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Cornell University Library 
F 142U5 R54 
History of Union County, New Jersey / ed 



3 1924 028 828 584 

olin Overs 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


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/ S»C 







REPARED by a number of writers, and deriving its inform- 
ation from various sources, the History of Union County, 
with its many excellencies as well as defects, is now 
submitted to the reader for his criticism. The compilation 
covers a period of more than a century and a half, and in securing the 
facts, recourse has been had to divers authorities. These have been 
numerous, including various histories and historical collections, and 
implying an almost endless array of papers and documents, — -public, 
private, social and ecclesiastical. That so much matter could be 
gathered from so many original sources and then sifted and assimilated 
for the production of one single volume without inciirring a modicum 
of errors and inaccuracies, would be too much to expect of any corps of 
writers, no matter how able they might be as statisticians or skilled as 
compilers of such works. It is, nevertheless, believed that no in- 
accuracies of a serious nature can be found to impair the historical value 
of the book, and it is also further believed that the results of our work 
will supply the exigent demand which called forth the efforts of the 
publishers and the honored and able editor, Judge Frederick W. Ricord, 
whose death occurred shortly after the completion of the material for 
the history. 

Due credit has in most instances been given for the borrowed 
matter. The following authorities, however, should be mentioned in 
particular : Dr. Hatfield's History of Elizabeth has been freely used, 
.and has furnished much material, both for the annals of Elizabeth and 
for those of the county at large. Dr. Murray's Notes on Elizabeth have 
also been itnsparingly utilized, as being exceptionally valuable. Besides 
this, extracts from other volumes, considered authoritative, have been 
made, with an eye ever single to the historical value of the matter used. 
Various collections have been made in this way from notes compiled by 
C. A. Leveridge, some years since, for the History of Union and 
Middlesex Counties ; and from a valuable history of Elizabeth by the 
Journal Printing House. We are are also indebted to the generosity of 
this company for many views, which the}^ have kindly furnished us to 
illustrate the chapters pertaining to Elizabeth. We also pay acknowl- 
edgment to the Daily Deader, of Elizabeth, for much material bearing 
upon the manufacturing history of that city ; and also to other publica- 
tions of the county that have kindly come to our aid in various ways. 

Among those who have offered most valuable contributions to the 
work should be mentioned Henry R. Cannon, M. D., of Elizabeth, who 


wrote the history of the courts and also the Masonic history of the 
county ; Mrs. Emily K. Williamson, secretary of the state board of 
charities, who wrote concerning the Revolutionary epoch and furnished 
other sketches; Mrs. Mary N. Putnam, regent of Boudinot Chapter, 
Elizabeth, who wrote of the Daughters of the American Revplution and 
also of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America ; Warren 
R. Dix, A. M., Ivly. D., of Elizabeth, who favored us with a most 
interesting chapter entitled "Former French Residents of Elizabeth;" 
Hon. Ivcwis S. Hyer, who wrote the history of Rahwa}- ; the Rev. 
Newton W. Cadwell, pastor of the First Presbyterian church, of Westfield, 
who contributes a history, with distinct local coloring and atmosphere, 
concerning the township and city of Westfield ; and A. M. Cory, M. D., 
who wrote the history of New Providence. Special mention shoiild be 
made of the contributions, by permission, of Miss Julia Littell and 
J. W. Clift, of Summit ; of Charles E. Buell .and Rev. A. H. Ivcwis, 
D. D., of Plainfield; and of W. P. Tuttle and P. C. McChesney, of 
Springfield. To many others are we indebted for kindly courtesies and 
assistance, and with so much accredited authority the publishers feel 
confident a valuable book has been produced, — one whose intrinsic 
worth will be cumulative and be the more appreciated as time advances. 

The Publishers. 



Indian History — Hostility Against the Dutch — Extinguishment of 

Claims to I^ands in New Jersey . i 

Discovery of Achter Kol, and Attempts to Colonize by the Dutch 4 

The English Settlement at Elizabeth Town 7 

Government of Philip Carteret 10 


The Township of Elizabeth Town — When Organized — L,ost 
Records — Originally Part of Essex County — Township 
Officials — Subdivisions of the Township 15 


Borough of Elizabeth Town — When Incorporated — Charter — 
Name — First Officers Chosen — "Great Revival" — Negro Con- 
spiracy — Proceedings of the Borough — Court House of the 
Borough ig 


War of the Revolution — The Spirit Manifested by the People of 
Elizabeth — Provincial Convention — County Committee — Meet- 
ing of Freeholders of . the Town — Denunciation of Certain 
Pamphlets — -Action Against Inhabitants of Staten Island . . 22 


War of the Revolution, Continued — Battle of Lexington — Elizabeth 
Town Rises to Arms — Aaron Burr — Ammunition — Capture of 
the "Blue Mountain Valley" — New Jersey Militia — British 
Forces in New York — General Divingston Chosen Governor — 
Campaign Transferred to New Jersey 25 




Union Count}' in the War of the Revolution — -Military Engage- 
ments — Discouraging Outlook for Patriots — Battle of Elizabeth 
Town — Death of Mrs. Caldwell — The Fighting Chaplain 
Killed — Execution of Morgan 32 


Elizabeth Town's Glorious Record — The Boudinot House — Liberty 
Hall— The General Scott House— Hon. Abraham Clark— Gen- 
eral Elias Dayton — Hon. Jonathan Dayton — Governor Aaron 
Ogden — Colonel Francis Barber ... 38 


Union Count)- in the War of the Rebellion — Regiments Enlisted — 

General Taylor's Official Report — Fourteenth Regiment . . 46 


Societies, Colonial and Revolutionary — Free Masonry — Sons of the 
American Revolution — Daughters of the American Revolution 
— National Society of the Colonial Dames of America — Free 
Masonry in Union County — Royal Arch Masons — Knights 
Templar 53 

Representative Physicians of Union County 62 

History of the Courts of Union County 149 

Representative Lawyers of Union County 154 

Former French Residents of Elizabeth 200 


The City of Elizabeth^Postal Facilities — Fire Department — Police. 
Department— Public Works and Charitable Institutions — Rail- 
road Facilities — New York and New Jersey Telephone Com- 
pany — Library Hall and Elizabeth Public Library and Reading 
Room — Educational Advantages — Lansley Business College — 
Private Schools of the Past — The Massie School — Mr. Fay's 



School— Mr. Foote's School— The Pingry School— St. Joseph's 
Academy — Parochial Schools — Financial and Statistical — 
Suburban Electric Company — Elizabethtown Water Company — 
Elizabethtown Gas Light Company — Manufacturing — Singer 
Manufacturing Company — Brooklyn and New York Railwaj- 
Supply Company — Ball & Wood Company — S. L. Moore & 
Sons Company — Henry R. Worthington — Elizabeth Ice Com- 
pany — Bowker Fertilizer Company — Cooke Brothers — Eugene 
Munsell & Compau}- — Crescent Ship Yards— New Jersey Dry 
Dock and Transportation Company — Sanford Clark Company — 
Miscellaneous Enterprises — ^Elizabeth Pottery Works — Ameri- 
can Gas Furnace Company — Graff & Company — A. Heidritter 
& Sons — Borne-Scrymser Company 205 


The Church History of Elizabeth — Societies Individually Con- 
sidered . . . 233 


The City of Elizabeth, Continued — Newspapers, Hospitals, Asylums, 
etc. — Elizabeth Daily Journal — Elizabeth Daily Leader — Eliza- 
beth General Hospital and Dispensary — Alexian Brothers' Hos- 
pital — Orphan Asylum — Home for Aged Women . . , -283 

Biographical and Genealogical Records .... . 292 

A brief History of Rahway . . . ■ 344 


City of Rahway — Manufacturing — Houseman & McManus — Ayers 
& Lufbery — Regina Music Box Company — Gordon Printing 
Press Works— Hetfield & Jackson — ^Miscellaneous Industries — 
Rahway Fire Department — Rahway Savings Institution — 
Rahway Gas Light Company— Friends' Meeting— Churches — 
Schools— Rahway Library — Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion — Children's Home — Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union — Cemeteries — Biography . . . . ■ 352 


The Township and City of Plainfield— Schools— History of Post 
Office— Netherwood Heights— The Daily Press and Weekly 
Constitutionalist — Church History .... 395 




The Township and City of Plainfield, Continued— Churches- 
Young Men's Christian Association — Educational Advantages — 
Mr. Teal's School— Plainfield Seminary— Miss Scribner and 
Miss Newton's School for Girls— Plainfield Manual Training 
and Grammar School— Plainfield Latin School— P. Ludwig 
Conde— Public lyibrary — Muhlenberg Hospital — Opera House — 
Hotels— Street Railway — Electricity and Gas — Railroad Facil- 
ities — Water Supply . . • • 4io 

Biographical and Genealogical Records . . ■ 426 


Springfield — Civil Organization — Springfield's Big Day; Elaborate 
Ceremonies in Two Places — Springfield Cemetery — First Pres- 
byterian Church — Biography . . 481 


Brief History of Westfield — Westfield Prior to 1720 — Name and 
Settlement — Westfield in Revolutionary Days — Battle of 
Lexington — Brush with the Enemy and Pursuit to West- 
field — Retreat of the British from Westfield — Hard Winter 
of 1780 — Predatory Raids — Powder — Rev. James Caldwell — 
Trial of Morgan at Westfield — Further Revolutionary Data — 
The Jersey Blues — General Washington in Westfield — Famotis 
Old " One Horn " — Captain John Scudder and Lord Stirling — ■ 
Indians in the Township — Slaves in Westfield — Where They 
Lived Over a Century Ago — Old Revolutionary Bell — Westfield 
Township, 1794 — Westfield Centennial Banquet — How Setting 
Off of Westfield was Greeted — Centennial Fourth of July — ■ 
Historical Exhibition — Westfield Schools — Teachers — Taverns 
— Postmasters — Physicians — Commuting in 1679 and 1897 — 
Old-time Modes of Punishment — Old Township Records — Rev. 
Edwin Downer — Rev. David R. Downer — Rev. Philemon E. 
Coe — Westfield Volunteers — Old Churchyard — Fairview Ceme- 
tery — Addison S. Clark — Town Officers — Newspapers — Public 
Library — Free Masons — Royal Arcanum — Ancient Order of 
United Workmen — Junior Order of United American Mechanics 
— Woman's Christian Temperance Union — Children's Country 
Home — Camp Woolfe — Independent Order of Stars — Westfield 
Club — Water Supply — Sewer Question — Electric Light — 
Borough of Mountainside — Westfield Curios — Notes — Churches 
Organized — Townships Set Off" — Natural Features — Westfield's 
Chronology — Biograph}- 504 



1 iige 

New Providence — Presbyterian Church — Methodist Episcopal 

Church — St. Luke's Church, Murray Hill — Biography- . . 578 


Summit — Early Settlement — Civil Organization — Villages and 
Hamlets — Social and Athletic Clubs — Churches — Calvary 
Church — St. Teresa's Church — Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Central Presbyterian Church — First Baptist Church — Young 
Men's Christian Association — Real Estate — Charities — News- 
papers — Township Officers — Florists — Fire Department — High 
School — Free Library — Summit Bank — Early History — 
Biography . . . . . . 587 


Fanwood Township — Early Settlers — Baptist Church — Burial 
Ground — Methodist Episcopal Church — All Saints' Church — 
Inns and Inn-keepers — Seeley Paper Mills — Biography . 613 


Union Township — Lyons Farm — Evergreen Cemetery — Connecti- 
cut Farms — Presbyterian Church .... .... 630 


Linden Township — Early Settlers — Old Wheat Sheaf Inn — Schools 
— Linden Village — Reformed Church — Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Grace Church, Protestant Episcopal — St. Luke's 
Church, Protestant Episcopal — Presbyterian Church — Baptist 
Church— Biography 636 


Township of Cranford — Early Settlements — Crane ville— Post Offices 
— Cranford — A Vine of the Lord's Planting — Methodist Epis- 
copal Church — Trinity Church, Protestant Episcopal — St. 
Michael's Roman Catholic Church — Schools . . 644 


Ackerman, Ernest R. . 
Ackerman, J. Hervey . 
Ackerman, Warren 
Adams, Daniel C. . 

Babcock, George H. 
Badeau, William E. 
Barber, Francis . . . 

Barr, John D 

Barrel!, Henry F. . . 
Bassett, Carrol P. . . 
Bassinger, Samuel H. . 
Baxter, Charles J . . 
Benton, Thomas H . . 
Berry, Samuel J. 
Bird, George W 
Bloodgobd, Freeman 
Bond, Lewis. . . 

Bonuel, Johnathau C. . 
Bracher, George S. 
Breidt, Peter 
Brennan, James J . . . 
Brown, John B . 

Cadwell, Newton W 
Caldwell, James. 
Cannon, Henry R. 
Chrystal, Joseph O. 
Cladeck, Walter E' 
Clark, Abraham. 
Clark, Addison S. . 
Clark, Frederick C. 
Clark, James . . 
Clark, Robert M. . 
Clauss, Henry. 
Clift, JohnW. . . 
Closson, James T 
Codding, Charles N. . . 
Codington, William R. . . 

Coe, Philemon E. . . . 

Coles, Abraham, (frontispiece) 
Coles, J. Ackerman 
Compton, Halsted C. 
Compton, Nathan V. 
Condit, Israel D. . . 
Coriell, William McD 
Cory, Abraham 11 
















Coward, Joseph B 
Crane, Augustus S. . 
Crane, J. Williams . 
Cross, Joseph . . 


Daly, John J 
Davis, Thomas S 
Day, William F. 
Day ton, Elias. . . 

Dayton, Jonathan . 
Diehl, Philip . 
Dillingham, George W. 
Dix, J. Augustus. 
Dix, Warren R . 
Doane, Thaddeus O . . 
Dolan, Thomas E • - . 
Downer, David R. 
Downer, Edwin 
Dumont, John B . . 
Durand, James H 

Egleston, Melville. . 
Engel, Francis . . 
English, Nicholas C. J. 
Estil, Hugh M . . . 

Fisk, Charles J 
Fleming, Peter G . . . 
Fowler, Charles N 
French, Phineas M . . 
French, Theodore F. . 
Frost, George H. 

Gardner, John J . 
Gilbert, Alexander . 
Glasby, Frederick F. 
Green, James S . • 
Green, Robert S. . . 
Gregory, John 


Harrison, Joseph B 

Hart, Levi E . . . . 
Hegeman, Benjamin A., Jr 
Henderson, John J . 
Hetfield, John M . 
Hetfield, Levi 























Heyer, William D ..... . 305 

Holmes, Barnabas 306 

Holmes, Charles B. 131 

Hope, James W 642 

Horning, George H 296 

Horr, Roswell G 431 

Horton, Richard . . 35S 

Howard, William 384 

Hubbard, James F .... 453 

Hyer, Lewis S . . . ... 387 


Jackson, Thomas J 146 

Jenkins, Olin 1/ . 134 

Johnson, Harris L 322 

Johnson, John W 474 


Kelly, Edward B 610 

Kempshall, Everard 242 

Kirk, William T . 451 

Kurtz, Charles • 332 


Lambert Family, The 575 

Lansley, James H 212 

Lewis, Abram H 410 

Lints, Frank 379 

Long, John P 308 

Lowry, Robert 413 

Lyon, Sylvanus 501 


MacConnell, Joseph K 138 

MacDonald, J. Fred 469 

Machlet, George W 334 

Magie, William J 171 

Marsh, Francis E • 186 

Martin, Frank L. C 464 

Martine, James E 446 

McBride, Charles C 285 

McCartney, P. J 393 

McChesney, Peter C 502 

McCutchen, Charles W 449 

McGee, Flavel 484 

McMahon, William 379 

McNabb, Charles J 188 

Miller, David M 114 

Miller, George C 627 

Miller, Lebbeus B. . . ... 327 

Miller, Lewis W 628 

Moffett, Charles L 182 

Mooney, Nicholas 385 

Moore, James 298 

Moore, S. L. & Sons Company . 223 

Mulford, Aaron D . . . . . 322 

Myers, Jared K 461 

New York and New Jersey Telephone 

Noll, Paul N . 
Nugent, Edward. 


Oakes, James . . . 
Ogden, Aaron. 
Ogdeii, James C . . 
O'Neill, Francis ■ 

Page, George S. 
Patterson, Robert L 
Pease, N. W. 
Pfarrer, Henry . 
Potter, Charles . . 
Potter Family, The . 
Probasco, John B 
Putnam, Erastus G 
Putnam, Mary N 

Rankin, William H 
Reeve, Melancthon W 
Regiua Music Box Company 
Root, Charles M. . 

Runkle, Harry G 

Runyon, Harry C . 

Ryno, Daniel K . . 

Savage, Edward S . . . 
Sayre, WicklifFe B . . . 
Schultz, Carl H. . . 

Scudder, Mulford M. , . 
Serrell, Lemuel W . 
Shotwell, Abel V . . . 
Silvers, Elihu B . . . . 
Simpson, Maxwell S . . 
Singer Manufacturing Company 
Smith, J. Augustus . 
Smith, William P . 
Smyth, Patrick E ... 

Stearns, Josiah Q 

Stelle, Randolph M 

Stiles, James O 

Stillman, Charles H 

Stillman, Frank M 

Stillman, William M .... 
Suydam, Henry C . . • • . . 
Swackhamer, Samuel S 

Tenney, George C . 
Thomas Family, The 
Titsworth, Rudolph M . . 
















ToUes, Ralph I . . 447 

Tracy, Jeremiah E 161 

Tufts, Philip E 381 

Tyler, Mason W 163 


Voorhees, Foster M 172 


Ward, Clarence D . 195 

Watson, James Madison . ... 292 

Welch, Robert W • • . 334 

Westcott, Frank W 121 

Whittingham, Edward T 503 

Williamson, Benjamin 
Williamson, Emily E 
Williamson, Isaac H 
Wilson, Norton L 
Woodruff, A. Edward 
Woodruff, Jonathan . 
Woodruff, Newton 


Yates, Joseph W 
Yerkes, David J 





Zeglio, Peter J 127 






HE history of Union county includes that of the Indians as 
well as that of the whites ; but whence these savage tribes 
came or how long they had dwelt on these shores neither 
history nor tradition can tell. It does not appejir that the 
Indians inhabiting New Jersey were very numerous. In an old publi- 
cation entitled "A Description of New Albion," and dated A. D. 1648, 
it is found stated that the Indians inhabiting New Jersey were 
governed by about twenty kings, but the insignificance of the power of 
these kings may be inferred from the fact that only twelve hundred 
Indians were under the two Raritan kings on the north side next the 
Hudson river. Whitehead, in his " East Jersey Under the Proprietary 
Government," says there were not more than two thousand Indians 
within the province while it was under the Dutch. The Indians inhab- 
iting the lower Hudson and East Jersey country are considered by most 
writers as belonging to the Delaware or Denni-L,enape nation, and the 
Minsies — a branch of the Delaware nation — occiipied the country from 
the Minisink to Staten Island and from the Hudson to the Raritan 
valley. In this section of New Jersey they were called Raritans, 
Hackensacks, Pomptons and Tappeans. On the island of Manhattan 
dwelt the fierce Manhattans. DeL,aet calls them " a wicked nation " 
and enemies of the Dutch. 

Before the white man took up his residence in this country the 
Lenape nation was subjugated by the powerful Iroquois. The con- 
quered nation, however, were permitted to remain on their former 
hunting grounds by the payment of tribute, which, as an acknowledg- 
ment of their vassalage, was exacted of them annually. 

The first hostility of the Indians against the Dutch was directed 
against their plantation on the Delaware, which was totally destroyed. 
DeVries tells us that in the year 1630 thirty-two men were killed. In 
1641 an expedition was fitted out against the Indians on the Raritan, 
they having been accused, though wrongfully, of trespassing and 
committing theft. Various causes led to the outbreak of 1643. One 
cause was the exacting of a tribute from the Indians by Kieft, the 
director-general, in 1639 ; another was the killing of a white man by an 
Indian, in 1641, in retaliation for robbery and murder of one of his 
tribe many years before. 


In 1655, during the absence of Governor Stuyvesant to expel the 
Swedes from the Delawares, troubles again arose with the Indians. 
The cause of this trouble was the accidental killing of an Indian girl, 
shot by Heudrick VanDyck while trying to protect his apple orchard 
from being robbed by the Indians, who had by night landed on Man- 
hattan for that purpose. News of the outrage spread and the Indians 
determined on signal revenge. On the night of the 15th of September 
sixty-four canoes, carrying five hundred warriors, landed at New 
Amsterdam. They searched through the town until they found 
VanDyck at the house of a neighbor named VauDiegrist, whom they 
cut down with a tomahawk, and in the affray wounded VanDyck in 
the breast with an arrow. The town and garrison being aroused, the 
Indians were driven to their canoes, and sought safety by flight to the 
west side of the river. In retaliation they set the houses on fire and 
soon all Pavonia was in ashes. Thence they proceeded to Staten 
Island, whose settlements they laid waste. In this assault one hundred 
persons were killed, one hundred and fifty carried into captivity and 
over three hundred deprived of their homes. When Governor VanDyck 
sought to bring them to terms, they hesitated, hoping to extort from 
the government a ransom for the prisoners. Finally, the director 
wished to know how much they wanted for the prisoners en masse, or 
for each. They replied, seventy<-eight pounds of powder and forty 
staves of lead for twenty-eight persons. The ransom was paid and an 
additional present was made by the governor. This proved the final 
settlement with the Indians so far as the Dutch were concerned. 

The Pomptons and Minsies having sold their lands, removed from 
New Jersey about 1730. These two tribes were engaged in the war of 
1757 and 1758, but at the treaty of 1758 the entire remaining claim of 
the Delawares to lands in New Jersey was extinguished, except that 
there was reserved the right to fish in all the rivers and bays south of 
the Raritan and to hunt on all uninclosed lands. A tract of three 
thousand acres of land was also purchased at Edge Pillock, in Burling- 
ton county. New Jersey, and on this the remaining Delawares of New 
Jersey, about sixty in number, were collected and settled. They 
remained there until the year 1802, when they removed to New 
Stockbridge, near Oneida lake. New York, becoming there the 
Stockbridge tribe. 

In 1832 there remained about forty of the Delawares, among whom 
was still kept alive the tradition that they were the owners of the 
hunting and fishing privileges in New Jersey. They resolved to lay 
their claims before the legislature of this state and request that a 
moderate sum (two thousand dollars) might be paid them for its relin- 
quishment. The person selected to act for them in presenting the 
matter before the legislature was one of their own number whom they 
called Shawuskukhkung(meaning " wilted grass "), but who was known 


among the white people as Bartholomew S. Calvin. He was born in 
1756 and was educated at the expense of the Scotch Missionary Society. 
At the breaking out of the Revolution he left his studies to join the 
patriot army under Washington, and served with credit during the 
Revolutionary struggle. At the time he placed this matter before the 
legislature he was seventy-six years old, and when the legislature 
granted the request Mr. Calvin addressed to that distinguished body a 
letter of thanks, which was read before both houses in joint session and 
was received with repeated rounds of enthusiastic applause. 



N the third day of September, 1609, the " Half Moon," a two- 
masted vessel of eighty tons burden, under the command 
of the renowned Henry Hudson, cast anchor in Sandy 
Hook bay. On the following day it was visited by the 
natives, who seemed glad of its arrival, and on the succeeding day some 
of its crew landed and did some trading with the Indians. 

On Sunda}'-, the 6th of the month, John Coleman and four other 
men, who had been sent out on an exploring expedition in a 
little boat, sailed through the " Narrow River," the Kills, between 
Bergen Point and Staten Island. On Coleman's return, the same day, 
he was slain by an arrow of one of the treacherous natives. These five 
men, therefore, of whom Coleman was one, were the first discoverers 
of this particular tract. Henry Hudson commanded his craft in the 
service of the East India Company of the United Provinces. Their 
design was to explore a passage to China and the Indies by the 

In 1613 the Dutch merchants established a post at Manhattan, for 
the purpose of extending trade with the Indians. In 1623 they 
undertook to plant colonies of agriculturists in what they called New 
Netherlands, but their relations with the Indians were not friendly 
enough to make any extensive enterprises towards a settlement, and 
the war of 1643, before mentioned, put an end to all thoughts of that 
kind for several years to come. But the land was too productive not 
to provoke the greed of the Dutch colonists, and at the close of the 
year 165 1 the attempt was first made to plant a colony in this localit)^ 
To this fair land was directed the attention of the Honorable 
Cornelius Van Werckhoven, one of the Schep^ns of Utrecht, in Holland. 
He desired to plant two colonies, or manors, in New Netherland. A 
commission was, therefore, given to Augustine Hermans, then an influ- 
ential and wealthy citizen of New Amsterdam, to purchase the tract of 
land west of Staten Island from the Raritan to the Passaic river. 
Accordingly this whole tract, between these two rivers, and extendino- 
back into the country indefinitely, was bought of the natives by 
Hermans for Van Werckhoven. Other tracts were also purchased by 
this same Dutchman, — one south of the Raritan and two on Long 


Island, — with the hope of large gains from each, but the Amsterdam 
chamber of the West India Company, having listened to objections 
from other greedy speculators, decided that Van Werckhoven could 
retain but one of the tracts in question. He chose to locate himself on 
Long Island. 

Nothing further was attempted by the Dutch on lands west of 
Achter Kol, as Newark bay was first called, until after the restoration 
of Charles II. , May 29, 1660. Among the first then to make application 
to the authorities for the settlement of a plantation was John Strickland, 
a resident of L,ong Island. The application was made in behalf of 
himself and a number of other New England people. The first appli- 
cation bears date February 15, 1660 ; another letter followed, April 29, 
1661. On June 2, 1661, Captain Bryan Newton, one of Governor 
Stuyvesant's council, wrote the petitioners in answer, giving them 
liberty to look at the laud in question with a view to such a disposition 
of it as was desired by them. 

The Dutch rulers also sent over, in the spring of 1661, a general 
invitation to all Christian people of " tender conscience," in England 
or elsewhere oppressed, to erect colonies anywhere within the juris- 
diction of Petrus Stuyvesant, in the West Indies, between New 
England and Virginia in America. 

The proposals of the Dutch government were liberal, and having 
been made public, met with a warm reception in New Haven and other 
towns in Connecticut. A deputation was sent to New Amsterdam to 
make further inquiry, and to ascertain the character of the lands to be 

"This deputation," says Hatfield, "was so courteously entertained 
and made so favorable a report of the country, as to induce Messrs. 
Benjamin Fenn and Robert Treat, magistrates of Milford, Dr. Joseph 
Gunn, one of the deacons of the church of Milford, and Mr. Richard 
Eaw, one of the magistrates of Stamford,— all of them being of the 
New Haven jurisdiction, and originally from Wethersfield, — to come 
down, in November, 1661, with full powers to negotiate with Governor 
Stuyvesant for the settlement of a plantation in these parts, ' within the 
limits of the (West India) company's jurisdiction behind Staten Island 
about the Raritan river.' " 

Among the conditions insisted upon by the New Haven people 
were, liberty to gather a church in a congregational way, such as they 
had enjoyed in New England about twenty years past ; the right of 
calling a synod by the English churches that might be gathered in New 
Netherland, for the regulation of their ecclesiastical aff'airs ; the right 
to administer justice in all civil matters among themselves, by magis- 
trates of their own selection, without appeal to other authorities ; the 
purchase of the lands by the Dutch government from the natives, and a 
full conveyance thereof to the associates forever ; none to be allowed 


to settle among them except by their own consent ; the right to collect 
debts ; and a written charter stipulating these rights in full. 

To all this the governor readily consented except the concession 
of full powers of self-government without appeal. After long and 
repeated conferences on this subject, the matter, in March, 1662, was 
referred to the directors at Amsterdam, who, on March 26, 1663, 
instructed Stuyvesant to insist ou retaining appellate jurisdiction in 
certain criminal cases, as long as it was tenable ; but if the object in 
view was not obtainable without this sacrifice, then the governor was 
authorized to treat with the English on such terms as in his opinion 
were best adapted to promote the welfare of the state and its subjects. 
The negotiations were renewed in June, 1663, but with what result the 
record does not state ; it is altogether probable that the disagreement 

In the year 1664, in the contest between the Dutch and the 
English, the former surrendered to the latter. New Amsterdam 
became New York ; Richard Nicholls became deputy governor of the 
state, and in a few weeks thereafter all New Netherlands came into 
subjection under the crown of Great Britain. 



CARCEIvY a month had elapsed after the fall of New Neth- 
erlands into the hands of the English before those settlers 
who several years before had sought a removal to Achter 
Kol, again petitioned liberty to purchase and settle a 
plantation at that place. The following is the petition they presented : 

To THE Right Honorable Colonel Richard Nicholls, Esqk-> 
Governor of New York, Etc.; 

The humble peticoners of us subscribed sheweth : That several of us, Yor Peti- 
couers being Intended formerly to have purchased and settled a plantation upon 3'e 
river called after Cull river before Yc arrival into these parts ; our intentions, notwith- 
standing our making some way with the Indians & charges & expenses about the 
premises, was obstructed by the then ruling Dutch. And some of us by reason of not 
having any accommodations here were put upon thoughts of removing into some 
other of his Majes'y's dominions ; but now upon this Yo^ happy arrival and the deceas 
of the Dutch interest, we would gladly proceed in the design afforsd- In order whereunlo, 
we make bold w* all humility to petition to Yo^ Honor that you would grant us liberty 
to purchase and settle a parcel of laud to Improve our labir upon the river before men- 
tioned, and some of us being destitude of habitation where we are, we crave yoi^ answer 
with as much expedition as may be. We humbly take our leave at present and subscribe, 
Yqr Honor to Command, 

John Bailies, 
Daniel Denton, 
Thomas Benydick, 
Nathan Denton, 
John Foster, 
Luke Watson. 
From Jamaica, commonly so called, September 26, 1664. 

The application received the prompt attention of the new governor, 
and the paper was presently returned with the following endorsement : 

Upon perusal of this petition, I do consent unto the proposals and shall give the 
undertakers all due encouragement in so good a work. Given under my hand, in Fort 
James, this 30'h of Sej^tember, 1664. Richard Nicholls. 

The governor's warrant having been secured, the "undertakers" 
next sought a conference with the owners of the soil. Captain John 
Baker, of the city of New York, it is said, was employed as the English 
and Dutch interpreter, and one of the natives as the Indian and Dutch 
interpreter. The meeting between the parties was held at Staten 
Island, where the chief Sagamores of the Indians then lived, and 


resulted satisfactorily to all the parties. A tract of land was purchased, 
for which the following deed was given : 

This indenture, made the 28th Day of October in the sixteenth Year of the Reign 
of our Sovereign Lord Charles, By the Grace of God of England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland, King, defender of the faith, etc., between Mattano, Manatnowaouc and Coues- 
comen, of Staten Island of the one part and John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke 
Watson, of Jamaica in Long Island, husbandmen on the other part; Witnesseth, That 
the said Mattano, Manamowaouc and Couescomen hath clearly bargened and sold to the 
said John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson, their associates, their heirs, execurs, 
one parcel of land bounded on the south by a river commonly called the Raritans river, 
and on the east by the river w'^'i parts Staten Island and the main, and to run northward 
up After-cull bay, till we come at the first river w^h sets westwardoutof the said bay afore- 
said, and to run west into the country twice the length as it is broad from the north to 
the south of the aforementioned bounds ; together with the lands, meadows, woods, 
waters, fields, fenns, fishings, fowlings, w* all and singular the appurtenances, w* all 
gains, profits and advantages arising upon the said lands and all other premises and 
appurtenances, to the Said John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson, w'h their asso- 
ciates, w'li their and every of their heirs, executors, admin^s or assignes for ever, to have 
and to hold the said lands with the appurtenances, to the said John Bayly, Daniel 
Denton, and Luke Watson, with their associates, their execu^s or assignes ; and the 
said Mattano, Manamowaouc and Couescoman covenant, promise, grant and agree 
to and w'h the said John Bayly, Daniel Denton and Luke Watson, and their associates, 
their heirs and execu''=. to keep them safe in the enjoyment of the said lands from all 
expulsion and incumbrances whatsoever may arise of the said land by any person or 
persons, by reason of any title had or growing before the date of these presents, for 
which bargain, sale, covenants, grants and agreements on behalf of the said Mattano, 
Manamowououc and Couescomen, to be performed, observed and done theforesd parties 
are at their enttery upon the said land to pay to sd Mattano, Manamowaouc and 
Cowescomen, twenty fathom of trading cloth, two made coats, two guns, two kettles, 
ten bars of lead, twenty handfuls of powder; and further, the s^ John Bayly, Daniel 
Denton and Luke Watson do covenant, promise, grant and agree to and with the s^ 
Mattano, Manamowoauc and Couescoman, the foresd Indians, four hundred fathom of 
white wampum, after a year's expiration from the day of the said John Bayly, Daniel 
Denton and Luke Watson entry upon ye said lands. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto put our hands and seals, the day and year aforesaid. 

The Mark of Mattano. 

The Mark of Sewakherones. n. 

The Mark of Warinanco. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of us witnesses. 

Chari,es HorslEy. 

The mark of 
Randal R. Hewett. 

Having thus made, in good faith, a carefully worded deed of the 
said purchase, the associates proceeded to submit the transaction to 
Governor Nicholls, from whom presently afterward they obtained an 
official confirmation of their title by grant in due form. 

The description, though designed to cover the whole territory 
between the Hudson and the Delaware rivers, was peculiarly applicable 
to the region bordering on Achter Kol, or Newark bay, and its southern 
estuary. The purchase was made October 28, 1664, and the governor's 
patent or grant on the istof December following, and the final payment 
of four huudred fathoms of white wampum was acknowledged by the 


grantors, November 24, 1665. Appended to the Indian deed is the 
following receipt : "Received of John Ogden, in part of the above 
specified four hundred feet of Wampum ; I say, received one hundred 
fathoms Wampum by me, the 18 of August, 1665. Witnesses, 
Samuel Edsall, James BoUen, the mark of Mattano." 

Endorsed on the deed is the following: "The 24 November, 
1665, paid to the Indians in full payment of this obligation : In 
wampum, one hundred and ninety fathoms (190). In a fowling piece 
and lead 40 for 180 gilders that was behind for the payment of Ivuke 
Watson. Oxen that were kild by the Indians, seventy fathom of 
wampum. The sum of three hundred fathom (300) I say in all." 
Witnesses : 

The mark of Mattano. 

Henry Creyk. Wareham. 

John Dickeson, Sewah Herones, 

Jeremiah Osbone, Manawaouc, 

James Boelen, Kawameeh, 


The precise date of the first occupation of this tract by the new 
proprietors is not on record. By tradition it is evident that four fam- 
ilies at least were there in August, 1665, and it is probable that besides 
these four mentioned in Nicholls' grant, their associates as well, or a 
number of them at least, were there before that time as occupants of 
the town. Denton, one of the projectors of the undertaking, writes, 
four or five years afterward, that the usual way is for a company of 
people to join together, either enough to make a town or a lesser 
number ; these go, with the consent of the governor, and view a tract 
of land, there being choice enough, and finding a place convenient for 
a town, they return to the governor who, upon their desire, admits them 
into the colony, and gives them a grant or patent for the said land for 
themselves and associates. These persons being thus qualified settle 
the place and take in what inhabitants to themselves they shall see 
cause to admit of till their town be full. 

From Hatfield we quote the following : " True it is, that, on the 
first settlement of the said purchases and associates it was agreed and 
understood that the lands so purchased should be divided, in proportion 
to the money paid for the purchase, to wit : Into the first lot, second 
lot and third lot rights, the second lot to be double and the third lot 
treble what was divided to those called first rights." In commenting 
upon this point, Hatfield concludes, "that ground was broken for the 
settlement of the town as early as in November, 1664." A considerable 
number of the associates for whom the land had been purchased 
arrived with their wives and children and took possession of their new 
homes in Achter Kol. 



:LIZABETH town was the seat of the first English 
government in New Jersey. In 1664 the Duke of York 
having sold Nova Csesarea, or New Jersey, to Lord John 
Berkeley and Sir John Carteret, two of the lords of the 
privy council of King Charles, Philip Carteret was appointed 
governor, with plenary authority to administer the civil affairs of 
the colony. 

Early in the month of August, in the year 1665, the ship " Philip " 
having arrived at New York, July 29th, now makes her appearance at 
the point or entrance of the creek on which the town is laid out. She 
brings Captain Philip Carteret, a sprightly youth of six and twenty, 
with a company of emigrants from the Old World. Among them is a 
French gentleman, Robert Vauquellin, a surveyor by profession, with 
his wife. Captain James Bollen, of New York, is also of the number. 
With these came also eighteen men of the laboring class, possibly a few 
others, — females, probably, of whom no special mention is made, — 
some thirty in all. 

Captain Carteret, with credentials to Ogden and his townsmen, 
comes accredited with papers from Governor Nicholls and a governor's 
commission from L,ord John Berkeley, baron of Stratton, Somerset 
county, England, and Sir George Carteret, knight and baronet, of 
Saltrum, in Devon (both of the privy council), to whom the Duke of 
York had granted the territory lying west of Hudson's river and east 
of the Delaware, to be known henceforth as Nova Csesarea or New 

The new governor was met by the Elizabeth Town associates at 
the landing, when mutual explanations followed. The Indian deed 
was produced and Governor Nicholls' grant was brought forward, and 
the tradition says that Carteret, being informed of their right to the 
lands, approved of the same and readily and willingly consented to 
become an associate with them, and went up from the place of landing 
with them, carrying a hoe on his shoulder, thereby intimating his 
intention of becoming a planter with them. 

We quote the following from Murray's notes on the history of 
Elizabeth. ' ' By the concessions and agreement of the lords proprietors 


a general assembly was established, consisting of the governor, a 
council and a house of burgesses. This assembly held its first 
meeting at Elizabeth Town on the 26th of May, 1668. The council 
consisted of seven and the house of burgesses of eleven members. 
John Ogden, Sr. , and John Bracket were the members from Elizabeth 
Town. It is very easily inferred that a New England influence was 
predominant in the first colonial legislature, as we find the chief 
features of the Puritan codes transferred to the statute book of New 
Jersey. After setting four days and passing sundry laws, they adjourned 
to the 3d of November, when the burgesses were increased by the 
addition of some delegates from the river Delaware. They sit but a 
few days ; and from the letters which pass between the governor and 
council on one hand, and the burgesses on the other, we conclude that 
it was dissolved amid no little excitement." In May, 1668, it was 
enacted that the general assembly are to meet on the first Tuesday in 
November next, and so to continue their meeting yearly on the same 
day until they shall see cause to alter the said time of meeting, but 
there is no record of its meeting from November, 1668, to November, 
1675. Up to 1682 the sessions of the supreme court were held here. 
Here were all the public buildings, but not a trace of these buildings 
exists today, "nor," says Murray, "does even the tradition point out 
the site on which they stood." In 1686 the assembly met at " Amboy 
Perth." It afterwards alternated between Amboy and Burlington, 
occasionally meeting here until it became stationary at Trenton. In 
1693 the assembly, resolved that the township of Elizabeth Town shall 
include all the land from the mouth of Rahway river west to Wood- 
bridge stake, and from thence westerly along the line of the county to 
the partition line of the province ; and from the mouth of the said 
Rahway river up the sound to the mouth of Bound creek, and thence 
to the Bound hill ; from thence northwest to the partition line of the 
province. Mr. Murray thinks that Basking Ridge, Pluckemin, and a 
part of lyamington, now lying in Somerset county, were included 
within these lines. 

The land covered by Governor Nicholls' patent for the township 
of Elizabeth Town, extended from the mouth of the Passaic, on 
the north, a distance, in a straight line, of not less than seventeen miles 
and running back into the country twice the distance, or thirty-four 
miles. Besides embracing the whole of the present territory of Union 
county it included the towns of Woodbridge and Piscataway, part of 
the towns of Newark and Clinton, a small part of Morris county and a 
considerable portion of Somerset county, embracing in all about five 
hundred thousand acres of territory, May 21, 1666, the townships of 
Woodbridge and Piscataway, and also on the same day the township 
since become the flourishing city of Newark, were all set off from 
Elizabeth Town, which considerably reduced that territory, to boundary 


lines extending only to Rahway river on the south and to the 
Bound brook on the north. 

Difficulties soon arose between the new governor and the legislature, 
the former becoming jealous of his prerogatives, and the latter body 
refusing to become creatures of the governor's will. In 1669 the affairs 
of the province were involved still further in much uncertainty, on 
account of the trouble which had overtaken the lords proprietors at 
home. Berkeley had been detected in the basest corruption, and 
deprived of his office. Carteret had long been under the accusation of 
parliament as a defaulter and was expelled from the house of commons 
in 1669. These circumstances led to the renewal of the scheme of 
annexing New Jersey to the province of New York, in which Colonel 
Nicholls, always having been interested, succeeded in having New 
Jersey transferred to the Duke of York's possessions. B)' some new 
turn, however, the lords retained possession of their charter, and 
Elizabeth Town remained the seat of government of the province and 
the residence of the governor and his officials. 

The governor, however, refusing to convene the assembly or to 
recognize its proceedings, the latter met in 1670 and again in 1671 ; 
and, as the governor refused to preside over the assembly, the members, 
as authorized by the concessions, appointed James Carteret, the son of 
Sir George (who was then residing in Elizabeth Town), to preside over 

William Pardon, the secretary of the house, taking sides with the 
governor, refused to deliver up the acts and proceedings of the assembly, 
and these records were, by the authority of the governor, destroyed. 
The newly appointed governor then ordered the arrest of Pardon. In 
the meanwhile Governor Carteret fled to Bergen, and Pardon escaped 
from Meeker, the constable, who made his arrest. The issue of 
Pardon's arrest is dated May 25, 1672. Upon the advice of the lords 
proprietors, Governor Carteret repaired to England, in July, 1672, to 
lay the grievances of the province before them, leaving Captain John 
Berry, deputy-governor, in his place. Captain James Carteret, how- 
ever, occupied the government house at Elizabeth Town. On the 9th 
of July he issued a writ of attachment against the house and lands and 
all the estate of William Pardon, who had fled to England. Captain 
James Carteret arrived in Elizabeth Town in the summer of 1671, on 
his way to North Carolina to take possession of his newly acquired 
domain as landgrave. He was the son of Sir George Carteret, the lord 
proprietor of New Jersey, who instructed him, in 1673, to look after 
his patrimony in Carolina. His brief authority was followed by that 
of Captain Berry until the return of Governor Carteret from England, 
in November, 1674. In the meantime the Dutch had retaken the 
country and had again surrendered it to the English. Berkeley had 
sold his half of the province to John Fenwick, and Sir George Carteret 


had become the sole proprietor of East Jersey by a new patent from the 
Duke of York. 

The same ship which brought over Carteret brought over Colonel 
Edmund Andros, the newly appointed governor of New York. Now 
followed the disputes of Andros and Carteret over the government of 
East Jersey, the seizure of Carteret and his trial, May 27, 1680, for pre- 
suming to exercise jurisdiction over territory within the bounds of his 
Majesty's letters-patent granted to his Royal Highness, the Duke of 
York. The jury declared Carteret not guilty, but an order was 
appended to the judgment of the court requiring him to give security 
that he would not exercise jurisdiction, either civil or military, in the 
province of New Jersey. 

On June 2d, five days after Carteret's trial, Andros called a general 
assembly to meet at Elizabeth Town. He presented himself personally 
before the deputies, unfolded the king's letters-patent and thus claiming 
the rights, the governor gained their consent in behalf of the people to 
his right to rule until the authorities in England could be heard from. 

On March 2, 1681, Governor Carteret resumed office, but the 
remainder of his administration was unimportant. With the decease 
of Sir George Carteret and the transfer of East Jersey to the new 
proprietors, the necessity arose for a new administration. This was 
inaugurated under Thomas Rudyard, as the deputy governor of Barclay, 
in 1682. Carteret died four weeks after this time, his will, made just 
before his death, bearing date December 10, 1682. His administration 
was regarded as a complete failure. 

Elizabeth Town was the largest and most important town in the 
province for many years after the settlement. Here were all the public 
offices, and here was the residence of most of the officers. The place 
and people are thus described by Thomas Rudyard, in a letter dated 
May, 1683 : 

"My habitation with Samuel Groome is at Elizabeth Town, and 
here we came first. It lies on a fresh, small river, with a tide ; ships 
of thirty or forty tons come to our doors. We cannot call our habi- 
tation solitary ; for what with public employ, I have little less com- 
pany at my house daily than I had in George Yard, although not so 
many pass by my doors. The people are generally a sober, professing 
people, wise in their generation, courteous in their behavior, and 
respectful to us in office among them. As for the temperature of the 
air, it is wonderfully suited to the humors of mankind, the wind and 
weather rarely holding in one point or one kind for ten days together. 
I bless the Lord, I never had better health, nor my family ; my 
daughters are very well improved in that respect, and tell me they 
would not change their places for George Yard, nor would I. People 
here are generally settled where the tide reaches." 

Gawen Lawrie thus writes to the proprietors, in a letter dated 


"Elizabeth Town, i Month, 2d, 1684" : "Here wants nothing but 
people. There is not a poor body in the province nor that wants. 
Here is abundance of provisions, — pork and beef at two pence per 
pound ; fish and fowl plenty ; oysters I think would serve all England ; 
Indian wheat, two shillings and six pence per bushel ; it is exceeding 
good for food every way and two or three hundred fold increase ; cyder 
good and plenty for one penny per quart ; good drink that is made of 
water and molasses stands about two shillings per barrel, wholesome 
like our eight-shilling beer in England ; good venison plenty, brought 
in at eighteen pence per quarter ; eggs at three pence per dozen ; all 
things very plenty, land very good as ever I saw ; vines, walnuts, 
peaches, strawberries, and many other things in plenty in the woods." 



HE township of Elizabeth Town was not fully organized 
until 1693. Such a government, however, as the original 
colony required for its local purposes, in addition to the 
government of the province itself, was established among 
the first planters in 1665. The infant plantation of Elizabeth Town 
was not only the seat of the first general English government in East 
Jersey, but also of the first English government in the province. It 
was the capital of the province and port of entry for twenty-one years, 
having the government-house and custom-house, the resident governor 
and principal provincial officers, and the highest courts of judicature. 
As has been said elsewhere, Governor Philip Carteret arrived at 
Elizabeth Town and assumed the government of the province in 
August, 1665. John Ogden was commissioned justice of the peace 
October 26, 1665. February 12, 1666, Captain Thomas Young was 
appointed one of the governor's council. Luke Watson was made 
constable, an office which at that time answered in the place of sheriff", 
there being no general district or county requiring the services of the 
latter officer. 

The town records prior to 1719 having been lost or secretly dis- 
posed of, the record of officers for the early years is somewhat meagre. 
August 24, 1668, Ivuke Watson was commissioned lieutenant and 
commander of a military company then organized, and John Woodruff^, 
ensign. Robert Vauquellin and William Pardon were the first judges 
appointed, associated with Captain William Sanford and Robert Treat 
in a special court convened in May, 1671. In 1668, Robert Bond, 
Robert Vauquellin and William Pardon were members of the council ; 
John Ogden, Sr., and John Bracket, representatives in the house of 
burgesses ; James BoUen, secretary. 

From 1682 to 1857 the territory we are considering was in the 
county of Essex. Isaac Whitehead was appointed, September 16, 
1692, high sheriff" of the county of Essex ; Isaac Whitehead and 
Benjamin Price,. Jr., October roth, justices of the peace for Elizabeth 
Town ; Henry Norris and John Lyon, November 2d, deputies to the 
assembly ; George Jewell, December 3d, county clerk ; Isaac White- 
head, Benjamin Price, Jr., and John Lyon, Jr., January 29th, judges 
of small causes ; and, February 21st, Isaac Whitehead, lieutenant and 


Daniel Price ensign of the Elizabeth Town company of foot. Isaac 
Whitehead was also appointed, November 4, 1693, captain of the foot 
company, Daniel Price being appointed November 4, 1693, captain 
of the foot company, Daniel Price, Jr., being appointed at the same 
time lieutenant, and John Lyon ensign. Richard Townley also had 
been appointed, March 7, 1692, a member of Governor Fletcher's 
council of the province of New York. Mrs. Townley had a large 
estate on Long Island. James Emmet received the appointment, in 
1683, of chief ranger, an officer chosen by the county to look after the 
estrays. Rev. John Harriman and Jonas Wood were appointed, 
November 3, 1693, deputies, and again in 1694. Benjamin Ogden 
received, October 10, 1694, the appointment of sheriff"; Ephraim 
Price, January 15, 1695, ensign ; and John Woodruff", January 29th, 
judge of small causes. Daniel Price was appointed. May 3, 1697, 
captain of the train bands ; William Brown and Ephraim Price,, 
lieutenants ; and Richard Baker and Samuel Oliver, ensigns. John 
Woodruff" (son of the old planter) received. May 30th, the appointment 
of high sheriff of Essex county ; John Harriman, (Rev.) and Andrew 
Hampton, December i, 1698, were chosen deputies ; Robert Smith 
(the first of the name in the town) became, December 26, 1699, high 
sheriff; and, February 15, 1699, George Jewell county clerk. In 
1707 the town chose Captain Daniel Price as member of assembly ; 
1708-9, Benjamin Lyon ; 1710, Joseph Marsh. 

In 1710 Colonel Richard Townley, Benjamin Price, Jr., Daniel 
Price and Jonas Wood, were justices of the peace ; John Hainds, 
constable ; and Samuel Melyen and Thomas Price were overseers of 
the highways for this town. Andrew Hampton and Richard Baker 
were on the committee for regulating the highways of the county. 
In 171 1, Isaac Whitehead, Benjamin Price, Benjamin L3'on, John 
Woodruff and John Blanchard were justices ; John Hainds and Benja- 
min Meeker were constables ; and Benjamin Ogden, Jr., and Samuel 
Ogden were overseers of the highways. In 1712 the justices were the 
same ; James Seers and Samuel Ogden were constables ; and Samuel 
Winans and John Scudder were overseers of the highways. In 1713, 
constables, Ebenezer Lyon and William Clarke ; overseers of the, 
highways, John Craine and Joseph Kellsey. In 1714, constables, John 
Thomson and Benjamin Spinning ; overseers, Daniel Gale and Robert 
Little ; assessors. Captain Price and John Harriman. In 1715 and 
1716, constables, Richard Harriman and Elijah Davis ; overseers, 
James Hainds, Jr., and Jacob Mitchell. In 1717, constables, Benja- 
min Bond, Nathaniel Whitehead and William Strayhearn ; overseers, 
Joseph Bond, John Lambert, Jeremiah Peek and Benjamin Parkhurst ; 
on the county committee of highways, Benjamin L}on and Samuel 
Potter. In 1718, constables, John Gould, Nathaniel Whitehead and 
William Strayhearn ; overseers of the highways, Edward Frazey, 


Benjamin Spinning, Robert Wade and Daniel Woodruff; surveyors of 
the highways, Captain Daniel Price and James Sayre. In 1719, 
constables, William Strayhearn, Samuel Oliver, Jr., and Thomas 
Currey, Jr., and Joseph Marsh, Jr. In 1716 and 1721, Joseph Bonnel 
was chosen to the legislature. 

These appointments, embracing a period of about ten years, may 
serve to show who they were of the second generation that were looked 
upon as men of activity and influence by their townsmen. In almost 
every instance they were the grandsons of the old planters, whose 
names are still represented in the town. 

In 1740 the town committee consisted of John Crane, Jonathan 
Dayton, John Magie, Thomas Clarke, Andrew Joline, Joseph Mann and 
Andrew Craig. Robert Ogden (the second son of the name), a young 
lawyer, twenty-four years old, was chosen, October 2, 1740, town clerk. 
June 4, 1741, John Ogden was justice, and John Halsted and John Stiles 
freeholders. The same in 1742 ; William Chetwood sheriff of the 
county. The town committee in 1750 for conducting the defense of the 
bill in chancery were John Crane, Andrew Craig, William Miller, John 
Halsted, Stephen Crane, Thomas Clarke and John Chandler. 


For a period of one hundred and twenty-eight years from the date 
of the original settlement the township) remained undivided, the town 
laws and regulations and the authority of its magistracy extending 
over the whole area. At an early date, however, various hamlets and 
clusters of farm houses gradually sprung up in different localities. 
The facilities for navigation and the attractions of water privileges 
drew quite a number of early settlers to the banks of the Rahway river. 
Another group of planters, mostly of one family, gave name to the 
neighborhood called Lyons Farms. Still another, locating a few 
miles to to the west, gave name to Wade's Farms. ■ Soon after, a 
little to the north of west, just under the mountain, a few neighbors 
called their settlement by the name of Springfield. Seven miles 
to the west of the town proper Westfield began to attract settlers 
quite early in the eighteenth century. Two or three miles still west 
of this settlement were the Scotch Plains, where a large part of the 
Scotch emigration of 1684-6 found a pleasant home on the eastern side 
of the Green brook ; while at a later period, on the same side of 
the brook, two or three miles lower down, a few scattered habitations 
served as the nucleus of Plainfield, sixteen miles from the town 
proper, and yet within the township. Four or five miles over the 
mountains to the northwest of Westfield, and nearly as far to the east 
of Springfield, the beautiful valley of the upper Passaic very early drew 
from the other parts of the town a considerable number of hardy 
pioneers, to whose settlement was originally given the name of 
Turkey, afterward changed to New Providence. 


In the administration of the township laws the several parts or 
neighborhoods were denominated "wards," as the Rahway ward, the 
Westfield, the Springfield, the Farms ward, etc. , the last referring to 
Connecticut Farms. In the selection of civil officers for the town, — 
aldermen, councilman, town committee, constables, overseers of the 
poor, surveyors and overseers of highways, assessors, collectors, pound- 
keepers, as well as sheriff, coroner, marshal, or mayor of the borough, — 
due regard was had to the claims of these several wards. 

As the population increased and churches and school-houses were 
built, these respective settlements began to feel the inconvenience of 
living so remote from the central authority, the seat of government in 
the town proper, and of being compelled to travel so far to the town 
meetings. Hence, one after another, they began to agitate the question 
of subdivision of the township, so as to give each of these localities a 
township of its own. Thus originated the townships, one after another, 
taking their legal places on the following dates : Springfield, 1793 ; 
New Providence, 1794, (organized independently in 1809); Westfield, 
1794 ; Rahway, 1804 ; Union, 1808 ; Plainfield, 1847. The remaining 
townships were subdivisions of these at later dates. 

The celebrated Swedish naturalist. Professor Kalm, in his botani- 
cal explorations of these provinces, visited this part of the country, in 
1748, and this is his description of the city of Elizabeth as it appeared 
that year. When at Fairfield he said : 

Elizabeth Town is a small town about twenty English miles distant from New 
Brunswick ; we arrived there immediately after sun-setting. Its houses are mostly 
scattered, but well built, aud generally of boards, with a roof of shingles and walls 
covered with the same. There were likewise stone buildings. A little rivulet passes 
through the town from west to east ; it is almost reduced to nothing when the water 
ebbs away, but with full tide they can bring up small yachts. Here are two fine 
churches, each of which made a much better appearance than any one in Philadelphia. 
That belonging to the people of the Church of England was built of bricks, had a steeple 
with bells, aud a balustrade around it from which there was a prospect of the country. 
The meeting house of the Presbyterians was built of wood, but had both a steeple and 
bells, and was, like the other houses, covered with shingles. The town house made 
likewise a good appearance, and had a spire with a bell. The banks of the river were 
red, from the reddish limestone. Both in and about the town were many gardens and 
orchards ; and it might truly be said that Elizabeth Town was situated in a garden, the 
ground hereabouts being even and well cultivated. At night we took our lodgings at 
Elizabeth Town Point, at an inn, about two English miles distant from the town, and 
the last house on this road belonging to New Jersey. The man who had taken the 
lease of it, together with that of the ferry near it, told me that he paid a hundred aud 
ten pounds of Pennsylvania currency to the owner. October 30th we were ready to 
proceed on our journey at sun-rising. Near the inn where we passed the night we were 
to cross a river, and we were brought over, together with our horses, in a wretched half- 
rotten ferry. The country was low on both sides of the river, and consisted of meadows. 
But there was no other hay to be got, than such as commonly grows in swampy ground 
for as the tide comes up in this river, these low plains were sometimes overflowed when 
th^ water was high. The people hereabouts are said to be troubled in summer with 
immense swarms of gnats or musquitoes, which sting them and their cattle. This was 
ascribed to the low, swampy meadows, on which these insects deposit their eggs, which 
are afterwards hatched by the heat. 



N the 8th day of February, 1739, Lewis Morris being captain- 
general, governor and commander-in-chief of the province, 
and which was in the thirteenth year of George II., the 
borough of Elizabeth was given an act of incorporation. 
The charter constituted the Passaic river from the mouth of Dead river 
to the Minisink crossing, the western boundary of the borough. The 
territory was nearly coterminous with the present Union county. On 
the southwest, however, it included nearly the whole of the town of War- 
ren, in Somerset county. It was to be known "by the name of Free 
Borough and Town of Elizabeth." It appointed Joseph Bonnell, Esq., 
"Mayor and Clerk of the Market," coroner also; John Blan chard, 
Esq. , recorder ; Andrew Joline, Matthias Hatfield, Thomas Price, 
John Ross, John Crane, and Thomas Clarke, Esqrs. , aldermen ; 
Noadiah Potter, John Halsted, Nathaniel Bonnel, Samuel Woodruff, 
Samuel Marsh and Jonathan Hampton, Gent, assistants and 
common council ; William Chetwood, Esq^-, sheriff ; Jonathan 
Dayton, chamberlain ; Thomas Hill, marshal ; John Radley, George 
Ross, Jr. , Daniel Marsh and John Scudder, assessors ; Robert 
Ogden, John Odle, John Terrill and William Clark, collectors ; James 
Townley, high constable ; and Robert Dittle, Nathaniel Price, Richard 
Harriman, John Looker, John Craige, Daniel Dunham, to be petit 
constables ; Henry Garthwait, Cornelius Hetfield, John Radley, Seni^-, 
John Allen, Ephriam Marsh and Daniel Day, overseers for the poor ; 
and Michael Kearney, Esq"^-- common clerk. 

The incorporation of the borough was followed the same year by 
the scenes and excitements of the "Great Revival." The year follow- 
ing, 1741, witnessed one of the most remarkable panics to which a 
slave-holding community are ever liable. It was caused by the report 
of a negro conspiracy in New York to burn the city and murder the 
white population. Recorder Horsmauden in his "History of the 
Negro Plot," says "During the progress of this affair one hundred and 
fifty-four negroes were committed to prison ; of whom fourteen were 
burned at the stake, eighteen hanged, seventy-one transported, and 
the rest pardoned or discharged for want of proof Twenty white 
persons were committed, of whom four were executed. ' ' 


The " Account Book of the Justices and Freeholders of the County 
of Essex," contains the following for this county : 

June 4, 1741, Daniel Harrison sent in his account of wood carted for burning two 
negroes ; allowed cury o.ii.o. February 25, 174^^ Joseph Heden acct. for Wood to Burn 
the Negroes. Mr. Farrand paid allowed 0.70. Allowed to Isaac Lyon 4 curry for a load 
of Wood to burn the first Negro o. 4. o. At the latter meeting were present Matthias 
Hatfield, Justice Bliz. Town ; John Halsted, freeholder for Eliz. town. At the former 
John Ogden, justice; John Halsted and John Stiles, freeholders for EHzabethtown. 
Zophar Beech was allowed 7 s. for Irons for ye Negro that was burnt. 

"Possibly" says Dr. Hatfield "there were three burned at the 
stake." William Chetwood of the town was then sheriff. 




Monday, the nth of January, 1790, Aaron Ogden, Esq., having produced a 
commission to be clerk of the borough of Elizabeth, was duly qualified into that ofiBce, 
according to law, by the mayor of said borough ; thereupon the said clerk proceeded to 
qualify according to law John D. Hart, Esq., to be mayor; Elias Daj'ton, Esq., to be 
recorder, and Jeremiah Ballard, Stephen Crane and Robert Wade, Esqs., to be aldermen ; 
and Messrs. John Hendricks, Obediah Meeker, John Tucker and Samuel Tyler to be 
common councilmen of the said borough, — the said mayor, recorder and aldermen having 
severally produced their commissions for their respective offices, and said common 
councilmen having been appointed by law ; Moses Austin and William Southwell, having 
been by law appointed constables of the said borough, were severally qualified duly into 
ofiice by said clerk. 

At a meeting of the corporation of the borough of Elizabeth, in common council 
assembled, at the house of Samuel Smith, inn holder within said borough, on Monday, 
the nth of January, 1790. 

Present: John D. Hart, Esq., mayor ; Elias Dayton, Esq., recorder. 

Jeremiah Ballard, Stephen Crane, Robert Wade, aldermen. 

John Hendricks, Obediah Meeker, John Tucker, Samuel Tyler, common councilmen. 

The following rules and orders were proposed, pvit to vote and agreed to : 

1. That every member give his attendance precisely and punctually at the time and 
place to which they shall be called or adjourned ; any neglect or trivial excuse will be 
esteemed an abuse and contempt of the corporation. 

2. On their meeting at the time and place appointed they shall speedily form 
themselves into order, and the mayor, deputy mayor, recorder and senior aldermen 
present shall preside. 

3. They shall immediately proceed vipou business upon which they are met, to 
which they shall all attend without conversing upon subjects foreign from the business 
before them. 

(Rules 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 governed parliamentary debate.) 

9. No drink shall be introduced during the sitting of the corporation. 

Elias Dayton and Jeremiah Ballard, Esqs., were appointed a committee to report 
to the board and to procure a proper place for the holding of the borough courts until a 
court house be built. 

The corporation adjourned till Thursday, the 21st inst., to meet at this place at ten 
o'clock in the forenoon. 

At the meeting on January 2rst, William Darby, David Crane, Jesse Clark and John 
Scudder were qualified as common councilmen before Mayor John D. Hart, and Jedediah 


Swan, Bsq., produced his commissiou for an alderman, and was duly qualified; also on 
the same day Henry Norris qualified as one of the constables of said borough. 

At this meeting the only business transacted was the ordering that "the first thing 
done be to raise money for a court house and gaols ; and that ^1,250 be raised by tax 
for a common hall and gaol of brick." Elias Dayton, Jeremiah Ballard, Stephen Crane, 
Samuel Tyler and Jedediah Swan were appointed a committee to " procure plans and 
contract for and procure bricks and other necessary materials" for the buildings. 

At a meeting held on February i, 1790, Isaac Woodruff produced his commission as 
deputy mayor, and qualified before the clerk. Samuel Potter and Benjamin Petit also 
qualified as common councilmen, and seem to have completed the list of borough 
officials. The corporation at this session decided to build the common hall separate from 
the jail, and set the dimensions of the former at not more than 36x55 feet. The 
building was to contain three rooms, one for the court room, another for the grand jury 
and a third for the petit jury. These plans were subsequently altered. 


The first court house of the borough of Elizabeth was burned by 
the British, together with the Presbyterian church edifice, in 1780. 
The next court house was erected in 1797, and had been occupied only 
about eleven years when it was reduced to ashes, April 3, 1808, and a 
poor lunatic, Andrew Ross, perished in the flames. Moses Austin, 
high constable of the town, had been the occupant and keeper of the 
house for many years. Measures were immediately taken by the 
corporation for "its reconstruction. Aldermen Thaddeus Mills and 
Richardson Gray, with the recorder, Andrew Wilson, were appointed a 
building committee, and means taken to obtain the needed funds. A 
year passed and the work was not done. Captain William Dayton was 
substituted on the committee for Mr. Wilson. It was not until the 
winter of 1810-11 that the building was in a condition to be occupied. 
This building continued to be used for the town courts until after the 
formation of the county of Union, in 1857, when it was enlarged and 
reconstructed into the present commodious county court house. 

Governor Jonathan Belcher resided in the borough of Elizabeth 
from November, 1751, until his death, August 31, 1757. He had 
previously, from the time of his appointment as governor of New 
Jersey, resided in Burlington, where the legislature also convened. 
Finding the air of that place did not agree with him, he removed to 
Elizabeth Town, where his official business and correspondence were 
carried on ever after. 



N the enactment of the "Boston Port Bill," March 25, 
1774, which closed the port and transferred the seat of 
government to Salem, the parliament of Great Britain 
acted in a spirit of pure vindictiveness. When the news 
of the passage of this obnoxious measure reached this country, May 
10, 1774, the colonists arose in fury to resent the insult. Town 
meetings were immediately called, whole counties assembled, and 
the provinces met in congress, — in fact, the whole American people 
determined to stand by the people of Boston in their opposition to 
British oppression. This spirit was manifested in the highest degree 
by the people of Elizabeth. A sturdy band of patriots, led by such 
men as William Livingston, William Peartree Smith and Elias 
Boudinot, — men who were able to wield a controlling influence, — were 
then in power. Stephen Crane, Esq., was the mayor of Elizabeth 
Town ; Ephraim Terrill was deputy mayor ; John Blanchard, Elias 
Dayton, John Ross, Abraham Clark, Ephraim Marsh, and William 
Eivingston were of the corporation. 

There were a few people in sympathy with the British, and some 
were conservative ; but the great majority were bravely loyal. They 
were impatient to give expression to their indignation at the wrongs 
inflicted upon them and also to extend their feeling to the people of 
Boston. A formal meeting was held at the court house in Newark, 
June nth, when it was decided to invite a provincial convention to 
assemble immediately to appoint delegates to a general congress. 

The gentlemen appointed on the committee to carry into effect 
these decisions, were : Henry Garritse, of Aquackanock ; Joseph 
Riggs and Isaac Ogden, of Newark ; while the other six, — Stephen 
Crane, William Livingston, William P. Smith, John D. Hart, John 
Chetwood and Elias Boudinot, Esquires, — were of Elizabeth. There- 
after Elizabeth was made the headquarters for the patriots of the 

The several county committees, with a circular letter issued by 
the Essex committee, met at New Brunswick, July 21, 1774, when 
Stephen Crane of Elizabeth was chosen to preside. James Kinsey, 
William Livingston, John D. Hart, Stephen Crane and Richard 
Smith were made delegates to a general congress. Of these five 
men three were from Elizabeth. The general congress met at 


Philadelphia in September and October. When the results of their 
deliberations were published it gave renewed energy to the determina- 
tion of the people to resist the oppression of the British. 

Mr. Hatfield tells us that "the Essex County Committee of 
Correspondence issued a call for town meetings, to organize the 
respective towns for the more vigorous prosecution of the measures 
recommended by congress." In compliance with this call, the free- 
holders of this town met at the court house on Tuesday, December 
6, 1774, Stephen Crane, Esq., in the chair when a large committeee 
was chosen for the above mentioned purpose, viz : Jonathan Hampton, 
Matthias Williamson, Elias Dayton, Isaac Woodrufi", William Barnett, 
William Herriman, Oliver Spencer, George Ross, Edward Thomas, 
Cornelius Hetfield, John Blanchard, Ephraim Terrill, Abraham Clark, 
Robert Ogden, Jr., Jeremiah Smith, Richard Townley, Jr., Samuel 
Shotwell, David Miller, Thomas Woodruff, John Clawson, Jonathan 
Dayton, Ephraim Marsh, Recompense Stanbury, Jedediah Swan, 
William Parsons, Samuel Potter, William Bott, Jonathan Williams, 
Christopher Marsh, Isaac Wynants, Daniel Halsey. Stephen Crane, 
John D. Hart, William lyivingston, William P. Smith, Elias Boudinot, 
and John Chetwood, Esquires, were unanimously re-elected, for the 
borough of Elizabeth, on the Essex County Committee of Correspond- 
ence. It was then voted, "that two certain pamphlets lately published, 
— the one entitled 'A Friendly Address, etc.,' and the other under 
the signature of 'A Farmer,' which the committee described as 
' containing many notorious falsehoods evidently calculated to sow 
the seeds of disunion among the good people of America, grossly mis- 
representing the principles of the present opposition to parliamentary 
taxations, vilifying the late congress and intending to facilitate the 
scheme of the British ministry for enslaving the colonies,' — be 
publickly burnt in detestation and abhorrence of such infamous pub- 
lications." These pamphlets were accordingly committed to the 
flames before the court house. 

The first named pamphlet was the production of the Rev. Myles 
Cooper, D. D., president of King's College, New York. Such was 
the popular indignation against him, that his house was sacked, May 
10, 1775, and he, barely escaping the hands of the mob, took refuge on 
board a ship of war, and fled to England. His Majesty gave him a 
pension of two hundred pounds per year. The latter pamphlet was 
entitled, "Free Thoughts on the Proceedings of the Continental 
Congress held at Philadelphia, September 5, 1774," by "A Farmer." 
It was written by Isaac Wilkins, subsequently Rev. Dr. Wilkins, of 
Westchester county, New York. He wrote also, "The Congress 
Canvassed ; or an Examination into the Conduct of the Delegates." 
It may have been to this last that the vote of censure refers. He too 
fled to England, in May, 1775, but returned the next year. 


The town having denounced these pamphlets, the committee next 
called the attention of the people, December 19, 1774, to the dangerous 
character of " Rivington's Royal Gazetteer," published in New York, 
declaring their determination, individually, to patronize it no longer, 
and calling upon all the people to follow their example and banish it 
from their habitations. The article was signed by "Jonathan Hamp- 
ton, Chairman." This was followed, February 13, 1775, by the 
following interdict : 

Whereas the inhabitants of Staten Island have manifested an unfriendly dis- 
position towards the liberties of America, and among other things have neglected to join 
in the General Association proposed by the Continental Congress, and entered into by 
most of the townships in America, and in no instance have acceded thereto, the com- 
mittee of observation for this town, having taken the same into consideration, are of 
opinion that the inhabitants of their district ought, and by the aforesaid association are 
bound, to break off all trade, commerce, dealings and intercourse whatever with the 
inhabitants of said island, until they shall join in the General Association aforesaid ; and 
do resolve that all trade, commerce, dealings, and intercourse whatsoever, be suspended 
accordingly, which suspension is hereby notified and recommended to the inhabitants of 
this district to be by them universally observed and adopted. 

George Ross, Clerk. 



HEN the battle of Lexington, Massachusetts, was fought, on 
April 19, 1775, it acted as an electric shock to arouse the 
people to united action. New York harbor was effectually 
closed against the export of supplies for the British at 

The old town of Elizabeth arose to arms at once. Among the 
young men of Elizabeth was Aaron Burr, whose mother was step- 
daughter of Rev. Jonathan Edwards. Mrs. Edwards had two brothers, 
Matthias and Aaron Ogden, the latter of whom was of Burr's own age, 
while Matthias was two years older and became his bosom companion. 
Young Burr was graduated in 1772, and in 1774 began the study of 
law, with his brother-in-law, at Litchfield, Connecticut. After the 
battle of Lexington he wrote to Ogden to come and go with him into 
the army. His father gave him leave to go. He was then in his 
twenty-first year, and Burr was nineteen. In years they were boys, 
but were men in the spirit of the times, and types of the men and boys 
who were their friends and associates, — ready to go at a call. 

The provincial congress of New Jersey met at Trenton, New 
Jersey, May 23d. Elizabeth Town was represented by William 
Peartree Smith, John Stiles, John Chetwood, Abraham Clark and 
Elias Boudinot. Smith and Boudinot were sent to Philadelphia, on 
the 25th, to confer with congress on some joint plan of action, and 
returned on the 30th. Great excitement was caused at Boston by 
British reinforcements coming- in, and congress was called upon to 
organize an army. Command was assumed over the New England 
recruits, and George Washington was appointed as general-in-chief of 
the Continental army on June 15, 1775. This strengthened and 
inspired the people with new hope and confidence, and the battle of 
Bunker Hill was heroically fought on June 17th, demonstrating the 
fact that the Americans not only could fight but would, while it was 
also certain that the British were not invincible. 

Ammunition was greatly needed. The committee of Elizabeth 
Town set about immediately to supply the demand as far as possible. 
On July 17th they '■'■Resolved^ That this committee, for every hundred 
weight of saltpeter made within this town for the first three months 
after this day will pay the sum of twenty pounds proclamation money 


of New Jersey on the delivery thereof to this committee, and fifteen 
pounds of same currency for the like quantity of saltpeter made and 
delivered as aforesaid within the next three months thereafter." At 
the close of November, by order of congress, a recruiting agency was 
established and the town made the headquarters of the First New 
Jersey Regiment of regulars, under the command of William Alexander 
(Earl of Stirling). For several years he had resided at Basking Ridge, 
New Jersey, and had recently been chosen colonel of a Somerset county 
militia regiment, and had carried many of them with him into the 
Continental service. On account of restrictions laid on the commerce 
of the port of New York, by Captain Hyde Parker of the "Phoenix," 
man-of-war in the harbor, he took care that all vessels from foreign 
countries coming to New York should, if possible, enter at Elizabeth 
Town. This gave him cause to be apprehensive of a visit from some 
of the armed boats of the "PhcEuix." He, therefore, urged congress, 
December 19, 1775, "to furnish the town immediately with a supply 
of ammunition and also, if possible, with half a dozen field-pieces with 
some rounds of grape and cannister shot." 

On January 6, 1776, he wrote to the president of congress : "I 
have the pleasure to inform you that several vessels with valuable 
cargoes from foreign ports have arrived in this province, and, under 
the protection I have afforded them, have landed their cargoes. Among 
the rest are some hundred barrels of gunpowder." 

Lord Stirling recommended to congress that William Barnet, Jr., 
be appointed surgeon of the First Jersey Battalion, and Matthias 
Halsted, quartermaster, which was accordingly done. Four companies 
of the battalion were stationed at Elizabeth Town. The barracks not 
being sufficient to accommodate all of them, a part were quartered 
among the people. The ship, " Blue Mountain Valley," soon gave 
them an opportunity to show their energy. The following is a letter 
written by Robert Ogden, chairman of the town committee, to John 
Hancock, president of congress, dated Elizabeth Town, February 
10, 1776 : 

Sir — I am ordered by the Committee of Elizabeth Town to acquaint the Congress 
of the Capture and state of the ship " Blue Mountain Valley," now lying at Elizabeth 
Town Point, and to desire particular directions from the congress what is to be done 
with the said ship, cargo, officers and seamen. 

On Monday, the 22d of January, between eleven and twelve o'clock. Lord Stirling, 
with about thirty men of his regiment, being near all that were armed at this place, the 
rest being at L,ong Island, set out for Amboy on a serious enterprise. In the evening of 
the same day an express arrived in this town with a letter directed to Lord Stirling, and, 
in his absence, to the chairman of the committee of this place, informing that an armed 
vessel, with a detachment of marines and seamen, was sent off from New York that day 
from the ships of war in New York, and to the transport ship. 

On the chairman's receipt of this letter, he immediately called the committee, 
which met about six o'clock in the evening, and from the letter and express collected 
and concluded that Lord Stirling left this place with an intention to procure a vessel at 
Amboy, and go in quest of the transport ship, which he then thought was in a defenseless 


condition, not knowing of the reinforcement sent from New York, and that if intelligence 
should reach him that night, he would not be able to procure vessels and assistance in 
season at Amboy to secure success, and might be repulsed with loss. On which the 
committeee resolved to send a detachment of one hundred volunteers in three or four 
boats, by the way of the Narrows, to take, or assist I,ord Stirling to take, the armed 
vessel or transport, ot which they immediately notified Lord Stirling by an express, and 
to encourage volunteers to enter, assured them they should share of prizes, according 
to the regulations that were or should be made by the Continental congress. Vol- 
unteers were soon procured, and furnished by the committee with ammunition, 
provision and what arms were wanting, of the townsmen about eighty and of the 
Continental troops about thirty. The committee also procured three boats and fitted 
them in the best manner that the night and hurry would permit of. Between twelve 
and one o'clock at night the armament was ready to sail, but on account of the tide 
and ice they could not proceed by the way of the Narrows ; they therefore set out, 
with a fair wind, by the way of Amboy, where they stopped and called upon Lord 
Stirling, who, with a boat procured by him for the purpose, and about forty of his 
regiment, set out with them in quest of the ship and armed vessel. At sunrise, from 
the masthead, they descried the ship at sea, stood for, met, and boarded her without 
opposition, at ten o'clock in the morning ; they found her to be a transport from London, 
with coals, porter, potatoes, hogs and horse-beans, designed for the ministerial troops 
at Boston, commanded by John H. Dempster, brother of George Dempster, member 
of parliament for Dundee, etc. , in Scotland. But the armed vessel, by great good fortune, 
saved herself by returning to New York, not having discovered the ship, to the great 
disappointment of our people. Lord Stirling gave the command of the ship to Mr. 
Rogers, a sea captain, with orders to proceed to this place, but, being detained by tide 
and contrary winds, on Wednesday evening, sent a reinforcement of about eighty men to 
secure her against any such attempt, and on Friday she arrived in safety at Elizabeth 
Town Point, where she remained under the command of Lord Stirling, guarded by some 
of the troops under his command, until Tuesday last, when he and his troops were 
ordered to New York, since which time she has been, and now is, under the care of the 
committee. By order of Lord Stirling and the committee, the porter and beans are 
stored, the sails and rigging are taken on shore. The potatoes, which are chiefly rotten, 
and coal remain on board the ship. The captain and seamen remain prisoners at large 
in this town. The committee expected Lord Stirling would have, before this time, pro- 
cured the particular directions of the congress for the disposition of the ship and cargo, 
but in this they are disappointed, and everything respecting the ship is in suspense. 
The hogs remaining, being only seven out of eighty, and the remaining potatoes they 
have concluded to sell. The coal is in great demands for making arms, and is liable to 
be destroyed with the ship by an armed force which may be dispatched privately in the 
night from New York, which is but fourteen miles distance. The seamen, who are 
boarded out by the committee, are uneasy and soliciting the committee for their wages, 
which, they say, were promised by Lord Stirling. The captain is anxious to know how 
long he is to be detained, and the committee are desirous that he soon be dismissed, and 
at liberty to inform his friends and countrymen of the usage he has received from the 
Americans. This, sir, is the state of affairs relating to the store-ship called the "Blue 
Mountain Valley," and brought to this place. 

Lord Stirling's letter, written to congress, dated January 24, 1776, 
reads: "I immediately set out for Amboy, and there seized a pilot- 
boat, and, with forty men, was just pushing out, about two o'clock 
yesterday morning, when I was joined by three other boats from 
Elizabeth Town, with about forty men each, many of them gentlemen 
from Elizabeth Town who voluntarily came on this service, under the 
command of Colonel Dayton and Ivieutenant-Colonel Thomas." The 
ship he describes as "of about one hundred feet, from stem to stern 


above, capable of making a ship of war of twenty six-pounders and ten 

The following Monday, the 39th, I^ord Stirling's letter was read in 
congress, when it was ^'Resolved, That the alertness, activity, and 
good conduct of Lord Stirling, and the forwardness and spirit of the 
gentlemen and others from Elizabeth Town who voluntarily assisted 
him in taking the ' Blue Mountain Valley,' were laudable and exem- 
plary, and that his lordship be directed to secure the capture until 
further order of congress, and that in the meantime he cause such part 
of the lading as would otherwise perish to be disposed of by sale." 

On February 4, 1776, General Lee sent orders to Lord Stirling to 
transfer his regiment to New York. Orders were sent to Mr. John 
Blanchard to take charge of the cargo of the transport, while Brigadier- 
General Livingston, and John D. Hart were requested to assist him in 
the management of it. 

The provincial congress of New Jersey finally disposed of the 
affair, on March 2, 1776, by ordering the vessel and cargo to be 
confiscated, and a commission appointed for the sale of both the ship 
and its contents, the proceeds to be divided among the captors. Orders 
were sent to deliver thirty-four chaldrons of the coal to Moses Ogden 
at the market price, he having a contract with the government for 
iron-work. The remaining goods was sold at auction March i8th. 

Much alarm was caused by General Washington's communicating 
to Lord Stirling his fears that the British army might be transferred 
from Boston to New York. New Jersey was called upon to furnish 
men to assist in fortifying the city and harbor. 

Stephen Crane, chairman of the Elizabeth Town committee, wrote 
to Lord Stirling that they had no right to send a detachment out of the 
province, and continued by saying : " The arming the two battalions 
in the Continental service hath drained us of our best arms, and in case 
a descent should be made at New York, we should be liable to continual 
excursions of the enemy." Abraham Clark, the signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, wrote, on March 15th, to the Committee of 
Safety, with regard to the provincial congress, asking for arms to 
equip a battalion for Canada. "If," said he, "all the congresses upon 
the continent required us to disarm ourselves at present, unless we are 
deemed dangerous to liberty, I would not obey." The situation at 
home was critical and it was necessary to be prepared for the enemy. 
Want of arms was the source of a general feeling of insecurity. On 
the 22d of March Lord Stirling came over to take a survey of the 
ground and lay out a line of fortifications at the Point. On the 24th 
he returned to the city to procure engineers to be employed on these 
works, under the directions of General William Thompson. 

When the British army evacuated Boston, on the 17th of March, 
it was supposed they would make a strong effort to make New York 


their headquarters ; consequently the American army was speedily 
brought to this section of the country. General Washington reached 
New York on Saturday, April 13th, and took command, when prepar- 
ations for a reception of the British were carried on with the greatest 

The provincial congress of New Jersey, which was chosen on the 
fourth Monday in May, met in Burlington on the loth of June, when, 
John D. Hart having been permitted to resign his seat in congress, 
Abraham Clark, secretary of the New Jersey Committee of Safety, was 
chosen, on June 22d, in his place. William Livingston, another 
member from this town, who had been appointed commander-in-chief 
of the New Jersey militia, resigned his membership, and established his 
headquarters at Elizabeth Town Point. On June. 7, 1776, Richard 
Henry lyce, of Virginia, submitted the following measure to the general 
congress : "That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, 
free and independent states ; that they are absolved from all allegiance 
to the British crown, and that all political connection between them 
and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 
After full discussion, this measure was adopted on the 4th of July, 

That Abraham Clark felt the deepest concern at the state of 
affairs at this time is seen in a letter written by him on August 6th, to 
Colonel Elias Dayton, in which he says : "As to my title, I know not 
yet whether it will be honorable or dishonorable ; the issue of the war 
must settle it. Perhaps our congress will be exalted on a high gallows. 
We were truly brought to the case of the three lepers. If we continue 
in the state we were in, it was evident we must perish ; if we declare 
our independence we might be saved ; we could but perish. I assure 
you, sir, I see, I feel, the danger we are in. I am far from exulting in 
our imaginary happiness ; nothing short of the almighty power of God 
can save us. It is not in our numbers, our union, nor valour I dare 
trust. I think an interposing Providence hath been evident in all the 
events that necessarily led us to what we are, — I mean independent 
states, — but for what purpose, whether to make us a great empire, or to 
make our ruin more complete, the issue can only determine." 

The British were at this time collecting all their forces, both 
military and naval, at New York. General L,ivingston was in 
command at Elizabeth Town, and Washington wrote him from New 
York that he had " information from the Hook that about forty of the 
enemy's fleet" had arrived there and that others were in sight, also 
that the whole fleet would be in, that day or the next, and, he writes : 
"I beg not a moment's time may be lost in sending forward such parts 
of the militia as Colonel Reed shall mention. We are so very weak at 
this post that I must beg you to order the three companies which I 
mention in my last for Staten Island, immediately to this city." 


Almost immediately after the adoption of the Declaration of 
Independence, by congress, an opportunity was given the new nation 
to demonstrate to the world her ability to cope with the enemy. Two 
field-pieces had been placed at Elizabeth Town Point, with a part of 
the company of artillery of this province, under Captain Neill. 
On the evening of the 4th of July an armed sloop of fourteen guns 
belonging to the enemy ran up to Elizabeth Point and, as related, 
"was attacked from the shore with two twelve-pounders; a great 
number of her men were killed, she set on fire, and entirely destroyed. ' ' 

The British army had now increased in number to between nine and 
ten thousand men. On the nth of July two British men-of-war ran up 
Hudson river and took possession of Tappan bay. L,ivingston was 
greatly in need of military stores. He wrote to the provincial congress, 
on the 6th of July, saying that "the number of men now in the service 
loudly called for more ample provision of supplies, — such as ammunition, 
flints, arms and indeed stores of every kind, and attention to which I 
cannot give in the manner I could choose in the present exigency." 

With the finely disciplined troops of the British in such great 
numbers on Staten Island, and reinforcements coming in so rapidly, 
the outlook at the Point was gloomy indeed, while the enemy was more 
and more encouraged. August 14th Governor Tryon wrote to L,ord 
Germain, from Staten Island, as follows: "The whole armament 
destined for this part of America, except the last division of the 
Hessians, being now assembled here, I expect, by the courage and 
strength of this noble army, tyranny will be crushed and legal govern- 
ment restored. (August 15th) Yesterday evening Sir Peter Parker 
brought into the Hook a fleet of twenty- five sail from the southward." 
The forces here referred to are the ones which failed to take Charles- 
town, South Carolina. In all there weire about three thousand troops 
under the command of Lord Cornwallis. 

On the 2ist of August plans had been laid to make an attack 
upon Long Island, and go on up the Hudson river, while fifteen 
Hessians were at the same time to attack Bergen Point, Elizabeth 
Town and Amboy. Nine thousand soldiers under Sir Henry Clinton 
landed at Gravesend, Long Island, on the 22d of August, without 
opposition. On the 37th the battle of Long Island was fought at 
Flatbush and in its vicinity, compelling the Americans to evacuate the 
island on the 29th. This was followed by the American army 
abandoning the city of New York and the British taking possession 
of it on September 15th. 

General Livingston was chosen the first governor of the state of 
New Jersey, August 31st. He then resigned his military command, to 
assume the duties of executive. The legislature now commissioned 
Colonel Matthias Williamson brigadier-general of the New Jersey 
militia, and he took command of the post at Elizabeth Town Point. 


The campaign was now almost wholly transferred to New Jersey, 
and General Washington wrote, urging Governor L,ivingston to put 
the New Jersey militia in the best possible condition, and see that the 
barracks at Amboy and Brunswick were in order. He informed congress, 
on November 14th, that he intended to quarter his army at Brunswick, 
Amboy, Klizabeth Town, Newark, and Hackensack. 

Washington having been followed up by the British under Lord 
Cornwallis, pushed on, reaching New Brunswick on Friday, and there 
remaining until Sunday, December ist, when he again took up the 
line of march toward Trenton, reaching there on Monday morning. 
Washington's army was obliged to retreat to the Raritan, their case 
apparently hopeless. The enemy, under Cornwallis, were in fine 
condition, vigorous and self-confident. They were taking possession 
of every town and hamlet. They were so sure of success that, on the 
30th of November, a proclamation was issued by the Howe brothers 
commanding all persons who had taken up arms against his Majesty to 
disband and return home, and at the same time offering a full pardon 
to all who should sign a declaration within sixty days that they would 
neither take up arms themselves or encourage others to do so. The 
tide soon changed, however, and then the Americans were able to 
dictate terms. 



HE disastrous campaign on Long Island was followed by the 
abandonment, on the part of the American army, of the 
city of New York, on Sunday, September 15th, and its occu- 
pation by the British. On the 31st of August, 1776, 

General Livingston was chosen the first governor of the state of New 
Jersey, and his command of the post at Elizabeth Town then devolved 
upon Matthias Williamson, who received, a few days afterward, a com- 
mission appointing him a brigadier-general of the New Jersey militia. 
Ou Tuesday, September 24th, four transports arrived at 
Elizabeth Town with four hundred and twenty American soldiers who 
had been taken prisoners at Quebec the previous winter. They had 
been liberated on parole. The battle of White Plains was fought on 
the 28th of October ; Fort Washington was taken on the i6th of 
November, and Fort Lee evacuated on the i8th. The campaign was 
now transferred to the soil of New Jersey. Washington, with a 
fragment of an army, reduced by the expiration of militia enlistments, 
was compelled to retire before the vastly superior troops of the enemy. 
He wrote to Governor Livingston from White Plains, on November 
the 7th, urging the importance of placing the Jersey militia on 
the very best footing, and to forward to him new troops, and, on 
November the 14th, he informs congress that the army has left the 
other side of Hudson river, and that he intends to quarter them at New 
Brunswick, Amboy, Elizabeth Town, Newark and Hackensack. On 
November 21st, Washington fell back on the right bank of the Passaic 
river, and the next day he entered Newark, where his army remained 
unmolested for six days. During this time the people of Elizabeth 
and Newark removed their families and effects beyond the Newark 
mountains and Short Hills, and on November 28th, Washington, with 
his army of not more than thirty-five hundred in number, entered the 
old deserted town by the Newark road, the advance guard of Lord 
Cornwallis entering Newark as the rear of the American army left it. 
On Sunday, December ist, Washington left New Brunswick for 
Trenton, reaching there on Monday morning. 

On the approach of the enemy. General Williamson, with the 
militia under his command at Elizabeth Town, retired to the upper 
part of the county. On the 8th he wrote from Morristown of his 


apparent inefficiency, as follows : " Very few men of the counties of 
Essex and Bergen joined my command. I have it from good intel- 
ligence that many who bore the character of warm Whigs have been 
foremost in seeking protection from General Howe and forsaking the 
American cause." 

Washington, in a letter, on November ist, to Governor Livingston, 
while speaking of this defection of troops, and of their weakness, says : 
"I have not, including General Williamson's militia, more than four 
thousand men." On the 5th Washington wrote to congress as follows : 
"By my last advices, the enemy are still at Brunswick;" and the 
account adds that "General Howe was expected at Elizabeth Town 
with a reinforcement to erect the king's standard and demand a 
submission of the state. ' ' 

The proclamation by the brothers Howe was issued on Saturday, 
November 30th, the day after the British entered Elizabeth Town. It 
commanded all persons who had taken up arms against his Majesty to 
disband and return home, and offered to all who should withdraw in 
sixty days and subscribe to a declaration that they would be peaceable 
subjects, neither taking up arms themselves nor encouraging others to 
do so, free and full pardon for the past. 

The outlook for the patriots was indeed a gloomy one. It seemed 
impossible to retrieve the fatal field of Flatbush, and even the most 
sanguine patriots now spoke in despondent tones. 

"I heard a man of some shrewdness once say," remarked Dr. 
Ashbel Green, "that when the British troops overran the state of New 
Jersey in the closing part of the year 1776, the whole population 
could have been bought for eighteen pence a head." 

It was regarded as certain that the authority of King George would 
soon be re-established in all the states ; such was the confidence, at 
least, of the well caparisoned troops of Cornwallis' army, and the one 
event greatly feared by the patriots. During these trying times 
General Charles Lee, with reinforcements for Washington, reached 
Chatham on the 8th of December, and on the nth, from Morristown, 
wrote General Heath, on his way from Peekskill, "that at Springfield, 
seven miles west of Elizabeth Town, about one thousand militia are 
collected to watch the motions of the enemy. ' ' They were Colonel 
Ford's troops. They were stationed at the Short Hills, just back of 
Springfield, from which point every movement of the enemy could be 
seen. An eighteen-pound gun was planted subsequently on the heights, 
near the residence (in after days) of Bishop Hobart, to give the alarm 
in case of the enemy's approach. To the top of a lofty pole near by 
was fixed a tar-barrel, to be set on fire when the alarin gun was 
discharged. These could be respectively heard and seen over a great 
extent of country. 

The movement of the troops under Lee and Heath, and the posting 


of the militia under Ford at the Short Hills, had not escaped the eye of 
Cornwallis, and General Heath wrote to Washington on the 15th that 
"several thousand of the enemy landed at Elizabeth Town on yesterday 
or the day before." On the evening of the 17th, Ford, who was at 
Chatham, had a brush with the enemy, about four miles south of that 
village, and suffered a sore defeat. This battle, on the part of the British, 
was fought by Leslie's brigade, which came up from Elizabeth Town, 
probably, the day before, and on the morning after the brush with the 
patriots entered Newark. Colonel Ford found his forces so much 
scattered after this fight that only about two hundred of his men 
remained, and he himself was so greatly exposed during that short 
campaign that, soon after, he was seized with sickness, and died on the 
nth, at Morristown. 

General Washington, learning that about eight hundred of the 
militia had called at Morristown, sent General Maxwell to take 
command of them. On the 26th of December Washington sur- 
prised and captured nine hundred and eighteen Hessians at Trenton, 
with the loss of only four wounded. This brilliant manoeuvre com- 
pletely turned the tide of affairs and electrified the American army 
with delight. Following up this advantage, Washington once more 
crossed the Delaware, passed around the British at Trenton, marched 
forward by night, and surprised and captured Princeton on the morning 
of January 3, 1777. 

On the 30th Washington wrote to Maxwell to collect as large a 
force as possible at Chatham and as soon as possible " to strike a stroke 
upon Elizabeth Town or that neighborhood. ' ' General Maxwell, taking 
advantage of the consternation of the enemy, came down from the 
Short Hills and compelled the British to vacate Newark ; had a brush 
with them at Springfield ; drove them out of Elizabeth Town and 
fought them at Spank Town (Rahway) a couple of hours. At Spring- 
field Major Oliver Spencer had a fight with the enemy on Sunday 
morning, the 15th, when eight or ten Waldeckers were killed or 
wounded and the remainder of the thirty-nine or forty were made 
prisoners, with the ofiicers, by a force not superior in number, and 
without receiving the least damage, and on the 8th, our forces recovered 
possession of the post. For this heroic work Major Spencer was 
promoted to a colonelcy. 

The American army at Pluckemin marched to Morristown, arriving 
there January the 6th. General Maxwell advanced and took possession 
of Elizabeth Town and made prisoners of fifty Waldeckers and forty 
Highlanders. He also captured a schooner with baggage and some 
blankets on board. About the same time a thousand bushels of salt 
were captured of the enemy at Spank Town. 

The English troops, it seems, would not suffer the Waldeckers to 
stand sentry at Elizabeth Town, several of them having deserted and 


gone over to the patriot army. On the day that the British force 
abandoned Newark and marched to Elizabeth Town, a company of 
Waldeckers was dispatched on some particular service towards Con- 
necticut Farms. Captain Uttell and his followers discovered and 
followed them, and he so disposed his small force in front and to their 
rear that the Germans on being attacked from ambush, being then on a 
retreat and finding the enemy firing on them under cover again, surren- 
dered without unloading a gun. The British, greatly exasperated at 
this loss under such favorable conditions to them, ordered out a body 
of Hessians to revenge the affront, when the superior knowledge of 
Littell again came to his rescue, and the enemy were again defeated. 
At this mortification, which seemed to be beyond measure, the British 
next, through a Tory, found Littell's house, and some three hundred 
men attacked the captain in his pent-up quarters, as they supposed, 
but to their dismay, they were again fired on from the rear and were 
again as badly discomfitted as before. 

The Rev. James Caldwell, of Revolutionary and patriotic memory, 
became chaplain for a portion of the patriot arm)-, and was for a time 
with his brother-in-law, Stephen Day, at Chatham. In the second 
week in January, 1777, he and his family with others returned to their 
homes in Elizabeth Town, after an absence of six weeks, and they 
found almost everything in ruins. The utter and needless destruction 
of property by the British and Hessians during their short occupancy 
of the town was a disgrace to human nature, the Tory neighbors from 
Staten Island being the most ruthless of any in laying waste the 
property. * 

The enemy had been driven out of the town on the 8th of January, 
but they remained still in the neighborhood. The situation of the 
inhabitants during the first half of the year 1777 was exciting enough, 
there being almost daily a skirmish with the British somewhere in the 


General Knyphausen landed at Elizabethport June 8, 1780, with 
a force of five thousand men, with the intent to march against Wash- 
ington, then encamped at Morristown, and drive the whole Continental 
army out of New Jersey. The inhabitants resolved to fight to the end. 
At the Cross-roads the advancing army was attacked by an outpost of 
twelve men. General Stirling was severely wounded and a temporary 
retreat was ordered. An advance soon followed, and the invading force 
marched up Elizabeth avenue, and through the town to Springfield by the 

* A letter from one of Governor Livingston's daugliters, dated November 29. 1777, reads : " Kate has been to 
Elizabeth Town ; found our house in a most ruinous situation. General Dickinson had stationed a captain with his 
artillery company in it, and after that it was kept for a bullock's g:uard. Kate waited on the General and he ordered 
the troops removed the next day, but then the mischief was done ; every thing was carried off that mamma had col- 
lected for her accommodation, so that it is impossible for her to go down to have the grapes and other things secured ; 
the very hinges, locks and panes of glass are taken away." 


Galloping Hill road. Warning of their approach was given by the 
firing of an eighteen-pounder on Prospect Hill and the lighting of a tar- 
barrel on a signal pole. The militia, farmers and all who could bear 
arms, mustered and attacked the British. This little body, with the 
assistance of the regulars under Maxwell, made so gallant a fight that 
the enemy halted. Their commander, hearing that all of Washington's 
force was advancing from Short Hills, began a retreat at nightfall. 
During it all his force was pursued and harassed by the patriots, the 
loss of many men being inflicted. During the retreat Mrs. Caldwell, 
the wife of the fighting pastor, was killed in her house at Connecticut 
Farms. A cowardly British ruffian came to the window of the room 
where she was sitting with her children and shot her. 

Again, on the 23d of the same month, another invasion was made 
by a force of five thousand under General Clinton. Again was the 
warning given by the same means at Springfield, and again did the 
thousand brave Continentals and militiamen put them to flight and 
pursue them to the shores of the Sound. To the Elizabethans General 
Washington wrote : "The militia deserve everything that can be said ; 
on both occasions they flew to arms universally, and acted with a spirit 
equal to anything I have seen in the course of the war." With the 
surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, in October, the conflict was prac- 
tically ended, and the fighting men returned to their homes. 


The Rev. Mr. Caldwell, by the advice of his friends, rented the 
vacant parsonage at Connecticut Farms, and within the fall of 1779, 
moved there from Elizabeth Town. On the day of the battle at this 
place Mr. Caldwell had vainly endeavored, when the alarm was given 
in the morning, to induce his wife to seek, with him and the elder 
children, a place of greater security. She concluded to trust to Prov- 
idence and remain at home. She believed her presence would save the 
house from pillage, and that her person could not possibly be endan- 
gered. Thatcher says, in the Military Journal : "On the arrival of 
the royal troops Mrs. Caldwell entertained the officers with refresh- 
ments, and after they had retired she and a young woman, having Mrs. 
Caldwell's infant child in her arms, seated themselves on the bed. 
Upon seeing a British soldier looking at her, Mrs. Caldwell exclaimed : 
' Don't attempt to scare me,' when he fired, shooting her through the 
breast. Soon after, a British officer came, and throwing his coat over 
the corpse carried it to the next house." 


Prominent in all the battles was the Rev. James Caldwell, of the 
First Presbyterian church, the fighting chaplain of the New Jersey 
Brigade. He preached resistance to tyranny in his pulpit on Sunday, 


and during the week practiced what he preached. On one occasion, at 
the battle of Springfield, when the wadding had given out, he rushed 
into the church, came out with an armful of hymn books, and cried 
out to the fighters, "Now put Watts into them, boys." 

The closing tragedy of the war was the murder, November 24th, 
1781, of Parson Caldwell by one of the American soldiers. He was 
shot at Elizabeth Point, where he had gone for a young lady who had 
come to that place from New York under the protection of a flag of 
truce. The ball pierced his heart, but he did not die immediately, and 
was tenderly carried to the stoop of the famous Dayton house, nearly 
opposite the Boudinot house, and there expired. There his funeral 
was held, and there, when the time came for his people to take their 
last look of his loved features, his nine homeless and doubly orphaned 
children were led to his casket by a brother minister and were then 
taken to the homes of kind people, who brought them up in the fear of 
God, the love of their country and the hatred of its enemies. The 
remains of himself and wife lie together in the cemetery of the First 
Presbyterian church at Elizabeth Town. He died in the forty-ninth 
year of his age, leaving a name dear to the state and nation. 

' He was shot by a man called Morgan, who was tried and found 
guilty of murder. It is said that he was bribed by British gold to 
commit the crime. He was hanged, giving signs of the most obdurate 
villainy. The day of his execution was intensely cold, and his last 
words were, addressed with an oath to the executioner, " Do your duty 
and don't keep me here suffering in the cold." The place of his 
execution is about half a mile north of the town of Westfield, and is 
called Morgan's Hill to this day. 



HE publishers of this book are greatly indebted to the 
courtesy of the Journal Printing House and the Illustrated 
Elizabeth for the following sketch of Elizabeth Town's 
glorious record in the Revolutionary war. Speaking of 
these historical times, and of Washington's inauguration, the Journal 
says : 

"In General Washington's triumphant journey to his inauguration 
at New York, on April 30th, 1789, Elizabeth played an important 
part. On April 22d he was met at New Brunswick by Governor 
lyivingston, of Elizabeth, and rode to Woodbridge, where he spent 
the night. On the following morning he was met there by a number 
of military companies, among them Captain Condit's, of Newark, 
Captain Wade's, of Connecticut Farms, and Captain Meeker's, of 
Elizabeth, and escorted to Elizabeth by way of Bridgeton, or Lower 
Rahway. General Matthias Ogden, of Elizabeth, of Revolutionary 
fame, commanded the procession, which escorted him to Samuel 
Smith's tavern, on or about the site of Mrs. Buckmaster's house, on 
the southwest corner of Broad street and the present Rahway avenue. 
Here he held a brief reception. Then he went to luncheon at Boxwood 
Hall, on East Jersey street, the residence of the Hon. Elias Boudinot, 
now remodeled and occupied as the Home for Aged Women. There 
Washington met the committee of congress and an illustrious company 
representing nearly all the quarters, if not the states, of the Union. 
Among those present were John Eangdon, president of the senate, from 
New Hampshire ; Richard Henry Lee, Theodoric Bland and Arthur 
Lee, from Virginia ; General Knox, the secretary of war, from Maine ; 
Tristam Dalton, from Massachusetts ; William Samuel Johnson, from 
Connecticut ; Charles Carroll, from Maryland ; Ralph Izard and 
Thomas Tudor Tucker, from South Carolina ; Governor Livingston, 
from New Jersey ; Egbert Benson, John Lawrence, Walter Livingston, 
Chancellor Livingston, Samuel Osgood, John Jay and others from New 

"Elias Boudinot, the statesman and philanthropist, was then in 
his fiftieth year, in the very prime of his active and useful life, a lawyer 
of wealth and eminent Christian character ; had been classically educa- 
ted and highly cultivated by reading and study, was affable and yet 


remarkably dignified in his manners, and a hospitable, genial and 
delightful companion. He had been sent as a delegate to the Conti- 
nental congress in 1777, and in 1782 was chosen president of that body, 
and in that capacity signed the treaty of peace with England. After 
the adoption of the constitution he was naturally the first choice of 
New Jersey to the new congress." 


The home of Boudinot in Elizabeth was a great, square, com- 
fortable structure, with an old-fashioned gable roof, tall chimneys, 
suggestive of forefatherly fire-places, and a massive door with a brass 
knocker in the centre of a somewhat imposing front. It stood among 
lawns and gardens and lofty trees, very much embowered and hidden 
in summer time with aspiring vines, attractive shrubbery and gay- 
colored flowers. There was no Jersey street then, but the house was 
reached by a private carriage-way from the old road to Elizabethport. 
Its entrance hall and staircase are of the style so much in fashion 
before the Revolution, the former being broad enough for a cotillion 
party. Two stately apartments on either side of this central hall 
reveal even at this late day many traces of former elegance and taste. 
The mantels with their quaint carving and the curious cornices are 
worthy of note. Two stories have been added to the building, which 
has been converted into a home for aged women, but the charm of its 
historic associations still remains. 

After an hour or two spent here Washington was escorted by a 
great procession, amid enthusiastic popular demonstration, to Elizabeth- 
port, where at noon he embarked on an elegantly decorated barge, and 
was rowed to New York by thirteen sailors dressed in white, of whom 
Thomas Randall was coxswain. A numerous, gaily decked fleet 
accompanied him, and at Trenton thirteen young ladies of the leading 
families, symbolically garbed as the thirteen original states, gave him 
greeting and farewell. 


This was owned and occupied by Governor Livingston. It was 
built in 1773 by Livingston himself The house was named Liberty 
Hall, and it is interesting to note that it was the first refuge of 
Alexander Hamilton when he arrived in America from the West 
Indies, a pale, delicate, blue-eyed boy of fifteen. He brought letters 
to Livingston from Dr. Hugh Knox, and through the advice of the 
former entered the school of Francis Barber, in Elizabeth Town. 
Liberty Hall was always open to him, and it was in listening to the 
table-talk of its many and delightful guests, among whom were the 
Ogdens, Stocktons, Boudinots and the learned Dr. Witherspoon, that 
Hamilton obtained his first lessons in statesmanship. Mrs. Livingston 


and her daughters took a deep interest in the country's affairs, and the 
young ladies became full-fledged politicians long ere they had attained 
complete physical stature. The knotty problems of the hour prior to 
the outbreak of hostilities, and the methods of solving and settling 
them, were discussed daily in the household. Even in the most 
familiar correspondence with his children at school, the subject upper- 
most in Livingston's thoughts occupied the chief space. 

Liberty Hall has had an upper story and extension in the rear 
added within recent years, modern glass has taken the place of small 
panes in many of the windows, and the deep fireplaces are framed in 
marble mantels that had not come into use when the house was new. 
But the narrow doors and wide staircases — bearing still the cuts of the 
angry Hessian soldiery when thwarted in their purposes — and the 
innumerable little cupboards and artful contrivances for hiding things 
in the paneling of the walls, are tenderly preserved. It stands on 
elevated ground some rods from the street (what was the old Springfield 
turnpike), about a mile from the railroad station, and the front yard 
retains the lofty shade-trees of a century ago. 

One large tree in the yard was planted in 1772 by Susan, the 
eldest daughter of Governor William Livingston, the same who with 
such heroism and tact saved her father's correspondence with Washing- 
ton and congress from falling into the hands of the British. 

It was this lady, Susan Livingston, who became the wife of 
Hon. John Cleve Symmes, whose daughter became the wife of 
President William Henry Harrison, and thus the grandmother of 
President Benjamin Harrison. The 'enemy made several attempts to 
burn Liberty Hall during the Revolution. 

When the British made their memorable incursion into New 
Jersey in June, 1780, and burned Springfield and Connecticut Farms, 
the flames of which were in full view, and soldiers continually passing 
Liberty Hall throughout that dreadful day, the ladies were alone with 
the women-servants, the governor being at Morristown, and the men- 
servants all hiding in the woods. In the morning three ©r four British 
officers called and had a short interview with Mrs. Livingston and her 
daughters ; but they left so full of admiration at the coolness and 
intrepidity of the ladies as to swear they should not be harmed. The 
house was accordingly spared. Late in the evening some British 
officers sent word that they should lodge at Liberty Hall. This was 
regarded as additional assurance of safety to the family. About 
midnight there was a sudden uproar, and the officers were called away 
hastily by startling news. There was firing along the road. Presently 
a band of drunken refugees came staggering through the grounds, and 
with horrid oaths burst the door open into the hall. The women- 
servants huddled into the kitchen, and the ladies locked themselves 
into one of the chambers. Their retreat was soon discovered, and 


there was a great pounding upon the door ; as it was about to be burst 
in, Kitty Livingston stepped forward and resolutely opened it. A 
drunken ruffian seized her by the arm, and she, with the quickness of 
thought, grasped his coat-collar. Just then a flash of lightning 
revealed to the assailant the lady's white robes and equally white, 
scared face, and the wretch fell back, exclaiming, "Good God ! It is 
Mrs. Caldwell, whom we killed today!" The same merciful light 
showed Sarah Livingston the face of one of their former neighbors 
among the ruffians, and she quickly secured his intervention, and the 
house was cleared. 

It was in this historic home that Mrs. Washington was enter- 
tained, in May, 1789, when on her way to New York, after the 
inauguration of her husband as first president of the United States. 
The mansion was decorated with flowers, and Governor Livingston's 
children — a gifted gathering of men and women — were present to help 
do the honors. The guest-chamber occupied by Mrs. Washington was 
over the library. The one set apart for the use of Mrs. Robert Morris 
was over the hall, in the centre of the front of the mansion. The next 
morning Washington, accompanied by John Jay, Robert Morris and 
other distinguished gentlemen, arrived at Liberty Hall in time for 
breakfast. No queen was ever escorted into a capital with more 
conspicuous ceremony than Mrs. Washington into New York. 

After the death of Governor Livingston, in 1790, the beautiful 
country seat passed into the hands of strangers. It had a romantic 
episode, being purchased by Lord Bolingbroke, who ran away from 
England with the school-girl daughter of Baron Hompasch, leaving an 
estimable wife to break her heart. Later on, the property was purchased 
by the daughter of the governor's brother, Peter Van Brugh Livingston, 
who was the widow of Hon. John' McKean. She subsequently 
married Count Niemcewicz, a Polish nobleman and poet, and the 
mansion once more became the centre of attraction for statesmen, 
scholars and celebrities. It has ever since been in the possession of 
the Kean family. 

The original owner of this celebrated family domicile in Elizabeth, 
and by whom, doubtless, it was erected, was Dr. William Barnet, an 
eminent physician of the old borough, who occupied it for a period 
antecedent to the Revolution, as well as during and for several years 
subsequent to the war. It is certainly one of the oldest private houses 
in the city of Elizabeth, as well as one of the best preserved. During 
the perilous septennial period of the Revolution Dr. Barnet' s house, 
probably, had more than one narrow escape from destruction by the 
enemy, one of which is recorded in the Rev. Dr. Hatfield's admirable 
"History of Elizabeth," page 484, in an alccount there given of its 


being "plundered in a most barbarous manner" by a British raiding 
party, together with Mr. Herriman's house, next door north, and 
several other residences. That was in February, 1781. Dr. Barnet 
died in 1790, aged sixty-seven, and in September, 1794, his house, lot 
and appurtenances were sold to Dr. Jonathan Hampton, Esq., by Dr. 
Oliver Barnet, of Tewksbury, Hunterdon county, New Jersey, executor 
of his last will and testament. In 1805 this property was sold and 
conveyed to Colonel John Mayo, by Elizabeth Oilman, "guardian of 
Jonathan Hampton," presumably a son of the purchaser from Dr. 
Oliver Barnet. This deed was recorded September 15, 1807, "by order 
of the orphan's court," ancj the lot is stated as containing three acres, 
which was the same as when sold to Hampton. Of that transfer the 
witnesses were Jonathan Dayton, Matthias Williamson, George C. 
Barber, and Aaron Ogden, clerk. Sworn before Jeremiah Ballard. 

At the death of Colonel Mayo this pioperty was left to his widow, 
Mrs. Abigail DeHart Mayo, and their three children, — Edward C. 
Mayo, Mrs. Juliana Cabell and Mrs. Maria M. Scott. Mrs. Abigail 
Mayo died about the year 1843, when her portion descended to her 
daughter, Mrs. General Scott, who having survived her brother and 
sister, became eventually sole possessor ; and at her decease her three 
children became equal sharers of the Elizabeth estate. They were 

Camelia, wife of Henry D. ; Camilla, who married Gould 

Hoyt; and Marcella who married Charles C. McTavish. The years of 
Colonel Mayo's occupancy of this house, and of his distinguished 
son-in-law, Major-General Winfield Scott, constituted, in some respects, 
the most important and interesting epoch in its history. Colonel 
Mayo, representing a rich and aristocratic family of Richmond, Virginia, 
had married, some years previously, a daughter of the Hon. John De 
Hart, a prominent and patriotic citizen of Elizabeth Town, and was 
accustomed, with his family, to spend the summers in the place. 
During such seasons he is said to have driven a four-horse family 
coach, and to have brought with him several black servants. General 
Scott and his beautiful wife, when dwelling in the Hampton-place 
house, are still held in pleasant memory by old inhabitants. 

After General Scott left this house Mr. Archibald Gracie, as on 
of the old New York merchant of that name, moved into it and lived 
there many years, until he purchased the property on Elizabeth avenue, 
known as the old Salter place, where he also lived many years, and 
which property still belongs to his heirs. During Mr. Grade's 
occupancy of it the house on Hampton place was an abode of elegant 
hospitality, and very many prominent men of that day were entertained 
within its walls. 

In the former residential periods of Colonel Mayo and General 
Scott, the visitor's roll would undoubtedly contain names representing 
celebrities from all parts of our country, as well as from other lands. 


The full story of this historic house, second to few in age and 
claims on modern notice, who shall adequately tell ? Its ancient face 
commands respect, and summons us to think of former generations, 
lyike its noted compeers in Elizabeth, "Ursino," the famed "Liberty 
Hall" of the Revolution, General Dayton's and the Governor Belcher 
and the Ogden mansions, near by, its associations are highly worthy of 

We cannot close this record without expressing our gratification 
that the "General Scott House," once the charming abode of a gallant 
soldier who fought for his country in many fields and for many years, 
is in the hands of a gentleman, as owner and occupant, who takes a 
warm interest in its past history and future preservation. 


Abraham Clark, known as one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, was born at the home of his ancestors, on the upper or 
western road, about midwa}' between Elizabeth Town and the village 
of Rahway, where his father, Thomas Clark, his grandfather, Thomas, 
and probably his great-grandfather, Richard, had lived before him. 
The last named became a resident of the town in 1678. The Clark 
mansion was about half a mile north by west of the Wheat-sheaf tavern. 

Thomas Clark had at least three sons and one daughter, — Thomas, 
born 1701 ; Abraham, born 1703 ; James, of Connecticut Farms ; and 
Mrs. Day. Abraham, the only son of Thomas was born at the home- 
stead on February 15, 1726. He received a good business education 
for the times, and entered into business as a surveyor and conveyancer. 
He made himself familiar with the common points of law, and was 
ever ready to aid his neighbor with legal advice gratuitously, and so 
obtained the sobriquet of "The Poor Man's Counselor." In 1764 he 
was appointed by the legislature one of the commissions to survey and 
divide the common lands of the old township of Bergen. He held the' 
ofi&ce of high sheriff of Essex county in 1767, and of clerk to the 
colonial assembly ; he was a member of the committee on safety, in 
December, 1774, and subsequently their secretary; he was chosen to- 
the provincial congress in September, 1775, and was elected by them, 
June 32, 1776, one of the delegates from New Jersey to the Continental 
congress in September, 1775, in which capacity he had the honor of 
afiixing his name to the Declaration of Independence. 

He was rechosen to congress in 1776 and in 1777, serving until 
April 3, 1778 ; again in 1780, 1781, 1782, 1786, 1787, and 1788. He was 
appointed to the first constitutional convention, at Annapolis, in 1786, 
and again in 1787, but did not attend the latter on accoimt of ill health. 
He was chosen by the people under the new constitution to the second 
and third congresses, and died before the completion of his last term. 
During his long public career he proved himself the incorruptible 


patriot, an active and judicious legislator, a prudent counselor and a true 
friend of the people. His death occurred September 15, 1794, from 

No history of Union county would be complete without a short 
sketch of four of the greatest men of their period. General Elias Dayton, 
Colonel Jonathan Dayton, Governor Aaron Ogden and Colonel Francis 
Barber. They were closely associated with General Washington, the 
Revolutionary war, and with the United States and state government. 

was born in Elizabeth Town in 1737. His father, Jonathan 
Dayton, was one of the incorporators of the borough. General Dayton 
served with the British troops as captain in the French war on the 
frontiers. He took an active part in the measures which led to the 
forming and signing of the Declaration of Independence. In the 
beginning of the American struggle for freedom he was placed by 
congress at the head of the Third New Jersey Regiment. Before the 
end of the war he was made major-general. He was a gallant soldier, 
respected and loved by the men he led during those years of conflict. 
He was the first president of the Society of the Cincinnati ; was chosen 
for congress in 1779 ; was a delegate 1787-8. In both the temporal 
and spiritual affairs of his native town he held positions of trust. In 
character he was open and generous, ever upholding the right and just. 
In person he was said to closely resemble General Washington. He 
died October 23, 1807. 


the son of General Elias Dayton, was born in Elizabeth Town, 
October 16, 1760. He was educated at Princeton College, graduating 
there in 1776. At the age of eighteen he entered the army, and was with 
General Sullivan in his western expedition. He became a captain 
in his father's regiment. He was one of the six chosen to represent 
New Jersey at the convention that framed the federal constitution. 

He was a member of the legislature, re-elected three times, and 
was speaker from 1795 to 1799, when he was chosen United States 
senator, and served from 1799 to 1805. He was appointed brigadier- 
general by President Adams ; at first he declined, but on being informed 
that this would not deprive him of his seat in the senate, he accepted. 
With Symmes and others he became interested in the settlement of 
western military lands. The town of Dayton, Ohio, was named for 
him. He was an honor to his native town, which contributed largely 
in shaping the politics of state and nation. He died October 9, 1824. 


son of the Hon. Robert Ogden, was born at Elizabeth Town, December 
3, 1756. He was educated at Princeton College, graduated 1773 ; 


joined the army with the rank of colonel, serving with great bravery 
until the close of the war. 

He then commenced the practice of law and took a high 
position at the bar. In November, 1796, he was appointed one of the 
presidential electors of New Jersey, and in February, 1801, was 
appointed to the United States senate. In October, 1812, he was 
chosen by the legislature, governor of New Jersey. In 1829 he was 
made general president of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

In February, 1813, he was appointed by President Madison one of 
the six major-generals provided by act of congress, February 24th. 

He was considered one of the most honored citizens of his native 
town, and died April 19, 1839. 


was born at Princeton, New Jersey, 1780, and was the son of 
Patrick Barber. When a young man, he taught in the celebrated old 
academy that stood where the chapel of the First Presbyterian church, 
Elizabeth, now stands. 

At the commencement of the Revolutionary war he resigned his 
position, Matthias Williamson (son of General Williamson), then only 
a lad of sixteen, succeeding him. Alexander Hamilton was a pupil 
there at that time. One of the first acts of the war in New Jersey, 
was the capture of the British frigate the "Blue Mountain Valley." 
Francis Barber, then lieutenant, with Captain Oliver Spencer, Captain 
William Brittin and other brave men, under Colonel Elias Dayton, 
on the night of January 22, 1776, assisted Eord Stirling, with his men, 
in capturing this frigate that lay in the waters between Elizabeth 
Town Point and the New York shore. 

He was appointed by congress major of the Third Battalion of 
New Jersey, but long before the war ended he was advanced to the 
rank of colonel. All records of those years, when brave men fought 
for liberty, show that Francis Barber was a brave soldier. 

When yet a young man he met with a most tragic death. On 
the day that General Washington announced to the army the signing of 
the treaty of peace, he invited several ofBcers to dine with him. Colonel 
Barber being one of them. It was at New Windsor, New Yo^fk. A 
brother ofl&cer asked him before going to this dinner to do an official 
errand for him. He went on horseback, and while passing a piece of 
woods where some men were cutting trees was killed by one as it fell. 
The news of his death was brought to Washington as he sat at dinner. 
He said, " Men of higher rank and more wealth may die, but there is 
but one Francis Barber." 



HIS county was not represented by any organized body of 
troops in the first militia sent out for three months' service 
in the war of the Rebellion. The second call for troops was 
for three hundred thousand men, and was issued by the presi- 
dent of the United States May 3, 1861. On the 17th of May the 
governor of New Jersey received a requisition from the war department 
for three regiments of infantry (volunteers), to serve three years or 
during the war, and a general order detailing the plan of organization. 
Union county had three companies in the First, Second and Third 
Regiments of the First Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers, viz : Com- 
panies A of the First and Second respectively, and Company K of 
the Third Regiment, officered as follows : Company A, First Regi- 
ment — captain, David Hatfield ; first lieutenant, Thomas T. Tillou ; 
second lieutenant, I/Uther Martin. Company A, Second Regiment — 
captain, James Wilson ; first lieutenant, Bradbury C. Chetwood ; 
second lieutenant, William J. Cree. Company K, Third Regiment — 
captain, John H. Whelan ; first lieiitenant, John B. lyutz ; second 
lieutenant, David Fairly. 

The field and staff" ofScers of the First Regiment were : Colonel, 
William K. Montgomery ; lieutenant-colonel, Robert McAllister ; 
major, David Hatfield ; adjutant, William Henry, Jr. ; quartermaster, 
Samuel Read ; surgeon, Charles C. Gordon ; chaplain, Robert B. Yard. 
Of the Second Regiment the colonel was George W. McLean; lieutenant- 
colonel, Isaac M. Tucker ; major, Samuel L,. Buck ; adjutant, Joseph 
W. Plume ; quartermaster, William E. Sturges ; surgeon, Gabriel 
Grant ; assistant surgeon, L,ewis W. Oakley ; chaplain, Robert R. 
Proudfit. Third Regiment, colonel, George W. Taylor ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Henry W. Brown ; major, Mark W. Callett ; adjutant, Robert 
T. Dunham ; quartermaster, Francis Sayre ; surgeon, Lorenzo Cox; 
assistant surgeon, Edward L. Welling ; chaplain, George R. Darrow. 
Company A of the First Regiment (from Elizabeth) was the first 
company mustered into the United States service under the first call 
for volunteers to serve three years or during the war. It was mustered 
in May 21, 1861, at Camp Olden, near Trenton, where the various 
other companies encamped till the completion of the organization. 
The material of these regiments was excellent, being identified with 
some of the best militia organizations of the state. 


The First, Second, and Third Regiments left the state June 28, 

1861, and, immediately on their arrival in Virginia, entered upon the 
active duties of the soldier. They formed part of General Runyon's 
division of reserves in the battle of Bull Run, and aided materially in 
covering the retreat of our forces on that fatal day. Immediately 
afterward the First and Second Regiments went into camp near 
Alexandria, and were soon joined by the other regiments of the brigade. 

On the 25th of July, Major Philip Kearney was appointed to the 
command of the New Jersey troops. He had greatly distinguished 
himself in the Mexican war and was appointed brigadier-general of 
the New Jersey volunteers. He was assigned to his command early in 
August ; his troops were attached to Franklin's division, and the 
brigade headquarters ■ were established at Fairfax Seminary, three 
miles from Alexandria, Virginia. 

The experience of the brigade during the fall and winter months 
was marked by but few important incidents, the time being mainly 
occupied in drill and the ordinary camp duties. On the 7th of March, 

1862, this brigade was ordered to Burke's Station, on the Orange and 
Alexandria Railroad, for the purpose of guarding a party of laborers. 
On the morning of the loth, a detachment from the First Regiment, 
under Major Hatfield and Captain Vansicle, was sent forward from 
Fairfax Court House (where the regiment was stationed), to Centre- 
ville, at the first Bull Run, having the honor of being the first to 
occupy the place in the second advance. On the same day the 
remainder of the brigade pushed cautiously forward, reached and, at 
ten o'clock in the morning, entered the abandoned works at Manassas 
Junction, — eight companies of the Third being the first to take 
possession and hoist the regimental flag. The withdrawal of the 
enemy at this point had evidently been precipitated, and an immense 
amount of hospital and commissary stores was found, together with 
eighty baggage wagons, several locomotives, four or five cars, two 
hundred tents and other property of value. Among the trophies were 
seven flags, — one of white silk with the motto, "Carolinans in the Field: 
Traitors Beware," and another, bordered with heavy silver fringe, with 
the inscription " State Rights : Sic Semper Tyrannis.''^ 

The New Jersey Brigade took part in the battle of West Point, 
fought May 7, 1862, but, aside from much skirmishing and unimpor- 
tant engagements , little of interest took place in the history of the 
regiment till the battle of Gaines' Farm, which occurred on the 27th 
of June. Of this battle we give General Taylor's official report, which 
is as follows : 

" My command, by order, left our intrenched camp on the right 
bank of the Chickahominy, on Friday afternoon, the 27th of June, and 
crossed the said stream by the Woodbury bridge. 

"The battle begun the day previous had been renewed near 


Gaines' Farm, where we arrived about four o'clock, p. M. I immedi- 
ately formed my brigade in two lines,— the Third and Fourth Regiments 
in front, and the First and Second Regiments in the second line. 

" My line was scarcely formed when the Third Regiment, under 
the command of L,i en tenant- Colonel Brown, was ordered to advance 
forward into the woods, where a fierce combat was raging. Colonel 
Brown immediately formed his regiment in line of battle, led it into 
the woods, and began a rapid fire upon the enemy. As this was the 
first of my regiments engaged, I will complete my report of it by saying 
that they continued to fight in the woods until the close of the action. 
They were all this time under a galling fire, often a cross fire, but 
maintained their grounft until near sunset, when the whole line fell 
back. They had at this time expended (a large majority of the men) 
their last cartridge, sixty rounds to the man. It is but justice to say 
that this regiment bore itself most heroically throughout the entire 
action. Their conduct was all that could be desired. With their 
comrades falling around, they stood up like a wall of iron, losing over 
one-third of their number, and gave not an inch of ground until their 
ammunition was expended, and the retrogade movement became 
general ; they were under this fire one hour and a half. 

" The First Regiment entered the woods about half an hour after 
the Third and remained until the close of the action. Colonel Torbert 
being unwell, the regiment was led by Lieutenant-Colonel McAllister 
and well sustained by his presence and courage. I shall, however, say 
that Colonel Torbert, though suffering from low fever, followed us to 
the field and was present. 

" I take great pleasure in saying, for both these regiments fought 
under my own eye, that the First Regiment showed the same indomit- 
able courage as the Third Regiment, exposing themselves to the leaden 
hail of an often unseen foe, advancing with the Third Regiment, and 
stood steadily under a most galling fire until the close of action. Their 
loss was enlisted men killed, twenty ; wounded, eighty ; missing, fifty- 
seven. The loss of commissioned officers was one killed, four wounded 
and one missing, making a total of one hundred and sixty-three. 

" I have now to speak of the Second and Fourth Regiments, the 
first of which, under Colonel Tucker, numbered only four companies, 
the other six being on duty in the field-work at Camp Lincoln, and left 
behind under Lieutenant-Colonel Buck. While absent to the front, 
these four companies, by order of General Porter, without my knowl- 
edge, were sent to the woods, suffering a most galling fire. Their loss 
was : enlisted men killed, twelve ; wounded, forty-five ; missing, forty, 
making a total of ninety-seven enlisted men. I also regret to record 
the death of Colonel I. M. Tucker, and probably Major Ryerson, both 
of whom were left upon the field ; also Captain Danforth, mortally 
wounded, and Lieutenants Blewit, Root and Bogert, severely wounded, 


and lyieutenant Callan, missing. Thej^, however, sustained themselves 
most gallantly, and proved their courage against superior numbers. 
The fate of the Fourth Regiment, one of the most ef&cient regiments 
as regards officers and men, was most painful. 

"At the moment when victory seemed wavering in the balance, 
an aide of General McClellan took them from my command, and 
ordered them into the woods. All the account I can give of them is 
that but one ofl&cer (wounded) and eighty-two men have joined my 
command ; all the rest, if living, are believed to be prisoners of war. 

"I learn from those who have come in that up to the time the 
regiment was surrounded they had received from and returned the 
enemy a most galling fire. I annex a report of the casualties of the 
day, showing the total loss of my brigade. 

"In conclusion, I would say that, so far as I am at present 
informed, my officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, nobly 
performed their duties, and it might therefore be invidious to par- 
ticularize. Still, in justice to the gallant dead who have devoted 
their lives to their country, I must record the names of Captain 
Brewster, of the First Regiment, and Captain Buckley, of the Third ; 
also Second-Ivieutenant Howell, of the Third,— all officers of dis- 
tinguished merit. These officers fought under my eye. As regards 
the conduct of the Second and Fourth Regiment officers, I am told 
that it was all that could be desired, but these regiments having been 
taken from me, I did not see them during the action. 

"It is due to my staff-ofiicers to say that they carried out my 
orders intelligently and promptly, and did not hesitate, and were often 
exposed to the hottest fire of the day." 

These companies with their regiments and brigades participated in 
over forty engagements, beginning with that of Bull Run, Virginia, 
July 21, 1861, and including others fought by the Army of the 
Potomac, the last of the series being that of Lee's surrender, Appoma- 
tox, Virginia, April 9, 1865. In all these engagements the regiments 
and companies of the brigade made for themselves an honorable record. 
' The Ninth Regiment contained two companies, G and K, from 
Union county. They were officered as follows : Company G,— 
captain, John P. Ritter ; first lieutenant, William Zimmerman ; second 
lieutenant, William Benton. Company K,— captain, Elias J. Drake; 
first lieutenant, W. B. S. Boudinot ; second lieutenant, Jonathan 
Townley, Jr. Joseph W. Allen was colonel of the regiment ; C. A. 
Heckman, major ; Francis S. Weller, surgeon ; Louis Braun, assistant 
surgeon ; Abraham Zabriskie, adjutant ; Samuel Keyes, quartermaster ; 
Thomas Drumm, chaplain. 

The regiment was splendidly equipped with Springfield rifles, and 
on the 4th of December, 1861, proceeded to Washington, D. C. Janu- 
ary 4, 1862, it proceeded by rail to Annapolis, and was then assigned 


to the brigade of General Jesse L. Reno. The operations of this 
regiment were confined to the states of North Carolina, South Carolina 
and Virginia. The regiment participated in about thirty engagements 
during the war, and maintained its organization from time to time 
during 1863-4-5. Their gallant and succe.ssful operations in a swamp 
during the action at Roanoke Island were the cause of General Burn- 
side's promulgating an order, on the loth of February, that the Ninth 
Regiment should have the words "Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862" 
emblazoned on their banners, in compliment for their gallantry on that 
day. The gallantry of this regiment in different engagements is well 
known. The New York Tribune, speaking of the battles of New 
Berne, says : 

"In the capture of New Berne the Ninth New Jersey Regiment 
sustained the honor of their state with characteristic gallantry. Though 
their position in that brilliant engagement was one of great exposure, 
they bore themselves through the conflict like veterans, suffering more 
severely than any other regiment on the field. Out of a total loss of 
three hundred and sixty-four killed and wounded they lost sixty-two, 
or one-sixth of the whole, although twelve regiments were in the 
battle. Bravo for the Blues ! " 

On the 24th of December, 1862, the regiment was made the 
recipient of a beautiful stand of colors, costing seven hundred dollars, 
presented by the legislature of New Jersey, and accompanied by 
suitable resolutions presented by that bod}'. 

The Eleventh Regiment had two companies of men from Union 
county, viz : Companies B and D, with the following officers : Com- 
pany B, — captain, William H. Meeker; first lieutenant, lyott Bloomfield; 
second lieutenant, Alexander Beach, Jr. Company D, — captain, Luther 
Martin ; first lieutenant, Sydney M. Lyton ; second lieutenant, James 
H. Carr. Robert McAllister, who had been lieutenant-colonel of the 
First Regiment and who subsequently became brigadier major-general 
by brevet, was commissioned colonel of the Eleventh Regiment, on the 
30th of June, 1862, and on the 25th of August following, the regiment 
left for Washington. On November i6th it was attached to the 
brigade of General Carr, Sides' division. The initiation of the 
regiment into actual war was in that merciless slaughter at Fredericks- 
burg, where they sustained a loss of two men killed, four wounded and 
six missing. The reputation of the regiment for fighting qualities was 
maintained through all the campaigns to the surrender of L,ee and the 
close of the war. In all, the regiment participated in twenty-nine 


Companies C and E of this regiment were from the county of 
Union, the former being under the command of Captain Chauncey 
Harris, with Ebenezer Muddell as first lieutenant, and Joseph W. 


Walker as second lieutenant ; and the latter commanded by Captain 
James W. Bodwell, Isaac T. Tingley, first lieutenant, and James O. 
Bedell, second lieutenant. William S. Truax was colonel ; Caldwell 
K. Hall, lieutenant-colonel ; Peter Verdenburgli, Jr., major ; F. Lemuel 
Buckalew, adjutant ; Enoch L. Cowart, quartermaster ; Ambrose 
Treganowan, surgeon ; Joseph B. Martin and Herbert B. Chambers, 
assistant surgeons ; Frank B. Rose, chaplain. 

The regiment was mustered into the United States service at 
Freehold, New Jersey, August 26, 1862. It left the state on the 2d of 
September and was first sent to Baltimore, Maryland. Following this 
came picket duty and skirmishing around and about Frederick City, 
South Mountain, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, and other points in 
Virginia and Maryland. The regiment took part in the chase after 
Lee in his retreat from Gettysburg, and at Locust Grove made a gallant 
fight, receiving congratulations from their brigade commander for their 
bravery and "great steadiness throughout the battle." 

During the winter a deep religious interest was awakened in the 
regiment through the earnest labors of Chaplain Rose. Regimental 
churches were built of logs and covered with tents furnished by the 
sanitary commission. 

In May, 1865, Grant began his advance upon the Wilderness. The 
Fourteenth Regiment was now placed in the Sixth Army Corps, but 
still remained in the First Brigade, and on the 3d of May the forward 
movement was made against the eneni}-, now concentrated at the 
Wilderness. All day on the 5th a furious battle raged, in which the 
Fourteenth Regiment fought bravely and lost heavily. Upon emerging 
from the Wilderness the regiment again went into action, the enemy 
being driven back, with a loss of fifteen hundred men. 

General Norris was wounded in the action, and Colonel Truax 
was placed in temporary command of the brigade. Fighting, skir- 
mishing and manoeuvering continued until June ist, when the march 
to Cold Harbor was begun. In this battle the Fourteenth Regiment 
suffered heavily, losing in two hours two hundred and forty, in killed 
and wounded, —Lieutenant Stults, of Company H, and Lieutenant 
Tingley, of Company E, being among the former. The Fourteenth 
Regiment lost heavily again at Petersburg. The next fighting of this 
regiment was on a diSerent field. Hunter, with a large Union force, 
having abandoned the Shenandoah valley, Lee sent Early northward 
with all the force he could muster. The Union force at Martinsburg 
retreated to Harpers Ferry. Grant now deemed it necessary to send 
more forces into Maryland, and on the 6th of July he detached the 
Third Division of the Sixth Corps, and hurried it forward to Locust 
Point, near Baltimore, where it arrived, under General Rickets, on the 
morning of the 8th. From this point the division, numbering five 
thousand men, proceeded to Monocacy, the old familiar ground of the 


Fourteenth Regiment, wliich was now first to arrive on the spot. At 
the battle of the Monocacy the regiment suffered dreadfully. Captain 
Chauncey Harris, of Company C, was wounded through the left breast 
while in command of the regiment, and, after being placed in an 
ambulance, was shot through the right knee-joint by a rebel birllet. 
The command of the regiment then devolved upon Captain Janeway, 
of Company K, the only ofiScer left able to take charge of it. 

Of the nine hundred and fifty men who left New Jersey in the 
Fourteenth Regiment, but ninety-five remained for duty on July 9, 
1864, and these without an officer to command them. 

The Fourteenth Regiment next engaged the enemy at Opequon 
Creek, on July 19th, and here lost seven men killed, and sixty-two 
wounded. Among the killed was Major Verdenburgh, who was struck 
by a shell in the breast, while at the head of his regiment ordering a 
charge upon a rebel battery. He expired in a few moments. In this 
engagement Captain Bodwell, of Company E, was wounded. 

The great battle of the Shenandoah was that of Cedar Creek, now 
made famous by the inspiring genius of Sheridan, who, after defeat by 
the rebels, came upon the field in time to revive the courage of his men 
and insure a signal victory. This battle occurred on the i8th of 
October, the rebel loss being great. The campaign having rescued the 
Shenandoah valley and insured the safety of the national capital, the 
brigade, with its Fourteenth Regiment, was transferred to City Point, 
where, on the 25th of March, the regiment participated in the battle of 
Hatcher's Run, resulting in the downfall of Petersburg and the 
surrender of Lee two weeks later. 

The Fourteenth Regiment was mustered out of service at Wash- 
ington, D. C. , on the iSth of June, 1865. It left New Jersey with nine 
hundred and fifty men and, notwithstanding the many recruits which 
had strengthened it from time to time, it had, at the expiration of three 
years, only two hundred and thirty men to muster out of the service. 

The Thirtieth Regiment, which contained one company, viz.. 
Company B, from this county, was mustered into service for nine 
months, at Flemington, New Jersey, September 17, 1862, and placed 
under the command of Colonel Alexander E. Donaldson. The officers 
of Company B were : Captain, John N. L,ewis ; first lieutenant, James 
D. Vanderveer ; second lieutenant, Thomas Moore. Captain Lewis 
resigned December 26, 1862, and Lieutenant Vanderveer took his 
place, serving as captain till June 27, 1863, when the regiment was 
mustered out. 

The regiment left the state September 30, 1862. It was sent to 
Washington, and was assigned to the provisional brigade, Casey's 
division, defenses of Washington, and participated in but one battle, that 
of Chancellors ville, May 2 and 3, 1863. 



HE following history of Elizabeth Chapter, No. i, of the 
New Jersey Society, Sons of the American Revolution, is 
contributed by Miller C. Earl. The article is one which is 
peculiarly apropos at this point, since the association serves 

as one of the potent factors by which memories of noble deeds are kept 
alive and the fire of patriotism kept burning. 


On July 4, 1893, a patriotic celebration was held in the historic 
First Presbyterian church of Elizabeth, under the auspices of the resi- 
dent members of the Sons of the American Revolution. Much local 
interest being manifested at that time in the object and purposes of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, it was decided, at a meeting held 
September 13th, following, to organize a local chapter composed of 
members of the Sons of the American Revolution residing in Union 
county. On September 26, 1893, a constitution and by-laws were 
adopted, and officers elected, as follows : President, Walter Chandler ; 
vice-president, Joseph G. Ogden ; secretary, Charles H. K. Halsey ; 
treasurer, Bauman E. Belden ; managers, George T. Parrot, Edward 
M. Wood, Erastus G. Putnam. 

This organization, thus commenced, was the first of the local 
oiFshoots from state societies of the Sons of the American Revolution 
taking the name of ' ' chapters. ' ' 

The purpose of the organization is to arouse interest in its locality 
in matters relating to the Revolutionary war, and thereby increase the 
membership and usefulness of the state society, mark places in the city 
and county of Revolutionary interest and celebrate historic events. 

Among the principal events connected with the chapter thus far, 
may be mentioned the dinner of June 8, 1894, on the anniversary of the 
battle of Elizabeth Town. It was held after the annual meeting, 
was attended by many of the members of the chapter and distinguished 
guests, and was made interesting by patriotic addresses. Another 
important action of the chapter took place on the 4th of July, 
1896, when it assembled in the First Presbyterian church, Eliz- 
abeth, and, after appropriate preliminary exercises, proceeded to 
mark the graves of eighteen Revolutionary patriots, in the adjoining 



graveyard, with the official metallic markers of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. The graves marked included those of many 
notable patriots, including Rev. James Caldwell and his wife (both 
killed during the war, as is familiarly known). General Elias Dayton, 
and others. Members of Boudiuot Chapter, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, were in attendance and joined in the ceremonies. 

The chapter, starting with twenty-eight members, now numbers 
forty-six. Two have been lost by death, one of whom was the Hon. 
Robert S. Green, ex-governor of New Jersey and former president of 
the New Jersey Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

The membership list of Elizabeth Chapter, No. i, is as follows 
(June, 1897) : 

Atwater, Edward S. 
Eachman, Horace S. 
Barber, William P. 
Bassett, Fred. B. 
Belden, Bauman L. 
Brewster, Lewis O. 
*Brown, George C. 
Bull. Archibald H. 
Cannon, Henry B. 
Cannon, Henry R., M.D. 
Chandler, Walter 
Chester, William W. 
Corbin, William H. 
Crane, Augustus S. 
Crane, Moses M. 
Downer, David R. 

Earl, Miller C. 

Earl, Robert N. 

Gray, Joseph H. 
*Green, Robert S. 

Halsey, Charles H. K. 

Johnson, Harris L. 

Kiggins, C. Symmes 

Ludlow, Gideon E 

Luf berry, John H. 
tMiller, William H. 

Mulford, Aaron D. 

Mulford, Ernest D. 

Ogden, James C. 

Ogden, Joseph G. 

Opdyke, Charles W. 

Parrot, George T. 

Parrot, Samuel B. 

Peck, George, M.D., U.S.N. 
Pierson, David H. 
Putnam, Erastus G. 
Scott, Julian 
Stillman, William M. 
TainA)r, Charles C. 
Tenney, George C. 
Thomas, George C. 
Thomas, Robert McK. 
Thomas, William P. 
Timms, Walter B. 
Wetmore, John C. 
Whitehead, Harrie P. 
Williams, Nathaniel D. 
Wood, Edward M. 
Woodruff, Anthony J. 



The celebration of the centennial of American independence, in 
1876, roused the enthusiasm of many a patriotic heart, and caused him 
to ask the question, " Did my ancestors do anything for the cause of 
independence? " This led later to the formation of patriotic societies, 
such as the Sons of Revolutionary Sires, in California, the Sons 
of the Revolution, in New York, and the Sons of the American 
Revolution, in New Jersey. The main motive of these societies is 
love of country, and the leading object of their efforts is to perpetuate 
a spirit of true Americanism. 

Daughters of Revolutionary patriots were not admitted to these 
organizations, and a plan was adopted to organize an independent 
society to be named Daughters of the American Revolution. On 
the nth of October, 1890, about thirty women of Washington, filled 
with patriotic impulses, met at the Strathmore Arms and organized 
the society, Mrs. William D. Cabell being the presiding officer. A 

* Deceased, 
f Resigned. 


constitution was framed, thoroughly revised, and adopted by the 
national society, which met May 26, 1891. Mrs. Benjamin Harrison, 
wife of the president of the United States, was elected first president- 
general. The first continental congress met on Washington's birthday, 
February 32, 1892. For convenience the society is divided into 
chapters, whose officers are responsible to the national society. These 
chapters, at the continental congress, elect a state regent, who 
represents their interest in the board of management, — every state 
regent being, by the constitution, a member of that board. There are 
no state societies. 

The first chapter organized was in Chicago, March 20, 1891, five 
months after the formal organization of the national society. 

On April 17, 1891, a preliminary meeting was held at Morristown, 
New Jersey, of New Jersey Daughters, and officers of the society were 
appointed. On April 29th these officers met at the residence of Mrs. 
Alexander McGill, in Jersey City, to perfect its organization. The 
ladies present were Mrs. Alexander McGill and Mrs. Joseph Warren 
Revere, honorary regents ; Mrs. William W. Shippen, state regent ; 
Mrs. DeWitt C. Mather, registrar ; Mrs. Howard C. Richards, secretary ; 
Mrs. Richard F. Stevens, treasurer, — forming the New Jersey Chapter, 
and inviting members from all parts of the state. Their numbers 
increased so fast that local chapters were formed, and now number 
sixteen. The name of the New Jersey Chapter was changed to Nova 
Csesarea, of which Mrs. David A. Depue, of Newark, was appointed 

Mrs. E. G. Putnam was requested by Mrs. Shippen, state regent, 
to form a chapter in Elizabeth, and this she organized September 27, 
1893, ■«^ith fifteen members. Regent, Mrs. E. G. Putnam ; vice-regent, 
Mrs. B. H. Campbell ; secretary, Mrs. C. M. Pyne ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Otis A. Glazebrook ; registrar, Mrs. L. M. Bond ; historian, Mrs. H. 
P. Whitehead, — giving it the name of the Boudinot Chapter. Mrs. E. 
G. Putnam and Mrs. B. H. Campbell are lineal descendants of the 
Huguenot refugee, Elie Boudinot, who left France after the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes and came to New York, in 1687. Her great- 
grandsons, Elias and Elisha Boudinot, were the celebrated Revolutionary 
patriots of Elizabeth, New Jersey. General Elias Boudinot's residence 
was on East Jersey street, now occupied by the Home for Aged Women. 
Mrs. Putnam presented the chapter with a gavel having the following 
inscription engraved on a silver plate : " This gavel was carved from 
an original solid oak beam in the Boudinot mansion, Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, where General Elias Boudinot entertained General Washington 
at luncheon, April 23, 1789, on his way to his inauguration as first 
president of the United States ; and presented to the Boudinot Chapter, 
Elizabeth, New Jersey, Daughters of the American Revolution, organ- 
ized September 27, 1893, by Mary N. Putnam, regent." 


Among the members of this chapter are descendants of the Rev. 
James Caldwell, Governor William Livingston, Colonel Francis Barber, 
Colonel Oliver Spencer and Captain William Brittin, of Elizlabeth 
Town ; also Commodore Thomas Truxton, General Philip Schuyler, 
Colonel Samuel Washington, Colonel Adam Comstock, Major Rufus 
King, and Captain Henry Putnam. 

As it is the proud privilege of Elizabeth to have played a very 
prominent part in the great war drama of 1776, it becomes the duty of 
the Daughters of the American Revolution to transmit to succeeding 
generations the history of the high character, sterling virtues, simple 
manners and immortal principles of their ancestors. 



While the period of eligibility of the Revolutionary societies 
commences with the legislation of committees and congresses leading 
up to the Declaration of Independence, and finishes with the proclamation 
of peace, in 1783, that of the Society of Colonial Dames begins with 
the first settlement of the country, and ends with the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

The objects of the society are, "with a true spirit of patriotism to 
seek to inspire genuine love of country in every heart, to create popular 
interest in American history, to collect manuscripts, relics and memen- 
toes of bygone days for preservation, and to teach the young that it is 
a sacred obligation to do justice and honor to heroic ancestors, whose 
ability, valour, sufferings and achievements are beyond all praise." 

The eligibility consists in "being descended from some ancestor 
of worthy life who came to reside in an American colony prior to 1750, 
and who rendered some efficient service to his country during the 
Colonial period," such as provincial officers, members of assemblies, 
conventions and committess, and of the judiciary ; commissioned officers 
of the army and navy, and, in New Jersey, founders of Princeton and 
Rutgers Colleges. 

The national society is divided into state societies, composed of the 
thirteen original states, and the District of Columbia. Each colonial 
state has its own by-laws, eligibility list and board of management, 
uniting under a national board, which meets in council, once in two 
years, in the city of Washington. Their deliberations are private and 
communications to the public press are given only by permission of the 
board of management. In the non-colonial states there are associate 
societies, and the members must be admitted through the colonial state 
in which their ancestors resided. 

On April 10, 1892, the New Jersey Society of the Colonial 
Dames of America was incorporated at Trenton, New Jersey. 

The names of the incorporators are as follows : Mrs. S. Meredith 


Dickinson, Mrs. S. Duncan Oliphant, Mrs. Elmer E. Green, Miss 
Mary Dickinson, Miss Elizabeth A. Smith, Miss Caroline E. Nixon, 
Miss Annie B. McIUvaine, Miss Justina h. Atterbury, Mrs. Frederick 
C. Lewis, Mrs. W. W. L. Phillips, Mrs. Cleaveland Hilson, Mrs. 
Hugh H. Hamill, Mrs. Henry M. Barbour, Mrs. Hughes Oliphant, 
Miss Helen Griswold Green. The official corps chosen comprised : 
Mrs. S. Meredith Dickinson, president ; Miss Caroline E. Nixon, 
secretary; Miss Mary Dickinson, treasurer; and Mrs. Frederick C. 
Lewis, registrar. 

' ' The places in the state where the business of such corporation is 
to be conducted are the city of Trenton- and such other cities as the 
business of the corporation may from time to time require." 

In the larger cities of the' state prominent members are selected and 
called "founders," to invite those who are eligible and acceptable to 
join the society. Two general meetings are held during the year. 
The spring, or annual, meeting is always at Trenton, when officers of 
the state board are elected. The autumn meeting may be held else- 
where, and is called the "commemoration" meeting. To this the 
officers in the thirteen colonial states are invited. It is an intellectual 
and social treat. Such a combination of women of position, beauty, 
refinement, talents and cultivation forms a high social order, which 
cannot be surpassed. 


The first Masonic lodge in the state of New Jersey was constituted 
at Newark, in the county of Essex, on the 13th day of May, in the 
year 1761, by the name of St. John's Lodge, No. i. The warrant for 
this lodge was granted by R. W. George Harrison, Provincial Grand 
Master of the state New York. 

The first celebration of the festival of St. John, the Evangelist, 
was held on Monday, December 27, 1761. A few Master Masons from 
Elizabeth Town were included in the list of visiting brethren. This 
constitutes the earliest record of the presence of members of the 
fraternity residing within the limits of the present county of Union. 

A warrant was granted on the 24th of June, 1762, by R. W. Jeremy 
Gridley, " Provincial Grand Master of North America," to Jonathan 
Hampton, Esq. , to constitute a lodge by the name of Temple Lodge, 
No. I, at Elizabeth Town. This lodge was duly organized, but the 
records of its proceedings have never been obtained. 

Jonathan Hampton was one of the foremost citizens of the town. 
He took an active interest in all the efforts made to obtain a redress of 
grievances from the government of Great Britain, but when the time 
arrived to dissolve allegiance from that government, he could not 
surrender his attachment to the mother country. He removed to the 
city of New York, at that time in the possession of the British army. 


During the war of the Revolution many of those who volunteered 
their services from Elizabeth Town became members of the fraternity. 
Of this number Captain Aaron Ogden was appointed Junior Warden 
of the Army Lodge, No. 31, warranted by the Grand Lodge of 

At the convention of Free and Accepted Masons of the state of 
New Jersey, held at New Brunswick, December 18, 1786, "for the 
purpose of establishing a grand lodge in the said state," Daniel Marsh, 
John DuVan and James DuVan, all residents of Elizabeth Town, were 
present. Daniel Marsh was at that time a member of the general 
assembly, and was unanimously elected Junior Grand Warden of the 
Grand Lodge. 

At the first meeting of the Grand Lodge, after the organization, 
held at New Brunswick, January 30, 1787, a warrant of dispensation 
was issued by the M. W. Grand Master, David Brearley, Esq. , to the 
" Honorable Brother Elias Dayton," for the purpose of establishing a 
Masonic lodge at Elizabeth Town. 

At the next meeting of the Grand Lodge, held April 2, 1787, the 
dispensation was returned and a new dispensation was issued by 
the Grand Master to "Brother John DuVan, for Master of the lodge 
at Elizabeth Town." The effort at that time to organize a lodge 
proved unsuccessful. 

At the celebration of the festival of St. John the Baptist, held by 
the Grand Lodge in the city of New Brunswick, on June 24, 1788, 
Daniel Marsh and John DuVan were present. At the session of the 
Grand Lodge held at Newark, December 30, 1788, the Hon. Jonathan 
Dayton and Captain Aaron Ogden were present. 

There was an interval of many years before any attempt was made 
to organize a lodge within the limits of the present county of Union. 
The first lodge was warranted in the (then) township of Westfield, (now 
city of Plainfield) on November 11, 1817, as Jerusalem Lodge, No. 40. 
The warrant was granted to John Allen, W. M. ; Elias Runyon, S. W., 
and William D. Sherwood, J. W. This .lodge continued its work until 
the year 1834, when it was obliged to suspend its regular meetings, 
owing to the cruel opposition to Masonry at that time. Colonel John 
Allen and Dr. Elias Runyon continued their membership up to the 
time when the lodge closed. The second lodge was warranted by the 
Grand Lodge, on November 18, 1818, under the name of Washington 
Lodge, No. 41, at Elizabeth Town. The first officers under the 
warrant were, Oliver Hatfield, W. M. ; Alfred Stone, S. W. ; and 
Thomas P. Walworth, J. W. This lodge ceased work in the year 1828. 

The third lodge was organized at the town of Rahway, November 
9, 1824, under a warrant from the Grand Lodge, to Robert Dennis, 
W. M. ; David Albertson, S. W. ; Noah Silvers, J. W. It was known 
and distinguished as La Fayette Lodge, No. 49. This lodge continued 


to meet until the year 1830. There were no lodges of Free and 
Accepted Masons within the limits of the present Union county from 
the year 1834 until the year 1853. On May 18, 1853, the old lodge 
known as Jerusalem Lodge, No. 40, was reopened by the authority of 
the Grand Master, granted to Elias Runyon, W. M., and Richard 
Manning, S. W. 

The Grand Lodge, afl its annual session on January 11, 1854, 
ordered the warrant to be restored to Dennis W. Dorman, W. M. ; 
Stephen HaflF, S. W. ; and Samuel Scott, J. W. , and that the lodge be 
thereafter known as Jerusalem Lodge, No. 26. The officers of the lodge 
for the year 1896 were Daniel C. Adams, W. M. ; Stephen Beeching, 
S. W.; Warren T. Bartlett, J. W. ; Alexander Titsworth, treasurer; 
and Charles Yaeger, secretary. 

The lodge formerly known as La Fayette Lodge, No. 49, was 
resuscitated by the Grand Master on June 6, 1853, under the following 
officers : George Waters, W. M. ; Abijah O. Houghton, S. W. ; and 
Benjamin C. Watson, J. W. The warrant was restored by the Grand 
Lodge, January 11, 1854, to John H. Janeway, W. M. ; Crowell Marsh, 
S. W. ; and Stewart C. Marsh, J. W. , and the number of the lodge was 
changed from 49 to 27. The officers of the lodge for the year 1896 
were Albert P. Goodell, W. M. ; Valentine N. Bagley, S. W. ; and 
William H. Randolph, J. W. 

Washington Lodge, No. 41, at Elizabeth Town, was revived, by 
the authority of the Grand Master, on June 24, 1854, under the follow- 
ing officers : James S. Green, W. M. ; James W. Woodruff, S. W. ; 
Wallace L. Crowell, J. W. The warrant of the old lodge was granted 
to the same officers, by the Grand Lodge, January 17, 1855. The 
number of the lodge was changed from 41 to 33. The officers of the 
lodge for the year 1896 were George B. Hooker, W. M. ; Edgar B. 
Moore, S. W. ; and William H. Hoover, J. W. 

At the annual session of the Grand Lodge, held January 14, 1857, 
a warrant was granted to Samuel L. Moore, W. M. ; William J. Tenney, 
S. W. ; and David Crowell, J. W. , for a lodge, to be known and num- 
bered as Essex Lodge, No. 49. Officers of this lodge for the year 1896 
were John H. Holly, W. M. ; Thomas P. Banks, S. W. ; and Theodore 
B. Townley, J. W. This lodge was located at Elizabeth Port. The 
fourth lodge was warranted by the Grand Lodge, on January 22, 1868, 
to Mayer Sontheimer, W. M.; Frederick W. Schroeder, S. W. ; and 
John Graff, J. W. This lodge was known and numbered as Hermann 
Lodge, No. 81. The officers for the year 1896 were Charles Joseph 
Jensen, W. M. ; John W. Simmenroth, S. W. ; and Charles Kaimer, 

J. W. 

On January 18, 1872, the Grand Lodge ordered a warrant to William 
A. Macquoid, W. M. ; Henry E. Harris, S. W. ; and Addison S. Clark, 
J. W., for a lodge, to be known and numbered as Atlas Lodge, No. 125. 


Officers of the lodge in the year 1896,— John O'Blenis, W. M. ; John 
B. Green, S. W. ; and William J. Kennedy, J. W. This lodge is 
located in the town of Westfield. 

Another warrant was ordered, January 18, 1872, to William H. 
Mcllhanney, W. M. ; John Whittaker, S. W. ; and Nathaniel K. 
Thompson, J. W. , for a lodge to be known and numbered as Orient 
Lodge, No. 126, and to be held at the city of Elizabeth. The officers 
for the year 1896 were George F. Chapman, W. M. ; Farley S. Taylor, 
S. W. ; Frank W. Gallandet, J. W. 

On the same date (January 18, 1872,) the Grand Lodge ordered that 
a warrant issue to Adrian W. Smith, W. M. ; Thomas B. Kingsland, 
S. W.; and William A. Mulford, J. W., for a lodge to be known and 
numbered as Azure Lodge, No. 129, the lodge to be located in the town 
of Roselle. The officers of the lodge for the year 1896 were Walter 
S. Mead, W. M. ; John Wilson, S. W. ; and William Shaw, J. W. 

A warrant was ordered by the Grand Lodge, January 23, 1873, to 
William A. Green, W. M. ; George W. Smith, S. W. ; and David 
Sprague, J. W. , for a lodge to be known and numbered as Tyrian 
Lodge, No. 134, to be held at Elizabeth Port. The officers for the 
year 1896 were William Dontlein, W. M. ; John D. Barr, S. W. ; and 
George C. Otto, J. W. 

On January 22, 1879, the Grand Lodge ordered that a warrant 
issue to William A. Freeman, W. M. ; Henry E. Harris, S. W. ; and 
William P. Scott, J. W. , for a lodge to be known and numbered as 
Anchor Lodge, No. 149, to be held at the city of Plainfield. The 
officers of the lodge for the year 1896 were Charles C. Howard, W. M. ; 
William Coddington, S. W. ; and Judson E. McClintock, J. W. 

A warrant was ordered by the Grand Lodge, January 24, 1889, to 
be issued to Charles A. Hoyt, W. M. ; William A. L. Ostrander, S. 
W. ; and George W. Brown, J. W. , for a lodge to be known and 
numbered as Overlook Lodge, No. 163, to be located at Summit. The 
officers of this lodge for the year 1896 were George N. Williams, W. 
M. ; Atwood L. De Coster, S. W. ; and Robert William Clucas, J. W. 

The whole number enrolled in the year 1896 is nine hundred and 
twenty-eight. The following brethren belonging to lodges in Union 
county have served in the station of Grand Master : Joseph W. Scott, 
of Jerusalem Lodge, No. 40, in the years 1830-1-2-3 ; Henry R. Cannon, 
of Jerusalem Lodge, No. 26, in the years 1868-9 ! William A. Pembrook, 
of Washington Lodge, No. 33, in the years 1874-5 ; Joseph W. Martin, 
of La Fayette Lodge, No. 27, in the year 1881 ; Robert M. Moore, of 
Washington Lodge, No. 33, in the years 1887-8 ; James H. Durand, of 
La Fayfette Lodge, No. 27, in the years 1893-4. 

The first chapter of Royal Arch Masons was organized in the city 
of Elizabeth in the year 1866, under the following officers : H. P. 


Price, H. P. ; Adrian W. Smith, K. ; Henry L,. Norton, S. Officers, 
1896,— E. W. G. Ladd, H. P. ; Joseph E. Buzby, K. ; Edward A. Day, 
S. This chapter is known and distinguished as Washington Chapter, 
No. 16. 

The second chapter of Royal Arch Masons was warranted Septem- 
ber 13, 1871. Officers, 1871,— Benjamin Squire, H. P. ; E. St. Clair 
Moore, K. ;' Frederick A. Clarkson, S. Officers, 1896,— Charles H. 
Jackson, H. P. ; John Patterson, K. ; James H. Lyon, S. This chapter 
is known and distinguished as La Fayette Chapter, No. 26. 

The third chapter of Royal Arch Masons is known and des- 
ignated as Jerusalem Chapter, No. 24. Officers, 1896,— Charles M. 
Ulrich, H. P. ; William I. Ford, K. ; Daniel C. Adams, S. 


The first commandery of Knights Templar in the county of 
Union was organized under a dispensation issued by John Woolverton, 
Grand Commander, in the year 1868, to William H. Mcllhanney, 
Eminent Commander ; David D. Buchanan, Generalissimo ; John 
Whittaker, Captain General. This commandery received its warrant 
from the Grand Com.mandery in the year 1869. Officers, 1896, — Noel 
R. Park, Eminent Commander ; George A. Squire, Generalissimo ; 
Jacob W. Sheppard, Captain General. This commandery is designated 
as St. John's Commandery, No. 9. 

The second commandery of Knights Templar in the county of 
Union was organized, under dispensation issued by Isaac C. Githens, 
Grand Commander, in February, 1889, to William H. Sebring, 
Eminent Commander ; G. L. Cook, Generalissimo ; C. M. Goddard, 
Captain General. This commandery was duly warranted in May, 
1889. Officers, 1896, — Jacob Kirkner, Eminent Commander ; N. Y. 
Dungan, Generalissimo ; William H. Freeman, Captain General. 



T is signally appropriate that a specific chapter be devoted to 
a consideration of the lives and deeds of those members of 
the medical profession who have lived and labored to 
goodly ends within the confines of Union county ; and also 
to give due recognition to those who are still pursuing their humane 
mission here. The matter in the pages immediately following can not 
fail to be of distinct interest and historical value. 


the widely known poet, scholar, philanthropist, and eminent physician 
and surgeon, was born in the old homestead of his family, at Scotch 
Plains, New Jersey, December 26, 1813, and died, during a visit to 
California, at the Hotel del Monte, near Monterey, May 3, 1891. He 
was of Scotch and Dutch descent, his ancestors being among the 
earliest settlers of New York and New Jersey. His great-grandfather, 
William Coles, had, with his wife, established himself, in early colonial 
days, at Scotch Plains, and there Dr. Coles' grandfather, James Coles, 
was born in 1744. The latter married Elizabeth Frazee. Their son, 
Dennis, born at Scotch Plains, in 1778, died there in 1844. The father 
of Dr. Coles was "a man of great culture, skilled in mathematics, a 
lover of polite literature, a polished speaker, a member of the state 
legislature, a charming reader, and an accomplished writer." He 
acquired the printers' art, and in 1803 established at Newburgh, New 
York, a newspaper, the Recorder of the Times, which he conducted 
for three years, — a literary and financial success, which, also, under 
another name, it continued to be as late as 1876. He married, in 1802, 
Katrina Van Deurzen, daughter of one of the prominent citizens of 
Newburgh, and a descendant of the famous Dutch dominie, Everardus 
Bogardus, and his noted wife, Anneke Jans. At the solicitation of his 
parents, Dennis Coles sold out his Newburgh business (1806) and 
returned to Scotch Plains, where his son was born, as stated above. 

Dr. Abraham Coles was educated by his parents until the age of 
twelve, when he entered the dry-goods store of a relative in New York 
city, with whom he remained five years. Here he acquired a thorough 
business education, while at the same time devoting his spare time to 
reading and study. At the age of seventeen he withdrew from this 


business to accept a position as teacher of Latin and mathematics in 
the academy of the Rev. Lewis Bond, at Plainfield, New Jersey. Subse- 
quently, for six months, he studied law in the office of Hon. Joseph C. 
Hornblower, of Newark, and although the law was not to prove his 
chosen vocation, he, during this time, acquired a taste and solid 
foundation for legal study, which he never abandoned and which in 
after years was invaluable to him in his association with eminent 
jurists. After reading Blackstone's and Kent's Commentaries with 
care, and in the meantime consulting his natural tastes and inclina- 
tions, which drew him strongly toward medicine, he chose the latter, 
and, first attending a course of lectures at the University and College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in New York city, he entered the Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at which he graduated 
in 1835. The following year he opened an office, as physician and 
surgeon, in Newark, New Jersey. In 1842 he married Caroline E. 
Ackerman, daughter of Jonathan C. and Maria S. Ackermau, of New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. She died in 1845, leaving one son and one 

Dr. Coles soon won a high position in his profession, becoming 
especially distinguished in surgical cases, to which he was frequently 
called in consultation. In 1848 he went abroad, visiting England and 
France and making a special study of their hospitals and schools of 
medicine. He was in Paris during the stormy days— May and June, 
1848— of the dictatorship of General Cavignac and the so-called French 
republic that followed, and, as correspondent of the Newark Daily 
Advertiser, described the bloody scenes of which he was an eye-witness. 
Returning to Newark he at once resumed practice. At, this time he 
was regarded as the most accomplished practitioner in Newark, 
eminent alike for his professional and literary acquirements. In 1853 
and 1854 he was again abroad, traveling extensively, studying the 
continental languages and adding largely to his store of medical 
knowledge by contact with the most eminent physicians and surgeons 
of Europe. He also wrote charming letters from Italy, as corres- 
pondent again of the Daily Advertiser. At Florence he made the 
acquaintance of the Brownings, Hiram Powers and others then and 
subsequently distinguished for their attainments in literature and art. 
In September, 1854, he took passage for home, on the Arctic, but after 
leaving Liverpool, he had his ticket made good for the following 
steamer, and then disembarked at Queeustown . The Arctic proceeded 
on her voyage, was run into by a small French steamer, called the 
Vesta, off Cape Race, in a dense fog, and sunk, with a loss of three 
hundred and twenty-two lives. 

But the life, character, and celebrity of Dr. Coles, eminent as he 
was as physician and surgeon, are chiefly connected with his literary 
and scholarly attainments, his published writings, and particularly his 



religious hymns and translations, which have given him a world-wide 
reputation. He had early iu his professional career been a contributor 
to various periodicals, and short isolated poems had appeared from his 
pen, but it was not until 1847 that he brought out the first of his 
eighteen translations of "Dies Irse," and made a pronounced impression 
upon the literary world. This hymn, the composition of a monk, was 
written originally in the L,atin of the thirteenth century. It is a ter- 
rible picture of a soul that in vision seeing death, the righteous Judge, 
the doom of the lost, pleads for mercy and rescue, and in the terseness, 
vigor, power, and yet rhythmic beauty of the original lyatin is peerlessly 
presented. It has not only commanded the admiration of critics 
generally, but exercised a powerful influence upon many eminent 


characters. Dr. Johnson could not read the original without bursting 
into tears. Sir Walter Scott repeated portions of it in his dying 
moments. It was also upon the lips of the Earl of Roscommon the 
moment he expired. Goethe introduced portions of it iu his " Faust. " 
It has been set to the sublimest music and forms the subject of Mozart's 
immortal Requiem. It had been translated into various languages, 
but an English version had hitherto signally failed. The translation 
of Dr. Coles attracted immediate and wide attention, both in this 
country and in Europe. It was set to music in Henry Ward Beecher's 
" Plymouth Collection of Hymns ; " a portion of it was introduced into 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin;" and James Russell L,owell gave it a most 
favorable criticism in the Atlantic Monthly. 

In 1859 he published, with some slight changes, his first translation 


of the "Dieslrse," together with twelve other versions which he had 
made since 1847. This vohime, entitled "Dies Irse in Thirteen 
Original Versions" (sixth edition, 1892), appeared in the Appletons' 
best style of binding, and contained an introduction, history of the 
hymn, music, and photographic illustrations of the Last Judgment, by 
Michael Angelo, Rubens, Cornelius, and Ary SchefFer. The book met 
with immediate success. 

Richard Grant White, in a critical review, spoke of the work as 
"one of great interest, and an admirable tribute from American scholar- 
ship and poetic taste to the supreme nobility of the original poem. 
Dr. Coles," he says, "has shown a fine appreciation of the spirit and 
rhythmic movement of the hymn, as well as unusual command of 
language and rhyme ; and we much doubt whether any translation of 
the 'Dies Irse,' better than the first of the thirteen, will ever be pro- 
duced in Knglish, except perhaps by himself * * As to the 
translation of the hymn, it is perhaps the most difiicult task that could 
be undertaken. To render ' Faust ' or the ' Songs of Egmont ' into 
fitting English numbers would be easy in comparison." 

James W. Alexander, D. D. , and William R. Williams, D. D. , 
scholars whose critical acumen and literary ability were universally 
recognized, pronounced the first two "the best of English versions 
in double rhyme," while the Rev. Samuel Irenseus Prime, D. D. , in 
the New York Observer, said, "We are not sure but that the last 
version, which is in the same measure as Crashaw's, but in our judg- 
ment far superior, will please the general taste most of all." The 
Christian (Quarterly) Review said, — " Dr. Coles' first translation stands, 
we believe, not only unsurpassed, but unequaled in the English 
language." The Rt. Rev. John Williams, D. D., L,h. D., bishop of 
the diocese of Connecticut, wrote, — "Your first version is decidedly 
the best one with which I am acquainted." 

William Cullen Bryant, in the Evening Post, wrote, — " There are 
few versions that will bear to be compared with these ; we are surprised 
that they are all so well done. ' ' Rev. Dr. James McCosh, D. D. , I^I,. D. , 
president of the College of New Jersey, Princeton, wrote to Dr. Coles 
— "I wonder how you could have drawn out thirteen translations of 
the ' Dies Irse,' all in the spirit and manner of the original, and yet so 
different. I thought each the best as I read it." 

"If not all of equal excellence," said George Ripley, in the New 
York Tribune, "it is hard to decide as to their respective merits, so 
admirably do they embody the tone and sentiments of the original, in 
vigorous and expressive verse. The essays which precede and follow 
the hymn, exhibit the learning and the taste of the translator in a 
most favorable light, and show that an antiquary and a poet have not 
been lost in the study of science and the practice of a laborious 
profession. ' ' 



Ivady Jane Franklin, wife of Sir John Franklin, while on her visit to 
this country, met Dr. Coles at the home of a mutual friend. Conge- 
niality of tastes, as well as the interest taken by Dr. Coles in the search 
for her husband, ripened the acquaintanceship into that of mutual 
regard and friendship. Among the Doctor's letters we find the 
following, in Lady Franklin's handwriting : 

" New York, October 22, i860. 
" Dr. Abraham Coles : 

" Dear Sir:— I cannot deny myself the pleasure of thanking you once 
more for your most beautiful little book, the ' Dies Irae in Thirteen 
Original Versions,' which I value, not only for its intrinsic merit, but 
as an expression of your very kind feelings toward me. Believe me, 

"Gratefully and truly yours, 

Jane Franklin." 

While visiting, in 1855, on his second European tour, the lake 
district, Westmorelan'd, England (associated with the memory of 
Wordsworth, Southey, Coleridge, and De Quincey), Dr. Coles wrote his 
much admired poem, entitled "Windemere." 

Following is Dr. Coles' first translation of the "Dies Irse," (1847) '• 


Seeking me Thy worn feet hasted, 

Day of wrath, that day of burning, 
Seer and Sibyl speak concerning, 
All the world to ashes turning. 

Oh, what fear shall it engender, 

When the Judge shall come in splendor. 

Strict to mark and just to render ! 

Trumpet, scattering sounds of wonder, 
Rending sepulchres asunder. 
Shall resistless summons thunder. 

All aghast then Death shall shiver. 
And great Nature's frame shall quiver. 
When the graves their dead deliver. 

Volume, from which nothing 's blotted, 

Evil done nor evil plotted, 

Shall be brought and dooms allotted. 

When shall sit the Judge unerring. 
He '11 unfold all here occurring. 
Vengeance then no more deferring. 

What shall I say, that time pending? 
Ask what advocate 's befriending. 
When the just man needs defending? 

Dreadful King, all power possessing. 
Saving freely those confessing, 
Save thou me, O Fount of Blessing ! 

Think, O Jesus, for what reason 

Thou didst bear earth's spite and treason, 

Nor me lose in that dread season. 

On the cross Thy soul death tasted ; 
Let such travail not be wasted ! 

Righteous Judge of retribution ! 
Make me gift of absolution 
Ere that day of execution ! 

Culprit-like, I plead, heart-broken. 
On my cheek shame's crimson token : 
Let the pardoning word be spoken ! 

Thou who Mary gav'st remission, 
Heard'st the dying Thief's petition, 
Cheer'st with hope my lost condition. 

Though my praj'ers be void of merit, 
What is needful. Thou confer it. 
Lest I endless fire inherit ! 

Be there. Lord, my place decided 
With Th}- sheep, from goats divided, 
Kindly to Thy right hand guided ! 

When th' accursed away are driven, 

To eternal burnings given, 

Call me with the blessed to heaven ! 

I beseech Thee, prostrate lying, 
Heart as ashes, contrite, sighing, 
Care for me when I am dying ! 

Day of tears and late repentance, 
Man shall rise to hear his sentence ; 
Him, the child of guilt and error, 
Spare, Lord, in that hour of terror ! 


In 1865 he published his first translation of the passion hymn, 
"Stabat Mater Dolorosa," which, like "Dies Irse," has been made the 
theme of some of the most celebrated musical compositions. It was 
set to music in the sixteenth century by Palestrina, and has inspired 
the compositions of Haydn, Bellini, Rossini, and others. The prima 
donna, Clara I^ouise Kellogg, in Rossini's "Stabat Mater," used Dr. 
Coles' translation. Dr. Philip Schaff, alluding to some eighty German 
and several English translations that had been made up to that time 
said: "Dr. Coles has best succeeded in a faithful rendering of the 
Mater Dolorosa. His admirable English version carefully preserves 
the measure of the original." In 1866 appeared his "Old Gems in 
New Settings" (third edition, 1891), in which many treasured old 
Eatin hymns, including " De Contemptu Mundi" and "Veni Sancti 
Spiritus," are skillfully and gracefully translated. In the following 
year he published his translation of "Stabat Mater Speciosa" (second 
edition, 1891). 

In 1866, before the centennial meeting of the New Jersey State 
Medical Society, held in Rutgers College, New Brunswick, and of 
which he was president. Dr. Coles read his poem entitled "The 
Microcosm," which was published with the proceedings of the society. 
This poem was subsequently (in 1881) published in a volume containing 
"The Microcosm (fifth edition, 1891), National Lj^rics, and Mis- 
cellaneous Poems," together with three additional versions of " Dies 
Irse." The volume was favorably criticised both in this country and 
Europe. The Hon. Justin McCarthy, of England, wrote: "I am 
surprised to see, in looking through your volume, ' The Microcosm, and 
other Poems,' that you have been able to add three more versions to 
those you have already made of that wonderful Eatin hymn, ' Dies 
Irse. ' Certainly it is the most difficult to translate. I like your last 
version especially. " "The idea of 'The Microcosm,'" said John G. 
Whittier, "is novel and daring, but it is worked out with great skill 
and delicacy. ' ' In lines of easy and flowing verse the author sets forth 
with a completeness certainly remarkable, and with great power and 
beauty, the incomparable marvels of structure and functions of the 
human body. 

As an example, we quote a few lines from the section on ' ' Muscular 
Dynamics. '■' 

Bundles of fleshy fibres without end, Directs and guides them, quickens or re- 

Along the bony Skeleton extend strains ? 

In thousand-fold directions from fixed See the musician, at his fingers' call, 

points All sweet sounds scatter, fast as rain drops 
To act their several parts upon the Joints ; fall ; 

Adjustments nice ofmeansto ends we trace, With flying touch, he weaves the web of 
With each dynamic filament in place ; song. 

But Where's the Hand that grasps the Rhythmic as rapid, intricate as long. 

million reins, Whence this precision, delicacy and ease ? 



And where's the Master that defines the 

The many-jointed Spine, with link and lock 
To make it flexile while secure from shock, 
Is pierced throughout, in order to contain 
The downward prolongation of the brain ; 
From which, by double roots, the Nerves 

arise — 
One Feeling gives, one Motive Power sup- 
plies ; 

In opposite directions, side by side. 

With mighty swiftness there two currents 

glide — ■ 
Winged, head and heel, the Mercuries of 

Mount to the regions of Intelligence ; 
Instant as light, the nuncios of the throne 
Command the Muscles that command the 


In Europe one of the most enthusiastic admirers of "The Micro- 
cosm," was the late Dr. Theodor Billroth, professor of surgery in 

The New York Herald says: "The poems that follow 'The 
Microcosm,' are mainly religious, and, for simplicity, feeling and, 
withal great scholarship, have been equaled by no hymn writers of this 
country. ' ' 

"The flavor of 'The Microcosm,' said the New York Times, "is 
most quaint, suggesting on the religious side George Herbert, and on 
the materialistic side the elder Darwin. Some of the hymns for 
children are beautiful in their simplicity and truth." 


Out the mouths of babes and sucklings. 
Thou canst perfect praise to Thee ! 

Wilt thou not accept the worship. 
Humbly rendered. Lord, by me ? 
Even me. 

Things that to the wise are hidden. 
Children's eyes are made to see ; 

Thee to know is life eternal, 
O reveal Thyself to me ! 

Even me. 

Thou hast given me power of loving, 
Give me power of serving Thee, 

Is there not some humble service 
Which can now be done by me ? 
Even me. 

Hands and feet should ne'er grow weary 
When employed, dear Lord, for Thee ; 

Tongue should never cease the telling 
Of Thy grace who diedst for me. 
Even me. 

Infant mouths need not be silent. 
Stammering lips can publish Thee, 

Sound Thy name o'er land and ocean. 
Be it sounded. Lord, by me I 

Even me. 

The chii^dren's TE dedm. 

We praise, we magnify, O Lord, 

As little children can, 
That wondrous love which brought Thee 

To die for sinful man. [down 

While here on earth Thou didst not frown 

And bid them to depart. 
When mothers brought their children near, 

But took them to Thy heart. 

Encouraged by Thy voice and smile. 
We toward Thy bosom press ; 

O, lay Thy hands upon our heads. 
And mercifully bless ! 

Help us to sing, dear Lord ! we feel 
That silence would be wrong ; 

Now every bird, with rapture stirred. 
Is praising Thee in song. 

The Critic (New York), after referring to "many beautiful and 
stately passages" in "The Microcosm," says, "following it is to be 



found some of the best devotional and patriotic poetry that has been 
written in this country. " 

The following is from his poem 

Forevermore, from thee, Niagara ! 

'A Sabbath at Niagara. 

Religious cataract ! Most Holy Fane ! 
A service and a symphony go up 
Into the ear of God. 'Tis Sabbath morn. 
My soul, refreshed and full of comfort, 

Thy welcome call to worship. All night 

A murmur, like the memory of a sound, 
Has filled my sleep and made my dreams 

It was the deep, unintermittent roll 
Of thy eternal anthem, pealing still 
Upon the slumbering and muffled sense, 
Thence echoing in the soul's mysterious 

With soft reverberations. How the earth 
Trembles with hallelujahs, loud as break 

From banded Seraphim and Cherubim 
Singing before the Throne, while God 

Vision and audience to prostrate Heaven ! 
My soul, that else were mute, transported 

In you, O inarticulate Harmonies ! 
Expression for unutterable thoughts. 
Surpassing the impertinence of words. 
For that the petty artifice of speech 
Cannot pronounce th' Unpronounceable, 
Nor meet the infinite demands of praise 
Before descending Godhead, lo ! she makes 
Of this immense significance of sound, 
Sublime appropriation, chanting it anew. 
As her " Te Deum," and sweet Hymn of 


THE I,AND OF The free. 
(Air, Star Spang-led Banner.) 

We hail the return of the day of thy birth. 
Fair Columbia, washed by the waves of 

two oceans ! 
Where men, from the farthest dominions 

of Earth, 
Rear altars to Freedom, and pay their 

devotions ; 
Where our fathers in fight, nobly strove 

for the Right, 
Struck down their fierce foemen or put 

them to flight ; 
Through the long lapse of ages, that so 

there might be 
An asylum for all in the Land of the Free. 

Behold, from each zone under Heaven, they 

come ! 
And haughtiest nations, that once far 

outshone thee. 
Now paled by thy lustre, lie prostrate and 

And render due homage, and no more 

disown thee. 
All the isles for thee wait, while that early 

and late, 
Not a wind ever blows but wafts hither 

ricU freight. 
And the swift sailing ships, that bring over 

the sea 
Th' oppressed of all lands to the Land of 

the Free. 

As entranced I look down the long vista of 

And behold thine existence to ages ex- 
What a scene, O my Country, of wonder 

appears ! 
How kindling the prospect, surpassing 

and splendid ! 
Each lone mountain and glen, and waste 

wilderness then, 
I see covered with cities, and swarming 

with men. 
And miraculous Art working marvels for 

To lift higher thy greatness, thou Land of 

the Free ! 

From our borders expel all oppression and 

Oh ! Thou, who didst plant us and make 

us a Nation ! 
In the strength of Thine arm make us ever- 
more strong ; 
On our gates inscribe Praise, on our walls 

write Salvation ! 
May Thyself be our light, from Thy 

heavenly height 
Ever flashing new splendors and chasing 

our night. 
That united and happy we ever may be 
To the end of all time, still the Land of 

the Free ! 

July 4, 1853. 


(Air, America.) 

O beautiful and grand I honor thee, because 

My own, my Native Land ! Of just and equal laws, 

Of thee I boast : These make thee dear : 

Great Empire of the West, Not for thy mines of gold. 

The dearest and the best. Not for thy wealth untold. 

Made up of all the rest. Not that thy sons are bold, 

I love thee most. Do I revere. 

Thou crown of all the Past, God of our fathers ! bless. 

Time's noblest and the last. Exalt in righteousness. 

Supremely fair ! This Land of ours ! 

Brought up at Freedom's knee, Be Right our lofty aim. 

Sweet Child of Liberty ! Our title and our claim. 

Of all, from sea to sea. To high and higher fame, 

Th' undoubted heir. Among the Powers. 

In 1874 he published " The Evangel " (pages 400, second edition, 
1891). " The purpose of this volume," said George Ripley, in the New 
York Tribune, "would be usually regarded as beyond the scope of poetic 
composition. It aims to reproduce the scenes of the Gospel history in 
verse, with a strict adherence to the sacred narrative, and no greater 
degree of imaginative coloring than would serve to present the facts in 
the most brilliant and impressive light. But the subject is one with 
which the author cherishes so profound a sympathy, as in some sense 
to justify the boldness of the attempt. The Oriental cast of his mind 
allures him to the haunts of sacred song, and produces a vital com- 
munion with the spirit of Hebrew poetry. Had he lived in the days 
of Isaiah or Jeremiah, he might have been one of the bards who sought 
inspiration at Siloa's brook, that flowed fast by the oracle of God." 

The Rev. Charles Hodge, D. D. , LL,. D. , of Princeton, referring to 
the work, said, — "I admire the skill which 'The Evangel' displays in 
investing with rainbow hues the simple narrations of the Gospels. 
All, however, who have read Dr. Coles' versions of the ' Dies Iras ' and 
other L/atin hymns must be prepared to receive any new productions 
from his pen with high expectations. In these days, when even the 
clerical office seems in many cases insufficient to protect from the 
present fashionable form of skepticism, it is a great satisfaction to see 
a man of science and a scholar adhering so faithfully to the simple 

Henry W. Longfellow, in a cordial note to Dr. Coles, remarks, — 
"As your work is narrative and mine dramatic, he must be a very 
captious critic who should venture to suggest any imitation." 

"Dr. Coles," says John G. "Whittier, " is a born hymn writer. 
No man living or dead has so rendered the text and the spirit of the 
old and wonderful Latin hymns. He has also written some of the 
sweetest of Christian hymns. His ' All the Days ' and ' Ever with 
Thee ' are immortal songs. It is better to have written them than the 
stateliest of epics." 


(Tune, " Kinney Street."} 

From Thee, begetting sure conviction. When round our head the tempest rages, 

Sound out, O risen Lord, always, And sink our feet in miry ways, 

Those faithful words of valediction, Thy voice comes floating down the ages, 

" Lo ! I am with you all the days. " " Lo ! I am with you all the days. ' ' 

Refrain— All the days, all the days, O Thou who art our life and meetness, 

" Lo ! I am with you all the days." Not death shall daunt us nor amaze, 

What things shall happen on the morrow. Hearing those words of power and sweet- 

Thou kindly hidest from our gaze ; °^^^' 

But tellest us in joy or sorrow, " ^° ' ^ ^™ "^'^^^ y°'^ ^^^ ^he days." 

" Lo ! I am with you all the days." 

(Tune, "Bethany.") 

Ever, my Lord, with Thee, River of Life there flows 
Ever with Thee ! As crystal clear ; 

Through all eternity The Tree of Life there grows 
Thy face to see ! For healing near : 

I count this heaven, to be But this crowns all, to be 

Ever, my Lord, with Thee, Ever, my Lord, with Thee, 
Ever with Thee. Ever with Thee ! 

Fair is Jerusalem, No curse is there, no night, 
All of pure gold. No grief, no fear ; 

Garnished with many a gem Thy smile fills heaven with light. 
Of worth untold : Dries every tear : 

I only ask to be What rapture, there to be 

Ever, my Lord, with Thee, Ever, my Lord, with Thee, 
Ever with Thee ! Ever with Thee ! 

In 1884 the Appletons issued Dr. Coles' poem, " The Light of the 
World," as a single volume also bound together with a second edition 
of "The Evangel" under the general title " The Life and Teachings of 
our Lord in Verse, being a complete harmonized exposition of the four 
Gospels, with original notes, etc." 

Among the many foreign letters received by Dr. Coles, in which 
reference is made to this work, we find one from the Right Hon. 
William E. Gladstone, M. P. , written from 10 Downing street, White- 
hall, London, and one from Stephen Gladstone, written from Hawarden 
Rectory, Chester, England. 

The Rev. Alexander McLaren, D. D. , writing from Manchester, 
England, says, — "I congratulate you upon having accomplished with 
success a most difficult undertaking, and on having been able to 
present the ever inexhaustible life in a form so new and original. I 
do not know whether I have been most struck by the careful and 
fine exegetical study, or the graceful versification of your work. I 
trust it may be useful, not only in attracting the people, which 
George Herbert thought could be caught with a song, when they 
would run from a sermon, but may also help lovers of the sermon to 
see its subject in a new garb." 

The Rev. Horatius Bonar, D. D., of Edinburgh, wrote, — "I am 



struck with your command of language, and your skill in clothing the 
simplicities of history with the elegance of poetry. Your ' L,ife of Our 
Lord ' is no ordinary volume, and your notes are of a very high order 
indeed, — admirably written, and full of philosophical thought and 
scriptural research." 


In that fair region — fertile as of yore, 
Watered of Heaven ; its valleys covered 

With corn ; with flocks its pastures ; scene 

in truth 
Of that sweet Idyl called the Book of Ruth, 
Where David, son of Jesse, tending sheep. 
In deep glen seated, or on mountain steep. 
Sung to his harp in morn or evening calm, 
Many a holy pastoral and psalm — 
As certain shepherds, simple and devout, 
Under the starry heavens were lying out, 
Watching their flocks, while one lifts up 

the chant, 
"The Liord my shepherd is, I shall not 

Or, as with upturned face, he ravished sees 
Belted Orion and the Pleiades, 
Singing, "When I the heavens consider, 

And fashioned by Thy fingers, thick inlaid 
With stars and suns in numbers numberless, 
Lord, what is man that Thou shouldst come 

to bless ?■' — 
An Angel of the Lord beside them stood : 
The glory of the Lord in mighty flood 
Shone round about them luminous and 

And all the shepherds feared with a great 



* " * ■* * i. He stood 

On a raised plain mid a vast multitude, 

Composed of His disciples— and all them 

Who from Judea, and Jerusalem, 

And from the shores of Tyre and Sidon 

To hear Him and be healed — His blessed 

Now on all lips, because there was no case 
Too desperate for His relieving grace ; 
The virtue that went out of Him was such 
That men were healed with one believing 


All hushed. He sat, and lifting up His eyes 
On His disciples, taught them in this wise. 

" Fear not," the Angel said, "good news I 

Cause of great joy to people everywhere. 
In David's city is a Saviour born. 
Who is the Christ the Lord, this happy 

And this the sign to you : Ye shall not 

Prepared a stately edifice, designed 
For His reception : this great Potentate 
And Prince of Heaven and Earth, assumes 

no state ; 
Comes with no retinue ; conceals and 

His proper glory under veils and clouds 
Of lowliness, in stable of an inn 
His Showing and Epiphany begin. 
There look and you shall find in manger 

The Infant Christ in swaddling clothes 

arrayed. ' ' 

Then suddenly were present, height o'er 

A countless multitude of the sons of light, 
In mighty chorus singing loud and clear, 
Charming celestial silences to hear : 
' ' Glorj' to God ikere in the highest heaven ! 
Peace /lere on earth, good will to men for- 
given ! " 

[The Evangel, pages 59-61.] 

ON The mount. 

Happy the poor in spirit, who 
their deep demerit own, 
In them My Kingdom I set up ; 
with them I share my throne. 
Happy are they, who mourn for sin 
with smitings on the breast, 
The Comforter shall comfort them 
in ways He knoweth best. 
Happy the meek, who patient bear 
unconscious of their worth. 
They shall inherit seats of power, 
and dominate the earth. 
Happy who hunger and who thirst 
for righteousness complete. 
Their longings shall fulfillments have 
and satisfactions sweet. 


Happy the merciful, who know Happy are they who suffer for 

to pity and forgive, adherence to the right, 

They mercy shall obtain at last, They shall be kings and priests to God 

and evermore shall live. in realms of heavenly light. 

Happy the pure in heart, whose feet Happy are ye when men revile 

with holiness are shod, and falsely you accuse, 

They shall run up the shining way Be very glad, for so of old 

and see the face of God. did they the prophets use. 

Happy the friends of peace, who heal Happy are ye, when for My sake, 

the wounds by discord given, men persecute and hate, 
The God of Heaven shall hold them dear Exult ! for your reward in heaven 

and call them sons of heaven. is made thereby more great. 

[The Light of the World, pages 76-77.] 

" Dr. Coles," says a prominent critic, "was a man who possessed 
and enjoyed a religion founded upon the teachings of the Old and New 
Testaments. It was a religion which pervaded all the recesses of his 
heart, which gave a temper to all his thoughts, which entered into all 
the transactions of his life, — a religion of the soul, a religion of the 
closet, a religion which he cared not whether the world was cognizant 
of or not, never seeking to thrust it upon others, or to display it as a 
beautiful, well fitting garment. He recognized God as a being to be 
worshiped, to be loved and to be obeyed ; and he accorded to his 
neighbor the same love that he had for himself He was, however, a 
man of strong convictions, and in religious matters those convictions 
were the result of a thorough investigation by a mind well equipped, 
and influenced in its labors only by a desire to find out the truth. So 
earnest and thorough a student of the Scriptures as he was, reading 
them in the languages in which they earliest appeared, he was fully 
able to give a reason for the faith that was in him, which was strictly 

In "The Evangel," speaking of the wine Christ made, he says : 

Mahomet forbade wine, and Christ made it. The difference between Christ and 
Mahomet was that of divine knowledge and human ignorance. Mahomet mistook a 
part for the whole, and with his axe of prohibition struck at a branch, supposing it to be 
the trunk. The Omniscient Christ was guilty of no such error. He knew that the bane 
was manifold, and that to single out wine for special prohibition was folly. 

The truth is, Christ forbade nothing. Not but ten thousand things are forbidden,— 
everything hurtful is so. Nature forbids, and nature is final. Why re-enact nature? 
reaffirm creation? deal in dittoes and deuteronomies ? repeat laws established? settle 
what was never unsettled? Christ left nature as He found it, inviolate, unrepealed. His 
walking on the water did not abolish gravitation. Fact was fact the same as before ; 
arsenic was arsenic ; alcohol was alcohol. So far as nature forbade these they were 
forbidden ; so far as nature permitted them they were permitted. Christ could go no 
farther than nature and be the Lord of nature. Consequently Christ could not have 
forbidden wine absolutely and been God. 

Wine is many and different. There is a kind of wine which is not, and another 
which is, intoxicating ; that is, has a toxic or poisoning power, for that is the meaning 
of the term. Was the wine Christ made the latter ? Christ's character is the answer. If 
that says no, it is no ; for the wine is to be judged by Christ, not Christ by the wine. 
Christ we know ; the wine we do not know. That which best befitted Him to make. He 
undoubtedly made. * * * * Taking our stand, therefore, on the immovable rock of 


Christ's character, we risk nothing in saying that the wine of miracle answered to the 
wine of nature, and was not intoxicating. No counter proof can equal the force of that 
drawn from His attributes. It is an indecency and a calumny to impute to Christ 
conduct which requires apology. 

In opposition to those who deny (for what is not denied by somebody?) that 
unfermented grape-juice is wine at all, we maintain that not only is it wine, but wine 
pre-eminently, the original, the true, as being nearest to the parent vine, and overflowing 
with the abundance of its life. Every step of that process called fermentation, whereby 
innocent sugar is converted into alcohol, is of the nature of a removal and eloignment. 
Wine and vine are etymologically the same. The Greeks called the vine ' ' the mother 
of wine" [oinometor) . Properly "oinos" is only then the child of the vine when 
vinous and vital it represents "the wine of the cluster," "the pure blood of the grape." 
Death follows life, and corruption death, and there results a deadly something which 
men call wine, but wrongly, for it is no longer vinous. The vine disowns it. It is a 
corpse, not a living thing. Alcohol is not wine, but an atrocious usurper of its name 
and rights. 

Christ made wine. He was maker, not manufacturer. The key-note to the miracle 
is creation. This alone renders it worthy and intelligible. Christ was no Demiurge, but 
God. Not inferior nor different. "The Word was with God, and the Word was God." 
" All things were made by Him. " It was fitting that He should in the outset make 
this appear ; and so He did. In a miraculous moment he did what, in His ordinary 
working in nature. He takes four months to do. Such was His debut— an epiphany of 
Godhead; a demonstration to the whole universe that He was "over all, God blessed 
forever." " This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth 
His glory ' ' — giving, in His own Divine Person , by a new genesis, as "in the beginning ' ' 
of the world, needed practical proof and illustration that God is ; and that He is one, not 
two nor many ; that He created matter ; that nature is from Him ; that though He exists 
and operates in nature, He is not nature, but a power apart from it and above it, acting 
upon it from without in omnipotent freedom of will, and directing it to beneficent 
ends ; that the God who feeds us is identical with the God who saves us, — thus sweeping 
away all the hoary diabolisms of disbelief, bearing the names of Atheism, Dualism, 
Polytheism, Materialism, Pantheism and Fatalism. 

It is assumed, for this view necessitates it, that the wine of miracle was the same 
as the wine of nature, the wine of the cluster, holy and life-giving, the tj'pe of all 
nourishment, and the type of salvation. The wine of art is not this. It represents evil 
rather than good. It is better fitted to typify destruction than creation. It is less a 
making than an unmaking. Alcohol is unmade sugar. Men brand it poison. 

Thus far we have limited ourselves to asserting that Christ did not make intoxicating 
wine ; whether He ever drank it is another question. Here, too. His character is 
everything, — far more than doubtful philology. Anything He drank must, we know, 
have been a safe and unhurtful beverage, wherein there was no " excess." We are not 
permitted to suppose that the Saviour from sin was an example of sin ; that He who 
taught self-denial practiced self-indulgence. Rather must we believe that every meal he 
ate was a lesson of temperance. He, knowing what is in man, the liability of the best 
to fall, ceased not to warn against a vain self-confidence and a false security. "Simon, 
Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you that he may sift you as wheat ; but I have 
prayed for thee that thy faith fail not. " * * * * " Pray that ye enter not into 
temptation." That the wine of communion was azymous wine, new wine, sweet and 
sacred, made the festal token of a heavenly renewal of divine fellowship, is proved by 
His own words : "I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine until that day 
when I drink it new {kainon) with you in my Father's Kingdom." * * * * 

It is stated that all points in dispute have their final answer in the settlement of 
the one question, — " Does ' wine,' standing alone, mean, as is claimed, ojily and always 
the juice of the %x3.-^e. fermented, and never the juice of the grape unfermented ; and 
was the same made and drunk by Christ and used by Him as one of the elements of the 
Last Supper?" The pivot, evidently on which everything turns, are the words ^^ only and 


always," so that if it can be shown, in a single instance, that the word "wine," 
uncoupled with "new," is clearly used anywhere in the Bible in the sense of "new 
wine" or "must," the learning which denies it goes for nothing, and the whole argument 
based on that erroneous assumption falls to the ground. 

In Matt, ix.: 17, we read : " Neither do men put new wine {oinon neon) into old 
bottles, else the bottles ('old' omitted) break, and the wine {oinos, alone, with neos 
omitted) runneth out." In the parallel passage in Mark ii.:22, there are the same 
omissions in the second clause of the verse. In Luke, it is "new wine" in both 
places, thus confirming the identity of the two. * * * Here we have the Holy 
Ghost for a witness and a divine example of usus loquendi, clearly showing that oinos is 
properly used to denote the unfermented grape juice without the qualifying epithet neos 
as well as with it. * * * * 

Undoubtedly, opium and alcohol produce effects which differ, but they agree in 
this, that used habitually, they alike tend, by a law as constant as gravitation itself, to 
establish a tyranny, compared with which chains, racks, dungeons, and whatever else 
go to make up the material apparatus of the most cruel despotism, are as nothing. For 
these are outside of the man, and leave the soul untouched. 

It is a good reason for abstinence if our use is others misuse, if it merely lends 
sanction to a dangerous custom. 

Christianity is a principle, not a law. * » * * Christianity is infinitely more 
than Judaism or Mohammedanism, but then it is Christianity in the sense of Christian 
love. This fulfills all claims, abstinence among the rest. 

In 1888 he put forth another volume, of more than three hundred 
and fifty pages, entitled "A New Rendering of the Hebrew Psalms 
into English Verse, with notes, critical, historical aud biographical, 
including an historical sketch of the French, English and Scotch 
metrical versions." 

The New York Tribune, in a lengthy critical review of the work, 
said : "Dr. Coles' name on the title page is a sufficient indication of 
the excellence and thoroughness of the work done. Indeed, Dr. Coles 
has done much more than produce a fresh, vigorous and harmonious 
version of the Psalms, though this was alone well worth doing. His 
full and scholarly notes on the early versions of Clement Marot, 
Sternhold and Hopkins, and others, his sketches of eminent persons 
connected in various ways with particular psalms, his literary and 
bibliographical information, together impart a value aud interest to 
this work which should insure an extensive circulation for it. Very 
much of the historical and other matter thus brought within the reach 
of the public is inaccessible to such as have not means of access to 
public libraries. In his version of the Psalms he has wisely preserved 
the rhythmical swing and the terse language which distinguish the 
early renderings." 

The Rev. Frederic W. Farrar, D. D., F. R. S., chaplain in ordinary 
to the queen, in a letter to Dr. Coles, said : " The task of versifying 
the Psalms was too much, even for Milton, but you have attempted it 
with seriousness and with as much success as seems to be possible. I 
was much interested in your introduction." 

S. W. Kershaw, F. T. A., the librarian of the Ivambeth Palace 
Library, London, England, also writes to Dr. Coles : "I am ^greatly 


interested in the introduction, in reading about the psalms of Clement 
Marot, and in the allusion to the Huguenots." 

On the scroll in the hand of the beautiful symbolical figure of 
Poetry, by J. Q. A. Ward, in the lyibrary of Congress, at Washington, 
the artist has memorialized Dr. Coles' version of Psalm xix., which is 
as follows : 

The rolliug skies with lips of flame His precepts are divinely right, 

Their Maker's power and skill proclaim : An inspiration and delight ; 

Day speaks to day, and night to night His pure commandment makes all clear, 

Shows knowledge writ in beams of light, Clean and enduring in His fear. 

And though no voice, no spoken word ^j^^ judgments of the Lord are true, 

Can by the outward ear be heard, And righteous wholly, through and through; 

The witness of a traveling sound ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^1^^ 

Reverberates the world around. r\ci,- u n n, j r u 

Of higher worth a thousand fold ; 

In the bright east with gold enriched More sweet than sweetest honey far, 

He for the sun a tent has pitched, Th' unfoldings of their sweetness are : 

That, like bridegroom after rest. They warn Thy servant, and they guard ; 

Comes from his chamber richly drest, In keeping them there 's great reward. 

An athlete strong and full of grace, ^^^ ^^^ ^-^ ^^^^^^ understand ? 

And glad to run the heavenly race,- ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^j^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ . 

Completes- his round with tireless feet, -o i.u ^ „ i -n,- 

^ . . . ' From these me cleanse, make pure within. 

And naught is hidden from his heat. a j i <■ „ t 

° And keep me from presumptuous sin ; 

But, Nature's book sums not the whole : Lest sin me rule and fetter fast, 

God's perfect law converts the soul ; And I unpardoned die at last. 

His sure unerring word supplies My words and meditation be 

The means to make the simple wise ; O Lord, my Rock, approved of Thee. 

During his travels abroad. Dr. Coles had been greatly impressed 
with the private and public parks of Europe, and as early as 1863 
inaugurated a unique project of landscape gardening upon seventeen 
acres of his ancestral farm, at Scotch Plains, New Jersey, converting it 
into a park of rare and enchanting beauty. It was adorned with native 
groves, every attainable choice variety of tree and shrub, with imported 
statuary, garden and lawn effects. It was named " Deerhurst," from 
its herd of deer. Here he had his library and study, built of brick, 
stoue, and foreign and native woods, memorable alike for its 
architectural beauty, its "easy-chair," its works of art, and as the 
rendezvous of distinguished guests. Many charming pictures of 
"Daerhurst" have been sketched by poet, philosopher and sage, who 
once enjoyed the delights of its hospitality. Here the Doctor spent the 
last thirty years of his life, with his son and daughter as constant asso- 
ciates, the latter gracefully presiding over their father's establishment, 
among literary and professional friends, who recognized in him not only 
the eminent physician, the scholar of wide literary culture, and the 
linguist proficient in Greek, lyatin, Hebrew, Sanscrit, and the modern 
languages, but above all, the poet of international reputation. 

While on a visit with his son and daughter to California, Dr. Coles 
died suddenly, May 3, 1891, from heart complication, resulting from 
an attack of la grippe. At the time of his decease his life and works 



were extensively commented upon by the press, secular and religious. 
Innumerable dispatches and letters of condolence were received from 
distinguished authors throughout the literary world, from the execu- 
tive mansion, Washington, D. C, from distinguished members of the 
bench and bar, from those chief among the clergy, and from distin- 
guished personages abroad. The funeral services were held in Newark, 
New Jersey, — the private services at the home of his married life, on 
Market street, and the public services in the Peddie Memorial church. 
The Rev. Dr. Philip Schaff, by reason of the serious illness of his son, 
was prevented from preaching the funeral sermon. An address, by 
Rev. Charles F. Deems, D. D., of New York, was preceded by prayer by 
the Rev. Dr. Robert Lowry, and the singing of Dr. Coles' hymns, "Ever 
with Thee," and "All the Days." An address, by George Dana Board- 


man, D. D., was followed by the singing of Dr. Coles' translation of St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux's hymn, " Jesu Dulcis Memoria." 

The memory of Jesus' name 

Is past expression sweet ; 
At eacli dear mention, hearts aflame 

With quicker pulses beat. 

But sweet, above all sweetest things 

Creation can afford, 
That sweetness which His presence brings, 

The vision of the Lord. 

Sweeter than His dear Name is nought ; 

None, worthier of laud. 
Was ever sung, or heard, or thought. 

Than Jesus, Son of God. 

Thou hope to those of contrite heart ! 

To those who ask, how kind ! 
To those who seek how good Thou art ! 

But what to those who find ? 

No heart is able to conceive. 
Nor tongue nor pen express ; 

Who tries it only cau believe 
How choice that blessedness ! 


The New Jersey Historical Society attended in a body. James 
Russell Lowell, in a sympathetic note, one of the last he wrote, said : 
"I regret very much I cannot share in the sad function of pallbearer, 
but my health will not permit it." The pallbearers were: Vice- 
Chancellor Abram V. Van Fleet, Judge David A, Depue, ex-Chancellor 
Theodore Runyon, Hon. Amzi Dodd, Hon. Thomas N. McCarter, Hon. 
Cortlandt Parker, Hon. A. Q. Keasbey, Hon. Frederick W. Ricord, 
Noah Brooks, Alexander H. Ritchie, Spencer Goble, James W. Schoch, 
William Rankin, Charles Kyte, Edmund C. Stedman, Dr. Ezra M. 
Hunt, Dr. A. W. Rogers, Dr. S. H. Pennington, Dr. B. L. Dodd, Dr. J. 
C. Young and Dr. T. H. Tomlinson. His body was laid to rest by the 
side of that of his wife, in Willow Grove Cemetery, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. 

" Dr. Coles' style," says a prominent critic, " has individuality as much 
as that of Samuel Johnson or Thomas Carlyle. One certainly sees how 
thoughts sublime find expression in terse and stately sentences, and how 
words are chosen, such as come out of the depth of inspiration and genius. 
There is not conformity to the style of any favorite author, or to the 
modes of thought of any favorite logician, but a forging of weighty words 
wrought out from the depth of quiet inner feelings and conceptions." 
" Dr. Coles' researches," says Edmund C. Stedman, " made so lovingly and 
conscientiously in the special field of his poetic scholarship, have given 
him a distinct and most enviable position among American authors. 
We of the younger sort learn a lesson of reverent humility from the pure 
enthusiasm with which he approaches and handles his noble themes. 
The ' tone ' of all his works is perfect. He is so thoroughly in sympathy 
with his subjects that the lay reader instantly shares his feeling ; and 
there is a kind of white light pervading the whole prose and verse which 
at any time tranquilizes and purifies the mind." 

Noah Brooks, LD- D., author and editor, said: "Dr. Coles, 
although playful and mirthful in some phases of his disposition, was 
never trivial, and the most of his work which he has left us is an 
indication of the seriousness, even solemnity, with which he regarded 
human existence, its necessities, its responsibilities, and its future. He 
had no time to devote any part of his commanding talents to daintiness 
or superficialities. ' Christ and His Cross are all my theme ' was 
evidently his maxim in life. His poetry was suffused with love and 
admiration of Christ's character and attributes, and he never saw man 
without beholding in him the image of the Master." 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, speaking of Dr. Coles, says : "I 
have always considered it a great privilege to enjoy the friendship 
of so pure and lofty a spirit^— a man who seemed to breathe holiness as 
his native atmosphere, and to carry its influences into his daily life." 
As regards his writings, he says : "There was no line which, dying, 
he could have wished to blot, and there was no line which the purest of 


God's angels, looking over his shoulder, would not have looked upon 
approvingly. His memory will long be cherished as one of our truest 
and sweetest singers. ' ' 

In addition to his published works. Dr. Coles left, at his 
death, in manuscript, translations of the whole of Bernard of 
Clairvaux's "Address to the Various Members of Christ's Body 
Hanging on the Cross;" the whole of Hildebert's "Address to the 
Three Persons of the Most Holy Trinity ;" selections from the Greek 
and Latin classics, and various writings on literary, medical and 
scientific subjects. 

The titles of Dr. Coles were : A. M., from Rutgers College ; Ph. D., 
from the University of I,ewisburg, Pennsylvania; and LL,. D., conferred 
in 1871, b}' the College of New Jersey at Princeton. 

" In the presence of several thousand people, an heroic bronze bust of 
the late Dr. Abraham Coles, by John Quincy Adams Ward, with its val- 
uable and unique pedestal," says the New York Herald, "was formally 
unveiled in the city of Newark, New Jersey, July 5, 1897. 

"In deference to Mr. Ward's j\idgment and correct taste, a bust 
of Dr. Coles was decided upon in preference to a full-length statue. 
The base of the bust represents two large folio volumes, bearing the 
titles of the published works of Dr. Coles. These rest upon the 
capstone of the pedestal, consisting of a monolith from the Mount of 
Olives, which, in turn, rests on one from Jerusalem, beneath which 
are two from Nazareth of Galilee, resting on two stones from Bethlehem 
of Judea. 

' ' The stones are highly polished on three sides, and are very beautiful. 
This is especially true of the monolith from Solomon's quarry, under 
Jerusalem, believed to be like unto those used in the construction of 
the Temple, and to which Christ's attention was called by one of His 
disciples, as He went out of the Temple on His way to the Mount of 
Olives. (Mark, xiii., i). The fourth side, or back of each stone, has, 
for geological reasons, been left rough, as it came from the hands of the 
Judean or Galilean workmen. 

' ' The foundation stone is a huge bowlder of about seven tons weight, 
brought from Plymouth, Massachusetts, the homeland of the Pilgrim 
Fathers ; combined with this is a portion of one of the monoliths of 
Cheops, the great pyramid of Egypt. The memorial is surrounded by 
monoliths of Quincy, Massachusetts, granite, each fourteen feet long, 
bolted into corner stone posts, quarried not far from Mount Tabor, nigh 
unto Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee. 

"Cast in solid bronze on the front of the pedestal is a copy of 
Dr. Coles' well known national song of praise, 'The Rock of Ages,' 
while riveted to Plymouth rock is a solid bronze tablet containing an 
oft-repeated extract from a treatise by Dr. Coles on law in its relation. 
to Christianity. 


"The song inscribed on the bronze tablet is as follows : 


[Isaiah xxvi,, 4.] 
A National Song of Praise. 

Let US to Jehovah raise 'Midst the terror of the fight, 

Glad and grateful songs of praise ! Kept them steadfast in the right ; 

Let the people with one voice, ' Taught their Statesmen how to plan 
In the Lord their God rejoice ! To conserve the Rights of Man ; 

For His mercy standeth fast. For His mercy standeth fast. 

And from age to age doth last. And from age to age doth last. 

He, across untraversed seas, Needful skill and wisdom lent 

Guided first the Genoese ; To establish Government ; 

Here prepared a dwelling-place Laid foundations resting still 

For a freedom-loving race ; On the granite of His will ; 

For His mercy standeth fast, For His mercy standeth fast. 

And from age to age doth last. And from age to age doth last. 

Filled the land the red man trod Wiped the scandal and the sin 

With the worshippers of God ; From the color of the skin ; 

When Oppression forged the chain Now o'er all, from sea to sea, 

Nerved their hands to rend in twain. Floats the Banner of the Free ; 

For His mercy standeth fast. For His mercy standeth fast, 

And from age to age doth last. And from age to age doth last. 

Gave them courage to declare Praise the Lord for freedom won 

What to do and what to dare ; And the Gospel of His Son ; 

Made them victors over wrong Praise the Lord, His name adore 

In the battle with the strong. All ye people, ever more ! 

For His mercy standeth fast. For His mercy standeth fast, 

And from age to age doth last. And from age to age doth last. 

Abraham Coles, July 4, 1876. 

" The tablet on the Plymouth rock reads as follows : 

" 'The State, although it does not formulate its faith, is distinctively- 
Christian. Christianity, general, tolerant Christianity, is a part of the 
law of the land. Reverence for law is indissolubly interwoven with rev- 
erence for God. The State accepts the Decalogue, and builds upon it. 
As right presupposes a standard, it assumes that this is such a standard, 
divinely given and accepted by all Christendom ; that it underlies all 
civil society, is the foundation of the foundation, is lower than all and 
higher than all ; commends itself to reason, speaks with authority to the 
conscience ; vindicates itself in all government, giving it stability and 
exalting it in righteousness. — Abraham Coles, Memorial Volume, p, 
xxxvi.' " 

The stones of Palestine were secured through the agency of the Rev. 
Edwin T. Wallace, A. M., our consul at Jert^salem. 

The foundation bed is composed of Palestine, Egyptian and Newark 
broken stone, bound together with Egyptian cement, taken from the 
Pyramid of Cheops, mixed with American cement. Imbedded beneath the 
stones are a copy of the Bible ; a complete list of the passengers of the 
Mayflower, with a sketch of their lives, from the Boston Transcript ; 
the Declaration of Independence, with the signers thereof; the Constitution 



of the United States of America ; a list of the Sons and Daughters of the 
American Revolution ; the new constitution and list of members of the 
New Jersey Historical Society ; list of the members of the American 
Medical Association ; all the published wOrks of Dr. Abraham Coles ; some 


water taken from the Dead Sea by Dr. Coles ; a stone ornament from 
Caesar's palace at Rome, and other objects of local, state and national 
interest. Mindful of the services rendered the state by the late Dr. 
Abraham Coles, Dr. J. A. Coles, in a letter, dated June i6th, to the Hon. 



John W. Griggs, governor of New Jersey, had offered to give the bronze 
and its pedestal to the state, provided it could be located at Newark. 

The Governor, in a friendly reply, and at a subsequent personal 
interview, explained to Dr. Coles, that, if given to the state, the memorial 
would, like the Doctor's recent gift of the famous painting of " The Good 
Samaritan," by Daniel Huntington, have to be located at Trenton, in 
order that the state might have the care and custody of the same, which 
it would not have if placed in the city of Newark. It being, therefore, 
left to Dr. Coles to choose between Trenton and Newark for the location 
of his gift, he decided in favor of his native city. 

"That the unveiling might occur on July 5th, the Newark board of 
works," says the New York Tribune, "held a special meeting on June 
2 2d, to consider the matter. The letter written by Dr. J. Ackerman 
Coles to Mayor Seymour, proffering the bronze bust of the late Dr. 
Abraham Coles, by J. Q. A. Ward, and its pedestal, to the city of Newark, 
was read, as was the mayor's communication on the subject. Commis- 
sioner Van Duyne then offered a resolution that the gift be accepted, and 
that Dr. Coles be authorized to place the same in Washington Park. 
The resolution was unanimously adopted." 

The 4th of July occurring on Sunday, twenty thousand copies of a 
little book, consisting of patriotic songs, by the late Dr. Abraham Coles, 
set to music, were previously printed and given to the school children 
throughout the city ; these were used in the Sunday schools and churches 
on July 4th, and on the occasion of the unveiling of the bronze. 

" On the afternoon of July 5th, Mayor Seymour presiding, the exer- 
cises in Washington Park were begun," says the Newark Daily Adver- 
tiser, "by the band playing and the large assemblage singing Dr. 
Coles' national hymn, 'My Native Land,' the music being under the 
direction of John C. Day, of St. Luke's Methodist Episcopal church. 
Letters were received from President and Mrs. William McKinley, 
executive mansion, Washington, D. C; from Vice-President Garret 
A. Hobart, president of the United States senate ; from Governor John 
W. Griggs, of New Jersey ; from Bishop John H. Vincent, chancellor of 
Chautauqua University, and from others prominent in political and 
literary circles." 

After prayer by the Rev. Dr. Robert Lowry, the large American 
flag surrounding the bronze bust and its pedestal was unfurled by 
President William A. Gay, of the board of education, revealing, amid 
hearty cheers, the benignant and classical features of the late Dr. 
Abraham Coles. 

Dr. Jonathan Ackerman Coles, the donor, then made the address 
of presentation . " In recognition and appreciation," said Dr. Coles, 
"of the bond of fellowship that existed between the people of Newark 
and my father, the late Dr. Abraham Coles, on account of his active 
efforts in the promotion of the physical, religious, educational and 


scientific development of this city, it is with civic pride and pleasure I 
now present to your Honor the pedestal and bronze just unveiled by the 
president of the board of education, — an historic memorial different and 
distinctive from that possessed by any other city or nation, and, in 
editorial language, 'in harmony with the life career of the physician 
and scholar it commemorates.' " 

The statue was formally accepted on behalf of the city by Mayor 
James M. Seymour. The Mayor said : 

On behalf of the people of this city it gives me great pleasure to accept from our 
respected fellow citizen, Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, this fine memorial of that distinguished 
gentleman, Dr. Abraham Coles. Nothing could be more appropriate on this spot, 
opposite our new free public library, than this bust. 

Dr. Coles was one of America's greatest scholars. His cultured mind roamed 
through many fields and gave to the world some of its choicest treasures in literature, 
poetry and art. He was a scholar, a statesman, and a physician. He found time in his 
busy life to do and know many things, and do and know each better than most men 
know one. When on yonder plot of ground our new building shall have been erected and 
stored with the learning of all lands, there will stand in proxmity an invitation and an 
object lesson to the youth of our city ; yonder the offer of intellectual wealth ; here a mon- 
ument to its attainment ; there the seeds of knowledge ; here the emblem of its fruition. 

Dr. Coles spent the greater part of his life in Newark. Here were his friends, of 
whom I am proud to have been one, his home and his family. His books and writings 
are known and read over all the world, but here we knew the pleasant, courteous, kind- 
hearted gentleman. His personality is still so fresh and strong in my remembrance that 
in offering this verbal testimony to his fame, I cannot forget that, like many other great 
men in all ages, he was greatest in meekness, charity, and kindness of heart. 

It is eminently fitting that this memorial should be surrounded by and mounted 
upon these tokens indicative of the bent of his mind. His predilections from his 3'outh 
were toward religion, and whether engaged in the relief of his fellow men, through the 
medium of medicine or surgery, penning those beautiful lines "Rock of Ages," or 
delving among the dead tongues of bygone days, it is easy to find in all his work a 
predominating desire to serve, as best he knew how, his God. 

On behalf of the city of Newark I accept this bust, and though it cannot last as long 
as the memory of him whom it memorializes, let us hope that while it stands here in this 
public park it will have a widespread influence upon our young men, and incite them to . 
emulate Dr. Coles' useful, studious, earnest life. 

In accepting the statue on behalf of the board of works, President 
Stainsby said : 

There is little that I need say at this time. It is a pleasure to commend both the 
filial and public spirit which prompted this donor. The men of means of Newark have 
not hitherto permitted their public spirit to take shape for the beautification of the city. 
With good streets and elaborate parks should come beautifying statuary, and all that 
speaks for culture and pride in our public men and the perpetuation of objects of 
interest in our city. 

In this park now stand two monuments : One speaks for the foundry and the 
mechanic, the foundation of this city's strength. The other speaks of the professional 
man and the man of literature, made possible by our material greatness. The founda- 
tion stone will recall to all passers the sterling worth and fixity of principles of the 
Puritan fathers, and the superstructure bearing the bust will bring to our minds the 
religious in man, and both will be found typified in the life and character of Dr. Coles. 

Mr. Stainsby was followed by the Rev. Dr. A. H. Tuttle, who 


delivered a review of the works of "Abraham Coles, the Physician- 
Poet." Dr. Tuttle said : 

Dr. Abraham Coles is called the physician-poet, not because he is the only one of 
his profession who has put great thoughts into immortal verse, but because of a single 
work in which he has sung, with genuine poetic genius, of the organs and functions 
of the human body. 

" Man, the Microcosm " is a perilous theme for a poet. It awakens the scientific 
rather than the poetic faculty. Nothing of the kind had appeared before in our speech. 
Armstrong's " The Art of Preserving Health," published over one hundred and fifty 
years ago, can hardly be called an exception. Only one with the daring of Lucretius 
and the genius of Pope, both of whom in many respects the Doctor resembled, could so 
set scientific and philosophic facts as to make them sensitive to the breath of the Muse. 

Usually scientific accuracy is the death of poetry. Darwin laments that he, who, 
in the beginning of his studies, took the greatest pleasure in Shakespeare, in later years 
lost all relish for the great dramatist. On the other hand, a glowing imagination is apt 
to wing its flight beyond the sphere of proven facts which accurate science demands. 

But this poem, which is an address delivered before the Medical Society of the 
State of New Jersey, illumes the theme of a learned profession with the sacred speech of 
Polyhymnia. It at once commanded the attention and commendation of both physicians 
and artists ; and from the time of its delivery its author has been known as the 

This characterization, however, does not do him justice. We might with equal 
inaccuracy speak of David as the "warrior-psalmist," because the divine bard was a 
soldier, and sometimes sang of war. 

"The Microcosm " is but one of the many products of Dr. Coles's lyre, and the 
spirit that breathes here, as in them all, is not anatomy, but divinity. Correct as is his 
science, this is the spirit that prevades his song. 

" For such as this, did actually enshrine 

Thy gracious Godhead once, when thou didst make 

Thyself incarnate, for my sinful sake. 

Thou who hast done so very much for me, 

let me do some humble thing for Thee ! 

1 would to every organ give a tongue. 
That Thy high praises may be fitly sung ; 
Appropriate ministries assign to each. 
The least make vocal, eloquent to teach." 

Though the learning is that of the physician, the language and the spirit are those 
of a seraph. We must place our author among the sacred poets. 

We cannot pause to consider at length the perplexing question, What is sacred 
poetry ? We are among those who believe in the sanctity of the art, altogether aside 
from the theme in which it is employed. It is the voice of the soul's innermost life, 
expressing itself in form of creative speech, which kindles the feeling while it carries the 
thought. To turn such a gift to unholy uses is like turning the language of prayer into 
profanity. But in order to fix our author's place in the sacred choir, we accept the 
common thought that sacred poetry is that which treats of sacred things. 

It may be epic, as in Job and Milton, or dramatic, as in the Song of Solomon and 
Bach's " Passion," or lyric, as in all the Psalms and hymns. 

The most copious of our sacred poetry is the lyric. It is distinguished from others 
not by its metrical forms, nor altogether by the material it fashions, but by its personal 
thought or passion and its easy adaptation to song. 

There are four distinct grades of lyric poetry by which the rank of the poet is 
determined. The first is what we may call the natural, and is characterized by the 
outburst of impassioned personal experience; the second is artistic, and is distinguished 
by the exquisite finish of its structure ; the third is didactic, and is differentiated by its 
aim, which is to teach certain truths and facts. There are doubtless poets of high merit 
in this class, but its dominant motive is sure to give it the air of the school room, 
and these lyrics are often only doctrine in rhyme. The fourth class is the liturgical. 


It is arranged for a service already prepared, and is set to music already composed. It 
it usually characterized by poverty of ideas, wearisome repititions and a fatal lack of 

The foremost poet of the natural order is David, the creator of the Hebrew lyric, 
who, at the very beginning, gave to the world the very finest specimens of the art. 
There is in all his songs a spontaneous outpouring of the passion of the moment. 
Every creation only images the soul of the poet, and his utterance is an elegy or an 
idyl, according as he is grave or gay. To this class belong also many of the old Latin 
hymns, as those of Thomas of Celano; Bernard of Clairvaux, and Francis Xavier. 
They utter the soul's innermost consciousness. 

Measured by this standard, Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley are highest in the first 
rank of English hymnists. The doctrines of saving truth had become verities in their 
experience ; and they poured them out in rushing torrents of song. Their hymns are 
their own souls' biography. 

Dr. Coles has written more than fifty original poems, many of which merit a place 
high in the first class of lyrics. Some of them have the intuition, the passion, the 
imagery which remind us of Cowper. 

In a poem entitled "Prayer in Affliction," he describes himself as bowed in sorrow 
in his home, made desolate by the death of his wife. But in his grief his faith discovers 
the promise of good out of ill. Then he cries : 

" O, that my smitten heart may gush 

Melodious praise — Hke as when o'er 
/Eohan harp strings wild winds rush. 

And all abroad, sad music pour. 
So sweet. Heaven's minstrelsy might hush - _ j 

Brief time to listen, for I know, 
The hand that doth my comforts crush. 

Builds bliss upon the base of woe." 

The whole poem is wondrously suggestive of the genius of him who wrote the 
immortal, "My Mother." 

Some of his hymns throb with a spirit so akin to that of the matchless Wesley 
that we could readily believe they came from the Methodist's pen. Such is the following: 

" Upon His bosom, thus to rest. While I love Him and He loves me, 

I cannot ask to be mqre blest ; I care no other heaven to see ; 

To know my sins are all forgiven. And if there be some higher bliss. 

For Jesus' sake, O, this is heaven. I am content while I have this." 

But the Doctor did not devote his strength to the product of original hymns. He 
deliberately chose to turn masterpieces of ancient tongues into' English verse. Accord- 
ingly we are compelled to rank him in the second order of lyrists. He is "a poet of 
culture," whose aim is perfect, artistic expression. .i , ' 

What determined his choice was partly his .scholarship, partly his intensely 
spiritual nature, and partly the elegant refinement in which he was born and lived. 
His learning was varied and accurate. He was a recognized authority in his profession, 
an accomplished linguist, a master of the classic and Sanskrit tongues, and a critical 
writer on the profoundest theological themes. 

The vastness of his learning gave him such ample material for his verse that his' 
poetic passion made no imperious call for the invention of the intuitive faculty. 

We cannot think of him as we do of Burns, walking out under the stars, writhing 
in pain for some adequate- form in which to embody the tumultuous passion he must 
express. He had but to lift his eyes, and select from his calm, wide vision the form he 
needed. Had he been an unlettered peasant, the poetic gift would probably have travailed - 
in birth of song, which would have come forth in varied and original imagery. His 
poems would have shouted and danced like the Psalms of the Macabees. But wealth of 
advantage is oftentimes poverty of invention. 

As it was, his imagination was constructive rather than creative. Its images are 
more remarkable for their exquisite finish- than for the original boldness of their 
conception. It was a fortunate thing for the world, and probably for the fame of our 
author, that he devoted his superb gift to rendering the best of the Hebrew and classic 


lyrics into English verse. He is not alone among the seraphs who have made the 
attempt, but is conspicuous in this goodly company as the recognized chief. 

Others have copied the ancient masterpieces with wonderful accuracy, but in most 
instances have failed to reproduce that indescribable charm that gives to a poem its 
chief value. The spirit that breathes cannot be made to order. It must be born again. 
Otherwise the poem is a corpse. Dr. Coles has not used his art to exhume mummies. 
In his verses we have the living voices of the old-time singers. 

As Corot caught the varying movement of the trembling foliage in the deepening 
twilight, and so placed it on his canvas that one can almost see the shadows 
lengthening and hear the rustling of the leaves, so our poet has reproduced the very soul 
of the Hebrew and Latin verses. They are not versified translations — they are regener- 
ations. They are not wrought from without, but from within. Hence they retain that 
inestimable something that gives to a poem its immortality. 

As a single illustration, we name his " Dies Irse," eighteen versions of which come 
from the strings of his restless lyre. This sublimest masterpiece of sacred Latin poetry 
and noblest Judgment hymn of all languages has, through many ages, been inviting 
gifted tongues to voice its majestic solemnities in English speech. 

More than thirty have had the temerity to respond. Among them are Earl 
Roscommon, Sir Walter Scott, Lord Macaulay, Archbishop Trench and General Dix, 
some of whom have given renditions of considerable merit. But among them all, Dr. 
Coles wears the greenest laurels. Competent critics, like Dr. Philip SchafF and John G. 
Whittier, unite in affirming that no man, dead or living, has succeeded so well in render- 
ing the text and spirit of the wonderful hymn. 

The doctor's baton has made our speech throb with the ancient rhythm and 
reproduced in astonishing degree the characteristic features of the original. 

Here are its artless simplicity, its impassioned solemnity, its trumpet-like cadences 
which appall the soul with woeful terrors ; its triple rhyme which " beats the breast like 
a hammer," and gives it an awful music of its own, making the heart shudder with 
dread apprehension. And in all this quivering of judgment-terror there breathes the 
intense Christian spirit of the original, which finds its strongest utterance in the appeal : 

" Jesus kind, do not refuse me ! 
O, remember Thou didst choose me ! 
Lest Thou on that day shalt lose me. 
Seeking me Thy tired feet bore Thee, 
Cruel nails for my sake tore Thee, 
Let all fail not, I implore Thee." 

With equal skill he has put in English verse, hymns from Thomas of Celano, 
Fortunatus, St. Bernard of Cluny, St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and others, together with 
many selections from the Greek and Latin classics. 

It was natural for one with our poet's deeply spiritual life to turn with special 
fondness to those fountains of sacred song that spring from the Hebrew Psalter. There 
rather than at Helicon the voice of his Muse was heard. He was himself a careful 
student of the Orient and familiar with the Hebrew tongue. 

He believed that the life of the past was better expressed and preserved in its song 
than in its history, — that the inspiration of the Psalms was not merely poetic, but really 
and truly divine. He also believed that the much praised antiphonal parallelism which 
Herder describes as "that language of the heart which has never said all, but ever has 
something more to say," is not adapted to the Saxon genius or knowledge. 

If then, while he translates the Hebrew into English, he also translates the ancient 
antiphonal into modern meter, he brings the divine soul of the psalm in living presence 
before us. The correctness of his view has been often demonstrated. Clement Marot's 
metrical version of the Psalms proved to be a potent factor in the French Reformation. 
There are few things that have told so mightily on the Scotch character as Rouse's 
version. It is asserted that in the time of the Reformation, psalm-singers and heretics 
became almost identical terms. Il is an interesting fact, if it be true, as stated, that such 
was the value our Puritan forefathers placed on psalms in meter, that this was the 
title of the first book printed in New England. 



The Church, however, has in a large taeasure ceased the use of metrical psalms in 
public worship. This is due partly to the evolution of the English hymn, under the 
inspiration of Watts and his successors ; partly to the vitiated taste occasioned by the 
use of jingling ditties, and partly to the poor quality of many of the meterized psalms, 
which are in reality only mechanical paraphrases. 

We believe that if Dr. Coles' thought can only be adequately realized, if accurate 
translation can be wedded to genuine poetry and set to fitting music, it will be a boon to 
the Church, which is now so sadly agitated with the question of the choral features of its 
service. We will not affirm that in his version of the Psalms he has in every instance 
satisfied either the critic's eye, or the Christian's heart. 

Even the wings of Jove's bird sometimes grew weary. The peerless Milton often 
stumbled in his meter. Are David's own Psalms equal ? 

But the Doctor has given us a noble volume, which, aside from the other products 
of his pen, will place his name on the walls of "the immortals." And if psalm-singing 
never again becomes general in the home and in the Church, this rich collection will 
abide as a most helpful interpreter of the heavenly meanings of the Hebrew songs. 


We can barely speak of one other work which this poet lived to complete, — the 
rendering of the Gospel in verse. To some souls the whole Christian life is a poem — the 
Gospel is music itself. 

But he is a brave man who attempts to sing it all. Samuel Wesley, the father of 
John and Charles, made the daring effort to versify the Gospels. It was both a 
literary and financial failure. 

With what success Dr. Coles has made a similar effort, it remains for the coming 
generations to declare. In the meanwhile, we listen to the judgment of the Right 
Honorable John Bright, of England, who says : 

" When I began your volume I thought you had attempted to gild the refined gold, 
and would fail ; as I proceeded in my reading that idea gradually disappeared, and I 
discovered that you had brought the refined gold together in a manner convenient and 
useful, and deeply interesting. I have read the volume with all its notes, many of 
which seem to me of great value. I could envy you the learning and the industry that 


have enabled you to produce this remarkable work. I hope it may have readers in all 
countries where our language is spoken." 

One who consecrates his genius to echoing the thoughts and spirit of the peerless 
intellects of the past is not apt to command popular affection. There are few Platos and 
Boswells whose names appear on the scroll of immortality. But if ever that ambition 
enticed the heart of our author, he can sleep tranquilly on the pillow of his deathless work. 

Only six years ago, at the age of 78, he descended to the tomb. Already his 
hymns have been placed in many hymnals. His Greek and Latin translations are 
ranked by critics the very foremost. His psalms and gospels occupy an honored place 
in every great library of Europe and America. 

As the years separate us wider and ever wider from those great productive periods 
of sacred song, which made glad the ages past, more and more will the coming gener- 
ations feel the need of Dr. Abraham Coles' rich echoes. 

After the benediction by the Rev. Dr. D. J. Yerkes, there was more 
music. In the words of the New York Observer, " the whole occasion 
was a delightful tribute of honor to the memory of a noble man." 


onl}' son of Abraham and Caroline E. Coles, was born in Newark, New 
Jersey, May 6, 1843, ii^ the building No. 222 Market street, purchased by 
his father in 1842, and rendered historic by reason of its having, by its 
brick construction, stopped the spread of the great fire of 1836. He was 
prepared for college at the collegiate school of Forest & Quackenbos, in 
New York city, where he was awarded the prizes for proficiency in rhet- 
oric and German. In i860 he entered the freshman class of Columbia 
College, New York. In his senior j'ear, by the unanimous decision of 
Professor Charles Davies, Professor Murray Nairne, and Professor 
William G. Peck, he received the Philolexian prize for the best essay. 
He graduated in 1864, and in 1867 received the degree of A. M. 

After graduation he began the stud}- of medicine and surger}' in the 
of&ce of his father, in Newark, New Jersey, and, after matriculating at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York city, entered as a 
student of medicine, the office of Professor T. Gaillard Thomas. At the 
annual commencement of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
1867, he received, from Professor Alonzo Clark, the Harzen prize for the 
best written report of clinical instruction given during the year in the 
medical and surgical wards of the New York hospital. He graduated 
with honor in 1868, and after serving in the New York, Bellevue, and 
Charity hospitals, opened an office in the cit}- of New York, becoming a 
member of the New York Academy of Medicine and the New York 
County Medical Societ)-. 

The years 1877 and 1878, he spent for the most part in Europe, 
attending lectures and clinics at the universities of London, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Heidelberg, Berlin, and Vienna. While at Edinburgh he was the 
guest of Professor Simpson. At Paris, he was the guest of his father's 
friend and college classmate. Dr. J. Marion Sims. At Munich, Bavaria, 
in company with Dr. Sims, he attended the meetings of the International 


^^r^^z,^ /%2^n^ . 



Medical Congress, and, by invitation, there participated in the honors 
bestowed upon this disting-uished American surgeon, whose excellent 
bronze statue now adorns Bryant Park, in the city of New York. After 
visiting Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, he returned home and became asso- 
ciated with his father in the practice of his profession, which he has 
continued in Newark and Scotch Plains to the present time. During 
his absence, by reason of his father's letters and those of Hon. Frederick 
T. Frelinghuysen, then secretary of state, at Washington, D. C, he was 
everywhere received with marked courtesy. Soon after his return, at a 
literary gathering of friends, he, by request, read the following epitome 
of his travels : 


Returned from foreign travel, I 

No longer care to wander,^ 
Of that dear spot I call my home 

My fond heart has grown fonder. 

Drawn by the fame of far-off lands, 

I sought to see them nearer ; 
And while they justified report 

I felt my own was dearer. 

Three years ago to carry out 

Ivong-cherished dreams romantic, 

I waved farewells, and found myself 
Upon the broad Atlantic. 

The warring winds began to blow 

And make the cordage rattle, 
And with the angry surges join 

In fierce and mighty battle. 

The tossing of the sea was grand. 

But, Oh ! too sympathetic, 
The stomach, maugre the sublime. 

Succumbed to the emetic. 

From Queenstown, on your way to Cork, 
You hear "the bells of Shandon," 

As up you sail the river I,ee, 
That stream they " sound so grand on." 

I 've barely time to tell you how 

I went to kiss the Blarney, 
And then proceeded to the lakes 

Of lieautiful Killarney. 

With much to see, I rested not, 

To every wish compliant ; 
Saw all the sights, and, last of all. 

The Causeway of the Giant. 

Then, rich in memories precious, I, 

St. George's Channel crossing, 
Exchanged the Emerald for the Pearl — 
Gem-isles the deep embossing. 

Fair Albion, no words can tell 

The debt of love I owe it ; 
It gave me language, gave the lore 

Of prophet and of poet. 

Gave Shakespeare, Milton gave, and ope'd 
The door of school and college, 

Whence I enjoy the sweet delights. 
And blessedness of knowledge. 

Hail, Father-land ! Through all my veins 
The warm blood warmer gushes ; 

Because of thee myjoyful heart 
Is musical as thrushes. 

With keen delight, six crowded weeks 

I roamed the country over ; 
And then to see the Continent 

I crossed the straits of Dover. 

I passed through France, the beautiful ; 

Through Leopold's dominions ; 
Through Holland, earliest free, of which 

Dutch blood has Dutch opinions. 

I coasted Norway to the Cape, 

Where I beheld that wonder, 
The midnight sun, which scarcely dips 

The red horizon under. 

The Pole I could not see, nor Poles, 

For Poland, I found later. 
Was placed far distant from the Pole, — 

What error could be greater. 

I Sweden, Denmark, visited. 
And steppes and cities Russian ; 

Saw Warsaw, which war saw, when joined 
Russ, Austrian, and Prussian. 

I did the German capitals, 

Up rivers, over bridges, — 
Did Switzerland, the land of ice. 

Crossed Alpine mountain ridges. 


Passed into Italy, now one, I 've told you nothing in detail, 

Of art the mighty centre ; Because of my great hurry,— 

Constantinople, Athens seen, Then is it not all written out 

I ancient Egypt enter. In Baediker and Murray ? 

Then on to Palestine I sail For your sweet patience, listeners dear. 

In Mediterranean steamer. I own myself your debtor ; 

The land made sacred by the feet Before I went I loved my friends, 

Of our Divine Redeemer. Returned, I love them better. 

Returning from the East, I stopped I would not flatter, but since I 
At Malta, and then hasted Can give my reasons plenty, 

Through Spain, through Portugal, through As many as you choose to ask. 
Without a moment wasted. [France, One million up to twenty. 

I stood once more on English ground, I venture to declare, while I 

But soon for Scotland started ; Of ladies have seen many, 

Took in my trip the Hebrides, Those I see here are quite as good 

And then for home departed. And beautiful as any. 

In 1891 Dr. Coles was elected president of the Union County 
Medical Society, of New Jersey, and has filled other offices of public 
and private trust. He is a permanent delegate to the New Jersey 
State Medical Society, a member of the American Medical Association, 
a member of the executive and library committees of the New 
Jersey Historical Society, etc. He has contributed to the press, has 
published articles on medical and educational subjects, and has edited 
some new editions of his father's works. 

On September 5, 1895, ^^ wrote : 

To the Honorable Julius A. Lebkuecher, Mayor of the City of Newark : 

My dear Sir, — As a gift to Newark, my native city, in whose educational, scientific 
and religious advancement my father, the late Dr. Abraham Coles, always took a deep 
and active interest, I have bought one of the most characteristic and beautiful groups in 
real bronze to be seen in this country or in Europe. It consists of three figures — an 
American Indian, his wife and her mother, each life size. The pedestal is of rare dark 
Italian marble. The whole was executed at Rome, Italy, in 1886, by the distinguished 
American sculptor, the late C. B. Ives, and is illustrative of the following facts, related 
by Parkman and other authorities : 

After Colonel Bouquet had, in the fall of 1764, compelled the Indian tribes to sue 
for peace, he demanded the delivery, at Fort Pitt, of all captives in their possession. 
"Among those brought in for surrender," says Parkman, " were young women who had 
become partners of Indian husbands, and who now were led reluctantly into the presence 
of parents or relatives, whose images were almost blotted from their memory. They 
stood agitated and bewildered ; the revival of old affections and the rush of dormant 
memories painfully contending with more recent attachments, while their Indian lords 
looked on, scarcely less moved than they, yet hardening themselves with savage stoicism, 
and standing in the midst of their enemies imperturbable as statues of bronze. Of the 
women, who were compelled to return with their children to the settlements, some, 
subsequently, made their escape, eagerly hastening back to their warrior husbands, 
whose kindness before, as well as at the time of, the surrender had proved to them the 
sincerity of their affection." 

In our artist's group the mother discovers the wife of the Indian to be her daughter, 
who was carried off in early childhood. She, however, fails in her endeavor to obtain 
from her some sign of recognition. It was on this occasion that Bouquet, observing her 
distress, is said to have suggested that she should sing one of the songs she used to sing 


to her wheu a child. She did so ; then, with a sudden start, followed by a passionate 
flood of tears, the long-lost daughter threw herself into her mother's arms. 

In order that his work might be accurate and distinctive, Mr. Ives left Rome for 
this country, where he was successful in finding, for his model, an Indian who fulfilled 
all his requirements. Returning to Italy, he there perfected this, his great masterpiece. 

In 1832, the New Jersey legislature appropriated two thousand dollars to pay the 
Indians for a claim they made in regard to certain hunting and fishing rights. On this 
occasion the red men were represeuted by Shawriskhekung (Wilted Grass), an Indian of 
pure native blood. He was a graduate of Princeton College, having been educated at 
the expense of the Scotch Missionary Society, which named him Bartholomew S. Calvin. 
At the age of twenty-three he entered the Continental army to fight for independence, 
and at the time he presented to the legislature the petition for pay for the Indian fishing 
rights he was upward of eighty years of age. This aged Indian closed his address with 
the following words : " Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in battle ; not an acre 
of our land have you taken but by our consent. These facts speak for themselves and 
need no comment. They place the character of New Jersey in bold relief and bright 
example to those states within whose territorial limits our brethren still remain. There 
may be some who would despise an Indian benediction, but when I return to my people 
and make known to them the result of my mission, the ear of the great Sovereign of the 
universe, which is still open to our cry, will be penetrated with our invocation of 
blessings upon the generous sons of New Jersey." 

" It is a proud fact in the history of New Jersey," said Senator Samuel L. Southard 
before the legislature on this same occasion, "that every foot of her soil has been obtained 
from the Indians by voluntary purchase and transfer, a fact no other state of the Union, 
not even the land which bears the name of Penn, can boast of." For these as well as 
for other reasons, it has seemed to me to be pre-eminently proper that New Jersey 
should possess this magnificent monument cast in honor of the American Indian. 

With your sanction I will have it brought to Newark, and have it placed on a 
suitably prepared foundation, all at my own individual expense, in the locality we shall 
decide upon. Awaiting your reply, I am, with great respect. 

Yours sincerely, 

Jonathan Ackbrman Coi,es. 

To the above was sent the following reply : 

OflSce of the Mayor, City Hall, Newark, N. J., September 13, 1895. 
D)^. Jonathan Ackerman Coles, 222 Market Street, City : 

Dear Sir, — The communication directed to the Mayor of the city of Newark, dated 
September 4, 1895, and containing your munificent offer to present to the city a hand- 
some bronze group, was referred to the common council at its last meeting, held Friday, 
September 6th, accompanied by a message which read as follows : 

Office of the Mayor, City Hall, Newark, N. J., September 6, 1895. 
To the Honorable the Common Council of the City of Newark : 

Gentlemen, — I have the honor and pleasure to transmit herewith a communication 
which I received yesterday from Dr. Jonathan Ackerman Coles. In it he offers, as a 
gift to the city of Newark, a work of art, by an American sculptor of note, being a group 
in bronze which marks a most interesting historical event, *and as a memorial will recall 
the valuable services rendered in the interests of science and education by his distin- 
guished father, the late Dr. Abraham Coles. 

I respectfully recommend that action be taken by your honorable body to acknowl- 
edge the valuable and interesting gift, and to co-operate with the donor in providing a 
suitable place for its erection. 

Yours very truly, 

J. A. I/EBKUECHER, Mayor. 

It was received and read with great gratification, and, in response thereto, the 
following resolution of acknowledgment and acceptance was unanimously adopted : 


" Whereas, A beautiful work of art, by a sculptor of distinction, has been presented 
to the city of Newark by Dr. Jonathan Ackermau Coles ; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That the mayor be instructed to convey to the donor the sincere sense 
of appreciation in which this gift is received by the municipal government and people 
of the city of Newark ; and be it further 

"Resolved, That a committee of five, of whom the mayor and the president of the 
common council shall be members, be appointed to act with the donor in the selection 
of a suitable site for the placing of this valuable gift." 

In pursuance of the above resolution, I have the honor to extend to you, in behalf 
of the municipal government, the assurance of its high appreciation of your generous 
gift, and as chief executive to tender to you the thanks of its citizens. 

The spirit which prompts the presentation of this artistic group of bronze to the city 
is worthy of the greatest commendation. It gives me much pleasure to acknowledge, for 
the first time in the history of the city, a gift from one of its private citizens, which shall 
be for many generations a civic monument of beauty and a source of pride to the 
residents of Newark. 

I have the honor to be, yours very truly, 

J. A. IvEBKUECHER, Mayor. 

The committee, which consisted of Mayor Julius A. Lebkuecher, 
Mr. David D. Bragaw, president of the common council ; Aldermen 
William Harrigan, Sidney N. Ogden, and Winton C. Garrison, after 
visiting the different parks, in company with the donor, finally decided 
upon the north end of Ivincoln Park, as the most suitable site for the 

Subsequently the mayor and common council presented Dr. Coles 
with a testimonial of the city's appreciation of his gift. This memorial 
the New York Tribune describes as "a beautiful specimen of the art of 
engrossing. It is in an album form, bound in dark leather of the finest 
quality, the fiy leaves being of rich white moire silk. The body of the 
memorial contains the communication of the mayor to the common 
council announcing the offer of Dr. Coles, the resolutions passed by the 
council in accepting the gift, and the announcement by Mayor 
lycbkuecher to Dr. Coles of the acceptance. The delineator is Mr. 
John B. Morris, secretary of the board of assessments. " 

An editorial in the Newark Daily Advertiser said : "The public- 
spirited gift of a life-size bronze group to the city of Newark, is most 
heartily appreciated by Newark citizens. Dr. Coles could not have 
done a public act more graceful or more in harmony with the changing 
conditions of life in this community. We have been essentially an 
industrial people, and in our busy efforts to earn and save, there has 
been little time or leisure to be applied to the refinements of public art 
that belong to old and settled civilization. We are growing into that 
now. Soon we shall have a beautiful park system, and we hope to 
grace it with the adornments of art, contributed by educated and 
public-spirited citizens like Dr. Coles." 

The Rt. Rev. John Williams, D. D., LIv. D., bishop of the diocese 
of Connecticut, chancellor of Trinity College, etc., in a letter to Dr. 
Coles, referring to the bronze and its pedestal, said : "An inscription 



of the last stanzas of your father's beautiful national hymns, 'Columbia, 
the Laud of the Free,' and 'My Native Land,' upon the marble 
pedestal of the bronze historical group, would not only be a graceful 
tribute to your father's memory, but would also give a national as well 
as local value to the gift." The bishop's recommendation was carried 
out. lu 1666 Newark was settled by people from Connecticut. 

Thanksgiving day was selected by the common council committee 
and Dr. Coles as the time most appropriate for the unveiling exercises. 
The New York Herald referred to the occasion as follows: "Five 
thousand persons gathered in Lincoln Park, Newark, yesterday after- 
noon (November 28, 1895), to witness the unveiling and presentation 
to the city, of a life-size historic group in bronze by the distinguished 
American sculptor, C. B. Ives. * * * The entire cost of the group, 
its pedestal and everything in connection with its erection and 
unveiling was borne by Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, son of the late Dr. 
Abraham Coles. 

"The exercises opened with a national hymn, 'My Native Land,' 
by Abraham Coles, sung by the children, teachers and friends of the 
public and private schools of Newark, and elsewhere in the state, led 
by Professor Thomas Bott, James V. Orchard, and David B. Dana, 
cornetist, under the direction of Mr. Frank E. Drake. 

"Just as the hymn was finished the statue was unveiled by the 
drawing back of a large American flag, by Miss Lucy Ogden . Depue, 
granddaughter of Supreme Court Justice Depue, and Master Robert B. 
Bradley, grandson of the late United States Supreme Court Justice 
Bradley. A great cheer went up from the crowd as the group was 
disclosed to view, and when it had subsided Dr. J. A. Coles made a brief 
presentation speech, which embodied what he said, in his letter to 
Mayor Lebkuecher, in offering the group to the city. 

"On behalf of the citizens of Newark, Mayor Lebkuecher then 
made an address of acceptance. He said : ' It gives me great pleasure 
to receive and accept, on behalf of the people of Newark, the beautiful 
piece of bronze statuary which your generosity has prompted you to 
present to this city. The people will appreciate in its fullest sense this 
artistic gift, and will hold in grateful remembrance the generous giver. 
In accepting it, I tender to you the thanks of all the people of our city. 
It should be a matter of self-congratulation and satisfaction that the 
city of Newark has reached that stage in its history and development 
when its citizens are able to give expression to their more cultured 
tastes. And now, Mr. President of the board of street and water 
commissioners, upon your board devolves the duty of seeing to the safe 
keeping of this statue, and I now deliver it over to your care. ' 

"President Van Duyne, of the board of works, followed with a 
short address, and then followed one of the most interesting features 
of the whole ceremony. It was the delivery, by the pretty little Miss 


Grace E. Bates, grandiiiece of David D. Bragaw, president of the 
common council, of the keys of the metal boxes placed in the pedestal 
(containing the names of more than thirty thousand school children, a 
copy of the bible, a Newark directory, and various objects of local and 
general interest) to the equally pretty and tiny Miss Helen Coykendall, 
while held in the arms of her grandfather, Chief of Police Henry 
Hopper. It will be the duty of little Miss Coykendall to drop the keys 
into the Passaic river, from the draw of the Bridge street bridge, for 
safe keeping. 

"Then another national hymn, 'Columbia, the L/and of the Free,' 
was sung, and an address was made by the president of the board of 
education. Dr. Henry J. Anderson. This was followed by the singing 
of the 'Fourth of July,' a national hymn, and an address by the 
superintendent of public sohools. Dr. William N. Barringer. The 
subject of his talk was 'A Nation's History, as shown by its Monu- 
ments.' 'Our Country's Banner'. was sung; there was an address by 
the Rev. Dr. D. R. Frazer, of the First Presbyterian church ; the 
singing of a bicentennial ode, entitled 'Two Hundred Years Ago,' 
and then the benediction, by Rev. Dr. R. M. lyUther, pastor of the 
South Park Baptist church. 

"All the national hymns and the ode sung were the compositions 
of the late Dr. Abraham Coles, in whose memory the group will 
really stand." 

The Free Public I^ibrary is the possessor of one of the choicest 
specimens of artistic work in steel and bronze ever seen in Newark. 
It is a German Columbian memorial shield, executed for the German 
department of the Liberal Arts Building at the World's Fair, and is 
the gift of the family of the late Dr. Abraham Coles. 

The shield is circular in shape, about three feet in diameter, and 
in its centre, in high relief, is an allegorical figure of science unveiling 
the new world, bright with the rays of the rising sun. Above the shield 
is an American eagle, with wings outstretched, and grasping in its claws 
arrows, myrtle, and a banner, bearing the words, "Westward the star 
of empire takes its way." 

This inscription on the margin surrounds the bas-reliefs : " Dedi- 
cated to the American people in honor of the four hundredth anniversary 
of the discovery of America. 1492 — United we stand, divided we fall 

Surrounding the central group are the coats of arms of all the 
states and territories, with connecting bands, bearing the inscriptions, 
"In God we Trust," and " E Pluribus Unum." 

An allegorical representation of Columbia, the capitol at Wash- 
ington, the Emancipation Proclamation, the battle of Cherubusco, 
Washington crossing the Delaware, the signing of the Declaration of 
Independence, the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, and the landing of 



Columbus are the subjects of bas-reliefs, bronze medallions, surround- 
ing the centre of the shield. Portraits of Longfellow, Morse, Grant, 
Lincoln, Jefferson, Franklin, Garfield, and Washington are also 
worked in bronze. 

Eight small shields bear the names and populations of the eight 
largest cities in the country. 

Dr. Coles and his sister. Miss E. S. Coles, subsequently gave to 
the Newark Public Library, from the estate of their father, the statue 
of Benjamin Franklin and his whistle, executed in Carrara marble by 
Pasquale Romanelli. It was made in Italy, in 1863, and attracted 
much attention at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. 

It stands on a carved pedestal of dark 
marble. The figure is exquisitely graceful, and 
the execution shows the highest technical power. 
The conception is based on the incident described 
by Franklin himself, in a letter written to a 
friend in Philadelphia, in November, 1779. 

"When I was a child," he wrote, "seven 
years old, my friends, on a holiday, filled my 
pockets with coppers. I went directly to a shop 
where they sold toys for children, and being 
charmed with the sound of a whistle that I met 
by the way in the hands of another boy, I 
voluntarily offered and gave all my money for 
one. I then came home and went whistling all 
over the house, much pleased with my whistle, 
but disturbing all the family. My brothers and 
sisters and cousins, understanding the bargain 
I had made, told me I had given four times as 
much for it as it was worth, put me in mind 
what good things I might have bought with the 
rest of the money, and laughed at me so much 
for my folly that I cried with vexation, and the 
reflection gave me more chagrin than the whistle 
gave me pleasure. 
"This, however, was afterwards of use to me, the impression 
continuing 'on my mind so that often when I was tempted to buy some 
unnecessary thing I said to myself, 'Don't give too much for the 
whistle,' and I saved my money. 

" As I grew up, came into the world, and observed the actions of 
men, I thought I met with many, very many, who gave too much for 
the whistle. * * * In short, I conceive that great part of the mis- 
eries of mankind are brought upon them by the false estimates they 
have made of the value of things, and by giving too much for their 



The New York Tribune, April 20, 1897, says : "The Newark 
Free Library, which is soon to occupy a new and handsome building, 
to be erected this year on a site selected, facing Washington Park, in 
Newark, has begun to receive gifts from citizens of wealth and culture. 
Yesterday the library trustees received, and placed in the library, two 
beautiful life-size medallions in high relief Accompanying the gift 
was the following letter from the donor : 

Prominent among the art treasures in the marble palace of the late A. T. Stewart, 
on Fifth avenue and Thirty-fourth street, in New York city, were two pieces of statuary, 
designated " Sappho " and " First I,ove," by the well known American sculptor, Richard 
Hamilton Park. Visitors to the Metropolitan Museum of Art will also remember this 
artist's beautiful memorial of marble and bronze, in " The Poet's Corner," to the memory 
of Edgar Allen Foe (1S09-1849). 

Two other works, to some fully as interesting, and to many, perhaps, more fasci- 
nating, are his two beautiful life-size medallions, in Cararra marble, portraying in high 
relief the profiles of two little girls, appropriately designated, "Evening" and 
"Morning." The countenance of the one, as attractive as an evening sunset, bears the 
impress of weariness, attendant upon the close of a well spent day ; while that of the 
other, bright .ind joyous, after refreshing sleep, is equally suggestive of early sunrise and 
the singing of birds. 

All who love children and their innocent pleasures will find in these two medallions 

much to admire, and it is, therefore, with a feeling of confidence and pleasure that I, 

presuming upon your acceptance of the same, have ordered them, with their elegantly 

carved frames and pedestals, costing, originally, in Florence, Italy, about eight hundred 

dollars, to be sent this day as gifts to the Free Public Library of Newark, believing that 

visitors thereto will find in them additional incentives to the cultivation of the refined 

and beautiful in art. 

Sincerely and respectfull}- yours, 

Newark, April 19, 1897. 

"A letter sent to-day," says the Newark Daily Advertiser, "by 
Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, to Principal Edmund O. Hovey, of the High 
School, announces the writer's gift to the school of an elaborate copper- 
bronze globe. A hint is also given of another gift for the new High 

"Here is the text of the letter : 

" My Dear Sir : — I am in receipt of your courteous letter, in which 
you kindly refer to the time when the late Dr. Abraham Coles, my 
father, was, for a number of years, a member of the board of education, 
chairman of the normal-school committee, and ever active in advancino- 
the varied interests of the public schools of Newark. 

" I appreciate your appreciation of the addresses you mention as 
made by him, in presenting to the president of the board of education, 
for graduation, the classes of 1873, 1873 and 1874. 

" You, moreover, suggest the propriety of my giving something in 
bronze to remind the one thousand two hundred and four bright and 
intelligent boys and girls now in the high school, of the interest taken 
by Dr. Coles in the education of their parents, and in them, their 


' ' Your letter reached me at an opportune moment, soon after the 
arrival at my office of a box, not yet opened, containing a large copper- 
bronze globe, with its stand, which I had been successful in obtaining 
as an intended gift for the new High School of Newark. 

" This globe is a model of the earth, and is remarkably interesting 
as representing, as it were, a survey of the bottom of the sea, of the 
lakes and of the rivers. It also shows the comparative heights of the 
mountains and the depths of the valleys on land. It shows us what 
every man, woman and child has always been curious to know, viz. : 
How the bottom of the sea looks. Here we see the cause of the 
different currents, and the results of volcanic eruptions beneath the 
ocean's bed. It is interesting to note and compare the oceanic levels, 
also the sudden and gradual depressions, and the varied elevations of 
the two hemispheres. 

" No school in New York city, nor in New Jersey, I am informed, 
has such a model of the earth, and it was, in a measure, due to my 
desire that the metropolis of New Jersey should continue to lead in 
educational matters, that caused me to purchase the same as a gift for 
its High School. When you get into your new fire-proof building, it 
may be my privilege and pleasure to donate something else. When 
agreeable to the board of education, I will send the bronze globe and 
its pedestal, and locate them where you desire." 

"Another acceptable gift to the Newark Free Public Library," 
says the New York Tribune, " is announced in the following letter : " 

Gentlemen, — Of the more than seven hundred sculptures in marble that line the 
walls of the Museo Chiaramonti, of the Vatican, at Rome, Italy, there is, probably, no 
one that receives more attention from, or is better remembered by visitors, than the one 
known as the " Bust of Young Augustus,'' found at Ostia, A. D. 1808. 

A beautiful life-size copy of this celebrated work, I was so fortunate as to discover 
a few days ago in the store of an importer, in New York city. Knowing the rarity and 
value of the bust, it being made of the finest Carrara marble, and of the same size and 
finish as the original, I immediately purchased it, with a suitable marble pedestal, as a. 
gift to the Free Public Library, of Newark, where, anticipating your acceptance of the 
same, it, with- its pedestal, will probably arrive to-morrow. With great respect, I have 

the honor to be 

Yours truly, 

J. AcKERMAN Coles. 

The trustees subsequently acknowledged the receipt of and accept- 
ance of the gift : 

"To the New Jersey Historical Society," says the New York 
Commercial Advertiser, "for the erection thereon of a suitable fire- 
proof building. Dr. J. A. Coles has offered to give either one of two 
valuable plots of land in the city of Newark, fronting on and over- 
' looking the Branch Brook Park. One plot is near its Sixth avenue 
entrance, with a frontage of fifty feet on the park, thence running 
back two hundred feet, to Fifth street, with a front thereon of fifty 
feet. The other plot is at the Boulevard entrance, and has a frontage 


of one hundred and twelve feet on the park, and fifty feet on Fifth 
lue. " 

The Boston Evening Transcript, April 2, 1897, announced the 
gift, by Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, to the state of New Jersey, of Daniel 
Huntington's famous life-size painting, "The Good Samaritan," 
concerning which Harper's Weekly remarked : " New Jersey will get 
an admirable painting in memory of the late Dr. Abraham Coles, a 
good and distinguished citizen." 

Following is a copy of the printed correspondence relating to the 
gift : 

To THE Hon. John W. Griggs, IvL. D., Governor of the State op New Jersey. 

Dear Sir, —I am now the owner of the celebrated oil painting known as "The 
Good Samaritan," by our distinguished American artist, Daniel Huntington. The 
picture, with its frame, measures about nine feet in width by eleven feet in height, 
the principal figures being life size. It was executed by Daniel Huntington, in his 
studio, in Paris, France, in the years 1852-3, in fulfillment of an order given him by the 
late Marshall O. Roberts, Esq., of New York city. The choosing of a subject having 
been left with Mr. Huntington, he selected the pictorial illustration or interpretation of 
the second great commandment of the law : "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." 
That he succeeded in his effort has been conceded by critics, for here, with wonderful 
skill, is vividly portrayed the arrival at the inn, the sympathetic interest of the host, 
hostess and guests and the respectful attention given to the orders of "The Good 

Mr. Huntington informs me that while engaged on this painting he was visited in 
his studio by Paul Delaroche, the eminent historical painter of France, who took a deep 
interest in the progress of his work, and by friendly suggestions as to detail, color, etc., 
rendered him much assistance, a circumstance which adds immensely to the value of 
this picture, as it may be regarded as the joint work of these two great master minds. 
After its completion, requiring several months, it was, after attracting much attention 
in Paris, sent to this country, exhibited at the National Academy, then on Broadway, 
also at Mr. Roberts' private gallery on Fifth avenue, and formed one of the chief 
attractions at the Sanitary Fair Exhibition of Paintings, held in Fourteenth street, New 
York city, during the late civil war. 

Mr. Huntington, having learned that I contemplated giving this painting, through 
you, to the people of New Jersey, wrote to me a few weeks ago, suggesting that I should 
first send the canvas to his studio in New York city, and leave it with him for a month, 
in order that, he might retouch and restore any injuries done by the hand of time. This 
I have done. I have also had its artistic and beautiful frame relaid with the best of 
gold leaf. 

Upon receipt of word from you that, as a gift, the painting will be acceptable to the 
state, I will, as soon as practicable, at my own expense, send it to Trenton, and have it 
hung in the place deemed most suitable for its reception in the capitol, a building asso- 
ciated with pleasant meetings therein of my father, the late Abraham Coles, A. M., 
M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., with his friends, some of whom are still living, while the portraits 
of others adorn its walls. It is with special pride I recall the recorded words of the late 
Governor Daniel Haines, and those of the late Henry WoodhuU Green, chief justice 
and chancellor, who, in referring to the life and writings of Dr. Abraham Coles, affirm 
that ' ' to him the world owes a debt of gratitude for his labor and research, which 
redound to the honor of our state." Awaiting your reply, I am, with great respect, 

Yours sincerely, 

J. ACKERMA.N Coles. 

Newark, N. J., March 29, 1897. 


Governor Griggs' reply is as follows : 

State of New Jersey, Executive Department. 

Trenton, March 30, 1897. 


My Dear Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your esteemed favor 
of the 29th inst., tendering to the state of Neve Jersey the painting known as "The Good 
Samaritan." I assure you nothing would delight me more than to accept at your hands 
such a valuable gift on behalf of the people of the state. The picture will be accorded 
the best hanging that can be selected for it in the state house, and I will have an 
engraved plate, if it meets your pleasure, placed upon it, giving the name of the generous 
donor. Permit me to say that your generosity and goodness to your native state are 
deserving of the highest appreciation on behalf of the people, and when the picture shall 
have been received, I hope to express to you in a more formal way, the thanks and 
gratitude of the executive for your generous donation. 

Whenever it shall suit your convenience to forward the picture, it will be received 
and cared for with all the consideration that it deserves. Very sincerely yours, 

John W. Griggs, Governor. 

A special to the New York Sun, dated Trenton, New Jersey, June 
II, 1897, says : " Daniel Huntington's painting, ' The Good Samar- 
itan, ' was received at the capitol this morning. 

"The painting is nine by eleven feet, so large that it could 
not be put in a freight car. It was brought here from Newark on a 
large truck, which started from Newark yesterday morning. A brass 
plate at the bottom of the frame bears this inscription : ' A gift to the 
people of New Jersey, in memory of Abraham Coles, A. M., M. D. , 
Ph. D., L,L,. D.,' and this quotation, from one of Dr. Coles' works : 'We 
can weigh actions better than we can motives. The hand of Omniscience 
needs to hold the scales when hearts are to be judged.' " 

"The painting was hung," says the Home Journal (New York), 
" in the state house, opposite the front stairway." 

On January 9, 1897, Dr. Coles received an engrossed copy of a 
resolution which read as follows : 
"The Trustees of Columbia College, in the city of New York. 

" At a meeting of the Trustees of Columbia College, held at the 
college on Monday, the fourth day of January, one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-seven, the following action was taken : 

''Resolved: That the thanks of the Trustees be tendered to Dr. 
J. Ackerman Coles for his most welcome and valuable gift to the 
University of several bronze busts, handsomely and appropriately 

" I. A copy of the Olympian Zeus, by Phidias. 

"2. A copy of the bust of Plato, found in the house of the Papyri, 

"3. A copy of the Hermes of Praxiteles, found in the Temple of 
Hera, in Olympia. 

' ' A true copy. 
[SEAL.] "JOHN B. Pine, Clerk." 


Previous to the receipt of the above Dr. Coles had received a 
personal note, from President Seth Low, which read as follows : 

C01.UMBIA University, in the City of New York. 

President's Room, December 16, 1896. 
My Dear Dr. Coi,ES : 

I liave just seen the bronzes in the library. They are beautiful, and I am very sure 
they will be accepted with gratitude. I had the pleasure of telling the Alumni last 
evening of your generosity, and in due time you will receive the formal thanks of the 
Trustees. The Alumni received the announcement with applause. 

Yours faithfully, 

Seth Low, President. 

On June 29, 1897, to Dr. Coles was sent the following, also 
beautifully engrossed : 

"The Trustees of Columbia College, in the city of New York. 

" At a meeting of the Trustees of Columbia College, in the city of 
New York, held at the college on Monday, the seventh day of June, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven, the 
following action was taken : 


''Resolved : That the thanks of the Trustees be tendered to Dr. 
J. Ackerman Coles, for his gift to the University of an heroic-size 
marble bust of the Parthenon Minerva, with its pedestal, bearing a 
bronze medallion portrait of Pericles, and also of an heroic bronze bust 
of Homer, a copy of the one in the Louvre which he has had cast 
especially for the University library building. 

' ' A true copy. 

"John B. Pine, Clerk." 
[sea L.J 

The bust copy of the Parthenon Minerva was given by Dr. Coles, 
as executor of his father's estate; it was executed at Athens, Greece, by 
a native sculptor, L. Droses, for, and exhibited at, the Centennial 
celebration at Philadelphia, in 1876, where it attracted much attention, 
and was subsequently secured by Tiffany & Co. for the estate of the 
late Dr. Abraham Coles. 

Since their father's death Dr. J. Ackerman Coles and his sister. 
Miss Emilie S. Coles, a successful writer of prose afld verse, have given 
from his personal estate many valuable works of art to the various 
universities and institutions of learning, in which, during his lifetime, 
he was interested. 

"To Princeton University," says the New York Observer, " Dr. 
Coles and his sister have given, with its marble pedestal, the magnifi- 
cent life-size marble statue of ' Nydia,' made of the best Cararra marble, 
by Randolph Rogers, in Rome, Italy, in 1856. Several copies of it 
were subsequently made. One was at the Centennial Exposition, and 
another in A. T. Stewart's collection. The one given to Princeton is 


the original. To this idealization of the blind girl of Pompeii is 
attributed the foundation of Rogers' fame as an artist and sculptor, 
securing for him the commission to design (1858) the bronze doors for 
the capitol at Washington, D. C, and to iinish the Washington 
monument at Richmond, Virginia (1861)." 

"The original statue of Nydia," says the American Register, 
Paris, France, " was given to Princeton University in appreciation of 
the mutual regard which for more than fifty years existed between the 
trustees, faculty and instructors of the College of New Jersey and the 
late Abraham Coles, A. M., M. D., Ph. D., LL. D." 

From the president of the university the donors received the 
following acknowledgement : 

Princeton, N. J., August 3, 1886. 
Miss Emii,ie S. Coles and Dr. J. Aceerman Coles, 

Deerhurst, Scotch Plains, N. J. 
My Dear Friends : 

At the meeting of the board of trustees of the College of New Jersey, held during 
commencement week, in June last, I had the pleasure of reporting to them that I had 
received, in behalf of the college, from you, the beautiful marble statue of Nydia, which 
you so kindly presented to the college out of the estate of your father, the late Dr. 
Abraham Coles. 

The gift was very gratefully received by the trustees, and I was requested, in their 
behalf, to write to you expressing the very cordial thanks of the trustees for the beautiful 
statue which now adorns the Museum of Historic Art. 

I have great pleasure in discharging the duty assigned to me by the trustees. 
Nydia will always be associated in our minds with the memory of your gifted father, and 
I venture to hope that the common interest which you and we have in this masterpiece 
of the sculptor's art will constitute a strong bond between you and Princeton University. 
I trust that we may have the pleasure of seeing you at Princeton sometimes, and I 
beg to assure you that whenever you will honor us with a visit you will find a most cordial 
welcome in our home from Mrs. Patton and myself. 

I am, very sincerely, 

Francis S. Patton. 

The Chicago Evening Post says, — "Princeton has a new and 
novel mascot. It was given to the college at the sesquicentennial 
celebration. It is an American tiger or jaguar, known for its great 
strength and fighting qualities. The specimen is an especially large 
one, being the one P. T. Barnum had in his museum in New York. 
After its death it was stuffed, and figured in the procession celebrating 
the laying of the Atlantic cable. It also appeared at the Old Guards' 
ball in New York and at other festivities in that city. It has been 
handsomely fitted up by the person who gave it, and is now in the 
biological laboratory, from which it will be removed when other 
quarters are provided for it. The donor is Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, of 
Newark, N.J." 

Prof. William L,ibbey, secretary of the committee on reception 
and entertainment, sesquicentennial exercises. College of New Jersey, 
wrote to Dr. Coles, October 16, 1896 : 


" We will be vety glad to accept the historic tiger, and use it upon the 
occasion of the torch-light procession. I telegraphed you in order that 
there might be no delay in getting the animal packed up, so as to reach 
us in time. Permit me, on the part of the college, to thank you most 
cordially for this indication of 3'our interest. 

" Yours very truly, 

"William Libbey, Secretary." 

The tiger was carefully cased and sent under special guard to Professor 
Ivibbey. Extra precaution was deemed necessary to prevent its going to 
some other college. It took part in the procession, and Princeton has 
known no defeat at ball since its arrival on the campus. 

From Ainsworth Rand Spofford, lyly. D., the Librarian of Congress, 
Dr. J. A. Coles has received the following letter : 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir : 

I have your much esteemed favor, proffering, as a gift to the congressional library, 
a life-size bronze bust, to be preserved in the new library building, in memory of your 
father. This generous offer is fully appreciated, and will be communicated to the joint 
committee of both houses of congress on the library when organized. Meanwhile I am 
authorized to receive the gift to be assigned an honorable and appropriate place in 
the new building of the library of congress, now completed. 

Permit me to express my high sense of the literary value of Dr. Abraham Coles' 
fine translations of Latin mediaeval hymns and other works. 

Very respectfully, 

J. AcKERMAN Coles, M. D. a. R. Spofford, 

Newark, N. J. Librarian of Congress. 

The University of Chicago was made the recipient of the bronze 
mentioned in the following correspondence. 

To the president, William Rainey Harper, Ph. D., D. D., lyL. D. ; 
Dr. Coles wrote : 

" Belonging to the estate of the late Abraham Coles, A. M., M. D., 
Ph. D., lyD- D., my father, is a bust of Homer, of the best quality of 
bronze. It is of heroic size, and was cast for Messrs. Tiffany & Co., of 
New York city, at the celebrated foundry of Barbedienne, Paris, France. 
This, with its imported marble pedestal, I, as executor of my father's 
estate, my sister, Fmilie S. Coles, cordially concurring, now offer as a gift 
to the University of Chicago, and upon notification that the same will be 
acceptable to its board of trustees, I will send them thither by express, 
with all charges prepaid. 

" I have just re-read in the magazine entitled ' The Old Testament 
Student with New Testament Supplement,' edited by yourself, 3-our kind 
critical review of the 'New Rendering of the Hebrew Psalms into 
English Verse,' by Abraham Coles, a work which, I learn, has found its 
way into the university libraries of Oxford and Cambridge, England, and 
also into some of those on the continent of Europe, eliciting an endorse- 



ment of the criticisms uttered by yourself, while professor of the Semitic 
languages and Biblical literature at Yale University." 

President Harper's reply is as follows : 

" I wish to assure you of the appreciation of the university of the 
courtesy and kindness of yourself and sister in presenting to the university 
the bronze bust of Homer, with its marble pedestal. I cannot think of 
any gift which we would appreciate more, and I am very much pleased^ 
indeed, that we may thus perpetuate the memory of your father in 
connection with the university. The boxes containing them may be 
addressed directly to me, in care of the university, and I will make the 
proper presentation to the trustees, and they will • then acknowledge the 
gift officially. I am very much disappointed that I did not have the 
pleasure of meeting you at the Princeton sesquicentennial." 


The New York Tribune, in speaking of Harvard University, says : 
" Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, of Newark, whose gifts of valuable art objects 
to educational and public bodies have been generous, and who lately gave 
to the Chicago University a heroic bronze bust of Homer, has just 
presented to Harvard University a life-size bronze bust of Socrates. The 
bronze is part of the estate of the late Dr. Abraham Coles, of Newark, a 
well known classical scholar and author. It was made by Barbedienne, 
in France, for Tiffany & Co. The donor, in giving the bronze to 
Harvard, said that he desired it to be a reminder of the friendly relations 
that existed between his father and the officers, professors and graduates 
of Harvard, especially President Thomas Hill, Henry Wadsworth Long- 


fellow, James Russell lyowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes and Phillips 

" In acknowledging the gift, President Eliot writes as follows : 

J. AcKERMAN Coles, 

Dear Sir,— Your letter is just received. I hasten to say that the gift of a bronze 
bust of Socrates, with its marble pedestal, will be very welcome to Harvard University. 

I am obliged to you for saying that this valuable gift, made by yourself and your 

sister, is intended as a reminder of the friendly relations which existed for many years 

between your father and the distinguished men — officers and graduates of Harvard — 

whose names you record. Your letter will be deposited in the archives of the university. 

Believe me, with high regard, sincerely yours, 

Charles W. Eliot. 

From North East Harbor, Maine, under date of Jul}- 6, 1897, Presi- 
dent Charles W. Eliot writes to Dr. Coles : 
My Dear Sir : 

I desire to report to you that the admirable bust of Socrates, which you and your 
sister presented to the university, has been placed in the library of the classical 
department, in an advantageous position, and that it is universally regarded as a great 
ornament to the room. The admirable manner in which the bust is mounted adds 
greatly to the value of the gift. The library of the classical department is kept in 
Harvard Hall, in the rooms in the first story immediately on the right as you enter the 
first door. Whenever you come to Cambridge, I beg that you will visit this library and 
observe the appropriateness of this place of deposit for your excellent gift. 

Very truly yours, 
J. AcKERMAN Coles, M. D. Charles W. Eliot. 

Following is a copy of the correspondence relating to the estate's 
gift to Yale : 

Rev. Timothy Dwight, D. D., LL- D., President of Yale University. 

Dear Sir,— I have read with much interest of the safe arrival at your university of 
the ' ' Curtius Library, ' ' its careful packing having been personally superintended by Frau 
Curtius herself, who was particular to have it reach you in its entirety. I have read of 
its three thousand five hundred bound volumes and many pamphlets, — one hundred and 
fifteen being on Greek epigraphy, forty-five on Olympia, and seventy-five on Greek 
lyric poetry, — all classified and arranged for convenient use, — a library, in fact, covering 
the whole field of Greek philology and archaeology, made especially valuable from the 
circumstance that, had not Professor Curtius been tutor to the Emperor Frederick, the 
German excavations (1875-1881) might never have been made, and Olympia be still left 
a buried city 

To the estate of Abraham Coles, A. M., M. D., Ph. D., LIv. D., my father, belongs 
a beautiful life-size bronze bust, a copy of the Hermes of Praxiteles, found in the Temple 
of Hera, within the Altis, the sacred precinct of the Olympian Zeus. Of the same size 
as the original, this copy, cast for, and imported by, Tiffany & Co., of New York, my 
sister and I will be pleased to give to Yale University, deeming it a suitable addition to 
the invaluable ' ' Curtius Library. ' ' 

I remember with satisfaction and pleasure the relationship, scholarly and social, 
that existed for many years between the faculty, instructors and graduates of Yale and 
my father. As for myself, a graduate of Columbia and the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York, some of my warmest friends are those of Yale. 

Upon receipt of word that the proffered gift will be acceptable, I will send it, with 
its imported marble pedestal, to the university, by express, all charges prepaid. Awaiting 
your reply, I have the honor to be, with great respect. 

Yours sincerely, 



Under date of February 3d, President Dwight made answer : 

Dear Sir, — In answer to your very kind letter of yesterday, I beg to express my 
most sincere thanks for the generous offer which it contains. On behalf of the 
university I accept the gift, which will be most appropriately connected with the Curtius 
Library, and will be most pleasantly commemorative of your honored father. The life 
and work of Professor Curtius were worthy of all honor on the part of all scholarly men, 
and it is very interesting to us at Yale University to know that his wife was pleased to 
have his library — in such striking manner a monument perpetuating his name — placed 
here in this distant land. She added to the library a gift of the portrait of her husband, 
and thus testified most kindly of her good will to us. The addition which you now 
make, and which is suggestive of Curtius' work and influence in connection with the 
excavations to which you refer, will be a new testimony to what he did. I am sure that 
Mrs. Curtius will be glad to know of your generous gift. 

If you will kindly, at your convenience, send the bust to our library, as you 
suggest, we will be glad to give it a conspicuous place. 

May I ask you to present to your sister, who unites with you in the gift, the 
assurances of my very high regard, and to request her to accept the expression of my 
thanks to you in this letter as, also, intended for herself. Very sincerely yours, 

Timothy Dwight. 

On receipt of this acceptance, the bronze and its pedestal were 
packed and sent, under the direction of Messrs. Tiffany & Co. , to the 
university, and Dr. Coles received the following acknowledgment : 

My dear Sir, — I have the pleasure of announcing to you, that the bronze bust and 
its pedestal, forwarded at your request, by the Tiffany firm, have arrived, and have been 
placed in a conspicuous position in our university library. The bust is very beautiful, 
and I beg you to accept, for your sister and yourself, my sincere thanks, for myself, and 
on behalf of the trustees of the university, for your most interesting and valuable gift. 

The portrait of Professor Curtius has been placed very near the bust, and these two 
memorials, in connection with the library, will be a testimony, to all who come to Yale, 
of scholarship and of generosity. Believe me, very truly yours, 

Timothy Dwight. 

June 27, 1897, Henry W. Farnam, Esq., of New Haven, Con- 
necticut, writes to Dr. Coles : 

Dear Sir,— As a member of our library committee, I desire to express to you my 
personal appreciation of your generosity in presenting to Yale the beautiful bronze copy 
of the Hermes, which now stands directly beneath the portrait of Professor Curtius. 

I was attending the lectures of Professor Curtius, in Berlin, in 1876, when the 
Hermes was unearthed, and saw the first photograph that was sent out to the German 
directors of the excavations. I also knew Professor Curtius and his family personally. 
It was, therefore, especially gratifying to me that the acquisition of his library by Yale 
should have led you to complete the collection by sending us the Hermes. 

Permit me to express my very warm thanks for your kindness and liberality, and 

believe me. 

Yours most sincerely, 

Henry W. Farnam. 
J. A. Coles, M. D., Newark, N. J. 

A special despatch to the New York Tribune, from New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, reads : " President Austin Scott, of Rutgers 
College, announced to the students this morning that J. Ackerman 
Coles, of Newark, had presented to the college a life-size bronze bust 
of George Washington, in memory of the late Dr. Abraham Coles. 


The bust is a replica of the famous marble statue executed from life, 
by Jean Antoine Houdon, for the state of Virginia, and now standing 
in the state capitol at Richmond. The bust is presented in commem- 
oration of the support given, during the Revolution, to General 
Washington, by Rutgers College and the people of New Brunswick, 
and of the centennial meeting of the New Jersey Medical Society, held 
in the halls of Rutgers College, in 1866, at which time Dr. Abraham 
Coles was its president, and read his poem, 'The Microcosm.' The 
bust was cast in France, and was mounted by Tiffany. 

' ' On motion of Dr. Jacob Cooper, and seconded by Dr. Van Dyke, 
the gratitude of the college was ordered expressed to Dr. Coles." 

The president wrote to Dr. Coles : 

My Dear Sir, — The board of trustees, at their recent meeting, requested me to 
convey to you the expression of their warmest thanks to yourself and your sister for 
your gift of the bronze bust of Washington. For the present it has been placed in the 
college chapel. 

I am, faithfully yours, 

Austin Scott. 

To the General Synod of the Reformed Church in America, for its 
use in connection with the Theological Seminary of said church, located 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Dr. and Miss Coles have given a unique 
and beautiful work of sacred historic art, in memory of their grandfather, 
Jonathan C. Ackerman, as well as that of their father. It consists of a 
life-size marble group, representing Hagar and Ishmael in the wilderness 
of Beersheba. It is the masterpiece of Alessandro F. Cavazza, who 
executed the same in the purest Cararra marble, in Modena, Italy, in 
1872." "Ishmael," says the New York Christian Intelligencer, "in 
his utter weakness, has loosened his hold upon Hagar's neck, and has 
fallen back apparently lifeless across her left knee. The relaxed muscles 
of the lad, his death-like countenance, the agonized look of his mother, 
and the many other minute details of finished expression, show the 
artist to have been in full sympathy, with his subject, and to have 
possessed the skill and knowledge (anatomical and ecclesiastical) requisite 
for its accurate portrayal." 

President Woodbridge was authorized to accept the gift and to 
assure the donors, on behalf of the board of superintendents and the 
faculty that the gift would be highly appreciated. Dater there was 
received by Dr. Coles and his sister the following : 

" General Synod, Reformed Church in America, 

"Raritan, N. J., June 11, 1897. 
" I have been directed by the General Synod to forward to you a 
copy of the following action, taken at its recent session held at Asbury 
Park, New Jersey. Resolved, That the General Synod of the Reformed 
Church in America, hereby assures Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, and Miss 
Emilie S. Coles, that the gift of the statuary, representing Hagar and 


Ishmael, is fully appreciated, and that the thanks of the Synod is hereby 
tendered to the generous donors. 

Respectfully yours, 

WiLUAM H. De Hart, Stated Clerk. 

The I/Cwisburg (Pennsylvania) Chronicle refers to a recent gift, in 
the following language : " Bucknell (L,ewisburg) University has received 
a very valuable gift in the shape of a life-size bust of Julius Csesar, a 
. bronze copy of the one in the Louvre, in Paris, France. It is mounted on 
an Italian-marble pedestal, and has been placed on exhibition in the 
college library. No other copy like it is believed to be in America. It 
is the gift of Dr. J. A. Coles and his sister, in memory of their father, the 
late Abraham Coles, M. D., Ph. D., IvL,. D., an honorary alumnus of the 

President John H. Harris, D. D., LL. D., wrote to Dr. J. A. Coles : 

" Dear Sir : The bust of Julius Csesar, with pedestal, arrived 
safely, and has been put in place. The work evokes much admiration, 
and the feeling of gratitude to the generous givers is universal. 

Please accept our hearty thanks for your kind remembrance and 

generous gift. 


John H. Harris, 

A letter from Bishop John H. Vincent, chancellor of the Chautauqua 
University, to Dr. J. A. Coles, reads as follows : 

" Chautauqua, N. Y., July 14, 1897. 
" My Dear Doctor : I send to the New York Tribune this evening 
a copy of the enclosed telegram. The bust and its marble pedestal are 
beautiful, and Chautauqua does really appreciate your great kindness. 

" Faithfully yours, 

"John H. Vincent." 

" In connection with a great amphitheatre concert at Chautauqua, 
under the direction of Dr. Palmer, a life-size bronze bust of Beethoven, 
presented by Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, of Scotch Plains, New Jersey, was 
unveiled. Just before the unveiling. President G. Stanley Hall, of Clark 
University, delivered a brief address on music. As the veil was lifted, the 
amphitheatre gave the splendid Chautauqua salute, in honor of Beethoven, 
and in recognition of Dr. J. Ackerman Coles and his sister. Immediately 
following this Mr. Wm. H. Sherwood gave a piano solo,— the Sonata 
Appassionata, by Beethoven. The performance was brilliant. The 
Chautauqua salute was also given to Professor Sherwood." 

In the Hall of Marble Statuary, in the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, New York, two of the most valuable works are those recently donated 
by Dr. J. Ackerman Coles, of Newark, who recognizes, with others, the 
harmony and community of interests existing between the people of the 
metropolis of New Jersey and the people of the metropolis of New York. 


One gift is the famous statue, known as "The Promised Land," 
executed in Cararra marble, by the celebrated American artist, Franklin 
Simmons, at Rome, Ital}-, in 1874. A beautiful ideal life-size female 
figure, gracefully robed, is designed to represent the earnest longing of 
the spirit for "The Promised Land," "The Better Country," "The 
Celestial City of Zion." Upon the plinth of the statue, which rests upon 
an eleganth- paneled octagonal pedestal of dark Spanish marble, are 
inscribed four lines of the mediaeval Latin hymn, " Urbs Coelestis Sion," 
by St. Bernard, of Cluny, with its translation, by the late Dr. Abraham 
Coles, the hymn and the translation being well known to scholars 
throughout the literary world. Daniel Huntington, the second vice- 
president of the museum, and chairman of the committee on sculpture, in 
recommending its acceptance b}- the board of trustees, wrote : 

" I am greatly pleased with the statue. It has a refined and spiritual 
character, as well as artistic grace and beaut}^" 

The other gift from Dr. Coles, as executor of the estate of his father, 
the late Dr. Abraham Coles, is a Cararra marble copy, by P. Barzanti, of 
Florence, Ital}-, of the antique statue, "Venus de Medici." The original, 
it will be remembered, was found in the Villa of Hadrian, at Tivoli, in 
the seventeenth century, and was taken to Rome, and deposited in the 
Medici Palace, whence it took its name. About the year 1680 it was 
carried, by order of Cosmo IH., to Florence. In 1796 Napoleon Bonaparte 
sent it, with other works of art, to France, and had it placed in the 
Louvre, at Paris. Here it remained until 1815, when it was returned to 
Italy, and is now the chief treasure in the tribune of the Uffizi gallery at 
Florence. It is of Parian marble, and was executed by Cleomenes, the 
Athenian, the son of Apollodorus, who flourished between 200 and 150, 
B. C. From its exquisite proportions and perfection of contour, it has 
become the most celebrated standard of female form extant. 

The copy, with its marble pedestal, given by Dr. Coles, is considered 
to be equal in e\-er3- respect to the one in the gallery of the Duke of 
Devonshire, at Chatsworth, England. Soon- after its proffer to the 
museum. General Louis P. Di Cesnola, secretary and director, wrote to 
Dr. Coles as follows : 

" I ha^■e the honor to inform j-ou that, upon the recommendation of 
the committee on sculpture, the trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art have accepted your gift, and have instructed their executive com- 
mittee to convey to you an expression of their thanks for your generosity. 
In doing so, I maj? be permitted to add that these thanks will be 
constantly hereafter repeated by the people, to whose enjoyment and 
instruction the Museum of Art is devoted, and to which your gift is a 
valuable contribution. With high regards, I remain, 

" Very sincerely j'ours, 

" L. P. Di Cesnola, 

" Secretary." 



Deerhurst, since their father's death, has continued to be occupied 
by Dr. Coles and his sister. " Back from the house a short distance," 
says the Boston Transcript, " is the deer park; farther on is the 
labyrinth, a fac-simile of the Maze, at Hampton Court, near L,ondon, 
Bngland. The mansion itself is substantial, elegant and beautiful, 
and replete with articles rich and rare, gathered in journeyings through 
foreign lands. The library is an ideal room. It is open to the roof, 
the rafters coming down in graceful sweeps, with here and there odd 
little windows, deeper ones, reaching to the floor and opening upon 
balconies. On every side are books, — in massive cases, filling deep 
recesses ; on shelves substantially built around corners and supported 
by ornamented columns, and on daintier shelves, arranged above one's 
head. A vast and varied collection, in all languages, carefully and 


worthily bound." One very rare volume is remarkable as being the 
first book printed containing Arabic types, and is entitled, " Psalt- 
erium, Hebr£eum, Greecum, Arabicum, et ChaldiEum, cum tribus 
Latinis interpretationibus. Genuae, Petrus Paulus Porrus, 1516." 
Folio, half green morocco. This, the first Polyglot psalter, edited 
by Agostino Giustiniani, is important also, as containing the first 
printed biography of Columbus. It is printed as a long marginal note 
to Psalm xix. ' ' 

"The fine collection of paintings, curios and bric-a-brac, belonging 
to Dr. Col^," says the New York Tribune, "which has been on 
exhibition in the art gallery of the Coles homestead building. No. 222 
Market street, Newark, for the past two weeks, for the benefit of the 


Newsboys' Building Fund, is, without exception, one of the choicest 
collections in Newark, if not in New Jersey." 

The art critic of The Queen, says of "The Fall of Man," 
a very large oil painting by Bouverie Goddard, and exhibited by 
him at the Royal Academy, Ivondon, England, in 1877, — "Second 
to no picture painted since Sir Edwin Landseer's palmy days, in which 
animal forms and character have been represented and expressed on 
canvas is Mr. Goddard' s truly noble 'Fall of Man.' In the distance 
appears the vision of the celestial warrior-guardians of the gate of that 
blissful garden, no longer the home of the fallen ones, from which, for 
the first time conscious of the fierce instincts of their nature, various 
animals are rushing away in amazement and alarm." 

"The picture portrays," says The Academy, the savagery of 
the brute nature ensuing upon the disobedience of Adam and Eve. 
* * * The difficulty of Mr. Goddard' s attempt becomes all the 
greater, in that he does not represent any actual attack of one animal 
upon another, but only the moment when the attacking and ravenous 
impulse arises and manifests itself in gesture and demeanour." 

"We have not, for a long time, met with a picture of animals by 
an Englishman," says The Athenaeum, "showing so much care, 
energy, and learning, as Mr. B. Goddard's ' The Fall of Man,' in which 
the life-size beasts, terrified by the portents attending 'The Fall,' rush 
from the neighborhood of Eden, new ferocity being manifested by their 
actions and expressions." 

The lyondon Times says, — " One is at first puzzled to account for 
the tremendous commotion among Mr. Bouverie Goddard's wild beasts, 
carried to its height in a powerfully designed and well painted 
foreground group of a lion, lioness, and cubs, till we learn, more from 
the title than from the extract of Milton, appended to it, that, such 
was the effect produced among the beasts of the forest by the ' Fall of 
Man.' They are supposed to sympathize with the signs in the heavens, 
the eclipsed sun, the lowering sky, the muttering thunder, and sad 
drops ' wept at the completing of the mortal sin.' " 

Of the second painting, named ' ' The Combat, " or "A Bull Fight 
in the Vale," (seven feet by four feet,) painted in 1870, and exhibited the 
same year in the Royal Academy, the London Times, of May 30, 1870, 
said, — "After Sir Edwin's animal pictures, and, perhaps, Mr. B. 
Riviere's ' Charity,' there is nothing in the way of animal painting here 
so remarkable for the way the painter has brought landscape and animals 
into harmonious imaginative conditions as Mr. B, Goddard's 'Combat' 
— a couple of bulls in deadly encounter on the margin of a river, under 
a stormy sunset sky, watched by an excited and eager herd of cows. 
Full of action, original in grouping, and forcible in light and shade, this 
really is a powerful picture, an excellent illustration of the wealth of 
subject that lies yet undrawn upon in the wide range of animal life. ' ' 


A third painting (nine feet by five feet), by Goddard, ' 'A sale of New 
Forest Ponies at Lyndhurst Fair, England," is regarded by critics as 
equal in many respects to the ' ' Horse Fair, ' ' by Rosa Bonheur. 

The collection includes, also, works by the following artists : 
G. P. A. Healy, "The Arch of Titus," Rome, 1871 (canvas forty-eight 
inches by seventy-three inches), in which the poet Longfellow and his 
daughter are seen standing under the arch, while the artist F". E. 
Church is seated sketching, with G. P. A. Healy and J. McEntee 
looking over his shoulder ; all excellent portraits ; through the arch 
a magnificent view is had of the Colosseum beyond. J. F. Cropsey 
(four), "Lake Nemi and Village on the Appian Way, Italy" (six feet 
by four feet), also three other landscapes. Albert Bierstadt (five), 
"Mount Hood, in Oregon, at Sunset" (six feet by four feet), in merit 
and beauty, thought to be equal to his "Rocky Mountains ;" "Mount 
Hood, Oregon, with storm approaching;" "Niagara Falls from Goat 
Island;" "Mount Blanc, from near Geneva, Switzerland;" "Dieppe, 
near the Club House, France." Daniel Huntington (two), A. T. 
Bricher (two), J. F. Kensett (three), F. E. Church, J. E- Freeman, "Scene 
in the Pyrenees, Spain" (six feet by three feet); Jones, "Niagara;" 
Edward Moran (two), H. P. Smith, James M. Hart, Julian Scott, 
Edward Gay, Arthur Parton, J. A. Parker, J. Williamson, "Lake 
George;" George Inness, W. S. Hazeltine, John Constable, R. A., 
L. Verboeckhoven, A. Reinert, Paul Jean Clays, Jan Chilnisky, 
J. Carabain (two), H. De Buel, J. H. L. De Haas, Edward Portielge, 
J. G. Brown, N. V. Diaz de la Pena, Jean Baptiste Camille Corot, 
Theodore Rousseau (two), George Jeannin, Eugene F'ichel, Georges, 
Washington, Julian Dupre, Jules Dupre (two), Charles Jacque, G. L. 
Pelouse, C. F. Daubigny, Karl Daubigny, H. Delacroix (two), F. De 
Vere, Lazerges, V. G. Stiepevich, Jean Francis Millet,. Anton Mauve, 
Felix Ziem, R. Eisermann, "The Trumpeter of Sackingen" (six feet 
seven inches, by four feet six inches); others are attributed to Rembrandt, 
Peter Pourbus (1510-1583), David Teniers, the younger (1610-1690) (two); 
Dubois, Til Borg (1625-1678), Luca Giordano (1632-1701), "Europa" 
(six feet by five feet), from Prince Borghese sale, Rome, a fair rival of 
the artist's painting in the Berlin Gallery ; Jean Steen, Gerhard Douw, 
Hans Memling (1440-1495), the eminent decorator of missals and 
church books; Jacob Backer (1609-1651), pupil of Rembrandt, "The 
Antiquarian" (six feet by four feet six inches), remarkable for its 
realism and as illustrative of the permanency of colors used by the old 
masters; Ostade, Minderhout Hobbima(born at Antwerp about 1611), a 
smalllandscape of much grace and beauty; Holbein (1498-1543), portrait 
of his patron, Henry VIII, of England; Salvator Rosa, etc., etc. 

The marble statuary includes life-size busts of Abraham Coles, by 
J. Q. A. Ward;' William Harvey, by Horatio Stone; Walter Scott, by 
Chantrey, a copy of the one at Abbotsford; Eve and Charity, by Hiram 


Powers; a full-length statue of the Hebrew prophetess, Deborah, by 
Lombard!; Martin Luther; a large copy of the Warwick Vase, in 
Cararra marble; the Village Blacksmith, full length figure, by Shakes- 
peare Wood, etc., etc. Among the bronzes are life-size busts of Cicero 
and Virgil, the first copies in bronze of those in the Louvre, cast pur- 
posely for Dr. Coles at the foundry of Barbedienne, Paris, France; 
Washington and Franklin by Houdon; Madam Le Brun; Mendelssohn 
and Mozart, first copies in bronze cast by Tiffany and Company, in 
Paris, especially for Dr. Coles; the Dying Gaul; Othello; the Venus of 
Melos, half of the size of the original in the Louvre, and cast for Dr. 
Coles, at the foundry of Barbedienne; also works by Barye, A. Gaudez, 
P. J. Mene, A. Mercie, Fournier, E. Pigault, G. Bareau, etc., etc. 

Dr. J. Ackerman Coles has presented to Trinity College the life-size 
bust of Mozart, with pedestal. Dr. Coles, in his letter tendering the 
bust and pedestal, wrote as follows: 

Newark, N. J., August, 1897. 
Rev. John Williams, D. D., LL. D. , Chancellor of Trinity College. 

Dear Sir, — Belonging to the estate of my father, the late Abraham Coles, A. M., 
M. D., Ph. D., LIv- D., is a very beautiful life-size bust of Mozart, the first and only one 
in bronze cast from the original model. It was made for and imported by Messrs. 
Tiffany & Company, of New York city. To Trinity, as representative of the Protestant 
Episcopal colleges in America, I, as executor of my father's estate, my sister, Emilie S. 
Coles, cordially concurring, will be pleased to give this bronze, with its imported marble 
pedestal, as a memorial of the affectionate regard that existed between my father and 
yourself while you were president, professor and chancellor of Trinity, dean of Berkeley 
Divinity School, chairman of the house of Bishops and Bishop of the Diocese of Connecti- 
cut, from which state came the founders of the city of Newark, in 1666. 

The correspondence carried on between yourself and my father, relative to the 
latter's "unequaled translations" of the "Dies Irae," has suggested the seemingly 
eminent propriety of giving to Trinity the bust of " that great composer by whose means 
this immortal poem has come to be worthily wedded to immortal music." 

As a graduate of Columbia, I am personally gratified in knowing that my alma 
mater honored herself in honoring you, in 1851, with the degree of LIv. D. Upon notifi- 
cation that the proffered gifts will be acceptable to the trustees of Trinity College, I will 
have the bust and its pedestal boxed by Messrs. Tiffany & Company, and sent as you 
may direct, by express, all charges prepaid. Awaiting your reply, I am, with great 
respect. Yours sincerely, 

J. Ackerman Coles, Executor. 

Replying to Dr. Coles, Ralph Birdsall, secretary to the Bishop, 
under date of August 7th, says: 

" Bishop Williams thanks you very much for your kind proposi- 
tion, and when the fall term begins at Trinity College he will send 
notification, that proper action may be taken in the premises. It would 
be best not to send the bust until then, as there would be no one to 
receive it." 

Under a later date George Williamson Smith, D. D., LL. D., 
president of Trinity College, writes to Dr. Coles, as follows: 

"A letter just received from Bishop Williams informs me of your 
kind offer to present to Trinity College 'a life-size bronze bust of 



Mozart ' from the estate of your father, the late Dr. Abraham Coles. 
We shall be very glad to have such a valuable addition to our rather 
meagre collection of objects of art, and place it in Alumni Hall, where 
the portraits of benefactors and presidents are hung. ' ' 

September 23d, Dr. Coles replied : 

" In response to your kind and courteous note, I have ordered the 
bronze bust of Mozart, and its marble pedestal, to be boxed and sent to 
you this day, by express, all charges prepaid. I will be glad to know 
of their safe arrival in ' Alumni Hall,' Trinity College." 

From Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, October 2, 1897, 
President Smith wrote : 


" Dear Sir, — The boxes containing the bronze bust of Mozart and 
its marble pedestal have been opened and the work is placed in Alumni 
Hall, where it attracts attention and awakens great admiration. I beg 
leave to thank you in the name of the college, and will report the gift 
to the trustees at their next meeting." 

The New York Observer says: " Dr. Coles has given princely gifts 
of art to public and educational institutions, but none more appropriate 
or better appreciated than his latest donation to the public, of a superb 
bronze bust of his distinguished father, the late Abraham Coles, physi- 
cian, poet, author and scientist, which, with its pedestal of historic 
and religious interest, was unveiled in Newark, July 5, 1897." 

Some weeks after, the unveiling the following "Tribute," by M. 
Winchester Adams, appeared in the Newark Daily Advertiser: 

With thankfulness for the sweet hymns 

To comfort ' ' all the days, ' ' 
And admiration in our hearts, 

Upon his face we gaze. 
He is not dead — no one is dead — 

Whose voice speaks through all time 
In adoration, faith and love 

In ev'ry clime. 

The little children whom he loved. 

Stop oft to read the song, 
" The Rock of Ages," wondrous words. 

So true and grand and strong. 

It gives the weary pilgrim strength, 
" God's mercy standeth fast," 

His promises ' ' from age to age ' ' 
For aye shall last. 

"Ever with Thee," what perfect faith 

Abounds throughout the hymn ; 
No more of sorrow, night or fear. 

Or tears the eye to dim. 
'T will comfort many, long years hence, — 

Whose lives have shadows gray, — 
And they will breathe a prayer of thanks, 

As I, to-day. 




was born May 21, 1858, in Newark, New Jerse}-, and died December 3, 
1895, in Elizabeth, New Jerse}-. He was the son of Lebbens B. Miller, 
superintendent of the Singer ^lanufacturing Company. His early 
education was received in the Hasbrouck Institute, in Jersey Cit)-, the 
Betts Militar}- Academy, at Stamford, Connecticut, and the Pingry 
School, of Elizabeth, where he was prepared for college. From the last 
named institution he entered Princeton' College, where he pursued a 
three-years course. Having chosen the practice of medicine as hi 
profession, he became a student in the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, in New York, graduating in 1883. He then filled the position of 
resident ph^-sician in the Elizabeth General Hospital and Dispensar)' 
until December 31st of that year, having been then appointed assistant 
house pln'sician and surgeon at the Colored Home and Hospital, in New 
York, where he served one year, the last six months as house surgeon. 

December i, 1884, Dr. Miller returned to Elizabeth, and was 
appointed upon the dispensary staff' of the Elizabeth General Hospital, 
holding this office until 18S6, when he became a visiting physician of 
the same institution. Two years later he was appointed a visiting 
surgeon of the hospital, which position he occiipied until the da^■ of his 

Since iSS.S he had been the attending physician of the Elizabeth 
Orphan Asylum. He also filled the offices of cit}- ph}'sician, coroner of 





Union county, and visiting physician of the county jail. He was a 
member of the District Medical Society of the county of Union, and of 
the Clinical Society of the Elizabeth General Hospital and Dispensary. 

During these eleven years he was successful in establishing a 
large practice, and kept in the front rank of the profession, by reason of 
his thorough study and intimate knowledge of the modern improvements 
in medicine and surgery. He was also in quite a rare degree a mechan- 
ical genius, so that his opinion and advice were often of great value, 
especially to his colleagues upon the staff of the hospital. He was a 
man of noble character, with a warm heart and broad views in his 
various relations in life. While of a modest and retiring manner, he 
always had the courage of his convictions and never wavered in his 
loyalty to the right. 

He was exceedingly fond of music and played skilfully on several 
instruments, the flute, on which he was an expert performer, being his 
favorite. He was a member of the Elizabeth Music Club, in which he 
took an active interest. 

Dri Miller was married September 17, 1890, to Miss Julia H. 
Carmichael. He is survived by her and one daughter, now five years of 


of New England ancestry, was born at Schenectady, New York, January 
25, 1817, his parents moving to New York state from Westerly, Rhode 
Island. He was a brother of Thomas B. Stillman, for many years the 
head of the Novelty Iron Works, of New York, and of W. J. Stillman, 
the well known art critic and London Times correspondent, whose resi- 
dence is in Europe. Dr. Stillman early showed excellent mental powers, 
and entered the sophomore class at Union College, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1835, at the age of fifteen years. He chose the medical profes- 
sion, and removed to New York, where for three years he was a student 
in the office of Dr. Delafield. He then entered the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons and was graduated therefrom in 1840. During the fol- 
lowing two years he was a physician in the New York Eastern Dispens- 
ary. In 1842 he established himself in his profession in Plainfield, New 
Jersey, where he continued to practice up to the time of his death, 
December 11, 1881. 

He was married, in July, 1842, to Mary E. Starr, of Hamilton, New 
York. Settling in the city of Plainfield, at the age of twenty-five years, 
and taking at once an active part in public affairs, he filled a large place 
in the history of the town, outside of the circle into which he was called 
by his professional duties. As a physician and surgeon he always had a 
reputation for learning and skill, which placed him in the front rank of 
his profession and gave him a large practice. No one comes nearer to 


the life of a people than a family physician, and a long experience of 
forty }-ears in a growing commnnit}- like Plainfield must bring a physi- 
cian so in contact with that life as to make him, in an nnusual sense, 
part of its history. As a surgeon he was ver}' skillful, and for many 
}'ears acted in that capacity for the Central Railroad, and many, doubt- 
less, remember his steadj- hand as a practitioner in an operation. 

While his professional labors made his name a household word in so 
many families of his time, the crowning work of Dr. Stillman's life was 
the public-school S5'stem of Plainfield, which laid the foundation for all 
that has been done in New Jersey in this direction, and the public 
schools of Plainfield are still designated as "School District No. i," 
showing that the}' were the first to be founded under school laws which 
he was instrumental in establishing. His disinterested and unbroken 
service of thirty-four years in developing that system, and his services 
during all that time as school trustee and president of the board of edu- 
cation, have won for his memor\' a most profound regard. Plainfield's 
school was the first free school founded in the state of New Jersey, and 
there was not even a law on the statute books of the state to provide for 
raising mone}- to found and carry on such a school. His first step was to 
procure the necessary legislation, and in this he met not only the difficulties 
which alwaj's meet one in attempting the passage of important laws, but he 
soon encountered the difficulties which are more stubborn, namely, those 
which come from the prejudices of the people. The project of a free 
school seemed to the citizens an innovation which ought not to be toler- 
ated, and this prejudice had to be combated. He secured at length the 
passage of a law appropriating one hundred dollars to carry on the school 
for one ^^ear, and the three hundred dollars which the state had appro- 
priated in past years for poor children was also secured, through his 
agency, for the school at Plainfield, making in all the sum of four hun- 
dred dollars to begin work. The offices of township superintendents 
were also established by this same law, and Dr. Stillman was elected to 
that position. The school was foimded August i6, 1847, but as there 
was no suitable building in which to hold it, application was made to 
the legislature and authorit}' obtained to raise two thousand dollars for 
the purpose of building a school house and defraying other expenses. 
It was not eas}' to accomplish this work, for it was necessary, in order to 
have the law passed, to present to the legislature a petition from all the 
influential citizens of the communit}-, man}- of whom were opposed to it, 
especially among the fanners. To these Dr. Stillman appealed, and it 
was one of the most trying experiences of his life, for he found them 
opposed to the scheme, deeming it the absurdest of things to give free 
schooling to anybody, but fortunateh' he obtained enough names to 
secure the passage of the law, and the appropriation was made, with the 
result that by the following fall a frame building was erected, at the cor- 
ner of West Fourth and Union streets, (now Arlington avenue), where 



the " Franklin " stands. Chosen, in 1847, as township superintendent of 
schools, Dr. Stillman held that office for twenty years, or until the office 
was abolished. He was then elected, under the law, as school trustee, 
and held that position until his death. The success of his life work is 
best seen in our public schools, but he also held many other positions of 
trust and confidence. 

He was elected mayor of Plainfield in 1872 and served the city in 
that capacity two years. He was one of the founders of the City National 
Bank, and continued as a director until his death. He was a member of 
the Seventh Day Baptist church and served as trustee therein for many 

Surviving him are a widow and four children, one daughter and 
three sons. 



The subject of this sketch was, at the time of his death, and for 
many years prior thereto, one of the most prominent physicians and 
surgeons, not only of the city of Elizabeth, but of the state of New 
Jersey, his reputation, in fact, extending beyond the state; for he was 
regarded by the profession generally, as a high authority in surgery 
and in the general practice of medicine. 

Dr. Green was born at Princeton, New Jersey, on July 22, 1829. 
He was a son of Hon. James S. Green, who was one of the most 
distinguished members of the New Jersey bar, reporter of the supreme- 
court decisions, published in his name, in 1831-6, and was United 
States district attorney under appointment from President Jackson, and 
was also professor of law in Princeton. 

Dr. Green's grandfather was Rev. Ashbel Green, D. D., Lh- D., 
a distinguished Presbyterian clergyman, and one of the presidents 
of Princeton College. His mother's maiden name was Isabella 


He received a collegiate education at Princeton College, graduating 
in June, 1848. His taste leading him toward the medical profession, he 
became'a student of medicine, under the direction of Dr. John Neill, of 
Philadelphia, and attended lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, 
medical department, from which he graduated with the degree of M. D. , 

in April, 1851. 

Twelve months prior to graduating he had been appointed 
resident physician of the Wills Hospital for Diseases of the Eye, 
Philadelphia. This position he retained for six months after receiving 

his degree. _ -, . . 

In the winter of 1850-51 he was appointed assistant administrator 
of anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, and continued as such 
for three years. During the summer of 1853 he was resident physician 
of the Pennsylvania Hospital. In November, 1853, he removed to the 


city of Elizabeth and commenced general practice. Having enjoyed 
exceptionable advantages for study and practice, and having thoroughly 
improved them, he soon acquired a high professional reputation. For 
a period of seven years he was associated in practice with Dr. Job S. 

Dr. Green was not only eminent in his profession, but was also a 
man of large public spirit, and from his settlement in the city of Eliz- 
abeth he always manifested an earnest and active interest in its affairs. 
When the city was incorporated he was made the president of the first 
city council, and in the development of the city from that date he bore 
a prominent part. He not only served a number of years in the city 
council, but in 1878 succeeded Robert W. Townley as mayor. In the 
administration of the affairs of the city he evinced more than ordinary 
executive ability, and was instrumental in carrying out wise measures 
in municipal government. From the beginning he was one of the 
city's Stan chest friends, and through the dark days of its financial 
embarrassment his advice was invaluable. 

In politics Dr. Green was a Democrat, and, while liberal in his 
views, he was firm in his convictions. He was a leader of the party in 
this city, and his counsel was often sought and heeded by a large number. 
In business enterprises his earnest spirit and good sense in executive 
management made him invaluable. He was the originator and moving 
spirit in the formation and promotion of the Metropolitan Gas Light 
Company, the formidable opposition to the Elizabethtown Gas Dight 

Dr. Green was a member of the American Medical Society, the 
Union County Medical Society, a fellow in the New York Obstetrical 
Society, a member of the New Jersey State Medical Society, occupying 
the position of president of that society during the last year of his life, 
and, at its annual convention at Atlantic City, delivering an address of 
great interest to the profession, only a week prior to his decease. 

For four years Dr. Green was one of the board of managers of the 
New Jersey Asylum for the Insane, at Morris Plains, and was vice- 
president of the board, 

He was a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, and the first 
Worshipful Master of Washington Dodge, to which he belonged, and of 
which he was one of the founders. He was also a member of the Grand 
Lodge of the state. 

It was through the instrumentality of Dr. Green that the Elizabeth 
General Hospital was founded and has reached its present standard of 
excellence and prominence. {Vide article upon Elizabeth General 
Hospital and Dispensary). 

His death occurred suddenh', at his residence on Westminster 
avenue, on Saturday, July 2, 1892. On April 27, 1854, he was married 
to Fanny Winchester, daughter of Samuel Winchester, of Baltimore, 



Maryland, who died in May, 1884. He left surviving a daughter 
and son. 


is a native of Greenwich, Cumberland county, New Jersey, where he 
was born June 12, 1843. He is the son of John S. and Mary H. (Bacon) 
Probasco, who were natives respectively of Middlesex county, New 
Jersey, and Cumberland county. New Jersey. 

On the father's side there is Spanish blood in the veins, but the 
ancestor of this branch of the family came direct from Holland to the 
United States. The mother's family is also an old one in the history 
of New Jersey. The great-grandparents of the Bacon family in this 
state came from England to America in colonial times. John S. 
Probasco was a farmer in the county of Cumberland, where he resided 
until his death, which occurred in December, 1893. The mother died 
in 1849. Dr. Probasco was educated in the public schools and in 
Bucknall University, at L,ewisburg, Pennsylvania, where he was grad- 
uated with the class of 1865. While at college he became interested in 
the struggle between the north and south, and, with his entire class and 
the students and professors of the university, joined the Twenty-eighth 
Pennsylvania Infantry, serving as commissary sargeant and in hospital 
service. In 1864 he again took part in suppressing the rebellion, and 
went out with an independent cavalry regiment to crush out the Fish- 
ing Creek confederacy, in Benton county, Pennsylvania, which had 
been organized to aid the southern confederacy and oppose the Union 

Soon after leaving college Dr. Probasco turned his attention to 
teaching, having charge for one year of one of the largest public schools 
in Cumberland county, New Jersey. 

Having always had a desire to be a medical man, he began the 
study of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, taking a three- 
years course, and was graduated from that institution in 1869. The 
practice of his profession was commenced in Plainfield, New Jersey, 
within the same year, and it has been continued there since that time. 

Dr. Probasco ranks high in his chosen profession. He has an 
extensive practice, covering a wide area of this section of the country. 
He is the medical examiner of the Provident Ivife Insurance Company, 
the Penn Mutual, the New York L,ife, the Mutual Benefit, of Newark, 
New Jersey, the Mutual I/ife, of Portland, Maine, and the Metropolitan 
I/ife, of New York. He is also an attending surgeon at the Muhlen- 
berg Hospital, at Plainfield; is a member of the State Medical Society, 
Union County Medical Society and the American Medical Association. 
He has also served as president of the county medical association, and 
keeps up with the progress made in the science of medicine. 

Dr. Probasco has always been deeply interested in educational 


matters, and since 1888 has been prominently identified with the board 
of education of Plainfield. He was elected president of the board in 
1894, and is still serving in that capacity. 

Dr. Probasco was married, in 1871, to Miss Maria Boice, a daughter 
of Insley Boice, a farmer of Middlesex county, New Jersey, subse- 
quently a resident of Plainfield. Mrs. Maria B. Probasco died 
September 26, 1896. Five children were born of this union, three of 
whom are living: Frank Eugene, Norman Hayes, and Walter 


was born near Dryden, New York, December 23, 1833. He was the 
second son of Hamilton Putnam and Jeannette Cleaveland, his wife, 
(daughter of Brigadier-General Erastus Cleaveland, who was stationed 
at Sacketts Harbor, New York, and received his colonel's commission 
during the war of 1812.) 

The Putnams were of English descent, tracing back to Simon de 
Puttenham, A. D. 1199. John Putnam, of Aston Abbotts, county 
Bucks, England, married Priscilla Gould, in 1612, and they came to 
New England, with their four children, in 1634. They settled in Salem 
village, now Danvers, Massachusetts. Among their descendants were 
the celebrated ^Major-General Israel Putnam, and Brigadier-General 
Rufus Putnam. Dr. Putnam is descended from their third son. Captain 
John Putnam, who served in the Narragansett fight, and was deputy to 
the general court in 1679, 1680, 1686, 1691 and 1692. His great- 
great-grandfather. Captain Henry Putnan, was an oflficer in the French 
war. A short sword or sabre surrendered to him by a French officer 
at the capture of lyouisburg, in 1745, is preserved in the family. At 
the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, although exempt from 
military duty, he was full of youthful fire in the cause. He accom- 
panied the troops, with his five sons (one being Eleazar, the Doctor's 
great-grandfather), to Lexington, and fell in action, April 19, 1775. 
His grandfather, Dr. Elijah Putnam, a graduate of Harvard College, 
moved from West Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1801, and settled in 
Madison, New York, where he practiced medicine for forty years. He 
was an organizer of the Madison County Medical Society, July 29, 
1806, and "was an excellent physician, a worthy, re.spected man, and 
a Christian gentleman." 

Dr. Putnam's parents removed to Cortland, New York, where he 
received his education at the Cortland Academy, and afterwards taught 
school. At the age of twenty-one he went to Cleveland, Ohio, at the 
invitation of his uncle, Erastus Gaylord, who was the head of a 
wholesale drug house. There he studied the business under an 
English chemist, and subsequently pursued the study of medicine. 




His health was too delicate to allow of his taking an active part in the 
civil war, but he served, under appointment of Governor Tod, of Ohio, 
on the sanitary commission, to find wounded Ohio soldiers and return 
them to their homes. He was offered the position of assistant surgeon 
but declined. 

In 1863 his health broke down, and he went to his brother's home, 
at Ban Claire, in the pine region of Wisconsin, where he remained 
three years, with good results. On January 30, 1867, he married Miss 
Mary Nicoll Woodward, at her father's residence on the Hudson, 
"Keewaydin," Orange county. New York. They had two sons, and 
two daughters, who died young. 

In the autumn of 1868 he accepted the position of business 
manager of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, remaining there 
three years. He removed to Elizabeth, New Jersey, in June, 1872, 
having purchased the Library Hall drug store. He was appointed on 
the board of education in 1877, and elected thereto each year until 
1887, when he declined renomination. He was president of the board 
the last year, being successful in establishing the high school that year, 
an object which he had long desired to accomplish. In November, 
1887, he sold out his drug business. The next May (1888), he was 
elected health inspector, by the board of health, which office he has 
continuously filled to the present time. 

On April 3, 1891, he was elected a member of the Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the Elizabeth Town 
Chapter, No. i, on its organization. 


One of the most exacting of all the higher lines of occupation to 
which man may lend his energies is that of a physician. A most 
scrupulous preliminary training is demanded, and a nicety of judgment 
little understood by the laity. Then, again, the profession brings one 
of its devotees into almost constant association with the sadder side of 
life, — that of pain and suffering, — so that a mind capable of great self- 
control, and a heart responsive and sympathetic, are essential attributes 
of him who would essay the practice of the healing art. Thus, when 
professional success is attained in any instance, it may be taken that 
such measure of success has been thoroughly merited. The subject of 
this review has attained rank among the representative physicians of 
Union county, and, as he has been essentially the artificer of his own 
fortunes, gaining his success and prestige entirely through his own 
efforts, the record of his success is the more gratifying and instructive. 

Frank W. Westcott is a native son of New Jersey, having been 
born at Bridgeton, Cumberland county, on the 9th of July, 1849, the 
son of Shepard B. and Phebe (Parris) Westcott. His father died when 


our subject was but four years of age, and he had attained only the age 
of fourteen years when he was likewise deprived by death of a mother's 
care. The orphan boy went to live on a farm, and contributed his 
quota toward carrying on the incidental work thereof. His ambition 
to secure an education was early quickened, and he not only availed 
himself of such privileges as were afforded him as a boy, but began to 
formulate definite plans which should enable him to compass the 
desired end — the securing of a good education. His preliminary disci- 
pline was secured in the public schools of his native town, and when 
he had attained his legal majority, depending entirely upon his own 
exertions for the carrying through of his cherished plans, he became a 
student in the South Jersey Institute, at Bridgeton, New Jersey, where 
he remained for a time, and then, in 1874, matriculated in Bucknell 
University, at Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, where he graduated as a mem- 
ber of the class of 1878, securing the degree of A. B. In 1880 his alma 
mater conferred upon the Doctor the degree of A. M. 

Thus reinforced in a preliminary way. Dr. Westcott continued 
his progressive study in a technical or specific line, having determined 
to adopt the profession of medicine and surgery as his vocation in life. 
He completed the curriculum of studies in the Jefferson Medical 
College, of Philadelphia, in 1880, receiving the coveted degree of 
Doctor of Medicine. In May, of the same year, he established himself 
for the practice of his profession in Scotch Plains, Union county, and 
has ever since continued in this line in Scotch Plains and Fanwood, 
having gained a support which is of representative order and indicative 
of his ability as a physician, and his popularity as a man. Dr. Westcott 
has been a member of the Union County Medical Society about sixteen 
years, having served for several years as treasurer of said association, 
and as its president in 1896. In May, 1887, he received the appoint- 
ment as county physician, was reappointed in 1890 and again in 1896; 
he is thus, at present, serving his third term in this office. 

In his political adherency the Doctor is an uncompromising 
Republican, and his religious faith is that of the Baptist church. He 
is a member of the Scotch Plains Baptist church, to which specific 
reference is made on other pages of this volume, and has served on its 
board of trustees for the past fifteen years, having also been treasurer 
of the same for a practically equal length of time. He has maintained 
an interest in all that conserves- the well-being of the community, and 
has been particularly zealous in connection with the advancement of 
the public-school system. For the past decade he has served on the 
board of trustees, and a portion of this period he held the position as 
president of the board. 

On the 24th of June, 1880, Dr. Westcott was united in marriage to 
Miss Mary E. Hendershot, of Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, who died on 
the nth of May, 1883, leaving one child, Mary E. On the 7th of July, 



1894, the Doctor consummated a second marriage, being then united to 
Esther Ella Fancher, who presides with gracious dignity over the 
attractive home. 


son of James and L,ydia (Myers) Henderson, was born at Vaux Hall, 
Jefferson Village, New Jersey, September 12, 1810. The father was a 
native of Scotland, his place of birth and residence being at Ellerslie, 
near Paisley. He was a. papermaker and inventor of paper moulds. In 
1798 he came to America, and subsequently located at the place stated 

Dr. John J. Henderson, the subject of this sketch, read medicine 
with Dr. David Martin, at Springfield, New Jersey, and attended lectures 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York city, during the 
years 1831-2-3, graduating in March, 1833. He practiced medicine in 
Newark, New Jersey, one year. On the death of Dr. David Martin, he 
returned to Springfield and succeeded to the practice of his former 
preceptor. His health failing in 1854, he gave up the practice of 
medicine and went into business, becoming soon established in the 
manufacturing of paper, in the various branches of which he continued 
until his death, which occurred December 2, 1890. 

Dr. Henderson was twice married. His first wife was Phoebe Ann 
Martin, of Rahway, New Jersey. They had one son, John Martin 
Henderson. His second marriage was to Abigail Dudlow Martin, also 
of Rahway, and two children were born of this marriage, William Stuart 
Henderson and Ann Dydia Henderson. 

Dr. Henderson was very fond of traveling, in which he sought both 
health and pleasure. His life was chiefly passed in Springfield, New 


The subject of this review is one whose ancestral history touches 
the colonial epoch in the annals of the nation, and that period which 
marked the inception of the grandest republic the world has ever 
known. Through such sources have we attained the true American 
type, and along this line must we proceed if we would learn of the 
steadfast and unyielding elements which constitute the basis upon 
which has been reared the lofty and magificent superstructure of an 
enlightened and favored commonwealth. The life history of the 
Doctor forms an integral part of that indissoluble chain which links 
the early, formative period with that of latter-day progress and 
prosperity, and not alone is there particular interest attaching to his 
career as one of the representative physicians of Union county, but his 



is the distinction of having passed practically his entire life in said 
county and, indeed, in Rahway, the place of his nativity. 

Elihu Brittin Silvers was born in that suburb of Rahway which 
bears the name of Milton, on the 7th of November, 1829, being the son 
of John and Maria (Brittin) Silvers, the former of whom was a 


merchant tailor by occupation and a man of sterling character. He was 
the son of Judge Noah Silvers. The mother of the Doctor was born in 
Elizabeth, New Jersey, being the daughter of Colonel Klihu Brittin, 
who conferred upon his grandson, the subject of this sketch, his full 
patronymic. The paternal ancestors of the Doctor are supposed to 


have emigrated to America from Spain or Portugal— more probably 
the latter — at a period long antecedent to the war of the Revolution, 
the original name being supposed to have been De Silva. In the 
maternal line the lineage of our subject is of pure Welsh extraction, 
the great-grandfather, Captain William Brittin, having come hither 
from Wales, in 1761, and settled on the outskirts of Elizabeth, New 
Jersey. He held a captain's commission in the war of the Revolution, 
serving with his brother, who was one of General Washington's chosen 
one hundred and fifty. His son, Elihu Brittin, grandfather of the 
Doctor, was born in Elizabeth, and served as a colonel in the war of 
1812, so that it may be seen that our subject gains by heredity the 
Stan chest patriotism and loyalty to American institutions. 

In his boyhood Dr. Silvers manifested a distinct predilection for 
study, early showing a marked taste for pharmacy, to which important 
line he has devoted his attention for a long term of years. He received 
his preliminary educational discipline in the public schools and prepared 
for the sophomore class at College Hill, Poughkeepsie, New York, but 
for financial reasons did not complete the full collegiate course. After 
learning the drug business he determined to prepare himself for the 
practice of the allied profession of medicine, and with this end in view 
he attended the required course of lectures at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, in New York city, graduating in that institution as a 
member of the class of 1852. In 1888 he took a post-graduate course 
at this institution, attending a full course of lectures. 

Immediately after his graduation Dr. Silvers returned to his native 
place, and it is a significant fact that he has ever since continued his 
residence in Rahway, where he is known and honored as a public- 
spirited and representative citizen. He forthwith established himself 
in the drug business there, and has ever since owned and conducted a 
pharmacy in the city. He is the only survivor of the charter members of 
the Union County Medical Society, has served a term as president of the 
same, and has been active in the discussions incident to its meetings, 
from which he has rarely absented himself during a period of more 
than quarter of a century. For a long period — ever since the New 
Jersey State Medical Society inaugurated the provision for permanent 
delegates— the Doctor has so represented the local society, and the 
state society has each year accorded him his choice of states in the 
matter of attending their annual conventions as representative of the 
New Jersey society, — reports of which are published in their records of 
annual transactions. In the transactions for 1877 is published a new 
treatment for diphtheria, which, in the epidemic there, was brought to 
bear with fine results. Of late years the Doctor has written almost 
quarterly, on some medical subject, for the Medical World, of Philadel- 
phia, and has made very frequent contributions, on scientific and 
political subjects, to the local paper. 


Dr. Silvers has always maintained a liveh- interest in public affairs 
of a local nature, and has been called upon to serve in positions of 
distinctive trust. He has ahva>s figured as a stalwart adherent of the 
Democratic party, and has been an active worker in its ranks. In 1877 
he was elected a member of the common council of Rah\va>-, retaining 
this incumbency three years and proving unreservedly faithful to the 
trust imposed. It is worthy of particular note that he took the 
initiative; in the work of deposing from power and seeing properly 
punished the "ring" whose operations and malfeasance involved the 
city in bankruptcy ; he assisted in the compromise which was found 
necessary, and is credited with being the pioneer in the financial 
regeneration of the city, and in making such final adjustment of the 
affairs of the defunct Savings Bank as to realize to the original depositors 
the full amount of their respective deposits. For thirty-five )ears 
Dr. Silvers has been in some form identified with the public-school 
system of Rahway, in whose success he has maintained a cumulative 
interest. On two occasions he served terms of years as superintendent, 
and one term as member of the board of education. For four years he 
was president of the local board of health, and was the yearly incumbent 
as city physician for a number of periods. 

In his fraternal relations, the Doctor became a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in 1853, being identified with this 
organization for a period of thirty-five years. He secured a withdrawal 
card from his lodge, expecting to deposit the same elsewhere, but this 
he has never done. He was reared in the Presbyterian faith, but 
dtiring his mature years has been an attendant aud supporter of St. 
Paul's church (Protestant Episcopal) in Railway, his first wife having 
been particularly active in the charity work of this church, and having 
served as president of certain of its collateral societies. 

On the 31st of March, 1853, at Pierrepont Manor church, Jefferson 
county. New York, Dr. Silvers was united in marriage to Miss Nancy 
Mendana Earl, whose father was born in Connecticut, whither he came 
to Jeffersou county very earl)' in its settlement, purchasing largely, in 
connection with the senior Pierrepont, and founding the town of 
Pierrepont Manor, their farms having jointly formed the site upon 
which the town was established. Mr. Earl was a farmer and tanner 
on a large scale, and he attained a pronounced financial and social 

Mrs. Silvers was born April 26, 1835, and died on the 19th of 
March, 1892, leaving two sons, — Earl Brittin Silvers, who was born 
February 18, 1854, and who is a New Jersey graduated pharmacist ; 
and George Mulford Silvers, who was born August 26, 1857, and who 
is a medical practitioner, being a graduate of the same colleges as his 

On the 25th of September, 1895, Dr. Silvers consummated a second 


marriage, being then united to Miss Abbie Ringgold Coombs Reed, 
who was born in New York city, where she graduated from the Normal 
College. She is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church. Her 
original American ancestors, on both sides, came from Wales and 
settled in Virginia at an early period in the history of America. 


is one of the most skillful physicians in the state of New Jersey. He 
is of Swiss descent, his parents, John and Josephine (Duchini) Zeglio, 
having been natives of Switzerland, with ancestries embodying all the 
characteristics of that honest and liberty-loving people. 

John Zeglio, inspired with prospects of American citizenship, 
under American institutions, visited the United States, making his 
third visit to this country in 1849. This was during the gold-craze 
period, and Mr. Zeglio joined the throng of gold-seekers, making a stay 
of a few years in California. He then returned to New York, and in 
i860 moved to Cranford, New Jersey, and in 1862, to Mount Bethel, 
New Jersey, where he continued his vocation as a farmer until his 
death. Mr. John Zeglio was born in 1818, at Ambri, Canton Tessin, 
Switzerland, the native home of the Zeglio family for generations. He 
died at Mount Bethel, New Jersey, April 15, 1866. The mother died 
February 4, 1894. She was a noble woman and imparted her many 
good characteristics to her own family, the principal cause, probably, 
of their eminent success in after life. Their children are David; 
Pauline, wife of A. D. Taylor; Mary, wife of J. D. Kirch; Joseph and 
Peter J. 

Dr. Zeglio was born in Cranford, New Jersey, May 31, i860. He 
received his education in the public schools of Mount Bethel, New 
Jersey, and might have continued life as a tiller of the soil, had not a 
sad event occurred, which changed the purposes of his life. When 
sixteen years of age he fell from a tree, sustaining a fracture of the 
wrist, which rendered him wholly unfit for that occupation. Having 
decided upon the profession of medicine, he pursued a regular course 
of instruction under private teachers, incident to the needs of that 
calling, and in due time placed himself under the tutorage of Dr. J. D. 
Van Derveer, an able physician of Uberty Corner, New Jersey. At 
the age of eighteen years he began a systematic course of lectures at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York City, and in 1882 
received his degree of M. D. from that institution. Dr. Zeglio's 
practice in his profession has been phenomenal. He began his career 
in the home of his youth, and liberal patronage welcomed him from the 
outset of his practice, his income to-day being that of the more success- 
ful practitioners in our large cities. 

In 1895 Dr. Zeglio moved his office from Mount Bethel to Plain- 


field, where his services seemed to be in demand more than ever. He 
is also a skilled surgeon as well as physician, and has performed some 
noteworthy operations, a number of which might be mentioned, though 
one will suffice. This is a case where both feet and the fingers and 
thumbs of both hands were amputated at once from the body of a man. 
The time for the operation lasted only seventy minutes, and the patient 
did well under the treatment. 

Dr. Zeglio is very fond of field sports, and, had he time, would be 
afield with dog and gun, in seasons for that pastime, but the duties of 
his profession debar these pleasures. He is a member of various med- 
ical associations and keeps abreast of the times. He is ex-coroner of 
Somerset county, New Jersey, is a member of the American Medical 
Association, a member of the Medical Association of Plainfield, New 
Jersey, and of the Somerset County Medical Society. 

Dr. Zeglio is wedded to the interests of his profession and his close 
diagnosis of all cases, irrespective of cast, creed or color, has brought 
for him in part the large practice and the reputation he so well de- 


is a native of Dayton, Ohio, where he was born December 8, 1856, 
being the son of Silas M. B. and Henrietta (Dover) Simpson, who also 
were natives of Dayton. 

The progenitor of this branch of the Simpson family in America 
first settled upon Long Island, coming thither from one of the New 
England settlements, in the early part of the eighteenth century, 
removing subsequently to Elizabethtown, New Jersey, where John 
Simpson, the first of whom a definite record can be obtained, died in 
July, 1773. His son Alexander, born here, was married and until 1813 
lived in New Providence, whence he removed to the home of his son, 
Moses Simpson, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, at Day- 
ton, Ohio. 

Moses Simpson, above mentioned, was born at New Providence, 
and in 1810 was employed under Jacob Beedel, of Newark, to superin- 
tend the construction of a fort opposite the Battery in New York, and 
later known as Castle Garden. He removed to Ohio at the close of 

Silas M. B. Simpson was in the United States army and partici- 
pated in the stirring events in California from 1851 to 1856. In an 
engagement with the Indians on the plains he received a severe arrow 
wound. He served with bravery and distinction during the early part 
of the civil war, but was badly wounded in action in eastern Kentucky 
and retired from further service. He never recovered from his wounds, 
though he lived till 1887. 

John, the son of John, of Elizabethtown, migrated to Montgomery 



county, Pennsylvania, and his descendants to Clermont count)-, Ohio, 
where a daughter, Hannah, married, in 1820, Jesse R. Grant, and where 
their first son, Hiram Ulysses, later known as Ulysses Simpson Grant, 
was born. Dr. Simpson, of Plainfield, was a frequent visitor in his 


early youth at the home of the father of General Grant, at Covington, 

The military history of the family is remarkable, inasmuch as it 
was represented in all of the colonial and federal wars. The first John 
served in the French and Indian war, taking part in the expedition to 


Crown Point. The second John served through the French and Indian 
war and the Revolution. Alexander was but thirteen years old and 
was first a drummer and then a private in Maxwell's Jersey Brigade. 
Ephraim, a younger brother of Alexander, was a noted scout with Gen- 
eral Anthony Wayne during the Indian troubles of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory. Michael Simpson, another scion of the family, as an ensign in 
the provincial service, was at Braddock's defeat, and later, as lieutenant 
in the First Pennsylvania Battalion, was in the Quebec expedition 
under Arnold. As a captain of continental troops he commanded at 
Long Island, Trenton, Princeton, and Germantovvn. He was a close 
friend and admirer of Washington, who stopped with him, on his jour- 
ney through the country in 1794, at his home on the Susquehanna, in 
Pennsylvania. Moses Simpson served a short while in the war of 1812 
and commanded a company during the Mexican war, and his son Silas 
M. B. , as we have stated, was in the civil war. 

On the maternal side the grandmother of Dr. Simpson was of the 
Van Cleve family, the first of whom settled at Flatbush, Long Island, 
when the New Netherlands belonged to the Dutch, migrating from the 
Dutchy of Cleves, on the river Rhine, in Germany. Other members of 
the family and their descendants settled on Staten Island and in and 
near New Brunswick and in Monmouth county. New Jersey. 

Isabrant Van Cleve, who settled on Staten Island, married Jane 
Vanderbilt, and represented one of the collateral branches of the Boone 
family. His grandsons, Benjamin and William, sons of Aaron, settled 
with the Boones in Kentucky. In 1734 Isabrant' s son Benjamin settled 
near Monmouth, now Freehold, New Jersey, where his son John was 
born. John's son Benjamin was born there at the close of the Revolu- 
tion, and with his father went to the frontier, where John was killed 
and scalped by the Indians, on the spot where the court house in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, now stands, having been a party to the original settle- 
ment of that place. Benjamin was in the United States Army through 
the Indian wars, under Generals Harrison, St. Clair, Wilkinson, and 
Wayne. His description of the massacre of St. Clair's troops, during 
which action he was in the quartermaster's department, under his uncle. 
Captain Benham, is the account usually found in historical collections. 
In 1793 he left Ft. Washington (Cincinnati) in the night and traveled 
alone through the Indian country, a bearer of dispatches to the war 
department in Philadelphia. The journey was made with a great deal 
of stealth and occupied almost a month. While waiting for the return 
dispatches he was sent by General Knox to New York with two saddle 
horses, a present from the government to Captain Joseph Brandt, the 
Indian chief 

Dr. Simpson's early instructions were received in the public schools 
of Dayton, Ohio, and his more advanced and classical studies were pur- 
sued in private schools. He received the degree of Ph. G. at the Phil- 



adelphia College of Pharmacy, in 1879, and the degree of M. D. at the 
Jefferson Medical College, in 1883, when the faculty of that noted insti- 
tution of medical learning had among its members the eminent teachers 
Gross, Pancoast, Da Costa, Bartholow, Wallace, Rogers and Chap- 
man. He was a student under the late R. J. Levis and received the 
gold medal of honor from the Pennsylvania Hospital for excellence in 

Soon after graduation he went to the southwestern states, and, as 
acting assistant surgeon under General Crook, took part in the Apache 
war. While in this service he received a gun-shot wound that forced 
him to return home. He resided some time at Bordentown, New Jer- 
sey, but since 1888 has been a resident of Plainfield, where he has 
established a lucrative practice in his profession. He is a P'ree Mason, 
a member of the Plainfield Medical Association, and has been a mem- 
ber of the Naval Reserve of New Jersey since its inception. He is now 
surgeon to the Battalion of the East, with headquarters on the United 
States sailing sloop-of-war, Portsmouth, now anchored in the North 

Dr. Simpson was the first police surgeon of Plainfield, originating 
and planning that work and serving without salary, that its police de- 
partment might be placed upon a municipal standing. He is also the 
city physician, a position he has occupied for some years, and, besides 
attending to a large practice, has been in many ways prominently active 
in the interests of his adopted city. He is an active member of the 
Citizens' Organized Aid Association and deeply interested in the 
benevolent work of the community. An only sister died some years 
ago ; a brother and his mother still reside at Dayton, Ohio. 

In 1879 Dr. Simpson was married to Miss L,ilias V. Turner, of 
Richmond, Virginia. 

There is no field of endeavor in connection with the countless 
activities of life that places so exacting demands upon those who serve iii 
its confines as does the profession of medicine. There is demanded a 
most careful and discriminating preliminary training, and unremitting and 
consecutive study and application through all the succeeding days, and, 
over and above this, the true physician, who in a sense holds the destinies 
of life in his hands, must be imbued with that deep sympathy and true 
humanitarian sentiment which will bear his professional labors outside 
the mere commercial sphere. He whose name introduces this review is 
known and honored as one of the representative medical practitioners of 
Union county, and, maintaining his residence at Rahway, he has gained 
distinctive professional prestige and the confidence and respect of those to 
whom he has ministered, as well as of the community in general. 


Charles B. Holmes is a native of the old Empire state, having been 
born at Hamilton, Madison county, New York, in the year 1852, the son 
of Alonzo and Juliana Holmes. He received his preliminary educational 
discipline in the public schools of his native town, pursuing the course 
of study in the local high school and subsequently continuing his 
literary education in Hamilton College. Having decided to make the 
profession of medicine his vocation in life he attended medical schools in 
Philadelphia and New York city, graduating in 1874, with the coveted 
degree of Doctor of Medicine. The Doctor had little fortuitous aid in 
his youth, but his was an ambitious and self-reliant nature and it was his 
determination to excel in whatsoever he undertook. Appreciating the 
advantages of higher education, he made every effort bend to the securing 
of privileges in this line, working on the farm and teaching school to 
obtain the funds essential to completing a collegiate course. 

After his graduation Dr. Holmes came to Rahwa}-, where he 
forthwith established himself in practice, gaining prestige from the start, 
by reason of his devotion to his profession and his unmistakable ability, 
his personal characteristics being such as to engender a popularit}- aside 
from his specific talents. He has a happy faculty of keeping patients to 
whom he has ministered, inspiring confidence and respect, while his 
popularity with young men has been peculiarly pronounced, as he has 
ever been ready to aid them and to give advice. 

The Doctor's practice covers a wide area contiguous to Rahwa}', and 
his name will remain on the records as one who has dignified and been 
dignified by the profession of his choice. 

Dr. Holmes is a stanch adherent of the Republican party, has been 
an active worker and has been honored with positions of public trust and 
responsibility. He was elected a member of the common council of 
Rahway in 1894, for a term of three years, being president of the body 
for the years 1896 and 1897. He was acting mayor from April, 1896, to 
March, 1897, on the 4th of which month last mentioned he was elected 
to this chief executive office of the municipality for a term of two years. 
He is chairman of the eighth congressional district committee, having 
been chosen such in 1896, and has been a member of the county com- 
mittee for three years, also serving as president of the board of health 
three years. 

The Doctor is an enthusiastic devotee of "the wheel," and was 
president of a large bicycle club for six years, being also vice-president of 
the Associated Bicycle Clubs of New Jersey. As a member of the state 
board he has done much to bring about wise legislation for the benefit of 
wheelmen. He is secretary of the Rahway Business Men's Club, and 
secretary of the New Jersey Medical Club. 




is a leading representative of the medical profession of Union county, 
New Jersey, and is a widely known medical man. The family is one 
that on the paternal side is of English origin. On the maternal side, 
Woodward was the family name, and the Doctor is connected with those 
celebrated physicians, Drs. Woodward and Pepper, of Philadelphia. Dr. 
Wilson was born in 1861, in the city of Elizabeth, and was educated in 
that noted school taught for many years by Dr. Pingry, at Elizabeth. 
He was prepared for Princeton College, but owing to business reverses in 
his family was compelled to relinquish his classical studies and to 
engage for several years in mercantile business. Subsequently he became 


a medical student with Dr. Mack, at Elizabeth, and was graduated in 
1884 from the Bellevue Medical College, in New York city. For a year 
he was in practice at Roselle and then opened an office at Elizabeth. 
He has been very active in all matters pertaining to medical advancement. 
He is vice-president of the Clinical Society, is vice-president and 
ex-president of the County Medical Society and belongs to the 
Academy of Medicine, of New York city, as well as the New Jersey State 
Medical Society. He served as house physician and surgeon at the 
Elizabeth General Hospital ; he was one of the staff of the Eye and Ear 
Infirmary, of the city of Newark, and has done a great deal of work in 
this particular field, — in fact he devotes nearly all his time to the diseases 
of the eye, ear and throat. He also does special work in this line as a 
member of the staff of the Elizabeth General Hospital, and was also 
connected with the staff of the Alexian Brothers' Hospital. He is a 
member of the board of health of the city of Elizabeth, and at one time 
was city physician. He is a trustee of the Elizabeth Public Eibrary and 
is a member of the Elizabeth Athletic Club. He is married, has two 
children, and belongs to the Westminster Presbyterian church. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and of the Knights of Pythias. Dr. 
Wilson has rapidly risen in his . profession, and is recognized as an 
authority in his special line of work, and also as a very able general 


identified with the early history of Elizabeth, as borough, town and 
city, came of Revolutionary ancestry, and was born in Starksborough, 
Vermont, January 10, 1813. After leaving Middlebury College, he 
married. May i, 1839, L,ouise C. Judd, of Ditchfield, Connecticut. He 
then came to New York to pursue the study and practice of medicine, 
and, after graduation from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
removed to Elizabethport, in 1839. 

In 1854 Dr. Stearns was elected high sheriff of the borough of 
Elizabeth, and held the office of coroner many terms, both before and 
after Union county was set off from Essex, his first election to said 
office being in 1853. ^^ "^^^ connected with the inception of numer- 
ous industries now well established, like the Elizabeth and Newark 
horse-car line, Elizabethtown Water Company, and Evergreen Ceme- 
tery, of which latter he was the first secretary. He was a charter 
member of the Third Presbyterian church, and a trustee therein at the 
time of his death, which occurred February 2, 1881. 


was born in Plainfield, April 23, 1852. He is the son of Joseph B. and 
Sarah Ann Jenkins, both natives of Columbia county. New York. 



His father was a carpenter by trade, and moved to Plainfield about 
1843. He died in 1890. William Jenkins, a brother of the Doctor, 
lives in Scran ton, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Jenkins was educated in the public schools of Plainfield and in 
a seminary at Kingston, Pennsylvania, graduating at the latter institu- 


tion in 1871. He then began the study of medicine, completing his 
course four years later in the Homoeopathic Medical College, New 
York. His professional career was begun in Danielsonville, Connect- 
icut, where he practiced twelve years. In 1888 he came to Plainfield 
and succeeded to the practice of Dr. South, in which he has since con- 
tinued. Dr. Jenkins has always taken an active part in everything 


that promoted the welfare of the city in which he makes his home. 
He is a member of the State Medical Society and of the Plainfield 
Medical Society; is now serving a term of five years as a member of 
the school board, and was formerly a member of the common council. 
He is a member of the ancient order of Free and Accepted Masons, and 
has risen to the degree of Knight Templar and is also a Noble of the 
Mystic Shrine. He is a member of the Junior Order of American 
Mechanics, of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, of the Royal 
Arcanum, the Knights of Honor, and the Knights of Pythias. 

Dr. Jenkins was married, in 1881, to Miss Rhoda Hollock, of Plain- 
field. She is a member of the Methodist church, and active in all its 
works of love and charity. Dr. and Mrs. Jenkins travel much during 
the summer months, especially throughout the United States and 


a regular practicing physician of New Providence, is a descendant of 
Sir Thomas, of England, and of John Cory, one of the Memorialists of 
Elizabeth Town. He is the son of William Cory, a farmer of New 
Providence, and (Harriet I^aforge) Cory, a daughter of Captain Abraham 
I/aforge, of French Huguenot descent. Four children were born of this 
union. One son, A. E. Cory is proprietor of a ' large vinegar establish- 
ment (one of the largest works of the kind in the world), at Albany, 
New York. William R. died, aged fifty-one years ; Mary E. married 
Charles Ulrick, who holds the homestead. 

The subject of this sketch was born August i, 1828, in New 
Providence, New Jersey. He was graduated at Pennington Seminary, 
New Jersey, in 1852, and began work as a teacher, a profession in which 
he labored for several years. Upon the advice of Dr. George F. Fort, 
ex-governor of the state, he pursued a regular course of instruction in 
medicine under his tuition, beginning his studies in 1854 and taking his 
degree of M. D. from the Philadelphia College of Medicine, in 1857. 

Dr. Cory was also a local preacher at this time, in the Methodist 
Episcopal church, but after some years of incessant work, he found it 
necessary to give up his ministerial labors, both because of a throat 
affection and because it was impracticable to preach the gospel and to 
practice medicine at one and the same time. 

Dr. Cory began the practice of his profession as a regular physician 
in 1857, in Windsor, Mercer county. New Jersey. At the call for 
volunteer surgeons, in 1862, he was commissioned as acting assistant 
surgeon, with the rank of lieutenant, and went into the service of the 
government on the general medical staff, subject to orders in any part of 
the United States, in the field or hospital. Having been ordered to Point 
Dookout, Maryland, he assisted in the formation of the Hammond 
General Hospital, and at one time had four hundred soldiers under his 



own supervision. Relieved from duty, he returned to his home, and in 
1863 located at Hightstown, New Jersey. In 1867 he removed to New 
Providence, New Jersey, where he was elected a member of the Union 
County Medical Society, and where he has continued the practice of his 
profession to the present time. 


July 18, 1855, Dr. Cory was married to Miss Emily J. Petherbridge . 
daughter of Rev. Richard W. Petherbridge, presiding elder. New Jersey 
conference. They had one son, Cornelius Leveridge Cory, born July, 28, 
1856. He died at the age of nineteen years, in the bloom of his youth, 
it is true, but in the strength of Christian manhood. 

At the close of 


life he said, "Salvation is only in Jesus," "Morality is a social duty," 
and this significant couplet is the epitaph on his tombstone. 

Dr. Cory is a Republican, and has been active in temperance work. 
He has been connected in an official way with the board of stewards of 
his church for a number of years, and is president of the board of trustees 
at this time. 

He is a writer of much ability. His collection of historical matter 
relating to the town of New Providence bears the marks of patient 
research, and is worthy the attention of the students of American 
history. He has shown himself possessed of poetic talent. At the 
request of his abna^mater, he wrote a poem on the occasion of his 
graduation, another on the jubilee of his' seminary and also an ode, in 
1896, both of which latter are of historic value, the last mentioned being 
in the interest of the State Historical Society of, New Jersey. 

Dr. Cory is also an inventor of a number of useful patented articles. 
His astronomical clock, indicating universal solar and siderial time, the 
lunar and solar cycles, eclipses and the precession of the equinoxes, is 
adapted to use in every school room in the world. His elucidations, 
illustrations and discoveries in astronomical science, respecting the 
motions and laws of the solar system, the solutions of residual 
phenomena, as in the glacial epoch and the zodiacal light and preces- 
sion of the equinoxes, are highly important, have the endorsement of the 
best authorities, and are being prepared as a text book for the press, for 
use in the schools. 

The character of his work may be indicated by an interview with 
President Thomas Hunter, of the Women's Normal College, New York. 
After a careful examination of his clock and astronomical delineations, 
which he commended amply, and the biographical record, he pronounced 
it (the record^ to be the finest collection and arrangement of meta- 
physical terms ever produced; being far above Gall and Spurzheim. 
Rising to his feet, he exclaimed with fervor, " Doctor, I admire you ! 
I honor you ! You are one of the men who live to benefit mankind ! 
In a spirit of self-sacrifice, to complete these productions, you have 
labored hard, endured privations and almost self-abnegation ; and this is 
not for money." The reply was made, " Mr. President, there are those 
who say that money is the incentive to all achievement." He replied, 
" They do not understand human nature ; men who labor for money are 
incapable of producing works of this character." 


was born November 24, 1836, near Tarentum, Allegheny county, Penn- 
sylvania. His parents were George and Janet (Stark) MacConnell. The 
former was born in Richmond, Virginia, January i, 1795 ; the latter in 
Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, November 24, 1800. Thomas Mac 



Connell and Eliza Watt, cousin of James Watt, the inventor of the, steam 
engine, were his paternal ancestors. They were of Scotch origin but 
born in the north of Ireland. The maternal grandparents were John 
Stark and Janet Morton, both of Glasgow, Scotland. 

The Doctor and the two other brothers, John Stark and Alexander 
A., after a classical course at college, each entered upon a professional 
life, the latter two entering the ministry and serving faithfully in the 
churches to which they were called. The Doctor graduated at Starling 
Medical College, Columbus, Ohio, in February, 1868. Before graduation 
he held the position of superintendent of the State Prison Hospital, of 
which he afterward became house surgeon. On June 19, 1869, he located 
at Cranford, New Jersey, his present home. 

Doctor MacConnell was married to Mary E. Mintier, a graduate 
of Franklin College, New Athens, Ohio. Her parents were Joseph and 
Eliza (McGrew) Mintier. 

Dr. MacConnell has two sons and one daughter living, and one 
daughter recently deceased, Francis Edith, late wife of H. R. Van Saun. 
His elder son. Dr. C. W. MacConnell, is located at Cranford, New Jersey, 
where for six years he has been practicing with his father. His younger 
son, J. Herbert, is at Auburn Theological Seminary, preparing to enter 
the ministry. His daughter. Miss Gertrude Janet, was graduated at 
Houghton Seminary, in June, 1896. 


a physician of Plainfield and prominent among the people of his adopted 
city, socially and professionally, was born in Philadelphia, in 1852. He 
is of Welsh extraction and is the son of John and Ann (Roberts) Davis, 
of Philadelphia, his father being an iron-manufacturer of that city. 

Young Davis received his education in the Friends' school, at 
Wilmington, Delaware. He then entered the office of Dr. Kittenger, of 
Wilmington, and was under his able instruction for a period of three 
years. He also attended a three-years course of lectures at the well 
known Hahnemann College, Philadelphia, and took his degree with the 
class graduating in 1884. 

Upon leaving college Dr. Davis came to Plainfield, where he 
immediately began the practice of his profession and where he has 
continued the same, with an ever increasing patronage, to the present 
time. Dr. Davis is a member of the Homoeopathic State Medical 
Association, and of the Masonic Order, in which he has advanced to the 
degrees of Royal Arch and Knight Templar, being also a Noble of 
Mecca Temple of the Mystic Shrine, of New York city. He is also a 
member of the Knights of Pythias and of the Park Club, of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Davis was married, in 1877, to Miss Annie M. Griffith, of Wil- 
mington, Delaware. Three children are the fruit of this union-, viz.. 


Charles, Helen, and Annie. Dr. and Mrs. Davis are members of the 
Crescent Avenue Presbyterian church, and are prominent in all the 
religious movements and workings of that society. 


A life full of usefulness has been brought to an end, in the very 
plenitude of its power, and with a future bright with promise. He 
was progressive, full of public spirit, and the first to lead in any move- 
ment to advance and promote the welfare of the city. The people's 
confidence in him was never shaken. His greatest pleasure was the 
approval of the people he served. His friendship was as true as steel ; 
he was tender-hearted as a child, and his sympathy for the oppressed 
and unfortunate was always prompt and practical. Nothing could 
daunt or discourage him, once satisfied he was right. 

Dr. John J. Daly was born in Rahway, Ma)' 26, 1852, and passed 
his whole life in this city. His early education was received in the 
public school, and at the age of thirteen he began the study of medi- 
cine under Dr. Abernethy, one of the most popular and noted physi- 
cians of New Jersey. While with the Doctor young Daly first devel- 
oped the talent for surgery which so distinguished him throughout his 
life. He remained with Dr. Abernethy nine years, and in 1870 became 
a student in the University of New York and was graduated from that 
institution in the year 1873, when he returned to Dr. Abernethy's office, 
and remained as his assistant till the latter' s death, in February, 1874. 
Dr. Daly then took up the late Doctor's work and ably filled the place 
of his old preceptor. He thereafter continued his practice here, and 
his skill as an operating surgeon and his genial manner made his career 
an exceptional one, as to prosperity. He reached a popularity in a pro- 
fessional and social way attained by few. He was first elected to the 
office of mayor of Rahway in 1885, and was four times re-elected. His 
last election, in 1895, was by the largest majority ever given any candi- 
date for that office in Rahway. He discharged his duties with independ- 
ence and conscientiousness. He introduced the "ball and chain" as 
the proper punishment for tramps, and he carried this out so vigorously 
that the vagrants gave Rahway a wide berth. He was surgeon for the 
Pennsylvania Railway for years. 

Dr. Daly was originally a Democrat, and as such was elected mayor 
in 1885. In 1886 he was elected on the " Citizens' " ticket, endorsed 
by the Republicans, because of his dissatisfaction with the manner in 
which the Democratic party was managing the city finances. In 1887 
he was the Republican candidate, endorsed by the Prohibitionists, and 
was elected. In 1888 he was defeated, but in 1893 he defeated the man 
who previously defeated him. 



Dr. Daly was a director in the Union County Bank, a member of 
the board of the Union County Roadsters, a member of the Reforma- 
tory Commission, a member of the Union County Medical Society, of 
the Business Men's Club, the Rahway Gun Club and other societies. 

As an official the Doctor was unusually active. He seemed to be 
about at all times and in all places, enforcing the law and attending to 
the best interests of the city. He often combined police duty with the 
office of mayor, arresting tramps, compelling his own townsmen to a 
rigid observance of the city's laws, and forcing companies and corpo- 
rations to comply with their contracts with the city. The redeeming 
of the fair name of Rahway from the cloud that hung over it because 
of the long-standing indebtedness was one of his crowning acts, and 
only by his supreme efforts was it accomplished. Every channel of the 
city's supplies or expenses came under his eye, and no jobbery of any 
kind was possible. He hated everything that savored of trickery and 
deception. Dr. Daly was appointed, by President Harrison, a member 
of the board of pension examiners at Newark. 

The most feeling resolutions were passed by the various societies 
of Rahway on the death of Mayor Daly, whose demise occurred April 
14, 1896. Dr. Daly's father was the late John Daly, born in Kings 
county, Ireland. His mother was Catherine Royston. The children 
were: Mrs. John Farrell, of Rahway ; Mrs. Jacob Moeser, of New 
York ; Dr. John J. Daly, and Miss Mary Daly, of Rahway. 


was born in Franklin township, Somerset county. New Jersey, May 20, 
1821. He was the youngest child of the Rev. Dr. James S. Cannon, D. 
D. , and Catharine Brevoort, his wife. His father was born in the island 
of Curacoa, near the coast of South America. He was a clergyman of 
the Reformed Dutch church and was pastor of the church at Six Mile 
Run, in Franklin township, for thirty years, — until he was chosen to 
a professorship in the college and seminary at New Brunswick, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of the Rev. Dr. Woodhull. The Doc- 
tor's mother was a daughter of Elias Brevoort, Esq., of Hackensack, 
who was a soldier of the Revolution. 

The subject of this sketch received his preparatory education in 
the grammar school connected with Rutgers College, and entered the 
college in the year 1836, graduating with honor, in July, 1840. He 
then engaged in the study of medicine in the office of Dr. William Van 
Deursen, of New Brunswick,, with whom he remained three years, 
meanwhile attending the courses of lectures delivered in the medical 
department of the University of New York. He received his degree 
of Doctor of Medicine from that institution in March, 1843, and was 


licensed to practice by the Medical Society of New Jersey in the fall of 
the year 1843. He settled in practice, in October, 1843, at Bedminster 
in his native county, and continued to discharge his professional duties 
for nine years, and until the month of September, 1852, at which time 
he retired from the active duties of his calling and engaged in the drug 
business at Plainfield, New Jersey. He continued in this business 
until he was appointed clerk of the new county of Union, in the month 
of April, 1857. The citizens of the county continued him in that 
office, by election, until November 13, 1877. Since that time he held 
the position of tax commissioner for the city of Elizabeth for a num- 
ber of years, by appointment from Governors Abbett and Green. 


of Westfield, was born at Clinton, Greene county, Alabama, July 29, 
1852. He is the son of Dempsey and Lethe Ann (Brock) Harrison. 
His father was a native of North Carolina, his mother of Virginia. 
About 1865 the family moved to Mobile, Alabama, and he was edu- 
cated in the public and private schools of that city and state. In 1870 
he began the study of medicine at the University of Virginia, and grad- 
uated from the Medical College of Alabama, in Mobile, with the degree 
of M. D., in 1875, and from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in 
New York city, in 1876. He began the practice of medicine in Asbury 
Park, New Jersey, in the summer of 1876, but in 1877 located at West- 
field, New Jersey, and is still engaged in active practice at that place. 
Dr. Harrison was married to Miss Adaline Amanda Stitt, daughter 
of William Stitt, formerly of Meadville, Pennsylvania, latterly of 
Westfield, New Jersey. 


a retired physician and prominent citizen of New Providence township, 
was born in Plainfield township, Otsego county. New York, on the 
25th of November, 1817, and is a son of Henry Bassinger, a native of 
Albany, New York, where his birth occurred on the 4th of July, 1782. 
The latter died on the 2rst of May, 1823, ^^ the age of forty-one years. 
He was a son of SeSirenes Bassinger, who was born on the 26th of 
August, 1737, and who died May 20th, 1830. 

The father of Seffrenes Bassinger emigrated from Holland about 
the year 1733, and is supposed to have come from Rotterdam and set- 
tled at or near Albany, New York. The mother of Samuel H. Bas- 
singer, Martha Beach, was born October 20, 1787, and married Henry 
Bassinger on the 31st of December, 1804. The wife of Seffrenes Bas- 
singer was Mary Young, who was born February 18, 1754, and lived in 



the town of Troy, New York. Ephraim Beach was the son of Josiah 
Beach, who was the son of Zopher Beach, one of the early settlers of 
Newark, New Jersey, having been born January 30, 1728. His son, 
Jedediah Beach, was the father of Martha Beach and was born October 
21) 1755- He married Mary Post, on the 31st of December, 1781, at 
Bottle Hill, now Madison, New Jersey. SefFrenes Bassinger and Jede- 
diah Beach both served in the Continental army during the war of 
independence, the latter participating in the battle of Springfield, New 
Jersey, and a number of others in the state, and he was the sole sur- 
vivor of three brothers. 

Samuel H. Bassinger was about five years old at the time of his 
father's death, and he was reared under the tender administrations of 
his mother, attending the neighborhood schools and later the academy 
at Canajoharie, New York, where he finished his literary education. 
Responding to the predilection of his youth, Dr. Bassinger decided to 
adopt the medical profession, and with this object in view he studied 
in Oneida county, subsequently attending the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Western District, and the medical department of Geneva 
College, graduating from the latter institution with the class of 1842, 
and receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Later he took a post- 
graduate course at the university in New York city, and then began 
the active practice of his calling in Rome, New York, but shortly aft- 
erward moved to I,a Grange county, Indiana. At both of these places 
he attained to a high degree of success, but impaired health caused his 
removal to Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, and while a resident of that 
town he was honored with official preferment, being elected to the 
legislature in 1858. Upon the expiration of his term in that body he 
retired from active professional life, and in 1861 took up his residence 
in New Jersey, where he became identified with the construction of the 
Passaic & Delaware Railroad, in conjunction with his brother, the late 
J. B. Bassinger. Since 1869 he has resided at Murray Hill, New Prov- 
idence township, utilizing his time in directing the management of his 
property, a large amount of which he had accumulated earlier in life. 
He is public-spirited and has always taken a warm interest in state and 
township affairs. 

Appreciating the fact that Murray Hill was in dire need of a house 
of worship. Dr. Bassinger had erected at his own expense, in 1891, a 
suitable building which he deeded to the Reformed Episcopal church, 
and a few years later he presented the same church with some very val- 
uable property to be used as a home for aged and infirm clergymen, and 
this is known as the Bassinger Home. 

On the 2ist of May, 1850, Dr. Bassinger was married, at Lima, 
Indiana, to -Miss Orrelle M. Hobbs, a daughter of Hon. Joshua T. 
Hobbs, M. D., and she departed this life on the 20th of August, 1893. 
The second marriage of our subject took place on October 23, 1894, 


when he was united to Miss Selina O. Jett, daughter of Rev. W. A. L. 
Jett, of Washington, Rappahannock county, Virginia. 


has attained considerable distinction as a skilled physician in his native 
city of Rahwa}', where he is now successfully engaged in the practice of 
medicine and surgery. He was born on the 13th of May 1856, and is of 
Hungarian lineage, his father being a political refugee, who after the 
revolution of 1848-9, fled from Hungary, in 1850, and took up his 
residence in Rahway. The Doctor attended the public schools of his 
native city, and on making choice of a profession which he wished to 
follow as a life work, determined on the medical. He began his prepara- 
tion as a student in the oifice of Dr. Samuel Abernethy, and completed 
his studies under the direction of Dr. J. J. Daly. He then entered the 
medical department of the University of the City of New York, and was 
graduated with the degree of M. D. in the class of 1877. 

For a year and a half thereafter Dr. Cladek was one of the physicians 
in the Charity Hospital on Blackwell's Island, and for six months was in 
the Hospital for Epileptics and Paralytics. He then returned to 
Rahway, opened an ofi&ce and has since successfully engaged in practice. 
His understanding of the principles and methods of medical practice is 
accurate and comprehensive, and his skill and ability have found 
recognition in a liberal and constantly increasing patronage. He is also 
connected with the Newark Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary, as one of 
the attending surgeons. 

The Doctor has pleasant home relations, having been happily 
married, in 1894, to Mrs. Anstes (Van Cam pen) Cabell. They now have 
a little daughter, two years old (1897). 


in the practice of his chosen profession has won distinctive preferment 
by reason of his skill and ability, and from the faithful performance of 
each day's duty he gains strength and inspiration for the labors of the 
next. A close, earnest and analytical student, he has carried his investi- 
gations far and wide into the realms of medical science, and has gleamed 
therefrom many valuable truths which have enabled him to maintain a 
foremost place in the medical fraternity of Union county. 

Born in Somerset county. New Jersey, in 1865, Dr. Adams is a son 
of Jacob P. and Phoebe E. (Cory) Adams, both whom were representa- 
tives of old and honored families of the state. His ancestors lived in the 
provinces of Alsace and L,orain, and were of French-German stock. 
Coming to America at an early period in the historj' of the republic, they 

\ ^ 



located in New Jersey, where their descendants still reside. Jacob P. 
Adams was for a number of years a member of the old mercantile firm of 
Battelle & Renwick, doing biisiness in. Front street, New York, and for 
many years he was treasurer and manager of the fire department of 
Plainfield, New Jersey. In Somerset county he was united in marriage 
to Miss Phoebe E. Cory, and located in North Plainfield, where they 
spent their remaining days. Mrs. Adams also belonged to one of the 
prominent families whose ancestral history was closely connected with 
the earh' events of the state, and whose homestead has been occupied by 
representatives of the name for an entire century. Her death occurred 
Januar}' i8, 1882, and Mr. Adams, surviving only a few months, passed 
away on the 3d of December, of that year. 

Dr. Adams spent his early years in Somerset count}', and attended 
the public schools until fourteen years of age, when he entered the 
Plainfield Academy, pursuing his studies in that institution for three 
years. The next two years were passed as a student in the School of 
Mines, a department of Columbia College, and after making choice of 
the profession of medicine as a life work, he pursued a course of lectures 
in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, of New 
York city, in which institution he took his degree of M. D. in 1890. In 
the same year he located in Plainfield, where he has built up a lucrative 

The Doctor takes an active interest in civic societies and is a very 
prominent Mason, having taken the chapter and commandery degrees in 
that fraternity, and also joined the Ancient Arabic Order of the Mystic 
Shrine. He has served as Worshipful Master of the lodge, and Eminent 
Commander of the commandery, and High Priest of the chapter. He 
also belongs to the Knights of Pythias fraternity and to organizations of 
a more purely social character, including the Park Club, the Plainfield 
Bicycle Club, and the Crescent Wheelmen. He is also an active member 
of the board of trade of Plainfield. 

In 1886 Dr. Adams was united in marriage to Miss Frances U. 
Honeyman, also belonging to one of the old families of Somerset county. 
New Jersey. Two children grace this union: Helen Frances and 
Daniel Cory. The Doctor and his wife occupy an enviable position in 
social circles, and their home is a favorite resort with many friends. The 
Doctor belongs to the First Baptist church of Plainfield, and is a pleasant, 
courteous gentleman, whose sterling qualities of head and heart make 
him one of the most popular citizens of Union county. 

city physician of the city of Elizabeth, was appointed to that position 
in 1896 and re-elected in 1897, and is a worthy representative of his 



profession. His father, the late Michael Dolan, and his maternal 
grandfather, John Rehill, were both prominent railroad contractors. 

Dr. Dolan was born in Elizabeth, May lo, 1864. He attended the 
public schools until fifteen years of age and finished his education in 
Ireland, the home of his father, and, returning to the United States, 
began the study of medicine with Professor William H. Pancoast, of 
Philadelphia. He then entered Jefferson Medical College, and was 
graduated at that inititution in 1886. He then spent nearly one year 
in the west, and upon his return spent a year in the Jefferson Medical 
Hospital. He was appointed physician on the American Line of 
steamers and was in that service four years. In 1892 he went out to 
Ivcbau, Russia, upon the "Indiana," carrying the first load of supplies 
to the famine-stricken people of that nation. 

Dr. Dolan opened an office in Elizabeth in 1893, and has devoted 
himself assiduously to his profession. 

In politics Dr. Dolan is a Democrat, and is one of the counselors 
of his party in Elizabeth. He has been twice named for coroner. He 
is a member of the County Medical Society and visiting physician to 
the Alexian Hospital, of Elizabeth. 


It is much to achieve success ; it is infinitely more to win the 
gratitude of the suffering and afflicted. In this community there is, 
perhaps, no one who in this regard has greater reason for content than 
Dr. Jackson, of Springfield. Seven years of devoted labor here have 
placed him among the few who may be said to be at the head of the 
medical profession in the county, and such has been the cordial, kindly 
generous manner of his ministration that in the hearts of those who 
have received it there is a sense of grateful recognition that words 
can not express. 

Dr. Jackson is a native of Maryland, where his birth occurred on 
the 13th of July, 1853. He acquired his early education in Milton 
Academy, of that state, and was subsequently a student in the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. Determining to make the practice of medicine his 
life work, he began preparing for the profession nnd was graduated in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, with the class of 
1879. In the same year he opened an office and entered upon his pro- 
fessional duties in Harford county, Maryland, where he remained until 
1890, when he came to Springfield, New Jersey. In his new field of 
labor he has won a well merited success, his knowledge of the science 
of medicine and his readiness in adapting its principles to the needs of 
suffering humanity, gaining him a skill which assures him a place in 
the foremost rank among his professional brethren. He is a member 
of several medical societies, and thereby keeps in touch with the 


progress which is constantly being made in the profession. He now 
belongs to the New Jersey State Medical Society, the Union County 
Medical Society and the American Medical Association. The Doctor 
is now serving as president of the board of education of Springiield, 
and is deeply interested in the cause of the schools, doing all in 
his power, in his official capacity and as a private citizen, to advance 
their welfare. He is also vice-president of the board of Millburn 
and Springfield, and gives an active co-operation to all movements 
tending to the good of the community. Socially he is a member of 
Northampton Lodge, A. F. & A. M., of Northampton county, Virginia; 


belongs to Concordie Chapter, R. A. M., of Baltimore; and to Monu- 
mental Commandery, No. 3, K. T., also of that city. He is medical 
director of Fraternal Union, of Summit, New Jersey. The Doctor 
was united in marriage to Miss Annie S. Mapp, adaughter of Victor 
A. Mapp, Sr., of Northampton county, Virginia, and to them have 
been born three children. His honorable connection with the medical 
profession and his irreproachable character in all the walks of life 
have gained him a large circle of warm friends, whose number is 
constantly increasing. 





LIZ ABETH being the county seat of Union county, the pub- 
lic buildings of the latter are all within its limits. The 
court house, county offices and jail occupy commodious 
quarters on the site of the old town house. The court 
room is large and well ventilated, and has an annex library provided 
by the Union County Bar Association. The jail, in the rear, has all the 
modern requirements of capacity, cleanliness and security. The rooms 
of the surrogate and the board of freeholders afford ample accommoda- 
tions. The county clerk's office has a fire-proof hall of records, con- 
structed of stone and iron. 

As early as 1868 mention is made of the town house. Here, on 
May 26th of that year, the first general assembly of the province met, and 
it was the meeting place of subsequent assemblies. In those days it 
was also the meeting house, the Quakers then in possession of the 
town having no prejudice against their place of worship being used for 
secular purposes. The act of 1683, for the establishment of county 
courts, provided that the "County of Essex Session" should be held 
"in the publick meeting house of Elizabethtown " twice a year. In 
May, 1671, the first jury trial was held in the town house, a special 
court having been convened by the provincial governor for the trial of 
Captain William Hackett, of the sloop "Indeavor," for illegal trading 
in the province. The defendant was his own counsel. The first jury 
disagreed and the second convicted, a warning, at the very start of 
Union county practice, against such conceit or poor economy. The 
British made a raid from Staten Island on June 35, 1780, and burned 
the town house and jail, with other buildings. No attempt was made 
to rebuild until 1789, when, following speculative means used at that 
time to build the church and academy, a lottery was started to raise 
the necessary twenty-five hundred pounds. The prizes aggregated 
seven thousand four hundred and seventy-two pounds, and thirteen 
thousand eight hundred tickets were sold, divided into three classes, at 
one, two and three dollars a ticket. There were hitches in the scheme, 
and it was several years before its affairs were straightened out and the 
building was erected. In 1808 the building was again food for the 
flames, and was built again and occupied in 1810. With improve- 

* The following: history of the courts of Union county is from the pen of Henry R. Cannon, M. D., who was 
clerk of the county for the first twenty-five years of its existence. 


ments, alterations and additions from time to time, it is the court house 
of to-day. Some few years after the creation of Union county, in 
1857, the wing occupied by the county clerk's office, the chamber of 
the board of freeholders, and the hall of records was added on the site 
of the old cannon house and fire-engine and truck quarters. 

Union county was created by an act of the legislature, approved 
March 19, 1857 ; the act to take effect on the second Monday of April, 
1857 (April 13, 1857). All the territory embraced in the county was 
taken from the county of Essex. By the act the sheriff and .coroners 
of the county of Essex were to remain in office until the next ensuing 
state election, and to exercise their power and authority over the limits 
of the new county. By a subsequent act of the legislature, approved 
March 21, 1857, the borough court was abolished. The parties actively 
interested in the formation of the county entered into an agreement 
that the officers to be appointed for the new county should be equally 
divided between the two political parties, and that there should also be 
an equal division between the friends and opponents of the formation 
of the county. Under this agreement the following appointments 
were made, viz. : George W. Savage, of Rahway ; Apollos M. Elmer, 
of Elizabeth ; and Theodore Pierson, of Springfield, were appointed 
judges of the inferior court of common pleas. John Joseph Chetwood, 
of Elizabeth, was appointed prosecutor of the pleas ; Henry R. Can- 
non, of Plainfield, was appointed county clerk ; Jonathan Valentine, 
of New Providence, was appointed surrogate. 

Under the provision of the act, Edward Pierson, sheriflT of the 
county of Essex, was authorized to discharge the duties of that office in 
the new county until the next general election. The county clerk and 
surrogate were to hold office until the next election. As an induce- 
ment for them to take the offices, the friends of the new county 
guaranteed their election in the fall. The officers so appointed entered 
upon their duties April 13, 1857. By agreement the county of Union 
was placed in the circuit of Daniel Haines, justice of the supreme 
court. The first term of court of the new county was held on the first 
Tuesday of May, 1857. Hon. Daniel Haines, justice of the supreme 
court, presided. Judges Savage, Elmer and Pierson were present. 
James B. Burnett was chosen foreman of the first grand jury of the 
county. No business of importance appearing, the court was speedily 
closed for the term. 

The board of freeholders met for the first time in the month of 
May, and elected the following officers, viz. : James B. Burnett, 
director ; Moses M. Crane, collector ; and Oliver Pierce, clerk. 

The following is the list of officers of the county of Union from 
April 13, 1857, to the present time, i. e. , January i, 1897 : 

President Judges op the Courts.— Hon. Daniel Haines, judge of supreme 
court, from April 13, 1857, to December 4, 1866 ; Hon. David A. Depue, from December 


4, 1866, to September 7, 1875 ; Hon. Bennet Van Syckle, from September 7, 1875, to the 
present time. 

J-UDGES OF THE CouRT OF COMMON Plbas.— George W. Savage, April 13, 1857 ; 
Apollos M. Elmer, April 13, 1857 ; Theodore Pierson, April 13, 1857 ; Jonathan M. 
Ropes, October 19, i860 ; David Mulford, April i, 1862 ; William Gibby, April i, 1864 ; 
Hugh H. Browne, April i, 1867 ; George W. Farnham, April i, 1873 ; Nathan Harper, 
April I, i88i ; Lewis Iv. Hyer, April i, 1882, until office ceased to exist ; James T. Wiley, 
April I, 18S9, died, and May 17, 1894, was succeeded by John Williams Crane, who served 
until the office ceased to exist. 

President Judges of the Court of Common Pleas.— Hon. Robert S. Green, 
April I, 1868; Hon. Enos W. Runyon, April i, 1873 ; Hon. Thomas F. McCormich, April 
I, 1878, to present time. 

Prosecutors of the Pleas.— John I. Chetwood, from April 13 1857, to the time 
of his death, December 3, 1861 ; Robert S. Green, appointed by court to fill vacancy 
caused by the death of John I. Chetwood ; Edward Y. Rogers, from February 6, 1862 ; 
William I. Magie, from April 3, 1866, to April 4, 1871 ; J. Augustus Fay, Jr., from April 
4, 1871, to April 19, i88i ; William R. Wilson, from April 19, 1881, to April 19, 1891 ; 
Frederick C. Marsh, by appointment of court January, 1891, October, 1891, January, 

1892, May, 1892, October, 1892 ; Frederick C. Marsh, from January, 1893, to present time. 
County Clerks. — Henry R. Cannon, from April 13, 1857, to November 13, 1877 ; 

James S. Vosseller, from November 13, 1877, to death ; John L. Crowell filled vacancy, 
by appointment, from 188-, to November, 1887 ; John L. Crowell, from November 15, 
1887, to November, 1892 ; James I. Gerber, from November 15, 1892, to his death, 
November 15, 1893 ; William M. Oliver, by appointment, from November 15, 1893, to 
November 15, 1894 ; William Howard, from November 15, 1894, to the present lime. 

Surrogates. — ^Jonathan Valentine, from April 13, 1857, to November 13, 1862 ; 
Robert S. Green, from November 13, 1862, to November 13, 1867 ; Addison L. Clark, 
from November 13, 1867, to November 13, 1877 ; James J. Gerber, from November 13, 
1877, to November 14, 1887 ; George F. Parrot, from November 14, 1887, to the present 

Sheriffs. — Edward Pierson, by appointment, from April 13, 1857, to November 13, 
1877; Meline W. Halsey, by election, from November 11, 1857, to November, i860; 
Thomas W. Reynolds, by election, from November, i860, to November, 1863 ; Nathaniel 
Bonnel, by election, from November, 1863, to November, 1866 ; Edgar Pierson, by elec- 
tion, from November, 1866, to November, 1869 ; Joseph M. Osborn, by election, from 
November, 1869, to November, 1872 ; Seth B. Ryder, by election, from November, 1872, 
to November, 1875 ; Nathaniel K. Thompson, by election, from November, 1875, to 
November, 1878 ; Seth B. Ryder, by election, from November, 1878, to November, 1881 ; 
Thomas M. Forsyth, by election, from November, 1881, to November, 1884 ; George M. 
Stiles, by election, from November, 1884, to November, 1887 ; Frederick F. Glasby, by 
election, from November, 1887, to November, 1890 ; William H. Hicks, by election, from 
November 12, 1890, to November, 1893 ; George Kyte, by election, from November, 

1893, to November, 1896; William T. Kirk, by election, from November, 1896, to the 
present time. 

Oliver Pierce w'as appointed court crier in May, 1857 ; and 
continued to hold that position for over twenty years, and up to the 
time of his death. John Keron has held the position of sergeant- at- 
arms for many years and still continues to fill the same office. He also 
acted as court crier for many years, and was succeeded by the present 
crier of the court, James Ritchie. 

The county jail was for many years under the custody of the 
sheriff,— this continuing up to the time when a jail warden was 
appointed by the board of freeholders. Abraham A. Ward, of Rahway, 



was the first person to receive that appointment, and was reappointed 
from term to term up to the time of his death. He so conducted this 
responsible office that he was retained, without regard to the 
political complexion of the board of freeholders. Under his able man- 
agement the jail of Union county became the model jail not only of 
this state, but of all adjacent states. He was succeeded by Frederick 


Dodd, of Plainfield, and he in turn by the present incumbent, John 
C. Blore, of Rahway. 


When the courts of the county were first opened, the members of 
the bar consisted of the Hon. Benjamin Williamson, Francis B. Chet- 
wood, John I. Chetwood, William F. Day, William J. Magie and 


Robert S. Green, of Elizabeth; Thomas H. Shafer and Edward Y. 
Rogers, of Rahway ; and Cornelius Boice, Joseph Annin and Enos W. 
Runyon, of Plainfield. The only survivors at this time are Thomas 
H. Shafer and William I. Magie. The latter, having served for some 
years as a judge of the supreme court, has been recently appointed 
chief justice, after the death of Judge Beasley. 

A few years after the county was organized, the whole of lower 
Rahway was taken from the county of Middlesex and included in the 
bounds of Union county. A survey of the boundary line between 
Springfield, in Union county, and Millburn, in Essex county, added a 
small amount of property to this county. 

For a number of years the people of Elizabeth and its vicinity 
had been desirous of forming a new county, with Elizabeth Town as 
the county seat, but every eflFort had been unsuccessful, owing to the 
strong opposition of the inhabitants of Plainfield, Westfield and other 
townships. Of all those engaged in the effort to establish the new 
county no one was more persistent than Moses M. Crane, who, after 
the act, and for several years thereafter, was known as the "Father 
of Union county." 



HATEVER else may be said of the legal fraternity, it can 
not be denied that members of the bar have been more 
prominent actors in public affairs than any other class of 
American people. This is but the natural result of causes 
which are manifest and require no explanation. The ability and train- 
ing which qualify one to practice law also qualify him in many respects 
for duties which are outside the sphere of his profession. Union county 
has had reason in the past to take pride in the character of its judiciary 
and bar, and to-day '(!a& personnel is one which can not but prove, like- 
wise, a source of gratification. This chapter touches upon the careers 
of able lawyers, both of the past and present, and is most properly 
incorporated as an integral part of the history of the county. 


Perhaps no figure in New Jersey's history occupies a more con- 
spicuous or more favorable position than that of the Hon. Isaac 
Halsted Williamson, L,L. D. 

Born at Elizabeth on the 27th of September, 1768, his boyhood 
days were spent amid the stirring scenes of the Revolution, and though 
he was compelled to suffer but little of the hardships that were so 
universal at that time, his closeness to the scene of so many conflicts, 
and the excitement incident to the struggle for liberty, taught him 
many lessons which proved invaluable in after life, and imbued him 
with a love of country and a patriotism which were evidenced in 
almost all his public acts. During his career as a citizen, as a 
legislator and as an executive he strenuously opposed any measure 
that sought to deprive the people of any of their civil or religious 
liberties, which had been purchased at such a fearful cost. He had 
been a witness to the payment of the purchase-price, and no one 
more fully realized their inestimable value. It was, therefore, his 
earnest wish and constant endeavor (in the words of the New Jersey 
constitution) "to secure and transmit the same, unimpaired, to succeed- 
ing generations." Pie was a son of General Matthias Williamson and 
Sunnah Halsted, and the youngest of five children. He studied law 
with his eldest brother, Matthias, a prominent practitioner of the 


State, was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 1791 and as a 
counselor in 1796, and opened an office in his native town, where 
he continued until his death. 

Mr. Williamson's executive ability was recognized by the people 
of New Jersey when they chose him for their governor and chancellor, 
in 1817. These offices he continued to hold, through successive elec- 
tions, until 1829, when he retired to private life, having filled them to 
the entire satisfaction of his constituents and with distinguished honor 
to himself 

The first public position occupied by him of which there is any 
record was that of librarian of the Elizabeth L,ibrary Association, "an 
organization for the circulation of useful books, and for the elevation 
of the tastes of the people." He was chosen to act in this capacity in 
1792, and continued to do so until 1796, when he was succeeded by 
Dr. Abraham Clark. The selection of Mr. Williamson to fill this 
position is an indication of the confidence with which the people 
viewed him, and is a tribute to his literary capacity. 

In 1831 and 1832 he served as a member of the state council, and 
for four years, 1830-33, he served as mayor of the borough of Elizabeth, 
and although afterward frequently solicited to accept the governorship, 
he declined, owing to the confinement attendant upon his professional 
and home duties. He was prevailed upon, however, to attend, in a 
representative capacity, the constitutional convention which met in 
Trenton on May 14, 1844, and was there honored by being unani- 
mously chosen the presiding officer. His distinguished services at the 
convention are too well known to need rehearsing here. 

Mr. Williamson died July 10, 1844, after an illness which was 
attended with great bodily suffering, borne without complaint and with 
that patient forbearance which marked his whole career. His demise 
was uniformly mourned, for, through a long and useful life, he had 
deservedly won many warm personal friends and a host of ardent 
admirers. His remains were interred in the ancestral vault in St. 
John's church-yard, Elizabeth. 

Mr. Williamson's career as a private citizen, as a member of the 
bar and as chief executive of the state, was a continued success. 
A man of affability, of extreme good nature, and of eminent ability, 
he performed all his duties, no matter how disagreeable or distasteful, 
with cheerfulness and urbanity. As a lawyer he was wonderfully 
successful, owing to his keenness of discernment, his power of quickly 
grasping a situation and applying to it those principals of law with 
which he was so familiar, and his strong sense of justice. Before a 
jury his pleasing eloquence had a powerful effect, and he was always 
listened to with pleasure and respectful attention by all who were for- 
tunate enough to be present when he was speaking. He was a man of 
distinguished appearance, dignified in bearing, affable and pleasant to 


all, no matter how lowly their station in life. He was exemplary in 
his private habits. From early life an ardent Christian and member 
of St. John's church, Elizabeth, and for some years its senior warden, 
Mr. Williamson was a perfect type of the old-style Christian gentleman. 
After his death the New Jersey bar passed a resolution which embodies, 
briefly, succinctly and beautifully, an appreciation of those virtues for 
which he was admired and loved. It was as follows : 

The state mourns his loss. In all the relations of life, public and private, he has 
bequeathed to his countrymen an illustrious example. As a friend he was faithful and 
sincere ; as a statesman, enlightened and patriotic ; as a judge, profoundly learned, 
incorruptibly pure, inflexibly just. The inimitable simplicity of his character, the art- 
lessness of his life, the warmth and purity of his affections, endeared him to the circle of 
his friends ; his high and varied attainments command the respect of his associates. His 
long and eminent public services, his dignified and enlightend and impartial adminis- 
tration of justice demand the gratitude of his fellow citizens and of posterity. 

He married, on August 6, 1808, Anne Crossdale Jouit, by whom 
he had two sons, the Hon. Benjamin (ex-chancellor) and Isaac Halsted. 


There could, perhaps, be no greater tribute paid to the memory of 
a citizen than that paid to the memory of Hon. Benjamin Williamson 
when, on January 2, 1893, the Union County (New Jersey) Bar Asso- 
ciation unanimously adopted the following resolution : 

''Resolved, That to the members of the bar of our county Benjamin 
Williamson had been up to the time of his death a lawyer whose pro- 
fessional advice and instruction were eagerly sought, and from which 
there was seldom felt any disposition or courage to appeal. 

" He was a resident of Elizabeth for nearly all the present century, 
and during our primary studies, in our early professional struggle, in 
the triumph and disappointments of professional manhood, we always 
had Chancellor Williamson as an interested helper, a strong champion 
and wise adviser. 

"We had opportunity to estimate his worth as a citizen, neighbor 
and lawyer, and his unfailing exhibit of the virtues and beliefs of a 
Christian, and we can not fail to miss his presence from among us 
more than that of any other citizen. We have lost the consistent and 
honorable example of his daily life for all the time that we may live, — 
his constant kindness, his unfailing urbanity and the stimulus of his 
professional character. But we recognize that he had ' attained unto 
the days of the years of the life of his fathers,' and that these years had 
been filled with usefulness ; and, while we deplore our loss, we should 
not fail to be keenly sensible that the mind we had admired so lono- 
remained undimmed while his life lasted, and that the powers we had 
so often felt never suffered impairment through his long and vigorous 





Mr. Williamson was a son of Governor Isaac Halsted Williamson. 
Born at Elizabethtown in 1809, his early life was spent in earnest study 
and preparation for his long and useful career. He entered Nassau 
College, from which he was graduated with honors in 1827. Upon his 
graduation he immediately undertook the study of law, for which pro- 
fession he was eminently fitted, and was admitted to the bar of New 
Jersey as an attorney in 1830 and as a counselor in 1833. He took up 
the practice of law in his native town and was exceptionally successful 
for a number of years, when his ability as a lawyer had gained such 
widespread recognition that he was appointed chancellor of the state, 
in 1852, to succeed Oliver S. Halsted, which position he filled with 
distinguished ability until the end of his term. His decisions while 
occupying this honorable and important office are widely quoted and 
are masterpieces of keen discernment and brilliant as essays upon the 
points of law involved. His retirement to private life was much 
regretted by the members of the bar, who recognized that in him the 
judiciary of the state had lost a distinguished and learned jurist and au 
affable, pleasant and impartial judge. He continued to practice law 
until his death, which occurred December 2, 1892. 

Mr. Williamson during his long life occupied many positions of 
trust, both public and private, and the duties involved were faithfully 
and honorably discharged. He was for many years counsel for the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey, and in this capacity he deservedly 
earned a widespread reputation as a pleader. His distinguished bearing 
and forcible arguments had a noticeable effect upon the jury, and he 
met with remarkable success. It is said of him that his knowledge of 
the law was so great that he frequently successfully conducted the most 
intricate of cases without preparation or notes. 

Though Mr. Williamson never sought public office, his fellow 
citizens frequently chose him to represent them in distinguished gath- 
erings, — notably: as a delegate-at-large from New Jersey to the 
national Democratic convention which met at Charleston in i860, and 
as a delegate to the famous "peace convention" which was held at 
Washington, D. C, in 1861, and at which every state in the Union was 
represented. The object of this convention was to avert, if possible, 
the impending conflict between the north and south. He was also 
called upon to act as prosecutor of the pleas of Essex county, before 
the formation of the county of Union, and in 1863 was prominently 
mentioned for the United States senate, but was defeated by a few 
votes. He was interested in many large corporations, and acted for 
many years as a director and trustee for the Southern Railroad^ Com- 
pany. He was also an officer of the Union County Bible Society, and 
a trustee of the State Normal School. 

As a private citizen, as a lawyer and as a judge Mr. Williamson 
was sincere, conscientious and untiring. He won in early life the 



respect and confidence of his fellow citizens, and these were not only 
retained but strengthened with the passage of years. In his private 
life he was retiring, and he loved his home and his family more than 
the wild excitement of the political campaign,— and the affection of 
his wife and children more than the applause of large assemblies. He 
was an earnest Christian man, and for a number of years was an officer 
in St. John's church, Elizabeth, with which he united himself when a 
young man, but for a few years before his death he was a communicant 
of Trinity church, Elizabeth, from which he was buried with distin- 
guished honors and in the presence of a multitude of his fellow 
townsmen, who sought to pay a last tribute to him upon whom they 
had been taught to look with admiration and love, and who throughout 
a long life had lived among them, respected, honored and admired, and 
who then, though cold in death, lived in the hearts of all who knew him 
in life. 

Mr. Williamson married Elizabeth Swan, daughter of the Rev. 
Frederick Beasley, D. D., an eminent Episcopalian clergyman, who 
was for many years provost of the University of Pennsylvania, and his 
quiet devotion to her is perhaps one of the most beautiful illustrations 
of that characteristic which made him so popular and so loved. 

A man of sterling integrity, of broad and liberal ideas, of calm 
and dignified demeanor, of deep learning and of lovable disposition, 
the people of New Jersey, indeed, met with a severe loss when God, in 
His wise providence, gathered his faithful servant to Himself, and 
Benjamin Williamson will always be pointed to with pride as one of 
New Jersey's great men. 


governor of New Jersey from 1887 to 1890, was born at Princeton, New 
Jersey, March 25, 1831, and died at his residence in Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, May 7, 1895. His father, James S. Green, was supreme-court 
reporter from 1831 to 1836. His grandfather was the Rev. Ashbel Green, 
president of Princeton College, and his great-grandfather. Rev. Jacob 
Green, was a member of the provincial congress of New Jersey and 
chairman of the committee of that body, which prepared and reported 
the first constitution of the state, on July 2, 1776. 

Robert S. Green was graduated from Nassau Hall in 1850 and was 
admitted to the bar in 1853 as an attorney, and in 1856 as a counselor. 
In the latter year he removed to Elizabeth, and was largely instrumental 
in securing the passage of the act creating the county of Union. For 
ten years he was city attorney of Elizabeth, and for five years a member 
of the city council. He was elected surrogate of Union county in 1862, 
and was appointed presiding judge of the county courts in 1868. In the 
succeeding year he was sent bj' Governor Randolph to the commercial 


convention at lyouisville, as a representative of New Jersey. He was the 
solicitor of the National Railroad Company in the famous litigation with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, in 1872, and was prominent in the 
contest, in the succeeding legislature, which resulted in securing the 
passage of the general railroad law. In 1873 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Parker, and confirmed by the senate, as one of the commissioners 
to suggest amendments to the constitution of the state. In this conven- 
tion he was chairman of the committees on bill of rights, rights of 
suffrage, limitation of powers of government and general and special 

In 1874 Judge Green was admitted to the bar of New York and 
became a partner in the firm of Brown, Hall and Vanderpoel, which was 
afterward changed to Vanderpoel, Green '& Cuming. He continued in 
active practice at the New York bar, though residing in New Jersey, until 
1884, when he was elected a member of the forty-ninth congress, from 
the third district of New Jersey, then composed of the counties of Mon- 
mouth, Middlesex and Union. Before the expiration of his term he was 
elected governor of the state, by 8,020 plurality, over ex-Congressman 
Benjamin F. Howey, of Warren county. Governor Green's administra- 
tion was characterized by an earnest effort on the part of the executive 
to reduce the expenses of the state, to maintain the non-partisan 
character of the judiciary, to preserve the rights of the state in its lands 
under water, to establish an intermediary prison and to secure a free and 
uncorrupted ballot by reform in the election laws. He urged this latter 
reform at each session of the legislature, but it was not effected until after 
the expiration of his term. 

Representing the state, and personally in command of the New 
Jersey troops, Governor Green participated in.the centennial celebrations 
at Philadelphia in 1887 and at New York in 1889, entertaining, at his 
residence, in Blizabeth, President Harrison and his party, en route to 
the latter place. Governor Green was chairman of the various meetings 
of the governors of the thirteen original states to promote the erection of 
a centennial memorial in the city of Philadelphia. 

Governor Green was always identified with the Democratic party. 
He was a delegate to the national convention, at Baltimore, in i860, 
which nominated Stephen A. Douglas for the office of president. He 
was also a delegate to the national Democratic convention, at Cincinnati, 
in 1880, and was chairman of the New Jersey delegation at St. L,ouis in 
1888. In 1890 he was appointed one of the vice-chancellors of the state, 
and in 1895 a judge of the court of errors and appeals. 


for many years prior to his decease was one of the most prominent, as 
well as greatly beloved, lawyers and citizens of the city of Elizabeth. 


He was born in the township of Union, August 26, 1818, and was the 
son of Foster Day, of that place. 

He was a member of the class of 1833 in Princeton College, but was 
unable to graduate, owing to ill health. After several years of college 
life, he read law with Chancellor Halsted, of Newark, and was admitted 
to the bar of this state, as a counselor at law, in November, 1841. He 
carried on the practice of his profession in EHzabethtown from that time 
until the year 1869, with the exception of a year or two, when he resided 
temporarily in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He was at one period prosecuting 
attorney for the county of Union. He was tendered a position on the 
supreme-court bench by Governor Ward, but declined the appointment, 
owing to his distaste for public life. In his profession he was prominent 
and successful, and was characterized by strictest integrity, unequaled 
industry and fidelity to every interest entrusted to him. His clientage 
was large, but in the latter part of his professional career his time was 
chiefly devoted to real -estate business, in which he was pre-eminent. He 
was a man of noble and generous qualities, of wide benevolence and 
public spirit. He was a wise adviser and faithful counselor, and his 
death, in the fullness of his powers, was deeply felt throughout the 

He was a patriot and philanthropist, and throughout the war assisted 
liberally in furthering his country's cause. In politics he was an ardent 
Republican, and was a warm friend of the black race at a time when it 
was unpopular to be so. He was a director of the National Fire and 
Marine Insurance Company, and vice-president and a director of the Dime 
Savings Institution, of Elizabeth, besides being connected with various 
others of the public institutions of that city. He was one of the founders 
of the Westminster Presbyterian church, and was ever keenly interested 
in its well-being, but while a communicant of that church, and for 
several years superintendent of its Sunday school, he was of very catholic 
spirit, religiously. 

In 1869 Mr. Day resigned the arduous duties of his profession, to 
accept the vice-presidency of the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company, 
of Newark, and he exercised the duties of that important post until the 
date of his death, which occurred suddenly on April 6, 1870. 

On June 8, 1841, he was married to Mary Almira Kellogg, daughter 
of Elijah Kellogg, of EHzabethtown. He was survived by his widow 
and five children. 


son of Ebenezer Carter Tracy and Martha Sherman Evarts, * was born in 
Windsor, Vermont, January 31, 1835. He is of an old New England 

* Martha Sherman Evarts was a daughter of Jeremiah Evarts and Mehetabel Sherman, and a granddaughter 
of Roger Sherman, who, among the patriots of the Revolutionary period, has the unique distinction of having been 
the only signer of all four of the great national compacts, to wit : The Association of 1774, the Declaration of 
Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution of the United States. 



family, being sixth in lineal descent from Stephen Tracy,* who came, in 
the ship " Ann," from England to Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1623. 

Mr. Tracy's father was the founder, editor and publisher of the 
Vermont Chronicle, a religious newspaper of extensive influence through- 
out the .state, which he conducted for more than thirty years, and until 
his death, May 15, 1862. His mother died April 10, 1889. Mr. Tracy 
is one of eight children, three of whom have died, one in infancy, and 
aiiother, Martha Day, at the age of nineteen. The third, William 
Carter, was an officer in the Union army, and was killed in the war of 
the Rebellion. He has living one sister, Anna, wife of Rev. George P. 
Byington, a clergyman settled in Vermont, and three brothers, — Roger 
Sherman, a physician, now registrar of records of the department of 
health in New York city ; John Jay, a lawyer in Tennessee ; and Charles 
Walker, who is in business in Portland, Oregon. 

Jeremiah Evarts Tracy received his academic education in his 
native state, Vermont. At an early age he began the study of the law 
in the office of his uncle, William M. Evarts, in the city of New York, 
and continuing his studies in New Haven, Connecticut, he received 
from Yale College the degree of L,!,. B., in 1857, having previously, in 
1856, been admitted to the bar in New York, a few days after attaining 
his majority. 

Upon leaving New Haven he became an assistant in the office of 
his uncle, William M. Evarts, in New York, and June i, 1859, was 
admitted to partnership with him in the practice of the law. This 
partnership with Mr. Evarts and others has ever since continued, — the 
present business firm being known as Evarts, Choate & Beaman, and 
consisting of William M. Evarts, Joseph H. Choate, Charles C. 
Beaman, J. Evarts Tracy, Treaswell Cleveland, Prescott Hall Butler 
and Allen W. Evarts. 

Mr. Tracy was married September 30, 1863, to Miss Martha 
Sherman Greene, and has nine children, — Emily Baldwin ; Howard 
Crosby, a lawyer practicing in New York city ; Evarts, an architect in 
New York city ; Mary Evarts ; Margaret lyouisa ; Robert Storer, who 
has recently been graduated from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, in New York, and is now an assistant on the surgical side 
in the New York Hospital ; Edith Hastings ; Martha, now a student 
in Bryn Mawr College ; and William Evarts, now a student in Yale 

In 1874 Mr. Tracy removed his residence from New York to 
Plainfield, New Jersey, which has since been his home. While con- 
tinuing the practice of the law in the city of New York, he has not failed 
to manifest interest in the affairs of Plainfield. He has served at 

' * As follows : Stephen, as above ; John -, who married Mary Prence, a daughter of Thomas Prence, who came 

from England in the ship " Fortuna," in 1621, and afterwards became governor of Plymouth Colony ; Stephen (2d) ^ ; 
Thomas ^; Joseph''; Ebenezer Carter O; Jeremiah Evarts ?. 


'/fuMn/^ ^uiu/i^ 


diiferent times as a member and as president of the common council of 
the city, and has been for many years one of the directors of the 
Plainfield Public Library and one of the governors of Muhlenberg 
Hospital, located there. 

He is a member of the New York city and state bar associations, 
of the committee of counsel of the Ivawyers' Title Insurance Company 
of New York ; of the Yale Alumni Society and of the New York Law 
Institute. He is also a member of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States and of the Empire State Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution. 


Mason Whiting Tyler was born June 17, 1840, in Amherst, 
Massachusetts, and is the son of Professor William S. Tyler, who 
occupied the chair of Greek in Amherst College for sixty years, and is 
now (1896) living at Amherst, eighty-six years of age. 

The earliest American ancestors of the Tyler family came to this 
country in 1640, when they settled in Andover, Massachusetts. The 
mother of the subject of this sketch was a descendant of Governor Brad- 
ford, of the Mayflower, and of Major-General John Mason, who com- 
manded the expedition against the Pequot Indians in the war in which 
that tribe was exterminated. She was also a descendant of Rev. Jonathan 
Edwards, president of Princeton College and greatest of American 

On the father's side the Tylers are descended from Rev. Thomas 
Thacher, who was the first pastor of the " Old South Church," Boston. 
Hon. Jeremiah Mason was a cousin of Colonel Tyler's grandfather, and 
Aaron Burr was a cousin of his grandmother, on his mother's side. His 
mother is a descendant of Governor John Ogden, of Elizabeth, New 
Jersey ; she is still living at the advanced age of seventy-seven years. His 
ancestors on both sides were conspicuous in the history of the country 
from the earliest times. 

Colonel Tyler was graduated from Amherst College in the class of 
1862, and immediately entered the army, enlisting in July, in Company 
F, Thirty-seventh Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. This 
company was raised by himself and thereof he was made second 
lieutenant. From that office he gradually rose, until he had held every 
command up to that of colonel. His regiment belonged to the Sixth 
Corps in the Army of the Potomac ; he was with Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah valley, and took part in all the engagements of his regiment 
until the latter part of March, 1865, when he was disabled by wounds. 
Colonel Tyler was wounded several times. In the battle of Winchester 
his chin was pierced with a piece of shell, and when at Fort Stedman, 
before Petersburg, in March, 1865, he was wounded in the knee, causing 


his first absence from his regiment. He participated in thirty battles in 
all. His regiment was among the " three hundred fighting regiments of 
the war," and lost in its list of those who were killed or died of wounds 
twelve and seven-tenths per cent, of its entire number. 

At the close of the war Colonel Tyler entered Columbia College 
law school, and later the office of Evarts, Southmayd & Choate of New 
York. He was in this office two years as managing clerk, gaining a 
thorough knowledge of the profession. In 1869 he formed a partner- 
ship with General H. E. Tremain, which practically still exists ; 
General Tremain, as counsel, is connected with the present firm of 
Tyler & Durand, whose offices are in New York. This firm was 
engaged in many highly important cases, such as the Marie Garrison 
case, and the famous hat-material suit, which involved millions of 
dollars ; the A. T. Stewart kid-glove cases ; the cases involving the 
rights of sugar importers to exemption from duties by reason of 
favored nation clauses in treaties, etc. 

Colonel Tyler is a director in the Rossendale-Reddaway Belting 
and Hose Company, of Newark, New Jersey, and a director in the 
Columbus and Hocking Coal and Iron Company. He also was 
president at one time of the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company. He 
is a member of the Union County Club ; and Lawyers Club, and Psi 
Upsilon Club, of New York. 

Colonel Tyler was married in December, 1869, to Miss Eliza M. 
Schroeder, daughter of Rev. Dr. John F. Schroeder, formerly rector of 
Trinity church. New York. Mrs. Tyler's mother was a daughter of Hon. 
Elijah Boardman, United States senator from Connecticut. They have 
two sons : William Seymour, a student of law at Columbia College, and 
Cornelius Boardman, a junior in Amherst College. The family are mem- 
bers of the Holy Cross church. Colonel Tyler has resided in Plainfield 
since 1871. He has a fine residence, in one wing of which he has his 
library, which contains a large collection of rare and valuable works. 

Colonel Tyler has served his city in two important offices, — one, as 
member of common council, two terms ; the other, as member of the 
board of education, five years. He is member of the Winfield Scott Post, 
G. A. R., of Plainfield, and of the Military Order of the Doyal Degion, 
New York Commandery. He is also a member of the Society of May- 
flower Descendants and of the Society of Colonial Wars. He started the 
movement for a public library in Plainfield, has always been a member 
of the board, and is its president. 

Colonel Tyler was one of the early trustees of the Muhlenberg 
Hospital, serving as such several years. He was president of the Music 
Hall Association when the Stillman Music Hall was erected. He is a 
member of the advisory committee of the Children's Home, is also a 
member of the Town Improvement Association and president of the 
Organized Aid Association of Plainfield, and a member of the New 


Jersey Historical Society. In all movements in behalf of public 
improvement he has been prominent. He was president of the Plainfield 
branch of the anti-race-track association. He has drafted many of the 
city bills for presentation to the legislature. 

present member of congress from the eighth congressional district of 
New Jersey, was born November 2, 1852, at lycna, Illinois, being the son 
of Joshua D. and Rachael (Montague) Fowler, both of whom are now 
dead. The Fowler and the Montague families are of English descent, 
and were quite prominent in the earlier colonial days of the republic. 
The ancestors of the former settled in the state of Vermont in 1632, and 
within the same year the Montagues settled in Massachusetts. In 1837 
Joshua D. Fowler, the father, removed to a farm in Illinois, where he 
died in 1 88 1. The mother died in 1854. 

Charles Newell Fowler was the seventh of a famil}' of eight 
children. He received at first a common-school education and was then 
prepared for college at Beloit, Wisconsin. In 1872 he entered Yale 
University, from which institution he was graduated in 1876. Subse- 
quently he went to Chicago and read law in the office of Williams & 
Thompson, and was graduated from the Chicago I^aw School in 1878. 

Mr. Fowler commenced the practice of his profession in Beloit, 
Kansas. In 1884 he came to New York state, settling on the Hudson, 
but in 1885 he moved to Cranford, New Jersey, and, in 1891 to Elizabeth, 
where he has since resided. 

For ten years Mr. Fowler was engaged in the banking business in 
New York city ; for five years he was chairman of the Republican central 
committee of Elizabeth. In 1894 he was elected to congress as a Repub- 
lican, receiving a plurality of six thousand two hundred and thirty-six 
votes, Mr. Cleveland having received one thousand five hundred majority. 
He was unanimously renominated, was re-elected by a plurality of eleven 
thousand six hundred and forty-four, and is at the present time (1897) a 
member of the committee on banking and currency in the house of 
representatives of the United States. He is prominently interested in 
various ways in the institutions of his adopted city. He is president of 
the board of trustees of the Pingry School, is a member of the University 
Club, of New York,and also of the Mettano Club, of Elizabeth, and of 
the Elizabeth Athletic Club. 

In 1879 Mr. Fowler was married to Miss Hilda S. Heg, daughter of 
Colonel H. C. Heg, who was killed at the battle of Chickamauga. Mrs. 
Fowler received her education at Beloit College, Wisconsin, and in 
Europe. She is a member of the Westminster Presbyterian church, in 
Elizabeth. One child', Charles N. Fowler, Jr., was born of this union. 


From an admirable sketch of Mr. Fowler in the Bankers' Magazine 
for the month of Jmie, 1897, we clip the following : 

" During the ten j^ears Mr. Fowler devoted to business, to the exclu- 
sion of almost every other interest, he became familiar with the conditions 
and needs of every part of the United States, as he traveled much and 
was constantly studying the trend of financial affairs and the rapid 
development that went on from 1884 to 1893. 

" Since he is intense in his nature and persistent in his purpose, and 
when it is known that, even in his college days, he had a great fondness 
for political economy, sociology and history, it is not strange that, after 
five years of successful practice at the bar and ten years of even greater 
success in business life, with a thorough knowledge of business, an 
intimate acquaintance with all sections of our country, he should 
have at once commanded the respect of his fellow members in the 
house, and by his speeches and contributions to the press, upon the 
financial and currency question, attracted the attention of the whole 

" His bill for the reform of the currency system is one of the most 
comprehensive and complete yet formulated, and the thoroughness 
evidenced in its preparation shows constructive statesmanship of a high 
order. It has attracted wide public attention, and has commanded the 
favorable consideration of many merchants and bankers throughout the 
United States, as well as others who have given thoughtful regard to 
the subject. 

"The bill introduced by Mr. Fowler is not a mere amendment to 
some section or part of our present faulty banking system, with a view 
of patching it up, but a measure involving the readjustinent of our 
national finances and a recomposition of our currency, and yet so care- 
fully have the practical and theoretical been blended that no shock can 
come to the business interests of the country during the transition from 
our present plan to the one proposed. 

"The changes to be effected are such as will eventually work 
almost a complete reconstruction of our currency and banking systems, 
placing them in line with the soundest principles derived from expe- 
rience ; but the steps leading up to this reform are so graduated as to 
avoid any possible confusion or disturbance to public credit. Each 
new provision as it goes into effect will tend to more firmly establish 
every legitimate enterprise, since it will place the credit currency (the 
life blood of commerce) upon an indisputable basis, and will forever 
close discussion as to what is meant by a dollar. 

"In the preparation of a measure of fiscal reform involving such 
a wide departure from the existing imperfect system, and to adjust it 
to the needs of widely separated sections of our country, with the great 
diversity of interests, traditional predispositions and prejudices, and the 
complex forms of banking organization, the iftniost care has been 


required to meet all reasonable demands without the sacrifice of 
essential principles. 

"It is believed that Mr. Fowler's bill meets these difficult require- 
ments. Every attempt has been made to comply with the just ' 
demands of the entire country, but no concession has been made to 
unsound or doubtful expedients. 

"There is undoubtedly a preponderance of opinion in favor of 
sound money, but it has heretofore failed to concentrate itself on some 
distinct proposition. As the measure prepared by Mr. Fowler has 
taken such a broad view of the needs of the whole country, and is con- 
structed on lines of approved safety, it would seem that it affords a 
common ground on which all friends of sound currency may meet. 

"The prominent part taken by Mr. Fowler at the monetary con- 
vention held at Indianopolis, in January, attracted the attention of all 
those who are in any degree interested in this all important question ; 
while his address delivered before the Massachusetts Reform Club, in 
Boston, on Lincoln's birthday, February last, was widely published 
throughout the country, with favorable comment. 

"On April 17th there appeared in the Congressional Record a 
full exposition of the measure lately introduced by him, which must 
necessarily add greatly to his reputation as a deep student, a close 
observer, a clear reasoner, and, above all, a thoroughly practical man. 
He has considered the question involved so broadly, fully and repletely 
that every man who is studying the subject of national finance and 
currency should send to him for a copy of this address. 

"In conclusion, it is most gratifying to observe that, however 
active Mr. Fowler has been in his various vocations of life, he has 
always identified himself with every public movement that has tended 
to improve, elevate and ameliorate the conditions of life in the 
community where he resides. But he has been particularly interested 
in the future of the boys, and has done much to advance the interests 
of the Pingry School, a college-fitting academy, of which he is 

" Should congress pass a joint resolution authorizing the president 
to appoint a monetary commission, Mr. Fowler is, certainly, especially 
well fitted for appointment as one of the number. 

"Speaker Reed, in placing Mr. Fowler on the banking and 
currency committee of the house, greatly promoted the cause of sound 
currency. His study and experience, and his efforts to harmonize 
opposing elements and crystalize public opinion on the subject of 
financial reform have caused him to be a valuable member of the 
committee, and have made his name prominent in connection with the 
chairmanship of the banking and currency committee of the fifty-fifth 
congress. ' ' 

Before the assembling of the present congress, in speaking of the 


currency commission, the New York Tribune urged the appointment 
of Mr. Fowler as a member of that body, should such a commission be 
created, and said : " As a banker Mr. Fowler is necessarily familiar 
with the monetary systems of the world, but besides his practical 
knowledge, he has made a special study of the whole subject, with 
particular reference to the changes needed in the methods operating 
here. Mr. Fowler's eminence as an authority has already been 
recognized in various quarters. Last fall he neglected his own 
campaign work to do service in the west, and his speeches there 
attracted great attention. Through the newspapers and' magazines 
Mr. Fowler has also made numerous contributions to the discussion of 
this problem, and even the strongest opponents of his views concede 
that the propositions which he advances are supported by him in a 
tolerant yet forceful and logical manner." 


left an indelible impression upon the public life of Plainfield, and at 
the bar of New York won distinguished honors. He was one of the 
prominent corporation lawyers who live in the memories of his con- 
temporaries, encircled with the halo of a gracious presence, charming 
personality, profound legal wisdom, purity of public and private life, 
and the quiet dignity of an ideal follower of his calling. 

A native of New Jersey, Mr. Ackerman was born in New Bruns- 
wick and lived there through his early years, while acquiring his pri- 
mary and academic education. Desirous of fitting himself for his life 
work by thorough mental training, he continued his studies beyond 
the academic course and entered Rutgers College; but after the death 
of his father the family removed to New York city, and he completed 
his collegiate course in the University of New York. A view over the 
field of business life convinced him that his taste lay in the direction 
of law, and his preparation for the bar was made in the Albany Law 
School, where his close application and strong mentality enabled him 
to take high rank among his fellow students. He began practice in 
New York, in the ofSce of Benedict & Boardman, a well known firm 
of that city, and subsequently entered into partnership with a son of 
ex-Mayor Opdyke. His success was but the natural sequence of his 
love for his profession, his painstaking preparation and his compre- 
hensive knowledge of the science of jurisprudence. His ability was 
not confined to one line of judicial practice; he seemed equally power- 
ful in all departments of law and won an .enviable reputation in the 
conduct of varied cases, yet his time was mostly given to civil law, 
and especially that branch dealing with corporations. For many years 
he was counsel for the Newark India Rubber Company, and it was 
during his successful defense of several large law suits connected with 

,jo He rvett Acke rivIajs' 


the patent rights owned by this company that he displayed the bril- 
liant legal talent that gave him rank among the distinguished jurists 
of this part of the country. He was admitted to the bar of New 
Jersey in 1871, and, after his removal to Plainfield, maintained an 
office in Newark, where he was associated with Vice-Chancellor Amzi 
Dodd. He threw himself, with all the earnestness and enthusiasm of 
his nature, into the case at hand, and for the time knew nothing ex- 
cept his duty to his client, whose cause he made his own. He was an 
untiring and indefatigable worker, conducting cases involving large 
interests and intricate complications, and was a great lawyer, not only 
by the qualities of intellect, but also by the more practical test, — the 
success which attended his efforts. 

In 1862 Mr. Ackerman was united in marriage to Miss Ellen R. 
Morgan, a daughter of Rev. Dr. Morgan, of New Rochelle, New 
York, and to them were born five children. Soon after his marriage 
Mr. Ackerman removed to New Jersey and made Plainfield his perma- 
nent home. He was interested in both its civic and religious affairs, 
and was a leader in thought and action here. He viewed with a 
broad outlook the needs and possibilities of his adopted city, and gave 
his influence and support to all practical measures for the public good. 
He was elected a member of Plainfield's common council, and his 
efficient services in this capacity were recognized by a re-election the 
following year; he served as president of that body, and in 1874 the city 
judgeship was dignified by his legal ability. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 4, 1885. Few members of the bar of Newark have left a more 
enduring impression, both for legal ability of a high order and the in- 
dividuality of personal character which impresses itself upon the 
community than James Hervey Ackerman. His legal acumen was 
masterful, his integrity unassailable, his honor irreproachable. 


was born at Morristown, New Jersey, December 29, 1843. He was pre- 
pared for college at Elizabeth, under the tutorship of the Rev. Dr. 
Pierson, and, entering the sophomore class at Prijjceton College, he 
completed the course of study, and was graduated in 1865. He studied 
law with William J. Magie, at Elizabeth, and took a course of lectures 
at the Columbia College law school in New York. In 1868 he was 
admitted as an attorney, and in 1871 as a counselor. He at once 
formed a partnership with Mr. Magie, under the firm name of Magie & 
Cross, which lasted until 1880, when Mr. Magie was appointed a justice 
of the supreme court of New Jersey. The present firm of Cross & Noe 
was formed in 1884. 

In 1888 Mr. Cross was appointed judge of the district court, but in 
1891 was legislated out of office in a general political change. In 1893 


he was elected member of the state assembly of New Jersey, by a plu- 
rality of three hundred and Sixty-seven, out of a total vote of four 
thousand six hundred and twenty-eight, although he ran as a Repub- 
lican in a Democratic district. He was a candidate against his per- 

josapH CROSS 

sonal wishes, but those who knew him insisted that he was the man 
for the emergency. In the house he was chairman of the committee 
on passed bills, and was a member of the committees on banks and 
insurance, the sinking fund and the judiciary committees. Upon the 
resignation of Speaker Holt, during the session of the house of assem- 



bly of 1894, he was ehosen to fill the vacancy. In 1894 Mr. Cross was 
re-elected a member of the assembly for the county of Union, by a 
plurality of two thousand and ninety-three, and upon the organization 
of the assembly in January, 1895, was re-elected speaker, receiving the 
unanimous vote of his Republican colleagues, who numbered fifty-four 
out of a total membership of sixty. 

Mr. Cross made an able presiding ofiicer, and while the business 
of the house was dispatched quickly, it was accomplished without undue 
haste. He proved himself an excellent parliaraetarian and a skillful 
manager of men. 

He always had the best interests of the stateat heart, and it was 
always his aim to make his administration redound to the benefit of 
the people rather than to his own political advantage. 

At Elizabeth he is a director in the National Fire and Marine 
Insurance Company and is counsel for that company, as well as for the 
First National Bank and other corporations. The law firm of Cross & 
Noe are especially interested in real-estate and commercial law. Mr. 
Cross is married and is a member of the Westminster Presbyterian 
church, of Elizabeth, one of its elders and also superintendent of the 
Sunday school. 

New Jersey will do well to keep at the helm of state in future years 
good men and true, like the Hon. Joseph Cross. 

chief justice of the supreme court of New Jersey, was born at Eliza- 
beth, December 9, 1832, being the son of the Rev. David Magie, 
D. D. , a native of the same town and for nearly forty-five years pastor 
of the Second Presbyterian church of that city. His mother, nee 
Frances Wilson, was also a native of Elizabeth. Young Magie entered 
Princeton College in 1852 and graduated in 1855 ; he studied law with 
Francis B. Chetwood, at Elizabeth, and was admitted to the bar as an 
attorney in 1856 and as counselor in 1859. ^°^ ^^'^ years he was asso- 
ciated with Mr. Chetwood, and subsequently formed a partnership with 
Judge Cross. He was prosecutor of the pleas for Union county from 
1866 to 1871. 

In politics he is a Republican, and has acted with that party since 
i86r. In 1875 he represented the county of Union in the New Jersey 
senate, and served three years. In 1880 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the state, serving in that capacity until 1897, when he was 
appointed by Governor Griggs chief justice of the state. 


Joseph Bloomfield Coward, son of John H. and Phoebe E. (Cadmus) 
Coward, was born in Plainfield, New Jersey in 1836. The father was a 


native of Monmouth county, New Jersey, and was a resident of Plainfield 
and a hatter there from 1835 to i860. He died in November, 1896, aged 
ninety-two years. The mother died in 1890. Two children were born 
of this union, — Deborah C, wife of John B. Arrowsmith, of Monmouth 
county. New Jersey, and the subject of this sketch. 

Joseph B. Coward received his education in the public schools of 
Plainfield, after which he studied law in the office of Cornelius Boice, one 
of the most prominent lawyers of that city. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1858. Within this same year he went to Ke\-port, Monmouth county. 
New Jersey, but in 1864, he returned to Plainfield, where he has contin- 
ued the practice of his profession since that time. 

Mr. Coward is a Republican in politics, and has held prominent 
positions of trust in the gift of that part)- for man)- years. He was a mem- 
ber of the assembly from the third district of Union county for the year 
1878. He has been prominently identified with the affairs of his cit)- in 
various ways ; he has been a member of the common council, was city 
clerk from 1890 to 1892, and has been connected with the Dime Savings 
Bank, as a member of its board of managers, since its organization in 
1868. He has also been a director in the Cit>' National Bank for man)- 

Mr. Coward was married to Miss Sarah A., daughter of Cornelius 
Boice, in 1859. 'Three children were born of this union. Their names are 
Ivillian, Harry H. and Helen A. Harry H. Coward is connected with 
the City National Bank, of Plainfield. Mr. Coward and family are 
members of the Crescent A\'enue Presbyterian church. 


was born November 5, 1856, in Clinton, Hunterdon county. New Jersey. 
At the age of fifteen years he was admitted to Rutgers College, where he 
was graduated four years later, the second-honor man of his class, taking 
the prize for moral philosophy and in Oreek language. During his 
college career, his law studies, and until he began to practice his pro- 
fession, Mr. Voorhees was engaged in the preparation of )'oinig men for 
college. Soon after his graduation he was offered and accepted a 
professorship of languages in the Rutgers Grammar Scliool, at New 
Brunswick, where he taught one year, acting as first assistant to the 
rector, after which he entered the law office of Magie & Cross, at Eliza- 
beth, New Jersey, and in 1880 was admitted to the bar. 

Mr. Voorhees has ne\'er been ambitious for political preferment, but 
has, nevertheless, held a number of public offices. In 1884 he was 
elected school commissioner, and took an active part in the establishment 
of the high school and the training school in Elizabeth. When the city 
was bankrupt, and needed legislation to help it out financially, for educa- 
tional as well as for other, he was selected to represent his city 



in the house of assembly. He was school commissioner of Elizabeth 
four years, and was a member of the house of assembly during the years 
1888, 1889, and 1890. In 1894 he was nominated b}' Governor Werts 
for the office of circuit-court judge, but declined the honor. In 1893 he 
was elected to the state senate, and was re-elected in 1896. At the close 
of the first session the leadership of the senate was given to him, the 
same position having been held by him during his career in the assembly. 
His leadership was such that the Republican state convention, b}' reso- 
lutions, commended the course of the Republican minority. Mr. 
Voorhees was a member of the connnittee assigned to draft Werts' ballot 


law, and took an active part in all of the deliberations of that committee. 
At the close of his service in the assembh', he refused to re-enter 
politics, but when the state had been almost turned over to the absolute 
control of trusts, gamblers and the like, and when the pople of Union 
county, under the leadership of Rev. Dr. Kempshall, formed the Citizens' 
League, Mr. Voorhees joined with the others in that great moral crusade, 
and was selected as the Republican candidate for senator, and in the 
election received more votes than any other candidate. On this occasion 
he was made leader of the senate. He took an active part in the opposition 


to the attempt on the part of the ringsters to obstruct the organization of 
the senate, and in the promotion of various reform measures. Mr. Voor- 
hees was chairman of the senate investigation committee of 1896. He 
was re-elected to the senate in 1897. 


Englishtown, Monmouth county, New Jersey, received its name 
from James English, who settled there in 1737. His grandson was 
James Robinson English, a business man of Englishtown, and his son, 
the Rev. James T. English, the father of Nicholas C. J. English, was 
a prominent minister in the Presbyterian church, who removed from 
that place to Somerset county many years since. 

The Rev. James T. English was prominent among the clergy of 
his church, and filled his only appointment for the long period of 
thirty-five years. He was a graduate of Union College, of New York, 
subsequently of the theological seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, 
and was called to Liberty Corner, Somerset county. New Jersey, — the 
only pastorate held by him, and one in which he remained till the 
time of his death. His wife was Mary Elizabeth Jobs, daughter of 
Nicholas C. Jobs, prominent as a justice of the peace, a member of the 
assembly for several terms, and postmaster of his town for nearly fifty 
years. There were born of this union four sons, and one daughter. 
Of the sons three became lawyers, and one a physician, all prominent 
in their professions. 

Nicholas C. J. English was born at Liberty Corner, Somerset 
county, November 4, 1842, and, as his parentage shows, came from old 
New Jersey stock. He received a good common-school education, and 
was then so thoroughly prepared for college at Basking Ridge, JsTew 
Jersey, as to enter the sophomore class at Princeton. Basking Ridge 
was four miles away, but young English went daily from his home to 
that place, much of the time on foot, until his labors were completed. 
In 1865 he graduated among the honor men of his class, and immedi- 
ately afterward commenced the study of the law, under the direction 
of his brother, James R. English, with whom he has been associated 
in the practice of his profession since the time of his admittance to the 
bar. The firm of J. R. and N. English, composed of the two brothers, 
has done a very extensive business, the members having a high pro- 
fessional standing among the more important leading business men 
and great corporations of eastern New Jersey. As a lawyer Mr. 
English has an enviable reputation for sterling honesty, and is 
esteemed as a ^ counselor in civil rather than criminal cases. His 
practice, in consequence, is largely in the settling of corporation suits, 
trusts and chancery cases, in which the firm is most reputably known. 
He cares little for office or political preferment, but has been, however, 


somewhat prominently identified- from time to time with the affairs of 
the city government, and with various enterprises in Elizabeth. He 
was one of the directors in the extension of the line of the I^ehigh 
Valley Railroad Company to New York, is a director of the First 


National Bank of Elizabeth, is a trustee of the Pingry School, and is 
identified with other interests of his city and state. 

There is no spot on earth more dear to Mr. English than his home. 
His was a happy union, in 1870, with Miss Ella J. Hall, daughter of 
William Hall, Esq., of Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Mr. Hall, now in 


the evening of his days, has been one of the most progressive and 
successful business men of that city. 

Two sons were the fruit of this union. One, William H. , died 
before graduating from Princeton College, of which he was a student. 
The other son, Conover, is now pursuing a course of instruction in the 
same institution. 

Mr. English is an elder in the Second Presbyterian church, of Eliza- 
beth, and is actively identified with the interests of that society, giving 
of his means liberally for charitable purposes. Mr. English considers 
himself identified also with the interests of old Somerset county, as he 
owns the old homestead farm, at lyiberty Corner, where he was born 
and where he spends part of the time each year. This farm has been 
owned successively by members of the family for five generations. 
During the Revolution it was the scene of stormy events, and tradi- 
tions of Indian, French and British soldiers cluster around it. 


was born in the city of Plainfield, New Jersey, of New England ances- 
try, November 23, 1856. He was the youngest son of Dr. Charles H. 
Stillman and Mary E. Stillman. His father was one of the best known 
men of Plainfield, having been a physician in that city for forty years, 
but his best reputation grew from his connection with the public 
schools, as he became known as the founder of the present school sys- 
tem of New Jersey. On his mother's side he is a direct descendant of 
Elder Brewster, of the Mayflower. 

William M. Stillman was graduated at the Plainfield high school 
in 1872, and for one year thereafter was in business at Peter Hender- 
son's seed and plant store, at 32 Courtlandt street. New York. He 
then entered the freshman class of Rutgers College, graduating from 
that institution in 1877. In college he took high rank as a student, 
and in the active business of the institution. He was graduated at 
the head of his class, besides taking three prizes in composition and 
literature. He also served as president of his class, was editor for two 
years of the college paper and was several times elected as delegate to 
represent Rutgers at inter-collegiate conventions. On his graduation 
he was elected to the honorary society of Phi Beta Kappa. He then 
entered the Columbia Daw School, which was under the able manage- 
ment of Professor Theodore Dwight, and from this institution was 
graduated in 1879. Subsequently he entered the law office of William 
J. Magie, now chief justice of the New Jersey supreme court. He 
then having been admitted to the bar in 1880, opened a law office in 
Plainfield, where he has practiced ever since, and where he has built up 
a large and lucrative business. He has been successfully engaged in a 



number of important law suits, — notably, the Job Male case, the Lucy 
Burlingham and James Brand will cases ; and has acted as counsel and 
director for the First National Bank for ten years past. At the 
present time he is executor of the estate of the millionaire, George H. 


Babcock, and of the large estate of Peter Wooden. He was city judge 
of Plainfield during the years 1889 and 1890, and for fifteen years 
back has been a director and secretary of the board of directors of 
the Plainfield public library and reading room. He also fills the 
position of trustee of the American Sabbath Tract Society, is one of 



the board of trustees of the S. D. Baptist Memorial Fund, and trustee 
of the S. D. Baptist church of Plainfield, of which church he has been 
a member for twenty-five years. He is also counsel and director of the 
Home Building and Loan Association, a large and substantial society 
of Plainfield. 

Mr. Stillman married Elizabeth B. Atwood March 3, 1886, but 
has no children. His residence, on West Seventh street, is a home- 
like and cosy one, and he is the owner of considerable real estate in 
different parts of the city. 

He is a member of the Camera Club, of the New Jersey Society of 
the Sons of the American Revolution, and of the Elizabeth Chapter of 
the same society. 


member of the New Jerse}' legislature, and formerly city judge of the 
city of Plainfield, was born in Somerset county. New Jersey, February 
24, 1853. He is the son of George W. and Jane (Codington) Codington, 
and is a descendant of John Codington, who came to America in 1730, 
and whose descendants settled in New Jersey prior to the Revolutionary 
war. The father, who was a farmer, resided in Somerset county, New 
Jersey, until his death, which occurred in 1893. The mother is still 
living, and is a resident of Millington, New Jersey. Six children, five 
of whom are now living, were born of this union. 

The subject of this sketch was reared in Somerset county, where he 
attended the public schools. He subsequently took a course of instruc- 
ti6^ in the State Normal and Model School, at Trenton, New Jersey. In 
1881 he began the study of law in the offices of Suydam & Jackson, of 
Plainfield, and was admitted to the bar in 1883. About this time Mr. 
Suydam died, and Mr. Codington then formed a partnership with Mr. 
John H. Jackson, under the firm name of Jackson & Codington. 

In 1893 Mr. Jackson's health failed, and the partnership dissolved, 
the junior member of the firm continuing the business alone, and build- 
ing up, by his own industry, a large practice. He was associated with 
ex-Chancellor Runyon in the celebrated L,ee will case, one of the most 
noted of its. kind in the state. Mr. Codington has been a hard student, 
and has become distinguished as an advocate. 

In politics he has always been a Republican, and, though not an 
aspirant for office, was elected city judge in 1889, and served as such one 
term of three years. In 1895 he was elected to the state legislature and 
is still serving in that capacity, having been re-elected in 1896, and is the 
recognized leader at this time in the house. He is chairman of the city 
executive Republican committee, and is now county attorney, having 
served several years in that capacity. He is a director and the treasurer 
of the American Mutual Fire Insurance Compan}-, director, solicitor and 



tlie treasurer of the Plainfield Building and Loan Association, and is also 
a director of the First National Bank and counsel for various corporations. 
_ 1^1 1-. Codington is a trustee of the Methodist Episcopal church, of 
which he has been a member since his boyhood. He enjoys great popu- 
larit}-, and is noted for his liberality and readiness to give his aid in every 
effort to promote the public welfare. 

Mr. Codington married Miss Rachael Runyon, daughter of Isaac S. 
and Rachael (Stelle) Runyon, of Somerset county. Her father is a man 
of worth and high standing in his county. Two children, Martha and 
Albert Isaac, were born of this marriage. 

Mr. Codington is a member of the M^-stic Shrine, Knights of 
Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 


The well known name of Woodruff has figured prominently in the 
history of Elizabethtown from the middle of the seventeenth century, 
the original progenitor in this country being John Woodruff, who was 
conspicuously identified with public affairs of his day, and his descend- 
ants have in a like manner become important factors in both mercantile 
and professional circles. 

A. Edward Woodruff was born in Rahway, New Jersey, on the 
27th of October, 1846, being the son of Jonathan and Alvira (Martin) 
Woodruff. The maternal grandmother's name was Crowell, and she 
was a descendant of Edward Crowell, who came to America from Scot- 
land, in the good ship Caledonia, and settled in Middlesex county, some 
time between 1600 and 1700, and there his descendants have attained 
considerable prominence. Mr. and Mrs. Woodruff had four children, 
the others being the following daughters : Mrs. Rufus Edgar, now 
deceased; Mrs. David Jones and Mrs. R. M. Huntting. The subject 
of this review received his preliminary mental discipline at the private 
school of Rev. Dr. Pierson, in Elizabeth, New Jersey, supplementing 
the same by a course of study at Princeton College, and finishing his 
education in Europe. Upon returning home he entered the Columbia 
College law school, at which institution he read law under the precept- 
orage of the late Professor Theodore W. Dwight, received his diploma 
in 1874, and in the same year he was admitted to the New York bar 
and at once began the active practice of his profession. Success was 
his almost from the start, his signal ability, strong mentality, and inher- 
ent knowledge of his calling in all its branches, gaining for him a dis- 
tinct prestige, which he has retained throughout his long career of 
nearly a quarter of a century at the bar. He has taken a prominent 
part in the extended litigation between the abutting-property owners 
and the elevated railroad in New York city, and he has been closely 
identified with life-insurance cases, especially the rights of policy-hold- 


ers in assessment-insurance companies. His office is in the Equitable 
Building, New York, where he has been located for over twenty years. 
In his political belief Mr. Woodruff is allied to the Republican party, 
but he has never sought nor desired official preferment, nor permitted 
his name to be used in connection therewith, as he has always preferred 
private life and the devoting of his time to the practice of his pro- 

Mr. Woodruff has been a member for upwards of forty years of the 
Second Presbyterian church, of Rahway, in which his father was an 
elder for over thirty-five years, and in which he himself was elected an 
elder, but felt constrained to decline, though fully appreciating the 
honor of the office. For upwards of thirty years he taught in the Sab- 
bath school of his church, and many of the young men connected with 
his class are now holding positions of honor and influence in the church 
and business world. 

The marriage of Mr. Woodruff was celebrated in 1874, when he 
was united to Miss Macie Outen Stanly, daughter of Hon. Edward 
R. Stanly, of New Berne, North Carolina, and they have become the 
parents of the following five children : Alvira, Edward Stanly, Graham 
Crowell, Clifford Stanly, and Harriette Stanly. Of these the three lat- 
ter survive. Graham, the eldest, is a student at Rutgers College, 
for which he was prepared at Rutgers Preparatory School, at the early 
age of fifteen, and he entered the college with the intention of ulti- 
mately graduating from Princeton, his father's alma mater. 

Mr. Woodruff is the owner of extensive real estate in Rahway, his 
father, Jonathan Woodruff, having been one of Rahway's most influ- 
ential citizens and a large property-owner. The property includes the 
handsome Exchange Building, and the old historic Woodruff home- 
stead, on Main street, formerly the Peace Tavern, where General La 
Fayette, while on his visit to this country, in 1824, "^^^ given a bril- 
liant reception and ball by citizens of Rahway. 


was born at Flemington, Hunterdon county. New Jersey in April, 1853. 
His parents were Daniel and Mary Suydam ; the family having long 
resided in Hunterdon county and being well known residents of that 
community. The early American ancestors of the Suydam, family were 
among the first settlers of New York, migrating from Holland in the 
seventeenth century. The subject of this sketch acquired his early edu- 
cation in the public schools at Flemington, was prepared for college at 
Peddie Institute, Hightstown, New Jersey, and was graduated from 
Brown University, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, in the class of 
1876. Mr. Suydam studied law in the offices of Vice-Chancellor John 
T. Bird and George A. Allen, Esq., at Flemington, and was admitted to 


the bar of New Jersey as an attorney in 1879, ^^^ ^ counselor in 1884. 
In 1881 he began the practice of law at Bound Brook, where he has 
resided since that date, and conducted important legal business for clients 
in Somerset county, where his acquaintance is extended and his law 
practice is constantly increasing. Mr. Suydam has always taken an 
active interest in the affairs of his town and county, being prominent in 
organizing and carrying into effect] the borough form of government for 
Bound Brook. He has been counsel for the Bound Brook Building 
Loan Association since its organization, and the association is now the 
largest and strongest financial institution in the place. Mr. Suydam has 
never sought or held political office. In September, 1895, he opened a 
law office in the Babcock Building in Plainfield, and still conducts the 
same, retaining his office at Bound Brook as heretofore. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Suydam married Emily, the oldest daughter of the late 
Avery Parker, Esq., of Elemington. The Parkers were early settlers of 
Middletown, Connecticut, and have been for many years prominently 
identified with the affairs of that state. 


of Rahway, is a native of the city in which he resides, and whose 
fortunes are identical with his own. He is of sturdy Puritan stock, 
being a lineal descendant of Samuel Phillips Savage, who was a 
prominent man in New England before the war of independence, and 
who presided at the meeting in Boston where it was decided to throw 
the tea overboard, and which is historically regarded as one of the first 
overt acts of the colonists asserting their disinclination to further suffer 
British oppression. His son, Joseph Savage, was an officer in the war 
of the Revolution, and afterwards commander at West Point. 

The subject of this sketch is the third son of George W. Savage, 
who came to Rahway from New York, in 1852, and resided there for 
over forty years. For the greater part of his life George W. Savage 
was prominently identified with the fire-insurance interests of New 
York, was president of a fire-insurance company, and at various periods 
was treasurer, secretary and president of the New York Board of Fire 
Underwriters. He was twice honored by appointments in the consular 
service of the United States, serving as consul at Belfast, Ireland, and 
at Dundee, Scotland, where he died in 1894, being succeeded in the 
consulship by his son, John M. Savage. George W. Savage left five 
sons,— George W. Savage, Jr., Joseph W. Savage, Edward S. Savage, 
Samuel Phillips Savage and John M. Savage,— three of whom are 
members of the legal profession. 

Upon his graduation from Columbia Law School, in 1876, Edward 
S. Savage was admitted to the bar of New York ; he had previously 
read law in the office of Cortlandt Parker, in Newark, and was 


admitted to the bar of New Jersey in 1877. He practiced his profession 
in Newark until 1881, when he removed his office to New York and 
formed a copartnership with George W. Miller, which continued for 
twelve 3'ears. In 1884 and 1885, he was a member of the legislature 
of New Jersey, and was chairman of the committees on banks and 
insurance, and railroads and canals, of that body. In 1887 he was the 
leading spirit in bringing about the reorganization of the Union 
County Bank, of Rahway, being elected its president, which position 
he still holds. The bank has flourished under his supervision, and has 
become one of the strong institutions of the state. The wide and 
varied legal and business experience of Mr. Savage, and his enviable 
reputation as a lawyer, have brought him into relations with the leading 
men of not only his native state, but of the metropolis of New York. 
In 1895 he was chosen vice-president of the American Union Life 
Insurance Company, and was elected counsel of the company (as well 
as vice-president) in 1897, still holding both ofiSces. 

Mr. Savage has been most active in the improvement of Rahway, 
in which he holds large real-estate interests ; he has built a number of 
houses, opened up a section of the city, and has been instrumental in 
inducing numbers of people to choose it for place of residence, as well 
as bringing to it several industrial establishments, — notably the 
Johnson Signal Company, and the New York Carbon Works. Mr. 
Savage is a genial gentleman, and with his interesting family occupies 
a prominent place in business and social life in New Jersey. 


the subject of this sketch, is a prominent lawyer of Plainfield, New 
Jersey. His first American ancestor came to America before the war 
of independence, and served in the army of the Revolution. His 
grandfather, John Mofifett, was of Scotch descent. He was a farmer 
residing at Mt. Horeb, New Jersey. He married Miss Sarah Tunison, 
who was of old New Jersey stock. Thej' had nine children. The 
youngest son, Dennis Moffett, born in the year 18 16, was a farmer, and 
followed that occupation in Middlesex and Union counties. New Jersey. 
He is now living in retirement in Plainfield, New Jersey. His wife, 
Charlotte Wilcox, was of an old English family of Union county. New 
Jersey. She died in 1889. Of their ten children seven are now living, 
the youngest of whom is the subject of this sketch. 

Charles Leonard Moffett was born in Plainfield township. Union 
county, New Jersey, September 24, 1865. After receiving a good 
public-school education, he attended the Rutgers College grammar 
school, at New Brunswick, New Jersey, and afterward pursued the 
study of the classics and higher branches of mathematics, under the 



instruction of a prominent professor, and in these lie became very 
proficient. Subsequently lie began the study of law in the office of 
Hon. John Ulrich, where he remained two years, and afterward spent 
two years in the office of Nelson Ruun'ou, ex-cit}- judge, when he was 
admitted to the bar, in February, 1892. 

Mr. Moffett has a large and lucrative practice, having made a 
specialty of the law relating to real estate. Having had considerable 
experience in this line of practice, he has become recognized authority 
on- legal questions of realty. 

Mr. MofTett was married, in October, 1892, to Miss Marian C. 
Runyon, daughter of the late John C. Run)'on, fonnerl)- a prominent 


man of Union county, and editor of the Central New Jersey Times, a 
leading Republican paper at the time of his death. They have one 
child, Flossie. Mr. Moffett is a member of the Presbyterian church. 


Few men are more prominent or more widely known in New 
Jersey than this gentleman. He has been an important factor in 
professional circles, and his popularity is well deserved, as in him are 


embraced the characteristics of an unbending integrity, unabating 
energy and an industry that never flags. He is public-spirited and 
thoroughly interested in whatever tends to promote the moral, intellec- 
tual and material welfare of Rahway, where he makes his home ; he 
stands to-day as one of the ablest representatives of the legal profession 
in Union county ; and has gained in Masonic circles preferment which 
places him among the distinguished representatives of that order in the 
United States. 

Mr. Durand was born in Rahway, on the 26th of June, 1847, ^"<^ 
is a son of John H. and Catherine S. (Martin) Durand. His father was 
for many years a prominent carriage-manufacturer of Rahway, where 
he died in 1886, his wife passing away in 1890. The paternal grand- 
father was Caleb Durand. The maternal ancestry of our subject can 
be traced back to an early epoch in American history, at which time 
the first of the name to cross the Atlantic left their native England and 
took up their residence in New Hampshire. John Martin, in 1667, 
removed from the Granite state to New Jersey, and thus for more than 
two centuries John Martin's family and descendants have been identi- 
fied with the progress and development of this state. Isaac Martin, 
the great-grandfather, resided in Woodbridge township, Middlesex 
county, and married Catharine Skinner, whose father, Richard 
Skinner, was a captain in the First Regiment, New Jersey Militia, in 
the Revolutionary war, and was killed by the British, June 29, 1779, 
at the Six Roads, near Rahway. Britton Martin, the grandfather, 
married Susannah Burwell, daughter of Robert Burwell, of Rahway 
Neck, Middlesex county, who was a private in Captain Asher Fitz 
Randolph's company of the New Jersey militia in the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

James H. Durand was educated in the Rahway public schools and 
under the perceptorage of private teachers, and before attaining his 
majority engaged in teaching for a time, but he sought in the broader 
realm of the law a field for the exercise of his powers, and began his 
preparation for the legal profession by reading in the office and under 
the instruction of Thomas H. Shafer, an eminent attorney of Rahway. 
In November, 1868, he was admitted to the bar of New Jersey, and for 
the past twenty-five years has been associated in practice with his 
former preceptor, under the firm name of Shafer & Durand. During 
that time he has been connected with much of the important litigation 
that has been heard in the courts of this district. He is most careful 
and painstaking in the preparation of his cases, and rests his cause on 
a plain statement of facts and the justice of our laws. He loses sight 
of no point that will advance the interest of his client, and is widely 
recognized as a lawyer of eminent ability and unquestioned integrit)'. 

Mr. Durand has never been unmindful of his duty to his fellow 
men, and in his life exemplifies the spirit of the ancient and benevo- 



lent order of Freemasonry. In this fraternity he has achieved distinc- 
tion and honor. In 1871 he was made a member of LaFayette Lodge, 
No. 27, F. & A. M., of Rahway, and in 1875 was its Worshipful 
Master. He was made a Royal Arch Mason in L,aFayette Chapter, 
No. 26, of Rahway, in 1872, and served as its High Priest from 1873 
to 1876, inclusive. He held various subordinate positions in the Grand 
Chapter, including Grand Scribe, Grand King and Grand High Priest, 
and became Grand High Priest of New Jersey in September, 1879. He 
is now (1897) chairman of the committee on constitutions of the Grand 
Chapter. He is also a member of St. John's Commandery, No. 9, 
K. T., of Elizabeth ; of Kane Council, No. 2, R. & S. M., and of all 
the Scottish Rite bodies in the valley of Jersey City, up to and includ- 
ing the thirty-second degree, in most of which he has been prominent 
and active. In the Grand Lodge of New Jersey he served successfully 
as Senior Grand Warden, Deputy Grand Master and Most Worshipful 
Grand Master, filling the latter position in 1893 and 1894. His two 
terms in the last named oJfEce were characterized as two of the most 
progressive and prosperous years in the Masonic history of the state, 
and reflect great credit upon his masterly administration of the affairs 
of the order. His annual addresses to the Grand Lodge not onlj- pre- 
sent, clearly and concisely, its affairs during the preceding twelve 
months, but are models of literary skill and scholarly thought. On his 
retirement from that exalted office, in January, 1895, the Grand Lodge 
presented him with a valuable jewel, as a token of esteem and appre- 
ciation. He is now a member of the committee on appeals and griev- 
ances, and is often called upon to address Masonic gatherings through- 
out the state. 

Mr. Durand is a speaker of unusual force and power and an orator of 
rare attainments. In politics he is a Democrat, and, although never 
an aspirant for political honors, at the repeated solicitation of many 
political and personal friends he became a candidate for the mayoralty 
of Rahway in 1886, but was defeated. He was appointed by Justice 
William J. Magie one of the commissioners under the "Martin act" to 
adjust taxes and assessments in the city of Rahway, his colleagues 
being Judge John D. Bartine, of Somerville, and Nathan V. ComptOn, 
of Rahway. The work of that commission has accomplished much for 
that city, and to it and to the wise and intelligent action of the boord 
of finance, of which Mr. Durand subsequently became a member, by 
appointment of the mayor, that city is indebted for the restoration of 
financial credit and for renewed prosperity. 

Mr. Durand is president of the National Assured Home Company, 
of New Jersey, a director of the New Jersey Building, Loan & Invest- 
ment Company, of Trenton, and is solicitor for the Workmen's Build- 
ing & Loan Association of Rahway, which is a most carefully managed 
and extremely successful institution. He is also a member and secre- 


tary and treasurer of the advisory board of the Children's Home and 
Orphan Asyhrm Association, of Rahway, and is deeply interested in all 
that has for its basis humanitarian principles. Since 1880 he has been 
a ruling elder in the Second Presbyterian church, has served as secre- 
tary and later as treasurer of the board of trustees, and for seventeen 
years has been superintendent of the Sunday school. He has also for 
many years been clerk of the session of that church. 

On the 30th of June, 1892, Mr. Durand was united in marriage to 
Miss Josie E. Blanchard, a daughter of William E. and Mary (Clark) 
Blanchard, formerly of Brooklyn, New York. They have two chil- 
dren, Elsie B., born in September, 1893, and James Blanchard, born in 
August, 1896. Mr. Durand finds his chief and most abiding source of 
enjoyment in his home life. In the pleasures that have their root in 
family affection he spends the hours spared from professional duties, 
and in the home circle he finds the needed rest and relaxation from the 
stress and strain of business life. 


son of Elston Marsh, was born at Plainfield, New Jersey, November 2, 
1845, ^^^ h^s always made his home there. After four years' study at 
the Flushing Institute, Flushing, L,ong Island, Mr. Marsh entered 
Princeton College, in the year 1863, and was graduated there, among 
the honor men, in 1867. 

On leaving college he decided to enter the profession of the law, 
and accordingly attended Columbia Law School, in New York city, 
and was graduated there in 1869. At that time the law school was 
under the charge of Professor Dwight, an instructor of rare ability, and 
the students during that period came in daily contact with him and 
were under his personal supervision, — an experience that Mr. Marsh 
always highly prized. In 1869 Mr. Marsh was admitted to the bar of 
New York, of which he is still a member. 

On March 4, 187 1, he came to Newark, New Jersey, and entered 
the law office of the late Judge Caleb S. Titsworth, who was connected 
with William H. Francis, the firm being known as Titsworth & 
Francis. At that time Mr. Titsworth was the prosecutor of pleas for 
Essex county, and Mr. Francis was corporation counsel for the city of 
Newark. Mr. Marsh assisted Mr. Titsworth as prosecutor, and also 
became more or less familiar with the duties of the office of corporation 

In 1871 Mr. Marsh was admitted to practice as an attorney at law in 
the courts of New Jersey, and in November, 1874, he was admitted as 
counselor at law. He was subsequently appointed master in chancery, 
examiner in chancery and special master in chancery, by the chancel- 



loi", and was appointed notary public by the governor ; and supreme- 
court commissioner by the supreme court. 

In 1S74 INIr. Marsh was admitted as a partner in the firm ot Tits- 
worth & Francis, which now became Titsworth, Francis & Marsh. In 
1S7S Mr. Francis retired from the firni and it became known as the tirm 
of Titsworth & ^larsh, and so remained until 1SS4, when the firm was 
dissolved, since which time ]\Ir. ]\Iarsh has been practicing by himself, 
in the same building, 75S Broad street, Newark, that he entered as a 


law student in 1S71. His practice is a general one carried on in all the 
courts and covering the general field of law. 

Mr. ]Marsh has always been a strong Republican in politics, and 
though he has never sought any office he has served as a member of the 
common council of the city of Plainfield for ten years, during two years 
of which time he served as president of the council. He has been more 
or less active in political work in Union county and the city of Plain- 
field, having served on the Republican city executive committee in 
Plainfield for several }-ears past. 




a promising young lawyer of Plaiufield, of Scotch descent, is a native 
of Somerset county, New Jersey, and belongs to one of the old families 
of the state. He is the son of Robert and Sarah (Myers) McNabb, and 
was born in the year 1873. His paternal grandfather came from 
Scotland, and settled at Bound Brook, New Jersey. The maternal 
grandfather, Myers, was a native of Union county, New Jersey, as was 
also the father of the subject of this review. Robert McNabb was a 
millwright, and subsequently a contractor and builder, and is now 
living with his wife at Netherwood, New Jersey. 

Mr. McNabb, the subject of this sketch, wa§ educated in the public 
schools and in the New Jersey Business College, of Newark. He 


commenced his business life with the New Jersey Railroad Company, 
but only remained in that position one year. 

In January, 1893, Mr. McNabb commenced the study of law in 
the office of William A. Coddington, of Plainfield, remaining under 
his tuition three years, and immediately afterward entered the 
University lyaw School of New York, where he completed his course 
of instruction, and was admitted to New Jersey as attorney-at-law in 
the month of February, 1896. On June i, 1897, he entered into a law 
partnership with Mr. R. M. Clark, of Plainfield, under the firm name 
of McNabb & Clark. 


the second child and oldest son of Lewis M. Bird and Elizabeth Bird, 
was bom February 21, 1871, at Gallia (formerly Mt. Bethel), Somerset 
county, New Jersey. 

He received his education at the public schools, in the borough of 
North Plainfield, Somerset county. New Jersey, and from the high 
school was graduated in June, 1886, at the age of fifteen years. 

At the age of seventeen years he engaged as a clerk in mercantile 
business, holding positions with various merchants in the hardware trade 
in the the city of Plainfield ; also with the Russell & Erwin Manufac- 
turing Company, of New York city. While with this company he 
attended classes at the Y. M. C. A., in Plainfield, and became proficient 
in the art of stenography and typewritng. 

On October 11, 1892, he entered the law office of Senator Charles A. 
Reed, who, with City Judge William A. Coddington, subsequently formed 
the law firm of Reed & Coddington. After serving a four-years clerk- 
ship, — two in the offices of Mr. Reed and two in the offices of Reed & 
Coddington, — he applied for admission to the bar, and on November 9, 
1896, he was licensed to practice as an attorney at law. 

January i, 1897, ^^ opened an office in the Shaw Building, 105 East 
Front street, Plainfield, New Jersey, and commenced the practice of law. 


son of Robert, Jr., and Amanda (Martin) Clark, was born in Newark, 
New Jersey, November 2, 1875. His grandparents, Robert and Cather- 
ine (Williams) Clark, were born in Scotland and emigrated to this 
country in their 'teens. His maternal grandparents, Daniel 'Martin and 
Jeanette (Campbell) Martin, belonged to families well known in the 
vicinity of Plainfield. Mr. Clark lived in Newark until about eleven 
years of age, when his father purchased a place near Plainfield, in a 
suburb now known as Washington Ville, where he has since lived. 



Mr. Clark was graduated from the North Plainfield public school iu 
June, 1890, and from Plainfield high school in June, 1893, and in July of 
that year began the study of the law in the oSice of J. B. Coward, of 
Plainfield. He was graduated from the law department of the New 


York University, with the degree of lyly. B., in June, 1896, and admitted 
as an attorney-at-law on November 9th following, taking the five 
counselor's examinations and being at that time twenty-one years and 
seven days old. January 19, 1897, he was appointed master in chancery. 
He had commenced the practice of his profession in January, 1897. He 


was elected assessor of North Plainfield township March 9, 1897. Mr. 
Clark is also an attorney, in Union and Somerset counties, for the United 
L,a\\yers, Merchants and Maniifacturers' Collection Association. On 
June I, 1897, he entered into a law partnership with Charles J. McNabb, 
of Plainfield, under the firm name of McNabb & Clark. 

i\Ir. Clark is a member of the jMidmer Glee Club, of Plainfield, and 
has sung in the choirs of this and other cities. 


lawyer and ex- president of the board of education, at Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, was born in New York city, November 2, 1864. With his 
parents, John and Margaret Nugent, he resided at Troy, New York, 
and Harrison, 'New Jersey, attending the parochial and public schools 
in both places. 

Through necessit}- he was obliged to leave school at thirteen years 
of age, and worked thereafter at various occupations until finally he 
entered the employ of the Singer Manufacturing Company of Elizabeth- 
port, New Jersey, in 1879, removing to Elizabeth, New Jersey, the 
following year. He learned the trade of machinist, and during his 
thirteen years' employment with that company he attended night 
school when the opportunity was afforded, and took an active interest 
in trying to obtain better educational facilities for himself and fellow 

He was on that account elected a member of the board of education 
from the third ward of Elizabeth for the years 1889, 1890, 1891 and 
1892, and during the years 1892 and 1893 was elected president of that 

In 1891 he married Mary E., daughter of Adam and Magdalen 
Weirich, of Elizabeth, New Jersey. Through their material assistance 
and the kindly aid of Richard V. Lindabury, Esq. , (then located at 
Elizabeth), who loaned him law books, and encouraged and assisted 
him in his studies, he began the study of law and entered Mr. Linda- 
bury's office, also attending the New York Law School, New York 
city, and was admitted to the New Jersey bar at the June term, 1896, 
when he opened an office in Elizabeth and is now engaged in success- 
ful practice. 

In politics he is an active Democrat, and is an attendant of the 
Roman Catholic church, and connected with a number of fraternal 
organizations of the city of Elizabeth. 


was born August 7, 1859, at White House, New Jersey. He attended 
the district school during his boyhood, and was known more as a lover 



of fun than as a student. After entering his 'teens, he began to take a 
decided interest in study. He was aided by his father, R. S. Swack- 
hamer, an able instructor, who held the office of county superintendent 
of public instruction for two successive terms. Under his tuition the 


subject of our sketch advanced rapidly, taking special pains with 
polite literature, science and ethics. He mingled study ever with his 
amusements, and joined with several other boys in erecting a building, 
along the Rockaway river, which they named Ciceronian Hall, and^in 
which they held debates, and incidentally feasted on contributions 


levied on the parties at their respective homes. At the age of eighteen 
Mr. Swackhamer began to teach school, and continued in this vocation 
several years. Meanwhile he took the Chatauquan University white- 
seal course. During this period he also organized debating societies, 
and argued current topics with some of the ablest debaters in the state. 

He began the study of law with his brother, Austin H. Swack- 
hamer, of Woodbury, New Jersey, and was graduated from the office 
of Judge J. D. Bartine, of Somerville, New Jersey, being admitted to 
the bar in February, 1894, when he began the practice of his profession 
in Plainfield, New Jersey. He has advanced rapidly, being distin- 
guished as an advocate, in which character he shows dramatic power 
and oratorical ability. He has the faculty of carrying his opponents' 
arguments in his mind, thus obviating the necessity of notes. He is a 
stanch temperance advocate and a well known speaker at church 
ceremonials and anniversaries. 

As a Democratic speaker he has stumped the state in three presi- 
dential campaigns. Mr. Swackhamer is a close student of the law and 
is noted for the thorough preparation of his cases. He took the degree 
of counselor in February, 1897, and has recently taken into partnership 
his nephew, W. Gordon Williams. In 1894 he married Miss L,izzie 
Herr, also a resident of White House, New Jersey, and daughter of 
Rev. Martin Herr, of that place. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Swackhamer are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. They own a charming residence in North Plain- 
field, where they at present reside. 


a brilliant but unpretentious member of the Union county bar, now 
living in Westfield, has won a liberal clientage, which well attests his 
ability, and the important litigation with which he has been connected 
indicates his skill in handUng the intricate and complicated questions of 
jurisprudence. A son of Ebenezer Hart, he was born in Brooklyn, New 
York, and is now fifty years of age. His grandfather, l/cvi Hart, was 
one of the prominent and early citizens of Brooklyn, and owned a farm 
which includes the present site of the fountain which now stands at the 
entrance of Prospect Park. Upon that farm Levi E. Hart was bom and 
spent his boyhood days. His mother was a daughter of Lemuel Hart, 
an extentive ship-builder of Long Island. In i860 he accompanied his 
parents to Union county. New Jersey, the family locating on a farm near 
Plainfield, but the life of the agriculturist was not suited to his taste, 
and, at the request of Hon. John A- Lott, one of the judges of the court 
of appeals of New York, he was admitted as a student in the law office 
of H. C. Murphy & Sons, one of the leading law firms of the city of 
Brooklyn, the senior partner being the Hon. Henry C. Murphy. 




For six years he continued his studies in that office, and was 
admitted to practice at the bar of the state of New York in 1867. Later 
he was licensed to practice in the United States courts and in the courts 
of New Jersey. In 1869 Mr. Hart was united in marriage to Miss Lizzie 
L. Pound, daughter of Jackson Pound, of Plainfield, New Jersc}-. They 


became the parents of a son and daughter, but the mother and children 
have all passed away. For his second wife, Mr. Hart chose Miss Carrie 
Brown, a daughter of Stephen Brown, a wealthy tanner and currier, 
of Bound Brook, and by her he has two daughters. 

Soon after his second marriage Mr. Hart moved to Westfield, 
where he has since made his home. He is now largely interested in 


real estate there, and owns and handles some very valuable property. 
In addition he still continues the practice of his profession. He is a 
man of broad general information and ripe scholarship, and to this he 
has added a thorough knowledge of the law. Working earnestly for 
his clients' interests, he has advanced his own ; but whether it will be 
beneficial to him or otherwise, no trust reposed in him is ever slighted. 
There are many elements in his character essential to success — 
executive power, determination, and sound judgment of men and 
events. In his business dealings his methods are above question, and 
his word is as good as his bond. Kindly in manner, genial in 
disposition and of sterling worth, he makes many friends, and although 
a stanch Republican, he has many stanch friends in the Democratic 


one of the leading citizens of Elizabeth, New Jersey, and for many 
years an eminent lawyer of New York city, is a son of the Rev. Nathaniel 
Hillyer Egleston, and was born in 1845, ^^ Ellington, Connecticut, — his 
father's first parish. He is of Puritan stock, his ancestors being numbered 
among the first settlers of New England. Naturally of strong mentality, 
he was fitted by most liberal educational training for the duties of life. 
He pursued a course in Williams College, and then went abroad, con- 
tinuing his education at the universities of Berlin and Gottingen. Before 
going to college he had manifested his loyalty to his country by service 
in the Union army for a time during the civil war, and was mustered out 
with the rank of adjutant of a Massachusetts regiment. 

Preparing for the bar, Mr. Egleston began practice in New York 
city and soon attained a desirable position as a representative of the 
legal fraternity in that city. His attention has been especially devoted 
to corporation law, and for a number of years he has been the general 
counsel of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, commonly 
known as the " Long Distance " Telephone Company. He is also 
counsel of a number of local telephone companies doing business in New 
York and the surrounding country, and of other corporations. 

In 1881 Mr. Egleston was united in marriage to Miss Jane Shelton 
Dunbar, daughter of the late George Curtis Dunbar, formerly of New 
York. He is a vestryman of St. John's Episcopal church, of Elizabeth, 
and takes quite an active interest in the affairs of the city, being president 
of the board of trustees of the Elizabeth Public Library, and president of 
the Town and Country Club. 


has since his boyhood resided in Rahway, and at the bar of Union 
county has won a foremost place among the distinguished representatives 



of the legal profession. In no calling so much as the law does advance- 
ment depend upon individual merit ; mental acquirements cannot be 
gained through influence, but must come as the result of earnest, per- 
sistent effort, and in this quality Mr. Ward is particularly rich. 
He was born in the city of Newark about forty years ago. His 


parents were Captain Samuel D. and Rebecca M. (Miller) Ward, the 
latter a daughter of Isaac Miller, a farmer who for some years resided 
in the outskirts of Newark. The paternal grandfather, Jacob Ward, 
was an agriculturist living in Hanover, Morris county, New Jersey. 
During his boyhood Clarence Ward accompanied his parents on their 


removal to Rahway, where the father engaged in the carriage business 
until his death, which occurred in 1883. 

Residing continuously in Rahway, Mr. Ward, of this review, has 
witnessed much of its growth and taken an active interest in its pro- 
gress. Its public schools afforded him his early educational privi- 
leges, and later he attended a private academy here. Determining to 
make the practice of law his life work, he entered the Columbia lyaw 
College, of New York, and was graduated with the class of 1877, after 
which he was admitted to practice at the courts of the Empire state. 
He also studied law in the ofiice and under the direction of J. R. & N. 
English, of Elizabeth, New Jersey, and was admitted to practice as an 
attorney in November, 1877, and as a counselor in November, 1881. 
In the former year he entered into partnership, for the practice of 
law, with ex-Senator B. A. Vail, and the relationship has since 
been maintained, the firm taking high rank in professional circles. 
He is careful and exact in the preparation of cases, clear and forcible in 
the presentation of his points, concise and logical in arguments, and 
seldom fails to convince. The litigation entrusted to his care has been 
of a very important character, attesting his ability before judge or 

Mr. Ward has been concerned in the management of various enter- 
prises which have been of material benefit to the city, and is now one 
of the managers of the Rahway Savings Institution, a director of the 
Workman's Building & L,oan Association, of Rahway, and counsel for 
the Union Savings & Loan Asscoiation. He has also been promi- 
nently connected with municipal affairs, and in 1883 was elected a 
member of the common council of Rahway, which position he filled 
in a most acceptable manner for three years, when he declined a 
further nomination. He was also counsel to the board of chosen free- 
holders of Union county for five years, from 1887 to 1892. During 
that time he, with several others, was instrumental in securing the pas- 
sage of the act known as the county-road act, in the state legislature, 
whereby boards of freeholders were enabled to construct macadam roads 
at the expense of the county within which the roads were located. 
Under this act, and while Mr. Ward was counsel to the board of free- 
holders, the macadam roads in Union county were constructed, — a 
system of roadways unsurpassed by any in the state. Mr. Ward has 
ever been deeply interested in the movements tending to promote the 
welfare of the county, and has done all in his power for the material 
progress and culture of the community. 

Mr. Ward has always given his political support to the men and 
measures of the Republican party, and gives of his time and influence 
for the furtherance of the cause. His home relations are very pleasant, 
and he and his family occupy an enviable position in the social circles 
of Rahway. He was married in June, 1886, to Miss Pauline Schu- 


macher, a daughter of Frederick Schumacher, of Rahway, and they 
now have two children, a son and a daughter. 


was born in Plainfield, New Jersey, on April i6, 1869, being the 
youngest son of the late John Calvin Runyon, who, up to the time of 
his death, was publisher of the Central New Jersey Times. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Harriet M. Chase, came from 
Delaware county. New York state, and was the youngest daughter of 
Colonel Edward Chase. Mr. Runyon' s mother is still living, and is a 
descendant of Richard Chase, who came to this country with Governor 
Winthrop and settled at Yarmouth, Massachusetts, in 1638. On his 
father's side Mr. Runyon's forefathers were among the first settlers in 
New Jersey, and located at Elizabeth Town. One of them, Ruene 
Runyon, a surveyor, because he refused to swear falsely in regard to 
the boundary line of Elizabeth Town grant, was compelled by the 
English to flee by night from the settlement, and took his wife and 
family to Piscataway township, Middlesex county, where he located a 
home, and it is from this branch of the family that the subject of our 
sketch comes. Mr. Runyon was educated in the Plainfield public 
schools and took a large interest in history and geography. He also 
had a large bump of argumentativeness, which showed itself early in 
life and caused friends of the family to predict his future profession 
and a brilliant career. 

He left school at the age of fourteen and apprenticed himself as a 
compositor in his father's printing ofiices. At the age of seventeen he 
went to Newark, New Jersey, and accepted a position in a store, but 
tiring of the long hours and the arduous duties, his early desire to 
study law was soon gratified, and he accepted a position with 
Morrow & Schenck, a firm of Newark lawyers. After several years 
of study in that city he teturned to Plainfield to continue his studies 
with Senator Charles A. Reed, until his admission to practice, in 
February, 1892. Here he has since been established, and has built up 
an excellent business in the line of his profession. 

Mr. Runyon is a prominent member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows and of the Improved Order of Red Men, and at present 
holds the position of Prelate in the Improved Order of Heptasophs. 

Mr. Runyon is an earnest worker in the church and in the cause of 
temperance, and is a member of the Park Avenue Baptist church, of 

On December 28, 1896, he was married to Miss I/5uisa Baker, 
daughter of Genio S. and Amy J. Baker. 

Mr. Runyon is a man of small stature, but well proportioned ; he is 
athletic and takes a lively interest in all manly sports and recreation. 




His manner is prepossessing and his social qualities have won him many 
friends. He is genial and witty, and possessed of marked conversational 
powers, beng conversant with general topics and a master of general 



[by warren R. DIX, a. m., ll. d.] 

HERE was a slight sprinkling of Erench in the first settlement 
of this ancient town. Governor Carteret was from the Isle 
of Jersey, whence our goodly state was named Nova Caesarea, 
and he, as most of its inhabitants, was French, although the 
island was always English governed. In the ship Philip, in 1665, came 
with him several persons of the old Jersey stock and one real French 
gentleman, Robert Vauquellin by name, Sieur des Prairie by title, who 
was from Caen, Normandy. He had much prominence in the infant 
period of the colony, of which Dr. Hatfield, in his elaborate work, has 
given some account, but the dark nimbus of an indistinctly recorded 
antiquity leaves little to be known, much to be guessed at, of that initial 
time. But about a century later came in here the distinguished French 
Protestant Huguenot family, the Boudinots. One of them, the Hon. 
Elias Boudinot, was a brilliant star in Elizabeth history. He was a 
member of the first and president of one congress, and a leader in every 
good word and work, both in church and state. As an evidence of his 
liberality and good taste, we may mention a pair of heavy, glass chande- 
liers, which he imported from Paris and presented to the First Presby- 
terian, church in this town. For sixty or seventy years they hung from 
the ceiling of the church, not less ornamentally than usefully, but are 
now (1870) suspended in its stairways. But not until the close of the 
last century, and the expatriating, life-hunting period of French history 
was La Belle France^ represented in Elizabeth in any mentionable 
degree. From that time on until as late as perhaps 1810 or 181 4, when 
the Bonaparte dynasty was overturned, this place was a nucleus of many 
highly respectable and intelligent French families of the regime ancien. 
They were principally Catholics in religion, but not bigots in social life, 
and we may safely infer that, what with the sympathetic gayety of spirit, 
bonhomie empressement, and being not without that universal passport, 
la monnaie, they obtained a pleasant social position in their American 
home and were a very acceptable addition to the old borough circles. 

* * * * gy^ they have left no souvenirs behind, scarcely in 
the grave, and where they lived, scattered around the town, is known by 
few living. They were worthy property-holders, and in the registry 
office at Newark you will find the only full record of their names. * * 

* * The warm inter-attachments of those worthy refugees is 


attested by an incident first mentioned to me by a very respectable 
gentleman, one of our citizens, who states that about the year 1810, at 
which time those remaining here were much embarrassed in means by 
the fluctuation of affairs in France, several returned thither to obtain the 
desired relief. Passing one day the houSe next below St. John's church, 
then occupied by one of these families, he was witness to an affecting 
scene, when those going on this pressing embassy to their perturbed 
native land, — a future reunion so uncertain, — and those left behind found 
it hard to tear themselves from one another's arms in the midst of tears 
and tender adieus. M}' venerable informant himself could not recall this 
little incident with an unmoistened eye." 

The foregoing is taken from a series of articles written by the Rev. 
William Hall and published in the Elizabeth Journal in 1870. Mr. Hall 
mentioned a number of names, but very properly states that he is by no 
means sure that the orthography is correct. Among them are De Maroles, 
Terrier de Laistre, D'Anterroches, De Touchimbert, Vergereau, De Clot, 
De Ponte, Du Buc, Cahierre, Godet, Triyou, Malherbes, Cuyer, Dufor 
and Almond. A writer in the New York Evening Post, some years ago, 
in an article about old Elizabeth Town, speaks of the French refugees 
in part as follows : 

" Among them are the residences of many noble French refugees 
who, during the Reign of Terror and the Directory, made their way to 
America and found a safe retreat in Elizabeth Town, induced to do so, 
probably, by its healthful situation, cheap living and cultivated society. 
When I name among the refugees the Duke de Lauzu, Vicompte de 
Caradeux, de Crevicaur, d'Alembert, de Eaitre, Macon, de Bellegarde, 
d'Anterroches and their families, while a few miles out of town M. de 
Malesherbes lived in his retirement, the Budens, de Marolles and others, 
no one can doubt that cultivation and refinement adorned the social 
gatherings of Elizabeth Town. Generally these refugees were poor, and 
many of them were obliged to teach for their living. Thus it was that 
the younger members of the American families became good French 
scholars, proficient in music, drawing and dancing, besides embroidery 
and every kind of fancy-work, which these lively and accomplished 
people taught so pleasantly. Many of the chevaliers could embroider as 
women, and excelled in that art, lately revived after a lapse of years, 
called crewel work. This faculty of speaking pure Parisian French 
procured for ond young man of Elizabeth Town a most agreeable 
friendship. He had entered the English navy, and was a midshipman 
on board the ship Euryalus when that vessel was .sent to bring to 
England the royal family of France. No officer on board could speak 
French well enough to interpret for the royal guests, when some one 
suggested that young R. spoke the language fluently. He was sent for 
froni the cockpit, and acquitted himself well, conversing so agreeably 
that the Princesse Royale, Duchesse d'Angouleme, took the greatest 


fancy to him, and would take his arm to walk the deck. Many years 
afterward, when Loiiis XVIII. occupied the throne. Lieutenant R. 
visited Paris ; he was invited to dine at the Tuileries with the royal 
family, and there invested with the order of St. lyouis. ***** 
A lady who had been ' dame d'honneur ' to the queen, sent to New York 
for a priest, and had her baby girl christened ' Marie Antoinette, Char- 
mante Reine, que je t'adore,' — the whole sentence. Occasionally friends 
from New York or Philadelphia would pass a few weeks in the town, 
and add to the pleasant circle. Monsieur Otto, a friend of Lafayette, on 
one of these visits became attached to Miss Eliza Livingston, then 
staying with one of her sisters, and married her. M. Otto was the first 
French ambassador to England during the short peace of 1801. * * * * 
Many of the French refugees returned to France previous to the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons ; a few families remained until that period and then 
left Elizabeth Town forever." 

So far as known to the writer, none of the French families 
mentioned by Mr. Hall or the author of the article in the Post have left 
any descendants in Elizabeth, save only Joseph Louis, Count d'Anter- 
roches, and as his descendants are through his daughters the family 
name has disappeared from the land. His second son, Paul, named 
after his kinsman, Lafayette (the latter's letter acknowledging the 
compliment is in the writer's possession), went to France and married 
his own cousin, the daughter of Jean Blaize Vicomte d'Anterroches, 
lieutenant-marshal of France, and left a number of descendants in 
France. The history of Joseph Louis d'Anterroches — particularly his 
early life and marriage — is romantic and interesting, but lack of space 
prevents more than a reference to it here. Any one interested in the 
subject will find the story charmingly told in an article, entitled "Two 
Old Jersey Weddings, " published in Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly 
for August, 1893. He appears to have been the first of the French 
colony here, and in some sense their leader. He came to America dur- 
ing the Revolutionary war, and marrying Mary, daughter of Captain 
David Vanderpoel, of Chatham Bridge, ultimately settled in Elizabeth 
Town. After the war was over and communication with Europe re- 
stored, the consents of parents, as required by French law, were ob- 
tained, and a second marriage ceremony performed at the chapel of the 
French legation in New York city, according to the laws of France and 
the rites of the Holy Roman church, as stated in the certificate, a 
lengthy document certified* by the very Count Otto above referred to, a 
copy of which is in the writer's possession. The Chevalier d'Anter- 
roches, as he then was, visited France in 1789, and with his little son, 
Pierre, was presented at the court of Louis XVI. , the child wearing a 
French officer's uniform, which is still preserved in the family. The 
Chevalier — later he became baron and count — purchased property here, 
and seems to have been instrumental in bringing his compatriots here 


— many of them from the West Indies. Belonging to one of the most 
ancient and prominent families of the kingdom of France, his residence 
here was, no doubt, known to many, thus calling attention to the place. 
An old French resident used to tell of hearing Elizabeth Town spoken 
of in the West Indies, earl}' in this century, by people who knew no 
more of the United States than this place, which had become celebrated 
as a pleasant city of refuge from the trouble in their own land. The 
writer has in his possession a letter from Thomas Jefferson, then our 
representative in France, to la Comtesse d' Anterroches de Chaunac, the 
mother of the Chevalier, advising her how to communicate with her 
son at Elizabeth Town, and as the Chevalier later on had his only 
brother, the Vicomte, and an uncle, the bishop of Condom, among the 
emigres who accompanied the Bourbon princes when they fled to Eng- 
land, no doubt Elizabeth Town was known to many of the nobility. 

In 1798 Chevalier d' Anterroches bought for M. Paul de Malherbes, 
of Martinique, a " plantation " of ninety-six acres on the road to Rah- 
way, at what is known as the Wheat Sheaf, and built for him a fine 
house, still standing. Copies of the Chevalier's letters to M. de Mal- 
herbes relative to the purchase, and to the bankers in London through 
whom the funds were transmitted, are in the writer's possession. M. 
de Malherbes was evidently a man of large wealth, — the business 
transactions between him and the Chevalier involved thousands of 
pounds sterling, — and he is said to have lived in the mansion at the 
White Sheaf in grand style. There is a tradition that when entertain- 
ments were given, the road to Elizabethtown — some three miles — was 
illuminated at night. There were others also of large means who lived 
in great style. A recent writer, speaking of them, says: "Many 
brought slaves with them from the West Indies, and there is a pic- 
turesqueness and a foreign flavor about their life in the town that 
hangs like an attractive atmosphere around some shabby mansions, 
stranded on old highways or in neglected corners of the modern city." 
Though bred for the church, the Chevalier was a soldier by choice, 
and was a consummate tactitian. In the Whiskey Rebellion he was 
the adjutant-general of the mounted troops from New Jersey, and won 
the hearty praise of military leaders, among them General Harry Lee, 
as evidenced by an official order, a copy of which has been preserved. 
His letters to his wife during the rebellion are very interesting. Later 
he was given a captain's commission by President Adams, when war 
was threatened. His uncle and brother dying in London, his presence 
was required on the other side, and while there his father and mother 
also died, and while seeking to settle his affairs he too died, early in 
the century. He was, of course, a Roman Catholic, and when the 
children were to be baptized a priest was brought from New York, as 
in the case of the queen's maid of honor above mentioned, but later on 
one or more of the younger children were baptized in St. John's Epis- 


copal church, and at least one of the children, the writer's grandmother, 
was advised by her godmother, Mrs. Mariah Pryse Campbell {nee de 
Rouselet) to attend St. John's, as there was no Roman Catholic church 
here, and, judging from the tombstones in St. John's yard and the 
church records, others too turned to St. John's for the offices of the 

The following extract from the church records and inscription on 
one of the tombstones must close this sketch : 


1793, July 36th, Was interred in St. John's churchyard at Eliztli 
Town the Remains of Anne Renee Desverger De Mauperluis, widow De 
Marc Antoine Nicholas Gabriel, Baron De Clugny, late Governor General 
of the Islands of Guadeloupe and dependencies, in the presence of the fol- 
lowing witnesses — Jean Gabriel Prevost De Touchimbert, Relative of the 
Deceased, Guardian to her Daughter and Executor of her lyast Will and 
Testament-; Joseph L,ewis Chev"" D' Anterroches, Marc De Labretesche, 
Inhabitants and Citizens of Eliztli Town, State of New Jersey, in North 
America, and Pierre de Falquieres, Capt" of Grendiers of the Guadeloupe 
Regrnt who had accompanied the said Anne Renee Desverger De 
Mauperluis, Widow De Marc Antoine Nicholas Gabriel Baron De Clugny, 
to this place in the capacity of a friend, and was intrusted with her 

Witnesses : 

Jean Gabriel Prevost de Touchimbert. 
J. Iv. Chr- D' Anterroches. 
Marc De I^a Bretesche. 
P. Defalquieres. 

Sam'l Spraggs, 

Rector of St. John's Church, 
Eliztt Town, 

Here lies Demoiselle Julie DuBuc de Marcucy, born in the Island of 
Martinique, on the 21st of May, 1750, and Deceased at Elizabeth Town, 
in the State of New Jersey, on the nth of July, 1799. Her brother, 
Abraham Du Buc de Marentille, recommends the respect and the care of 
this tomb to the hospitable inhabitants of this Town. 



HE first charter of the city of Elizabeth was granted March 
13, 1855, by act of the legislature of New Jersey. The 
proposition was submitted to the people, for their ratifica- 
tion or rejection, at a special election in April, of the same 
year, and the city government went into operation on the ist of May 
following. By an act of legislature, approved March 4, 1863, the 
charter was revised and enlarged, and, from time to time since, there 
have been amendments, as necessity demanded . 

The city government is in the hands primarily of a mayor, city 
council of sixteen members, and a sinking-fund commission. The last 
was created by an act of the legislature, and consists of the mayor, 
comptroller, and three commissioners, appointed by the mayor and 
confirmed by the city council. There is a board of education, the six- 
teen members of which are elected by the people. The members of the 
board of health are appointed by the mayor, and confirmed by the city 
council . The board of excise consists of the mayor and three commis- 
sioners elected by the city council. The officers of the city government 
have their offices in the City Hall, a commodious brick structure 
erected in 1865, at a cost of eighty thousand dollars. In the building 
are also a commodious public market, and police headquarters and 
lock-up. The city offices and council chamber occupy the second 

The mayors of Elizabeth since its incorporation, in 1855, have 
been : Elias Darby, May i, 1855, to May i, i860 ; James Jenkins, May 
I, i860, to May I, 1861 ; James B. Burnet, May i, 1861, to May i, 
1863 ; Philip H. Grier, May i, 1862, to January i, 1871 ; Francis B. 
Chetwood, January i, 1871, to January i, 1873 ; William A. Coursen, 
January i, 1873, to January i, 1875 ; Robert W. Townley, January i, 
1875, to January i, 1878 ; James S. Green, January i, 1878, to January 
I, 1879 ; Robert W. Townley, January i, 1879, to January i, 1880 ; 
Peter Bonnett, January i, 1880, to January i, 1882 ; Seth B. Ryder, 
January i, 1882, to January i, 1883 ; Joseph H. Grier, January i, 1883, 
to January i, 1890 ; John C. Rankin, Jr., January i, 1890, to date. 


That Elizabeth has the best postal facilities, is best evidenced by the 
fact that it enjoys unusual transportation facilities to and from all points 




of the compass, thus insuring prompt and efficient service all over the 
world. The United States government postoffice building in this city is 
regarded as a model one in point of convenience and arrangements for 
postal purposes. This fact, coupled with good management on the part 
of the postmaster, in all of the ramifications of the office, denotes execu- 
tive ability and discipline of a high degree of efficiency. No more 
efficient or courteous corps of employes is to be found in the service of 
the government. 


In the matter of fire protection, no city not having a paid depart- 
ment can boast of a better equipped or a more efficient corps of volunteer 
fire-fighters than can Elizabeth. The apparatus and appliances comprise 
six engines, each manned by sixty men, and two trucks, manned by fifty 
men each, and having about fifteen thousand feet of hose. August 
Gerstung is the chief, John R. Reitmeyer and William T. Cox, assistant 
chiefs. Although it is a volunteer service, many acts of courage and 
heroism have been performed, and the losses have been very small. 


The policing of the city is divided into two precincts. The first 
precinct, located at Scotch Place, is under the charge of the chief; the 
second, on Elizabeth avenue, between First and Second streets, under the 
charge of the captain. The force comprises fifty men, who are in the 
regular employ of the city, thirty-eight of them being patrolmen, one 
keeper, three sergeants, two detectives, two desk men, one license 
sergeant, one lieutenant, one captain and one chief Booths have been 
placed in the various sections of the city, and have proven of incalculable 
benefit to the department. The record of the department is one of which 
the city can be proud, and the individual members have the respect and 
good will of the entire community, and Elizabeth is extremely fortunate 
to have such an an able and efficient set of officers. 


The city council is composed (1897) of the following gentlemen : 
President, John B. Barr ; members, John J. Gardner, John T. Brady, 
James Oakes, Robert G. Houston, George E. Van Voorhis, George L. 
Daubner, Paul N. Noll, Jr., William D. Jenkins, Francis Engel, William 
J. Carlton, Samuel J. Berry and Robert L,. Patterson. The city officials 
are John C. Rankin, Jr., mayor ; John D. Barr, councilman-at-large ; 
James J. Manning, city clerk ; Albert B. Carlton, comptroller ; James 
Morrison, city treasurer ; Edward S. Atwateir, city attorney ; Ernest L,. 
Meyer, city surveyor; N. K. Thompson, street commissioner; George 
C. Tenney, chief of police ; Charles Kurtz, chief of fire department ; 
William Eckerson, overseer of the poor; Dr. E. G. Putnam, health 


officer. These gentlemen comprise, in their entirety, a body of men 
under whose capable management the interests of the city are sure to 
prosper and grow. 


In frequency of trains, rapidity of communication with the busi- 
ness section and cheapness of commutation and fares, none of the cities 
that furnish homes to business men of the metropolis can offer railroad 
facilities that can for a moment be compared with those of Elizabeth. 
Its union depot being situated at the junction of the Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey Central Railroads, distant from New York by the former 
14.2 miles, and by the latter 13.5 miles, trains may be obtained by one 
road or the other with almost the frequency of city street cars, and cer- 
tainly without the trouble of even consulting a time table. 

The New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Company's line, now 
held under lease and known as the Pennsylvania Railroad, was opened 
for traffic through Elizabeth in 1836. 

In 1835 Colonel James Moore located the line of the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey from Elizabethport to Somerville, and it was 
opened from the latter point to Broad street early in 1836. The con- 
struction of the extension of the same to New York was begun in the 
fall of 1862. The Newark-bay bridge was completed and the road 
opened to New York, including Communipaw ferry, August i, 1864. 
The Perth Amboy branch, formerly the Elizabethport & Perth Amboy 
Railroad, began its construction early in 1871, and opened for business, 
in connection with the New York & Long Branch Railroad, as far as 
Long Branch, on June 28, 1875. 


Probably there is no city of equal size in the United States which 
has more adequate and satisfactory telephone service than Elizabeth. 
This condition is due to the progressive spirit of the citizens in 
endorsing modern improvements, and to the efficiency and activity of 
the New York and New Jersey Telephone Company and its agents. 
This company established its office in Elizabeth in 1880, and has made 
continued and steady progress to the present time. A special list of 
Elizabeth subscribers, issued March i, 1897, shows an increase of over 
one hundred names during the preceding two months ; this is suggestive 
as indicating the healthful growth of the company's business. This 
continued increase is attributed by the management to the completion 
of the metallic-circuit system by which all long-distance service is 
rendered satisfactory, and to a system of charges which places the 
service within reach of every one. Elizabeth has the distinction of 
having the first long-distance subscribers to The New York & New 
Jersey Telephone Company, as well as of being among the first in 


adopting and enjoying many of the improvements in telephone 
construction and methods. The company has lately introduced what 
is known as the selective system, — an approved method by which 
several subscribers can be placed on the same wire without interfering 
with each other. The territory of the New York & New Jersey 
Company includes all of L,ong Island, Staten Island and northern New 
Jersey, while through its connection with the long-distance system it 
reaches all points served by telephone. Most of its subscribers are 
equipped with long-distance instruments, and an Elizabeth subscriber 
can comm^unicate as readily with Baltimore, Boston or Chicago, as 
with New York, Newark or Plainfield. The demand for telephone 
service has long since outgrown an entirely local system, and the present 
subscriber feels the necessity of connection with different points. The 
main offices of the company are at i6 Smith street, Brooklyn. The 
officers are as follows : Charles F. Cutler, president ; W. D. Sargent, 
vice-president and general manager ; Joel C. Clark, secretary ; H. S. 
Snow, treasurer ; J. C. Reilly, general superintendent. 

The New Jersey division is under the superintendence of H. G. 
McCully, while the affairs of the Elizabeth office are directly managed 
by Charles M. Root. Other exchanges operated in. Union county, by 
the New York & New Jersey Company, are at Plainfield, Rahway and 


The first attempt to establish a public library was made through the 
incorporation of the Elizabeth lyibrary Association, by a state charter, 
February 14, 1856. At the first election of officers, Benjamin Williamson 
was made president, and John T. Gilchrist was made secretary. The 
following year the erection of the present large building was begun, and 
it was completed at a cost of fifty thousand dollars, and ever since that 
time, under the original and subsequent boards, it has been used partly 
as a public library. 

The Young Men's Christian Association came into existence and the 
rent of rooms was given it under the condition that a public library be 
maintained. When this association passed out of existence the books 
reverted to the original association. 

The Elizabeth Public I/ibrary and Reading Room occupies two 
commodious rooms on the second floor. This institution owes its origin 
to the efforts of Rev. W. S. Langford, formerly rector of St. John's church, 
who founded a public reading room in the " Arcade " in 1880. In 1883, 
in answer to the promoter's appeal, several thousand dollars were raised 
and an adjoining room added and fitted up with shelves. On November 
12, 1883, a public reading room and library, with fifteen hundred books, 
was opened to the free use of the citizens, this same being under the care 
of the librarian, Thomas Bergen. I^ater the association was incorporated. 


In 1887 the library outgrew its original quarters, and at the invitation of 
the trustees of Ivibrary Hall, the rooms in that building once belonging 
to the Y. M. C. A. were offered free of rent; these were refitted and the 
books of the old Y. M. C. A. library added to the volumes in the public 
library. The support for the library becoming inadequate and debt 
accumulating, a special effort was made by the president. Dr. R. Wescott, 
and the board of trustees, and a fund was raised by the citizens generally 
which relieved the library from all embarrassment. 

The present officers of the Elizabeth Public L^ibrary and Reading 
Room are Melville Egleston, president ; Miss Jane I^eigh Mahan, secre- 
tary ; Howard Richards, treasurer ; Mary E. Brittin, librarian ; Ellen C. 
O'Brien, assistant librarian. In addition to the library the building 
includes a hall for public meetings and theatrical performances. The 
late Charles Howell became secretary of the Elizabeth Library Association 
in 1862 and continued to hold that office, with that of manager, until his 
death, in 1878, when his business partner, Jonas E. Marsh, became the 
incumbent. The present officers of the Elizabeth Library Association 
are as follows : J. Williams Crane, president ; James C. Ogden, vice-presi- 
dent ; Meline W. Halsey, secretary and treasurer. 


The public schools of Elizabeth are a special pride to its cit- 
izens. The number of public schools comprised in what is called 
the graded system is ten, besides four parochial schools, under the 
supervision of the Roman Catholic church, and numerous private 

The officers of the board of education are : Wyckliff B. Sayre, 
president ; Joseph D. Lowden, secretary ; W. J. Shearer, A. M. , 
superintendent. There are in the public system five primary, three 
grammar, one high and one normal school, — the latter two being in 
the same building. 

Public School No. i, is located on Third street. The building 
was erected in 1855. ^- Holmes is principal. Public School No. 2 is 
located on Morrell street, and the building was erected in 1858. N. 
W. Pease is principal. Public School No. 3 is located on corner of 
Second avenue and High street. The building was erected in 1872. 
W. D. Hyer is principal. Public School No. 4 is located on Cherry 
street. The building was erected in 1885. W. F. Robinson is prin- 
cipal. Public School No. 5, a primary school, is in a brick building 
on Fourth street. Miss L. E. Braun is principal. Public School No. 
6 is also a primary school, the building being on Adams avenue. Miss 
M. E. Parrot is principal. Public School No. 7 is located on Grier 
avenue, the building having been completed January 15, 1894. The 
school known as the Grier Avenue Annex was transferred to this 
building February i, 1894. Miss J. R. Meeker is principal. Public 


School No. 8 is located on the corner of Sixth and Fulton streets. 
Miss K. A. Hughes is principal. 

Battin High School is located on the corner of South Broad and 
South streets. By a deed bearing date March 20, 1889, with the name 
of Joseph Battin signed thereto as a grantor, the city of Elizabeth was 
made the recipient of the most magnificent gift in its history, at the 
hand of one of its citizens. The property deed embraces a tract of one 
hundred and fifty-five feet on South Broad street, the entire frontage on 
South street to Williamson street, and one hundred and seventy feet on 
the latter. On this laud is built one of the largest and most magnifi- 
cent private residences in the state, widely known as the " Dimock 
Palace," erected by Anthony W. Dimock, just previous to the panic 
of 1873. 

The deed of this property, as a gift from Mr. Battin, was given 
into the hands of the mayor on March 25, 1889. The building is an 
extensive three-story brown-stone structure, with spacious halls and 
rooms en suite ; the fioors, casements, stairways, doors, mantels, and 
fittings being of the most costly natural woods. Its original cost was 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and on the day it was handed 
over to the city it was perfect in every appointment. 

N. w. PEASE, 

ex-county superintendent of schools in Union county, and principal of 
public school No. 2, of Elizabeth, first engaged in educational work 
in 1854, in East Long Meadow, Massachusetts. He was born in what 
is now the town of Hampden, Massachusetts, and was prepared for his 
work in the Wesleyan Academy and the Wesleyan University. He 
taught two terms in Springfield, Massachusetts, and then removed to 
New Jersey, in the fall of 1857, and was engaged to take charge of the 
schools at Rahway, where he remained nearly ten years. In March, 
1867, he removed to Elizabeth, to take charge of school No. 2, and has 
since remained in that position. 

Mr. Pease was appointed county superintendent in 1868, and served 
in that capacity practically twenty-one years. When first appointed, 
he found the whole educational field in a comparatively unorganized 
condition — district boundaries poorly defined, schools, school manage- 
ment and methods of instruction at a very low standard; trustee boards 
poorly informed both as to their duties and responsibilities under the 
state school law. By consolidation and centralization he reduced the 
school districts from thirty-five to twenty-one, thereby giving better 
schools to outlying and small districts. His first object was, after 
forming new district lines, to have a uniform course of study propounded, 
and such a course having been discussed in trustee and township board 
meetings, was adopted by each township board separately. This was 
done in 1878, and it resulted in great improvement to the schools. 


Principals were put in charge of these consolidated schools, and when- 
ever a slight change in the course was deemed necessary he met with 
the trustees and principals and discussed the subject until an agreement 
was reached in the matter. 

This course, still in use and slightly changed, has unified the edu- 
cational work of the county and has been followed quite extensively 
even in other states, being introduced by teachers from this county or 
by teachers who had learned of it through them. 

Calls for copies of the course of study, even from points far distant, 
were of frequent occurrence, until it was found impracticable to respond 
to them. It is but just to say here that a few other counties in New 
Jersey, about the same time, evolved and put in operation similar 
courses of study. Thus it was demonstrated that country schools could 
be successfully graded and their needs met by a uniform course. 

In connection with the course above mentioned a system of annual 
examinations for the issuance of certificates for primary and grammar, 
and a diploma for high-school pupils, was provided for, and lists of 
questions were prepared by committees of principals, appointed by the 
county superintendent, and adopted after a full discussion, by vote. 
Times for examinations were assigned, and the county superintendent 
knew just what was going on in every school at any hour during the 
examination. The principals also helped grade all examination 

School libraries were also established, under the law, during Mr. 
Pease's term, and all the school buildings of the county, except two, 
were rebuilt or remodeled. 

Mr. Pease has been an active worker in county and state teachers' 
associations ; also in the National Teachers' Association, and fre- 
quently in the National Council of Kducation. 

He is the son of a New England farmer, and is descended from one 
of the early families of that region. He was married, in Union county, 
to Alice Howard, by whom he had two children, both of whom, how- 
ever, are deceased. 

was established in Elizabeth in August, 1873, and the following year 
was incorporated, and located at the head of East Broad street on the 
corner of Jefferson and Magnolia avenues, where it still remains. 

There are provided for its patrons, several independent courses of 
study, of which may be mentioned : First, a business course ; second, 
a college-preparatory course ; third, an eclectic course ; and fourth^ 
a stenographic and typewriting course. Pupils of either sex are 
admitted, and they often remain for years in this college,— here 
completing their education. Dr. James H. I^ansley, proprietor and 
principal of the college, is a thorough instructor, as well as a rigid 


disciplinarian. By his extraordinary abilities he has made of this 
institution an educational centre of Elizabeth, especially for a thorough 
business education, as an evidence of which may be noted its many 
graduates now holding responsible positions with banks, railroads, 
lawyers and business men, both in and outside of the city. 


On the 23d of October, 1746, the charter of the "College of New 
Jersey" was granted to Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, pastor of the First 
Presbyterian church, and others. Dickinson was the iirst president, 
and taught his pupils in the old parsonage on the south side of that 
part of the old Rahway road, now known as Pearl street, between 
Washington avenue and Race street. "It was a frame building 
covered with shingles and painted red ; in form it was long, two low 
stories in front, and the roof declined to the rear in a long slope, 
terminating at the height of one story above the ground." Upon 
Dickinson's death, in 1748, the college was removed to Newark, and 
the Rev. Aaron Burr, became its president. In 1756 President Burr 
moved it to Princeton, its present site. Passing on to a period which 
reaches the memory of the present generation, we have Mr. Coudert's 
school established near the " Wheatsheaf." Of this school no records 
are at hand. In 1806 the " Adelphian Academy" was erected in what 
was then called "Horse Hollow," which place it occupied until it was 
removed to give way to the present market house, on Elizabeth avenue. 
The teachers remembered are Mr. Periam, Mr. Ross, Mr. Stickney, 
Mr. Woodruff, Mr. C. J. Luster, Mr. Smith, Mr. Root and Mr. A. 
D. Rowe. 


Peter Massie, whose decease occurred in 1840, left, in his will, the 
sum of five thousand dollars for the education of the needy poor. From 
the avails of this fund a small building was erected on East Jersey street, 
in which, under successive teachers, a school was kept under the 
provisions of the will until 1863. With the approbation of the chan- 
cellor, the avails of the original bequest were transferred to the 
educational department of the Orphan Asylum; and they are still 
applied to the salaries of the teachers in that institution. The building 
is now occupied by the Hope Mission, on Olive street. 

MR. fay's school. 

Julius A. Fay, a graduate of Williams College, came to this city 
in 1845. He had been principal of the Stockbridge (Massachusetts) 
Academy, the Freehold (New Jersey) Academy, and for eight years 
head of a leading classical school in Baltimore. This last named he 
transferred to this city, opening a school of high order in "The 


Chateau" on Rahway avenue. The school was continued until 1864, 
but Mr. Fay owned "The Chateau" until his death, in 1887. 


Frederic W. Foote, well known as a teacher, and afterwards 
editor of the New Jersey Journal, commenced his labors as teacher in 
connection with St. John's parochial school, during the ministry of the 
Rev. Mr. Noble. On the discontinuance of this school Mr. Foote 
became teacher of the public school in the North End school house; 
then, in 1833, the principal of his own private school, which was 
conducted with honorable success until he became editor of the New 
Jersey Journal, in 1863. His useful life was brought to a sudden 
termination in 1879. 


Among the private schools of to-day should be mentioned the Pin- 
gry, an institution of the highest repute, founded in 1861 by Rev. John 
F. Pingry, Ph. D. The school is in a flourishing condition to-day. 

Mr. Young's School was established by John Young, who came to 
this city in 1854. In i860 he built a dwelling house, on West Jersey 
street, where he now (1897) resides, and where he has carried on his 
work to the present time. Miss Ranney's School was established in 
1861 by Miss N. D. Ranney. In 1881 she resigned her school to Miss 
Purviance, who, in 1889, resigned to Miss Hunt. The Union School, 
afterward known as the Elizabeth Institute, for young ladies, com- 
menced its sessions in 1861. It subsequently became known as Miss 
Higgins' School, and under the wise management of this teacher is still 
held in well deserved repute. The well known and efficient institution, 
on North Broad street, known as the Misses Sargent's School, was 
established in 1867. Two years later the Misses Vail and Deane's 
English and French School for young ladies was opened by Miss 
Hayward, near Jefferson park. In 1877 it was moved to North Broad 
street. The management changed hands in 1866. Mrs. C. B. Knapp's 
Home School for young ladies and children was opened in 1889. Rev. 
John T. Halsey taught a private school in Elizabeth for many years. 
He was born in 1797 ; was graduated at Union College, New York, in 
1816, and died, at Elizabeth, in 1842. 


conducted by the sisters of St. Dominic, was first opened on April 18, 
1876, by Rev. Mother Dominica, with five other sisters. They had 
been called hither by the Rev. Father M. Gessner, rector of St. 
Patrick's church, Elizabeth, and until 1892 utilized a frame building 
on the corner of First and Wall streets. As the number of the pupils 
rapidly increased, the necessity of a larger and more appropriate build- 


ing was more keenly felt, and on the nth of June, 1892, the corner- 
stone of the present handsome and commodious building was laid, and 
completed and ready for the reception of scholars in September, 1893. 


St. Patrick's Parochial School is located in Court street, and is 
the oldest Catholic school in the citj'. It was established in i860, by 
Rev. Father Werzefeld. A two-story building, containing ten rooms, 
was erected, and an addition was made by Father Hennessey some 
years later, but the wants of the parish became so great that in 1883, 
the Rev. Father Martin Gessner opened a new building, next to St. 
Patrick's church, that was one of the finest in the state. The building 
is three stories high and is fire proof. There are fourteen class-rooms, 
and four rooms for offices, library, etc. The cost was sixty thousand 
dollars, and the school has a seating capacity for twelve hundred 
pupils. There are now enrolled one thousand students. 

St. Mary's Parochial School is located on Washington avenue, and 
was built by Rev. Father Howell, about 1861. Rev. Father O'Neill is 
principal at the present time, being ably assisted by Rev. Father Brady 
and the sisters. The school is supported by the parish. There are six 
rooms and six teachers, and on the roll three hundred pupils. St. Henry's 
Parochial School is located on Magnolia avenue, and consists of several 
class-rooms, over which preside four sisters from the convent adjoining. 
The school was established by Rev. Henry L,emke, in 1869, and was first 
located in the nunnery, but in 1873 the present building was erected. 
The Rev. Father Wirth is in charge, and the school is supported by the 
parish. St. Walburga's Select School is connected with St. Henry's 
parish, and is presided over by two sisters. The School of the Church 
of the Holy Rosary is under the charge of Rev. Father J. J. Smith, 
assisted by the Sisters of Charity. This is a new parish and is located 
on First avenue. 


In Elizabeth are five banking institutions, — the First National 
Bank, National State Bank, Citizens' Bank, Union County Savings 
Bank, and Elizabethport Banking Company, — each of which is provided 
with ample capital. 

The First National Bank was chartered in 1864; capital, $200,000; 
surplus fund, 1152,781.02; organized as a national banking institution 
in 1864. President, William R. Thompson; vice-president, M. W. 
Reeve; cashier, Edward 1,. Tillou. The National State Bank was 
chartered in 1812; organized as a national banking institution July 13, 
1865; capital, #350,000; authorized capital, $1,000,000; surplus 
profits, $280,000. President, John Kean, Jr. ; vice-president, Julian H. 
K'ean; cashier, James Maguire. The Elizabethport Banking Company 




was chartered in 1890; capital, $50,000; surplus, $30,000. President, 
Frederick Heidritter; vice-president, Ivester Davis; cashier, Walter O. . 
Smith. The Citizens' Bank was chartered in 1890, with a capital of 
$50,000; surplus and profits, $70,000. President, Amos Clark; cash- 
ier, Edward A. Faulks. The Union County Savings Bank receives 
deposits from one dollar to five thousand dollars. Deposits draw 
interest from first days of January, April, July and October. President, 
Job S. Crane; vice-president, E. C. Woodruff; treasurer and secre- 
tary, Meline W. Halsey. 


This corporation began its career in 1891. The premises occupied 
by the company cover about thirty-five thousand square feet of ground, 
located at 71-77 Murray street. The main building is 70 x 324 feet in 
dimensions, and the boiler-house has a stack one hundred and fifty feet 
in height, and contains six boilers, with a combined capacity of twelve 
hundred horse-power. The power house is connected with the most 
distant points of the city, — including Roselle, Cranford, and Westfield, — 
there being nearly four hundred and fifty miles of wire required for this 
service. One hundred and fifty-five arc lamps are constantly used, the 
full capacity being two hundred and twenty-five, while the incandes- 
cent-lighting capacity of the plant is fifteen thousand lamps, fourteen 
thousand and sixty-seven of which are in daily use, besides two hundred 
and ninety-nine electric fans, the horse-power of motors installed being 
one hundred and forty. Besides the current necessary for the above 
lighting purposes, an immense quantity is generated daily for motive- 
power purposes and other needs, -the concern being prepared to furnish 
electricity for cooking, heating, etc. The oflficers of the company are 
A. M. Young, president; Henry Hayes, vice-president; B. G. Bryan, 
treasurer; E. H. Stevens, secretary and general manager. 


This company was founded and incorporated in 1855. It is 
furnishing the citizens of Elizabeth over four and one-half million 
gallons of water a day, the same being conveyed through seventy-six 
miles of mains. They also have two hundred and sixty-one hydrants, 
six thousand taps, and sixty meters, with large independent mains 
for manufacturing purposes, offering special low rates to manufacturers. 

The pumping system is located on Westfield avenue, near Harrison 
street. Here they have seven pumping engines of the Worthington 
system, with four boilers, of four hundred horse-power capacity. A new 
plant has just been completed, two and one-half miles from the city. In 
the hummock forty-six wells were sunk, at depths ranging from two 
hundred and fifty to five hundred and eighty feet, and a supply of water 
furnished, which, on being analyzed by Professor Leeds, is pronounced 




to be the purest and finest that nature can afford. The cost of the entire 
plant will be about two hundred thousand dollars. The capital stock of 
the company is two hundred and forty-five thousand dollars. The 
officers are as follows: John Kean, president; Julian H. Kean, vice- 
president ; J. W. Whelan, secretary and treasurer ; and h- B. Battin, 


This company was organized and incorporated in 1854. Its capital 
stock is three hundred thousand dollars, and its gas is supplied through 
nearly every street and thoroughfare in the city, while miles of pipe 
are laid through two-thirds of the entire county. There are about one 
hundred miles of pipe and eight hundred street lamps. The capacity 
of the plant at present is five hundred thousand cubic feet a day, 
and employment is furnished to from fifty to sixty men. The price of 
gas has been reduced from four dollars and fifty cents per one thousand 
cubic feet when the company started, to one dollar and fifty cents per 
one thousand, as at present. The ofiBcers of the company are John Kean, 
president; F. K. Price, secretary; Julian H. Kean, treasurer; and 
Francis Engel, superintendent. 


Experience has shown manufacturers that it is far more economical 
and convenient to locate factories in Elizabeth than in New York, and 
this accounts for the many large business interests here, with 
offices in that city. In this connection the Kill-von-KuU and Staten 
Island sound, constituting one of the greatest water-ways in the world, 
together with the freight facilities by rail, should be mentioned, as the 
prosperity of Elizabeth is, in a commercial sense, indebted to these 
highways of traffic. Commerce at the port amounts to hundreds of 
millions of dollars annually, while the railroad facilities of Elizabeth 
render it unnecessary to unload any car destined for any port in the 
United States or Canada. There are but two systems of freight traffic 
here, but they are comprehensive. 

The fast-freight lines of the Pennsylvania system are the Union, 
National, Empire, and Erie and Western I^ake and Rail or Anchor, 
direct track connections being had with the Ivchigh, New York, 
Susquehanna and Western, and West Shore. Over the tracks of the 
New Jersey Central run the following freight lines: White, Red, Blue, 
Nickel Plate, Merchants' Dispatch Transportation Company, Inter- 
state Dispatch, Erie, American Express, New York, Lake Erie & 
Western, Traders' Dispatch, Lehigh Valley, Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, and West Shore & Housatonic. 

Among those early in Elizabeth Town as manufacturers should be 
mentioned the name of John Ogden, one of the founders of the town. 




He early erected a dwelling on the town plot, and was the first to 
operate a mill. His house, it is thought, was erected on Elizabeth 
avenue, near where Robert Ogden, his great-grandson, and Colonel 
Barber afterward lived. John Ogden was appointed justice of the peace, 
on October 26, 1665, and was the representative of Elizabeth Town in 
the legislature in 1668. His water mill was near the dwelling house 
of Governor Carteret. "This mill," says Hatfield, "was located 
immediately west of the Broad-street stone bridge, and, with the dam 
across the creek just above, was doubtless constructed by Mr. Ogden, 
whence the creek was frequently called Mill creek, or Mill river. The 
governor's house was located east of the bridge and north of the creek, 
on the ground latterly occupied by the Thomas house. ' ' 

Timothy Ogden, a descendant of John Ogden, was a tanner by 
trade, and during the Revolutionary period operated a tanyard on what 
is now Elizabeth avenue, near Spring street, and in close proximity 
to his house. His son, John Ogden, father of James Ogden, the 
undertaker, carried on the cabinet trade. 


The immense plant of this company is located at the corner of 
Trumbull and First streets, where is utilized an area of about fifty 
acres, with a water frontage on Newark bay of sixteen hundred feet, 
and a building frontage of about one mile in length. The buildings 
occupy in their entirety nineteen acres of floor space. 

This is one of the largest industrial establishments in the world, 
and the company employ from four thousand to six thousand operatives 
in the manufacture of the celebrated Singer sewing machine, now sold 
in all parts of the world. The first Singer machine was made in 
Boston, in 1851, and the firm of I. M. Singer & Company (Edward Clark 
being the "company"), was formed that year, whereupon the business 
was moved to New York city. Subsequently a large factory was built 
on Mott street in that city, but in 1863 the enterprise passed into the 
hands of the above named company, and the selection of the present 
site in Elizabeth was made. Ample facilities, both by water and rail, 
have been obtained, there being over four miles of railroad track 
within this yard alone. 

The main office of this company is located at 149 Broadway, corner 
of Liberty street. New York, and the ofiicers of the company are 
Frederick G. Bourne, president; William Proctor, first vice-president; 
Douglass Alexander, second vice-president; E. H. Bennett, treasurer; 
C. A. Miller, secretary; L,. B. Miller, superintendent of the factory. 


Besides street cars, this company manufactures car trucks, either 
for its own or cars of other makes. They are also the makers of the L. 


& F. passenger-fare register, which was the first fare-register to be 
manufactured. It registers one hundred thousand fares, and is up to 
date in every respect. Bronze trimmings for car or other work are also 
a product of this plant. The company utilizes a splendid brick build- 
ing, covering fifteen thousand square feet of floor space, and located at 
the corner of Third and Pine streets, Elizabethport. The enterprise 
was started as Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Company, in 1885, and 
incorporated about that year, but on December 5, 1895, it was reorgan- 
ized, and the firms of Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Company and 
James A. Trimble consolidated and reincorporated under the present 
firm name, having a capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars. 
Since the reorganization of the company they have increased their 
facilities and added every improvement of the latest design. They 
have, when running at full capacity, from four hundred to six hundred 
employes, but with the increase of business from the revival of trade, 
their working force will be largely increased. The power of the plant 
is furnished by two boilers with a capacity of three hundred and fifty 
horse-power, and two engines, one of one hundred and fifty and one of 
two hundred horse-power. The official corps is as follows: James A. 
Trimble, president; W. L. Brownelle, secretary; C. L. Cammann, Jr., 


The remarkable progress made in engine-building in recent years 
has made this branch of industrial activity one of more than ordinary 
interest, and to no single firm is the mechanical world more indebted for 
this advancement than to the reliable, well established Ball & Wood 
Company. The plant of this company of engine-builders occupies a 
very large ground area, upon which have been erected two handsome 
brick structures, one of them 200 x 90, and the other 60 x 20 feet in 
dimensions. Besides these there are numerous outbuildings. These 
buildings are filled with the most modern machines and tools known in 
the manufacture of high-grade engines, and the plant is a model one in 
every respect. Employment is furnished to ninety skilled mechanics 
in the various branches of the business. The engines built by this 
company are for all classes of work, and are simple and compound, 
horizontal and vertical automatic cut-ofF engines, one of their recent 
productions being an engine by which the direct connection of the 
dynamos can be made. The shops were built expressly for their work 
and are fitted up with the latest improvements, among them being an 
electric crane. The advantage derived by buyers of their engines are : 
simplicity, absence of parts requiring frequent adjustment, regularity in 
speed, the limited space for engines and fly wheel, a compact form 
insuring rigidity in all parts, the use of short belts in place of long ones, 
the avoidance of gearing to produce high speed, and the extraordinary 
saving in room, building and foundation. The company is incorporated 


under the laws of New Jersey, and its ofl&cers are : Thomas E. Wood, 
president ; Charles R. Vincent, vice-president, and I^angdon Greenwood, 
Jr., secretary and treasurer. The plant is located at Elizabethport. 


The Samuel L. Moore & Sons Company, was founded in 1854, and 
incorporated in 1886, with a capital stock of three hundred thousand 
dollars. This well established company occupy fifty-eight city lots, 
upon which are erected machine shops, one brass and two iron foundries, 
besides numerous outbuildings and sheds, these being filled with the 
most modern machinery known in the iron and steel workers' art, many 
of them being of the company's own design and invention for the 
special purposes of their business, in the production of chemical works, 
machinery oil, machinery, engines, mining machinery, copper furnaces, 
etc. The numerous machines manufactured by the company are all 
made from new and improved patterns. The company employ in the 
various departments of their business about three hundred skilled 
mechanics; the products are shipped to Mexico and Cuba, and from 
Maine to California. The power of this immense plant, known as the 
Crescent Iron Works, is furnished by five engines, having a combined 
one thousand horse-power, connected with a suitable battery of boilers. 
The officers of the company are Douglass G. Moore, president; Albert 
B. Moore, vice-president; M. F. Moore, treasurer and secretary; and 
W. W. Ackerman, assistant secretary. 


This concern in its entirety is the most extensive of any here 
devoted to the manufacture of machinery in general. The first Worth- 
ington engine was built over forty-two years ago, and applied to the 
water-works service in the city of Savannah, Georgia. Six years later 
the improvement known as the duplex-valve motion was invented, and 
from that time Worthington engines have been so extensively intro- 
duced for the supply of water for the cities and towns that to-day there 
are more of them in use than all other types combined. Of the three 
higher classes of the Worthington pumping engine, upward of two 
hundred and forty have been built and furnished to water-works in all 
parts of the world. Henry R. Worthington received a medal and high- 
est awards on twenty-four types of pumping engines, steam pumps, etc.; 
also a special award for their general exhibit. This was the award of 
the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. The main ofiices and 
hydraulic works, covering many acres of floor space, and having 
numerous buildings for the various departments, where they employ 
one thousand hands, are located at Van Brunt and Rapelyea streets, 
Brooklyn. A branch plant is located in this city at the foot of Trum- 
bull street, and covers six acres of ground, on which there are numer- 


ous buildings used as foundries, pattern shops, pattern store houses, 
brass foundry, core shop, crane shed, sand and core shed, numerous 
outbuildings, and they have just added a new store house and core shop. 
They furnish constant employment to five hundred mechanics in this 
city. So extensive is the plant and so well equipped is it that the 
largest orders can be executed in a very short time. Founded in 1845 
it was incorporated in 1891, under the laws of New Jersey, and at the 
present time has branch offices in every leading American and Cana- 
dian city; also in all the principal cities throughout the world. The 
officers upon whom devolves the management of this immense concern 
are C. C. Worthington, president, and Theodore F. Miller, treasurer 
and secretary. 


The business was founded in 1866 by Reeve & Company, and was 
known as the Elizabeth Ice Company; incorporated in 1887, with a 
capital stock of sixty thousand dollars, and is now known by the same 
name. The growth of the business can be best shown by the state- 
ment that the company when first started gathered all of their ice from 
the surrounding ponds, but upon the erection of the water works they 
began to cut and buy ice from them. Besides the cutting of ice 
they have a Blymyer ice machine for making artificial ice, manufactur- 
ing and storing about five hundred tons in winter, and running from 
April ist to December ist, day and night, in order to supply their 
immense trade. The machines have a capacity of thirty tons a day, 
and the company manufacture about nine hundred tons a month. The 
water used in making their ice is condensed steam, condensed by 
running cold water over tubes containing steam, and is not subject to 
the atmosphere from the time it enters the boiler until it reaches the 
can. The company have three boilers of eighty horse-power each, and 
employ from twenty-five to thirty men, running from ten to twelve 
wagons. The officers of the company are M. W. Reeve, president; 
C. H. K. Halsey, treasurer; R. S. Williams, superintendent. 


This meritorious industry was established in 1880, and was incor- 
porated under the laws of Massachusetts, and is now operated on a 
capital stock of one million dollars. The company are to-day one of the 
largest manufacturers of fertilizers and phosphates in the country. The 
grounds of the company cover over seven acres, most of which is occupied 
by buildings of various sizes, scattered in different parts of the premises ; 
main buildings are three to four stories high, and have a frontage on 
Staten Island Sound of one thousand feet, with a depth of water abreast 
the works of about eighteen feet. The yards are interwoven with a 
network of switches connecting with the Central Railroad and, through 


it, reaching any trunk line in the country. The company are manu- 
facturers of about fifty or sixty standard brands of fertilizers, among them 
being the celebrated Stockbridge manures. Another product is a special 
feed for fowls and animals, which includes animal meal, ground beef 
scraps and ground oyster shells. They are also manufacturers of 
sulphuric acid. Mr. Bowker was the first one to introduce into this 
country the method of using pyrites instead of brimstone with sulphur 
burner, as formerly. They have an elegantly equipped plant for the 
production of sulphuric acid, sparing no expense, the lead alone used in 
this plant having cost twenty-five thousand dollars. There are four 
sheets of this material used in each tower, being eleven feet three inches 
wide and twenty-six feet high, weighing five thousand eight hundred 
pounds each. They have in various departments of this establishment 
about one hundred and twenty-five employes, and have a shipping 
capacity of six hundred to seven hundred tons a day, if needed. Their 
output is shipped to all portions of the United States, but principally to 
the section east of the Mississippi river. The company have, besides the 
factory in this city, a very extensive one at Brighton, Massachusetts. 
The officers of the company are : W. H. Bowker, president ; and Henry 
F. Coe, treasurer. G. H. Gustin is superintendent of the Elizabeth 


One of the most prominent concerns engaged in this line is that of 
Cooke Brothers, manufacturers of animal oils. Their plant occupies 
about three and one-half acres of land, on which is erected a main 
building, 300x450 feet, besides numerous outbuildings and sheds; the 
company have a large dock frontage, which enables them to ship goods 
by water as well as rail. The firm are manufacturers of animal oils for 
lubricating purposes, including high grades of lard, tallow and meats, 
foot oils and stearine for soap and candle-makers' use. The low 
temperature of these oils is their specialty, the products being so manu- 
factured that they run freely in cold weather. The plant was entirely 
destroyed by fire in 1892, and has been reconstructed on a large scale, 
with all the latest conveniences and appliances. The works are run 
night and day — having both day and night shifts. The firm was started 
in 1865 as Cooke Brothers, later becoming Cooke Brothers & McCord, 
then again Cooke Brothers. The individual members of the firm are 
C. A. and H. C. Cooke. 


The Manhattan Stove Works are located on Fulton and Marshall 
streets, between First and Second. The business was established in 
1840 by Munsell & Thompson, at Crescent, New York. In i860 it 
was. removed to this city and at the start utilized the factory now 
occupied by Graff & Company. The present factory was built by 



Munsell & Thompson, and occupied in 1870. The foundry building is 
200x75 feet, with two additions 100x40. This firm manufacture 
heating and cooking stoves, furnaces, fire-place heaters, brick-set and 
portable ranges, gasoline and oil stoves, etc. , and are proprietors of the 
Manhattan stoves. Their trade extends all over the United States and 
to foreign countries, and they employ a large force of men constantly. 
The firm is composed of Eugene Munsell, I^ewis W. Kingsley and 
Franklin Brooks. 


In 1895 Mr. Lewis Nixon, formerly constructor of the United 
States navy, leased the Crescent Ship Yards, Elizabethport, from the 
Samuel L. Moore & Sons Company. The company was at once 
reorganized, with Arthur ly. Busch, construction manager, and C. C. 
Bowers, superintending engineer, and during the past twelve months 
they have built vessels to the value of seven million five hundred 
thousand dollars. It was at the Nixon Ship Yards that the yacht Free 
Uauce, now acknowledged to be the finest craft afloat, was built. The 
record made an her trial trip was twenty-one miles an hour. During the 
last year the company have built twenty-four vessels and repaired fifteen 
others. The yard is situated on Staten Island Sound and covers about 
forty-eight and one-half acres. They employ a working force of five 
hundred expert mechanics. 


is located on South Front street, and was incorporated in 1883. It has 
a most excellent establishment for the building of wooden vessels, and 
the repairing of both iron and steel ones. Three hundred skilled 
mechanics are furnished constant employment in the various depart- 
ments. The entire establishment covers two hundred and fifty thousand 
square feet, with a frontage of one thousand feet on Staten Island 
Sound. The officers of the company are Henry D. Heissenbutter, 
president and secretary; A. L. Alpers, treasurer; Thomas Dunn, 
general manager. 


This company was founded in 1892, by Sanford Clark, and incor- 
porated in 1894. The company are probably the largest dealers in 
masons' supplies in the city, and they employ six workmen for the 
handling and delivering of their goods. The ofiicers of the company 
are Sanford Clark, president; and H. A. Bushnell, secretary and 

W. C. Arzt, manufacturer of wagons used by merchants for 
delivery purposes, entered into this business in 1892. His factory is 
located on South Spring street. Twelve workmen are employed. 
Alfred S. Campbell, art photographer, was formerly in business with 


the late Sarony, in New York. In 1886 he removed to Elizabeth 
where he began in a small way a business which has now grown to 
large proportions. He employs from three hundred to four hundred 
expert workmen, and last year manufactured over one hundred million 
stereoscopic pictures and photographs of distinguished celebrities, 
mostly for the Sweet Caporal brand of cigarettes. The works of W. H. 
Rankin are at the foot of Elizabeth avenue. He is a manufacturer 
of painted felt, roofing pitch, three-ply brown felting and tarred 
single, and two-ply and three-ply roofing. Eight different kinds of 
roofing paper are made in these works, from woolen rags. Under the 
name of the Empire Target Company, Mr. Rankin manufactures 
annually about ten million flying targets, or clay pigeons, for sports- 
men's use. The business was established in 1873. 

A. & F. Brown are manufacturers of power-transmitting machinery. 
Three buildings, on Third street, Elizabethport, are occupied in the 
manufacture of shaftings, couplings, hangers, ai^d iron pulleys. Motive 
power is derived from a two hundred horse-power engine. The firm 
was founded in 1855 by Adolph and Felix Brown, and at that time they 
employed about thirty men. They now employ two hundred and fifty 
skilled mechanics. On the death of Adolph Brown, in 1881, Felix 
Brown, Sr., assumed full charge of the business. 

The Pacific Rubber Company occupies a building on East Jersey 
street, in the manufacture of mackintoshes, rubber cement and coat 
cloths, for corset and hat manufacturers and for hospital sheetings. 
The business was commenced in 1893, and it now gives employment to 
more than eighty operatives. The officers of the company are: S. G. 
Hartshorne, president; J. E. Gates, vice-president; and F. M. Harts- 
horne, secretary and treasurer. 

Charles Spittlehouse, whose large establishment is located on East 
Broad street, is successor to Tower & Spittlehouse, who began the 
plumbing business in 1862. From a small beginning this business has 
grown to its present proportions, and now about twenty workmen are 

James H. Faulks, also a skillful plumber, occupies a large building 
of his own on West Jersey street, and gives employment to about twenty 
men. Mr. Faulks began in 1873, with L. C. McCabe. He makes a 
specialty of the "Triumph King Heater." 

The manufacture of awnings, tents, etc., was commenced in 1890 by 
R. G. Ivaggren, at 8 and 10 Julian Place. In 1891 he was joined by Mr. 
John Ball. The premises occupy over twenty-three thousand square feet 
of floor space, utilized for manufacturing purposes. Employment is 
furnished to twelve men. Reilly & Purcell began business as boiler- 
manufacturers and sheet-iron workers in 1894. The plant is on Trum- 
bull street and employment is furnished to ten skilled mechanics. 

The firm of F. J. Blatz and Brother had its inception in 1865, when 




it bore the name of Schreiber & Blatz. The plant of the firm is located 
at the foot of High street and occupies four buildings. From sixty to 
seventy-five skilled male workers are furnished employment in making 
the best grades of gloved kid, exclusively of goat skins, and the product 
is chiefly used for uppers in ladies' shoes. 

Benjamin F. Straus, the proprietor of the Elizabeth Wagon Works, 
began the manufacture of wagons in the city in 1886, and his "business 
since that time has grown until to-day his wagons are shipped to every 
part of the United States and, in fact, of the civilized world. He now 
furnishes from twenty-five to thirty skilled employes steady work the 
year round. 

The Peter Breidt City Brewery is located on Pearl street, near 
Rector. This enterprise was started by Filer & Bayer in 1864. In 1882, 
after the buildings had been unused for years, Mr. Breidt purchased the 
premises and began to rebuild the entire property. The company was 
incorporated in 1885. The water used in the manufacture of the beers, 
ales and porters of this company is secured from a well six hundred and 
seven feet deep. The plant has a capacity of twenty-five thousand barrels 
annually, and employment is given to thirty workmen. The immense 
business of the Rising Sun Brewing Company had its inception on March 
21, 1887, the plant being located at the corner of Seventh and Marshall 
streets. The output in the first year was fifteen thousand barrels, and in 
1896 the output was fifty thousand barrels. Charles Seeber is president. 


This ably conducted establishment was set in operation under its 
present management in 1879, succeeding the old company which had 
been in existence from 1835. The premises occupied for manufacturing 
purposes comprise buildings covering fully an acre of ground. The 
products of the company are semi-granite druggists' ware, jardiniers, 
etc. They employ one hundred and fifty men. George S. Morley is 
manager; L. B. Beerbower, sole proprietor. 


This well equipped plant is located at I^afayette, Spring and 
Elizabeth streets, and was established in 1879 and incorporated in 1887. 
The company are manufacturers of the American oil-gas machine, gas- 
blast furnaces, forgers, burners, etc. They make a specialty of install- 
ing complete fuel-gas plants for all manufacturing purposes, and in 
1894 they were awarded a medal by the city of Philadelphia, on the 
recommendation of the Franklin Institute. This company was started 
in an extremely small way, about fourteen years ago, but their business 
has so grown from year to year that to-day all their pattern and foundry 
work has to be done by other firms. The officers of the company are: 
E. P. Reichhelm, president, engineer and manager; George Machlet, 


vice-president and factory superintendent; Robert Von Cleff, treasurer; 
F. DiefFenbach, secretary. 


are manufacturers of high-grade furnaces, heaters and ranges. The 
foundry is an extensive one, located at Elizabethport, the whole plant 
occupying an entire block, and being equipped with every modern 
appliance for producing first-class work. They employ a force of more 
than eighty skilled workmen, and their products are shipped to every 
part of the United States. The members of the company are John M. 
Graff, W. M. Seymour and John H. Forshew. Frank Dakin is 


The lumber business of Heidritter & Sons was established in i860, 
but the senior member of the firm was here engaged in mercantile 
pursuits many years before. The main office, planing mill, etc., are 
on the New Point road and Point avenue. The sons, Frederick L,- and 
Augustus Heidritter, Jr., are the present members of the firm. The 
yards and mills are well located so far as railroad facilities are con- 
cerned. Sidings run into the yards, and lumber, coal and other 
material are received in cars direct from the timber-cutting districts 
and the mills and mines of the west and south, without being rehandled. 
The firm have extensive lumber yard, warehouse and wharves on the 
Elizabeth river, near Staten Island Sound. 


are manufacturers of mineral lubricating oils and grease, and are located 
on Staten Island Sound. Starting in 1883, they have gradually increased 
their plant until to-day it covers fourteen acres and consists of various 
buildings, scattered throughout the grounds. There are about sixty iron 
tanks used for storing oils and ranging in capacity from fifty to two 
thousand barrels each. The company manufacture about one hundred 
different grades of oils. The crude oil used is run through pipes from 
the oil regions. They have a barrel run of over one thousand feet in 
length, and there are always to be seen huge piles of empty barrels, 
occasionally numbering as many as ten thousand. All sections of the 
buildings are connected by a system of pipes, and there are seven stills, 
with a capacity of twenty-five to six hundred barrels each, and they have 
one tank holding thirty-five thousand barrels and two holding fifteen 
thousand barrels each. One section of the buildings was destroyed by 
fire about four years ago, entailing a loss of one hundred thousand dollars. 
This has been entirely rebuilt, and their facilities greatly enlarged. The 
plant is admirably adapted for shipping purposes, having docks on the 
water front and switches from the railroad running directly into the 


works. The company originally started in Brooklyn with a small experi- 
mental plant, capable of producing four hundred and fifty barrels of 
manufactured oil per month. They increased their capacity from year 
to year till 1883, when, on the destruction of their plant by fire, they 
removed to this city and built their present works ; to these they have 
been constantly making additions until to-day their capacity is one 
thousand one hundred barrels of finished oils per day. They employ 
forty workmen in their various departments. They have for the sale and 
handling of their manufactured products offices and agencies in every 
civilized country in the world, with offices at 80 and 81 South street, 
New York. The officers of the company are : J. E. Borne, president and 
treasurer ; Charles E. Renshaw, secretary ; Theodore G. Sullivan, general 
manager ; George H. Kline, superintendent of works. 





HE early religious history of the town of Elizabeth is involved 
in uncertainty. As early as 1667 Dr. Hatfield, from whom we 
quote liberally, says it is quite probable the sturdy men here 
wended their way to Newark to hear their venerable pastor, 
Abraham Pierson, who, with large accessions from Branford and Guilford, 
Connecticut, had taken up residence with them in that new settlement. 
Mention is made of the town house as early as June, 167 1. The " Town 
House " and the " Meeting House," were one. It is quite probable that 
this house was erected about the year 1665 ; for as early as February 
19th, of that year, they held a ''meeting court," at which the whole 
town was present, and sixty-five men took the oath of allegiance and 
fidelity. The lot on which the house was built included the present 
burying-ground of the First Presbyterian church, extended on the west 
of the river and contained about eight acres. The earliest survey of the 
lot bears date of June 5, 1732, and was made by Joseph Mann, surveyor. 
The meeting house occupied the site of the present church, but 
was much smaller. Graves were sometimes dug on ground now occupied 
by the church building, and the whole area of the First church probably 
is occupied with the remains of the first two or three generations of the 
people of the town. Rev. Thomas James, pastor of the church of East 
Hampton, Ivong Island, was chosen, in 1667, first minister of the town, 
and had consented to cast his lot with them, but was persuaded by his 
people to abandon the enterprise. The Rev. Jeremiah Peck, son of 
Deacon William Peck, of New Haven, Connecticut, born near London, 
England, in 1632 or 1623, became a freeholder of this town in 1668, and 
about this time, on invitation extended by the people to serve them in 
the ministry, became first pastor of the church in this place. 

According to Cotton Mather's statement, Jeremiah Peck was gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1654, but his name is not included in the 
Harvard catalogues. He was employed as a teacher at Guilford, Connec- 
ticut, where he married Johannah, daughter of Robert Kitchell, of that 
town, November 12, 1656. He was minister to the people in Saybrook, 
Connecticut, from 1661 to 1665, when he returned to Guilford, and with 
his father-in-law, many of the Guilford people, and the greater part of 
Branford, with Mr. Pierson, their aged minister, came to Newark, in the 
autumn of 1667, becoming one of the founders of that town. His house 


lot was on the east corner of Market and Mulberry streets, adjoining that 
of his father-in-law, on the latter street. It is probable that he served the 
town in the ministry until Mr. Pierson's arrival, on October i, 1667. Mr. 
Peck was known extensively as a minister of the gospel, and applications 
for ministerial services were made at different places. In 1678 he accepted 
an invitation to settle with the people of Greenwich, Connecticut, in the 
ministry, and here he remained till 1690, when he went to Waterbury, 
Connecticut, where he died, in 1699. 

Rev. Seth Fletcher became the second minister in the town, in 1680. 
His death occurred in August, 1682. He was a graduate of Harvard, in 
1645; was the first minister of Middletown, Connecticut, in 1664; subse- 
quently of Wells, Maine, where, owing to the laxness of his views on the 
sanctification of the Sabbath, he was dismissed, in October, 1660. He 
was a man of scholarly attainments and of much zeal for the truth. 
There was no settled pastor of the church from the death of Rev. Mr. 
Fletcher, until the year 1687, when a call was made to and accepted by 
the Rev. John Harriman, a native of New Haven, Connecticut. This 
worthy minister was trained under the rigid old Puritan, the Rev. John 
Davenport, by whom he had been baptized. In his thirteenth year he 
came under the instruction of Jeremiah Peck, at that time principal of 
the grammar school at New Haven, and afterwards the first pastor of this 
town. He received his college education at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where he was graduated in 1667. After his graduation he returned to 
New Haven and taught the Hopkins Grammar School several years, and 
in 1674 accepted a call to preach at Fordham, continuing in the ministry 
till his death, which occurred August 20, 1705. On the day of his death, 
he preached, and told his people, says the Boston News Letter, " that his 
time of departure drew near, and exhorted them to peace and unity with 
one another, and to stand fast in the covenant that they had engagad 
themselves to." Mr. Harriman was a man of great exactness and of 
large business. He had a hundred-acre lot " in the plains," and this he 
cleared and cultivated. He leased and operated the old mill which John 
Ogden had built, at the bridge on the creek. In 1698-1701 he built his 
house in Meadow street, north of Jersey street, and he had also a cider 
press, an agency for furnishing glass to his neighbors; now and then he 
surveyed lands, and was elected as a deputy to the legislature in 1693, 
1695 and 1698, and kept a boarding school also. Mr. Harriman dealt 
largely in real estate and also in slaves (at least for his own use.) " We 
bought the negro, Toney, August 14, 1697, from Charles Tooker, Jr., for 
forty-eight pounds." Again, " October 28, 1701, he bought of Mr. James 
Emot an Indian girl, named Hagar, for nineteen pounds, ten shillings." 

It was during Mr. Harriman's ministry that the Episcopal church 
in the tow£_was formed. At first the rival church services were held at 
Colonel Townley's house, but afterward in the church building. Mr. 
Harriman held the first, beginning at eight A. m., — the established 


custom of meeting on the Ivord's day, — ending at ten, A. m., after which 
the house was used by the Episcopalians, but with the proviso that they 
should not read any of the prayers of the church. They were permitted, 
however, to read the psalms, lessons, epistle and gospel, and says the 
Rev. John Brooke, the first minister of St. John's church : "I said all of the 
rest of the service by heart." 

Rev. Samuel Meylen, son of Jacob Meylen, one of the founders of 
the town, was the next pastor. He was a graduate of Harvard College, 
in 1696, after which, in 1700, he taught the grammar school at Hadley, 
Massachusetts. It is probable that he came here in 1703, and at the 
decease of Mr. Harriman was left in charge of the congregation. His 
ministry was short, his sun going down behind a dark cloud, about the 
year 1708. He was accused of some immoralities, unfitting him for 
the pulpit. He resided in the town until his death, which occurred 
in 1711. 

Rev. Jonathan Dickinson was the next pastor. He was born April 
22, 1688, at Hatfield, Massachusetts. He was a graduate of Yale, in 
1706, came here in 1708, and married Miss Meylen, sister of Rev. Samuel 
Meylen, in March, 1709. His ordination took place Friday, September 
29, 1709, and his death occurred October 7, 1747. By common consent 
Mr. Dickinson was the greatest man whose name adorned the annals of 
his town. He was a voluminous writer, and Tracy, in his "Great 
Awakening," calls him one of the greatest and safest men of that age. 
Dr. Sprague says : " It may be doubted whether, with the'^ingle excep- 
tion of the elder Edwards, Galvanism has ever found an elder more 
efficient in this country than Jonathan Dickinson," while the Rev. Dr. 
John Erskine, of Edinburgh, said, " the British Isles have produced no 
such writers on divinity in the eighteenth century as Dickinson and 

Such was the minister who began his labors, as a mere youth, in a 
town whose field of labor had begun to stretch out in every direction. 
During his ministry his church changed from independency to Presby- 
terianism, and at the meeting of the newly constituted synod of Philadel- 
phia, September, 17 17, his name is enrolled as the youngest member of 
that body. In the synod of 1721 he was chosen moderator. At the 
meeting of the synod in 1727 it was proposed to require of every minister 
and candidate a hearty assent to the Westminster Confession and cate- 
chism. Mr. Dickinson, the ablest and most influential member of the 
synod, as Dr. Hodge calls him, at once took grounds against the propo- 
sitition. His reasons for rejecting it were afterward printed, April 10, 
1729, by Zenger, at New York — a copy of the document having been 
found in the old South church library, Boston. Having been placed on 
the committee to whom the proposition was referred, he succeeded in 
uniting the whole synod in the support and adoption of the measure thence- 
forward known as the "Adopting Act." The period in which Mr. 


Dickinson served his church, was noted for the prevalence of skepticism. 
To breast and beat back these waves of error he prepared and preached 
to his people a series of discourses, which were soon afterward printed in 
a convenient manual edition. He wrote many books. In 1733 the 
presbytery of east New Jersey was formed out of the presbytery of Phila- 
delphia, and Dickinson at once became the head of the new presbytery. 
In 1738 he and his church became connected with the presbytery of 
New York. 

Monday, October 19, 1739, the Rev. George Whitfield visited Eliza- 
beth Town and preached to upwards of seven hundred people, in Mr. 
Dickinson's church, and in the spring the gifted Whitfield preached for 
them again. In the year 1740 occured the well known revival, with 
manifest and marvelous benefits to Mr. Dickinson's congregation as well 
as to those elsewhere. In the month of June " near about sixty persons 
have received a saving change in this congregation alone," writes the 
pastor to the Rev. Foxcroft, of Boston. 

Mr. Dickinson had long felt the necessity of a collegiate institution 
more accessable than Harvard or Yale, and mainly through his efforts a 
charter was granted, October 22, 1746, for the College of New Jersey. 
The first term it was opened at Mr. Dickinson's house, on the south side 
of the old Rahway road, directly west of Race street. Mr. Caleb Smith, 
a graduate of Yale College, was the first tutor. The first graduates of 
this institution became prominent men in the church, having received 
their education for the ministry from the instruction of Mr. Dickinson 
and his tutor. In the midst of these laborious employments Mr. Dick- 
inson died, of pleurisy, October 7, 1774, in the sixtieth year of his age. 

The Rev. Elihu Spencer, born at East Haddam, Connecticut, 
February 12, 1721, was graduated at Yale College in 1746; ordained 
September 14, 1748; was employed about the ist of May, 1749, first as 
a stated supply, then as pastor of this church. Owing to the absence 
of the church records, nothing can be learned of the fruits of his 
ministry, which terminated in 1756, about seven years from the time 
of its commencement. J. Rev, Abraham Kettletas, a graduate of the 
class of 1752 at Yale College, served the church at " at ^ per 
Sabbath" as a candidate for six months, " at 130 lyite Money. " He 
was inaugurated September 14, 1757, and his ministry continued till 
the month of April, 1760. 

The pulpit now remained vacant more than one year and a half, 
during which time not less than twenty-one different ministers of the 
gospel preached in the church. 

In November, 1761, Rev. James Caldwell, a Virginian, received a 
call which was accepted. On the 14th of March, 1763, Mr. Caldwell 
was united in marriage to Hannah, the daughter of John and Hannah 
(Sayre) Ogden, of Newark. Her father was the great-grandson of John 
Ogden, the planter, who came to this town in 1664. Mr. Caldwell was 


a graduate of the College of New Jersey, in 1759, and was licensed to 
preach July 29, 1760. The ministry of Mr. Caldwell was a memorable 
one. During his time the great war of the Revolution was fought, 
and his participation in that struggle gave him a national rather than 
a local reputation. He was the patriot minister of that church giving 
his life, at the hands of a murderer, upon his country's altar, November 
24, 1 781. His wife, too, the greatly beloved Mrs. Hannah Caldwell, 
in one fatal moment, was shot down by a British rufiian, instigated by 
malice, deliberate and infernal, on June 8, 1780. Mr. Caldwell's 
ministry was fruitful of some great revivals in religion. The apostolic 
Whitfield preached twice in this church on November 27, 1763, and he 
himself alludes to the "four sweet seasons at New Jersey College, 
and two at Blizabethtown on my way hither." 

A great revival occurred in 1796, and many additions were made 
to the church during the years of 1771 and 1772, in particular. Mr. 
Caldwell had an ardent temperament, and dared all that a man could 
dare for his country, in the rush of events precipitating the war of the 
Revolution. His patriotism appeared in all of his prayers, often in his 
sermons and exhortations, and, in consequence, no society in the land 
took a bolder, nobler stand than that of Caldwell. Among his congre- 
gation at the commencement of the Revolution were such men as 
William Livingston, the noble governor of the state ; Elias Boudinot, 
afterwards president of the continental congress ; Abraham Clark, one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence ; the Hon. Robert 
Ogden, speaker of the assembly at an earlier day, with his three sons, 
Robert, Matlinas and Aaron, — the last two becoming distinguished 
officers in the United States army ; the Hon. Stephen Crane, speaker 
of the assembly; Elias Dayton and his son Jonathan, both of whom 
subsequently became general officers of the army, and the latter, 
speaker of congress; William Peartree Smith, one of the most distin- 
guished civilians of the day; Oliver Spencer and Francis Barber, both of 
them colonels of the New Jersey Brigade; and others,— amounting in 
all to forty-two commissioned officers and about one hundred officers 
and privates in toto, who went forth, inspired by the shepherd of this 
flock, to fight the battles of independence. In April, 1776, Colonel 
Dayton's regiment, made up of many officers and privates of Mr. Cald- 
well's congregation, was ordered to march to the relief of the northern 
army, then besieging Quebec. Mr. Caldwell accompanied this regi- 
ment, as its chaplain, preaching for them ordinarily twice every Sab- 
bath, and always taking an active part in the military operations. 
During the absence of this regiment British troops took possession of 
Staten Island, which greatly alarmed the people of this town for their 
personal safety. Early in the autumn Mr. Caldwell, therefore, returned 
to his family and people, his services being here pressingly needed. In 
November of 1776 he took his family up into the mountains, and found 


a retreat for them in a place then called Turkey, now New Providence. 
From this time forward Mr. Caldwell was occupied more or less 
continually in the service of his country, to the close of his life. The 
journals of congress show that on March 15, 1777, two hundred dollars 
were ordered to be paid Rev. James Caldwell, of Elizabeth Town, for 
extraordinary services. On the 27th, $4,873.54 were ordered to be 
paid Rev. James Caldwell ' ' for the services of a company of light 
horse of Essex county, in the state of New Jersey, commanded by 
Captain Jacob Wynans, their horse hire and expenses." 

At various times, during the war, Mr. Caldwell not only served as 
chaplain of the Jersey Brigade, but as assistant commissary-general, 
and his salary from April, 1777, to April, 1779, consisted only of what 
his congregation gave in the Sabbath-morning collections. On 
February 25, 1779, the parsonage was destroyed by the torch of the 
enemy. During the year 1778, Mr. Caldwell resided in Springfield, 
and in the summer of 1779 he removed to Connecticut Farms, in order 
to be nearer his people, it not being safe for him to reside at a nearer 

The church was destroyed by fire on the night of January 25, 1780, 
and the services were thenceforth held in Colonel Hatfield's "Red Store 
House," nearly opposite the site of the old parsonage, which was situated 
on the lot west of Race street, fronting on the Rahway road, and nearly 
opposite Sherry. It was probably while preaching here — Mr. Caldwell 
preached with his pistols lying on either side of him in the pulpit, and 
sentinels had to keep watch during the time of service — on June 8, 1780, 
that his beloved wife was killed at Connecticut Farms. The house was 
plundered at the same time, and what was not carried off was destroyed. 
Many of his papers were carried to New York and some of his corres- 
pondence published in Rivington's Gazette. No one save Governor 
Livingston was more feared and hated by the Tories and the British than 
Mr. Caldwell. Gladly would they have kidnaped him if they could, 
and, doubtless, they would have done it had he continued to reside in the 
town. In the fall of 1780 he was chosen a member of the state council, 
and he continued in these several capacities until the autumn of 1781, 
when he too was murdered, as before stated, November 24, 1781. 

The circumstances attending this mournful event were as follows : 
" Mr. Caldwell being informed of the arrival, at the Point, in a flag-ship 
from New York, of a lady whose family had been peculiarly serviceable 
to our unhappy fellow citizens, prisoners with the enemy, proposed wait- 
ing on her, and conducting her to the town, as a grateful acknowledge- 
ment of the services offered by her family as above mentioned. He 
accordingly went to the Point in a chaise for that purpose, and after the 
young woman had been seated in the chaise, the sentinel observed in her 
hand a handkerchief tied up in a bundle, and told Mr. Caldwell he must 
sieze it in the name of the state ; on which Mr. Caldwell jumping out of 


the chaise, said if that was the case he would return it to the commanding 
officer who was then present ; but as he stepped forward another imper- 
tinently told him to stop, which he immediately did, but notwithstanding 
this, the soldier, without further provocation, raised his gun and shot 
him dead on the spot." — [New Jersey Journal, November 28, 1781.J 

The lady whose advent occasioned the calamity was Beulah, 
daughter of Robert and Mary Murray. The villian who did the 
shooting was immediately seized and secured. His name was Morgan. 
As there was no cause for the murder, it was commonly believed that 
he was bribed by the enemy. He was found guilty of murder and was 
hung, at Westfield, on Tuesday, January 29, 1782. The body of Mr. 
Caldwell was carried to the Public House at the Point, and from there 
brought to town in an ambulance, a crowd of people, greatly excited, 
gathering by the way. The people seemed to be crushed under the 
sad calamity. The funeral services were performed on Tuesday, the 
27th, the whole town suspending all business and gathering, in 
uncontrollable grief, at the house of Mrs. Noel. The Rev. Dr. Alex. 
McWhorter, of Newark, performed the services, preaching from Ecc. 
viii:8. His body was laid by the side of his wife's remains, and over 
the graves was placed a marble slab, with the following inscription: 

Sacred to the memory of the Rev. James Caldwell and Hannah his wife, who fell 
victims to their country's cause, in the years 1780 and 1781. He was the zealous and 
faithful pastor of the Presbyterian church in this town, where, by his evangelical labors 
in the gospel vineyard and his early attachment to the civil liberties of his country, he 
has left in the hearts of his people a better monument than brass or marble. 


Here also lye the remains of a woman who exhibited to the world a bright con- 
stellation of the feminine virtues. On that memorable day, never to be forgotten, when 
a British foe invaded this fair village and fired even the temple of Deity, this peaceful 
daughter of heaven, retired to her hallowed apartment, imploring heaven for the pardon 
of her enemies. In that sacred moment she was, by the bloody hand of a British ruflSan, 
dispatched, like her divine Redeemer through a path of blood to her long-wished-for 
native skies. 

Mr. Caldwell left nine children, four sons and five daughters, with 
but a scanty patrimony at the best. The Hon. Elias Boudinot cheer- 
fully took upon himself the administration of the estate and the care of 
the children. Rev. James Francis Armstrong the next pastor took 
charge of the congregation in June, 1782, but his labors closed in April, 
1784. The new church was dedicated about the ist of January of this 
year, and during the next two years the congregation was again visited 
with a special outgoing of the spirit of God. In 1786 Rev. William 
Adolphus Ivinn accepted an invitation to supply the pulpit, but in six 
months from the time of his installation, to the regret and indignation 
of the people, this excellent preacher without much hesitation or delay, 
accepted a call to the Collegiate Reformed Dutch church, of New York. 
During this ministry the grant of a lottery was obtained from the legis- 


lature, " towards finishing a building erected by the Presbyterian 
congregation in Elizabeth Town." 

September 9, 1788, the Rev. David Austen was ordained pastor of 
the church. During his ministry the graceful spire was erected, and 
subscriptions for the purchase of a bell obtained. Mr. Austen began, 
in 1790, the publication, by subscription, of the "American Preacher," 
— a serial containing some of the choicest discourses of living American 
divines, without respect to denomination. Four volumes were issued, 
between the years of 1791 and 1793. In the meantime Mr. Austen's 
attention was directed to the prophecies of the Bible. Indeed, about 
this time men everywhere were studying the remarkable events of the 
period in which they lived, under the inspiration of the wonderful 
movements of divine Providence, and the pulpit throughout the land 
began to resound with earnest utterances against Babylon, and in 
prophecy of the speedy coming of the millennial reign of Christ and his 
saints. In pursuing the study of these sublime and mysterious oracles, 
the excitable temperament of Mr. Austen gracefully yielded to the cur- 
rent of general belief that seemed to sweep everything before it. 

In the spring of 1793, first in his own church and again, on April 
7th, in New York, Mr. Austen preached a sermon that produced a 
profound sensation. The title was "The Downfall of Mystical 
Babylon, or a Key to the Providence of God, in the Political Operations 
of 1793-4." Adopting the theory that the days of prophecy are years 
of Providence, and the twentieth chapter of the Apocolypse are yet 
entirely in the future, he persuaded himself and most of his congrega- 
tion that the latter-day glory of the church had already dawned, and 
that the Redeemer would soon return to earth, and reign personally 
and visibly over all mankind. 

This was becoming more and more, from day to day, the absorbing 
topic of his thought, remark and efibrt. Finally he became perfectl}' 
convinced that he had ascertained the precise day of the second advent 
of the I/ord Jesus Christ. He delivered a series of sermons on this 
topic, from the sixtieth chapter of Isaiah, in language of surpassing 
eloquence, deeply moving his congregation, who, for the most part, 
were carried away with the holy fervor of their beloved pastor. At 
length, on the Sabbath of May 8, 1796, Mr. Austen announced that the 
Lord would surely come on the ensuing Lord's day, — the 15th. A 
prodigious excitement followed this announcement. In the midst of 
this ferment Mr. Austen made all his arrangements to receive his 
adorable Lord in a becoming manner. There were selected several 
young females, for whom white raiment was prepared, that they 
might attend upon the Lord at his coming. Much of the time during 
the week was occupied with religious exercises. On the evening of 
Saturday, the 14th, a crowded and deeply agitated meeting was held in 
the Methodist church. The long-expected, dreaded, wished-for day 


arrived; the church was thronged. The church-going bell tolled long, 
but the heavens gave no sign. Mr. Austen, after long and wearisome 
waiting, took the desk, taking for his text, "My lyord Delayeth His 
Coming." A slight error, it is said, in the computation of dates 
satisfied some of the congregation, but the more substantial portion 
were disaffected and deeply grieved. The congregation met April 19, 
1797, at which time measures were taken for dispensing with his 
future services. 

In June, 1799, the church gave a call to Rev. John Giles, and he 
was installed pastor on Tuesday, June 24, 1800, but, on the 7th of 
October following, he applied to the presbytery to be released from his 
charge, and, the congregation offering no objection, it was granted. 

Rev. Henry Kalloch was the next pastor. He was ordained 
December 10, 1800, but in 1803 was removed. The pulpit was again 
vacant, by the removal of the pastor to another charge. On the 29th 
of July, 1804, the congregation voted a unanimous call to the Rev. 
John McDowell, D. D. He graduated with honor at the College of 
New Jersey, at Princeton, in 1801, professed religion in September, 
1802, and was licensed to preach in 1804. A few weeks after his 
installation he married Henrietta, daughter of Shepherd Kalloch, and 
sister of his predecessor in the pastoral office. 

He continued as pastor of this church for a period of twenty-eight 
and a half years. The attendance on his ministrations steadily in- 
creased until it reached the full capacity of the church edifice ; so that, 
in February, 1820, measures were adopted for the gathering of a second 
Presbyterian church. The number added to his church during his 
ministry, on profession of faith, was nine hundred and twenty-one ; on 
certificate, two hundred and twenty-three, — in all eleven hundred and 
forty-four. The baptisms numbered fourteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
of which two hundred and eighty-two were conferred upon adults. He 
was in high repute both as a preacher and an author. As a trustee of 
the College of New Jersey and as a director of the theological seminary 
at Princeton, he rendered the most important services to the cause of 
education and of religion. Calls were extended to him at different 
times from all quarters of the country, but were not entertained. He 
was chosen a professor in the theological seminary at Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania, and in the Union Theological Seminary of Virginia, 
He was also appointed secretary of the board of missions. 

In pastoral labors he ranked among the most useful ministers of 
the church. In April, 1833, a call was extended to him by the Central 
Presbyterian church of Philadelphia, and was accepted. His death 
occurred February 13, 1863. 

The Rev. Nicholas Murray, D. D., succeeded to the vacant pulpit 
almost immediately. He was a native of Ireland, born in that land 
December 25, 1802. His parents were Roman Catholics and he was 



trained in the dogmas of popery until nine years of age. Then his 
mother's sister took charge of him, his father having died when he was 
but three years of age. At twelve years of age he entered a store as 
clerk, but the brutal treatment of his employer was such that, at the age 
of fifteen years, he left the place, and soon after emigrated to America. 
In New York he found employment in the printing establishment of the 
Messrs. Harper and boarded first with their mother. About this time 
he was induced by some of his religious associates to hear the Rev. John 
M. Mason, and was cured of his popery. His development, both mentally 
and spiritually, was such as to lead several of his godly friends to urge 
upon him a preparation for the gospel ministry. 

In the winter of 182 1-2 he began his study of the languages, and in 
the autumn of 1822 entered the freshman class of Williams College, at 
Williamstown, Massachusetts, graduating at that institution in 1826. 
He entered the theological seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, November 
9, 1826, and completed his course there May 7, 1829. ^^ "^^ installed 
here July 23, 1833. His ministry extended through a period of nearly 
twenty-eight years. He entered fully into the round of pastoral labor to 
which the people had so long been accustomed, and made full proof of 
his ability. In the presbytery his influence was second to none. His 
counsels were highly valued in the synod and general assembly. 

His labors resulted in the steady growth of the congregation, so that 
at the close of his ministry, January i, 1861, for the first time in the 
history of the church, it was declared out of debt, with about four 
thousand dollars in funds for the poor, in hand. Dr. Murray obtained 
fame as a writer. He wrote for various publications, but became most 
widely known, however, through a series of twelve essays on popery, 
which were subsequently published in book form and excited no little 
inquiry. A second series followed, on the "Decline of Popery, and its 
Causes," preached in reply to Bishop Hughes, and these were published 
widely also. Having revisited his native land, extending his travels to 
Rome, in 1851, on his return he published a series of letters entitled 
" Romanism at Home," addressed to Chief Justice Taney, and these 
appeared in 1852. Besides writing many books for publication. Dr. 
Murray filled many important and useful positions in his church at 
large until his death, which came somewhat suddenly. He was called 
to his eternal home February 4, 1861. At his funeral, on Friday, the 
8th, all business was suspended, and a great multitude, including 
many clergymen, attended the services. His wife and four children 
survived him. 


September 18, 1861, Rev. Everard Kempshall was installed pastor 
of the First Presbyterian church, of Elizabeth. Dr. Kempshall was 
born at Rochester, New York, August 9, 1830. His father, Thomas 
Kempshall, was elected member of congress, in 1838, representing 


western New York, in which section of the state he was interested in 
nearly every large industrial enterprise. 

Dr. Kempshall attended Williams College from 1848 to 1851, 
entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1852, and was graduated in 
1855, receiving the title of Doctor of Divinity from both colleges in ■ 
1870. He was ordained at Buffalo, in 1855, and served his first pastorate 
in Calvary church, of that city, where he spent two and one-half years. 
He then went abroad for several months, and on his return was called 
to a church at Batavia, New York, where he served until called to the 
vacant pulpit of the old First Presbyterian church of this city. 

In a private journal, dated September 8, 1861, Dr. Kempshall 
wrote the following : " I have received and accepted a call to the pas- 
torate of the First Presbyterian church of Elizabeth, New Jersey, made 
vacant by the death of Rev. Dr. Murray. I trust I have been guided in 
this step by the spirit and providence of God. The congregation is 
large and scattered, and there is, I am told, opposition on the part of 
some to my being settled there as pastor, but if I am in the path of duty 
which God has marked out for me, He will sustain me, and I trust my 
decision has been made in the fear of God, and with a sincere desire to 
follow His leading. It is not without fear and trembling that I enter 
upon this service, but I cast myself upon God, and lean upon His 
promises ; that is all I can do." 

At the time Dr. Kempshall entered upon his duties as pastor of 
this church, — now thirty-five years ago, — the population of Elizabeth 
was twelve thousand, and in appearance the city was but a quiet little 
village. There was not a single paved street, and only on Broad street 
a partially flagged sidewalk, while at the depot one hack, with its 
single white horse and venerable colored driver, was the only public 
conveyance then to be found for passengers through the muddy streets 
of the city. At that time an old brick wall shut ofi" the church from 
the road way. A row of venerable buttonwoods stood guard over the 
church-yard, under which trees 4th of July celebrations were held. 

The installation exercises of Dr. Everard Kempshall as pastor 
were opened by the reading of the eighty-fourth Psalm, by Rev. Mr. 
Edgar, of Westfield, after which an impressive prayer was offered by 
Rev. Dr. Magie. Rev. Dr. Mclllvane, of Princeton College, preached 
the sermon, taking for his text the sixth verse of the third chapter of 
Second Corinthians. 

On the twenty-fifth anniversary of his pastorate of the old First 
church, public services were held and his Sunday-school scholars 
gave him a valuable gold watch and chain. On the thirtieth anni- 
versary they gave him thirty pieces of gold, and when his health 
broke down under the combined strain of his pastoral duties and the 
anti-race-track crusade, his people sent him abroad, supplied his place 
and continued his salary. He was a delegate to the Pan-Presbyterian 


council in Belfast, and has often been a representative to the general 

' ' Dr. Kempshall, ' ' says a writer, " is a man of very marked ability. 
His position on any question is never uncertain. His yea means yea, 
and his nay, nay. What his hands find to do he does with all his 
might. His sermons are practical and marked with directness, thought 
and vigor. He has much local pride and interest and is prominent as 
citizen as well as clergyman." 

His sermons denouncing race-tracks and gambling were begun in 
the spring of 1890. These anti-race-track crusade sermons began 
about one year before Governor Abbett dropped a hint one Saturday 
afternoon that unless the people objected, he would sign a race-track 
bill which the legislature had just passed. The next day a call for a 
union meeting was read from- all the pulpits of Elizabeth, and in the 
evening all but two churches were closed, and the people met in a 
monster anti-race-track gathering in St. John's Episcopal church. 
The immense building could not contain the throng, and an overflow 
meeting was held in the old First church. On Monday a large delega- 
tion from Elizabeth, Rahway, Plainfield, and other towns appeared 
before Governor Abbett to protest against the bill, and Dr. Kempshall 
delivered what was known as the " Coon-skin Speech." The bill was 
not signed. 

On the same day the State Citizens' League was formed, with Dr. 
Kempshall as president. In 1892 a bill giving the state five per cent, 
of all race-track gate receipts, was introduced into the legislature. It 
was persistently opposed by the Citizens' League, and it died in the 
committee. In 1893 the race-track men controlled both branches of 
the legislature and turned a deaf ear to all remonstrance and petitions 
against their proposed schemes. But the opposition of the people to 
the race-track element culminated in a public gathering of the citizens 
of New Jersey in the city of Trenton. This was the "result of a call of 
Dr. Kempshall, chairman of the Citizens' League, to all the citizens 
opposed to the race-track power to meet on this date for the purpose of 
a hearing by the senate then in session. About two thousand citizens 
of the state responded to this call, but upon entering the capitol, they 
found the doors of the assembly rooms closed and locked. This seemed 
to them a crowning evidence of the determined purpose of the legisla- 
ture to refuse the people a hearing in any form. A cry was raised 
"Burst the door !" but the janitor, having received direction from 
the proper authority, opened the door, when the citizens instantly took 
possession of the assembly rooms, and placed Dr. Kempshall in the 
speaker's chair. His opening remark was as follows: "FELLOW 
Citizens of the as yet Free and Sovereign Commonwealth of 
New Jersey: We are met here to-day not by the permission of Speaker 
Flynn, but under the right of eminent domain." 


After organization the meeting adjourned to the opera house, where 
addresses were made by Chancellor Bird, Dr. Scott, pjesident of Rut- 
gers College, and other eminent men. At this meeting it was resolved 
that an appeal should be made to the people of the state to overthrow 
the race-track power at the ballot box. A circular was issued to every 
minister in the state, and the pulpit and the press united in the effective 
attack upon this monster evil, resulting indeed, in a revolution of poli- 
tics throughout the state . 

The outcome of this agitation was the utter rout of the race-track 
power in the next session of the legislature, whereas the Republican 
party, which had not elected a governor for a quarter of a century, — the 
ordinary majority of the Democratic party having been from eight 
thousand to twelve thousand, — gained through this agitation a plurality 
of twenty-three thousand, with control of both branches of the legisla- 
ture. In that session of the legislature all previous enactments in aid 
of the race-track interests were repealed, and statutes were enacted 
which make it practically impossible to conduct race-tracks in the state 
after the system which hitherto existed. To crown all and make sure 
that this work of the people, for the people, should not be undone, an 
amendment to the constitution forbidding all book-making, pool-selling, 
and gambling of any kind, and forbidding the repeal of existing statutes 
against the race-track gambling, was passed by the legislature and was 
submitted to the people for their action, and was unfortunately defeated. 
The aim of this crusade, of four years' continuance, under the leader- 
ship of Dr. Kempshall, was to free the state of New Jersey from the 
humiliating tyranny of gamblers who had gained control of the legisla- 
ture, and to remove from its citizens the temptation to indulgence in a 
most demoralizing vice. 


So numerous were the accessions to the old church during the 
revival of 1813, that the Sessions house, on the rear of the parsonage 
lot, and fronting on Washington street, was opened for worship on 
September loth of that year. The great revival of 1817 made it 
necessary to take measures for the organization of a second church. 

On Tuesday, February 29, 1820, application having been made to 
that effect, arrangements were consummated, whereby the Sessions 
house might be used on the Sabbath, free of rent for five years, by such 
persons as were desirous of forming a second church. The house was 
enlarged in the summer following. Separate Sabbath services were 
commenced March 26, 1820. A religious society was organized by the 
election, October 26, 1820, of Messrs. David Meeker, John Humes, 
James Crane, Richard Townley, Elijah Kellogg, William Brown and 
Elihu Price as trustees. A church of forty-one members, all but one 
from the First church, was constituted on Sunday, December 3, 1820, 



when Elihu Price, James Crane and David Meeker were set apart as 
elders. The same month they called as their pastor the Rev. David 
Magie. He was the great-grandson of John Magie, who came over 
from Scotland during the period of persecution, 1685-7, and the father 
of Justice Magie, of the supreme court of the state. His ancestors 
were noted for their piety and stanch Presbyterianism. 


David was converted in the revival of 1813, and in June of that 
year was received as a member of the First church. He prepared for 
college under the supervision of his pastor, and graduated at the College 
of New Jersey in 181 7. He at once entered the theological seminary 
at Princeton, New Jersey, and the next year was appointed one of the 
tutors of the college, holding the post for two years. In the spring of 
1830 he was licensed by the presbytery of New Jersey, and preached his 


first sermon on April 28th. He began his work in the ministry 
October i, 1820, was ordained and installed on Tuesday, April 24, 
1821. May 7, 1821, he married Ann F. Wilson, the daughter of James 
Wilson, deceased. April 30, 1821, measures were taken to build a new 
house and on June 20th following, the corner-stone of the new church 
was laid. The house was dedicated May i, 1822. 

This was Mr. Magic's first and only charge, and he continued to 
labor as a faithful minister of the gospel here among his own townsmen 
nearly forty-five years, declining promptly several calls and appoint- 
ments to other fields and spheres of labor. In 1842 he received the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from Amherst College. 

The additions to the church during his ministry were six hundred 
and fifty-one on profession, and five hundred and ninety-six on certifi- 
cate. He departed this life May 10, 1865, greatly lamented, as he had 
been greatly loved. 

Rev. Dr. W. C. Roberts, associate pastor with Dr. Magie, succeeded 
him and remained until 1866, when he resigned to become pastor of 
the new Westminster church, in another part of the city ; a number of 
members also going to form the new church. 

Rev. James Patterson was the next pastor and served ten years. 
Rev. Eben E. Cobb was installed in 1887, and under his pastorate the 
church has now become one of the most flourishing churches of the 
city. Dr. Cobb is a native of Auburn, New York, and was graduated 
at Hamilton College, New York, in 1875. From this institution he 
secured his degree of Doctor of Divinity, in 1895. 


[by ELIAS 13. SMITH.] 

This organization has just completed its half century of existence, 
and celebrated its semi-centennial in 1896 in a fitting manner. Organ- 
ized in 1846, as the First Presbyterian church and congregation of 
Elizabethport, and commonly known, for many years after the town 
became merged into the city of Elizabeth, by the more distinctive title 
of the Marshall street Presbyterian church, it marked its jubilee by 
taking possession of its handsome new edifice, at the corner of Elizabeth 
avenue and Florida street, and changing its name to that given in the 
above caption. For years the old building on Marshall street had 
ceased to meet the wants of its vigorous and growing congregation, and 
a movement for better accommodations, which was begun in 1892, cul- 
minated in the possession of its present very desirable quarters. The 
building is of light grey-stone, trimmed with rough-built doorways and 
window openings, and in architectural design it is a pleasing and har- 
monious example of the Romanesque style. The main audience-room 
in front, opening upon the avenue, and the Sunday-school room and 
the parlors in the rear, upon the same level, can all be thrown into one 


room by large sliding doors. Underneath the rear rooms is the enter- 
tainment room and kitchen, with entrances in the side street. It is 
furnished with an organ, piano, steam heat and electric lights, and in 
all its appointments is fully up to the latest requirements of church 

The first pastor was Rev. Oliver S. St. John, who served only a 
few months, when he was succeeded by Rev. Edwin Harley Reinhart, 
who for forty-three years was the honored pastor among his people. 
He was called to his rest in 1890, leaving an enviable record for effici- 
ent and faithful service. 

Rev. Isaac H. Condit was called as co-pastor in 1885, and retired 
in 1889, when Rev. George Buckle was chosen to fill his place. After 
the death of the pastor, he was elected to that office in 1891 and still 
remains in charge of the organization. 

The membership of the church comprises about three hundred and 
fifty, and its affairs are supervised by four elders and nine trustees. 
The Sabbath school is one of the largest in the county, numbering a 
little over five hundred members, with a full corps of officers and 
teachers. The Y. P. S. C. E. and the Y. P. Missionary Society are in 
flourishing condition, while the Ladies' Aid and other organizations 
add to the variety of church work followed out in different lines. 

Under the care of this church is a vigorous branch of the work 
known as the Good Will Mission, numbering about one hundred and 
twenty-five, located in a chapel building situated in South Park street, 
near the corner of Fifth street, in a section of the city fast filling up 
with residents. Its workers are all members of the home church and 
it may be that in future years it will prove to have been the predecessor 
of another strong and enterprising church congregation. 


November 17, 1851, the presbytery of Elizabeth Town organized a 
third church, which had become necessary on account of the crowded 
state of the other two Presbyterian churches as increased in membership 
by the growth in population of the city. 

The new church numbered seventy-six members, who had been 
dismissed in equal proportion from the first and second churches for 
this purpose. Public service was commenced by the new congregation 
in Collet hall, September 14, 1851. Rev. Robert Aikman, previously 
of Troy, New York, began his services as their pastor on September 
21, 1852, and served sixteen years. 

The grounds of the late Dr. Isaac Morse, on Jersey and Bridge streets, 
145 X 245 feet, were purchased in June, 1852, for three thousand 
dollars. On September 21, 1852, the corner-stone was laid, and the 
house completed and dedicated March 28, 1855. 

The Rev. Mr. Aikman was succeeded, in 1868, by Rev. E. G. 



Read, D. D., 1875; Rev. E. C. Ray, D. D., from 1876 to 1881 ; Rev. 
Paul F. Sutphen, 1882-6 ; and Rev. John T. Kerr, from May 14, 1886, 
to the present time. Mr. Kerr is a graduate of Princeton College, in 
the class of 1879, ^^^ °^ the seminary of that institution, in 1882. 

During the years just prior to the late war this church entered 
upon a period of financial depression, and during the memorable 


Struggle a number of its members went to the front, but this depletion 
in finance and membership has been fully recovered, and the church is 
now in a healthy and prosperous condition. 

This church was organized on the 31st of January, 1866, ninety- 
three members from the Second church, and seven from other churches. 




joining the organization. The church was organized under the 
corporate name of the Westminster Presbyterian church of Elizabeth. 

The£rst services of this church were held in Library Hall on the 
4th of March, 1866, and the Sabbath school was organized with about 
sixty scholars. On June 13, 1866, the corner-stone for the new ediiice, 
at the corner of Westminster and Prince streets, was laid on grounds 
costing seven thousand dollars, and during the next eighteen months a 
massive building of brown stone in the Norman style, 75 x 105 feet, 
with an organ projection on the north side, 16x27 feet, was erected 
and was opened for worship December 29, 1867. The original cost of 
the property was one hundred and thirty-five thousand six hundred 
and six dollars. The large tower and spire cost over twenty thousand 

The Rev. William C. Roberts, installed March 7, 1866, served till 
September 11, 1881, when his relation was dissolved that he might 
enter upon the duties of a secretary of the board of home missions. 
The Rev. John Gillespie, D. D., from Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, was 
installed as his successor, January 26, 1882, and served this church 
with signal ability and faithfulness until February i, 1886, when he 
too was released from pastoral responsibility, in order that he might 
become one of the secretaries of the foreign mission board. June 6, 
1886, the Rev. John W. Teal, D. D., accepted the call to the pastorate 
of this church, and was installed July 2d, of that year, and he was 
succeeded by the present pastor, the Rev. Henry A. MacKubbin. 


This church edifice was erected in 1884, and is of the Queen Anne 
style of architecture. The church is the outgrowth of a Sabbath 
school, organized by Westminster church, October 6, 1873, the school 
having been under the superintendency of Charles L. Doe. Rev. 
William S. C. Webster commenced in July, 1875, as a stated supply, 
and in September, 1876, the services of Rev. A. L,. Clark were 
procured, and on May 7, 1877, this church was organized. Mr. Clark 
officiated as pastor until April, 1879, beloved by his people. He was 
succeeded by the Rev. C. E. Cunningham, who began his ministrations 
in September, 1879, and continued the same until in June, 1889. 
Under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Cunningham the church prospered 
spiritually and temporally. 

On January 23, 1890, Rev. James M. Nourse was installed as 
pastor and served the church until January, 1894. During his pastorate 
an addition was made to the building for the accommodation of the 
largely increasing Sabbath school. 

On October 5, 1894, the Rev. Harle Wallace Hathaway was 
installed. Mr. Hathaway was graduated at Princeton seminary in 
May, 1894, and was called to the church in July of that year. 




The German Lutheran congregation was organized in May, 1858. 
The first pastor was Rev. John Charles Wirz, and the Rev. C. G. 
Fisher is the present -pastor. 

The church building was erected in 1859. In 1871 it was enlarged 
and a steeple and a bell were added. The first parish-school building 
was erected in i860. The church has a large and flourishing Sunday 
school, and the church likewise is in a prosperous condition. In 1884 
a commodious parsonage was built, and in 1885 a new school building 
was added. The church is open every day. 


This church building stands on Third street, between Livingston 
street and Broadway. The congregation was gathered by Rev. John 
Rudalph in 1875, and he served as pastor of the church until August, 
1889. The congregation at first worshiped in a hall on the corner of 
Third and Fulton streets, rented November 15, 1875. In January, 
1878, they moved into the lecture room of the new church, dedicated 
September 8, 1878, the Rev. Dr. W. C. Roberts preaching the dedicat- 
ory sermon in German and the Rev. Dr. Kempshall in English. 

The present pastor is the Rev. Alfred K. Wirtli. The work of 
erecting the church was financially encouraged and assisted by the 



Presbyterian churches of this city and the presbytery of Elizabeth, and 
by the German Presbyterian churches of Newark. The church prop- 
erty is valued at ten thousand dollars. A parsonage was built in 1881. 


This society was organized in 1863 under favorable auspices. The 
first location was in a school house on the corner of Second avenue and 
Centre street, then in a mission chapel on Martin near Smith street, 


and in 1869 the present church building was erected at the corner of 
Seventh and Marshall streets. Rev. Christian Neu was installed 
pastor in 1867. Rev. Nagel succeeded Pastor Neu and he was followed 
by Rev. Schwarze. The present pastor is Rev. Clemens Hoyler. 

This church was organized in January, 1864, in a chapel that stood 
on the corner of First and Uvingston streets. Its first pastor was the 
Rev. Frederick H. Parmenter, under whose ministry the church made 
rapid growth. In 1865 the present edifice was erected at the corner of 
Third and Marshall streets. Rev. C. C. Clark is the present pastor. 



The church has been fortunate in securing able men for the pulpit, 

and it is steadily growing. The pews are free and everybody is made 

welcome. The property is handsomely located in a growing part of the 



There were churchmen among the early settlers of Elizabeth town, 
but Episcopal services were not performed in the town until after the 
surrender of the government, by the proprietors, to the crown, in 1702. 


Ivord Cornbury, the royal governor, had been charged with a special 
mission in behalf of the Church of England, and about this time a 
church was gathered here through the labors of George Keith, a 
missionary for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts. Keith had been a Quaker. He was born in 1638, in 
Aberdeen, Scotland, was educated at the University there, and was 
brought up a Presbyterian. In 1682 he emigrated to America, and 
was surveyor-general of East Jersey from 1685 to 1688. In 1700 he 
went to England and was ordained a priest by the bishop of London. 
In 1702 he returned to America. 



111 the town of Elizabeth he had many acquaintances, and at the 
house of Andrew Craig, a fellow Scotchman, he preached from second 
Peter i : 5, November 3, 1703, and on the same occasion he baptized 


the four children of Mr. Craig, and also the seven children of a widow. 
On the next day he baptized the children of Andrew Hampton, eight 
in number. On Sunday, December 19, he returned to Elizabeth and 
preached at the house of Colonel Townley, both forenoon and after- 


noon, and baptized a child of Mr. Shakmaple, son-in-law of Colonel 

The establishment of the Episcopal chnrch in Elizabeth Town was 
accomplished. The Rev. John Brooke, the first minister of St. John's 
church, was also a missionary for the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, and arrived in East New Jersey July 15, 1705. Lord Cornbury 
directed him to officiate sometimes at Perth Amboy. He was probably 
a graduate of Emanuel College, Cambridge. 

During the fall and winter of 1705-6 Colonel Townley's house 
accommodated the congregation on Sundays. In the spring of 1706 they 
began to worship in a barn, but after the harvest season, the barn being 
occupied by the summer crops, the missionary was permitted to officiate 
twice every Sunday in the Independent church, with the understanding 
that the service of the common-prayer book was not to be read. Mr. 
Brooke, in speaking of this agreement, says : " I complied upon the 
condition I might read the psalms, lessons, epistle, and gospel appointed 
for the day, which I did, and said all the rest of the service by heart, the 
doing of which brought a great many to hear me who otherwise probably 
would never heard the service of the church, and (through God's blessing) 
hath taken away their prejudice to such a degree as that they have 
invited me to preach in their meeting house until our church be built. 
Their teacher begins at eight in the morning and ends at ten, and then 
our service begins, and in the afternoon we begin at two. The greater 
part of the dissenters generally stay to hear our service." 

In his report of October 11, 1706, Mr. Brooke says: "I laid the 
foundation of a brick church at Elizabeth Town, on St. John the Baptist's 
day, June 24th, whose name it bears. It is fifty foot long, thirty wide, 
and twenty-one high. It hath nine windows, — one in the east end, ten 
foot wide and fifteen high ; two in each side, six foot wide and ten high ; 
and four ovals, one in the east window, one in the west end, and over 
each door, which are near the west end. The church is now covering, 
and I hope to preach in it in six weeks or two months. We shall only 
get the outside of our church up this year and I'm afraid 'twill be a year 
or two more before we can furnish the inside, for I find these hard times 
a great many are very backward to pay their subscriptions." The 
church was erected chiefly by the care and diligence of Colonel Richard 
Townley, who gave the ground it stood on and a place for a burying 

The ministry of Mr. Brooke came to an abrupt termination in 
November, 1707. The Rev. Thorowgood Moore, of Burlington, had, 
by his faithful rebuke of Lord Cornbury' s disgusting immoralities, 
drawn upon himself the wrath of the governor, by whom he was 
arrested and imprisoned in New York. Mr. Brooke deeply sympa- 
thized with his afflicted brother, and, when in prison, visited him. Mr. 
Moore escaping, and Mr. Brooke being sought for by the enraged 


governor, they resolved to proceed to London and lay their grievances 
before the proper authorities at home. They embarked at Marblehead, 
Massachusetts, in November, 1707, for England, but the vessel was lost 
at sea and all on board perished. Mr. Brooke seems to have been 
greatly esteemed, and had the reputation of being the most pious and 
industrious missionary the honorable society ever sent to the colonies. 
He left a widow, a daughter of Christopher Billop, whose residence and 
large plantation, at the south end of Staten Island, gave to it the name 
of Billop' s Point, which name it still retains. 

Rev. Edward Vaughan was appointed by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary at Eliza- 
beth Town, Amboy, and Piscataway, in thesummer of 1709, to succeed 
Mr. Brooke. Mr. Vaughn was from the west of England. In Decem- 
ber, 1709, he writes : " That there is not one family in Elizabeth Town 
that can accommodate me with an ordinary lodging excepting Colonel 
Townley, who, on account of some difference with Mr. Brooke, (though 
a gentleman of an unblemished character) hath declared never to enter- 
tain any missionary after him. Secondly, that my salary of fifty pounds 
per annum will not afford me a competent subsistence in this dear 
place, where no contributions are given by the people towards my sup- 
port, and where I am continually obliged to be itinerant and conse- 
quently at great expenses, especially in crossing ferries." 

Colonel Richard Townley (the main pillar of St. John's at that 
early period) died within the year 171 1. The church then had about 
thirty monthly communicants. In the summer of that year the Rev. 
Thomas Holliday was sent by the society to take charge of Amboy and 
Piscataway, leaving to Mr. Vaughan, Elizabeth Town and Rahway. 
But Mr. Holliday proving unworthy of his office, was obliged to leave 
Amboy, and this parochial district was again included in that of Mr. 
Vaughan. Shortly after the decease of Colonel Townley, the congre- 
gation obtained from his son, Charles, a clear title to the church lot, 
for want of which the interior of the church had not been fitted accord- 
ing to the rules of decency and order. 

In the year 1714, Mr. Vaughan married Mrs. Mary Emott, widowof 
James Emott, of New York, the daughter of Mrs. Philip Carteret, and the 
stepdaughter of Colonel Townley. She had a handsome fortune of 
two thousand pounds; was of high social standing, and was married at 
the close of the first year of her widowhood. After this marriage Mr. 
Vaughan removed his residence to Amboy for the benefit of his health, 
but continued to oflSciate in the forenoon and afternoon three Lord's 
days successively in every month, the other being given to Amboy. 
But the society did not favor this plan of non-residence, and he returned 
to his former charge in or before the year 172 1, the exact time not 
being given. 

In 1 72 1 his audience had increased to two hundred souls, and the 



communicants were over forty in number. At the close of 1733, he 
reports the baptism, for the year, of eighty-eight children and five 
adults; and for 1734 "thirteen adults, six of whom were negroes; 
beside these, there were one hundred and sixty-two children." The 
communicants were seventy. In 1739 the number of communicants 
was eighty-four. A glebe of nine acres of good land, with a fine 
orchard thereon, had been given by Mrs. Anne Erskine, of Elizabeth 
Town. Mrs. Erskine was the widow of John Erskine, who came over 
in the Scotch emigration of 1684-5, ^""^ '^^s, doubtless, originally a 
Presbyterian. The land referred to appears to have been subsequently 
sold by the church. 

Mr. Vaughan continued his work in the ministry as rector of St. 
John's church until his decease, about the 12th of October, 1747. 
This was a few days after the death of Rev. Mr. Dickinson, of the 
First Presbyterian church, who died on the 7th. The personal 
relations between these two ministers were always of the most pleasant 
character, and when tidings of the death of Mr. Dickinson reached Mr. 
Vaughan, then old, feeble and nigh unto death, he exclaimed: "Oh 
that I had hold of the skirts of Brother Jonathan." The memory of 
Mr. Vaughan, as in the case of Mr. Dickinson, was very precious to 
the people of his charge. 

The decease of Mr. Vaughan left the church without a settled pastor. 
It was no easy matter to fill vacancies, as all the Episcopal clergymen 
either came here from the mother country, or were under the necessity 
of making a voyage to England to obtain orders. As this required time, 
Mr. Chandler, then a young man in his twent}-second year, teaching 
school at Woodstock, Connecticut, and studying theology at intervals 
with Dr. Johnson, was induced to come to St. John's as lay reader, aboitt 
December i, 1747; was subsequently recommended by the Rev. Dr. 
Johnson and others to the propagation society, and in Ma}', 1748, was 
appointed catechist at Elizabeth Town, on the stipend of ten pounds a 
year, the church having agreed, in case he should be appointed to the 
mission, to raise the sum of fifty pounds, current money of the province, 
per annum, in addition, and to provide him with a convenient parsonage. 
December 11, 1749, the church purchased about four acres of land on 
Peark street, with the old dwelling-house built in 1696-7 by Andrew 
Hampton. Most of the land has been sold, but the house, subsequently 
rebuilt, still (1897) belongs to the church. It served for more than a 
century as the parsonage, but is now known as St. John's home. 

In the year 1750 " a register for the use of the missionary at St. 
John's church, Elizabeth Town, New Jersey," was commenced and, with 
the exception of the Revolutionary period and a few )'ears after, was in 
use in the parish for the entry of baptisms, marriages, etc., for over a 
centur)', and is still in possession of the church. If any records were left 
prior to 1750 they have never been preserved. An old silver cup in the 


communion service was presented to the church by Mrs. Dennis previous 
to 1750. Mrs. Dennis spun the flax to make the linen for the napkins 
and table cloth for the communion table, and spun the flax to send to 
England to make the linen which was sold to procure the means with 
which to purchase the cup. 

Mr. Chandler remained catechist three years in this church, reading 
divine service, catechising- children and visiting all ranks of people, both 
here and in Rahway. Urgent representations having been made to the 
society for a resident rector, — one who could give them his whole time, 
Mr. Chandler was appointed missionary at Elizabeth Town in 1750, 
should he, upon his arrival in England, be found worthy of ordination as 
a deacon and priest. 

In the summer of 175 1 he repaired to England and was admitted to 
the priesthood by Dr. Thomas Sherlock, bishop of Eondon. About the 
first of November he returned and began his labors in the church on a 
salary of thirty pounds sterling from the society and sixty pounds New 
Jersey currency (valued at a little more than thirty pounds sterling) with 
a house and glebe, from the people. 

In the year 1753 he was married to Jane, daughter of Captain John 
Emott, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Elias Boudinot, Sr. At the 
close of 1754 the congregation included eighty-five families and numbered 
ninety communicants. About the year 1757 King George II. ordered a 
chime of bells and a valuable library for the use of the congregation, with 
some plate for the altar, but they were all captured by the French. 

In 1757, during the prevalence of the smallpox, of which President 
Edwards and his daughter, Mrs. Burr, died in the spring of 1758, Mr. 
Chandler was prostrated by the terrible scourge and did not recover from 
its ill effects for nearly three years, his face retaining its marks to the 
end of his life. 

The church was incorporated July 20, 1762. The charter appoints 
John Halsted and Jacob DeHart to be the first and present church 
wardens of the said church, and Henry Garth wait, Jonathan Hampton, 
Amos Morss, Ephraim Terrill, Matthias Williamson, John DeHart, 
John Ogden, Chevalier Jouet and John Chetwood to be the first and 
present vestrymen of said church. 

In November, 1763, Mr. Whitfield again visited the place, and the 
refusal of Mr. Chandler to grant him the use of this pulpit offended 
many of the people. Mr. Whitfield was very popular here among all 
classes, and a division was created in the parish, reducing the number 
of the communicants of the church to about seventy-five, of whom 
seldom more than fifty could be gathered together at any one time. 
The revival of religion in 1764 tendered to embarrass Mr. Chandler, 
also as he opposed movements of this kind, but at the close of the next 
half year matters improved. The services were better attended and an 
enlargement of the parsonage was provided for by a generous subscrip- 


tion. In 1766 the Stamp-act agitation, then at its height, constrained 
him, however, to feel and say that "the duty of a missionary (Episcopal- 
of course) in this country is now more difBcult than ever." In 1766 
the University of Oxford conferred on Mr. Chandler, at the solicitation 
of Rev. Dr. Johnson, of New York, the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

The struggle in reference to an American episcopate was now in 
progress, and was exciting deep interest. Som^ of the ablest writers 
took part in the discussion, and at the solicitation of Dr. Johnson, 
whose infirmities would not allow his undertaking the work himself, 
and by appointment of the clergy of New York and New Jersey met in 
convention at Shrewsbury, October i, 1766. Dr. Chandler, prepared 
and published at New York, in June, 1767, an "Appeal to the Public 
in Behalf of the Church of England in America." To this the Rev. 
Dr. Charles Chauncey, of Boston, Massachusetts, responded, in 1768, 
in a pamphlet entitled, "The Appeal to the Public Answered, in 
Behalf of the non-Episcopal Churches in America, Containing Remarks 
on what Dr. Thomas Bradbury Chandler has Advanced, etc." 

It was natural for Dr. Chandler to magnify the importance of the 
peculiarities of his church, and having been bred an Independent, with 
all the zeal of a proselyte, he sought to widen rather than to narrow 
the beach between the "Church and the Meeting," as it was customary 
then to call the two bodies of the Christian people. Consequently 
there were not a few appeals and rejoinders from both sides. Dr. 
Chandler continued in the regular discharge of his parochial duties, 
however, and the congregation increased in numbers until, in 1774, it 
was found necessary to build a new church. The foundations of the 
new building, 85 X50 feet, were laid around the old building, materials 
were collected and money subscribed to pay the expenses, but the first 
shock of the war put an end to the work, destined not to be resumed 
by that generation. 

"Dr. Chandler," says Dr. Rudd, "found his situation painful and 
unpleasant, as well as from the active part which he deemed it his duty 
to take, as from the violent feeling generally entertained against the 
church of which he was a minister. These considerations induced him 
to leave the colonies and go to England." Just before his departure 
he received a letter from John Pownall, under secretary of state, bearing 
date April 5, 1775, as follows: "I am directed by the Earl of Dart- 
mouth to acquaint you that His Majesty has been greatly pleased from 
a consideration of your merit and services to signify His Commands to 
the I/ords Commissioners of the Treasury that they do make an 
allowance to you, out of such Funds as their Lordships shall think 
proper, of two hundred pounds per annum, the said allowance to 
continue from the first of January last." 

On the night of the loth of May, 1775, the house of Dr. Myles 
Cooper, of New York, a friend of Dr. Chandler, was sacked, which so 


alarmed the latter that they together found refuge on the Kingfisher, 
Captain James Montague, a British ship-of-war in the harbor of New 
York. On the 34th of May, in company with Dr. Cooper and Rev. 
Samuel Cook, he sailed in the Exeter, for Bristol, England. 

The church being left without a supply for the pulpit, public wor- 
ship was, at length, suspended. As the combat thickened, houses were 
needed for hospitals, and barracks, and St. John's being used for such 
purposes, the building suffered in consequence. Nearly all the wood- 
work of the interior was destroyed, and two futile attempts were made 
to burn the edifice. The organ was demolished, the metal pipes being 
converted into bullets. The dragoon who tethered his horse by day 
upon the graves of the dead, led him by night within the church for a 
shelter from the storm. About the year 1779 or 1780 the congregation 
began to assemble in a private house for public worship on Sundays. 
The Easter elections were resumed in 1778, no record previously occur- 
ring for four years. In 1779 the election was held at the church. It is 
probable that from this time, or perhaps earlier, worship was resumed 
there. In 1786-7 the church and steeple were put in repair and the 
seats were rented for revenue. 

Dr. Chandler remained in exile the full period of ten years, a pen- 
sioner upon the royal bounty. During this time his family continued 
to occupy the rectory as before, and various clergymen filled the pulpit 
in his stead, the Rev. Uzal Ogden, of Newark, officiating from time to 
time for several years. Dr. Chandler greatly desired the restoration of 
the royal authority in America, but Cornwallis' surrender was the 
beginning of a change in his opinions. December 3, 1781, he wrote 
from London to the Rev. Abraham Beach, of New Brunswick, New 
Jersey: " The late blow in Virginia (Cornwallis' surrender) has given 
us a shock, but has not overset us. Though the clouds at present are 
rather thick about us, I am far, very far from desponding; I think matters 
will take a right turn and then the event will be right." 

In May, 1783, after the proclamation of peace, an effort was made 
to secure the appointment of a bishop for the province of Nova Scotia, 
to minister to about thirty thousand refugee loyalists who had removed 
from the states to that land, many of whom were from New York and 
its vicinity. The zeal to provide an episcopate for their benefit, as 
very few of them belonged to any other body than the Church of Eng- 
land, naturally directed attention to the Rev. Dr. Chandler as a person 
in every way qualified to discharge the duties of that office with dignity 
and honor. The Doctor greatly desired the office, but, after waiting 
over two years for the appointment, and desiring greatly to visit his 
family, he engaged passage in the ship Greyhound, and on Sunday, 
June 19, 1785, reached New York, but too infirm to resume his paro- 
chial charge. In 1786 the long-sought episcopate of Nova Scotia was 
offered to him, but his health was so impaired that he declined it. At 


the request of the vestry, he retained the rectorship and rectory until 
his death, which occurred at his home, June 17, 1790, in the sixty-fifth 
year of his age. Mrs. Chandler, to whom an annual pension was 
allowed by the British government, after the decease of her husbandi 
survived him until September 20, 1801, dying in her sixty-ninth year. 

Rev. Samuel Spraggs, the resident minister of St. John's church 
from April, 1789, succeeded to the rectorship after the death of Dr. 
Chandler, being appointed January i, 1791. 

Mr. Spraggs had been an acceptable preacher in the Methodist 
Episcopal church, having been admitted on trial May 25, 1774- He 
served on different circuits, having charge of the old John street chapel, 
New York, from 1778 to 1783. He was regarded by the British 
authorities as a loyalist, so neither he nor the chapel was disturbed 
during the war. His ministry there closed in 1783, and it is probable 
that he became connected with the Episcopalians about this time. He 
came to Elizabeth Town from Mount Holly. 

His salary at first was one hundred and twenty pounds, but was 
raised, in April, 1793, to one hundred and fifty pounds. He died sud- 
denly, September 7, 1794. Rev. Menzies Rayner, formerly a circuit 
rider also in this town for the Methodist church, after the second call, 
accepted the charge and began his ministry here January i, 1796. He 
was a young man of promise, and entered the Methodist ministry in 
1790, and was very acceptable among his people as a preacher. Hav- 
ing engaged himself to marry a young lady whose family was unwill- 
ing that she should share his privations as an itinerant, he chose the 
alternative of resigning his ministerial post. " It was done," says Dr. 
Stevens, " with frank notification of his purpose to his presiding elder, 
Rev. George Roberts, and the avowal of undiminished confidence in 
the doctrines and discipline of Methodism." He had just left the con- 
nection when he was called here. His pastorate continued nearly six 
years. He then served the Episcopal church of Hartford, Connecticut, 
for twelve years, and later withdrew from the Episcopal ministry, and 
became a Universalist preacher. 

Rev. Frederick Beasley, a native of Edenton, North Carolina, and a 
graduate of the College of New Jersey, was next called to St. John's, and 
was installed in February, 1802. He resigned June 5, 1803, having 
accepted a call to the rectorship of St. Peter's church, Albany, New York. 
He was afterwards rector of St. Paul's church, Baltimore, and subse- 
quently provost of the University of Pennsylvania. His son was the late 
chief justice of New Jersey. His successor was Rev. Samuel Eilly, who 
was appointed rector of St. John's, August 28, 1803. He was to receive a 
salar)^ of five hundred dollars and the use of the parsonage. There was 
some difificulty about raising the salary, and Mr. lyilly agreed to resign 
his charge May i, 1805, "being paid up all arrears of the stipend due to 
that time." Some time aftei^ard he removed to the south, where he died. 


In December, 1805, Rev. John Churchill Rudd became rector of St. 
John's, with a salary of five hundred dollars and the use of the rectory. 
Mr. Rudd's ancestors were of Puritan faith, and he himself was bred a 
Congregationalist. At this time, the congregation seldom exceeded a 
hundred souls and the communicants were sixty in number. 

A new steeple was erected in 1807. In 1 808 the length of the building 
was increased seventeen feet. These repairs cost about four thousand 
dollars. In 1810 Mr. Rudd's salary was increased to six hundred dollars. 
In 1813 Mr. Rudd became editor of a new series of the Churchman's 
Magazine, and the place of publication was changed from New York to 
this town. In 18 18 the parsonage was rebuilt at an expense of about 
three thousand dollars. In July, 1823, the University of Pennsylvania 
conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

Owing to the loss of health, and particularly his voice. Dr. Rudd 
was released from his parochial charge June i, 1826. He died at Auburn, 
New York, in 1848, but was buried in St. John's churchyard. He was 
succeeded June i, 1826, by the Rev. Smith Pyne. His salary was five 
hundred dollars and the rectory. His ministry was acceptable, but he 
resigned the rectorship December 31, 1828. 

March 8, 1829, ^ call was extended to the Rev. Birdseye Glover Noble, 
who came here on a salary of five hundred dollars, the rectory and his 
firewood. His ministry terminated by his resignation in 1833. The 
church met with severe losses by death during the cholera season of 1832. 

At the close of January, 1834, the Rev. Richard Channing Moore, 
Jr., son of Bishop Moore, of Virginia, was chosen rector and at once 
entered upon his work. He was graduated at Washington (Trinity) 
College, Hartford, in 1829. H^ continued in charge of St. John's till 
March, 1855, when he resigned. At first his salary was four hundred 
dollars, with the usual perquisites, but it was afterwards increased. His 
ministry was very acceptable to the people, and during his stay as rector 
an addition of eight feet was made to each side of the church, and the 
interior was wholly renewed. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Adams Clark, to whom a 
call was extended February 4, 1856, on a salary of twelve hundred 
dollars and the usual perquisites. He was born in Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, January 27, 1822. He belonged to a family of clergymen, 
several of whom have been prominent. An elder brother is the present 
bishop of Rhode Island, Rt. Rev. Thomas M. Clark, D. D. He was 
prepared for the ministry at the theological seminary at Alexandria, 
Virginia. In 1856 the parish library was founded, one hundred dollars 
being contributed by Mr. I^a Chaise. It is still maintained, is constantly 
added to, and has become quite a valuable collection. In April, 1857, 
measures were taken to raise twenty thousand dollars for a new church, 
and the work was undertaken in 1859, the corner-stone being laid Sep- 
tember 5th, and the new house completed in the following year. 


The new St. John's is a noble specimen of the Gothic style of 
architecture of the fourteenth century. The whole cost was about fifty 
thousand dollars. A chapel was built in 1867, costing about fifteen 
thousand dollars. On St. John the Baptist's day, June 24, i860, the 
new church was opened for service, that day being the one hundred and 
fifty-fourth anniversary of the laying of the foundation of the original 
church building. It was consecrated March 26, 1865, by Bishop Oden- 
heimer. The tower was completed in December, 1864, and by competent 
authority has been pronounced one of the finest examples of Gothic 
architecture in the land. 

Dr. Clark died January 28, 1875, no head of St. John's church ever 
being so heartily mourned. His ministry was pre-eminently successful. 
It was due to his efforts that the new church and chapel were built. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. He wrote a history of St. John's church, pub- 
lished in 1857 by J. B. lyippincott & Company, Philadelphia. 

Dr. William S. lyangford succeeded in July, 1875. His ministry 
continued ten, years when he resigned, September i, 1885, to become 
general secretary of the board of foreign and domestic missions, at the 
urgent request of the church at large, and against the wishes of his own 

Rev. Otis A. Glazebrook, D. D., was elected as his successor, and 
took charge in November, 1885. He was born in Richmond, Virginia, 
October 13, 1845, ^^^ '^^^ prepared for the ministry at the theological 
seminary at Alexandria, in his native state. He first took charge of a 
parish at L,awrenceville, Virginia, going from there to Baltimore, 
Maryland, and next to Macon, Georgia. While there he met with a 
terrible railroad accident which nearly cost him his life, and caused 
him to resign his charge, as the surgeons thought he could never 
resume work. Recovering, after prolonged treatment at home and 
abroad, he was made chaplain of the University of Virginia and from 
there he was called to St. John's. During his rectorship the church 
has had large accessions to its membership, and it is now the largest 
Episcopal church in the state. In 1897 the communicants enrolled 
numbered eleven hundred and eighty-two. The pews of St. John's are 
rented, but in 1888, with the consent of the pewholders, the vestry 
declared the church free on Sunday evenings. 

During the latter part of the rectorship of Dr. Clark he built a home 
of his own on a portion of the old parsonage lot, which he had bought 
from the church. For some years the parsonage was rented, and after 
Dr. lyangford became rector it was thought advisable to locate nearer the 
church, and a house and lot on East Jersey street were purchased, in 
December, 1875, for about thirteen thousand dollars. This house was 
occupied as the rectory until early in 1894. In March, 1892, a committee 
of the vestry was appointed to consider the advisability of selling the 


rectory and erecting a parish building and rectory adjoining the church, 
and in December, 1892, the land adjoining the churchyard on the south 
and having a frontage of thirty-three feet on Broad street, was purchased 
for ten thousand six hundred dollars. In November, 1893, the rectory 
on East Jersey street was sold for about the same amount paid for it in 
1875, and in October, 1894, the erection of a new rectory was begun on 
the Broad-street property, and the work was completed in about a year. 
The new rectory is of pale brick, trimmed with stone, and the style of 
architecture is the domestic gothic. It cost about nineteen, thousand 
dollars, exclusive of the land. It is proposed to ultimately raze the 
chapel in the rear and erect a parish building, connecting the church and 
the rectory, the buildings forming three sides of a quadrangle and making 
a beautiful group. The architect was Mr. Augustus Howe. Much 
costly work has also been done within the church building during the 
present rectorship, the walls having been decorated and the floors tiled. 

In 1879 ex-Chancellor Benjamin Williamson, then senior warden, gave 
to the church five thousand dollars as a "Memorial Easter Offering," to 
be used to establish a " missionary home for charitable purposes," and 
with part of this money and its accumulations the old parsonage on Pearl 
street was secured for the home. Together with about four acres of land, 
it was purchased by the church, December 11, 1749, for one hundred and 
sixt3'-two pounds. New Jersey money, at eight shillings the ounce. This 
glebe was one of the oldest in America. After being thoroughly repaired 
the building was opened as St. John's Home, April 23, 1885. It was 
intended as a place for rest and convalescence and a centre of church 
work, and as such was used for some years, but, conditions changing, it 
was deemed wiser to concentrate parish work near the church. After 
consultation with Mr. Williamson, and with his approval, it was decided, 
in 1892, to sell the home and apph- the proceeds toward the erection of 
the proposed parish building. These times of business depression have 
not, however, been propitious, and nothing has }'et been done. 

In 1872, during the rectorship of Dr. Clark, mission services were 
begun in private houses, and later on were regularly established in two 
places, — one in South street and the other in the neighborhood of 
Catherine street and Magnolia avenue, — such buildings being rented as 
could be procured for the purpose. In January, 1886, a house and lot at 
the corner of Bond and Catherine streets were purchased, and here for 
several years the services were held, and a workingmen's club was estab- 
lished. About the same time the South-street services were discontiued 
and services were held at St. John's Home instead. Dater a change of 
location seemed desirable, and in 1890 the Bond-street mission 
was sold, and land bought in Division street, near East Jersey street, 
on which a frame chapel, named St. Andrew's, was erected. In 1893 the 
adjoining lots to the north, and extending to Rebecca Place, were 
purchased, giving the whole property a frontage of over one hundred and 



eighty-three feet in Division street and one hundred feet in Rebecca 
Place. The work at St. Andrew's is in a flourishing condition, and it is 
not unlikely that it will ultimately result in the formation of an indepen- 
dent parish, like Grace, Christ's and Trinity, to all of which St. John's 
bears the relation of the mother church. 

The work at St. Andrew's and at the former mission stations has 
been largely conducted by the laymen of St. John's, though, at times, 
an assistant to the rector has been employed on this field. At Bond 
street, Mr. J. Augustus Dix, and at South street, Mr. J. Parkinson 
Roberts and Mr. James Morrison were the principal workers. St. John's 
and St. Andrew's each have flourishing Sunday schools, St. John's 
Sunday school having been founded in 1818, May 24th. 



was formed in 1853. ^^^ ^J^^t Sunday service was held April 10, 1853, 
in the lecture room of the First Presbyterian church, where they 
continued to worship until their chapel, on the corner of East Jersey and 
Bridge streets, was built. The chapel, rectory and the school house 
cost, with the land, about thirty thousand dollars. 

Rev. Eugene A. Hoffman, D. D., was rector for ten years, when he 
left, in 1863, to take charge of Grace church, Brooklyn, New York. He 
was succeeded by the Rev. Stevens Parker, D. D., of Boston, a grandson 
of Bishop Parker. His valuable ministrations to this people continued, 
to the honor of Zion, and to the exaltation of his Master, till his resigna- 
tion, in the year 1879, when, on the ist of June, the Rev. H. H. Oberly, 
the present pastor, was called to his place. 

Daily service has been maintained in this church since 1854. In 
1857 the weekly Eucharist was established. Two Sunday schools 
provide instruction for the children. A gothic stone rectory adjoins the 
church. The church also built, in 1885, a mission chapel, established in 
1881, and named St. Paul's. The church is open all day. 





Rev. Abraham B. Carter preached at the house of Mr. Vincent 
Bodine, November 3, 1845. I'his was the first service of Grace church, 
Elizabeth, and these services were continued at Mr. Bodine's residence 
until the spring of 1846. Rev. Mr. Carter was followed by Rev. Edward 
B. Boggs, who, in turn, was succeeded by Rev. David Clarkson, in 
December, 1848. The parish was organized on the i8th of August, 
1849. '^^^ church was at once built, and on April 2d following was 

Rev. Eugene A. Hoffman took charge of the parish in August, 1851, 
remaining until 1853, other ministers officiating until March, 1857, when 
Rev. Clarkson Dunn accepted the rectorship and continued in charge for 
thirteen years, until his death in 1870. 

Succeeding rectors were Rev. Joseph Mayers, 1870-2; Rev. James 
Stoddard, 1872-6 ; Rev. John F. Esch, 1876-7 ; Rev. Henry Duncan, 
D. D., 1878-83 ; Rev. Samuel B. Moore, 1883-7. In 1888 the Rev. Henry 
H. Sleeper, the present rector, was called to the rectorship. He was 
graduated at Princeton College in 1884, and from the theological 
seminary in the class of 1887. The church was enlarged in 1873. The 
number of communicants at the present time is four hundred and thirty. 


This church was organized as a new Episcopal parish May 23 and 
30, 1859, and incorporated June 22d of the same year. Services were 
held regularly in the county court-room until January, i860. A gothic 
church edifice, capable of seating about four hundred persons, was erected 


on the corner of East Jersey and Jefferson streets, bnt in 1865 it was sold 
to St. Paul's church. The parish then held services in the Third 
Presbyterian church until a chapel was built on the plot selected for the 
church, on North Broad and Chestnut streets, in 1866. 

Rev. Daniel F. Warren, D. D., was the first pastor. He resigned 
June I, 1868, and Rev. Mr. Lowry succeeded him in 1869. Mr. Ivowry 


retired in 1873, and Rev. F. Marion McAllister, the present rector, 
succeeded. The corner-stone of the present church was laid April 10, 
1 87 1, and the first services were held Christinas day of that year. 


In 1842 Elkanah Drake, a member of the church at Mount Bethel, 
came to Elizabeth to reside. He soon gathered a few Baptists together 
and established a " meeting " in the Select School, in Union street. On 
June 5, 1843, a council from eight churches met in the Select School 
and recognized as a gospel church the " First Baptist church of Eliza- 
beth." The first officers chosen were David S. Higgins, deacon ; and 
Elkanah Drake, clerk. 

The Select School room was purchased, and on November 16, 1843, 
was dedicated. The society was formed on February 15, 1845, and 



incorporated April 25, 1848. The first pastor was Rev. Charles Cox. The 
first baptism by immersion occurred in the Elizabeth river, when Pastor 
Cox baptized his wife and Miss Ann Holton. The pastorate of Rev. Mr. 
Cox was a short one, but the church membership grew to number thirty- 
one under his ministry, and in 1844 a Bible school was organized. 

Following came pastors : Edward Conover, E. Tibbals, W. H. 
Turton, I. H. Waterbury, T. S. Rogers, I. N. Hill, George W. Clark, T. 


W. H. Shermer and Rev. 

A. K. Gessler, J. C. Allen, Carter Helm Jones, 
William Staub, the present incumbent. 

Under the ministry of I. N. Hill the building in West Jersey street 
was erected, at a cost of three thousand dollars, and was dedicated 
September 28, 1858. In 1866, under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Clark, a 
revival occurred, and in that year forty-eight members withdrew and 
formed a new church, now known as the Central Baptist church. 


Under the able direction of the Rev. Mr. Gessler the present house 
of worship, at the corner of Union avenue and Prince street, was erected 
in 1868. About this time thirteen more members withdrew from this 
organization to form the Memorial Baptist church. Under Mr. Allen's 
ministry, in 1884, the indebtedness of the church, then amounting to 
forty thousand dollars, was removed. 


The society of the Central Baptist church was organized Septem- 
ber 25, 1877. The church building stands on the corner of East Jersey 
street and Jefferson avenue, and is a gothic structure capable of seating 
about four hundred persons. It was erected by Trinity church in 1859, 
and was sold by them to St. Paul's Methodist church. The present 
owners came into possession of the property about the time of their 
organization, at which time also a membership of sixty persons was 
received by letter, under the supervision of a committee consisting of 
Messrs. C. C. Taintor, D. W. Silvers, and G. W. Kiersted. 

Upon organization the church immediately extended to Rev. John 
McKinney a call which was accepted on the 2d of October, 1877. April 
20, 1888, Rev. Mr. McKinney was succeeded by the present pastor, the 
Rev. Everett T. Tomlinson, Ph. D. 

Officers of the church at time of organization were as follows : 
Trustees, J. Madison Watson, A. D. Coykendall, and Frederick Foster; 
deacons, G. W. Kiersted, T. O. Conant, and J. Madison Watson; 
treasurer, Frederick Foster; Clerk, I. E. Gates. The officers in 1896 
are as follows: Trustees, C. C. Taintor, F. H. Davis, G. E. Dimock, 
A. R. Van Deventer and R. C. Myer; deacons, J. Madison Watson, J. 
J. Coyne, I. M. Ivittell and A. D. Myer; treasurer, A. W. Macdonald; 
clerk, J. M. Dudley. The church has a membership of three hundred 
and sixty. 

Dr. Tomlinson is a graduate of both Williams and Colgate 
Colleges. He is a writer of historical fiction of recognized merit, and 
as an educator he has been honpred with two calls to the presidency of 
the college in Chicago that was recently endowed by John D. Rocke- 
feller, and since that time he has been called to the presidency of the 
college at Kalamazoo, Michigan, — all of which offers, however, have 
been declined. 


This church was built to accommodate, in the east section of the 
city, a few families of the Baptist faith, who, prior to 1871, maintained 
their prayer meetings by holding them weekly from house to house. 
In 1871 Peter Amory purchased a small building, which he moved to 
Third street, and in September, 1871, it was dedicated as a Baptist 
mission, a memorial to the founder's daughter. In January, 1872, 
thirty-seven Baptists organized a church and obtained the free use of 


this building. In 1879 that church was disbanded, and in January, 
1880, the present East Baptist church was organized, and began 
worshiping under the pastorate of Rev. Adatn Chambers. He was 
succeeded in 1882 by Rev. Theron Cutwater, of Sanborn, New York, 
under whose pastorate the church erected an edifice on the corner of 
Third and Franklin streets. The church property is valued at ten 
thousand dollars. Rev. J. Madison Hare succeeded Rev. Mr. Outwater 
in 1888. The present pastor, the Rev. W. H. Shermer, is very popular, 
and under his ministration the church is growing rapidly. 


" Bishop Asbury on passing through the town," says Dr. Hatfield, 
"preached by invitation, September 6, 1785, in the unfinished Presby- 
terian church. It was about this time that a society of Methodists was 
organized here and taken under the care of the conference. Of this 
society one of the earliest and most efficient members was the wife of 
Mr. Jonathan Morrell. She was a member of the first Methodist class in 
America, converted and enrolled as a member of the Methodist church in 
New York, under the preaching of Philip Embury, the carpenter, in his 
own house; in the year 1766. In 1772 Mr. Morrell moved to this town, 
and, with his wife, united with the First Presbyterian church, under the 
care of the Rev. Mr. Caldwell. At the organization of the Methodist 
church, Mrs. Morrell returned to the people of her first love and became 
one of the principal supports of the society." 

Thomas Morrell, son of Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan Morrell, familiarly 
known as Father Morrell, and practically the founder of Methodism 
here, in speaking of his mother, says : "It was about the year 1760 she 
was converted to God, and when Mr. Embury, the first Methodist 
preacher, came over, she went to hear him and was among the first 
members who joined the society in New York, and, consequently, the 
first Methodists in America. When we moved to Elizabeth Town, about 
the year 1772, there was no society in that place, and she communed 
with and joined the Presbyterian church there. But it pleased God to 
send the Rev. John Hagerty to Elizabeth Town in 1785, who was recom- 
mended to our house (through whose instrumentality I was awakened 
that year), and being kindly entertained at our house, laid the foundation 
of Methodist preaching in Elizabeth Town, and so of forming the 
circuit. She was, indeed, a mother to the preachers and a mother in 
Israel. She was a Christian thirty-six years. She knew from the first 
that her sickness would be unto death. * * * * My mother when 
she died was aged sixty-eight years, nine months and two days. I mourn 
only as one that has hope, and murmur not. This day, while she is a 
corpse in the house, I do afresh dedicate myself to God, and humbly 
hope, through mercy and grace, to persevere to the end, and meet my 
dear mother in glory ! God grant it for Jesus' sake, Amen. She was 







interred in the family vault on Monday, ist of August. Her corpse was 
first carried to the Methodist tabernacle, where a sermon was preached 
by Brother Filters." 

Mr. Jonathan Morrell was a man of sterling character. He did not 
enter with the Methodist society, but called himself a " Bible Man," 
and when the circuit preachers were not present he would exhort the 
people, preaching to and praying with them. 

The Rev. John Hagerty, the spiritual father of Thomas Morrell, 
was very useful in different fields of labor. In 1785 he was stationed 
in New York. The Rev. Thomas Morrell was the eldest child of 
Jonathan Morrell, and was born in New York, November 22, 1747. 
His father was a merchant, and from the time of their coming, to this 
town, in 1772, the son had a partnership in the business. When the 
tidings of the battle of Ivcxington reached the town, a company of 
volunteers was immediately gathered, of which he was chosen captain. 
He was in command of one of the boats that captured the "Blue 
Mountain Valley," off Sandy Hook, January 23, 1776. In June, 1776, 
he received a captain's commission, with orders to muster a company 
of seventy-eight men and report to General Washington, then in New 
York. Two companies of militia were parading in front of the Presby- 
terian church, and young Morrell gave them an earnest talk and then 
called for volunteers. So effective was his speech that in five minutes 
his quota was filled. Six days after the Declaration of Independence 
they reported at New York, ready for service. In the fatal engagement 
at Platbush, August 27, 1776, they were nearly cut to pieces. Captain 
Morrell fell severely wounded, and barely escaped with his life. He 
was afterwards appointed a major in the Fourth Jersey Regiment, 
taking an active part in the battles of Germantown, Pennsylvania, and 
Brandywine, but his health becoming too much impaired for service 
on the field, he returned to his home, and resumed his mercantile 

In the month of October, 1785, he was converted to God. In 
June, 1786, he began to preach as a local preacher, and in 1787, began 
to ride as a traveling preacher. He rode on the Elizabeth Town 
circuit twenty months. In 1788 he was ordained deacon; in 1789 he 
was ordained an elder, and continued at New York nearly five years, 
residing at No. 22 John street. During the first six months of his stay 
in New York he raised funds and built the Forsyth church. This 
church was dedicated November 8, 1789. A great revival followed, 
resulting in four hundred conversions and two hundred accessions to 
the society. In 1790 he was appointed presiding elder for this district, 
which included Elizabeth Town, and in 1794 he retired to Elizabeth 
Town, but subsequently accepted other appointments till 1804, when 
he became a permanent resident of the town. 

The old homestead is still standing, in the rear of the pottery 


buildings oa Elizabeth avenue (formerly Water street), just on the 
bank of the creek. From this place Father Morrell and his family 
removed to a new property purchased by him farther down the avenue. 
Here he built for himself a house, about 1814, on the northwest corner 
of Elizabeth avenue and Morrell street, next to which the Methodist 
church building was erected. The church lot, fifty feet wide, fronting 
on Elizabeth avenue, is the very ground now known as Morrell street, 
named of course for this distinguished man. Father Morrell gave the 
lot and largely of his means in the building of this church, and here 
the Methodists worshiped until the pastorate of James O. Rogers, in 
1845, "when the new church, on Elizabeth avenue, was dedicated. 

The Morrell street church, so called, was the only Methodist 
church within fifty miles, except in New York. In this church, for 
nearly twenty years, Father Morrell preached regularly once a Sabbath. 
F. A. Morrell, a son of Father Morrell, married a daughter of Jonathan 
Griffith, who had been one of the supports of this church for seventy 
years. Mrs.' Crowell, Mrs. Rogers, Mrs. Mayor Caleb Halstead 
(the mother of Chancellor O. S. Halstead), Abraham Cozine, John Van 
Name, Isaac Bird and Jonathan Chandler were among the early, active 
and useful members of that church ,in those earlier days. Still among 
the first of this church who loved and served Christ were such men as 
Ezra Cleveland, more than sixty years a member and seventeen years a 
trustee. He was the trusted friend of Father Morrell, and the friend of 
all the pastors. Mr. Cleveland was the first to move in the project of 
building the new Water street church, and, besides liberal gifts, 
labored with the Rev. Joseph Ashbrook to secure subscriptions for the 
same. John Faulks, James C. Denman, Joseph Cleveland, Enoch 
Coddington, Aaron Q. Thompson, Periam Price, Joanna Cleveland, 
Ann Hicks, Eliza Wardell, Hannah Chamberlain, Angeline A. More- 
house, Mrs. Elliot Hunt, Elizabeth and Ann Meeker, Robert L. Cleve- 
land, Moses O. Winans, Freeman T. Winans, Mrs. I. O. Reeve, Mrs. 
Matilda Clark, Mrs. Sarah Ayers, Samuel Osborn and Mrs. J. C. Den- 
man were members of the old church. 


The German church, at the Crossroads, was established in 1852-3. 
J. W. Freund, of the New York conference, promised to engage in evan- 
gelical work among the German population of that place, and his efforts 
resulted in the donation, by a member of the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion, of three lots, on which the church was erected in 1845. Rev. 
John A. Roesch was the first pastor at that place, and was there during 
the years 1854-5. 

During the pastorate of A. H. Mead, 1853-4, ^^ the Water street 
church, dissensions arose and continued for some eleven years, culmin- 
ating in a withdrawal of a large number from the church. A new 


organization was effected, but, not being recognized by the elder, the 
organization disbanded. 

In 1859 ^ ^^"^ enterprise was originated, known as the Mechanic 
street church, in which George W. Tubbs was actively interested. 
John F. Dodd was the first pastor of this church. In about six years 
this society joined with a number who came out of Water street church, 
and the St. Paul's church was formed. This new organization, after 
worshiping for a time in the court house, took possession of the edifice, 
at the corner of Jefierson avenue and East Jersey street, which they 
purchased from the Trinity Protestant Episcopal church and which was 
dedicated by Bishop Simpson in December, 1865. In the interests of 
Methodism it was decided that a church be built at or near Jefferson 


Park, and on or near Reservoir hill, the latter to retain the name of St. 
Paul's. In the spring of 1875, the new society was formed under the 
name of the Park Methodist church, and. May i6th, a chapel, which 
had been built on Monroe avenue, was occupied until the building was 
ready, — the two societies worshiping together at St. Paul's, and the two 
pastors officiating in turn. The church edifice on Madison avenue was 
erected in 1879. The project of building on Resorvoir hill was finally 
abandoned by the St. Paul society for another enterprise, which was 
consummated in the spring of 1877. 

From the records of St. James church we quote: "On Monday 
evening, the 23d day of October, 1876, a committee of eight, consisting 
of A. P. Baker, B. E. Browne, R. L. Cleveland and William Trewin, 



of Elizabeth avenue Methodist Episcopal church, and William J. 
Carlton, D. Denham, James Y. Floy and I. O. Reeve, of the St. Paul 
Methodist Episcopal church, met at the residence of R. L,. Cleveland, 
1 134 Washington street, to consider the desirability of eifecting a union 
of these two societies, which had been first suggested by the Elizabeth 
avenue Methodist church. They were also to consider the feasibility 


of an exchange of their respective properties for the property known as 
the Broad street Baptist church. The outcome of this and subse- 
quent meetings was the union of the two societies in the new organiza- 
tion known as the St. James' Methodist Episcopal church and the 
exchanges of the respective properties for the property now occupied 
by this society." 

Major Morrell, the father of Methodism in Elizabeth, was a man 
of decided convictions, strong will and warm temper, which were, 



however, kept under control by divine grace. He was a student of 
religious literature, was especially devoted to the ancient fathers of the 
church, and, in many respects, was well fitted for his chosen work in 
the ministry. Following him were other noted men, also, who have 
served the Methodist church in Elizabeth. John McClasky, an Irish 
lad in the Revolution, and imprisoned a year in the old sugar house, 


in Liberty street. New York city, afterward became converted, and 
served this church in 1788. He was a mighty preacher, a recognized 
leader, and a wise counselor. In 1794 Hezekiah C. Wooster, a wonder- 
ful preacher of the Word, was here. He is described as a " flaming 
herald, whose eloquence was overwhelming." 

Shadrach Bostwick, M. D., whom Bishop Hedding called "a 
glorious man," was here in 1795; Thomas Everard whose " wit was 
caustic and words inspiring," rode this circuit in 1799; Joseph Lybrand, 


' ' a princely man, whose eloquence was equal to that of Charles Pitman ;' ' 
Joseph Holdich, the fine scholar, afterwards professor in Wesleyan 
University, Connecticut; Bishop Edmund S. James, and his sweet- 
spirited brother, Edwin L. James, the author of the " Beauties of 
Payson"; William H. Gilder, father of the distinguished Richard 
Watson Gilder, editor of the Century Magazine, and also of J. L. and 
J. B. Gilder, editors of the Critic; James Buckley, the uncle of the 
present editor of the Advocate; John F. Hurst, now bishop, and many 
others equally as able, officiated as clergymen in the Methodist churches 
of Elizabeth. 


As early as 1830 a Methodist class was formed at Elizabethport 
under the leadership of James C. Denman, and in 185 1 the Fulton 
street church was organized, and a church edifice was completed in the 
following year. Isaac Trotter was the first pastor of that church. 


Fifty-three years ago the first regular services were held by the 
Catholics in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Before this a priest would 
occasionally come over from Staten Island and celebrate mass for the 
few people of that faith, but it was not until 1844 that a permanent 
priest was granted them. Rev. Father Isaac P. Howell, the first 
pastor, met his little band of twenty-five people for the first time on 
Palm Sunday, 1844. He proved to be a most successful guide both in 
things spiritual and temporal. At the end of the first year of his 
labors, his flock had grown in numbers to a membership of one 
hundred. Father Howell in the meantime had been zealously laboring 
to secure means to build a house of worship, much of which had to be 
sought for outside of the newly formed parish. The laborers on the 
Morris canal were appealed to and responded liberally. The pastor 
working unceasingly for the one end, was finally rewarded for his 
diligence in having a comfortable place for service, besides a rectory, 
which was mostly paid for by himself. He had true missionary spirit, 
and his memory is held in affectionate remembrance. He was followed 
by Father Kane, his assistant, who, after the decease of his former 
rector, succeeded to the charge of St. Mary's and continued therein 
several years. Father Kane came to Elizabeth from St. James' church 
in Newark, New Jersey. He was followed by Father Thebaud, of a 
noble French family, who fled from France during the revolution. He 
was a classmate of the Rt. Rev. Dr. Wigger, the present bishop of the 
diocese of Newark, at Brigonlisle College, Genoa, at which institution 
he was graduated. After his death Father Corrigan took charge of 
the parish. Father Corrigan was a brother to the Most Rev. Michael 
Corrigan, formerly bishop of this diocese, and now archbishop of New 



York. To distinguish him from this eminent prelate he was called 
" Father James. " He was once president of Seton Hall College. 
Father Corrigan died in 1890, at which time, Father O'Neill became 
pastor, where he still continues. Up. to September, 1896, he was ably 
assisted by Father Carroll, now himself rector at Newark, and whose 
place is filled by Father Brady. The present church building of St. 
Mary's was begun in 1845, when the basement walls were built. 
Afterward a small structure was placed upon these, in which the 
congregation worshiped until 1858, when they were able to begin the 


work of enlarging and improving the church and rectory. This was 
finished in 1864, during the pastorate of Rev. Isaac P. Howell. Dr. 
John M. Reimer, editor of the New Jersey Herald, graphically describes 
the interior of the church as follows: 

On the walls in bass-relief are representations of the stations of the cross, being 
sculptures which were produced from Munich. They are fine specimens of art, and 
could hardly be excelled, the expressions of the figures appearing decidedly realistic and 
the whole effect very impressive. The ceiling is exquisitely decorated. In the centre 
appears an illustration of the Assunlption, which is well executed. At the corners, 
figures of angels and cherubs are exhibited, all of which are decidedly pleasing to the 
eye. The chancel has been furnished with artistic taste and at a great expense, the 



furniture and carpets forming a combination of coloring which is productive of delight- 
ful results. On the wall back of the main altar is a fine life-size painting of the 
Crucifixion, while the altar on the left bears an oil painting by Torjetti, which is 
particularly valuable and a masterpiece of art. It is a representation of the Madonna 
and Child. Leaning against the altar on the right is a smaller canvas, picturing the 
flight into Egypt of Joseph and Mary with the child Jesus. 


The art gems of St. Mary's church, however, are the two stained-glass windows on 
either side of the chancel. These windows were brought from Munich, and are the 
work of a master artist. The one on the left contains beautiful pictures of St. Michael 
and St. Gabriel on the upper portion, and of the presentation in the Temple of the 
Blessed Virgin when a little child, on the lower. That on the right portrays St. Raphael 
and St. Uriel on the upper portion, and on the lower, St. Dominick receiving the 
rosary previous to its introduction into every part of the world. Each line on this 
window is in perfect harmony with all the rest, the figures and all accessories being 
executed with careful attention to every detail. 


An important adjunct to St. Mary's is the society known as the 
Young Men's Catholic Literary Association, organized in 1879. St. 
Mary's parochial school was founded by Father Howell in 1851. 
There are at present about three hundred scholars in attendance. 

The present rector, Father O'Neill, is a native of St. Andrews, 
province of New Brunswick, Canada. He was educated in part at St. 
Andrews Academy, later he was a student in St. Dunstan's College, 
and afterward was sent to the Seminary of Montreal to prepare for 
ordination. He was ordained at St. John's, New Brunswick. Father 
Carroll, the late assistant pastor, was born in Morristown, New Jersey, 
April 19, 1859. His education was begun in St. Benedict's College, in 
Newark, but he was afterwards sent to a preparatory school, St. 
Charles, in Maryland. From this school he went to Seton Hall Col- 
lege, where he was graduated in 1881. He at once entered the semin- 
ary, and was ordained four years later, in 1885. He was immediately 
assigned to St. Mary's, as assistant to Father Thebaud. He remained 
in the same capacity with Father Corrigan and last with Father 
O'Neill. Father Carroll's zeal and sincere personality won for him a 
warm place in the hearts of his parishioners. Rev. Father James H. 
Brady, successor to Father Carroll in St. Mary's, was born in Lowell, 
Massachusetts in 1856. In 1861 his parents removed to Providence, 
Rhode Island, where he was educated in the public schools, and was 
graduated at the high school in 1871. He then spent a year in the 
Christian Brothers' high school, after which he entered the Jesuits' 
College in Montreal, where he was graduated in 1877. After spending 
one year in post-graduate work, he went to Seton Hall, and was 
ordained in 1882. His first work was as assistant pastor in Jersey City, 
New Jersey, and afterward in the same capacity in Newark, New Jer- 
sey. He then took charge of the mission of Stanhope and Lake 
Hopatcong, where he remained eight years, coming from that charge to 
that of St. Mary's. St. Mary's Guild was organized in 1896. The 
Holy Name Society is also a new organization, at present in charge of 
Father Brady. 


of Elizabeth, was the third formed, and ground was broken for the 
church edifice in 1858, and in that year, when the corner-stone of this 
church was laid, that portion of the city was almost a wilderness. 

Bishop Bayley, having been previously prevailed upon to allow the 
experiment of a new parish to be attempted, Rev. M. A. M. Wirtzfield 
came over from St. Michael's to take charge. Mr. Patrick Riel started 
the good work by donating his three lots for the site, and the corner- 
stone of the church was laid, in Wall street, September, 1858. Father 
Wirtzfield acted as pastor for seven years, when the learned Rev. 
Patrick Hennessy took his place. He was succeeded by Rev. Patrick 
Cody, and he, on January 27, 1873, by Rev. Martin Gessner, the present 


pastor. Since Father Gessner took charge, almost the entire block in 
Court street, between First and Second streets, has been acquired and 
upon this the church, the school and various other buildings are in 
process of completion, which will cost from four hundred . thousand 
dollars to five hundred thousand dollars. 

The Church of the Holy Rosary was established in July, 1886, by 
Bishop Wigger. John Callaghan took charge and built up the parish. 
Rev. J. J. Sijiith is priest. The Church of the Sacred Heart, at the 
corner of Spring and Bond streets, is a more recent organization. Rev. 
Augustine Wirtlj, O. S. B. is priest. 


was erected for the German Catholics, in the year 1852. The Redemp- 
tionist Fathers, of New York, attended thfe Catholics of Elizabeth from 
1849 to 1851, when a congregation was organized. On August 8, 1852, 
theyreceivedtheir first resident priest. Rev. Augustus Daubner, O. S. F. 
Services were held during two years in Peters building, at Union 
Square, when in 1853, a new church was biiilt on Smith street. In 
1855 the church was enlarged and a parochial school was built. In 
1870 the present pastor Rev. Albert von Schilgeii was appointed, and 
in 1873 he built the new church, on the corner of East Jelrsey and Smith 
streets. The congregation has about two thousand members. The new 
parochial school was built in li 



T is an unmistakable fact that in any community a most 
potent influence upon development and consecutive progress 
is that wielded by the local press; and as at least repre- 
senting an enterprise 6f semi-public nature, it is eminently 
fitting that due recognition be accorded the leading factors in this 
line. In the succeeding paragraphs will be found reference to various 
beneficent and eleemosynary institutions which contribute to the 
prestige of Elizabeth as a center of advanced civilization and true 


This is the leading newspaper in the city of Elizabeth and Union 
county, and no history of Union county would be reasonably complete 
that did not include a liberal sketch of the Journal, its origin, its 
history, its work and its success. The growth and prosperity of the 
city and county in which it circulates and exerts its influence, have been 
so intimately associated with the progress and development of the 
Journal for the past quarter of a century, that each may be said, with 
great propriety, to have had a reciprocally beneficial effect upon 
the other. 

On the i6th of February, 1779, the first number of the New Jersey 
Journal was issued, at Chatham, by Sheppard KoUock. It was a four- 
page sheet, three columns to a page; size of printed form, 9 x 13 inches; 
subscription two dollars a year. A well preserved copy of the original 
issue is on file in the New Jersey Historical Society's rooms, Newark, 
and many reprint copies were made from it early in the year 1880. 
There are yet extant many odd copies of the issues during the years 
1783, 1797, 1799, 1800, etc., but there is no perfect file until a much 
later date. 

Shortly after the paper was started, the editorial and business 
offices were removed to Elizabeth Town, but its early history was full 
of strange and exciting experiences. The war of the Revolution was 
not yet ended, and this section of the country saw many engagements, 
and was traversed many times by the British and American troops in 
turn. The Journal was then, as ever since, heartily loyal to the interests 
of the country and of the locality in which it was printed, and it suffered 




for its loyalty. It is related that time and again its presses were carted 
from place to place to prevent the enemy from capturing them, and 
that its ofSce was in a wagon more than once. 

When the war ended it became permanently established in Eliza- 
beth as a readable, reliable family newspaper, and it has never since 
changed its locality nor descended from the high character and purpose 
upon which it was established. 

On July 17, 1871, the Elizabeth Daily Journal came into existence, 
in answer to a public demand for a clean, bright, able, reliable paper. 
Republican in principle, that would address itself to the intelligent 
readers of the city and county and fearlessly advocate their best interests. 
At that time the people of Elizabeth had been wrought up to financial 
insanity by the wooden-pavement bond-issuing craze. There appeared 


to be no end to the continuous invention of vast debt-creating schemes 
for carrying on alleged improvements. The Journal foresaw what the 
result must be, and at once opposed these schemes with all its strength. 
Tremendous excitement and bitter antagonisms were created, but the 
Journal kept the inevitable day of reckoning steadily in public view, 
and the city's collapse when it came, ultimately carried down with it 
all the other papers and left the Journal with an established reputation 
for honesty and with an undisputed field. Since then new papers have 
started and old ones have been revived, but none has rivaled the Journal 
in the esteem and confidence of the people. 

While the city was passing through the fiery financial trials which 
followed its bankruptcy, the Journal stood alone in resisting the confis- 
catory demands of belligerent creditors, and insisted upon such an 
adjustment of the crushing debt as would permit the city to recover its 
municipal existence, regain its prestige and secure an opportunity to 



restore its normal prosperity. No paper ever worked with more vigor 
or more effectively than did the Journal to this end. It earned the 
approval of all the citizens and property-owners, and has retained their 
support and good will ever since. 

The magnificent system of stone roads in Union county is another 
monument to the Journal's effective work. For three years this paper 
stood alone in its advocacy of this system, nearly all the other papers 
aggressively opposing it. But the Journal's articles were vigorous and 
bristling with conclusive arguments and pertinent facts, and it virtually 
forced the people into an improvement which has since proved the best 
investment the county ever made, while the Journal's articles, copied 
in ever}' county in the state, have formed the basis of the literature 


which has greatly advanced the cause of good roads throughout the 
country. The crusade against the race-track gamblers was begun by the 
Journal at a time when, as leading politicians declared, it was folly to 
think of successfully fighting these gigantic institutions. But the 
Journal entered the fight with all its energ)', and the race-track 
gamblers were driven out of the state. 

In politics the Journal is Republican, but it has such a hold upon 
the people that members of all political parties read it and find in its 
columns the latest news at home and abroad. It has made a household 
word of its piquant motto, " If 3'ou don't read the Journal you don't get 
the news." 

From the small beginning already described, the Journal has grown 
into an eight-page daily paper, seven columns to a page, size 15^ x 22; 
with twelve-page issues when occasion requires. It recently abandoned 
the old system of hand typesetting and now uses the latest improved 
linotype machines. 


It enjoys a splendid advertising patronage and has a thoroughly 
equipped job-printing department. While its largest circulation is in 
the city of Elizabeth, it has many readers and regular representatives in 
Rahway, Westfield, Cranford, Roselle, Linden, I/yons Farms and the 
adjacent country sections. 

Mr. Charles C. McBride, the present editor of the Journal, is a New 
Jersey man by birth, and has found no place more attractive than his 
native state. He began as reporter and generally useful man about the 
office, on the date of the first issue of the daily, and ha^ advanced, by 
hard and conscientious work, upward through the various places of 
responsibility, reaching the editorial chair nearly ten years ago. One 
of the sincerest indications of an editor's success is the frequency with 
which his editorials are copied in other papers, and no paper in the 
state enjoys this distinction more frequently than the Journal. 

Mr. Augustus S. Crane, the Journal's business manager, is a 
descendant of one of the oldest families of New Jersey. He too began 
his work in a humble position in the Daily Journal office, a few years 
after it had been started. Through his untiring zeal, progressive ideas 
and a thorough study of the mechanical and business departments of the 
office he has eminently qualified himself for the successful work he is 
now carrying on, in one of the most arduous and responsible positions 
in the office of a daily newspaper. 


was sprung into existence, July 29, 1889, by General J. Madison Drake, 
who for a number of years had successfully conducted the Sunday 
Leader, the publication of which, however, ceased in February, 1890. 
The Daily Leader flourished from the first day of its publication, at 
once attaining a large circulation and a profitable advertising patron- 
age. At this writing (1897) the Leader is an eight-page sheet, its types 
being set by linotype machines. General Drake is assisted in the 
management of the Leader by his sons, William M. Drake and J. 
Madison Drake, Jr., both of whom have been connected with the news- 
paper business since early boyhood. 

General Drake has been a newspaper publisher since 1854, when he 
started the Mercer Standard, in Trenton, New Jersey. Subsequently he 
published the Evening Express and Wide Awake in that city. Upon his 
return home, after a loyal service in the late war, General Drake started 
the Daily Monitor in Elizabeth, and thereby realized a fortune. For dis- 
tinguished gallantry during the four years of war he was presented with 
a medal of honor by congress. 

The first successful movement toward establishing a hospital in 
Elizabeth was made in the early part of 1877 by Dr. James S. Green. 


Convinced of the necessity of such an institution, he desired to bring the 
general public to a recognition of the fact, and this he believed could 
best be done by the establishment of a free dispensary as a preliminary 
movement. To this end he sought and obtained the co-operation of Drs. 
Alonzo Pettit, J. Otis Pinneo and Thomas N. McL,ean, and these four 
physicians, at their own expense, secured rooms, and on April 17, 1877, 
opened a " Free Dispensary for the Treatment of Surgical Diseases 
of the Poor." 

In the early part of 1879 ^^^ time for further organization seemed 
to have arrived, and the gentlemen immediately interested in the enter- 
prise, executed, on the 9th of May, 1879, under the general laws of the 
state of New Jerse}', a certificate of the incorporation of the Elizabeth 
General Hospital and Dispensary, and filed it in the office of the secretary 
of state. The following names were attached to this certificate : James 
S. Green, J. O. Pinneo, N. C. J. English, R. W. Woodward, William T. 
Day, C. B. Place, I. E. Gates, W. W. Sterns, Thomas N. McDean, 
Lebbeus B. Miller, C. W. Van Home, Albert B. Hazard, Charles H. 
RoUinson, J. Augustus Dix, Alonzo Pettit. These gentlemen, by the 
terms of the certificate, became the first board of managers of the 

In October of the same year the organization of the board was com- 
pleted by the election of its officers as follows : President, Eebbeus B. 
Miller ; vice-president, Albert B. Hazard ; treasurer, Charles B. Place ; 
secretary, W. T. Day. At the same meeting a medical and surgical staff" 
was appointed as follows : Surgeons — Jas. S. Green, M. D., I^ewis W. 
Oakley, M. D., Victor Mravlag, M. D., Alonzo Pettit, M. D. ; physicians 
—J. Otis Pinneo, M. D., J. S. Crane, M. D., Robert Wescott, M. D., 
Thomas N. McLean, M. D. In February, 1880, the managers elected a 
dentist, Eouis S. Marsh, D. D. S. In January, 1880, Drs. Green and 
Pettit and Mr. C. B. Place were appointed a committee to select a location 
for the hospital, the result being the purchase of the Jaques propert}', on 
Jaques street, for three thousand two hundred dollars. This purchase was 
made on the i6th of April following, and subsequently the building was 
altered and additional lands purchased. 

In January 1880 the physicians in charge of the Free Dispensary for 
the Treatment of Surgical Diseases of the Poor, transferred the same to 
the managers of the hospital. 

On the 6th of February the Emergency Hospital, an enterprise that 
had been started a short time before, under the care of a number of ladies, 
was tendered, with all its appliances, to the board of managers of the 
hospital, and was accepted. On the 26th of May, 1880, the first annual 
meeting of the association was held, and fifteen managers were elected. 
The Jaques-street building was opened for patients October 11, 1880. 

Through the efforts of Mrs. Eliza G. Halsey, the " Daisy Bed " fund 
was inaugurated, which has been of much assistance in the work, as 


many as ninety-one children having been cared for in one year in the 
Daisy Bed ward. In January, 1881, the Toadies' Aid Society of the 
Elizabeth General Hospital and Dispensary was organized, at once began 
co-operation with the board of managers, and has rendered most sub- 
stantial aid in many directions. Through its efforts the Training School 
for Nurses was organized, in 1892. 

Soon after the opening of the Jaques-street hospital it was found 
necessary to have more rooih for patients, and a surgical pavilion was 
added, which gave temporary relief Dater on, a further increase of room 
became an urgent necessity, and early in 1888 the board of managers, 
after careful investigation, decided to put up a new building, which 
should embody the most improved plans and arrangements for hospital 

In carrying out this decision a new site, on the northeast corner of 
East Jersey and Reid streets, was purchased and the present hospital 
buildings were erected thereon, the expenditure for grounds and buildings 
being about ninety thousand dollars, the larger part of which was 
secured through the active personal efforts of Mayor John C. Rankin. 
Three of these subscriptions aggregated eight thousand dollars and 
there were twenty-eight of one thousand dollars each. On May 2, 1894, 
the building on Jaques street was abandoned as a hospital, and the work 
inaugurated in the new quarters. 

* The Blake Memorial, for women, was a gift by Mrs. Frederick M. 
Blake, as a memorial of her father and mother, the late William and 
Augusta Zschwetzke. The building was completed and formally opened 
on the evening of April 28, 1894. The Cribside Association, inaugurated 
by Mrs. Blake for the purpose of furnishing supplies of garments, linen 
and bedding to the Blake Memorial, has not only succeeded in doing 
this, but has also contributed two thousand dollars toward its endowment. 

The total number of patients treated in the hospital in 1896 was : 
Surgical ward, 384 ; medical ward, 328 ; maternity ward, 55 ; emergency 
cases — surgical, 200 ; medical, 25. This renders a total of nine hundred 
and twenty-two cases treated in the hospital, while the same year records 
dispensary visits to the number of two thousand three hundred and 
twenty-eight. The present officers are : President, I^ebbeus B. Miller ; 
vice-president, Charles H. K. Halsey ; secretary, William T. Day; 
treasurer, Patrick J. Ryan. The present board of managers comprises : 
William W. Ackerman, James H. Alexander, Francis J. Blatz, Frank 
H. Davis, William T. Day, Charles H. K. Halsey, Lebbeus B. Miller, 

*The capacity of the present hospital is one hundred and five beds. In addition to the general wards, it has 
the Daisy Bed ward for children, an isolated pavilion for diphtheria cases, and the Blake Memorial pavilion for 
women. There are ten rooms for private patients in the main hospital and four in the Blake, the latter for 
gynecological and maternity patients. The charge for private rooms is fifteen dollars per week, which includes 
board, medicines, ordinary surgical appliances and the services of the house staff and the regular nurse. There are 
three surgical operating rooms, and the equipment for surgical work will compare favorably with the best hospitals. 
There is also a training school for nurses connected with the hospital, from which nurses for private families are 



Charles H. Moore, Jacob H. Olhausen, Calvin B. Orcutt, William H. 
Rankin, Patrick J. Ryan, Elias D. Smith, Charles Townsend, R. W. 

The present staff are : Surgeons — Alonzo Pettit, M. D., Victor 
Mravlag, M. D., James S. Green, M. D., Edgar B. Grier, M. D.; 
physicians— Thomas N. Mclvcan, M. D., William A. M. Mack, M. D., 
Norton L,. Wilson, M. D. ; superintendent of the hospital, lyouis R. Curtis. 

Mr. Lebbeus B. Miller has been president of the hospital from its 
organization, with the exception of the years 1891 to 1894, inclusive, 
during which time J. Augustus Dix, one of the founders and liberal 
patrons of the hospital, occupied the position. The secretaryship has 
been in the hands of William T. Day from the. year 1879, with the 
exception of two or three 3'ears, when he served in the capacit}- of finan- 
cial secretary, during which time Mr. R. W. Woodward held the office 
of secretary. 


The order of the Celite or Alexian Brothers was founded in the 
fourteenth centur)-, when the great plague brought desolation oxer all 
Europe, it being known in history as the "black death." The first 
order was founded at Mechlin, in Belgium, and there are now establish- 
ments of Alexians all over the world. The first house in America was 
erected in Chicago, in March, 1866. 

The corner-stone of the Elizabeth hospital was laid by Rt. Rev. 
W. M. Wigger, in May, 1893. The hospital was opened July i, 1894. 
Hospital cases during the past ;5'ear numbered seven hundred. There 
are fourteen brothers in attendance. 


The Elizabeth Orphan Asylum occupies one of the finest buildings 
in the city. It is located on the corner of Murray and Cherry streets, 
and is a four-story brick structure, with ample accommodations for one 
hundred children. On the first floor are the dining room, school room, 
parlor and two sitting rooms. On the second floor are two large dormi- 
tories and four other rooms. On the third is a well appointed hospital, 
cut off completely from the rest of the house. On the fourth are large 
play rooms, as there are also in the basement. The institution is 
supported by the donations of the citizens. 

The Elizabeth Orphan Asylum Association was incorporated 
February 12, 1858, with the following as incorporators : Benjamin 
Williamson, Richard T. Haines, John J. Chetwood, Reuben Van Pelt, 
Garret Green, David Magie, Samuel A. Clark, Nicholas Murray and 
Alfred DeWitt. The first directress was Mrs. R. T. Haines ; the first 
treasurer, Mrs. J. G. Nuttman, and the first secretary, Mrs. Alfred 
DeWitt. On July 29, 1858, the institution began its work of charity in 
a rented house on Broad street, with eleven children from the alms 


house. Of these first eleven the Scarlett brothers afterward improved 
the advantages of the asylum. One is a prosperous lawyer, and the 
other two are ministers, in charge of prosperous congregations. Many 
other of the former inmates now occupy honorable positions. In i860 
the Thomas house, in Broad street, near the bridge, was purchased, and 
was occupied as the asylum until 1872. In 1871 Anson G. P. Dodge, 
then a resident of the city, offered twenty thousand dollars to buy land 
and build an asylum, on the condition that the citizens contributed 
fifteen thousand dollars more. On the 3d of May of that same year, at 
the anniversary exercises, it was announced that the money had been 
raised. The work of erecting the building began immediatel)', and in 
1872 it was completed and occupied. Mrs. Samuel A. Clark became 
first directress in 1882 and has held the office ever since, Mrs. Franklin 
Brown is second directress ; Mrs. Jonas E. Marsh, treasurer ; Mrs. A. W. 
Dimock, secretary ; Miss G. G. Clanc}-, matron ; Dr. Norton L. Wilson, 


This is certainly a deserving and prominent charit)', and owes its 
foundation to Mrs. Jane J. Ogilvie, a resident of this city, who died in 
1870, leaving the residuum of her estate, after the payment of certain 
legacies, in trust to her executors for the aid of indigent old women of 
Elizabeth. Through the fund thus started ready responses and assist- 
ance were at once given to an appeal sent out setting forth the desirability 
of such an institution. A home was immediately opened, on Elizabeth 
avenue, but since that time it has been moved to several different loca- 
tions, until now it occupies the Boxwood Hall, in East Jersey street, 
which was bought for fifteen thousand dollars, of which ten thousand 
dollars was contributed by the Ogilive fund. Admission is obtained on 
approval of board of managers and the payment of one hundred dollars, 
or a guarantee of its payment within six months. The pastors of the 
various churches of the city administer to their spiritual wants, and they 
are supplied with books to read and have every comfort it is possible to 



HE history of a state as well as that of a nation is chiefly a 
chronicle of the lives and deeds of those who have conferred 
honor and' dignity upon society. The world judges the 
character of a community by that of its represent! ve citizens, 
and a compilation of this nature exercises its legitimate function in 
incorporating a brief record of those whose works and actions have been 
such as to entitle them to the recognition and representation. 


educationist and author, is of English and Dutch descent. His Ameri- 
can ancestors migrated to New England and New York in the early 
colonial days. His grandfather, John Watson, ^vas a soldier in the Con- 
tinental army during the Revolutionary war, and at its close settled in 
Washington county, New York, a few miles north of Albany. The 
father, Rev. Simeon Watson, a Baptist clergyman, removed to western 
New York in 1818. 

The subject of this memoir, the fifth in a family of seven children, 
was born in Onondaga Hill, the original shiretown of Onondaga county, 
February 8, 1827. Though Syracuse had become the county seat, his 
native village afforded the helpful and refining influences incident to a 
residential town of clergymen, judges, lawj^ers, and other cultured citi- 
zens of the county. It also possessed many peculiarities of a provincial 
and frontier town which, during the plastic period of childhood, tend 
permanently to affect the character. The Onondaga Indians, from the 
neighboring reservation, were frequenters of its streets and homes. It 
was on the state highway and United States mail route between Albany 
and Buffalo, and the daily arrivals of the stage coaches from the east and 
the west were regularly heralded by the ever welcome blasts of the bugle 
horn. The Watson homestead, formerly the chief hotel of the village, 
was situated on the public square, opposite the court house, which was 
then used in part as a Baptist church. The county clerk's ofBce, at the 
head of the square, had become the principal public school, and here the 
boy received the rudiments of an education, the open campus or ample 
village green serving as an admirable playground. Here, also, frorii the 
village library, containing a few select books of wholesome and stimula- 
ting literature, he first acquired his passionate love of reading and his 
admiration of classical style. 



In his twelfth year ,the family removed to a sparsely settled and 
heavily timbered section of Oswego county, adjacent to Onondaga, in- 
volving the obstacles, limitations and unremitting labor incident to 
clearing lands and establishing a new home in the wilderness. The 
novel conditions of life and strange environment struck his boyish fancy, 
awakened his dormant faculties, and constantly called forth his best 
efforts. He worked in the woods and fields by days and spent his even- 
ings and the odds and ends of time in reading and study. At sixteen he 
stood high in the teachers' examination and conducted sxiccessfuUy, dur- 
ing the winter months, his first district school. 

Thenceforth he continued his studies in the academies of the county, 
with the view of a college course, alternated with teaching, as the ne- 
cessities of self-support demanded. He was principal of an Oswego city 
public school for three years, and later an academic instructor and stu- 
dent of law. In August of 1852 he entered, as clerk and law student, 
the office of General James R. Lawrence, of Syracuse, then a noted law- 
yer and the United States attorney for the northern district of New York, 
remaining only eight months ; but it was a period of closest study, faith- 
ful service and rapid progress. He arrived in Albany March 31, 1853, 
secured a position as clerk and student with the law firm of Hammond, 
King & Barnes, and also as copyist in the United States branch pension 
office. He worked well-nigh incessantly in offices, courts, and libraries, 
studying books, things and men, and was admitted to the bar Septem- 
ber 6th, the same year. Two days later he left Albany for New York 
city, to attend the Crystal Palace Exposition, but with no expectation of 
taking up his residence there. Before the close of the week, however, 
he accepted a business and literary connection with the publishing house 
of A. S. Barnes & Company, which was continued many years. 

Immediately afterward, in the interest of their publications, he 
commenced extended lecture tours, visiting Albany, Troy, Washington, 
District of Columbia ; Baltimore, Wilmington, Delaware ; Philadelphia, 
Lancaster, Harrisburg, Reading, Easton, Trenton, Newark, Jersey City, 
Brooklyn, New Haven, Hartford, Worcester, Boston and many other 
important cities and towns, returning at intervals to New York. His 
services during this period were especially valuable in the revision and 
popularization of their text-books. A practical elocutionist and well 
versed in English and American literature, he had also noticed the in- 
adequacy of the material, the illogical arrangements, and the mistaken 
methods of the school and family readers and spellers then in use, and 
had elaborated a scheme for a new series suited to all scholastic grades. 
The appearance, in 1855, of his " Word Builder, or National First 
Reader," inaugurated a new order of schoolbooks, practically presenting 
for the first time a systematic use of the synthetic and analytical meth- 
ods of teaching reading and spelling by combining the word and sent- 
ence systems with the alphabetic and phonetic ones. Encouraged by 


the prompt and widespread welcome given this little book, and aided by 
Richard Green Parker, the then popnlar author of " Aids to English 
Composition," within three years he completed the " National Series of 
Readers," six books, the " National Elementary Speller," and the 
" National Pronouncing Speller " — works whose merits were of univer- 
sal recognition, and wdiose revised editions, after thirty-nine years [1897], 
are still in use. 


For several years subsequent to 185S, much of his time was devoted 
to_, teaching elocution and athletics in New York cit)- ; to training 
professionals, teachers, and classes in schools ; and to lectures, public 
readings, and instruction in teachers' institutes in many states of the 
Union. At the close of the civil war, in conjunction with Dr. Charles 
Davies, the mathematician, and other experienced educators, he aided 
State Superintendent Parker in the establishment of a common free- 
school s}'stem in all the congressional districts of Missouri. Meanwhile 
he prepared his two works on phy.sical training, profuseh- illustrated and 


complete to an extent not theretofore attempted. His " Hand Book of 
Gymnastics," and his " Manual of Calisthenics," published in 1864, 
which met an enthusiastic reception worthy of war times, were widely 
used by individuals, families, schools, and gymnasiums, and contributed 
not a little toward the creation of a national sentiment for physical 
culture. In 1868 he commenced the preparation of " Watson's Indepen- 
dent Readers," a new series of six books which was issued during the 
succeeding four years, accompanied by his " Independent Spelling 
Book." His " Independent Child's Speller," and " Independent Youth's 
Speller," both printed in script, appeared respectively in 1872 and 1874 ; 
his " Independent Primary Reader," in 1875 ; his " Complete Speller," in 
1^78 ; and his " Graphic Speller," in 1884. These works are widely 
distinguished from the usual compilations of schoolbook makers. 
Original in design and largely so in matter, logical in arrangement, 
perfectly graded, and rich in annotations and illustrations, they are fully 
suited for permanent use by classes and individual learners. 

He also prepared, some years since, two distinct and entire series of 
schoolbooks which, though published anonymously, were extensively 
introduced, and their annual sales are still large. Beside revised 
editions, his separate works probably number not less than forty volumes. 
His principal publishers are the American Book Company, Washington 
Square, New York. 

Mr. Watson was married at Newark, New Jersey, in 1871, to E^lma 
Hopper, a daughter of Rev. Andrew Hopper, a Baptist clergyman. The 
same year he purchased a tract of land at Elizabeth, where he established 
a delightful home. He has one child, Mabel Madison Watson. 
Converted at an early age, he has since been closely identified with 
religious, ethical and reformatory measures. He is a member of the 
Baptist State Board of New Jersey, a deacon of the Central Baptist 
church of Elizabeth, and a ready Christian worker. A Republican in 
politics, though not a partisan, he is ever responsive to his civic duties. 
At the earnest and unanimous solicitation of its membership, January 
5, 1885, he accepted the presidency of the Elizabeth Red Ribbon Club, a 
temperance and law and order organization, established by the churches 
of the city. A lifelong total abstainer, and believing alcoholics the 
greatest curse of mankind — the seat and source of lawlessness, violence, 
crime, disease and death — for five years he continued president, main- 
tained educational and religious temperance Sunday meetings, union 
services with similar societies, and occasional protracted reformative 
meetings. He was editor and publisher of the " Red Ribbon Record," 
the organ of the club. He also labored to lessen the number of drinking 
saloons, and waged incessant war before the city boards and the courts 
of the state with the violators of the excise laws, especially Sunday 
sellers. He has been an active worker in the Elizabeth Board of Ti'ade, 
a member of the board of education and its president. He became an 


acti\'e member of the New Jersey Sanitary Association in 1879, its 
president in 1882, and thenceforth, for fifteen years, its corresponding- 
secretary. He was elected a member of the American Public Health 
Association in 1882, read a paper on " Physical Training," at its annual 
meeting, in Detroit, the following year, and subsequently he has 
continued an active member. He has also been an efficient and enthu- 
siastic member of the American Forestr}' Association for some years past. 


Francis Engel, of Elizabeth, superintendent of the gas company of 
that cit)^, is a prominent member of the city council and a faithful and 
conservative man in that body. He was elected in April, 1897, ^^ 
represent the ninth ward for the fourth successive time, and has made 
an enviable reputation as a public servant. He is chairman of the 
finance and the police committees, and a member of the committees on 
drainage and on law, and was the chairman of the special committee to 
devise a plan for the improvement of the Elizabeth river. He has 
served on the fire committee, and while there was active in securing new 
apparatus for five of the eight companies of the city. 

Mr. Engel was born in Elizabeth forty-four years ago and is a son 
of the late John Engel, who represented the old first ward in the cit}' 
council in 1865-8 and afterward served as receiver of taxes, with whom 
his son, Francis, served in his youth as deputy. Upon leaving his father's 
office, twenty-five years ago, he came to his present position, to which 
has since been added the duties of chief engineer. 

Mr. Engel was first married, in 1876, to Jennie McCall, who died, 
leaving a daughter, Josephine. His second marriage was to Mary, the 
daughter of ex-Freeholder Joseph Nolte, and by this marriage he is the 
father of five children. 

In politics Mr. Engle is a Democrat, and was re-elected to the council 
in April, 1897, by the largest majority yet received by him. 


ex-member of the common council of Elizabeth, New Jersey, was born 
in that city August 19, 1859. He is a son of George Horning, whose 
father, Andrew, a native German, was an oil-cloth manufacturer of 
Elizabeth. George Horning and his wife, Mary nee Weber, are resi- 
dents of Elizabeth and the parents of three children : L- P., George H. 
and Emma. 

George H. Horning received his education in a private German and 
English school, and in the public schools of his native city. He entered 
first the drug store of Bucholtz & Driver, and later that of Whitehead & 
Hooker. In 1877 he became a student in the College of Pharmacy in 



the city of New York. Having been graduated therefrom in 1879, ^^^ 
returned to Elizabeth and re-engaged with Mr. Hooker, with whom he 
remained till 1884, when he engaged in business for himself, in a 
building erected by him for that purpose in Elizabeth. 

Mr. Horning was married in October, 1883, to Ellen Shipman, and 
has two children, — Mabel and Lillian. 

He was elected to the city council, from the seventh ward, in 
November, 1891, and was re-elected in 1893, serving till July, 1895. He 
was a member of the committees on health, markets, laws, printing, 
sewers and drainage, public buildings and grounds, as well as poor and 
alms, and during the last term of his service was chairman of the health 
and poor and alms committees. He took an active part in the elevation 
of the railroad tracks and in the repavement of Elizabeth avenue. 

Mr. Horning was elected county coroner in November, 1892, for 
three years, and filled that ofl&ce with credit. He is a member of the 
New Jersey State Pharmaceutical Association, of the Alumni Association 
of the College of Pharmacy of the city of New York ; is a director of 
the Elizabeth Telephone Company, and also a director and one of the 
organizers of the Union County Mutual Insurance Company, and of the 
Citizens' Bank of Elizabeth. 


One of the most prominent women in the state to-day is Mrs. Emily 
E. Williamson, wife of Mr. Benjamin Williamson, of Elizabeth, New 
Jersey. Mrs. Williamson was, before her marriage, Emily Hornblower. 
She is a direct descendant of Jonathan Hornblower, the well known 
English engineer, and on her mother's side is descended from Sir 
Christopher Newport, of Newport News fame ; her mother was also a 
cousin of Charles Reade, the novelist. Her husband is the eldest son of 
the late Chancellor Benjamin Williamson, and grandson of the late 
Governor Williamson of New Jersey. 

Mrs. Williamson has been for a number of years the general secretary 
of the State Charities, Aid and Prison Reform Association of New Jersey, 
and the siiccess of this association, along its unique lines of work, is 
largely due to the persistent, determined efforts put forth by her. Her 
chief aim is bettering the condition of inmates in the penal and charitable 
institutions throughout the state, and to this end she has frequently 
drawn, and had introduced into the legislature, bills which have remedied 
long-standing evils ; rarely has she been defeated in the carrying out of 
any project undertaken by her. 

The Intermediary Prison, now in course of erection at Rahway, is 
but one of the many needed reforms in the state which have been brought 
about by the influence, interest and hard work of Mrs. Williamson. She 
has visited and inspected every penitentiary, jail, alms house and station 
house in the state, and is thereby enabled to judge from personal observa- 


tion just what is needed in these institutions. Mrs. Williamson is 
particularly interested in all that pertains to her own county, and has 
been connected with all of the charities therein, both public and private, 
for many years. 

Mrs. Williamson is a prominent member of the National Board of 
Charities and Corrections, and chairman of the committee on county 
and municipal charities. She is a member of the woman's advisory 
committee of the University of New York, and takes a very active inter- 
est in the work of the School of Pedagogy and in all other lines of edu- 
cational advancement. She is a member of " Sorosis " and is also well 
known through her magazine work. 

Mrs. Williamson is a fluent and inspiring speaker. That rarity 
among American women, a beautiful voice, the use of elegant, simple 
language, and a graceful, easy manner, make an address- by her an in- 
tellectual treat. Jerome Allen, Ph. D., late dean of the School of Peda- 
gogy, said that he considered Mrs. Williamson an orator, and that never, 
unless it was unavoidable, did he miss an opportunity of hearing her 
speak. She is an extempore speaker, never using notes. 

' Her lines of work are broad and liberal, and so are her sympathies ; 
any plan that is for the uplifting and aiding of humanity, providing it is 
practical in its suggestions, has her hearty co-operation, and if she can 
not always give her personal attention to it she can and does help by her 
kindly, encouraging words. 

Contrary to the old adage that prophets have no honor in their own 
country, Mrs. Williamson is most beloved in her own town and state ; 
persons in trouble seek her aid and she is always willing to help bear 
others' burdens, giving to one encouragement, to another sympathy, to 
still another employment, — helping each according to his or her peculiar 

Mrs. Williamson is not theoretical or a sentimentalist. She is a 
philanthropist in the broadest sense of the word. It is an axiom with 
her that " Practical charity means the requiring from each man and 
woman enough labor for self-support at least." 


of Elizabeth, a distinguished civil engineer, and late general superin- 
tendent and, until his death, consulting engineer of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey, was born in lyancaster county, Pennsylvania, on February 
9, 1813. He was the son of Robert Moore, whose property, — Moore's 
Mills, together with a valuable farm on the Octorara river, — he had 
inherited, the family being among the oldest in the state of Pennsyl- 
vania. The mills consisted of flour and grist mill, carding mill, (for 
preparing wool for spinning) a saw mill, a cider mill, and a plaster mill, 
for pulverizing plaster of Paris for fertilizing purposes. The mills and 


^/^/^ -^y 


farm were located about sixteen tailes from the city of Ivancaster. James 
had a natural inclination for mechanics, being a grand-nephew of 
Robert Fulton, the inventor of the steamboat, and became interested in 
the old-fashioned machinery of the mills, while farming tools and agri- 
culture in general had little attraction for him. After the death of his 
father, he, with his mother and two young sisters, removed to a home 
prepared for them by his mother's brother, two miles west of the home- 
stead, near the Mine Hill Gap, so called, the summit on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, between the Schuylkill and Susquehanna rivers. The boy was 
now about twelve years of age, and, being naturally industrious, obtained 
employment with a neighboring farmer, a friend of the family, to whom 
he engaged for three dollars a month. This relieved his mother, as he 
became self-supporting, and at the end of the year he received his 
accumulated earnings in seventy-two silver half dollars, — quite a little 
fortune to the boy's mind, and one over which he was justl}' proud. The 
mother left the homestead, it may be stated, because the heirs of her 
husband's father (James' grandfather) were compelled to resort to the 
courts for a settlement of the estate, which was brought about largely by 
the great change in the value of property after the war of 1812 ; but it 
should be added that James never received a cent from the estate, having 
assigned his share, whatever it might be, to his two sisters. 

After the end of his year with the neighbor, James assisted his 
uncle upon his farm until the spring of 1828, when an event occurred 
that changed the whole trend of his life and opened before him a 
successful and brilliant career. About this time the attention of 
American capitalists and engineers was called to John Stephenson's 
invention of the locomotive, which had become somewhat progressed 
in England, and railroads were beginning to be projected in this 
country, especially in the eastern section of the Union. Wonderful 
prophecies as to the new method of transportation had engaged the 
minds of the American people, and surveying parties began to qrganize 
for building prospective roads in all sections of the country east of the 
Mississippi river. In the year above named one of these surveying 
parties, under charge of Major John Wilson, of Philadelphia, came 
through Ivancaster county and proposed running their line through the 
uncle's farm. Major Wilson, the chief engineer, represented the 
Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad, projected and owned by the state 
of Pennsylvania. As the engineers began operations, young James 
gave them his undivided attention and A^as glad to accompany them on 
all occasions, being especially delighted when allowed to carry the rear 
end of the surveyor's chain. He showed that natural aptitude which 
marks the handy assistant to a surveying party, and was soon engaged 
as chainman, being well adapted by nature for roughing it through the 
unbroken country, "running the line" of the new road. Thus began 
the future engineer in that school of self-education and self-effort which 


constituted his only training and development, and through which he 
became one of the foremost men in his profession. The business of 
surveying attracted young Moore, and he made it his life ambition. 
To his duties in the field he added the study of his leisure hours, and 
soon gained rapid progress up the professional ladder of civil and 
mechanical engineering. 

At the advanced age of eighty-four years Colonel Moore had 
experienced every stage of American railroad building and had seen 
nearly every trunk line in the country gradually develop into the vast 
system and series of systems intersecting the continent. In the words 
of another, " He is one of those fortunate men who have seen the origin 
and growth of the American railroad; whose personal experience goes 
back to a period when the locomotive was looked upon as a doubtful 
substitute for the horse, and the iron track as inferior to the canal for 
most purposes of commercial intercourse." In praise of the profession 
of which he was such an ennobling representative, it can be said that 
Colonel Moore was blessed with perfect health and had the appearance 
of seventy years at the most, so erect and well preserved was he 
physically, in his stature of six feet one and one-half inches. His mind 
was as clear as ever and gave expression to one of the most intelligent 
and kindly gentlemen in the city of Elizabeth, where he resided con- 
tinuously, in the house which he built in the year 1846, at Number 125 
Madison avenue, up to the date of his decease, August 14, 1897. 

It would be beyond the limits of these pages to give even a full 
outline of Colonel Moore's railroad history since he carried the chain 
as a boy, fully seventy-two years ago! His first experience as chainman 
with Major Wilson's party consisted in locating a road eighty-four 
miles long, until forty miles — twenty on the east and twenty on the 
west — were under contract for construction. He was then promoted to 
rodman — to carry the target — and continued in that capacity until the 
graduation, masonry and bridging were finished on the western end. 
The legislature failed of appropriation at the next session, and the 
enterprise was discontinued for a time. 

In June, 1829, ^^- John P. Bailey, one of the corps of engineers 
above mentioned, was appointed chief engineer of the Mine Hill & 
Schuylkill Haven Railroad, of which Dr. Kughler, of Philadelphia, was 
then president. Mr. Moore was appointed his chief assistant and re- 
mained until the line was opened for traffic, in the latter part of June, 
1830, — the line being ten and a half miles long, and now forming a 
branch of the Philadelphia & Reading road. The state legislature of 
1829-30 made a further appropriation for the completion of the Philadel- 
phia and Columbia line, and Mr. Moore returned to its emplo)-, this time 
as assistant engineer of a subdivision of the road, ten miles long, between 
the lyittle Brandywine river, at Coatsville, and the Octorara river, near 
the present village of Christiana, on the Moore homestead farm. He re- 


mained in this work until 183 1-2, when he was appointed one of the chief 
assistants of H. R. Campbell, chief engineer of the Philadelphia, German- 
town & Norristown Railroad, of which Peter Wager, of Philadelphia, was 
president. This road was opened for traffic in the fall of 1832. Of the 
many interesting reminiscences of Colonel Moore's career, mention may 
be made of his experience with one of the pioneer locomotives, " Old 
Ironsides," which was built by M. W. Baldwin, of Philadelphia, and be- 
gan to run in November, 1832. Mr. Moore was the third person who 
" engineered " this famous engine, and had it in charge for sixty consecu- 
tive days ; " and," as he observed, " I ended that service in a snow storm." 
" This locomotive," he added, "is believed to have been the first one of 
any great commercial value built in the United States." It may be noted 
just here that Stephenson's engine, the " Rocket," was perfected in 1829, 
winning the five hundred pounds premium offered by the Liverpool & 
Manchester Railway for the most improved locomotive engine. In 1832 
the " Old Ironsides " was working on the German town & Norristown 
road, — only three years following the English machine, with Watts and 
other steam experts on the other side of the ocean to further its develop- 
ment. This illustrates the quickness with which Americans took to rail- 
roading, and the remarkable genius displayed by this country in railroad 
extension ever since has fully kept pace with England's steamship 
supremacy on the seas. In thus dwelling upon Colonel Moore's early 
career, which is identical with the beginning of railroad construction in 
America, a vivid retrospect is obtained of the pioneer enterprises in this 
most important industry. 

In the winter of 1832-3 Mr. Moore received the appointment of 
assistant chief engineer of the Philadelphia & Trenton Railroad, which 
was opened for business in 1833-4. At this time he was but twenty 
years of age, and was considered one of the most able engineers that the 
demands of railroad construction had developed. He succeeded to one 
position after another of increasing extent and importance, the history of 
which would fill a large volume. A brief mention only of the most 
extensive and noted roads can be given herein, but full reference to the 
subject, however, can be found in a sketch of Colonel Moore in Volume 
VIII. of the Magazine of Western History, which also includes an 
exhaustive chapter on early railroading in England and America, from 
the pen of the well known writer, Mr. J. H. Kennedy. This volume also 
has the biographies of the Vanderbilts, J. Edgar Thomson, and other 
railroad magnates, whose life-histories are so grandly interwoven with 
the railroad development of the United States. Following his position 
on the Philadelphia & Trenton road, Mr. Moore was next appointed 
assistant chief engineer of the Rensselaer & Saratoga, under his old 
chief, H. R. Campbell, with Le Grand Cannon, of Troy, as president. He 
then became chief engineer of the Philadelphia & Baltimore road, then 
chief engineer of the Elizabethtown & Somerville road, — completing the 


location of the line from Elizabetlitown to Sonierville, — ex-Governor 
Isaac H. Williamson, of Elizabetlitown, being president. The road was 
constructed to Elizabeth and was equipped with yellow-pine stringers 
and an iron strap-rail, two and a quarter inches wide by five-eighths of 
an inch thick. The surveys were continued to Phillipsburg, on the 
Delaware river, a distance of sixty miles, when the panic of 1837 caused 
the work to be discontinued. Following this. Chief Engineer Moore 
contracted to build a double-track through-bridge over the Brandywine 
river, at Wilmington, and completed it in sixty days : this structure was 
five hundred feet long. Mr. Moore then returned to his old post in New 
Jersey and completed the road, — now the New Jersey Central, — by 
sections, as far as Plainfield and Bound Brook, thence to Somerville, and 
finally to Phillipsburg in 1852. In the fall of 1844 Mr. Moore was 
appointed chief engineer of the eastern division of the Morris canal, — 
fifty miles. In 1846 he became locating engineer of the Vermont Central 
Railroad, subsequently taking full charge as chief engineer, and completing 
the line from Burlington, Vermont, to the Connecticut river, — one hund- 
red and twenty miles. Upon the final opening of the road he was made 
general superintendent ; he also completed the branch road from Essex 
Junction to Rouse's Point, — forty-seven miles, — which was operated under 
a lease by the Vermont Central. 

In the summer of 1854 Mr. Moore was called to a larger and still 
more difficult field for his matured powers and skill, — as general superin- 
tendent of the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana Railroad, of 
which John B. Jervis was president. In 1856 he resigned and returned 
to Elizabeth. In 1857 he contracted to build the East Pennsylvania 
road between Allentown and Reading, — thirty-six miles, — which was 
finally opened for traffic in 1859. In April, i860, Mr. Moore engaged 
for the second time with the Central Railroad of New Jersey as chief 
engineer, and in the service of this extensive company continued either 
as chief engineer, general superintendent or consulting engineer, until 
his death, — locating and constructing the main line and all its branches 
in New Jersey, a dozen in all, excepting only one, the Ogden Mine & 
New Jersey Southern. 

Of the many difficult engineering tasks which Colonel Moore was 
called upon to carry out was the location and construction of the 
Raritan river bridge, on the New York & Long Branch Railroad. 
There was no safe bottom within reach, and the best of skill and judg- 
ment were required in deciding upon the length and number of the piles 
to be driven, — over six hundred of which are under the pivot pier, and 
averaging between seventy-five and eighty feet in length. The draw 
is of iron, and has two openings of two hundred feet each at right 
angles to the channel, and weighs seven hundred and fifty tons; it is 
four hundred and seventy-five feet over all, and was the longest draw 
known at the time it was built. 


On August 19, 1874, under the administration of President Grant, 
he was appointed chairman of three commissioners, to examine the 
Union Pacific Railroad, to determine whether it had been completed 
as required by law, and to report to the department of the interior, 
— which duty was duly performed. 

From 1877 Colonel Moore was a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the Eastern Railroad Association, which represents special 
interests of about twenty thousand miles of railroad. He was also a 
member of the American Society of Civil Engineers for over a quarter 
of a century. As a resident of Elizabeth he always took an interest in 
the community, and its welfare — educationally, religiously and 
socially — was ever near to his heart. 

A self-made man in the most emphatic sense of the term, and 
famous in a profession noted for able and practical men, Colonel Moore 
is associated in railroad history with a number of illustrious Americans 
whose energy and labor penetrated the wilderness and sent the iron 
horse throbbing with civilization over the land; and he was one of the 
favored few of that galaxy of engineers and projectors who lived to see 
the full fruition of great enterprises, which have grown and expanded 
far beyond his most sanguine expectations. 


was born on the old family homestead, on Morris avenue, near the 
corporation limits of Elizabeth, in Union township. Union county, 
December 23, 1834, and still resides at that place. He is descended 
from one of the old families of New Jersey, the ancestry being traced 
back to Stephen Crane, who was one of the pioneers of this state, 
having become a resident of Elizabeth Town, as shown by records 
extant, as early as 1665. His son, Nathaniel Crane, who was born in 
1680, and died in 1755, was the father of Caleb Crane, who married 
Elizabeth Townly, daughter of Charles Townly. Their son, Nathaniel 
Crane, married Sarah Miller, daughter of Elder Moses Miller, and one 
of their children, Moses Miller Crane, was the father of our subject. 
He was born December 16, 1799, and married Phebe Stiles "Williams, 
a daughter of John Williams, of Morris county, who was born in 
Roselle, Union county. The Williams' farm took its name from this 
family. Mrs. Crane was born January 14, 1800, and by her marriage 
became the mother of five children, only two of whom are now living: 
Jane E., wife of J. N. Earl, who is living on Morris avenue. Union 
township; and John Williams Crane, of this review. 

Moses Miller Crane was born in the house where our subject now 
resides, and obtained his education in the district schools such as were 
common at that day. Having attained his majority, he turned his 
attention to farming as a life work. His worth and ability were 



recognized by his fellow citizens who frequently called hira to public 
position of honor and trust. In 1845 ^^ ^^^ chosen one of the free- 
holders of Essex county, and for five years acceptably filled that 
position. When the rapid growth of the county caused great complica- 
tion in its judicial service, he advocated its division and the erection of 


a new county, to be called Union, and agitated the subject until the 
county was finally created by legislative action in February, 1857. 
He was elected the first county collector of Unioji county and served in 
that capacity from 1857 until 1861. In politics he was a stanch 
Democrat, and labored earnestly for the growth and success of his 
party. He was a recognized power in local affairs, a man of strong 


individuality and unswerving integrity, and in his business interests 
met with a well deserved prosperity. His death occurred November 
27, 1874. For generations the members of the Crane family have been 
attendants on the services of the First Presbyterian church, of 

J. Williams Crane attended the public schools, pursuing his studies 
in the old "North End School House," and later continuing his 
education in the private schools conducted by F. W. Foote and James 
G. Nuttman. He early assisted in the work of the farm, and through- 
out his life has been identified with that industry. He has always lived 
upon the old homestead. In 1862 he was elected a member of the 
board of freeholders and served three terms. In November, 1862, when 
R. S. Green, afterward governor, was elected surrogate, Mr. Crane was 
chosen clerk and served in that capacity for about two years. In 1866 
he embarked in the real-estate and insurance business in Elizabeth 
and has since continued operations along those lines. In May, 1886, 
he was appointed by Justice Van Syckle one of the commissioners to 
adjust the arrears of taxes and assessments of the city of Elizabeth, his 
associates on the board being ex-Governor George C. Ludlow, now a 
member of the supreme court, and F. L. Heidreitter. The work was 
successfully accomplished, and the result not only proved of great 
material benefit to the city, but also gained high public endorsement. 
In 1894 Mr. Crane was appointed, by Governor George T. Werts, judge 
of the court of common pleas for a term of five years, and creditably 
filled that position for two years, when a legislative enactment brought 
about a change in the judiciary system of the state. 

Judge Crane was married in Elizabeth, December 21, 1859, to Miss 
Anna E. Wilson, a daughter of John and Nancy (Lyon) Wilson, the 
former a native of England, and the latter a daughter of Amos Lyon, 
of Lyons Farm, Union county. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Crane 
are Moses M., clerk in the First National Bank, of Elizabeth, and 
Henry W., a plumber, of Elizabeth. 

In his political views Judge Crane has been a life- long Democrat, 
and for twenty years has been a member of the Union county Democratic 
executive committee, while for fifteen years he served as its treasurer. 
With his family he attends the First Presbyterian church. 


principal of school No. 3, of Elizabeth, was born in Norwalk, Connecti- 
cut, in 1836. He is the son of the late Rev. William G. Heyer, D. D., 
a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal church. He was educated in 
New York state and is a graduate of the University of the city of New 
York. He began his school work in a country school in Essex county, in 
1854, and within the past forty years has held the following positions: 



Assistant in Grammar School, No. 17, New York city; principal of 
Grammar School, No. 4 (now No. 61); principal of Boys' High School, 
in New Orleans, Louisiana; professor of physics and astronomy in 
Homer College, Louisiana; citysuperintendent of Kingston, New York; 
and principal of Grammar School, No. 3, Elizabeth, — which last 
position he obtained as the result of a competitive examination, in 1873. 

Dr. Heyer is a member of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, the Microscopical Union, the Society of 
Pedagogic Research, the New Jersey Club of Scientific Review, and 
many other scientific and educational societies. 

He is a prominent Mason, being a Past Master of Orient Lodge, a 
member of the Grand Lodge, and also of Washington Chapter and 
St. John's Commandery. 


county superintendent of schools, has been identified with educational 
work in Union county continuously since January, 1866. At that time 
he was appointed to the principalship of public school No. i, of Eliza- 
beth, and has since been continued in that position. 

Mr. Holmes began his work as a teacher in his native county of 
Plymouth, Massachusetts. He was born in Marion, formerly a pai't of 
Rochester, in 1833, and was educated in the academy at that place. On 
leaving that school he took a supplementary course, — first in mathema- 
tics, as a special study preparatory to a career at civil engineering, and 
later in the sciences, and finally in the law, which he studied while teach- 
ing. His first work as a teacher was done in the district schools about 
Marion, at the age of eighteen, and before leaving Massachusetts he 
taught in-the schools at Marion, Randolph and Fair Haven. At Fair 
Haven he was admitted to the bar, and from there he c^ime to Elizabeth. 

Mr. Holmes was appointed county superintendent in June, 1889, ^"<i 
in September following entered upon the duties of his office, and con- 
tinued the good work inaugurated by his worthy predecessor. The old 
course of studies has been slightly revised and amplified. The township 
system provided for by the state has been fully inaugurated and is in 
successful operation. The school libraries provided for by the state and 
inaugurated early after the passage of the act have been continued, and 
every school in the county has availed itself of this privilege. The 
pedagogical libraries, as provided for under the rules of the state board, 
have been under careful consideration, and arrangements have been nearly 
completed for the establishment of such libraries in all the larger districts 
of the county. The school buildings of the county are generally in excel- 
lent condition, many of them being new, notably those at Fanwood, 
Westfield and Summit. 

Mr. Holmes is a charter member of the Union County Teachers' 



Association, and has served as its president several years. He has been a 
member of the State Teachers' Association for twenty-five years, has 
served eight years on its executive committee, and has been its president. 
He has been treasurer of the New Jersey Teachers' Reading Circle, and a 
member of its executive committee also, and he is one of the original 
members of the New Jersey Council of Education. 


was born at Ithaca, New York, October i, 1834, and at .an early age 
moved with her parents to New York city, where she was educated at St. 
Ann's Hall, corner of Eighth and McDougall streets, imder the Rev. 
John Frederick Schroeder, D. D. 

Her father, William Amos Woodward, born in New lyondon, 
Connecticut, descended from Richard Woodward, who, with his wife. 
Rose, and twin sons, came over in the ship Elizabeth, A. D. , 1634. 
His mother was Elizabeth Bailey, daughter of Thomas Bailey, who 
settled in New London, Connecticut, in 1651. Through these ancestors 
Mrs. Putnam is a member of the National Society of New England 
Women. Her father, Mr. Woodward, was commissioner of deeds and 
notary public in New York city, and became interested in western 
lands, through the location of land warrants for the soldiers after the 
Mexican war. It was by his foresight and advice that Ezra Cornell 
purchased the land scrip given by congress to the state of New York, 
and, by his admirable selection of pine lands in Wisconsin, secured 
such a substantial endowment for Cornell University. 

Her mother, Frances Mary Evertson, descended from the famous 
Johan Evertson, admiral in the Dutch navy in 16 — . Her grandfather, 
Jacob Evertson, was delegate from Duchess county, New York, to the 
second provincial congress of New York, in 1775-6. Through this 
ancestor Mrs. Putnam is a member of the Daughters of the American 

Her maternal grandmother, Frances Mary NicoU, descended from 
Matthias Nicolls, first secretary of the province of New York, and 
from his son, William Nicoll, member of the colonial assembly of 
New York twenty-one years, of which he was speaker sixteen years. 
He was an eminent lawyer, and was engaged by the residents of 
Elizabeth Town to go before the king in council, to settle the titles to 
their lands, which he did to their satisfaction. For this he was made 
an associate of Elizabeth Town, with a third-lot right. Through his 
wife, Anne Van Rensselaer, Frances Mary Nicoll descends from Kiliaen 
Van Rensselaer, patroon, 1631, and OlofF Stevenson Van Cortland, 
president of the council of "Nine Men," 1650. Through these and 
others, Mrs. Putnam is a member of the New Jersey Society of Colonial 
Dames of America. 


Frances Mary NicoU also descends from Huguenot ancestors. 
Elie Boudinot, the ancestor of the Boudinots of New Jersey, fled from 
Iva Rochelle, France, after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, to 
England. There he married his second wife (also a refugee) Susanne, 
nee Papin, widow of Benjamin D. Harriette, and came to New York 
in 1687. She must have been an ardent Protestant, as, in order to 
effect her escape from her native country, she was rolled down to the 
ship in a barrel. Their daughter, Madeleine Boudinot, married 
Thomas Bayeux, another refugee. Through these Mrs. Putnam is a 
member of the Huguenot Society of America. 

Mrs. Putnam received her commission as regent to form a chapter 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution, in March, 1893, from 
the national society in Washington, D. C. On September 27, 1893, 
she organized the Boudinot Chapter, with fifteen members, which has 
since grown to thirty-seven members. She has been elected each year 
since to the same office. 

Mrs. Putnam is also an " hereditary life member " of the National 
Mary Washington Memorial Association and a member of the Revolu- 
tionary Memorial Society of New Jersey. She is also a member of the 
New Jersey Historical Society. 


The police department of the city of Elizabeth is very fortunate in 
having in its service Captain John P. lyong. He has been identified 
with the force since 1891, when he received the appointment of captain 
of police from the civilian ranks. He has proved his faithfulness and 
efficiency as a police officer, and his administration of the affairs of his 
department has received commendation on every hand. 

Captain lyong was born in Elizabeth, September 25, 1856. He is a 
son of John Long, of Irish birth, who is a railroad conductor. The 
latter married Catherine Saunders, and Captain Long is the oldest of five 
children. Captain Long acquired the trade of a machinest in the shops 
of the Central Railroad Compau}^, and continued in that capacity from 
the age of eighteen till his appointment as captain of police. 

On November 23, 1893, Captain Long was married to Miss Mary 
McNamara, and they have two children, John J. and Arthur. 


contractor for river and harbor dredging, Elizabethport, New Jersey, has 
been a resident of Elizabeth, New Jersey, for thirty years. He was born 
December 20, 1830, in Herkimer county. New York, and spent most of 
his life in that state. He is a descendant of Edward Benton, who came 
from Surrey county, England, in 1639, ^"d settled in Guilford, Con- 



necticut, and is the sou of Abijali K. Benton, who was born February 3, 
1803, in Otis, Massachusetts, and died July 13, 1893, in Elizabeth, New 
Jersej\ The mother of our subject was Harriet Thatcher Benton, who 
was born March 7, 1808, in L,ee, Massachusetts, and died August 26, 
1886, in Elizabeth, New Jersey. She was the granddaughter of the 
Rev. Roland Thatcher, of Wareham, Massachusetts, a graduate of 
Harvard. She went with her husband to settle near Cleveland, Ohio, 
but did not remain there very long. 

Mr. Abijah Benton was a cabinet-maker, and during the memorable 
gold excitement in California, in 1849, went to that region, where he 
became r prominent citizen. For several years he was assistant post- 
master of Oakland, California, and held other positions of honor and 
trust. He was a man of remarkable physical vigor, and very active for 
one of his age. He was a writer of considerable ability, and contributed 
to several periodicals in San Francisco and other western cities. Captain 
Thomas H. Benton, of Elizabeth, New Jersey, and Miss Nellie H. 
Benton, of Brooklyn, New York, are his children. 

Captain Benton married Miss Catherine Morgan, daughter of George 
and Mary Morgan, of New York city. 


The Thomas family has been prominent in the history of Elizabeth 
from its earliest times. John Thomas, the first of the name in this 
vicinity, came to Elizabeth Town about 1689 with his wife, " Fiftie," 
nee Garretsen. He is supposed to have been the Johannes Thomassen 
who took part in Milbourne's expedition to Albany, and became 
involved in the troubles culminating in the death of Governor Leisler, 
when he removed to Elizabeth Town to escape the persecutions of this 

Here he became one of the governor's party, as opposed to the 
early settlers, who were mostly of New England descent. His name, 
however, appears in the memorials of 1669 and 1700, which were in 
hostility to the claims of the proprietary government.* He died in 
1712, mentioning in his will several children,— Edward, John, David, 
Margaret and Esther. 

The family now residing in Elizabeth is descended from Edward 
Thomas, his eldest son. Edward Thomas married Sarah Drummond, 
daughter of Robert Drummond, a Scotchman of a family whose estates 
were confiscated after the battle of Killiecrankie, aud who escaped, about 
1689, to America, where he married Anna Evetts (then the widow of 
Richard Hall). His wife's sisters, Abigail, the wife of Charles Town- 
ley, and Sarah, the wife of Effingham Townley, were the daughters-in- 

* See New Jersey Archives, Volume H., page 327. 



law of Colonel Richard Townley, and their husbands were half-brothers 
of Mrs. Philip (Governor) Carteret. 

The grandfather of Mrs. Edward Thomas was James Evetts, a 
vestryman and warden of Trinity church, New York, an officer under 
the crown, aud adjutant of the colonial army, at Albany, during the 
French and Indian war. Her father, Robert Drummond, before 
removing to Elizabeth Town, was high sheriff of New York (1713), and 
his descendants were prominent in New Jersey until the Revolution, 
when his son, Robert Drummond, notwithstanding his long term of 
service in the colonial legislature, joined the British army, was made 
major in the Battalion of Refugees, and died in exile in England. 

Mrs. Drummond's children, by her 
first husband, on the contrary, married 
prominent patriots, — as for example, 
Elizabeth Hall, who married William 
Patterson, and Anna Hall, who married 
James Martin. 

Ivittle is now known of the brothers 
and sisters of Edward Thomas. John is 
said to have married a sister of a Colonel 
Whitlock, of the British army, and to 
have moved to Westchester county. New 
York. (This statement, which is found 
in the family bible of his nephew. Colonel 
Edward Thomas, has not been verified 
by the writer.) 

Sufficient has been outlined to estab- 
lish the social position of this family, 
prior to 1700, by references to connections 
of local prominence, and to its early 
association with the Episcopal church, 
both in New York and in this city, 
where the ground on whicli St. John's church was built was the gift 
of Charles Townley, Mrs. Thomas' uncle. 

The children of Edward Thomas and Sarah Drummond were : (i) 
Rachel, who married Captain John Elwes, of the British army ; (2) 
Sophie, who married John Trail ; (3) Sarah, who married Samuel 
Ivongworth ; (4) Anna, who married lyieutenant Nicholas Tiebout ; and 
(5) Edward, afterwards Colonel Edward Thomas. 

Colonel Edward Thomas was born in 1736, and married Mary 
Terrill, the daughter of Captain Ephraim Terrill, of Wheatsheaf. The 
father of Mrs. Thomas was a man of considerable local importance, as 
the captain of the Essex County Troops of Light Horse. He appears as 
such in all the local celebrations of this period. He commanded one of 
the whale boats at the capture of the " Blue Mountain Valley," and was 




also an active patriot during the whole of the Revolutionary war. 
The grandfather also of Mrs. Thomas bore the name of Ephraim 
Terrill, and her grandmother was Mary Hampton, the daughter of the 
Andrew Hampton who built the old parsonage of St. John's church, and 
who is said (by a carefully preserved family tradition) to have eloped 
from Scotland with a " Lady Margaret " Cumins or Comyns. Ephraim 
Terrill, the elder, was a son of Thomas Terrill (or Tyrell) and Margaret 
Dayton, and came to Elizabeth Town from Southhold, Long Island. 

The mother of Mrs. Edward Thomas was Phebe Winans, daughter 
of Dr. William Winans, afterwards surgeon of the regiment commanded 
by Colonel Thomas in' the Revolution. He was conspicuous for his 
devotion to the patriot cause, on one occasion giving his entire stock of 
medicines to relieve the sufferings of the troops under his charge. His 
wife was the daughter of Dr. William Robinson, a large land-owner near 
Rahway, who is described in deeds of that period as " Esquire," a 
distinction then of social importance. 

Colonel Edward Thomas took a prominent part in the local history 
of Elizabeth Town. He is named in the charter of the borough. He 


gave the land for the Northend school house. He owned the ferry to 
New York. The first meeting of the lyibrary Association was held at 
his mother's house. He was a member of the " committee of observa- 
tion," was one of the commanders of the attack and capture of the 
"Blue Mountain Valley," saw active service with Heard's Flying 
Battalion on Long Island, was captured at his home on Elizabeth 
avenue (the old house now standing and occupied by family of Dr. 
Stearns) and was carried prisoner to Staten Island. His death, in 1796, 
was in part caused by privations endured as a prisoner of war. Colonel 
Thomas was a vestryman and warden of St. John's church (as was also 
his father-in-law. Captain Terrill) and represented the church at most 
of the earlier conventions of the diocese. 

The children of Colonel Edward Thomas and Mary Terrill were: 
(i) William; (2) Edmund Drisley, an officer in the Continental line and 
an original member of the Order of the Cincinnati; (3) George 
Drummond; (4) Phoebe, the wife of Captain John Reucastle, the steward 
of Princeton College under John Witherspoon, his old pastor, and 
afterwards a captain in the Continental line and an original member of 
the Cincinnati; (5) Robinson; (6) Margaret Winans, wife of Captain 
Job Haines, of the Continental line; (7) Sarah, wife of Beza Bliss, Esq., 
of New York city; (8) Henry Garretsen; and (9) George Cummins 
Thomas, the ancestor of all of the name now residing in the vicinity. 

George Cummins Thomas married Anna Reid Provoost, a lineal 
descendant of the David Provoost who came to New Amsterdam, in 
1638, and was the founder of a family for many years prominent in 
New York society. Among the connections of Mrs. Thomas on her 
father's side were James Alexander, the father of the so called Earl 
Sterling, Governor Burnet and Bishop Provoost. Among her ancestors 
of this family were the celebrated L,ieutenant-Governor Jacob Leisler 
and his wife, Elsie, who was the neice of Annetje Jans, and step- 
daughter of Govert Loockermanns, one of the "nine men " of early 
colonial history. 

The mother of Mrs. Thomas was Anna Bowne, of the well known 
Bowne family of Monmouth county. New Jersey. John Bowne and 
William Bowne, his father, were the original patenteesof the Navesink 
patent, in 1695, coming to New Jersey from Gravesend, Long Island. 
Of this family was Captain John Bowne, the first speaker of an elected 
legislative body in New Jersey, and Andrew Bowne, the last of the 
proprietary governors ; and among Mrs. Thomas' ancestors were John 
Reid, the first surveyor-general and a member of the proprietors' coun- 
cil, and his son, Colonel Reid. She was also closely connected with 
the family of Governor Reading, and the Kearneys, Hartshornes, Cono- 
vers, Holmes and other prominent families of old Monmouth. 

George Cummins Thomas was a distinguished and useful citizen of 
Elizabeth until his removal to New York, in 1833. ^^ "^^^ ^" alder- 


man of the borough, a vestryman and warden of St. John's church, a 
frequent delegate to the general conventions of the Episcopal church, 
and for many years represented New Jersey in the general meetings of 
the Order of the Cincinnati, a society to which he was always warmly 
attached and in which he held the office of vice-president of the New 
Jersey society from 1846 to 1865. After his removal to New York city, 
in 1833, he was for many years a vestryman and treasurer of St. Mark's 
church. Both in New York and in New Jersey Mr. Thomas took a 
prominent part in local politics, but never became a candidate for an 
elective office. His elder brother, Robinson Thomas, was also a prominent 
churchman, — ^he was warden of St. John's church, a delegate to the 
general convention, and a member of the standing committee of the 
diocese. He married a neice of Daniel Webster, and moved to Kentucky, 
where his family still resides. 

The children of George Cummins Thomas and Anna Reid Provoost 
were : (i) James P. Thomas, who married Eliza Carow, a daughter of Isaac 
Carow, Esq., of New York city : his only married child was his son, 
"David Provoost, whose wife, Sarah Williamson, was a daughter of Vice- 
Chancellor Williamson, and whose children are Williamson Thomas and 
James Provoost Thomas, both of this city ; (2) Catherine, wife of Dr. Elwes, 
a surgeon in the United States Arm}-, whose only daughter married Albert 
Smith, of New York city, and one of whose grandchildren is Mrs. Satler, 
of this city ; (3) Mary Ackland Thomas ; (4) General George C. Thomas, 
of the United States Army, who resided at Georgetown, District of 
Columbia ; (5) Georgiana P. ; (6) Benjamin P. ; and (7) William Winans, 
who married Sarah E. M. Wade, a daughter of Colonel R. D. Wade, of 
the United States Army, and a descendant of Governor Thomas McKean, 
of Pennsylvania, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence ; 
of Colonel and Judge Borden, of New Jersey, and of General Buchanan, 
of Maryland, — all of whom took prominent parts in the struggle of the 

The children of William W. Thomas and Sarah E. M. Wade are: 
(i) George C. Thomas, who married Mariam Clarke, of Erie, Pennsyl- 
vania; (2) William P. Thomas, who married Harriette C. Lyon, of 
Erie, Pennsylvania; and (3) Robert McKean Thomas, of New York city. 

William W. Thomas was a member of the class of 1832, Columbia 
College, and afterward the New York custom house, and was the 
assistant appraiser of the port of New York about 1840. He was the 
only surviving delegate to the New York convention that sent delegates 
to the national convention that nominated William Henry Harrison 
for president. In 1853 he formed the firm of William W. Thomas & 
Company, now in existence and the oldest custom-house brokerage firm 
in New York. He retired from an active business life of nearly sixty 
years in January, 1890. He was a large property owner in Elizabeth 
and was connected for many years with its enterprises. 


He was elected July 4, 1885, a member of the New Jersey Society 
of the Cincinnati, of which his father was vice-president. From the 
time of his election he never missed attending an annual meeting of 
the society, except one — the last. 

He was elected a vestryman of St. John's church, April 2, 1866, 
and warden, April 14, 1879, becoming senior warden on the death of 
the late Francis B. Chetwood. His grandfather, Colonel Thomas, was 
warden from 1789 to his death in 1795. His father, George C. Thomas, 
was elected vestryman, April 15, 1811, and warden, April 19, 1813. 


James C. Ogden, for ma^y years the leading undertaker in the city 
of Elizabeth, belongs to one of the oldest and most respected families 
in Union county. John Ogden, the ancestor of the family in New, 
Jersey, was one of the original patentees of Elizabeth Town, and was 
an influential and popular citizen. He resided at Stamford, Connecti- 
cut, in 1641, within a year after its settlement. In 1644 he removed to 
Hempstead, Long Island, of which he was one of the patentees. He 
was made a freeman of Southampton March 31, 1650, and was chosen 
by the general court at Hartford, Connecticut, one of the magistrates 
of the colony in 1656, 1657 and 1658. Later he became one of the 
original associates of Elizabeth Town, and, with his five sons, was one 
of the first to remove to the new purchase and erect a dwelling on the 
town plot. 

Timothy Ogden, the great-grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch, was a tanner by trade and operated a tan yard during Revolu- 
tionary times, on what is now Elizabeth avenue. His son, Moses, was 
a tailor. He was born February 6, 1774, and on December 6, 1797, 
married Rhoda Halsey. He died June 9, 1847. His son, John Ogden, 
was the father of James C. Ogden. John Ogden was born at the family 
residence, on Elizabeth avenue, September 11, 1799. In early life he 
became apprenticed to Colonel Elihu Brittin to learn the trade of 
cabinet-making, and continued to follow this occupation and that of 
undertaking during his life. He was an earnest and industrious man, 
of plain manners, and was a zealous and faithful member of the First 
Presbyterian church of Elizabeth. 

His son, James C. Ogden, born August 10, 1831, was one of nine 
children, his mother being Joanna H. , daughter of Aaron Ross. James 
C. Ogden attended the public schools of Elizabeth until sixteen years 
of age, at which time, owing to the necessities of life, he began work 
at the trade, under hisfather, as a journeyman, in 1847, ^^^ continued 
therein until 1859. From this date to the present time he has had 
charge of the business. Under his management the undertaking 
business has been considerably enlarged, the number of burials reaching 



as many as four hundred in one year. In 1875 Mr. Ogden opened a 
large furniture store at 17 Broad street. The business at this place 
was successfully operated for twenty )'ears. 

Mr. Ogden represented the fourth ward in the city council from 
1875 to 1879. He has been president of the board of trustees of the 
First Presbyterian church for over sixteen years, and has served long 
and faithfully as one of the directors of the Elizabeth Savings Institu- 
tion; also as a director of the Library Hall Association, of which he is 
at this time vice-president. He is also vice-president of the Elizabeth 
Street Railroad Company, is one of the sinking-fund commissioners of 


the city of Elizabeth, and has served in that capacity a number of 
years. He is the vice-president of the Citizens' Building Loan Associa- 
tion, is now serving his second term as freeholder of Union county, and 
is in many ways identified with the growth and prosperity of the city 
of Elizabeth. 

Mr. Ogden was married November 26, 1856, to Miss Lydia Drake, 
who died August 26, 1873. His second wife, nee Sarah W. Halsey, to 
whom he was married January 4, 1877, died August 15, 1878. His 


son, Frank Clark Ogden, is connected with him in business. On April 
4, 1884, Mr. Ogden married Jennie M. Whitehead, daughter of John 
Whitehead, of the firm of Whitehead Brothers, New York city. By 
this marriage he has two children, Harold Crawford and Dorothy Marie. 


of Elizabeth, of the firm of lyce & Patterson, general insurance agents, 
is a representative of one of the old and esteemed families of New Jer- 
sey, his paternal grandfather being Robert L,ivingston Patterson, the 
founder and first president of the Mutual Benefit lyife Insurance 
Company, of Newark, all of whose policies, or certificates of insurance, 
bear at their heads the Patterson family crest. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, 
July 2, 1862. He was educated in the public and private schools of 
Plainfield, and in 1881 his parents moved to Elizabeth. In 1882 he 
went to Colorado and for three years was employed in the freight 
department of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, at Pueblo and lycad- 
ville. He then pre-empted a claim near Pueblo, Colorado, proved up 
upon it and securing from the government the title to the property. He 
returned to Elizabeth in 1888 and engaged in the real-estate and insur- 
ance business in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Patterson is a Republican in politics, and was elected to the 
city council, from the twelfth ward, to fill the unexpired term of 
Thomas A. Doe, taking his seat April 15, 1895. He received his pred- 
ecessor's committee assignments, and gave the public business careful 
attention. In April, 1897, he was re-elected by more than double his 
first majority. He is a member of the police committee, and also of 
those on lamps, gas and water, shows and exhibitions, and printing. 

Mr. Patterson is a member of the New Jersey National Guard. He 
served three years and a half in Company C, Fourth Battalion, Colora- 
do National Guard. After his return he joined the Third Regiment, 
New Jersey National Guard, Company C (Phil. Kearney Guard,) May 
17, 1888, and was made right general guide, with rank of sergeant, 
June 4, 1891; sergeant-major. Second Battalion, July 14, 1893; battalion 
adjutant, with rank of first lieutenant, January 3, li 


The election of John J. Gardner, of Elizabeth, at the April election 
of 1897, to represent the first ward in the council of that city, was an 
endorsement of official service well performed and a compliment to a 
faithful Democratic official. He was first elected to the council in 1895, 
and has been an active member of the committees (regular and special) 


on railroads, health, police, and fire, — of which last he is chairman. He 
became connected with the fire department twenty-five years ago, is 
secretary of Truck No. 2, has been its representative for twenty-three 
years in the board of representatives, and has been president of that body 
for five years. He was one of the promoters of the plan to establish a 
paid fire department, and aided in defeating the trunk sewer proposition. 
Mr. Gardner was born in county Down, Ireland, August 26, 1852. 
His widowed mother brought her family to New York in 1863, and five 
years later our subject entered the service of the Singer Manufacturing 
Company, with which concern he has ever since been connected. 
May 26, 1873, he was married to Margaret Collins. 


of Elizabeth, ex-president and ex-member of the common council of 
that city, was elected to that office in 1894, and served one term. He 
was conspicuous in his opposition to the contract entered into by the 
city with the gas company, which contract the supreme court of New 
Jersey declared to be illegal. 

Mr. Barr was born in Scotland, November 18, 1862. His father, 
Abram T. Barr, brought his family to the United States in 1868 and 
settled at Yonkers, New York. John D. is the youngest of his three 
children by his wife Isabella, nee Young, who is still living. 

The subject of this sketch was graduated from the Yonkers public 
schools in 1878, and removing at once to Elizabeth, engaged with the 
Singer Manufacturing Company, where he is now employed as an 
adjuster of special machinery. 

Mr. Barr never' sought office, but when named by his political 
party as a candidate to make the race for the city council, he felt it his 
duty to accept. Mr. Barr is a Mason and is senior warden of his lodge. 
He is also an Odd Fellow and a Knight of Pythias. 


Mr. Dix was born in Albany, New York, April 13, 1831. His 
father was Joshua Gore Dix, a descendant of Edward Dix, who came 
from England in 1635 and settled in Watertown, Massachusetts, becom- 
ing one of the first " proprietors." Of this same stock came Dorothea 
L. Dix, the philanthropist. His mother belonged to one of the best 
known Massachusetts families, — the Fishers, of Dedham, — and was a 
relative of Fisher Ames. 

Mr. Dix received his early education at the noted private school of 
Charles H. Anthony, of Albany, and later attended the Albany Academy, 
where he had the benefit of such instructors as Dr. T. Romeyn 



Beck and Dr. Bullion, author of noted Latin and Greek grammars. At 
the age of sixteen Mr. Dix removed to New York, and became a 
student at the New York University. While there he took up the study 
of voice culture and oratory, and became so proficient that he soon 
received an appointment as teacher in those branches in a famous New 


York school. His intention was to prepare for the law, but failing 
health compelled him to give up his studies. After leaving the uni- 
versity he entered the employment of George P. Putnam, the publisher, 
traveling extensively through the middle and eastern states and Canada, 
introducing into school libraries the works of Irving and Cooper. In 


1854 he became a publisher, in partnership with Arthur T. Edwards, 
and with them were afterwards associated Fred. Law Olmsted and 
George William Curtis, the firm being known as Dix, Edwards & 
Company. They owned and published Putnam's Monthly and the 
Schoolfellow, the leading magazines of the day. 

During the financial depression of 1857 Mr. Dix gave up the 
publishing business, and engaged in life and fire insurance, at the same 
time removing to Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he resided until his 
death, October 13, 1894, with the exception of the interval between 
1866 and 1874, when he was living in New York city. In i860 he was 
elected a member of the city council of Elizabeth. During the same 
year he organized the famous Continental Hose Company, and became 
its first foreman. During the war Mr. Dix was active. He was one 
of the secretaries at the famous war meeting in Library Hall, in 1862, 
assisted in organizing the troops and taking them to the front, and 
acted for some time as paymaster of the Soldiers' Fund. In 1877 Mr. 
Dix made a lecturing tour of the state, giving talks in many towns on 
the subject of life insurance. The tour was very successful. 

When, in 1879, the Elizabeth General Hospital was organized, Mr. 
Dix became one of the incorporators, and subsequently served as 
president of the board of managers, being a member of the board at the 
time of his death. About 1876 he assumed charge, as lay reader, of 
one of the missions of St. John's church, and a year later of Grace 
church, Linden, and conducted services at both points until a 
comparatively short time before his death. In 1880 he was elected 
superintendent of the public schools of Elizabeth, and so ably and 
satisfactorily filled the position that he was re-elected, year after year, 
for fourteen years, dying while in ofiice. As a testimony to the 
eflSciency of his administration, it may be stated that the schools of 
Elizabeth received a gold medal from the New Orleans Exposition, a 
gold medal from the Paris Exposition and a medal from the Columbian 
Exposition, at Chicago. 

Mr. Dix was prominent in the Masonic Order, was Master of 
Washington Lodge, of Elizabeth, in 1884 and 1885; was a member of 
the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, and the representative of the Illinois 
Grand Lodge in New Jersey. 

Mr. Dix was a communicant of St. John's church, and represented 
it in the diocesan convention for many years. He was a trustee of 
Burlington College, a Fellow of the Geographical Society, New York, 
and a member of the National Educational Association. 

In 1854 Mr. Dix was married to Julia F., daughter of Warren 
Rogers, of New York. Two children are now living, a son mentioned 
in the following paragraphs, and a daughter, — the latter being the wife 
of Eugene Jones, of Tarrytown, New York, the president of the Hecker- 
Jones-Jewell Milling Company, of New York. 


The maternal grandfather of Mrs. Dix was Joseph Louis, Count d' 
Anterroches, a French nobleman and a kinsman of Lafayette, who 
came to America during the Revolutionary war. The Count d' 
Anterroches married Mary Vanderpoel, of Bottle Hill, New Jersey, and 
subsequently settled in old Elizabeth Town, where he became the 
leader of the famous French colony living there during the latter part 
of the eighteenth century. During the "Whiskey Rebellion," in 
1794, he was acting adjutant-general of the mounted troops from New 
Jersey, and some of his letters from the seat of war are in the possession 
of the family. Mrs. Dix is a half sister of Edward Y. Rogers, long the 
most prominent lawyer of Railway. 


son of J. Augustus and Julia F. (Rogers) Dix, was born in the city of 
New York, November 23, 1855. His parents removing to Elizabeth, 
New Jersey, in April, 1857, his early years were spent there. He 
attended a private scliool from 1862 to 1866, when the family returned 
to New York city, and he entered the famous Thirteenth street public 
school, of which Dr. Thomas Hunter was the principal. Here he 
attained the highest rank in his classes, and in 1870 successfully passed 
the examination for admission to the freshman class of the College of 
the City of New York, from which institution he was graduated with 
honor in 1874, receiving the degree of A. B., and being made a member 
of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. In 1878 he received the degree of 
A. M. from the same institution. 

In 1875 he entered the law office of Vanderpoel, Green & Cuming, 
in the city of New York, of which his friend, Robert S. Green, after- 
ward governor of New Jersey, was a member, and also became a 
student in Columbia College Law School, under the famous Professor 
Theodore W. Dwight. In 1877 he was graduated with the degree of 
LL. B., and admitted to practice by the New York supreme court, as a 
counselor at law. Some time later he embarked in the practice of the 
law in New York city, and has so continued to the present time, but 
has remained a resident of Elizabeth, and in 1894 was admitted to 
practice in the New Jersey supreme court as counselor at law, and was 
also appointed master in chancery. 

In 1880, when his father was made superintendent of schools of 
Elizabeth, Mr. Dix became associated with him in the work, taking a 
very active part until his private business required his whole time and 
and attention, whereupon in March, 1893, he gave up the school work. 
Upon his father's death, in 1894, he was prevailed upon to take the 
position of superintendent, but the work requii'ed more time and strength 
than he could spare from his other duties, and he resigned the office 
September i, 1895, after a very successful administration. In 1885, Mr. 



Dix was chosen a member of the vestry of St. John's church, and has 
been annually re-elected since, and has, for many years, been clerk of the 
parish. He is also a lay reader, and as such frequently conducts the 

Mr. Dix has been very actively engaged in the care of the extensive 
real-estate holdings of his brother-in-law, Mr. Eugene Jones, both at 
Elizabeth and Tarrytown, New York. 

In February, 1883, Mr. Dix was married to Miss Elizabeth LeRoy 
Clark, a daughter of Charles Augustus Clark, of Greenland, New 
Hampshire, a member of a family containing many clergymen of 
eminence, — among them the present bishop of Rhode Island, Dr. 
Thomas M. Clark. Mrs. Dix has been very active in charitable work 
in Elizabeth, being connected officially with the Home for Aged 
Women, the Woman's Exchange, the Needle Work Guild, the 
General Hospital, etc. , and leads a very busy life. 

Mr. Dix is the possessor of a collection of fine miniatures, which 
have come to him from his French ancestry, and also of many valuable 
autograph letters written to members of his family, among them being 
letters from L,afayette, Madame Lafayette and Thomas Jefferson, and 
from most of the famous American authors of the last generation, — as 
Longfellow, Whittier, Bryant, Greeley, Mrs. Stowe, etc. 


chief of police of Elizabeth, became connected with the police depart- 
ment of this city, as a patrol, in 1882. He was soon promoted to the 
ofiice of sergeant, and in 1891 was made chief of police, being the only 
man ever taken from the force of that city and elevated to that position. 

Mr. Tenney was born in Elizabeth in 185 1, and there received his 
elementary education, after that attending college in New York city. In 
early life he entered the employ of D. Appleton & Company, of New 
York, and remained with this noted publishing house till he joined the 
police force of Elizabeth. 

Chief Tenney is a son of the late Judge William J. Tenney, who 
was with D. Appleton & Company for forty years. He was the editor of 
the American Encyclopaedia, and was with Charles A. Dana in cyclo- 
pedic work. He died in 1883, while engaged on this work. He was 
born in Wethersfield, Connecticut, and was a grandson of Captain 
William Tenney, a soldier of the American Revolution, and a son of the 
Rev. Caleb Tenney, of Wethersfield. The family came originally from 
England, settled at Hollis, New Hampshire, about 1638. Elizabeth 
Benton, of New York, became the wife of Judge William Tenney, and 
Chief Tenney and his sister. Miss Jessaline, are the only survivors of 
that union. 



George C. Tenney was married September i6, 1874, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Christian Hensler, of Easton, Pennsylvania. Their children 
are: Walter C, Grace E., and George C. Chief Tenney belongs to 
the Foresters, and is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. 


Harris L. Johnson, sexton of the First Presbyterian church, of 
Elizabeth, is a descendant of very early families of New Jersey. He is 
the son of David and Abbie (Eyon) Johnson, is the great-grandson of 
John Alexander Johnson, and the grandson of Uzal Johnson, who was a 
cloth manufacturer and farmer, in Essex county, all his life. In that 
county Mr. Johnson, the subject of our sketch, was born. On his mother's 
side Mr. Johnson is the grandson of Obadiah Ivyon, whose wife was Sarah 
Meeker, both representatives of old New Jersey families. 

Early in life Mr. Johnson moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he 
attended the public schools, after which he clerked in a grocery' store for 
about fifteen years, after which he was in the grocery and milk business 
until 1884, when he became sexton of the First Presbyterian church. 
In politics he is a Republican. He is a Free Mason and also a member 
of the Sons of the American Revolution. Mr. Johnson married Cornelia 
D. Townley, by whom he has four children, — three daughters and one son. 
Mr. Johnson and his wife are members of the First Presbyterian church. 


Among the residents of Union county whose American ancestors 
were of the Revolutionary and colonial epoch, is the well known Aaron 
Denman Mulford, the large real-estate dealer of Elizabeth. His earliest 
American ancestor was William Mulford, who, with his brother, Judge 
John Mulford, in 1643, became one of the pioneer settlers of East 
Hampton, Eong Island. William Mulford's eldest son, Thomas Mulford, 
marri'ed Mary Gardiner, the daughter of Lieutenant Eion Gardiner, an 
engineer of the English army, who was the constructor and first 
commandant of Saybrook Fort, Connecticut. He was the first English- 
man seated in New York, being lord of the Isle of Wight, now known as 
Gardiner's Island, in New York harbor. 

The youngest son of Thomas Mulford and Mary Gardiner was 
Jeremiah, whose son was Eewis Mulford. Eewis Mulford, born about 
the year 1718, settled in Union county, and was the head of the Mulford 
family of this part of New Jersey. Among his descendants are the 
subject of this sketch and Judge David Mulford, of Roselle, a member 
of the New Jersey state legislature during the years 1860-61. The direct 
descendants of Eewis Mulford are as follows : Captain Thomas, son of 
Eewis, born 1750 ; Jonathan, grandson, born 1772 ; Benjamin W., great- 



grandson, born 1798; A. D., great-great-grandson, born 1840; E. D., 
great-great-great-grandson, born 1875. 

Lewis Mulford settled in Elizabeth Town, now Roselle, on lands 
known as the Jouett farm. This farm was the original homestead of the 


Mulford family and remained in their possession, going from father to 
son, until 1859, when it was sold by the estate of Benjamin W. Mulford, 
father of the subject of our sketch. On this farm was one of the most 
noted tan-yards of Revolutionary times. It was started by Lewis Mulford, 
and in the times of Jonathan, his grandson, there were hundreds of vats, 
remains of which can be seen to this day. The family and descendants 


of Lewis Mulford settled around and about this old homestead. To 
Captain Thomas Mulford was given the home farm and the tan-yard. 
This property next descended to his son, Jonathan Mulford, who married 
Catherine Watkins. They had thirteen children, seven of whom died in 
infancy. The oldest was Thomas. Benjamin Watkins Mulford, the 
second son, was the father of Aaron D. He first married Miss March, who 
died, leaving one son. His second wife was Miss Jane Baker, of Union. 
By this marriage he had seven children, — five sons and two daughters. 

Aaron D. Mulford was the fourth son of Benjamin Watkins and Jane 
Baker, his wife, who was the great-granddaughter of Elizabeth Dickinson, 
the daughter of Jonathan Dickinson, and the wife of Jonathan Miller. 
Jonathan Dickinson, the well known divine, was the founder and 
first president of Princeton College, and at one time was pastor of the 
First Presbyterian church, Elizabeth. Aaron D. Mulford is also, by his 
maternal relationship, seventh in generation from Peter Nue, who was a, 
son of Elias Nue, a French Huguenot, who came to America in the 
sixteenth century and became one of the founders of the first French 
church in New York. He was a lay reader of the catechism for this 
society. His daughter was wife of the original owner of Tremley's Point. 

Mr. Mulford was born in Elizabeth, January lo, 1840, and was 
married, February 17, 1869, to Clari E. Morandi, of Boston. Of this 
union were born three children, two of whom died in infancy. Ernest 
Denman, now the only living son, is at the present time a member of the 
senior class in the Harvard University. 

His father, the subject of this sketch, attended the private schools of 
Elizabeth until fifteen years of age, when he secured a clerkship in a 
dry-goods store, and there remained one year and a half At the age of 
seventeen }'ears he entered the real-estate and insurance office of his 
brother-in-law, Gilbert B. Whittlesey, in Elizabeth, and remained with 
him two years. He then became a partner in the same business with his 
uncle, under the firm name of J. C. & A. D. Mulford. 

In 1865 Mr. J. C. Mulford died. In 1866 Mr. A. D. Mulford took 
into partnership Mr. J. Williams Crane, and the business was conducted 
under the .firm name of Mulford & Crane until October i, 1871, when, 
on account of his impaired health, Mr. Mulford left home for Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, where he remained twenty-four years, returning to 
Elizabeth in 1895. 

Mr. Mulford has always been a valuable and a public-spirited 
citizen wherever he has resided. He was one of the founders and 
directors of the First National Bank of Elizabeth, one of the original 
members of the National Fire & Marine Insurance Company, also one 
of the projectors, stockholders and trustees of the Dime Savings Bank in 
Elizabeth, and, on his return from the west, assisted in rebuilding 
Library Hall, now known as the Lyceum Theatre. 

Before leaving for the west Mr. Mulford erected some of the finest 


residences in Elizabeth. While a resident of Minneapolis he was active 
in the promotion of several public enterprises, one of which was the 
establishment of the Farmers' & Mechanics' Savings Bank of that city, 
of which he was for a time president ; he was the founder of the great 
Western Elevator Company, and one of the thirteen organizers of the 
Chamber of Commerce, in which he still holds membership. Mr. 
Mulford is also connected with other enterprises, and in various ways is 
identified with the growth and prosperity of Elizabeth, but he is in no 
way a politician or seeker after office. He is a member of the New 
Jersey Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, and one of the 
active members of the Elizabeth Chapter. He is also a member of 
several social clubs. He is now a member, and has been for several 
years, of the Board of Trade of Duluth, Minnesota. Mr. Mulford has 
been an extensive traveler, not only in this country, throughout its 
length and breadth, but over Europe as well, having visited the 
continent a number of times within the last thirty years. 


of Elizabeth, is a member of the city council from the eleventh ward. 
He was bom in New York city in 1840, began his career as a business 
man in that city, and is now a member of the firm of Berry, Wisner, 
I/ohman & Company. His work as a merchant has been uninterrupted, 
save for a period of a few months, when his regiment, the famous New 
York Seventh, was in the field, in Maryland, during the war of the 

In 1894 Mr. Berry was elected to the council, as a Republican, to 
fill the unexpired term of the Hon. William H. Corbin, and was re-elected 
in 1895 and again in 1897. While the Republicans were in control of 
that body he was at the head of the committees on finance, streets and 

Mr. Berry is a son of Samuel J. Berry and Catherine (Gillelan) 
Berry. The former is descended from Peter Willemse Roome, of 
Holland, who migrated to America in 1684. 

Our subject married, in 1866, Charlotte L,. Hall, and is the father of 
Samuel, Jr., Clarence, A. Hall, Charlotte (wife of R. T. Greene), Louis 
P. and Katharine G. 


who is engaged in the dairy business in Elizabeth, was born on the 7th 
of February, 1859, i" Elizabeth Town, near Roselle borough, and is a 
son of George and Margaret (Armstrong) Gregory. His father was born 
January 15, 181 1, and died on the 15th of April, i860. His wife was 
born in 1833. They were the parents of five children, namely : George, 


who was born March 21, 1852 ; Rebecca, who was born September 24, 
1853, and died December 29, 1858 ; Sarah Jane, born January 20, 1857 ; 
John, of this review, and Robert James, who was born October 30, i860, 
and died May 27, 1884. 

John Gregory spent his early years upon the home farm, assisting 
in its cukivation through the summer months, while in the winter 
seasons he attended the public schools, acquiring thereby a good 
practical English education. His life work has been a kindred 
occupation to that which claimed his attention in his early years, he 
being now engaged in the dairy business. He has built up a good 
trade in this line, and his honorable dealings secure him a continuance 
of the liberal patronage. 

Mr. Gregory is recognized as an important factor in the public life of 
Elizabeth, and is now serving his second term as a member of the 
Roselle borough council, discharging his duties in a manner most 
creditable to himself and satisfactory to its constitutents. He takes 
much delight in athletics, and is an enthusiastic wheelman, belonging 
to the Wheel Club of Union County Roadsters, and to the League of 
American Wheelmen. He is also a valued member of the Order of 
Chosen Friends. 


was a representative citizen of Elizabeth, and was born in the village 
of Weckesheim, Grand Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt, Germany, 
September 10, 1834. He was the son of Henry and Henrietta Pfarrer. 
In his sixteenth year, with a good rudimentary education, he left home 
and embarked for America, to seek his fortune. On arriving in New 
York he became apprenticed to a machinist, with whom he remained 
until he was twenty-one. He then obtained an engagement with the 
Singer Sewing Machine Company, in whose employ he continued 
until his death; and for many years held the responsible and important 
position of master mechanic. 

Mr. Pfarrer became a citizen of Elizabeth when the Singer 
Manufacturing Company located here, and was frequently elected to 
fill positions of honor and trust. For many years he was a member of 
the board of managers of the Elizabeth General Hospital. He was one 
of the founders of the First German Presbyterian church, its leading 
elder, and for more than twenty years superintendent of the Sabbath 
school. He was also one of the founders of the board of trade, and a 
director of the Union County Savings Bank. He also served a term 
as school commissioner, representing the old first ward prior to the 
formation of wards as they now exist. Politically Mr. Pfarrer was a 
life-long Republican, and a stanch adherent to the principles of 
the party. 


In 1858 Mr. Pfarrer married Miss Johanna E. Halberstadt, a native 
of Baltimore, but a resident of New Rochelle, Westchester county, 
New York, at the time of her marriage. With her he lived very 
happily for upwards of thirty-nine years. His widow and an adopted 
daughter survive him. 

Mr. Pfarrer died suddenly and unexpectedly, from heart trouble. 
His untimely death was greatly mourned, and resolutions of con- 
dolence and respect were passed by the hospital board, the church of 
which was a founder, and several societies, as well as his employes, — 
all testifying to his excellence as a man, a friend and a citizen. 


The subject of this review is one of the enterprising and well known 
citizens of Elizabeth, of which city he is a native. Here he was born 
September 13, 1857. He is a son of Patrick J. and Bessie (Carroll) 
Brennan, who were born in Ireland. They came to America in early 
life, and married in Elizabeth. The father died when his son was an 
infant. The mother is living. The subject of this brief mention is 
their only surviving child. He was reared in Elizabeth, in the public 
schools of which city he gained a common-school education. 

His first important business engagement was with the Singer 
Manufacturing Company, with which concern he remained fifteen 
years, as establisher and manager of branch offices. Leaving this field 
of usefulness, he engaged in business as a contractor, and for four years 
remained in this business, with satisfactory results. 

From early life Mr. Brennan has been active in politics. In 1893 
he became the nominee of the Democratic party for the general assembly 
and made an excellent race, though defeated by a small majority. Mr. 
Brennan received appointment, April 15, 1895, to the position of deputy 
United States internal-revenue collector for the tenth division, fifth 
district, comprised of Union and Middlesex counties. This position he 
has filled with ability, and now holds the same with the assured 
confidence of the internal-reveniie department. 

He is genial, affable and unassuming, and a most pleasant gentle- 
man. In 1886 Miss Margaret Lyons, born in New York, became his 
wife. His home has been blessed by the birth of three sons and two 


was born in Union township. Union county, New Jersey, August 2, 
1833. He is a descendant of Andrew Miller, who with his son, 
Josiah, was among the first settlers of Bottle Hill, now the borough of 
Madison, in Morris county. New Jersey. Mr. Miller's father was the 


late Josiali Miller, also a native of Bottle Hill, and his mother was 
Hannah Ward, daughter of Silas Ward, of Union county-. 

Mr. Miller, Sr. , was by occupation a wagon-maker, but after 
moving to Union township became interested in agricultural pursuits 
and followed farming during the later years of his life. Mr. Miller, 
the subject of this sketch, spent his earlier years on the farm, and 
received his education in Mr. James G. Nuttman's private school, at 
Elizabeth. When sixteen years of age he began to learn his trade as a 
machinist, under E. & S. D. Gould, of Newark, with whom he remained 
five years. In 1861 he became connected with the Manhattan Fire Arms 


Company, of Newark, remaining with this company until January, 
1863, when his connection with I. M. Singer & Company began. 

This firm at that time conducted its operations on Mott street, 
New York, and, in order to be near his place of business, Mr. IMiller 
moved to Jersey City, where he resided until 1870, when he moved to 
Elizabeth, to which place the works of the Singer Manufacturing 
Company (successors to I. M. Singer & Company), were transferred 
in 1873. 

Mr. Miller's engagement with this firm was especially to design 
and supervise the construction and use of special automatic tools for 
the production of parts which should be interchangeable, in the 
manufacture of Sino-er sewing machines. 


The successful inauguration of this system resulted in his appoint- 
ment by the Singer Manufacturing Company (which was incorporated 
in June, 1863), first as assistant superintendent; and later, in the 
beginning of 1869, as general superintendent of these factories, and 
this position he still holds. 

In the beginning of 1863 I. M. Singer & Company manufactured 
about four hundred sewing machines per week. Now the Singer 
Manufacturing Company manufactures at its Elizabeth works alone, 
about seven thousand five hundred machines per week, and employs 
about four thousand hands. 

In 1857 Mr. Miller was married to Miss Martha Frances Cowlishaw, 
who died in 1884. Three sons and two daughters were born of this 
union. Of the eldest son, David M. Miller, M. D. , specific mention is 
made on another page of this volume. The second son, Henry J. 
Miller, a mechanical engineer and patent solicitor, is in the employ of 
the Singer Manufacturing Company, in the line of his profession; and 
Herbert S. Miller, an electrical engineer, is secretary of the Diehl 
Manufacturing Company, whose works are located at Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, and is one of its electricians. 

Mr. Miller is a member of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers; has been president of the Elizabeth General Hospital and 
Dispensary since its organization, in 1879, with the exception of the 
years 1890-91-92; is one of the directors of the First National Bank 
of Elizabeth; a manager of the Union County Savings Bank; one of 
the trustees of Evergreen cemetery; an elder in the First Presbyterian 
church; and is in various ways identified with the growth and 
prosperity of the city of Elizabeth, in which he still resides. 


of Elizabeth, ex-sheriff of Union county, was born in that city Novem- 
ber 9, 1835. He was educated in the private school conducted by the 
well remembered F. W. Foote. On reaching his majority he entered 
into business with M. W. Halsey, under the firm name of Halsey & 
Glasby, and continued in Elizabeth till the outbreak of the war. Mr. 
Glasby then retired, and, after spending a year in the service of the 
Central Railroad, entered the Corn Exchange Bank, of New York. He 
resigned this position on account of ill health, and engaged in the 
masons' supply business in Elizabeth. He subsequently formed a 
partnership with J. Williams Crane, the firm being Crane & Glasby, 
■ real-estate dealers. Upon retiring from this firm he became general 
bookkeeper for the Mercantile National Bank of New York. Later he 
joined Earl & Dayton, bankers, in the Drexel building. New York, and 
remained with them till they dissolved. He then accepted a position 
with Sheriff Stiles, of Elizabeth, whom he succeeded as sheriff in 1887. 


During his administration as sheriff the race-track people were indicted 
for the first time, and it was a grand jury drawn by him that found the 
true bills. 

Mr. Glasby's father, James Glasby, was born in Newark, of Scotch- 
Irish parents. He married, at Ivyons Farms, Susan Brown, and began 
housekeeping in the building now used as the Evergreen cemetery 
office. The father died at the age of eighty, and the mother, in 1896, 
at the age of ninety-six years. Of their six children only three are 
living : William B., of Newark, Edward J. and Frederick F. The only 
daughter, Mrs. Mary E. Williams, died in 1896. 

November i, 1859, Frederick F. Glasby married Phoebe L., daughter 
of Joseph A. Davis, a representative of an old Westfield family. There 
are two children of this union : Joseph F. Glasby, of Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, and Julia D., the wife of Frank H. Miller, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Mr. Glasby's maternal gTandfather married Phoebe Bond. He was a 
patriot soldier in the Revolution, and descended from Connecticut 
stock. The Price family, of Lyons Farms, was also among the earliest 
settlers in Essex county, being closely related to the Glasby family 
by marriage. The wife of ex-Senator Daniel Price, of Essex county, 
was a cousin of our subject's mother. This family is also from Con- 


of Elizabeth, manager of the New York & New Jersey Telephone 
Company, and superintendent of the Fire Alarm Telegraph of that city, 
is a native of Philadelphia, where he was born June 10, 1847. His 
father, Marcus A. Root, was from the state of Ohio, and a native 
of Granville, Licking county, being the first white male child born 
in that county, in 1802 ; consequently the grandparents of Charles 
M. Root were among the first settlers in Ohio, going thither from 
Massachusetts, and making the journey with ox teams. 

Mr. Root's mother was Lauretta Esther Kenedy, daughter of 
Rev. Nathaniel Kenedy, a Scotchman, whose ancestors were English. 
Mr. Kenedy was a Presbyterian minister, also a teacher of the classics, 
and had the reputation of being the best Hebrew and Greek scholar of 
his day. 

The father began life as a farmer in Ohio, where he remained until 
about the year 1830, when he came to Philadelphia and began teaching 
penmanship. Later he undertook the study of daguerreotyping, which 
had become a subject of much public interest, following Daguerre's 
invention for taking pictures. He made the first daguerreotype in this 
country. It was taken from a window of the United States mint, and 
he presented it to the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Mr. Root 
continued in the profession until improved photography superceded the 
Daguerre process, and he became the leading artist in Philadelphia. 


Mr. Root died in the year 1888, and his wife in 1895. They left a 
family of seven children, namely : William N., Marcus A., Charles M., 
Howard C, Helen L,., Albert P. and Henry G. 

After his school days Charles M. Root began life as a telegraph 
operator, subsequently learning the trade of machinist and working in 
Philadelphia. When the telephone was invented and brought into use 
he engaged in that industry and became a manager of the business in 
the Quaker City, — from 1877 till 1885, when he removed to Elizabeth to 
take the management of the New York & New Jersey Telephone 
Company, including Rahway, Perth Amboy, South Amboy, Staten 
Island and New Brunswick, with headquarters in Elizabeth. In the 
same year he was appointed the superintendent of the Fire Alarm in 
Elizabeth, which position he still retains. 

The telephone business of the company, under Mr. Root's manage- 
ment, has continued to increase in .all directions throughout the 
territory under his control, and has become a valuable and extensive 
system. In fact, he has built up the business so that there are more 
telephones used in Elizabeth, in proportion to its population, than in 
any other city in the state of New Jersey. In a word, Mr. Root belongs 
distinctively to the ^emcs " kusiler." 

In the year 1867 Mr. Root was united in marriage to Miss Belinda 
Spickler, a Pennsylvania Dutch maiden, of Mount Joy, L/ancaster 
county. They have three children, all living, named as follows : 
Ivauretta Esther, Gertrude L,. and Charles H. 

Mr. Root's record for energy and enterprise in his chosen calling is 
of far more than local celebrity, and he is well known among the leading 
telephone managers and projectors throughout the United States. 

was born February 22, 1854, in the old Sayre homestead, on West 
Jersey street, Elizabeth, New Jersey, near the Elizabeth river. His 
parents were the late Francis Sayre and Susan (Price) Sayre, both of 
whom were of Revolutionary stock, their ancestors having taken an 
active part in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Sayre has always made 
Elizabeth his home. He received his education in its public schools, 
and was a graduate of School, No. 3, on Morrell street. 

His first occupation was with the late firm of Wade & Halsey, 
expressmen, for whom he worked many years, when he entered the 
employ of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, at the old union depot, 
where he remained for about eight years. On the appointment of 
Chancellor McGill, Mr. Sayre was appointed as sergeant-at-arms of the 
court of chancery, and served for many years with the late Vice-Chancel- 
lor Van Fleet, who held him in high esteem. After the death of Vice- 
Chancellor Van Fleet he was appointed to the same position by the 


present Vice-Chancellor Emery, with whom he is still associated. Mr. 
Sayre is well known by members of the bar from all parts of the state, 
by reason of his long connection with the chancery court. 

He is a Democrat, and very early in life took an active interest in 
public affairs. His first public office was that of constable in the old 
fourth ward of Elizabeth, which was strongly Republican. Mr. Sayre 
served many terms, being elected by large majorities. When the new 
ninth ward was set apart, in 1891, Mr. Sayre received the Democratic 
nomination for member of the board of education, and was elected. He 
has regularly represented the ward in that important body until the 
present time, and has been three times honored with the presidency. 
Mr. Sayre is also a member of the fire, deprrtment, having joined 
lyafayette Hook and Dadder Company in January, 1877. He has repre- 
sented that company in the Elizabeth Fireman's Relief Association for 
the past seventeen years, and is vice-president of that association. 

He has held every office in his company, and is a member of the 
Exempt Association. Mr. Sayre has been urged many times to allow 
his name to be used for other and higher offices of responsibility and 
trust, but has always declined, being satisfied to look after the welfare of 
the schools of the city, in which he takes great interest. 


member of the board of education of Elizabeth, was born in that city in 
October, 1861, and was educated in public school No. 2. At an early 
age he engaged in business with his father, Frederick Kurtz, and has 
become one of the leading and successful dealers in Elizabeth. 

Mr. Kurtz became interested in politics early in life, as a member of 
the Democratic party. He was elected to the board of education in 
1887, and has been four times re-elected to that body. He has always 
been on important committees, and was either the chairman or a 
member of the committee that proposed each new building. There 
were only four buildings when he came into the board, and now there 
are nine, including a separate high school. 

In 1895-6 Mr. Kurtz was chief engineer of the Elizabeth fire 
department. He was married in 1887 to Catherine H. Laux, and their 
children are : Charles, Jr., Kate and Sophie. 


The many valuable inventions of Philip Diehl place him among 
the foremost inventors, and are the outcome of the careful study he has 
devoted to them all his life. His patents appertaining to sewing 
machines and electrical appliances number more than an hundred. 



Philip Diehl, at the head of mechanical construction for the 
Singer Manufacturing Company, and one of the officers of the Diehl 
Manufacturing Company, of Elizabethport, was born at Dalsheim, 
Rheinhessen, Germany, January 31, 1847. His father. Dr. John 
Diehl, was an eminent physician, and one of his brothers is a 
practicing physician in the state of Illinois. Philip, however, showed 
early in life, a preference for mechanical pursuits, and his education 
was therefore directed in that direction. 

When twenty years of age Philip Diehl came to this country and, 
after working in various machine shops, found employment, in 1868, 


as machinist with the Singer Manufacturing Company, then located in 
Mott street. New York city. In 1870 he went to Chicago, where he 
worked in the Singer Company's agency in that city until 1875, when 
he came to Elizabeth and took charge of the experimental work in the 
improvement of sewing machines, at the company's factory in that 
city. To any one not familiar with the many kinds of work required 
of sewing machines, this work might seem to be unimportant, but the 
fact that the company is now manufacturing (and selling in every land 
on the globe) nearly a million machines yearly, embracing fifty-three 
entirely different constructions, and three hundred and sixty varieties 


of machines,— from the ordinary machines for family use to machines 
of every conceivable class for manufacturing purposes, including 
machines with twelve needles, running by steam or electric power at 
high rates of speed,— will make it apparent that a great amount of 
study is necessary in adapting the machines to all the requirements 
of trade. 

As above stated, Mr. Diehl is also the inventor of many electrical 
appliances, — such as electric motors, dynamos, electric fans, arc lamps, 
etc.,— which are manufactured by the Diehl Manufacturing Company. 
The headquarters of this company are located at the works of the 
Singer Manufacturing Company, where they do an extensive business, 
their products being shipped to all parts of the world. 


one of the leading insurance and real-estate men of Elizabethport, 
New Jersey, was born at Watertown, New York. Early in life he 
became a resident of Malone, New York, and was educated in the 
Franklin Academy. Subsequently he went to New York city and 
became a clerk in the employ of the once famous J. A. Underwood & 
Son, of Wall street. In 1870 he left home again to come to this city. 

Mr. Welch is connected with a number of financial and other 
enterpises of Elizabethport. He was one of the organizers of the 
Union County Building and L,oan Association, and is vice-president of 
the latter. He is has been chairman of the committee on valuation for 
both associations almost since their organization. 

Mr. Welch was married, in Elizabeth, to Sarah Moorehouse. 
Their children are: Sadie M. , who is an accomplised musician, both 
on the piano and violin; and Robert J. M., who is a promising young 
athlete of this city. Both children have positive and exceptional 
talent as artists. 


vice-president of the American Gas Company, Elizabeth, was born in 
Baden, Germany, in 1835. He attended the common schools of his 
native land and supplemented the instructions therein received by a 
special course in mechanical drawing, subsequently completing his 
technical education in Switzerland. He began his business career by 
taking charge, for a time, of his father's business in the city of Pforzheim, 
state of Baden, Germany. 

Mr. Machlet emigrated to America in 1870. He spent three years 
in Newark, New Jersey, and in 1873 engaged with the Singer Manufact- 
uring Company, of Elizabeth, with whom he remained one year. In 
1874 he began the manufacture of jewelers' tools, and not long afterward 



organized his present business, the plans of which he conceived in 
Germany. Mr. Machlet's business venture has been successful from the 
beginning, and it has been pushed vigorously and uninterruptedly to the 
present time. From a small beginning it has developed to its present 
large proportions, its growth having been continuous from the start. In 


1887 it was incorporated under its present title, with E. P. Reichhelm, 
president ; George W. Machlet, vice-president ; Robert Vom ClefF, 
treasurer ; and T. Dieffenbach, secretary. 

The company give employment to thirty-six hands, and their goods 
find a market in all parts of the world. Their factory occupies a frontage 
of one hundred and forty feet on Spring street, one hundred feet on 


Ivafayette street, and eighty-six feet on Elizabeth street, with spacious 
grounds around. 

Mr. Machlet was married in Germany, and is the father of three 
sons, who are now associated with him in business, — George F., Adolph 
W., and Frederick W. They were all born in Germany, and, inheriting 
their father's sterling qualities, are constituents of one of the most 
reputable organizations in the state of New Jersey. In politics they are 
all Democrats, and in church and kindred interests they all contribute 
liberally of their wealth. 


councilman from the seventh ward of Elizabeth, was first elected to that 
body in April, 1895, and was re-elected in April, 1897. He is a member 
of the poor and alms, fire, and printing committees, of which last named 
he is chairman. He is elected as a Democrat, and is one of the young 
members of that body. 

Mr. Noll was born in New York city, March 7, 1862, is a son of 
Paul N. Noll, a German, and some fifteen years ago he entered the 
employ of the Singer Manufacturing Company, and is a machinist in 
that establishment. He was marred in 1889 to Catherine Safiirich, and 
has three children. 

Mr. Noll is one of the directors of the Excelsior Building and I/oan 
Association. He has been for twelve years a member of Washington 
Engine Company, No. 3, of which he has been secretary and treasurer. 
He belongs to Friendship A. B. Council, and to Washington Court of 
the Foresters, and has served one term as school commissioner. He 
signed the committee's report for a paid fire department, and is one of 
the active supporters of that movement. 


owner of the machine works of P. G. Fleming & Company, in Elizabeth, 
New Jersey, has an interesting ancestral history. He is descended from 
a Mr. Fleming of the north of Ireland. His earliest named ancestor, 
Malcolm Fleming, died in county Tyrone, Ireland, in the year 1736. 
His three sons, Thomas, William and Andrew, came to America in 
1750. William had one son who served in the Revolutionary war, and 
died in 1785. He is buried at Bethlehem Presbyterian church, near 
Clinton, New Jersey. William Fleming (2), eldest son of Andrew (2), 
was born May 31, 1833. His third son, Andrew (3), was born October 
23, 1805, and died at Redington, New Jersey, March i, 1886. George 
Fleming, second son of Andrew (3), was born at Milltown, New Jersey, 
February 12, 1845. His wife, Esther Ann Green, daughter of Peter 
Green, was born at Sergeantsville, New Jersey, November 16, 1850. 



They were married at Mechanicsville, New Jersey, December 24, i^ 
and their eldest, son, Peter Green Fleming, was born January 6, 1870. 

Mr. Fleming was educated in the public schools, under the super- 
vision of his father, who is now principal of public schools of Junction, 


New Jersey. After leaving school, at the age of seventeen years, he was 
apprenticed to Kenyon Brothers, of Raritan, New Jersey, for four years, 
to learn the trade of machinist, afterwards serving two years as journey- 
man machinist in different shops. 

In March, 1893, he carne to Elizabeth, New Jersey, and opened a 
machine shop of his own, employing but one man to assist him. At 



this time, less than four years since the time he began, he employs from 
fifteen to twenty-five men. Such increase shows unusual energy and 
application to business. 

Mr. Fleming's wife. Miss Ida May Barber, daughter of Rev. Alfred 
Barber, of Raritan, New Jersey, was born at Blackstone, Massachusetts, 
May 7, 1873. They were married at Raritan, New Jersey, June 21, 
1892, and have two children. Myrtle D., born October 2, 1893, and 
Alfred Barber, born December 24, 1895. 


whose identification with the industrial interests of Elizabeth covers a 
quarter of a century, has been a most important factor in the substantial 
growth of the city. Prosperity depends upon business activity, and by 
the management of extensive manufacturing concerns Mr. Rankin has 
not only promoted his individual success, but has also largely advanced 
the welfare of the entire community. 

Mr. Rankin was born December 27, 1843, acquired a common- 
school education, and in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, learned the 
carpenter's trade, but when the country became involved in civil war he 
put aside all business cares and personal consideration in order to stand 
as a defender of the Union. He enlisted in the three-months service 
and subsequently raised a company and was made captain of the organ- 
ization, which became Company I, One Hundred and Fourth Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry. On many a southern battlefield he loyally defended the 
starry banner and the cause it represented, and when the war was over 
received an honorable discharge. 

Returning to his old home, Captain Rankin resumed carpentering, 
which he successfully followed until 1868. In that year he began exper- 
imenting in the manufacture of roofing materials, in Williamsport, 
Pennsylvania, and, achieving success in that undertaking, he removed 
his plant to Elizabeth in 1873, and established an office at No. 91 Maiden 
Lane, New York city, from which point the business of the company is 
transacted, while the manufacturing is carried on in New Jersey. The 
trade has steadily increased and has now assumed extensive proportions, 
seventy men being now employed in the establishment, in the manufact- 
ure of roofing materials, rosin size, Rankin's patent painted felt for 
sheathing, roofing pitch, liquid roof-paints, etc. 

Mr. Rankin is a man of broad capability, and his efforts have been 
by no means confined to one' line of interests. He is president and 
treasurer of the Empire Target Company, also president and treasurer 
of the Elizabeth Telephone Company and director in the First National 
Bank of Elizabeth. He possesses superior executive ability, keen 
foresight and untiring enterprise, and, with a strong intellect to devise 



plans and a will to carry them forward to completion, along the lines of 
honorable business dealing he has achieved a splendid success. 

In 1 87 1 Mr. Rankin was united in marriage to Miss Mary Jane 
Bradin, and their pleasant home has been shared by their nephew, Robert 
ly. Bradin, who has lived with them since four months old and who is 
now a clerk in the First National Bank. Mr. Rankin is a supporter of 
the Presbyterian church and kindred interests, and is one of the managers 
of the Elizabeth General Hospital. His charity and benevolence are 
broad but unostentatious, and his support is withheld from no movement 
which is calculated to advance the best interests of Elizabeth. In the 
Masonic fraternity he has arisen to the degree of Knight Templar. He 
takes a lively interest in sports afield and is a devoted follower of Izaak 
Walton. Thus, in his divided interests, of business, pleasure and social 
life, he has developed a symmetrically rounded character, which 
commands for him the esteem of all with whom he comes in contact. 


ex-member of the common council of Elizabeth, was born in county 
Louth, Ireland, in 1840. He came to the United States in 1866, and 
spent the first six years with a Mr. Gould, in the drug business at 
Yorkville. He then came to Elizabeth and opened a drug store at 142 
First street, where he remained eleven years, when he removed to his 
own building, at No. 168 Third street, where he conducts a large drug 
business. He is also an agent for all European steamship companies, 
in which line he is very successful. 

Mr. Oakes has for many years manifested a good citizen's interest 
in politics, and has been prominent as a leader in the Democratic party. 
He was elected to the council in 1893, and was returned to that body in 
1895. During his last term he was chairman of the committee on 
public buildings, and as such was a very active advocate for improve- 
ments in all public buildings and parks, particularly Jackson park, 
and was also a member of the committee on education. He was keenly 
alive to the importance of a good and effective fire department, and 
advocated appropriations to that end. He also showed himself to be a 
friend to the public schools, being a prominent factor in securing the 
erection of public-school building No. i, one of the finest in the state. 
He has also been a member of the school board. On the 5th of May, 
1897, he was nominated second vice-president of the New Jersey State 
Pharmacy Association, of which he has been a working member for the 
past twenty years. 

In 1885 Mr. Oakes was married to Mary E. Carney, of Newark, 
who was organist of St. Thomas' Church. They have two sons, Alfred 
E. and Walter J. 




was born at Wi-irteinbui'i^-, (rennau}-, Fcbruar)- 5, 1H36. His parents 
were John and Barbara Clanss. After obtaining a good edncation in 
his native land Mr. Clanss came to America, in 1854, and settled in 
Elizabeth, New Jerse)-. Here he learned the trade of a baker, and 
began his business career by opening a bakery at the corner of Elizabeth 
avenue and Sixth street. He continued in business for many vears, 
growing prosperous by close application to his work and the practice of 
strictly honest business methods. Not long since Mr. Clauss retired, 
his son, Eouis C. Clauss, succeeding to the business. 

Mr. Clauss is a gentleman of quiet, unassuming ways, earnest, 
active and successful in his undertakings. He is esteemed by his fellow 
citizens, as ma)- be found in the fact that he has been twice elected to 
the house of assembly of New Jersey. He has alwa)-s been a RejDublican 
in politics. In 1895 he became the candidate of his part}' and was 
elected by a plurality of one thousand .six hundred and twenty-four over 
Mr. Green, the highest candidate on the Democratic ticket. In the 
following- year he was re-elected by a majority of five thousand one 
hundred and sixt}'-two. This was his first time to hold public office. 


In the discharge of his duties, fidelity and faithfulness to the best 
interests of the people marked his career as a legislator. 

May I, 1858, Mr. Clauss married Magdalina Seeger, who, like 
himself, was born in Germany. His son and daughter constitute the 
fruits of this marriage. In 1893 Mrs. Clauss died. She was a Christian 
lady, and, together with her husband, belonged to the German Methodist 


The ancestors of Mr. Stiles were conspicuously identified with tjie 
early history of New Jersey, and, as prominent citizens of Union county 
for more than a century past, their record may, with appropriateness, be 
included in a work of this kind. The following is a curtailed account of 
the family, giving both the paternal and maternal lineage. 

The original American ancestors of the Stiles famih' were established 
at Windsor, Connecticut, coming thither from Millbrook, Bedfordshire, 
England, in 1635. The direct line of descent of Daniel Stiles traces back 
through John, Isaac, John, William. Daniel Stiles, the grandfather of 
our subject lived in Flushing, Long Island, in early life, as did many of 
his ancestors, and subsequently moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey, there 
purchasing, in 1800, what is now known as the Stiles, homestead, a house 
said to be two hundred years old. The old house was torn down about 
twenty years ago and a new one erected on the same ground, — across 
from the L,ehigh Valley Railroad station on Morris avenue. Part of the 
land was later bought by the I/chigh Valley Railroad, in 1891, and part 
is still held by the Stiles family. Daniel married Phoebe Woodruff, 
daughter of Michael and Abigail (Magie) Woodruff, the latter being a 
sister of Michael Magie and an aunt of Rev. David Magie. The children 
of Mr. and Mrs. Woodruff were : Rachel, Fannie, Mary, Oliver, Phoebe, 
Elizabeth, Abigail, Margaret, Abner, Jonathan, Michael, Ward, and 
Morris. Daniel Stiles died near Elizabeth, November 24, 1810. To 
him and his wife were born the following children : John Woodruff, 
October 29, 1793, married Maria Williams ; Oliver, February 22, 1795, 
died April 8, 1871 ; Morris, July 10, 1797, married (i) Hannah Vander- 
lipp, a minister's daughter, of Albany, New York, and (2) Lucy Everett. 
Of the second marriage one daughter was born, Caroline Elizabeth, her 
birth occurring in 1838. In 1885 she lived in New York with her second 
husband,, and they later removed to California. Daniel Stiles had one 
daughter, Elizabeth W., born October 14, 1799, died August 20, 1869. 
Elias Wade Stiles, son of Daniel, was born February 23, 1809, married 
Mary Crane Bonnel, in Morristown, New Jersey, in 1843, and died March 
20, 1886. This union was blessed with the following children : George 
Morris, born March 23, 1845, o^ the 17th of January, 1872, married Miss 
Mary Winans, died March 20, 1888, a daughter of Nathan Winans, of 
Union county, and they resided at Plainfield. Their children are two in 


number: Mary Edna, born November 6, 1876, and Alice Winans, 
September 6, 1880. William Wade Stiles, born April 16, 1848, was one 
of the first assistant bookkeepers in the Elizabeth First National Bank, 
serving in that capacity for two years. His death occurred on the 15th 
of April, 1872. Phcebe Elizabeth, born April 18, 1852, married Cyrus 
B. Crane, son of Asher Crane, of Caldwell, on the 9th of November, 1881, 
and died September 2, 1890. Two children were born to them, — Alice 
Stiles, March 8, 1885, and William Asher, September 2, 1890. Mary 
Alice Stiles was born February 8, 1857. James Ogden, born October 16, 
1859, is engaged in the dairy business on the old Stiles homestead, which 
has been in the family since the year 1800. John Woodruff, born 
December 23, 1866, follows the vocation of farming. On the 5th of July, 
1893, he was united in marriage to Miss Goldie Virginia Dovell, and 
they have one daughter, now three years old, whom they have named 
Virginia Wade Stiles. 

The parents of Mrs. Elias Wade Stiles were Aaron and Phoebe 
Allen (Meeker) Bonnel, the latter of whom was born in Elizabeth, on the 
9th of April, 1796, and died in her native town on the 28th of March, 
1876. She was the daughter of Stephen Meeker and Charity (Crane) 
Meeker, the latter being a daughter of Nehemiah and Esther (Woodruff) 
Crane, and a great-great-granddaughter of Stephen Crane, of England. 
The children of Stephen Meeker and Charity Crane Meeker were : 
Nehemiah, born in 1794; Phoebe Allen, April 9, 1796; Esther, June 
25, 1808 ; Mary, July 10, 1805, married William Stiles, son of John and 
Phoebe (Crane) Stiles, the latter a daughter of Captain Jacob Crane. 
William Stiles was born in May, 1804, and died in 1896. Charity, 
daughter of Stephen Meeker, married Nehemiah Sayre. Aaron Bonnel 
was born in Morris county, New Jersey, on the ist of May, 1794, and 
was a son of Elias and Mary (Wilkinson) Bonnel, the latter's father 
being a native of England. Elias was a son of Elias the first, who 
married Temperance Wade, daughter of Captain Wade, of Connecticut 
Farms, now Union county. Captain Wade lived opposite the parsonage 
during the Revolutionary war, when all the houses except three were 
destroyed by fire. The wife of Rev. James Caldwell was shot and 
carried across the street to the captain's house. The following are the 
children of Aaron and Phoebe (Allen) Bonnel : Mary Crane Bonnel 
Stiles, born January 21, 1821 ; Amanda, March 4, 1823 i Stephen 
Meeker, December 11, 1824, moved to Michigan in 1856, enlisted in the 
war of the Rebellion, and was killed at the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th 
of April, 1862 : he left a widow and four children, the former dying in 
1893 ; Aaron Ogden, September 3, 1827, located at Derby Depot, a few 
miles from St. Joseph, Michigan; Elias, May, 18, 1850; Phoebe Eliza, 
beth, May 21, 1833 ; Phcebe Asenath, April 7, 1840, became the wife of 
Ogden Woodruff and is living on Salem avenue. Twelve children were 
born to them, all surviving except three, one of the latter being Rev. 


Frank Stiles Woodruff, who died about two weeks after his return from 
Syria, where he had spent a number of years. 

Michael Woodruff, the first, of Woodruff Farms, near Elizabeth, 
lived in what was afterward the almshouse. One cold winter's night, 
as he was about to retire, he saw in the bright moonlight the glitter of 
approaching muskets, and surmising at once that the British troops 
were stealing upon the slumbering city, he hastened out of the house, 
without stopping to dress, and gave the alarm in Elizabeth, and the 
British, who evidently thought to surprise the people by crossing the 
meadow, met with such a warm reception that they were forced to retreat. 
Mr. Woodruff remained from home for seven or eight days, and upon 
his return home he was arrested by the English and confined in what 
was then called the Sugar-house prison, in New York. Here he was 
kept for quite a while among other prisoners, who were daily con- 
demned to death and taken out to be shot, and each day he was favored 
with the cheerful information that his turn would come next. 
However, an old neighbor of his, named Hendrichs, who, although a 
member of the British force, and on duty at the temporary prison, said 
he could not bear to have his old friend meet such a fate, and through 
his intervention Mr. Woodruff was eventually released and lived for 
several years after. 


president of the Elizabeth Ice Company, and ex-member of the 
common council of Elizabeth, has been a resident of that city for the 
past forty-eight years, having settled there in the year 1849. He was 
born on the old Orange poor farm, in Essex county, January 5, 1828. 
He worked on his father's farm till the age of sixteen, when he went to 
Newark, where he learned the carpenter trade and followed that occupa- 
tion in Elizabeth till 1866, when he engaged in the ice business with 
R. S. Williams. In 1888 the business was converted into a stock 
company, and was organized with M. W. Reeve as president, C. H. K. 
Halsey as secretary, and R. S. Williams as superintendent. The concern 
has a storage capacity of thirteen thousand tons of natural ice, and the 
output from their machine is thirty tons per day. 

Mr. Reeve is the vice-president of the First National Bank, of Eliza- 
beth. He is the son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Gardner) Reeve, the 
former of whom was born in Springfield, New Jersey, being the son of 
William Reeve, who was a farmer, and descended from one of the early 
ante-Revolutionary families of that locality. 

Mr. Reeve was married, in August, 1849, to Hannah 13. Addayson, 
who died April 18, 1896, without issiie. 


[by l. s hyer.] 

HAT is now the city of Rahway is one of the oldest 
settlements in New Jersey. Tradition and the early 
records show that it was originally occupied by the 
Indians, and that is was especially visited by the tribes 
that went on their annual tours to the seashore, in the vicinity of what 
is now L/ong Branch. The path led across the river near where the 
water-works are now located, and the stepping-stones used in crossing 
are still visible. 

Originally there were three separate settlements in what now 
constitutes the city, — the northern section called Rahway, the southern, 
Bridgetown and the western, Milton; more recently the southern 
section was known as Leesville, the lyce family owning much of the 
property in that locality. The eastern part was also known as Brick- 
town, on account of large brick factories located there, near the river 
landing, whence the bricks were shipped by boats to New York city 
and elsewhere, many of the older buildings in the lower part of that 
city being constructed of Rahway bricks. The earliest name for the 
town, that appears on record, was Spanktown. There are different 
reasons given for the adoption of that name, — among them, one that 
the locality gained notoriety from the circumstance of a man 
"spanking" his wife, and another that it was on account of the 
"spanking" rate at which General Maxwell came from Short Hills 
with his militia during the Revolution, to engage in a battle, lasting 
about two hours, with the British troops, who came from Perth 
Amboy. The battle occurred February 23, 1777. The British were 
defeated, and the records report the American loss as three killed and 
twelve wounded, while the British lost five hundred. 

What is now known as L,ower Rahway originally belonged to 
Woodbridge. On the 21st of May, 1666, John Pike, David Pierce and 
Abraham Tappan signed articles of agreement, in behalf of themselves 
and their associates, with Governor Carteret, to have the right to settle 
one or more plantations or townships, each to consist of fifty to one 
hundred families, "between the Rawawack river and the Raritan 
river," before or by November. The first charter for the "town of 
Woodbridge" (including Lower Rahway) was dated June i, 1669, the 


Railway river being the boundary on the east, from its mouth to the 
present Robinson branch. There are three branches of the river in 
different sections, — the north branch, Robinson's branch and south 
branch. The river has its rise in the Orange mountains, and is a very 
beautiful stream of pure water. The city obtains its water supply for 
all purposes from the river, by direct pumping pressure, and chemists, 
by analysis, pronounce the water as equal to the best known. The 
city is located from twenty-five to thirty-six feet above the level of the 
sea, and is considered among the healthiest places in the country. 

This locality was prominent in the Revolutionary war times, it 
being one of the five places where military guards were maintained. 
Besides those who were members of New Jersey organizations, as 
recorded in other histories, the following young men of Rahway were 
enlisted in Colonel Elisha Sheldon's Connecticut regiment of dragoons: 
Captain, David Edgar; lieutenant, James Paton; sergeant, Morris De 
Camp; corporals, Daniel Terrill Craig, Joseph Gilmore and Eliakim 
Ross; privates, Abraham Frazee, Benjamin Frazee, John Gilmore, 
Ephraim Eittle, Joseph Ludlow, Isaac Marsh, John Meeker, Samuel 
Oliver, William Pain, Henry Rolph, Joseph Wood and Daniel Vree- 
land. What is now Rahway was evidently quite an important place 
in those times, and history tells us of the "Sons of Liberty" here, 
who were from good old Quaker and Presbyterian stock, descendants 
of the Hollanders who came over in the ship "Half Moon," with 
Hendrick Hudson, in September, 1609, and also of the Puritans, from 
Connecticut, who contended with General Knyphausen's troops, who 
frequently made raids into Rahway, and especially upon the bar of 
Isaac Walton's tavern at Milton, on the old St. George road, called 
"the King's Highway." Generals Washington, La Fayette, Cornwallis, 
Gates and Howe were visitors in Rahway in those days, and afterwards 
Jefferson, Adams, Burr, Hamilton, Clay and Webster were guests at the 
Milton Inn, which had the reputation of being the best one on the road 
from New York to Philadelphia, between which places the people then 
traveled in stage coaches. Many old head-stones in what is now 
Rahway cemetery mark the graves of patriots of those times, particu- 
larly that of Abraham Clark, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence and a delegate to the continental congress, who was born 
in what is now Clark township, formerly a part of Rahway, February 
15, 1726, and died September 15, 1794. July 4, 1848, the citizens 
erected a handsome monument to his memory. 

Among the early events of the locality we are informed that, in 
1683, John Marsh built the first saw mill on the river (near the present 
railroad bridge) which was transferred to Stephen Van Cortlandt in 
1695; to Samuel Marsh in 1739, and remained in the Marsh family 
until 1826, when it was bought by Lufbery & Vail; afterward John R. 
Ayers, Samuel Williams and John H. Lufbery became its proprietors. 


and the business is still carried on by Mr. Lufbery and Ira C. Ayers, 
son of John R. , who died several years ago. 

In 1684 John Marsh erected a grist mill just above the saw mill 
and this was continued as such, by different parties, until about the 
time of the war of the Rebellion— 1860-65, the last proprietor being 
Lewis Hoff, who is still living. The premises were afterward used for 
a sawing and planing mill and later were purchased by Dr. E. B. 
Silvers and converted into an opera house. Here were also in early 
times a silk and woolen mill, hat factories and other mills, long since 
discontinued, — some burned, some crumbled, and others changed into 
dwellings or utilized for other purposes. 

One of the oldest dwelling houses of the place stands at the corner 
of Main street and Elm avenue and was owned by Samuel Marsh, Sr. , 
and is said to be about one hundred and seventy years old. An older 
house is one that is located a little back from Main street, near 
Commerce street, said to have been built two hundred years ago, by a 
Quaker named James Moore; in this officers of the Revolutionary 
times held conferences. An old burying ground is still visible at 
Bricktown, in which are tombstones marking the graves of members of 
the Miller and Morris family, dating as far back as 1757. The oldest 
tombstone that has been discovered is one in the Rahway cemetery, of 
John Frazee, the date of death being 1724. 

According to tradition the first church in existence was one built 
of logs, a little east of where the Scott avenue station of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad is now located, and in what is known as Gibby's woods; and 
here an old graveyard is still visible. There is also a tradition that 
the old chief, Rahwack, was buried there. 

In 1665 Robert Mosse (afterward Morss and Morse) came from 
Rowley, Massachusetts, and settled near Rahway. A number of his 
descendants still live in this vicinity, as also of others who came with 
him, including Samuel or Solomon Marsh, Sr. , Thomas Moore, Jonas 
Ward, William Letts, Joseph Frazee, William Johnson, Simon Rouse, 
John Toeand, William Robinson, who was a doctor, probably the 
first one in the place, and after whom the branch of the river is presumed 
to have been named, as he owned lands along the stream. The first 
religious meeting of record was that of the Quakers, held August 12, 
1707, in his house, which was located, it is said, on Hamilton street, 
where the dwelling of the late John H. Dierand now stands. 

Amos Morss (Morse) was a captain in the Continental army and lived 
in a farm house on the grounds of what is now of the Ralph Marsh 
estate, on St. George's avenue. There is a story that one night his 
house was surrounded by British soldiers, the Captain taken from his 
bed, made a prisoner, and for six months kept in the old Sugar-house 
in New York. His house was ransacked and among the articles taken 
was one of the old high clocks ; but, being inconvenient to carry, the 


works were removed and the wooden case discarded ; it was afterwards 
returned to the Captain's house ; subsequently new works were put in by 
the great clockmaker of early times, Isaac Brokaw, and it is now 
possessed by Mrs. lycwis White, who is a great-granddaughter of Captain 

The road which is now called St. George's avenue was laid out 
during Queen Anne's reign, and extended from Amboy to Elizabeth- 
town, afterward to Newark, through what is now Broad street in that 
city, and in King George's time it was extended to Jersey City, and then 
called the King's Highway until after the Revolution, when the patriots 
did not like anything that referred to the king, and it was called the 
Old Country Road, being changed to St. George's avenue when the 
streets and avenues were laid out and named, as Rahwaj' became a city. 

A prominent landmark in Rahway is what was once known as old 
Peace Tavern, located in the east side of Main street, in the central 
business portion of the city, for many years occupied by the late Jona- 
than Woodruff and family and still belonging to his estate. It is 
memorable as the place where General La Fayette was entertained when 
he made his visit to the United States and passed this way in going 
from New York to Philadelphia, in 1824, ^^^ ^-^so the place where the 
meeting was held, in 1822, at which the name of the town was changed 
from Bridgetown to Rahway. We know of but one of our residents now 
living who saw General La Fayette on that occasion, George W. Law- 
rence. There are some of the relics of that occasion still in existence, 
including a copy of the printed invitation to a reception held in his 
honor, and, a handsome satin vest worn by the late Joel Clarkson, which 
is still in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. James T. Melick. 

It is recorded that for some time after the Revolution the landing 
at Bricktown was an important point, vessels loaded with produce 
sailing from there directly to Bristol, England, and returning with dry 
goods. For many years, even up to a recent date, after the railroad 
was completed and freight rates cheapened, there was a large business 
done in transportation by boats to and from New York. In 1827 two 
boats are especially mentioned, — the Thomas Gibbons and Nonpareil. 

Rahway was also a prominent point in stage-coaching days,- before 
railroad communication with New York and Philadelphia had been 
secured. There were different lines, — some running through, and 
others being local; the stages were drawn by four-horse teams, and 
connected with boats for New York at what was known as Elizabeth- 
town Point. The first railroad was built in 1835, by a corporation 
known as the New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Company, the 
same route being now used by the Pennsylvania Company. Among 
records it appears that one of the first property-owners was William 
Oliver, who had "eighty-four acres of upland at Rawack," bounded 
by the lands of Peter Morse, Samuel Marsh, Sr., David Oliver and 


William Piles. He was one of the eighty original Elizabeth 
"Associates," and lived there, using his Rawack property for farming 
purposes. He died about 1694, and the Olivers, of which name there 
are many still in this locality, are his descendants. The David 
mentioned was his son. 

The first newspaper that we have any record of, as published 
within Rahway, was the Bridgetown Museum and New Jersey 
Advocate, the first issue being July 13, 1822, and Smith Edgar being 
the proprietor. The first portion of the title was soon dropped, and 
there have been numerous publications since that time. In 1840 
Josephus Shann established the Rahway Republican, which has been 
continued under different titles, without cessation, and is now the Union 
Democrat. The establishment was purchased by Lewis S. Hyer, then of 
Freehold, Monmouth county, in 1865, and he is still the owner and 
editor, with John I. Collins as manager since July, 1896. About i860 
the publication of the paper that was at first the Museum and 
Advocate, suspended, and the appurtenances were purchased by Mr. 
Shann and consolidated with his establishment. Subsequently a 
publication was started by a company, taking the title of Advocate 
and Times (the latter having been the name of a publication also 
suspended), which has been continued under different titles, and for 
some time as the New Jersey Advocate, by a stock company, the 
present editor being Harry B. Rollinson. 

Over sixty years ago Rahway appears to have been an enterprising 
town, judging from a description then prepared by Joseph O. L,ufbery 
(father of John H., before alluded to), in which he says, among other 
things: " This town contains three hundred and fifty to four hundred 
houses, population about three thousand, stores of various kinds, 
twenty-five taverns, three public buildings, one Presbyterian church, 
one Baptist, one Methodist, Friends and Orthodox Friends, and one 
meeting house for blacks; one academy, called the Athenian, just 
finished by a few enterprising citizens, also one academy built by one 
of our public-spirited citizens, Mr. Samuel M. Oliver, now rented as a 
boarding school, with a full complement of scholars; bank with a 
capital- of $70,000; postoffice, mail every day north and south; a 
printing office and weekly journal, an incorporated fire-engine com- 
pany, a mutual insurance company. We manufacture for exports hats, 
shoes and boots, carriages, cabinet furniture, ready-made clothing, 
sitting-chairs, soap and candles, cotton and woolen goods, tin ware, 
coach lace, plated ware for carriages. Capital employed in manufac- 
turing about three hundred thousand dollars; value of exports, one 
million to twelve hundred thousand dollars. We have four 
millinery stores, two watchmakers, three bakers, six lumber and coal 
yards, one soap and candle factory. On the river two sawmills do 
a very extensive business. There is a railroad now making passage 


through the town, from Jersey City to New Brunswick. Soil very 
good, generally loam, sandy, gravelly or red-shell bottom, well adapted 
to grass, grain, etc. We have at this time five vessels, one or two 
leaving each day for New York. The south end, lycesville, takes its 
name from a family named Lee, who have long resided there. This 
family has furnished our most enterprising and public-spirited citizens 
as merchants and manufacturers, who were the first to lead the way to 
our extensive trade to the southern states." 

By the above description it appears that the manufacturing then 
was even as varied, probably, as it is now, but not, perhaps, aggregating 
as much in results. Our stores and small tradesmen, of course, are 
more numerous, but since the commencement of the war of the 
Rebellion the manufacture of carriages and appurtenances, clothing, 
hats, shoes, etc., has greatly diminished, and the loss has not been 
made up entirely by other- enterprises which exist at this time. 

Prior to 1854 there were a number of mill dams in the river, 
which, it was alleged by physicians, and as it appeared from malarial 
sickness, were a detriment to the health and prosperity of the city. A 
certification to that effect was signed by the physicians then practicing 
in the place, those signing being Moses Jaques, Lewis Drake, Silas 
Cook, David S. Craig, S. Abernethy, John J. Janeway and Elihu B. 
Silvers, — all of whom except the last named are now deceased. A law 
was passed by the legislature providing for the removal of the dams in 
that year, the expenses being assessed upon the taxpayers, a subscrip- 
tion being raised to assist those who felt unable to pay their assessment. 
-David S. Craig, William B. Crowell and Joseph T. Crowell were the 
trustees to carry out the law, all of them now deceased. 

Rahway township was formed February 27, 1804, and the first 
town committee comprised Captain Isaac Marsh, Dr. David S. Craig 
and Lewis Brand. Meetings were first held in the house of John 
Mason. In 1830 the town was bounded by the towns of Westfield, 
Union, Elizabeth, Woodbridge and the Sound, measuring eight miles 
east and west, four miles and a half north and south, with an area of 
ten thousand acres. The township government continued until 1858, 
when the city was incorporated. Lower Rahway had been in Middle- 
sex county, and Upper Rahway in Essex county. In 1857 the county 
of Union was formed, taking in the portion belonging to Essex county, 
so that when the city was incorporated it had a sort of ' ' triple alliance, ' ' 
as the boundaries included the portions situated in the township of 
Woodbridge (in Middlesex), in Rahway township, and in Union. In 
i860, however, the act was so amended as to include the portion of 
Middlesex in Union, and in 1861 again amended so as to be relieved of 
the Rahway township attachment. 

The first mayor was Edward Y. Rogers, then the leading lawyer 
in the place; city clerk, John R. Chapin; treasurer, William Osborn; 


collector, Peter B. Sharp; councilmen, — first ward, Abel V. Shotwell, 
James O. Halsey; second ward, William Gibby, Crowell McCann; 
third ward, Abraham Ackerman, Benjamin C. Watson; fourth ward, 
John Woodruff, Thomas J. Lee. Of the above John R. Chapin and 
Thomas J. Lee are the only ones now living, and in the list of the other 
officials the only ones surviving are Albert G. Sym, clerk, and John 
Harvey, constable, first ward; judges of election, George J. Trussler 
and Andrew J. Halliday, second ward, and Edward E. Hooker and 
George J. Merrick, of the fourth ward; John J. Brown, constable, and 
James Vanderhoven, commissioner of appeals, of the same ward; 
Thomas H. Shafer, still living, administered the oaths of office. By 
the abolition of the township of Rahway, in 1861, the territory added 
was constituted with the fifth ward, but it being principally farming 
lands with a scattered population, the residents were not satisfied, and 
it was formed into Clark township in 1864. Rahway continued with 
four wards, with three councilmen each, until 1894, when the third 
was divided, making the fifth, and reducing the number of councilmen 
to two from each ward and one at large, making eleven members, and 
thus avoiding deadlocks, which had frequently occurred between the 
political parties when there were twelve members. 

Rahway sent its full portion of soldiers to fight for the Union 
in the war of the Rebellion, and the patriotic citizens were liberal in 
providing for them and their families. Many of the veterans still 
survive, most of them being members of Barry Post, G. A. R. The 
city has numerous social and beneficial societies, besides its well 
sustained churches, — three Presbyterian (one a German), two Methodist 
Episcopal, one Protestant Episcopal, a German Lutheran, two colored 
(one Methodist and one Baptist), one Friends; also two chapels where 
union Sunday schools are held, one in East Rahway and one at Milton. 
The finest church edifice in the city now is the one recently finished 
and known as the Trinity Methodist Episcopal, formerly known as the 
second church of that denomination. The Church of the Holy Com- 
forter (Episcopal) was burned by accident within the past year. We 
also have one of the best stocked libraries in the country, controlled by 
a private association; a successful Young Men's Christian Association, 
temperance organizations, etc. 

In the years of inflation following the war of the Rebellion, 
Rahway, like other places near the large cities, undertook too much 
of street and other improvement, for which bonds were issued. Some 
years later, when the bonds came due and the times had changed, 
financial embarrassment came, which was finally overcome by an 
amicable adjustment with its creditors, and the conditions and prospects 
are now greatly improved. The principal streets are well paved with 
Belgian blocks, macadam and asphalt, well sewered and are lighted at 
night by electricity, gas also being available. 


During the past year an electric railway has been completed, 
connecting with Woodbridge and the popular summer-picnic resort, 
Boynton Beach, and it is expected before a long while this railway line 
will be connected with a general system throughout the state. 



AHWAY was incorporated as a city by an act of the legis- 
lature approved March 12, 1858. At the time of its 
incorporation the city was situated in two townships in 
two separate counties, viz. : the township of Rahway, in 
Union county, and the township of Woodbridge, in Middlesex county; 
by an act of the legislature, approved February 16, i860, that part of 
Woodbridge township included in the city was taken from Middlesex 
county and attached to the township of Rahway, in Union county. 
The first election of city oflRcers was held on the 19th of April, 1858, 
under the direction of the commissoners of election appointed by the 
charter for the several wards, viz. : For the first ward, Joel Clarkson, 
Francis Uabaw and Stephen Jackson; for the second ward, Jeremiah 
Tunison, William Gibby and Enoch M. Ayers; for the third ward, 
Jacob L,. Woodruff, Henry Platner and James McKelvey. The mayor 
and common council, elect met, pursuant to the requirements of the 
charter, at Washington Hall, on Monday, the 3d day of May, 18^, at 
ten o'clock in the forenoon, and proceeded to count the number of 
votes given at the election for city and ward officers. The following 
were declared to be elected, they having received the highest number of 
votes for the respective offices: Mayor, Edward Y. Rogers; city clerk, 
John R. Chapin; treasurer, William Osborn, Jr.; collector, Peter B. 
Sharp; collector of arrears, Enoch M. Ayers. The following ward 
officers were chosen: First ward: councilmen, Abel V. Shotwell, 
James O. Halsey; judges of elections, Horace H. Roberts, Augustus 
M. L,aning; ward clerk, Albert G. Sym; constable, John Harvey; 
commissioner of appeal, Eden Haydock. Second ward: councilmen, 
William Gibby, Crowell McCann; judges of elections, George J. 
Trussler, Andrew J. Halliday, Jeremiah O. Tunison; ward clerk, 
William Gibby; constable, John J. Cladek; commissioner of appeal, 
Amzi W. Williams. Third ward: councilmen, Abraham Ackerman, 
Benjamin C. Watson; judges of elections, Almeth White, Francis E. 
Terrell, John R. Ross; ward clerk, John H. A. Wobbe; constable, 
Benjamin Parker; commissioner of appeal, Jacob L,. Woodruff. Fourth 
ward: councilmen, John Woodruff, Thomas J. Lee; judges of elections, 
Edward E. Hooker, George J. Merrick, John A. Jaques; ward clerk, 
Abraham S. Bonney; constable, John J. Brown; commissioner of 
appeal, James Vanderhoven. 


The oath of office and allegiance was administered by Thomas H. 
Shafer, Esq., master in chancery, to the members of the council and 
the city clerk, and the following officers gave bonds, in the sums 
named, for the faithful performance of their respective duties: City 
treasurer, $6,000; assessor, $500; collector of taxes, $6,000; collector 
of arrears, $3,000; constable, $300. 


On the north branch of the Railway river, near St. George's avenue 
bridge, stands the ruins of a large brick building, formerly used as a 
manufactory. It was known as the Taurino factory, erected by William 
Shotwell, a resident of Rahwa}'^, in 1814. On account of the embargo on 
British importations during the war, it was undertaken as a good invest- 
ment in the direction of home manufacture, and so proved until the 
close of the war, when the business became unprofitable, and was 
abandoned. It was afterward utilized as a woolen mill, a silk-printing 
establishment, and for many other purposes, employing many hands and 
being a great benefit to the town. , It was destroyed by fire some fifteen 
years ago. Among the later operators were Daniel Stansbury, of New 
York, John Y. Van Tuyl, Samuel, Edward, and William Dudley 
(brothers), Stone & Brown, then Thomas Hale, who converted it into a 
silk factory. Then Daniel Wilcox took the building and started carpet- 
weaving. After it was repaired from the effects of the fire which had 
destroyed the upper story it was occupied as a carriage factory, by 
Denman & Freeman. About 1870 it was finally blown up by the 
bursting of a boiler, and only the ruin of it remains. 


This firm was established in 1872, and began business in a shop 
owned by John R. Ross, on Seminary street. In 1875 they purchased 
their present buildings, which were built and owned by Randolph Ross, 
who had carried on carriage-making for several years, and had been 
succeeded by his sons, Milan and Bedott Ross, who carried on the 
business up to the late civil war. 


This firm, who operate a steam saw mill, planing mill and lumber 
yard, are the successors of an old establishment, — Joseph O. Duf bery 
and John T. Vail having built a saw mill on the premises in 1827, 
the property, including the mill-site, belonging originally to Henry 
Moore and Henry Mundy. In 1827 Lufbery & Vail, also purchasing 
the old Marsh property on the south side of the river, opposite their 
saw mill, erected a grist mill and a mill for cutting wood for dyeing 
purposes. In 1830 Mr. Vail retired from the firm and removed to the 



west. In 1833 Mr. I/ufbery built a new grist mill, on the south side, 
and at the same time removed his logwood mill to the north side, 
attaching it to his saw mill. From that time, however, he did little 
with it, as logwood extracts began to come into use. 

Mr. Joseph O. Lufbery continued to carry on these enterprises 
until 1846. In November of that year Messrs. Ayers, Williams, and 
John H. Ivuf bery formed a copartnership, under the firm name of Ayers, 
Williams & Lufbery, and rented the premises for five years, at the 
expiration of which they purchased the property, paying therefor the 
sum of twenty thousand dollars. The mills up to this time had been 
operated by water, but in 1855 the dams were removed, in accordance 
with an act of the legislature, and the mill was converted into a steam 
mill. On the 3d of September, 1868, the saw mill was destroyed by 
fire. It was rebuilt and put in operation three months later. Mr. 
Williams died in 1865, and the following year the firm was changed to 
Ayers & L/ufbery, and so remained until January i, 1868, when 
Thomas M. Martin was admitted, and the firm of Ayers, Lufbery & 
Company continued until the retirement of Mr. Martin, August 29, 
1873. Then the style became Ayers & Lufbery, and now it is Lufbery 
& Ayers. 


Mr. Gustave Adolf Brachhausen was born in Saxony, Germany, 
in i860. He possesses marked mechanical talent and is the inventor 
of the Regina music box. In company with Mr. Paul Riessner, he 
began the manufacture of the polyphone, at Leipsic, in 1890. Soon 
afterward he came to this country, and in October, 1892, the first 
Regina boxes were turned out of the factory in Jersey City. In April, 
1894, when the company was incorporated, Mr. Percival Knauth, and 
Mr. Percival Kuhne, of Knauth, Machod & Kuhne, bankers of New 
York, became president and vice-president respectively; Mr. Ludwig 
C. Tietz, secretary and treasurer; and Mr. G. A. Brachhausen, manager. 
In 1896 the company purchased property in Rahway, more as a matter 
of economy than anything else, and in July of that year moved here, 
bringing with them about two hundred employes of the concern. The 
present plant has double the machinery the old plant had, and the 
output has greatly increased, they having hardly room enough, with 
thirty thousand five hundred feet of floor space, in this splendidly 
equipped factory, for business purposes. 


The Gordon job-printing presses are too well known to require a 
description of this article. There are many thousands of them in 
operation in the United States to-day, besides many which have been 
sent to foreign countries. Mr. George P. Gordon, the inventor, was bom 


in Salem, New Hampshire, in 1810, and early in life became a practical 
printer. The well known press which bears his name was invented in 
1851, and was for a time manufactured in Rhode Island. 

The factory at Rah way is situated in the central part of the city, 
occupying a space of about three hundred by three hundred and fifty 
feet in area. The main building, of brick, is thirty by one hundred 
and thirty feet, four stories high, with a two-story addition, about sixty 
feet square. Adjoining the main building is the foundry, where the 
castings used in the manufacture of the presses are made; also 
numerous small buildings for the storage of lumber, moulding-sand, iron, 
and coal. 


were manufacturers of light carriages, sulkies, etc. They began business 
in 1865. In 1866 they bought the Ackerman shops, on Irving street, to 
which they made additions from time to time. They made the lightest 
and best work possible, and were very successful in this particular, 
having received one medal and three first premiums on this work. 
David B. Dunham, Charles Grube, F. h. Graves, and Samuel and 
Andrew J. Haliday are old and prominent manufacturers of carriages. 
Mr. Dunham, being the oldest manufacturer now living in the town, 
commenced the manufacture of carriages in 1859, building a factor)^- on. 
Fulton street. They lost considerably in the south, on account of the 
war. After the war their average work amounted to about ten to twelve 
thousand dollars per year for a time. They occupied the shops on Irving 
street for many years. Andrew Miller now carries on the business on 
Main street, corner of Commerce street and New Brunswick avenue. 


The Eustis Manufacturing Company moved to Rahway about two 
years ago. This company manufacture nothing but high-grade goods, 
their wares being known as the Puritan Cookers. Their Puritan five- 
o'clock teakettles are very unique. They employ about thirty men. 
H. C. Brown is the superintendent; D. C. Sprague is general manager. 

One of our oldest and most valuable industries is that known as 
Bloodgood's Mills. They use both steam and water power, and have 
the most improved machinery, which is operated by about two hundred 
skillful workmen in making all kinds of felt. The Rosenbaum shirt 
manufactory is one of the flourishing and prosperous industries of 
our city. 

The Rahway Wheel, Spoke and Spring Works were established in 
1865 by Ira and Joel L,a Forge. They purchased their shops of Samuel 
Sanders in 1870. They run a fifty-horse power steam engine and 
employ about thirty hands. 

The Mershon Company, manufacturers of books, was established 
in 1873. The building which they now occupy is the third into which 


they have moved, as business increased. It is equipped with automatic 
sprinklers for use in case of fire. During the year 1895 this company 
manufactured over one and a half million of books. They are con- 
stantly adding the most improved machinery, which is operated by 
over two hundred skilled men and women. 

The growth and cultivation of flowers in Rahway is an extensive 
industry. The large hot-houses of Armstrong and W. B. Durie are 
well worth visiting. They supply the leading florists of New York 
with thousands of cut flowers during the winter season, and growing 
plants during spring and summer. 


The present fire department of Rahway was organized in 1859, 
when Rahway became an incorporated city. It comprises three hose 
companies and two hook-and-ladder companies, and has one hand- 
engine. On the loth of January, 1859, all the companies then existing 
turned over their apparatus to the city and became subject to the 
municipality. The department consists of a chief and two assistants, 
and its membership numbers two hundred and five, — twenty-five to 
each hose company, fifty to the engine company, and forty to each 
hook-and-ladder Company. There are twelve fire wardens, two from 
each company. 

The present fire department succeeded the Rahway Fire Associa- 
tion, which existed for many years before Rahway became a city and 
of which Isaac Osborn was president at the time the present department 
was organized. The first fire company organized in Rahway was 
Washington Engine No. i, in 1815, the membership including many 
of the leading citizens of that time. The machine was a primitive one, 
such as were used in those days. The first engine house was near the 
Monroe street bridge, being afterward located on Poplar street. About 
1840 a more commodious house was erected, on Main street, nearly 
opposite where the Second Presbyterian church now stands, and this 
building was occupied by that company and the Washington Hose 
Company (subsequently organized) until the present neat structure was 
erected on Milton avenue east of Main street. After the introduction 
of water by the use of direct pressure there was not much use for engine 
companies, and in October, 1892, the members organized into Hook 
and Ladder Company No. 2. 

Franklin Engine Company, No. 2, was organized in 1823, ^nd, 
under the different memberships, did good service until 1878, when the 
company disbanded for lack of required service. In 1885 the company 
was reorganized, with the object of doing service outside the city water 
districts. Independence Hook and Ladder Company, No. i, was 
organized New Year's day, 1850, and like the other old companies has 
had many of the leading citizens as members, reorganizing under the 


city charter, December i6, 1858. Washington Hose Company, No. i, 
was organized in 1856 and has always numbered among its members 
some of the most active young men of the city. Protection Hose 
Company, No. 3, is really a successor to Eagle Hose Company, which 
was organized in 1856. It was afterwards changed to Warren Hose 
Company, which became defunct, and was finally organized. May 29, 
1883, as Protection. The company won the prize — a handsome silver 
pitcher and goblet — for being the best equipped and appearing company 
in the Elizabeth parade, October 2, 1893. The old Eagle Engine 
Company, No. 3, which was organized June 23, 1835, and numbered 
among its members such men as Senator John R. Ayers, Robert C. 
Voorhees, Stephen M. Oliver, Samuel B. Hicks, Randolph Ross and 
other business men now deceased, was disbanded August 19, 1873, after 
the construction of the water works. 

Other companies that have existed and disbanded were Vulcan 
Engine Company, organized by the late Joseph Gatchell, in 1858, and 
manned principally by the employes of his spring factory. It disbanded 
in 1868. lyiberty Engine Company, organized at Milton, November i, 
1858, disbanded August 31, 1874. Excelsior Hook and Ladder 
Company, organized October 18, 1875, disbanded May 3, 1878. 

The following are those who have served in the capacity of chief of 
the department: Jonathan B. Marsh, John T. VanTyne, John M. 
Jackson, Stewart C. Marsh, James C. Sym, John R. Ayers, Joseph 
Gatchell, Thomas Gafifney, Joel Clarkson and Lawrence Brower (all 
deceased); those living are Silas H. Leonard, Charles I. Holder, 
Michael Fallon, Thomas Robinson, William H. Bogart, Robert H. 
Kinsey, Edward C. Fox, John H. Lutbery, William Wraight, Charles 
Schlundt, Samuel W. Luke, Harry P. Ryno, Charles B. Healy, Henry 
Bierwirth, Alexander G. Fyffe, Fritz Frank, Jacob Keiler, A. Lewis 
Ryno, Louis Gehring and August L. Fischer. The present incumbent 
is James B. Mershon. 


This bank was incorporated February 19, 1851, with William 
C. Squier as president. The bank began business on Main street, 
opposite Cherry, but has been in the building now occupied since May, 
1868. Mr. Squier has been president from the beginning, having now 
filled the position forty-eight years. George F. Webb, the first secretary 
and treasurer, died in November, i860 ; and December 3, i860, his place 
was filled by Joel Wilson, who served as secretary until May, 1870, and 
as treasurer until May, 1875, the offices being divided at the former date. 
John Bowne was chosen treasurer in May, 1875, and Joseph S. Smith, in 
June, 1876, the latter remaining in office until August, 1879. Ross 
Vanderhoven was elected secretary in May, 1879, and treasurer in 
November, 1879, and still holds those offices. Joseph S. Smith aud 


James B. Ivaing were chosen first and second vice-presidents at the time 
of the organization. In 1854 Benjamin M. Price was made the second 
vice-president and Mr. Smith first. In 1858 A. C. Watson was made 
second vice-president. In 1863 A. V. Shotwell and J. R. Shotwell were 
made respectively first and second vice-presidents. The offices of first 
and second vice-presidents were abolished in June, 1894, and Bartlett 
V. Clarke was elected vice-president, and continues to hold this position. 


The Rahway gas plant was established by the Rahway Gas Light 
Company in 1857, with William D. Parish, of Philadelphia, as builder, 
and with Jacob R. Shotwell as president and E. Y. Rogers as secretary. 
Mr. Shotwell remained president until his death, May 9, 1894, and the 
same year Mr. Mershon, of Rahway, was made president. About this 
time Mr. John Kean, of Elizabeth, became the guiding spirit of the 
plant, with Mr. Mershon as president. In 1895 Mr. Mershon resigned, 
and Mr. Hamilton F. Kean, of Elizabeth, became the president, an4 H. 
Simmons, treasurer of the company. Mr. Horton was retained as secre- 
tary, having been first elected in 1870, with Mr. J. R. Shotwell as 
president. Mr. Josephus Shann, of Rahway, is the sole survivor of the 
original board of directors. 

Richard Horton, secretary of the Rahway Gas Light Company, is 
one of the most experienced gas men of New Jersey, having been 
occupied in the manufacture of illuminating gas almost continuously 
since the year 1859. He began at Staunton, Virginia, whence he went 
to Meadville, next to Piqua, Ohio, then to Binghamton, New York, and 
finally, on February 23, 1870, he came to Rahway, New Jersey. 

Mr. Horton was born in Rhode Island fifty-two years ago. He 
married Louise, daughter of Jeremiah Wood, of Linden, New Jersey, and 
his wife, Susan Woodruff Winans, of Elizabeth, whose ancestry is of the 
first families of Elizabeth. They have a daughter and one son, — 
Richard Frederick. 

Mr. Horton was absent from Rahway five years preceding the year 
1892, but returned that year to his old employer, Mr. Shotwell, and took 
charge of the latter's business. He thoroughly overhauled the plant, 
introduced new and improved equipment, and applied modern methods 
to the business of the concern, — all of which has redounded to the best 
interests of the city and the company. 

friends' meeting. 

The records of Friends' meetings in east New Jersey have been 
very carefully kept since 1686, the date of their first monthly meeting 
at Perth Amboy. In a single volume, in the possession of Mrs. Abel 
V. Shotwell, of Rahway, there is the record of a hundred years. 


reaching from 1686 to 1786, and including minutes of their meetings 
at Perth Amboy, Woodbridge, Plainfield and Rahway. 

The entry made on the loth of September, 1686, announces that 
the monthly meeting, held at Perth Amboy, "agreed" that "all 
friends should bring minuts of ye births and burials since they first 
came into this place, that they may be recorded." On the nth of 
March, 1686, it was directed that "John Reid or his wife take care that 
widow Mill do not want, and give report to the meeting." Also two 
Friends were appointed "to speak to widow Mitchell that shee do not 
talke of Peter Sonmans, as it seems shee doth. Rather wish hir to 
come to the meeting, and if ye be difference, lay it before Friends, 
according to the order of truth." At the next meeting, April 8th, the 
"difference" alluded to was settled by arbitration. 

At a monthly meeting held at Woodbridge on the i6th of the tenth 
month, 1742, a motion was made by divers Friends at Rahway to hold 
a meeting for three months at the house of Joseph Shotwell, which was 
agreed to be held on the first days of the week. 

It appears from an entry in the records of January i, 1757, that the 
Friends in Rahway had " repeatedly made application to the monthly 
meeting for leave to build a meeting house at that place, and that the 
Friends in Woodbridge referred the matter to the ' consideration of the 
Quarterly meeting.' " The representatives brought word from that 
body, the substance of which was, in regard to the matter in question, 
that it was "the solid sense of that meeting that a meetinghouse 
ought to be built at Rahway." Without further opposition the project 
was pushed forward. During February and March much was done 
toward the new enterprise. Solomon Hunt, Samuel Marsh, Abraham 
Shotwell and Benjamin Shotwell were appointed to purchase a suitable 
lot. Francis Bloodgood, Abner Hampton and Robert Willis were 
appointed to assist in selecting the ground and determining the size of 
the plat. It was decided that the new building should be thirty-four 
feet long and thirty feet wide. The building is still standing, on Main 
street. It was abandoned as a meeting house in 1804, and was loaned 
to the First Methodist society to hold services in before the erection of 
their church. In later years it was occupied as a hardware store, and 
is now used as a tea store. 

In August, 1761, a "preparative meeting" was established at Rah- 
way. In 1769 the Woodbridge preparative meeting was removed to 
Rahway, and in the same year the monthly meeting ceased to be held 
at Woodbridge, from this time forward alternating between Rahway and 
Plainfield. At this time the meeting house in Rahway was enlarged, at 
an expense of one hundred and sixty-one pounds. Delegates met in it 
for the first time thereafter in August, 1769. In 1785 the Friends 
erected a school house in Rahway, upon the meeting-house lot. It 
fronted the road (now Main street), and was twenty by thirty feet in 


dimensions and one story high. In 1804 the Friends in Rahway built 
another meeting house, on Irving street, at the head of Poplar. It is a 
frame building, fifty by thirty-five feet, and two stories in height. In 
1827 the society was divided, and the other branch have a brick meeting 
house located on Irving street, between Lewis street and Milton avenue, 
the upper story being occupied for a school. 

Robert Willis was one of the most active preachers among the 
Friends in this section of the country. He lived in Woodbridge, but 
visited the Friends in many localities. Sarah Shotwell was well and 
favorably known as a speaker among the Friends of this section. She 
is spoken of as "a pattern of humility and faithfulness." John Vail 
was very prominent in his day. He died at Rahway November 27, 
1774, in his eighty-ninth year. Agnes Elston was prominent as a 
speaker. She died in Rahway. Isaac Martin, most prominent since 
the Revolution, died August 9, 1828, aged seventy-one. Hugh Davis, 
also well known, was another early preacher. 


"This historic church," says the Rev. Dr. Payson, its pastor, "was 
born in a revival. The Holy Spirit, like a dove, brooded over its 
cradle ; the infant church was baptized by the Holy Ghost." The exact 
date of its birth is uncertain, since the early church records are lost ; but 
there is every reason to believe that the church organization was effected 
before the church building was erected. This was in the winter of 
1741-2. Up to this time the First Presbyterian church of Elizabeth 
was the mother of all the Presbyterian churches in Union county and 
in parts of five adjoining counties. It was during the pastorate of the 
Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, D. D., that occurred the widespread work of 
grace which resulted in the organization of this church, — now one 
hundred and fifty years ago. This church, when organized, belonged to 
the presbytery' of New York, which then included East Jersey and Ivong 
Island. Its first pastorwas the Rev. Aaron Richards. Hewas ordained and 
installed November 15, 1748. Hitherto the pulpit of the newly organized 
church had been supplied by the Rev. Messrs. Cleverly, Grant, Strong, 
and Watkins. The first pastorate was the longest. It covered the trying 
period of the Revolution, and with pardonable pride 'the church can 
point to the monument in its cemetery erected to the memory of Abraham 
Clark, one of the worshipers in this church, and one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. It is impossible to overestimate the heroic 
zeal of that first third of this church history. 

The pastoral relations between Mr. Richards and the church were 
dissolved in 1791, having lasted forty-three years. He died May 16, 
1793, in the seventy-fifth year of his age, and lies buried in the church 
cemetery, close to the spot where for more than two score years he had 
preached the " gospel of good news." Mr. Richards was a graduate of 






Yale College, of the class of 1743. He was an ardent patriot during the 
war of the Revolution and was compelled to flee from the British invaders 
in 1776, — at a time known familiarly as the "hard winter." The old 
church building was a two-story frame structure of heavy timber, its 
sides inclosed with shingles, with two rows of windows, which let in an 
abundance of light. The bell tower was surmounted by a copper 
weather-cock, perforated by a bullet, — said to be a mark of the Revolu- 
tionary period. Within were galleries upon three sides ; the pulpit, 
located in the west end of the church, was high, of barrel shape, was 
small, having room for but one, and was overspread by a sounding board. 
There were four rows of pews, with backs high and straight, approached 
by two aisles. The floor was laid of heavy, hewn plank, not closely joined, 
the cracks widening with age, making it necessary, in the winter season, 
for the ladies to bring foot-stoves to keep their feet warm. 

Mr. Richards' pastorate was followed by five years of stated supplies 
by the Rev. Messrs. Cooly, Cook, and others. The Rev. Robert Hett 
Chapman was the second pastor, but resigned his charge after three 
years of discouraging labor. Mr. Chapman died in 1833. After a three- 
years vacancy, the Rev. Buckley Carll was called to the pulpit, and 
served the church for twenty-three years. He was fervent, faithful and 
"passing rich on forty pounds a year," — personally eccentric, physically 
infirm, controversial and severe, yet, being zealous and earnest, he raised 
both the material and spiritual condition of the church to a higher plane. 
Several revivals took place during his ministry, which extended till 1826. 

The Rev. Thomas L. Janeway followed with a pastorate of eleven 
years. It was at this time the new church building was erected. It 
cost eighteen thousand dollars, and was dedicated February 5, 1832. 
Gracious revivals attended the ministry of Dr. Janeway. In 1834 one 
hundred and fifty-seven united with the church. There has been an 
addition of thirty-five a year, as an average. November 17, 1840, the 
pastoral relation between the church and Mr, Janeway was dissolved, 
and in December following he was succeeded by the Rev. Charles K. 
Imbrie, who had just been graduated from Princeton. Gracious revivals 
also attended his ministry, and at this time fifty-five members of this 
church took a peaceful separation, on November 9, 1849, t° form the 
Second Presbyterian church of this city. Rev. Samuel S. Sheddan, D.D., 
succeeded Dr. Imbrie one month after the latter had resigned. He 
remained in charge of the interests of this society for a period of twenty- 
two years, during which time one hundred and fifty were received into 
the church by confession, and one hundred and eighty-four by certificate. 
His pastorate was terminated by his death, October 18, 1874. After 
several months of supplies. Rev. J. J. Pomeroy, D. D., became the eighth 
pastor of the church. During his pastorate the church was remodeled 
by the addition of a beautiful auditorium and, thus adorned, was 
rededicated, November 3, 1876. On April 2, 1884, Dr. Pomeroy resigned 


his charge here and accepted a call to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 
where he died December i, 1889. About six months after Dr. Pomeroy 
left, the Rev. William Alfred Gay took spiritual oversight of this flock, 
but resigned the charge in August, 1888, and in October, 1889, ^^^ ^^v. 
George Hubbard Payson, of Newtown, Long Island, accepted the call 
to this church, and began his ministry here on January i, 1890. Mr. 
Payson was born at New Hartford, New York, January 5, 1852 ; was 
graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, in 1873 ; and at 
Union Theological Seminary, New York city, in 1878 ; was pastor 
at Roslyn, Long Island, one year, and at Newtown, Dong Island, 
from 1882 till 1889, when he was installed pastor of this church, 
January 16, 1890. 

The history of this church has its origin in the strong religious 
feeling which for several years prevailed in lower Rahway, and out of 
which grew the Deesville Sunday School Association. Not far from 
1825 Miss Dee and Miss Catherine B. Edgar organized small Sunday 
schools and met alternately in the residence of Mr. Adam Dee and in the 
old toll-house at the Edgar dock. About 1830 these two schools united, 
under the name of the Deesville Sunday school, and services were held 
in Mr. Dee's school house, corner of Main and Adam streets, which 
building is still standing. Mr. Frederick King, the first cashier of the 
old Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, of Rahway, was chosen superintend- 
ent. Monday evening, February 18, 1833, the officers and teachers of 
this school met at the house of Mr. King (afterwards for years the police 
station) to organize a permanent association, and then and there the 
name of the Deesville Sunday School Association was adopted. The 
preamble was as follows: "We, the subscribers, hereby agree to form 
ourselves into an association for teaching and supporting a Sunday 
school in Dower Rahway and Deesville, and otherwise advance the cause 
of morals, religion, and learning in this place." The Association was 
incorporated. Frederick King was chosen superintendent, Jonathan 
Thompson, assistant superintendent, and Messrs. King, Thompson, and 
George F. Webb were appointed a building committee and authorized 
to make a contract for a building 27x45 feet, suitable for a Sunday- 
school house. On April 18, 1833, the association confirmed the report 
of the committee, that they had contracted with Benjamin Parker to do 
the carpenter work and find the materials for eight hundred and thirty- 
six dollars ; and with James Smith to do the mason work and find the 
materials for two hundred and forty-one dollars. Major William Edgar 
and Cornelius Baker gave the lots, at the corner of Main and William 
streets, for the building. March 5, 1833, Rev. Thomas D. Janeway, 
Major William Edgar, Cornelius Baker, Adam Dee, George F. Webb, 
Frederick King and Jonathan Thompson were chosen the first trustees. 
From 185 1 until 1869 the building was used for week-day evening 


services, under the auspices of the Presbyterians, but on November 8th, 
of the last named year, it was sold, and in 1870 was removed to Pierce 
street. Then the Leesville Sunday School Association, after having 
survived thirty-six years and nine months, went out of existence. As 
above stated, Frederick King was the first superintendent of the old 
Leesville Sunday school, remained such until 1852, — twenty-two 
years, — when, for one year, Jonathan Woodward succeeded him. On 
April 24, 1853, Thomas H. Shafer became superintendent, and served 
until 1876, when he was succeeded by George A. Bush, who was 
succeeded by Frank h. Sheldon, in 1878, and he, in 1880, was succeeded 
by James H. Durand, the present incumbent. 

June 19, 1849, a number of members of the First Presbyterian 
church, with gentlemen of Lower Rahway, met at the house of Jonathan 
Woodruff to consider the importance of organizing a second Presbyterian 
church in this part of the town. William Edgar was called to the 
chair, and Rev. William M. Martin was made secretary. It was 
decided at this meeting to organize a new church. Accordingly, on 
September 5, 1849, ^ meeting was held at the office of Thomas H. 
Shafer, at which time the following persons were chosen trustees: 
Frederick King, Jonathan Thompson, Ira Campbell, George F. Webb, 
Jonathan Woodruff, Uzal M. Osborn, and Thomas H. Shafer. 

The committee of presbytery met in the First Presbyterian church 
in this place, at two, p. m., on the 9th day of November, 1894, and 
proceeded to the organization of the church. Introductory exercises 
were conducted by the Rev. Robert Street; sermon by the Rev. Dr. 
David Magie, after which the new church was organized by the Rev. 
Charles K. Imbrie, pastor of the First church, who then delivered a 
parting address to the members of the newly organized church. The 
first elders were Aaron Tucker, Frederick King, George F. Webb, and 
Jonathan Thompson. 

The first pastor of the Second Presbyterian church. Rev. Lewis 
Hersey Lee, was installed April 17, 1850. He was a native of New 
York state, and a graduate of Union College. He entered Princeton 
Theological Seminary in the fall of 1845, and was graduated therefrom 
in the spring of 1848. Soon after his ordination he became collegiate 
pastor with Dr. Johnson, of the First Presbyterian church of Jersey 
City, from which place he came here and remained until 1853, when he 
went to Waterford, New Jersey, as pastor of the First Presbyterian church 
of that city, where he remained until his death, January 13, 1863. Mr. 
Lee lost a wife and child while pastor of this church. They are buried in 
lot thirty-two. He was succeeded by Rev. George H. Mott, who 
resigned October 5, 1858. Under his pastorate the membership increased 
from one hundred and seventy-one to two hundred and forty-two. The 
parsonage was built, and seven thousand dollars was raised at one time 
to pay off the floating debt. He. was succeeded December 30, 1858, by 


Rev. V. LeRoy I^ockwood, who resigned March 15, 1864. Under his 
pastorate the membership increased from two hundred and forty-two to 
three hundred and thirty-six. September 19, 1864, the present pastor, 
Rev. Dr. John A. I/eggett, was unanimously called. He was installed 
in June, 1865. Dr. L,eggett is a native of Pennsylvania, and a graduate 
of Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, taking his degree from that 
institution in 1857. He entered the theological seminary at Danville, 
Kentucky, 1857, and was graduated from that institution in i860. On 
leaving the seminary he immediately became pastor of the Presbyterian 
church at Crittenden, Kentucky, where he remained until December, 
1864, when he became pastor of this church, more than thirty-one years 
ago. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the 
trustees of Lafayette College, in June, 1884. During Dr. Leggett's 
pastorate the church building was erected, both chapels built, and the 
membership of the church increased to five hundred souls. In 1868 the, 
organ was built, at a cost of four thousand dollars. 

Saturday evening, November 13, 1886, the church and congregation 
paid their respects to their pastor and his wife upon their silver- 
wedding day. Dr. Leggett was married November 13, 1861, by the 
Rev. George B. Armstrong, of Crittenden, Kentucky, to the latter's 
only daughter Mary Boyd, and this gathering in the parsonage, in 
honor of that wedding, will long be remembered. The beautiful 
presents made on that occasion were valuable, and among them was a 
silver service containing one hundred and fifty-eight silver dollars. 

The Second Presbyterian church of Rahway is in a flourishing 
condition at the present time. The officers of the church are as follows: 
Elders,— James T. Barnes, George 'A. Bush, William E. Wells, 
William E. Tucker, R. M. Huntting, John L Withrow, R. V. Vail ; 
deacons, — Waldro Campbell, Joseph Wooster, Fred Mershon, Luther 
Mundy, Harry Wood; Sabbath-school superintendent, — ^James H. 


Robert Cloud and Thomas Morrell were the first Methodist 
preachers appointed, in 1787, by the Philadelphia conference to the 
Elizabeth Town circuit, which circuit probably included Rahway. 
The first class was formed here about 1790. From an old deed, 
dated October 8, 1798, we learn that a lot of land was deeded to 
them on what was afterwards Mechanics street, now a portion of 
Grand street. Upper Rahway. We quote a portion of the deed, as 
follows : 

" This indenture, made this eighth day of October, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety-eight, between 
William Shotwell, of the county of Essex, in the state of New Jersey, 
of the one part, and Jonathan Oliver and Benjamin Woodruff, of Essex 
county ; William Flatt, Jr., Abraham Storms and John Marsh, of 


Middlesex county, all of the state of New Jersey aforesaid, trustees in 
trust for the use and purposes hereafter mentioned, of the other part ; 
Witnesseth that the said William Shotwell, for and in consideration of 
the sum of fifty dollars to him in hand paid at and upon the sealing and 
delivering of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged 
by the said William Shotwell, hath given, granted, bargained, sold, 
released, confirmed and conveyed, and by these presents doth give, grant, 
bargain, sell, release, confirm, and conve)' unto them, the said Jonathan 
Oliver, Benjamin Woodruff, William Flatt, Jr., Abraham Storms and 
John Marsh, and their successors (trustees in trust for the uses and pur- 
poses mentioned and declared by these presents) all the estate, right, title, 
interest, etc., which he, the said William Shotwell, hath in, to, or upon 
all and singular a certain lot lying and being in Elizabeth Town, 
Rahway, adjoining the road leading from John Tucker's, Esq., 
to Shotwell's lyanding, being part of the tract of land which 
the aforesaid William Shotwell lately purchased of Daniel Moore, 
beginning, etc." 

This lot, it appears, was never used for the purpose, but another 
was selected, on which the present First church now stands, being 
conveyed by Moses Jaques to William Flatt and others, as trustees, 
April 4, 1808, but not recorded in the clerk's office until 1817. A 
movement to erect a building was made in 1806, and subscriptions 
amounting to $667.25 were made, — William Flatt being the largest 
subscriber, fifty dollars; Thomas Morrell and Jonathan Oliver forty 
dollars each, and numerous others in smaller amounts. 

From what can be gathered from the records, there was much 
difficulty experienced in the erection of the building, as it was not 
finished until 1817, then known as lyiberty chapel. Since then there 
have been several changes, until the present large and well arranged 
building of that congregation was completed. 

From 1799 to 1821 the names of Joseph Totten, Thomas Pitts and 
John Robertson appear as preachers; afterwards Bartholomew Weed, 
William Bull, Thomas B. Sargent, John Dobbins, John Buckley, Jef- 
ferson lycwis, William Granville, Isaac N. Felch, William A. Wilmer, 
Vincent Shepard, George Winsor — 1846-7, and again 1876-78, — ^James 
Ayers, Charles L,arue, James H. Dandy, Sedgwick Rusling, David 
Tead, Curtis Talley, Robert B. Yard, N. Vansant, D. Graves, George 
W. Treat, James M. Tuttle, John I. Morrow, William H. Day, H. D. 
Opdyke, Alexander Craig, E. C. Dutcher, R. Johns, J. Cowins, R. F. 
Hayes, Dr. h. R. Dunn, W. B. Judd, W. M. Fanton. 

This church is the mother of most of the Methodist churches in 
this section — Perth Amboy, Woodbridge, Plainfield, Westfield, New 
Dover, Scotch Plains, Metuchen, Linden and ,the Second church (now 
Trinity) in this city. 

In 1854 the present edifice was erected and dedicated during the 


ministry of the Rev. Charles Larue. Mr. Larue was succeeded by the 
late Rev. William Day. 


Trinity is the name of what has heretofore been known as the 
Second Methodist church. Judge Hyer gives a graphic account of this 
church from its organization. He says : 

" In 1849 the members residing in the lower part of the city decided 
to establish a new church, and thirty-two of the members were dismissed 
from the first church for the purpose of forming a nucleus for the new 
organization. Services were held for some time in the old Athenian 
Hall, on Main street, about where Thorn's saw mill and lumber yard 
are now located. About seventy were added to the membership the 
first year, under the- first regular pastor. Rev. Frank Bottome, who after- 
ward became a distinguished minister, and died a few years ago. A 
subscription was started for a new church at this time by William M. 
Esler, (still living and a member of the church), Henry Miller and 
Daniel Wood, and the old brick church was built at the corner of Milton 
avenue and Broad street, in 1850, at a cost of about six thousand dollars, 
under the pastorate of Rev. A. L. Brice, who was presiding elder of the 
district, when the comer stone of the present new church was laid, dying 
shortly after. Other ministers who have officiated at this church have 
been Revs. Fletcher Lummis, Henry M. Brown, William E. Perry, 
R. S. Arndt, John Scarlett, Thomas Walters, B. O. Parvin, (two terms), 
S. H. Opdyke, J. W. Young, John S. Porter, R. B. Lockwood, 
T. H. Landon, J. W. Seran, D. Halleron, T. E. Gordon, W. H. Ruth, 
C. F. Hull and the present paster, T. C. Mayham. 

" When the old church was built, near the railroad, there were no 
Sunday trains and but few on other days, so the services were not 
disturbed, and the location was considered an eligible one. But in the 
progress of time the conditions changed, until it became very annoying 
to hearers as well as preachers, as the trains often passed almost contin- 
ually during a service, so that it was conceded by all that a change was 
absolutely necessary. Nearly thirty years ago a remark was made by an 
old member, ' What a fine place it would be for a new church on the 
old Crowell hotel corner.' Neither thought it possible that such an 
object could ever be obtained, as the hotel was then apparently in a 
flourishing condition, though the building was old. Years later, 
however, the conditions changed, and the hotel was discontinued, and 
the desirable corner was secured at a bargain and deeded to the church 

" Ground for the new building was broken Monday, June 13, 1892, 
with appropriate ceremonies ; the corner-stone was laid Saturday, August 
13th, the same year. On Sunday, June 11, 1893, the first services were 
held in the lecture room, and the name changed to Trinity Methodist 


Episcopal church, by vote of the congregation and board of trustees. 
At the Sunday-morning services the platform was occupied by 
Bishop Foss ; Dr. J. M. Buckley, editor of the Christian Advocate, the 
church paper; Professor Thomas H. I^andon, of the Bordentown Military 
College, a former pastor ; Rev. B. O. Parvin, a former pastor for two 
terms, and a resident of this city since his retirement from the active 
ministry on account of ill health ; Rev. W. M. Fanton, pastor of the 
First church, with Rev. T. C. Mayham in charge of the services. An 
able and feeling sermon was delivered by Bishop Foss, an eloquent and 
attractive speaker. The dedicatory ceremony took place after the other 
services in the evening, consisting of the delivery of the building over to 
the bishop by the president of the board of trustees, L- S. Hyer. 

" Interesting instances of the day were the allusions of Dr. Buckley 
to the fact that Rahway was his birthplace, he having been born here 
while his father was pastor of the First church, in 1836 ; also to the fact 
that when he started to preach, one of his first sermons was at a place 
where he was entertained by Mr. John Evans and his wife, and he was 
glad to see the name of the former on one of the large memorial windows, 
and to know that his widow, Mrs. Ann Evans, was now a member of 
this church, and had aided largely in the erection and furnishing of the 
handsome edifice. Bishop Foss, when he heard this, inquired if it was 
the John Evans who formerly lived at South Meriden, Connecticut, and 
being informed that it was, said that the first sermon he ever preached, 
while a student, was in that place, where he was entertained by Mr. 
and Mrs. Evans, who were the mainstay of the Methodist society there. " 


In 1832 there were in Rahway a few families of Baptists, who were 
occasionally visited by Rev. D. T. Hill, from Plainfield, Rev. G. S. 
Webb, of New Brunswick, and other preachers ; but in 1833 fourteen 
persons formed themselves into a church, recognized as the First Baptist 
church of Rahway. The constituent members were William Marsh, 
Susan Barton, Sarah Ross, William Ross, Ezra Frazee, Mary Cox, Maiy 
Day, Huldah Frazee, Rhoda Eaing, Sarah Mundy, Francis Moore and 
Mary Osboru. Shortly after its organization the church took measures 
toward the erection of a house of worship. 

B. C. Morse was the first candidate for baptism ; and, being licensed 
to preach, was afterward ordained pastor of the Eyons Farms Baptist 
church. The Rev. Mansfield Barlow, the first pastor, entered on his 
duties July 15, 1834. His pastorate continued only a year, but the 
membership increased in that time from fourteen to forty — eighteen 
having been baptized and fourteen added by letter. 

In the spring of 1836 Simeon J. Drake, a licentiate of the First 
Baptist church of New York, received a unanimous call, and on May 
6th accepted, and continued until July, 1893, the church having doubled 


its membership in the meantime. The church was next supplied by 
Rev. Walter Gillette, then pastor of the Seventh Day Baptist church at 
Piscataway, who, in April, 1840, introduced his brother, D. H .Gillette, then 
just completing his studies at Hamilton College, but his pastorate con- 
tinued only from May, 1840, to December of that year, when he died, and 
his brother Walter again supplied the pulpit. Up to the year 1842, under 
the Gillette pastorates, the membership had increased from eighty to 
one hundred. In 1842 Rev. Joseph Breed was called as pastor and, 
although his ministry only extended to January 29, 1843, the member- 
ship of the church was more than doubled, — one hundred and ten having 
been added by baptism. The years 1842 and 1843 "were noted as years of 
revivals throughout the state. Rev. William Rollinson served the 
church from November 28, 1843, until the latter part of the year 1849, the 
membership increasing steadily during his ministry. He was followed 
by Rev. W. H. Wines, who officiated as pastor of this flock from June i, 
1850, until April i, 1853. ^^^ pastorate also was a successful one. 
Following him came Rev. William Tolan, then of Morristown, who 
began his work June 19, 1853, but, because of divisions, resigned 
December 18, 1855. Rev. William Rollinson again resumed pastoral 
relations, beginning July i, 1856, and continuing eight and one half 
years. The house was at this time remodeled, at a cost of two thousand 
dollars. During this ministry two Sabbath schools were maintained, 
one being a mission school, which became the nucleus of the Bethany 
Baptist church. In November, 1863, Mr. Rollinson resigned, and 
subsequently accepted the position of post chaplain at Fort Schuyler, 
where he continued until after the close of the war. During his pastorate 
the church had increased its membership to two hundred and thirty-five. 

The church now remained without a pastor, though regularly 
supplied, until September 10, 1865, when a unanimous call was given to 
Rev. E. Everett Jones, and on the 5th of October following he was 

November 18, 1866, letters of dismissal were granted to seventeen 
members to unite in the organization of a second Baptist church. 
These, with a few from other churches, were subsequently recognized 
as a Baptist church, on Irving street. 

On October i, 1868, Mr. Jones resigned, and after an interval of 
sixteen months Rev. C. G. Gurr assumed the duties of the position. 
April 29, 1870, Mr. Gurr resigned, for the purpose of visiting Great 
Britain. He was succeeded, February i, 1871, by Rev. E. A.Wheeler. 
During the second year of Mr. Wheeler's pastorate a new church edifice 
was contemplated, but work on the building was not begun until five 
years afterwards. 

Three different clergymen served from 1865 to 1875. In the latter 
year the people again besought Mr. Rollinson to return, which he did. 
Almost simultaneously with his return a new building was erected. He 



remained until his death. In September, 1893, Rev. H. M. I/)wry 
became the pastor. Under his pastorate the church has advanced. 


This church was organized in 1850. The church edifice was built 
in i860. There have been twelve pastorates. The present pastor is 
Rev. J. Mehrtens. The membership is one hundred. There is a Ladies' 
Society and Helping Society connected with it. 


On April 18, 1883, the German Presbyterian church was organized. 
The first service was held in the Second Baptist church, on Irving street, 
which was purchased later on. The Rev. C. ly. Albrecht was pastor 
until January, 1888, and then the Rev. Dr. Klein for six years. In 1895 
the Rev. Mr. Frey, the present pastor, was called. The life of this 
church has been manifested in various forms of organized activity. The 
Ivadies' Society and Progress Union deserve unstinted praise for what 
they have accomplished. 


This parish was organized in the year 1843, ^^^ ^ beautiful brick 
edifice was erected for a place of worship, on the corner of Irving and 
Elm streets. The following have been the rectors : A. E. Ford, 1843 ; 
F. Ogilbey, 1844 ; Dr. Edmund W. Peet, 1844-55 ; Horace Hills, 1857 ; 
J. E. Homans, 1861 ; R. M. Abercombie, 1863-74; R. G. Buenel a few 
months ; W. H. Van Antwerp, 1874-81 ; Levi W. Notton, A. M., 1882. 
Roderick Provoost Cobb, the present rector, was ordained in 1891 and 
took charge of this church in 1892. He was bom in Buckingham Court 
House, Virginia, and is a graduate of Franklin and Marshall College, of 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and also of the Princeton Theological Seminary, 
at Princeton, New Jersey. The church is in a flourishing condition. 


This Episcopal parish was organized in the year 1873. Its neat 
edifice was erected on St. George's avenue and Seminary street. The 
first rector was Rev. Mr. Broadwell, who was succeeded by Rev. Evelyn 
Bartow. The church was burned down two or three years ago. 

This church was incorporated in 1876 by a few who withdrew from 
membership in St. Paul's church. Rev. Mason Gallagher was the first 


The Free Methodist people established a church society about the 
year 1874. Their building was formerly used by the Universalist society. 


The colored people of Rahway built the Bethel Methodist church, on 
Central avenue, in 1862, and the Zion Methodist church in 1871. Both 
are small congregations. 


St. Mary's Roman Catholic church, of Rahway, was organized in 
1846. Its first pastor. Rev. Father Howell, remained in charge until 
1849, ^^d was followed by Rev. Father McCarthy, who was, in turn, 
succeeded, in 1853, ^7 Rev. Father Thomas Quinn. Father Quinn, 
who was affectionately called " Father Tom," labored zealously among 
his parishioners for nearly twenty years. At his death, in 1873, he left 
the parish of St. Mary's well organized and prosperous. Rev. Father 
Sebastian Smith was the next pastor, remaining eight years. In 1881 
Rev. Father McCosker began his work, and is yet nominally at the head 
of the church, although practically retired on account of advanced age. 
Father Barnard M. Bogan has had active charge of affairs of the church 
since his entering it, in 1893. 

Father Bogan was born in Newark, New Jersey, in i860. He 
attended the cathedral school of Newark, and took his classical course at 
St. Charles College, of Baltimore. He was graduated in philosophy 
at Seton Hall, of South Orange, and was ordained there in 1881. 
Father Bogan was for one year in a Jersey City church, and for nine years 
rector of the Church of the Holy Cross, at Harrison, New Jersey. He 
came to St. Mary's in July, 1893, and since then has done a great deal in 
building up the church, both in a spiritual and a financial way, — in 
fact has had wonderful success, the membership of the church having 
about doubled. 

The new church edifice was built in 1890, and the old church has 
been renovated and remodeled for use as a hall for entertainments, etc. 
This has been done since Father Bogan entered. The membership, 
including children who have been baptized, numbers about one thousand 
and twenty ; adult% who are members number about seven hundred ; 
the Sunday school numbers about one hundred and forty children ; 
the parochial school has about one hundred and eighteen pupils, and is 
conducted by Dominican Sisters. 


Probably the earliest schools established in the settlement were 
those of the Friends, or Quakers. The first school house of the Friends 
was built, in 1785, on the same lot as their meeting house, that is, on 
Main street, on the place subsequently occupied by George Walker as a 
hardware store. William Shotwell was one of the early teachers there. 
In 1804 another meeting house was built by the Friends, on Irving 
street, and a school house was erected a little south of it. It was a two- 
story wooden structure, and Lindley Murray Moore (named after Lindley 
Murray, the grammarian) was one of the early teachers. Then followed 


Eli Vail, Abel Marsh, Aaron Byllinge, Henry B. Pool, Joseph Shotwell 
and others. The Friends' school was for many years the only one in 
the place. One of the old schools kept for many years was in the 
" White School House," so called, in Lower Rahway. A building called 
the "Academy," in Upper Rahway, stood on St. George's avenue, near 
Jardine's marble works. It was abandoned about the time the districts 
were consolidated, in 1848. There was also an old school house which 
stood on the east bank of the south branch of the Rahway river, on the 
place afterwards occupied by John Hults. It was a plain, low building 
used for school purposes sixty or seventy years ago. Mr. A. V. Shotwell 
and others, in his day, attended school, in 1830, in a building on the east 
side of Main street, comer of Adams. 

Up to the year 182 1 there was no school building in Milton, but in 
that year a school house was built on St. George's avenue, about half 
way between Milton and Elm avenues, on ground then belonging to 
George Brown, but afterward owned by B. A. Vail. The school known 
as the " school house on the hill," was on land set apart by the early 
settlers, some eighty or ninety years ago, for educational purposes. It 
was a small, low school house, near the six roads, and was vacated some 
fifty years ago, in accordance with an act of the legislature. The Athen- 
ian Academy was probably the most famous in its day. It stood on 
Main street, near Commerce, not far from the present Second Presbyte- 
rian church, and was for many years both a school house and a public 
hall. The second story, to which the name Athenian Hall was applied, 
was capable of holding fifteen hundred people. It was built in 1833 by 
the Athenian Association, Robert L,ee, president ; Clayton Moore, 
secretary. The building was abandoned for school purposes after the 
public-school system, was adopted. 

The Franklin School building was erected in 1851. It is the oldest 
school building in Rahway. It was built of brick, 50 x 75 feet in 
dimensions, two stories and basement ; and when the present public- 
school system was adopted, this building was turned* over to the city. 


The Rahway Library was opened June 15, 1858, under the auspices 
of an association of ladies, with a collection of books, presented by a 
previous organization, numbering one hundred and forty-four volumes. 
This voluntary association continued six years, during which time such 
additions were made to the library as the srnall amount of money 
received from subscribers would permit. An increasing desire for the 
prosperity of the library being apparent in the community, it was 
thought best to have the interests connected herewith secured and 
enlarged by an act of incorporation. The charter was obtained from 
the legislature of this state in 1864, and the present organization was 
formed under its provisions. The need of a better and larger room, 


coupled with a desire to have a permanent building for the library, 
induced the trustees to make great efforts to obtain money enough to 
purchase a lot and to build thereon a structure that would be a credit 
to them and to the city of Rahway. These efforts were so far successful 
that they were enabled to construct a substantial brick building in a 
central location, at a cost, including the lot, of about ten thousand 
dollars. The books were removed to the new building, at the corner 
of Seminary and Irving streets, in the summer of 1869, and the library 
was opened to the public with fifteen hundred volumes upon its shelves. 
On the ist of June, 1871, a lady of our city, well known for her liberal 
contributions to many and varied objects of philanthropy, presented 
the association with the sum of ten thousand dollars, to be securely 
invested, and the interest derived therefrom to be used for the purchase 
of books of science, biography, history, travels, etc. , and the better 
class of periodical literature. On the ist of May, 1872, the trustees of 
the Rahway School for Colored Children made the association a gift of 
six thousand dollars, on conditions and with restrictions similar to 
those in the donation mentioned. In 1891 an annex was built at a cost 
of about fifteen thousand dollars, — this being the gift of Mrs. Mary A. 
Marsh, as a memorial to her husband, John D. Marsh. The present 
trustees are: Mesdames W. C. Squire, F.James, D.Jones, L. Lupton, 
A. V. Shotwell, E. Marsh, Underbill, Wood and Miss Harned. The 
library at present has about fifteen thousand volumes. Carolyn Wells 
is the librarian. 


The Rahway Y. M. C. A. was organized in 1889, and incorporated 
in 1890, with fifty-nine charter members. S. D. Mershon was president 
from 1889 to 1893, and was succeeded by J. R. Morss. F. W. 
Langstroth has been treasurer since the association was organized. 
The general secretaries have been John G. Withrow, Arthur Lanning, 
O. H. Hillman, and R. M. Honeyman. The hew building was erected, 
on Irving street, in 1890, the site being purchased from the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

There is an average attendance at the rooms per day of fifty men 
and forty boys. The average attendance at the men's gospel meetings 
is sixty-five; at the Bible classes eight. The total attendance at the 
gymnasium classes per year amounts to fifteen hundred. The Ladies' 
Auxiliary of the Y. M. C. A. is an organization composed of about 
sixty ladies. The society's aim is to aid the Y. M. C. A. financially. 

THE children's home. 

In the summer of 1883 a society was formed to care for the destitute 
children of Rahway and vicinity. In 1887 it was incorporated under 
the name of the Children's Home and Orphan Asylum Association. 
The association became an auxiliary to the Children's Industrial Home, 


of New Brunswick,' but as time passed and the work enlarged it seemed 
better to establish the home here. Accordingly, on October i, 1892, 
this was accomplished. In the winter of 1895 property was purchased 
for the home. 

woman's christian temperance UNION. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Rahway is composed 
of about forty members, and is auxiliary to the state and national 
organization. The organization was completed in March, 1874. The 
"Y" is the Young Woman's Christian Union, abbreviated. The 
society came into being December 13, 1893. The object of the society 
is to uphold and exalt the principle of total abstinence. 


Probably the oldest burying ground in Rahway is the Frazee place 
of interment. It is known that the Frazee family were among the 
original proprietors of land on the Rahway river in this vicinity. It is 
probable they followed the example of the early settlers in this 
community, in burying their dead on their own estates. As the 
interment of John Frazee occurred eighteen years before the building of 
the church, in 1742, the presumption is that this was the Frazee family 
burying ground before it became the principal burying ground of the 
neighborhood. The Frazee family, in its several branches, may have 
donated the same and adjoining space to the Presbyterian society when 
about to build, or the land may have been purchased from the family 
by the society for church and burial purposes. There have been 
made by the church at least nine diiferent purchases of land which have 
been added to the original plot, making an area, according to the city 
records, of thirteen and one-tenth acres. 

The Abraham Clark monument gives a sort of national sanctity to 
this cemetery, as it marks' the resting place of one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. On an upright brown sandstone, about 
forty yards from the gate, may be seen this inscription : 

A. c. 

'In memory of 

Abraham Clark, Esq., 

who died 

Sept. 15, 1794, 

In the 69th year of his age. 

Firm and decided as a patriot, 

zealous and faithful as a servant of the public ; 

he loved his country and adhered to her 

in the darkest hour of her struggles 

against oppression. 

In 1848 the citizens of Rahway, in honor of this distinguished 
man, erected a plain obelisk, twenty-two feet high, on which, commen- 


cing with the east face of the base supporting the shaft, thence passing 
around to the north, we have the following inscriptions : 

Abraham Ci,ark, 


at Rahway, 

15th Feb., 1726 ; 

15th Sept., 1794. 

In private life 

a Christian, 

exemplary, consistent, zealous. 

In public life 

a statesmen and patriot. 

In 1775 a member of the First 

Provincial Congress. 

In 1776 one of the Committee of 

Public Safety. 

A delegate to the Continental Congress, 

and a signer of the 

Declaration of Independence. 


by the citizens of Rahway, 

4th July, 1848. 

The dedication of this monument to its memorial purpose, on July 4, 
1848, was characterized by a spontaneous outpouring of the people of 
Rahway and neighboring towns. Social, beneficiary, and military 
organizations of Rahway, New Brunswick, E^lizabeth, and Newark, with 
bands of music, made a stirring and animated scene for Rahway, as they 
marched, under the direction of the officers of the day, from the depot to 
the First Presbyterian church, where the formal exercises were held. 
The capacity of the church was too limited for this occasion. When the 
audience room was filled, the services were formally commenced by Rev. 
J. J. Janeway, D. D., of New Brunswick, who pronounced the invocation. 
Rev. Mr. Ayers, of the Methodist Episcopal church, read the Declaration 
of Independence. Hon. William B. Reed, of Philadelphia, was the orator 
of the day. His discourse is spoken of as possessing rare beauty and 
pertinence, clothed in a style of singular purity and strength. The 
leading thought of the orator was the contrast between European revolu- 
tions and the American Revolution. Speaking particularly of Abraham 
Clark, he, in substance, said : " The peculiarity of his career — and it is 
well worthy of meditation — is that he was a member of the old congress 
from first to last, — from the day that it asserted a substantive existence 
as the representative of an independent nation till it relinquished its 
trust on the formation of the federal constitution. Of the fifty-one 
members of the congress of 1776 he alone survived in office in 1783, and 
rarely, so far as can be ascertained from the printed journal, was he absent 
from his post." At the close of the oration the benediction was 


pronounced by the Rev. Lewis Bond, of Plainfield, when the procession 
was reformed and proceeded to the cemetery, where the dedicatory address 
was made by the Rev. Charles K. Imbrie. The words of dedication and 
the inspiration of the day were pointedly and beautifully expressed in 
the following words : 

In the name of the citizens of the republic, in your name who have erected this 
structure (the citizens of this township), I dedicate this monument to the memory of 
Abraham Clark. I need not identify him. The signatures of the enduring record stand 
alone engraved in one consecrated tablet in the heart of every American freeman. Let 
that simple name, encircled by its wreath of olive and oak, designating the man, record 
his virtues, and proclaim the glory of the monument which is consecrated to his memory. 
Let this monument inspire you and your children with patriotism. Let it fire our 
hearts with a warmer devotion to our country and of gratitude to our God. 

Among the quaint and admonitory inscriptions found upon some 
of the memorial stones, we have the following specimen : 

Mr. John Lawrence, 
Who, November 6th, first drew his breath, 
And, October i6th, 1766, yielded to death. 

From London truly famed I came ; 

Was born in Stains, a place near by ; 

In Rah way at old age did die. 

And here entombed in earth must lie 

Till Christ ye dead calls from on high. 

Hazlewood cemetery is situated just west of the limits of the city 
of Rahway, partly in Union and partly in Middlesex county. It com- 
prises an area of about forty acres, very tastefully laid out by the 
original designer, William Saunders. The Hazlewood Cemetery 
Association was incorporated in 1859, under the general act for the 
incorporation of rural cemeteries, — Thomas H. Shafer, Jonathan 
Woodruff, Dr. S. Abernethy, Eden Haydock, A. C. Watson, A. E. 
Brown, Dr. L,ewis Drake, Jacob R. Shotwell, George W. Hall, A. 
Stoats Bonney and others being the incorporators. The articles of 
association were filed October i, 1859, and upon the organization of 
the association the following officers were chosen: Dr. L,. Drake, 
president; Joseph T. Crowell, vice-president; Joel Wilson, secretary 
and treasurer; Dr. h. Drake, Thomas H. Shafer John H. Lufbery, 
George Hartshorne, Joseph Gatchell, Joseph S. Smith, Joseph T. 
Crowell, H. H. Bowne, J. R. Shotwell, A. C. Watson, George W. 
Savage, Isaac Osborn, trustees; Patrick Clark, surveyor; William 
Kneilley, superintendent. The first interment was made in Hazlewood 
cemetery January 18, i860. 


Jonathan Woodruff, a representative of one of the oldest families in 
New Jersey, died, at his home in Rahway, March 25, 1893, ^t the 
advanced age of eighty-eight years. He was a great-great-grandson of 


John Woodruff, a prominent citizen of Elizabeth Town in 1673, and of 
the family of Woodruffs who settled Westfield in 1699. 

William Woodruff, the sou of Jonathan, moved from Westfield to 
Rahway and settled on the old St. George's road, now St. George's 
avenue, in 1815, in which year Jonathan Woodruff, the subject of this 
sketch, was born. William Woodruff married Phebe Ludlow, daughter 
of Jacob Ludlow, who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. She 
died in 1856. 

Jonathan Woodruff learned the trade of a carriage manufacturer, 
but, in 1837, accepted a position in New York city as superintendent of 
Thomas Hale's Silk and Print Works, which were located at Rahway. 
This position he filled creditably for three years, when, resolving to go 
into business for himself, he spent one year with the jobbing house (dry 
goods) of Ely & Freeland of New York city. In the spring of 1842, 
with his brother Amos, he opened in Rahway a large general-merchan- 
dise store, which was successfully conducted for fifteen years. While 
conducting this business he went south, in 1845, to Memphis, Tennessee, 
and established a large repository, and, leaving a brother in charge, 
returned to Rahway, where he opened a large carriage repository, which 
was successfully conducted until the war broke out, in 1861. 

In 1865 the Union National Bank was organized. He was chosen 
its first president, a position which he held for a number of years. He 
was a large property-holder, owning, among other fine buildings in 
Rahway, the Exchange, adjoining the Pennsylvania Railroad depot. 

Mr. Woodruff was one of the organizers of the Second Presbyterian 
church in Rahway, was one of its building committee, was for many 
years a trustee, and for thirty-five years an elder. During sixty years 
of his long life he was interested in Sunday-school work, as superin- 
tendent and teacher. In 1852 he organized a Sunday school at 
Uniontown (now Iselin) which he attended for fifteen years. He was 
often sent by the presbytery of Elizabeth as a delegate to the general 


of the firm of Sandford & Stillman, is a resident of Rahway. He is a 
native of Brooklyn, New York, where he was born in September, 1853. 
His parents removed to Bridgeport, Connecticut, when he was five years 
of age. For many years he was employed by the Howe Sewing 
Machine Company in America and in Europe, and subsequently engaged 
with the New York & New Haven Railroad Company, becoming chief 
clerk of the Harlem River branch. In 1882 he removed to Jersey City, 
and engaged in general contracting, and his business headquarters are 
still located in that town. 

In 1888 he removed to Rahway, where he at present resides. Mr. 


Stillman was married, in Bridgeport, Connecticut, to Miss Caroline 
Griffitlis, by whom he has three children. 


The Shotwell family is among the oldest in New Jersey, and is 
supposed to be of English origin. Abraham Shotwell's name stands 
fourth in the list of those who took the oath of allegiance to Charles 
II., his successors, etc., "in Elizabeth and its jurisdiction," beginning 
February 19, 1665. He boldly opposed the governor in his usurpation 
of power, and for this Carteret confiscated his property and banished 
him. He was given a grant of land by the New York government, 
and died in exile. It is probable that Daniel Shotwell, who settled on 
Staten Island, was his son. In October, 1679, his son, John, married 
Elizabeth Burton, in New York. The property which had been taken 
from Abraham Shotwell was returned in May, 1683, and given to his 
son John. He died at Woodbridge in 1718. In his will he is called 
"John Shotwell, of the town of Woodbridge, and county of Middlesex, 
and province of New Jersey, yeoman." His son, John, married Mary 
Thorne, of Flushing, Long Island, in 1709. He settled on the banks 
of the Rahway river, at a place long known as Shotwell's Landing and 
now designated as Rahway Port. He died in 1763. His eldest son, 
Joseph, was born in 1710, and married at Flushing, Long Island, in 
1741. He was a prominent merchant. 

In the history of the Shotwell family, as given in the Biographical 
History, of New Jersey, and published by the Galaxy Company, of 
Philadelphia, it is said that "Two of his sons opened and maintained 
a direct trade with Bristol, England, shipping flaxseed and other 
produce, and receiving dry goods in return, by means of a small vessel 
that navigated a portion of the Rahway river." 

Abel Vail Shotwell was born October 18, 1814, in Rahway, New 
Jersey. His parents were Abel and Elizabeth (Vail) Shotwell. His 
father did an extensive business as a tanner, in Rahway. His mother 
was a native of Somerset county,' New Jersey, and was the fifth in 
descent from Edward Fitz Randolph, a native of Nottinghamshire, 
England, who was born about 1617 and came to Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1630. Edward Fitz Randolph was married May 10, 1637, 
to Elizabeth Blossom, born in Leyden, 1620, her parents having left 
England to escape persecution. They came to America the same year, 
in the Mayflower. 

Our subject, the sixth in descent from the pilgrim, was educated in 
the common schools of Rahway. In 1830 he became a clerk in a 
mercantile house, and later began business on his own account, in which 
he was actively engaged until 1863. In 1868 he became connected with 
the Rahway Fire Insurance Company. He was for many years second 



vice-president of the Rahway Savings Bank, also secretary of the board 
of directors of the National Bank of Rahway, and was for a long period 
director in the old Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, of Rahway. In 1858, 
when Rahway became a city, he was chosen to represent the first ward 
in the city council. He was married November 2, 1859, to his second 
cousin, Rosetta Shotwell Ebert, of Hamilton, Ohio, granddaughter of 
Hugh Shotwell, formerly of Scotch Plains, New Jersey. On her father's 
side she was a great-granddaughter of Colonel Smyser, of York county, 
Pennsylvania, an officer in the Revolutionary war. Colonel Smyser 
was a captain in Colonel Swope's regiment, and was captured at Fort 
Washington, on the Hudson, November 16, 1766. Mr. Shotwell died 
December 17, 1893. 


member of the city council from the first ward of Rahway, was elected 
to that body, as a Democrat, in April, 1897, in a Republican ward. He 
is connected with the Mershon Printing & Binding Company, of that 
city, and was born in Scotland thirty-five years ago. He came to the 
United States ten years ago, and has lived in Rahway nine years. He 
was married in his native land to Mary A. McKinnon, and has five 
children : Mary (born in Scotland), and Frank, Nellie, James and 
William M., born in Rahway. 

Mr. Lints has been somewhat engaged in local political contests 
during the past five years. As a member of the council he is working 
for the equalization and reduction of the tax burden in his city, and is 
known as an enthusiast in whatever he becomes interested. 

Mr. Dints is a Forester, Chief Ranger, president of Hook and 
Dadder Company, No. 2, and represents this company in the board of 
representatives. He is also prominent in the Royal Arcanum, and 
hopes to make himself as prominent in the city council as in the differ- 
ent societies to which he belongs. 


The subject of this sketch was born in North Charlestown, New 
Hampshire, on June 4, 1852. His family came to this country from 
county Clare, Ireland, early in the present century and followed their 
original bent, which led them to agricultural pursuits, and, by dint of 
that unweary industry and thrift which characterize emigrants, he 
succeeded after a time in obtaining a snug farm. 

When the war broke out his father enlisted in the Fourteenth New 
Hampshire Volunteer Infantry for a short time, and later, when President 
Lincoln called for volunteers for three years, or " during the war," he 
was one of the first to offer his services. He proved himself a gallant 
soldier and remained with his regiment until the end of the war. Ten 


years prior to the death of his father, which occurred in 1887, Mr. 
McMahon built near the old homestead, a beautiful residence for his 
father and mother, which the latter still occupies. 

Mr. McMahon's opportunities for education were limited. He 
attended the district school, when farm work allowed, until he was 
fourteen years old. I^ater, by reading and study and by his travels and 
contact with men of the world, he added largely to his knowledge and, 
being gifted with great powers of observation, he became a ready 
conversationalist and a charming companion. 

He left his native town at the age of fourteen. After engaging in 
occupations of various kinds in the eastern states, he worked his way 
through Texas, Arkansas, and other southwestern states, experiencing 
his full share of the hardships and vicissitudes of the times. It was, 
however, a splendid training for his after life, making him prompt in 
action, ready of resource, and able to seize any opportunity that 
might offer. 

After his travels in the southwestern states, he came north and 
devoted himself for some time to the production of various useful 
patented articles. One invention was a process for utilizing wood 
pulp, which from that time has been in very extensive use. Mr. 
McMahon sold his interest in this patent many years ago. Since that 
time he has taken out many other patents, notably those for automatic- 
dumping cars and boats. 

In the early '80s he was prominently identified with improvement 
schemes then rife in New York city, — especially those pertaining to 
"rapid transit" and the "subway" for the electric wires which at that 
time disfigured the city. He was also at one time associated with Mr. 
Edison in introducing those marvels of modern times, the electric light 
and the phonograph, and was among the first to. exhibit the latter in 
public. Politically Mr. McMahon is and always has been a consistent 
Democrat, believing that in that party lies the future prosperity and, 
indeed, the perpetuity of the republic. He has, however, been too 
much engaged with business to become an active factor in politics, and 
therefore has never held office. On one occasion, at the solicitation of 
his party friends, he consented to run for congress against John R. 
Kean, Jr. , the Republican candidate, and such was his popularity that, 
in spite of the fact that his district was strongly Republican, he was 
defeated by only a small number of votes. On another occasion he was 
nominated for mayor of Rahway, but declined to accept the nomination. 

In 1875 Mr. McMahon married Mary F., daughter of the late 
William Walsh, of New York city. She was a most charming and 
popular woman, and possessed wonderful sagacity and ability in con- 
ducting business affairs. She died in 1890, leaving four children, two 
sons and two daughters. The elder son, William E. , is at the present 
time a student at Rutgers College. 



At the present time Mr. McMahon is one of the most respected 
citizens of Rahway, where he has resided for twenty years. His house, 
situated on one of the pleasantest streets of that city, was built for 
comfort, and is an ideal home. 


The subject of this sketch is the popular and efficient postmaster of 
Rahway, and in the discharge of his civic duties displays the same 
loyalty to the trust reposed in him that he manifested when, on 
southern battle fields, he followed the starry banner to victory. He is 
one of New Jersey's native sons, his birth having occurred in Blazing 
Star, on the 12th of October, 1841. His parents were John M. and 
Mary (Davis) Tufts, and in their home he spent the days of his boyhood 
and youth, no dvent of special personal importance occurring during 
that period. 

By the time he had attained his majority, however, the country had 
become involved in civil war, and the patriotic impulses of his nature 
being aroused in support of the Union, he offered his services to the 
government to aid in crushing out the rebellion, enlisting as a private 
in Company C, Thirtieth New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, September 3, 
1862. He entered into the routine duty of a soldier's life with the same 
energy and devotion that have ever characterized his performance of a 
duty, and on the first of the following month promotion came to him. 
He was made corporal, and from that time forward his advancement was 
rapid. On the i6th of March, 1863, he was made second lieutenant and 
transferred to Company C, and on the ist of April of the same year was 
again promoted, becoming first lieutenant of Company F, with which 
command he continued to serve until mustered out at the close of the 
war. . 

In 1872 Mr. Tufts came to Rahway, where he has since made his 
home, and in the municipal affairs he has taken an active and 
important part. For four years he served as a member of the city 
council, and for two years of his term was its president. His 
administration was progressive and brought about many needy reforms 
and improvements which materially advanced the interests of the city. 
So efficient and able were his labors in that capacity that on his 
retirement from the presidency he was presented a beautiful basket of 
flowers by his fellow members of the council, who thus evidenced their 
appreciation of his labors and his unvarying courtesy as presiding 
officer. On the ist of February, 1894, Mr. Tufts was appointed 
postmaster of Rahway and is still serving in that capacity. After two 
years of persevering eSort he secured free delivery for the city, the 
measure going into effect on the i6th of July, 1897. It is characteristic 
of the man that he is continually seeking improvement and advance- 



ment in connection with his work, and Rahway has never had a more 
capable official in her postoffice. 

On the 27th of June, 1871, Mr. Tufts was united in marriage to 
Miss Emily E. Watson, a native of Rahway and a daughter of Amos 
C. Watson, a prominent druggist of the city. In his political 


affiliations he has been a life-long Democrat. Socially he is a valued 
member of Lafayette Lodge, F. & A. M., Rahway Conclave of 
Heptasophs, the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and the Grand 
Army Post of Rahway. In the latter organization he is especially 
prominent, and is known throughout the state as one of the workers of 
the order. In 1882 he was elected commander of Barry Post; was 



appointed chief mustering officer, by Commander H. M. Nevius, in 
1883, and was elected senior vice-commander of New Jersey in 1885. 


of the George S. Bracher Manufacturing Company, is one of the 
prominent business men of New Jersey. He was born near Painsville, 
Ohio, in 1840, and when eight years of age came with his parents to 
New York city, where he received his academic education. 

At the age of twenty years he became one of a company engaged in 
the manufacture of hats, the business office of the firm being on 
Broadway, New York. The company of which Mr. Bracher is now 
president is one of the most prominent and successful business firms in 
the country, employing constantly a large force of skillful workmen in 
the manufacture of the reeded hat-sweat-band, a device originating with 
himself and his brother, and by them patented in five or six European 

Mr. Bracher is actively identified with a number of prominent 
industries in New Jersey. He is president of the Cragin Manufacturing 
Company, of Carlstadt, New Jersey, whose business is the manufactur- 
ing of glazed cloth, called Japan goods. He is also president of the 
Dumping Car Improvement Company, New York, the president of the 
Rahway Telephone Company, and holds a similar office in connection 
with a stitching plant in Newark, New Jersey. 

Mr. Bracher is one of the governors of the Rahway Business Club, 
and is a charter member of the Rahway Driving Club. He has been 
remarkably successful in all his enterprises, and is among the best 
known and most highly respected men in Rahway and its vicinity. 

Mr. Bracher was married June 11, 1881, to Evalina Johnson. 
Their children are: George Edward, Harold Hamblin, Robert Lester, 
Edith Evaline, Roy Stephen and Elmer Gladstone. The country seat 
of this family consists of fifty-six acres, under a high state of cultivation, 
on the Rahway river, and overlooking one of the richest and best 
improved districts of New Jfrsey. The residence, " Ellsmere Villa," 
is patterned after EUsmere Villa of England, the residence of L,ord 
Ellsmere, and is a three-story gothic dwelling, containing twenty-two 
rooms, and although built forty-eight years ago, it is now, in 1897, in 
a better condition than many more recently built houses. It is 
surrounded by well cared for trees in great variety, both ornamental 
and fruit-bearing. The residence stands on an elevation near the 
centre of the grounds, surrounded by hundreds of shade trees and fruit 
trees of nearly every known variety. The stables and outbuildings are 
spacious and substantial, and all are under the supervision of skilled 
attendants. The grounds are furnished with over one mile of drives 


and walks, and the gardens are bordered with over two thousand feet of 
arbor vitse hedge. 

The stables and barns are filled with well fed animals,— Jersey 
cows, valuable dogs, ponies, fowls, pigeons, etc., in abundance. Four 
teams are kept busy on the farm, and a number of men are employed 
by the year, there being hundreds of dollars expended annually in the 
preservation of the beauty of this model country seat, including a deer 
park, with tame deer, pea-fowls, turkeys, etc. 

The shady roads leading across the fields, the boulevard by the 
river side, the mass of tropical foliage overhanging the walks and 
terraced lawns, the hot houses, the water fountain and the numerous 
flower mounds, make of this picturesque place a fairy land indeed, with 
boats for fishing, crabbing, and with private dock and boat house. 

Among other buildings on these grounds is a spacious work-shop, 
built and equipped especially for the needs of the children. In this 
shop are printing press, benches and tools and everything necessary for 
them in the making of wagons, boats, toys or whatever else childish 
fancy may lead them to construct. This provision made for recreation 
and pastime also attests to both the happiness and health of the family, 
and constitutes one of the many attractive elements of this homestead, 
whose equal is hard to find. 


county clerk of Union county, was born in Brooklyn, New York, August 
14, 1846. He is the son of Horatio N. and Cornelia (Finley) Howard, 
both of whom are dead. The father belonged to an old Vermont family, 
but when twenty years of age, went to Brooklyn, New York, where he 
followed the business of a furrier. In 1852 he removed to a farm in 
Somerset county, New Jersey, now North Plainfield, and died there in 
1 87 1. The mother died in 1856. 

William Howard was one of seven children. He was reared on a 
farm and received his education in the public schools of North Plainfield. 
When eighteen years of age, or in 1864, he enlisted in the Thirty-ninth 
Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers, and was assigned to the First Brigade 
Second Division Ninth Army Corps. His regiment was sent to City 
Point, Virginia, and his first battle was at Poplar Grove church. After- 
ward he participated in the siege of Petersburg and in all the battles of 
that memorable campaign, to the close of the war, which terminated in 
the surrender of General Lee, June 9, 1865, at Appomatox. 

After the war Mr. Howard resumed his occupation as a farmer, but 
in 1869 removed to Rahway, where he went into the retail grocery 
business, and he very soon assumed a prominent position among the 
merchants of Rahway. This store, now under the management of his 
son, Guy Howard, is the oldest and largest store of the kind in Rahway. 



Mr. Howard is in no sense an office-seeker. Nevertheless, the people 
of Rahway, and the county, have, from time to time, forced the duties 
of office upon him. In 1884 he was elected a member of the Union 
county board of freeholders, and held that office for ten years, when he 
resigned, to accept the county clerkship, receiving in this election a 
majority of sixteen hundred votes and being the first Republican ever 
elected to this office in the county. As a member of the board of free- 
holders he was chairman of the finance committee, and was for a number 
of years chairman of the public-building committee of that body. He has 
also been chairman of the city Republican committee for a number of 
years, has held other offices in the gift of the citizens of Rahway, and is 
now serving his fifth year as a member of the Rahway common council. 

Mr. Howard was married in 1872 to Miss Nannie Merrick, daughter 
of David P. Merrick, an old merchant of that city, who is now dead. 
Of this union seven children were born, three of whom are now living, 
viz.: Guy, Charles and Raymond. 

Mr. Howard is a member of the board of trustees of the Second 
Presbyterian church, of Rahway, and Mrs. Howard is a member of that 


There is no royal road to wealth or distinction in this republic. 
Ability must win promotion and merit must gain advancement. A 
cursory glance at the life record of individuals may sometimes lead to 
the thought that fortune has favored them, but a close investigation 
usually shows that success has depended upon earnest effijrts, persever- 
ance and indomitable energy. In reviewing the record of Mr. Mooney 
we notice that this is the course which he has followed, and must give 
him our respect and admiration, for in comparative obscurity he started 
out on life's journey for himself Dominated by a progressive and 
enterprising spirit, energy and industry stood him in stead of capital and 
crowned his efforts with prosperity. 

Mr. Mooney is one of New Jersey's native sons, his birth having 
occurred in Cranford, Union county, on the 3d of February, 1823. His 
grandfather, Nicholas Mooney, owned a farm of one hundred and fifty 
acres, included within what is now the most populous district of Cranford, 
and carried on the milling business, owning what was known for many 
years as Mooney's mills. Upon his death his son, Samuel Mooney, 
succeeded to the ownership and operated the mill until his removal from 
Cranford to Elizabeth, New Jersey. The last }'ears of his life were 
passed in New York city, where he died on the 9th of April, 1837. He 
married a daughter of Jacob Wooley, who resided in Springfield, New 
Jersey, and was the owner of two valuable farms in that locality. His 
business was that of building bridges and turnpikes, and in his under- 
takings he was very successful. When the country attempted to throw 



off the yoke of British tyranny, he aided the colonists in their struggle 
for independence, and afterward received a pension in recompense for 

his services. 

For more than half a century Mr. Mooney, whose name initiates 
this article, has been identified with the business interests of Rahway. 
He removed to that city in order to learn the carriage-maker's trade. 


which he mastered under the direction of Ralph Marsh and James 
B. lyaing. He afterward embarked in the dry-goods and grocery 
business, which he followed for a number of years, after which he 
erected a large four-story brick factory at the corner of Irving and Coach 
streets and began the manufacture of carriages, which enterprise he 
continued from 1852 until i860. The progress of the war practically 


put an end to all business in that line. During that period he also 
conducted a sale and exchange stable and sold fine carriage horses, doing 
business with the leading horse dealers of the entire country. 

For the past twenty-five years Mr. Mooney has engaged in the 
real-estate and insurance business, which he still continues under the 
firm name of Nicholas Mooney & Son, at the corner of Cherry and 
Irving streets, Rahway, being^ now the largest real-estate owner and 
negotiator in the city. He handles all kinds of property, and has a 
knowledge of value and location that is unsurpassed. His progressive- 
ness is indicated by the excellent condition in which his property is 
always to be found. He keeps it under a good state of repair and thus 
materially advances the city's interest, for other real-estate dealers, in 
order to compete with him, must follow his example in this respect. 

Mr. Mooney has ever been deeply interested in the welfare of the 
city, and his labors have been very effective in promoting its progress. 
He was largely instrumental in settling the debt of the city, which 
defaulted July i, 1878, by purchasing the city bonds and paying back 
taxes and assessments for the property owners under the Martin act, 
which was passed in 1886, and the debt of the city was settled January 
I, 1895. He was one of the incorporators of the Rahway Public 
I/ibrary, and has been one of the trustees of the First Presbyterian 
church for a quarter of a century. 

Mr. Mooney has been twice married. On the 12th of Janu- 
ary, i860, he wedded Miss Charlotte C. Hegeman, daughter of 
John S. Hegeman, of Lamington, New Jersey. She died November 
20, i860. His second marriage was celebrated November 24, 1868, the 
lady of his choice being Thirza Squier, a daughter of Job Squier, of 
Somerville, New Jersey. In the family are four children, — three sons 
and a daughter, — Nicholas H., who is in business with his father, 
William J. , Scott F. and Charlotte C. 

In manner Mr. Mooney is free from all ostentation and display, 
but his intrinsic worth is recognized and his friendship is most prized* 
by those who know him best, showing that his character will bear the 
scrutiny of close acquaintance. He is a generous-spirited, broad- 
minded man, a true type of the American spirit and an embodiment of 
that progress which in the last few years has drawn to this country the 
admiring gaze of the nations of the world. 


was born in Freehold township, Monmouth county. New Jersey, about 
one mile from the court house, in the town of Freehold, March i, 1839. 
His father was Aaron P. Hyer, who died in 1870, at the age of seventy- 
six years, and his mother's maiden name was Gertrude Cottrell ; she died 


in 1878, ag-ed nearly eighty years. Both were natives of the southern 
part of Monmouth (now Ocean) county. 

Lewis S. attended school in a small district school house of one 
room, the same being situated about a half mile from his home, and 
isolated from all other buildings in the farming section. Years ago 
the school was discontinued and the building removed to a neigh- 
boring farm, where it was converted into a corn crib. As soon as Mr. 
Hyer was old enough to assist in farming he did so during the working 
seasons, attending school in the winter, and mastering the ordinary 
educational branches of those days. 

In May, 1855, he entered the Monmouth Democrat office as an 
apprentice to the printing trade, against the wishes of his parents at the 
time, as they desired him to stay on the farm, though they lived long 
enough to realize the wisdom of his choice, as he showed an aptitude for 
the business, not only mechanically but in all that is required in a 
newspaper office, — he became foreman of the establishment before 
reaching his majority. When the civil war broke out, in 1861, his 
employer, Major (now Colonel) James S. Yard, answered to the first call 
for volunteers to go to Washington, and Mr. Hyer had general charge of 
the business during his absence. His only other experience as an employe 
was as assistant foreman in the office of the New York Journal of 
Commerce for a short time, in 1863. 

April 29, i860, he married Miss Jennie Young, daughter of Jacob 
Young, a veteran of the war of 1812, whose father was in the war of the 
Revolution; her mother's maiden name was Mincha Morris. Both 
parents lived to a very old age. Mr. and Mrs. Hyer have but one child, 
Fred C, born December 10, 1874, now a practicing lawyer, with offices 
in Newark and Rahway. 

In the latter part of March, 1865, Mr. Hyer came to Rahway and 
leased, for one year, of the Hon. Josephus Shann, the National (now 
Union ) Democrat establishment, purchasing it one year later and suc- 
tessfully conducting it, in all departments, continuously up to July 
I, 1896, when Mr. John I. Collins assumed charge of the business and 
mechanical departments, Mr. Hyer continuing as editor and proprietor. 

Mr. Hyer has held a number of public offices, commencing in 
1874, when he was elected mayor of the city, and the same year was 
appointed clerk of the board of chosen freeholders of the county. In 
1881 he consented to accept the nomination for state senator, but was 
defeated by a small majority, on account of adverse party combinations. 
On March i, 1882 (his birthday anniversary), he was appointed by 
Governor Ludlow a judge of the court of common pleas of Union 
county, for a term of five years; was reappointed by Governor Green, 
in 1887, and by Governor Abbett, in 1892, serving until April i, 1896, 
when, on account of a law making changes in the formation of county 
courts the office was abolished, he having a year yetj to serve of the 



third term. In 1889 he again acceded to the desire of his friends, and 
became a candidate for mayor; was elected, and re-elected in 1890, for 
two years, the law having been changed just before his election, 
extending the term one year. 

He joined the Methodist Episcopal church in early life, and has 
for many years held the position of president of the board of trustees 
of the Second (now Trinity) church of Rahway. He was also chair- 
man of the building committee of that church during the erection of 
the handsome new edifice, recently completed, and was for about 
twenty-five years director of the choir. He is a member of the Free 
and Accepted and Royal Arch Masons, Odd Fellows and other societies, 
though of recent years he has not given attention, as formerly, to the 
gatherings of such, preferring the quiet of home, especially since his 
erection of a commodious new residence in one of the pleasantest parts 
of the city. He was for twenty years a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the New Jersey Editorial Association, which association he 
connected himself with as soon as he became an editor, and of which 
he is still an active member. 


was bom at I^iberty Corner, Somerset county. New Jersey, November 2, 
1841. He is a son of Alvah Compton and Ann Maria (Ayres) Compton. 
Alvah Compton was a son of James R. Compton. The Compton family 
came to New Jersey from Staten Island, and is of English origin. Ann 
Maria Ayres, the mother of Nathan V., was a daughter of Oliver Ayres, 
of Rahway, New Jersey. The father of the latter was Jacob Ayres, of 
Metuchen, Middlesex county, New Jersey. Jacob Ayres was a member 
of the New Jersey militia, from Middlesex county, in the war of the 
Revolution, and his son, Oliver Ayres, was a soldier in the war of 1812. 
The Ayres family came originally from Scotland. 

The subject of this sketch received a common-school education, and 
in his early years became a clerk in a grocery at New Brunswick, and 
afterward in one at Plainfield. Subsequently he acquired the trade of a 
silver-plater, at Newark, and pursued that calling until the outbreak of 
the war of the Rebellion. In August, 1863, he enlisted in Company H, 
Thirtieth Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers, commanded by Colonel 
John J. Cladek, and served in that regiment, with the Army of the 
Potomac, in the Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville campaigns. At the 
battle of Chancellorsville Mr. Compton was captured by the Fourth 
Virginia Cavalry and was for a time held as a prisoner of war at Ubby 
Prison, Richmond, Virginia. 

Upon his discharge from the army he accepted a responsible 
position in a manufacturing and mercantile house in the city of Newark, 
and continued there for five years. In 1870 he established himself at 



Rahway in the real-estate and insurance business, which he has ever 
since carried on in that city with much success, having, from his long 
experience and unremitting attention to business, acquired for himself a 
most enviable reputation for reliable judgment concerning real estate, 
and for unsurpassed readiness and skill as an u