CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Cornell University Library F 142S9 S29 Memoirs and reminiscences : together wit oiin 3 1924 028 828 551 Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028828551 fr- /y-> -*? Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D. Memoirs and Reminiscences together with Sketches of the Early History .. of .. Sussex County, New Jersey Si/ Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D. With Notes and Genealogical Record of the Schaeffer, Shaver or Shafer Family Compiled b^ F*rl-vately Sprinted Hackensack, N. J. 1 9 O 7 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY COPIES PRINTED TABLE, OF CONTENTS PAGE Introduction ---..-... ^ Public Services of Casper Schaeffer - . . 7 Will of Casper Shaver ------- 17 Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D. - - - - - 20 Memoirs and Reminiscences ------ 23 Biographical Notices ------- 57 Nathan Armstrong - - 109 Captain Alexander C. Shaffer - - - - - iii Helen A. Shafer --------- 124 General Aaron Hankinson ------ 126 The Old Grave Yard -------130 Grenealogical Record -- - - - - - 133 Genealogical Index ------- 173 General Index --------- igi ILLUSTRATIONS Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D. Tombstones of Casper Schaeffer and Johan Peter Bernhard IJ The Shafer Homestead B^-^Jn The Stone Mill (1844) 53 Windemuth's Homestead, now Bonnie Brook ^JJ, Yellow Frame Church Lj-h Old Grave Yard at Stillwater INTRODUCTION. The accompanying historical sketch was prepared in 1855 by the Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D., of Phila- delphia, who was a grandson of Casper Schaeffer, one of the founders of Stillwater, Sussex County, New Jersey. It contains an interesting and authentic account of people, events and customs of a hundred years ago, and seems well worthy of preservation. Local historians have often made use of the manuscript copy, -and extracts therefrom have been freely published, but it has never before been printed as a whole. As one of the descendants of Casper Schaeffer, the Pioneer, through my father's maternal line, I have found the story as told by Dr. Schaeffer an entertaining one, and have ventured to put it in print for my own satisfaction, and for the benefit of any of the numerous other descendants of our common ancestor, who may like to have this record in a permanent and accessible form. The original manuscript is in the possession of his nephew, John S. Schaeffer, who in a letter on the subject says : "When driving Uncle Doctor over the hills of Old Sussex in quest of data and infor- mation, I promised him I would spell my name in the old German way, as he did. He also gave me the book, which was sent to me, and of which I have been very choice. It has been lent a number of times and is somewhat soiled from long absence from home." In preparing this manuscript for publication I have thought its value would be enhanced by adding some historical notes, and especially by amplifying Casper Schaeffer's public record, which is rather lightly touched INTRODUCTION. upon by his grandson. I have also added a list of his descendants, in compiling which free use has been made of the interesting and valuable "Genealogical Record of the Descendants of Nathan Armstrong," published in 1895, by William Clinton Armstrong, A. M. I am in- debted to Mr. Armstrong not only for permission to use the contents of his book, but also for valuable suggestions and assistance, and to my sister. Miss Laura C. Johnson, for her help in compiling the genealogical record. Wil- liam Nelson, E^q. has kindly read the proofs, and has rendered important aid in preparing the manuscript for the press. I desire to acknowledge my obligation to him and to others who have responded to my request for information. A word as to the spelling of the family name may not be inappropriate. Dr. Schaeffer, in the "Reminiscences," advocates the use of the spelling, "Schaeffer," which he had adopted. An examination of the records of a great number of deeds, wills and other documents shows that this spelling was discarded in the life time of his grandfather, whose name was usually written Shaver. The name has been spelled variously Schaeffer, Schaffer, Shaffpr, Shaffar, Shaver, Shafer. I have examined the will of the Pioneer on file in the Prerogative Court at Trenton. It is impossible to decipher the signature, which is th'at of a very infirm man. In the body of the will the name is written Shaver. His sons gradually assumed the spelling Shafer, although they frequently wrote the name Shaver. Most of his descendants of that name now write it Shafer. William M. Johnson. Hackensack, N. J., 1907. THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER CASPER SCHAEFFER: A Pioneer and Revolutionary Patriot of Sussex County, N. J. His Public Services. By WILLIAM M. JOHNSON. The early part of the Eighteenth Century witnessed a remarkable immigration of Germans to this country. The condition of Germany at this time was deplorable. In- numerable small principalities, with unstable governments, were the scenes of discontent and oppression, where life and property were subject to heavy burdens. Wars and revolutions prevailed, burdensome taxes and oppressive personal services were exacted from the people. Vast numbers left their homes to endure the hardships of a long and weary voyage to seek a new home in strange lands across the Atlantic. Ship after ship sailed up the Dela- ware from over the seas. It is estimated that from the year 1700 to 1725, over 50,000 Germans reached Pennsyl- vania, to enrich that province with a people of industry and integrity, most of them thrifty and frugal, and many bringing with them considerable wealth with which to establish themselves in the new world. Among these there came Casper Schaeffer, who emigrated from the Palatinate. He is supposed to have come over in the ship "Queen Elizabeth," Alexander Hope, Master, from Rotterdam, last from Deal, England, lO PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. arriving Sept. i6, 1738, at Philadelphia, where he remained for two or three years. About 1741 or 1742 he went to the present site of Stillwater, then in the wilderness, and became an extensive landed proprietor. Here he set up a home, . cutting off the forests and subduing the cleared land to the plow. He erected a grist-mill and saw-mill, and established other industries, built up a trade with distant points, and became an influ- ential and prosperous member of the community which he had founded. The "Reminiscences" of Dr. Schaeffer set out in vivid detail the struggles, hardships, and dangers from the savages, attendant on the life of a pioneer in a new and unsettled country. It presents to our view a panorama of the social customs and personal characteris- tics of the people of that day and neighborhood. His grandson, however, in these "Reminiscences" says but little of the public life of Casper Schaeffer, the subject of this sketch; but there is abundant evidence of the important and active part he took in public affairs in the struggle for American liberty. He was an ardent patriot, and stood high in the estimation of his neighbors. We find that in 1775 he was a member of the County Com- mittee of Safety for Sussex County, and at a meeting held at the Court House, Newton, August 10 and 11, he attended as a delegate from Hardwick Township. At this meeting means were taken to raise by tax the County's quota of 10,000 pounds,'- ordered by the Provincial Con- gress of New Jersey for the purpose of raising money to "purchase arms and ammunition and for other exigencies of the Province." Casper Schaeffer (or Shaver, as his name was now written), was appointed Collector of the * $25,000. PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. 1 I County to take charge of the funds to be raised under the authority of the Committee of Safety. Much other busi- ness pertaining to the cause was transacted at this meet- ing, the minutes of which show that the delegates were filled with an ardent patriotism and an earnest purpose to uphold the cause of the Continental Congress. Nor were Mr. Schaeffer's public services limited in their activity to the County of Sussex. He was a delegate from that county to the Provincial Congress of 1776, the most im- portant of all of New Jersey's Provincial Congresses, and took his seat for the first time at the session begun at Burlington, June 10, 1776. In this Congress the govern- ment of the Colony was virtually lodged. It enacted laws in the name of the Colony, and on the second of Jiily adopted a state constitution, and afterwards assumed the title of the "Convention of the State of New Jersey." Having deposed the Royal governor, it created a free and independent commonwealth. On June 22, 1776, it elected as delegates to the Continental Congress Richard Stock- ton, Abraham Clark, John Hart, Francis Hopkinson and John Witherspoon, who afterwards became signers of the Declaration of Independence, in pursuance of the follow- ing instructions : "The Congress empower and direct you, in the name of this Colony, to join with the Delegates of the other Colonies in Continental Congress, in the most vigorous measures for supporting the just rights and liberties of America. And, if you shall judge it necessary and ex- pedient for this purpose, we empower you to join with them in declaring the United Colonies independent of Great Britain, entering into a confederacy for union and common defence, making treaties with foreign nations 12 PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. for commerce and assistance, and to take such other measures as to them and you may appear necessary for these great ends, promising to support them with the whole force of this Province; always observing that, whatever plan of confederacy you enter into, the regu- lating the internal police of this Province is to be reserved to the Colony Legislature." On July 2, 1 776, after careful discussion of the draught of the Constitution of the new State, it was finally adopted, and continued to be the fundamental law of the State of New Jersey until superseded by the constitution of 1844. On July 17, 1776, the following resolution was passed : "Whereas, the Honourable Continental Congress have declared the United Colonies, Free and Independent States; We, the Deputies of New Jersey, in Provincial Congress assembled, do resolve and declare, That we will support the freedom and independence of the said States with our lives and fortunes, and with the whole force of New Jersey." This Provincial Congress sat for many months, and besides adopting a constitution for the government of the new State, enacted laws, organized the militia, considered a vast number of questions designed to promote the general welfare, and assumed all the powers of the State. It has been said of this Congress : "from its first meeting upon the 23rd of May, 1775, until its dissolution, a period of fifteen months, this remarkable assemblage of remarkable men had passed through a complete metamorphosis. Designed as an advisory body, it burst through its limitations, became declaratory, then directory, and finally tentatively assumed all govern- mental functions. For a few brief months in 1776, it was the Legislature, the courts and the executive of the State; PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. 1 3 its power was supreme, its ordinances the final expression of the will of the people. In its hands were life and death; in its meetings at New Brunswick, Trenton and Burling- ton, it wove the fabric of the State Constitution, gave vigor to the first breathings of a national life, and shaped more than any other representative body of Jerseymen the destinies of the State. "^ As one of this remarkable body, Casper Schaeffer bore his full part in the arduous duties devolving upon them. Within a few days after the dissolution of this Provin- cial Congress, the first Legislature of New Jersey met, on August 27, 1776, at Princeton. Casper Shaver, Thomas Peterson and Abia Brown were members of Assembly from Sussex County. They took their seats on the thirtieth day of August, in the Assembly held in the College library. Casper Shaver also sat in the Assembly in 1777, 1778 and 1779- An examination of the minutes of these legislative sessions shows that he was faithful in his attendance at the various meetings at Princeton, Trenton, Burlington and Haddonfield. His vote is recorded on almost every question, and always in favor of the most vigorous and aggressive measures for carry- ing on the war. New Jersey at this time was overrun by the British army, and the Provincial Congress, and after- wards the legislative bodies, found it convenient and conducive to their safety to make frequent changes in their places of meeting. Hence we find them now at Princeton, then at Trenton or Burlington, and later on at Haddonfield. In view of the difficulties of travel in those days, over wretched roads, with but scanty public accom- modations, it was no small task for the delegates from ^"New Jersey as a Colony and as a State," Lee, vol. 2, p. IIQ- PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. Sussex to attend these sessions. Their service involved absences of many months from home and business while engaged in the work of legislating for the common good. The records show that from August, 1776, to October, 1779, which covers the period of Mr. Schaeffer's public service, he was in attendance at the Congress and Legis- lature at least fifteen months in the aggregate. The pay of a member was eight shillings per day, too insignificant to tempt a prosperous man of affairs to spend much time far away from home. Nothing but an ardent patriotism would justify the sacrifices involved in this service. He was a member of the Legislature which sat in the old Tavern at Haddonfield, now maintained by tjie State of New Jersey, on which there is a tablet erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution, bearing this inscription : WITHIN THIS BUILDING THEN A TAVERN-HOUSE, THE COUNCIL OF SAFETY FOR NEW JERSEY WAS ORGANIZED MARCH i8tH, 1 777- HEREIN ALSO, IN SEPTEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR THE LEGISLA- TURE UNANIMOUSLY RESOLVED THAT THEREAFTER THE WORD "state" SHOULD BE SUBSTITUTED FOR "colony" in all PUBLIC WRITS AND COMMISSIONS. 1750. * I goo. Tradition says that though a man of few words his sturdy honesty and good sense commanded the respect of his associates and made him influential and successful in PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. 1 5 his legislative work. His patriotism and the earnest devotion of himself and family to the American cause are shown by the fact that while he was diligently serving the Colony and State as a representative in the Provincial Congress and afterwards in the General Assembly, his three sons were serving in the military forces of the state : Peter, the eldest, as an officer throughout the Revolu- tionary War, Abraham shouldering a musket and march- ing to Morristown in aid of Washington, and Isaac, a mere boy, taking an important command as captain and conductor of a team brigade. The public services and private activities of Casper Schaeffer mark him as a man of more than ordinary distinction. These "Reminiscences" tell the story of his energy and enterprise in opening and developing the resources of a new country. They show the busy and successful man of affairs establishing industries and building up a flourishing trade with distant points. It is clear from the narrative that our pioneer was a man of unusual endowment and force of character. Governed by strong religious convictions, his influence was most salutary and left a powerful impress on his family and on the community in which he dwelt. He presents an inspiring example of lofty patriotism, of civic virtue, of earnest, useful and successful activities, inspired and regulated by the principles of religion. His will, which was made during his last sickness, illustrates his public spirit by the bequests therein for charitable and pious uses, for the benefit of the church and school house; such bequests being less common in those days than in modern times. He and his wife are buried in the old graveyard at Stillwater, near the graves of his father-in-law, Johan 1 6 PUBLIC SERVICES OF CASPER SCHAEFFER. Peter Bernhardt, and his family. The following inscrip- tion appears upon his headstone : C. S. In memory of Casper Shaver, who departed this life Dec. the 7th, 1784, in the 72 year of his age. ^3 o 3 if DD O O O 3 o QQ WILL OF CASPER SHAVER. In the name of God, Amen, I, Casper Shaver, of Upper Hardwick, in the county of Sussex, in the Province of New Jersey, Yeoman, being sick and in a low state of health but of perfect understanding, mind and memory, and considering the uncertain continuance of my life and the many dangers and accidents it is liable to, and being desirous to leave the small estate which God has been pleased to bless me with, in my family with as much peace and union as may be, and that I may have no cares of this world to entangle me at my going out of it, I do make this my last will and testament in manner as followetli, viz : and first, I resign my soul to the most Merciful God that made it in hopes thro' the alone merits of my blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ to have a joyful resurrection to life eternal in heaven. And my body I commit to the grave to be decently buried at the discretion of my executors hereinafter named. And as for my temporal goods I give, devise and dispose of as follows. First. I give unto my beloved wife Catheri|ie her choice of any two rooms on the lower floor in the house where I now live. Also the choice of two rooms above, and as much beds and bedding and household furniture as she shall think necessary for her use. Also one riding horse or mare, side saddle, and two cows and to be kept on the place she now lives on at the expense of said place as they keep their own. It is my will and order that my loving wife have also after my decease the privileges of the orchards to use as much apples as she stands in need of at her discretion. And my son or sons to make her as much cider as she wants for her own use, and as much of the garden as she shall think necessary. I also order my said three sons Peter, Abraham and Isaac to pay out of my estate each of them annually, yearly and every year, the sum of twelve pounds in gold or silver during her widowhood or bearing my name, or if she should see cause to alter her condition after my decease she must be denied all the aforesaid privileges. But in case my said widow should see cause to alter her condition and marry I do order she be paid yearly and every year, four pounds money as aforesaid a piece by my three sons for her support during her life.^ And to have one bed and furniture sufficient for said bed and cupboard, one chest of drawers and kitchen furniture, and at her decease all the aforesaid chests and furniture to return to my aforesaid three sons. I give and bequeath unto my daughter Margaret A. Roy a certain tract of land lying on the South side of the Road leading from Sussex Court House to East Town purchased from John Corson containing one hundred and sixty-eight acres. I also order my three sons, Peter, Abraham and Isaac to pay unto my aforesaid daughter Margaret after my decease, the sum of Fifty- iThat is, $10 by each, or $30 in all. [2 1 8 WILL OF CASPER SHAVER. seven pounds within one year after my decease to be equally paid by them that is to say, nineteen pounds apiece money as aforesaid. It is my will that my executors pay out of my estate in the first place the several sums of money or legacies respectively, that as follows to my son Abraham's son Casper, the sum of Twenty pounds in gold or silver. Also the sum of Forty pounds money aforesaid unto Mary Caroline Roy. Also twenty pounds money as aforesaid unto Catrin Shaver daughter of my son Peter Shaver money as aforesaid. Also twenty pounds to Mary Shaver daughter of Abraham Shaver money as aforesaid. All which said sums I order to be paid to those my grand-children by my executors when they come of age. It is also my will that if any of said children should die before they come of age their part of said legacies be equally divided amongst my heirs. I do also give and bequeath for a charitable and pious use the sums of money as followeth : Fourteen pounds' I give and bequeath unto the Dutch Meeting House to be on interest, and said interest annually to repair the breaches of the aforesaid house. It is also my desire that the frame school house built near the aforesaid Dutch Meeting House for the use of both Dutch and English learning be finished by the aforesaid estate and assistance of the neighbors. Said money for said houses to be paid out of my moveable estate and said school house to be kept in repair by said estate twenty-five years, accidents of fire ex- cepted. It is my will and order that after my decease the remainder of my real estate consisting of both lands and mills be equally divided amongst my three sons Peter, Abraham and Isaac, according to quantity and quality as they can agree when all debts and lawful demands are discharged according to this my last will and testa- ment, to them and their heirs forever. It is also my will and order that my moveable estate be equally divided between my son Peter, Abraham, Isaac and my daughter Margaret to them and their heirs forever. Lastly I make, constitute and appoint my three sons Peter, Abraham and Isaac, Executors of this my last will and testament. In Witness Whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this nineteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four. CASPER SHAVER. (L. S.) Signed, Sealed, Published and Declared by the Testator to be his Last Will and Testament in the presence of us who have in the Testator's presence and at his request hereunto set our names. Isaac Pettit, Thomas Hunt, Wm. Hankinson. N. B. The riding horse or mare and cows within mentioned it is my will my wife shall have during her life. ' That is, $35. WILL OF CASPER SHAVER. 1 9 Thomas Hunt and William Hankinson two of the witnesses to the foregoing will being duly sworn according to law did severally depose and say that they saw Casper Shaver the Testator therein named sign and seal the same and heard him publish, pronounce and declare the foregoing writing to be his last will and testament; and that at the doing thereof the said testator was of sound and dis- posing mind and memory as far as these deponents know and as they verily believe and that Isaac Pettit the other subscribing witness was present at the same time and signed his name as a witness to the said will together with these deponents in the presence of the said Testator. Wm. Hankinson. Sworn at Newton the 6th December, 1786, before me. Thomas Anderson, Surrogate. The foregoing Will being proved Probate was granted by His Excellency William Livingston Esqr. unto Peter B. Shaver, Abra- ham Shaver, Isaac Shaver, Executors in the said will named they being first duly sworn well and truly to perform the same, exhibit a true and perfect inventory and render a just and true account when thereunto lawfully required. Given under the Prerogative Seal the day and year above said. Bowes Reed, Regr. Recorded in Liber 28 of Wills, page 460. REV. CASPER SCHAEFFER, M. D. Casper Schaeffer, the son of Col. Abraham and Sarah (Armstrong) Shafer, was born at Stillwater, N. J., June lo, 1784. His boyhood was spent at Stillwater, attending the school in the neighborhood. He subsequently went to the famous classical school of Rev. Dr. Finley at Baskingridge. In 1809 he was a student of medicine in the University at Philadelphia. He commenced the practice of his profession in that city, and it is said built up quite an extensive practice. His first marriage was on May 17, 1 810, with Clarissa Golden, who died in 18 16, their children dying in infancy. In 1818 he married Mrs. Sarah Hahn, by whom he had a number of children (see Genealogical Record). His thoughts turning toward the ministry we find that in 1823, at the age of thirty-nine, he was a student in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, where he spent one year. He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Philadelphia, April 23, 1824, and was dismissed to the Classis of Philadelphia (German Reformed), April 17, 1827. There is no record of his ever having been installed as pastor, but he continued to preach until owing to an affection of the throat he was compelled to give up clerical labors, and resumed the work of a practicing physician. He, however, failed to regain as extensive a practice as he had enjoyed before entering the Seminary. At the time of his death he was a member and officer of the First German Reformed Church of Philadelphia, and late in life preached there occasionally in the absence of the pastor. His scholarly attainments are shown by the fact that he taught his two younger daughters Hebrew when they were quite young. REV. CASPER SCHAEFFER, M. D. 21 He frequently visited Stillwater, for which he always maintained the liveliest interest and affection. In the latter years of his life he spent considerable time collect- ing data for the Reminiscences of the Schaeffer Family, which he completed in 1855. His nephew, John S. Schaeffer, states: "It was the custom of my uncle to visit my father, who owned the house, farm and mill jointly with my uncle Finley. , This land was a portion of the original tract purchased from the London Company, whose charter was given by King George of England. During these visits he was always seeking information about his ancestors, and looking for relics, one of which was the old German Bible, which he finally traced to a German family by the name of Krouse. The Bible afterwards went into the hands of Halstead Shafer. In personal matters he was very precise in his manner and neat in dress. It was the custom to have all gathered in the parlor, after breakfast, for morning prayers ; and before kneeling, it was his habit to spread his colored silk handkerchief on the floor to kneel upon. His neck-wear was a three-cornered silk handkerchief on a stock, which was worn in those days. He was extremely fond of fruit, and particularly of purple raspberries, of which there was an abundance. In stature he was tall and very erect. He had very thin hair, and was of ministerial appearance, very reserved and precise in his manner." His death, which was sudden, was due to heart trouble, and occurred Aug. 3, 1857. His grave is in the Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia.^ * I am indebted to E. Augustus Miller, Esq., of Philadelphia, for the picture of Dr. Schaeffer, his grandfather. MEMOIRS and REMINISCENCES OF MY ANCESTORS AND RELATIVES, TOGETHER WITH SKETCHES OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF MY NATIVE COUNTY. By the REV. CASPER SCHAEFFER, M. D. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. I have long been desirous of knowing more of the early history of my ancestors than I am in possession of, con- sequently I have for the last two or three years been making anxious inquiry from every probable source of information to obtain light on these interesting subjects. But I find, much to my regret, that there are few persons remaining who are able to add much to the small stock of materials now in my possession. Almost all those who could have given the desired information have passed off the stage. My parents, not deeming it of sufficient importance to sit down and give a detail of historical facts and events, and giddy youth not appreciating its value, neglected to make the requisite records; hence I am left to my own scanty resources, reminiscences of facts and anecdotes incidentally gathered up from casual remarks and obser- vations of my parents and others. These facts and incidents thus obtained, and treasured up on the tablets of memory, I now proceed to put upon record, and endeavor thus to rescue them as interesting relics from oblivion, for my own satisfaction as well as that of my friends and relatives. First, then, I shall begin with my paternal ancestry, as being first in the order of time. My great-grandfather, Johan Peter Bernhard, came to this country, leaving Germany in 1730; coming by way of London, and finding the season advanced and the weather unpropitious, he tarried there for the winter, during which time his youngest daughter was born. In 26 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. the following year, 1731,-^ he arrived with his wife and three daughters in Philadelphia, and settled a few miles from the city, near Germantown or Whitemarsh, and engaged in agriculture and sending produce to the market. How long he continued to reside in this situation is uncertain — probably some ten years, after which he re- moved with his family over into New Jersey, and settled on the "Tehoenetcong" or Paulinskill, at or near the present site of Stillwater, many years before the County of Sussex was set off from that of Morris, of which it was originally a part. In this vicinity, it seems, the old gentle^ man purchased three farms, one for each daughter. Whether Mr. Bernhard or Grandfather Schaeffer first led the way to Stillwater, or whether they came together, I have no means of ascertaining. I am rather inclined to think, however, that my grandfather came first, as will appear more probable from what is to follow. Th^ere seems to be some obscurity in the thread of their history about this period. Here the old gentleman, after bestow- ing his two eldest daughters in marriage, one to Grand- father Schaeffer, the other to "Old Uncle Wintermute," ^ Rupp, in his "Collection of upwards of 30,000 Names of German, etc. Immigrants mto Pennsylvania," gives the following entries, tnter alia: Sept. 16, 1738. Palatines imported in the Ship "Queen Elizabeth " Alexander Hope, Master, from Rotterdam, last from Deal, England m all 300, Casper Scheffer. Sept. 3, 1739. Palatines imported in ship "Robert & Alice," Walter Goodman, Commander, from Rotterdam, last from Deal, Casper Shever. Sept. 14, 1741. Palatines imported in the ship "St. Mark," Wilson Master, from Rotterdam, last from Cowes, Johan Peter Bernhart' It will be observed that the date of Johan Peter Bernhart's migra- tion to this country does not correspond with the date on his tombstone, where it is given as 1731. The latter date was inscribed after nis death, how long no one knows, and doubtless from memory while Rupp's arrivals are arranged chronologically from the original records, and would therefore seem more likely to be correct MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 2^ spent the remainder of his days, closing- his life on the 28th of August, 1748, seventeen years after his arrival in America. His body was the first one interred in the German burial ground at Stillwater. I presume that my grandfather did not arrive in this country (America) at quite so early a period as Grandfather Bernhard, and that probably an acquaintance existed between the parties in Germany before coming to America. The youngest daughter of Mr. Bernhard, about the year 1760 married a gentleman by the name of Arrison, a widower and a native of Holland, who by his two wives was blessed with a numerous offspring — each one pre- senting him with eight children. He in process of time removed with his family to Shamokin near Sunbury, Pa., from whence, after residing there a number of years, they were driven away by the Indians in the time of the Revo- lutionary War, and fled back to Sussex, losing nearly all their property, both lands and effects. The old gentleman did not long survive this catastrophe. I well remember four of his children, who, it will be borne in mind, were own cousins to my father: two sons and two daughters, Jeptha and John, Polly and Susan. Jeptha lived and raised a family in New Jersey, first residing near Still- water many years; afterward some years at Flemington in Hunterdon Co. ; at a later period of his life he removed with his family to the state of Ohio, where he subse- quently died. Some of his children are still residing on his premises there and in the vicinity. Mr. Arrison was a man of sterling piety and excellent character. He was a mill-wright by trade, but latterly pursued agriculture. John at an early day followed his trade of blacksmith at Stillwater; but subsequently, about the year 1793 or 4, MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. he went to Philadelphia and engaged in the grocery business in partnership with a man by the name of Fulton. About the year 1795 or 6, he married a widow by the name of Martha Graham, the daughter of a Mr. Fox of Philadelphia, by whom he raised a family of children, most of whom are still residing here. As to his religious character, he at one period held rather skeptical views of divine revelation. But subsequently, after having ex- perienced a diversity of fortune and buffeting the adversi- ties of life, he made a goodly profession of religion, and closed his earthly pilgrimage in the hope of the Gospel. He died Jan. 22nd, 1828, aged 62 years. Mrs. Arrison survived her husband many years. She enjoyed in her youthful days an intimate acquaintance with the celebrated Mrs. Madison, who subsequently became the wife of the late President Madison. Mrs. Arrison died in 1837, in the 70th year of her age. Sukey or Susanna Arrison at my earliest remembrance married William Lauterman, who was my father's first miller at Stillwater for many years. They afterwards removed to what was the Redstone country, near Pittsburg. Polly, who 'was, I believe, the oldest of the family, was a lady of rather superior mental endowments, of fine tastes and exemplary piety. She, at an age somewhat past the bloom of life, married a respectable gentleman from Ireland, by the name of Graham, who was one of my school teachers in my youth. They afterwards removed to Virginia, where they resided many years, and I think ended their days. I had the pleasure of meeting in this city a very intelligent elderly lady from Lancaster by the name of Pancoast, who is the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Graham, from whom I derived several important items MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 29 of the above information relating to her and my aficestry. I have no means at hand of ascertaining the precise time of my grandfather's arrival in this country. •Whether he accompanied grandfather Bernhard, whether he preceded him, or came shortly after his coming, there is no absolute certainty. There is reason, however, to suppose that not only he, but "Old Uncle Wintermute" also came over in company with or shortly after his arrival. Whether they were married to the old gentle- man's daughters before coming to this country is also uncertain. The strong presumption is, however, that the parties were acquainted with each other while yet in Germany. This fact is, I believe, well ascertained, viz : that they all arrived in Philadelphia. I suppose my grandfather was the first to go to New Jersey, as I have understood from my father that while in Philadelphia he purchased land in Stillwater, of a landed proprietor by the name of Cowell, residing in Philadelphia.^ He settled * Perhaps the purchase was from Ebenezer Cowell, of Trenton, a surveyor, and connected with the West Jersey Council of Pro- prietors. Casper Bernhardt Shafer of Washington, D. C, has in his posses- sion an original parchment deed dated May 23, 1763, made by the Trustees of the Pennsylvania Land Company in London by their attorneys in fact, to Caspar Shaffer of the Township of Hardwick, County of Sussex, and Western Division of the Province of New Jersey. The deed is recorded in the Secretary's office in Burlington in Book X of Deeds, fol. 316, and conveys lands in the township of Hardwick, the same having been sold at auction in the city of Philadelphia, Oct. 23, 1761, to said Caspar Shaffer, and described as follows : Beginning at a black oak tree standing by a small run of water, for a corner, thence along one of the outside lines of the whole tract and by land of the said Caspar Shaffer south (:h degrees East, 65 chains to a white oak tree; thence by the same South 49 degrees West, 74 chains to a white oak tree; thence by land of Jacob Dot- terer South 28 degrees West, 66 chains to a heap of stones; thence by land of Adam Kunekle, North 25 degrees West, 83 chains and 50 links, to a black oak standing in one of the old lines ; thence by the 30 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. down at Stillwater about the year 1741 or 42 in the wilderness surrounded by the Indians. His first habita- tion was a rude log cabin built at the foot of the hill, near the brook, a few rods west of the present tannery, over N, and around a large stump, which, being smoothed ofif on I the top, served as their first table. His next object was to clear and prepare the land for raising a crop of grain. The crop once secured, the next thing was to devise means to prepare it for food, and to this end he set about erecting a small mill on the Paulin- skill. To create a water power, he threw a low dam of cobble stones, filled in with gravel, across the stream. He then proceeded to drive in the ground, at the west end of the dam, piles, over which he erected his log mill super- structure; and having water wheel, gearing and other suitable appliances, and introducing his three-foot run of stones, it was now ready for business. Its dimensions being small, its execution was on a corresponding scale, from three to five bushels being the ordinary quantity it would grind in a day. Yet moderate as was this per- formance, it answered the demands of the sparsely settled country for many miles around. This was probably the first mill erected in all the County of Sussex. I have many times in my youth seen the remains of the piles on which the old mill was built. same North 64 degrees East, 43 chains to a white oak tree; thence along the same North 36 degrees East, 46 chains to the place of beginning. Containing 628 acres of land strict measure. By a reference in a deed from Catharine Nixon to Abraham Shaver, dated Dec. 27, 1784, recorded in the Sussex County Clerk's office. Liber O of Deeds, page 46, it appears that John Reading and Samuel Green conveyed to Casper Shaver by deed dated June 17, 1746, recorded in Book X of Deeds page 320 (Secretary's Office, Burlington), a tract of 150 acres, adjoining Casper Shaver's mill dam on the south side of the Kill. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 31 About this time the old gentleman planted an apple orchard on the low alluvial ground between his dwelling and the kill, the trees in which grew to a majestic size, some of them attaining to over three feet in diameter at the butt. Another orchard was subsequently planted by him on the higher ground at the rear of his dwelling. After enlarging his clearance, and extending the culture of his farm, the next object that engaged the attention of my grandfather was the erection of a comparatively large two storied stone mansion on the top of the hill at the foot of which the first rude habitation was built. I suppose the time when the stone house was built was a little before the middle of the last century. The style of the building was real German, of the old fashion ; a large entry or hall on the left as you enter, a large stove room on the right, with immense stack of chimneys in the center, with large open fireplace in the entry. The stove room was originally heated by a five-plate stove, walled into the back of the large fireplace, the body of it projecting into the stove room and its mouth opening into the entry fireplace, into which the wood was put, and the fire kindled. Subse- quently the room was heated by a ten-plate stove, with a pipe leading into the chimney in a more modern style. I recollect often in my youth to have seen his little 6 by 8 feet stove room, situated in the left hand corner of the wide entry of the old stone mansion house. About the year 1764 the second mill was built, on the site of the present one, having a head race about a quarter of a mile long, and twenty-five or thirty feet wide, by which a greater fall and water power were obtained. This mill, though not large, was a great advance upon the former one, containing two run of stones, with bolts and 32 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. Other appurtenances, rendering it much more efficient and better adapted to meet the wants of the more advanced state of society. Connected with this estabUshment there was also a sawmill and oil-mill. This grist mill was rebuilt in 1796-97, upon a larger scale than its prede- cessor; containing three run of stones, with machinery to hoist the grain from the wagon up into the second and third stories. The operations of this mill I superintended for five years, from 1798 to 1803, when I left home to attend the grammar school of Rev. Dr. Finley at Baskingridge. This last mill was burnt down a few years ago, in place of which the present much improved one was speedily erected. It is a matter of much interest to contemplate the progress of improvement in point of convenience and efficiency, between the old mill of 1764 and the present one. In the former every bushel of grain must be borne on the miller's shoulder up a heavy out-side flight of stairs into the second story, and when manufactured must be shouldered out again into the wagon or on the horse's back; whereas in the present mill the grain is taken from the wagon by machinery up into the second or third story, where it is cleaned, conveyed into the hopper, ground, elevated, again bolted, packed in barrels or sacks and slid down into the wagon from the second story, and all this with comparatively little manual labor. Also with the same water power it can perform three times as much work as the old mill, and that of a better quality. At an early day, some time prior to the Revolution, and before any mill-dams were erected on the Paulinskill, my grandfather's attention was drawn to the navigation of the same, and by careful explorations he became satisfied Stone Mill, erected 1844. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 33 that during the spring freshets a boat of suitable size and structure might be safely floated down the stream to the Delaware river. Accordingly, having a boat of suitable size and form constructed, he successfully navigated the stream, carrying flour and other produce down to the Philadelphia market, and in return receiving such goods as the wants of the country in its primitive state seemed to demand. Thus he commenced in a small way, increas- ii^g gradually as the advanced civilization and growing wants of the country seemed to call for. His operations in this way were at this period necessarily small. Subsequently, but yet at an early day, having learned from the Indians of the existence of a town away far to the south east, called by them Lispatone,^ he journeyed in that direction some fifty miles over the mountains and through the almost trackless wilderness, until he finally arrived at the veritable town, bearing the royal name of "the good Queen Bess" of revered memory, where he commenced trading in his small way. And thus he was the pioneer in opening a profitable and important com- mercial intercourse between the south eastern sea-board, and that part of New Jersey, which has continued mightily to increase and expand with the growing popu- lation and civilization of the country, and is now as yet only in its infancy. Commercial intercourse at that early period, and for many years afterwards, was divided between Philadelphia and New York, but latterly, for that part of the country, it concentrates principally in the latter city. During the "Old French War" of 1754-5 the people of ^ Elizabeth-Town. [3 34 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. the Colonies were very much annoyed, and their lives often put in jeopardy, by the hostility of the savages, who, being in league with the French, were induced to take up arms against the Colonies. And no part of the land, however obscure, escaped their cruel visitations. As a precautionary measure in these circumstances, my grand- father had his house surrounded with a stockade or fortification of sufficient strength to resist the hostile attacks of the Indians, into which the neighbors, upon any threatening demonstration of the savage foe, would flee for shelter and safety. As an illustration of the trying scenes to which they were frequently exposed in those troublesome times, I have heard my father relate the following anecdote, viz : that on a certain night, when the savages showed an unusually threatening aspect, yelling and whooping around the house as if preparing for an immediate attack, my grandfather, being at the time alone with his family, fastened the house and started to run across the fields to his brother-in-law Wintermute's to procure help, but finding himself hotly pursued by one of the enemy, and likely to be overtaken by his more fleet adversary, he turned upon him, and being an athletic man, seized, threw and with his garters tied the Indian hand and foot, leaving him prostrate while he pursued his way and procured the desired assistance. This state of alarm and distress con- tinued until the cessation of hostilities between France and England, which occurred some years later and was ratified by the treaty of Paris, Nov. 3, 1 762.^ '■ The preliminaries were signed November 3, 1762, as stated above. The definitive treaty, known as the Peace of Paris, was concluded February lo, 1763. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 35 Another anecdote I have heard my father relate, going to illustrate the same point, tho' I believe the occurrence took place in time of the Revolutionary War. It was as follows: A Mr. Depew, a respectable gentleman living near the Delaware River, on the other side of the Blue Mountains, being assailed by a party of Indians who broke into his house at midnight with murderous intent, and he being aroused from his slumbers, seized his loaded gun and leveled it at the foremost aggressor, who, realizing his danger, uttered the peculiar Indian exclamation "Ugh," dodged away and fled. So acted the next, and another and another. And thus by his great prudence and presence of mind, without firing his gun, he succeeded in driving the whole gang from his dwelling, and saved him- self and family from the tomahawk and scalping knife.^ I would here remark that before any mill dams were erected to obstruct their ascent, shad were caught in the Paulinskill, their size exceeding those brought to the Philadelphia market. The largest and fattest shad I ever saw were caught in the Delaware river on the opposite side of the mountain from Stillwater. The principal fish now taken in the kill are pikes, chubs, catfish, suckers and eels. I suppose the first mills erected on the Paulinskill below Stillwater, were those of my Uncle Peter B. Shaeffer at Fall Mills, five miles lower down the stream, who com- menced operations there about the close of the Revolu- ^ This incident is related by Benjamin B. Edsall, in his historical address at the centennial anniversary of Sussex County, in 1853. The speaker evidently had the use of Dr. Schaeflfer's manuscript, which he quotes almost literally. He, however, ascribes the Depew occurrence to the period of the Indian incursion in 1755. As to this invasion see N. J. Archives, VIII., Part II., pa'ssim ; XVI., 360-585 ; XIX., 552-579- 36 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. tionary War. The principal thing which drew my uncle's attention to the place, was the excellent water-power, of about ten-foot fall; otherwise, the locality as a place of residence had few attractions. The place, to the eye of the observer, presents a particularly wild and picturesque aspect. The stream for two miles above and below is flanked on either side by lofty precipitous hills, from two to three hundred feet high. The mill, a large four- storied frame building, containing three run of stone, is jutted down close under the bluff of the hill, which rises at an angle of more than 45 degrees, to an altitude of more than one hundred feet. The large stone mansion perched above the brow of the hill overlooks the mill and stream below, no parapet wall or defence of any kind intervening to prevent a frightful descent of horse and carriage, etc. The great road which passes between the house and the edge of the precipice leads you on with your vehicle in a westwardly direction for about one or two hundred yards; you then make a short turn about to the left, descending at pretty rapid grade easterly along the dug road until you are landed at the bottom of the hill upon an area of some extent, Vvhich, being excavated out of the bottom of the hill, gradually slopes down to the edge of the mill pond. A large thick stone wall on the north and east sides of the area guards it from an avalanche of the hill. You now, in continuing your course, turn a little to the right and descend on the sloping plateau nearly to the brink of the water. You then form a complete circle to the left about, and taking a westwardly course in front of the grist ahd sawmill, you strike into the lower road, which passes the one by which you just descended the hill at an acute angle leaving it to the right. And now, continuing on for MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 37 about two hundred yards down the strteam along the foot of the hill, you turn short to the left and pass over the bridge that spans the kill. The appearance of this place in its primitive, uncultivated state must have been singu- larly wild and forbidding; and the undertaking and ac- complishment of the work effected here proves that my uncle possessed a more than ordinary degree of moral coui-age, enterprise and perseverance, especially consider- ing the state of the country at the time when the work was executed. On a recent visit to the place,' I was surprised and pained to see how much the premises had suffered for want of care, especially about the mill. The high stone wall against the hill, for instance, had disappeared entirely, not to speak of other marks of decay. The Marksboro mill, also romantically situated, was built at a somewhat later period by the late Hon. Mark Thomson, who represented the district of Morris and Sussex in the U. S. Congress for one or two terms during the administration of Washington.^ This mill is situated about two miles up the stream from Fall Mills. The late Judge Armstrong, about the year 1790, erected a forge on the Paulinskill about two miles below Fall Mills for the purpose of making refined bar-iron from pig metal. I suppose it to have been the first establishment of ^The records of the Adjutant General's office, Trenton, show that Mark Thomson was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, First Regi- ment, Sussex County, New Jersey Militia, July 22, 1775 ; Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel Charles Stewart's Battalion of Minute-Men, February 15, 1776; Colonel, First Regiment, Sussex County, New Jersey Militia, July 10, 1776; Colonel, Battalion of Detached New Jersey Militia, July 18, 1776; resigned, date unknown — during the Reyolutionary War, Lieutenant Colonel and Aide-de-Camp, Staff of Governor Richard Howell of New Jersey, June 10, 1793. Died, Marksboro, Sussex County, New Jersey, December 14, 1803. He was one of the five Representatives from New Jersey, in the fourth and fifth Congresses, I79S-I799- 38 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. the kind in the country. This concern, owing principally to heavy transportation, was a very expensive one, he hav- ing to cart his pig metal twelve or fifteen miles over the mountain from Oxford furnace, and his charcoal several miles over the hills in the vicinity of the Blue Mountains, besides having to convey his manufactured iron to a distant market. The forge was continued some 12 or 15 years, when it gave place to a grist mill erected by the Judge upon the opposite side of the stream. The name of the place is Paulina. I will here just allude, in passing, to a geological feature of the region around Stillwater. The valley of the Paulinskill for miles above and below Stillwater, is of limestone formation of a mile or more in width, bordered on each side by a slatey soil, which on the side northward extends to the Blue Mountains ; the country rising in that direction hill above hill, attaining an altitude of several hundred feet before it reaches the foot of the mountain. , The slatey soil in all that mountain district is intermixed with an abundant supply of granite boulders and cobble stones capable of being formed into solid and permanent stone fence. Their decomposition also, which they naturally undergo by ploughing and exposure to frost, air and rain, produces good soil. This region, though rugged, is capable by good husbandry of yielding abundantly of the cereals, roots and fruits. The situa- tion being elevated the fruit is less liable to be injured by frost than in the low ground of Stillwater. On the opposite side of the kill, the limestone deposits extend for about three-quarters of a mile. Then commences the slate region which stretches for several miles to another lime- stone formation. Within about half a mile to the north- MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 39 west of Stillwater lies the Catfish Pond, in the midst of surrounding limestone hills, containing an inexhaustible deposit of 'white shell marl, which in dry seasons is very accessible, and is well known as an invaluable fertilizer of the soil. There is also a similar deposit in Esquire Merckle's meadow half a mile to the southeast of Still- water. My grandfather and family in regard to politics were all staunch Whigs, bearing their full share of toil through the Revolutionary struggle.^ My father at one time, shouldering his musket, marched with a company of volunteers to Morristown at the call of Washington when he lay encamped there with the American Army in the winter of 1777. Continuing to cherish these patriotic sentiments, and naturally leaning to the popular side, my father and his brothers consequently sympathized with the French Republicans in the early part of their struggle for liberty. But, on the other hand, they cherished no cordiality with and highly disapproved of the horrors subsequently practised by the leaders in that mighty con- ^By the records of the Adjutant General's office, Trenton, it appears that : Peter Barnet Shaver was commissioned First Lieutenant, Cap- tain Aaron Hankinson (ist) Company, Colonel Ephraim Martin's Regiment, Sussex County, New Jersey Militia, July 26, 177s ; resi- dence, Upper Hardwick Township, Sussex County, New Jersey; Captain, Colonel Aaron Hankinson's Second Regiment, Sussex County, New Jersey, Militia; commission issued May 16, 1777; commanding company, capturing tories in Sussex County, April 6 to II, 1777; commanding company, attached to Colonel Sylvanus Seele}''s Battalion, Eastern Regiment, Morris County, New Jersey, Militia, at Elizabeth, January 22 to February 25, 1778; commandmg company, along the Upper Delaware River, July 30 to October 14, 1778; on return to January, 1781, with remark "Present"; final record unknown, — during the Revolutionary War. Isaac Shaver was in commission as Captain and Conductor of Team Brigade, Wagonmaster General's Department, New Jersey without date, — during the Revolutionary War. 40 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. vulsion. And when, about this time, and subsequently, party lines began to be drawn in this country, their inbred and almost instinctive love of country inclined thetri to the popular, rather than to the aristocratic side, and, of course, to identify themselves with the democracy of the Jeffer- sonian school. Their descendants, taking counsel of their fathers and standing upon the same broad and patriotic platform, took sides with the party opposed to the high- handed measures and arbitrary acts of the Jackson administration. In this relation to their country I trust they will ever be found. At the time of the organization of the militia system of the United States by act of Congress during the Adminis- tration of Washington, 1791 or 2, great military enthusi- asm prevailed at that period in our part of the country. That was the great hobby that engaged all hearts and hands for the time. My uncle, Peter B. Schaeffer, bore the commission of Major. Father raised and commanded a volunteer troop of horse, which comprised most of the elite of the young men of that part of the country. Uncle Isaac raised and commanded a large company of militia; and in order to have good music on parade, he procured the services of Mr. Peter Belers, who had been a drum major in the Revolutionary Army, residing at the time on the other side of the Blue Mountains. He was the most expert performer on the drum-head I ever witnessed. Nothing could exceed the beauty of his motions perform- ing some of his most difficult pieces, the buttons of his drumsticks being confined in the meantime within the compass of a dollar. Cousin Joseph and myself and little Archie caught the inspiration and were placed under his tuition. And commencing with the first rudiments of MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 4 1 "Daddy Mammy," etc., and engaging with ardor in our new vocation, we at length attained some tolerable pro- ficiency in this department of military music. The height of our ambition then was to flourish in "Red Coats" and lead the march of the regiment on parade days. At the time of the Western expedition, in the fall of 1794, father and his troop of horse volunteered in the service, and marched with the army to Fort Pitt to quell the "Whiskey Boys." At Bedford, on their march, all the field officers had the honor of an introduction to the "Father of his Country," who there met them to review the army, and give counsel to the officers. They were three months engaged in this expedition, my father re- turning home in December.^ I suppose the first fulling-mill erected in this county was that by the late Peter Wintermute, about half a mile below Stillwater. The mill was driven by a large spring issuing out of the hill at that place, being the embouchure of a brook which, losing itself about a mile back in the woods, makes its way through subterranean limestone caverns and emerges at this place. I suppose the age of ^The records of the office of the Adjutant General, Trenton, show that Abraham Shaver was commissioned Captain, commanding Troop, Second Squadron, Second Regiment, Cavalry, New Jersey- Detached Militia, in the Pennsylvania Insurrection, September 11, 1794 for three months; residence, Sussex County, New Jersey; honorably discharged December 25, 1794. Abraham Shaver, Jr., served as a Corporal, Captain Abraham Shaver's Troop of Light Dragoons (Sussex County), Second Squadron, Second Regiment, Cavalry, Major Commandant William Leddel, Brigadier General Anthony Walton White's Brigade of Cavalry, New Jersey Detached Militia, Pennsylvania Insurrection of 1794; enrolled September 11, 1794. for three months; discharged at Trenton, New Jersey, December 25, 1794,— expiration of service. He was born Dec. 4, 1775, died August 8, 1824, buried at Yellow Frame Grave Yard. 42 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. this mill will date prior to the Revolution, as it was an old establishment from my earliest remembrance. I have no authentic information in regard to my grand- father's ancestry. What immediate relations, or whether he had any brothers and sisters, on this subject, to my regret, I am entirely uninformed, neither do I know any- thing of his history previous to his coming to this country, except that he emigrated from the Palatinate, on or near the river Rhine, one of the richest countries in Germany. Coming as he did from a Protestant country and community, his religious views and feelings were de- cidedly of that cast, and being connected with the German Reformed church of the Calvinistic school in his own country, he very naturally took a leading part and was prominent in the German Reformed congregation worshiping at Stillwater. But it seems he could not agree in doctrinal views with the German ministers who ordinarily supplied that pulpit; they inclining too much to the low Arminian sentiment for his scriptural and Cal- vinistic views of orthodoxy. Hence he found among the Presbyterian ministers those of sentiments more congenial to his own, which led him to fraternize more with them. In ' The Wintermute Family History," by J. P. Wintermute, it is stated that John George Windemuth, who became the brother-in- law of Casper Schaeffer, through marriage with one of the daughters of Johan Peter Bernhardt, built the old stone house at the foot of the lane running east from the main road, at a point a short distance south of the cemetery. On the southerly end of the house are inscribed in the wall his initials, "J. G. W., 1755." This homestead was devised to his youngest son John. The large stone house on the road near the Big Spring was erected by the Emigrator's son Peter, the date of which is indicated by an inscription on the north gable,' "1791." This property was purchased by the late Martin R. Dennis of Newark, N. J., who named the place "Bonnie Brook." It was near this point that the elder Windemuth built, in about the year 1770, what is supposed to be the first fulling mill in Sussex County. Peter "Windeinuth's House, erected 1791, noTsr "Bonnie Brook." MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 43 and a special intimacy grew up between him and the Rev. Ira Condit, the pious and very able pastor of the Hard- wick church. These views and this course of the old gentleman induced all his children to leave the German and unite with the English Presbyterian church, though he himself, I believe, continued in connection with the German church to the close of his life. The descendants of the old gentleman have almost all continued in connection with the Presbyterian church to the present day. The German Christians, though pos- sessed of many excellent traits of character, are yet, many of them, especially the foreign portion, too much addicted to formalism and superstition, in illustration of which I will just relate a circumstance that occurred in my grandfather's case. He, toward the close of his life, becoming much attached to the Rev. Mr. Condit as above intimated, requested him on his death bed to preach his funeral sermon. But on the occasion, the Germans inter- fered and would not allow the minister to enter the church, he not being of their order ; and lest peradventure he might desecrate the place, he was compelled therefore to address the people standing on the large flat stone in front of the church. My grandfather, Casper Schaeffer, died Dec. 7, 1784, aged seventy-two years. My grandmother, Maria Catrina Schaeffer, died Dec. i, 1794, in the seventy-third year of her age. Uncle Peter B. Schaeffer died in April, 1799, aged fifty-five. Aunt Margaretta Roy died June 5, 181 5. My father departed this life Jan. 11, 1820, in the sixty- fourth year of his age.^ My mother, Sarah Schaeffer, ^Abraham Shaver's will, dated Dec. 29, 1819, makes the following provision for his wife, viz : Item 2. "I give and bequeath to my beloved wife Sarah Shaver 44 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. died on the 14th day of August, 1827, in the sixty-seventh year of her age. My sister Polly died in April, 1808, aged twenty-seven years. Sister Elizabeth died Feb. 3, 1833, aged thirty years. My grandfather^ was a man naturally of a strong mind, of strict integrity, not lacking in sagacity, of great industry and indomitable perseverance, guided in all his actions by a principle of moral rectitude; a strict discip- linarian, and rather intolerant of what he believed to be wrong. This being his character, he would naturally exert a controlling and salutary influence upon a rising community, the result of which may be seen and felt to the present day. It was said of the old gentleman when a member of the State legislature, I think in the time of the Revolutionary war, that though he seldom spoke in the House, yet from the weight of his character and sound judgment in matters and things, he exerted a great influence in that body. Thus if at any time he per- ceived things taking a wrong course in the House, not agreeable to his views of propriety, he would rise in his the use and possession of my mansion house and garden and the furniture in the house and kitchen, such thereof as she may choose to take, also such part of the fruit out of the orchard and other fruit trees as she shall think necessary yearly and every year during her life for her use and to have such part of the milch cows as she chooses and her choice of the horses and riding chairs, also my black girl Nance and my black boy Bob and her choice of one of my little black girls. Also it is my will and order that the horse and cows of my wife be furnished with hay, grain and pasture necessary for their keeping, likewise that she be furnished with firewood at the door at the expense of my estate." His executors were his three sons, Nathan A. Shaver, Petgr B. Shaver and William A. Shaver. He was member of Assembly, 1801-2-3. 1 On Feb. 24, 1764, an act was passed by the Provincial Council to naturalize George Windemuth (Wlntermute) Gasper Sbepperd (Casper Schaeifer?) and others. Journal of the Gfovernor and Council, N. J. Archives, XVII. 365, 371. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 45 seat and with characteristic energy exclaim in his German way, "Das ist nicht recht, Das ist nicht recht," and in few words explain his views of the matter, giving his reasons therefor. The attention of the members would be arrested, the current of proceedings changed, and in the end probably an entirely different result ensue. In this connection I will mention another circumstance as indicative of the spirit of the age and the primitive simplicity of manners then prevalent, and I mention it in no spirit of disparagement, but as evincing that ardent and self-denying patriotism that carried our forefathers triumphantly through the Revolutionary struggle. The case as related to me was as follows: Old Mr. Mac- Collum, the father of the late Aaron MacCollum of Hardwick, when delegate to the Assembly (the per diem not then enabling the members to fare sumptuously every day), would, whether from this cause or from motives of sheer economy ( for he was a strict conservative) , pack his wardrobe in a small bundle, his provisions in his wallet, and thus accoutred, pack on his back and staff in hand, would wend his pedestrian way to the seat of government, and after attending to the legislative business of the state would return home in the same style, and Cincinnatus- like, resume the functions of his domicile. God be praised for raising up a host of such choice spirits, whose patriotic zeal shrank not from labor and sacrifice that they might procure the inestimable blessings of civil and religious liberty for themselves and their posterity. The old stone church at Stillwater was erected, as I suppose, about the middle of the last century. The Lutherans and Reformed united their energies in con- structing the same, and worshipped conjointly and alter- 46 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. nately in the same building. The church was a plain, four-square structure of moderate dimensions, situated on the rising ground near the road, just within the enclosing wall, on the north side of the grave yard. The interior of the church had plain open seats with gallery. The tub-shaped pulpit, raised upon a high pedestal, had this peculiar antique appendage, viz : partly underneath and on the opposite side of the pulpit-step a small closet of slatted or wicker work into which the minister entered for a few moments before ascending the pulpit. The old German interest having declined through the inroads of death and removals, the ground was occupied for a number of years by the Dutch Reformed brethren. The old building was demolished some years since, and in its stead a neat frame church was erected at the head of the lane, owned and occupied by an English Presbyterian congregation com- posed partly of the descendants of the German population and in part of new comers. The church, however, it is much to be regretted, is not, nor has i: been for many years in a flourishing condition.^ I should, perhaps, have mentioned ere this, that my grandmother Schaeffer had received an education some- what above the ordinary standard of her day. She was of refined taste and cultivated manners, as well as exemplary piety. I have heard her tell a Mr. Runkle, a gentleman on a visit from down Jersey, who was examin- ing her old folio German Bible, that she had read it three times through since her "old man's death," then ten years * The church was completed in 1771 and used until 1837, then abandoned as being unsafe. In 1823, at a meeting of the congrega- tion, it was voted to enter the Presbyterian denomination and place the church under the care of the Newton Presbytery. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 47 gone by; this being near the close of her life. The old lady brought with her from Germany what was rare in those days, many rich silk dresses, embroidery, jewelry and trinkets, which were carefully preserved as keepsakes during her life, carefully locked up in chest and casket. But in the lapse of time and overturnings, these relics have all unhappily become squandered. That part of the country lying between the Paulinskill and the Blue Mountains was settled originally by the Germans principally, and how far they may have been attracted thither by the previous location of my grand- father and his friends in that vicinity, I am not able to say. Most likely, however, it had some influence, as he was a pioneer in those parts. Even before the Revolution many of them were settled there, and in the time of that great struggle, there was considerable accession to their numbers, of a dozen or more Hessians who deserted from a detachment of Burgoyne's captured army, on their way through Sussex to a location assigned them as a place of safety near Charlotteville in Virginia. All those Germans settled and raised families in the neighborhood. Many of their descendants still occupy the homes of their fathers. Some have removed elsewhere; some north, some west, to newer countries with a view to better their condition. With the old German settlers gone the congregation ^The old German Bible is in the possession of Caspar Bernhardt Shafer, of Washington, D. C. It contains the following inscription on the first page: "Casper Schaffer — his Bible, purchased in Philadelphia, Pa. It cost two pounds and twelve shillings. In the year of Christ Anno Domini, 1775." It was printed at Basle, in 1767. Size 14J x 10 x 3I inches. It has wooden back covered with embossed parchment, protected by eight brass corner pieces, and held closed by two brass clasps. It contains a few family records, but they have faded out and are illegible. 48 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. dwindled away and the ground is now occupied mainly by the Methodist brethren, and this in a great measure through the remissness of the Presbyterians. And from the same cause the Methodists are taking possession of most of the vacant ground, and even in some instances encroaching upon the possessions of the former. It be- hooves the Presbyterians, therefore, if they do not wish to be outdone by their more active co-workers, to bestir themselves. In the lovely valley of Stillwater, which has greater attractions for me than any other earthly locality, there are four different levels presenting themselves to the eye. First, the low meadow ground along the margin of the kill; then a space a few feet higher, of rich alluvial soil — third, a table land about 20 ft. higher than the preceding, comprising some hundred acres of most excellent, arable land extending back to the lime-stone hills. Fourth: There is still another plain more elevated than the former by some 20 feet, called formerly "the old plain field," com- prising many acres of good, arable land, extending also to the limestone cobbles. This delightful valley being nearly centrally situated in the old county of Sussex, was at one time seriously spoken of as the seat of justice for the County. But other counsels prevailing, Newton was selected in preference.^ That part of the township of 'On Nov. 20, I7S3, the first court of justice held in the county of Sussex, was opened in the house of Jonathan Pettit in Hardwick township. At this court Casper Shafer, among others, was licensed to keep a tavern. The business of tavern keeping at this time, and for at least fifty y«ars afterwards, was a stepping stone to public distinction, as well as a source of pecuniary profit. Nearly all the early judges, justices, sheriffs and chosen freeholders were inn keepers. — Edsall's Sussex County Centenary, p. 27. The Pennsylvania Gazette of Dec. 4, 1760, advertises a sale by the Trustees of the Pennsylvania Land Company of three tracts of land MEMQIjkiA-Nir'KteMINISCENCES. 49 9^^— Hardwire |all(A the Ridge, bordering upon the great road leading M)^^«wton to Hope, was originally settled by perscmg^rom England, the North of Ireland, and Scot- land jviz^Hjie^Linns, Roys, Hunts, Shaws, Hazens, etc. Ine^a^ds am..now generally in possession of their pos- / iPasWig down the great road in the direction of John- •"^CH^burg, we come to the Hardwick church, situated on the summit level of an elevated plain, from whence there is a gradual descent in every direction. From this eminence we have a magnificent view of the Blue Moun- tains from the Water Gap stretching many miles to the northeast. This church was built, I think, about the year 1785 or 86, and is rather a stately edifice considering the state of the country at the period of its erection. The church in its interior structure was remodelled and modernized a few years since by placing the pulpit at the east end instead of on the north side as it was originally. I have for this church a peculiarly home-like attachment, it being my "Alma Mater" as it were. Here all my fathers and relatives worshiped, and here within its hallowed walls I was nurtured and brought up from infancy to early manhood, and here in the adjacent cemetery, are deposited the venerated remains of my parents and relatives.^ By the aid of memory's faithful (inter alia), in Sussex County, about 70 miles from Philadelphia, one of 6,318 acres situate on the Paulinskill River, adjoining land of "Casper Shafer, Tavern Keeper there." * * * "The said Paulins- kill runs through the middle of it, and is about being made navigable into the Delaware." — N. J. Archives, vol. 20, p. 512. ^ From a "Sketch of Yellow Frame Presbyterian Church," by Rev. Dr. Craig, in the New Jersey Herald, May 26, 1892, we learn that the exact date of the organization of the "Upper Hardwick Presby- terian Church," now Yellow Frame, is not known, but that it took [4 50 MEMOIRS iANi) R^MINISeENGES. record I can bring to view the scenes oeciirring hereof more than half a century ago, when seated on the Sabbath in the wide square pew at the right of the high blue pulpit, and lookiiig around methinks I can see as if only yesterday the venera'ble forms of the generation long since departed. There in the pew immediately adjoining to the west sat Uncle William-Armstrong, with his decrepit, venerable companion and four daughfers. Immediately in his rear sat Uncle George Armstrong and his family. On the opposite 'Or east side of the pulpit sat first, I think. Uncle Peter B. Schateffer, with his family whose practice was, as well as that of father (their heads being tender), to be covered during divine service. In the adjoining pew sat Dr. Kennedy and his family. Immediately in front of the pulpit, on the west side of the middle aisle, appeared the aldermanic and portly form of Esquire Gaston and his family. Immediately in his rear Uncle John Armstrong and family. Then followed old Enquire Hazen, Thomas Hazen, Ezekiel Hazen and others in succession. In the ■opposite or eastern side of the aisle is seen Gen. Hankin- son; then in his rear his elder brother William Hankinson, then Esquire Lanning, the Hunts and a host of others place probably- in tHe year 1764. For eight vears the only preaching was by supglies. The Rev. Francis Peppard was the pastor from 1774 until 1783. Rev. Ira Cbhdit was the 'next pastor. He was installed about the time the new Yellow Frame Church was com- pleted, in 1778. His pastorate covered a period of about seven years, after which another interval of ten years of pulpit vacancy occurred. Rev. John Boyd was the pastor from Nov., 1803, till Oct., 18 12. The succeeding pastors were Rev. Benjamin Lowe, Rev. Jonathan Sher- wood and Rev. William C. McGee, who was installed in 1841. The church edifice, erected in 1786 was used until 1887, when it was superseded by the present church, and was demolished in 1905. The site of the old church was across the road from the present building. The vestibule and tower for "the "bell were added in 1858. The present pastor is "Rev. Ira H. Condit. MEMOIRS f^AND R9MINISG]E.]^6ES. 5 I that I cannot now recollect. The eastern front seat of the ^llery was occupied t)y Uncle John Roy and family. His .soft musical bass voice was charming to the ear. All these, occupying their respective places, joined with one accord in the holy service of the sanctuary, in devotional ,eix;erci&es, in hearing the word preached and joining in the vocal praises of Him who, redeemed them with His precious blood. As a reminiscence of the olden time and as indicating some of, the peculiar habits of our forefathers,,! will allude to one peculiarity in their worship. It being the practice in my early boyhood to line the hymns in singing, hymn books not being then in general use, old General Hankin- son, who then officiated as chorister, performed that part •of the service in a peculiar style, and with great adroitness, the manner of which I suppose was no other than edifying to the ,devout worshipers of that day, but which to some of us light-minded moderns would appear rather strange, if not rather ludicrous. Thus he would commence reading the, line at a high pitch of the voice, continuing to the end on the same key, in a perfectly monotonous tone; then strike off into the tune at the same pitch, singing to the end of the line. Then without any suspension of sound, and upon the same key of the last note just sung,, he would read the next line of the verse, and so on to the end of the hymn. I suppose this may have been a common practice in the old puritanical churches. The first pastors of- this church were, so far as I recol- lect, first Rev. Mr. Peppard, second Rev. r Mr. Thatcher, (third the Rev. Mr. Gondit. These were all able and ex- cellent ministers, the latter of whom particularly was an eminent, theologian. He it was, I think, as my pareijts 52 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. have informed me, who administered the right of baptism to my unworthy self. As a faithful and devoted pastor, he was also particularly distinguished. I can distinctly recollect his visiting around the congregation, catechising the children, and how on one occasion he solemnly warned us that a time was approaching when we must stand before the bar of God. He was also in the practice of holding meetings for religious conversation, with cate- chetical instruction to the adults. If I am not mistaken he preached alternately at Newton and Hardwick, and I am inclined to think that our fathers sustained irreparable loss when they suffered Ira Condit to leave them. The Hard- wick church at least did not greatly prosper for forty years or more after he left it. Passing on our course for two or three miles west- wardly we arrive at the flourishing town of Johnsonburg. It is rather an ancient place and is remarkable for having had at one time under the old Colonial Government a prison built of logs. Hence its cognomen, "Log Gaol," by which appellation it continued to be known until about the year 1798, when the Messrs. Henry and Jonathan Johnson, merchants of the place, incorporated their own name and gave it its new denomination. There are in the town three churches — one Episcopalian, one Methodist and one Presbyterian. The principal proprietor of the place was my uncle William Armstrong, who resided here for many years in the latter part of his life, which he closed about 1844, at the advanced age of ninety years. In this place I ought not to omit an allusion to the venerable Dr. Samuel Kennedy,^ an eminent practitioner *Dr. Samuel Kennedy, son of Rev. Samuel Kennedy, M. D., was born about the year 1740. He married Elizabeth Beavers, Oct. S, MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 53 of medicine in his day, who resided on a splendid farm in the vicinity of Johnsonburg. He was one of the earhest if not the very first physician settled in the county of Sussex. His range of practice at an early day was prob- ably not less than forty miles over the sparsely settled country. There was a number of the leading physicians of the county, as the late Dr. Linn, Dr. Everitt, Dr. Palmer^ and others besides his own sons, who were indebted to him for instruction in the healing art. Dr. Kennedy was not only distinguished for consistent piety, but was also an excellent theologian as well as an able supporter of the Christian church. His patriotic views and feelings led him to go heart and hand with the staunch Whigs of the Revolution. In politics, of course, coinciding with the popular sentiment, he was a zealous democrat of the Jeffersonian school. In accordanc6~with these sentiments he had a strong desire as a last public act of his life to cast his vote as Presidential Elector fot Thomas Jefferson to his second term of office; but death intervened and prevented the consummation of his wishes 1768. By her he had nine children who reached mature life. She died in 1790. He married again, in 1791, Anna, daughter of Peter B. Schaeffer, by whom he had five children. Dr. Kennedy died in 1804 and is buried in the Yellow Frame Graveyard. He is described as having been short and stout, but of fine personal appearance. His residence was a stone-house upon the Van Horn farm, half a mile from Johnsonburg, on the road to Allamuchy. He was also judge of the Sussex County courts, and member of the Assembly in 1780. He was an able practitioner and prepared a great number of students for the profession. 'Dr. Henry Palmer was a native of Connecticut and succeeded Dr. Kennedy at Johnsonburg, and afterwards, about 1808, went to Hope. He died June 14, 1813, at the age of thirty-four, of yellow fever which he contracted on a visit to New York. He was a mili- tary man and buried with military honors at the Yellow Frame Burying Ground. He married a daughter of Judge Armstrong. They had no children. 54 MEMOIKS AND REMINISGENCESj in that! particular. He died at an advanced^ age, sometime in 1804. The father of Dr. Kennedy was a cel^feffated Scotfeh clergyman, the Rev. Dr. Kennedy, the very able arid probably the first pastor of the ancient church of Saskingridge.1 Dr. K«inedy^s first wife was the sister of my uncle, th^' Ikte Robert Beavers. His second wife was my Cousin Anna, eldest daughter of Uncle Peter B. Sdiaefffer. In journeyiiig still further on to the southwest we arrive at the ancient town of Hope, distant about six miles from Johnsonburg. It was founded by the religious Society of Moravians, or United Brethren, as they called themselves, about the time or perhaps prior to the middle of the last centuiy. The Society from the country in Germany whence they came, taking the name of Moravians, this town has naturally got the popular appel- lation of Moravian Town. The organization of the Society possesses some peculiar features, partaking both of the social as well as exclusive principle. They are banded together in such a way as to have but little inter- course with the world at large, permitting but one of each trade or calling to exist in their community at the same time. At an early period of their history it seems they adopted the communist principle of depositing all their eami-ngs' iti a common ftmd and drawing thence ''Rev. Samuer Kennedy, M. f)., was borii in Scotland, 1720, and educated at the University of Edinburgh. After coming to America he, was licensed; to preacfo the gospel and was ordained: pastor of the Church m Baskmgridge, June 15, 1751. He established a classical school there which was of a high order and extensively patronized. He was also a practitioner and acquired considerable reputation in his profession He died at Basfcirigridg^ Aagust. 31, 1787J aged 67j_ears.—Wicfces' Medical History of N. J., p. 305; N. J. Archivea XXV., p. 407, note. MEMOIRS. AffD REMINISCENCES. 55 their individual support. But subsequently, having cha:nge4: their poUcy in tliis respect, each individual hus- bands, and appropriates his. own earnings. They allow none, of their own society to suffer, and, the parties tQ the marriage coijtr^ct are selected by the elde;rs„and matrons of their ord^r. They^ have a large church and a large mill of stone, and, all their buildings, both public a;jd private, are constructed, in the most substantial manner, of stone> so, that even urw, after the lapse of more than a hundred years, they show but, little sign of decay. About the year i8p8 or lo the Society sold out their whole establishment either to a company or tO; individual purchasers, and removedj to Nazareth, Bethlehem, Lititz and other Moriavian towns in Northampton and Lancaster counties in th(e. state of Pennsylvania. In regard to my rnaternal ancestry, I have to lament the lack of information no less than on the other branch of the connection. But vvhat few isolated facts ^nd reminis,cences I have, I shall proceed to group together in such a way as to make somewhat of a connected history. About the year 1745 to 48, there resided in the lowei; part of the township of Hardwick an industrious and thrifty son of the Emerald Isle pursuing the humble and laborious calling of a weaver. There resided also in the sa,me neighborhood a respectable farmer by the name of Green, who married his wife in a Low Dutch settle- ment in Somerset County, not far from Somerville. Now it so happened that the younger sister of Mrs. Greeai being on a visit with her, having traversed the mountains and wilderness for that purpose, during the young lady's sojourn here the young Hibernian above alluded to becoming acquainted, with hpr, admired apd pai4 his 56 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. addresses to her, and the attachment being reciprocated, they were in due time united in the bonds of matrimony. Thus commenced in the union of Nathan Armstrong and Euphemia Wright the family relation of my grand- parents on the mother's side.^ Hence on that side of the house my lineage is half Irish and half Low Dutch. The first fruits of this union was the birth of the twin brothers, the late George and John Armstrong. My grandparents had seven children, three sons and four daughters, my mother being the youngest of the family. The three sons and one of the daughters lived to an advanced age. George, the eldest, died in his 8oth year. John lived to be 85 or 86. William, the younger, attained to his 90th year, and Aunt Hannah Linn was, I suppose, near 90 at her decease. My uncle George Armstrong had, I think, about ten children, most of whom I believe are still living. The eldest of the family, Mrs. Locke, whom I saw in June, 1853, in a very low state of health, has since died. Uncle John Armstrong had seven or eight children grown to maturity, none of whom are now living except Jacob, the youngest of three sons. Aunt Hannah married Alexander, the oldest brother of the Linn family, who died at the age of 40 or 45 years. They had, I think, six children. How many of them may yet survive I am unable to say, as they have for many years resided at a distance. About the year 1797 or 8, Aunt Hannah removed with her family to Crawford County near Meadville, western Pennsylvania, settling down in the wilderness with her children, some of them quite young, and with slender means of support. They suflFered all the ^ See biographical sketch of Nathan Armstrong, post. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 57 hardships and privations incident to such a situation. After buffeting the storms of adversity for many years and raising her family, she spent the remainder of her days there in comparative ease and competency, dying some years since at an advanced age. Another of my mother's sisters married a gentleman by the name of Beavers, a Hibernian by birth. They had six children, five daughters and one son, all deceased, I think, but two or three daughters. The other sister of my mother married a Mr. Stinson. A son and a daughter were their only children. The daughter was the first wife of my uncle Isaac Schaeffer. She died leaving no issue, within a year after their marriage. The son is the present Judge Stinson of Warren County. My grandfather Armstrong is represented to have been a very industrious and prudent man, managing his affairs with such economy and thrift as to be able at his demise to leave each of his three sons in possession of a valuable farm ; the daughters in those days coming off minus. He is said to have died a little past middle age, of the natural small-pox, inoculation not being then generally intro- duced. And being under the old colonial government under which the law of primogeniture prevailed, he was constrained to make his will on his deathbed, in order to prevent the oldest son from inheriting all the real estate, which, by his devise, was given equally share and share alike to the three sons. My grandmother Armstrong was a lady of superior mental endowments. Although not having enjoyed any special advantages of education, she yet excelled in con- versational powers. I well recollect in my childhood and youth with what glowing interest and fixed attention I $8 MEMOIRS- AUD REMINISCENCES., sat and listenedj toj her when relating to m)^ mother anecdotes and reminiscences of earlier life, as well as the more recent occurrences of the day amongst her friends and neighbors. Her piety, calm, consistent and unob- trusive, shone in all her daily walk and conversation. A% a, mark of the: high esteem in which she was held, not only eachi of her own children named a daughter after her, but the name of Euphemia became a, favorite household word in many families, in the neighborhood, even, wMre no relationship existed. My father had two brothers, Peter B. the eldest, and Isaac the youngest of the family, and one sister Mar- garetta, who was next in age to my uncle Peter, the first born. Peter married a lady by the name of Stifison. They hia.d eight children, ranging as follows, viz : Anna, Katy, Polly, Abraham, Betsey, Isaac, Peggy and Stinson, the youngest, who died in childhood. The rest have now all deceased. They all married and all left children except Polly, who died, I think, within a year after her marriage. My father's only sister, Margaretta, married Mr. John Roy, a pious, most worthy and industrious man. They, had nine children, viz: Polly, Hannah, Susan, Peggy; Sally-, Betsey, John Gasper, Bernhardt Schaefifer and; Joseph, the youngest, six daughters and three sons. They all married and left chUdren save Polly, the oldest, and Susan, and they are all deceased, except Susannah and John C. Uncle. John Rqy did not live to an advanced age. The number of his years did not I im^ne exceed sixty., Aunt Roy attained to a greater age. She survived her husband, many years^ I think sfee must have been upwards of 70 years at her demise. MEMOIRS- AND REMINISCENCES'. 59 My uncle, William Armstrong, I should have said, had' four children, all -daughters — ^Lydia, Euphemiu, Polly and Sallyi They all married and had issue. The only sur- viving one of them is Mrs. Euphemia Bray, in a state of widowhood: My uncle married a second wife, by whom he had no issue. His first wife was Miss Swayze, sister to the late Mrs. Dusenberry. My uncle Isaac Schaeffer for his second wife married Martha Linn. They had four children, three sons and one daughter, viz : Josqjh L., Archibald S., Peggy, and Peter B., only the latter of whom survives, cousin Rev. Joseph L. having died in December, 1853^ Aunt Matty, by a second marriage, with Mr. Joseph De Mund, had* several children, with none of whom have I any acquaint- ance except with Isaac, the eldest, who is a clergyman of respectable standing in the Presbyterian connection. AlU these children of both issues, so far as I know, married and had issue except Archibald S., who died single, in early manhood. My own parents had twelve children, viz: Polly or Maria Catharine; Casper, Matha;n A., Peter B., Euphemia W., Sarah, William A., Margaretta-' R., Elizabeth and Robert Finley, together with two who died in infancy. We have all been married and have iss:ue, save Margaretta ^id. Finley (who is since married) . My sister Polly was married,, as his second wife, to John Johnson Esq., April' 28, i8q4, and departed, this life, April 13, 1808, aged twenty-six years, five months, twenty-seven days, leaving th,ree children, William Jefferson, Whitfield Schaeffer, and Sarah Catherine. My fiitst Hiarriage was to Clarissa Golden,. r7th of May, 1810. She deceased Jan., 1S16. The result of this union; 6o MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. was birth of a son and daughter, both of whom died in infancy. My second wife was Mrs. Sarah Hahn, widow of the late Wm. Hahn, in Jan., 1818. At the time of our marriage she had three children — Mary, Christian and William, the latter of whom died about the age of nine years. Our own children were four: Sarah Elizabeth, Euphemia Miller, Amanda Margaretta, and Gilbert Liv- ingston, who died at about the age of two and a half years. Elizabeth was married to Thomas Kimber in April, 1843. They had three children, the two oldest of whom died in infancy; the youngest, Sally Schaeffer Kimber, was six years old on the 7th of July, 1854. Euphemia and Reuben B. Miller were married in May, 1843. They have five children, four daughters and one son, viz: Mary Hahn, Sarah Gertrude, Ellen Augusta, Euphemia and William Casper, the present infant.^ My brother Nathan^ married Sarah, daughter of the late Judge Linn of Sussex. They had six children, viz : Mary, William, Abraham, Joseph, Lucilla and Louisa. The eldest son was suddenly killed by accident many years ago. Mary, the eldest daughter, married Mr. Joseph Coursen ; they have two or three children. The others are as yet unmarried. My brother Peter B. married Mrs. Rebecca Vail, daughter of the late Dr. Hendrick. They had three ^ Four others were afterwards born. See Genealogical Record. ' Nathan Armstrong Shafer learned the tanning business of the Armstrongs and returned to Stillwater and established a large tan- nery, which proved successful. On April 11, 1825, the first meeting in the newly organized township of Stillwater was held at his house and he was elected a member of the town committee. He was a Director of the Sussex Bank. In 1825 he was a member of the assembly, and was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas for fifteen years, beginning Jan. 21, 1833. He had many warm friends and was kind to the poor. — Armstrong Record. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 6 1 children, the oldest dying in infancy. The two surviving ones are Adelaide and Alexander C. Adelaide was married about a year ago to Dr. Denis. Sister Euphemia married Mr. Henry Miller, son of the late Major Miller of German Valley. They had four children — Rev. J. E. Miller/ Elizabeth, the oldest, who died many years ago, Margaretta, and Emma, the youngest. Sister and her family reside at Stroudsburg, Pa., where Edwin has a charge. Sister Sarah married Rev. Jacob R. Castner, ' of Bask- ingridge, about the year 1813. They had nine children — ^ Rev. James Edwin Miller was born near Clinton, Hunterdon County, N. J., April 13, 1823. He began the study of law with his uncle, the Hon. Jacob W. Miller, of Morristown. Subsequently, in order to study for the ministry, he entered Lafayette College, where he graduated in 1845. He spent three years in the Princeton Theological Seminary and graduated from that institution in 1848. His first pastorate was the Second Presbyterian Church, Sparta, N. Y., 1850-54. He then became pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Stroudsburg, Pa., until 1859. He taught school for a number of years in Stroudsburg and Phillipsburg, N. J. Later on he preached at New Egypt, N. J., and Plumsteadville, Pa. He afterwards re- moved to Minnesota and served the Presbyterian churches in Shakopee and Taylor's Falls for five years. Owing to the severity of the climate, he removed to Smyth County. Va., where he re- mained a short time, returning to New Jersey in 1879. On account of feeble health, he was able to preach only occasionally, and died at Stillwater, N. J., Oct. 24, 1885. "Rev. Jacob R. Castner, born at Liberty Corner, Somerset Co., N. J., pursued his classical studies at Princeton, Class of 1809, and studied theology under Dr. Finley at Baskingridge. His first pastorates were at German Valley, Hocks Hill, and Black River. He was pastor of Mansfield from 1818 until his death, which occurred suddenly at Washington, N. J., April 26, 1848. Rev. Dr. Junkin says of him : "He was a natural orator and one of the best, if not the very best, extempore speakers in the Presbytery or Synod. He was an able, laborious, and successful minister of the Word. An early and fearless champion of the temperance reformation, he probably did more for that cause than any other man in the Presby- tery. He was utterly fearless, a man of unwayering moral courage, one of the most delightful conversers I ever heard. He was almost idolized by his congregation." See "The Early Germans of New Jersey," Chambers, p. 114, etc. 62 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. Mary, Emma, John, Edmund, Margaretta, William, Elizabeth, Anna and Amanda. Emma and William died of scarlet fever within a few days of each other, many years ago. Brother Castner was a vety laborious, able and efficient pastor. He was first settled at the German Valley, whence after a few years he removed to Asbury and took charge of the Mansfield congregation, which, being very large, and agreeing to divide, he removed to Washington and took charge of the northern part of the flock, which liad then become a separate organization. He departed this life five or six years ago, in about the 63d year of his age. Mary married a gentleman of the name of Lyman. They had two daughters. She died soon after the birth of the younger one. Edmund and Elizabeth are both married, the latter to Mr. John Davis, the former to a sister of Mr. Davis. They have each, I think, two or three children. Margaretta was married to the Rev. George Marriner, of Philadelphia,^ and has one daughter, Anna. John and the two younger sisters re- main single. Sister Sarah, after having spent a toilsome life in raising an interesting family of children, is now, after relinquishing the cares of housekeeping, living most of her leisure with her children and friends. I ought to have said in connection with sister Euphemia that her husband, Henry Miller, a man of exemplary piety and most amiable character, died of consumption in the city of New York many years ago. Brother William married Miss Fanny Stewart, from ' Rev. George K. Marriner, born at Lewes, Del., Nov. 9, 1821, graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary; teacher at Basking- ridge and Mays Landing, N. J.; pastor at Warren, Pa.; died at Trenton, N. J., Sept. 5, 1869. MEMOIRS AND REMINISOENGBS. 63 the vicinity of Hackettstown. They have two sons, Edwin and John, sprightly lads. They, together with brother Finl6y, occupy the old homestead and conjointiy drive on the farm and mill. Sister Hargaretta is the only one of the family remain- ing single. She built herself a beautiful and commodious dvfelling on the back road leadirtg down in the direction towards Wintermute's. It is handsomely located, being one -of a row of houses situated along the foot of the lime- Stone hill overlooking the valley of Stillwater. Her lawn in front is adorned with a variety of ornamental and choice fruit trees. Sister Elizabeth was married to Rev. Isaac N. Candee,^ Jan. I, 1829. She died soon after the birth of her second child, which survived her but a short time. The surviving daughter, Sally, now over twenty years of age, was on a visit to Stillwater in the summer of 1853-4. She is now residing with -some friends in the State of Indiana; she has since married Mr. Love. Thus upon a retrospect of our family it will be seen that we have been greatly blessed in increase and preser- vation. Our parents were married Jan. 11, 178 1, nearly seventy-four years ago; and out of twelve children born to them there -are seVen of us still remaining as monu- ments of great mercy. Intemperance abounded much in our country from my earliest remembrance. West India rum was the article principally in use at first. Apple whiskey was even then ^Rev. Isaac N. Candee, D. D., was born at Galway, N. Y., Oct. 30, 1801. He graduated at Union College in 1825 and Princeton Theological Seminary; Pastor, at Belvidere, N.J., 1834-40; Agent Board of Foreign Missions, 1840-49 ; Pastor Lafayette, Irid., and ^©al6sborg,^'ll.; died'at-Peoria, III., June 19, 1874. 64 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. manufactured to a limited extent, but being the cheaper beverage, its production soon increased in such manner as to supersede the former. And not content with con- verting the precious fruit into the liquid poison, the staff of life was also appropriated to the same vile purpose. Rye and corn, to this end, were brought extensively into requisition ; and it went on increasing until, like the great deluge, it seemingly flooded the whole land, every neigh- borhood, almost, having its distillery. Consequently intemperance prevailed to a fearful extent, slaying its thousands. The temperance reformation, however, at length came with healing in its wings, giving a check to the fell monster. But the serpent is only scotched, it will never be effectually destroyed until it is made a penal offence to vend alcoholic liquors as a beverage. It was the universal custom in our country in the time of my youth, and prior thereto, to travel on horse-back. Even the ladies, both young and old, were very expert at this exercise. The young ladies then had no need to go to riding school. From their childhood they were taught to mount the side saddle and manage their horse. Being thus early initiated, they became as the French say, "au fait au cheval." Even my grandmothers had each her riding horse appropriated to her own special use. Pleasure carriages were a thing hardly known in those days, but modern refinement and taste have introduced the more easy and luxurious but less chivalrous and hardy practice of riding in carriages; so that now you will see on the Sabbath the light Jersey wagon and other light vehicles lining the streets proceeding on their way to church, instead of the cavalcade on horseback. I will not omit to notice in passing, a barbarous and MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 65 brutal custom that prevailed in our country at an early period, and which was not wholly laid aside in my younger days, viz : at husking bees, stone frolics, military training and other public gatherings, it was not unusual, after the business of the day was concluded, for some of the hardier fellows who by this time were pretty well charged with the good "ceiter" to embrace the oppor- tunity, while the steam was up, to settle in an amicable way some old grudge, and pay off old scores, by having a pugilistic set-to. The manner of proceeding was some- what as follows : The combatants stripped to the bare- back, their seconds being chosen, whose business it was to see "fair play," and the ring of fifteen or twenty feet in diameter being formed, at it they would go; and hard blows being freely dealt for a little while, the parties militant would probably fall to the ground, then punch- ing, gouging and biting. And if the parties escaped without the loss of an eye or an ear, a finger or more bitten off, they were esteemed fortunate. If, when they were prostrated, either one of the parties for want of breath cried "wind," they were separated for a time, and if either of the belligerents cried "enough" they were parted, and thus ended the sport, which, though savage, is yet better than dueling. There was also a very laudable practice prevailing in our country at an early period, which is now more or less prevalent in all new settled countries where laboring hands are scarce, viz: when any heavy operation was to be performed, such as raising a new building, husking a field of corn, removing stones oflf a field, clearing new ground, etc., to invite the neighbors to come in a body and give a helping hand, thus having what was called a "bee" [5 66 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. or "frolic," closing the operations with a plentiful and rather sumptuous supper. The new-ground operation was somewhat after this sort : The neighbors would pro- ceed to the forest with their axes and grubbing hoes and set to work felling the smaller trees and cutting them up for rails and firewood, and girdling the larger ones to prevent the circulation of the sap, thus causing their death, and these after a year or two were to be cut down and converted into fence rails and firewood. With the grubbing hoe the small saplings and underbrush were taken out by the roots, cut up, and the brush piled into heaps, and when dry, burned; the ashes of which help to fertilize the virgin soil. The plow is now introduced, scratching between the stumps and roots, thus very imperfectly preparing the ground for the seed, which is best covered by a drag or brush, drawn over the field. A moderate crop is the husbandman's reward. One of the good things derived from the Puritan fathers of New England was the cultivation of church music. To this end singing schools were at an early day introduced by the younger portion of society. The winter evenings were appropriated to this exercise. We thought nothing in those days of jumping into the sleigh and driving four or five miles to singing school, and returning home by ten o'clock at night. Our teaching was con- fined rather to the elementary and practical part of music, not entering much into the theoretic or scientific part of it. The character of the music taught was of the fugue kind, wherein harmony rather than melody predominated. Although the gamut or grammar was not entirely over- looked, yet the fundamental principles of the science were not as thorougWy inculcated as might have been desirable. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 67 Our teachers, so far as I can recollect, were as follows, viz: Upson, Linn, Belcher, Morgan, McCracken, etc. Formerly the snows fell much deeper and the winters were more severe in this country than of late years. I have heard my father say that in the winter of 1780-81 the depth Of Snow was such that in traveling they did not confine themselves to the road, but drove over fences and across fields, the snow being sufficiently hard to bear them, since which period the weather at that season has been gradually growing milder; so much so that some winters will pass with scarcely snow enough for any sleighing. It is now a very rare thing for the Delaware to be frozen over, whereas formerly this was an ordinary occurrence. Evidently our climate is ameliorating and becoming similar in temperature to the same degree of latitude on the European continent. Now as to the cause of this change various opiniohs are entertained, some assigning one cause and some another. My own long- cherished opinion is that it is owing principally to two things: first, to clearing away the forests and opening up the swamps, whereby the surface of the ground being exposed to the action of the sun and the accumulated moisture being evaporated, the ground becomes dryer and consequently warmer. A second cause contributing, I think, in no small degree to the same effect, is the cultiva- tion of the soil ; the action of the plow, in turning up the sub-soil, thus loosening the ground and exposing a greater surface to the action of the sun, consequently also produc- ing increased dryness and warmth. With the increased heat of the ground, the temperature of the atmosphere is likewise increased, cotiSequently less snow falls and is sooner melted. These several causes contirtuingf to act. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 69 enveloped in flames, and soon with all its contents, except the live stock, reduced to a heap of smouldering ruins. All the cattle, both horses and cows, were very fortu- nately, through the exertions of those present, safely rescued from the devouring element. My mother and old Dine, the colored woman, heroically entered the cow- stable, unchained the poor beasts and let them escape, while the conflagration was raging over their heads. Every quadruped was thus got safely out of danger; but what became of the poor fowls, whether rescued or con- sumed alive, I do not recollect. This catastrophe occurred late in the fall, and I distinctly recollect the sympathy and kindness of the neighbors on the occasion, some taking cattle to winter, others bringing loads of hay to supply the wants of those that were necessarily kept at home. During the next spring and summer the present barn was erected. The old school house in which I received the first elements of my English education, I believe, has gone to decay. It was situated about two or three hundred yards west of sister Margaretta's dwelling, close under the hill where the lime-stone rocks jut out furthest. The teachers were numerous in a long succession of years. First of all was Paddy MacElvany, fresh from the green Shamrock. He gloried in teaching children to read hard names, together with the Children's and Westminster Shorter Catechism. In consequence of his too great liking for the ardent, his right hand refused its cunning, and he resorted to the use of copperplates to teach his pupils chirography. The next was Hubbard, an old Revolutionary soldier from New England. He was given to inebriation also. The next was Crosby, from the isle of Erin. He was JO MEM0IR3 AND REMINISCENCES. generally sober, but never refused good cheer when offered gratuitously. Next came one by the name of Hand — ^not remarkable for any great deeds. To him succeeded Boulton, a great arithmetician, but addicted occasionally to long-continued sprees. He as well as the following, whose name I do not recollect, were both from the Emerald Isle; the last, as well as the preceding, delighted to suck the liquid poison. The next was Mr. Graham, a gentlemanly man who also came from Ireland. He married Miss Polly Arrison, my father's cousin. Next came Dillingham, a Revolutionary soldier; was in the battle of Monmouth under Washington. After him succeeded Coffee, an Irish strolling play actor, who taught us something of the art of speaking dialogues, etc., and gave us a taste for theatricals. After this I tended mill for five years; then in May, 1803, went to grammar school at Baskingridge, under the tuition of the late Dr. Finley. One week previous to my leaving home on this occasion, viz : on the eighth of May, a snow fell to the depth of six inches, killing the fruits. A commodious academy was erected some years ago at the head of the lane, in which a flourishing school is now kept. For a period of about a quarter of a century, an insect called the Hessian fly preyed upon the growing wheat crop in our part of the country to such an extent as almost to prevent its culture. After this period the ravages of the insect gradually ceasing, the cultivation of wheat was resumed, and has been successfully pursued to the present day. The state of agriculture has much improved of late years, and fine crops of wheat are now raised in all parts of the country. During the suspension of wheat-^growing, the dependence for bread was upon corn, rye and buck- Shafer Homestead, Still-water. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 7^ wheat. The corn raised at Stillwater and vicinity was peculiarly rich and sweet. The period of the fly depreda- tion commenced about the year 1794. The soil in the region around Stillwater is susceptible of a high state of cultivation. It needs only the aid of science to bring out its full capacity for production. The distance of some fifty miles to market suggested the idea of converting grain, roots, etc., into stock, and thus save the expense of heavy transportation. Pursue the grass and root culture, feed cattle and they will furnish manure. I think my brothers, William and Finley, have within their reach the means of enriching their farm to almost any desirable extent, in the possession within half a mile of their dwelling of an inexhaustible quantity of shell- marl, and an illimitable deposit of black mould or muck in their lower meadows; which two ingredients, if made into compost by mixing about three parts muck to one of marl, and this spread upon the land at the rate of thirty or forty two-horse loads to the acre and plowed in, would greatly fertilize the soil. The increased production would well pay for the extra expense. The compost should be formed in the fall, so as to give it the benefit of the winter's frost. In the fruit line the staple production is applies, almost every farmer having his own apple orchard. In general, however, they are only the natural fruit. Few persons in the neighborhood, except at Stillwater, have as yet paid much attention to grafting. Cherries are very generally raised. Every farmer will have his row of cherry trees. They consist almost invariably of what is called the common red cherry; the trees growing not very tall, with a well-formed round top. They are great 72 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. bearers, and are rather large, bright red, and have a rich, juicy sub-acid taste. I think they are about the finest cherries for pies I ever knew. It is much to be regretted that so Httle attention is paid to its culture. On a recent visit to that part of the country, I was pained to observe the old stock of trees almost gone, through decay, and no care taken to replace them by a younger growth, so that there is reason to fear the species will become extinct. The tall cherry tree, raised to some extent, though handsomer in its conical shape, yet does not bear so good fruit as the other. Pears are raised to a limited extent. Plimis, a garden fruit, are not much attended to, but where their garden culture is pursued, their product is abundant and of excellent quality. I have eaten as fine ones at Stillwater as are usually seen in the Philadelphia markets. Quinces are raised pretty generally as a garden fruit. Currants, raspberries and gooseberries are common products of the garden. In regard, however, to straw- berries, raspberries and blackberries, a majority of people depend mainly on the natural growth of the field. Whortle or buckle berries grow abundantly in the moun- tain forests. Peaches have not succeeded in that part for many years. Two causes seem to militate against their success. First, the late frosts in the spring, to obviate which the trees should be planted on the north side of hills to retard the blossoms beyond the reach of frosts. A second cause of their decay is the cutting of a worm around the root, just under the surface of the ground, eating through the bark and thus destroying the circulation of the sap. Three methods have been resorted to for the purpose of destroy- ing these vermin. First, to dig around the root and with MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 73 a jackknife cut out the worm; though an effectual remedy, it is laborious and tedious, and must perhaps be repeated every year. A second plan is after cutting out the worm as above, then to coat the denuded root with tar, so as to prevent their re-access to the root of the tree. These two operations should be performed in the spring of the year. A third plan is after clearing away the sod and dirt a little from the root of the tree, then to pour a bucket of boiling hot soap-suds around the root, which speedily destroys the worms and fertilizes the tree. In this case there is no necessity for cutting out the worm previous to the scald- ing. This last method I am in favor of as being easier and more beneficial than either of the others. The suds may be applied at any season when the vermin may be alive. Putting lime and ashes about the root and mulch- ing straw or tan, all have their good effect in this way. I presume the same treatment would answer an equally good purpose with other fruit trees, as the apricot, plum, quince, etc. The blackberry is a fruit whose culture has scarcely as yet been attempted even by our city gardeners. Its excellence as a table fruit is held in much higher esteem than formerly, and I have no doubt that the berry would be greatly improved, both in size and flavor, by suitable horticulture. Of native grapes, there are two or three different kinds at and around Stillwater. The fox grape is the most abundant, growing along the streams and in the wooded valleys. It is rather a large fruit, thick skin, and not very highly flavored. Their most useful application is to take them in their unripe state and stew for tarts, and also to preserve. There is also a smaller variety growing on the ledges of the lime-stone cobbles. They have a pleasant 74 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. sub-acid taste; do not come to maturity until frost comes, hence they have got the name of "frost grapes." They are esteemed for preserving and used for pies, tarts, etc. They cultivate in addition some foreign grapes at Still- water as the Isabella, Catawba and one or two kinds sup- posed originally to have come from Germany, of a very superior quality. Of edible nuts Various kinds abound at Stillwater and in the vicinity, as the chestnut, shellbark, walnut, butter- nut, hazlenut, etc. The native plums growing at Still- water were of a delicious flavor — ^how far they might have been improved by culture has never to my knowledge been brought to the test of experiment. The principal forest trees of that region are white oak, black oak, hickory, walnut, chestnut, poplar, beech, elm, maple, buttonwood, birch, dogwood, etc., etc. In some of the swamps near the Kittatiny or Blue Mountain ihe spruce, pine or tamarack abounds. The crab apple formerly flourished along the kill, and perhaps does still. So far as my recollection serves me, the growth of the native grapes above alluded to is confined principally if not entirely to the lime-stone region. Cherries flourish best on the slate ridge and mountain districts. The peach and apple and stone fruits, in general, do best on ground cul- tivated in hoed crops, such as corn, potatoes, etc., and not in sowed grain. I must not omit to mention in passing the existence of a natural curiosity at Stillwater, viz : a mound of some six feet elevation lying in the lower field near the lime- stone hill in front of sister Margaretta's house. It is flat on the surface, covering about an acre of ground. Now the query is, what should have caused this singular MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 75 elevation while the whole field around is perfectly level? In theorizing on the subject, I have supposed that inas- much as it could not be accounted for from natural causes, it must be a work of art, that the hand of the aborigines must have been engaged in its production, and it is, per^ haps, the work of centuries gone by; its object being probably either for a necropolis or depository of the dead, or els? a military fortification. Mounds of a similar kind and for like purposes are frequent in ,the western country. The ground over this mound has been under cultivation for a century past, without the least suspicion,, perhaps., of what might be deposited underneath- I have often thought it would be a matter of no small interest to make an excavation into the same with a view to solve the problem as to its surmised contents. Slavery formerly existed here to a limited extent. The Van Campens over the mountains, my father and his brothers and my uncles Armstrong, all held slaves of the African race, more or less. My father held at one time, eight or ten of them. The system, however, existed here in its milder form. The slaves and white laborers associ- ated and worked together, and in all respects fared alike, only that in lodging and messing they were separate. This was the only distinction as regards their domestic treatment; the blacks feeling as much interest in the pros- perity of the farm and stock as the others. They indeed felt a greater degree of home interest, being in a measure allodial to or indentified with the soil. Yet notwithstand- ing, they were held as chattels and, like other personal property, liable to transfer. And although there was little traffic in slaves, yet enlightened Christian philanthropy began to produce doubts in the minds of the better 76 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. informed, whether it was right to hold their fellow beings in a state of bondage, liable to be bought and sold as cattle. This sentiment growing and strengthening with the increasing light of the age, gradually brought about emancipation. And finally the slaves were set free, an act of the Legislature enjoining the same thing after a limited age.^ As a memento of the olden time and as tending also to illustrate a feature in the German character, I will just allude to one or two things by the way, viz: In my younger boyhood, when the old German congregation was in its more flourishing condition, the Rev. Jacob Senn being pastor and old Mr. Kingsbury being chorister, the old gentleman would start and carry out the tune in a peculiarly soft and effeminate voice, which though not unmusical had somewhat of the whistling sound of the whippoorwill, which rendered it peculiarly attractive and interesting. Now along with this we had the full clear musical tones of old Mrs. Swartzwelder, who, throwing her whole soul into the sacred song, would extend her shrill voice so as to fill the whole house, drowning the clerk's clear voice and obscuring those of the whole con- gregation. This last was singing in the true German style. The great contrast between the two when com- bined in one harmonious concert constituted a perform- ance at once both unique and interesting. Still further to bring into view some traits of the foreign German character, I will relate one or two anecdotes. First, of old Mr. Kingsbury above named. He was a tanner as "■ By a law passed Feb. 15, 1804, it was enacted that all slaves bom after July 4, 1804, should become free on reaching the age of twenty- five years. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. ^^ well as a farmer in a small way, and in his code of dis- cipline it was his practice literally to fulfil the divine command and not spare the rod, so that for every devia- tion from the path of rectitude a flagellation was the penalty. The apprentice boys were not long in finding out, by certain unequivocal signs, when the steam was up and what would certainly follow, and accordingly pre- pared for the ordeal in arming themselves with a coat of mail by tying their leather aprons on their backs under their shirts; thus, while gaining to themselves the credit of summary correction, they adroitly shifted the penalty upon the guilty cowhide. Another anecdote bearing upon the same point was the case of an old German widow lady who resided on a very small farm about a mile from Stillwater. She had two children, Henry and Katy Adams. Henry, as industrious a creature as need be, carried on the miniature farm with great neatness and efficiency; Katy, of course, managed the dairy (for they kept several good cows), and attended to the household affairs. The old lady was and had been bedfast for many years; yet, prostrated as she was, she was the ruling spirit of the whole concern. All orders and directions pro- ceeded from her lips. A strict account was also required by her of all the operations on the premises, both indoor and out, and Henry, though some forty years of age, must obey minutely all her instructions. And if he deviated in the smallest degree, even inadvertently, he incurred a severe retribution, for on these occasions the trembling son when summoned to her bedside would receive on his back the infliction oi the rod with all the force that a feeble mother's arms could apply it, poor Henry bearing 78 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. the chastisement in all due submission, and I suppose he profited by the discipline. I have oftai wondered how our name came to lose its original (Jerman orthography, "Schaefer" (Anglice Shep- herd), and to be changed into the barbarous soubriquet, "Shaver." My grandfather spelled his name Schaeffer, as is seen in ancient documents and records. Why, then, should the strange alteration have been effected? My father doubtless could have explained the matter, but I never thought of making the inquiry, and I suppose there is no one now living who could throw light upon the subject. I have ventured to assume the original, and I hope it will yet be adopted by all my relatives. It may not be amiss, perhaps, in this place to say a few words in regard to the animal creation formerly pre- dominating in this part of the country. And first, of quadrupeds, domestic and wild. Of the domestic kind, horses claim the first notice, as the most noble of quadru- peds. They were possessed universally by the farmers, and of stout, strong, serviceable breed, suitable either for the plow, the team, or the saddle. My Uncle Isaac possessed a noble stud horse of high blood, whose foals were a superior race of spirited animals, well adapted for all service. This noble sire, Marquis, was my father's military steed on the western expedition. His usual gait when on the march was that of prancing. He moved majestically, and Was very much admired on that occasion, seeming to be proud of his situation and to take delight in keeping step with the martial music. The horned cattle were of the ordinary breed of the country, originally, I suppose, from some English stock. The cows yielding rich milk were good for the dairy. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 79 The steers, well trained, made fine oxen either for the plow or the team, and both when fattened made excellent beef. Sheep were kept generally by the farmers in moderate numbers. Their wool was of rather a coarse quality and was generally manufactured in the family and answered well for ordinary domestic purposes. Their lamb and mutton, when well fattened, were good for the table. In the early part of this century^ the breed of sheep was much improved by a cross with the Merinos, which were introduced into the country from Spain and France about that period, and subsequently into many parts of the country from Saxony. Swine were almost universally raised, every household, almost, having its piggery. They were of different qualities, some large and fine, others of an inferior grade. The better grade, well fattened, made excellent pork and hams. The Berkshires and other improved varieties were not introduced until a later period. It was formerly the practice at Stillwater to make what was called "bloodwurst" after this manner, viz : take the finer and more cerous part of the blood, mix with it a due proportion of fat meat cut into small bits, season with salt, pepper, etc.; then put it in sacks made of the larger intestines and boil for say half an hour. When wanted for use, cut it into thin slices and fry, a delicious dish. The canine species next claim a passing notice. I suppose they have always been the companions of civilized man. Their prevalence has been universal in our country, every householder having one or more attached to his domicile. They were generally of the large mastiff breed, and useful in the country as a safe- *The nineteenth. 80 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. guard to the premises at night, but in the city, where they also abound, they are not only useless but a perfect nuisance, which ought to be abated. The great objection to their existence in the city is their liability to become rabid. For one mad dog may do more mischief in one short hour than all the dogs in creation are worth. I will next notice some of the more prominent of the wild animals that formerly inhabited this part of the country. First, of the harmless and useful. Of these the deer stands first in order; good for their venison as well as for their skin. They originally were plentiful in the forests, but as the country became more cleared up and settled, they gradually disappeared. But about twenty- five years since they for some cause reappeared, and were rather plentiful in the mountains, frequently falling vic- tims to the hunter's rifle. Bears may be ranked among the inoffensive beasts, though they are sometimes mis- chievous. They are useful for food as well as for their hide, retaining their hair. They formerly abounded, but have now for many years almost entirely disappeared. Bruin, with many other tenants of the forest, seeks his domicile in the untrod wilderness. The rabbit, the ground hog, raccoon, and squirrel, all abounded formerly to a greater or less extent, but of late years they are less abundant. These are all useful for food — ^their peltries also in some degree valuable. I will next notice some of the mischievous of the wild animals; and first, of the wolf, one of the fiercest and most ferocious of the dwellers in the forest, proverbial for its nightly depredations on sheepfolds, and also prey- ing upon the young of other animals. They have been known even to attack man when a hungry pack of them MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 8 1 would happen to meet a solitary individual in a lonely place at night. It is the opinion of some naturalists that the dog originally sprang from the wolf. In their physical conformation they bear a strong resemblance to each other, and in their character there seems to be not a very remote analogy. The wolf was found numerous and very destructive at an early period of our country's history; but as the forests, their favorite haunt, were cleared up and the country settled, they gradually with- drew to more remote regions. Re3mard the fox, though not ferocious like the wolf, is yet more famed for his cunning and equally destructive in his furtive and nightly visitation to the hen roost. Such is his subtlety and mischievous character that he deserves to be ranked among the varmints. Both the wolf and fox are worth- less except for their pelts. Now a few words about those animals more properly denominated vermin. First, the mink is a small black sleek creature, whose place of resort is along water courses and low ground. Its depredations are mainly upon eggs, chickens, goslings, ducklings, etc. They were never numerous, and less so now than formerly. The skunk is a remarkable little animal, of a black color and white tail. It is equally prone as the mink to commit ravages upon hens' nests, young chickens, ducks, etc. But their chief peculiarity is their power of emitting a re- markably offensive and subtle odor, which fills the atmosphere for a distance around, its disagreeable fetors continuing to affect the surrounding air for days together. Their principal means of defence when pursued is to pour out their vials of wrath, and thus in its overwhelming stench, make good their retreat. They burrow about [6 82 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. barns and stables and low grounds, and are less numerous than formerly. The muskrat is an amphibious animal, burrowing in the banks of streams, commencing its exca- vation just under the surface of the water. They tunnel it in a direction upward, so as to place their nest, which is made of weeds and grass, out of the reach of the water. Their chief injury is in undermining meadow banks, and the banks of mill races. Their only utility is their peltry, their fur being valuable. They are generally caught by trapping. There are fewer than formerly. Of reptiles, I beg to make a few remarks. At an earlier day the country was a good deal infested with them. The only venomous amongst the several kinds were the rattle snake and the pilot, the former having their dens in the caverns of the neighboring rocks, and making their appearance in the spring when the genial rays of the sun would warm them into life. The latter were usually found in the meadows at mowing time. The bite of both these is poisonous, and has sometimes proved fatal, their venom being of an acid character. The best means to counteract its effects was the use of alkalies, as the spirit of ammonia (hartshorn), solution of potash or soda, taken inwardly as well as applied to the wound, or by poultice. These reptiles are rarely seen at the present day. The blacksnake is supposed not to be venomous, and is formidable only from its sneaking propensity to act the boa constrictor. It can move at a rapid rate. He is known to have entwined himself around the neck of an ox with a view to strangle him, and then tap the jugular vein, the poor beast meanwhile running and bellowing for life. The water snake and garter snake are harmless, and scarcely deserve a passing notice. Of all the walk- MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 83 ing or creeping things in creation, I have the greatest ai>horrence for snakes, and am happy to find they are gradually disappearing from the abodes of men. The toad is, I think, classed among the reptiles, but it is harm- less, and at the same time very useful in the garden in catching numerous insects and protecting the tender plants from their depredations. Having got through with what I have to say about quadrupeds, both wild and tame, and creeping things, I next proceed to say a few words in relation to the feathered tribes, both domestic as well as some of those less perfectly domesticated. And I would here remark that the preceding and succeeding observations about animals have reference to Stillwater and its vicinity. Of the domestic fowls, the peacock, from the splendor of its plumage and lofty bearing, seems to claim the first notice. From my earliest remembrance they were raised and kept at Stillwater. It is rather a shy bird, light upon the wing, ranging at large over the farm. Their shrill notes are generally an indication of an approaching storm. When he struts and spreads his full-grown tail, forming a semi-circle of about seven or eight feet in diameter, exhibiting all the variegated hues for the rainbow, the show is magnificent. They lay but few eggs, are hardy and easily raised, are useful for the table, but are mainly prized for their beautiful plumage. The neck of the male bird is an elegant mixture of changeable blue and green. The turkey is a famous bird; has always been raised at Stillwater — ^useful almost only for the table. But for this it is pre-eminent. Who does not know the luxury of a fine young roast gobbler with cranberry 84 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. sauce ? The domestic bird sprang from the wild turkey, which roams at large in the western wilds and prairies. It is indigenous to America. Dr. Franklin was of opinion that the turkey should have been adopted as the aegis of American liberty instead of the eagle. The common chicken is universally known and possessed, valuable both for its eggs and the table. The shanghais, cochin chinas, etc., have been lately introduced, and improved the breed of fowls very much in size. The cruel practice of caponizing is being to some extent introduced, by which means the size and flavor of the bird are much improved. The Guinea hen was early introduced at Stillwater. It is a pretty bird of dappled gray color, with a lively note of "buckwheat, buckwheat." It is a hardy fowl, easy to raise, useful for its eggs and the table. It was introduced originally from Africa. Tame pigeons have been for a long time cultivated at Stillwater. They are very little trouble to raise. All the care they need is to be provided with a well-sheltered cage and a little grain in the winter season. If well provided for, they will generally lay and hatch two eggs every month, except February. When full grown and ready to fly the squabs are very fat and make a delicious barbecue. They are much on the wing, have no musical note, but are yet very companionable. I will now advert for a few moments to birds of pas- sage, of a domestic and social character. And first, of the robin, "sweet robin red-breast," who never fails to make his annual return in early spring to his former abode; taking possession of the orchard and garden, and greeting the domestic circle with his lively chirps. His morning and evening songs are delightful. In the months of May and June at Stillwater it is really enchanting to hear sing- MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 8$ ing of the various kinds of feathered songsters, commenc- ing at the break of day and continuing till after sunrise. It is one unbroken stream of choral sounds, cock robin taking the lead in the performance, followed by the black- bird, the thrush, meadow-lark, pewee, wren, chippie, martin and hosts of others in endless variety, making one universal strain of harmonious song, each to vie with the other who shall raise the highest note of praise to the Great Creator. How often have I listened with rapture to the united burst of morning melody of these feathered songsters in their simple joyous strains uttering praise to the great I Am. Give thanks to Him all ye creatures of His. The different varieties of the swallow, as the martin, the barn swallow, chimney and bank swallow,, etc., make their regular visits, occupying their former domicile with each returning season and cheering us with lively chatter. The martin in his annual visitation likes to be accommo- dated with a cage. Now a question arises as to the utility of these welcome annual visitors who so delightfully enliven our rural scenery. In return for the very small quantity of fruit consumed, they destroy myriads of insects that prey upon the fruits of the earth. They also devour immense quantities of the larvae of insects and worms. Hence they are more to be commended a thous- and times than the reckless sportsman who goes prowling about the premises in mere wantonness for their destruc- tion. Spare the birds. Spare them for their music, spare them for their utility. It is almost needless to mention other birds of passage, as the whippoorwill, the wood- pecker, bluejay, red-bird, catbird, meadow-lark, etc., etc., all of which have their cheering and enlivening effect, and 86 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. teach lessons of wisdom to man. The pheasant and the quail spend their winters with us. I ought, perhaps, before the last-named class, to have spoken of the domesticated aquatic fowls. Of these the goose claims the first attention. There is a considerable variety of the genus Anser. The kind always raised at Stillwater were the large gray variety, good breeders, and useful for their feathers as well as for the table. A young fat roast goose is a savory dish. Ducks were cultivated to some extent formerly at Stillwater. They were large, of a dark gray color, the drakes wearing a beautiful dark green head-dress. They afforded good feathers, but were chiefly esteemed for the table. A young fat roast duck is an inviting and savory dish. The only ones of the entomological or insect class that I shall mention are the honey bee and the common house fly. These two insects seem to follow in the track of civilization. Wherever civilized man has fixed his habi- tation these two little busy animals are also found industriously discharging their respective offices. The one for utility exclusively, the other partly beneficial and partly tormenting to both man and beast. The bee is a wonderful creature. It forms its cells in constructing its combs with the greatest mathematical precision in, I think, pentagonal figures, of about five-eighths of an inch in depth, each separated by a septum or partition from a cell corresponding to it on the other side of the comb. When these waxen cells are filled with the delicious fruit of their untiring industry, they are hermetically sealed, so throughout the whole extent of the curiously formed depository, until it is fully charged with that which contributes so essentially to the gratification and nourish- MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 87 ment of ungrateful man, who, to obtain the avails of their labors, was formerly in the habit of destroying the little meritorious producer thereof by applying the brim- stone. Modern science, however, has introduced a much improved hive, by means of which the honey can be obtained without killing the bee. The utility of the common house fly is to consume the carbonized atmosphere generated by human breaths, as well as other impurities of the air. Its being web-footed enables it to walk upon an upright mirror, or upon the ceiling of a room, where the most impure air of the apart- ment is found. Notwithstanding the above restriction in regard to insects, I think it hardly fair to pass by the three noted household pests in silence, viz : roaches, fleas and "bedlamites." The first abound greatly in cities, and take up their abode in kitchen closets and fire places, to the great annoyance of housekeepers, delighting in moisture and sweets. It is said the fresh leaves of elder, if strewed in their path, will drive them away. Red wafers will also destroy them to some extent, if broken fine and scattered in their places of resort. . Fleas abound where swine and the canine species resort. But they prefer, notwithstanding, to cultivate acquaint- ance with the higher order of creation and fatten at the expense of human flesh and blood, at whose cost enjoying . their nightly revels. The best remedy after hunting them down is to keep at a distance from those animals from whom they originate. The last-named gentry delight to take up their abode not in the kitchen or out-door apart- ments, but in the bed chamber and beds of good citizens. And if once sufifered to get the upper hand, they are a most troublesome pest and hard to be subdued. Various 88 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. remedies have been recommended and ' tried for the destruction of these vermin, as mercury, turpentine, etc. -But, like sin, nothing is so effectual to keep them under or within reasonable bounds as daily vigilance, hunting them out and waging an exterminating war. In this I doubt not every careful, prudent and tidy housekeeper will coincide with me. In this place I think it well to revert to certain dis- tinguished mercies experienced by several members of our family, in which the hand of God was most signally manifested. The first instance was in the case of my father, who on his return from the city of New Brunswick in the latter part of the winter of 1795 (where he, with other officers, had been to receive the arrearages of their pay for the campaign of the autumn previous) was overtaken in a severe snowstorm in which he contracted a heavy cold, the result of which was a severe fit of sickness which continued for a number of weeks. In the month of April succeeding, the smallpox being introduced into the family, a part of us were inoculated and sent over the way to Uncle Isaac's, to pass through the disease. My father, equally with the rest of us, was to be a subject of the operation, but was not yet thought sufficiently recovered for the ordeal. But it unaccountably so happened that although he was inoculated a couple of weeks after the first parcel of us, that he took the infection the natural way, notwithstanding all our precautions, and so severely that his life was for a time in great jeopardy. Yet the Lord in great goodness spared him yet for a quarter of a century, to the great comfort and benefit of his family. The next case of signal divine interposition was in MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 89 regard to myself, and it was on this wise. In the same spring of 1795, while my father was lying very ill with smallpox, I was sent to Fallmills on an errand, and on my return riding the mare Nance, who had thrown almost every one that had ever ridden her except my father, on rising a little hill she espied a hog nestling in the leaves in the fence corner, and as was her custom, like lightning she started and wheeled round while I, being off my guard, was landed with my head and shoulders resting on the ground. At this juncture the sensible beast, naturally gentle and docile, stood quite still, and for an instant, turning her head, looked earnestly at me as if sympathizing m my mishap, while I in the meantime was endeavoring to soothe her, and reaching up trying to disengage my foot from the stirrup, she, frightened at the awkward predicament I was in, jumped again as if electrified. The fragile girth giving way, very happily released me from my perilous situation ; the creature now making the best of her way home, and I not in the least injured, having obtained assistance at neighbor Swartz- welder's, arrived safely home likewise. The next narrow escape I had was when the horses ran away with my eldest sister and myself on a cold winter night, coming home from singing school. The same beast as above, and another spirited animal, had been cruelly left standing out as the custem then was, without blankets, to a rather late hour in the evening, and becoming com- pletely chilled were naturally disposed to move off at a rapid rate. Accordingly, after proceeding about a quarter of a mile, in crossing a little rivulet bridge, the sleigh giving a slight jog, off they started at the top of their speed. My sister instantly took the alarm, and throwing 90 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. , herself out into a snow bank, escaped unhurt. In the meantime I, Gilpin-Iike, atuck to the vehicle till, proceed- ing about 150 yards, the sleigh toppled over, landing me with the body in the fence corner, I receiving only a slight injury in the knee. The horses, the meanwhile, being at full liberty, pursued their course for about three miles until, endeavoring to cut across an angle of the road, they got entangled in the woods, the Nance mare receiving a bad cut in the foot which laid her by for the remainder of the winter. My sister and I made our way back to Uncle Roy's, who very kindly hitched up his sleigh and brought us home, when father and the bound boys turned out in search of the runaways, which they found about a quarter of a mile away from home, as above stated. Another incident, more thrilling perhaps than either of the preceding, occurring to me some time afterwards, was on this wise, viz : Being engaged in tending the saw mill and occasionally having help, so while the other person was hoisting the gate I would sportively take hold of the pin attached to the saw frame, and as the mill started slowly, lift myself up a short distance then drop down upon the loose floor of the mill, there being, however, an opening beside the saw frame large enough to let me through. It so happened on one occasion, that instead of lighting on the end of the board as usual, I slipped through the opening into the pitman-hole, about eight feet below, where I lay at the mercy of the great pitman crank slowly coming around threatening to dash me to pieces, while I was struggling to get out of my ugly situa- tion. Just at this critical moment the man at the gate happening to cast his eye down spied me, and instantly shutting the gate saved my life. How signal the care in liEMOiRS AND REMINISCENCES. pi this instance of a protecting Providence. My father, on hearing of the occurrence, remarked there is mercy yet. I escaped, thanks to the Blessed One, without sustainingf the least injury. The next instance of hair-breadth escapes was of my sister, Sarah, who when a Httle girl of about nine or ten years of age in returning from Hardwick church on a cold ■autumnal Sabbath, riding the Nance mare of skittish memory, who, being chilled after long standing, was ripe for a run. My sister being mounted and not well able to restrain the mettlesome beast, off she started, first upon a trot, then to a canter, and from that to a gallop, the rest of us the meanwhile pressing on, striving to overtake her. Sarah now finding the steed unmanageable, as a last resort letting go the reins, clung to the horns of the saddle. Thus in her wild career she passed by a multitude of people riding in the same direction, causing no little anxiety and alarm, until at length a gentleman whom she was passing at full speed, luckily caught hold of the bridle iand restrained the beast just at the brow of a steep hill, she having already become frightened at finding no restraint from the rider, and thus my sister was mercifully rescued from her perilous situation. The case of my brother Nathan falling into the water wheel was a remarkable instance of Providential inter- ference. It occurred in this wise, viz : Of a cold winter night he was tending the mill. When about eight or nine o'clock he went out to put ice or tallow on the outer gudgeon of the water-wheel, the forebay being all glib with ice, of which, perhaps, he was not aware, his foot slipping, he lost his balance and pitched head foremost into the wheel while in full motion, and striking his fore- 92 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. head, as I suppose, against one of the floats or buckets of the old-fashioned water-wheel, thence slipping between the buckets, he was floated down the tail race some distance. When recovering in some degree from the stun- ning effects of the fall and wound (the outer table of the frontal bone being badly fractured), he made an attempt to clamber up the steep bank of the mill race. He fell back from debility and loss of blood into the water again, no one being near to render any assistance. In a second attempt, however, he succeeded in gaining the top of the bank, and with difficulty made his way to the store, about a hundred yards distant, all streaming with blood, where he found father and some others, by whose aid he was brought home and taken care of. It was a happy circum- stance that only the outer table of the skull was fractured. That, however, was completely broken in. No particular surgical operation was called for in the case, yet it was many months before he fully recovered. The hand of God was sigpially interposed in this case. Before concluding this reminiscence I shall revert for a short time to the character, government and discipline of my father's family, together with some of the closing scenes of my parents' lives, with some reflections, etc. I know not at what period it was precisely that my parents made a public profession of religion. But it was before my recollection, and I presume it was under the ministry ' of either Mr. Thatcher or Mr. Condit; the former, I am inclined to think, as there seems from what I have heard to have been a revival there under his ministry. He pre- ceded Mr. Condit a short time. From my earliest remem- brance my father maintained family worship; always on the Sabbath morning and evening — ^not altogether so MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 93 regularly on the week days in the former as in the latter part of his life. He always pursued the practice of invok- ing a blessing before meals, and never neglected the scriptural and good old Puritanical rule of returning thanks to the giver of all good for the favors just received. "When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the Lord thy God for the good land which he hath given thee." Deut. viii, lo. Our parents were some- what strict in their discipline, but not rigid; maintaining with dignity and due decorum their authority, thereby securing implicit obedience, at the same time encouraging sufficient freedom of speech and action to preserve mutual confidence. We loved, feared, respected and revered them. In my childhood we were taught at school to answer such Bible questions as. Who was the first man? Who was translated? Who was the oldest man? the meekest man? the father of the faithful? the first martyr? the wisest man? Who built the ark? etc., etc. And when a little older, the Westminster Shorter Catechism. The Bible was our daily class book at school. It is the best reading book, and should never be banished from the school as a class book. The notion that by this means we make children too familiar with its contents and thus lessen their respect for it, is fallacious. It is only the plea of the skeptic and infidel.. It was the constant practice of my father in our youth every Sabbath evening to have us go over the whole of the Shorter Catechism, he asking the questions in rotation, closing the evening by singing a psalm or hymn, ard prayer, after reading a portion of scripture. My father had a sweet melodious voice for singing. How often have I listened to his fine tenor voice, attuned 94 MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. to a precious hymn, hegmling the Sabbath morning while breakfast was preparing. Were sacred music more culti- vated and practiced in the family, the happiest results Oiight be anticipated. Sweet melodious sounds have a wonderful effect in softening and tranquilizing the feel- ings and preparing the heart for devotional exercises. Thus the organ, if properly managed, is capable of doing much in this way. My father always expected the family to go to church on the Sabbath. Horses and vehicles were on hand for that purpose, when all hands hied over the hills to Hardwick meeting house. In his domestic habits my father, naturally of a mild and indulgent disposition, was a little strict in his dis- cipline, especially to the bound boys, in regard to whom his course might be a little bordering on German severity. The rod was not spared when dereliction of duty seemed to call for its application. I think I have said in a pre- ceding part of this writing that my father was of rather a modest, retiring disposition. Hence he was not calcu- lated to shine in a public deliberative assembly. And although not remarkable for acuteness or shrewdness of intellect, yet as a military man he excelled. Mounted on a spirited and well-trained horse, he appeared to great advantage; and in marshaling and manoeuvering his troop or squadron in the field he was in his element, proving himself not only an expert horseman, but likewise an able commander. It suited his taste and genius admirably. In his domestic qualifications, he was in his day a first rate miller,^ an excellent conductor of the farm, a good ^n 1816 Abraham Shaver and his sons Nathan and Peter had a store, grist-mill, tannery, blacksmith shop, oil mill, carding machines and distillery, at Stillwater, and were largely engaged in farming. They employed a good many people, and among the rest had, in 1816, as many as a dozen slaves.— rSnell's History of Sussex and Warren Counties. MEMOIRS AND REMINISCENCES. 95 mechanic, excelling in one not unimportant branch of mechanical art, being an expert carver of roast turkey. And now having gone through, though very imper- fectly, with the history of the life and death of my ancestors, I will corxlude these reminiscences and obser- vations. I submit them with all their imperfections to the perusal and indulgent criticism of my friends and relatives as well as their posterity, for whose benefit and entertainment the work was principally undertaken, hop- ing and praying that it may prove a blessing and comfort to them. It is rather remarkable that my ancestors and friends not only possessed the Christian religion, but almost all gave evidence of having died in the faith and have gone to heavenly rest. What a consolation does this afford! Thanks be to God for such an ancestry, who, having filled up the measure of their usefulness in this world, have entered into the rest that remaineth to the people of God. I rejoice that I can trace my lineage to such an ancestry. I esteem it a higher honor to be descended from such parentage than to be allied to the highest dignitaries of earth, if they are without piety. June 5, 1855. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES [7 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF Residents of Sussex County Now Deceased (1855) By REV. CASPER SCHAEFFER, M. D. I have often thought it would be desirable to attiempt a work of this kind, and I now regret that I had not begun a record of this sort many years ago. The review of such a work would be a matter of great satisfaction: the memory of the departed is in general too apt to be lost sight of by us. I shall begin by placing on the list the names of some of by-gohe days, without particular refer- ence to date, only so far as memory may serve to that end. JuD& John' Linn, a native of' Hardwick Township, of Irish extraction, after spending the earlier part of his life on his native place, removed with his family to Hardyston; ' in the" upper part of the County, where he purchased a farm and continued to reside the remainder of his days. He married the daughter of the senior Richard Hunt, of Hardwick. Jtidge Linn was possessed of a strong mind and sound judgment, endowed with talents above mediocrity ; ■ so that his influence was not inconsiderable in the community, and of a salutary kind. He represented the district in the United States Con- gress for several terms^ with honor to himself, as well ^ 1817-1821. lOO BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. as advantage and satisfaction to his constituents. While in Congress in the winter, I think, of 1822 or '23, he was taken ill and died of typhoid fever. His remains were shortly after sent for and brought home to his family. He was a professor of religion, and I think held the office of elder in the Presbyterian church. His age it his de- cease did not exceed sixty years.^ Rev. Joseph L. Shafer, D. D. My dear cousin Joseph was a native of Stillwater, Sussex County, N. J. We were brought up boys together until we left home to go to grammar school, he in 1802 to Lamington, and I to Baskingridge in 1803. He, after graduating at Princeton, turned his attention to the ministry, studying theology with the Rev. Dr. Woodhull, of Freehold, N. J. ; after licensure he preached some time in Hardyston, I think,' and after a short time settled in Newton, where he ^ John Linn, son of Joseph and Martha (Kirkpatrick) Linn, was born Dec. 3, 1763, in Hardwick township. During the Revolutionary War he was first private, then sergeant, in Capt. Manning's Company, Sussex, N. J., Troops. He married May 19, 1791, Martha Hunt, daughter of Richard Hunt, Sr., of Hardwick, who died July 25, 1827, in the 54th year of her age. They had fourteen children. He was sheriff of Sussex Co. and in 1805 was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas, serving for sixteen years. He was then elected member of Congress and re-elected for a second term. He died in Washington City, Jan. 5, 1821, of typhoid/ fever. His remains were brought the whole distance in a sleigh to the North Church cemetery, where he was buried. His sons. Dr. Alexander Linn and Dr. William Helm Linn, were eminent in their profession. His grand- son, William Alexander Linn, son of Dr. Alexander Linn, jour- nalist and author, graduated at Yale, and afterwards became one of the editors of the New York Tribune, and later of the New York Evening Post. He is author of a "Life of Horace Greely," "Story of the Mormons," land of other historical papers. He is now Presi- dent of the People's National Bank at Hackensack, N. J. '"In 181 1 Joseph Linn Shafer, D. D., began his ministry (in the Hardyston Presbyterian Church), giving by agreement one Sabbath out of four to the congregation at Cary's Meeting House, and preach- ing also at Sparta and Newton. He received $132 from the North Church (Hardyston) as their proportion of the salary. In 1815 he BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. lOI continued in the successful discharge of his ministerial duties for many years, during which period his labors were very much blessed; he having been favored with one or two remarkable revivals, in which seasons of refresh- ing many souls were hopefully brought into the Kingdom of Christ. Afterward he removed and settled at Middle- town Point for several years, and then returned again to his old charge at Newton, where he ended his days of pilgrimage and the ministry in November, 1853. Cousin Joseph was eminently a man of prayer, and therein con- sisted the secret of his success in the ministry. My Cousin Joseph was naturally unobtrusive, modest and retiring, and of a very amiable disposition; and although not particularly distinguished for pulpit eloquence, he will doubtless have many seals to his ministry in the day of Jesus Christ. Isaac Shafer, E^. My cousin Isaac was born at Stillwater, where he resided for a number of years after his mother's decease. The paternal domain falling into other hands, he took up his abode at Newton, where he resided with his family for a number of years, to the close of his life, which was, I think, about 1850. Cousin Isaac married a Miss Turner and raised a family of children. He was a professor of religion, and an efficient advocate of the temperance cause. (Born July 23, 1783; died Dec. 18, 1849). Abraham Shafer, Esq. My cousin Abraham Shafer ceased to preach in Hardyston and took the exclusive charge at Newton, remaining there as pastor until his death, with the excep- tion of two years spent at Middletown Point." See "Hardyston Memorial," etc., by Alanson A. Haines, Pastor, Newton, N. J., 1888, page 137. I02 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. was about eight years older than myself. He married very young, at the age of atx>ut nineteen years; his first wife was my cousin SaJly Beavers. They had two sons : she died in ^Id-bed with the second. His second .wife was my cousin Lydia Armstrong, from which union sprang several children, sons and daughters. Cousin Abraham's premature death occurred in 1824, at the age of forty-eight years; it resulted from a severe fall, which shocked and bruised him internally, and from neg- lect of being bled at the time, mortification ensued. He was a man of business and of sterling integrity. Although a regular and constant attendant at church, yet he never to my knowledge made a public profession of religion. He lost his second wife and remained a widower a num- ber of years before his decease. Dr. David Hunt. He was a son of Richard Hunt, of Hardwick, Sussex County, N. J. He studied medidne with Dr. Linn, of Newton, after whose death he assumed the extensive practice of more than twenty-five miles in range, and pursued the laborious and thankless business for near forty years. Literally living by day and by night on horseback until no longer able to keep the saddle, he took to his vehicle until the breaking down of a naturiuy robust constitution obliged him to relinquish the pursuit. He then lingered along for several years in an enfeebled state of health, until he ended his earthly career in pul- monary consumption. The doctor had never made a profession of religion; but disease and bodily infirmity, it is thought, brought him to serious reflection, giving ground to hope that he may have made his peace with God before his departure. His decease took place some BIOGRAPHICAL, NOTIOES. IO3 twenty years since. He married my cousin Sally Roy; they had three daughters. The moliier and second daugh- ter died many years before their husband and father. Dr. Elijah Everett resided in the township of Hard- wick. He was a practitioner in that region, having studied the healing art with Dr. Samuel Kennedy. He married the daughter of Joseph Gaston, Esquire. He was a professor of religion, and died at the age of about seventy-five years, in the year 1851. Dr. Palmer, originally of Connecticut, came to Hard- wick about 1 801, taught school for some time, and studied medicine in the meantime with Dr. Kennedy. He had a ready tact in his profession and was a good prac- titioner, considering his limited opportunities for acquir- ing medical instruction. He married Betsy, eldest daughter of Judge John Armstrong. He practiced first in Hardwick, and subsequently settled in Hope, where he died about 1812 or 1813. Levi Howell, residing in tlie lower part of Hardwick Township, Sussex County, N. J., was an excellent, pious man, and a local preacher in the Methodist connection. He was for a number of years a member of the Legis- lature. He was a little eccentric, but an honest, upright man, and zealous for the truth as he apprehended it. He died in a good old age, say seventy-five years, about 1820. Major Henry Duzenbury, resident at New Hamp- ton, Hunterdon County, N. J., engaged in mercantile pursuits and possessed a large property in that region. He resided for several years, in the latter part of his life, in Philadelphia, engaged in mercantile pursuits. While I04 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. there he sustained some heavy pecuniary losses. The old gentleman's g^eat aim through Ufe was to accumulate wealth, in which he was very successful, being rather close in his dealings, and shrewd in making a bargain: yet esteemed a fair and upright dealer. Mr. Duzenbury re- turned with his family to New Hampton some years previous to his decease, which occurred about 1825 or 6, aged about seventy years. Joseph Gaston, Esq., of Irish descent and originally from Western Pennsylvania, resided in Hardwick Town- ship, Sussex County, N. J. He married Miss Linn, sister to Judge Linn. They had two daughters, one of whom married Dr. Elijah Everett; the other married the Rev. John Boyd, pastor of Hardwick church. He was esteemed a judicious, upright man; he died of bilious colic, about the year 1803 or 4, aged about sixty-five years. Joseph Demund, a native, I think, of Sussex County, was brought up by my Uncle Peter B. Schaeffer in his mill. He was an excellent miller as well as an ingenious mechanic. For his third wife he married the widow of my Uncle Isaac Schaeffer, about the year 1801. He then resided at Stillwater for a number of years, where he drove on the distilling business upon a large scale. He ultimately removed to Lower Sandusky, in Ohio, where he died in very reduced circumstances, aged, I suppose, between sixty and seventy years. He was a professor of religion. John Locke, Esq.^ He resided in the lower part of ^He was the son of Capt. Francis Locke, ist Battalion Somerset Militia, who was killed at Elizabethtown, N. J., Sept 15, 1777. For list of his descendants,, see Armstrong Record. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. IO5 Hardwick, and was a tailor by trade. After pursuing that business a number of years, he purchased a farm and turned his attention to agriculture, and was a very indus- trious, economical and thriving farmer. He married Rachel, eldest daughter of the late George Armstrong, Esq. He died in 1832 or 33. Mr. Locke, although esteemed in his younger days for his gallantry and polite attention to ladies' society, was in his more advanced years content to become a laborious farmer. James Reeder, E^q., who was a native of Hardwick and a polite gentlemanly person, was about 1801, 2 and 3 engaged in mercantile business at Johnsonburg. He married my cousin Euphemia Beavers. They afterwards settled at Wilkesbarre, where they resided a number of years, and subsequently removed to the State of Ohio, where he died some three years ago, aged probably about seventy-seven or seventy-nine years, maintaining, as I understand, a goodly profession of faith in the Redeemer and sustaining the office of elder of the Presbyterian church. General Aaron Hankinson was an old resident in Hardwick Township near Stillwater, a farmer by occupa- tion, an elder and leading member of the Hardwick church, and at one time chorister of the same. The old gentleman was a good kind of man. He was blessed with a numerous offspring, raising to full maturity seven sons and five daughters. The daughters all married pretty well. The old gentleman was very much afflicted in the latter years of his life with inflammatory rheumatism, which rendered him in a measure helpless. He died at rather an advanced age, about 1802 or 3. I06 BIOGRAPHICAL NOnCES. Mrs. Mercjcle. A worthy and respectable old Ger- man lady, pur near neighbor at Stillwater; whose only dauighter, Lizzy, married the Rev. Jacob Senn, who officiated as pastor of the German church at Stillwater for many yegirs. Mts- Merckle was a pious lady and an .^miablCj excellent neighbor. In the latter period of her life she resided with her grand-daughter, Mrs. Cassady, above Newton. Her death occurred probably twenty years since. Daniel Stuart, Esq.^ He emign'ated at rather an early period of life from his native Erin. He was in his own country educated for a Roman Catholic priest. He settled at an early day at Newton, where for many years he was engaged in mercantile business in company with John Holmes, Esq., a countryman of his. Mr. Stuart possessed talent above mediocrity, close in his dealings, but fair; of good, moral principles; a Jeffersonian democrat and a shrewd politician. He was for many years Surrogate of the County. He was somewhat inclined to scepticism at one period of his life, but afterward renounced Romanism and, I think, gave reason to hope that he died a true Christian. He died without issue, some twenty-five years ago. John Johnson, Esq. He was a native of Sussex County and a son of the venerable and respected "old Henry Johnson."^ John was, I think, the third of six ^Died December, 1822; was President of the Sussex Bank, and Surrogate for nineteen years, having been appointed December 2 1803. 'Captain Henry Johnson, son of Coart and Charity (Lane) John- son, was born at Readington, Hunt«rdon Co., N. J., Oct. 5, 1737. He was an officer in the Revolutionary War, first as Quartermaster of the 2d Regiment, Sussex Co. Militia, and afterwards as Captain of BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. IO7 ,sons born to -the old gentleman. His first 'wife was my cousin Hannah Roy, by whom he had five daughters, the eldest of whom only is now living (Miss Susan). Mrs. JJohnson died about the year 1802, of consumption. His second ,wife was my sister Polly, the eldest of our family : they were married in 1804. They had three children, Jefferson, 'VVhitfield, and Catharine. My sister died in child-bed with her daughter, in the spring of 1808. Mr. Johnson's third wife was the widow of the late Thos. Anderson, of Newton, by whom he had no issue. He commenced business at an early period in the mercantile Jine; he then kept the largest hotel in Newton for many -years, and was clerk of the county for two terms. He was a respecter of religion; as a politician he was an active ■Democrat of the Jeffersonian school, and exerted a very considerable influence in the county.^ Mrs. John Johnson, of Newton. She was the third wife of Mr. Johnson and previously the widow of the the 13th Company of the same Regiment, Col. John Steward com- manding. In 1783 he was collector of the township of Newton, Sussex Co. He was one of the founders of the Presbyterian church at Newton, N. J., and an elder of the church from its organization until his death. He died at Frankford, Sussex Co., Jan. S, 1826, and Ts buried in the old graveyard at Newton. His wife, Susannah Hover, died Nov. 30, 1791. They had six sons, viz: Henry, Jr., David and Jonathan (twins), John, Samuel, and William, and two daughters, one of whom was the wife of Van Tile Coursen, and the other the wife of John Van Deren. His second wife was Ann Van Est, whom he married in 1795. They had a daughter, Susanna, who married John Hover, and went to Ohio. 'John Johnson, born at Newton, Sept. S, 1764, died Feb. 8, 1829. He was an extensive land owner at Newton, and held a number of public offices. Was postmaster at Sussex Court House (Newton), 1793, member of the Assembly from Sussex County 1804-S, County Clerk Sussex County, 1805-15, and Judge of Court of Common Pleas 1816-25. He built and occupied the house on High Street, Newton, facing the Ridge Road, which was known as "Monticello. He is buried in the old graveyard at Newton. I08 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. late Thomas Anderson, Esq., of Newton. She was a lady of cultivated intellect, refined taste and manners, amiable disposition and exemplary piety. Her sound judgment and discretion were evinced in the manner in which she trained and brought up the two sons of Mr. Johnson: William Jefferson and Whitfield Schaeffer. Their well sustained character and gentlemanly deportment, as well as piety, are a standing monument of her excellence of character and good management. She died, leaving no issue, some fifteen or eighteen years since (about 1841). William Johnson, Esq. He was a brother of John, above named, and the youngest of the six sons of the late Henry Johnson, senior, of Newton. William was more talented than any of his brothers. He was naturally of a sprightly disposition ; a little volatile in his youth, but had a tact for business, which was well improved in subse- quent life, when engaged in mercantile business in New York, where he acquired a handsome property. His health, however, at length declining, he closed his busi- ness, purchased a farm and resided for the remainder of his days in Lebanon, Hunterdon County, N. J., engaged in agriculture. He died some fifteen years ago; I trust, in the full faith of the gospel. I suppose his years did not much exceed fifty at his demise. NATHAN ARMSTRONG (Reprinted from the "Armstrong Record," by W. C. Armstrong) Nathan Armstrong, the pioneer, was born about 1717, near Londonderry, in the province of Ulster, Ire- land. He was a weaver by trade, a Scotch-Irishman by race, and a Protestant by religious faith. At the time of his emigration he was unmarried and about twenty-three or five years of age. He lived several years in the central part of New Jersey; about 1744 he went to the north- westerly part of the province, to a section known as the Hardwick Patent, and worked at his trade near the present village of Johnsonburg. Here he married Uphamy Wright, a Scotch-Irish maiden. Their oldest child, Elizabeth, was born March 12, 1747. He bought a tract of uncleared land of Col. Jonathan Hampton and built on it a log-cabin; he moved on his plantation May 17, 1748, and became a farmer. At this time he was thirty-one or two years of age. The old Homestead is one mile northwest of Johnsonburg, in the township of Frelinghuysen, county of Warren, New Jersey. Here he spent the remainder of his life — twenty- nine years of health, industry and thrift. During tLe panic of 1755, caused by Indian outrages on the Jersey frontier, Nathan took his wife and children to Marksboro every evening and passed the night in a block-house that had been erected at that place. He was interested in local affairs, held several offices in the township of old Hard- I lO NATHAN ARMSTRONG. wick, and was a member of the Board of Justices and Freeholders of Sussex County. He was a member of the Church of England, and took an active part in the organ- ization and establisLincnt of Christ Church at Newton, New Jersey. The parish was organized October 20, 1769; its charter bears date August 15, 1774, and con- tains the name of Nathan Armstrong as one of the original incorporators. He died on Monday^ August 11, 1777, and was buried' on the farm of Samuel Green. He made his' will during his last sickness. Uphatay died on' Saturday; January 12, 181 i, at the age of eighty-six, and rests by the side of her husbaild. Their daughter Sarah niarvied CoL Abraham Shafef. CAPTAIN ALEXANDER G. SHAFFERS Alexander Castner Staffer, son of Peter B. Shafer, received his first education in the school at Still- water; then he went two years to the Blairstown Academy, and' after that three years to the Newton Collegiate Institute. He belonged to the famous Harris Oght Cavalry. At the solicitation of Mr. W. C. Arm- strong, he wrote out a short account of his experience in the war. The thrilling narrative is" given in the hero's own language. Captain Shaffer writes as follows: "I was living at my home in Stillwater. One night in July, 1861, I was awakeUfed from my slumbers by my old classmate at the Newton Collegiate Institute, George V. Griggs. He informed me that Kilpatrick had arrived in Newton that day with authority from the War Depart- ment to recruit a regiment of cavalry. He asked me to assist him in raising a company for the regiment. We discussed the matter for the balance of the night, and the next morning he left me with the assurance that I would join him in getting up a company. I at once commenced winding up my business affairs, and in a short time we succeeded in raising a company known as Company A, the first one raised in the regiment. Company B was also organized in Siissex, the two forming the first squad- ron of the regiment. We went with the enlisted m6n at ' Thisniairrati've is reprinted in paff froih the- "Armstrong Recbrd." Captain -Shaffer, however, has recently (JaiJ., 1907) kindly revised aWfe^WrifteW' tlffe story for the' ptirt><Sses of -this 'publicatioii. I 12 CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. once to New Ytork, where the regimental headquarters were. "^We were mustered into the United States service on August ID, 1 86 1, for three years, or during the war, being the first cavalry mustered in for three years, J. Mansfield Davies being colonel and Judson Kilpatrick lieutenant- colonel. We were finally assigned to New York State as the Second New York Cavalry, and our regiment was commissioned by the Governor of that State and was popularly known as the Harris Light Cavalry. Since our regiment consisted of companies from several States, the two companies from Sussex, A and B, were designated as the New Jersey squadron. "My squadron, under the command of Captain Duffie, who was the captain of my company, was soon detached from the regiment, then lying at Washington, and ordered to the neighborhood of Poolesville, Md., as escort to General Baker, who was then the United States Senator from Oregon and in command of the California brigade. We were there but a short time when occurred the battle of Ball's Blufif, and the death of General Baker. This was my first experience under fire. After his death his escort recrossed the river with his body. This was in the eve- ning, and I began to assist in ferrying the wounded and retreating soldiers over the river in a large flatboat, a huge unwieldly aflfair, guided and propelled by means of a tow line from a canal boat stretched across the stream. I continued at this work until one or two hours after mid- night, when, being thoroughly exhausted and wet through " by a continuous rain, I was obliged to give up. "The first or second boat-load returning after that, the line parted in the middle of the river. The boat, loaded CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. I 1 3 to the gunwales and the current being very swift, at once capsized and sank. My impression is that the entire load, some sixty or eighty, were drowned. "We were soon ordered to join our regiment, then stationed at Arlington, and were a part of the First Army Corps under Major-General McDowell, whose headquar- ters during the winter of 1861-62 were in the Arlington House. We remained there until the following spring, when the army under Major-General McClellan went to the peninsula, our corps covering his right flank during his march up the Chickahominy. We were stationed at Fredericksburg, Va. "During the summer our regiment, under Colonel Kil- patrick, was engaged in frequent raids in the lear of the Confederate army, destroying large quantities of military supplies and the railroads in the vicinity of Richmond. Among the prisoners taken by us was Captain Mosby, the celebrated guerilla. "On McClellan's retreat we took part under Major- General Pope in all the engagements from the Rapidan to the defences of Washington, and in the Maryland cam- paign under McClellan. Suffice it to say that the com- mand as a regiment and in detachments participated in over 140 engagements, the records of the War Depart- ment showing that it exceeded any other cavalry regiment in the war, furnishing two major-generals and five or six brigadiers. My active campaigning came to an end in the fall of 1863, a few months after the close of the Gettys- burg campaign. At that time General Lee was endeavor- ing to pass Meade's right flank and get between him and the defences of Washington. Meade, uncertain of the movement, was slowly falling back, and orders were sent 114 CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. to General Kilpatridc to ascertain the exact whereabouts of Lee's army. "It was impossible to send a large force, so my squad- ron was selected, and the command given to Captain Griggs. About noon on a bright Sunday in October, during a halt in the streets of Culpeper, we received our orders to cut through the Confederate cavalry, which was then pressing our rear guard back. We had fallen back that morning from the Rapidan about ten miles, contest- ing the ground with the enemy the entire distance, so that every man felt what we were undertaking. After a good-by and a God-speed from all the officers of the com- mand, the order was given, 'Head of column, right about wheel.' Being thoroughly familiar with the country, we avoided roads except to cross them. At every crossing we saw or met straggling squads of the enemy's cavalry; these we were strong enough to push out of our way, when we would again take to the woods and by-paths. After some ten or twelve miles we came to the pike near James City, skirting the base of the mountains and com- pletely around Meade's right flank. This we found solid with marching infantry and artillery. "We pushed up to within a short distance till we could plainly distinguish their colors, and until they recognized us and halted their column and commenced to deploy skirmishers to engage us. As we had accomplished our aim, we at once fell leisurely back till hid from view. So far all well, not a man lost or wounded, but we all knew the worst was to come; from iiiteen to twenty thousand cavalry had been gathering by different roads in our rear during our march. The constant booming of artillery behind us told us they were there. Having halted our CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. 115 command, and having explained to them what to report if any got through, and that they must get through or die trying, we resumed our retreat, and were just entering the outskirts of Culpeper when the advance fired and fell back upon the main column. The town was held by a division of Confederate cavalry. The cannonading and carbine rattle, with the cheers of the charging columns, showed that the rear of the Union army was not far away. "A hasty consultation with Griggs and order, 'To fhe right charge,' and we were dashing through a stretch of woods, Griggs leading the right flank, and myself on the left. "Being on the right, to pass to the left, after the order was given, threw me slightly to the rear. Emerging from the woods we came upon another division of cavalry entering Culpeper by another road which we were com- pelled to cross. Continuing our charge on their line, they opened and allowed us to pass through; but as we went through they gave us a terrible enfilading fire on the flanks. Being slightly in the rear, I received more than my share, and my horse reared and plunged and fell dead upon me, Griggs falling mortally wounded on the other flank (October ii, 1863). After giving me a few ran- dom pistol-shots as I lay, the Confederate troopers came up and assisted me to rise by dragging my horse off me. I was then marched, with two more of our men whose horses had also been shot in the charge, into Culpeper, where we were put into a building with quite a number of prisoners, the day's capture. During the night the prisoners were turned out and marched to the rear. Find- ing a little bunch of straw, I got one of my men to cover me with it, and they marched off with the others without Il6 CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. discovering me. I at once made my escape, and on get- ting out of the town concluded to pass their right flank and cross the Rappahannock River at United States Ford, some ten miles down. After marching nearly all night, and supposing I had passed their flank, I came, unper- ceived by me, upon a mounted picket and was recaptured. When I was turned over to the Provost Marshal who had charge of me the night previous, he expressed much delight on seeing me and told me my escape had caused him much regret. He said he was well acquainted with my regiment, but seldom had the pleasure of meeting any in the condition I then was. He gave me a special escort to Richmond and Libby, impressing upon my keeper the necessity of watching me closely, that there must be no more escapes. Prison life in Libby has been so frequently described that I will pass over my winter's sojourn in that famous prison, merely mentioning that during the winter I suffered terribly from an old wound in my arm received in the Gettysburg campaign. The Confederate surgeons wished to amputate, but I fought for a postponement, and finally a small sliver of bone worked out and I soon re- covered. I was confined, during the fourteen months of my imprisonment, first in Libby Prison, whence I escaped through the famous 'Libby Tutmel,' only to be recap- tured; then in Richmond, Macon, Ga., Charleston, S. C, and lastly Columbia, S. C, from which place I made my fourth and successful escape, together with Lieu- tenants Nice and Hopper of my regiment. The first night out Nice was taken with chills and fever and had to give up and go back to the Confederate prison. About one hundred miles on our way we were joined by two Ohio officers who escaped about the time we did. From there CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. I 1 ^ on we four made the tramp together. One of the Ohioans was skilled in woodcraft and often he would gather leaves in the swamp and boil them, making tea which was a great nourishment to us. Our route was west toward Sherman's lines in Atlanta:. Our guide was the north star, which we would find by the aid of the great dipper. For two successive nights it was cloudy and rained and we wandered into the vast barrens of North Georgia, where we nearly perished, as we could find no clearings or habitations. On nearing Atlanta we struck the Confed- erate pickets, which we flanked, and on getting into the city found Sherman not there, but a brigade of Wheeler's Cavalry. Here occurred one of the most trying incidents of our escape. We had taken refuge in one of the few. houses not burned and had hidden ourselves in a room in the second story. We had been there but a short time when we heard a party of soldiers in the room below who had sought refuge from the sleet and snow. The only exit from our room was by a stairway leading into the room below, which we had to cross to reach the street door. We found in our room two heavy post bedsteads, which we took down and used to thoroughly barricade the door as soon as we heard the Confederates enter the house. "During the long day they made numerous efforts to enter our room, but our all bracing against the door and with the help of our barricade we kept them out without their suspecting the presence of anyone inside. This worked all right until about one hour before dark, when a large party having attempted to enter one of them re- marked as they were leaving the door, 'Fellows, we will go back to camp and get our things, then come back and Il8 CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. break in this door. We can get good quarters here out of the storm.' "jWe now knew that we must leave, and that quickly, and take our chances of getting through the room below safely — a pretty desperate hope. We removed our barri- cade silently to prevent those still remaining below from hearing anything. Then getting together as closely as possible, we quietly descended the stairs, which landed us into the lower room at one side of the fire place. The street door was on the other side. We found the room occupied by fifteen or twenty men, some sitting and some lying on the floor, a bright light from the fire gleaming over them. On seeing us some raised up, but we had to step over a number who lay asleep. Although we all wore our uniforms, they evidently took us for a portion of their own party. As we neared the door they began to grow very much excited, but, as the Lord willed it, were not halted and gained the door. We did not dare to speak to them, although their expressions began to indicate very plainly the unspoken question, 'Who are you?' A few' doors from the house was a street corner, which we turned. About a rod ahead we saw a' crowd of ten or twelve coming with all their accoutrements, undoubtedly the very party who were to occupy our recent quarters. While our hearts stood still, there was nothing left to do but to march bravely on. On meeting us they halted and surveyed us most searchingly. I was slightly to the rear, and the last one of them looked at me so fiercely that I was forced to say, 'Howdy.' "He stared but said nothing, and in a moment more we had passed them. Just ahead was the burned district. CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. II9 where there was nothing but a forest of bare chimneys standing. As soon as we were out of sight we went to the nearest chimneys and crawled up into the fireplace openings, remaining there until good dark. We then flanked the pickets once more and escaped from the city, striking the railroad leading to the Chattahoochie River. "The night was bitter cold and a furious snow storm beat in our faces, so that we nearly perished. I was now barefooted and very thinly clad. Frequently we would have to lie in the shelter of railway cuts piled one on top of the other until we got slightly warm, then plodding on again. This we kept up until daylight, when, six miles from Atlanta, we reached the river. There we found the bridge burned, a wide rapid river to cross and six inches of snow covering the earth. We started down the river and about a mile from the railway, in the mouth of a little creek, we found a small boat. It would hold only two and was very unsafe at that in so swift a stream. Being our only chance we determined to risk it, and were finally all safe on the opposite shore. Not finding Sherman, we thought that he had been defeated and driven back toward Chattanooga. Wet, cold and nothing to eat for several days, the prospect ahead was not very encouraging. We tramped along the road toward Marietta through Sher- man's old camps of the summer before, picking up now and then a stray pork rib bone, which we would pound with rocks and add to our slender bill of fare. At last we met an old countryman in one of the camps and we made for him. We told him we were Confederate cavalry following up the Yankees to steal horses, ours having been killed. He said the Yankees under Sherman had gone in the opposite direction toward Macon and I20 CAPTAIN AUEXANDER C. SHAFFER. Savannah. This was a great relief to us, as we felt that we would not have any large bodies of Confederate troops to avoid. The mile stones along the track said one hun- dred and forty miles to Chattanooga. Could four living skeletons ever hold out to reach that? It was a barren, desolate country, the armies having fought over it thC previous summer. The inhabitants were all gone. Once in emerging from a sharp bend in a railway cut, we came right in view of a guerrilla company only a short dis- tance ahead. They had seen us, so it was too late to go back. We told them that we were deserters from the 39th Ohio, a conscript regiment in Sherman's army; that we had thrown away our muskets at Decatur and were trying to get through to Canada until the war was over; that we did not believe in fighting to free the niggers, etc.. They believed us, so we begged a little corn bread from them and then as soon as possible bade them adieu. If they had had any idea who we were we would have been hanged from the telegraph poles in short order. After this we always tried to travel as much as possible after dark to avoid similar encounters. "One night, when we were all nearly famished, I sud- denly struck my foot against something soft. I went on a few steps, when my curiosity turned me back and I found that I had stumbled over a large fat opossum. This gave us a feast and enabled us to make many a mile on our journey. "So far the railway had been torn up and the rails heated and twisted around the trees along the way. We now struck the road in good order, and from our hiding place one day saw a group of Confederates going up the track with a small hand car. We determined that when CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. 121 night came we would capture this and make better time toward the Union lines. We started out as soon as dark- ness fell, and a mile or so on found the car unguarded by the side of the track. Our hearts leaped with joy, for we saw now a welcome change from our weary march. It was a very dark night when we started, and we made famous time for a few miles. Suddenly we came to a dreadful jolt. The car stopped, canting to one side, and nearly throwing us all ofif. We found that we had run for some distance out on the rails of a bridge that had been burned. The car hung on the ends of the rail fifty or more feet above the rocky bed of the river. Had these rails not been slightly spread by the heat and so checked our car, our journey would have had a sad and sudden ending. We had a most difficult task to crawl from the car along the rails back to the bank. Our bright anticipa- tions were suddenly dashed. Daylight revealed to us that we were on the banks of a deep river, the Etowah. A large scow that Sherman had used for ferrying his artil- lery lay on the shore, near at hand, one end stove in. By loading the other end with heavy rocks, we so raised the broken end above the water that we could use it for cross- ing. It was a most unwieldy affair. Only a short distance below we could see the rocks in the river and hear the roar of the rapids, and even where we were the current drew us rapidly down. We managed to make the oppo- site bank, which rose almost perpendicular from the water. The others all jumped as we struck, but I being very stiff and feeble could not jump with them, and their jumping pushed the flat from the bank. I made all the effort in my power and landed half in the water and half on the bank; a few inches less and I would have sunk • 122 CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. the swift water. I managed to ding to some roots and twigs until my comrades could reach me and draw me up onto the bank. At the next river we found a covered bridge, but on the embankment leading to it was posted a Confederate picket. We crawled as near as we could and watched. The reserve just below the embankment had a grand fire burning, and as it was very cold the picket finally joined them. We instantly began to creep along the embankment, and so reached the bridge. The light from the camp fire blinded them, as we supposed it would, so they did not see us, although we passed so close that they could have reached out and touched us with their guns. The other end of the bridge was unguarded. "We finally reached our lines at Dalton, Ga. My boots had given out on the third day after leaving Columbia, so I made almost the entire trip barefooted, often for days over the frozen ground. The soles of my feet were raw, the skin worn off, and my ankles so swollen that they would not bend, the swelling extending above my knees. "After the long days of starvation my stomach was un- able to retain any food. I went to the army hospital in Chattanooga, and would have died there had not two army surgeons, Drs. Loomis and Brownley, proved the good Samaritans and taken me to their quarters. Under their skilful treatment I improved rapidly. "From there I went to Knoxville, Tenn. Hood, who was then on his march to Nashville, held the railroad in rear of Chattanooga, and my escape from there was cut off. Finding myself penned, I again took up the march, this time on horseback, from Knoxville across the Cum- berland mountains through Big Creek Gap. I struck the Union forces again at Lexington, Ky., another three hun- CAPTAIN ALEXANDER C. SHAFFER. 123 dred mile trip. This trip was fully as perilous as my previous one from Columbia, the mountains being full of guerillas. Being then in full uniform, my rank and army were at once known. Meeting parties of one or two in the mountains, we would both keep our hand on our revolver till well out of range, neither allowing the other to get the drop on him. I was constantly warned by Union people, who would direct me from one to another, that it would be impossible for me to get through. From Lexington I went to Cincinnati; then by B. & O. to Washington, where I reported to the War Department." After the war Captain Shaffer was stationed at Walter- boro, S. C, and had the duty, in the Freedmen's Bureau, of organizing the labor and putting the f reedmen to work, and of issuing rations to the planters to make their crops and for their contract hands. He finally left the service in the winter of 1868-9, and was eight years Clerk of Court and then Treasurer of Colleton County. He was later elected Vice-President of the WaUerboro Loan and Savings Bank, and also President of the Colleton Cotton Mills. He has for many years been senior member of the Terry & Shaffer Mercantile Company. I may add that at the time he entered the service of the United States he could have received a commission, but he preferred to win his spurs, and went into the ranks. He passed through successive grades and became captain, his capture preventing subsequent promotion. HELEN A. SHAFER Miss Helen A. Shafer, M. A., LL. D., President of Wellesley College, was a distinguished mathematician and educator. No member of the Shafer family achieved greater eminence or was more widely known than the subject of this sketch. She was born in Newark, N. J., Sept. 23, 1839. Her parents were Rev. Archibald Stinson and Almira (Miller) Shafer. He was a clergy- man of the Congregational denomination. The family moved westward, and for many years lived at Oberlin, Ohio, where the family home is still maintained. Miss Shafer, died at the College at Wellesley, Mass., January 20, 1894, of pneumonia, after an illness of less than a week. Representatives of the faculty of Wellesley attended her funeral, which was held at Oberlin, and delivered addresses on her character and life. The following is an abstract of a notice published in a Boston paper and reprinted in the Oberlin News, Jan. 25, 1894: Miss Shafer was graduated from Oberlin College in 1863. After teaching two years in New Jersey, she accepted a position in St. Louis, Mo. In this school she held the position of leading instructor of mathematics for ten years, laying a foundation for a distinguished career as teacher of higher mathematics. In 1877 she was called to the chair of Mathematics in Wellesley College, which she held until 1888, when she succeeded Mrs. Alice Free- man Palmer as President. For her new duties she was admirably fitted, both by natural gifts and by experience HELEN A. SHAFER. 12 5 and training. Her scholarly ability, her tact and skill in the class room, her dignity and weight of character, her generous and affectionate nature and her unique versa- tility, won for her the enthusiastic regard and reverent love of successive classes of young women who as alumnae of the college rendered her unfailing loyalty and support. Her frail physique seemed the only obstacle to her success. Yet her health suffered no apparent loss under her administrative cares, and there was good ground of hope that she had entered upon a long and fruitful term of office. In 1878 she received the degree of M. A. from Oberlin College, and in 1893 the degree of LL. D. Among the comments on her death is one by W. T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education, who said: "In the death of President Shafer higher educa- tion suffers a great loss. Her methods of instruction produced the best results I have ever known, and her personal influence over youth to secure earnest work and solidity of character, was remarkable." Other expres- sions of sympathy and esteem were from President Dwight of Yale, President Carter of Williams, President Taylor of Vassar, President Harper and Dean Talbot, of Chicago. GENERAL AARON HANKINSON BY GENERAL JAMES E RUSLJNG Aaron Hankinson was the son of Joseph and Rachel (Mattison) Hjinkinson. He was born Feb. 7, 1735, near Rowland's Mills, Hunterdon G>unty, N. J., and died Oct. 9, 1806, near Stillwater, Sussex County, N. J. His marriage license, dated Feb. 9, 1764, is recorded in the office of the Secretary of State, Trenton, N. J., and gives him as of Amwell Township, Hunterdon County, N. J., to Mary Snyder of Kingwood Township, same county. He was brought up on a farm there, still known as the "Hankinson Homestead," but in 1764 or 1765 removed to Sussex County and lies buried in the "Yellow Frame Cemetery" of the Presbyterian church, near Stillwater, of which he was long an elder. He lived at or near Still- water, but also owned land in Sandiston Township. When he removed from Hunterdon to Sussex, his father (evidently a man of means) gave him and his brother William farms there of 363 acres each. He was in commission as Colonel, commanding Regi- ment N. J. Troops (a Provisional Regt., probably), at Amboy, N. J., 1776, and was regularly commissioned Colonel of 2d Regiment Sussex, N. J., Militia Feb. 28, 1777, and continued as such during the Revolutionary War. He was present with his regiment as a part of General David Forman's Brigade, N. J., Detached Militia, at the battle of Germantown, Pa., Oct. 4, 1777, GENERAL, AARON HANKINSON. 127 under General Washington, but his regiment appears to have been kept chiefly at home to protect Sussex against Tories and Indians — Sussex being then a frontier county in part. After the war, June 5, 1793, he was promoted Brigadier General of N. J. Militia, and continued as such until his decease. He was a member of Assembly N. J., 1782 to 1786, and again 1788 to 1792 continuously, from Sussex County. He had thirteen children,^ as follows : Joseph, b. 1763, d. 1838; m. Margaret Goble, d. 1844. Henry,2 j, ^^g 27, 1767; d. May 5, 1848; m Mary Mc- Cuilough, dau. Col. Wm. McCullough, Asbury, N. J. Her dau. Eliza B. married Gershom Rusling, my father. Sarah, b. 1770, d. Feb. 10, 181 5; m. ist, David Linn; 2d, John Smedley, June 10, 1806. John, b. Nov. 25, 1771; d. Aug. 3, 1845; m- Elizabeth Hunt, b. Feb. 6, 1770; d. Nov. 2, 1841. Thomas, b. 1775, d. April 27, 1796. William, b. Oct. 30, 1779; d. Oct. 17, 1830; m. Margaret Crisman, March 14, 1805. She d. Feb. 26, 1857. No issue. He acquired much property at Blairstown, N. J., which he bequeathed to John I. Blair (his clerk), which was the beginning of the great Blair estate. Samuel, b. 1792; d. April 21, 1793. Elizabeth, b. — ; d. — ; m. Nathan Armstrong, Jan., 1807. He d. 1838. *The "Genealogical Record of descendants of Nathan Armstrong" says 12, but apparently there were 13. 'Admitted to N. J. Bar Nov. Term, 1794 and settled at Washing- ton, N. J. Was Major and Inspector Sussex Brigade, Oct. 26, 1809; member of Assembly N. J. 1806-1807-1808 and t83S- 128 GENERAL AARON HANKINSON. Hannah, b. — ; d. — ; m. Cooper Kelsey, May 14, 1808, related to Hon. Henry C. Kelsey, probably. Aaron, b. April 22, 1782; d. Feb. 23, 1850; m. Sarah Kelsey, April 12, 1804; b. March i, 1785. Nancy, b. — ; d. — ; m. Aaron Southard. Rachel, b. — ; d. — ■; m. Sidney Herriott. Daniel Thatcher, b. — ; d. — . A fruitful vine, clearly; but am unable to complete his "Family Record," and am not sure of their order of births, even. His grave is on the southeasterly side of the old "Yellow Frame Church," and near to it (our forbears liked to be buried as near to the church as possible, and many inside of it!), in the midst of a group of Hankin- son graves, and bears the following quaint inscription : "A. H. In memory of B. General Aaron Hankinson, who departed this life Oct. IX, 1806. Aged 71 years, 8 months, 2 days. Let all his children in a word, Unite and praise the Eternal God, For the sweet hope that he has gone To rest with Christ God's only Son." Evidently he was a God-fearing man, of soldierly tastes and character, a typical Jerseyman of his time, a good citizen, and a man of parts and substance. The Hankinson family were English unquestionably, and settled first in Monmouth County, N. J. Two of GENERAL AARON HANKINSON. 1 29 them removed to Hunterdon and settled near Rowland's Mills, 4 miles northeast of Flemington, about 1700 prob- ably. These were Joseph (father of General Aaron) and William Hankinson. As early as 1688, Thomas and Richard Hankinson received a patent for 120 acres of land in Monmouth County from proprietors of West Jersey. In 1700 Thomas Hankinson, of Freehold, bought 610 acres from Benjamin Allen. In 1776 Ken- neth Hankinson was taxed in Freehold Township for 594 acres of land and 64 horses and cattle. This Kenneth Hankinson was a man of parts, and June 16, 1776, became a captain in Col. Forman's battalion, Heard's Brigade, N. J. Line; also in ist Reg't Monmouth Militia 1777, and participated in the battle of Monmouth, June, 1778 (probably). The Hunterdon and Sussex Hankinsons all claim relationship to this Kenneth Han- kinson, and Ex-Gov. William A. Newell, of N. J., was a descendant of his. If the Hankinsons emigrated from England, they likely came from Middlesex County there, where they have the following coat-of-arms : "Ar. a f esse gu. f retty or. betw. three ducks sa. Crest a demi-phoenix, wings elevated or. issuant from flames. Motto vi et cmimo." Burke's Gen. Armory, 452. Trenton, N. J., Jan. 22, 1907. [9 13° THE OLD GRAVEYARD THE OLD GRAVEYARD. In the old graveyard at Stillwater are to be found the tombstones of many of the early settlers of that part of Sussex County. The cemetery has been considerably enlarged and is enclosed by a substantial fence. The newer part is kept in excellent condition by the local cemetery association. In the old part the action of the frost has had the effect of throwing many of the stones out of the perpendicular, some have fallen flat and others are leaning forward, giving the appearance of neglect. The old families have most of them died off, and the younger generation find it all they can afford to do to maintain the new section, although they annually clear the brush and weeds from the older part. The photograph of the stones shows their condition in May, 1906, and is reproduced with the hope that some of the numerous descendants of those buried here may be moved to arrange for the care of the old graveyard. The writer would gladly co-operate in such a work. The following inscrip- tions are to be found here : Inscrfptlon. HIBR RtTHEJT der lOH. PET. BBRNHARD. Geboh. zu KERZen HEIM, IN DER GRAF- SCHAFT BOLANDEN IN EUROPA. ER 1st MIT FRAU, 11, KINDEN IN AMERICA KOMEN AND 1731. UND STARB DEN 28 AUG. Ano 1748. Translation. HERE RESTS JOH. PET. BBRNHARD. BORN IN KERZEN- HEIM, IN THE COUN- TY OF BOLANDEN IN EUROPE. HB WITH "WIPE AND CHILDREN CAME TO AMERICA IN THE TEAR 1731 AND DIED THB 28TH OF AUG. IN THE YEAR 1748. g o H to B> 3' 03 O 05 THE OLD GRAVEYARD 131 ALHIER RUHET in GOt lOH-GEORG WINDBMUTH GEBOHRBN D: 11 MAT 1711 IN PUNG- STAD, In BUROPA, NAGHAMB- RICAKOMEN. ANo 1736 VBRHEjRATH MIT, M: El: BBRNHARTIN Ano 1739, und ZEUGETeN 8 KINDER: LBBETE IM BHBSTAND 43 lAHR UND 3 MONATH. And 1782 DEN 19 DEC: Abend DND 10 uhr STARE BR SBIN ALTER "WAR 71 lAHR 3 MON: UND 8- TAGE. Und VERLIBS 3 SoHNE und 3 ToGH- TeR LiBBEND HERE RESTS IN GOD JOHN GEORGE WINDBMUTH BORN 11 MAY 1711 IN PFUNGSTADT IN EUROPE. CAME IN THE TEAR 1736 WAS MARRIED TO M. EL. BBRNHARTIN IN TEAR 1739 AND HAD 8 CHILDREN. LIVED IN WEDLOCK 43 TEARS AND 3 MONTHS AND DIED 1782 ON THE 19 DEC. IN EVENING AT 10 P. M. HIS AGE WAS 71 TEARS 3 MONTHS AND 8 DATS, AND LEFT BEHIND 3 SONS AND 3 DAUGHTERS LIVING GENEALOGICAL RECORD A Genealogical Record OF THE Descendants of Casper Schaeffer Casper Schaeffer, who emigrated from the Palatin- ate, is supposed to have come in the ship "Queen Eliza- beth," arriving Sept. i6, 1738, at Philadelphia. Here he remained for two or three years. About the year 1741 or 1742 he went to the present site of Stillwater, then in the wilderness, where he established a home. His wife was Maria Catrina, daughter of Johan Peter Bernhardt. Bernhardt was born at Kerzenheim, Grafschaft Bolanden, and came to Philadelphia with his wife, who is said to have been of noble birth, and three daughters. He settled near Germantown, Pa., and removed to Stillwater, N. J., about 1742. He died Aug. 28, 1748, and his is the first interment in the old graveyard there. Casper Schaeffer was born in the year 1712, and died Dec. 17, 1784. Maria Catrina (Bernhardt), his wife, was born about 1722 and died Dec. i, 1794. They had four children, viz : 1. Peter Bernhardt, who was born at Stillwater July 28, 1744; died April 6, 1799. 2. Margaretta, born 1745, died June 5, 1815. 3. Abraham, bom December 17, 1754; died July 11, 1820. I 4. Isaac, born June 4, 1760; died March 27, 1800. Casper Schaefifer and his wife and his son Peter are buried in the old graveyard at Stillwater. Margaretta, Abraham and Isaac are buried in the graveyard at the "Yellow Frame" Church. 136 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. In preparing this record, the arrangement adopted in the "Armstrong Genealogy," estabUshing four groups, one for the descendants of each of Casper Schaeffer's children, has been followed. Each group is divided into branches representing the issue of Casper's several grand- children. The record contains the names of about 600 of Casper Schaeffer's lineal descendants. Among these names are those of patriots and soldiers, ministers, teachers, doctors, lawyers, business men, and farmers. Many of these were active and influential in public affairs. The list contains the names of not less than eighteen ministers of the gospel, including those connected by marriage, all of whom were faithful, godly and earnest preachers of the word. It is a family marked by intelli- gence, refinement and usefulness, and none of its mem- bers, so far as known, have brought discredit upon their ancestry. GROUP ONE. The Descendants of CASPER SCHASFFER, by his Son, PETER BERNHARDT SHATER. Peter Bernhardt Shaver, b. at Stillwater, N. J., July 28, 1744; d. April 6, 1799; m. Elizabeth Simpson, b. Oct. II, 1747; d. May 19, 1823. They are both buried m the old graveyard at Stillwater. They had 9 children: 1. Anna, b. March 28, 1770; m. Dr. Samuel Kennedy as his second wife; of their three children, Shafer, Thomas Jefferson and Sarah, the first named was the only one to leave descendants. 2. Catharine, b. April i, 1772; m. Archibald Stinson, of Marksboro, N. J., and had four daughters, none of whom married except Jane, who m. William Armstrong b. July 28, 1793; d. May 17, 1818; no children. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 137 3. Mary, b. Oct. 14, 1773; m. John Van Deren, and lived but a short time after her marriage. 4. Abraham, Jr., b. Dec. 4, 1775; d. Aug. 8, 1824; m. iBt, Sarah Beaver; 2d, Lydia Armstrong:, b. March 3, 1780; d. March 24, 181 7; see First Brandi. 5. Alexander, b. Aug. 24, 1778; d. Aug. 22, 1780. 6. Elizabeth, b. Feb. 12, 1781; d. Jan. 15, 181 1; m. May 27, 1808, John Armstrong, Jr. ; see Second Branch. 7. Isaac, b. July 23, 1783; d. Dec. 18, 1849; m. July 3, 1806, Elizabeth Turner, b. Aug. 19, 1787; see Third Branch. 8. Margaret, b. Feb. 5, 1785; m. Richard Turner; see Fourth Branch. ID. Simeon Simpson, b. April 20, 1788; d. March 13, 1790. FIRST BRANCH. The Descendants of ABRAHAM and LTDIA (ARMSTRONG) SHAFER. Abraham Shafer, Jr., m. Lydia Armstrong, b. March 3, 1780; d. March 24, 1817; daughter of William and Elizabeth (Swayze) Armstrong, and granddaughter of Nathan and Uphamy (Wright) Armstrong. They dwelt at Stillwater, Sussex County, N. J., and had five children : 1. Sarah, b. June i, 1807; d. Sept. 10, 1878. 2. Casper, b. March 23, 1817. 3. EuPHEMiA Bray, b. July 30, 181 1; d. Dec. 27, 1888. 4. Peter, b. July 30, 1811; d. Aug. 20, 1828. 5. Elizabeth, d. Sept. 5, 1828, aged 22 years 7 mos. Abraham and Lydia are buried at Yellow Frame. (A). Sarah Shafer, m. Jan. 13, 1827, Ephraim 138 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. Green Coursen, b. April 7, 1806; d. May 10, 1866; son of Enos and Mary (Green) Coursen; (Enos, b. Oct. 19, 1780; Mary, b. July 15, 1785. Sarah and Ephraim are buried in Ehinmore Cemetery, Scranton, Pa.). Had three ch. I. Almeida, b. Dec. 24, 1827; d. Sept. lo, 1878. 2. A. Hampton, b. May 2, 1832; m. June 13, 1867, Anna M. Burr, d. June 23, 1873, daughter of Henry and Nancy (Shafer) Burr. Had two ch., Mary Burr, b. June 12, 1870, and Jessie Stellwell, b. Nov. 17, 1871. After the death of Anna, Hampton m., December 2, 1874, Kate E. Wheatley, daughter of John and Harriet (Whitting- ton) Wheatley; res. at Scranton, Pa. 3. George M., b. Aug. ID, 1843; ^- Nov. 20, 1864. (B). Casper Shafer m. Caroline Hazen, b. April 14, 18 19; d. Aug. 31, 1 89 1, daughter of Aaron and Elizabeth ( Vought) Hazen, and descendant of Edward Hazen, who settled at Rowley, Conn., and, in 1650, married Hannah Grant. Res. at Greensville, Sussex County, N. J. 5 ch. I. Nathan Hazen, m. Oct. 14, 1875, Katharine Hand Bentley, b. May 31, 1847, daughter of George Vaughn and Catharine Cochran (Sayre) Bentley. Res. Newton, N. J. They had 5 ch., Katharine Bentley, b. Sept. 8, 1877; Edwin Hampton, b. Oct. 29, 1878; George Carlton, b. Sept. 24, 1880; Francis Hazen, b. Dec. 10, 1885, and Bentley Sayre, b. June 29, 1888. 2. Eliza- beth, m. Edgar V. Kennedy, deceased. 3. Abram Edwin. 4. Louisa. 5. Hampton Calvin, b. Sept. 18, 1853; m. Nov. 13, 1890, Mary Elizabeth Blair, b. Oct. 22, 1 861, daughter of Milton Locke and Hetty Maria (Brown) Blair. Res. at Scranton, Pa. Had i ch., Margaret Linen, b. Feb. 10, 1893. (C). Euphemia Bray Shafer m. Nathan Kerr Hazen, b. Oct. 28, 1803; d. Dec. 4, 1887, son of Nathan and Gertrude (Kerr) Hazen. Had 4 ch. i. Sarah Elizabeth, b. July 27, 183 1; m. October 30, 185 1, Isaac Read Kerr, b. May 12, 1827, son of Ira and Phebe (Read) Kerr, grandson of William Hampton Kerr. Res. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. I 39 at Johnsonburg, N. J. They had lo ch., Nathan Hamp- ton, b. Oct. 29, 1852; m. Aug. 23, 1877, Nancy Jane Van Camp, daughter of James Voorhees and Maria (Coursen) Van Camp. Res. at Marksboro, N. J. Had i ch., George Harris, b. Feb. 3, 1882. Lydia Jane, b. Jan. 15, 1845; m. Oct. 30, 1878, George Hoagland Harris, son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Hoagland) Harris. Ira Clin- ton, b. June 9, 1856; m. Oct. 29, 1884, Leonora A. Van Horn, b. Sept. 22, 1854, daughter of William G. and Macrina C. (Jones) Van Horn. Res. at Johnsonburg, N. J. They had 2 ch., Floyd, b. Aug. 30, 1885, and Lucy, b. Aug. 27, 1887. John Wesley, b. Aug. 27, 1858; m. Dec. 24, 1884, Olive Hankinson, daughter of Elijah and Mary C. (Schooley) Hankinson. Isaac Calvin, b. March i, i860; m. Nov. 30, 1882, Lydia A. Johnson, daughter of Theodore F. and Deborah (Willson) John- son. EuPHEMiA Gertrude, b. Dec. 9, 1862; m. Nov. 30, 1881, Ralph Dildine Huflf, b. March 10, 1856, son of Barnett S. and Hannah (Divers) Huff. Res. at Blairs- town, N. J. They had 2 ch., Nellie Thompson, b. Oct. II, 1885, and Clarence Read, b. April 30, 1887. Carrie Malvina, b. March 9, 1865; d. Feb. 8, 1866. Flavel McGee, b. Jan. 28, 1867; m. Jan. 22, 1890, Elizabeth Ayres, daughter of Jacob Cummings and Sarah M. (Read) Ayres. Frank Leslie, b. Aug. 12, 1869, and William Stitt, b. Oct. i, 1871. 2. Lydia Ann, b. May 10, 1834; d. Jan. i, 1862; m. November, 1856, George Hardin, son of John Hardin, and had i ch., Euphemia Caroline. 3. Harriet J., b. Jan. 31, 1838; m. Nov. 21, 1861, Azariah D. Hart, b. Jan. 8, 1838, son of Henry Hart, b. April 19, 1805; d. Oct. 20, 1885, and his wife, Sarah Jane Mosson, b. Dec. 15, 1805; d. Jan. 27, 1867; res. near Newton, N. J. Had i ch., Nathan Henry Hart, b. Dec. 28, 1864; m. Jan. 30, 1888, Mar- garet Cox, and has i ch., Ethel M., b. in 1890. 4. Emma Gertrude, b. March 25, 1847; "^- Samuel H. Primrose, son of George and Tabithy (Hunt) Primrose. I40 GENEALOGICAL RECORD SSCOKD BBAirCH. Descendants of JOHN ARMSTRONG, JR., and his wife, £LIZAB£TH SHAFBR. John Armstrong, Jr., b. July 6, 1779; d. Nov. 13, 1845; son of Lieut. John and Sarah (Stinson) Arm- strong, grandson of Nathan and Uphamy (Wright) Armstrong; married Elizabeth Shafer on May 2T, 1808. They had one daughter : Margaret Sarah, b. June 6, 1809, at Johnsonburg; m. Jan. 18, 1838, Joseph W. McCord, b. May 30, 1797; d. at South Charleston, O., July 4, 1852; buried at Springfield, O.; son of John and Mary (Todd) McCord. They had 3 ch. i. Hampton Ireneus, b. April 19, 1842; d. Oct. 6, 1843. 2. Cornelia Townley, b. Aug. 9, 1844; d. Dec. 28, 1894; buried in Baltimore Cemetery, Md. 3. Marshall Armstrong, b. March 13, 1847; m. May 16, 1878, Mary Louisa EUermeyer, b. Sept. 12, 1857; d. April 20, 1891; daughter of Charles A. EUer- meyer, b. in 1822, in Hanover, Germany, and his wife, Elizabeth Cooper, who was a daughter of Benjamin and Letitia (Culpepper) Cooper, and was born Aug. 21, 1829, near Currituck Sound, N. C. They had 3 ch. Curtis Hulce, died in infancy; William Ellermeyer, b. April 13, 1880, and Margaret Cornelia, b. July 8, 1882. After the death of Mary, Marshall m., June 11, 1892, Sarah A. McGahan, b. May 21, 1855, daughter of Wil- liam and Mary (Neely) McGahan, of Derry, Ireland. Res. at Baltimore, Md. THIRD BRANCH. Descendants of ISAAC SHAFER and ELIZABETH (TURNER), his wife. Isaac Shafer, b. July 23, 1783; d. Dec. 18, 1849; i"-> GENEALOGICAL RECORD. I41 July 3, 1806, Elizabeth Turner, b. Aug. 19, 1787. They had 10 children : 1. Robert Turner, b. April i, 1807; d. April 13, 1883. 2. Abraham Barnet, b. Dec. 18, 1808; d. Nov. 13, 1883. 3. Rev. Archibald Stinson, b. Sept. 12, 1810; d. Feb. 6, 1888. 4. Thomas Hunt, b. Oct. 17, 1812; d. April 6, 1879. 5. Rebecca Jane, b. Dec. 14, 1814; d. Sept. 8, 1889. 6. Ann Kennedy, b. July 11, 181 7, unmarried. 7. Delilah, b. Nov. 14, 1820; d. April 21, 1891, un- married. 8. Jehiel Talmage, b. March 29, 1823. g. Benjamin Johnson Lowe, b. Nov. 17, 1826; d. Oct. 16, 1833. 10. Catharine Elizabeth, b. May 17, 1828; d. Oct. 18, 1882, unmarried. (A). Robert Turner Shafer m., June 6, 1829, Catharine Raub Hazen, b. Oct. 9, 1807; d. Feb. 18, 1864; both buried at Newton, N. J. They had 7 ch.— i. Finley Dawson, b. March 7, 1830; d. Sept. 24, 1891 ; m. Cath- arine Cole and had i ch., Jennie. 2. Isaac Calvin, b. April 12, 1833; d. Jan. 3, 1906; m. Susie Letitia Gordon, b. July IS, 1836, and had 5 ch. — Ella Eugenie, b. Nov. 8, 1859; m., April 19, 1892, Charles Somerby Noyes, b. about 1856. Florence Nightingale, b. Oct. 2, i860; m., April 19, 1906, Wm. Judson Whitaker. Fannie Estelle, b. Dec. 26, 1865; d. June 15, 1870. Edith Gordon, b. April 18, 1872; m., Oct. 6, 1898, Frank M. Pendreigh; d. March 20, 1900. Lillian Olcott, b. May 22, 1877; m., July 14, igoS. ^ Herbert G. Fish^. 3. Aaron Whitfield, b. Jan. 7, 1836; d. March 16, 1900; married and had i child. 4- Nathan Barnet, b. Nov. 22, 1837; m., April 27, 1870, Emma Broadley, b. 142 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. Feb. 23, 1838. They had 2 ch., May Neilson, b. Feb. I, 1873, and Blanche Murray, b. Jan. 22, 1879. 5. William Bell, b. Sept. 20, 1840; m. Annie Pruden. 6. Benjamin Johnson Lowe, b. April 13, 1846; m. Jennie Harris. Their children, Morgan Robert, m. Edythe Smith, and Victor Fox. 7. Emma Elizabeth, b. Dec. 19, 1848; m. James Richardson Whyte, b. April 27, 1846. Their children, Jessie, b. Dec. 9, 1869; Alice, b. Dec. 9, 1869; d. May 23, 1874; Elsie, b. Sept. 23, 1875; Ida Katherine, b. June 12, 1877, and Howard, b. Feb. 9, 1883. (B). Abraham Barnet Shafer m., July 9, i860, Orpha Loretta Hooker, b. April 8, 1835 ; has son living. (C). Rev. Archibald Stinson Shafer,^ m., Aug. II, 1833, Almira Miller, b. Nov. 28, 1806; d. Nov. 2, 1890. Their children. Miller, deceased; Helen Eliza- beth, deceased; Mary Jane, unmarried, and lives at Oberlin, O.; Helen Almira, b. Sept. 23, 1839; d. Jan. 20, 1894; John Joseph, deceased, m. Catharine Jacoby, and Sarah Ann, d. in infancy. (D). Thomas Hunt Shafer m.. May 18, 1836, Ann Margaret Savercool Beach, b. March 25, 181 7. Their children: i. Louisa Ann, b. Aug. 23, 1837; m., Sept. 21, 1865, Jonathan Edwards Morris, and had 8 ch. : Margaretta Louise, b. Dec. 6, 1866; d. June 20, 1868; Emma Roy, b. Jan. 5, 1869, deceased; Laura May, b. Oct. 25, 1870, deceased; Eva Byington, b. Jan. 30, 1873; Edward Hunt, b. April 25, 1875; i"-> Ju"« 26, 1906, Jessie Esther Thayer; Sue Ford, b. Aug. 24, 1877; m., June 28, 1903, Maurice Peris Ap Madoc, M. D.; *Rev. Archibald Stinson Shafer was bom near Blairstown, N. J., Sept. 12, 1810; married Almira, daughter of Judge Miller of New- ton, N. J., Aug. II, 1833. He became a Congregational minister, and had pastorates at Rochester, N. Y. ; Leroy, N. Y. ; Gaines, N. Y., and Rock Creek, Ohio. He was a successful evangelist and devoted pastor until ill health compelled him to give up his charge. He removed to Oberlin, O., where he lived about twenty years until his death, February 6, 1888. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1 43 David Aubrey, b. Feb. 27, 1879. 2. Susan Eliza- beth, b. July 12, 1840; m., April 8, 1862, Jasper Scudder Clark, b. Jan. i, 1839; d. Feb. 11, 1878; had 4 ch. : Benjamin Green, b. Aug. 10, 1863; d. in infancy; Mary Louise, b. Jan. 7, 1866; Edith Shafer, b. Oct. 13, 1869; d. Aug. 5, 1872; Ella Mabel, b. Feb. 9, 1874. 3. Hannah Jane, b. June 26, 1849, not married. 4. David Lee, b. May 30, 1851; m., Oct. 24, 1883, Amelia Holloway. (E). Rebecca Jane Shafer m., Feb. 17, 1842, Rev. Thaniel Beers Condit, b. June 4, 1804; d. Jan. 13, 1888; 5 ch. — ^i. Ann Maria, b. Dec. 5, 1842, unmarried. 2. Elizabeth Wilson, b. May 7, 1844, unmarried, resides at Stillwater. 3. Rev. Elbert Nevius, b. May 2, 1846, deceased; m., July 23, 1884, Jennie Clark, b. Feb. 18, i860. Their ch., Anna Melita, deceased; Elbert Clark, David Harold and Edwin Hiram, deceased. 4. Rev. Isaac Hiram, b. Sept. 8, 1848; m., June, 1881, Anna Macldo Whyte (deceased). They "had James Whyte and George Hiram. Rev. Isaac Hiram Condit m., May, 1893, Hannah May Scripture as his 2d wife. Their ch., Paul Grandin and Elbert Caryl. 5. Sarah Linn, b. April 6, 1852; m., May 2, 1882, Andrew Dawson Wh)d;e, b. Aug. 6, 1848, and had a son, Andrew Condit Whyte. (F). Jehiel Talmage Shafer m., Sept. 20, 1855, Harriet A. Comes, b. April, 1836. They had 7 ch., viz : I. Irving Newell, b. May, 1856. 2. Harry Talmage, 3. Cora Isabel. 4. Elbert Condit. 5. Frederick Lincoln. 6. George. 7. William. FOURTH BRANCH. The Descendants of MARQARST SHAFER and RICHARD TXTRNER. Margaret Shafer m. Richard Turner, and had 3 children : 144 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1. Mary, who died young. 2. Elizabeth, who married John Bunting and had 3 ch. — I. Gershom Coursen, who died young. 2. Anna, who never married. 3. Emma, m. Edward Perron; no children. 3. Rebecca Maria. GROUP TWO. The Descendants of CASPSSB SCHAEFFER, by his daughter MARaABETTA. Margaretta Schaeffer, b. 1745; d. June 5, 1815; m. John Roy, b. Feb. 6, 1743; d. Feb. i, 1803; son of John Roy, Sr., b. Feb. 11, 171 1, and Margaret (Insley) Roy. John Roy, Sr., was less than a year old when he was brought to America. They had 9 children : 1. John Casper, b. July 30, 1785; d. i860; m. Mary, daughter of William Armstrong and grand-daughter of Nathan Armstrong. See First Branch. 2. Hannah, b. Jan. 28, 1771; d. March 8, 1803; first wife of John Johnson. See Second Branch. 3. Sarah, b. 1780; d. Dec, 1806; m., Nov., 1800, Dr. David Hunt, b. 1776; d. March 2, 1831. See Third Branch. 4. Bernhardt Shafer, m. Sarah Primrose. See Fourth Branch. 5. Margaret, m. David Gustin. See Fifth Branch. 6. Elizabeth, m. David Gustin, second wife. See Fifth Branch. 7. Susan (unmarried), d. March 31, 1862, aet. 87. 8. Mary (unmarried), died young. 9. Joseph Insley, d. Aug. 20, 1851, aet. about 60 years; m., first, Sarah Linn; second, Nancy Drake. See Sixth Branch. 146 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. FIRST BRANCH. The Descendants of JOHN CASPER and MART (ARMSTRONG) ROT. John Casper Roy m., Feb. 13, 1805, Mary Ann- strong, b. 1788; d. June i, 1831. Res. near Hardwick Church, Marksboro, N. J., in a large two-story stone house (still standing) until 1840, when they moved to Morris County, N. J. Nine children : 1. William, b. 1806; d. in infancy. 2. Sarah Morris, b. Oct. 2, 1808; d. 1881. 3. Elizabeth Susan, b. July 11, 181 1; d. Dec. 30, 1897. 4. Mary Euphemia, b. Sept. 24, 1814; d. March 14, 1899. 5. Joseph John, b. June 5, 1816; d. 1887. 6. Lydia Armstrong, b. Dec 21, 1818; d. June 21, 1891 ; m. Rev. James Cook Edwards as his third wife. 7. Hannah Johnson, b. Feb. 8, 1821; d. 1880. 8. Ellas Crane, b. Oct. 13, 1823; d. Feb. i, 1895. 9. Seymour, b. Oct. 6, 1828; d. in infancy. Mary (Armstrong) Roy was buried at the Yellow Frame; her husband at Morristown. (A). Joseph John Roy m., Oct 19, 1841, Sarah Ann Vought, daughter of Jacob and Sarah ( Snover) Vought Eleven ch. — i. John Jacob, b. Dec. 15, 1853; m., M^ch 10, 1886, Anna Olivia Hulbert, b. June 9, i860, daughter of Joseph and Hannah B. (Sargeant) Hulbert. Res at Mendham, N. J. Had i ch., Raymond Hulbert, b. June 5, 1889. 2. William Clinton, m., and has i ch., Mary. 3. Samuel Headley, b. Feb. 18, i860; m., Sept. 8, 1886, Mary A. Endean, b. July 21, 1861, daughter of James and Mary (Matthews) Endean. Res. at Suc- casunna, N. J., and have 2 ch., Charles Henry, b. Dec GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 147 4, 1888, and Mabel Pauline, b. Jan. 19, 1893; d. Jan. 2, 1894. 4. Elias Casper, m., and has 4 ch., Celia, Clara, Elmer and Edna. Res. at Kenville, N. J. 5. George P., m., and has i ch, Mima May, who married George Fear, and has 3 ch., Roy, Florence and Nor- man. 6. Anna Mary, m. James Dunlop, and had 4 ch., Thomas Harry (who m. Hannah Larey and had 3 ch., Francis, Freddie and James) ; Sarah Isabella (who m. Gates B. Parson and had 2 ch., Ethel and Henry) ; Anna Grace, deceased, and Margaret Agnes, deceased. After the death of James, Anna Mary m. Elias B. De- Groot, and had two ch., Joseph Freeman and Ida Maud. Res. at Mendham, N. J. 7. Rachel Emma m., March 10, 1868, Richard T. Bowman, b. Oct. 5, 1835, son of Thomas and Martha Hortoh (Stout) Bowman. Res at Morristown, N. J. Seven ch. — 'Anna Bell, b. Jan. 3, 1869; d. Oct. 10, 1869. Eva, b. May 16, 1870; m. Theo- dore O. Slockbower, and had i ch., Helen. Henrietta, b. Sept. 24, 1871; d. July 20, 1872. Albert, b. Sept. 22, 1873. Richard T., b. Oct. 13, 1874. Charles Arthur, b. July 15, 1878. Emma Leonora, b. May 24, 1881. 8. Kate R, m. Daniel F. Backer. Res. at New- ark, N. J. Four ch., Henrietta, Frank, Clara and Benjamin. 9. Sarah Isabella, id. Henrietta, d. 1872. II. Frank. (B). Hannah Johnson Roy, d. Nov. 27, 1880; m., July 9, 1856, Samuel Anness, b. July 16, 1817; d. Sept. 28, 1872. Three ch. i. Lydia J., b. Sept. i, 1857; m., Dec. I, 1885, Truman H. Scott, b. Oct. 12, 1854, son of John T. and Hannah (Judson) Scott. Res. at Morris- town, N.J. Two ch., Marion Hannah, b. May i, 1887, and Truman Anness, b. May 18, 1889. 2. Edward S., b. April 10, i860; m., Oct. 3, 1886, Mattie DeNoyles, and had I ch., Edna. 3. Hannah, b. Feb. 6, 1863; m. Carlton Dobbins, son of John H. and Catharine B. (Milburn) Dobbins, and had i ch., Carlton Anness, b. Oct. 9, 1888. Res at Morristown, N. J. 14^ GENEALOGICAL RECORD. (C). Elias Crane Roy, m. Catharine C. Freeman, daughter of John Ross Freeman. They had 2 ch. — i. John Casper, b. April 15, 1849; d. May 30, 1881. 2. Joanna Freeman, b. Aug. 11, 1853. SECOND BRANCH. The Descendants of JOHN and HANNAH (BOY) JOHNSON. Hannah Roy m., Oct. 26, 1790, John Johnson, b. 1764; d. Feb. 8, 1829. They had 6 ch. : (B.€ had three children by his second marriage. See Group Three, First Branch). 1. Susan Maria, b. Sept. 24, 1792; d. Feb. 16, i860; unmarried. 2. Eliza Matilda, b. April 21, 1793; d. Jan. 13, 1826. 3. Mary (Polly), b. Dec. 2, 1794; d. Sept. 6, 1795. 4. Hannah Margaretta, b. Jan. 9, 1796; d. Oct. 18, 1827. 5. Sarah Amanda, b. Feb. 3, 1799; d. Dec. 23, 1804. 6. Harriet Roy, b. Nov. 14, 1800; d. Jan. 16, 1836. (A). Eliza Matilda Johnson m. Dr. George Hop- kins, d. Oct. 28, 1819, aet. 27 years, and had 2 ch. : i. Samuel Johnson, who m. Eliza Berrien and had 3 ch., George, Minnie and William, who died unmarried, except George, who went to China and married, leaving issue, living in England. 2. George G., who m. his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Gen. Hopkins. They had 5 ch., Araminta, Anna, Grace, Alonzo and Al- phonso. (B). Hannah Margaretta Johnson m. Rev. Elias W. Crane,^ d. Nov. 10, 1840. Had 5 ch. : i. Hannah ^ Rev. Elias Winans Crane, D. D., was bom at Elizabethtown, N. J., Mch. 18, 1796, graduated at the College of New Jersey, 1814, and at the Princeton Theological Seminary, 1817. He was pastor at Spring- GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1 49 Roy, b. May 15, 1820; d. Aug. 2, 1850; m. John A. Gunn. They had i ch., Margaretta S., who d. Aug. 13, 1877, unmarried. 2. Martha W., b. Feb. 22, 1822; d. June 22, 1874; m. Henry N. Beach, d. 1881. They had 7 ch. — Caroline B., d. Feb. i, 1894, unmarried. Henry C, who married Lucretia S. Hazard. Frank J., m. Anna Wilkie. He d. without issue. Anna J., d. Jan. 13, 1903, unmarried. The other three children died in childhood. 3. Belinda H., b. Oct. 29, 1823; d. May 10, 1855; m. Jeremiah Ross, and had i ch., Henry Crane. 4. Elizabeth Woodruff, b. Sept. 4, 1825; d. in infancy. 5. Rev. Elias Nettleton,^ b. July 4, 1827; d. May 26, 1895; m., April 21, 1864, Mary Elizabeth Pruden, and had 3 ch., all of whom died in infancy. (C). Harriet Roy Johnson m., Dec, 1832, Rev. James Cook Edwards,^ b. 1807. Had 2 ch. i. James William, b. 1833; d. when a young man. 2. John W., b. 1834; d. in infancy. field, N. J., 1820-26, and at Jamaica, L. I., from 1826 until his death, which occurred Nov. 10, 1840. He was a Director of the Princeton Theological Seminary, 1836. ^Rev. Elias Nettleton Crane, son of Rev. Elias Winans and Hannah Margaretta (Johnson) Crane, was born Jan. 4, 1827, at Jamaica, Long Island, graduated from Princeton College in 1852, and entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton the same year, graduating in 1855. He was pastor of the Presbyterian Church at New Vernon, N. J., from 1856 until 1862. He served as chaplain of l7Sth Reg. New York Volunteers for three months in 1863, and was agent for the United States Christian Commission from September, 1863, to July, 1865. He was chaplain of the American Seamen's Friend Society from August, 1865, until 1881. In 1883 he was trans- ferred to the Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y., and labored there until April 4, 1892, when he was compelled to give up active work on account of ill health. He subsequently resided in Elizabeth, New Jersey, until his death, which occurred May 26, 1895. He was married to Miss Mary Elizabeth Pruden. ^Rev. James Cook Edwards was born in Warren Co., N. J., Mar. 12, 1807. A graduate of the College of New Jersey, 1830, and tutor 1832-33, graduate Princeton Theological Seminary. Preached at Smithtown, N. J. Pastor of South Church, Morristown, N. J., 1852-60, died at Morristown, June 28, 1880. 150 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. THIRD BRANCH. Descendants of SABAH ROT and DR. DATID HUNT. Dr. David Hunt, b. 1776; d. March 2, 1831; buried in old cemetery at Newton; son of Lieut. Richard and Mercy (Hull) Hunt, m., Nov., 1800, Sarah Roy, b. 1780; d. Dec, 1806; buried in Yellow Frame Cemetery. They had 3 children : 1. Elizabeth, b. Feb., 1801; d. Dec. 11, 1836; m. Schuyler Halsey, b. Feb. 26, 1797; d. Nov., 1820. No children. 2. Hannah Margaretta, b. Nov., 1802; d. June 13, 1825, unmarried. 3. Sarah, b. Nov., 1804; d. April 13, 1894. (A). Sarah Hunt m., Nov., 1829, Rev. Jonathan Ford Morris, b. 1801 ; d. July 11, 1886, at Bushnell, 111. They had 9 ch. : i. Sarah Elizabeth, b. Sept. 24, 1830; m. Samuel Hays. 2. Mary Louisa, b. July 6, 1832. 3. David Hunt, b. Oct. 16, 1833; m., Sept. 28, 1858, Lucilla Linn Shafer, and had 6 ch. (See List of De- scendants of Nathan Armstrong Shafer.) 4. Jonathan Edwards, b. June 6, 1835; m. Louisa Shafer. 5. Wii^ LiAM Melville, b. March 11, 1837; m. Maggie Post. 6. Joseph Euen, b. Nov. 11, 1838; m. Jemima Lyon. 7. Hannah Margaretta, b. Nov. 15, 1840. 8. Emma Cordelia, b. Oct. 8, 1842. 9. Laura Adelaide, b. Tan. 6, 1845. FOTJRTH BRANCH. Descendants of BE3RNHARDT SHAFER ROY and SARAH PRIMROSB. Bernhardt Shafer Roy m. Sarah Primrose about 1810. He died about 1812. She survived him. They had I child: GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 151 Joseph Morris, b. Feb. 25, 181 1; m., Feb. 7, 1832, Lucy Northrup Owen, who died March 2, 1862. They had 5 ch. — I. Joseph Northrup, b. Jan. 26, 1835; m. Sarah Elizabeth Stiner, Dec. 13, 1844, and had 5 ch., Arthur Prescott, b. April 20, 1862; Charles Morris, b. Dec. 3, 1868; Infant Little Stranger, b. Sept. 10, 1870; d. Sept. 19, 1870; Frederick Louis, b. July 12, 1873, and Louisa C, b. June 30, 1875. 2. George Primrose, b. Nov. 18, 1837. 3. Austin Owen, b. Aug. 22, 1840. 4. Charlotte Louisa, b. Aug. 22, 1844; m. Luther Johnson. 5. Robert Lester Smith, b. Jan. 30, 1850. FIFTH BRANCH. Descendants of MARGARET ROY and ELIZABETH ROT, the first and second wives of DAYID GUSTIN. Margaret Roy d. between 1807 and 1810; m., Jan. 16, 1803, David Gustin. They had 2 children : 1. John Roy, died single. 2. Susan Margaret, b. May 31, 1806; d. 1878. (A). Susan Margaret Gustin m., 1830, Jacob Losey, b. 1803; d. 1888. They had 8 ch. : i. John H., b. 1831; d. Nov. 15, 1889; m., April 25, 1853, Ellen E. Brown, b. 1828. They had Susan E., b. Dec. 3, 1854; d. Sept., 1855; John Jacob, b. Nov. 15, 1857; d. Feb. 7, 1881, unmarried; Thomas H., b. Jan. 18, 1862; un- married; NelsO'N Ames, b. April i, 1864; d. March, 1865; Harriet H., b. May 4, 1867; m., Nov. 3, 1895, Louis F. Timmerman, and had Louis F., Jr., b. Oct. 9, 1896, and Helen L., b. Dec. 8, 1903; Louise S., b. March 6, 1872; m., June 28, 1898, Edward L. Bunn. 2. Joseph Insley, b. 1832; m. Rose > — , who died in 1880, without issue; Joseph m. as second wife, Ellen Marcellis, and had Flossie, b. 1885. 3. Ebenezer L., b. 1836; m. Eliza Watt, and had Ebenezer, Eleazer John, Gustin, Lizzie, Hattie and Nellie. 4. Sarah, 152 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. b. 1839; d. young. 5. Elizabeth, b. 1839; d. young; Sarah and Elizabeth were twins. 6. Edgar D., b. 1840; m. Kate Doren, and had Maggie, Hattie, John, Nellie, Christopher, Edgar and Kate. 7. Samuel G., b. 1849. 8. Susan H., b. 1859. David Gustin then married Elizabeth Roy, b. about 1781; d. Oct. 30, 1851. They had 3 children: 1. Bernard Owen, d. young. 2. Samuel Insley, d. July, 1879. 3. Sarah Roy, b. 181 1; d. July 26, 1874. (A). Samuel Insley Gustin m. Adeline Woodruff, b. Jan. 12, 1816; d. Oct., 1873. They had 3 ch. : i. Sophie E., b. March 4, 1843; d. Aug. 8, 1904. 2. George Woodruff, b. Jan. 29, 1846; d. May 5, 1895, unmarried. 3. Helen, b. May 8, 1853; m., Dec. 20, 1877, George H. Logan, and had Louise Adeline and Georgia Insley, who m. William Chambliss Redding, and had William Chambliss, Jr., b. 1907. (B). Sarah Roy Gustin m., Nov. 18, 1830, James Deazley, b. 1805; d. Aug. 10, i860. They had 7 ch. : i. David Nesbit, b. Jan. 25, 1832; d. Nov. 13, i86c; m., Nov. 16, 1854, Martha J. Ross, and had 3 ch. — Sarah E., b. Nov. 6, 1855; m. Seely Ryerson, July, 1890. Mary Adeline, b. Nov. 21, 1857; m., Nov. 10, 1883, Fred M. Pellet. They had Maude L., b. 1884, and Obie A., b. Aug., 1890. James A., b. April 16, 1859; d. Feb. 20, 1861. 2. Mary E., b. July 19, 1833; d. Feb. 17, i860; m., Nov. 29, 1849, William Haines. They had 2 ch. George J., b. Sept. 21, 1852; d. Jan. 5, 1905; m., about 1885, Marguerite Sanderson (no issue), and Sarah Adeline, b. June 10, 1854; d. March 14, 1855. 3. James, b. Aug. 3, 1835; d. March 13, 1855, unmarried. 4. Augustus, b. Feb. 24, 1837; d. Feb. 7, 1859, un- married. 5. Sarah Margaretta, b. Sept. 27, 1839; d. July 18, 1854. 6. Maria Adeline, b. Aug. 27, 1843; d- Oct. 12, 1845. 7- Louise Shafer, b. March 9, 1846; GENEALOGICAL RECORD. I 53 m., March 8, 1866, George Stuart McCarter. No chil- dren. He is a broker, at Paterson, N. J. SIXTH BRANCH. Descendants of JOSEPH INSLEY ROY. Joseph Insley Roy, son of John and Margaret Shafer Roy, m., April 24, 181 7, Sarah Linn. He married again, March 12, 1823, Nancy Drake. They had 4 children: 1. Nathan Roy, m. Eveline Hopping. 2. David Roy, m. Kate Greenmyer. 3. Alfred, deceased. 4. James R., deceased. GROUP THREE. The Descendants of CASPER 8CHAEFFER, hy Us son ABRAHAM SHAVER. Col. Abraham Shaver (or Shafer), b. Dec. 17, 1754; d. Jan. II, 1820; son of Casper and Maria Catrina (Bern- hardt) Schaeffer; m., Jan. 19, 1781, Sarah Armstrong, b. Jan. ID, 1761; d. Aug. 27, 1827. She was daughter of Nathan and Uphamy (Wright) Armstrong. They re- sided at Stillwater, Sussex County, N. J. They are buried at the Yellow Frame. They had 10 children : 1. Maria Catharine, b. Oct. 16, 1782; d. April 13, 1808; m. John Johnson. See First Branch. 2. Casper, M. D., b. June 10, 1784; d. August 3, 1857; m., 1st, Clarissa Golden; 2d, Mrs. Sarah (Maag) Hahn. See Second Branch. 3. Nathan Armstrong, b. Feb. 17, 1786; d. Dec. 2, 1849; "^- Sarah Linn. See Third Branch. 4. Peter Bernhardt, b. April 10, 1788; d. Feb. 8, 1 861; m. Rebecca Hendric. See Fourth Branch. 5. Euphemia Wright, b. Dec. 20, 1792; d. June 26, 1870; m. Henry Miller. See Fifth Branch. 6. Sarah, b. Feb. 9, 1795; d. May 2, 1868; m. Jacob Randolph Castner. See Sixth Branch. 7. William Armstrong, b. July 18, 1797; d. Aug. 6, 1872; m. Fanny Stewart. See Seventh Branch. 8. Margaretta Roy, b. Aug. 13, 1799; d. May i, 1879, unmarried. 9. Elizabeth Hannah, b. Dec. 4, 1802; d. Feb. 3, 1833; m. Isaac Newton Candee. See Eighth Branch. 10. Robert Finley, b. November 5, 1805; d. Nov. 5, 1889; m., Nov. 28, 1854, Jane McNair, of Dansville, N. Y., daughter of William D. and Anne (Wilkinson) Mc- Nair. No children. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 155 FIRST BRANCH. The Descendants of JOHN and MARIA CATHARINE (SCHAEFFER) JOHNSON. Maria Catharine Schaeffer m., April 28, 1804, John Johnson, b. Sept. 5, 1764; d. Feb. 8, 1829; son of Henry and Susanna (Hover) Johnson. Maria and John are buried at Newton, N. J. Three children : 1. William Jefferson, M. D., b. March 13, 1805; d. Sept. 22, i860; buried at Newton, N. J. 2. Whitfield Schaeffer, b. Nov. 14, 1806; d. Dec. 24, 1874; buried at Trenton, N. J. 3. Sarah Catharine, b. March 29, 1808; d., un- married, Sept. 28, 1868; buried at Newton, N. J. (John Johnson had six children by his first wife, Hannah Roy. See Group Two, Second Branch.) (A). William Jefferson Johnson m. Eliza Durfee, who died Nov. 14, 1873. Res. at Washington, N. J afterwards in New York City. Four ch. : i. Martha, d. unmarried. 2. Whitfield Schaeffer, Jr., married, but had no children; d. in California, Oct. 22, 1873. 3 Amanda, d. unmarried. 4. MARGARkTTA L., b. June 24, 1840; m., April 27, 1865, Lucius Frank Reed, b. Sept 24, 1826; son of Daniel and Cynthia (Warner) Reed Res. in New York City. One ch., Ella Louise, b. May 27, 1870. (B). Whitfield Schaeffer Johnson^ m., Oct. 4, ^Whitfield Schaeffer Johnson was bom at Newton, N. J., Nov. 14, 1806, was admitted to the bar in 1828, and practiced law at Newton till 1861. Was Prosecutor of the Pleas for Sussex County for nearly 20 years, .and was an Elder in the Presbyterian Church, Newton, 1855-63. In 1861 he was appointed Secretary of State of New Jersey by Governor Olden, holding the office until 1866. On receiving the appointment he removed to Trenton, where he resided at the time of his death, Dec. 24, 1874 156 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1837, Ellen Green, daughter of Enoch and Mary (Bidle- man) Green, of PhilHpsburg, N. J. Seven ch., all of whom were bom at Newton, N. J. i. Mary Mar- GARETTA. 2. Emily Eliza, d. 1901, Unmarried. 3. Laura Catharine. 4. Elizabeth Bidleman. 5. William Mindred,^ b. Dec. 2, 1847; "i-. Oct. 22, 1872, Maria E. White, daughter of William and Hannah (Haines) White. Had 3 ch. — Walter Whitfield, b. at Trenton, N. J., April 13, 1875; d. March 16, 1891, at school, Lawrenceville, N. J. George White, b. July 26, 1877. William Kempton, b. February 25, 1883. 6. Margaret Green, d. in 1897. 7. Ellen Green. SECOND BRANCH. CASPER SCHAEPPER and his wife SARAH. Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D., m.. May 17, 1810, Clarissa Golden, d. Jan. 12, 1816. They had a son and daughter, both of whom died in infancy. After the death of Clarissa, he married, Jan. i, 1818, Mrs. Sarah (Maag) Hahn, widow of William Hahn. Had 4 children : 1. Sarah Elizabeth. 2. Euphemia, b. Nov. 16, 1820; d. Jan. 24, 1895. 3. Amanda Margaretta. 4. Gilbert Livingston, d. at two years of age. William Mindred Johnson was born at Newton, NT Dec 2 1847. Graduated at Princeton 1867, was admitted to the bar in 1870' l^racticed at Trenton four years. Removed to Hackensack, N J in 1875, where he has continued to practice law. Was elected Senator from Bergen County to N. J. Senate in 1895, was re-elected in 1808. Was President of the Senate 1900, and acting Governor during absence of Governor Voorhees in Europe in May and tune Was appomted First Assistant Postmaster General by President McKinley «. #•} ^^°°' ^""^ ^^^^ *^* °'^'=^ *'" AP""''- i9°2, when he resigned. Was delegate to Republican National Convention, 1888 and 1904, and Chairman of Republican State Convention in 1900, also in 1904. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 157 (A). Sarah Elizabeth Schaeffer m., April, 1843, Thomas Kimber, and had Sarah Schaeffer^ b. July 7, 1848. (B). EuPHEMiA Schaeffer m., May, 1843, Reuben Beitenman Miller, of Philadelphia. Had 9 ch. — ^i. Mary Hahn, b. May 9, 1844; m. Edwin R. Prichard. Had 4 ch. : Mary Gertrude, b. July 7, 1868; d. Feb. 27, 1870. Reuben Miller, b. Nov. 18, 1871. Helen Elizabeth, b. Aug. 4, 1878. Edwin Ruthven, b. Nov. 14, 1885. 2. Sarah Gertrude, b. March 4, 1846. 3. eLlen Augusta, b. Jan. 24, 1848; d. July, 1900; m. James G. Finley. Had 4 ch. : Margaret Graham, b. Feb. 16, 1874; m. Rev. Theodore Wm. Kretschmann, and had Phillip Miller, b. Oct. 13, 1897, and Herbert Finley, b. Oct., 1903. Gertrude Susan, b. May 16, 1876; m. Walter Hahn Jarden. Had 2 ch. : Ellen Margaretta, b. June 12, 1901, and Robert Von Leer, b. Aug. 31, 1905. Nellie, b. June 3, 1881; d. Jan. 21, 1889. James Herbert, b. Feb. 6, 1885. 4. Euphemia Schaeffer, b. Sept. 15, 1850. 5. William Casper, b. May 3, 1853; d. Aug. 7, 1888. 6. Ida Virginlv, b. Sept. 18, 1855; d. Nov. II, 1891; m. Rev. Charles J. Kirzel, and had Carl Henry, b. Jan. 4, 1880; m. Clara Koch; Marion Virginia, b. Nov. 19, 1881; Graham Finley, b. June 24, 1883, and Ralph Frederick, b. Nov. 29, 1884; d. July 25, 1885. 7. Emily Josephine, b. July 20, 1858; m. Henry C. Boenning, M. D., and had Wil- liam Miller, b. Sept. 13, 1882; m. Grace Rorke; Henry Dorr, b. Sept. ii, 1889, and Emily Meta, b. June 22, 1897. 8. E. Augustus, b. Dec. 11, i860; m. Mary Van Reed, and had Paul Van Reed, b. Feb. 15, 1889; Mil- dred, b. Jan. s, 1891, and Harold Schaeffer, b. Oct. 4, 1892. 9. Florence, b. Feb. 3, 1866; m. Rev. Charles J. Kirzel, and had Augustus Miller, b. Nov. 20, 1894, and Euphemia Schaeffer, b. June 14, 1902. 158 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. THIRD BRANCH. The Descendants of NATHAN ARMSTRONG and SARAH (LINN) SHAFER. Nathan Armstrong Shafer m., April 10, 1822, Sarah Linn, b. March 7, 1796; d. June 19, 1876; daughter of John and Martha (Hunt) Linn; grand-daughter of Joseph and Martha (Kirkpatrick) Linn, and of Richard and Mercy (Hull) Hunt. Had 7 children: 1. Mary Elizabeth, b. Jan. 21, 1823, living at Still- water. 2. William, b. Oct. 31, 1824; d. April 13, 1840. 3. Abram, b. Dec. 14, 1826. 4. Joseph Linn, b. Aug. 12, 1828; d. in Flanders, N.J. 5. Lucilla Linn, b. Dec. 25, 1832. 6. Martha Louisa, b. Jan. 3, 1835; d. Aug. 23, 1871. 7. Emma, b. Jan. 8, 1831; d. May 16, 1833. (A). Mary Elizabeth Schaeffer m., Nov. 14, 1844, Joseph Hurd Coursen, b. June 4, 182 1 ; son of Isaac Vantile and Phebe (Hurd) Coursen. Res. at Stillwater, N. J. Had 4 ch. — i. William Edwin. 2. Emma Louisa. 3. Edgar Coursen. 4. Lucilla Linn. (B). Abram Schaeffer m., Sept. 2T, 1857, Hannah Emeline Casterline, b. March 25, 1833; d. Feb. 8, 1894; daughter of Silas and Maria (Dildine) Casterline. Had 7 ch. — I. Mary Louisa, deceased. 2. William Edwin, b. Oct. 25, 1861. 3. Horatio Linn, b. Dec. 4, 1862; d. Oct. 15, 1880. 4. Fred Gustin, b. Dec. 4, 1862; lives in St. Louis. 5. Sarah Linn, b. May 31, 1868; m. Frank Clark, and had Arthur and Leslie. 6. Winsted Casterline, b. Sept. 15, 1870. 7. Nellie Morris, b. May IS, 1875. Res. at Sedgwick, Kan. (C). Joseph Linn Shafer m. Elizabeth Ward. Had 2 ch. — ii. Louise Linn. 2. Frank. Res. at Tersev Citv N.J. ■" ^ ^' GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 159 (D). LuciLLA Linn Shafer m., Sept. 28, 1858, at Stillwater, N. J., David Hunt Morris, b. Oct. 16, 1833, at Newton, N. J.; son of Jonathan Ford and Sarah Roy (Hunt) Morris, grandson of Dr. David Hunt, great- grandson of Lieut. Richard Hunt. Res. at Roseville, N. J. Had 6 ch. — ^i. Nellie Louise, b. Sept. 7, 1859, at Iowa City, Iowa; m., Sept. 7, 1881, Horace Poinier Cook, b. April 18, 1859; son of Jabez and Harriet J. (Meyers) Cook. They had Madge Estelle, b. Dec. 11, 1882; Morris Poinier, b. Sept. 24, 1886; d. April 2, 1887; Helen Marguerite, b. May 18, 1889; d. July 6, 1890. Res. at Newark, N. J. 2. William Edward, b. Jan. 19, 1862, at Norwalk, Conn. 3. Mary Josephine, b. March 19, 1864. 4. Sarah Adelaide, b. March 24, 1866; d. Oct. 24, 1876. 5. Carrie Linn, b. Nov. 8, 1868, at Newark, N. J.; d. March 20, 1871. 6. Annie Lucilla, b. May 27, 1871; d. Nov. 13, 1876. FOURTH BRANCH. The Descendants of PETER BERNHARDT and REBECCA (HENDRIC) SCHAEFFER. Peter Bernhardt Schaeffer m., April 6, 1831, Mrs. Rebecca Howie Vail, b. May, 1793; d. July 29, i860; daughter of Dr. Joseph J. Hendric. Three children : 1. Abram Edwin, b. Feb. 19, 1832; d. April 12, 1833. 2. Mary Adelaide, b. Oct. 5, 1833. 3. Alexander Castner, b. June 2, 1838; served in Harris Light Cavalry, and was a prisoner at Libby. (A). Mary Adelaide Schaeffer m., in 1852, Robert Finley Denis, M. D., who died in 1874, and is buried at Puerta Plata, Santo Domingo. Res. in Denver, Col. Four ch. — ^i. Willard Hendric, b. July 19, 1854. 2. HeIiman L., b. Aug. 3, 1856; m. Helene E. Trask; had l6o GENEALOGICAL. RECORD. I ch., Eleanor Adelaide. 3. Bertha, b. Jan. 17, 1863. 4. Adelaide, b. Aug. 15, 1865. (B). Alexander Castner Shaffer m., in 1875, Amelia Jane Terry, who d. in 1906, daughter of John K. and Deziah Terry, of Elmira, N. Y. One ch., Edward Terry Hendric, b. June 20, 1880. Res. at Walterboro, 5. C. FIFTH BRANCH. The Descendants of HENRY and EUPHEMLa. "WRIGHT (SCHAEFFER) MILLER. Euphemia Wright Schaeffer m., Nov. 7, 1816, (Major Henry Miller, son of Major David Miller, of German Valley, N. J., and his wife, Mary Welsh. Four children : 1. Sarah Elizabeth, b. March 2, 1818; d. June, 1834. 2. Margaretta Schaeffer, b. Jan. 20, 1820. 3. James Edwin, b. April 13, 1823; d. Oct 24, 1885. 4. Emma Louise, b. Jan. 14, 1826. (A). Rev. James Edwin Miller m., Aug. 17, 1858, Frances Gildersleeve Davis, b. Nov. 22, 1835; d. June, 1872; daughter of Charles Davis, M. D., b. Feb. 9, 1797, and his wife, Matilda Gildersleeve, b. Dec. 26, 1812. Had 2 ch. — I. Hugh Wilson, b. June 10, 1859; d. May 24, 1906. 2. Caroline Gildersleeve, b. April 25, 1863. • SIXTH BRANCH. The Descendants of JACOB RANDOLPH and SARAH (SCHAEFFER) CASTNER. Sarah Schaeffer m., Feb. 2, 1814, Rev. Jacob Ran- GENEALOGICAL RECORD. l6l dolph Castner, b. July 24, 1785, at Liberty Corner, N. J.; d. March 19, 1848; son of Peter and Margaret (Comp- ton) Castner; grandson of Jacob Castner. Res. near Washington, N. J. Had 10 children: 1. Mary Welch. 2. Margaretta, b. July 24, 1819; d. Sept. 3, 1886. 3. Emma Louise, d. in childhood. 4. John Calvin Knox, b. June 12, 1822; d. March 8, 1895; buried at Greenwood Cemetery, Trenton, N. J. 5. Sarah E., deceased. 6. William P., d. in childhood. 7. Edmund Burke, b. Oct. 15, 1827. 8. Elizabeth Schaeffer. 9. Anna Matilda, deceased; m. Henry Bergen. 10. Amanda Euphemia. (A). Mary Welch Castner m., July 28, 1844, Lyndon Graves Lyman, deceased, son of Aaron and Electa (Graves) Lyman. Two ch. — ^i. Emma Castner, b. Dec. 8, 1845; n^-> Jan. 5, 1871, Peter Hofifman Cramer, son of Matthias and Charlotte (Hofifman) Cramer. Res. at Newark, N. J. One ch., Jessie Louise, b. Jan. 11, 1880. 2. Mary Castner, b. Oct. 5, 1847, at Washing- ton, N. J.; m., Dec. 26, 1866, Joseph Heath Menagh, b. March 21, 1846, at Schooleys Mountain, N. J.; son of Hugh and Lavinia (Heath) Menagh. Hugh was born March 22, 1822, at Beattystown, N. J. Lavinia was born Nov. 13, 1824; d. April 2, 1847. Res. at Newark, N. J. Four ch. : Lyndon Lyman, b. Aug. 25, 1868, at Schooleys Mountain. Joseph, b. July 26, 1870; d. in infancy. Jennie Lavinia, b. Sept. 24, 1871, at Cata- sauqua. Pa. Mary Emma, b. Jan. 22, 1875, at Newark, N.J. (B). Margaretta Castner m., Aug. 2, 1852, Rev. George K. Marriner, b. Nov. 9, 1821; d. Sept. 5, 1869; son of Gilbert and Deborah (Maull) Marriner, of Lewes, r " 1 62 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. Del. George was pastor of Presbyterian Church at Cochecton, N. Y., at Northport, N. Y., and at Warren, Pa. He is buried in Mt. Peace Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Margaretta, in Evergreen Cemetery, Elizabeth, N. J. Had I ch, Anna Castner, b. Aug. 2,3, 1853. Res. at Traiton, N. J. (C). John Calvin Knox Castner rn„ in 1854, Ellen Lowery, daughter of Clark and EJizabetU (Craig) Lowery. Res. at Trenton, N. J. Had 6 ch. — 'i. Mary C, b. Aug. 24, 1855. 2. Theodore, b. Sept. 14, i860; d. November 19, 1876. 3. Annie Robinson, b. Oct. 18, 1857; m., Nov. 24, 1880, Rudolph Frederick Kampen, son of Henry Theodore and Caroline (Zurlinden) Kam- pen, of Nettingen, Westphalia, Prussia. 4. Ulysses Grant, b. Dec. 6, 1863. 5. Ida Berthoud, b. April 13, 1866. 6. Minna A., b. Jan. 19, 1872. (D). Edmund Burke Castner m. Sarah Parker Davis, b. Dec. 29, 1829, daughter of Conrad and Sarah (Weller) Davis. Res. at Newark, N. J. Ten ch. — i. Mary Louisa, b. Nov. 4, 1850; d. Jan. 15, 1881; m. Thomas E. Doughty. 2. Jacob R., b. April 17, 1853; m. Bella Kierstead. 3. Edmund Burke, Jr., b. Oct. 14, 1855; m. Minnie Sthlegel. 4. Anna M., b. Oct. i, 1858; m. John H. Bird. 5. William Schaeffer, b. March 9, i860. 6. Alexander Berthoud, b. Oct. 5, 1862. 7. Peter Sanford, b. Jan. 22, 1864. 8. Sarah Elizabeth, b. Nov. 9, 1865 ; d. Dec. 20, 1866. 9. John Davis, M. D., b. Nov. 13, 1868. 10. Lena May, b. July 16, 1 87 1 ; m. John Donelly. (E). Elizabeth Schaeffer Castner m., Sept. i, 1848, John Power Davis, b. March 29, 1819; son of Conrad and Sarah (Weller) Davis, grandson of Conrad and Rebecca (Johnson) Davis. Res. at East Orange, N. J. Seven ch. — i. Sarah Castner, b. June 19, 1849, at Port Colden, N. J. 2. Jacob Frederick, b. Dec. 22, 1852, at Newark, N. J. 3. Ella, b. in August, 1854; married John B. Day; she died Oct. 29, 1906. 4. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1 63 Edward, deeeased. 5. Frank, deceased. 6. Anna Castner, b. in August, 1857; m. Charles S. Menagh, b. Oct. I, 1856; son of Hugh and Caroline (Sharp) Menagh. 7. William Henry Kirk,, M. D. (F). Amanda Euphemia Castner m. Jacob Castner Winter, M. D. One ch., Ida W. After the death of Jacob, who died within six months after his marriage, Amanda married Col. Alexander P. Berthoud, who died at Newton, N. J., June, 1894. Ida W. Winter m. Charles Killgore, b. Dec. 8, 1849; son of Robert J. and Alice (Van Syckel) Killgore, grand- son of Charles and Louisa (Ficklen) Killgore, and of Aaron and Mary (Bird) Van Syckel. Res. in New York City. Three ch., Robert Berthoud, b. Jan. 17, 1876, in Utica, N. Y.; Anderson Nelson, b. Oct. 3, 1880, in Utica, N. Y, and Edward Winter, b. Aug. 24, 1892, at Hotel Endicott, in New York City. SEVENTH BRANCH. The Descendants of ISTUAjIAM. ARMSTRONG and FANNT (STEWART) SCHAEFFER. William Armstrong Sghaefeer m., Oct., 17, 1839, Fanny Stewart, b. Oct. 17, 1805; d. Dec. 18, 1880; daughter of John and Sarah (Bird) Stewart, and gp-and- daughter of William Stewart. William is buried at Yellow Frame; Fanny, at Fairmount Cemetery, Newark, N. J. Two children : 1. Abram Edwin, b. Aug. 7, 1840. 2. John Stewart, b. June 17, 1843. Both born at StiUwater, N. J. (A). Abram Edwin Schaeffer m>, Sept. 20, 1858, Ann Elizabeth Johnson, b. Nov. 5, 1840; daughter of William Schaefifer and Elizabeth (Drake) Johnson. Res. at Newark,. N. J. Four ch.^ — ^i. John? Caster, b. Oct. 26, 164 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1859; m., Feb. 13, 1878, Anna Alston, b. May 19, 1858; daughter of William Beach and Elizabeth (Arlington) Alston. Res. at Brooklyn, N. Y. Had 3 ch., born at Newark, N. J. : Harry Alston^ b. July 11, 1879; Lettie Walsh, b. Jan. 23, 1881, and Raymond, b. April 26, 1884. 2. Fanny Margaretta, b. March 2j, 1861; d. March 13, 1893; buried at Bethel, Conn.; m., Sept. 29, 1880, Frank G. Trowbridge, b. March 15, 1856; son of George S. Trowbridge, of Bethel, Conn., and his wife, Elizabeth Kealer, of Ridgefield, Conn. Had i ch., Florence Amelia, b. at Newark, N. J. 3. Howard William, b. March 14, 1864; m., Aug. 15, 1887, Nettie Wright, b. Sept. 15, 1867; daughter of Ephraim and Margaret (Snell) Wright. Res. at Newark, N. J. 4. Lizzie May, b. May i, 1869. (B). John Stewart Schaeffer m. Georgia Emma Walsh, b. May 6, 1846; daughter of Josiah and Elizabeth Frances (Bates) Walsh. One ch.. Bertha, b. Nov. 5, 1871, who m. James Bruce Hay, and has a daughter, Gertrude Eugene, b. Jan. 11, 1894. EIGHTH BRANCH. The Descendants of ISAAC NE^ySTTON and ELIZABETH HANNAH (SCHAEFFER) CANDEE. Elizabeth Hannah Schaeffer m., Jan. i, 1829,. Rev. Isaac Newton Candee, D. D., b. Oct. 30, 1801; d. at Peoria, 111., June 20, 1874; buried in Hope Cemetery, Galesburg, 111.; son of Nehemiah and Content (Wood- ruff) Candee. One child : Sarah Schaeffer, b. Oct. 16, 1830, at Belvidere, N. J. ; m., ' Nov. 27, 1856, at La Fayette, Ind., Newton Burder Love, b. March 13, 1827, at Stedville, Chester County, Pa.; d. May 7, 1888, at Peoria, 111.; buried in the Candee lot at Galesburg, 111. ; son of John Adam and Abi GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1 65 Jane (Andrews) Love, of Chester County, Pa. Three ch. — I. Ida Candee, b. Nov. lo, 1858, at Galesburgj 111. 2. Anna Louisa, b. May 27, 1861, at Plymouth, 111.; m., Jan. 14, 1886, Thomas Dick Archer, who died Feb. 19, 1 89 1. Had I ch., Jessie Candee, b. Oct. 15, 1887, at Huron, Dakota. 3. Newton Meredith, b. Sept. 21, 1869, at Peoria, 111. Res. at Peoria, 111. GROUP FOUR. The Descendants of CASFSR SCHAEFFEB BT HIS SON ISAAC. Major Isaac Shafer, b. June 4, 1760; d. March 27, 1800; m., March 13, 1786, Martha Linn, daughter of Joseph and EHzabeth (Kirkpatrick) Linn. He is buried at the Yellow Frame. They had 4 children : 1. Rev. Joseph Linn, D. D., b. May 12, 1787; d. 'Nov. 12, 1853. He was pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Newton, N. J., for thirty-eight years, 1812-35, 1838-53. He married Diana Forman. See First Branch. 2. Archibald Stinson, b. March i, 1789; died when a young man. 3. Margaret R., d. April 19, 1830; m. Ross Crane, who d. Aug. 20, 1857. See Seojnd Branch. 4. Peter B., Jr., b. 1795; d. April 13, 1868; m., March 16, 1820, Amelia L. Fairchild. See Third Branch. FIRST BRANCH. Descendants of MAJOR ISAAC SHAFER by Ms son REY. JOSEPH LINN SHAFER Rev. Joseph Linn Shafer, D. D., m. Diana Forman. They had 6 children : 1. Thomas Henderson, d. Aug. 8, 1898. 2. Amelia Matilda, d. Jan. 20, 1900. 3. Jonathan Forman, b. 1815; d. March 15, 1871. 4. Stockton Halstead, l>. Sept. 30, 1825; d. Jan. 10, 1877. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1 67 5. Catharine Rose, d. Dec. 22, 1907. 6. Alexander, d. Aug. 8, 1892. The four last-named were unmarried. (A). Thomas Henderson Shafer m. Caroline F. Webb, and had 2 ch. — ^i. Julia M. 2. Emma L. Both unmarried. (B). Amelia Matilda Shafer m. John Walton, and had I child, William, d. July 30, igoo; m. Gertrude Babbitt, and had Alice. SECOND BRANCH. Deacendanta of MAJOB. ISAAC SHAFER by Ms daughter MARGARET R., the wife of Ross Crane. Margaret R. Shafer m. Ross Crane. They had 7 children : 1. Sarah. 2. Isaac Watson, b. Nov. 25, 1818; d. May 8, 1896. 3. Mary Ann, d. Sept. 10, 1828. 4. David Edgar, b. Sept. i, 1823; d. June 23, 1862. 5. ELizABEiTH, b. 1827; d. 1892. 6. Theodore, M. D., b. Dec. 5, 1829; d. 1890. 7. John. (A), Sarah Crane m. Lewis Beach, and had 4 ch. — I. Emma, who m. George Marvin, and had 2 ch. : Louis m. — , and Louise m. Dusenbefry. 2. Theodore, who m. — ■■ Copeland, and hrtd Jennie, ^h£> m. — . 3. Josephine m. Thompson. 4. William m. -— — — . (B). Isaac Watson Crane m. Sophia B. Sharpe, and l68 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. had 4 ch. — i. Mary E., d. Dec. 28, 1844. 2. Margaret Ellen, d. 1881; m. W. G. Sutphin, and had W. G. SuTPHiN, Jr., who died in infancy. 3. John T. Crane, m. Elizabeth Little, and had 2 ch., Nellie, who m. W. J. Alford and had W. J. Alford, Jr., Nelije Crane, Herbert Watson and Edward Little, deceased; and Jennie, who m. Charles W. Morrison, and had Theo- dore Crane. 4. Theodore Crane, Jr., m. Marietta White, and had Mary Eleanor, Genevieve Sharp and Francis White Martin. (C). David Edgar Crane m. Elizabeth K. Sharp, and had 4 ch. — I. Laura, m. Jacob C. Bell. 2. Elizabeth, m. Jacob W. Davis, and had 6 ch., Cora (who m. Wil- liam H. Rice and had Kenneth, Harold De Witte, Ellsworth, who died in infancy, and Nancy Eliza- beth), Ella (who m. Edgar Park and had Leonard and Ralph), Mary Raymond, William H. and Clarence. 3. Ross, m. Melissa Martin, and had David Edgar and Theodore. 4. Georgianna, m. Isaac Searles, and had Frederick, who m. Lillie Kishbaugh, and Elizabeth, who m. Floyd Gruendyke, and had Ruth Crane. (D). Elizabeth Crane m. Joseph H. Marsh, b. 1819; d. 1852, and had 2 ch. — i. Mary H., b. 1847; d- 1872. 2. Margaret Crane, unmarried. (E). Dr. Theodore Crane m. Emma E. Shotwell, b. 1834; d. 1884, and had 9 ch. — ^i. Louisa, m. A. O. S. Havens, and had children. 2. Gertrude. 3. Willard P., b. 1861 ; d. 1862. 4. Arthur M. 5. Margaret S., m. J. F. Lambias. 6. Myra. 7. Herbert T., b. 1873; d. Oct. 28, 1876. 8. Eliot Earl, b. 1875 ; d. 1904. 9. Mabel E., b. 1877; d. 1903. (F). Dr. John Crane m. Charlotte Ely. He died of yellow fever, at New Utrecht, L. I. They had 3 ch. i. Clifford, m. , and had Frederick Clifford and (daughter). 2. Charlotte Elizabeth, m. George Snell ; no children. 3. Frederick. GENEALOGICAL RECORD. 1 69 THIRD BRANCH. The Descendants of MAJOR ISAAC SHAFER by his son PETER B. SHAFER, Jr. Peter B. Shafer, Jr., m., March i6, 1820, Amelia L. Fairchild. He was Colonel of Warren County Militia, and an Elder in the Presbyterian Church at Hacketts- town, N. J. Had 7 children: 1. Archibald Stinson, b. Dec. 15, 1820. 2. Eliza Beach, b. Dec. 14, 1822. 3. Martha Linn, b. Feb. 4, 1825; d. March 24, 1876. 4. Abraham Fairchild, b. April 26, 1829; d. in infancy. 5. Isaac, b. April 26, 1829; d. in infancy. 6. Joseph Henry, b. April 13, 1831. 7. Edgar Ross, b. Dec. 18, 1833; m. Versilla . No issue. (A). Archibald Stinson Shafer m., Aug, 6, 18 — , Mary O. Sayre. They had 3 ch. — ^i. Mary A., b. Oct. 6, 1845; m., Nov. 14, 1866, Dr. Parker McL. Burbank, and had 3 ch. : Emily Mary, b. May 3, 1868; Parker S., b. Nov. 14, 1869, and Frederick McLellen, b. Nov. 6, 1872, who m. Ellen Gary, d. Feb., 1903. 2. Casper B., b. July 9, 1848; m., June 26, 1872, Maggie Rea, and had 4 ch. : Mary, who m., June, 1904, Donald MacMillan; Margaret, who m., April, 1904, Dr. George Marshall; Casper, who d. May, 1888, and Rea. 3. Archibald S., b. Sept. 29, 1855; m. Edith Richards, and had Archi- bald, b. Dec, 1884. (B). Eliza Beach Shafer m. John W. McNair, and had 3 ch. — I. Amelia Anne, b. Feb. 26, 1862, who m. Evan R. Evans, and had Winifred Marguerite, b. April, 1887; John McNair, Paul Demttnd, Mary Louise Jennette, and Anne, b. 1902. 2. Jennie S., 170 GENEALOGICAL RECORD. . j_ b. Sept. 26, 1864. 3. Martha Louisa, b. Nov. 29, 1866; m. Fred A. McFarland, and had Arthur. (C). Joseph Henry Shafer m., Oct. 23, 1861, Julia R. Ely, who d. Oct., 1876. They had 5 ch. — 11. Emma Louise, b. May 8, 1864; d. April 23, 1893; m., Sept. 22, 1892, Rev. J. Garland Hamner. 2. Harry Wallace, b. July 6, 1867; d. July 2, 1888. 3. Frederick Clif- ford, b. 1869; d. in infancy. 4. Wilmot Ely, b. July 23, 1871; m., July 16, 1906, Miss Wilson, daughter of P. P. Wilson, of Pomona, Cal. 5. Jennette Remsen, b. May 27, 1874. After the death of Julia R., Joseph Henry Shafer m., Jan. 3, 1883, Julia Annabel Budd, who d. Oct. 5, 1893. Th^ had 2 ch. — i. Julia Budd, b. Sept. 11, 1884. 2. Arthur Malcolm, b. Oct. 13, 1889; d. Feb. 11, 1896. On Jan. 19, 1897, Joseph Henry Shafer m. Adelaide Margaret Smillie, as his third wife. GENEALOGICAL INDEX Alford, Edward Uttle, 168. Herbert Watson, 168. Nellie Crane, 168. W. J., 168. W. J., Jr., 168. Alston, Anna, 164. Eaizabeth (Arlington), 164. WiUiam Beach, 164. Anness, Edna, 147. Edward S., 147. Hannah, 147. Lydia J., 147. Samuel, 147. Archer, Jessie Candee, 165. Thomas Dick, 165. Armstrong, Elizabeth (Swayze), 137. John, 140. John, Jr., 137, 140. Lydia, 137. Margaret Sarah, 140. Mary, 145, 146. Nathan, 137, 140, 145, 154, 168. Sarah (Stinson), 140. Uphamy (Wright), 137, 140, 154. William, 136, 137, 146. Ayres, Elizabeth, 139. Jacob Cummings, 139. Sarah M. (Read), 139. Babbitt, Gertrude, 167. Backer, Benjamin, 147. Clara, 147. Daniel P., 147. Prank, 147. Henrietta, 147. Beach, Ann Margaret Savercool, 142. Anna J., 149. Caroline B., 149. Emma, 167. Prank J., 149. Henry C, 149. Henry N., 149. Jennie, 167. Josephine, 167. Lewis, 167. Theodore, 167. WiUiam, 167. Beaver, Sarali, 137. Bell, Jacob C, 168. Bentley, Catherine Coehran (Sayre), 138. George Vaughn, 138. Katharine Hand, 138. Bernhardt, Johan Peter, 135. Maria Catrina, 135, 164. Berrien, Eliza, 148. Berthoud, Alexander P., 163. Bird, John H., 162. Blair, Hetty Maria (Brown), 138. Mary Elizabeth, 138. Milton Locke, 138. Boenning, Emily Meta, 167. Henry C, M. D., 157. Henry Dorr, 157. William Miller, 167. Bowman, Albert, 147. Anna Bell, 147. Charles Arthur, 147. Emma Leonora, 147. Eva, 147. Henrietta, 147. Martha Horton (Stout), 147. Richard T., 147. Thomas, 147. Broadley, Emma, 141. Brown, Ellen E., 151. Budd, Julia Annabel, 170. Bunn, Edward L., 151. Bunting, Anna, 144. Emma, 144. Gershom Coursen, 144. John, 144. Burbank, Emily Mary, 169. Frederick McClellan, 169. Dr. Parker McLellan, 169. Parker S., 169. Burr, Anna M., 138. Henry, 138. Nancy (Shafer), 138. Candee, Content (WoodrufE), 164. Elizabeth Hannah (Schaef- fer), 164. Rev. Isaac Newton, D. D., 154, 164. Nehemiah, 164. Gary, Eaien, 169. Casterline, Hannah Bmeline, 168. Maria (Dildlne), 158. Silas, 158. Castner, Alexander Berthoud, 162. Amanda Buphemia, 161, 163. Anna Matilda, 161. Anna M., 162. Annie Robinson, 162. Edmund Burke, 161, 162. Edmund Burke, Jr., 162. Elizabeth SchaefEer. 161, 162. Emma Louise, 161. Ida Berthoud, 162. Jacob, 161. Jacob Randolph, Rev., 154, 160. Jacob R., 162. John Calvin Knox, 161, 162. John Davis, M. D., 162. Lena May, 162. 174 GENEALOGICAL INDEX. Margaretta, 161, 162. Margaret (Compton), 161. Mary C 162. Mary Ijomsa., 162. Mary Welclt 161. Minna A., 162. Peter, 161. Peter Sanford, 162. Sarah B., 161. Sarah Elizabeth, 162, Sarah (SchaefCer), 160. Theodore, 162. Ulysses Grant, 162. WUUam P., 161, William SchaefCer, lfi2. Clark, Arthur, 158. Benjamin Green, 143. Edith Shafer, 143. Ella Mabel, 143. Prank, 158. Jasper Scudder, 143. Jennie, 143. Lieslie, 158. Mary Louise, 143. Cole, Catharine, 141. Comes, Harriet A., 143. Condit, Ann Maria, 143. Anna Melita, 143. David Harold, 143. Edwin Hiram, 143. Elbert Caryl, 143. Elbert Clark, 143. Rev. Elbert Nevius, 143. Elizabeth Wilson, 143. George Hiram, 143. Rev. Isaac Hiram, 143. James Whyte, 143. Paul Grandin, 143. Sarah Ldnn, 143. Rev. Thaniel Beers, 143. Cook, Harriet J. (Myera)^ 159. Helen Marguerlte,169. Horace Foinier, 1B9. Jabez, 159. Madge Estelle, 159. Morris Poinler, 159. Cooper, Benjamin, 140. Elizabeth, 140. Letltia (Culpepper), 140. Copeland,. , 167. Coursen, A. Hampton, 1S& Almeda, 138. Edgar, 158. Eimna Liouisa, 158. Enos, 138. Ephraim Green, 138. George M., 138. Isaac Vantile, 158. Jessie StiUwell, 138. Joseph Hurd, 158. Lucilla XJnn, 158. Mary (Green), 138. Mary Burr, 138. Phebe (Hurd), 158. William Edwin, 168.. Cox, Margaret, 139. (Jiamer, Charlotte (Hoffman), 161. Jessie Louise, 161, Matthias, 16i. Peter Hoffman, 161. Crane, Arthur M., 168. Charlotte Elizabeth, 168. Clifford, 168. David Eagar. 167, 168. Delinda H., 149. Rev. EUas Nettleton, 149. Rev. Elias W., 148, 149. Eliot Earl, 168. Elizabeth, 167, 168. Elizajietb Woodruff, 149. Francis White Martin, 168. Frederick, 168. Frederick Clifford, 168. Genevieve Sharp^ 16S. Georgianna, 168. Gertrude, 168. Hannah Roy, 148. Herbert T., 168i Isaac Watson, 167. Jennie, 168. Dr. John, 167, 168: John T., 168. Laura, 168, Louisa, 168. Mabel B., 168. Margaret Bllen, 168. Margaret S., I68i Martha W., 149. Mary Ann, 167. Mary Eleanor, 168. Mary E., 168. Myra, 168. NeUie, 168. Ross, 166, 167, 168. Sarah, 167. Theodore, 168. Theodore, M. D., 167, 168. Theodore, Jr., 168. Wlllara P., 16B. Davis, Anna. Castner, 163. Charles, M. D., 160. Clarence, 168. Cora, 168. Conrad, 162. Bdward,. 163. Ella, 162, IBS. Frances Gildersleeve, 160. Prank, 163. Jacob Frederick, 162. Jacob W., 168. John Power, 162. Mary Raymond, 168. Rebecca (Johnson), 162. Sarah Castner, 162. Sarah Parker, 162. Sarah (Weller), 162. William H., 168. William Henry Kirk, M. D., 163. Day, John B., 162. Deazley, Augustus, 152. David Nesbit, 152. James, 152. James A., 15?. Louise Shafer,. 152. Maria Adeline, 162. Mary E.,, IB2'.., GENrE-ALOGICAL INDEX. 175 Sarah £}., 152; Sarah Margaxetta, 162. DeGroot, EMas B., 147. Ida Maud, 147. Joseph Freeman, 147. Denis, Adelaide, 160. Bertha, 160. Bleanor Adelaide, 160. Herman L., 159. Robert Mnley, M. D., 169. WUUard Hendric, 159. De Noyles, Mattle, 147. Dobbins, Ca,rlton, 147. Carlton Anness, 147. Catharine B. (MUbum), 147. John H., 147. Donelly, John, 162. Doren, Kate, 162. Doughty, Thomas E., 162. Drake, Nancy, 145, 163. Dunlop, Anna Grace, 147. Francis, 147. Freddie, 147. James, 147. Margaret Agnes, 147. Sarah Isabella, 147. Thomas Harry, 147. Durfee, Elizabeth, 165. Dusenberry, , 167. Edwards, Rev. James Oook, 146, 149. James William, 149. John W. 149. Ellermeyer, Charles A., 140. Mary Louisa, 140. Ely, Charlotte, 168. Julia R., 170. Endean, James, 146. Mary A., 146. Mary (Matthewsik, 146. Evansi Anne, 169. Evan R., 169. John McNair, 169. Mary Louise Jennette, 169. Paul DeMund, 169. Winifred Marguerite, 169. Falrchild, Amelia L., 166, 169. Fear, Florence, 147. George, 147. Norman, 147. Roy, 147. Finley, Gertrudfe Susan, 157. .Tames G., 157. James Herbert; 157. Margaret Graham, 157. Nellie, 157. Fisher, Herbert G., 141. Forman, Diana, 166. Freeman, Catharine; C 148. John Ross, 148. Glldersleeve, Matilda, 160. Golden, Clarissa, 1B2, 156. Gordon, Susie Letitia, 141. Grant, Hannah, 138. Green, Ellen, 156; Enoch, 156. Mary (Bldleroan}, 15&. Greenmyer, Katei 163, Gruendyke, Floyd, 168; Ruth Crane, 168. Gunn, John A., 149. Margaretta S., 149. Gustin, Bernard Owen, 162. David, 145, 151, 152. George Woodruff, 162. Helen, 152. John Roy, 161. Samuel Insley, 162. Sarah Roy, 162. Sophie B., 152. Susan Margaret, 161. Hahn, Sarah (Maag), 164, 166. Wmiam, 156. Haines, George J., 152. Sarah Adeline, 152. William, 152. Halsey, Schuyler, 150. Hamner, Rev. J. Garland, 170. Hanklnson, Elijah, 139. Mary C. (Schooley), 139. Olive, 139. Hardin, Euphemia Caroline, 139. George, 139. John, 139. Harris, Elizabeth (Hoagland), 139. George Hoagland, 139. Isaac, 139. Jennie, 142. Hart, Azariah D., 139. Ethel M., 139. Henry, 139. Nathan Henry, 139. Havens, A. O. S., 168. Hay, Gertrude Bueene; 164. James Bruce, 164. Hays, Samuel, 150. Hazard, Lucretia S., 149. Hazen, Aaron, 138. Caroline, 138. Catharine Raub, 141. Edward, 138. Elizabeth (Vought), 138. Emma Gertrude, 139. Gertrude (Kerr), 138. HarriiBt J., 139. Lydia Ann, 139. Nathan, 138. Nathan Kerr. 138. Sarah mizabeth, 138. Hendric, Rebecca, 154. Dr. Joseph J., 159. Holloway, Amelia, 143. Hooker, Orpha Loretta, 142. Hopkins, Alonzo, 148. Alphonso, 148. Anna, 148. Araminta, 148; Elizabeth, 148. Dr. George, 148. George, 148. George G., 148. "Gen.," 148. Grace, 148. Minnie,. 148. 176 GENEALOGICAL INDEX. Samuel Johnson, 148. "William, 148. Hopping, Eveline, 153. Huff, Barnett S., 139. Clarence Read, 139. Hannah (Divers), 139. Nellie Thompson, 139. Ralph Dildine, 139. Hulbert, Anna Olivia, 146. Hannah B. (Sargeant), 146. Joseph, 146. Hunt, Dr. David, 145, 150, 159. Eaizabeth, 150. Hannah Margaretta, 150. Mercy (Hull), 150, 158. Richard, 158. Lieut. Richard, 150, 159. Sarah, 150. Jacoby, Catharine, 142. Jarden, Ellen Margaretta, 157. Robert Von Leer, 157. Walter Hahn, 157. Johnson, Amanda, 155. Ann Elizabeth, 163. Deborah (Willson), 139. Elizabeth Bidleman, 156. Elizabeth (Drake), 163. Eliza Matilda, 148. Ellen Green, 156. Eftnily Eliza, 156. George White, 156. Hannah Margaretta, 148, 149. Hannah (Roy). 148. Harriet Roy, 148, 149. Henry, 155. John, 145, 148, 154, 155. Laura Catharine, 156. Luther, 151. Lydia A., 139. Margaret Green, 156. Margaretta L., 155. Maria Catharine ("Schaeffer), 155. Martha, 155. Mary Margaretta, 156. Mary (Polly), 148. Sarah Amanda, 148. Sarah Catharine, 155. Susanna (Hover), 155. Susan Maria, 148. Theodore F., 139. Walter Whitfield. 156. Whitfield SchaefCer, 155. Whitfield Schaeffer, Jr., 155. William Jefferson, M. D., 155. William Kempton, 156. William Mindred, 156. William Schaeffer, 163. Kampen, Caroline (Zurlinden) 162. Henry Theodore, 162. Rudolph Frederick, 162. Kealer, Elizabeth, 164. Kennedy, Edgar V., 138. Dr. Samuel, 136. Sarah, 136. Shafer, 136. Thomas Jefferson, 136. Kerr, Carrie Malvina, 139. Euphemia Gertrude, 139. Flavel McGee, 139. Floyd, 139. Frank Leslie, 139. George Harris, 139. Ira, 138. Ira Clinton, 139. Isaac Calvin, 139. Isaac Read, 138. John Wesley, 139. Ducy, 139. Lydia Jane, 139. Nathan Hampton, 139. Phebe (Read), 138. William Hampton, 138. William Stitt, 139. Kierstead, Bella, 162. Killgore, Alice (Van Syckel), 163. Anderson Nelson, 163. Charles, 163. Edward Winter, 163. Louisa (Ficklen), 163. Robert Berthoud, 163. Robert J., 163. Kimber, Sarah Schaeffer, 157. Thomas, 157. Kirzel, Augustus Miller, 157. Carl Henry, 157. Rev. Charles J., 157. Euphemia Schaeffer, 157. Graham Finley, 157. Marion Virginia, 157. Ralph Frederick, 157. Kishbaugh, Lillle, 168. Koch, Clara, 157. Kretschmann, Herbert PMnley, 167. Phillip Miller, 157. Rev. Theodore Wm., 157. Lambias, J. F., 168. Larey, Hannah, 147. Linn, Elizabeth (Kirkpatrick), 166. John, 158. Joseph, 158, 166: Martha, 166. Martha (Hunt), 158. Martha (Kirkpatrick), 158. Sarah, 145, 153. 154, 158. Little, Elizabeth, 168. Logan, George H.. 152. Georgia Insley. 152. Louise Adeline, 152. Losey, Christopher, 152. Ebenezer, 151. Ebenezer L., 151. Edgar, 152. Edgar D., 152. Eleazer, 161. Eliza, 151. Elizabeth, 152. Flossie, 161. Gustin, 151. Harriet H., 151. Hattie, 151, 152. Jacob, 151. John, 151. 152. John H., 151. John Jacob, 151. GENEALOGICAL INDEX. 177 Joseph Insley, ISl. Kate, 152. Lizzie, 151. Louise S., 161. Maggie, 152. Nellie, 151, 162. Nelson Ames, 161. Rose, 151. Samuel G., 152. Sarah, 161. Susan B., 151. Susan H., 152. Thomas H., 151. liove, Abi Jane (Andrews), 164. Anna Louisa, 165. Ma Candee, 165. John Adam, 164. Newton Burder, 164. Newton Meredith, 165. Lowery, Elizabeth (Craig), 162. Mien, 162. Clark, 162. Lyman, Aaron, 161. Electa (Graves), 161. Emma Castner, 161. Lyndon Graves, 161. Mary Castner, 161. Lyon, Jemima, 150. MacMillan, Casper, 169. Donald, 169. Margaret, 169. Rea, 169. Madoc, Maurice Peris, Ap. M. D., 142. Marcellis, Mien, 1:51. Marriner, Anna Castner, 162. Deborah (MauU), 161. Rev. George K., 161. Gilbert. 161. Marsh, Joseph H., 168. Margaret Crane, 168. Mary H., 168. Marshall, Dr. George, 169. Martin, Melissa, 168. Marvin, George, 167. Louise, 167. McCarter, George Stuart, 163. Louise S., 163. MoCord, Cornelia Townley, 140. Curtis Hulce, 140. Hampton Ireneus, 140. John, 140. Joseph W., 140. Margaret Cornelia, 140, Marshall Armstrong, 140. Mary (Todd), 140, William Hlermeyer, 140. McFarland, Arthur, 170. Fred A., 170. McGahan, Mary (Neely), 140. Sarah A., 140. William, 140; McNair, Amelia Anne, 169. Anne (Wilkinson), 164. Jane, 154. Jennie S., 169. John W., 169. Martha Louisa, 170. William D., 164. Menagh, Caroline (Sharp), 163. Charles S., 163. Hugh, 161, 163. Jennie Lavinia, 161. Joseph, 161. Joseph Heath, 161. Lavinia (Heath), 161. Lyndon Lyman, 161. Mary Emma, 161. Miller, Almira, 142. Caroline Gildersleeve, 160. David, 160. B. Augustus, 157. BUen Augusta, 167. Emma Louise, 160. Emily Josephine, 167. Buphemia SchaeflEer, 167. Etiphemia Wright (Schaefter), 160. Florence, 167. Harold Schaeffer, 167. Henry, 154, 160. Hugh Wilson, 160. Ida Virginia, 167. Rev. James Edwin, 160. "Judge," 142. Margaretta Schaeffer, 160. Mary Hahn, 157. Mildred, 157. Paul Van Reed, 167. Reuben Beitenmann, 167. Sarah Elizabeth, 160. Sarah Gertrude, 157. William Casper, 157. Mosson, Sarah Jane, 139. Morris, Annie Lucilla, 159. Carrie Linn, 169. David Aubrey, 143. David Hunt, 160, 169. EM.ward Hunt, 142. Emma Cordelia, 160. Emma Roy, 142. Eva Byington, 142. Hannah Margaretta, 150. Jonathan Edwards, 142, 160. Rev. Jonathan Pord, 150, 159. Joseph Euen, 150. Laura Adelaide, 160. Laura May, 142. Margaretta Louise, 142. Mary Josephine, 169. Mary Louisa, 150. Nellie Louise, 169. Sarah Adelaide, 159. Sarah Elizabeth, 160. Sarah Roy (Hunt), 159. Sue Ford, 142. William Edward, 159. William Melville. 150. Morrison, Charles W., 168. Theodore Crane, 168. Noyes, Charles Somerby, 141. Owen, Lucy Northrup, 151. Park, Edgar, 168. Leonard, 168. r « 178 GENEALOGICAL INDEX. Ralph, 168. Parson, Ethel, 147. Gates B., 147. Henry, 147. Pellet, Fred M., 152. Maude L.., 152. Obit A., 152. Pendreigh, PYank M., 141. Perron, Edward, 144. Post, Maggie, 150. Prichard, Edwin R., 157. Edwin Ruthven, 157. Helen Elizabeth, 157. Mary Gertrude, 167. Reuben Miller, 157. Primrose, George, 139. Samuel H., 139. Sarah, 145, 150. Tabithy (Hunt), 139. Pruden, Annie, 142. Mary Elizabeth, 149. Rea, Maggie, 169. Redding, William Chambliss, 162. William Chambliss, Jr., 162. Reed, Cynthia (Warner), 155. Daniel, 154. Ella Louise, 165. Lucius Frank, 155. Itlary Van, 157. Rice, Ellsworth, 168. Harold DeWitte, 168. Kenneth, 168. Nancy Elizabeth, 168. William H.. 168. Richards, Edith, 169. Rorke, Grace, 157. Ross, Henry Crane, 149. Jeremiah, 149. Martha J., 162. Roy, Alfred, 153. Anna Mary, 147. Arthur Pl-escott, 151. Austin Owen, 151. Bernhardt Shafer, 146, 160. Celia, 147. Clara, 147. Charles Henry, 146. Charles Morris, 161. Charlotte Louisa, 151. David, 153. Edna, 147. Elias Casper, 147. Elias Crane, 146, 148. Elmer, 147. Elizabeth, 145, 151, 162. Elizabeth Susan, 146. Frank, 147. Frederick Louis, 151. George P., 147. George Primrose, 151. Hannah, 145, 148, 155. Hannah Johnson, 146, 147. Henrietta, 147. James R., 153. Joanna Freeman, 148. John, 145, 163. John Casper, 146, 146, 148. John Jacob, 146. John, Sr., 146. Joseph Insley, 145, 153. Joseph John, 146. Joseph Morris, 151. Joseph Northrup, 161. Kate F., 147. "Little Stranger," 161. Louisa C, 151. Lydia Armstrong, 146. Mabel Pauline, 147. Margaret, 146, 151. Margaret (Insley), 145. Mary (Armstrong), 146. Mary, 145, 146. Mary Euphemia, 146. Mima May, 147. Nathan, 153. Rachel Emma, 147. Raymond Hulbert, 146. Robert Lester Smith, 161. Samuel Headley, 146. Sarah, 145. 160. Sarah Isabella, 147. Sarah Morris, 146. Seymour, 146. Susan, 146. William, 146. William Clinton, 146. Ryerson, Seely, 152. Sanderson, Marguerite, 162. Sayre, Mary O., 169. SchaefCer, ShafEer, Shafer, Shaver. Aaron Whitfield, 141. Abraham, 136, 154. Abraham, Jr., 137. Abraham Barnet, 141, 142. Abram, 158. Abram Edwin, 138, 159, 163. Abraham Fairchild, 169. Alexander, 137, 167. Alexander Castner, 159, 160. Amanda Margaretta, 156. Amelia Matilda, 166, 167. Ajina, 136. Ann Kennedy, 141. Archibald, 169. Archibald S., 169. Rev. Archibald Stlnson, 141, 142. Archibald Stinson, 166, 169. Arthur Malcolm, 170. Benjamin Johnson Lowe, 141, 142. Bentley Sayre, 138. Bertha, 164. Blanche Murray, 142. Casper, 135, 136, 137, 138, 146. 164, 166. Casper, M. D., 154, 166. Casper B., 169. Catharine, 136. Catharine Elizabeth, 141. Catharine Rose, 167. Oora Isabel, 143. David Lee, 143. Delilah, 141. Edgar Ross, 169. Edith Gordon, 141. GENEALOGICAL INDEX. 179 Edward Terry Hendric, 160. Edwin Hampton, 138. Elizabeth, 137, 138, 140. EUza Beach, 169. Ella Biugenie, 141. Elbert Condit, 143. Eliza Beach, 169. Elizabeth Hannah, 164, 164. Emma, 16S. Emma Elizabeth, 142. Em.ma L., 167. Emma Louise 170. Euphemia,. 156. 157. Eupheraia Bray, 137, 138. Euphemia Wright, 154, 160. Fanny Estelle, 141. Fanny Margaretta, 164. Fanny (Stewart), 163. Finley Dawson, 141. Florence Nightingale, 141. Francis Hazen, 138. Frank, 158. Frederick Clifford, 170. Fred Gustin, 158. Frederick Lincoln, 143. George, 143. George Carlton, 138. Gilbert Livingston, 156. Hampton Calvin, 138. Harry Alston, 164. Hannah Jane, 143. Harry Talmage, 143. Harry Wallace, 170. Helen Almira, 142. Helen Elizabeth, 142. Horatio Linn, 158. Howard William, 164. Irving Newell, 143. Isaac, 135, 137, 140, 166, 167, 169. Isaac Calvin, 141. Jehiel Talmage, 141, 143. Jennette Remsen, 170. Jennie, 141. John Casper, 163. Jonathan Forman, 166. John Joseph, 142. John Stewart, 163, 164. Joseph Henry 169, 170. Rev. Joseph Linn, D. D., 166. Joseph Linn, 158. Julia Budd, 170. Katharine Bentley, 138. Lettie Walsh, 164. Lillian Olcott, 141. Lizzie May, 164. Louisa, 138, 150. Louisa Ann, 142. Louise Linn, 158. liucilla Linn, 150, 158, 169. Lydia (Armstrong), 137. Margaret, 137, 143. ■ Margaretta, 135, 145, 154. Margaret Linen, 138. Margaret R., 166, 167. Margaretta Roy, 154. Maria Catharine, 154, 166. Martha Linn, 169. Martha L>ouisa, 158. Mary, 137, 169. Mary A., 169. Mary Adelaide, 159. Mary Elizabeth, 158. Mary Louisa, 158. Mary Jane, 142. May Neilson, 142. Miller, 142. Morgan Robert, 142. Nathan Armstrong, 154. Nathan Barnet, 141. Nathan Hazen, 138. Nellie Morris, 158. Peter, 137. Peter Bernhardt, 135, 136, 164, 159. Peter B., Jr., 166, 169. Raymond, 164. Rebecca (Hendric), 159. Rebecca Jane, 141, 143. Robert Finley, 154. Robert Turner, 141. Sarah, 137, 154, 160, 164. Sarah Ann, 142. Sarah Elizabeth, 166, 167. Sarah Linn, 158. Sarah (Linn), 168. Simeon Simpson, 137. Stockton Halstead, 166. Susan Elizabeth, 143. Thomas Henderson, 166, 167. Thomas Hunt, 141, 142. Versilla, 169. Victor Fox, 142. William, 143, 158. William Armstrong, 164, 163. .William Edwin, 158. 'William Bell, 142. Wilmot Ely, 170. Winsted Casterline, 158. Schlegel, Minnie, 162. Scott, Hannah (Judson), 147. John T., 147. Marjon Hannah, 147. Truman Anness, 147. Truman H., 147. Scripture, Hannah May, 143. Searles, Elizabeth, 168. Frederick, 168. Isaac, 168. Sharp, Elizabeth K., 168. Sharpe, Sophia B., 167. Shotwell, Emma B., 168. Simpson, Elizabeth, 136. Slockbower, Helen, 147. Theodore O., 147. SmlUie, Adelaide Margaret, 170. Smith, Edythe, Iti. Snell, George, 168. Stewart, Fannie, 154, 163. John, 163. Sarah (Bird), 163. William, 163. Stiner, Sarah Elizabeth, 151. Stinson, Archibald, 136. Jane, 136. Sutphin, W. G., 168. W. G., Jr., 168. i8o GENEALOGICAL INDEX. Terry, Amelia Jane, 160. Deziah, 160. John K., 160. Thayer, Jessie EJsther, 142. Thompson, , 167. Tlmjnerman, Helen L., 151. Louis F., 151. Louis F., Jr., 151. Trask, Helene E., 159. Trowbridge, Frank G., 164. Florence Amelia, 164. George S., 164. Turner, Elizaheth. 137, 140, 141, 144. Mary, 144. Rebecca Maria, 144. Richard, 137, 143. Vail, Rebecca Howie, 159. Van Cam^p, James Voorhees, 139. Maria (Coursen), 139. Nancy Jane, 139. Van Deren, John, 137. ' Van Horn, Leonora A., 139. Macrina C. (Jones), 139. William G., 139. Van Syckel, Aaron, 163. Mary (Bird), 163. Vought, jEicob, 146. Sara.h Ann, 146. Saxah (Snover), 146. Walsh, Eaizabeth Frances (Bates), 164. Georgia Bmma, 164. Josiah, 164. Walton, Alice, 167. John, 167. William, 167. Ward, Elizabeth, 158. Webb, Caroline P., 167. Welsh, Mary, 160. Wheatley, Harriet (Whittington), 138. John, 138. Kate E., 138. Whitaker, Wm. Judson, 141. White, Hannah (Hatnes), 156. Maria EL, 166. Marietta, 168. William, 156. Whyte, Alice, 142. Andrew Condit, 143. Andrew Dawson, 143. Anna Macldo, 143. Elsie, 142. Howard, 142. Ida Katherine, 142. James Richardson, 142. Jessie, 142. Wilkie, Anna, 149. Wilson, Miss, 170. P. P., 170. Winter, Ida W., 163. Jacob Castner, M. D., 163. Woodruff, Adeline, 152. Wright, Ephraim, 164. Margaret (Snell), 164. Nettie, 164. GLNLRAL INDEX Adams, Henry, 77. Katy, 77. Allamuchy, 53. Allen, Benjamin, 129. American Seamen's Friend So- ciety, 149. Amwell Township, Hunterdon Co., N. J., 126. Anderson, Thomas, 19, 107, 108. Arlington, 113. Armstrong, Betsey, 103. Elizabeth, 109. Euphamy, 110. E!uphemia, 59. Genealogy, 136. George, 50, 56, 105. Jacob, 56. John, 50, 56, 103. Judge, 37. Lydia, 59, 102. Nathan, 6, 66, 110, 127; sketch of, 109. Polly, 59. Rachel, 105. Sally, 59. Sarah, 110. William, 60, 52, 56, 69. William Clinton, 6, 109, 111. "Armstrong Record," 6, 60, 104, 109, 111, 127. Arrlson, Jeptha, 27. John, 27. Polly, 27, 70. Sukey, or Susannah, 28. Susan, 27. Asbury, N. J., 62, 127. Atlanta, 117, 119. Baker, General, 112. Balls Bluff, 112. Baltimore, Md., 140. Baskingridge, N. J., 20, 32, 61, 62, 70, 100; church ol, 54. Basle, 47. Beattystown, N. J., 161. Beavers, 57. Elizabeth, 52. Buphemia, 105. Robert, 54. Sallie, 102. Bedford, 41. Belers, Peter, 40. Belvidere, N. J., 63. Bergen County, N. J., 156. Bernhardt, Johan Peter, 16, 25, 26, 27, 29, 42; comes to America, 25; inscription on gravestone, 130. Bernharten, M.', 131. Bethel, Conn., 164. Bethlehem, Pa., 55. Bible, old German, 46, 47. Big Creek Gap, 122. Baltimore, Md., Cemietery, 140. Black River, 61. Blair, John I., 127. Blairstown Academy, 111. Blairstown, N. J., 127, 139, 142. Blue Mountains, 36, 38, 40, 47, 49, 74. Bonnie Brook, 42. Boulton, 70. Boyd, Rev. John, 50, 104. Bray, Huphemia, 59. Brooklyn. N. T., 164. Brown, Abia, 13. Brownley, Dr., 122. Burlington, 11, 13, 29, 30. Bushnell, 111., 150. California, 155. Canada, 120. Candee, Rev. Isaac N., sketch of, 63. Sally, 63. Carter, President of Williams College, 125. Gary's Meeting House, 100. Cassedy, Mrs., 106. Castner, Amanda, 62. Anna, 62. Edmund, 62. Elizabeth, 62. Emma, 62. Rev. Jacob R., sketch of, 61. John, 62. Margaretta, 62. Mary, 62. William, 62. Catasauqua, Pa., 161. Cat-Pish Pond, 39. Cemetery, Baltimore, Md., 140. Dunmore, Soranton, Pa., 138. EJvergreen, Elizabeth, 162. Fairmount, Newark, 163. Greenwood, Trenton, N. J., 161. Hope, Galesburg, 111., 164. Laurel Hill, Philadelphia, 21. Mt. Peace, Philadelphia, 162. Newton, N. J., 150. Stillwater, 130. Yellow Frame, 53, 126, 137, 150, 154. Charlestown, S. C, 116. CharlottevlUe, Va., 47. Chattahooche River, 119. Chattanooga, 119, 120, 122. I82 GENERAL INDEX. Chester Co., Pa., 165. Chickahominy, 113. Church, Christ, at Newton, 110. First German Reformed, of Philadelphia, 20. German, at Stillwater, 106. German Reformed, at Still- water, 42. Hackettstown Presbyterian, 169. Hardwick, 43, 49, 104. Music, 76. North, of Hardyston, 100. Hardyston Presbyterian, 100. Presbyterian, at Cochecton, N. Y., 162. Presbyterian, at Newton, N. X, 107, 155. Stillwater, 45. Upper Hardwick Presbyterian, 49. Yellow Frame, 49, 50, 128, 136; sketch of, 48. Cincinnati, 123. Clark, Abraiiam, 11. Clinton, N. J., 61. Coffee, 70. College of New Jersey, 148. Colleton Co., S. C, 123 Columbia, 123. Columbia, S. C, 116. Condit, Rev. Ira, 43, 60, 61, 62. 92 Rev. Ira H., 60. Congress, Provincial, 10, 11, 12 Connecticut, 53, 103 Coursen, John, 17. Joseph, 60. Van Tile, 107. Cowell, Ebenezer, 29. Cowes, 26. Crane, Rev. ESias Nettleton, sketch of, 149. Rev. Elias W., D. D., sketch of, 148, 149. Craig, Rev. Dr., 49. Crawford County, Fa,., 66. Crisman, Margaret. 127 Crosby, 69. Culpeper, Va., 114 115. Cumberland Mountains, 122. Currituck Sound, N. C, 140. Dalton, Ga., 122. Dansville, N. Y., 164. Davis, John, 62. Davies, Col. J. Mansfield, 112. Daughters of American Revolu- tion, 14. DeMund, Joseph, 69; sketch of, 104. DePew, Mr., 35. Deal, England, 9, 26. Decatur, 120. Declaration of Independence, signers of, 11. Deed, old parchment, 29. Delaware River, 9, 35; navigation of, 33. Denis, Dr., 61. Dennis, Martin R., 42. Denver, Col., 159. Derry, Ireland, 140. Dillingham, a revolutionary sol- dier, 70. Dotterer, Jacob, 29. Duffy, Capt., 112. Dunmore Cemetery, Soranton, Pa., 138. Dusenbury, Major Henry, 104; sketch of, 103. Mrs., 59. Dutch Meeting House, 18. Dwight, President of Yale, 12B. East Orange, N. J., 162. East Town (Baston), 17. Edinburgh, University of, 54. Edsall, Benjamin B., 35. Edwards, Rev. James Cook, 149. Elizabethtown, N. J., 104, 148. Elizabeth, N. J., 39, 149. Elmira, N. Y., 160. Etowah River, 121. Everett, Dr. Elijah, 53, 104; sketch of, 103. Evergreen Cemetery, Elizabeth, 162. Fairmount Cemetery, Newark, 163. Fall Mills, 35, 37, 89. Finley, Rev. Dr., 20, 32, 61, 70. Flanders, N. J., 158. Flemington, N. J., 27, 129. Forman, Col., 129. General David, 126. Fort Pitt, 41. Fox, Mr., 28. Frankford, Sussex Co., 107. Franklin, Dr., 84. Fredericksburg, Va., IJ.3. Freehold, N. J., 100, 129. Prelinghuysen Township, 109. French War, 33. Pulton, 28. Gaines, N. Y., 142. Galesburg, 111., 63, 164, 166. Galway, N. Y., 63. Gaston, Esq., 50. Joseph, 103; sketch of, 104. Germans, 47; immigration of, 9. "Germans, early of N. J.," Chambers, 61. German Christians, 43. German Valley, N. J., 61, 62, 160. Germantown, Pa., 26, 135; battle of, 126. Germany, 9, 25, 29, 74. Gettysburg, 113. Goble, Margaret, 127. Golden, Clarissa, 20, 59. Goodman, Walter, 26. Graham, Martha, 28. Mr., 70. Griggs, Capt. George V., Ill, 113, GENERAL INDEX. 183 114, 115. Greeley, Horace, 100. Green, Mrs., 55. Samuel, 30, 110. Greensville, Sussex Co., N. X, 138. Greenwood Cemetery, Trenton, N. J., 161. Hackensack, N. J., 6, 100, 156. Hackettstown, 63. Presbyterian Church, 169. Haddonfleld, 13, 14; Old Tavern at, 14. Hahn, Christian, 60. Mary, 60. Sarah, 20, 60. William, 60. Haines, Alanson A., 101. Hampton, Col. Jonathan, 109. Hand, — - — , 70. Hankinson, Gen'l Aaron, 39, 60, 51, 126, 128, 129; sketch of, 105; grave of, 128. Coat of Arms, 129. Daniel Thatcher, 128. Elizabeth, 127. Eliza B., 127. Hannah, 128. Henry, 127. John, 127. Joseph, 126, 127, 129. Kenneth, 129. Nancy, 128. Rachel, 128. Rachel (Mattison), 126. Richard, 129. Samuel, 127. Sarah, 127. Thomas, 127, 129. William, 18, 19, 50, 127, 129. Hanover, Germany, 140. Hardwick, 45, 47, 49, 52, 91, 94, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105. Hardwick Church, 146. Early settlers of, 49. Patent, 109. Township, Sussex Co., N. J., 10, 29, 48, 55, 99, 100. Hardyston, 100. "Hardyston Memorial," 101. Harper, President, 125. Harris Light Cavalry, 111, 112, 159. Harris, W. T., 126. Hart, John, 11. Hazen, Esq.,' 50. Ezekiel, 50. Thomas. 50. Hendrick, Dr., 60. Herriott, Sydney, 128. Hessian Fly, 70. Hessians, settle in Sussex Comity, 47. Hocks Hill, N. J., 61. Holland, 27. Holmes, John, 106. Hood, General, 122. Hope, 49, 53, 54, 103. Alexander, 9, 26. Hope Cemetery, Galesburg, 111., 164. Major GeneraJ, 113. Hopkinson, Francis, 11. Hopper, Lieut., 116. Horseback Riding, 64. Hover, John, 107. Susannah, 107. Howell, Levi, sketch of, 103. Governor Richard, 37. Hubbard, , 69. Hunt, Dr. David, sketch of, 102. Elizabeth, 127. Martha, 100. Richard, Sr., 100. Richard, 99, 102. Thomas, 18, 19. Hurd's Brigade, 129. Huron, Daiota, 165. Indians, hostilities by, 34. Intemperance, 63. Ireland, 49. Jamaica, L. I., 149. James City, Va., 114. Jefferson, Thomas, 53. Jersey City, N. J., 158. Johnsonburg, 49, 52, 53, 64, lOB, 109, 139, 140. Johnson, Catharine, 107. Charity (Lane), 106. Ooart, 106. David, 107. Henry, 52, 108; sketch of, 106. Henry, Jr., 107. John, 59; sketch of, 106, 107. Mrs. John, sketch of, 107. Jonathan, 52, 107. Laura C, 6. Polly, 107. Samuel, 107. Susan, 107. Whitfield Schaeffer, 69, 107, 108; sketch of, 155. William Jefferson, 59, 107, 108. William, 107; sketch of, 108. W^illiam M., 6, 9; sketch of, 156. Susannah, 107. Junkin, Rev. Dr., 61. Kelsey, Cooper, 128. Henry C. 128. Sarah, 128. Kennedy, Dr. Samuel, 60, 53, 64, 103; sketch of, 52. Rev. Samuel, M. D., 62; sketch of, 54. Kenvllle, N. J., 147. Kerzenheim, Grafschaft Bolan- den, Europe, 130, 135. Kunekle, Adam, 29. Kilpatrick, Lieut. Col., Judson, 111, 112, 113, 114. Kimber, Sally Schaeffer, 60. i84 GENERAL INDEX. Thomas, 60. Kingsbury, Mr., 76. Kingwood, Hunterdon Co., N. J., 126. Klttatiny Mountain, 74. Knoxville, Tenn., 122. Krooise, — , 21. Lafayette College, 61. Ind., 63, 164. Lamington, 100. Lancaster, 28. Lancaster County, Pa., 55. Lanning, Esquire, 50. Liauterman, William, 28. Lawrenceville, N. J., 156. Lebanon, Hunterdon Co., N. J., 108. Laddell, Major Commandant Wil- liam, 41. Lee, General, 113. Legislature of New Jersey, first, 13. LeRoy, N. Y., 142. Lewes, Del., 62, 161. Lexington, Ky., 122, 123. Locke, Mrs., 56. Capt. Francis, 104. John, sketch of, 104. Log Gaol, 62. London, 25, 29. Londonderry, Ireland, 109. Loomis, Dr., 122. Love, Mr., 63. Lowe, Rev. Benjamin, 50. Lower Sandusky, O., 104. Liberty Corner, N. J., 61, 161. Libby Prison, 116, 159. Linn, Alexander, 66. Dr., 53, 102. Dr. Alexander, 100. David, 127. Hannah, 66. John, 60, 100, 104; sketch of, 99. Joseph, 100. Martha, 59. Martha (Klrkpatrick), 100. Miss, 104. Sarah, 60. William Alexander, sketch of, 100. Dr. William Helm, 100. Lispatone (Blizabethtown), 33. Lltitz, Pa., 55. Livingston, William, 19. Lyman, Mary, 62. MacCoUum, Aaron, 45. MacElvaney, Paddy, 69. McClellan, Major General, 113. McColIough, Mary, 127. Col. William, 127. McDowell, Major General, 111. McGee, Rev. William C., 50. McKinley, President, 166. Macon, Ga., 116, 119. Madison, Mrs., 28. President, 28. Mansfield, N. J., 61, 62. Manning, Captain, 100. Marietta, 119. Marksboro, 37, 109, 139, 146. Marriner, Aiuia, 62. Rev. George, sketch of, 62. Margaretta, 62. Martin, Col. Ephraim, 39. Mays Landing, 62. Mead, General, 113. Meadville, Pa., 66. Mendham, N. J., 146, 147. Merckle, E&quire, 39. Lizzie, 106. Mrs., sketch of, 106. Middlesex County, Elngland, 129. Middletown Point, 101. Miller, E. Augustus, 21. Elizabeth, 61. Ellen Augusta, 60. Emma, 61. Eiuphemia, 60. Henry, 61, 62. Major, 61. Margaretta, 61. Mary Hahn, 60. Hon. Jacob W., 61. Rev. James Edwin, sketch of, 61. Ruben B., 60. Sarah Gertrude, 60. William Casper, 60. Monmouth, battle of, 70, 129. Monmouth County, N. J., 128, 129. Militia, 129. "Monticello," 107. Moravians, 54. Morrlstown, N. J., 15, 39, 61, 146, 147. Morris County, N. J., 26, 39, 146. Mosby, Captain, 113. Mt. Peace Cemetery, Phila- delphia, 162. Nashville, 122. Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y., 149. Nazareth, Pa., 65. Nelson, William, 6. Nettingen, Westphalia, Prussia, 162. Newark, N. J., 124, 159, 161, 162, 164. Newell, Ex-Governor William A., 129. Newton, N. J., 10, 19, 48, 49, 52, 100, 101, 102, 106, 107, 108, 138, 139, 141, 142, 155, 156, 159, 162, 163; selected as County seat, 48. Newton Collegiate Institute, 111. Presbytery, 46. New Brunswick, 13, 88. New Egypt, N. J., 61. New Hampton, Hunterdon Co., N. J., 103, 104. New Jersey, 12, 14. "New Jersey as a Colony and State," Lee, 13. GENERAL INDEX. 185 New Jersey Herald, 49, New Utrecht, L. I., 168. New Vernon, N. J., 149. New York City, 33, 165, 163. Nice, Lieut., 116. Nixon, Catharine, 30. Northampton Co., Pa., 65. Northport, N. Y., 162. Norwaik, Conn., 169. Oberlin College, 125. Oberlin, C, 1^4, 142. Ohio, 27. Olden, Governor, 155. Oxford Furnace, 38. Palatinate, 9, 135. Palatines, 26. Palmer, Alice Freeman, 124. Dr., sketch of, 103. Dr. Henry, sketch of, 53. Pancoast, 28. Paris, Peace of, 34. Paterson, N. J., 153. Paulina, 38. Paulinskill, 26, 35, 38, 47, 49; navigation of, 32. Pennsylvania, 9. Gazette, 48. Land Co., 29, 48. Peoria, 111., 63, 164, 165. Peppard, Rev. Francis, 50, 51. Peterson, Thomas, 13. Pettit, Isaac, 18. Jonathan, 48. Ptungstadt, Europe, 131. Philadelphia, 10, 20, 26, 28, 29, 33, 72, 103, 135, 157; Classls of, 20; Presbytery of, 20. Phillipsburg, N. J., 61, 156. Pittsburgh, 28. Plumsteadville, Pa., 61. Plymouth, 111., 165. Pomona, Cal., 170. Poolesville, Md., 112. Presbyterian Church, Newton, 166. Princeton, 13, 100. College, 149. _,„ „, Theological Seminary, 20, 61, 62, 63, 148, 149. Provincial Congress, 11, 12. Puerta Plata, Santo Domingo, 159. Rahway, N. J., 167. Rapahannock River, 116. :Rapidan, 113, 114. Reading, John, 30. , „ .. - Readington, Hunterdon Co., N. J., 106. Redstone country. 28. Reed, Bowes, 19. Reeder, James, sketch of, 105. Republican National Convention, 156. State Obnvention, 166. Revolutionary War, 39. Richmond, 113, 116._, Eidgefield, Conn., 164. Rochester, N. Y., 142. Rock Creek, O., 142. Rosevllle, N. J., 159. Rotterdam, 9, 26. Rowlands Mills, N. J., 126, 129. Rowley, Conn., 138. Roy, Bernhardt Schaeffer, 58. Betsey, 58. Hannah, 58, 107. John, 61, 58. John Casper, 58. Joseph, 58. Margaret A., 17. y Margaretta, 43, 58. Mary Caroline, 18. Peggy, 58. Polly, 58. Sally, 58, 103. Susan, 58. "Uncle," 90. Runkle, Mr., 46. "Rupp, Collection of 30,000 names of Germans," etc., 26. Rusling, Gershom, 127. General James P., 126. Sandyston Township, 1Z6. Savannah, 120. Saxony, 79. Schaeffer, Shaffer, Shafer, Shaver. Abraham, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 30, 58, 60, 94, 110; will of, 43; military record of, 41; sketch of, 101. Abraham, Jr., Military Record of, 41. Adelaide, 61. Almira Miller, 124. Amanda Margaretta, 60. Anna, 53, -58. Annie, 54. Archibald S., 59. Rev. Archibald Stinson, 124; sketch of, 142. Capt. Alexander C, 61, 123; war experiences of. 111. Betsey, 58. Casper, 5, 9, 10, 13, 15, 26, 29. 30, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48', 49; emigrates from Palatinate, 9; settles in Stillwater, 10, 30; is naturalized, 44; tavern keeper, 48; —ember of County Committee of Safety, 10; member of Pro- vincial Congress, 11; mem- ber of Assembly, 13, 44; ser- vices of sons In Revolution, 15; death of, 43; inscription on headstone, 16; will of, 17; character of, 15, 92. Rev. Casper, M. D., 5, 6, 20, 59, 95, 99; author of Rem- iniscences, 5; sketch of, 20; children of, 60. Casper B., 47. Casper Bernhardt, 29. Catharine, 17. 1 86 GENERAL INDEX. Catrln, 18. EJdwin, 63. Elizabeth, 59. Euphemia Miller, 60. Buphemla W., 69. Flnley, 21, 71, 59. Gilbert Livingston, 60. Halstead, 21. Helen A., president of Welles- ley College, sketch of, 124. Homestead, description of, 31. Isaac, 15, 17, 18, 19, 67, 68, 69, 78, 88, 104; military record of, 39; sketch of, 101. John, 63. John S., 6. 21. Joseph, 60. Rev. Joseph Li., 60; sketch of, 100. Katy, 58. Louisa, 60. Lucilla, 60. Margaretta, 68, 63, 69, 74. Margaretta R., 69. Maria Catherine, 69. Maria Catrina, 43. Mary, 18, 60. Nathan, 68, 91, 94. Nathan A., 44, 69; sketch of, 60. Peggy, 68, 59. Peter B., 15, 17,18, 19, 35, 40, 43, 44, 50, 53, 64, 68, 69, 60, 94, 104, 111; military record of, 59. Polly, 58. Robert Finley, 69. Sarah, 43, 69, 91. Sarah Armstrong, 20. Sarah Catharine, 59. Sarah Elizabeth, 60. spelling of name, 6, 78. Stinson, 58. William, 60, 62, 71. William A., 44, 69. School House at Stillwater, legacy to, 18. Schooleys Mountain, N. J., 161. Scotland, 49, 64. Scranton, Fa., 138. Sedgwick, Kansas, 168. Seely, Col. Sylvanus, 39. Senn, Rev. Jacob, 76, 106. Shad, caught in PaulinsklU, 36. ShaJtopee, Minn., 61. Shamokin, Pa., 27. Shepperd, Gasper (Casper Schaef- fer), naturalization of, 44. Sherman, General, 117, 119, 120, 121. Sherwood, Rev. Jonathan, 50. Ship, "Queen Elizabeth," 9, 26, 135. "Robert and Alice," 26. "St. Mark," 26. Singing school, 66. Slavery, 76. Smedley, John, 127. Smithtown, N. J., 149. Smith Co., Va., 61. Snyder, Mary, 126. Somerset Co., 66. Somerville, 66. Southard, Aaron, 128. South Charleston, O., 140. South Church, Morristown, N. J., 149. Sparta, 61, 100. Si)ain, 79. Springfield, N. X, 148. Ohio, 140. Steeleville, Pa., 164. Stewart, Col. Charles, 37. Fanny, 62. Col. John, 107. Stillwater, N. J., 6, 10, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 38, 39, 41, 42, 48, 60, 61, 63, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 79, 83, 84, 86, 94, 100, 101, 104, 105, 106, 111, 126, 135, 136, 137, 143, 164, 168, 159, 163; grave yard at, 130; geographical features of, 38; domestic animals of, 78; birds of, 84. Stinson, Judge, 67. St. Louis, Mo., 124. Stockton, Richard, 11. Stroudsburg, Pa., 61. Stuart, Daniel, sketch of, 106. Succasunna, N. J., 146. Sunbury, Pa., 27. Sussex Bank, 60. Sussex County, 6, 13, 26, 27, 42, 63, 99, 104, 106, 110, 127; first court in, 48; courts, 63; Committee of Safety, 10. "Sussex Co. Centenary," EdsaU, 48. Sussex Court House, 17, 107. "Sussex and Warren Counties. History of," 94. Swartzwelder, Mrs., 76, 89. Swayze, Miss, 69. Talbot, Dean, 125. Tavern keeping, 48. Taylors Palls, Minn., 61. Taylor, President of V.issar, 125. "Tehoenetcong," 26. Terry and Shaffer, Mercantile Co., 123. Thatcher, Rev. Mr., 61, 92. Thomson, Mark, member of con- gress, 37; military record of, 37. Trenton, N. J., 13, 29, 41, 62, 126. 156, 156, 162. Turner, Miss, 101. Union College, 63. United States Ford, 116. Upper Hardwick, 17. United States Christian Commis- sion. 149. Utlca, N. T., 163. GENERAL INDEX. i«7 Vail, Rebecca, 60. "Van Campen's, 76. Van Deren, John, 107. Van Est, Ann, 107. Van Horn Farm, 53. Virginia, 28. Voorhees, Governor, 166. Walterboro, S. C, 123, 160. "Warren Co., 67, 149. Militia, 169. "Warren, Pa., 62, 162. "Washington, 123. D. C, 29, 47, 112. General, 70, 127. N. J., 61, 62, 127, 165, 161. "Water Gap, 49. "Wellesley College, 124. "West Jersey Proprietors, 29. "Whiskey Insurrection, 41. "White, Brigadier General AnUum; "Walton, 41. "White Marsh, 26. ""Wicke's Medical History of N. J.," 54. "Wilkesbarre, 105. "Wilson, -, Master, 26. "Windemuth, George, 44. John George, 42; inscription on grave stone, 131. "Wlntermute, 34. Family history of, 42. J. P., 42. "Old Uncle," 26, 29. Peter, 41. 42. "Witherspoon, John, U. "Woodhull, Rev. Dr., 100. "Wright, EJui)hamy, 109. Buphemia, 56. Yellow Frame, 146. Cemetery, 41, 63, 126, 137, 160, 164, 163, 166. Church, 128, 136; sketch of, 49.