Council of 1866 (term of office made two years). — 
Mayor, George T. Cobb; recorder, William C. Baker, did 
not accept; aldermen — Louis B. Cobb, Isaac Bird; coun- 
cilmen — Hampton O. Marsh, Silas D. Cory, Victor 
Fleury, Sherwood S. Atno, Oswald J. Burnett; clerk and 
treasurer, James V. Bentley. 

Council of 1867. — Mayor, George T; Cobb; recorder, 



164 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



Theodore Ayers; aldermen — Louis B. Cobb, Jeremiah F. 
Donaldson ; councilmen — HamptonO. Marsh, Silas D.Cory. 

Council of 1868. — Mayor, George T. Cobb; recorder, 
Theodore Ayers; aldermen — Jeremiah F. Donaldson, 
Lewis D. Bunn; councilmen — Oswald J. Burnett, Joseph 
W. Babbitt, Victor Fleury; clerk and treasurer, James 
V. Bentley. 

Council of xZdcj. — Mayor, George T.Cobb; recorder, 
Theodore Ayers; aldermen — Lewis D. Bunn, Oswald J. 
Burnett; councilmen — Sidney W. Stalter, William A. 
Halsted, Henry M. Dalrymple, Charles J. Pierson, Isaac 
G. Arnold; clerk and treasurer, James V. Bentley. 

Council of iZto. — Mayor, Samuel S. Halsey; recorder, 
Theodore Ayers; aldermen — Oswald J. Burnett, Richard 
Speer; councilmen — Henry M. Dalrymple, Charles J. 
Pierson, William Y. Sayre, Benjamin O. Canfield, George 
H. Ross; clerk and treasurer, James Y. Bentley. 

Council of 1871. — Mayor, Samuel S. Halsey; recorder, 
Henry W. Miller; aldermen, Richard Speer, William L. 
King; councilmen — William Y. Sayre, Benjamin O. Can- 
field, George H. Ross, Eugene Troxell, Erastus D. Allen; 
clerk and treasurer, Francis R. Atno; from July 18th 
187 1 — Sidney W. Stalter, Elias T. Armstrong, William A. 
Halsted; clerk and treasurer, James V. Bentley. 

Council of 1872. — Mayor, Joseph W. Ballentine; re- 
corder, Henry W. Miller; aldermen — William L. King, 
William C. Caskey; councilmen — Eugene Troxell, Eras- 
tus D. Allen, Edward E. Pierson, Silas Norris, James 
Anderson; clerk and treasurer, Francis R. Atno. 

Council of 1873. — Mayor, Joseph W. Ballentine; re- 
corder, Henry W. Miller; aldermen, William C. Caskey, 
James P. Sullivan; councilmen — Edward E. Pierson, 
Silas Norris, James Anderson, John D. Guerin, William 
W. Fairchild; clerk and treasurer, Edward C. Lyon from 
June 2nd 1873. 

Council of 1874. — Mayor, Alfred Mills; recorder, 
Henry W.Miller; aldermen — James P. Sullivan, John 
Bird; councilmen — John D. Guerin, William W. Fair- 
child, William R. McKay, George L. Hull, James S. 
Adams; clerk and treasurer, John D. Canfield from June 
5th 1874. 

Coiincil of \?>i^. — Mayor, Alfred Mills; recorder, John 
E. Taylor; aldermen — John Bird, Philip H. Hoffman; 
councilmen — William R. McKay, George L. Hull, James 
S. Adams, Isaac G. Arnold, Thomas B. Pierson; clerk 
and treasurer, John D. Canfield. 

Council of 1876. — Mayor, Theodore Ayers; recorder, 
John E. Taylor; aldermen, Philip H. Hoffman, James V. 
Bentley; councilmen — Isaac G. Arnold, Thomas B. Pier- 
son, Charles E. Noble, Charles H. Dalrymple, J. Searing 
Johnson; clerk and treasurer, John D. Canfield. 

Council of 1877. — Mayor, Theodore Ayers; recorder, 
George L. Hull; aldermen — James V. Bentley, Julius A. 
Drake; councilmen — John B. Bryam, Charles H. Dal- 
rymple, J. Searing Johnson, William R. McKay, Charles 
E. Noble; clerk and treasurer, John D. Canfield. 

Council of \%']?>. — Mayor, Theodore Ayers; recorder, 
George L. Hull; aldermen — Julius A. Drake, Daniel H. 
Leek; councilmen — John B. Bryam, James W. Carrell, 
William R. McKay, Thomas B. Pierson, Louis A. Vogt; 
clerk and treasurer, John D. Canfield. 

Council of 1879. — Mayor, Theodore Ayers; recorder, 
James P. Sullivan; aldermen — L. Dayton Babbitt, Daniel 
H. Leek; councilmen — James N. Coriell, William W. 
Fairchild, John Hone jr., Thomas B. Pierson, Louis A. 
Vogt; clerk and treasurer, Edward C. Lyon. 

C"(7Z<««7i2/ 1880.— Mayor, Henry W. Miller; recorder, 
James P. Sullivan; aldermen — L. Dayton Babbitt, George 
W. Colles; councilmen — James N. Coriell, John Hone 
jr., John Thatcher, Collins Weir, Joseph York; clerk and 
treasurer, Charles H. Green. 



Council of 1881.— Mayor, Henry W. Miller; recorder, 
Richard M. Stites; aldermen — John C. Beatty, George 
W. Colles; councilmen— Charles McCullum, John Thatch- 
er, George W. Vreeland, Collins Weir, Joseph York; 
clerk and treasurer, Charles H. Green. 

City Officers for 1881. — Manning Johnson, assessor; 
Charles H. Mulford, collector; David L. Pierson, street 
commissioner; J. Frank Johnson, city surveyor; Wil- 
liam J. Easton, police justice; Thomas Malley, marshal; 
Arthur Hoops, first assistant marshal; Edward White- 
head, second assistant marshal. 

The health board of the city consists of the mayor, 
one alderman, and one common councilman. The city 
clerk acts as clerk of the board. The marshal's 
duties include those of health inspector. The board 
appoints a health physician, who attends to the needs 
of the indigent. The salary of this office is $300 
per year. It is now filled by James C. Lindsley, M. D. 

From the annual report of the controller of the treas- 
ury of the State for the year ending October 31st 1880 
we append the financial condition of the township and 
city : 

Morris Township. — Rate of tax for State school pur- 
poses, thirty-four cents per $100 ; rate of tax for county 
and township purposes, twenty cents per $100 ; road, 
fourteen cents on $100 ; dogs, forty cents per capita ; 
amount of tax ordered to be raised, $37,707.80 ; annual 
expenses of repairing roads, $7,000; poor, $300; coun- 
sel's salary, f 100 ; elections, $288 ; commissioners of ap- 
peal $45, besides incidental expenses arising as occasion 
requires, including printing, room for committee meet- 
ings, etc. 

City of Morristown. — Amount of funded debt, $12,- 
000, at 7 per cent., contracted for the establishment of 
the fire department. Falls due, $1,000 in 1881, and 
$r,ooo each succeeding year until paid. Rate of tax for 
local purposes, twenty-seven cents on $100 ; amount of 
tax ordered to be raised, $13,041. In addition to the 
above the corporation of Morristown receives 66 per 
cent, of the- road tax raised in Morris township, 
amounting in 1880 to $4,620, and five-sixths of the poor 
tax raised in said township, amounting in 1880 to $250. 
The annual expense of police is $1,690 ; board of 
health, $850 ; interest on fire bonds, $940 ; discounts, 
$300 ; street lamps, $2,506.50 ; fire department, $2,766 ; 
streets, $6,858.50 ; miscellaneous, $2,100 ; total annual 
expense, $18,011. 

PROMINENT INSTITUTIONS. 

THE MINARD HOME. 

The late Abel Minard of Morristown, in the year 1870 
gave to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United 
States a valuable property for the purpose of affording a 
christian home for: — 

1. "The female children of foreign missionaries of 
the M. E. Church so long during their minority as their 
parents may be engaged in their work as such mission- 
aries." 

2. " Female orphans and half orphans who are chil- 
dren of ministers of said church." 

3. "Such other female orphans or half orphans as 
the trustees may designate." 

The property consists of a handsome and commodious 
brick building, in every way adapted to the purposes for 



THE MINARD HOME, MORRISTOWN— STATE LUNATIC ASYLUM. 



165 



which it has been erected. The rooms are all pleasant 
and airy, heated by steam, supplied with hot and cold 
water and wellfurnished. The property is valued at 
about |6o,ooo. 

The Minard Home is not an orphanage, asylum or 
charity school, but a home, where all who are received are 
recognized as members of the family of the missionary 
in charge. The children of missionaries, by the condi- 
tions of the donation, are entitled to its advantages first, 
and the other classes afterward in their order; the 
trustees have decided, however, to admit the first two 
classes only to the privileges of the institution. The de- 
sign is to make the Home all mistionaries can desire 
when they are seeking the best place to leave their 
daughters while they are absent from them. 

The institution has been incorporated by the Legisla- 
ture under the corporate name of the " The Minard 
Home of Morristown," and is free from taxation of a 
sum not exceeding f 100,000. Its management is vested 
in a board of eighteen trustees, who are appointed quad- 
rennially by the General Conference of the M. E. Church. 

The Home is situated on South street, below Madison 
avenue, and is capable of accommodating twenty-five 
wards. 

LUNATIC ASYLUM. 

The " State Asylum for the Insane at Morristown " is 
located about three miles and a half north from the city, 
in the township of Hanover, on a tract of land four hun- 
dred and fifty acres in extent. It is a massive structure 
in lineal form, built of gneiss, of a light gray color, 
resembling granite in solidity and texture. It was 
erected by the State, under the direction of commis- 
sioners appointed for the purpose, and cost, including 
the lands, etc., about two and a half million dollars. 
Work on the building was commenced in the spring of 
1872, and the building was opened for the admission of 
patients, quite complete, on the 17th of August 1876. 

The structure consists of a central edifice, six stories 
high, and four principal wings on either side, four stories 
high, with two at each extremity, two stories high. The 
latter form, with the fourth wings (which are at right 
angles with the first three), hollow squares, and are used 
for the more excited and irregular class of patients, of 
each sex. 

The capacity of the building is for eight hundred pa- 
tients, together with the resident officers, attendants and 
assistants, most of whom reside within it constantly. 

The building is formed to so large an extent of incom- 
bustible materials that it is practically fire-proof. This 
result is secured by the use of stone and brick in the 
outer and inner walls, and iron floor beams, filled be- 
tween with brick arches; while the roofs and stairs are 
constructed of slate, with ridges, gutters, hips, valleys and 
conductors of copper. 

Considering the great size of the building, about twelve 
hundred and fifty feet long in a direct line; the durable 
character of the materials of which it is composed, and 
the careful workmanship throughout, it may be truly said 
that it has few equals and_perhaps no superiors. 



The center, or administrative building;, contains rooms 
for public offices, for the accommodation of resident 
officers, a chapel, an amusement room, kitchens, etc. 
The apartments, passages, fixtures, etc., common to 
the various wings are as follows: Central corridors, 
with rooms on either side; two flights of stairs of 
slate near each extremity, front and rear; bedrooms for 
patients and attendants; dining rooms with china closets 
and dumb waiters; a sitting room, bath and closet rooms; 
standpipes for water, with outlets for attaching hose, to 
be used in case of fire and for other purposes. 

The building furnishes arrangements for sixteen full 
and twenty partial subdivisions of each sex, which are 
ample for the classification of inmates. 

The water supply is from springs on the hillside, one 
hundred and ten feet above the foundation of the build- 
ing, where are located storage reservoirs, with a capacity 
of six million gallons. The house is lighted by coal gas, 
made on the premises, and warmed by steam fixtures of 
approved arrangement and construction, the fuel for 
which is delivered directly into coal vaults at the boiler- 
house from cars brought over a spur of road connecting 
with the main line at Morris Plains station. Other and 
important auxiliary arrangements, buildings, fixtures and 
machinery exist and are in successful operation. Among 
the most important of these is the boiler-house, with 
eight boilers for supplying steam for all purposes — power, 
warming the building, cooking, ventiliation, &c.; a laun- 
dry with all its departments; shops for wood, iron and 
other work; also a mechanical bakery, with adapted fix- 
tures and machinery for making aerated or unfermented 
bread. 

It may be added in regard to the arrangements for the 
latter object, that, so far as is known, bread-making by 
this process has been done in no institution except the 
State asylums of New Jersey. This is deemed a remark- 
able circumstance, and particularly as it is quite certain 
that bread made by this method is more wholesome, 
cleanly and economical than any other. 

As before stated, the building is warmed by steam 
throughout, the radiating surfaces being placed in the 
cellar stories of the corridors of the center and wings, the 
warm air in winter and the cool air in summer passing 
over and through them, to flues in the corridor walls, and 
thence to all parts of the building above. The ventila- 
tion is accomplished by the aid of force and exhaust 
power; the former being supplied by two fans, driven by 
engines which are duplicated, and the latter is effected 
by the aid of two upright shafts in each wing, heated by 
steam coils. The course of the foul air, in its passage 
outward, is through flues in the outer walls, the direction 
from the rooms being downward, through openings near 
the floor, to horizontal trunks in the cellar that deliver 
the air at the bottom of the aforesaid heated shafts. 

Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia was the architect of the 
building. General Fitz John Porter, of Morristown, was 
superintendent until his appointment in New York city 
as commissioner of public works in March 1875. He 
was succeeded by S. H. Moore, of Newark, who died 



1 66 



HISTORY OF MORRIS COUNTY. 



after holding the office a few months. R: S. Johnson 
was contractor for masonry and. plastering. Meeker & 
Hedden, of Newark, superintended the carpenter work. 

The general government of the institution is vested in 
a board of managers, appointed by the governor and 
Senate; while the daily administration of its affairs, in- 
ternal and external, is confided by the managers to a 
medical superintendent, aided by medical assistants, 
steward, matron and treasurer, all but the last being resi- 
dents of the house. 

The following are the managers of the asylum: Francis 
S. Lathrop, Madison, president; Beach Vanderpool, 
Newark; Anthony Reckless, Red Bank; George A. 
Halsey, Newark; William G. Lathrop, Boon ton; John 
S. Read, Camden; Joseph D. Bedle, Jersey City; Samuel 
S. Clark, M. D. Belvidere; Hiram C. Clark, Newton, sec- 
retary. 

The resident officers are as follows: Superintendent 
and physician, H. A. Buttolph, M. D. LL. D; asistant 
physician, Edwin E. Smith, M. D.; second assistant 
physician, Thomas M. Lloyd, M. D.; steward, Martin B. 
Monroe; matron. Miss Mary Tabor. 

From the. fifth annual report to the governor of the 
State, dated November ist 1880, we gain the following 
additional items of interest : There were in the asylum 
during the year 687 patients — 335 males and 352 females; 
total number of patients October 31st 1880, 586, of whom 
94 were private. From the opening of the asylum, August 
17th 1876, to the date of the report 999 received 
treatment — 493 males arid 506 females; 130 had died in 
the asylum, 35 during the year reported. The pro- 
ducts of the farm, garden, dairy, and stock-yard amounted 
in the year to over $10,000. Total receipts for the year, 
$142,776.25. Total expenditure, $137,892 67. 

THE soldiers' MONUMENT 

stands on the corner of the " Green " facing the First 
Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal churches. It was 
"erected by the people of Morris county to perpetuate 
the memory of her soldiers and sailors who fell during 
the great civil war." This monument is an elegant one 
of Quincy granite, fifty feet high. It is surmounted by 
the figure of a " soldier boy at rest,'' eight feet high. On 
the shaft are inscribed the names of the battles in which 
the New Jersey troops fought. Around the die are, be- 
sides the inscription quoted above, '' A grateful country 
mourns the loss of those who fell in her defense," and 
" Their memory shall never fade who fall in defense of 
a just cause." The monument was unveiled in the pres- 
ence of the governor and other dignitaries of the State, 
July 4th 187 1. Its entire weight is about one hundrecl 
tons and it cost $15,000. It has been admired by all 
■who have seen it, and reflects credit on the patriotism of 
the people of the county. The designer and builder is 
H. H. Davis, of Morristowri. 

FORT NONSENSE. 

The hill known as Mount Washington, or Kimball 
Mountain, ends abrubtly-in Morristown, back of the 



court-house, with what is called Fort Nonsense. There 
are still signs of work having been done here as if in prep- 
aration of some kind of a defense. There are two ac- 
counts given of this fort : one is that Washington de- 
signed to plant cannon there, with which to command 
the entrances of the town in case of an attack from the 
enemy ; the other and more probable account is that 
Washington, finding his troops needed exercise, both for 
purposes of health and military subordination, set them 
to work at this fortification, as if it were a matter of the 
utmost importance in defending the stores, the people, 
and the army itself. Having answered its design, tradi- 
tion says, Washington asked one of his friends what the 
useless fort should be named; the reply was, " Let it be 
called Fort Nonsense." 

Fort Nonsense is a pleasant, cool, shady retreat in sum- 
mer. The view from the summit is a very fine one. East, 
west, north and south a panorama is spread out before 
the eye; hill, valley, winding stream, solitary farm house, 
little villages, with here and there a modest spire — all 
this, diversified and never ending, forms a scene on which 
the eye may feast hours at a time. On a clear day, with 
a good glass, Staten Island and other places in the vicin- 
ity of New York can be seen from it. 

VSrASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS. 

We acknowledge indebtedness to an address delivered 
by ex-Governor Randolph at the formal opening of the 
Headquarters, July 5th 1875; and also to Rev. J. F. 
Tuttle's paper on "Washington at Morristown," for our 
account of this famous house. 

This grand old historic building li