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Cornell University Library 
F 127S26 A54 
Our county, and .itsjgeojBJK^a 

I descriptr 



3 1924 028 833 030 


Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


Descriptive and Biographical Record of 




The Saratogian 

The Boston History Company, Publishers 


To record all the interesting events transpiring in a county so rich 
in history as Saratoga; to note the development of all its industries, to 
follow the career of each of its various institutions, would be impossible 
in a single volume. In " Our County and Its People" it has been the 
aim of the writer and those associated with him to preserve for future 
generations a record of such occurrences as will tend to illustrate the 
development of the community along its various lines, and to leave un- 
written many of the minor details in this story of development which, 
however interesting they might prove to a few individuals in each 
locality, are not of sufficient importance to the county at large or even 
to a large portion of the population of any town or village. 

It has also been the plan to carry the history of the county as a 
whole down through the various periods of its existence, with simply 
a gazetteer of the towns — wherein this work differs from most local 
historical publications. 

The chapter dealing with the battles fought in Saratoga county 
during the war of the Revolution, and the history of the Saratoga 
monument and the Saratoga Monument Association, have been revised 
by Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth of Saratoga Springs, the highest local 
authority on Revolutionary history ; and the chapter on the Bench and 
Bar of Saratoga county has been revised by the Hon. John R. Putnam 
of the New York Supreme Court. The invaluable assistance rendered 
by these distinguished persons contributes to give to this work a stand- 
ing wliich should guarantee for it not only a hearty reception on the 
part of the large number of persons who have shown an interest in its 
compilation, but also should cause it to be recognized, in these partic- 
ulars at least, as the most valuable historical work which has ever 
been laid before the inhabitants of Saratoga county. 

The compiler of " Our County and Its People" further desires to 


acknowledge the services of lanthus G. Johnson, M. D., of Greenfield 
Centre, George R. Moore of Mechanicville, Major James W. Lester 
and Captain Frederick M. Waterbury of Saratoga Springs, Captain 
John D. Rogers of Round Lake, Edward F. Grose, James L. Scott, 
David Frisbie and William Spencer of Ballston Spa, James T. Sweet- 
man, M. D., of Charlton, the various town and village clerks, officers 
of various societies, principals of the leading schools, the pastors of the 
churches, the editors of the county newspapers and others who have 
contributed to the success of the undertaking by the great volume of 
information which they have supplied. Among the references em- 
ployed in the preparation of the work we desire to give full credit to 
N. B. Sylvester's History of Saratoga County (1878); Enos R. Mann's 
History of the Bench and Bar of Saratoga County (1876); O'Callaghan's 
Documentary Colonial History of New York; Reports of the Adjutant- 
General of the State of New York ; Hon. George G. Scott's historical 
address delivered at Ballston Spa July 4, 1876; Jeptha R. Simms's Bor- 
der Wars of New York (1845) ; William L. Stone's Reminiscences of 
Saratoga and Ballston (1880); David Cusick's Ancient History of the 
Six Nations; French's Gazetteer of New York; Centennial Celebrations 
of the State of New York, and numerous other works. Material for 
the sketches in the biographical department has been gleaned by agents 
of the publishers, and the matter as prepared has been reviewed by 
those persons best able to guarantee its accuracy. 

Doubtless some mistakes will be found in the succeeding pages ; but 
as all statements of more than ordinary importance, and those regard- 
ing which serious questions have arisen, have been referred to the best 
authorities accessible, the volume is submitted in the belief that it will 
be found to be, on the whple, a trustworthy record of the origin and 
development of the county and the doings of its inhabitants. 

George Baker Anderson. 

Ballston Spa, N. Y., September 1, 1898. 



Organization of Saratoga County — Its Geography and Topography —Its Rivers, 
Lakes and Mountains — Geological Formation — Original Patents Embraced 
Entirelj- or Partly Within the Limits of the County — Origin of the Word 
"Saratoga" — Railroads and Canals — Organization of the Districts and 
Towns _ 1-13 


The Indian Occupancy of the Territory now Known as Saratoga County — The 
Great Iroquois Confederacy and the Mohawks, Its Most Ferocious Nation — • 
Their Wars Against Other Tribes — The Famous Hunting Grounds of the 
Mohawks, Sarah-to-ga and Kay-ad-ros-sera — Sale of Both Properties to the 
White Men _ _ 12-20 


The French and Indian Wars — The Frequent Incursions of the French from 
Canada Into the Land of the Mohawks — Saratoga County a Bloody Battle 
Ground — The Iroquois and English Ever on Friendly Terms — Fate of Father 
Isaac Jogues — The Massacre at Schenectady — Battles in Saratoga County— 
The Old Saratoga Massacre — The Final Struggle— Sir William Johnson's 
Campaign — Fort George, Fort William Henry, Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point ._ __ 30-30 


Settlements in Saratoga County Prior to the War of the Revolution — The Ear- 
liest Permanent Settlement Made Along the Banks of the Hudson North of 
Half Moon Point, and Across the River from Schenectady — The March of 
Progress Northward Along the Hudson — Some of the Early Pioneers.^. ..30-47 




Events Leading up to the Famous Campaign of 1777, Made by Gen. John Bur- 
goyne — His Magnificent Army — General Schuyler in Command of the 
Northern Army — His Futile Attempts to Get Reinforcements — Burgoyne 
Takes Forts Ticonderoga and Independence — Baum's Expedition against 
Bennington — Defeated by Gen. John Stark — British Failure at Fort Stanwix 
— Schuyler Superseded by Gates — The Battles of Saratoga — Death of the 
Valiant Frazer — Arnold's Gallant, though Unauthorized, Victory — Bur- 
goyne's Surrender 47-64 


The Attack on the Ballston Settlement by Munroe and His Band of Tories and 
Indians — Capture of Col. James Gordon and Others and Their Imprison- 
ment in Canada — Escape of the Captives and Their Return to Their Homes 
— The Invasion Under the Command of Joseph Bettys, the Notorious Rene- 
gade — His Valiant Services to the American Government — Piqued at Being 
Unrewarded for His Valor, He Turns Spy in the Service of the British — His 
Capture — Tried and Executed as a Spy — Major Mitchell's Peril — End of the 
War _ _ _ -..65-75 


Condition of the Pioneers at the Close of the Revolutionary War — Many Homes 
Devastated, and Many Families Bereft of Their Means of Support— Slow 
Progress of Civilization in the County During the War — Development of 
the Various Communities from the War Period to the Close of the Eighteenth 
Century — The March of Civilization Northward Along the Valley of the 
Hudson— Some of the Early Inhabitants of the Various Towns, and Their 
Share in the Development and Prosperity of the County 75-123 


The Division of the Districts Comprised Within the Limits of the County and 

the Organization of the Early Towns— Erection of the County of Saratoga 

The First Courts— First County, State and Federal Officials— Erection of the 

First Court House— The Northern Canal, Known as "Schuyler's Ditch" 

The First Newspaper, One Hundred Years Ago, and the First Books Printed 

in the County— Other Events Transpiring Prior to the Year 1800_ 124-130 



FROM 1800 to 1831. 

History of the County from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Con- 
struction of the First Steam Railroad within its Borders — Wonderful Devel- 
opment of Saratoga Springs and Ballston Spa — Gideon Putnam and His 
Beneficent Labors — Early Hotels at the Springs — Some of the More Impor- 
tant Manufactures — Water Power of the Kayaderosseras — Churches Estab- 
lished in the County During this Period — History of the Erie and Champlain 
Canals — Semi-Centennial Celebrations of 1826 — County Medical Society and 
County Bible Societ}' — Men who Served as Officers in the Early Militia.. 131-175 


Construction of the Railroad from Schenectady to Saratoga Springs, the First in 
Saratoga County — The Rensselaer and Saratoga Road Built Soon After — 
Rivalry Between the Two Concerns— Other Roads Merged in the Rensselaer 
and Saratoga — All Pass Under the Control of the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Company — The Old Albany, Vermont and Canada — The Adirondack 
— The Fitchburg and the Mount McGregor Lines— Projected Lines Which 
Were Never Constructed — Modern Electric Railways in Saratoga County. 176-184 


Second Period of the Century, 1831 to the War of the Rebellion — Days of Great 
Prosperity of Saratoga Springs — Reconstruction of the Early Hotels and 
the Building of Many Handsome New Ones — Dr. Clark's Waterworks Sys- 
tem — Banks, Churches and Schools — Foundation of Temple Grove Seminary 
— Societies Organized — The Numerous and Important Manufactures of 
Ballston Spa Established During this Period — The Ballston Spa National 
Bank — Religious and Secret Societies — Academies, Schools and Churches 
Throughout the County — The Development of the Water Power of the Hud- 
son and the Kayaderosseras 184-216 


Participation of Saratoga County in the War of the Rebellion— The Seventy- 
Seventh and Thirtieth Regiments of Infantry and Their Career During the 
War— Morgan H. Chrysler's Second Veteran Cavalry— The One Hundred 
and Fifteenth — Other Regiments in which Inhabitants of the County Fought 
— Officers of the Seventy-Seventy and Thirtieth, with Promotions. Dis- 
charges, Resignations and Deaths — Names of the Men from Saratoga County 
Who Fought in the War, and the Towns Which Furnished Them 216-273 



The Latter Years of the County's History, and the Causes of Its Prosperity Since 
the Days of the Civil War— The Development of the Older Industries and 
the Establishment of New Ones — The Manufacturing Centres — New Churches 
— Growth of the Educational System — Newspapers, Past and Present — Fi- 
nancial Institutions — Some of the Leading Public Institutions — Clubs, So- 
cieties, etc., — Centennial Celebrations of 1876 and 1877— Anniversaries of 
the Battle of Bemis Heights and the Surrender of General Burgoyne — The 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument at Ballston Spa — Death of General U. S. 
Grant— Other Happenings of Interest - 272-312 


The War with Spain, and the Participation of Saratoga County Therein — En- 
listment of the Twenty-second Separate Co. of Saratoga Springs — Assigned to 
the Second New York Provisional Regiment — Its Gradual Movement to 
Hempstead Plains, L. I., Thence to Chickamauga Park and Tampa, Fla. — 
Promotions in the Regiment — Those Who Volunteered — Others from This 
County Who Volunteered in Other Commands — Relief Measures — The One 
Hundred and Twenty-second Separate Company - 313-329 

GAZETTEER OF TOWNS --._ 329-890 


The Discovery and Development of the Celebrated Mineral Springs of Saratoga 
County — High Rock, " the Medicine Spring of the Great Spirit," First Seen 
by a French Officer — Sir William Johnson's Visit — George Washington, 
Philip Schuyler and Joseph Bonaparte Also Early Visitors — Analysis of the 
Principal Springs of Saratoga— Discovery of the First Spring at Ballston Spa 
in 1711 — Development of the Resort— Saratoga Gains the Lead as a Resort 
and Holds it— Analysis of the Ballston Springs 390-410 



History of the Bench and Bar of Saratoga County— The Early Courts of the 
County and the Changes in Them Wrought by the Revised Constitutions- 
First Sessions of the Original Courts— Building of the First Court House at 
Court House Hill— Destroyed by Fire— The First Court House at Ballston 
Spa— The Modern Structure— Leading Lawyers of the Early Days of the 
Century— Men in the Profession Who Have Become Eminent 410-440 





_ 455-478 



Ainsworth, Seymour _,515 

Anderson, John K. , Dr .565 

Anthony, Joshua _ 579 

Barbour, Oliver L _533 

Batcheller Family, The 550 

Beach, William A 518 

Bellinger, Peter Dr 579 

Bockes, Augustus 513 

Brackett, Eclgar T _. 498 

Brady, Edward M., Rev 576 

Brennan, Joseph F 572 

Bullard, Daniel A.. _ 522 

Bullard, Daniel A., 2d 525 

Bullard, Edward C 524 

Burke, John H..___ 544 

Cady, Clifford E 568 

Carey, Joseph, Rev 566 

Closson, C. S 564 

Comstock, George F., Dr 516 

Cook, Ransom 541 

Cowen, Esek ._ 507 

Cramer, John ___ 538 

Crane, John W 569 

Curtis, Warren. _ 575 

Davidson, Lucretia and Margaret... 558 

Davison, Charles Mason. 532 

Davison, Gideon M. 547 

Delaney, William J 538 

De Ridder, John Henry 537 

Deuell. Edwar(3 Valencourt, Dr. 511 

Earley, James 570 

Ellsworth, Ephraim E., Col 240 

Farrow, Edwin 581 

Finley, Thomas 582 

French, Winsor Brown .493 

Gage, William B ...518 

Hamilton, Theodore Frank 511 

Hanson, William Hendricks 527 

Hay, William. 526 

Horton, James W.. 570 

Houghton, James W - 514 

Howe, John W 539 

Hill, Nicholas 505 

Jenkins, Benjamin R 584 

L'Araoreaux, Jesse S 574 

Lester, Charles Cooke 563 

Lester, Charles Smith . 561 

McCarty, R. H., Dr... 546 

McDonough, Bernard J., Rev. 535 

McKean, 'James B. 531 

McKittrick, William Henry, Capt,, ..534 

McNair, A. R 554 

McNair, Frederick P., Lieut 555 

McNulty, William Douglass 577 

Martin, William M. .552 

Marvin, James M .504 

Marvin, Thomas J 502 

Masten, Jeremiah 583 

Murray, Byron J., Dr 542 

Newell. Hiram .530 

Perry, John L., Dr... .519 

Porter, John K 505 

Porter, Joshua, Dr 553 

Putnam, John R 420 

Redmond, William J 535 

Sackett, William A 499 

Schuyler, Harmanus 545 

Scott, James Lee 508 

Sherman, Rav S 582 

Snyder, Michael P 558 

Steel, John H., Dr 549 

Strang, Edward H 550 


Sutfin, Ransom 559 

Taylor. John W... 517 

Thompson Family, The -..481 

Todd, Edward R 578 

Tompkins, Hiram 506 

Turpit, George F 578 

Varney, Miles Egbert, Dr 571 

Walton, Henry -531 

Walworth, Reuben Hyde 490 

Warren, William L. F - 545 

Wayland, Francis, Rev - 547 

West, George - 538 

Wiggins, Peter V 550 

Willard, John 531 

Willcox, Albert O - 548 

Worden, William W 560 

Young, Jesse 584 

Young, Samuel, Col 509 




GENERAL ._ - 177-198 

BIOGRAPHICAL _._- - __198 


PORTRAITS .-- 203 


Anthony, Joshua racing 579 

Bellinger, Peter, Dr facing 341 

Brackett, Edgar T. ; facing 436 

Brady, Edward M., Rev facing 576 

Brennan, Joseph P. ._ .facing 572 

BuUard, Daniel A facing 532 

Bullard, Daniel A., 2d facing 525 

Bullard, Edward C facing 524 

Burke, John H facing 544 

Cady, Clifford E facing 881 

Gary, Joseph, Rev facing 137 

Closson, C. S __ facing 564 

Comstock, George F., Dr facing 449 

Curtis, Warren facing 368 

Davison, Charles Mason facing' 532 

Delaney, William J facing 538 

De Ridder, John Henry .facing 290 

Deuell, Edward V. , Dr facing 448 

Earley, James facing 570 

Farrow, Edwin facing 581 

Finley, Thomas. facing 582 

French, Winsor Brown facing 438 

Gage, William B facing 518 

Hamilton, Theodore Frank,.. facing 437 
Hanson, William Hendricks.. facing 537 

Houghton, James W facing 439 

Howe, John W facing 388 

Jenkins, Benjamin R facing 376 

L'Amoreaux, Jesse S facing 574 

Lester, Charles Cooke facing 396 

Lester, Charles Smith facing 433 

McCarty, R. H., Dr facing 546 

McDonough, Bernard J., Rev. facing 197 
McKittrick, William H., Capt. facing 337 
McNair, Frederick P., Lieut, .facing 555 
McNulty, William Douglass . .facing 577 

,Martin, William M facing 553 

Marvin, James M facing 504 


Marvin, Thomas J facing 428 

Hasten, Jeremiah facing 583 

Murray, Byron J. , Dr facing 451 

Newell, Hiram... facing 530 

Perry. John L. . Dr facing 519 

Putnam, John R facing 431 

Sackett, William A facing 499 

Scott, James Lee facing 508 

Sherrpan, Ray S facing 366 

Snyder, Michael P. facing 558 

Strang, Edward H facing 355 

Sutfin, Ransom facing 348 

Thompson, James 487 

Thompson, John W facing 36 

Todd, Edward R facing 578 

Tompkins, Hiram facing 5U6 

Turpit, George F facing 360 

Varney, Miles Egbert, Dr. ...facing 450 

Walworth, Reuben Hyde facing 417 

West, George facing 373 

Willcox, Alberto facing 548 

Worden, William W facing 560 

Young, Jesse .' facing 584 



Organization of Saratoga County — Its Geography and Topography — Its Rivers, 
Lakes and Mountains — Geological Formation — Original Patents Embraced Entirely 
or Partly Within the Limits of the County — Origin of the Word "Saratoga " — Rail- 
roads and Canals — Organization of the Districts and Towns. 

The original ten counties of what is now the State of New York 
were created November 1, 1683, by the English Colonial Government 
and named New York, Kings, Queens, Suffolk, Richmond, Westchester, 
Orange, Ulster, Dutchess and Albany. The British Government con- 
firmed the act of the Colonial Government October 1, 1691. By these 
acts the county of Albany embraced "the manor of Rensselaerwyck, 
Schenectady, and all the villages, neighborhoods, and Christian planta- 
tions on the east side of Hudson's River, from Roeloffe Jansen's Creek ; 
and on the west side, from Sawyer's Creek to the outermost end of 
Saraghtoga." ' Tryon and Charlotte counties were taken from Albany 
county in 1772, Columbia in 1786, Rensselaer and Saratoga in 1791, a 
part of Schoharie in 1795, a part of Greene in 1800 and Schenectady in 
1809. The date of the legal formation of Saratoga county was Febru- 
ary 7, 1791. 

Saratoga county lies in the north angle formed by the junction of the 
Mohawk and Hudson rivers. It is centrally distant thirty-one miles 
from Albany, and has an area of eight hundred and sixty-two square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Warren county, on the east by 
Washington and Rensselaer, on the south by Albany and Schenectady 
and on the west by Montgomery, Fulton and Hamilton. Until about 
a score of years ago it was essentially an agricultural county; but dur- 

' The manor of Livingston was annexed to Dutchess county May 37, 1717, and by subsequent 
statutes the county of Albany was also made to comprise everything within the colony of New 
York north and west of the presetlt limits of the county, and at one time the whole of Vermont. 


ing the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the development of 
a considerable number and variety of manufactures within its borders, 
principally in its most populous villages, has placed it in the rank of 
leading manufacturing as well as agricultural counties of the Empire 

The topography of Saratoga county is easily described. In the south 
its surface is for the most part gently undulating, though compara- 
tively level along the Hudson valley and in other places. The northern 
half of the county is very hilly and mountainous. Two ranges of 
mountains, from eight hundred to one thousand feet high, traverse the 
county from northeast to southwest. 

The eastern and southern range is known as the Palmerton moun- 
tains.' This range enters Saratoga county from Warren county, and 
extends through the western parts of the towns of Moreau and Wilton, 
and the eastern part of Corinth into GreenfieH, where it terminates 
in a series of low, irregular hills sloping toward the south. This range 
extends into Saratoga Springs and terminates at the Congress Springs. 
Broadway ascends the slope of the southernmost hill in the chain, and 
Judge Hilton's park includes its summit. On the northern border of 
the county the Hudson river — at that point a narrow, rapidly flowing 
and most picturesque stream — forces its way through this range in a 
deep ravine three miles in extent. From the river's banks the rugged 
mountains rise precipitously to a height of eight hundred feet.- As a 
rule the elevations of this range have steep and rocky sides, with broad, 
rough uplands covered with forests. In late years, however, much of 
the forest land has been denuded. 

The northern range extends through the towns of Corinth, Edin- 
burgh, Day and Hadley, and is known as the Kayaderosseras range. 
As a rule the declivities of these mountains are precipitous, and their 
summits spread out into broad, rocky uplands broken by ledges and 
craggy peaks. The Kayaderosseras range extends also through the 
towns of Providence, Galway and Charlton to the Mohawk, where it 
confronts the northern slopes of the Helderbergs that rise on the other 
side of the valley. 

Through the western part of Stillwater and Saratoga extend a group 
of isolated hills — the most conspicuous of which is Snake hill, a prom- 
ontory on the eastern shore of Saratoga lake — some of which are four 
hundred and fifty feet high, having rounded summits and terraced de- 

' gometimes also callod ttie Luzerne mountains. 


clivities. Along the Hudson extends a broad intervale, bordered by a 
range of clay bluffs from forty to two hundred feet in height. From 
the summits of these bluffs an extensive sand plain extends westward 
to the foot of the mountains, covering the greater part of the towns of 
Moreau, Wilton, Northumberland, Saratoga Springs and a small por- 
tion of Milton and Ballston. The southwestern part of the county is 
rolling or moderately hilly, well watered and, for the most part, quite 

The Hudson river flows for nearly seventy miles along the entire 
eastern and northeastern boundaries of the county. Falls, some ex- 
tremely picturesque, interrupt its course at frequent intervals, and 
several dams and many bridges cross its water. The High Falls are 
situated just below the great easterly bend of the river in the north- 
west part of the town of Moreau. The water flows in a series of rapids' 
for three-quarters of a mile over a declining rocky bottom, and then 
rushes through the narrow gorge for a quarter of a mile, at the bottom 
of which it plunges down a nearly perpendicular descent of sixty feet. 
The ledge of gneiss over which it falls is convex in form, and the water 
is thereby broken in perfect sheets of snow white foam. A few rods 
above the last leap of the water, and where it rushes with the greatest 
velocity, the river may be spanned by a plank thirteen feet in leaigth. 
At Glens Falls, which occur about three miles above the great southerly 
bend in the river, in the northwest part of Moreau, the river falls over 
a broad shelving rock, the total descent being about fifty feet.. The 
beauty of this fall is greatly enhanced by two natural piers of black 
limestone standing upon the edge of the precipice, which break the fall 
into three channels. These two are the greatest falls in that section of 
the Hudson traversing the eastern boundary of the county. 

The eastern half of the southern boundary of the county runs through 
the centre of the Mohawk river. The Sacandaga river, the principal 
outlet of the largest lakes in the southern part of Hamilton county, 
winds its tortuous way sluggishly through Edinburgh, Day and Had- 
ley, emptying its waters into those of the Hudson at Hadley. The 
stream is navigable for boats of light draft from Northampton, on the 
border of Fulton county, to Conklingville Falls in Hadley, a distance 
of twenty miles, but in recent years has seldom been navigated. During 
the Revolutionary war the inhabitants of the town of Edinburgh, fear- 
ing that the British troops might attempt to ascend the river, placed a 
heavy chain across the river, but the British never made the anticipated 


attempt. Below the Conklingville Falls the river flows in a series of 
rapids, between high, rocky hills, until it reaches the Hudson. Kay- 
aderosseras creek drains the central part part of the county, emptying 
into Saratoga lake. The water of the lake, in turn, finds its way into 
the Hudson through Fish creek, which crosses the town of Saratoga. 
The Mourning Kill rises in the southwestern part of the county, and 
running easterly empties into the Kayaderosseras a short distance be- 
low Ballston. Eel-Place creek, or Aal Plass Kill, rises near the head- 
waters of Anthony's Kill, west of Ballston lake, and runs southerly 
into the Mohawk a few miles below Schenectady. Gordon creek, Shen- 
andahorah creek, Anthony's Kill, Snook Kill and Glowegee creek are 
the other principal streams. 

There are several lakes and large ponds in the county. Some of the 
former are beautiful sheets of clear water, on whose shores are located 
popular summer resorts. Among these are Saratoga lake. Round lake 
and Ballston lake. Saratoga lake is located in the towns of Saratoga 
Springs, Saratoga, Stillwater and Malta. It is six and a half miles 
long and two miles broad. Round lake is in the southern part of the 
town of Malta, and is about three miles in circumference. Ballston 
lake lies principally in the- town of Ballston, the southern extremity 
extending into Clifton Park. It is three and a half miles long, with an 
average width of nearly half a mile. Livingston lake. Sand lake and 
Mud lake are in Day. Lake Desolation lies on the boundary between 
Providence and Greenfield. Efnor, Jenny, Hunt and Black lakes are 
in Corinth. The lakes in the northern part of the county are surrounded 
by a wooded wilderness and are but little known. 

Both mountain ranges consist principally of primary rocks. A stratum 
of crystalline limestone extends along the foot of the mountains, and 
below this is Potsdam sandstone in large quantities. Iron ore has been 
obtained in these formations, but not in paying quantities. Among 
the other minerals found in this section are agate, chalcedony, chrys- 
oberyl, garnet, tourmalin, phosphate of lime, graphite, iron pyrites and 
tufa. In 1897 and 1898 gold was discovered in several places in the 
towns of Greenfield and Saratoga Springs, and expert geologists and 
mineralogists express the conviction that it can be produced in paying 

In the southern half of the county the rocks belong to the shales and 
slates of the Hudson River group. Below these have been found im- 
mense quantities of mineral waters, which, by reason of their medicinal 


properties, have become famous the world over. These springs are 
described at length in succeeding pages. Drift deposits, consisting of 
sand and clay, cover a large part of the county. Among the mountains 
the soil is a light, sandy or gravelly loam, adapted to little else than 
grazing. On the intervales along the rivers it is a deep, clayey loam 
and alluvium, for the most part very productive. In the southwestern 
part of the county it is a heavy, clayey loam. The greater part of the 
two eastern tiers of towns consists of light sand. 

No deposited rocky beds are to be found in the county higher than 
the Hudson River group of slates and shales, the fossils of which rise 
no higher than the Lower Silurian age. Consequently it will be seen 
that, from a geological standpoint, the county is very old. The great 
Canadian Laurentian mountain system is well developed in Northern 
New York and stretches its rugged outlines well down into Saratoga 
count)'. This system constitutes the oldest known strata of the earth's 
crust. The Laurentian rocks are mostly of the metamorphic series, 
related to granite, gneiss, syenite, etc. Underlying the northwestern 
part of the village of Saratoga Springs is found the grayish rock known 
as the calciferous sandrock, which rests above the Potsdam sandstone. 
The southeastern part of the county is covered by the strata of slates 
and shales of the Hudson River group. Betwfeen these and the Lau- 
rentian rocks in the northern part of the county lie narrow strips of 
the Potsdam and calciferous sandstones and Trenton limestones. In 
the central and western part of the cou'nty the Drift period is also well 
represented. The sands and the clayhills of the river valley represent 
the Chainplain and Terrace epochs. Geologists believe, and apparently 
prove, that the long narrow bed of Saratoga sands, running across the 
county from northeast to southwest, was the sand of the ocean's beach 
in the Post Tertiary period, when the salt waters of the ocean washed 
the foothills of the Adirondacks and covered the entire southern half -of 
Saratoga county. 

The greater part of Saratoga county is embraced within the Half 
Moon, Kayaderosseras or Queensborough, Clifton Park or Shannondhoi, 
Saratoga and Appel Patents. The Kayaderosseras Patent is the most 
exterisive within the confines of the county. The boundaries were so 
loosely defined, however, that disputes arose between the proprietors 
of the Kayaderosseras on the one hand. and of the Schenectady, Clifton 
Park and Half Moon Patents, and these disputes were not settled for 
more than a century, or until the close of the Revolutionary war. 


Kayaderosseras Patent proper lay partly in Warren county. Its ex- 
tent was very great, but uncertain. It was granted under the English 
Colonial Government November 2, 1708, to Nanning Hermanse, Rip 
Van Dam, Adrian Hoagland, John Tudor, Peter Fanconnier, John 
Latham, Samuel Broughton, Ann Bridges, Johannes Fisher, Major 
Bickley, Ixris (or Joris) Hoagland and John Stevens. Clifton Park 
Patent, the extent of which was uncertain, was granted September 23, 
1708, to Nanning Hermanse and others, holders of the Shannondhoi ' 
Patent. Half Moon Patent, the extent of which was uncertain, like 
that of the Kayaderosseras Patent, on account of the long dispute 
among the proprietors of the four patents referred to in the foregoing, 
was granted October 13, 1665, to Petersen Philip Schuyler and others. 
Saratoga Patent," the extent of which was also uncertain, lay partly in 
Washington county, and was granted November 4, 1684, to Peter 
Schuyler and others. 

Besides these were Glen's Purchase, consisting of about 45,000 acres, 
granted August 14, 1770, to John Glen and others; Hansen's" Patent 
of 2,000 acres, granted July 17, 1713, to Hendrick Hansen and others; 
Livingston's Patent of 4,000 acres, lying partly in Fulton county, 
granted November 8, 1760, to Philip Livingston and others; Nesti- 
gione ' Patent, extent 'uncertain, granted April 22, 1708, to John Rosie 
and others; Sawyer's Patent, extent unknown, lying partly in Wash- 
ington county, granted October 29, 1708, to Isaac Sawyer; and Van 
Rensselaer Patent, 28, 964 acres, lying partly in Fulton county, granted 
October 4, 1774, to Jeremiah Van Rensselaer; Van Schaick Patent, 
granted May 31, 1687, to Anthony Van Schaick; Palmer's Purchase, 
lying principally in Warren and Washington counties; Dartmouth Pat- 
ent, partly in Warren county, granted October 4, 1774, to Jeremiah 
Van Rensselaer; and Northampton Patent, partly in Fulton county, 
six thousand acres, granted in October, 1741, to Jacob Mase and others. 

The warrant for the Saratoga Patent read as follows: 

Warrant for Saratoga Patent. 

By His Excellency, Edward, Viscount Cornbury, Captain-General and Gover- 
nor-in-Chief of the Provinces of New York and New Jersey, and Territories 
depending on them in America, and Vice-Admiral of the same, etc., in coun- 
cil this 2£th day of October, i-jo8. 

1 The modern name is written Shenondehowa; also Shenendahora. 

2 The Colonial records give the name usually as Saraghtoga. 
s Sometimes also written Hanson. * Niskayuna. 


To Major Bickley, Esq., Attorney-General of the Province of New York: 

You are hereby required and directed to prepare a draft of a patent of confirma- 
tion for Colonel Peter Schuyler, Robert Livingston, Esq., Dirck Wessels, Esq., Jan 
Jan Bleecker, Esq., Johannes Schuyler, Esq., and to Cornelius Van Dyck, deceased, 
for a certain tract of land situate and being to the northward of the city of Albany, 
on both sides of the Hudson river, formerly granted unto some of them and others, 
under and from whom the rest do at present hold and enjoy by patent from Colonel 
Tomas Dongan, sometime Governor- in-Chief of the province of New York, the 
limits and boundaries of which land are to be ascertained in the manner, that is to 
say: Beginning at the south side of the mouth of a certain creek on the west side of 
Hudson's river, commonly called by the Indians Tionoondehows, and by the Christ- 
ians Anthony's Kill, which is the uppermost bounds of the land formerly purchased 
by Goosie Gerritson and Philip Peterson Schuyler, and from thence descending 
westerly into the woods by the said creek, on the south side thereof, as it runs six 
English miles ; and if the said creek do not stretch so far into the wood, then from 
the end thereof east by a straight line until it shall be six miles distant from the 
Hudson's river, upon a measured straight line ; and from thence northerly by a line 
parallel to the course of Hudson's river, until it come opposite to and bear east from 
the south side from another creek's mouth on the east side of Hudson's river, called 
Tionoondehows, which upon Hudson's river is computed to be distant from the . 
mout^ of Tionoondehows aforesaid about twenty-two English miles, be it more Or 
less, and from the left termination by a straight line to be drawn east to the north 
side of the mouth of said creek, Tionoondehows ; and from thence continued east six 
miles into the woods on the east side of the Hudson's river, and from thence by a 
line southerly parallel to the course of said Hudson's river, and six miles distant 
from the same, so far southerly until it come opposite to and bear east six miles dis- 
tant from the north side of the mouth of Schardhook Kill, which is the boundary of 
Schardhook patent, late belongmg to Henry Van Rensselaer, to hold it thence, in 
manner following: that is to say, for so much thereof as by the former patents had 
been divided for arable land to Peter Schuyler, lot No. 1, and one half the lot. No. 6, 
to and for the use of the said Peter Schuyler, and of his heirs and assigns forever, to 
Robert Livingston ; his lot. No. 5, and one half the lot No. 5 to and for the sole use 
to Dirck Wessels; his lot, No. 3, to and for the sole use to Jan Jans Bleecker; his 
lot. No. 2, to and for the sole use to Johannes ; his lot. No. 4, to and for the sole use 
also to Cornelius Van Dyck, the grandchild and heir at law of the said Cornelius 
Van Dyck, deceased ; the lot No. 7 in trust nevertheless, to and for the use and uses 
for which the farm is devised by the last will and testament of his grandfather, de- 
ceased ; failing which use or uses, to the use of himself, and his heirs and assigns 
forever, and for so much as remains undivided according to the heir's use of, posi- 
tively, that is to say: to Peter Schuyler and Robert Livingston, to each of them 
three-fourteenth parts; and to each of the others two fourteenth parts of the whole 
undivided land contained in the said patent, the farm being divided into fourteen 
equal parts, at and under the yearly quitrent of twenty biishels of winter wheat ; and 
for your so doing this shall be your sufficient warrant. Cornbury. 

Dated as above. 

Before the Crown would issue a patent for the lands included in the 


Patent of Kayaderosseras, at that time spelled " Cajaderossary," it re- 
quired the title of the native Indian proprietors to be extinguished by 
purchase. Lord Cornbury on the 32d of April, 1703, made an order in 
council permitting Sampson Shelton Broughton, Esquire, and Company 
to purchase the tract of land in question in order to its cultivation and 
improvement and to the granting of a patent for the same under the 
great seal of the Province of New York, provided the purchase should 
be made and returned into the secretary's office and the patent sued 
out within the space of one year next ensuing the date thereof. In pur- 
suance of this permission the purchase was made and a deed given on 
the 6th day of October, 1704. This deed was executed by Joseph, 
Henderk, Gideon and Amos, owners, proprietors and native Maquace' 
Indians and sachems, in behalf of themselves and of all their nation, to 
Sampson Shelton Broughton, Esquire, Attorney General of the Prov- 
ince of New York, Peter Fanconnier, Esquire, Commissioner of the 
Customs, and Nanning Hermance Visher of the city of New York, 
mariner, in company, in consideration of sixty pounds current money 
of the Province, and sundry goods. The description of the lands 
granted by this deed differs greatly from that contained in the patent 
subsequently granted, in its language, but evidently comprehends the 
same tract. The deed is signed by the marks of the Indian sachems 
with their totems, which are extremely difficult to identify as anything, 
" in the heavens above or the earth beneath or the waters under the 
The warrant for the Kayaderosseras Patent is as follows: 

Warrant for Kayaderosseras. 

By His Excellency, Edward, Viscount Cornbury, Captain-General and Gover- 
nor-in-Chief of the Provinces of New York, New Jersey and Territories de- 
pending thereon in America, and Vice-Admiral of the same, etc., in council, 
this 33d day of October, lyoi. 
To Major Bickley, Eiq., Attorney-General of the Province of New York: 

You are hereby required to prepare a draft of letters-patent for Naning Har- 
manse, Johannes Beekmaa, Rip Van Dam, Ann Bridges, Major Bickley, Peter 
Fanconnier, Adrian Hoghland, Johannes Fisher, John Tuder, [Tudor], Ixris Hogh- 
land, John Stevens, and John Latham, for all that tract of land situate, lying, and 
being in the county of Albany, called Kayaderossera, alias Queen's Borough, begin- 
ning at a place on Schenectady River, about three miles distant from the south- 
westerly corner of the bounds of Nestigion's, the said place being the southiyqsterly 
corner of the patent lately granted to Naning Harmanse, Peter Fanconnier, and 

' Mohawk. 


others; thence along the said Schenectady river westerly to the southeasterly 
corner of a patent lately granted to William Apple; thence along the easterly, 
northerly, and westerly line of said William Apple's patent down to the above said 
river; thence to the Schenectady bounds, or the southeasterly corner of said patent on 
said river, so along the easterly, northerly and westerly bounds thereof down to the 
said river again ; thence along the said river up westerly to the southeasterly bounds 
of a tract of land lately granted to Ebenezer Willson and John Aboot, and so along 
the said patent round to the southeasterly corner thereof on said Schenectady river; 
thence continuing to run westerly up along said Schenectady river to a place or hill 
called Iweatowando, being five miles distant, or thereabouts, from the said south- 
westerly corner of said Willson' s and Aboot' s patent; thence northerly to the north- 
westmost h6ad of a creek called Kayadarossera, about fourteen miles, — more or less ; 
thence eight miles more northerly ; thence easterly or northeasterly to the third falls 
on Albany river, about twenty miles, — more or less; thence along the said river 
down southerly to the northeasterly bounds of Saratoga; thence along Saratoga's 
northerly, westerly and southerly bounds on said river ; thence to the northeasterly 
corner of Anthony Van Schaick's land, on said river, so northerly and westerly along 
said Van Schaick's patent to the northeast comer of the above said patent granted 
to Naning, Fanconnier and others; thence along the northerly and westerly bounds 
thereof, down to the above said river of Schenectady, being the place where it first 
begun. To hold to the said Naning Harmense, Johannes Beekman, Rip Van Dam, 
Ann Bridges, Major Bickley, Peter Fanconnier, Adrian Hoghland, Johannes Fisher, 
John Tuder, Joris Hoghland. John Stauen and John Latham, their heirs and assigns 
forever, at and under the yearly quitrent of four pounds, . . . and for so doing this 
shall be your sufficient warrant. 

By order of his Excellency in council. Cornbury. 

Saratoga county contains an area of 455,577^ acres. It has twenty 
towns, named as follows: Ballstou, Charlton, Clifton Park, Corinth, 
Day, Edinburgh, Galway, Greenfield, Hadley, Halfmoon, Malta, Mil- 
ton, Moreau, Northumberland, Providence, Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, 
Stillwater, Waterford and Wilton. 

The origin of the word Saratoga is uncertain. The termination 
"oga,"or "aga," is said to signify "place." The first part of the 
word has been held by some students of the Indian language to imply 
"hillside," and "place of salt springs" by others, "saragh" in some 
Indian dialects being the name for salt. Another meaning, not so gen- 
erally accepted, is " swift water," and is said to have been applied to 
the rapids in the river, in contradistinction to the " still water," just 

The county seat is and always has been at or near Bajlston Spa, in 
the town of Milton.' The Champlain canal entends along the west 

> The first courthouse was located at a place now known as Courthouse Hill, two miles west 
of Ballston Spa, in the town of Milton, It was built in 1794. 


side of the Hudson River from Waterford to the southern border of 
Northumberland, where it crosses the river into Washington county. 
The Erie canal enters the county through an aqueduct at Rexfords 
Flats in the town of Clifton Park, running nearly parallel with the 
Mohawk river, recrossing that stream into Albany county at the south- 
erly bend in the river on the southern border of Halfmoon. The rail- 
roads of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company pass through the 
county from Waterford to Moreau, by way of Mechanicville, Round 
Lake, Ballston Spa, Saratoga and Gansevoort, and from a point two 
miles west of Rexfords Flats to Ballston Spa, there connecting with the 
main line above mentioned. A branch of the Fitchburg railroad also 
enters the county in Stillwater, passing through that town, Saratoga 
and Saratoga Springs, its western terminus being in the village of Sar- 
atoga Springs. Another branch passes through Halfmoon and Clifton 
Park, crossing the Mohawk river in Schenectady county. The Adiron- 
dack railway runs in a northerly direction from Saratoga Springs. The 
Mount McGregor narrow-gauge railway runs northerly from the village 
of Saratoga Springs to Mount McGregor, located in the town of Moreau. 
The Albany, Vermont and Canada railroad crossed the Mohawk at Co- 
hoes, intersected the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad' at Saratoga 
Junction, and crossed the Hudson at Deepikill into Rensselaer county. 
This railroad was abandoned and its rails removed many years ago. 
There are also several electric railroads in the county. 

At the time of the first division of Albany county and the formation 
of Tryon (Montgomery) and Charlotte (Washington) counties, on March 
24, 1772, that part of Albany county now embraced within the con- 
fines of Saratoga county was divided into two districts called respect- 
ively the district of Saraghtoga and the district of Half Moon. The 
district of Half Moon embraced the territory included in the present 
towns of Halfmoon, Waterford and Clifton Park. The district of 
Saraghtoga embraced the remainder of the county, including all of the 
seventeen towns excepting the three contained in the district of Half 
Moon. April 1, 1775, the district of Saraghtoga was divided, part of 
it being named Ball's Town. The district of Ball's Town included the 
present towns of Ballston, Milton, Charlton, Galway, Providence, Ed- 
inburgh and a part of Greenfield. March 7, 1788, Ball's Town, Half 
Moon, Saraghtoga and Stillwater were organized as towns of Albany 

' Now that part of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's system extending from Wa- 
terford to Saratoga. 


county, Saratoga county not yet having been created. When the county 
was formed three years later these towns still remained. The towns 
in the county, twenty in number, are as follows: 

Saratoga ' was formed as a town March 7, 1788. Easton, a town of 
Washington county, was taken off in 1789 ; a part of Greenfield in 1793 ; 
Northumberland in 1798, a part of Malta in 1802 and Saratoga Springs 
in 1819. 

Halfmoon" was formed as a town March 7, 1788. Its name was 
changed to Orange April 17, 1816, but the original name was restored 
January 16, 1830. Waterford was taken off in 1816 and Clifton Park 
in 1828. 

Ballston ' was formed as a town March 7, 1788. Charlton, Galway 
and Milton were taken off in 1792, and the line of Charlton was changed 
March 5, 1795. 

Stillwater ' was formed March 7, 1788. A part of Easton, in Wash- 
ington county, was taken off in 1789, and Malta in 1802. 

Milton was formed from Ballston March 7, 1792. A part of Green- 
field was taken off in 1793. 

Charlton was formed from Ballston March 17, 1792. 

Galway ° was formed from Ballston March 7, 1792. Providence was 
taken off in 1796. 

Greenfield was formed from Saratoga and Milton March 12, 1793. 
A part of Hadley was taken off in 1801. 

Providence was formed from Galway February 5, 1796. Edinburgh 
was taken off in 1801. 

Northumberland was formed from Saratoga March 16, 1798. A part 
of Hadley was taken off in 1801, Moreau in 1805, and Wilton in 1818. 

Edinburgh was formed from Providence March 13, 1801, as North- 
field. Its name was changed April 6, 1808. A part of Day was taken 
off in 1819. 

Hadley was formed from Greenfield and Northumberland February 

1 Written " Saraghtoga " until about 1793. Upon the old map of the Kaya(lerosseras Patent 
this name is spelled "Seraghtogha," which some believe to be the original Indian name. The 
name was iirst applied to a settlement on the Hudson, in the vicinity of the present village of 

^ Originally written Half Moon. The town was named from the crescent shape of the land 
between the Hudson and the Mohawk. 

' Named from Rev. Eliphalet Ball, one of the first settlers. 

* Named from the " still water " in the Hudson, on the borders of the town, 

^ Named from the native place of the first Scotch settlers. 


27, 1801. Its boundaries were amended February 28, 1808. Corinth 
was taken off in 1818, and a part of Day in 1819. 

Malta was formed from Stillwater March 3, 1803. A part of Sara- 
toga was annexed March 28, 1805. 

Moreau ' was taken from Northumbesland March 28, 1805. A 
part was annexed to Corinth in 1848. 

Waterford '■' was formed from Halfmoon April 17, 1816. 

Corinth was formed from Hadley April 20, 1818. A part of Moreau 
was annexed January 28, 1848. 

Wilton was formed from Northumberland April 20, 1818. 

Saratoga Springs" was formed from Saratoga April 9, 1819. 

Day was formed from Edinburgh and Hadley, as Concord, April 17, 
1819. Its name was changed December 3, 1827. 

Clifton Park was formed from Halfmoon March 3, 1828, as Clifton. 
Its name was changed March 31, 1829. 


The Indian Occupancy of the Territory now Known as Saratoga County — The 
Great Iroquois Confederacy and the Mohawks, Its Most Ferocious Nation — Their 
Wars Against Other Tribes — The Famous Hunting Grounds of the Mohawks, Sa- 
raghto-ga and Kay-ad-ros-se ra — Sale of Both Properties to the White Men. 

The territory embraced within the limits of the county of Saratoga 
was once the habitat of the Mohawk Indians, the most ferocious of the 
Iroquois tribes known as the Five Nations of New York. The warriors 
of this great Indian republic — the most powerful confederation of In- 
dian tribes in America — presented the Indian character in its most fa- 
vorable aspect. They were brave, patriotic and eloquen-t. They lived, 
for the most part, in villages in which their local laws were closely 
observed, and they were more favorably disposed toward useful indus- 

1 Named from Marshal Moreavi, the great French warrior, then a resident of New Jersey. 

2 The Indians called the country around the mouth of the Mohawk " Nach-te-nack." This 
town was formerly known as Half Moon Point, and the semi-circular tract between the Hudson 
and the Mohawk was called Half Moon. The present name of the town originated from the fact 
that at the village of Waterford a ford crossed to Haver Island, in Albany county. 

' Named from the mineral springs located in the town. 


try than most Indian tribes, tilling the soil with a fair measure of suc- 
cess. They exhibited great fidelity as friends, especially until their 
peaceful life was interfered with by the encroachments of the white 
man; but on the other hand they were terrible as enemies, pursuing 
their foes with that relentless determination which made them so 
greatly feared by the white man when the latter had incurred their 

The tribes of the Five Nations — commonly known as the Iroquois 
Indians — were named the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and 
Mohawks.' The Tuscaroras, who inhabited a portion of Virginia and 
North Carolina, rose against the colonists in 1711, and after several 
years of warfare were nearly destroyed. The remainder subsequently 
joined the Iroquois, forming the sixth nation of that confederacy and 
amalgamating with the Oneidas in Central New York. After the ad- 
mission of the Tuscaroras this confederacy became known as ^he Six 
Nations. They occupied all Central New Vork, from Lake Erie to the 
Hudson river, in the order named, the Senecas on the western borders 
of the State and the Mohawks guarding the eastern limits of the con- 
federacy. The Iroquois called themselves the Ho-de-no-sau-nee," and 
their magnificent hunting ground they called Hode-nosau-nee-ga. 
This hunting ground, which they steadfastly defended from all intrud- 
ers, embraced practically all of what is now New York State excepting 
the territory east of the Hudson river and a small section of the State 
along the southern boundary. This republic was divided among the 
several nations by well-defined boundary lines. The Mohawks and 
Oneidas jointly owned nearly all the territory of Northern New York, 
the eastern half of this section being the domain of the Mohawks. The 
boundary line between their properties began on the St. Lawrence 
river at the site of the present town of Waddington, ran south along 
the line between Lewis and Herkimer counties and crossed the Mohawk 
river at the site of Utica. The land east of the line, controlled by the 
Mohawks, was called by them Ga-ne-a gao-no-ga. The northern part 
of the great wooded mountains was claimed not only by the Mohawks 

1 The word "Mohawk" is derived from the Algonquin " Maqua," meaning " bears." The 
Hurons called them Agniehronnin. They were the first tribe oE that region to obtain firearms. 
Their frontier position made them so conspicuous that their name was often used by the English 
and the New England tribes for the whole Iroquois Confederacy. Their Indian name "Ga-ne- 
a-ga-o-no," translated means, " People possessors of the flint." 

^ Translated means; " People of the long house; " " long house " being intended to describe 
the home of the Five Nations. They sometimes called themselves the Agannschioni, meaning 
" United People," and also by a name meaning " real men." 


and Oneidas, but also by the Adirondacks, a Canadian nation belonging 
to the Algonquins, and many fierce battles for supremacy occurred 
among the mountains by succeeding generations of the savages. This 
region was "the dark and bloody ground " of the ancient Indian tradi- 

In the reign of Atotarho XII, one of the kings of the Five Nations, 
perhaps about fifty years before the discovery of America by Columbus, 
we are told by an authority on Indian history,' the Tehatirihokea, or 
Mohawks, were at war with Ranatshaganha, "supposed Mohegans, 
who occupied the opposite bank of the river Skannataly, or Hudson. 
The warfare was maintained by small expeditions; the Mohawks would 
cross the river and attack the enemy ; the canoes were kept in the river 
continually to cover their retreat; but after a while the Mohegans ex- 
poliated the war ; the chief of the Mohawks received orders from the 
king, and invited the two confederate nations, the Oneidas and the On- 
ondagas, to unite against the common enemy; the band of the com- 
bined forces immediately crossed the river and ravaged a part of the 
country, and the enemy were compelled to sue for peace." 

It is not positively known where this great Indian Confederacy was 
established. In David Cusick's history of the Six Nations he relates 
the Indian traditions relative to the origin of the Confederacy, which 
was called " a Long House, the Wars, Fierce Animals," etc. He says: 

By some inducement a body of people was concealed in the mountain at the falls 
named Kuskehsawkich (now Oswego). When the people were released from the 
mountain they were visited by Tarenya wagon, i. e. , the Holder of the Heavens, 
who had power to change hipiself into various shapes ; he ordered the people to pro- 
ceed toward the sunrise as he guided them and come to a river and named Yenon- 
anatche, i. e. , going round a mountain (now Mohawk), and went down the bank of 
the river and come to where it discharges into a great river running towards the mid-r, 
day sun; and Shaw-nay-taw-ty, i. e., beyond the pineries (now Hudson), and went 
down the bank of the river and touched bank of a great water. . . . The peo- 
ple were yet in one language ; some of the people went to the banks of the great 
water towards the midday sun, but the main company returned as they came, on the 
bank of the river, under the direction of the Holder of the Heavens. Of this com- 
pany there was a particular body which called themselves one household ; of these 
were six families, and they entered into a resolution to preserve the chain of alliance 
which should not be extinguished in any manner. The company advanced some 
distance up the river of Shaw-nay-taw-ty (Hudson), the Holder of the Heavens di- 
rects the first family to make their residence near the bank of the river, and the fam- 
ily was named Te-haw-re-ho-geh, i. e. , a speech divided (now Mohawk) and their 

' David Cusick's " Sketches of Ancient History o£ the Six Nations." 


language was soon altered ; the company then turned and went towards the sunset- 
ting, and traveled about two days and a half, and come to a creek which was named 
Kaw-na-taw te ruh, i. e., Pineries. The second family was directed to make their 
residence near the creek, and the family was named Ne-haw-re-tah-go, i. e., Big 
Tree, now Oneidas, and likewise their language was altered. The company con- 
tinued to proceed toward the sunsetting ; under the direction of the Holder of the 
Heavens. The third family was directed to make their residence on a mountain 
named Onondaga (now Onondaga) and the family was named Seuh-non-kah-tah, 
i. e. , carrying the name, and their language was altered. The company continued 
their journey towards the sunsetting. The fourth family was directed to make 
their residence near a long lake named Go-yo-goh, i. e., a mountain rising from the 
water (now Cayuga) and the family was named Sho-nea-na-we-to-wah, i. e., a great 
pipe, their language was altered. The company continued to proceed towards the 
sunsetting. The fifth family was directed to make their residence near a high moun- 
tain, or rather nole, situated south of the Canandaigua lake, which was named Jen- 
neatowake, and the family was named Te-how-nea-nyo-hent, i. e.. Passing a Door, 
now Seneca, and their language was altered. The sixth family went with the com- 
pany that journeyed toward the sunsetting, and touched the bank of a great lake, 
and named Kau-ha-gwa-rah-ka. i. e., A Cap, now Erie, and they went towards be- 
tween the midday and sunsetting, and travelled considerable distance and came to 
a large river which was named Ouau-we-go-ka, i. e., a principal stream, now Missis- 
sippi. . . . The family was directed to make their residence near Cau-ta noh, 
i. e., Pine in Water, situated near the mouth of Nuse river, now in North Carolina, 
and the family was named Kau-ta-hoh, now Tuscarora and their language was also 
altered. . . . The Holder of the Heavens returns to the five families and forms 
the mode of confederacy which was named Ggo-nea-seab-neh, i. e., A Long House, 
to which are, 1st — Tea-taw-reh-ho-geh ; 2d — New-haw-teh-tah-go; 3d — Seuh-nau-ka- 
ta; 4th — Sho-ne'a-na-we-to-wan; 5th — Te-hoo-nea-nyo-hent. 

Other authorities state that each nation was divided into eight clans 
or tribes, natned respectively: Wolf, Deer, Bear, Snipe, Beaver, Heron, 
Turtle and Hawk. One of their rules was that no two of the same clan 
could intermarry. Each sachem had a permanent name — the name of 
the office he held — and it descended to his successor. There were two 
sachemships, however, which forever remained vacant after the death 
of the original incumbents of the office. These were Daganoweda of 
the Onondagas, and Hiawatha of the Mohawks.' The first was the 
founder of the league and the second was his principal assistant. In 
honor of the great services, their sachemships were forever held 

Their organization is supposed to have taken place between 1900 and 
2000 years before Columbus discovered America, or between 400 B. C. 

1 Both were supposed to have been of miraculous birth, and sent to the Indians to teach them 
the arts of government and peace. 


and 500 B. C. While this account is purely traditional, it is the most 
authentic in existence. 

When the white intruders first discovered that such an alliance ex- 
isted, all that was known of the organization of the form of government 
so remarkable among a savage people was, as we have stated, a mere 
tradition. Each nation of the Confederacy was independent of every 
other in all matters of a local character, and in the councils no sachem 
was superior to another, except by reason of higher intellectual attain- 
ments, such as they might be. The fifty offices created at the organ- 
ization of the Confederacy were distributed among the nations according 
to their numerical strength. Of these offices the Mohawks had nine, 
the Oneidas nine, the Onondagas fourteen, the Cayugas ten and the 
Senecas eight. Although these offices were hereditary, no one could 
become a ruler or sachem until elevated to such a place by a council of 
all the sachems of the Confederacy. The sachems who, in council, 
constituted the legislative body of the union were also the local rulers 
of their respective nations. While a sachem had civil authority, he 
could not be a chieftain in war until elected to that position. Every 
sachem went on the warpath as a common warrior unless he had been 
doubly honored and made a military leader as well as a civil officer. 
The Iroquois nation then was practically a Republic, founded on much 
the same lines as the United States of America, marvelous as this may 

The policy of the Iroquois nation in war appears to have been not for 
the sake of war alone, but for conquest and the extension of the nation's 
power and influence. Instead of trying to exterminate their foes, the 
Iroquois strove to subjugate and adopt them, and as far as they could in 
their weak way, to enlighten them. So successful were they in their 
efforts that at the end of the seventeenth century they dominated a very 
large portion of what is now the United States. The Iroquois of New 
York and the Algonquin tribes of New England were perpetually at 
war. The Mohawks and Oneidas occupied the Mohawk valley mainly, 
and the three nations west of them were compelled to pass through this 
region when starting out upon the eastern warpath. The most natural 
and convenient pathway for them to traverse was from the Mohawk 
valley eastward, leading them up from the Hudson to the valley of the 
Hoosick river, then across the Berkshire hills or the southern spur of 
the Green mountains to the valley of the Connecticut river. Over this 
trail the Five Nations marched on many occasions, according both to 


history and early tradition, and in and near the county of Saratoga 
many a bloody battle was fought by the red men of the wilderness. 

The Iroquois Indians were the bravest, most hardy, most industrious, 
most politic, most intelligent on the American continent. At the same 
time they were the most resolute and desperate fighters when an appeal 
to arms was made for thepurposeof settling a dispute with another tribe 
or nation. They were generally victorious. In 1650 they invaded the 
country of the Hurons, to the north and west. The year following they 
practically annihilated the Neutral Nation, and the next year they ex- 
terminated the Eries. In 1675 they reduced the Andastes or Conesto- 
gas, inhabitants of Pennsylvania and Maryland, involved them in war 
with Maryland and Virginia, when they abandoned their country and 
fled to the Roanoke, but were finally forced to submit to the Iroquois 
and return to the valley of the Susquehanna and Chesapeake. They 
penetrated as far westward as the Mississippi and as far southward as 
Southern Tennessee, compelling all the tribes inhabiting that region to 
flee before them. The tribes of New England and the Hudson valley 
trembled at their name and paid them tribute. Their fury was 
unbounded when in battle. They rightly deserved the title, "Romans 
of the West." 

Even many years after the first settlement of the country about Fort 
Orange, bands of the Iroquois, then of the Algonquins, passed through 
Saratoga county on their way to carry out their plans for laying waste 
the villages of the enemy. The famous old Wampanoag chieftain. 
King Philip, once invaded the county in the winter of 1675-76, at the 
head of a band of 500 warriors bound for the north. His followers en- 
camped in the northern part of the county and prepared to strike a 
decisive blow at the Mohawks. In February, 1676, the Mohawks 
assembled and marched northward over the famous Indian trail leading 
through the county and, by reason of superior numbers . and a better 
acquaintance with the field of the campaign, succeeded in driving the 
brave old chieftain and his band back across the Hudson River and 
through the Hoosick valley to the other side of the mountains^ The 
famous old chief, Greylock, of the Waronoaks, the last chief of his 
tribe, also frequently passed through the county with his band of 

In 1628 the Mohawks declared war against the Mohegans, whose chief 
village was on or near the present site of Troy, and invaded the country 
of the latter. Half a century later Uncas and his little body of Mohe- 


gans, now greatly reduced numerically, returned from the Connecticut 
valley, where they had been driven, crossed the Hudson to the present 
sites of Albany, Watervliet and Waterford, and slew many of their 
enemies, the Mohawks. Later on, upon the dissolution of the tribe, 
some of the Mohegans emigrated westward and joined the Iroquois, 
some of them even amalgamating with their ancient enemies, the 

The Mohawk Indians, many of whom inhabited the region now known 
as Saratoga county, were the most ferocious nation of the Iroquois Con- 
federacy. Aside from this characteristic, they were very much like the 
other nations of the Iroquois. Their most famous hunting-ground, Sa- 
ragh-to ga," was identical with the eastern portion of Saratoga county, 
and the western part of Washington county. In all probability, the 
land so called extended no further west than Saratoga Lake. 

The Mohawks visited in great numbers the mineral spring at Sara- 
toga Springs now known as High Rock, and they appreciated the 
medicinal properties of its waters ; for as early as 1767 they induced 
Sir William Johnson to consent to be carried there from Johnson's Hall 
at Johnstown on a litter, having persuaded him that his frequently 
recurring sickness would be cured by frequent and regular drinking 
thereof. They also came from all over their territory to fish in Sara- 
toga lake and the Hudson river. 

Another famous hunting ground was Kay-ad-ros-se-ra,° which lay 
west of Sa-raghto-ga. Wild animals came in vast numbers, even 
from the Adirondacks and the mountains of Vermont, and drank the 
mineral vyaters found in Kay-ad-ros se-ra, and the streams were filled 
with fish. 

Little by little the white men encroached upon the domain of the 
savages, and the latter, finally tiring of continual quarrelings with the 
intruders and the march of civilization, weakened in numbers and 
broken in spirit, began the sale of their possessions piecemeal. In 1684 
Peter Philip Schuyler, and six other residents of Albany, purchased the 
ground known as Sa-ragh-to-ga, and the grant was confirmed by the 
English government. This grant was as follows :' 

' Sometimes said to have been written " Se-rach-ta-gue." Dr. Hough, the historian, says 
that a Caughnawaga Indian informed him that the original word was "Sa-ra-ta-ke," meaning, 
"a place where the track o£ the heel may be seen." 

' The original for Kayaderosseras, according to Gauthier's map o£ 1T79. 

' This grant is recorded on page 159 of Liber 5 of Deeds and Patents in the office of the Sec- 
retary of state at Albany. In connection therewith is recorded a map sho wing^the location of the 


Saratoga Patent — Thomas Dongan, Lieutenant and governor and Vice Admiral, 
under his Royall Highnesse James, Duke of York, &c., of New Yorke and its De- 
pendencyes in America. To all to whom these presents shall come sendeth greet- 
ing. Whereas these following Maquaise Sachems, bothe of the first and seconde 
castles, viz., Roode Laggodischquesex, Aihagure and Tuskanoenda, did, in the pres- 
ence of the Comander and Magistrates of Albany and all the Maquaise Sachems, 
give and grant unto Cornelius Van Dyke, John Johnson Bleeker, Peter Phillipps 
Schuyler and Johannes Wendall, together with Dyrick Wessell, David Schuyler and 
Robert Livingston, who are equally concerned in the purchase of said tract of land. 

A certain Tract or Parcell of Land, situate, lyeing and being to the north of Al- 
bany, on both sides of Hudsons River beginning at the uppermost limitts of the land 
bought formerly by Goose Garretson and Phillip Peterse Schuyler being a creek 
called Lioneende houwe, which is the Southermost Bounds of the said lands and from 
thence up both sides of the River Northerly to a Creeke or Kill on the East side of 
the River called Dionoon de houwe, the land on said Creeke included. Keeping the 
same length on the West side of the River and soe Runnes East and West into the 
woods as farr as the Indians Right and title to the within menconed Land afore re- 
cited as by a certain writing or Indian Deed bearing Date the 36th Day of July in 
the thirty-fifth yeare of his Matees Reigne 1683 Relacon being thereunto had doth 
more fully and at large appeare Now Know Yee that by virtue of the comicon and 
authority unto me given by his Royall Highnesse, James Duke of Yorke and Albany 
&c. Lord Proprietor of the Province of New Yorke in consideracon of the Premises 
and the Quitt Rents hereinafter reserved, I have given, granted, Ratifyed and con- 
firmed and by these presents doe hereby Give, Grant, Ratifye and Confirme unto 
the said Cornelius Van Dyke, John Johnson Bleeker, Peter Phillipps Schuyler, Jo- 
hannes Wandell, Derick Wessells, David Schuyler and Robert Livingston their heires 
and assigns forever all the before recited Tract and Tracts, Parcell and Parcells of 
land and islands within the said bounds Together with all and singular Woods, Un- 
derwoods, Waters, Runnes, Streames, Ponds, Creekes, Meadows, Marshes, Fishing, 
Hawking, Hunting and Fowling and all other Libertyes, Priviledges, Hereditaments, 
Appurtts to the said Trapt of land and Premises belonging or in anywise apper- 

To Have and to Hold the said Tract of Land and Premises with all and singular 
appurtenances before menconed and intended to be Granted, Ratified and Confirmed 
unto the said Cornells Van Dyke, John Johnson Bleeker, Peter Phillipps Schuyler, 
Johannes Wandell, Derick Wessells, David Schuyler and Robert Livingston their 
heires and assignes unto the proper use and behoofe of the said Cornelius Van Dyke, 
John Johnson Bleeker, Peter Phillipps Schuyler, Johannes Wandell, Derick Wessells, 
David Schuyler and Robert Livingston their heires and assignes forever. To be 
holden of his said Royall Highnesse, his heires and assignes in free and common 
Soccage according to the tenure of East Greenwich in the county of Kent in his 
Matees Kingdome of England, Yielding and Paying therefore Yearlye and every 
Yeare as a quit rent for his Royall Highnesse use twenty Bushels of Good Merchant- 
property in question. This property extended from the mouth of the Battenkill, near Schuyler- 
ville, southward to Tenendaho creek, at Mechanicville, and from point to point, east and west from 
the Hudson river, six miles in both directions. 


able winter wheate at Albany or before the 2th day of March unto such officer or 
Officers as from time to time shall be appointed to Receive the same. 

Given under my Hand and Sealed with the Seale of the Province at Fort James 
in New Yorke the fourth day of November in the thirty-sixth Yeare of the Raigne 
of our Sovereign Lord Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England, Scot- 
land, France and Ireland, King Defender of the Faith, &c., Annoq. Dom. 1684. 

Thos. Dongan. 

October 6, 1784, Kay-ad-ros-se-ra was sold to the province of New 
York, and four years later the entire estate came into the possession of 
Nanning Hermanse and several other wealthy men of Albany and else- 
where, by a patent granted by Queen Anne. But it was not until 
1768 that the first Indian deed was confirmed by the tribe. This done, 
and the Indian occupancy of Saratoga county was at an end. 


The French and Indian Wars — The Frequent Incursions of the French from Can- 
ada Into the Land of the Mohawks — Saratoga County a Bloody Battle Ground— The 
Iroquois and English Ever on Friendly Terms — Fate of Father Isaac Jogues — The 
Massacre at Schenectady — Battles in Saratoga County — The Old Saratoga Massacre 
— The Final Struggle — Sir William Johnson's Campaign — Fort George, Fort William 
Henry, Ticonderoga and Crown Point. 

The prime cause for the unwillingness of immigrants to establish 
homes in Saratoga county, and the slow progress made in the develop- 
ment of this fertile and advantageously situated tract of land by a civ- 
ilized people, lay in the long and seemingly interminable series of 
French and Indian wars, as they are known in history. For fully a 
century the contest for supremacy between the two powers, Great 
Britain and her colonists in America and France and her colonists, was 
continued. The early struggles were sporadic and without definite 
plan or organization on either side, but particularly so with the British. 
The colonists were anxious, on both sides, to have the question of 
supremacy settled, but one war followed another without definite re- 
sults, wearing out the colonists, exhausting their resources and leaving 
the new country in a most unsettled and wretched condition. Size and 
population considered, no community suffered more from this long 
struggle than did the county of Saratoga. Attempt after attempt to 


make permanent settlements within its borders was foiled, as has been 
seen in a preceding chapter, and hundreds, perhaps thousands, of the 
pioneers of the county were either killed in battle, taken prisoners 
and carried to Canada, or massacred. Once Great Britain had driven 
the French back to Canada, practically deciding the contest ; but, to 
the despair of the wearied colonists, she refused to take advantage of 
the victory that she had so gloriously won, and made a treaty conced- 
ing to France all that the English colonists had won for her, after sac- 
rificing thousands of lives and a vast treasure. 

While most histories of the United States, in telling the story of the 
French and Indian War, refer only to the culminating conflict which 
began in 1754 and ended in 1763, the series of wars undertaken toward 
the end accomplished in that struggle began soon after the middle of 
the seventeenth century. The cause of the final war was the conflict- 
ing territorial claims of the two nations. It was the existence of this 
common cause, the integrity of English sovereignty and of the English- 
speaking people, that impelled the colonies finally to cease, in a meas- 
ure, their inter-colonial wrangles and act together against a common 
foe, as they again did in the war of the Revolution. For a long time 
prejudice, suspicion and mutual jealousy kept them apart; but when 
they came to understand that the great question was whether they 
should be subjects of Great Britain or of France, old antagonisms were 
thrown into the background or allowed to perish utterly, more charit- 
able sentiments prevailed, and the love for and the desire to protect 
and advance the interests of the Mother Country predominated. 

The sea-coast had been colonized by England ; the interior had been 
colonized by France. The Jesuit priests of the latter, from Quebec to 
Louisiana, had won the Indians by their grand religious rites and 
taught them to hate the English. Thus England had to defend herpelf 
against not only the French but their powerful savage; allies as well. 
La Salle's explorations had done much to strengthen the claims of the 
French to western territory, and correspondingly to weaken the position 
of the English. Before the middle of the eighteenth century France 
had the English colonists hemmed in their well settled territory along 
the Atlantic and was well prepared to defend her claims to the great 
unknown West. Of the North she already felt secure. The knowledge 
of her successful efforts in the West increased the long-standing ani- 
mosities between the colonists of the two nations. Finally, when the 
frontiersmen of the two nations had a conflict over the attempt to col- 


onize the Ohio valley, in the middle of the eighteenth century, the 
signal for the general inauguration of hostilities was hoisted and the 
final desperate struggle for national supremacy on the great American- 
continent began. 

When Father Isaac Jogues made his famous journey into the land of 
the Iroquois, penetrating to the Mohawk valley, he invaded territory 
over which Holland claimed sovereignty. When, in 1666, the famous 
expedition headed by Marquis de Tracy, Sieur de Courcelle and Gov- 
ernor Daniel de Remi passed from the St. Lawrence to the Mphawk, 
through Saratoga county, over the same trail followed by the martyr 
Jogues, for the purpose of avenging the death of Tracy's young friend 
Sieur Chazy, who a short time before had been murdered by a Mohawk 
Indian at the mouth of the Chazy River, they invaded territory over 
which the English claimed sovereignty. But this expedition did not 
seem to bring the English to a realization of the danger that menaced 
them, for not even a mild remonstrance was made to the French gov- 
ernment. After the French invaders had pillaged the Mohawk villages, 
destroying the crops and burning the wigwams, they even went so far, 
by Tracy's order as to take possession of all the country of the Mohawks, 
in the name of the King of France. This ended the war of 1666, but 
it left the sovereignty to the land cif the Mohawks in dispute and formed 
the great entering wedge for the bloody conflicts which were to follow. 
For both nations could not be supreme on the same territory. 

Comparative peace reigned for about twenty years after the expedi- 
tion of 1666. Then from 1686 to 1695 the Mohawks and the French 
continued the struggle, which had been renewed by the former in re- 
venge for the spoliation of their beautiful valley twenty years before. 
Prior to 1689 Governor Denonville of Quebec had been on unfriendly 
terms with the Iroquois for a- number of years. In the meantime 
Governor Dongan of New York had become their warm friend and 
ally. The wrath of the latter was aroused when he heard that the 
French had invaded the country of the Senecas, seized English traders 
on the Great Lakes and erected a fort on the Niagara River. Summon- 
ing representatives of the Five Nations to meet him at Albany he 
induced them to swear eternal enmity against the French. His next 
step was to procure from King James II authority to protept the 
Iroquois as British subjects. This may be said to have been the prac- 
tical beginning of English participation in the struggle. 

In July, 1689, the Iroquois assembled and started in great force upon 


the warpath. Passing down the Mohawk to a point a short distance 
below Schenectady they began their journey through Saratoga county 
towards Quebec. They crossed Ballston Lake in canoes, then marched 
to the Mourning kill and descended into the valley of the Kayader- 
osseras, paddling to and across Saratoga Lake. Then, by way of the 
Fish kill, they entered the Hudson and sped northward. On August 5 
they reached Lake St. Louis, an expansion of the St. Lawrence a short 
distance above Montreal. Landing at Lachirie in the midst of a terrific 
storm, late at night, they descended upon the ill-protected settlement 
and, with a war whoop, began the most awful massacre in Canadian 
history. Nearly every man, woman and child in the village was hacked 
to (Jeath, and the houses pillaged and burned. The garrisons in the 
three forts nearby prepared to attack the 1,500 marauders the next 
morning, but word was received from Denonville for the troops to 
stand solely upon the defensive. Eighty men from a fort near at hand 
attempted to join the force assembled, but the Iroquois intercepted and 
almost annihilated the detachment. Late in Octobef, after pillaging 
the country for miles in every direction and taking ninety prisoners, the 
Iroquois started homeward. On the west side of Lake St. Louis they 
spent an entire night in inflicting the most horrible, tortures upon their 
prisoners, and it is even charged that in their awful rage they ate flesh 
from the bodies of some of their captives. They then continued their 
march southward, reaching the Mohawk valley in the early days of 
November, having lost scarcely a warrior from their ranks. 

In the meantime James II had been driven from England, William 
of Orange had seized the throne and war had been declared between 
England and France. Denonville had been superseded by Count de 
Frontenac, and the English colonists, assisted by the Iroquois, were 
about to attack the French. Frontenac, instead of opposing the Iro- 
quois, attempted to enlist them as his friends by conquering them. In 
January, 1690, a regiment of French and Canadian Indians left Mon- 
treal and directed their march to the south. They were formed into 
three parties — one to strike at Albany, one at New Hampshire and'one 
at Maine. The Albany party was the first to march. It was composed 
of two hundred men. Over the old trail they passed, entering Saratoga 
county across the river from Fort Edward late in January. At Schuy- 
lerville they inadvertently took the road to Schenectady, instead of 
following the Albany trail. February 8, about dusk, they reached the 
Mohawk and crossed on the ice. About midnight they silently entered 


the gate of the stockade surrounding the village of Schenectady, sur- 
rounded the houses and with a mighty war-whoop began the work of 
massacre and destruction. Thirty eight men and boys, ten women and 
twelve children were killed outright. A few inhabitants escaped and 
fled to Albany, barefoot, in a foot of snow. Between eighty andniijety 
persons were captured. The next day the invaders started to return 
to Montreal, covering the same route over which they had come. 

The first call for a General Congress of the American colonies was 
made by Massachusetts in 1690 in accordance with a populat demand 
that the colonies should organize an armed force for common defense 
against the French and Indians. In accordance with the call commis- 
sioners from the colonies of New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
Virginia and Maryland met in the city of New York May 1, 1690, and 
agreed to raise a force of 855 men to repel the French and Indian inva- 
sion and if possible to wrest Canada from the French. The campaign 
was a disastrous one. In accordance with the suggestion of the Con- 
gress an expedition was fitted out and placed in the command of Gen- 
eral Fitz-John Winthrop of Connecticut. Winthrop left Hartford July 
14, 1690. August 1 the expedition, which had been joined by one 
hundred and fifty Mohawk Indians, reached Stillwater and encamped 
for the night. The next morning he proceeded to Schuylerville, where 
a small blockhouse was occupied by a Dutch garrison. Here he re- 
ceived letters from Major Peter Schuyler of Albany, who had gone on 
to Fort Miller. August 4 he proceeded to the latter fort. On the 
night of the 4th he encamped with Major Schuyler and the Mohawk 
chiefs hear Whitehall. But small-pox had broken out among the army 
of Winthrop and the Indians, and as it was evident that there would 
be no hostilities, it was decided, August 15, to return to Albany, de- 
stroying a few of the minor forts. Captain John Schuyler, however, 
continued on down Lake Champlain and made a raid upon the Cana- 
dian settlement of La Prairie. Thus ended, with no results, the first 
English expedition against Canada and the French. A year later Major 
Peter Schuyler attacked the same place, but the raid was of no practi- 
cal benefit to the colonies. 

The next attack was made in 1693. Late in January Governor Fron- 
tenac dispatched six hundred and twenty-five men, including one hun- 
dred regular soldiers, a number of Indians and a large band of voyag- 
eurs to destroy the Mohawk castles and do all the damage possible in the 
vicinity of Fort Orange, On the night of February 16, after having 


passed through the eastern part of Saratoga county, they attacked two 
of the Mohawk towns, killed several of the inhabitants and made the 
rest captives. 

In the meantime the alarm had been sounded by the inhabitants of 
the valley, and a small but well equipped force, mostly on horseback, 
left Albany in command of Captain John Schuyler. Major Peter 
Schuyler also sent out scouts to watch the movements of the enemy. 
February 15 the Albany company, reinforced by a body of Mohawks, 
reached a point near Galway. Two days later, having ascertained the 
whereabouts of the invaders, they proceeded to Greenfield Centre. 
The energy were now only three miles away. On the eastern border 
of the Palmerton mountains, in the town of Wilton, they had erected a 
fort after the Indian fashion. Before this fort the English and Mohawks 
soon appeared and a battle ensued. Neither party gained an advant- 
age and the fight was abandoned until morning. It snowed all night. 
The English suffered from lack of food, but the Indians boiled and ate 
the body of a Frenchman who had been killed in battle. During the 
night the Canadians retreated, and the English, half starved, refused 
to pursue their enemies. A day later, however, provisions arrived 
from Albany and the pursuit of the French was begun. But the French, 
when nearly overtaken, sent word that if they were attacked they would 
kill all prisoners. On hearing this the pursuit was abandoned and the 
English and Mohawks returned home. Two years afterward, in 1695, 
the peace of Ryswick was declared, and there was no further contest 
in the Saratoga wilderness until the opening of Queen Anne's war. 

In 1709, during Queen Anne's war, another expedition against Can- 
ada was planned. Five regiments of British regulars were to be joined 
by 1,200 provincial troops, who were to proceed by sea to Quebec. 
Troops were also to proceed from Albany against Montreal, in com- 
mand of General Nicholson and Colonel Vetch, a nephew of Peter 
Schuyler, now a British colonel. June 1 three hundred men under 
Colonel Schuyler proceeded to Stillwater, where they built Fort In- 
goldsby. They also built stockaded forts at Saratoga, below the Bat- 
ten kill, on the east side of the river, at Fort Miller falls, at Fort Ed- 
ward, and at Fort Ann, calling the latter Fort Schuyler. All were well 
garrisoned, the forces having been increased to 1,150 men. While at 
Fort Ann sickness broke out and greatly reduced the British forces, 
which filially returned to Albany. In 1711 another army left Albany, 
but intelligence being received that the Queen's naval expedition had 


been broken up by a severe storm on the St. Lawrence, the expedition 
returned to Albany, having accomplished nothing. 

In 1744 war was again declared between England and France. Dur- 
ing the period of peace the French had advanced up Lake Champlain as 
far as Crown Point, where they had erected Fort St. Frederick in 1731. 
In November, 1745, a French expedition, originally intended to attack 
the English settlements in the Connecticut valley, proceeded to Sara- 
toga On the 16th they attacked the village, killed thirty persons, took 
sixty prisoners and burned twenty houses. Among those killed was 
John Philip Schuyler, an uncle of General Philip Schuyler of Revolu- 
tionary fame. In 1746 the English rebuilt the fort there and named it 
Fort Clinton. August 29 of that year a band of French and Indians 
attacked a party of soldiers near the gates of the fort, killed four men 
and took four prisoners. June 11 of the following year an expedition 
from Fort St. Frederick, commanded by La Come St. Luc, approached 
Fort Clinton. At daybreak the next morning a fierce battle ensued; 
but the French ambuscaded the English, killing twenty-eight and 
taking forty five prisoners. Several of the English attempted to escape 
by the river, but were drowned. Three or four months later Fort Clin- 
ton was deserted and burned by the English, leaving the French in 
control of the territory north of the Mohawk river. Peace was pro- 
claimed in May, 1748. 

The final grand struggle for supremacy between the French and 
English began in 1754 and continued until 1763. During these years 
great armies marched through Saratoga county, leaving thousands of 
dead upon its fields. The events of this closing drama are so well 
known that we shall simply touch upon those campaigns which took 
place within or partly within the borders of Saratoga county. The first 
of these was the famous expedition of Sir William Johnson, in 1755. 

The French had occupied Fort St. Frederibk, at Crown Point, since 
1731. In order to drive them thence into Canada an army of five thou- 
sand provincial troops was raised. In the latter part of June, 1755, 
this army assembled at Albany, where it was joined byalarge party of 
Mohawk warriors under King Hendrick.' Early in July six hundred 

1 " This celebrated warrior was, for a time, the most distinguished Indian in the colony of 
New York. , . He was born about the year 1680, and generally dwelt at the Upper Castle of 
the Mohawk nation, although for a time he resided near the present residence of Nicholas Yost, 
on the north side of the Mohawk, below the Nose. He was one of the most sagacious and active 
sachems of his time. He stood high in the confidence of Sir William Johnson, with whom he was 
engaged in many perilous enterprises against the Canadian French; and under whose command 


men proceeded to the site of old Fort Nicholson and erected a new fort 
which was named Fort Lyman,' in honor of the officer in command of 
the advance troops. Another detachment of the army soon afterward 
built Fort Miller,'' at the rapids above Saratoga. 

August 8 General Johnson left Albany with the artillery, command- 
ing in person. The latter part of the month he reached the head of 
Lake George, intending to pass through to the outlet and fortify Ticon- 
deroga, better to enable him to operate against Crown Point. But the 
French had beaten him, had strongly fortified that point and garrisoned 
it with 3,000 men, under command of Baron Dieskau. The latter, ex- 
pecting an immediate attack, dispatched a force of 1,700 men to capture 
Fort Edward, drop down the river and menace Albany.,. September 7 
he pushed down to within seven miles of Fort Edward, then changed 
his plans and moved to the southern extremity of French mountain, 
where he encamped over night. 

Learning of Dieskau's movements, on the morning of the 8th Gen- 
eral Johnson sent out Colonel Ephraim Williams " with a thousand 
troops and King Hendrick with two hundred Mohawk Indians. After 
marching four miles they fell into an ambuscade of the enemy, who 
opened a terrific fire. Colonel Williams at once changed the position 
of his men, but found himself in another trap. He fell, and Hendrick 
soon followed him. Men were cut down by the score, and the little 
army soon retreated precipitately. The dead bodies of Williams and 
Hendrick were left on the field. 

Soon Dieskau's army reached the English encampment, which had 
been hastily barricaded by logs. The camp was assailed in front and 
on both flanks. Johnson was wounded early in the fight, and General 
Lyman assumed command. After four hours of desperate fighting 

helped in the batUe of Lake George, September 8, 1755, covered with glory. In the November 
number of the Gentleman's Magazine, for 1655, is the following notice of his death: ' The whole 
body of our Indians were prodigiously exasperated against the French and their Indians, occa- 
sioned by the death of the famous Hendrick, a renowned Indian warrior among the Mohawks, and 
one of their sachems, or kings, who "was slain in the battle, and whose son upon being told that 
his father was killed, giving the usual Indian groan upon such occasions, and suddenly putting 
. his hand on his left breast, swore his father was still alive in that place, and stood there in his 
son.' " — Simms's Border Wars of New York, 1845. 

1 The name was soon afterward changed to Fort Edward, in honor of Edward, Duke of York, 
grandson of George II. It stood upon the east bank of the Hudson, on the north side of Fort 
Edward creek. 

^ Named after Colonel Miller, commander of the force which built it. 

3 Colonel Williams was born at Newton, Mass., February 24, 1715. He served in King George's 
war; built Fort Massachusetts near Williamstown, Mass.; founded a free school at Williamstown 
which afterwards became Williams College. 


Dieskau ordered a retreat, and he was severely wounded during his 
flight. The French retreated to the ground where the morning's en- 
gagement had occurred and prepared to encamp for the night. Mean- 
time Colonel Blanchard, in charge of Fort Edward garrison, two hun- 
dred of whom had been ranging the woods, hearing the cannonading, 
hastened to the scene. At nightfall they reached the French camp as 
a number of French soldiers were refreshing themselves at a pool. 
They fired on the enemy, and so great was the slaughter at the first fire 
that the pool became as a mass of blood.' The French soon rallied, 
but after a sharp fight fled in rout, leaving their packs and baggage, 
besides a number of prisoners, in the hands of the victors. This ended 
the fighting. The rout of the French army was complete. The French 
loss was seven hundred killed, while the English lost two hundred and 
thirty. This engagement was one of the most important and decisive 
in the history of the country. 

Early in the summer of 1756 Colonel Seth Winslow, with 6,000 
troops, marched from Albany to Stillwater, where he erected a sub- 
stantial fort on the site of old Fort Ipgoldsby, which he named Fort 
Winslow. He spent the summer at Lake George, and returned to 
Albany in the fall, having accomplished nothing. 

In the summer of 1757 Montcalm made a brilliant campaign in the 
country of Lake George. With a splendid force of 6,000 French and 
Canadians and 1,700 Indians he proceeded up the Sorel River, entered 
Lake Champlain and reached Ticonderoga. The object of his expedi- 
tion was to capture and destroy Fort William Henry, on Lake George. 
August 2 General Webb, commanding the English forces, sent Colonel 
Monroe from Fort Edward, with his regiment, to take command of the 
garrison at Fort William Henry. The garrison at this time numbered 
2,200 men, four hundred and fifty of whom occupied the fort, the re- 
mainder being posted in the fortified camp near the forts. The main 
army, about 4,500 men, remained under Webb's command at Fort 
Edward. August 3 Montcalm invested the fort. Monroe sent repeat- 
edly to Webb, asking for reinforcements, but the latter, one of the 
most worthless officers in the English army, did not even reply to these 
requests, though he knew of the superior force of the French at hand. 
Early in June General Johnson, realizing the weakness of the American 
position at this important point, had obtained permission from Webb 
to march to the relief of Fort William Henry, but his force had scarcely 

' This pond has since borne the name of " Bloody Pond." 


begun their march when they were ordered back to the posts. August 
9 Monroe was compelled to surrender. The ammunition was nearly 
exhausted and half the guns were burst. Montcalm granted honorable 
terms of surrender, but when the English forces evacuated the fort the 
Indians, in true savage style, fell upon the unarmed men and mas- 
sacred hundreds of them. Montcalm strove to put a stop to the 
butchery, but the savages could not be controlled. The remnant of 
the garrison finally reached Fort Edward in small parties, and Mont- 
calm, chagrined over the treachery of his Indian allies, burned the fort 
and retired to Ticonderoga. At the close of the war, after two years 
of reverses to the English cause, France possessed twenty times as 
much American territory as England and Spain together. The British 
flag had been disgraced by the imbecility of worthless English officers. 

English arms met with better success during the succeeding two 
years. In 1758, after the siege of Louisburg and its capitulation, 
Abercrombie started on his expedition. July 5, 15,000 men under Lord 
Howe reached Lake George and embarked for Ticonderoga. On the 
morning of the 6th, when the English were nearing the fort, they fell 
in with the French picket line, numbering no more than three hundred 
men. In the skirmish that ensued the French were overwhelmed, but 
not until they had inflicted on the English a great loss in the death of 
Lord Howe. Stricken with grief, the soldiers in the latter's command 
began a retreat to the landing. 

On the morning of the 8th the English engineer reported falsely that 
the fortifications of Ticonderoga were trifling. Again the army was 
put in motion, and when just beyond the reach of the French guns, 
the divisions were arranged to carry the place by assault. For mote 
than four hours column after column dashed against the enemy's 
breastworks, which were found to be strong and well constructed. At 
six o'clock in the evening the repulse of the English was finally 
effected. The carnage was awful, the English loss amounting to 1916 
in killed and wounded. In no battle in the Revolutionary war did the 
British have so large a force engaged or meet so terrible a loss. 

Still the English might have returned and captured the fort, for 
they outnumbered the French three to one. But the weak Abercrom- 
bie returned to Fort George, at the head of the lake, and contented 
himself with sending a force of 3,000 men under Colonel Bradstreet 
against Fort Frontenac. The fort capitulated, counterbalancing Aber- 
crombie's dismal failure at Ticonderoga. 


•In 1759 the gallant Amherst superseded Abercrombie as commander- 
in-chief of the British forces. In June of that year, at the head of 12,000 
men, he advanced to Lake George, where he began the. construction of 
Fort George. The total French forces on Lakes George and Champlain 
now numbered but 3,000 men. July 22 Amherst invested Fort Ticon- 
deroga without firing a gun. Four days later the French blew up Fort 
Carillon at Ticonderoga, and retired to Crown Point, leaving the heavy 
artillery under a guard of twenty men. Upon the approach of the 
English forces they fled, and the entire French army retreated to the 
mouth of Lake Champlain. The remainder of that summer Amherst 
spent in rebuilding the splendid fortifications at Lake George, Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point. 

Thus closed the campaign of 1758 and the conflict in Eastern New 
York. Though the treaty of peace was not signed until February 10, 
1763, Saratoga county and its environments were spared any further 
horrors of war until the famous campaign of General Burgoynein 1777, 
the first decisive battle in the war of the Revolution. 


Settlements in Saratoga County Prior to the War of the Revolution — The Earliest 
Permanent Settlement Made Along the Banks of the Hudson North of Half Moon 
Point, and Across the River from Schenectady — The March of Progress Northward 
Along the Hudson — Some of the Early Pioneers. 

Many years before the Indian inhabitants relinquished control of 
what is now Saratoga county, families of industrious whites settled 
in various parts of the county and founded homes. These pioneers 
came principally from England, Scotland, the North of Ireland and 
from the Netherlands. There were a few French families, some Can- 
adians and some from other localities — Massachusetts, Connecticut 
and the city of Albany. Few settlements were made, however, ex- 
cepting those in the extreme southern part of the county, until Great 
Britain had driven France from Canada and the long series of bloody 
French and Indian wars had come to a conclusion. 

But many white men had visited and partially explored the interior 
of the county long before permanent settlements were there effected. 


In the fall of 1609 Henry Hudson ascended the river which bears his 
name and probably reached the shallow water near the present site of 
Waterford, though the journal of his journey makes no mention of his 
having landed at that point. The immortal Jesuit father, Isaac Jogues, 
and his companions, Rene Goupil and Guillame Couture, who were the 
first white men to see the waters of Lake George, were carried prison- 
ers by the Indians through Saratoga county's territory to the Indian 
castles on the Mohawk. This was in August, 1643. In October, 1666, 
the Marquis de Tracy followed the same trail with his little army to meet 
the Mohawks and avenge the death of his young friend Chazy. In 1646 
Father Jogues made a second journey over the same trail, this time 
going as a missionary to the savages who, four years before, had sub- 
jected him to the most horrible tortures. The trail followed by both 
these travelers ran from the Hudson at Glens Falls along the foot of 
Mount McGregor, then crossed the whole length of Greenfield, passed 
near Lake Desolation and continued through Providence and Galway 
to Caughnawaga (Fonda), in the Mohawk valley. 

The early records of the county are so vague and meagre that the 
location of the first permanent settlements in the county cannot be ac- 
curately stated ; but a concensus of the opinions of the most reliable 
writers, founded on the colonial records, is to the effect that the first 
settlements were made in the extreme southeastern part of the county, 
on the banks of the Hudson, within a few years after the settlement of 
the country about Albany. These settlements were begun by the 
Dutch near Waterford some time not far from the middle of the sev- 
enteenth century, and possibly earlier than that date, though it is ex- 
tremely improbable that any permanent homes were established thefe 
prior to the year 1640.' It is probable, however, that as early as 16^8 
or 1629 regular trips were made by the traders of Beverwyck to Half 
Moon Point, as the latter place was less than three hours' journey from 
the Fort. Beside this, the Mohawks made Half Moon Point a rendez- 
vous for trading with other tribes and among themselves, and the pass- 
age across the river was rendered comparatively easy by a ford from 
the Point across to Haver Island on the south. 

The names of the early Dutch settlers of Waterford^that is to say, 
the heads of the families — doubtless are included in the following taken 
from the census of the city and county of Albany in 1720: Jacobus 

* This may be assumed from the early records of the doings of the traders of Beverwyck, as 
Albany was then known. 


Van Schoonhoven, Evert Van Ness, Daniel Fort, Cornelius Van Buren, 
Cornelius Van Ness, Isaac Ouderkirk, Lavinus Harmense, Teunis 
Harmense, Winant Vandenburgh, Roolif Gerritse, Hendrick Roolifse, 
John De Voe, Daniel Van Olinda, Eldert Ouderkirk and Cornelius 
Vandenburgh. These were enrolled as residents of Half Moon, but as 
the name Half Moon Point was then applied to what is now Waterford, 
and possibly adjacent territory of inconsiderable proportions on the 
north, it is safe to assume that this list is a fairly accurate statement 
of the heads of families in Waterford and the country adjoining it on 
the north and west in that year. 

A very old record shows that on June 6, 1677, Jan Jacobus Van 
Noorstrant purchased from the widow of Goosen Gerritse Van Schaick 
a tract of land "bounded south by the fourth sprout of the Mohawk, 
west by Roelef Gerritse Vandewerker'sland, north by the little creek 
close by Roelef Gerritse Vandewerker's house, and east by the river, 
containing about seven morgens of land." The limits of this purchase 
are very nearly identical with those of the existing corporation of 
Waterford. Going back still a little farther, November 23, 1669,. 
Goosen Gerritse Schoonhoven or Goosen Gerritse Van Schaick sold a 
tract of land in Half Moon to Philip Pieter Schuyler. It is probable 
that the sale was made by Van Schoonhoven, as he and Philip Pieter 
Schuyler had received permission years before to buy from the Indians 
what is now Waterford, in order that immigrants from Connecticut 
might not purchase it and locate there. Van Schoonhoven's purchase 
undoubtedly was the first investment, with legal authority, of land on 
the present site of Waterford, and, furthermore, the evidence tends to 
show that he possessed practically the entire town. 

The next permanent settlement at that point of which any authentic 
records are left as to dates and names, occurred in 1784, when the land 
embraced in the site of the village of Waterford was purchased by 

Colonel Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, Middlebrook, Ezra Hickok, 

Judge White and several other persons, most of whom had emigrated 
from Connecticut for the purpose of colonizing the fertile country at 
this point and founding a village at what they believed was and would 
remain the head of navigation on the Hudson River. There is 
abundant evidence, however, that several sturdy pioneers had located 
here prior to that year, for Half Moon had already been organized as a 
district (in 1772) and such commodities as the whites, but not the 
Indians, needed had been sent to that point by the merchants of Fort 


Orange. Immediately after the English conquest of Canada in 1760 
settlements rapidly extended along the valleys of the Hudson and the 
Mohawk, and even some distance into the interior. 

The first settlement in Ballston was made in 1763 by Michael and 
Nicholas McDonald, natives of Ireland, who had been enticed on board 
a vessel lying in the Shannon, brought to Philadelphia and sold for a 
term of years to pay for their passage. Their wilderness home was 
located near the west bank of Ballston Lake. In 1770 Rev. Eliphalet 
Ball, with his three sons, John, Stephen and Flamen, and several mem- 
bers of his congregation, removed from Bedford, N. Y., and settled in 
the vicinity of Academy Hill. To induce him to locate in the town 
and establish a church and conduct regular services, he received a do- 
nation of five hundred acres of land from the proprietors of the famous 
"Five Mile Square " tract. Soon after Mr. Ball's arrival large acces- 
sions to the settlement were made by immigrants from New England, 
New Jersey, Scotland and the North of Ireland, and in honor of Mr. 
Ball they named the locality Ball's Town. 

George Scott, grandfather of Hon. George G. Scott, and great-grand- 
father of James L. Scott of Ballston Spa, came from the north of Ire- 
land and settled in 1774 in Ballston. His wife was a sister of General 
James Gordon. During the raid of 1780 under Colonel Munroe he was 
struck down by a tomahawk and left for dead, but he recovered. James 
Scott, his son, became a well-known surveyor. George G. Scott, son 
of James, became one of the most prominent residents of the town, 
which he served as supervisor for nineteen consecutive years. 

General James Gordon was the most conspicuous among the pioneers 
of his day. He came to America from County Antrim, Ireland, when 
a youth of seventeen. He settled in the town of Ballston and located 
on the farm on the Middle Line road now owned and occupied in the 
summer by George T. and Roland W. Smith. So important a part 
did General Gordon take in the early history of Saratoga county, 
that the following brief account of his life, containing historical 
statements of general interest, is appropriately inserted in this chap- 
ter. It is taken from a work- entitled: "Family Records of Theo- 
dore Parsons Hall and Alexandrine Louise Godfrey, of ' Tannancour,' 
Grosse Point, near Detroit, Michigan, including brief accounts of the 
St. Auburn, Scott-Gordon, Irvine-Orr and Navarre-Macomb families," 
collected by Theodore Parsons Hall and published in Detroit, Mich., 
in 1892: 


Tames Gordon, as a child, was furnished with every advantage of education ; was 
a fine classical scholar, destined for a profession ; but in a spirit of adventure set out 
for America in 1758, when a young man of but nineteen years of age. He had a 
relative in America named John Macomb,_ who, with his sons, was largely engaged 
in the Indian and Array supply trade, having stores at Albany, Fort Niagara and 
Detroit. John Macomb was from County Antrim, and married Jeanne Gordon, 
niece of Alexander. He was grandfather of Gen. Alex. Macomb, commander in- 
chief U. S. A. Gordon became a partner of the Macombs and later of their young 
clerk, John Askin of Detroit, a member of one of the old Canadian families. . . . 
The diary of Gen. Gordon, recording his adventures in his various journeys up the 
Mohawk to Oneida lake, thence via Oswego by canoe to Fort Niagara, and thence 
by canoe to Detroit, is of unusual interest. . . . Gordon spent the winter previous 
to the Pontiac outbreak, 1763, in Detroit, and at this early day, thirteen years before 
the Revolution, he traveled on horseback through the forests from Detroit to Pitts- 
burg, thence to Philadelphia and New York, to Albany. 

After a short visit to his old home in Ireland he converted his estate into money, 
returned in 1765 and purchased land in Saratoga, a district of Albany county (since 
the town of Ballston), and erected mills there. As early as 1708 Queen Anje had 
issued a patent for a tract five miles square where Ballston now" stands. In 1763 a 
Scotch-Irish element, led by the Macombs, began a settlement there. In 1774 
Gordon, having induced his brother-in-law, George Scott, with his family, consisting 
of his wife, his daughters, his mother-in-law and her sister, also his own sister, to- 
gether with a number of their Scotch-Irish friends, to locate there, a town was laid 
out, to which they invited Rev. Eliphalet Ball, previously of Bedford, Westchester 
county, N. Y., who established a church there, 1775. The course of England to- 
wards some of the Scotch-Irish in Ulster had engendered a bitter feeling, which 
naturally led them to espouse the patriotic cause in the struggle for independence. 
After providing houses for themselves, some twenty-five settlers, male and female, 
on September 22nd, drew up a covenant and founded there a Scotch Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Ball was given a large tract of land (400 acres), and the place called 
Ballston in his honor. The father of Mr. Ball and Mary Ball, the mother of Presi- 
dent George Washington, were cousins. . . . James Gorden was from the start the 
leader and the life of the infant colony. He had married, March 16th, 1775, Mary 
Ball, daughter of Rev. Eliphalet Ball. At the outbreak of the hostilities in 1776, he 
raised a regiment, recruited largely in Albany, afterwards Saratoga county. Near 
the close of the war (1780) he was taken prisoner in an Indian raid led by a Tory 
named McDonald, and after the war closed he was visited at his home by President 
George Washington, Gov. Clinton and other leading patriots. He participated in a 
number of engagements in that vicinity, and was present at Burgoyne's surrender. 
While a prisoner in Canada he was confined in the Recollet Convent, afterwards 
paroled for a time at Quebec, then escaped to Halifax, and was finally ransomed by 
hisfriend, James EUice, for aheavy sum of money. . . . Gordon was commissioned 
Brigadier-General in 1786. Was a member of the Assembly 1777-8-9-80-4-6-7-8-9- 
90. Senator, 1797-1804. In May, 1779, he was elected a Representative in Congress 
over Hon. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer of Albany. The district included all Western 
New York. On the organization of Saratoga county in 1791 he was appointed Judge 


of the Court of Common Pleas, and died January 17th, 1810, aged 71, leaving one 
child, his daughter. Melinda Gordon, born January 30th, 1777.' 

Epenetus White, from Connecticut, located on the east side of Balls- 
ton Lake about the time General Gordon moved to Ballston, possibly a 
year earlier. His son, Epenetus White, jr. , settled near the old iron 
spring in Ballston Spa about 1800 and engaged in merchandising till 
1828, when he built the old red mill which was burned in 1874. 

As early as 1770 Dr. Elisha Miller removed to Ballston from West- 
chester county, and settled on the east side of the lake, a short distance 
from the outlet: He was a practicing physician. During the war he 
removed his family to Schenectady, but returned himself to attend to 
his patients, frequently in the face of grave personal danger. He was 
a man of high attainments, and lived to an old age. 

James, William and Samuel McCrea, brothers, also settled in Balls- 
ton before the war. James occupied the farm now owned by Henry 
Harrison, two and a half miles southwesterly from Ballston Spa. Will- 
iam occupied the Henry Davis farm adjoining it on the south, and 
Samuel settled on the McCarty farm north of James's place, on the west 
side of the road. Joseph Morehouse, and Nathan Raymond, his brother- 
in-law, from Connecticut, settled on the east side of the lake before the 
war. Captain Titus Watson also settled in the town before the war, 
probably as early as 1772. He served in the war as lieutenant and 
subsequently as captain. His home was located on the east side of the 
lake. Edmund Jennings came from Connecticut in 1775. His son, 
Joseph Jennings, resided in Ballston Spa for many years. Zaccheus 
Scribner located on the east side of the lake in 1770. His son Thad- 
deus served in the Revolution, and afterwards was a mail carrier for 
many years. Stephen White, a nephew of Epenetus White, came from 
Connecticut before the Revolution and served in that war. Hezekiah 
Middlebrook, also from Connecticut, located in town in 1772, and in the 
following year removed to a large farm in the southern part of Milton. 
He became a prominent, wealthy and very influential resident of the 

1 " General Gordon, perceiving the need of a competent surveyor to lay out the new territory 
being rapidly settled after the close of the war, had his young nephew, James Scott, educated in 
this profession. Many of the most important surveys in Northern New York were made by 
James Scott, and his services as engineer utilized in a number of public works. He received 
from the Canadian government in payment of surveys, a large tract of land near the present city 
of Toronto. In 1809 he married Mary Botsford of Derby, Conn. He held a number of political 
offices, was master in chancery, and was final authority on all questions of land titles. Then- 
only child, George Gordon Scott, was born at the old homestead in the town of Ballston, May 11, 
1811. The latter afterwards became Judge Scott, of Saratoga county. New York." — Family rec- 
ords of the Scott-Gordon Family. By Theodore Parsons Hall, Detroit, Mich., 1892. 


latter town. John Taylor, who is believed to have been the father of 
Hon. John W. Taylor, at one time speaker of the House of Represent- 
atives, owned a farm in Ballston before the Revolution, but the home- 
stead stood just over the Charlton line. About 1770 Ebenezer Sprague 
came from Connecticut and located on the Middle Line road, a short 
distance north of the farm subsequently owned by General Gordon. 
His property afterward passed into the hands of James Thompson, and 
is now occupied by Miss Rhoda Thompson. Beriah Palmer, who came 
from Connecticut during the early days of the war, or probably a year 
or so prior thereto, and. settled on the farm recently owned by the late 
Hon. S. W. Buell, near Burnt Hills, became a prominent man in his 
community, serving for many, years as magistrate, supervisor and town 
clerk. He was widely known as Judge Palmer. Others who came 
prior to or during the early days of the Revolution, were Uriah Bene- 
dict, from Connecticut, who located on the East Line road ; Nathaniel 
Weed, John Cable, John Young, Robert Speir, grandfather of the sher- 
iff bearing the same name; William Barnes, Sunderland Sears, Isaac 
Howe, Jabez Hubbell, Isaac Stow and the Davis family. The latter 
came about 1775 and located on the Middle Line road just north of 
Ballston Centre. 

Settlements were also made in Wilton at an early date. As early as 
1764 William and Samuel Brisbin, brothers, located in the limits of the 
present town, then known as Palmertown. They first located on the 
south branch of Snoek Kill, which subsequently became the Laing 
neighborhood. They made clearings and built a saw mill, but when 
the Revolution began they abandoned their homes and took up arms 
for the defense of the colonies. Rowland Perry, with his wife and 
eight children, removed from Dutchess county to Wilton in 1770. 
They entered the wilderness by way of a road cut by the Jessup family, 
early settlers of Luzerne, from Fort Miller, on the Hudson, by way of 
what are now Emerson's Corners and Wiltonville. The sons of this 
family bore the names of Samuel, John, Benjamin, Absalom, Roswell, 
Artemas, Rowland and Joseph. The McGregor family, after whom 
Mount McGregor is named, consisting of four brothers — James, Will- 
iam, John and Alexander, sons of John McGregor of Thorn Hill, 
Scotland — immigrated to New York in 1781, and in 1787 James and 
William settled near the site of Wiltonville. 

Elijah Parks was probably the earliest settler in Moreau. He came 
from Salisbury, Conn., in 1766, and with his sons purchased about 


eight hundred acres of land at South Glens Falls. He erected the 
dwelling house afterwards known as Parks's Castle, and a saw mill 
near the falls. His sons resided with or near him, and a son-in-law, 
Lewis Brown, occupied a double log house above the castle. Tradi- 
tion says that when the war of the Revolution broke out there were 
twelve families living between Fort Miller and Fort Edward. 

Among these pioneers was Jacob Bitely and David Jones. The lat- 
ter, who came from Leamington, N. J., had a wife and four sons, one 
of whom. Colonel David Jones, served under General Burgoyne. He 
was engaged to marry Jeanie McCrea, who was killed while being con- 
veyed from the home of Mrs. McNeil to the British camp, as described 
in another chapter. At the close of the war the Jones farm was sold 
to General Rogers, who took possession in 1783. The Hilton family 
located in the eastern part of the town, and Captaie Tuttle, of whom 
very little is known, lived at the mouth of Snoek Kill. 

The first record we have of the erection of any building in the town 
of Saratoga is the story of the convention held at Albany September 4, 
1689, when a resolution was passed authorizing the building of a stock- 
aded fort " about the house of Bartel Vroman at Sarachtoge, and twelve 
men raised out of the two companies of the city and two companies of 
the county, to lie there upon pay, who are to have twelvepence a day, 
besides provisions, and some Indians of Skachkook ' to be there with 
them, to go out as scouts in that part of the county." Bartel Vroman 
doubtless was the pioneer settler of Old Saratoga. 

While the exact date is uncertain, it is probable that the mills and 
other buildings erected by representatives of the famous Schuyler fam- 
ily of Albany on the south side of Fish creek stood there as early as 
1709. As this was twenty years subsequent to the year when Bartel 
Vroman's house is mentioned in the record of the Albany convention 
referred to, it is not improbable that other settlements may have been 
made in that locality between the years 1689 and 1709. This opinion 
is strengthened by the knowledge that Colonel Peter Schuyler ' deemed 
it advisable to build a stockaded fort on the east side of the river in 
1709. This fort was located on a high bluff about a hundred rods "be- 
low the mouth of the Batten Kill, upon which General Fellows placed 
his cannon before Burgoyne's surrender. It stood there for nearly 

' These were the Schaghtiooke Indians, who occupied the territory about the mouth o£ Hoo- 
sic^k river, in Rensselaer and Washington counties. 

' Colonel Schuyler was then in the service of the government in command of the advance 
guard of the second great Army of Northern Invasion, 


forty years, but in 1747 it was abandoned and burned by the retiring 
English troops. If the Schuylers had mills at the point mentioned, 
somebody must have operated them, and consequently there must have 
been residences near by ; but who these persons were probably never 
will be known. 

The first village in the town of Saratoga of which any mention is 
made in history was called Saratoga, and was built about the Schuyler 
mills. In 1745 it contained about thirty families, who in that year were 
attacked by the French and Indians, and either killed, captured or 
driven away. The dwellings in the village were then laid in ashes. 
The exact date of the destruction of this first Saratoga is given as No- 
vember 17, 1745, but no detail's of the bloody event are extant. Col- 
onel Peter Schuyler was killed in his own home, while fighting to de- 
fend it. 

It was not until after the peace of 1763 between England and France, 
when fear of massacre and pillage was in a measure relieved, that 
permanent settlements were made in Saratoga. Soon after the French 
were driven out and their Indian allies had stopped their depredations, 
the Schuyler mansion and mills were rebuilt by Philip Schuyler, who 
afterward commanded the northern division of the patriot army in the 
war of the Revolution Then followed the immigration of a number 
of industrious, intelligent families, who came to work in the mills or to 
engage in farming or merchandising. About 1764 Abram Marshall 
came from Yorkshire, England, settling on the farm since known as 
the Marshall place. Thomas Jordan, his son-in-law, was also an early 
settler. Thomas Smith came from Dutchess county in 1770 and began 
the cultivation of an extensive farm. Hezekiah Dunham was another 
who located there before the Revolutionary war, in which he served. 
Joseph Welch came about 1765, served as a lieutenant in the American 
army, was taken prisoner and carried to Canada, where he was com- 
pelled to remain three years. John Strover bought a farm about 1770, 
but doubtless did not occupy it until the close of the war, in which he 
served with distinction as a scout. James I. Brisbin was a very early 
inhabitant, but whether he came before the war or not is unknown. 
Isaac Leggett and Gabriel Leggett settled in Stillwater, but their farm 
extended into Saratoga. They were founders of the Society of Friends 
here, as was also Tibbett Soule and George Davis, ante- Revolutionary 
inhabitants. Sherman Patterson settled before the war in the north 
part of what is now the village of Schuylerville. Colonel Van Veghten 


who located at Coveville about 1773 or 1773, was a man of considerable 
local prominence. Conrad Cramer came as early as 1763. John Woe- 
man, Swart, William Green, and three brothers named Denney 

lived in the eastern part of the town when the war began. 

The most distinguished of all the families having interests in the 
town of Saratoga prior to the Revolution were the Schuylers, in whose 
honor the historic village of Schuylerville was named. An uncle of 
General Philip Schuyler settled at the mouth of Fish Kill quite early in 
the eighteenth century and erected some mills. Some time prior to 
1767 General Schuyler came into possession of the estate. On his 
death it fell to his brother John, from whom it passed to the latter's 
son Philip, a nephew of the general. The latter became financially 
involved and the mansion, with the large farm surrounding it, was sold 
by his assignee to Colonel George Strover, a former agent of Schuyler's, 
who subsequently became active in raising funds for the Saratoga battle 
monument. The original Schuyler was killed at the destruction of the 
old village of Saratoga November 38, 1745. General Schuyler used 
the mansion he had inherited as a summer residence, he and his family 
spending the winter months at Albany. 

Settlements were made in Stillwater at a very early date, probably 
following closely upon those made at Half Moon Point. The Vanden- 
burgh family located as early as 1733 on the eastern side of the river, 
above the falls, and it is but reasonable to suppose that settlements 
occurred on the west side of the Hudson, in Saratoga county, soon 
after that date, if not prior thereto. Aside from the Schuyler mills in 
Saratoga and the village destroyed there in 1745, the earliest settle- 
ments on the west side of the river north of Half Moon Point occurred 
in Stillwater. Dates of the earliest habitations are lacking. As early 
as 1764 George Palmer bought land within the limits of the town. He 
also bought mills already built there, which were then owned by Isaac 
Mann. These mills had been operatfed several years, and a consider- 
able colony had grown up about them, but whether they had been 
built five, ten, fifteen or even twenty years previous to their sale to 
Palmer is not known. As far as can be learnSd, therefore, Isaac Mann 
was the first white man to build a home and remain for any length of 
time in Stillwater. When he settled there cannot be told. 

In 1763 an entire church, numbering one hundred and one members, 
voted unanimously to remove to Stillwater, and the majority of them 
followed their resolution and did so. Thus it is seen that Stillwater 


village contained a considerable number of inhabitants at least a dozen 
years before the beginning of the Revolutionary war. The male mem- 
bers of the congregation who signed the agreement to remove to Still- 
water were: Henry Stevens, Gideon Lawrence, Zebulon Stevens, Uriah 
Stevens, Robert Campbell, George Palmer, Lemuel Taylor, Eber 
Andrews, Benjamin Green, Ephraim Andrews, Ebenezer Wolcott, 
Ephraim Andrews, jr., John Frisbie, Solomon Campbell, Robert Camp- 
bell, jr., Jonathan Morey (or Mowry), Titus Andrews, John Fellows, 
William Patrick, Daniel Campbell, Cyprian Watson, Edward Firel, 
Joel Frisby, Reuben Wright, Israel Rose, Isaiah Keeler, Amariah 
Plumb, Phineas Stephens, Jesse Howard, Robert Patrick, Joseph 
Stevens, Ebenezer Andrus and Benjamin Munger. Whether all these 
persons came or not is not certain. This church, now the Congrega- 
tional church of Stillwater, for many years known as "the church at 
the yellow meeting-house, " was the pioneer religious society of Saratoga 

John Neilson, a native of New Jersey, came to Stillwater in 1773, at 
the age of nineteen years, determined to make a home here for himself. 
Three years later, after having worked in the meantime for a man 
named Quitterfield, living near Bemus Heights, he purchased a farm 
and married the daughter of his former employer. He became wealthy, 
and his sons and grandsons men of influence in the county. 

Harmanus Schuyler settled in Stillwater about 1770 and engaged in 
the milling business. His mill was on the Hudson, a short distance 
below the present village, and consisted of a flour and grist mill, a saw 
mill and a carding and fulling mill. He had a family of five sons and 
two daughters. Before coming to Stillwater he had been in business 
in Albany for several years. In that city he had served as high sheriff 
from 1761 to 1770. He served as assistant deputy quartermaster- 
general under General Philip Schuyler, who was a relative and had 
charge of the construction of the boats used on Lake George. After 
the war he returned to his farm and mills at Stillwater, where he died 
September 1, 1796. 

John Bemus kept a tavern at the southern end of the flats that formed 
the strategic points in the battles of Saratoga. He was located there 
when Burgoyne began his invasion, and according to early historians 
he settled there at least as early as 1762. Bemus Heights takes its 
name from John Bemus. 

Ezekiel Ensign settled above the creek at Wilbur's Basin about 1773 


or 1773, and owned a farm a mile square. When the news of Bur- 
goyne's approach came he removed his family to Albany, and upon his 
return he found his farm in the hands of the enemy and his residence 
in use as a British hospital. It is said several wounded officers in Bur- 
goyne's command died there and were buried in the rear of the house. 

Major Ezra Buell, who was one of the most useful and daring guides 
who served in the patriot army, came to Stillwater a few years before 
the war. He was a bachelor and died as such. He was the first crier 
of the county court. His death occurred in 1838, at the age of ninety 
years. John McCarty was another early pioneer, occupying a large 
farm at Wilbur's Basin which he purchased about seven or eight years 
before the war. Evert Vandenburgh owned one of the richest farms 
in the town prior to the war, His buildings were burned by the Brit- 
ish in 1777. Jeremiah Hart came from Connecticut about 1775 and 
settled on the east side of Saratoga lake. In 1777 he served as a scout 
for the American army. George Coulter was also living near the fa- 
mous " Freeman's farm " when the war broke out. 

Following closely upon the settlement of Half Moon Point' came the 
penetration into the wilderness to the north along the banlcs of the 
Hudson, the section now embraced in the town of Halfmoon. We 
have positive information from the old Albany records that several 
families, mostly Dutch settlers, lived there before 1680, but how many 
years before that date they removed there is largely a matter of con- 
jecture. In 1718 Killiaen Vandenburgh built a substantial stone house' 
about two miles north of Crescent, near the centre of the town. It 
was the most substantial house in that locality for many years. In 
1714 the district of Half Moon, which included Waterford, Halfmoon 
and Clifton Park, contained one hundred and one inhabitants, mostly 
Dutch settlers. Oldert Ouderkirk, Daniel Fort and Joshua Taylor 
lived in the town prior to 1763. The year before a saw mill had been 
erected on Steena Kill, near Crescent. The old Leland farm was oc- 
cupied in 1748 by a family who were massacred by a party of French 
and Indians in 1748. The barn on the place is known to have been 
erected in 1737. John Plynn, an Irishman, settled in the eastern part 
of the town in 1753 or 1753 and kept a tavern until the beginning of 
the Revolutionary war, when he removed to Albany. James Deyoe' 

* The locality referred to in this chapter as Half Moon Point is now the town of Waterford. 

2 In later years this venerable residence became known as the Dunsbach house, having fallen 
into the possession of the Dunsbach family. 

3 Mr. Deyoe lived to be 103 years of age. His wife attained the age of 105 years. 


came from Tarrytown about 1770 and settled about two miles east of 
Mechanicville. Timothy Woodin came from Putnam county in 1768 
and located about two miles north of Crescent. Benjamin Rosekrans 
was another early settler. Jacob Wilsey, George Ellsworth, Richard 

Burtis, William Tripp, Swart, Joseph Reynolds and Ephraira 

Dunham all lived within the limits of the town prior to 1776. George 
Ellsworth was a soldier of the Revolution, grandfather of Captain 
Ephraim D. Ellsworth and great-grandfather of Colonel Ephraim Elmer 
Ellsworth, whose name occupies such a prominent position in the mili- 
tary history of Saratoga county. George Ellsworth's sons were named 
William, Charles, James and George. The latter married the daughter 
of Joseph Reynolds, the pioneer, and settled on the homestead. His 
son, Ephraim D., married Phoebe Denton and settled in Malta, where 
Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth was born. 

In the spring of 1771 Dirck Schouten, who had been cultivating a 
small tract of land on the banks of the Hudson a short distance above 
Waterford, having heard of the mineral spring in the central part of 
the county (High Rock Spring), and doubtless appreciating the fact 
that this spot ultimately would be selected as a site for colonization, 
abandoned his rude home above Half Moon Point and started on his 
journey through the wilderness to the north. Oh the bluif a short dis- 
tance west of the spring he cleared a small tract of land, constructed a 
rude cabin and began the cultivation of the land. For a time all went 
well, but soon he began to be annoyed by, or himself annoyed, his In- 
dian neighbors, in the summer of 1773 he quarreled with them, and 
they finally drove him from his home. He never returned. He was 
the first inhabitant of the town of Saratoga Springs, and his only white 
guest during his two years' residence there was a lad named Will- 
iam Bousman, son of a Dutch farmer residing near the south end of Sara- 
toga lake, who had accompanied Schouten for the purpose of helping 
the latter build his cabin and cultivate his new farm. 

In the summer of 1774 John Arnold, a young adventurer from Rhode 
Island, accompanied by his wife and young children, traveled to the 
springs, took possession of Schouten's deserted cabin and opened a rude 
tavern for the accommodation of visitors to the springs, who were be- 
coming quite numerous in the summer time. He brought with him 
some spirituous liquors, and other wares which he deemed suitable for 
the Indian trade, and found the savages good customers. The enemies 
were friendly, but he found many dangerous neighbors in the thick 


colony of rattlesnakes' which infested the hillside. Arnold remained 
at the springs two summers, returning to the Hudson valley, as did 
Schouten, in the winter season. He was succeeded in 1776 by Samuel 
Norton, who remained throughout the entire year, thus becoming the 
first permanent settler of Saratoga Springs. He died before the close 
of the war. 

Settlements were made in Malta, near Round Lake, several years 
before the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. Early histories 
state that the first settlers were two men named Drummond and Mc- 
Kelpin, "who came before the Revolution and located west of the 
lake." These men were suspected of being Tories and were driven 
from the county. This being the case, it may be inferred that the 
town contained other inhabitants, patriots, to whom the presence of the 
suspected newcomers was unwelcome. It is possible that John Hunter 
and Ashbel Andrews and their families were here when Drummond 
and McKelpin arrived. Hunter came with the Connecticut colony to 
Stillwater in 1763 or 1764 and built a home near the lake. Robert 
Hunter, probably a relative, located here about the same time and 
cultivated a large farm. Michael Dunning, with a family of six sons 
and three daughters, located about 1773 on land now occupied by the 
hamlet of Dunning Street, nearly three miles north of Round Lake. 
He owned a large farm, and employed several hands to help him 
operate it. William Marvin secured a deed to land in Malta in 1761, 
but the records do not show the time he removed to the town to occupy 
his possessions. Samuel Smith came from Norwalk, Conn., and settled 
near East Line some time before the Revolution. John Rhoades, 
Jehial Parks and Timothy Shipman also lived here before the war. 

Northumberland's earliest pioneers are believed to have been James 
Brisbin and Hugh Munroe, both of whom came in 1765. The former, 
a native of Scotland, settled about a mile and a half west of Fort 
Miller, not far from Bacon Hill. His two sons, Samuel and William, 
located about the same time in Wilton. Munroe took up his abode at 
Gansevoort, where he built a residence and a saw mill on Snoek Kill. 
He was a Tory, and was compelled to flee to Canada at the outbreak 
of the Revolution. His property was confiscated by the patriots and 
his mill was destroyed. Mr. Graham settled in the same neighborhood 
before the war, but the year of his coming is unknown. He erected a 

1 These reptiles were so numerous that visitors frequently had to hang their beds from the 
limbs of the trees to avoid them. 


substantial residence, which was burned by" the advance wing of Bur- 
goyne's army during his invasion of New York in the summer of 1777. 
John Mahawny (sometimes writtAi Mahoney) removed to the town 
about 1769 or 1770. Archibald McNeil settled on the site of the 
village of Northumberland prior to the war. He was a wealthy retired 
gentleman from Boston and lived in elegant style. The Vanderwerker 
family also came before the war and lived about two miles above the 
village of Northumberland. Isaac B. Payne was another colonist who 
settled before the war nearly opposite the mouth of Moses Kill. 
Stephen and Nathan Payne lived near him. In 1773 Wynant Vanden- 
burgh, John Vandenburg and Cornelius Vandenburg, brothers, and 
Peter Winney, their brother-in-law, bought sixteen hundred acres of 
land, with a saw mill and grist mill which had been constructed before 
their arrival. In the fall of that year they occupied their lands with 
their families. The McCrea family, of which the historic Jane McCrea 
was a member, settled on the bank of the river, near the Payne farm, 
about 1772 or 1773. 

The earliest inhabitants of Charlton of whom there is any definite 
record was Joseph Gonzalez, who cleared a farm in the southwestern 
part of the town in 1770. Other families were located near his home, 
but their names are not known. He occupied the large farm which 
came into the possession of Myndert Wemple at the close of the war of 
the Revolution. Three years later a number of Scotch-Irish families, 
people of intelligence and education, who had left Great Britain on 
account of religious oppression, sailed for New York. From that city 
they sent one of their number, John Cavert, to select a location for the 
little colony they proposed to found. Cavert explored the southern 
part of the county and finally selected a location in the northern part 
of the town, near the'Ballston line. He returned to New York, and in 
the spring of 1774 the little colony — which meantime had located tem- 
porarily in New Jersey — prepared to occupy the new home he had 
selected. One of the first to arrive was Thomas Sweetman and his 
family from Freehold, N. J. He purchased one hundred and forty- five 
acres, a part of the Kayaderosseras Patent, his deed bearing date of 
July 3, 1774." He was accompanied by his brother-in-law, David Max- 
well, who remained a short time, then returned to New Jersey, bring- 
ing his family back to Charlton the following spring. He was accom- 

' This was the first deed recorded in the Saratoga county clerk's office when the county was 


panied by John Cavert, John Taylor, Joseph La Rue, James Valentine, 
William Chambers, John McKnight and several others, most of whom 
brought families with them. All laid out large farms and became suc- 
cessful tillers of the soil. Thomas Brown and William Clarke also 
located in the town in ante-Revolutionary times. 

The first permanent settlement in Galway was made by Scotch im- 
migrants in the fall of 1774. These men were John McHarg, William 
Kelly, John Major and James Major. William Kelly and his wife, a 
thrifty and hard-working couple, built a home about a mile south of 
Galway village. Their daughter Elizabeth, born November 1, 1774, ^ 
was the first white child born in the town. The Major brothers located 
a short distance south of Kelly. James Kelly was killed by a tree he 
was felling September 11, 1776, and his death was the first in the town. 
The first colonists were soon followed by others, who included John 
McClelland, Joseph Newland, John McKindley, Moses McKindley, 
William McCartney and others. John McClelland reached Galway 
early in the winter of 1774 and established a home on the first cross 
roads south of Galway village. In 1780 he started the first store in the 
town and became a prosperous merchant. These were all the colonists 
of ante- Revolutionary times in the town of Galway of whom there is a 
definite record. 

As far as^:an be learned the town of Edinburgh contained no white 
inhabitants prior to the Revolution. Its location several miles further 
north, into the wilderness, than the other towns referred to and its 
comparative inaccessibility account for the lateness of its settlement in 
a large measure. Sir William Johnson had established a hunting and 
fishing resort at Fish House, a mile or so west of the bounds of the 
town, at a picturesque bend ia the Sacaadaga river, in Fulton county, 
and several whites had settled there. It is possible one or more fam- 
ilies may have found homes just over the line in the town of Edinburgh, 
but whether this is so or not will never be known. Godfrey STiew, a 
German lieutenant of Johnson's, lived near Fish House, but probably 
in Fulton county. 

Corinth was first settled at Jessup's Landing and near Mount Mc- 
Gregor, but in all probability not until the first year of or one or two 
years prior to the beginning of the Revolution. Ambrose Clothier 
located near the western side of Mount McGregor, in the southeastern 
part of the town in 1775. A short time later Samuel Eggleston located 
near the Eggleston homestead. It is not known if any others helped 
colonize the town before the outbreak of hostilities in 1775. 


Clifton Park, being located near the old city of Schenectady, was 
settled within a few years after the founding of that city. Seven years 
after Arendt Van Curler and his associates had established a colony at 
"the great flats of the Mohawk," on March 4, 1669, Jan Verbeck, 
Philip Peter Schuyler and Peter Van Olinda purchased property form- 
ing a part of the Niskayuna Patent. October 31, 1677, Claes Janse 
Van Boeckhoven and Ryck Claes Van Vranken also purchased of Har- 
man Vedder and Barent Ryndertse Smit land in the same patent lying 
within the limits of what is now the town of Charlton. Their pioneer 
homes were located near Vischer's Ferry. Even before this day it is 
believed that more than one white settlement existed in the town, for 
the adjoining locality of Half Moon Point, the land across the river in 
Albany county, and the adjacent territory in Schenectady county, all 
contained improved farms and substantial dwellings. This belief is 
strengthened by the knowledge that the soil of Clifton Park was as 
fertile and easy of cultivation as any in that section. But names and 
dates cannot be verified and future generations will never know the 
full story of the earliest development of the town. 

The census of Albany county taken in 1723 contains the names of 
the following residents of Nestigione, or Niskayuna, most if not all of 
whom lived within the limits of the town: JohnQuacumbus, John 
Ffort, Jacob Pearse, Derrick Brat, Maes Rycksen, Evert Rycksen, 
Gerrit Rycksen, Nicholas Van Vranken, Lapion Canfort, Cornelius 
Christianse, E14ert Timonze, John Quackenboss, jr., Peter Ouderkirk, 
Jacob Cluit, John Cluit, Frederick Cluit, Samxiel Cruger, Derrick 
Takelsen, Mattias Boose Snor, and Johannis Christianse. Of these 
Quacumbus and Quackenboss probably were members of the same 
family, the progenitors of the Quackenbush family of to-day. The 
Clutes of Charlton are said to have descended from the Cluits of 
Nestigione. The name of Rycksen is said to have been another form 
for the name of Van Vranken. 

Andries Van Vranken lived many years before the Revolution at 
Fort's Ferry. His son, Garrett Van Vranken, was born there in 1760. 
Fully quarter of a century before the Revolution the families of John 

Smith, Davison, Thollheimer, Nicholas Vandenburgh, Abram 

and Jacob Volwetder were residents of the southern part of the town. 
Eldert Vischer was the first of the Vischer family in the town. His 
brother, Nanning Vischer, also lived here. John Vischer was a justice 
of the peace in 1770. 


The most reliable authorities state that the pioneers of the town of 
Milton were David Wood and his sons, Stephen, Benjamin, Elijah, 
Nathan and Enoch, who purchased six hundred acres of land a short 
distance west and northwest of the site of the village of Ballston Spa, 
in the vicinity of Milton Hill. They the most sightly and most 
fertile spot in that section of the county, and all prospered. There is 
no authentic record of any other settlements within the bounds of 
Milton prior to the Revolution. 

There is no record extant of any settlements during the period prior 
to the Revolution in the towns of Providence, Hadley, Greenfield or 
Day. Early settlements in these towns are -described in the future 
chapters dealing with the towns of the county. 



Events Leading up to the Famous Campaign of 1777, Made by Gen. John Bur- 
goyne — His Magnificent Array — General Schuyler in Command of the Northern 
Army — His Futile Attempts to Get Reinforcements — Burgoyne Takes Forts Ticon- 
deroga and Independence — Baum's Expedition against Bennington — Defeated by 
Gen. John Stark— British Failure at Fort Stanwix — Schuyler Superseded by Gates 
— The Battles of Saratoga — Death of the Valiant Frazer — Arnold's Gallant, though 
Unauthorized, Victory — Burgoyne's Surrender. 

" The American Revolution in its earlier stages, at least, was not a 
contest between opposing governments or nationalities, but between 
two dififerent political and economic systems." The King's Preroga- 
tives, Navigation Laws, Acts of Trade, and Writs of Assistance, were 
subjects of complaints between Great Britain and her colonies, and 
were among the causes which led up to the war of the Revolution. Yet 
the more immediate causes and events were connected with the results 
of the French and Indian war, which was closed in 1763 by the treaty 
at Paris, which recognized the extinction of the French empire in 
America. This war had been the military training school of the col- 
onists, and not only military discipline, but independent and united 
action had moulded a new and fervent sentiment in the scattered col- 
onies. The futile efforts of Franklin and others for a union of the col- 


onies, which had been attempted in 1704, and again at Albany in 1754, 
bore fruit in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, held in New York city. 
From this date opinions and events rapidly developed and culminated 
in open hostilities. The plea of Great Britain that she had incurred a 
debt of one hundred and forty millions in the French and Indian war 
for the benefit of her colonies was resisted as unjust. The colonists 
urged that they had furnished a full quota of money and men, that the 
war had been waged in the interest of commerce and the aggrandize- 
ment of the realm ; that the colonies were paying far more than their 
share through a monopoly of their trade by Great Britian. Irritation 
was augmented by the personal character of the reigning sovereign. 
King George III. Despotic in his ideas of government, stubborn, and 
devoid of magnanimous sentiments, or an appreciation of the common 
rights of humanity ; surrounded by ministers as incompetent as himself, 
his administration was odious to the people of England and intolerable 
to the colonists. 

The Stamp Act, which had been passed April 6, 1764, was repealed 
in 1766, amid great rejoicing in the colonies. A few thoughtful pat- 
riots dwelt on the Declaratory Act of the same Parliament, "that the 
king, with the advice of Parliament, had full power to make laws bind- 
ing America in all cases whatsoever;" a repeated enforcement of this 
principle in time aroused the independent spirit of the colonists to re- 
sistance. In the autumn of 1766, companies of Royal Artillery arrived 
in Boston and were quartered on the inhabitants. This was the be- 
ginning of the end. Boston, in a town meeting, protested against an 
armed invasion. In 1773 the burning of the Gaspee at Providence, 
R. I., inflamed the people of that peaceful colony. This event also led 
to the establishment of the famous "Committee of Correspondence" 
between the colonies, Virginia leading in this important movement. 
In 1773 Philadelphia made a public demonstration against the project 
of the East India Company for transporting their accumulated stock of 
tea to America, and this demonstration was followed by the Boston 
"tea party." The Boston Port Bill passed by Great Britain as a 
punishment was eminently successful ; it brought ruin to the commerce 
of Boston, but it drew the colonists more closely together and resulted 
in the meeting of the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 5, 1774. 

Actual hostilities opened in 1775 with the battle of Lexington. Soon 
after Fort Ticonderoga, a strong work which had cost England forty 


millions of dollars, was captured by Ethan Allen, and a mere handful 
of "Green Mountain boys;" then Crown Point came into possession of 
the patriots, without the loss of a single man. This brilliant opening 
of resistance to tyranny was succeeded by reverses and discourage- 
ments. In 1777 Washington's army numbered less than eight thou- 
sand men, many of them of the militia, and restless to return to their 
farms. It was upon farmers mainly that Schuyler must depend for 
reinforcements for the Northern Army, which was to meet the advanc- 
ing forces of Burgoyne. In the autumn of this year a gloom hung 
over the villages and farms of New York and New England ; depression 
was followed by dismay as the Indians grew more hostile, and the 
armies of Great Britain threatened invasion from the north. The 
militia men had left the army by hundreds and gone to their homes to 
harvest their crops. Repeated calls for enlistments were disregarded 
until the burning of Skenesborough (now Whitehall) by Burgoyne 
lighted up the northern horizon, and the urgent words of Washington 
addressed to New England aroused the minute men to a sense of the 
approaching danger. General Schuyler with his small army had been 
untiring in his efforts to obstruct the passage of the British southward. 
Trees were felled, bridges destroyed, and the roads made impassable 
for Burgoyne's artillery and wagon trains. This work, so unselfishly 
wrought by Schuyler while his enemies were active in their machina- 
tions for his downfall, was of invaluable service when the colonists 
were at last aroused to activity. At once, as by a common instinct, 
they turned from their rural pursuits, grasped the weapon nearest at 
hand, and hurried to join the little army under Schuyler which still 
lingered at the mouths of the Mohawk. 

Again General Schuyler asked for reinforcements for his insignificant 
army, but his appeal met no response except from Washington. The 
commander-in-chief, who had been holding Lord Howe in check in the 
Jerseys, though greatly in need of more men himself, realized the sit- 
uation in the north. To Schuyler's assistance he, therefore, dispatched 
Morgan's corps of five hundred picked njen, and also sent Arnold to 
help repel the approaching invaders. Colonel Lincoln, who was then 
in New England, was ordered to repair with his forces to Schuyler's 
command, and directed to attempt a flank movement upon Burgoyne 
toward the east. Washington also urged the commanders of militia in 
Connecticut and western Massachusetts to proceed with a large part of 
their commands to any point designed by General Schuyler, 


In the latter part of June Burgoyne and his magnificent army reached 
Crown Point. There, on the 30th of the month, he issued his famous 
order containing these words; " This army must not retreat." July 1 
his command moved forward in battle array. One American position 
after another fell into his hands. On the night of July 5, St. Clair, 
finding that General Philips of the Royal Artillery had scaled the 
heights of Prospect Mountain, which commanded the fort, evacuated 
Forts Ticonderoga and Independence. On the seventh the fugitive 
Americans retreated from Hubbardtown, Vermont, after a sharp en- 
gagement. Retreat followed retreat in rapid succession, until Fort 
Edward was reached. The following day the British captured a large 
quantity of baggage, stores, and provisions at Whitehall. 

Up to this time General Schuyler had remained in Albany awaiting 
the arrival of the expected and promised reinforcements from the south. 
As they had not arrived by the seventh, he started north with the small 
force he had collected, about one thousand five hundred men, leaving 
orders for the anticipated reinforcements to follow. Reaching Still- 
water he learned that Forts Ticonderoga and Independence had been 
abandoned. Hurrying on to Fort Edward he was met a week later, 
by St. Clair, with his command, which had suffered much in its lotig 

Burgoyne remained at Skenesborough, the guest of Colonel Skene, 
a noted Royalist. General Schuyler, still using every possible effort 
to obstruct the progress of the enemy, fell back from Fort Edward to 
Fort Miller, again placing obstructions in the road he knew Burgoyne 
would follow, and finally retreated to Stillwater. Here he retained his 
headquarters, though prudently directing his little army to go into 
camp near the mouths of the Mohawk. 

Burgoyne advanced southward very slowly, being compelled to cut 
new roads for his heavy artillery. It was not until July 13 that he 
arrived at Fort Edward, in the vicinity of which he remained until 
September 10. His difficulties and perplexities constantly increased. 
He had expected sympathy and assistance from the inhabitants, whom 
Colonel Skene had assured him were loyal, but he found them cold. 
Many homes were deserted. Provisions were difficult to obtain. He 
could not control his Indian allies, and soon his own humane and hon- 
orable sentiments were shocked and disgusted by the hideous murder 
of young Jeannie McCrea by a party of savages. This crime intensified 
the hostile feeling of the colonists, and Burgoyne would have rid him- 


self of the savages but for the imperative commands of his govern- 
ment. He had .the manliness to impose great restrictions upon their 
movements; but this aroused their resentment, and they deserted by 


The murder of Jeannie McCrea was one one of the most fiendish and 
totally uncalled for atrocities ever committed by the Indians. About 
the year 1768, two .Scotch families, named McCrea and Jones respect- 
ively, removed from New Jersey and built pioneer homes in the woods 
on the west bank of the Hudson near and below Fort Edward. The 
Jones family, consisting of the mother (a widow) and six sons: Jona- 
than, John, Dunham, Daniel, David and Solomon, located about a 
mile and a half below Fort Edward, and the McCreas settled three or 
four miles farther down the river. Both homes were in the town of 
Moreau. Jeannie McCrea was the daughter of a Scotch Presbyterian 
minister. Her mother having died, her father married again, and she 
came to reside with her brother, John McCrea, on the banks of the 
Hudson. The latter, and his brother, Daniel McCrea, were staunch 
patriots. The Jones family, on the other hand, were Torries. In 1773 
Daniel McCrea was the first clerk of the first court held in Charlotte 
county, by Judge Duer, at Fort Edward. In 1775 John McCrea be- 
came colonel of the Saratoga regiment of the Albany county militia 
organized by the committee of safety. The treachery of the Jones 
family is illustrated by the fact that in the fall of 1776 Jonathan and 
David Jones raised a company of fifty men under the pretext of rein- 
forcing the patriot garrison at Ticonderoga, but by a trick they suc- 
ceeded in compelling the company to join the British at Crown Point. 
The following winter both went to Canada and received commissions 
in the British army — Jonathan becoming captain and David a lieuten- 
ant in the same company; and when Burgoyne invaded New York 
these men acted as guides in the attack against their own countrymen. 

At this time Miss McCrea was about twenty-three years of age and 
possessed of more than ordinary beauty of character and person. She 
is said to have been engaged to marry young Lieutenant David Jones, 
who now was an officer in the army which soon was to cause her death. 
She had been repeatedly admonished by her brother, Colonel John 
McCrea, to go down the river, as most white settlers had done, but she 
still remained near Fort Edward, The day before her death she went 


up the river, crossed over the ferry at Jones's place and went to the 
residence of Peter Freel, near the fort, where she remained that night. 
The next morning she went to the home of Mrs. McNiel, a quarter of 
a mile north of the fort. Mrs. McNeil was a cousin of General Frazer, 
of the advancing British army, and was doubtless about to seek his 

The next morning (Sunday), July 27, the Americans at the fort had 
sent out fifty men under Lieutenant Palmer to watch the move- 
ments of the enemy. This party fell into an ambuscade prepared 
by the Indians, and in the fight that followed eighteen men, including 
young Lieutenant Palmer, were killed and scalped. The pursuing 
Indians halted at the foot of the hill and then rushed forward to 
the house of Mrs. McNiel. They seized the latter and Miss McCrea 
and started to join the main body of the savages. Soon the report of 
a gun was heard, and the beautiful girl fell from her horse. An Indian 
chief instantly sprang toward her and scalped her. Her body was then 
stripped and dragged into the woods, and the Indians, retaining Mrs. 
McNiel as a captive, proceeded to the ranks of the main British army. 

None of the Americans dared leave the fort that day, but the next 
morning they evacuated Fort Edward and proceeded down the river. 
Before leaving they sent a detachment of men to the woods near by 
and found the body of the murdered girl near that of Lieutenant Palmer. 
Both were taken about three miles below Fort Edward and there buried. 
This tragedy served to arouse the patriots to an enthusiastic defense of 
their homes and families, and bound them in a common cause of resist- 
ance and revenge. Burgoyne deprecated the act but was powerless to 
punish the savages.' 


Burgoyne's next movement was upon Bennington, by which he in- 
tended to co-operate with the expedition of St. Leger upon Fort Stanwix, 
according to the original plan of his campaign. He had also been 
informed by Colonel Skene, in whose counsels he placed great confi- 
dence, that the Americans had collected at Bennington many horses 
and stores of all kinds for the use of the army of the north. Therefore, 
while his main army rested, he dispatched Colonel Baum with a body 

■ In the inquiry into the failure of the campaign before tlie committee of the House of Com- 
mons, in 1779, General Burgoyne stated that after Jeannie McCrea had been taken by one band of 
Indians, another band came up and claimed her. To settle the dispute she was killed on the spot. 
This was the belief of the members of the McCrea family. 


of German grenadiers, English marksmen, Canadians and Indians, five 
hundred in all, to make an attack upon Bennington and secure the 
needed horses and stores. Baum set out August 13, and so eager was 
Burgoyne to insure the success of the expedition that he rode after 
Baum to repeat his orders to him verbally. 

Burgoyne's entire force aggregated ten thousand men when he 
entered the territory of the colony of New York. Of these, seven 
thousand were British and Hessian veterans, the balance being Cana- 
dians and Indians. Several hundred of the latter had deserted by the 
time the Bennington expedition started, and a considerable force had 
been sent to the assistance of St. Leger at Fort Stanwix. 

The plan of the campaign embraced a descent upon Albany by way 
of Lake Champlain and the upper Hudson. From Albany it was Bur- 
goyne's intention to descend the river to New York and unite his forces 
with the main division of the British army. 

When the patriots of Bennington and vicinity learned of the intended 
raid of the enemy. General John Stark rallied the New Hampshire 
militia and prepared to defend the provincial stores from capture. He 
also dispatched a message to General Lincoln at Manchester, to for- 
ward reinforcements. 

On the morning of August 14 he proceeded from Bennington to a 
point about six miles on the road westward, where he met and at once 
engaged the enemy. A heavy rain fell the following day, but on the 
16th occurred the memorable battle of Bennington.' During the en- 
gagement, which was a fierce one, the patriot forces displaying remark- 
able valor. Colonel Breyman arrived with Hessian reinforcements. 
General Stark's command began to show signs of exhaustion when 
Colonel Warren arrived from Bennington with his regiment, fresh and 
full of fight. The action was then renewed, late in the afternoon, and 
the enemy was forced to retreat, Breyman leaving his baggage and 
artillery in the hands of the victorious patriots. Had not night covered 
the retreat, the patriot forces probably would have captured the entire 

The victory was as disheartening to the British as it was encouraging 
to the Americans, as the enemy not only .failed to add to its depleted 
stock of stores, but also lost one thousand stand of arms and a number 
of fine field pieces. Nearly six hundred privates and thirty-two officers 
were also made prisoners of war. 

1 So known in history, though practically the entire engagement occurred in what is now the 
town of Hoosick, Rensselaer county, N. Y, 


in the meantime, on August 3, St. Leger appeared before Fort 
Stanwix, but became alarmed by the stories of a large army en route 
to the relief of Gansevoort's garrison, and fled, leaving his arms and 
stores, which were secured by Col. Gansevoort. General Herkimer, 
marching to the rescue of Gansevoort, encountered Johnson's Royal 
Greens in the battle of Oriskany. In this desperate hand to hand con- 
flict the enemy was finally driven back. 

General Arnold, who, with the force dispatched by General Schuyler 
for the relief of Fort Stanwix, was biit forty miles from that point 
when the news of the precipitate flight of the enemy was received, re- 
turned at once to the assistance of Schuyler. Reinforcements for the 
latter were also arriving from other directions. The long looked for 
regiments from the Highlands had arrived; the New York militia had 
rallied, and the New England forces, enthusiastic over the victory at 
Bennington, were on their way to join the camp at Stillwater. 


At this juncture, when Schuyler was for the first time in a position 
strong enough to warant him in beginning offensive operations, when 
his spirits were high, when success was almost in his grasp, there came 
the blow which would have wrecked the lives of most aspiring men. 
It was the act of an ungrateful Congress by which he was superseded by 
General Gates as commander of the army of the north.' 

The first of&cial act of General Gates after assuming command was 
to dispatch Kosciusko, the Polish engineer and patriot, to select a po- 
sition for the proposed advance camp of the Revolutionary forces. He 
decided upon Bemis Heights, four miles from Stillwater, as the most 

' " Schuyler was at last in a position to begin offensive operations; he would soon tie able to 
point 6xultingly to the result of his toil, his patience, to the unappreciated difficulties now con- 
quered. Such we may imagine General Schuyler's thoughts, as he sprang on his horse one bright 
morning in August, at the door of his stately mansion in Albany, when about to meet his officers 
for a consultation in regard to an advance movement of his army. As his charger moved rest- 
lessly under the rein, an officer approached with an official document. Schuyler, ever on the 
alert, checked his horse to examine the dispatch. It contained the resolutions of Congress that 
deprived him of his command. This, in the face of the enemy, and at the turning point of his 
fortunes! A momentary movement of the lip, and a lifting of the eyebrows— then a deepening of 
the firm lines about the mouth, were the only signs of suppressed emotion. With a graceful bow 
to the waiting officer, the deeply injured commander rode quietly on to his headquarters. When 
surrounded by his officers he explained the dispatch, and simply said: " Until the country is in 
safety, I shall stifle my resentment." He kept his word, and with unremitting energy, continued 
to perform the arduous duties of his command, until his successor, General Gates, appeared at 
headquarters, where he was received and entertained by General Schuyler with generous 
magnanimity and dignity."— Battles of Saratoga, E. H. W. 


ad vantagepus point, and the army soon afterward went into camp in 
that position and threw up earthworks for its defense. 

In the face of ever increasing dangers, Burgoyne pushed on south- 
ward, still undismayed. Sending a messenger to New York to beg for 
a movement from the south, he left Fort Edward with a month's pro- 
visions, crossed the Hudson on the 13th and lith of September, and 
was soon encamped on the north side of Fish Creek, the outlet of Sara- 
toga Lake. 

The American camp was on a spur of hills that approached the river. 
Across the narrow meadow between the hill and the river earthworks 
were thrown up, covering the old colonial road and a bridge of boats 
across the river. Breastworks and redoubts were established at con- 
venient intervals. A natural defense aloag the front of the camp oc- 
curred in a densely wooded ravine, and a little further north Mill Creek 
ran through a still deeper ravine. The right wing, under Gates, occu- 
pied the river hills and the defile between these and the river; the left 
wing, under Morgan, was located on the heights nearly a mile from 
the river; the center, under Larned, occupied the elevated plain. 
Arnold constantly harassed the enemy, with fifteen hundred men. 


September 19th, at eleven o'clock in the morning, with his army di- 
vided in three columns, General Burgoyne advanced toward the Amer- 
ican camp. Riedesel, in command of the Hessian regiments, and 
Phillips with his artillery, comprising the left wing, marched down the 
river road. Burgoyne, commanding the British regiments, comprising 
the center, proceeded towards the heights on the right. Frazer, with 
his own and Breyman's corps, comprising the right wing, moved to 
attack the American position from the west. 

About noon the attack began. Gates did not immediately order an 
attack on the Indians hovering near the fort ; but finally, in response to 
the repeated and urgent solicitations of Arnold and other officers, he 
consented to allow the savages to be driven off. 

The British army continued its approach. As soon as the word was 
given, Morgan and his riflemen led the way, driving the advancing 
enemy back with such rapidity that the commander was obliged to re- 
call them to quieter work. Frazer in his march to the west attempted 
to reach the rear of the American position, and Arnold, with Larned's 
brigade, made a dash to cut the right wing from the main army. Near 


Mill Creek the two forces met unexpectedly and a furious fight ensued. 
Arnold's and Morgan's men fought with unexampled energy, even 
ferocity. Heavy reinforcements came to the relief of Frazer's division, 
Gates neglected to send assistance and the valiant commands facing 
Frazer were retired. 

Arnold and Morgan now made a rapid counter march against Frazer's 
left, and in this movement encountered the whole English line under 

They were now reinforced with four regiments, and made s.o vigor- 
ous and resolute an attack that they were on the point of severing the 
wings of the British army, when Phillips came forward with bis artil- 
lery, and the Americans were forced back within their lines. It was 
now three o'clock, and a lull occurred in the contest. The two armies 
lay each upon a hillside, that sloped toward a ravine, which separated 
them. With the reinforcements conceded to Arnold, his force did not 
exceed three thousand men ; yet, with this number, for four hours, he 
sustained an unequal conflict with the choicest English regiments, in- 
spired by every sentiment that ambition or desperation could awaken, 
and commanded by many of the most accomplished and brave ofificers 
of the English army. 

Steadily the patriots received charge after charge of the dreaded 
English bayonets; then, emboldened by their own endurance, they 
pushed upon the enemy in a fierce attack, to be driven again toward 
their own lines. While victory seemed thus to sway back and forth 
over the little stream, and while the Americans held the ascendancy, 
Riedesel came over the field at double quick with his heavy Germans, 
and pressed the exhausted Americans back once more. It was now 
dark ; they gathered up their wounded and prisoners, and retired to 
their camp. 

The American loss in killed and wounded was about three hundred, 
and the British nearly double that number. The latter held the field, 
and claimed a victory; it was worse than barren to them. Foiled in 
their main object they were now burdened with many wounded ; they 
had tested the strength of the Americans, and were convinced that their 
own advantages of discipline and bayonets were perfectly counterpoised 
by the enthusiam and courage of the patriots. The British, who bivou- 
acked on the field, were harassed until midnight by large skiri;hishing 
parties of the Americans, and were under arms in expectation of an 
attack in force. 


Arnold urged the importance of this attack with such vehemence that 
Gates took serious offense, although he failed to tell Arnold that he 
was short of ammunition — the reason afterwards given for his refusal 
to follow up the advantage of the previous day. In his report of the 
battle to Congress he refrained from mentioning Arnold's name. This 
led to a further quarrel, and Arnold was deprived of his command. 
Gates continued to strengthen the defenses of his camp, while his army 
daily increased in numbers. 


Burgoyije encamped his whole army on the ground he had gained 
on the 19th^ and protected it with strong entrenchments. Strongly 
and skillfully posted, the two armies lay face to face from the 20th 
of September until the 7th of October. 

Our army was exultant, hopeful. The other camp seemed oppressed 
by the overhanging cloud of its impending fate. Difficulties enclosed 
them on all sides, leaving but one narrow pathway to the north ; and 
that was soon closed by an active detachment of Americans from 
Lincoln's command. They had surprised the British garrisons at Lake 
George and Ticonderoga, and regained all the outer defenses of the 
latter place; had captured gunboats and bateaux, and taken three 
hundred prisoners. 

News of this calamity soon reached Burgoyne, yet he had some 
compensation in a gleam of hope that reached him from the south 
at the same time. A letter from Sir Henry Clinton was received, 
informing him that on the 20th he would attack the forts below the 
Highlands, and attempt a further ascent of the river. Two officers 
in disguise were immediately dispatched in return to inform Clinton 
of the critical position of Burgoyne's army, and urge him to hasten 
to its assistance. Clinton was also assured that Burgoyne would en- 
deavor to hold his present position until the lath of October. 

Lincoln, who, with a large body of militia, now joined the army at 
Bemis Heights, was placed in command of the right wing. Gates took 
command of tUe left, of which Arnold had been dispossessed. The lat- 
ter had remained in camp, waiting patiently for a collision between the 
hostile armies. 

As Burgoyne's situation became day by day more critical, and he re- 
ceived no news from Clinton, on the 4th of October he ca-Jled Generals 
Riedesel, Phillips and Frazer together in council. On the 6th he had 


five days' rations distributed, and arranged for a reconnoissance in force 
on the following day. As he could not leave his camp unprotected, he 
took only fifteen hundred men. They were selected from the corps of 
Riedesel, Frazer and Phillips. Led by these officers in person, and 
Burgoyne as commander-in-chief, they marched out of camp at eleven 
o'clock on the morning of the 7th, and entered a field within three- 
quarters of a mile of the American left. Here, in double ranks, they 
formed in line of battle. 

On the left Williams's artillery and Ackland's grenadiers were posted, 
on a gentle hill in the edge of a wood that fronted on Mill Creek. Bal- 
carras's light infantry and other English regiments formed the right; 
the Hessians formed the center. Frazer, with five hundred picked 
men, was posted to the right and front, where a hill skirted the mead- 
ow ; he was ready to fall upon the rear of the American left at the first 
attack in front. 

Foragers were at work in a wheat field, while the English officers 
reconnoitred the American left with their glasses from the top of a 
cabin near the field. An aide-de-camp conveyed this information to 
Gates, who said: " Order out Morgan to begin the game." 

Morgan had already discovered Frazer's position, had divined his 
design, and formed his own plan. Ordering an attack to be made on 
Balcarras in front, he made a circuit in the woods to fall upon Frazer 
from the heights above. It was also arranged that General Poor should 
assail the grenadiers on the British left simultaneously with Morgan's 
attack. Lamed was to check the Germans in the center. 

From their restraining earthworks the impetuous Americans poured 
furiously upon their adversaries in front, while Morgan swept down 
the height upon Frazer's heroic band. So terrible was the onslaught 
that in less than twenty minutes the British were thrown into con- 
fusion. Frazer, in his brilliant uniform, rode from side to side of the 
right wing, encouraging and rallying the bewildered troops, and pro- 
tecting every point with. his flexible five hundred. 

Burgoyne, seeing the right wing in danger of being surrounded, 
now ordered Frazer to form a second line to cover a fetreat.. In at- 
tempting this manoeuvre, Frazer fell mortally wounded, and was car- 
ried from the field. 

The division under Poor, with the same impulsive vigor, dashed up 
the hill upon the artillery and grenadiers of the British left, and drove 
them from their guns. Ackland brought them back, and recaptured 


the guns, which again fell into the hands of the Americans, who rapidly- 
turned them upon the enemy, and drove them flying from the field. 
Ackland was wounded in both legs. He was a large, heavy man, but 
an officer took him on his back, and ran some distance with him. The 
pursuit was close, and the officer, fearing he would be captured, 
dropped his friend, and hurried on. Ackland now called out to the 
flying men that he would give fifty guineas to any man who would 
carry him into camp. A tall grenadier took him on his shoulders, but 
had not proceeded many steps when he and his helpless burden were 
taken prisoners. 

The Hessians still held their ground in the centre. At this moment 
Arnold, njaddened by his injuries, and excited into frenzy by the clash 
and roar of the battle, dashed on the field, followed in the distance by 
Armstrong, Gates's aid-de-camp, carrying unsuccessful orders to com- 
pel his return. 

With two brigades Arnold rushed upon the Hessian center, who 
stood the shock bravely for a time, but as he dashed upon them again 
and again with a fury they had never before witnessed, they turned 
and fled in dismay. 

Burgoyne now took command in person, and the conflict became 
general along the whole line. Arnold and Morgan, uniting to break a 
strong point in the British ranks, would again separate to move from 
one place to another, where orders or encouragement were necessary. 
Burgoyne succeeded Fi-azer as the conspicuous figure on the opposing 
side, and was seen in the thickest of the mel^e, under the heaviest fire. 
Several shots tore his clothing and his aids implored him not to expose 
himself, but resolute and daring, he endeavored skillfully, but vainly, 
to rally his army, ^nd hold his ground. His whole force was driven 
into their entrenched camp. Here they made a determined stand. 
Arnold now took Patterson's brigade, and assailed Frazer's camp, 
where Balcarras and his light infantry had taken refuge. 

Charging with renewed vigor again and again up the embankment, 
he led the way over a strong abattis; driven back from this, he attacked 
the entrenchments connecting this redoubt with Breyman's flank de- 
fense. Here he succeeded, and leaving the Massachusetts regiments 
to follow up the advantage at that point, he encountered a part of 
Larned's brigade, and dashed upon the strong works of the Hessian 
camp. Here, too,, he drove ieverything before him. Capturing the 
cannon, the artillerists fled in consternation, and Breyman was killed 


on the spot. Arnold's horse was shot under him ; it fell on him, and 
his leg was severely wounded. He was carried from the field. 

The whole British camp now lay exposed to the pursuing Americans. 
Night and silence fell upon the scene. The groans of the wounded, 
the muffled words of command given for the burial of the dead, and 
the dirge-like wailing of the autumn wind in the tall pines, were the 
only sounds that followed the roar of artillery and the shouts of the 

While the battle raged on the heights, confusion and sorrow feigned 
in and around the British camp near the river. After midnight General 
Lincoln from the American camp marched on the battlefield with a 
large body of fresh troops, to replace the exhausted victors of the pre- 
vious day. Burgoyne, aware of his danger, if attacked in his exposed 
position, now moved his whole army hurriedly, but in good order, to 
the river bank. Here, in gloomy desperation, they were crowded to- 
gether under the redoubts, on the morning of the 8th. 

Burgoyne now gave orders for a full retreat of his army, to begin at 
nine o'clock that same night, the wounded and all heavy baggage to be 
left behind. General Riedesel was ordered to lead the vanguard, and 
push on until he crossed the Hudson at the Saratoga ford, and there 
take a position behind the hills at the Batten Kill. A drenching rain 
poured upon the weary, plodding army the whole night. At Dogovat 
a halt was made. 

Starting from Dogovat at daybreak, the British moved again, but 
only to encamp during the day on the heights north of Fisli Kill. The 
handsome residence of General Schuyler was burned on the way. 
During this time Colonel Fellows, with the American artillery, had 
planted his guns on the hills on the east side of the Hudson, opposite 
the British camp. General Stark had also taken possession of Fort 
Edward above. On the 10th, General Gates, having waited for fine 
weather, followed Burgoyne to Saratoga and encamped on the south 
side of the Fish Kill. His delay greatly endangered the detachment of 
Colonel Fellows, who could easily have been surrounded and captured ; 
in fact, some of Burgoyne's officers were anxious to make the attempt, 
but failed to obtain permission. On the morning of the 11th, while 
the autumn mist hung heavily over Fish Kill and the adjacent grounds. 
Gates, believing that Burgoyne had continued his retreat, ordered his 
whole army to advance across the stream in pursuit. Without a recon- 
noissance or vanguard, the army was set in motion. The vigilant Bur- 


goyne, having now staked his chances on delay, was waiting eagerly 
for any mistake on the part of his adversary. Aware of the proximity 
of Gates, and of his intention, he drew up his army, under cover of the 
dense fog, in battle array, on the north side of the stream to receive 
him. The American regiments under Nixon passed over and were in- 
stantly attacked; a severe contest followed, and Nixon soon discovered 
the British in force; using his own judgment, and disobeying orders, 
he retreated, and checked the further progress of the army until com- 
munication could be had with Gates. 

Morgan had crossed the creek towards Saratoga Lake and, screened 
by the woods, posted his riflemen on the heights in the rear and flank 
of the British camp. This was strongly intrenched on the hill near the 
river, but was now entirely surrounded by the patriots, and all com- 
munication destroyed either with the north or south ; and it was soon 
found by the British that their camp was exposed in every part to the 
fire of cannon or riflemen. 

Sir Henry Clinton, having obtained reinforcements from England, 
at last came storming up the Hudson as though he would annihilate all 
obstacles between himself and Burgoyne. He obtained possession of 
Fort Montgomery and Clinton, although they were most courageously 
defended by Gov. George Clinton and his brother James, who very 
skillfully saved their garrisons. The British easily destroyed the ob- 
structing boom across the river, and Putnam, deceived and confused by 
their manoeuvres, left the enemy to sail unmolested to Albany. Sat- 
isfied with the destruction of the American vessels, and having burned 
Kingston, the seat of the government, and ravaged the stately manor 
houses of Livingston and other aristocratic republicans, the Englishman 
returned to New York, and left Burgoyne unassisted in his perilous 

He had now only five days' rations for his army, and not a spot where 
he could hold a council of officers in safety. On the 13th he called them 
together to consider their desperate condition, and there "General 
Burgoyne solemnly declared, that no one but himself should answer for 
the situation in which the army found itself." Three questions were 
then submitted for their consideration. "1st. Whether military his- 
tory furnished any example of an army having capitulated under sim- 
imar circumstances. 3d. Whether the capitulation of an army placed 
in such a situation would be disgraceful. 3d. Whether the arm)' was 
actually in such a situation as to be obliged to capitulate." These were 


answered in the affirmative, and there was a unanimous declaration in 
favor of capitulation. The terms of surrender were then discussed. 
A messenger was sent to General Gates, who agreed to an armistice. 
A meeting of officers to represent the commanders of the respective 
armies was arranged to take place on the spot where General Schuyler's 
house had stood. 

The terms proposed by Burgoyne required that his army, upon its 
surrender, should be marched to Boston, and from there be shipped to 
England. Gates refused this proposition, and demanded an unconditional 
surrender as prisoners of war. Burgoyne rejected these terms indig- 

The armistice ceased. Burgoyne prepared for the worst. 

Gates now heard of Sir Henry Clinton at the Highlands. His fears 
were aroused; he dispatched a message to Burgoyne, in which he 
agreed to almost every ar-ticle of the first proposition. Burgoyne gave 
his assent to these terms. Some further negotiations were in progress 
in regard to points of minor importance. News of Sir Henry Clin- 
ton's expedition now reached Burgoyne. Again delusive hopes awoke 
in his heart. He hurriedly called his officers together to consider 
whether they could honorably withdraw from the agreement to sur- 
render. It was held that honor held them fast, although the papers 
were not signed. On the 17th of October, the capitulation, or conven- 
tion, as Burgoyne stipulated it should be called, received the signa- 
tures of the two commanders. Gates and Burgoyne. 

The British army were now marched out of their camps, under their 
own officers, to a plain near old Fort Hardy, where the Fish Kill emp- 
ties into the Hudson. Here, in the presence of only one American, an 
aid-de-camp of Gates, they laid down their arms. Generals Burgoyne, 
Riedesel and Phillips now passed over the Fish Kill to the headquar- 
ters of Gates, who rode out to meet them accompanied by his aids. 
When they met, Burgoyne said: " The fortunes of war. General, have 
made me your prisoner;" to which Gates replied: "I shall ever be 
ready to bear testimony that it has not been through any fault of your 

The American army were drawn up in ranks on either side of the 
road. The whole army of British prisoners, preceded by a guard bear- 
ing the stars and stripes, and a band playing Yankee Doodle, were 
marched between the files of their victors. 

Gates and Burgoyne stood contemplating the scene. In the presence 


of both armies, General Burgoyne stepped out, and drawing his sword 
from its scabbard, presented it to General Gates; he received it, and 
silently returned it to the vanquished general. 

The surrendered army numbered 5,791 men, six of whom were mem- 
bers of the British Parliament. A splendid train of brass artillery, 
consisting of forty-two pieces, together with nearly 5,000 muskets, and 
an immense quantity of ammunition and stores, was the further fruit 
of this famous victory. 

The importance of this triumph upon the fortunes of the American 
struggle for independence is undisputed. The battle of Saratoga is de- 
clared upon high authority to be one of the fifteen decisive battles of 
the world, "the reactionary feeling it called forth in the colonies, 
after the disasters and anxieties of the campaign of the previous year 
in Canada, strengthened public sentiment in favor of the patriotic 
cause, and filled the depleted ranks of the army. It led directly to the 
indispensable assistance received from France, and thus to the later 
recognition of other foreign governments. As in the last French and 
English war, the campaign of 1759, which embraced the rocky heights 
of Quebec, the great water line of New York, and the western posts on 
the Great Lakes, was the decisive campaign ; so by this one of 1777, 
similar in construction, it was proposed by the English king and his 
American minister. Lord Germaine, to divide and crush the colonies 
and terminate the war. 

Articles of Convention between Lieut. -Gen. Burgoyne and Major- 
Gen. Gates: 

I. The troops under Lieut. -Gen. Burgoyne- to march out of their camp with the 
honors of war, and the artillery of intrenchments to the verge of the river where 
the old fort stood, where the" arms and artillery are to be left ; the arms to be piled 
by word of command from their own officers. 

II. A free passage to be granted to the army under Lieut. -Gen. Burgoyne to Great 
Britain, on condition of not serving again in North America during the present con- 
test; and the port of Boston is assigned for the entry of transports to receive the 
troops whenever Gen. Howe shall so order. 

III. Should any cartel take place by which the army under Gen. Burgoyne, or any 
part of it, may be exchanged, the foregoing articles to be void as far as such exchange 
should be made. 

IV. The army under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne to march to Massachusetts Bay by the 
easiest, most expeditious and convenient route, and be quartered in, near, or as con- 
venient as possible to Boston that the departure of the troops may not be delayed 
when the transports shall arrive to receive them. 

V. The troops to be supplied on their march, and during their being in quarters, 


with provisions by Gen. Gates's orders, at the same rate of rations as the troops of 
his own army ; and, if possible, the officers' horses and cattle are to be supplied with 
forage at the usual rates. 

VI. All officers to retain their carriages, battle horses, and other cattle, and no 
baggage to be molested or searched, Lieut. -Gen. Burgoyne giving his honor that 
there are no public stores secreted therein. Major-Gen. Gates will, of course, take 
the necessary measures for the due performance of this article. Should any car- 
riages be wanted during the transportation of officers' baggages, they are, if possi- 
ble, to be supplied. 

VII. Upon the march, and during the time the army shall remain in quarters in 
Massachusetts Bay, the officers are not, as far as circumstances will admit, to be sep- 
arated from their men. The officers are to be quartered according to rank, and are 
not to be hindered from assembling their men for roll call and the necessary purposes 
of regularity. 

VIII. All corps whatever of Gen. Burgoyne's army, whether composed of sailors, 
bateaux men, artificers, drivers, independent companies, and followers of the army, 
of whatever country, shall be included in every respect as British subjects. 

IX. All Canadians and persons belonging to the Canadian establishment, consist- 
ing of sailors, bateaux men, artificers, drivers, independent companies, and many 
other followers of the army who come under the head of no particular description, 
are to be permitted to return there ; they are to be conducted immediately by the 
shortest route to the first British post on Lake George, are to be supplied with pro- 
visions in the same manner as other troops, are to be bound by the same conditions 
of not serving during the present contest in North America. 

X. Passports to be immediately granted for three officers, not exceeding the rank 
of captain, who shall be appointed by Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne, to carry dispatbhes to 
Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton, and to Great Britain, by way of New York, 
and Major-Gen. Gates engages the public faith that these dispatches shall not be 
opened. These officers are to set out immediately after receiving their dispatches, 
and to travel the shortest route, and in the most expeditious manner. 

XI. During the stay of the troops in Massachusetts Bay, the officers are to be ad- 
mitted on parole, and are to be allowed to wear their side arms. 

XII. Should the army under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne find it necessary to send for 
their clothing and other baggage to Canada, they are to be permitted to do so in the 
most convenient manner, and the necessary passports granted for that purpose. 

XIII. These articles are to be mutually signed and exchanged to-morrow morning 
at nine o'clock, arid the troops under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne are to march out of their 
intrenchments at three o'clock in the afternoon. 

Signed, Horatio Gates, Major.-Gen. 

Signed, J, Burgoyne, Lieut.-Gen. 

Saratoga, Oct. 16, 1777. 



The Attack on the Ballston Settlement by Munroe and His Band of Tories and 
Indians— Capture of Col. James Gordon and Others and Their Imprisonment in 
Canada —Escape of the Captives and Their Return to Their Homes— The Invasion 
Under the Command of Joseph Bettys, the Notorious Renegade— His Valiant Serv- 
ices to the American Government — Piqued at Being Unrewarded for His Valor, He 
Turns Spy in the Service of the British— His Capture— Tried and Executed as a 
Spy — Major Mitchell's Peril — End of the War. 

For three years after the Burgoyne invasion Saratoga county enjoyed 
comparative peace, though the war continued through other parts of 
the colonies. General Gates had been given command of the Army of 
the South, though he had demonstrated little but incompetence. Corn- 
wallis had pressed a vigorous campaign in the South and had com- 
pletely subdued South Carolina. Georgia had already fallen into the 
hands of the enemy and North Carolina was aboat to be invaded. 
France had come to our rescue a little more than a year after the vic- 
tory at Saratoga, but still the patriots lost ground everywhere. The 
inhabitants of Saratoga county shared in the general gloom which 
enshrouded the nation. Then, while the whole country was expe- 
riencing the shock caused by the intelligence of the treachery of the 
gallant Arnold, who had done so much to save the day at Saratoga, the 
country suffered from the British raid known as the Northerfi Invasion 
of 1780. 

The British g'overnment intended to make this invasion one of con- 
siderable strength and importance, but the original plans failed to carry 
and the blow spent itself in an attack on settlements in the central part 
of the county — at Ballston. The British hoped, with the assistance of 
Canadian militia and a band of Canadian Indians, to subdue at least the 
northern part of the colony. They also believed that many disaffected 
persons residing in the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk could be in- 
duced to join the royal cause. Many of the men were in distant parts 
of the country engaged in warfare, and the opportunity for conquering 
the northern country seemed to be ripe. The Albany authorities had 
been put on their guard regarding this contemplated invasion early in 



the summer of 1780, but the details of the plan could not be learned. 
The summer months passed with nothing alarming except one or two 
small raids in the Mohawk valley, and it was confidently believed that, 
with the approach of winter, nothing would be done by the enemy in 
these latitudes. 

But the Americans reckoned falsely. Early in October, 1780, Major 
Carleton left Canada at the head of an expedition, entering New York 
by way of Lake Champlain. At Crown Point two hundred men were 
landed for the purpose of proceeding either to Schenectady or Ballston. 
The main body, about eight hundred men, was reserved to attack Fort 
Anne and Fort George. The first detafchment was in charge of Cap- 
tain Munroe, a Tory, who before the war had been a trader at Sche- 
nectady and had been more or less actively interested in the settlement 
of Saratoga county. It consisted of a few men from Sir John John- 
son's corps, a number of rangers (some of whom were refugees from 
the settlement at Ballston), and a party of Mohawk Indians headed by 
"Captain John," their chief. Munroe's orders were to proceed to- 
wards Schenectady and reconnoiter. If conditions were favorable, that 
village was to be attacked. If not the band should fall upon Ballston, 
plunder, burn and- take prisoners, but to kill no one unless attacked or 

Major Carleton's command moved rapidly to the attack of Foit Anne, 
which surrendered upon demand October 10. The British burned the 
fort and made the garrison prisoners. The next day the garrison at 
Fort George also capitulated after a short engagement, and this fort 
likewise was destroyed. During his brief stay in this vicinity Carleton 
sent out numerous marauding parties, who destroyed by fire all the 
property belonging to patriots they could find, principally in the west- 
ern part of Washington county, in Warren county and in the extreme 
eastern part of Saratoga county. About the middle of the month this 
expedition returned to Canada, having accomplished little except the 
destruction of property belonging to American farmers. 

But the detachment under the Tory, Munroe, met with more exciting 
times. They followed the old Indian trail, crossing the Sacandaga in 
the town of Hadley, passing through Corinth and Greenfield, and en- 
camped for several days in the northwestern part of the town of Milton. 
They remained hidden in the woods, nobody knowing of their presence 
except some Tories, who kept them supplied with provisions. Here 
learning through. scouts and Tories, that the small fort at Ballston had 


been garrisoned by two hundred militiamen from Schenectady, and 
that Schenectady, too, was well defended, they concluded to proceed 
no farther than the mansion of Colonel Gordon. ' 

The inhabitants of Ballston had been expecting an invasion of this 
character. During the early fall some of them even abandoned their 
homes at night and lodged in the woods, carrying with them many of 
their valuables. They had been frightened by the massacre at Cherry 
Valley two years before and the more recent ravages of the Mohawk 
valley; but as the autumn progressed and the long expected attack did . 
not come, their confidence in their security returned. Colonel Gordon 
had been serving as a member of the Assembly, and during September 
and October he had been at Kingston, then the capital of the State, 
attending a special session of the Legislature which had been convened 
by Governor Clinton. This session adjourned October 10 and he started 
for home, reaching Ballston October 13. Munroe was informed of his 
return and made preparations to capture him. 

On the evening of October 16 the invading band stopped at the resi- 
dence of James McDonald, which stood about a mile west of Court 
House hill. From that point McDonald, a Tory who hated the patriot 
Gordon, led the party through the woods to the rear of Gordon's home. 
Awakened by the crashing in of his windows, the gallant patriot sprang 
from his bed, in which his wife and young daughter lay, and partly 
dressing himself, entered the hall, where he was confronted by a num- 
ber of Indians. One of them aimed a terrific blow with a tomahawk, 
at Gordon's head, but a Tory officer caught the savage's arm in time to 
prevent the murder. The party then began to plunder the house, and 
several made an attempt to fire it, but were prevented from so doing 
by some of the officers. Colonel Gordon was made a prisoner, as were 
two of his servants, John Parlow and Jack Colbraith, and three negro 
slaves, Nero, Jacob and Ann. 

Just before the party reached the main road Isaac Stow, Colonel 
Gordon's miller, came running towards them shouting: "Colonel 
Gordon, save yourself ! The Indians!" But seeing his employer a cap- 
tive he turned to run, when he was killed and scalped by a savage. 

While one section of the invading party attacked Gordon's house, a 

* T^is mansion was located on the Middle Line road, on the estate now owned by George T. 
and Roland W. Smith, sons of the late Andrew Smith of Ballston Spa. The fort mentioned 
above was constructed of oak logs surrounded with picliets. It stood on the southwest corner 
of the square, a mile and a half froni Gordon's house, at tlje red meeting house, then in course of 


part of them crossed the Mourning Kill, which flowed near Gordon's 
home, and captured Captain Collins and his female slave. Manasseh 
Collins, son of the captain, succeeded in escaping through an upper 
window and ran to the fort and gave the alarm. Meanwhile, the 
enemy continued up the Middle Line road and captured Thomas Bar- 
num, John Davis, Elisha Benedict and his three sons, Caleb, Elias and 
Eelix Benedict; Dublin, Mr. Benedict's slave; Edward A. Watrous, 
Paul Pierson and his young son John, John Higby and his son Lewis, 
George Kennedy, Jabez Patchin, Josiah Hollister, Ebenezer Sprague 
and his sons, John and Elijah Sprague; Thomas Kennedy, Enoch 
Wood, and a man named Palmatier, living near Milton Centre. 

While the marauders were between the homes of John Higby and 
George Kennedy, in the town of Milton, about fifty of them in command 
of Lieutenant Frazer, a Tory who had resided near Burnt Hills, left 
the main party and attacked the residence of George Scott. The latter, 
awakened by his watchdog, armed himself with his musket and went 
to the door. Not obeying the command to throw down his gun, he was 
almost instantly prostrated by the blows from three tomahawks thrown 
at him at the same moment. Lieutenant Frazer and Sergeant Spring- 
steed, a refugee who had formerly been in Scott's employ, prevented 
the savages from scalping the prostrate patriot, though all believed 
him to be dying. The party left and joined the main body after pillag- 
ing the house, leaving Scott in a dying condition, as they believed.' 

About daylight the invaders and their captives crossed the Kayade- 
rosseras near Milton Centre and prepared for the march to Canada. 
Munroe, the Tory commander, informed his little army that they prob- 
ably would be pursued, and gave orders that, should any sign of pursuit 
be discovered, every prisoner must be killed.' But there was no pur- 

1 George Scott miraculously recovered, lived for some years after this, and died May 21, 1782, 
aged sixty years. His children were thenceforward brought up and educated by the Gordon 

2 Munroe was subsequently dismissed from the British service in disgrace for having given 
such an inhuman order. His property had already been confiscated by the American govern- 
ment, so that he was left without property and with a stain upon his name from which he never 

The first man in front of Gordon was a British regular, a German, who was next behind Cap- 
tain Collins and had charge of him. Gordon's captor was a ferocious savage. Gordon afterward 
related that he heard the soldier say to Captain Collins : " I have been through the late war in 
Europe, and through many battles, but I never before have heard such a bloody order as this. I 
can kill in the heat of battle, but not in cold blood. You need not fear me for I will not obey the 
order. But the Indian in charge of Gordon is thirsting for his blood, and the moment a gun is 
fired Gordon is a dead man." The prisoners expected that the troops from the fort would over- 
take them and fire upon the party, and that every captive would be killed. 


suit. That night the party encamped about two miles north of Lake 
Desolation, where Munroe released Ebenezer Sprague, Paul fierson 
and his son John, and George Kennedy. 

In the mean time Gordon had succeeded in sending back a private 
message advising the forces at the fort of Munroe's inhuman order and 
requesting that no attempt at rescue be made. Captain Stephen Ball, 
at the head of the militia at the fort, had already started out to effect 
the release of the prisoners ; but fortunately Gordon's messenger met 
the former in the town of Milton and the relief expedition returned to 
the fort. The retreating Tory and Indian force continued the march 
northward with their captives. Arriving at Bulwagga bay October 2i, 
they joined Carleton's division of the army and proceeded down Lake 
Champlain to St. John's, and thence to Montreal. Arriying in that 
city the patriots were imprisoned in the RecoUet convent, but were 
soon afterward transferred to a jail. After remaining in Montreal until 
spring Colonel Gordon was removed to Quebec, where he was kept in 
prison for two years. He was afterward transferred to the Isle of Or- 
leans, but subsequently was ransomed for ;^3,000 by his friend James 
Ellice, a member of the trading firm of Phynn & Ellice of Schenectady, 
with whom Gordon had had large commercial transactions. 

Another brief account of this thrilling incident follows:' 

In October of this year ['1779], the enemy, about two hundred strong, under Major 
Monroe, consisting of British regulars, tories and Indians, entered the Ballston 
settlement. An invasion had been anticipated, and two hundred Schenectada 
militia were sent to aid in protecting the settlement. A church, called afterwards 
the red meeting-house, was being erected at the time, and opposite and near it, a 
dwelling owned by a Mr. Weed was inclosed in pickets, at which place the Sche- 
nectada troops were stationed. About the same time, the Ballston militia, thinking 
the troops sent to aid them were not sufficiently courageous, erected a small defence 
on Pearson's Hill, afterwards called Court House Hill, nearly two miles in advance 
of the stockade named, and where the invaders were expected to enter. The little 
fortress on the hill was guarded several nights, but as the enemy did not appear it 
was abandoned. 

The second night (Sunday night) after the Ballston troops dispersed, the enemy 
broke into the settlement. They made their first appearance at Gordon's Mills, sit- 
uated on a stream called the Morning kill, entering the public road at the foot of the 
hill noticed. Col. James Gordon, who commanded the Ballston militia, and Capt. 
Collins, an active partisan officer, living near him, were both surprised at their 
dwellings, and borne into captivity, with nearly thirty of their neighbors. On the 

'This account is taken from the "History of Schoharie County, and Border Wars of New 
Yori," by Jeptha R. Simms, published in 1845. This author gives 1779 as the year in which this 
invasion took place. 


arrival of the enemy at the house of Capt. Colhbs, Mann Collins, his son, escaped 
from it, and gave the alarm to John and Stephen Ball, his brothers-in-law. The 
latter mounted a horse, and rode to the house of Maj. Andrew Mitchell (Major 
under Col. Gordon) who, with his family, fled into the fields, and escaped. The 
Balls also communicated intelligence of the enemy's proximity to the Schenectada 
troops at the Fort. 

At Gordon's Mills, one Stowe, his miller, was captured on the arrival of Monroe's 
party, and, for some reason, soon after liberated. Feeling himself obligated to Col. 
Gordon, he thought it his duty to inform him of his danger, and afford him a chance 
of escape. Crossing a field with that laudable intent, he met an Indian, who, seeing 
a fugitive, as he supposed, attempting to escape, thrust a spontoon through his body, 
and instantly killed him. 

Great numbers of cattle and hogs were driven away at this time, or killed; several 
dwellings and out-buildings burned, and the -yyhole settlementgreatly alarmed by the 
invaders, who proceeded directly back to Canada by the- eastern route. Among the 
dwellings burned were those of one Walters, one Pearson, several Spragues and 
several Patchins. Two dwellings, a little north of the present residence of Judge 
Thompson, owned at the time by Kennedys, escaped the torch, as they had a friend 
among the invaders. 

The troops assembled in the neighborhood were on their trail by daylight on Mon- 
day morning, and followed some distance ; but meeting a liberated captive, who bore 
a message from Col. Gordon advising the Americans to abandon the pursuit, it was 
given over. Why the message was sent, I am not informed, but presume he either 
thought the enemy too strong to warrant it, or the prisoners in danger of assassina- 
tion if a hasty retreat was necessary. Col. Gordon was an Irishman by birth, and 
a firm patriot. He was confined in a Canadian prison for several years, and was one 
of a party of six or eight prisoners, who effected their escape in the latter part of the 
war, and after much suffering succeeded in reaching home. Henry and Christian 
Banta, Epenetus White, an ensign of militia, and several others, neighbors of Col. 
G., and captured subsequently, also escaped with him. Procuring a boat, the fugi- 
tives crossed the St. Lawrence, and from its southern shore directed their steps 
through the forest, coming out at Passamaquoddy Bay, in Maine, where they found 
friends. Before reaching a dwelling the party were all in a starving condition, and 
Col. Gordon gave out, and was left, at his request, by his friends, who proceeded to 
a settlement, obtained assistance, returned, and bore him in a state of entire help- 
lessness to a place of safety, where he recovered. 

While the party were journeying they agreed that if either of them obtained any- 
thing to eat, he should be permitted to enjoy or distribute it as he chose. In the 
forest, to which the trapper had not been a stranger, one of the number found a 
steel trap, in which an otter had been caught, and suffered to remain. It was mostly 
in a state of decomposition. The leg in the trap was whole, however, and a sight of 
that. Col. Gordon afterwards assured his friends, looked more inviting to him than 
the most savory dish he had ever beheld; but pinching hunger did not compel a vio- 
lation of their agreement— his mouth watered in vain, and the finder ate his dainty 
morsel undisturbed. When the fugitives arrived at the house, and asked for bread, 
the woman told them she had not seen a morsel in three years. After crossing the 
St. Lawrence, two Indians accompanied them as guides, but under some pretext 


left, and finally abandoned them. The party, after suffering almost incredible hard- 
ships, all reached their homes in Ballston to the great joy of the friends. 

After the exciting scenes attending the invasion of October, 1780, 
the inhabitants of the county were left in comparative peace, though 
always more or less on guard, until late in the spring of 1781. At that 
time several of them suffered by reason of the raid made, under the 
leadership of Joseph Bettys, by about thirty refugees. Bettys was the 
son of respectable parents residing in the southern part of the Ballston 
district. For several years prior to and during the Revolution his 
father, Joseph Bettys, kept a tavern below the farm now owned and 
occupied by Captain Guy Ellis Baker. ' For years the name of "Joe 
Bettys " was a source of terror to the inhabitants of the southern part 
of the county. 

Joe Bettys was a young man of unusual intelligence, brave and ath- 
letic. Knowing him to be possessed of these traits. Colonel John Ball, 
a son of Rev. Eliphalet Ball, who then was a lieutenant in the regiment 
commanded by Col. Wynkoop, enlisted the daring young fellow as a 
sergeant in his company. Unfortunately, however, Bettys was soon 
reduced to the ranks because of having been insolent to an officer who, 
he claimed, offered him insult. Fearful that he might cause trouble. 
Lieutenant Ball procured for him a sergeantcy in the Lake Champlain 
fleet commanded by General Arnold. This was in 1776. In the fight 
which occurred the next year between the British and American fleets 
on Lake Champlain he distinguished himself, and had his services then 
rendered been properly recognized by the government, he probably 
never would have turned traitor. After fighting desperately until every 
commissioned officer on board his vessel was killed or wounded, he 
assumed command himself, and continued to fight with such courage 
and recklessness that General Waterbury, who was second in command 
under Arnold, was obliged to order Bettys and the remainder of his 
crew on board his own vessel, that in the command of Bettys being 
about to sink. Soon afterward, the American fleet having become 
almost annihilated, it was surrendered, the prisoners afterward being 
paroled. General Waterbury subsequently said that he never saw a 
man behave with such bravery and absolute recklessness as did Bettys 
during this fight, and that his great courage was no greater than the 
shrewdness of his management. 

' This farm is commonly known as the Delavan farm. It lies on the west side o£ the Middle 
Line road, south of Ballston Centre. 


Unfortunately the American government did not show its appreci- 
ation of Bettys's valorous conduct by the promotion which he coveted, 
and his proud spirit and uncontrollable temper led him to forsake the 
patriot cause. Going to Canada he offered his services to the Loyal- 
ists, received a commission as ensign in the British army and at once 
set out upon his self-imposed career as a spy upon the movements of 
his former neighbors and friends. In May, 1781, at the head of about 
thirty refugees, he made his famous raid into the Ballston district 
and captured Consider Chard, Uri Tracy, Ephraim Tracy, Samuel 
Nash and Samuel Patchin. At the same time Epenetus White, Cap- 
tain Rumsey, Henry Banta, Christian Banta and several others were 
captured on the east side of Long lake by a Tory subalterij named 
Waltermeyer. All were carried in captivity to Canada except Samuel 
Nash, who contrived to escape near Lake Desolation. 

When Col. James Gordon was removed to the Isle of Orleans a year 
later, he found here several other Ballston prisoners, among whom were 
Epenetus White, John Higby, Enoch Wood, the two Banta brothers, 
Uri and Ephraim Tracy, Edward A. Watrous, John Davis and three or 
four others. They finally escaped, in 1783, as has been described, and 
returned to Ballston after indescribable sufferings. 

Meantime, soon after his first vindictive attacks upon his old friends 
at the Ballston settlement, Joe Bettys was captured in the Hudson val- 
ley, tried by court martial and sentenced to be hung as a spy at West 
Point. Washington was induced to pardon him, by the entreaties of 
Bettys's aged parents and several influential Whigs, and the young dare- 
devil was allowed to depart with a severe admonition. But his too 
confiding friends soon had reason to repent having asked for executive 
clemency, for Bettys was as bitter towards them as ever — even more 
so. After his narrow escape from the gallows he defiantly set at work 
recruiting soldiers for the British army right in the heart of the scenes 
of his early depredations, planned and personally headed several raids 
from the north, and on every possible occasion continued to act as a 
spy for the king. Attempt after attempt to capture him was made, 
but he succeeded in eluding his pursuers, even when they felt sure they 
had him surrounded within a short distance of his old home. 

His capture was not effected until early in March, 1782, when he was 
discovered about a mile west of the present site of Jonesville near the 
home of one Fillmore, a lieutenant in- the militia, who was making 
maple sugar in the woods near by. Fillmore and two of his neighbors, 


Perkins and Carey, captured the notorious spy and renegade while he 
was eating his breakfast in the house of a widow named Hawkins. His 
rifle lay beside him, but before he could defend himself he was securely 
tied. Expressing a desire to smoke, his captors partially unbound him, 
when he went to the fireplace and, taking a small packet from his to- 
bacco box, threw it upon the live coals. Discovering this act Carey 
pulled the packet from the fire. Examination showed it to be a small, 
flat metallic box containing a paper which proved to be a cipher dis- 
patch to the commander of the British forces in New York. The box 
also contained an order on the mayor of New York for ;^30 sterling, to 
be paid Bettys iipon the safe delivery of the dispatch. The prisoner 
begged his custodians to allow him to burn these papers, offering them 
one hundred guineas if they would allow him to do so, but they refused. 
He then exclaimed in despair: "Then I am a dead man! " 

Bettys was at once taken to Albany and turned over to the military 
authorities as a prisoner of war. There he was tried by a court mar- 
tial, convicted of being a spy and hanged. With his capture and death 
the inhabitants of Saratoga county ceased to suffer from the depreda- 
tions of bands of invaders, and peace reigned ever afterward within the 
borders of the county.' 

An account of this notorious renegade and spy is contained in Jeptha 
R. Simms's "History of Schoharie County, and Border Wars of New 
York," published in 1845. It contains some inaccuracies, principally 
as to dates, which have been remedied by subsequent research on the 
part of descendants of the Gordon and Scott families, but as a whole 
it is a fairly reliable story of the doings of this terror of Revolutionary 
days. Simms says : 

In the fall of 1780, a small party of the enemy, a dozen or more in number, entered 
the Ballston settlement, under the direction of Joseph Bettys, a subaltern officer in 
the British service, known in the border difficulties by the familiar name of Jo. Bettys. 
He resided in the Ballston settlement previous to the war, and when the contest be- 
gan, took up arms for the States, but afterwards entered the British service, proving 
to his former neighbors a source of frequent terror. 

Major Andrew Mitchell, of Ballston, having visited Schenectada on business, there 
learned, possibly through the Oneida runners, thata small detachment, mostly tories, 
had left Canada, the destination of which was unknown. In the afternoon, Mitchell 
set out for home on horseback, accompanied by one Armstrong, a neighbor. After 
proceeding several miles, and arriving on the north side of Allplass cre^k, the thought 

* This account is taken largely from the centennial address of Judge George Gordon Scott 
delivered at Ballston Spa, July 4, 1876. 


occurred to him, that possibly he njight not be free from danger, as a liberal reward 
was paid for the persons or scalps of officers. He was riding through the woods at 
the time, and scarcely had the thought visited his mind, which caused him to quicken 
the speed of his horse, when he was hailed in a commanding voice to stop, by a man 
who sprang upon a fallen tree near the road. The Major put spurs to his gallant 
steed and was soon out of sight of the highwayman, who fired at him as he passed. 
Armstrong could not keep up with his companion, but as his person was not sought 
for, he escaped unmolested. 

Before the Revolution, Jo. Bettys and Jonathan Miller,. another celebrated tory, 
dwelt, one on each side of Maj. Mitchell. After the transaction occurred which is 
noticed above, it was satisfactorily ascertained that the man who fired on the major, 
was his old neighbor Miller ; who had accompanied Bettys in his expedition, and then 
had at his beck some half a dozen genial spirits. The ground being sandy, the 
horse's hoofs made but little noise, and the militia officer was not observed until 
opposite the party, secreted on both sides of the road expressly to capture him. 

An enterprise of Bettys in the Ballston settlement, within a few days of the affair 
relate^, proved mor^ successful. He surprised and captured Aaron Banta, and his 
sons, Henry and Christian, Ensign Epenetus White, and some half a dozen others. 
The elder Banta was left on parole, and the rest of the prisoners, who were among 
the best citizens in the vicinity, hurried off to Canada. 

Mr. Simms also gives the following account of the occurrences im- 
mediately succeeding the capture of Bettys: 

When the arrest of Bettys became known in the Ballston settlement, Maj. Mitchell 
enjoined secrecy in the affair, rightly conjecturing that he had not traversed the 
northern forests of New York alone. A Mrs. Camp or Van Camp, a widow living 
in the neighborhood, had a son in the British service, who it was thought, might 
possibly have accompanied Bettys. The arrest of the latter having been kept close 
during the day, Kenathy Gordon, a sergeant, was entrusted by Maj. Mitchell with 
the search to be made the same night. Attended by John Sweatman and several 
other fearless neighbors, properly armed, young Gordon gained access to the house 
of Mrs. Camp after bed time, and enquired for her son. She declared ber ignorance 
of his whereabouts, pretended to be highly incensed at having armed men enter her 
dwelling and disturb the family at midnight, and still more on being suspected of 
harboring an enemy. 

This woman talked very patriotic, but the warmth she manifested satisfied the 
sergeant, who was a resolute fellow, that her son was in the house; and he went to 
the fireplace, seized a blazing brand and started up stairs. Young Camp and Jona- 
than Miller had accompanied Bettys to the neighborhood, and were then in an upper 
room. Hearing the noise below they sprang out of bed, seized their guns and 
leveled them. At the click of their locks, Gordon jumped down stairs, and swore if 
they did not descend and surrender themselves prisoners in less than five minutes, 
he would smoke them out. Believing he would execute his threat and burn the 
house, they concealed some money under a rafter, and then came down and submit- 
ted to Gordon's authority, who conducted them to the dwelling of Maj. Mitchell 
where they were secured until morning. The prisoners had not the least suspicion 


that Bettys had been arrested, until after they were. On his way to the major's 
dwelling, Miller was heard to say he would rather be shot than to enter it. Obadiah 
Miller, a brother living in the vicinity, was sent for in the morning, and unexpect- 
edly ushered into the presence of his tory kinsman, whose visit to the neighborhood 
was unknown to him. His surprise was evidently irksome, and he trembled like a 
leaf. It leaked out in the sequel, that the two Millers were togtether in the woods 
when the attempt was made the fall before to capture the major, which he possibly 
suspected. The two prisoners were taken to Albany, from whence they were liber- 
ated, or effected an escape. 


Condition of the Pioneers at the Close of the Revolutionary War — Many Homes 
Devastated, and Many Families Bereft of Their Means of Support — Slow Progress 
of Civilization in the County During the War — Development of the Various Com- 
munities from the War Period to the Close of the Eighteenth Century — The March 
of Civilization Northward Along the Valley of the Hudson — Some of the Early In- 
habitants of the Various Towns, and Their Share in the Development and Pros- 
perity of the County. ' 

With the peace of 1783 and the acknowledgment of the independence 
of the United States of America came a feeling of absolute security to 
the inhabitants of Saratoga county, in common with the rest of the 
country. But even before the close of the war of the Revolution com- 
parative peace reigned within the borders of the county, excepting an 
occasional slight menace from the Indians. 

The inhabitants of the county were in a sad condition at the close of 
the war, however. Hundreds of them had been massacred or ta)cen 
prisoners by the British or their Indian allies, scores of the best farm 
houses had been pillaged and destroyed by the torch, the ripening 
crops seldom had been allowed to come to full maturity and evidences 
of great poverty were noticeable everywhere. Many families had been 
bereft of those members upon whom they depended for support — the 
fathers and older sons; and those who were not in mourning were suf- 
fering by reason of the absence of the greatly needed onep on distant 
fields of battle or as prisoners of war. Few, if any, settlements had 
been made in the county; but with the cessation of hostilities the 
fathers and sons whose lives had been preserved returned to their 
homes, and strangers soon followed them to seek homes in a region of 


country which was becoming famed for its fine farming lands, its salu- 
brious climate, its healthful mineral springs, and finally, its nearness 
to markets for their produce and the headwaters of navigation on the 

We have traced, as far as the existing records enable us to do so, the 
settlement of the county prior to the beginning of the Revolutionary 
war. It will now be our endeavor to note the progress of civilization 
in the county during and from the close of the great conflict up .to the 
close of the eighteenth century. It is manifestly impossible to give the 
the names of all the settlers during that period of seventeen years, but 
the development of the various communities in the county will be fol- 
lowed as closely as practicable for a book of record of this character. 


Perhaps in no other section of the county was the increase of popula- 
tion and the general industrial development more marked than in the 
town of Waterford. The site of the village, occupying the southeast- 
ern quarter of the town, was purchased in 1784 by Col. Jacobus Van 

Schoonhoven, Middlebrook, Judge White, Ezra Hickok and several 

others, principally persons who had migrated there from Connecticut. 
Then began the modern' settlement of the community, which had 
almost stood still for a century by reason of the selfish stand taken by 
the earliest Dutch property owners. Immediately after the purchase 
of this property by the persons named above, the survey of the new 
village was made and trade with the settlers in the county near by be- 
gan to increase at a gratifying rate. By reason of its geographical sit- 
uation, and the broad mindedness and enterprise of its founders, the 
new village seemed destined to become one of considerable commercial 
importance. Its fame began to spread and merchants, produce buy- 
ers and other classes of business men began to locate in the place. 

Among the early merchants of Waterford was the firm of Moses and 
Ira Scott, merchants and dealers in grain, who subsequently added a 
tavern to their establishment. They were in business as early as 1786, 
possibly a little before that time. Their place of business was near the 
extreme southeastern part of the town. Almost two miles above, on 
the banks of the Hudson about a mile above the Waterford junction of 
the two branches of the Delaware & Hudson railroad, Anthony Levar- 
sie, or Levisie, kept an inn as early as 1788. The old ferry, estab- 
lished more than a century earlier, was located a few rods above his 

WATERFORD, 1783-1800. 77 

place, and its presence doubtless was a potent factor in inducing him to 
locate where he did. At this point in those days there was consider- 
able traffic between the inhabitants on the east and on the west side of 
the Hudson. The site was selected, many years afterward, as the 
place where the old Albany, Vermont & Northern Railway should cross 
the river. About the same time the tavern of one of the Vandenburghs 
stood two miles further up the river, on the road to Stillwater. Hez- 
ekiah Ketchum had a grain and produce store in the town in the same 
year, 1788, and Jacobus Ostrander kept an inn at the same time. Both 
may have been located there earlier than 1788, but the records do not 
give any information on the point. 

Professional men were not wanting, either, in this early day. In the 
year of which we are writing Daniel Van Alstyne practiced law in 
Waterford, and in the same j'ear served as pathmaster. James Dugan 
kept a school and at the same time served the town as constable and 

Richard Davis was an early merchant. The date of his settlement is 
unknown. Aurie Banta was a carpenter, and constructed many of the 
early residences in Waterford village. Aaron Comstock was a farmer 
two miles north of the village as early as 1787. William Waldron re- 
sided on the river road north of the village. His descendants became 
prominent in the town, a great-grandson having held the office of sur- 
rogate for twenty one years. John Clark came here before 1790. 
Isaac Keeler was a merchant on Second street about 1790. About 
1794 John Pettit had a cabinet shop and Duncan Oliphant a tannery. 
Samuel J. Hazard had a store before 1796, in the village. During the 
last decade of the century John Van Dekar, James Scott and Benjamin 
Mix kept taverns in town. That of Mr. Mix was located on Quality 
Hill, between Waterford and Middletown. 

In 1795 the first bridge across the Mohawk was erected a short dis- 
tance above Waterford. It was nine hundred feet long, twenty four 
feet wide and fifteen feet above the bed of the river and rested on thir- 
teen stone piers. Its cost was about $12,000, and it was considered a 
great achievement for that day. It formed the connecting link between 
the two divisions north and south of the Mohawk of the great highway 
running from Albany on the south to Ballston, Stillwater and Saratoga 
on the north. 

We have no account of the eighteenth century schools of Waterford, 
though it is certain that at least one schoolmaster— James Dugan — 


lived there as early as and unquestionably prior to 1788. But a relig- 
ious society — the old Dutch Reformed church, now extinct — existed 
there during the days of the Revolution. When the society was organ- 
ized is not known ; but before the close of the Revolution, probably in 
1782 or 1783, a church edifice stood a mile and a half north of the vil- 
lage. This was taken down and rebuilt in 1799 at the corner of Middle 
and Third streets in Waterf ord village. ' Whether the first edifice re- 
ferred to was the first in the town cannot be learned. As adherents of 
the Dutch Reformed faith lived in this vicinity at least a century before 
the Revolution, it is not improbable that a church existed in the town 
many years before the erection of the first of which we have definite 

There is in existence no record of any manufacturing establishments 
in Waterford before 1800, excepting such as the tannery, the cabinet 
shop, etc., mentioned. 


The fame of the mineral springs of Ballston Spa having spread 
throughout the land, and that place being comparatively easy of access, 
with a genial climate and more than ordinary hotel accommodations 
for the time, its development after the country began to resume its 
normal condition was quite satisfaictory. Coincident therewith came 
the population of the towns of Ballston and Milton, in each of which 
a part of the village of Ballston Spa is located. In another chapter it 
has been found convenient to refer somewhat in detail to the settlement 
of the little community in the vicinity of the public spring — the erec- 
tion of inns by Benajah Douglas, in 1787, and Micajah Benedict im- 
mediately thereafter. In 1792 Nicholas Low also built a commodious 
public house adjoining the lot occupied by Douglas just east of the 
spring. Mr. Low was born in New Brunswick, N. J., March 30, 1739, 
and for many years was a leading merchant of New York city. His 
wife was a widow named Alice Fleming, and she bore him three chil- 
dren, two sons and a daughter. The latter married Charles King, for 
m^ny years president of Columbia College. Mr. Low espoused the 
patriot cause in the Revolutionary war, and contributed largely to its 
success by gifts of money. He died in New York city December 
26, 1826. 

1 This church yvas torn down and the lot on which it stood sold in 1876, the church society- 
having ceased to exist. 

BALLSTON AND MILTON, 1783-1800. 79 

About 1792 Salmon Tryon began to build a house on the hill south 
of the spring, near the present residence of Mrs. Samuel Smith, on the 
corner of West High street and Ballston avenue. Later he added a 
general store at the same location. He was the first merchant of Balls- 
ton Spa of whom anything definite can be learned. In 1795 Mr. Low 
sold his house and farm to Joseph Westcot, who was its proprietor until 
his death. The property of Mr. Douglas ultimately came into the 
possession of Joseph Westcot and Reuben Hewitt. It consisted of one 
hundred acres, and the house stood^onTthe site now occupied by the 
residence of William S. Waterbury. It cost the purchasers $8,000. 
Mr. Westcot was the grandfather of Joseph E. and the late John H. 
Westcot, and great-grandfather of Herbert C. Westcot of Ballston Spa. 
Upon the death of the elder Westcot, his widow married Joshua B. 
Aldridge, and the homestead, for many years thereafter a boarding- 
house, was known as the Aldridge house. In the possession of Herbert 
C. Westcot are several commissions to Reuben Hewitt, as sergeant, 
sergeant-major, second lieutenant and first lieutenant in the Continental 
Army, bearing the signatures of such famous men as John Hancock, 
then president of Congress; Eleazer Fitch and Jonathan Trumbull, 
governors of Connecticut. 

Just before the close of the century, probably about 1798 or 1799, a 
school was started in Ballston Spa. It was located on the site of the 
east side of the present cemetery on Ballston avenue. Who the early 
teachers were is not known. But even before that time religious ser- 
vice had been held in the village. In the spring of 1791 Ammi Rogers 
of Bradford, Conn., a lay reader who conducted services under the 
supervision of Rev. Mr. Ellison of Albany, held regular services alter- 
nately in St. George's church at Schenectady and in private residences 
in Ballston Spa. Christ Episcopal church ' already had been organized 
in 1787, but it was then located at Ballston Centre. The first society 

> This is the oldest Protestant Episcopal church in Saratoga county. Those who organized 
it in 1787 were Thomas Smith, Ezekiel Horton, James Emott, Edmund Jennings, James Mann, 
Elisha Miller, Salmon Tryon and forty-two others. Ammi Rogers became its first pastor. In 1792 
the first church edifice was erected a short distance south o£ Ballston Centre. The first -vestry 
was composed of Joseph Bettys, Elisha Benedict, wardens; Thaddeus Betts, John Wright, Joshua 
Bloore, Jabei Davis, Richard Warren and James Emott, vestrymen. Rev. Mr. Rogers was or- 
dained deacon by Bishop Provost in Trinity church. New York, June 4, 1792, and advanced to the 
priesthood October 19, 1794. He continued as rector of Christ church until 1807, when he was suc- 
ceeded in turn by Rev. Mr. Van Horn and Rev. Gamaliel Thacher, who died while rector. By 
1810 the growth of population in Ballston Spa had been such that a parish named St. Paul's had 
been organized there, with Rev. Joseph Perry as rector. Upon Rev. Mr. Thacher's death Mr. 
Perry began to conduct services in both churches. In 1817 the church at Ballston Centre was 


in Ballston Spa was not founded until 1810. The Baptist church' of 
this village was organized in 1791, the year which witnessed the hold- 
ing of the first Episcopal services in the county. 

Masonry obtained a firm foothold in the village before the close of 
the century. In 1794 a number of members of the Masonic frater- 
nity who had settled in Ballston Spa and vicinity met at Ballston 
Centre for the purpose of organizing themselves into a lodge. May 
16, 1794, the Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of the State of New York 

abandoned and the two congregations united for worship at Ballston Spa, St. Paul's being changed 
in name to that of the original society— Christ church. Its first vestry under the reorganization 
consisted of Joshua B. Aldridge and James Mann, wardens; Epenetus White, jr., Thomas Palmer, 
Samuel Smith, Thomas Smith, Eli Barnum and Daniel Starr, vestrymen. The church edifice at 
the Centre was taken down in this year, removed to the village and reconstructed on a lot ad- 
joining the old county clerk's office on Front street, about three hundred and fifty feet west of 
and opposite to the public spring. It was reopened by services conducted by Rev. Benjamin T. 
Onderdonk, subsequently bishop of New York. Rev. Joseph Perry was succeeded as rector by 
Rev. William A. Clark. In 1824 Rev. Deodatus Babcock became rector, serving as such for twenty- 
two years. The rectors since that time have been; George J. Geer, Robert G. Rogers, Charles 
Arey, George W. Dean, George Worthington, Joseph Gary, Walter Delafield; April 1, 1884, to the 
present time, Rev. Dr. Charles Pelletreau. With the exception of Dr. Babcock's, Dr. Pelle- 
treau's rectorship has been the longest in the history of the parish. In 1860, during the rector- 
ship of Mr. Dean, the cornerstone of the present handsome edifice was laid, and the church was 
dedicated in March, 1863. Its cost was about $11,000. Since that year thousands of dollars have 
been expended in repairing and beautifying the edifice, until to-day it has one of the most attract- 
ive interiors in the country. During the rectorship of Rev. Dr. Pelletreau handsome memorial 
windows have been put in, the chancel has been completely refurnished, at considerable expense, 
and other improvements of a rich and substantial nature have been effected. About 1875 the 
church purchased from the State the old armory building nearly opposite the church, which it 
remodeled and has since used as a parish house. Extensive alterations were made in 1876 under 
the direction of Dr. Pelletreau. The work was completed in time for the reopening of the church 
on Christmas day of that year. 

1 The Baptist congregation first met in a school house situated just south of the village. Here 
services were held until 1803, when a church was built, during the third year of the pastorate of 
Rev. Elias Lee, on a part of the ground now occupied by the eastern part of the Protestant ceme- 
tery on Ballston avenue. Mr. Lee was the first regular pastor of the church, assuming charge in 
1800. Prior to that time services were conducted by various ministers, including Rev. Mr. Lang- 
worthy and Rev. Mr. Mudge of Saratoga Springs. The society numbered ninety-four members 
in 1800. Mr. Lee's pastorate continued for a period of thirty years, or until his death. He was a 
man greatly beloved, not only by the members o£ his congregation, but by the inhabitants of 
Ballston Spa and vicinity, regardless of the religious proclivities or lack of the same. In 1830, 
owing to the more general settlement of that part of the village north of High street, the original 
edifice was moved to a point on Science street, near the line of the i)resent railroad. In 1837 the 
new church, which still stands on Milton avenue at the head of Front street, and which was 
abandoned as a place of worship in 1896, was completed at a cost of $8,000. It was constructed of 
stone and was an imposing edifice for that day. A very handsome new stone edifice was erected 
on Milton avenue in 1896, at a cost of about $.35,000 duringthe pastorate of Rev. Gove Griffith John- 
son. The church was known as the Second Baptist Church of Milton until 1802, when it was in- 
corporated as the First Baptist Church of Ballston Spa. Since the pastorate of Rev. Elias Lee, 
the following have served in that capacity : William E. Waterbury, S. S. Parr, Charles B. Keyes, 
Norman Fox, Orrin Dodge, Joseph Freeman, L. Y. Hayhurst, E. S. Widdemer, William Groom, 
William O. Halman, P. Franklin Jones, George W. Clark, E. H. Johnson, Robert T. Jones, 1875- 
1879 ; William T. C. Hanna, 1880-1890 ; William T. Dorward, 1890-1894 ; Gove Griffith Johnson, 

BALLSTON AND MILTON, 1783-1800. 81 

granted a charter to the new lodge, which was named Franklin Lodge 
No. 37.' 

The public spring" was by no means the only magnet which attracted 
visitors to this famous resort in the early days. At least three other 
springs whose waters possessed a distinct medicinal value were in ex- 
istence. One was on the west side of Bath street, at the foot of the 
hill. One, called the Jack spring, was located on the opposite side of 
the street, and flows to waste to this day. Another was located in 
what is now. the rear yard of the Hotel Medbery. These three had a 
somewhat similar taste, and all differed greatly from the public spring. 
Travel to them increased year by year, additional boarding houses and 
hotels were erected for the accommodation of visitors, stores were 
established and permanent residences built, so that at the opening of 
the present century the village was a hustling little community, with 
evidences of thrift and enterprise on all sides, bidding fair to become 
one of the most popular and celebrated summer resorts on the Ameri- 
can continent. 

The village of Ballston Spa, having been located partly in Ballston 
and partly in Milton, those two towns naturally shared in the pros- 
perity attending the early days of this once famous resort. The agri- 
cultural community was greatly benefited by the near-by market, now 
increasing in importance so rapidly, and its fame spreading, settlers 
continued to flock to the adjoining country, improve the land and take 
their products to the markets at the now thriving village. 

Among those who located in the town of Ballston while the war was 
in progress was Samuel Wood, who came about 1780 and built a home 
on the east side of Ballston lake. Thomas Weed was also an early set- 
tler, Peter Williams built a small tannery at the close of the war, and 
in connection therewith operated a shoe shop on the banks of the 
Mourning Kill near-by. John, Azor, Samuel and Eliakim Nash and 
David Clark were also here about the same time, but little is known of 
them. Miles Beach came from Connecticut in 1786 in company with 
his father, Zerah Beach. The former was married in 1807 to Cynthia 
Warren. William A. Beach, the famous lawyer, was their second son. 
Asa Waterman, and his son, Asa Waterman, jr., came to Ballston 

1 This lodge met for several years at Ballston Centre. In 1834 the warrant was forfeited and 
declared to be not legally capable of being revived. 

" This spring, called the " iron spring," is located at the west end of Front street, on the north 
side of the street, and its waters are free to all. 


about 1790 and lived at Ballston Centre, opposite the Presbyterian 
church. Later they removed to the old Larkin farm. The father 
fought in the Revolutionary war and was present at Burgoyne's sur- 
render. In 1786, while residing in Montgomery county, Governor 
Clinton commissioned him a lieutenant colonel in the -State militia. 
Seth C. Baldwin located on the well-known Colonel Young farm before 
1793, for in that year he had become well enough known to be chosen 
supervisor of his town. In 1797 he was elected to the Assembly; in 
1800 and 1801 he was again elected supervisor, and in the. latter year 
was appointed sheriff of the county. After serving in that capacity 
three years he was elected county clerk, his oflfice, in the absence of a 
county office, being located in his residence. Edward A. Watrous was 
another prominent man of this period, he having served as supervisor 
duHng the years 1794, 1795 and 1796. Jabez Davis was supervisor in 
1797 and Henry Walton in 1798. Among others who were prominent 
during the latter days of the century were Caleb Benedict, Lloyd 
Wakeman, Robert Leonard, Gideon Luther, Thaddeus Patchen, Amos 
Larkin and Bushnell Benedict. 

Until 1796 the county had no fixed place for the transaction of its 
official business. In that year the first court house was erected on the 
site on the Middle Line road which even to this day is known as Court 
House Hill. This continued to be the counfy seat until March, 1816, 
when both the court house and the jail adjoining were burned. 

One of the first to come to Milton after the close of the Revolution 
was Sanborn Ford, who formerly resided in Sand Lake, Rensselaer 
county. He had served throughout the war, first as musician, then in 
the infantry and finally in the cavalry. He was at Bunker Hill and 
also at the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, having witnessed the begin- 
ning and ending of the great conflict. For many years after coming 
to Milton he kept a public house. He had a family of four sons and 
four daughters. His homestead was located at what was known for 
many years as Spear's Corners, and in earlier days as Whalen's Cor- 
ners. The latter name was given to the community in honor of Abel 
Whalen, a former resident of Sand Lake, who located there about the 
same time as Ford. He had two sons, Abel and Ezekiel. John Lee, 
from Connecticut, migrated to Milton in 1793 and settled a short dis- 
tance west of Rock City Falls. His children were Joel, Elias, Noah, 
Ruth and Abigail. Joel Lee removed to Ballston Spa, and served as 
postmaster there for half a century. He was appointed to the office by 

BALLSTON AND MILTON, 1783-1800. 83 

Gideon Granger, postmaster-general. His son, Ellas W. Lee, was for 
many years a merchant in that village, and another son, John J. Lee, 
was an officer of the Ballston Spa bank for nearly forty years. Joseph 
Shearer located near West Milton, perhaps before the Revolution. 
That he was here during the early days of the war is certain, as a stone 
in the old family burial ground states that three of his sons died re- 
spectively in 1777, 1787 and 1796. Joel Mann came from Hebron, 
Conn., in 1793 or 1794 and settled on the Nathaniel Mann farm. Of 
four sons, Rodolphus settled in Ballston; Jeremiah on the old home- 
stead, which subsequently was occupied by his son Nathaniel ; Joel in 
Galway, and Hiram in Wayne county, N. Y., where he subsequently 
became sheriff. A daughter, Mrs. Hanchett, removed to Troy. James 
Mann, his brother, had preceded him three or four years, having set- 
tled in 1790 on a farm of one hundred acres about a mile west of Balls- 
ton Spa. He, too, came from Hebron, Conn., whence he returned 
shortly after his settlement here and married Tryphena Tarbox. His 
children were Electa, James and Joseph. James settled on the home- 
stead. John Bentley located in the town about 1778 and leased one 
hundred and fifty acres of land. John Cole and Henry Cole were liv- 
ing near him at that time. Mr. Bentley was twice married. His chil- 
dren by his first wife were Sarah, Mrs. Snyder, of Milton; Catharine, 
Mrs. Green, of Clifton Park; Elizabeth, Mrs. Tillinghast Bentley, of 
Milton; Charity, Mrs. Southwick, of Greenfield; and Patience, Mrs. 
John P. Bentley, of Troy. By his second wife he had eight sons: Otis, 
David, Pardon, Stephen, Adams, Elias, Gregory and Reuben. Otis 
settled in Milton ; the remainder removed to Oswego county. Reuben 
Weed, Jonathan Morey, Benjamin Peck, Samuel Reed, Silas Adams, 

Jacob Ambler, Isaac Webb, Howard, John Ball, Elisha Powell, 

Henry Frink, Benjamin Gregory, Joshua Jones, Joel Keeler and Ben- 
jamin Crenelle were all here before 1800. Mr. Keeler was the first 
postmaster at West Milton. 

Before the year 1800 several saw mills and grist mills had been con- 
structed along the banks of the Kayaderosseras at or in the vicinity of 
what is now Rock City Falls. The place was then known as Hatch 
Mills, and the mills were owned principally by a nian named Swan. 
Mr. Rathbone, the first permanent settler at Rock City Falls, had mills 
there about 1800. His brother located there about the same time and 
started a store. Before that year John Whitehead had a saw mill at 
Craneville, at the upper end of the pond. At Factory Village an iron 


forge and a saw mill were in operation about the same time. At Mil- 
ton Centre General James Gordon established a grist mill just after 
the war." Some time before 1800 Daniel Campbell of Schenectady 
erected a grist mill at West Milton, and left it in charge of Simon P. 
Vedder. Ezekiel Whalen had a mill near that of Campbell, but when 
it was built is not known. He also had the first store at what was then 
known as Clute's Corners. 

Rev. Ammi Rogers, who conducted the first Episcopal services in 
Ballston Spa, organized St. James' church " at Milton Hill in 1796. 
Five years earlier, June 3, 1791, the Presbyterian church" at Milton 
was incorporated, and its organization may have taken place at an 
earlier date. The Baptist society long known as "the stone church," ' 
located east of Rock City Falls, was organized some time before 1800. 
The Presbyterian church of West Milton was organized soon after the 
Revolution by Scotch immigrants, as the Covenanters, or Reformed Pres- 
byterian. The first house of worship was located about a mile and a 
half west of Spear's Corners. ° 

The settlement of Stillwater and the development of its resources 

> It is said that his materials for building were gathered before the war broke out, that the 
millstones were left leaning against trees during the troublous period, and that they had sunk 
by their weight half way into the ground before peace enabled the general to complete his plans. 
— Sylvester's History of Saratoga County. 

^ The first vestry of the parish consisted of the following : Wardens, James Henderson, David 
Roberts; vestryman, Abel Whalen, William Bolt, Joel Mann, Hugh McGinness, William Johnson, 
Henry Whitlock, John Ashton, Thomas Shepherd. Rev. Charles McCabe, pastor of the Presby- 
terian church in Milton, entered the Episcopal ministry and for a while was rector of St, James'. 
Among the other pastors were Rev. Mr. Adams and Rev. Joseph Perry. About 1845 separate 
services there were discontinued and the members united with Christ church of Ballston Spa, 
the property being sold in 1849 to Nathaniel Mann. Services have been held afternoons for sev- 
eral years by the rector of Christ church. 

» The first trustees were William Williamson, Kbenezer Couch, Benajah Smith, Silas Adams, 
Stephen Wood and Esquire Patchin. The meeting-house was at Milton Hill. Among the early 
pastors were Rev. Messrs. Hovey, Wright and Hermance. The society dissolved about 1841. 

* The first house of worship was built in 1801 by Elder Lewis. In 1886 a stone edifice was 

erected. Among the early pastors were Jonathan Nicols, Samuel Plum, Clay, E. Tucker, 

P. Powell, A. Seamans, J. B. Wilkins, J. Goadby, W. B. Curtis, Caleb Gurr. The Milton 
branch of the Stillwater Baptist church, organized about 1785 by members of the churches at 
Stillwater, Stephentown and White Creek, was constituted as an independent church June 
23, 1793. 

» This church was abandoned in 1840 and a new one erected immediately thereafter. The 
first pastor was James McKinney, who came from Ireland in 1798. The celebrated Gilbert Mc- 
Master succeeded him. Other early pastors were Samuel Wilson, John N. McLeod, A. S. McMas- 
ter (son of Gilbert McMaster), Samuel Stephenson, R. H. Beattie, David G. Bullions and others. 
The first elders were John Willson, Alexander Glen, John Burns, Joseph Shearer and Alexander 

STILLWATER. 1783-1800. 85 

was very rapid after the close of the Revolution. Even during that 
conflict a number of persons were attracted to that town by the favora- 
ble reports regarding the advantages it offered to new settlers. John 
Taylor, who resided in Albany, owned a place there during the Bur- 
goyne campaign, but did not make it a permanent place of residence. 
Asa Chatfield was there at the same time, but little is known of him. 
Philip Hunger, Joseph Hunger and Benjamin Hunger were also there, 
but the time of their coming is uncertain. Thomas Hunt resided in 
the eastern part of the town. Captain Ephraim Woodworth's house 
was located about a quarter of a mile south of the Neilson barn which 
was converted into a fort just before the arrival of Burgoyne's forces, 
and his residence was used by General Gates as his headquarters during 
the battle of October 7, 1777. Woodworth came from New England 
and did business as a weaver. John Hunter, who came to the county 
with the church colony from Connecticut, first located in Malta, but 
removed to Stillwater about the close of the war. He ran a blacksmith 
shop, and also was a practical surveyor. Many maps made by him are 
still in existence. He became a large land owner, purchasing exten- 
sively of Jonathan Frisbie, Eben Patrick and others. Joel Ketchum 
located in town about the close of the war. One son, Nathaniel, was 
elected sheriff of the county in 1811. The other son, Richard, was a 
merchant many years at Ketchum's Corners, which was named in his 
honor. Amos Hodgman came from Weston, Mass., about 1788. John 
Fellows came with the Connecticut church colony in 1762 to 1764, and 
built a house about a mile west of the "yellow meeting-house." But 
he returned to Connecticut, like many other members of that colony, 
during the period of the Revolution, and did not permanently settle in 
Stillwater until the close of the war. He was active in religious work 
and a man of great usefulness in the community. He left three sons — 
William, Ezra and Thomas. William settled in Stillwater and became 
the father of Abiram Fellows of Mechanicville. Ezra also settled in 
town. Thomas married a daughter of William Seymour and emigrated 
west with the Seymour family. The senior Fellows's daughter Eldula 
married Joel Seymour. Another daughter became Mrs. Depew and 
and another married a Dr. Day. William Seymour, Jonathan Morey 
and Cyprian Watson also were members of the Connecticut colony. All 
were God-fearing men and all became prominently identified with the 
welfare of the town of their adoption. Mr. Horey married a daughter 
of Rev. Robert Campbell, sr., the pastor of the Connecticut congrega- 


tion who removed to Stillwater. Thomas Morey, his son, was a prom- 
inent town officer and for many years a deacon of the church. Mr. 
Campbell spent his life in preaching to his flock, and his son, Robert 
Campbell, jr., took up his father's work and preached in Stillwater 
eight years. Mr. Watson and Mr. Seymour were also deacons in this 
Congregational church. The latter was a blacksmith by trade, but a 
man of great influence in the community. The Patrick family were 
also prominent for many years. Anthony Collamer, from Boston, set- 
tled south of Snake Hill on Saratoga lake just after the war, but finally 
removed to Malta, where several of his descendants still reside. He 
and two of his brothers fought at the battle of Bemus Heights. Thomas 
Collamer was his son, and Collins Collamer, his grandson. Isaac and 
Gabriel Leggett, brothers, were here during and probably before the 
war. They resided near each other, north of Wilbur's ravine. Near 
Wilbur's basin lived Reuben Wright. For many years he and his suc- 
cessors maintained a ferry known as Wright's ferry. The homestead 
of Simeon Barber was located on the famous battle ground. He may 
have been a resident before the opening of the war. Amariah Plumb 
and John Thompson also located in town. The latter was a man of 
great prominence and public spirit, and was elected a representative in 

Congress. Jeremiah Taylor, Elisha Andrews and Gleason lived 

in town during the Revolution. 

Cornelius Vandenburgh, Christian Sackrider and Henry Metcalf 
were prominent in the legal profession several years before the close of 
the century. James Baker settled north of Mechanicville about 1800. 
His descendants are very numerous, many of them still residing in the 
county. Elias Palmer served in the patriot army and owned property 
during the Revolution. William Mead had a tavern at Stillwater vil- 
lage during the war, and soon after its close another was kept by 
Ezekiel Ensign on the river road. William Patrick had another in 
Stillwater village as early as 1800. Others were kept about the same 
time by Eli Stone, William Gleason and William Strong. The latter 
was located at what was known as Stillwater Centre. Hezekiah Rey- 
nolds also had an early tavern at the "yellow meeting-house corners." 
The first at Ketchum's Corners was kept by Noah Chapman. 

Among the merchants who did business in town during this period 
were Palmer & Levins, who were succeeded by Reuben and Warren 
Smith. The stores of Ford & Hale, in 1790, and Terence O'Donnell 
are mentioned as existing in the north part of Stillwater village. 

STILLWATER, 1783-1800. 87 

Abram Q. Wright had the first store at Ketchutn's Corners. Jesse 
Patrick was another early merchant at Stillwater village. 

Among the early physicians were Dr. Elias Willard, Dr. Robert 
Patrick, Dr. William Patrick and Dr. Ephraim Otis. The latter lived 
at Quaker Springs in Saratoga, but practiced extensively throughout 
Stillwater. Daniel Hall, Increase Child and John Hunter are men- 
tioned as early surveyors. 

Mills were built in Stillwater at a very early day. That of Isaac 
Mann has been referred to in a previous chapter. There were several 
others in town before the close of the century, but the ownership of 
most of them is a matter of doubt. Saw mills and grist mills were in 
operation during the same period at Gleason Hollow and on Mill Creek. 
On Wilbur Basin creek Ezekiel Ensign, who had one of the earliest 
taverns, had two or more mills. 

The following also resided in Stillwater prior to 1800: Dirck Swart, 
who served as county clerk; Colonel Daniel Dickinson, farmer and 
tanner; Joseph Leavans (or Levins), blacksmith; William Gill, Jesse 
Gage, Amos Milliken, Thomas Peterson, Ashbel Palmer, Amos Hodg- 
man, Joseph Rowe, Ashbel Meacham, Seth Turpin, shoemaker; Mar- 
tin Carrington, harness-maker; Gilbert Hooker, Reuben Smith, Warren 
Smith, Alpheus Eaton, Frederick Stewart, merchants or druggists; 
William Parsons, Abin Parsons, Heman Whitney, carpenters; James 
Hillson, shoemaker; Hezekiah Lord, Jonathan Reed, Hugh Harsha, 
James Biggies, farmers; Peter Olds, Isaac Dickinson, Henry Davis, 
Timothy Shipman, Abraham Valentine, Joseph Stephens, William 
Cooper, Benjamin Cole, John Wiggins, Joseph Rockwell, William 
Dunning, Foster Whitford, Isaac Fonda, James Verner, John Bleecker, 
Jehoida Millard, jr., Josiah Millard, Isaac Myers, George Taylor, 
Daniel Ashley, John Tuttle, John Reubottom, Ephraim Woodworth, 
Samuel Rogers, Reuben Moore, Zebulon Mott, Peter Clemens, Andrew 
Sprague, James Dickinson, Lewis Williams, Samuel Bacon, Ezra 
Buell, Thomas Hunt, James Green, Daniel Brooks, Cornelius Van 
Tassel, John McBride, John Carpenter, Stephen Sayles, Sylvanus 
Sayles, William Anderson, Joel Ketchum, Solomon Scidmore, Samuel 
Cooper, John Scidmore, Thomas, William and Frances West, William 
Bell, William Morris, Philip Rogers, Jacob Rogers, Robert ElHs, 
Mordecai Sayles, Kendrick Brewer, Seth Burgess, Jonathan Bassett, 
Nathaniel Cooper, Simeon Marshall, Thomas Higgins, Enoch Higgins, 
Ahab Sayles, Reuben Woodworth, Lemuel Powers, Abraham Webster, 


Royal Newland, Benjamin Rogers, Jacobus Swartout, Daniel Thomp- 
son, Killiaen Vandenburgh, Killiaen De Ridder, Hubbard Pemberton, 
Ebenezer Bacon, Ephraim Cook, Jethro Bennett, Arthur Caldwell, 
Richard Davis, Israel Newland, Thomas Black, William Black, John 
Rowley, Joseph Newland, Joshua Barber, Nathaniel Clapp, Nicholas 
Gordinier, Daniel, John and James McBride, Rowland Emery, Archi- 
bald Walker, Abraham, John and Francis Wilcox, Philip Hunger, 
Jehial Parker, John Neilson, Holton Dunham, John and James Verner, 
Adam Comstock, Daniel Bull, James Warren, Edward A. Watrous, 
Hugh Robles, John Taylor, Sidney Berry, Epenetus Warren, Ebenezer 
Russell, Robert Campbell, John Bull, Zina Hitchcock, Moses Vail, 
Robert Yates, John Williams, David Thomas, Stephen Lusk and James 
Gordon. All these men were property owners in Stillwater before the 
end of the eighteenth century. 

Before 1800 the town of Stillwater had flourishing church societies, 
good schools and a Masonic lodge. The first schools were supported 
by subscription, and though private, were in reality semi-public, as all 
children were given tuition, whether their parents contributed more or 
less to the maintenance of the school. On the hill in Stillwater village 
stood a school as early as 1795 or 1796. Amon^the early teachers was 
Walter Broughton, who combined with his profession that of singing 
master. He also worked as a stone-cutter, and after teaching awhile 
became proprietor of the old Patrick tavern. Leonard Hodgman, who 
was born in Stillwater in 1793, remembered a school house near his 
home when he was a boy, which may have stood there prior to 1800. 
Other school houses of that period were located on the bank of Wilbur's 
Basin creek and in the Thompson neighborhood. The latter was pat- 
ronized by the families of the Connecticut cSolony. 

This church from Connecticut, the members of which doubtless came 
in a body from Canaan, Litchfield county, was the pioneer church, not 
only in Saratoga county, but in all probability, in all the country north 
of Albany. It was a Congregational church, and was founded in 
Canaan June 26, 1752. Rev. John Palmer preached the first sermon 
June 28, 1752, and the following day a number of persons' subscribed 
to the covenant and elected a clerk. In April, 1762, the members of 
the society resolved unanimously to move to Stillwater, whither many 
of them had already gone." 

' See Chapter IV for a list of these members. 
' Undoubtedly the church, or at least a section thereof, with a regular organization, had set- 
tled in Stillwater by 1763, for a paragraph in its records reads as follows: " Sept. 5, 1762, Then 

HALPMOON, 1783-1800. 89 

The Masonic lodge at Stillwater, chartered October 27, 1791, was for 
many years one of the most prosperous lodges in the State. It was 
known as Montgomery lodge. Montgomery Chapter existed before 
1798, for March 14 of that year it was one of the five chapters which 
organized the Grand Chapter of the State of Ne^y York, at Albany. 
The representatives of the Stillwater chapter at this organization were 
Daniel Hale, jr., high priest, and Ashbel Meacham, king. It was at 
this meeting that De Witt Clinton was chosen as the first presiding 
officer of the State body. The Mark Master Mason's lodge at Still- 
water was held under warrant granted January 30, 1799. These Ma- 
sonic bodies ceased to exist when the anti- Masonic agitation of 1827 


Halfmoon was another town in which the development was very rapid 
and satisfactory as soon as the Revolution ended. Even during that 
conflict many families removed to the town, believing that their safety 
lay in their nearness to the city of Albany. Among those who came 

Brother Lemuel Taylor, and Barshaba, his wife, had their son Lemuel baptized by Brother Camp- • 
bell, pastor of Christ church in Canaan, but it was done in Stillwater." This church has never 
disbanded nor changed its doctrines nor form of church government. Some time before the 
Revolution the members built a house of worship near the bank of the Hudson, opposite the 
mouth of the Hoosick; but this was subsequently removed to a site about two miles west of the 
river, where a cemetery was established. In this burial-ground Rev. Robert Campbell, the first 
pastor, and many of the early members of.the congregation, was interred. The church was early 
known as " the yellow meeting-house " " In 1818 the Presbyterian church at Stillwater was organ- 
ized, and many of the members joined the new society, its house of worship being located at a 
point more convenient for them. In 1850 the old church was repaired and rededicated, the sermon 
being preached by Rev. Mark Tucker of Wethersfield, Conn., who had been a pastor of the Still- 
water church. In 1852 the church changed its form of government to Presbyterian and thus 
effected a union with the Presbyterian families residing at Mechanicville, the name of the organi- 
zation being changed to "Presbyterian church of Stillwater and Mechanicville." In 1871 the 
Mechanicville church became a separate body and the original church again became a distinct 
society, as which it has sincp existed. 

From the old records it appears that the First Baptist church of Stillwater is less than a year 
younger than the old Congregational church. Benedict's "History of the Baptists" contains 
this paragraph: *'At Stillwater, near the place where Burgoyne was taken in the American war, 
a church arose in 1762, which became unusually large and prosperous and branched out in many 
directions, but, on account of certain difficulties, it suffered a great calamity dnd became nearly 
extinct." The early organization of the church is proven by the fact that in 1779 it had eighty-six 
members. Rev. Beriah Kelly began preaching in 1781. During the fourth year of his pastorate 
dissension arose in the society, which divided, one faction worshiping in the Baptist meeting- 
house and the other under the guidance of Rev. Lemuel Powers. The two parties were reunited 
in 1790 under the. united pastorate of Mr. Powers and Rev. David Irish. In 1793 the latter retired 
and left Mr. Powers as sole pastor. In 1791 thirty-eight members were dismissed to form the 
church at Schuylerville, and others were dismissed to organize the church at Ballston. Two 
years later forty-eight members left the parent church to organize the society at Milton, and 
nineteen" members to organize the First Baptist church of Saratoga Springs. Other churches 
undoubtedly sprang from the Stillwater society, which may appropriately be called the " mother 


to Halfmoon during the period of the war the following were men of 
more or less prominence: 

Benjamin Rosekrans was an inhabitant of Halfmoon during the Revo- 
lutionarj'^ period. His family was once compelled to flee from home by 
reason of an attack made by a band of Canadian Indians. The Rose- 
krans homestead stood near Crescent. On the river road the Ten 
Broecks resided during the war. William Clark was the first to build 
at Middletown, or Halfmoon village. Dr. German also resided there as 
early as the war. Dr. Sabin and Dr. Shaw lived near by in later years. 
Peter Davis owned a large farm in town, and purchased land at differ- 
ent times in 1800 of Jacob Teachout, Cornelius Teachout, Law- 
rence and • Connery. Richard Davis, Peter Davis's nephew, was 

also an early inhabitant. Peter Ferguson and Jacob Miller came about 
1780. Among their neighbors were John and Jeremiah Vincent and 
Dr. Carey. Abraham Traverse located here about 1785 or 1790. 
Andrew Evans, the families of Snedeker, Weaver and Zebulon Mott 
lived southerly from Mechanicville. Abraham Deuel resided west of 
Mechanicville. Jonathan Lossing lived at Usher's Mills as early as 

of Baptist churches," not only in Saratoga county, but in Washington county as well, the West 
Hoosick church springing from the Stillwater society. In 1839 a large number of members organ- 
ized the Second Baptist church in Stillwater village. The meeting-house of the parent church 
was rebuilt in 1850, and the first successful Sunday school was organized in 1859. 

The Presbyterian church of Stillwater was also organized during the eighteenth century. 
The old book of records begins with this paragraph: " The Presbyterian inhabitants of Stillwater 
incorporated themselves into a religious society, in the name and style of the First Presbyterian 
congregation of Stillwater, on the 18th day of September, 1791. In this capacity they put them- 
selves under the care of the Albany presbytery, and presented a call to Mr. Aaron Condit, a can- 
didate under the care of that presbytery, to settle among them in the gospel ministry. This call 
was accepted, and Mr. Condit installed January 15, 1793. Mr. Condit labored only two years after 
his installation, his services closing in 1795." There is no evidence that the church existed after 

St. John's Church was incorporated October 27, 1795 , but a church organization had existed, 
with occasional services, several years prior to that year. These officers were elected October", 
1795 : Wardens, Ezekiel Ensign, Ezra St. John ; vestrymen, Thomas W. Ford, Henry Brewster, 
Warren Smith and Cornelius Vandenburgh. The first rector of the parish was Rev. Ammi 
Rogers- The first church was erected in 1798, but was subsequently sold to the Catholic con- 
gregation there, an attractive chapel being built with the proceeds of the sale. The rectors suc- 
ceeding Mr. Rogers have been: Rev. Mr. Thacher, 1805-1808; Rev. Mr. Van Dorn, 1806-1810; 
from 1810 to 1820 there was no regular rector ; Rev. James W. Tappan, 1832-1837 ; Rev. Mr. Allison, 
1837 ; Rev. Reuben Hubbard, 1837-1843 ; Rev. William A. Curtis, 1844-1845 ; Rev. M. A. Nickerson, 
1845-1849 ; Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, 1849-1852 ; Rev. John D. Downing, 1852-1858 ; Rev. Robert C. Rog- 
ers, 1858-1859 ; Rev. E. S. Widdemer, 1839-18il6 ; Rev. Albert Denker, 1866-1869 ; Rev. Wm. Bogart 
Walker, 1869-1871 ; Rev. Alfred H. Stubbs, 1871-1880; Rev. M. A. Dean, 1880-1881 ; Rev. P. C. Cre- 
veton, 1881-1884 ; Rev. Richmond Shreve ; Rev. W. G. Lewis, 1889-1890 ; Rev. Mr. Haskins, 1890- 
1891 ; Rev. Marvin H. Dana, 1891-1892; Rev. Joseph Jowett, 1894 to the present time. From 1887 to 
to 1891 St. John's of Stillwater and St. Luke's of Mechanicville were served by the same rectors. 
During the pastorate of Rev. A. H. Stubbs, August 82, 1873, the present church was erected, and 
dedicated January 3, 1876. 

HALPMOON, 1783-1800. 91 

1780. The male members of the Newton church, most of whom 
doubtless lived in Halfmoon, were as follows in 1791: Peter Groom, 
William Groom, Daniel Derbyshire, James Essex, Matthew Neally, 
Joshua Miller, Ephraim Dunham, William Gorsline, Richard Clute, 
Timothy Woodin, George Alford, Joseph Peck, Nathaniel Upham, 
Shubael Waldo, Peter Baker, John Bell, Moses Lent, Andrew Evans, 
Abraham Weldon, Thomas Mosher, George Ellsworth, William King 
and Philip King. Some of these already have been noted as pioneers. 

Others known to have resided in the town as early as 1778 are: Ja- 
cob Fort, Adrian Hegeman, Jacob I. Lansing, Christopher Miller, 
Adam I. Van Vranken, Jeremiah Vincent, Israel Van Alstyne, William 
Reeves, Gerrit Lansing, James Jones, James Dugan, Joseph Mosier, 
Henry Brevoort, Daniel Van Alstyne, Cornelius Groat, Jacob Ostrander, 
John Slosson, John Clark, Johannes Fulmer, Aarie Banta, Noah Tay- 
lor, Jesse Bronson, Calvin Fuller, John Quince, Jacobus Pearce, 
Gerardus Clute, Jacob Hall, Jacob Steenburgh, Charles Hoffman, 
Jesse Groat, Michael Bassett, John C. Connell, James Shaw, Gideon 
Close, Peter Faulkner, John Van Vranken, James Grooms, Joseph 
Fowler, Stephen Wiley, Valentine Brown, Edward Rexford, Ezekiel 
Free, Matthew Gregory, Nathan Garnsey, Andrew Scouten, Moses 
Scott, James Murray, Jedediah Rogers, Josiah Taylor, Robert El- 
dridge, James Scott, Benjamin Mix, John Way, Samuel Hicks, John 
Knowlton, William Tripp, Solomon Burlingame, Hendrick Vander- 
werker, William Ashe, John R, Van Vranken, John Hamilton, Anthony 
Leversie, John Barnes, Timothy Smith, Israel Brooks, Clemens Young, 
James Youngs and Ebenezer Landers. 

Taverns were plenty in Halfmoon in those early days. Jn 1788 the 
official list contained the names of the following keepers of public 
houses: William Fuller, Elizabeth Peebles, Henry Bailey, Daniel Van 
Alstyne, Joshua Taylor, Benjamin Mix, Nicholas Fords, Christian 
Smith, Elias Van Steenburgh, Peter Faulkner, John Donald, John 
Guerdon, Nicholas Teachout, John Flynn, Jacob Miller, Aaron Corn- 
stock, James Stein, Anthony Leversie, Coonrad Wesley, Moses Scott, 
Ira Scott, Garrett Hannion, Samuel Connery, Matthew Gregory, Jo- 
seph Potter, Adam Edson, William Ward, Joseph Sibley, Jacobus Van 
Schoonhoven, Richard Davis, Joseph Mosher, Simeon Groat, William 
Waldron, Hezekiah Ketchum, Jacobus Ostrander, John C. Connell, 
Dirck Flansburgh, Jededidh Rogers, John Burhans and James Scott. 
But there were earlier tavernkeepers than these. A man named 


Gates had a public house south of the creek in Mechanicville during the 

Revolution. Henry Bailey, and afterward Mills, kept one a mile 

farther south, on the river road. Shubael Cross had a tavern at Mid- 
dletown during, and probably before, the Revolution. 

Saw mills and grist mills were numerous in these days. There was 
a saw mill on the Steena Kill as early as 1762. At the close of the war 

Bradshaw built a grist mill on the Devas Kill. Data regarding 

construction and ownership of the other mills is lacking. 

Religious services were held in Halfmoon in Revolutionary times if 
not before the war. But there is in existence no record of the organ- 
ization of any church society before the war. A Friends' meeting was 
established during the period of that struggle about three miles south- 
west of Mechanicville, but the meetings were discontinued about 1850. 
The Reformed Protestant church of Middletown was incorporated 
November 14, 1791, by John C. Connell, William Ashe, Abraham I. 
Ouderkirk and Francis Sill, but it ceased to exist many years ago. 
The only existing church which was established during the early period 
of which we are writing is St. John's Episcopal church of Stillwater, 
which had many members residing in the town of Halfmoon. 


In the town of Saratoga Jesse Mott was an early settler, coming from 
Dutchess county to Dean's Corners in the spring of 1783. In 1785 John 
Thorn, also from Dutchess county, came and settled on the farm which 
since has remained in possession of his family. He had served as a 
soldier in the Revolution. Samuel Bushee, who also was in the Amer- 
ican army, came from Connecticut about the same time. He married 
the daughter of Abram Marshall, and purchased of the Lansings the 
farm north of Schuylerville. The Lansings owned this place at the 
time it was occupied by Burgoyne's officers. Elihu Billings settled on 
the Cramer hill in the same year. A short time after Daniel Morgan 
located near him. Obadiah Knapp and Mr. Jeffords were early settlers 
south of the present village of Victory Mills. 

It appears that farm lands in the western part of Saratoga were im- 
proved at the same time and at about as great a rate of progress as in 
the eastern section, after the war. Settlements were made near Sara- 
toga lake as early as 1784 or 1785. In connection with these settle- 
ments is an interesting bit of history : 

On the 7th day of August, 1781, seven men, sent from Canada, came to Albany 

SARATOGA, 1783-1800. 93 

and in the evening made an attack upon the house of General Schuyler, where he 
had been residing after the destruction of his buildings at Schuylerville. Their 
object was to kill or capture the general, either through deadly hate at his past ser- 
vices against the English government, or perhaps with the design of holding the 
person of the general as a hostage to secure terms in the future exchange of prison- 
ers. There were in the house with the general at the time John Ward and John 
Cokely, two of his life guards, and also John Tubbs, an army-courier in his service. 
These three men made a gallant iight with the seven assassins, who had effected an 
entrance into the hall. John Tubbs, as his children now relate it, had a personal 
struggle with one, and having pressed him down behind an old oaken chest, with his 
hand on his throat, tried to draw a knife to finish him, but the knife was gone, and 
Tubbs was obliged to let him up. Meanwhile General Schuyler had, from the win- 
dows above, aroused the town, and the seven men suddenly left, carrying off Tubbs 
and Cokely with them as prisoners, and as proof that they had actually penetrated 
to Schuyler's house and made an attempt to execute their appointed work. The 
prisoners were kept nineteen months on an island in the St. Lawrence. Returning 
home about the time peace was declared. General Schuyler presented the three men 
with a deed of two hundred and seventy acres of land. The deed is now [1878] in the 
possession of Simon Tubbs, son of John Tubbs, and recites that " In consideration 
of five shillings, and that John Cokely, John Ward and John Tubbs, did gallantly 
defend the said Philip Schuyler when attacked in his own house, near the city of 
Albany, on the 7th day of August. 1781, by a party of the enemy in the late war, 
sent expressly to kill or make prisoner of the said Philip Schuyler," the party of the 
first part hath granted and sold to the said Ward, Cokely and Tubbs, all that tract 
and parcel of land " In the Saratoga patent, known and distinguished as the west- 
ernmost farm of the south half of lot No. 20 in the grand division of Saratoga patent, 
made by John B. Bleecker, surveyor, in 1750, containing about two hundred and 
seventy acres of land." 

The land was first divided into three parts, and the men drew for their respective 
portions, and soon after made their homes in this section. John Tubbs's portion was 
a part of the present place of Simon Tubbs, his son; John Ward's, the farm occupied 
until recently by his son; and John Cokely's share is also now owned by Simon 
Tubbs. I 

Killiaen De Ridder was an inhabitant during, possibly before, the 
Revolution. In 1783 he sold a farm to John Vroman for ;^150. Vro- 
man in turn, sold it in 1797 to John, Henry and Samuel Green. 
Stephen Olney was in town during the war, and there is some evidence 
that he operated his farm even as early as 1770. Joseph Rogers set- 
tled here during the war. On the farm he owned is a burial ground 
containing an inscription dated 1787. Daniel Wood removed in 1784 
from the farm deeded to John Tubbs and others by General Philip 
Schuyler. When he came is not known. Martin Irish, Ashbel Irish, 
Oliver Perkins, Silas Deuel, Ephraim Anable, Stephen Viele, Johannes 

» Sylvester's History o£ Saratoga County, 1878. 


Viele, Ludovicus Viele and Jesse Toll are known to have been located 
in town prior to 1790. The latter at one time owned an entire grand 
division of the Saratoga patent — six square miles of land. Walter Van 
Veghten, Herman Van Veghten, Walter Knickerbocker and Refine 
Geer were early inhabitants at what is now Coveville. James and 
Robert Milligan were in town as early as 1785. 

Among others who lived within the limits of the town of Saratoga 
during the latter years of the century were Sidney Berry, William 
Scott, Asaph Putnam, William Thomas, Nelson Winner, Hezekiah 
Willis, Benjamin Jenkins, Jonathan Pettit, James McCreedy, Amos 
Hawley, William Dudley, Gamaliel Vail, Jacob Toll, Thomas Bennett, 
John Dillingham, John Brisbin, David Reynolds, William Wait, Elisha 
Miles, Elihu Billings, Jacob Hicks, Ebenezer Bacon. 

There were several mills in the town. The old mills at Grangerville 
were erected about 1791 or 1792 by Jesse Toll. There was also a saw 
mill at Victory Mills. The first mills in town, those at Schuylerville, 
already have been described. 

The town was well supplied with taverns. In the letters of Madam 
Riedesel, written in 1777, she refers to a tavern kept by "a man 
named Smith, on the way down the river," evidently but a short dis- 
tance below Schuylerville. Samuel Bushee probably kept a tavern at 
the same spot a few years afterwards. A tavern was kept by a widow, 
Mrs. Taylor, in Schuylerville very early in the present century, but 
there is no mention in the early records of its having 'been maintained 
prior to 1800. Other public houses probably were kept by Archibald 
McNiel and Scribner. 

Stores were located at convenient points in the rapidly growing 
town. The earliest merchant appears to have been located at Schuy- 
lerville, but there is no mention of his name, and, in fact, nothing 
very definite on this point. The first merchant whose name has been 
preserved in this connection was John Douglass, whose store was 
located south of Schuylerville. Herman Van Veghten also had a store 
at Coveville about the same time. 

The professions were well represented. Among the physicians were 
Doctors Bull, Bryant, Pierce, Billings, Dimmick, Copp, Dean, Smith 
and Brisbin. All were prominently identified with the progress of the 
community. Richard M. Livingston was an early lawyer, his oflfice 
being located first at Coveville and afterward, as Schuylerville devel- 
oped and increased in population, at that village. 

SARATOGA, 1783-1800. 95 

The pioneers of Saratoga were not unmindful of the education of 
their offspring, as is shown in the number of schools established at an 
early day in various parts of the town. One of the very earliest was a 
log school house located on the farm of Daniel Morgan. An early 
teacher was a Mr. Tucker. Two other schools were . located within 
three miles of this one. Another log school house stood in the Fitch 
neighborhood. At Grangerville a school was kept about 1800 by Mr, 
Stephens. School text books were scarce and valuable in those days, 
and frequently one book had to answer for the use of the children in 
three or four different families. 

The first public action regarding schools occurred in 1796, when 
these school commissioners were appointed under the existing law: 
Sidney Berry, Herman Van Veghten, Joseph Palmer, Thomas Jeffords 
and Benjamin Phillips. In 1797 the commissioners were Sidney Berry, 
Daniel Bull, Joseph Palmer, Thomas Jeffords and Solomon Wheeler; 
in 1798, Thomas Jeffords, William Force and George Cramer; in 1800, 
Thomas Jeffords, Elihu Billings, Daniel Bull and William Wait. 

The earliest religious society mentioned is that of the Friends, who 
met in a log meeting-house south of Quaker Springs, which place was 
named after them. These meetings were held as early as 1765 or 1770 
by Quakers who had removed from Stillwater. Among the founders 
of the local society were Gabriel and Isaac Leggett, Tibbett Soule, 
Thomas and Fones Wilbur, George Davis, David Shepherd and John 
Walker. October 16, 1793, John A. Bleecker sold to Isaac Leggett 
and William Barker, as trustees, a site for a meeting- house.' 

The Reformed Dutch church of Saratoga was in existence as early 
as 1772, but little is known of the early career of this society. Its first 
house of worship stood near the spot where General Burgoyne handed 
his sword to General Gates, and the building for several weeks prior 
thereto had been occupied by the British troops as a hospital. During 
the war the society was dissolved, but it was reorganized July 10, 1789, 
by the election of CorneHus Van Veghten and Peter Becker as elders 
and Jesse Toll and James Abel as deacons. Rev. Samuel Smith ac- 
cepted a call to the pastorate, began preaching in December following 
and was ordained in January, 1790. Ten years later he removed to 
New Jersey, A parsonage was erected in 1793 on a tract of fifty acres 

1 The first minister of this society was Isaac Leggett, who served many years. About 1820 
Andrew Dorland began to serve in that capacity, leading the flock tor more than halt a century. 


of land north of Schuylerville.' In 1790 the First Baptist church of 
Saratoga was constituted, being received the following year as a mem • 
ber of the old Shaftsbury association. Though the records of the 
Shaftsbury association do not show it, the claim has been made that the 
organization was eflEected as early as 1772. This is merely tradition, 
however, and 1790 must be accepted as the date of organization in the 
absence of other records. In 1791 the church had forty-seven mem- 
bers, and the pastor was Rev. Samuel Rogers.' 


The development of the town of Saratoga Springs during the last 
two decades of the eighteenth century was hastened, no doubt, by the 
prospect of increasing popularity of and travel to the mineral springs 
situated within the limits of that town. Coincident with the settle- 
ment of the land about the springs was the settlement of the adjacent 
farming lands in the town. 

Upon the death of Samuel Norton, the first and only permanent set- 
tler at the springs before the Revolution, which occurred during the 
latter days of the war, one of his sons occupied his father's possessions. 
Which son succeeded his father is not known. The senior Norton mar- 
ried Sarah Deems at New Bedford, Mass., and their children were 
Samuel, Asa, Isaiah, Rhoda, Sarah, Polly, Louise and Cora. In the 
fall of 1787 the Norton place was purchased by Gideon Morgan, who 
sold it a few weeks later to Alexander Bryan.' The latter located there 

' After the retirement of Rev. Samuel Smith in 1800 the pulpit was vacant two years. In De- 
cember, 1802, Rev. Philip Duryea became pastor, remaining as such for a. quartei^ of a century. 
In 1823 several members founded the church at Bacon Hill. About the same time the old meet- 
ing-house w»s taken down and most of the material used in the erection of a new edifice in Schuy- 
lerville. In 1831 this building was burned. It was replaced by a stone structure which stood 
until 1856, when it was demolished and a new brick church erected. 

2 This church, now the Baptist church of Schuylerville, united with the Saratoga association 
in 1805. Jordan's Bridge was an early place of baptism. A meeting-house, perhaps not the first, 
however, was erected about 1807, and stood about three miles from Schuylerville. About 1833 a 
new church was erected in Schuylerville. The church at Fish Creek was organized prior to 1800 
by members of this church. Rev. Samuel Rogers, the first pastor of the original church, served 
as a teamster attached to the army of General Gates at the time of the battle of Saratoga. It is 
related that one night, while he was carrying a load of specie northward, over very muddy roads, 
he was so closely pursued by the British that he was obliged to cut his team loose and carry the 
kegs of treasure into the woods. All night he guarded them, and the following day he delivered 
them at their destination. His death occurred in Stillwater in 1823. 

' Bryan's parents were fugitives from Acadia when its inhabitants were driven out by the 
British. They first settled in Dutchess county, N. Y., where Bryan married a sister of Senator 
Talmadge. Before the Revolution he removed to a point about two miles north of Waterford, 
where he kept a tavern for many years. He was an eccentric character. At his tavern above 
Waterford he used to entertain partisans of both contending parties, patriots and tories, and so 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1783-1800. 97 

at once, his new home being situated near the site of the old Empire 
house. He soon built another log house for the accommodation of 
summer guests, of whom he had large numbers. No other public 
houses existed at the springs during the last century, excepting the 
tavern built by Benjamin Risley during 1790 or 1791. 

Merchants located at the springs before there were enough inhabit- 
ants within range to support a single individual, unless enormous profit 
were asked and received. This probably was the case, for as early as 
1794 John and Ziba Taylor, brothers, located here and became the pio- 
neer merchants of the newly founded village. John Taylor conducted 
his business in the Schouten house, then owned and occupied by Ben- 
jamin Risley. Later he built a small log house about seven or eight 
hundred feet north of High Rock spring, in which he and his brother 
had a store for many years. They also bought a great deal of land in 
the vicinity of the springs, which they cleared; built saw mills and 
grist mills and in general became prominent and influential. The 
"Ten springs" were first owned and developed by John Taylor, who 
resided there many years, Ziba continuing in business in the upper vil- 
lage. The two daughters of Richard Searing, a pioneer of Greenfield, 
became the wives of these two brothers. John married Polly Searing, 
and Ziba married Sally Searing. Ziba's daughter, Mary, became the 
wife of Dr. John H. Steele, the historical writer. 

In the town of Saratoga Springs numerous settlemeats were made 
during the Revolution. The earliest inhabitant in the southeastern 
part of the town was Benjamin French, whose home was near Saratoga 

adroit and diplomatic was he that he became the unreserved confidant of both parties, without 
being suspected 6f treachery by either. But there is no doubt of his patriotism. Dr. John H. 
Steele in his "Analysis" wrote: "When General Gates took command of the Northern army, 
he applied to the committee of safety of Stillwater to provide a suitable person to go into Bur- 
goyne's camp, with a view to obtain a knowledge of the movements of the enemy. Bryan was 
immediately selected as a person well qualified to undertake the hazardous enterprise, and he 
readily agreed to accomplish it. About the same time he was applied to by a friend of the enemy 
to carry some intelligence which he deemed of importance to Burgoyne; this he likewise under- 
took, having secretly obtained the consent of General Gates for that purpose. By pursuing a 
circuitous route, he arrived unmolested at the* camp of the enemy, which was then situated in the 
vicinity of Fort Edward. Having had several interviews with General Burgoyne, by whom he 
was closely examined, he was finally employed by that officer to superintend some concerns in 
the ordnance department. He tarried sufficiently long to obtain the required information when 
he privately left the camp in the gray of the morning of the 15th of September; but he had not 
proceeded many miles before he discovered that he was pursued by two horsemen; these, how- 
ever, he contrived to avoid, and arrived safely at Gates's head quarters late on the following night, 
and communicated the first intelligence of the enemy's having crossed the Hudson and being on 
the advance to Stillwater. This intelligence was of great importance, as it led to the immediate 
preparation for the sanguinary engagement which ensued on the 19th of the same month." 


lake as early as 1780. He owned a fertile tract of about 1,200 acres. 
He also resided for a short time previous to this in a cabin at the north 
end of Lonely lake, or Owl pond, a small body half or three-quarters 
of a mile north of Saratoga lake. He had three sons, John, Benjamin 
and Richard. A little south of Mr. French lived Mr. Upton, but the 
time of his coming is unknown. 

Amos Stafford was the first resident of the community which now 
bears the name of Stafford's Bridge. Tradition says that he killed such 
immense numbers of wolves that the bounty he received therefor was 
sufficient to pay for the farm he settled. Amos Stafford had seven 
children. The oldest, Mary, became Mrs. Green of Saratoga. Her 
first husband dying, she married John Hicks and removed to Waterloo, 
Seneca county. Henry, the oldest son, removed to Penn Yan, N. Y. 
Samuel removed to Victor, N. Y. Amos remained upon the home- 
stead. Rensselaer located in Saratoga, his farm adjoining his father's. 
Rachael married Anthony Maxwell of the town of Saratoga. Phoebe 
became the wife of Gerrit I. Lansing of Half moon. Among the earliest 
neighbors of Amos Stafford were John, Henry and Nicholas Wagman, 
and Amos Peck. Asa, William and Staats Jewell, brothers, settled at 
the close of the century on the farm which until his death was occupied 
by ex-Mayor Thomas B. Carroll of Troy, who spent his later years as 
a resident of Saratoga county. Another early resident was Pardon 
Fish, who resided ndrth of what is now Moon's hotel. About 1796 
Zachariah and Henry Curtis, brothers, came from Stillwater and took 
up three hundred acres of unimproved land, most of which is still in 
the possession of his family. They were originally from Chatham, 
Columbia county, David Abel and his brother came from Dutchess 
county about 1779 and located on the east side of the lake, on the farm 
surrounding the White Sulphur spring. The brother remained there, 
but about 1790 David removed to the west side of the lake. He had 
four sons, David, Peter, Jacob and Richard. The former succeeded to 
the ownership of the home farm, and the others went west. His 
daughters became Mrs. James Barhydt, Mrs. John Whitford and Mrs. 
Andrus Riley. Benjamin Avery came from Dutchess county about 
1790 and located about two miles from Stafford's. He reared a family 
of several sons. Of these, James and Edward settled in Wilton, Fred- 
erick and Hiram in Saratoga, and Calvin in Saratoga Springs. Austin 
and Orlin died young. Benjamin Avery's daughters became Mrs. 
Noah Weed of Greenfield and Mrs. John Kelly of the same town. 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1783-1800. 99 

Robert Ellis was the pioneer at what is now known as "The 
Geysers." He located there as early as 1777. His sons were Robert, 
jr., Myron, Charles and one other, and his daughters became Mrs. 
George Peck, Mrs. Pitkin, Mrs. James R. Westcot and Mrs. Joseph 
Westcot. Mr. Westcot's neighbors during the period of which we are 
writing included John Scott and Robert Welds. Among those who 
settled near by about 1780 were John and Jeremiah Cady, brothers. 
One of them built a home on Cady Hill, and another built a home 
which subsequently became a tavern. Jeremiah removed west at an 
early day. John had two sons, Thomas and Jeremiah. Robert Ayers, 
who was a soldier in the Revolution, settled soon after the war near 
what is now " the Dry bridge," in the southern part of the town along 
the Delaware and Hudson railroad. His wife was a Miss Ashton. He 
became a large landholder, his property including some of the rich 
land along the Kayaderosseras. Of his two sons, John and Isaac, the 
former settled in Saratoga and the latter went west. One of his daugh- 
ters became Mrs. Hicks Seaman, mother of Hicks Seaman, whose 
family now occupy the old Ayers homestead. The others became Mrs. 
Elisha Rockwell of Milton and Mrs. Ransom Cook of Saratoga Springs. 
Thomas Brown and Mr. Wallace lived near him. Foster Whitford, 
who had an early mill in Saratoga, near Snake hill, had several sons, 
one of whom, John C, settled in Saratoga Springs. 

One of the earliest mills in town was built before 1800 near the 
Geysers by Robert Ellis, of whom mention is made in the foregoing. 

Dr. Carpenter is said to have been the first physician to locate in the 
town of Saratoga Springs. He was a devout member of the Baptist 

The records in existence fail to mention any schools or churches in 
the town of Saratoga Springs in the eighteenth century except those in 
the village of that name. The oldest church in town is the First 
Baptist church of Saratoga Springs village, which was formed in 1791 
by ten members of the First Baptist church of Stillwater, located at 
Bemus Heights, who had moved to the west side of the lake, in this 
town. This church was not received into fellowship until October 11, 
1793, when it had but twenty members. Services were conducted 
several years by visiting preachers or laymen, and the congregation 
had no regular house of worship for many years as far as the records 

' The first church edifice was erected in 1809 on land east of the Geyser spring procured from 



A large portion of the territory embraced within the limits of the 
town of Charlton was originally given as part payment for labor per- 
formed, to the commissioners who surveyed aijd distributed the lands 
included in the Kayaderosseras Patent. Five thousand acres in Charl- 
ton, the northern boundary of which is now coincident with the high- 
way running east and west through the village of Charlton, was one of 
the tracts awarded to these commissioners. This tract was sold at 
public auction by the commissioners, the purchasers being Dirck Lef- 
ferts, Cornelius Clopper, Isaac Low and Benjamin Kissam. By the 
return of Low to England and the death of Kissam, Lefferts and Clop- 
per secured title to the entire tract, which they cut up into farms and 
sold to the newcomers. Joseph Van Kirk, who bought a farm next 
to the Ballston line, was the first settler on this tract, during the early 
days of the Revolution. Soon afterward Joseph La Rue, who pre- 
viously had located a mile and a half northeast of Charlton village, took 
up the farm west of Van Kirk's. James Bradshaw and Jesse Conde 
settled there within a year or so after La Rue's removal. John Rogers 
built a home on Aalplaats kill, and immediately afterward, as early as 
1778, erected a saw mill there. This was the first saw mill in Charlton. 
It was located about half a mile south of Charlton village. In the 
eastern part of the town, north of Van Kirk's, Nathaniel Cook and his 
family — a wife, eight sons and one daughter — founded a new home in 
the summer of 1778. They came from New Jersey. Their oldest son, 
Asher, and his wife located on a hundred acre farm about two miles 

Robert Ellis. In 1822 they removed to Saratoga Springs village and occupied a building stand- 
ing on the site of the present church. In 1846 this building was remodeled and repaired. In 1855 
the increasing membership rendered the erection of a new edifice necessary, and this building 
was dedicated in August, 1856. It cost about $18,000. The first parsonage was built in 1833. The 
church had no regular pastor until 1800, when, on December 18, Rev. Elisha P. Langworthy was 
ordained to the ministry. He resided in Ballston Spa, where his death occurred in 1828. He fre- 
quently would walk to church in the depth of winter, a distance of five miles; and as there was 
no fire in the church, would preach with his mittens and overcoat on. After an intermission, 
during which the devoted members of the congregation would eat their cold lunches, he would 
preach a second sermon. The succeeding pastors have been: 1819-1823, Francis Wayland: 1833- 
1825, John Lamb; 1826-1826, David R. Mackelfresh; 1829-1845, Joshua Fletcher; 1847-1849, Arnold 
Kingsbury; 1850-1855. Austin H. Stowel; 1855-1859, Luther W. Beecher; D.D.; 1861-1864, A. W. 
Sawyer; 1864-1870, L. M. Woodruff; 1870-1871, William Cheetham; 1871-1872, supplied by Samuel H. 
Greene and E. H. Bronson; 1873-1876, E. A. Woods; 1876-1886, George A. Smith; 1887-1891, George 
B. Foster; 1891-1894, George W. Nicholson;. 1894 to the present time, Tileston P. Chambers. 
December 30, 1884, a new Baptist chapel at the Geysers was dedicated. The Sunday school was 
organized May 1, 1870. • A parsonage was erected in 1892, next to the church on Washington 
street, a gift from Mrs. Hervey P. Hall as a memorial to her husband. 

CHARLTON, 1783-1800. 101 

north of Charlton village. There are many descendants of Nathaniel 
Cook now residing in the town. 

A number of Scotch families from Whithorn parish, in Galloway, 
Scotland, sailed for America in 1774, and finally settled in what is now 
the town of Galway — named for Galloway. The year following a 
number of their friends in Scotland followed them and settled in the 
northern part of Charlton, just south of their neighbors in Galway. 
Among these hardy pioneers were William Gilchrist, James Bell, An- 
drew Bell, Robert McKinney, John McWilliams, and others. This 
settlement was called "Scotch Street." During the Revolution, which 
even then was in progress, some of these families left their homes and 
remained in Albany or Schenectady for safety. They retained the 
titles to their newly-acquired lands, however, which for the most part 
are still retained by their descendants. Several of them, including 
Abram Van Epps, Alexander Gilchrist and Aaron Schermerhorn, re- 
moved into the western part of the town after the war. Tunis Swart 
and John Van Patten accompanied them. Hezekiah Watkins, who 
fought with the American army in the Revolution, and John Anderson, 
a soldier under General Burgoyne, who was one of the prisoners sur- 
rendered at Saratoga in 1777, settled also near West Charlton. John 
Holmes, from New Jersey, settled about 1775 about three-quarters of 
a mile west of Charlton village, where he soon after built the first grist 
mill in town. In 1786 Phoenix Cox built a home north of Charlton, 
fie came from New Jersey, where he was a militiaman in 1776. His 
son Asher inherited the farm. Abraham Northrup located about a 
mile south of Charlton in 1785, occupying two hundred acres of land 
purchased of Lefferts and Clopper. Zopher Wicks located two miles 
north of Charlton about 1786. One son, Zopher Wicks, jr., started the 
first blacksmith shop in town. The other son, David, remained on the 
homestead, which finally became his by inheritance. Isaac Smith, who 
came from Lenox, Mass., settled in the southern part of the town. 
Gideon Hawley, from Connecticut, was another pioneer. He was the 
father of Gideon Hawley, the first superintendent of public schools for 
the State of New York, appointed in 1813. He was a lawyer and a 
graduate of Union College.' The families of Robert and Alison Bun- 
yan and Robert and Alison Hume, of good Scotch blood, located a short 
distance east of West Charlton in 1794, their farms adjoining. William, 

' See chapter on Bench and Bar. 


son of Robert Bunyan, married Isabel, daughter of Robert Hume. 
Robert Bunyan died in 1799. His son died in 1837. 

The Low family was prominent in public affairs for many years. 
The pioneer, James Low, located between Charlton and West Charlton 
soon after the war. John Low was supervisor for many yeara, from 
1821 to 1832 and from 1834 to 1836, inclusive. Thomas Low served 
the county as sheriff. The first marble grave-stone erected in the town 
marks the grave of Mrs. Abigail Low, who died April 11, 1797. Cap- 
tain Kenneth Gordon, who had been a minute man in the Revolution, 
came to town before the end of the war and located on what is now the 
De Ridder farm. His son, Joseph Gordon, resided in Ballston Spa for 
many years. In 1785 Seth Kirby purchased the farm recently occupied 
by the widow of Col. F. D. Curtis. His son, Major Thomas Kirby, 
was an ensign in the war of 1812, The latter's second daughter be- 
came the wife of Colonel Curtis. The Kirbys were descended from two 
brothers who fled from England on the downfall of Oliver Cromwell, 
they having been numbered among the adherents of the great dictator. 
They were members of the council which sentenced Charles I to death. 

Other settlers during the period under discussion were John Boyd, 
John Munro, Henry Carl, John and Nicholas Angle, Amos Sherwood, 

Aaron Schermerhorn, James Valentine, Samuel Parent, Stevens, 

Chapman, Ahasuerus Wendell, Nathan Hinman, James Taylor, 

Eli Northrup, John Hays, Arrowsmith, Jeremiah Smith and Jacob 


Dr. William Mead was the first physician to practice in Charlton, 
There is no record of any lawyer having an office here before 1800. 

The first store in town probably was that kept by Davis & Bostwick, 
established about 1785. They failed in business in 1794, and were suc- 
ceeded by Channcey and Samuel Belding, brothers, the first of whom 
settled in town about 1790 and the latter about 1792. The Beldings 
became men of wealth and influence. Chauncey was a member of 
assembly in 1807 and 1808, and Samuel served in that office in 1823. 

The saw mill built by John Rogers on Aalplaats creek about 1778 
was the first in town. The grist mill of John Holmes, west of Charl- 
ton, was the first of that kind in town. 

The first church organization existing in Charlton prior to the pres- 

' William and Isabel Bunyan were the parents of John Bunyan. The latter married Jane 
Tweed Chalmers, and their son, Thomas C. Banyan, now of Berthoud, Col., was from 1874 to 
1893 principal of the Union Free schools of Ballston Spa. 

GALWAY, 1783-1800. 103 

ent century was the " Presbyterian Churcli of Freehold, in Charlton," 
so named because most of its members, inhabitants of the eastern part 
of the town, came from Freehold, N. J. The church was organized 
January 3, 1786, and placed under the jurisdiction of the presbytery of 
New York, having' been incorporated according to the laws of the State 
of New York. In the following summer a small frame church was 
erected. ' 

The second church was the ' ' Scotch Street church, " now the United 
Presbyterian church of West Charlton. ' It was founded by the early 
Scotch settlers at "Scotch Street," in the northern part of the town. 
The society was organized soon after the Revolution, but there was no 
regular pastor nor house of worship until 1794. In that year, a church 
edifice having been erected, a call was extended to Rev. James Mairs, 
and he was duly installed as pastor February 20, 1794. This relation 
remained unbroken until May 20, 1835, when Mr. Mairs removed to 
the vicinity of New York, where he preached in various places until 
his death, which occurred September 18, 1840. 


The settlements at Scotch Street, made in 1774, were followed soon 
after by others farther north in the town of Galway. About four 
years later a colony came from Centrehook, R. I., and located near 
York's Corners, in the northeastern part of the town. Among them 
were Rev. Simeon Smith and his parents, and Simeon Babcock, Reuben 
Mattison and Joseph Brown, his brothers-in-law. Three or four years 

1 A new church was built in 1802, and still a third in 1853, the latter costing $4,500. A year 
later the society purchased a parsonage adjoining the church. Soon after the erection of the 
iirst house of worship Rev. William Schenck of Ballston was engaged to preach here one-third of 
the time, as a stated supply. From 17S9 to 1793 the pulpit was supplied by the presbytery. The 
first regular pastor of the church, Rev. Samuel Sturges, was installed June 21, 1793. He remained 
four years; then the pulpit was vacant until 1800, when Rev. Joseph Sweetman became pastor. 
The pastors succeeding him have been : Revs. Isaac Watts Piatt, 1820-25; John Clancy, 1825-45; 
Richard H. Steele, 1848-50; GeorgeL. Taylor, 1853-54; James N. Crocker, 1855-67; John R. Sanson, 
1869-75; Clarence W. Backus, 1876-82; Raymond Hoyt Stearns, 1883-92; Walter A. Hitchcock, 1893 
to the present time. The interior of the church was remodeled during the summer of 1892. The 
manse burned to the ground March 2, 1896. During the year it was replaced by a new modern 

2 The iirst church, a frame structure, built in 1794, stood in the southeast corner of John Mc- 
Kinley's farm, in the town of Galway. In 1803 a larger house of worship was erected on the 
farm of James Bell in Charlton, on the site of the West Charlton cemetery. William Bunyan 
and Robert Brown were the builders. A new church was built in 1846, and thirty years later 
about $3,000 was expended in alterations and repairs. A parsonage was erected in 1837. Sunday 
schools were maintained for many years in various school districts, but in 1861 these were all 
merged in the school which has since met regularly in the church. 


later about a dozen families from New Jersey formed a little colony in 
the southeastern part of the town, which they called Jersey Hill. This 
colony included Peter Anderson, James Hayes, Richard Paul, John 
Hinman, Dudley Smith, Harrison, Hedding. A short dis- 
tance southwest from this colony John McMartin, Duncan Stewart, 

James Clizbe and Ferguson settled about the same time. Job 

Cornell, and his wife, Sarah Wood, who came from Rhode Island, set- 
tled about three and a half miles north of Galway about 1788 or 1789. 
There their son, Job Cornell, jr., was born in 1789. The latter became 
the father of William Cornell of Mosherville. Lewis Stone and his 
wife, Sally Warren, came from New York to Galway in 1794, where 
their son, Augustus L. Stone, was born. Pilgrim Durkee and his wife, 
Hannah Holmes, settled about half a mile east of West Galway about 
1784, and there raised a family of six sons and five daughters. One 
son, Eber C. Durkee, remained on the homestead for many years. 
Gen. Earl Stimson was an early settler near Galway village, on the hill 
known as Stimson's Corners. He had two stores, a hotel, and a meat 
packing establishment and owned hundreds of acres of land. He was 
very prominent, and was a member of assembly in 1818 and a Repub- 
lican presidential elector in 1840. James Warren was another repre- 
sentative man of the town, representing the county in the Assembly 
from 1799 to 1803. Col. Isaac Gere held many public offices, includ- 
ing member of assembly and State senator. Other prominent men 
who resided in town during the latter years of the eighteenth century 
included Othniel Looker, Nehemiah Con^e, Lewis Rogers, Eli Smith, 
James De Golia, Asa Kellogg, Edmund Wait, Wait Palmer, Josiah 
Bartlett, Isaac Fay, Arnold Lewis, Res'tcome Potter, Dr. Pixley, one 
of the earliest physicians in Galway; Thomas Disbrow, Joseph Wait, 
Ebenezer Smith, Philip Green, Benajah Moon, Wilson Green, Joseph 
Brewster and Nathaniel Keeler. 

Before the close of the century the Scotch settlers who had inhabited 
the southern part of Galway and the northern part of Charlton had 
organized what was then known as the ' ' Scotch Street church, " which 
afterward become the United Presbyterian church of West Charlton.' 
In 1803 a new church was erected in the town of Charlton. A society 
of Friends existed in the town many years ago, but as there are extant 
no known records of that organization, it is impossible to state when, 
where or by whom it was organized or how long it existed. 

' The history of this church is contained in the pages immediately preceding. 

EDINBURGH, 1783-1800. 105 

Tradition says that the First Baptist church of Gal way was organ- 
ized as early as 1778, and this date was officially accepted by the Shafts- 
bury association, of which the church was a member; but the existing 
records go back no farther than 1785. The society was originally com- 
posed of twenty-seven members, who came in a body from Rhode 
Island and settled in the northern part of the town. Rev. Simeon 
Smith became the first pastor in 1785, remaining as such five years. 
He was not ordained to the ministry, however, until 1787. At his 
home the early meetings were held. About 1786 a log meeting-house 
was erected. In 1796 this was abandoned and a church was erected on 
" Baptist Hill," a mile southwest of York's Corners. In 1845 this was 
taken down and rebuilt at York's Corners at an expense of $3,000. 
The Sunday school was organized in J 845. 


While settlements in Edinburgh may have been made, and probably 
were made, during the latter days of the Revolution, the earliest in- 
habitants of whom anything definite is known was Abijah Stark, a 
nephew of General John Stark, the commander of the patriot forces at 
the battle of Bennington. In 1787 he removed from Coleraine, Mass., 
and located on the east side of the Sacandaga river, not far from the 
Providence town line. His family at this time consisted of his wife, 
Elizabeth Newell, and two children. He at once cleared land for a 
farm and soon had a fine tract of lowland along the river under cultiva- 
tion. Here his family increased to eight sons and two daughters. Of 
these, Squire Stark married Louisa Higley and resided until his death 
upon the homestead. 

One of Stark's earliest neighbors, who may have come about the 
same time, or possibly earlier, was Jonathan Anderson. He had sev- 
eral children, one of whom, Aaron, was the father of Dr. John K. An- 
derson, for many years a practicing physician in the town of Edinburgh 
and other parts of New York State. Among others who settled in the 
Stark and Anderson neighborhoods were Nathaniel Bass, Sylvanus 
Westcot and Samuel Randall. 

In 1795 James and Am}"- Partridge came from Connecticut and estab- 
lished a home on the hill near Edinburgh, or Beecher's Hollow. Their 
children were named Thomas, Rebecca, Ruanna, Polly, Frederick, 
August, Roxanna, Eunice and James. The latter, born in 1797, spent 
his entire life on the homestead, which is still in possession of his 


family. His wife was a granddaughter of Philip Fraker, a prominent 
pioneer of Day. Among Partridge's neighbors were William Trow- 
bridge, Hezekiah Ranney, William Davis, Jordan Sprague and Dr. 
Gaylor. Isaac Doming, who located very early in the northeastern 
part of the town, built the first grist mill, about 1793. This mill was 
situated on the north bank of Beecher's creek, at Beecher's Hollow, 
where for many years the brick grist mill has stood. John and Mehit- 
able Sumner came from Ashford, Conn., with five sons, five daughters 
and several grandchildren, about 1797 or 1798, possibly a little earlier, 
and located on the west side of the Sacandaga river, east of Beecher's 
Hollow. Their sons took up farms in the same neighborhood. John 
Sumner, jr., the eldest son, built the first saw mill in town, prior to 
1800. It was located on Batcheller creek, on the opposite side of the 
river, on the site of the present village of Batchellerville. Another 
son, Robert, was the first supervisor of Edinburgh, serving four years, 
from 1801 to 1804 inclusive. The head of the family, John Sumner, 
was a cousin of the father of Charles Sumner, the great statesman. 
Near Beecher's Hollow Samuel Cheadle was another early inhabitant. 
In 1797 he was married, in Edinburgh, to Rhoda Sprague. In the 
same locality Samuel Downing lived prior to 1800. 

On account of the limited population of Edinburgh at the time, there 
were few schools in the town until the early part of the present century. 
The only teacher of those days of whom there is any record was Daniel 
Abbott, from Connecticut, who taught school in 1794. 

The only religious body in Edinburgh prior to the present century 
was a Baptist church organized in 1798 by Rev. Mr. Munro, of Galway. 
No house of worship was built, however, until 1816, and this was razed 
in 1853, when the society ceased to exist. 


Samuel Clark was among the most influential men who settled in the 
town of Malta during Revolutionary times, in 1776 or 1777. He came 
from Newburgh, N. Y. His residence stood opposite that of Samuel 
Smith, whose settlement is referred to in a previous chapter. In it 
was held the first court for Saratoga county. Mr. Clark was a presi- 
dential elector in 1792, voting for George Washington at the second 
election under the constitution. He was also the first supervisor of the 
town of Malta, serving in 1802 and 1803. His home was situated at 
East Line, first on the Ballston side of the line ; but soon afterwards he 

NORTHUMBERLAND, 1783-1800. 107 

built a house on the east side of the boundary line, in Malta. He 
owned about six hundred acres of land. His sons were Jehial, who re- 
moved to Sullivan county ; Samuel, who remained in Saratoga county, 
and James, the father of James H. Clark of East Line. Of his daugh- 
ters, Charlotte became Mrs, Miller of Ballston ; Elizabeth married Rev. 
William Anson and finally settled on the old homestead; Lydia became 
Mrs. Cooper of Cayuga county, and Patty became Mrs. Valentine and 
removed to Michigan. 

Among others who settled in the western part of Malta were Noah 

Olmstead, Rockwell, Ebenezer Millard and Obadiah Tompkins. 

Other early settlers in the town were Luther Landon, who lived north 
of Malta; Dean Chase, at Malta Ridge; Ebenezer Valentine, south 
of Malta; Cornelius Abeel, east of Round Lake; Stephen Ireland, 
near Saratoga lake ; Ebenezer Dibble and Reuben Doolittle. 

Several of the churches which existed in Malta during the closing 
years of the eighteenth century are now extinct. The first church 
of which there is any record was " The Presbyterian Society of East 
Ballston," which was incorporated March 1, 1793, and which may have 
existed some time before that date. Its trustees at that time were 
Uriah Benedict, David Rumsey, Gershom Gilbert, William Dunning, 
Samuel Clark and Joseph Rockwell. The first meeting-house' was 
erected about 1800, and stood on the East Line road about eight hun- 
dred rods south of the residence of Samuel Clark. 

On account of the exciting scenes which occurred in the town of 

> This church afterward became Congregational and the house of worship was removed fur- 
ther south, to the corner of the old cemetery. A few years later the society removed to Malta- 
ville, abandoning its old house at the cemetery and erecting a new one at Maltaville. For several 
years thereafter the church was unsettled, being Congregational part of the time and Presby- 
terian the balance of the time, but in 1843 the Presbyterian church at Malta was organized and 
the old church at Maltaville was abandoned. It is said that the first church, located on the west 
side of the East Line road, in the town of Ballston, was Presbyterian, Rev. Lebbeus Armstrong 
bought the building and moved it to Benedict's Corners, but no society was organized. The 
church became Congregational in 1834, but in 1840 returned to Presbyterianism. The organization 
of the church at Malta (Dunning Street) absorbed most of the Maltaville society, which thereupon 
became extinct. For several years afterward the old building was used by the Methodists and 
for union meetings. 

Another extinct church is the Methodist Episcopal church at East Line. The house of worship, 
now a school house, was built in 1809, but the society was incorporated March 26, 1800, as "the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Stillwater," Malta then being a part of Stillwater. The first offi- 
cers were Jeremiah Hart, Frederick Conley, John Myers and Stephen Hart. Services were dis- 
continued in 1870, the relations of the members being transferred either to Ballston Spa or Jones 


Northumberland during the Revolution and the numerous perils which 
confronted the inhabitants of that town, practically no settlements were 
made within its borders between the time of the Burgoyne invasion 
and the peace of 1783. In that year — or at least as early as 1784 — 
General Peter Gansevoort, the hero of Fort Stanwix during the expedi- 
tion' of General St. Leger in 1777, purchased the old Hugh Munroe 
property in the northern part of the town. This property had been 
owned by the Tory Munroe, who joined Burgoyne's expedition and 
who also made the attack upon Ballston in 1780 ; but the State confis- 
cated it and sold it to General Gansevoort. This gallant warrior re- 
sided in Albany, but spent his summers upon his newly-acquired estate, 
a fine one, in that portion of Northumberland which ever since has 
borne his name. He was not a permanent resident, but his interests 
at Gansevoort were so numerous and he spent so much of his time there 
that he certainly deserves the place accorded him in the history of the 
town. General Herman Gansevoort, his son, built the famous Ganse- 
voort mansion. The family made frequent purchases of real estate 
until they finally owned a large tract in the northwestern part of the 

General Gansevoort made great improvements to the old Munroe 
property. Soon after his arrival he found the irons and stones of the 
Munroe mill hidden in the woods, and used them in the construction of 
new mills. He improved his land, built good roads and made the 
country about his home as inviting as possible for newcomers. 

James McCreedy ' and John Terhune removed from Fishkill in 1785 
and located on land purchased of Mr. Campbell of Schenectady. Mr. 
McCreedy's farm was that which, many years afterward, was occupied 
by Abram Marshall. Mr. Terhune's farm adjoined it. Both had served 
in the American army during the Revolution, and they were related by 
marriage. Both families became prominent in the afi^airs of the town. 
Nicholas Vandenburgh removed into the town about 1790 and bought a 
farm north of the 1,600 acre tract occupied in 1772 by Wynant, John 
and Cornelius Vandenburgh. He was supposed to be a brother of the 
latter three. "Captain " Samuel Lewis ■' bought a farm just after the 

» It is worthy of note that five generations of the McCreedy family served this country in the 
various wars in which it has been engaged. James McCreedy, his father, and his grandfather all 
fought with the American army in the Revolution. William McCreedy, his son, who lived for 
many years in Schuylerville, served in the war of 1818, as did his three brothers, Jeremiah, Gama- 
liel and Charles. William McCreedy's sons' served in the Union army in the Civil war. 

=> Samuel Lewis had been a lieutenant in the force under General Gansevoort at Fort Stanwix. 
He left three sons, Prof. Taylor Lewis, a professor in Union College, Schenectady; General Samuel 
Lewis, of Gansevoort; and Morgan Lewis, of Gansevoort. All are deceased. 

CORINTH, 1783-1800. 109 

war of a Mr. Graham. Ebenezer Bacon came from Connecticut in 1794 
and settled at what has since been known as " Bacon Hill." He built 
a large tavern at that place and also ran a store for many years. This 
hamlet was quite an important place until after the opening of the 
Champlain canal, when most of the trade was diverted to Northumber- 
land and Schuylerville. As far as can be learned Bacon's store was the 
first in town. Evert Walker and Reed Lewis were other early inhab- 
itants at Bacon Hill, before 1800. The latter married a daughter of 
Mr. Bacon. He did an extensive business as harnessmaker and saddler. 
He had two sons and a daughter. 

A short distance east of Gansevoort a number of families from New 
Jersey settled before 1800. Among them were Colonel Sidney Berry 
and the Craig and Nevins families. The former became a very prom- 
inent citizen, serving frequently in official positions. He was the first 
supervisor of the town, serving in 1798 and 1799. His daughter Betsey 
married James Rogers, son of General Thomas Rogers. He died in 
1810, and she subsequently married Esek Cowen,' who afterward be- 
came one of the most eminent lawyers in the United States. John 
Hammond located about 1790 on a farm between Bacon Hill and North- 
umberland. Thomas Hartwell was the first settler in the vicinity of 
Brownsville. William Copeland was another early inhabitant. His 
wife was a daughter of Captain Palmer. Others who located in town 
during this period included John De Monts, above Fort Miller, who 
maintained a ferry at that point for several years ; James Gamble, James 

Cramer, Jared Palmer and Buel. Charles Carpenter had the first 

store at Northumberland, about 1800. Among the early physicians in 
town were Dr. Jesse Billings, grandfather of Jesse Billings, a wealthy 
boat builder and capitalist of the town at present; Dr. Collins and Dr. 

Little is known of the early schools of Northumberland. Mr. Fra- 
zier was one of the first teachers, but where his school stood is not 
shown by the records. Isaac B. Payne, John Metcalf and Robert Mc- 
Gregor were among the early school commissioners. There is also no 
existing record of any church in the town before the present century. 

One of the first to come to what is now the town of Corinth during 

1 A sketch of Judge, Cowen will be found in the chapter on the Bench and Bar of Saratoga 


the Revolution was Benjamin Ida, formerly of Jonesville, in Clifton 
Park, who located in the Clothier neighborhood in 1777. He had a 
family of six children; Thomas, Benjamin J., Timothy, Ebenezer, Pa- 
tience and Hannah. A large number of his descendants reside in the 
town. William Grippen (or Grippin) came the following year. Among 
his neighbors were Hathaway Randall and Lawrence Barber. Jona- 
than Hodges, who had served in the American army in the Revolution, 
removed from Rhode Island to Greenfield in 1783, and soon afterward 
settled in Corinth. The late Claudius Hodges of Corinth was a son. 
Daniel Boardman came to Jessup's Landing soon after the war, where, 
in 1792 or 1793, he built a grist mill and store. He became prominent 
and very wealthy, and used much of his money for the advancement 
of religion, education and public enterprises generally. His sister, 
Rosanna Boardman, the wife of Benjamin Cowles, and her husband 
came to Jessup's Landing at the same time, probably about 1789 or 
1790. Their children were Nathaniel, Zina H., Chauncey, Orlando, 
B. Sedgwick, Henry E., Daniel H., Hannah and Rosetta. Mr. Cowles 
became a man of great prominence, and held various public offices. 
He was elected supervisor of the town of Hadley (of which Corinth 
then formed a part) in 1801 and held that office until the organiza- 
tion of Corinth in 1818 ; then was the first supervisor of the new town, 
serving two years. Again he served in the same capacity in 1826, 
1833, 1834: and 1842. In 1812 he was made associate judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and in 1815 he was made master in chancery 
and also elected to the Assembly. For many years he served as 
justice of the peace. Stephen Ashley was another early settler at 
Jessup's Landing, where, in 1800, he open the first tavern. 

South Corinth, which is located south of the center of the town, was 
first settled about 1790, though there were a few inhabitants near by a 
few years earlier. Among these were Adam Comstock,' who came 

' Adam Comstock was born in Warwick, R. I., in 1740; in 1763 he married Margaret McGregor, 
and they had a family of seventeen children. At the beginning of the Revolution he entered the 
army and soon became a colonel, and served under Washington, being one of the soldiers who 
endured the hardships at Valley Forge. He served with distinctidn. After the war he was 
elected to the Rhode Island Legislature. In 1785 he removed to Schenectady and the following 
year came to Corinth. Two years later he ejected the iirst frame building in town, but soon re- 
moved to Ballston, then successively to Milton, Greenfield, Hadley, then back to Corinth. In 
1792, while residing in Milton, he was elected to the Assembly, and was successively re-elected 
for twelve years. In 1793 he was appointed associate judge of the Court of Common Pleas; in 
1794 was appointed one of the first justices of the peace of Greenfield; from 1805 to 1808 was a 
member of the State Senate, holding a seat in the Council of Appointment during that period ; 
and in 1804 was a presidential elector, voting for Thomas Jefferson. He died in Corinth April 10, 
1829, and was buried in the family burial ground on his farm. Adam Comstock's son, Oliver Q, 

MOREAU, 1783-1800. Ill 

from Schenectady in 1786 and bought a good-sized farm on the south- 
ern boundary of the town. He became one of the most prominent 
men, not only in the town but in the county. In 1796 Nathaniel Ed- 
wards ' located about a mile south of the village of South Corinth. He 
and his family were prominently identified with the welfare and pros- 
perity of their adopted town. Frederick Parkman, who came to town 
in 1796, had the first tavern; and the grist mill which he built on Kay- 
aderosseras creek was the first between Ballston and Jessup's Landing, 
He was a grandfather of Frederick Parkman of Jessup's Landing. 
Jeremiah Eddy had a blacksmith shop near by in 1796 or 1797. John 
Purqua' settled about a mile north of South Corinth two or three years 
earlier than this. Among other early inhabitants of the town were 
Silas Nims, Jonathan- Deuel, who had, at South Corinth, the first lumber 
mills in town, in 1800; Zebedee Mosher, Jephtha Clark, Timothy 
Brown, Washington Chapman, James Cooper, Elias Lindsey, Stephen 
Bray ton and William Bray ton. 

As far as can be learned no school existed in Corinth until 1800, when 
one was built at South Corinth and another at Jessup's Landing. There 
also is no record of the establishment of any church within the limits 
of the present town during the eighteenth century. 


Probably the most prominent man to settle in the town of Moreau 
after the close of the Revolution was General Thomas Rogers, who had 
been a colonel in the American army. He settled in 1783 upon the 
farm formerly owned by David Jones, the young Tory who was the 
betrothed husband of Jeanie McCrea, who was killed by the Indians 
while they were carrying her to the British camp in 1777, as described 
in a preceding chapter. The Jones estate was confiscated by the 
State and sold to General Rogers,' who is said to have bargained for it 

Comstock, was a member of assembly from Seneca county in 1810 and 1812, and a member of 
Congress for three terms, beginning in 1813. The latter's son, Oliver C. Comstock, jr., served 
several years as a member of the Michigan State Legislature; and Noah D. Comstock, a great- 
grandson of Adam Comstock, served several years in the Wisconsin State Legislature. 

1 Nathaniel Edwards served with the English army in the French and Indian war, and during 
the Revolution was a captain in the patriot army, enlisting from Connecticut. His son, Isaac, 
enlisted at the age of sixteen and served the entire eight years. The latter had six sons and one 
daughter. Of these Hon. Edward Edwards of South Corinth was a member of assembly in 1848, 
1864 and 1865. He became a large landowner and prominent merchant. 

2 Mr. Purqua had served, against his wishes, in a Hessian regiment engaged by Great Brit- 
ain to help her put down the American Revolution. Three years after coming to America he 
deserted and entered the American army, serving until the close of the war. 

' General Thomas Rogers is said to have been a lineal descendant of John Rogers, who was 


with Jones before the war. The population of the town was consider- 
ably increased in 1790 by the immigration thereto of a large number of 
settlers, some of whom came from Connecticut and some from other 

parts of Saratoga county. Paulinus Potter, Daniel Hamlin and 

Churchill came that year from Connecticut. All were related by 
marriage. Mr. Hamlin's home was what was afterwards known as the 
Tearse farm. He had three sons — Daniel, Lent and Truman. Several 
descendants still live in the town, where they are prominent citizens. 
Moses Lewis came from Connecticut in the same year. Dr. Billy J. 
Clark,' who became one of the most influential and generally beloved 
citizens of the town, located in 1799 at Clark's Corners. He and Dr. 
Littlefield were the earliest physicians in town. Dexter Whipple and 
Elisha Danford located east of South Glens Falls about 1800. They 
were brothers-in-law and came from Connecticut. Oliver Hubbard, 

Ichabod Hawley, Andrews and Henry Martin were also early 

settlers in that vicinity. John Albrow located near Fortsville, and 
Ezra Hooper and Irenaeus Hulbert at Clark's Corners. Lewis Brown 
was another early inhabitant. 

Among the early teachers were Dr. Gillett, Asahel Potter and 
Messrs. Sherman, Minor aud Beebe. 

The only religious organization in Moreau in the eighteenth century 
was the First Baptist church, which was organized in 1795.'' Two 

burned at the stake as a heretic in England, because he preached against Romanism, the estab- 
lished religion o£ England. He had three sons— Thomas, James and Halsey. He was the first 
supervisor of Moreau, serving in the office from 1805 to 1808 inclusive. One of his sons married a 
daughter of Colonel Sidney Berry of Northumberland and who afterward became the wife of 
Hon. Esek Cowen. The Rogers family were all infiuential and prominently identified with the 
early development of Moreau. 

* From existing records, enhanced by tradition, it would appear that Dr. Clark was a man of 
almost unbounded influence. He studied medicine with Dr. Wicker of Easton, located across 
the river in Washington county. Dr. Wicker had an exclusive practice in Moreau and North- 
umberland, and it was upon his advice that young Dr. Clark located permanently in Moreau. 
He at once became identified with the best interests of the town, and was honored by being 
chosen supervisor in 1809, to succeed Thomas Rogers, and again in 1831. In the latter year he be- 
gan his term of service as one of the school commissioners, and assisted in the work of dividing 
the town into six school districts. He was also the organizer, in 1808, of the Moreau and North- 
umberland Temperance Society. The first meeting of this society was held April 13, 1808, at 
Clark's Corners, and upon the organization of the society Dr. Clark was chosen secretary. The 
society existed many years and was a great power for good in the community, and even to this 
day Dr. Billy J. Clark's name is frequently heard mentioned as the pioneer temperance reformer 
in Saratoga county. 

» Little is known of the early history of this church. It was served by these pastors in early 
times: Calvin Hulbert, Joseph H. EUice, James Rogers, Elisha Blakeman Charles Williams, John 
C. Holt, Harvey Slade, J. H. Dwyer, Joseph W. Sawyer, R. O. Dwyer, Ebenezer Hall, L. L. Still, 
Amos R. Wells and George Fisher. 

WILTON, 1783-1800. 113 

years later it was admitted into the Shaftsbury association. In 1805 it 
joined the Saratoga association. 


James and William McGregor, who came to Wilton in 1787, became 
the most influential inhabitants of that town in their day. James Mc- 
Gregor located a short distance north of Wilton, where he built a story 
and a half frame house His sons were John, James, William, Alexan- 
der, Peter, Duncan and Gregor. He had three daughters. Elizabeth 
became the wife of Horatio Buell; Margaret married Lewis Thompson 
and Mary Ann married Nicholas Vanderwerker. Duncan McGregor 
located in Glens Falls, and was the chief mover in maldng Mount 
McGregor, north of Wilton, a popular summer resort. William Mc- 
Gregor, brother of the first James, settled east of Wilton, his home 
being about a mile from that of his brother. His sons were John, 
William, James and Alexander. Of his three daughters — Ann, Char- 
lotte and Elizabeth — the first named became Mrs. Emerson, and the 
last named Mrs. Peter Mclntyre. 

The town had a number of inhabitants, however, when the Mc- 
Gregors located there. During the early years of the Revolution — 
certainly as early as 1775 — Reuben Stiles, who came from Rhode 
Island, removed with his family to Wilton, then known as Palmer 
Town, and built a home at what was afterwards known as Stiles's Cor- 
ners. He had a family of eight sons and one daughter — John, David, 
Reuben, Eli, Peter, Isaac, Johnson, Henry and Angeline, who married 
James D. King. Eli, Isaac and Peter settled in Wilton and became 
men of prominence. Near Mr. Stiles lived Benjamin Phillips, a hardy 
Vermont Yankee, who later opened a tavern. The children of the two 
families intermarried, and their descendants are numerous. Stephen 
and Ebenezer King, brothers, came from Dutchess county in 1775. 
The former opened a tavern after the war, which is said to have been 
the first in the town. The latter is believed to have been the first set- 
tler at Wiltonville. William King was another early inhabitant and 
tavern-keeper, but probably was a representative of another family. 
John Laing, a hardy Scotchman, located near Emerson's Corners about 
1775, where he erected a saw mill and opened a store. He conducted 
both up to the time of his death, which occurred in the spring of 1793. 
Peter Johnston, also a Scotchman and a brother-in-law of Laing, 
came to town about the same time and located in the same neighbor- 



hood. Stafford Carr came from Rhode Island about 1794. John Boyce 
came soon after the close of the Revolution and settled in the south- 
eastern part of the town. Robert Milligan, James Milligan, Enoch 
Place and John Kendrick lived in the same neighborhood. In 1790 
Broadstreet Emerson built a home a short distance north of what after- 
ward became known as Emerson's Corners; and Dudley and Joseph 
Emerson, his brothers, soon afterward located in the same neighbor- 
hood. All the Emersons came from Lyme, Conn. They became 
wealthy and prominent men, having a great influence in the manage- 
ment of public affairs. Broadstreet Emerson was an early magistrate, 
serving for many years. Edward Bevins was an early settler, about 
1780, in the vicinity of the old Loudon church. He served as a private 
and later as a drum major in the Revolutionary war, and participated 
in the battle of Bunker Hill. David Adams came from Connecticut 
about the same time and settled near him. A man named Slate settled 
about 1794 in the southwestern part of the town, where he built a mill 
on Loughberry lake. 

Isaac Ostrom is believed to have been the second storekeeper in town. 
He began business in 1795, some time after John Laing. Another 
early store was kept at Emerson's Corners by Walter Doe. Nathan 
Hinckley had the first inn there. Another, near by, was run by Dud- 
ley Emerson. 


The territory embraced within the limits of the town of Clifton Park, 
lying adjacent to Half Moon and near Schenectady, was populated 
early in the eighteenth century, but settlements were almost suspended 
during the Revolutionary period on account of the repeated depreda- 
tions of the Indians in that locality. 

Edward Rexford and his family came to Clifton Park from Eng- 
land and located near what is now Rexford's Flats a year or two 
before the Revolution. They remained there during that conflict, 
the head of the family being away from home much of the time in 
the service of the American government as a patriot soldier They 
first built, a log house on the lowland; but soon after they erected 
a substantial frame house on the site now occupied by the residence 
of James B. McKain. Mr. Rexford's three sons — Elisha. Edward and 
Eleazer — all settled in town. His daughter, Luzina, married Ephraim 
Knowlton and continued to reside in town. 

CLIFTON PARK, 1783-1800. 115 

Among others who settled in town, a few years later than did Mr. 
Rexford, probably about 1776 or 1777, was Nathan Garnsey, whose de- 
scendants became numerous and influential. His brother had preceded 
him ; but being a Tory felt constrained to remove to a more congenial 
location, after having transferred his property to Nathan Garnsey, who 
was a patriot. One of his daughters married a young man named 
Kennedy, who became the father of Garnsey and Roscius R. Kennedy 
of Jonesville. Others who lived in town as early as 1790, and perhaps 
several years before that date, included the following: 

James Jones, who kept an inn near Jonesville, which place was named 
in his honor; Simeon Van Camp, who had a tavern on the site of Clif- 
ton Park village ; Hicks, who also had a tavern about a mile from 

that of Van Camp; Adrian Hegeman, whose home was on "Sugar 
Hill ; " Samuel Sweatland, Israel Brooks, Robert Eldridge and Solo- 
mon Waite, who lived near Jonesville; Richard Peters, north of Visch- 
er's Ferry; James Groom, who lived near the corners which still bear 
his name ; John Terpenny, who lived in the Groom neighborhood ; John 
Knowlton, Jeremiah Cramer, Jacob Fort and Abraham Moe, who lived 
at Moe's Corners. The latter was a man of wide influence, and served 
as town clerk from 1791 to 1828. Thomas Young, father of Hon. Sam- 
uel Young, settled between Burnt Hills and Groom's Corners in 1785. 
He came from Berkshire, Mass. His son Samuel' became a man of 
great prominence. Isaac Southard located in town in 1800. Two of 
his sons, John and Jonas, remained in Clifton Park, and another son, 
Samuel L. , settled in Ballston. 

There is in existence no record of any schools in this town prior to 
1800, though schools undoubtedly were maintained, owing to the large 

The only church which was established in Clifton Park during the 
century of which we are writing was the Baptist church, which was 
constituted February 12, 1795, by Mathew Palmer, Philip King, James 
Groom, John Warren, Rufus Morse, Rebecca Palmer and Eunice Cross- 
man. Rev. Abijah Peck, the first pastor, was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion. In 1784 he settled in Galway, became actively interested in 
church work and February 9, 1793, was licensed to preach. He was 
the founder of the Baptist church of Clifton Park." 

^ See chapter on the Bench and Bar. 
3 This church had a membership of thirty-six in 1800. Rev. Abijah Peck, the first preacher, 
was not regularly ordained until March 12, 1801. The church had (in 1796) joined the old Shafts- 
bury association, not joining the Saratoga association until 1834. 



There were no permanent settlements in Hadley, as far as can be 
learned, before the Revolution, and very few prior to the nineteenth 
century. Practically nothing is known of Richard Hilton, who is sup- 
posed to have been the first inhabitant. The first pioneer of whom 
anything definite can be learned was Alexander Stewart, who settled 
in the southeastern part of the town, on the banks of the Hudson 
river, in the spring of 1790. He had a farm of one hundred and fifty 
acres of rich flatlands, which he cleared and cultivated. He and his 
wife, Elizabeth, were the parents of nine children — Nancy, John, Neal, 
David, Charles, Daniel, Betsey, James and William. Henry Walker 
came about the same time and settled on the north bank of the Sacan- 
daga river, at its junction with the Hudson. He was the first to locate 
on the site of the village of Hadley. As early as 1791 a saw mill was 
erected in the same neighborhood by Delane & Hazzard. 

Six years after the settlement of Alexander Stewart and Henry 
Walker, David Dayton bought the adjoining farm and founded a home. 
His family consisted of five sons — Joel, Henry, Telam, Orange and 
Erastus. Elijah Ellis came from Shaftsbury, Vt., in 1800 south of the 
Sacandaga, at its junction with the Hudson. A short distance up the 
former river he built a saw mill, and finally removed about two miles 
to the southwest of his first home. He had a family of eleven children, 
Joseph Gilbert, who had fought with the American army in the Rev- 
olution, was an early settler at Hadley Hill, but may not have come 
until 1801 or 1802. 

As early as 1791 a school was taught in the Stewart neighborhood by 
a man named Wilson. Another was started soon afterward by a man 
named Pitcher. Both school houses were built of logs, with slabs for 
seats. There were no desks. No churches were established in town 
until well along in the present Century. 


There is no knowledge of any settlements in Greenfield prior to the 
Revolutionary period. Tradition says that Thomas Root and Anthony 
Haggerty were located in town in 1778, but nothing about their lives 
or place of residence is known. The first permanent settlements 
probably were made in the spring of 1786 by William, John, Benjamin 
and Charles Deake, the latter's son, Charles Deake, jr., and Gershom 

GREENFIELD. 1783-1800. 117 

Morehouse, who located near Middle Grove. About the same time 
William Scott located at North Greenfield, originally known as Scott's 
Corners ; Isaac Reynolds, near Greenfield Centre, and the Fitch family 
at St. John's Corners. The St. John family were pioneers, but very 
little is known of them. St. John's Corners was named after this 
family. In the same year Isaac Reynolds bought a farm north of 
Greenfield Centre. He had five sons — Isaac, Darius, Stephen, Jere- 
miah and David. Isaac, Stephen and Jeremiah remained in town. 
Gershom Morehouse, mentioned above, who came from Greenfield, 
Conn., built the first saw mill in town, at Middle Grove. In 1788 he 
returned to his native home, married Hannah Smith ; brought his bride 
to his new home and continued to operate his farm and mill. In 1792 
he built the first grist mill in town, on the banks of the Kayaderosseras 
creek. The same year he sold both his mills to Dr. Isaac Voungs and 
removed to a farm a short distance away. He built, for various per- 
sons, nearly all the early mills in Greenfield, and amassed quite a for- 
tune for those days. 

The Deake' family, who came from Rhode Island, were prominent in 
the affairs of the town in the early days. Their home was located 
about a mile and a half north of Middle Grove. Charles Deake was 
the head of the family. The others whose names have been mentioned 
were his sons. Several of his descendants became men of prominence. 
William Scott, the pioneer of Scott's Corners (North Greenfield), emi- 
grated from Ireland a few years before the Revolution. He joined the 
American army at the beginning of the war, fought at Bunker Hill 
and remained in the service until peace had been declared. He rose 
from a private through the various grades until he became a colonel. 
He was the first supervisor of Greenfield, served many years as a 
justice of the peace, and was a prominent Mason. 

The year 1787 witnessed many additions to the population of Green- 
field. In that year John Benedict settled in the southern part of the 
town, where he remained for twelve years. Nathaniel Seymour, Alex- 
ander H. Scott and Benjamin Ingham located near him about the 
same time. The latter's son, Rufus, settled in the northern part of the 
town, Benjamin Clinch started the first store in town, at Porter's Cor- 
ners, in that year. James Vail, also an early merchant at Porter's Cor- 
ners, located there in 1787. Isaac Demmon settled at 'Locust Grove; 
and Caleb Sherman a short distance north of Middle Grove. The lat- 

1 The name is now written Dake. It appears as Deake in the early records of the town. 


ter was a native of Rhode Island, but had resided in Washington 
county, N. Y., previous to his removal to Greenfield. 

In 1789 Joel Reynolds opened the first tavern in town, at the place 
now owned and occupied by Dr. lanthus G. Johnson, at Greenfield 
Centre. In the same year Rev. EHas Gilbert settled near the southern 
boundary of the town. At the beginning of the Revolution he was 
living at Newport, R. I. After various changes of residence in New 
England he came to Pittstown, Rensselaer county, N. Y. While 
working at his trade, that of cabinet making, in the latter town, he be- 
gan to preach. Soon after coming to Greenfield he was chiefly instru- 
mental in organizing the Congregational church, of which he became 
the first pastor. He died in 1814. 

Jonathan Hoyt an(i Jonathan Wood also came about 1789. The latter 
lived about a mile east of the Congregational church founded by Rev. 
Elias Gilbert.' His two sons, James and Jeremiah Wood, were graduated 
from Union College and became ministers. Walter Hewitt located in 
town in 1790. For many years he served as deacon in the Congregational 
church, and was one of the prime movers in the organization of the 
Greenfield Total Abstinence society. Daniel Cronkhite, who came from 
Hillsdale, Columbia county, N. Y., settled in the town in 1791. John 
Pettit, a native of Berkshire county, Mass., who had served in the patriot 
army, purchased a farm a little north of Greenfield Centre in 1793 and 
removed upon it with his wife, Mary Barnes. He became one of the most 
influential men in the town.' Peter Robinson came from Washington 
county, N. Y., about 1793 and located near Greenfield Centre. His 
four brothers — Peleg, Sanford, Giles and Benjamin — came soon after- 
ward and settled in the Haggerty Hill neighborhood. Benjamin S. 
Robinson, a representative citizen of Greenfield, is a grandson of Ben- 
jamin Robinson. Esek Tourtelot located about two miles north of 
Porter's Corners in 1795. Nathaniel Daniels built the first cloth-dress- 
ing and fulling mill in town in 1794. This mill stood on the north branch 
of the Kayaderosseras creek, about two miles north of Saratoga Springs 
village. Dr. Isaac Youngs, who, as described in the foregoing, bought 
the first mill built by Gershom Morehouse, was one of the first — per- 

' Upon the erection of the town Mr. Pettit was appointed a justice of the peace, and served 
in that capacity forty-one consecutive years. He was supervisor from 1818-1815 inclusive, and 
was a member of assembly in 1817 and 1833. Three of his sons— John, James and Paris— served in 
the war of 1818. John was carried to Quebec as a prisoner and Paris was killed in battle at 
Sackett's Harbor. Another son, William R., removed to Gorham, Ontario county, N. Y., where 
he was elected to the Assembly in 1858. John Pettit died January 1, 1840. 

GREENFIELD, 1783-1800. 119 

haps the first — physician of Greenfield, but he practiced very little, 
confining his time to his mill property. Elihu Anthony, who located 
in the north part of the town in 1792, was for many years pastor of the 
Friends' Society in North Greenfield. He was an orthodox Quaker, 
and lived in Greenfield until his death, in 1863. 

One of the most prominent men in Greenfield for many years was 
Asahel Porter.' He first located at St. John's Corners about 1793, 
where he started a store and a tavern. Before 1800 he removed to the 
corners which bore his name, where he remained in the mercantile 
business until his death, which occurred in 1821. He was the richest 
man in town. 

Noah Weed bought three hundred acres of land in South Greenfield, 
in 1793, from Walter Hewitt, James Dunning and Daniel Crawford. 
He came from Cambridge, Washington county. Salmon Child, a na- 
tive of Connecticut, son of a captain in the American army in the Rev- 
olution and himself a soldier in that war, came to Greenfield with his 
father soon after the close of the war and settled in the southern part 
of the town. He was a man of the highest character, and held many 
offices of trust and responsibility.' Esek Cowen" was another distin- 
guished resident of Greenfield, whither he came with his father, Jo- 
seph Cowen, in 1793. The Fitch family referred to in the foregoing 
came from Connecticut and settled at St. John's Corners, east of Green- 
field Centre, in 1786. They comprised Ebenezer Fitch, Giles Fitch, 
Capt. John St. John, who married Hannah Fitch, and a relative named 
Smith. The two first named, brothers, were grandsons of Thomas 
Fitch, governor of Connecticut. Shortly after their arrival Maj. Jabez 
Fitch, another brother, came from Fairfield, Conn., and bought five 
hundred acres of land near Locust Grove, where he built a grist mill 
and saw mill. The first frame dwelling house in Greenfield was built 
by Ebenezer Fitch. In 1798 the latter moved to Stafford's Bridge, hav- 
ing sold his farm to Ephraim Bullock, grandfather of Judge Augustus 
^ockes. Maj. Jabez Fitch, Giles Fitch and Captain St. John all served 
in the Revolution. Hannah, daughter of Ebenezer Fitch, became the 
wife of Alpheus BuUard of SchuylerviUe and the mother of David A. 

* From 1791 to 1801 inclusive Mr. Porter represented his town on the board of supervisors, and 
was at one time chairman of that body. He served in the Assembly in 1805 and 1806, and was 
sheriff two terms, from 1807 to 1819. He was also a prominent Mason, and when he died in April, 
1821, prominent men from many parts of the State attended his funeral. One of his daughters 
became the wife of the Hon. William A. Beach, the eminent jurist. 
' See chapter on the Bench and Bar. 


Bullard of Schuylerville and Gen. E. F. Bullard of Saratoga Springs. 
Howell Gardiner, who located in the southern part of the town in 1799, 
on a farm purchased of John Benedict, became a man of influence in 
the community, and was frequently called to public ofHce.' 

Among other residents of Greenfield prior to 1800 were Dr. Asa C. 
Barney, one of the first physicians in the town ; Captain Allen Hale, an 
officer in the Revolution; Nathan Medbery, Zenas Winsor, Israel Will- 
iams, Stephen Comstock, John Smith, Elijah Smith, John Weed, Abra- 
ham Weed, Joseph Wood, Daniel Crawford, Jeremiah Westcott, Prince 
Wing, Lewis Graves, Ambrose Cole, Abner Williams, Paul Anthony, 
Samuel Bailey, Jonathan Deuel, Job Whipple, Esek Whipple, Peter 
Hendricks, Robert Early, John Harris, Benjamin Grinnell, Olney La- 
tham, William Belden, Jared Weed, John King, Ezekiel Harris, Joseph 
Mitchell, Gideon Hoyt and Israel Rose. 

The first school of which a record has been preserved was opened 
about 1795 in a log house two miles east of Greenfield Centre. Rich- 
ard Fish and Slaughter Close were early teachers. Twenty years after 
the former, in connection with Jeremiah Goodrich, had a private school 
in that vicinity. It became very successful and finally was removed to 

The first church in town was the First Congregational church of 
Greenfield, which, as stated in preceding pages, was established through 
the efforts of Rev. Elias Gilbert. The organization was effected in July, 
1790. Among those who signed the covenant were Elnathan Scofield, 
William Belden, Benjamin Ingham, Jonathan Wood, Joseph Wood, 
Nathaniel Seymour, Isaac Weed, John Benedict, Jonathan Hoyt, James 
Dunning, Stephen Crawford, Elisha Scofield, Enoch Kellogg, Nathan 
Fitch, Daniel Calkins, David Calkins, Eli Weed, Elias Gilbert, Mary 
Scofield, Priscilla Belden, Mary Westcott, Martha Wood, Mary Sey- 
mour, Hannah Weed, Lucy Benedict, Elizabeth Hoyt and Abigail Hoyt. 
The first officers chosen were : Deacons, Elnathan Scofield, Benjamin 
Ingham; clerk, Gilbert Weed." The year following the First Baptist 

' Howell Gardiner was descended in the fifth generation, from Lyon Gardiner, who purchased 
Gardiner's Island, L. I , from the Indians in 1639. His father was Jeremiah Gardiner of East- 
hampton, L. I. He was born January 6, 1776, at Easthampton, and died in Greenfield February 
28, 1836. He was a pillar in the Congregational church and one of the principal organizers of the 
Greenfield Total Abstinence society in 1809. For twenty consecutive years he served as justice 
of the peace, was a member of assembly in 1815, 1827 and 1831, and o presidential elector in 1820, 
voting for James Monroe. 

2 In September, 1790, this church joined the convention of churches at Bennington, Vt., but in 
1797 it united with the Albany presbytery. The first church was erected in 1793, and stood in the 

PROVIDENCE, 1783-1800. 131 

church of Greenfield Centre was organized by Samuel Bailey, Benja- 
min Close, Daniel W. Bailey, Mrs. Fanny Bailey, Daniel Wood, Ezra 
Weld and several others. Rev. Joseph Craw was the first minister. 
No house of worship was built until several years after the founding of 
the society.' A society of Friends was established in town prior to 
1800. Their meeting house was located a short distance north of 
Scott's Corners. Elihu Anthony and Benjamin Angell were early 


While tradition says that two men named Seth Kellogg and Nathan- 
iel Wells became the first settlers of Providence after the Revolution, 
unfortunately nothing is now known of them. The first permanent 
settler as nearly as can be learned, was Jonathan Finch. He was one 
of the minutemen, residing in Dutchess county prior to and during the 
Revolution. At its close, either in 1783 or 1784, he removed to the 
western part of Providence, where he purchased a farm and spent the 
remainder of his life. He was a deeply religious man. Upon the or- 
ganization of the Baptist church he received a license to preach, was 
soon afterward ordained to the ministry, and for several years served 
as pastor of the young church. In the war of I8I2 he served as a chap- 
lain. Dr. Henry C. Finch of Broadalbin, son of S. Rogers Finch and 
Matilda Shew Finch, is a great-grandson of Jonathan Finch. 

southern part of the town. In 1833 it was rebuilt on the opposite side of the road, near its orig- 
inal Site. In 1855 it was newly roofed and painted and a new parsonage replaced that built in 
1831. In 1860 the church was repaired and somewhat enlarged. 

^ The first church edifice was erected' in 1816 and 1817. The society joined the Shaftsbury as- 
sociation in 1792, and united with the Saratoga association in 1805. The pastors have been : Jo- 
seph Craw, Israel Craw, Isaac Brewster, Elisha Blackman, James N. Seaman, Benjamin St. John, 
Samuel M. Plumb, Timpthy Day, Henry C. Skinner, H. H. Haft, T. T. St. John, O. H. Capron, R. 
Hastings, G. Farr, Edwin Westcott, William Bowen, J. L. Barlow, C. C. Hart, F. S. Park, Jacob 
Timberman, E. Jewett, C. F. Blackman, Levi Wheelock and Rodney D. Andrews. 

The Second Baptist church of Greenfield, known for many years as " the Daketown church," 
was constituted in 1794. It was located about a mile and a half northwest from Middle Grove, in 
the Dake neighborhood. Its pastors were : Abel Brown, John Lewis and Timothy Day. The 
church became extinct in 1832. 

The Third Baptist church of Greenfield was constituted in 1795, became a member of the 
Shaftsbury association in 1796 and of the Saratoga association in 1805. Among its pastors were 

Hadley, Jonathan Nichols, Timothy Day, Jacob St. John, T. T. St. John and S. Carr. The 

church assumed the title of the Second church upon the dissolution of the latter in 1822, gave up 
its distinct organization and united with the church at Greenfield Centre. 

2 About 1827 there was a division among this society, and those calling themselves the Hicks- 
ites separated from the Orthodox society and built a meeting-house a short distance east of 
Scott's Corners. The Orthodox society became extinct in 1863, and the Hicksites were dissolved 
soon after. 


Thomas Shankland was the next permanent settler of whom anything- 
definite is known. He located in 1785 or 1786 at Hagedorn's Mills, 
where he built the first saw mill in town. Soon afterward he erected 
a grist mill. He also kept a tavern, the first in Providence, as far as is 
known. About 1792 he sold his property to Peter Morey, who, about 
1806, sold it to Jonathan Hagedorn, from whom the place was named. 
Martin Sleezer located west of the centre of the town about 1784. 
David Barker and Samuel S. Barker removed to Providence from Dart- 
mouth, Mass., in 1796. The former opened a tavern near what has 
since has been known as Barkerville. He and his brother, Samuel S., 
built at that point a saw mill and grist mill, then a tannery and a shoe 
shop, and for several years conducted an extensive business. They 
were men of prominence in the community, and left numerous descend- 
ants. Jonah Rockwell, who settled in town about 1790, possibly earlier, 
was a son of Stephen Rockwell, who came to Milton from Dutchess 
county in 1784. He married Anna Temple, an'd had four sons and two 
daughters. Trustram Duel came from Dutchess county also in 1797 
and built the first blacksmith shop in town, near Hagedorn's Mills. He 
had seven children, l^athaniel Sowl, who for many years had followed 
the sea as a whaler, living at Dartmouth, Mass., came to Providence 
in 1787. William Clark, also from Dutchess county, settled near An- 
tioch Hill, a mile and a half north of York's Corners, in 1790. The late 
William V. Clark, for many years supervisor of the town, and Mrs. Martha 
A. Fuller of Saratoga Springs were his grandchildren, and Hon. Isaiah 
Fuller of Saratoga Springs, for many years warden of Clinton State 
prison at Dannemora, is a great-grandson. 

A grist mill was built at Fayville, in the northwestern corner of the 
town, in 1800, by Van Hoesen. 

The earliest churches in Providence were the Baptist church and the 
Society of Friends. The exact date of the organization of either is un- 
known. As nearly as can be gleaned from the records, however, the 
Baptist church was organized about 1790. The first roll of members in 
existence was that made in 1796. Jonathan Finch heads the list as 
elder, and he served the society as its first pastor.' The Friends built 
a log meeting-house near the centre of the town, where James Havi- 
land preached for many years. 

> The first house of worship was a log building erected about 1793. It was rebuilt in 1807 
Again, in 1847, a new edifice was erected at Hagedorn's Mills. 

DAY, 1783-1800. 123 


It was not until the year 1797 that the first permanent settlements 
in the town of Day occurred. This doubtless was due to the remote- 
ness of this locality from the centre.s of papulation. David Johnson, a 
native of New Hampshire, who saw seven years' service in the Ameri- 
can army during the Revolution, was the first inhabitant of whom any- 
thing definite can be learned. At the close of the war he went to 
Salisbury, Vt., where he married Mary Joiner. In 1797 he started 
with his wife and seven children, intending to settle in the Genesee 
valley; but when he reached the central part of Day, in the valley of 
the Sacandaga, he could go no further with his covered sleigh, by rea- 
son of the rapidly melting snows. Consequently he bought a farm 
there and remained there one year. But his property was claimed by 
another man, and as he could not establish his title, he removed further 
east and bought three hundred acres just west of Conklingville, on the 
eastern boundary of the town. Here, in 1798, he built a log house, on 
the site of Kathan's old hotel, and remained until his death in 1839. 
Mr. Johnson had a family of two sons and six daughters. Of these his 
son J'ohn was the only one who remained in town. He became the 
owner of the old homestead, and served in the war of 1813. His wife 
was Fally, daughter of David Allen, who bore him thirteen children. 

Coincident with Johnson's settlement, or nearly so, was that of Jonas 
Bond and Phineas Austin, brothers-in-law, who founded homes on the 
north side of the river, about a mile east of Day Centre. Nicholas 
Flansburgh came from Schenectady county in the spring of 1799 and 
located nearly opposite Day Centre, on the south bank of the river. 
The Grove family are also said to have settled here before 1800, but 
there is no knowledge of their movements. George Bradford came 
from Galway, Scotland, in the spring of 1800. Samuel Rogers located 
at Day Centre about the same time. One of his daughters married 
David Hines, a young man who had been captured by the Indians when 
a boy, and who adopted their style of dress and living. The latter for 
many years was quite a character in town. 

There were no schools or churches in the town of Day until several 
years after the beginning of the nineteenth century. 



The Division of the Districts Comprised Within the Limits of the County and the 
Organization of the Early Towns— Erection of the County of Saratoga— The First 
Courts— First County, State and Federal Officials— Erection of the First Court Hobse 
—The Northern Canal, Known as " Schuyler's Ditch"— The First Newspaper, One 
Hundred Years Ago, and the First Books Printed in the County— Other Events 
Transpiring Prior to the Year 1800. 

As the population of Saratoga increased after the declaration / of 
peace in 1783, a number of territorial changes were found necessary to 
accommodate the steadily growing community. Already, before the 
Revolution, nearly the entire territory now embraced within the limits 
of the county had been divided by the colonial government into dis- 
tricts. The first of these districts erected were Half Moon and Saragh- 
toga. Both were formed by the same law, March 24, 1773. 

The district of Half Moon consisted of the territory embraced in the 
present towns of Halfmoon, Waterford and Clifton Park. It remained 
a district, with its boundaries unchanged, until well along into the 
nineteenth century. 

The district of Saraghtoga, or, as it soon after was written, Sara- 
toga, embraced nearly all the remainder of the county south of the 
Sacandaga river, and the town of Easton, in Washington county. The 
district of Ball's Town was set off in 1775; the town of Easton, Wash- 
ington county, in 1789; a part of Greenfield in 1793, and the town of 
Northumberland in 1798; but at the close of the century the town of 
Saratoga, which was erected as such from the district of Saratoga 
March 7, 1788, embraced the present towns of Saratoga, Malta and 
Saratoga Springs. 

' The district of Ball's Town, which soon afterward was written Balls- 
town, then Ballston, was formed from Saratoga as a district April 1, 
1775, and was organized as a town in 1788. Until 1792 the district, 
then the town, embraced the territory now known as the towns of Balls- 
ton, Milton, Galway and Charlton. March 7, 1793, the towns of Gal- 
way and Milton were erected; March 17, 1793, the town of Charlton 
was formed, and March 13, 1793, a part of Greenfield was taken off 


from Milton. The boundaries of Charlton were altered March 5, 1795. 

Stillwater is one of the original four towns of the county, and was. 
organized March 7, 1788, on the day on which Halfmoon, Saratoga and 
Ballston were erected as towns. 

Greenfield was formed from the towns of Saratoga and Milton March 
12, 1793. It then embraced a part of Hadley south of the Sacandaga 
river. Northumberland was formed from the town of Saratoga March 
16, 1798. It then embraced a portion of Hadley, and the towns of 
Moreau and Wilton, retaining this territory until after the close of the 
eighteenth century. Galway, erected March 7, 1792, originally em- 
braced Galway, Providence and Edinburgh. Providence, which then 
embraced Providence and Edinburgh, was formed February 5, 1796, 
retaining Edinburgh until 1801. The other towns in the county were 
not organized until the early part of the present century, and the work 
of township erection was not completed until 1828, when the final 
organization of Clifton Park, first known as Clifton, was effected. 

Several of the towns were erected before the county itself had been 
organized. Up to 1791 the territory now embraced within the confines 
of the county formed a part of Albany county, one of the original ten 
counties of the province of New York. February 17, 1791, the State 
Legislature passed an act "for apportioning the representation in the 
Legislature, according to the rules prescribed in the Constitution, and 
for other purposes." According to this law, the towns of Easton and 
Cambridge were annexed to Washington county, the county of Rens- 
selaer was created, and the county of Saratoga was set off. The law 
also said: ' 

That all that part of the county of Albany, which is bounded easterly by Hudson's 
river and the counties of Washington and Rensselaer, southerly by the most north- 
erly sprout of that river and the town of Schenectady, westerly by the county of 
Montgomery, and northerly by the county of Washington, shall be an separate and 
distinct county, and be called and known by the name of Saratoga. And the bounds 
of the several towns in the said respective counties adjacent to and limited by the 
Hudson's river and Mohawk river, are hereby extended to and limited by the bounds 
of the said respective counties herein described, provided nevertheless that the rights 
and privileges heretofore granted to the corporation of the city of Albany by charter 
shall not be in any wise affected or abridged. And the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the said several counties, shall have and enjoy within the same respectively, all 
and every the same rights, powers and privileges as the freeholders and inhabitants 
of any other counties in this State and by law entitled to have and enjoy. 

And belt further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be held in 
and for each of the said counties of Rensselaer and Saratoga respectively, a court of 


common pleas and a court of general sessions of the peace, at such suitable and con- 
venient place within each -of the same counties respectively, as such judges of the 
court of common pleas and such justices of the peace as shall be appointed for each 
of the same counties respectively, or a majority of them, shall respectively appoint; 
And that there shall be two terms of the same courts in each of the same counties 
respectively in the same year. . . . 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be law- 
ful to and for all courts and officers in the said counties of Rensselaer and Saratoga 
respectively, in all cases civil and criminal, to confine their prisoners in the gaol of 
the county of Albany, until gaols shall be provided in the same counties respect- 
ively. . . . 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That this State shall be, 
and is hereby divided into four great districts. The southern district to comprehend 
the city and county of New York, and the counties of Suffolk, Queens, Kings, Rich- 
mond and Westchester ; the middle district to comprehend the counties of Dutchess, 
Ulster and Orange ; the western district to comprehend the city and county of Al- 
bany, and the counties of Saratoga, Montgomery and Ontario ; and the eastern dis- 
trict to comprehend the counties of Columbia, Rensselaer, Washington and Clinton. 
And that the number of senators to be chosen in the said districts shall be as fol- 
lows : ... in the western district five. . . . And Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
Peter Schuyler, Volkert P. Douw, Leonard Gansevoort and Jellis Fonda, shall be 
considered as senators from the said western district, and as they respectively go 
out of office, senators shall be chosen in the said western district in their places re- 
spectively. . . . 

In pursuance of this law erecting Saratoga county, Governor Clinton 
appointed John Thompson of Stillwater to be first judge; General 
James Gordon and Beriah Palmer of Ballston, Jacobus Van Schoon- 
hoven of Halfmoon, and Sidney Berry of Saratoga to be judges; the 
latter also to be surrogate; Jacob Fort, jr., of Halfmoon to be sheriff, 
and Dirck Swart of Stillwater to be county clerk. Thus was the organ- 
ization of the county of Saratoga perfected. 

May 10, 11'91, the first session of the Court of Common Pleas for the 
new county was held at the residence of Samuel Clark in the town of 
Stillwater, now the town of Malta. Judge Thompson presided, with 
the four judges named in the foregoing, and with Epenetus White, John 
Varnam (or Van Arnam) and Eliphalet Kellogg acting as associate 
justices of sessions. At the same time and place the first Court of 
Sessions was organized. It was presided over by Judge James Gordon, 
and John Varnam, Epenetus White, Eliphalet Kellogg, Richard Davis, 
jr., Douw J. Fonda, Elias Palmer, Nathaniel Douglas, John Ball and 
John Bradstreet, justices of the peace. The grand jury sworn in on 
that occasion consisted of Richard Davis, jr., foreman; Joshua Taylor 
John Donald, Henry Davis, Hezekiah Ketchum, Seth C. Baldwin, Ezra 


Hallibart, John Wood, Samuel Wood, Edy Baker, Elisha Andrews, 
Gideon Moore, Abraham Livingston and John Bleecker. July 7 of the 
same year the first Circuit Court and Court of Oyer and Terminer was 
organized at the house of Jeremiah Rogers in Halfmoon, now Clifton 
Park. Chief Justice Robert Yates presided. June 4, 1792, the second 
■ term was held in the church at Stillwater. July 9, 1793, the third term 
was held in the Presbyterian church at Ballston. 

With the organization of the courts and the beginning of official rec- 
ords of Saratoga county, the need for a public building became appar- 
ent. But it was not until the county was five years old that the first 
county building was completed. The first step taken toward its erec- 
tion was the appointment by the Legislature, March 36, 1794, of John 
Bradstreet Schuyler, Richard Davis, jr., James Emmott, John Ball 
and John McClelland, as commissioners for locating the county seat 
and building the court house and jail. The inhabitants of Ballston 
Centre and Milton, the two most thriving centres of population in the 
county besides Waterford, set up rival claims, and the contest for desig- 
nation as the site for the proposed buildings was great. Finally the 
commissioners accepted the offer of Edward A. Watrous of Ballston, 
who proposed to give the county a fine site on his farm, so long as the 
same should contain the court house and jail. Ballston was then de- 
clared to be the county seat, and the site of the new building became 
known as Court House Hill, an appellation which it has borne to this 
day. The commissioners made a contract with Luther Leet for the 
construction of the building. It was made of wood, was fifty feet 
square and two stories in height, with a one-story wing in the rear, and 
cost $6,750. It was first used by the county in May, 1796, when the 
courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions met therein. In 1799 a 
Circuit Court and Court of Oyer and Terminer was held there, Judge 
John Lansing presiding.' 

In the meantime the first board of supervisors of Saratoga had been 
organized. This body met in Stillwater June 2, 1791. As there were 
atthat time but four towns in the county, and, each town was entitled 
to but one representative in the county legislature, the board consisted 
of these supervisors: Beriah Palmer, from Ballston; Elias Palmer, 

1 This building was destroyed by iire March 25, 1816, when Ballston Spa was selected as the 
site for the new county buildings. In the old building at Court House Hill, courts were held by 
Judges Kent, Radoliffi, Morgan Lewis, Smith Thompson, Ambrose Spencer, William W. Van Ness 
and Jonas Piatt. 


Stillwater; John B. Schuyler, Saratoga; and Benjamin Rosekrans, 

Pursuant to the first constitution, Samuel Clark of Stillwater was 
chosen as the first presidential elector from Saratoga county, in 1792, 
casting his ballot for George Washington. In 1800 Robert Ellis was 
chosen and cast his vote for Thomas Jefferson. The records do not 
give the name of any presidential elector from this county in 1796. At 
the general election in 1791 General James Gordon was elected a repre- 
sentative in Congress, and was re-elected in 1793, serving two terms. 
John Thompson, of Stillwater, first judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, was elected in 1799, and served one term. 

One of the earliest projected internal improvements calculated to 
enhance the commercial importance of Saratoga county was the plan 
for a canal extending north and south through the eastern part of the 
county, parallel with and in the channel of the Hudson river. For 
many years such a water highway had been under consideration. As 
early as 1791 Governor George Clinton, in a speech before the State 
Legislature, advocated canals extending from Albany northward from 
the mouth of the Mohawk through the valley of that river. Again, 
during the legislative session of 1795, he recommended the adoption 
of some plan for inland navigation. Before this, February 7, 1792, 
General Williams of Salem, member of the Legislature from Wash- 
ington county, acting doubtless upon the suggestion of the gover- 
nor, had endeavored to secure the passage of a bill providing " for 
constructing and opening a canal and lock navigation in northern and 
western parts of the State," but nothing came of his efforts. But in 
1795 two companies were organized — one for northern and one for 
western improvement. The former was incorporated as " The North- 
ern Inland Lock Navigation Company," whose avowed object was the 
construction of a canal with locks from the mouths of the Mohawk 
northward along the west bank of the Hudson around the rapids in the 
vicinity of Mechanicville and Stillwater. In the summer of that year 
surveys for the proposed work were begun, and before the year 1800 a 
considerable portion of the actual work had been accomplished. But 
the enterprise failed because of lack' of funds, and the canal was 
abandoned. General Philip Schuyler was at the head of this company, 
and the ruins of the work were long known as " Schuyler's Ditch." 
One of the principal surveyors in the employ of the company was Sir 
Marc Isambard Brunei, who constructed the great Thames river tun- 


nel in London in 1835-1843, Though this enterprise met with disas- 
ter and caused the financial ruin of several men, it finally led to the 
building of the Erie and Champlain canals, which have done so much 
to bring prosperity to New York State, and to Saratoga county. 

Early in its career, the inhabitants of the county enjoyed the advan- 
tages of the dissemination of news and the interchange of ideas of 
matters of import through the medium of a newspaper. On June 14, 
1798, just one hundred years ago, the first newspaper ever published 
in the county made its appearance. It was printed by Increase and 
William Child at Court House Hill, in the town of Ballston, and was 
called the Saratoga Register or Farmers' Journal. The office of pub- 
lication was "over the store of Messrs. Robert Leonard & Co., nearly 
opposite the Court House," as appears from the title page of the first 
number of this paper. ' The Journal, as it was commonly known, sup- 
ported the administration of President John Adams, then the head of 
the Federal party. 

Soon after the establishment of this newspaper the publishers of the 
Journal brought out the first book ever printed in this county. It bore 
this formidable title : 

"A Plain Account of the Ordinance of Baptism; in which all the texts in the New 
Testament relating to it are proved, and the whole Doctrine concerning it drawn 
from them alone. In a Course of Letters to the Right Rev. Dr. Benjamin Hoadley, 
late Lord Bishop of Winchester; another of the ' Plain Account of the Lord's Sup- 
per;' ye shall not add unto the word which I have commanded you, neither shall you 
diminish from it. First Ballston Edition. London. Printed: Ballston. Re- 
Printed by I. & W. Child. Sold at their Printing Office, nearly opposite the Court 
House. 1798." 

Two years later the firm dissolved and William Child assumed sole 
management of the business. In that year he printed a book of two 
hundred and twenty two pages entitled : "A Plea for the Non-Con- 
formists," by Thomas Delaune. The preface was written by Rev. 
EliasLee, then pastor of the Baptist church at Ballston Spa. The 
book was sold by subscription before printing, and at the end of the 
volume appeared the names of the subscribers, over one thousand in 

The first census of Saratoga county, which includes the town of 
Easton, excludes portions of Hadley, Day and Edinburgh, and other- 

' This paper has undergone many changes, until it is now known as the Ballston Journal, 
published at Ballston Spa by C. H. Grose. 


wise may be incomplete, was taken in 1790, before the organization of 
the county. It gives a total population of 17,077, divided among the 
four districts as follows: Ballston, 7,833; Half moon, 3,602; Saratoga, 
3,071; Stillwater, 3,071. The census of 1800 shows a total population 
of 24,483, divided among the various towns as then established as 
follows: Ballston, 2,099; Charlton, 1,746; Galway, 2,310; Greenfield, 
3,073; Halfmoon, 3,851; Milton, 2,146; Northumberland, 2,007; Provi- 
dence, 1,888; Saratoga, 2,491; Stillwater, 2,872. 

Some of the additional events of importance occurring in Saratoga 
county during the eighteenth century may be briefly summarized as 
follows: The discovery of the mineral springs of Saratoga county, 
which is described at length in another chapter; the founding of 
numerous schools and religious societies and the erection of their 
houses of worship, which is also described elsewhere in this volume; 
the development of the many fine water powers in the county and the 
erection of scores of saw mills, grist mills, tanneries and other indus- 
trial concerns; the improvement of highways and the establishment of 
stage lines. 

Many other events of interest doubtless occurred within the limits of 
Saratoga county during the closing years of the eighteenth century, 
but historians in those days were few, and the gleaner of to-day is com- 
pelled to abide almost entirely by the existing records, official and pri- 
vate. Consequently but little else of importance concerning the pio- 
neers of Saratoga county, excepting the finer details of some of the 
transactions herein noted, probably will ever be known. 

FROM 1800-1831. 131 


FROM 1800 to 1831. 

History of the County from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Con- 
struction of the First Steam Railroad within its Borders — Wonderful Development 
of Saratoga Springs and Ballston Spa — Gideon Putnam and His Beneficent Labors 
— Early Hotels at the Springs — Some of the More Important Manufactures — Water 
Power of the Kayaderosseras — Churches Established in the County During this 
Period — History of the Erie and Champlain Canals — Semi-Centennial Celebrations 
of 1826 — County Medical Society and County Bible Society — Men who Served as 
OfScers in the Early Militia. 

The history of Saratoga county during the period beginning with the 
opening of the present century and ending with the year 1831, when 
the State Legislature granted a charter to the first railroad company 
organized to construct a steam railroad which was to traverse the most 
populous portion of the county, is little else than a story of the peace- 
ful cultivation of the farming lands, of the development of its numer- 
ous fine water powers, of the establishment at many points of man- 
ufacturing industries which form such a potent factor in the prosperity 
of the county, of the development of the famous mineral springs at 
Saratoga Springs and Ballston Spa and the erection of commodious 
and in some cases magnificent hotels in those villages, of the founding 
of churches and schools, of the improvement to the channels of com- 
merce by the erection of bridges and the building of turnpikes, of po- 
litical and territorial changes within the county — but greatest of all, of 
the building of the two great highways of commerce, the Erie and 
Champlain canals. 

In the preceding chapters we have endeavored to give an accurate 
idea of the early settlement of the county, the establishment of some 
of the early industries and of the schools and religious societies which 
existed during the eighteenth century. In the same manner we shall 
now endeavor to straighten out the records of the doings of the inhab- 
itants of the county during the first third of the present century and 
show what they accomplished along the various lines of commerce and 
industry, of educational and spiritual advancement, in politics, in peace 


and in war, until the arrival of the time when the entire commercial 
and industrial system of the community, and in fact the entire well- 
being of the community, were revolutionized by the introduction of 
steam power as a means of transportation. 

Perhaps the most important commercial and industrial growth in any 
community in the county during the early years of the century occurred 
at Ballston Spa and other points near by in the town of Milton. The 
early development at this point was due to the splendid water power 
on the Kayaderosseras, which was harnessed by man several years be- 
fore 1800. The place also became known as a desirable one for resi- 
dence, not only on account of the water power furnished by the Kaya- 
derosseras, but on account of the mineral springs in the village and the 
court house, which was located at a convenient distance from the vil- 
lage. Several small mills and manufactories were located in and near 
the village very early in the century. The town of Milton, in which 
the principal part of the village lies, gained its name from this fact. 
For many years the locality about the Kayaderosseras in the southeast- 
ern quarter of the present town was known as Mill-town, and thisnahie 
most naturally became Milton. It deserved the name, for there were 
dozens of mills of various kinds in the locality, as well as tanneries and 
shoe shops. Many of these were built during the preceding century 
and reference has been made to them in another chapter. The facili- 
ties of most of these mills were increased from time to time and new 
mills were erected as business warranted. 

One of the most important of the early mills built on the banks of 
the Kayaderosseras in the village of Ballston Spa was a cotton mill 
erected in 1812 by Nicholas Low, Amos Olcott and others. But this 
industry was destined to meet an untimely end. The factory was run- 
ning with a full complement of hands one day about a month after it 
had been started, when the great " walking-beam " of the old-fashioned 
engine suddenly broke, almost completely wrecking the mill. So great 
was the damage done that the proprietors decided that they could not 
reconstruct the plant, and the concern was abandoned, throwing sev- 
eral persons out of employment. This disaster was considered quite a 
set back to Ballston Spa, but the enterprising inhabitants were un- 
daunted and in a short time had established other enterprises in its 
place, though the building itself remained unoccupied by any manufac- 
turing plant for nearly forty years. Part of the machinery was brought 
from Europe at great expense, but this and the labor of months was 
destroyed in one moment. 

BALLSTON SPA, 1800-1831. 133 

Early in the century Ballston Spa was in its glory as a summer re- 
sort, its mineral springs having gained a world-wide reputation on 
account of their wonderful medicinal properties. The Sans Souci hotel, 
which stood on the north side of Front street where the Sans Souci 
opera house block now stands, was the most noted hotel at the Spa. In 
its rear was the Sans Souci spring. Some of the most noted men of 
the country, as well as distinguished men from abroad, were entertained 
at various times beneath its hospitable roof and drank of its health 
giving waters. Andrew Berger was one of its proprietors. The Sans 
Souci was for many years open in the summer season only. The Balls- 
ton Spa house, which stood on the west side of Milton avenue, at the 
corner of Washington street, where the office of the Ballston Spa Daily 
News is now located, was a winter hotel. It was burned in 1893. It 
was run in connection with the Sans Souci. The village was also well 
supplied with boarding houses. 

Ballston Spa's first school was established aboiit the year 1800. It 
was maintained for several years in the building used by the First Bap- 
tist society as a meeting-house. This building stood on Ballston avenue, 
in the eastern section of the site of the village cemetery. Early in the 
century — just when the removal occurred cannot be learned — the school 
house was abandoned and "the academy," a large, two-story structure, 
was erected on what is now Science street. This house probably stood 
on the ground now occupied by the railroad, on the east side of Science 
street. This school was not actually an academy, but simply a large 
school of two grades.' There were also excellent private schools in the 

' This building: was abandoned by the school about 1836, removed to the corner of Charlton 
street and Ballston avenue, and used by the Methodist congregation as a meeting-house. The 
latter finally sold it to the Catholic congregation. After the latter had used it as a house of 
vforship for a few years, they sold it to private parties, who fitted it up as a dwelling. Two dis- 
trict school houses were built in 1836. One was located on Malta avenue, and the other on West 
High street, between Charlton street and Ballston avenue. These schools were succeeded by 
the Ballston Spa Union school system, which was organized April 17, 1870, by the election of the 
following board of education: President, Hiro Jones; clerk, Neil Gilmour; treasurer, John J. Lee; 
trustees, E. H. Chapman, Benjamin F. Baker, C. M. McClew, E. Parkinson and J. B. Cheydleur. 
For three years the schools were maintained in the old buildings and elsewhere. In 1873 and 
1874 the brick high school building on Bath street was erected at a cost of about $23,500, and 
the school was opened therein September 14, 1874, by Thomas C. Bunyan, prmcipal. It was 
originally arranged in three grades, but the growth of the village has caused a great increase 
in the school, and branches have been established several years in convenient places in the vil- 
lage. Arrangements are now (1898) being made for the erection" of a still more commodious 
building. Thomas C. Bunyan remained in charge of the Union Free school as principal until 
1892, when he resigned and removed to Berthoud, Col,, and established the bank of Berthoud. 
He was succeeded as principal by H. H. Southwick, who .resigned in 1897 to accept a professor- 
ship in the State Normal School at Plattsburgh, N. Y. Leland L. Landers became principal in 
1897, but resigned in 1898, when A. A. Lavery was chosen principal. During the incumbency of 


village in these days. One of these was under the management of 
Rev. Deodatus Babcock. From 18^2 to 1835 a ladies' seminary was 
located at High street. It subsequently was changed to a boys' school, 
and shortly afterward was abandoned. 

To Gideon Putnam belongs the credit for starting the boom which 
made Saratoga Springs a formidable rival of the famous Ballston Spa, 
a movement which eventually gave to the former place the prestige 
and glory which originally accompanied the name of the latter. It was 
his capital which laid the foundations of the famed Grand Union hotel, 
and gave that village a name which it has ever since borne — the prince 
of watering places in America, and the peer of any in the world. 

Gideon Putnam came to Saratoga Springs in 1789. He, was a man 
of considerable wealth and experience in the world, and he foresaw the 
destiny of his new home, in part at least. Mr. Putnam was a son-in- 
law of Benjamin Risley, who came from Hartford, Conn. Mr. Risley's 
other son-in-law, who came with him, was Dr. Clement Blakesley. All 
began making investments in real estate soon after coming to Saratoga 
Springs. Mr. Putnam came of good stock, being of the same family 
as General Israel Putnam of Revolutionary fame. We have sufficient 
evidence of the energy and determination which formed so great a 
part of his character, as well as of his keen foresight. Though the 
country surrounding Congress Spring was little better than a wilder- 
ness in 1803, he seemed to have become imbued, and he alone, 
with the knowledge that it was destined to become in time a popular 
resort. Consequently, in that year, after clearing off the heavy timber 
on his land, he began the erection of the famous Grand Union hotel. 
This was the first commodious hotel erected at the Springs for the 
accommodation of visitors, and its erection marked the dawn of a new 
era for that community. 

The building was of wood, three stories in height. On the day that 
the frame was raised, people gathered from the surrounding country 
for miles around to behold what was popularly called " Putnam's 
Folly." But they were doomed to disappointment, for immediately 
after the erection of this hotel, people began to flock to the springs in 
large numbers, and quickly purchased the lots which Mr. Putnam had 
laid out along the broad street which he had had surveyed. This 

Principal Southwiok the school was placed under the direction of the Regents of the University 
of the State of New York. The present members of the board of education are: President, Her- 
bert C. Westcot; clerk, Joseph Shaeffer; trustees, Frederick J. Wheeler, David Frisbie, James 
W. Verbeok, Tracy W. Nichols, Dr. Eben S. Lawrence. 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1800-1831. 135 

street, then called Broad street, is now Broadway. Near it were 
located Congress, Columbian and Hamilton springs, and Mr. Putnam 
laid out the new village so these springs would be in public highways 
branching off from Broad street, and thereby remain public property. 
But after his death these streets, excepting Broad street, were narrowed 
down, bringing all these springs within private property. Thus it will 
be seen that Gideon Putnam, though not the pioneer, was in reality 
the founder of the village of Saratoga Springs." 

The wisdom of Gideon Putnam in erecting the Grand Union soon be- 
came apparent. Year by year the number of visitors to the springs in- 
creased, and by 1809 so great was the demand for accommodations that 
a rival hotel, called the Columbian, was erected on the site now occu- 
pied by the Ainsworth block. This hotel, which for many years was 
under the management of Jotham Holmes, was destroyed by fire many 
years ago. 

Nine years after he had built the Grand Union, Gideon Putnam be- 
gan, in X811, the erection of another commodious hotel, which he called 
Congress Hall. When its timbers were raised, one of them fell, killing 
Barney. Souler and so injured Mr. Putnam that he died a few months 
later. His death resulted, doubtless, in a considerable change in the 
original plans for the operation of the hotel, for soon after its com- 
pletion it was used as a lodging house in connection with the Grand 
Union, which stood opposite. In 1815 it was sold to Guert Van Schoon- 
hoven, and under his ownership it became the most fashionable resort 
at the springs. 

Still .another large hotel was erected in 1819, by which time the vil- 
lage had become quite populous. This was the Pavilion hotel, which 
was built by Judge Walton on the site now occupied by the town hall." 
Nathan Lewis was its first proprietor. Succeeding him were Allen 
Murphy, John Ford, Asher Smith Taylor, John C. Dillon, John Cross, 
and Daniel McLaren. This hotel was one of the most elegant in the 

' Gideon Putnam was born in Sutton, Mass., in 1764, the son of Rufus and Mary Putnam. He 
married Doanda Risley, daughter of Benjamin Risley of Hartford Conn. Soon after he re- 
moved to Middlebury, Vt., where he built a cabin on the site now occupied .by the Middlebury 
college buildings. Subsequently he removed to Rutland, Vt., then to Bemus Flats, and finally 
to Saratoga Springs. His first purchase of land there was made in 1791, when he bought three 
hundred acres from Dirck LefiEerts. After building the Grand Union and laying out the village 
plots, in 1805, he retubed the Washington, Columbian and Hamilton Springs in 1806. He began 
the erection of Congress Hall in 1811. He died December 1, 1812, aged forty-nine yea^^. The 
children of Gideon and Doanda Putnam were Benjamin, Lewis, Rockwell, Washington, Loren, 
Mrs. Betsey Taylor, Mrs. Aurelia Clement, Mrs. Nancy Andrews and Mrs. Phila Kellogg. 

" This hotel was burned in 1840. 


The first United States hotel was not erected until 1824. In that 
year Elias Benedict, an uncle of Gen. James M. Marvin of Saratoga 
Springs, bought a tract of twenty-five acres lying between Franklin 
and Washington streets, on which he built the hotel called the United 
States. This was the first brick hotel built at the springs. It faced 
one hundred and twenty-five feet on Broadway, was thirty four feet 
deep, had a wing extending sixty feet on Division street, and was four 
stories in height. It was the most magnificent hotel of the day in 
Saratoga, and one of the most elegant in the country.' John Ford, its 
first manager, continued m that capacity until 1830, when General 
James M. Marvin became proprietor. During his conduct of the United 
States, it became one of the most celebrated hotels in the world. 

But while the enterprising inhabitants of Saratoga Springs were en- 
deavoring to do everything possible to make that place a celebrated 
summer resort, by the construction of handsome hotels, the improve- 
ment of its spring property and the development of new spHngs, they 
were not unmindful of the mental and spiritual welfare of the com- 
munity. The First Baptist church, organized late in the eighteenth 
century, though not yet permanently established in the village, had 
several members residing there, and the number of these increased as 
the population grew. In 1833 the church was finally located in the 
village. For many years this Baptist organization and a small society 
of orthodox Quakers were the only religious societies in the village. 
But in 1816 a number of the inhabitants adhering to the Presbyterian 
faith organized themselves into the First Presbyterian church of Sara- 
toga Springs. The organization was perfected January 15, 1816, by 
the election of Miles Beach, Ziba Taylor and Nathan Lewis as trustees. 
The first elders, Abijah Blanchard and Luman B. Smith, were not or- 
dained until December 11, 1817. The former was also ordained deacon. 
June 6, 1816, the society was incorporated, and August 19, 1817, it be- 
came a member of the Albany presbytery." 

Early in the century Episcopal services were held at Saratoga Springs. 
A chapel, given by Dr. John Clarke, stood on the northeast corner of 
Congress and Putnam streets, where Rev. Edward Davis of Ballston 

' The first United States hotel was burned in 1865. 
' This church had three houses o£ worship. December 6, 1820, the first, a frame building lo- 
cated at the corner of Church and Matilda streets, was consecrated. The second, dedicated in 
1842, was a brick edifice located on the corner of Broadway and Caroline street. It cost $8,000, 
The third, which stands on North Broadway, was first occupied July 26, 1857. It cost about $30,- 
000. Rev. Darius O. Griswold was the first pastor. 


SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1800-1831. 137 

Spa voluntarily conducted services. October 4, 1830, the congregation 
worshiping here formally organized Bethesda Protestant Episcopal 
church, Rev. Edward Davis at that time being the missionary and 
rector in charge of that station. At this meeting Henry Walton and 
Wallace Crawford were elected wardens, and Hon. John H. Steele, Dr. 
John Clarke, Daniel D. Benedict, Esek Cowen, Rockwell Putnam, Joel 
Clement, Jonathan Williams and Daniel Wait vestrymen. Rev. Ed- 
ward Davis continued to serve the church, but in the capacity of mis- 
sionary, being assisted by Rev. Mr. Babcock.' 

As early as 1812 the inhabitants of Saratoga Springs were wide 
awake to the necessity of proper school accommodations for the young. 
On March 12 of that year a meeting of citizens was held at the house 
of Moses Stickney for the purpose of devising means for the construc- 
tion of the needed school house. It was decided to erect a suitable 
building on land belonging to Gideon Putnam on the north side of 
Washington street ; said building to be thirty by twenty-six feet. It 
was built by Jesse Morgan, at a cost of $400, under the direction of 
Gideon Putnam, Miles Beach and Nathan Lewis. The house was paid 
for by issuing shares of five dollars each, which appear to have been 
quickly subscribed. The general school system of the State was in- 
augurated in 1813, and the new school became the regular legal school 
for the newly organized District 15. May 22, 1813, Nathan Lewis, 
Miles Beach and Jotham Holmes were chosen the first trustees of the 
new district, and Daniel D. Benedict was elected secretary and col- 
lector. At the meeting held November 12, 1818, the district was 
divided into two districts." November 24, 1831, it was resolved to 

^ The first regular rector was Rev. William F. Walker, who had been rector of Christ church 
in Troy, N. Y. The first church edifice was built in 1842-1844, and stood on the south side of Wash- 
ington street, on a lot purchased of Rockwell Putnam. This was enlarged and improved in 1859. 
Rev. Mr. Walker, the first regular rector, was succeeded September 3, 1843, by Rev. Samuel Han- 
son Cox. The successive rectors since that year have been : Rev. John Henry Hobart, March 
28, 1845, to June 9, 1846 ; Rev. Philip E. Milledoler, M. D., June 9, 1846, to June 19, 1850 ; Rev. B. H. 
Whicher, supplied for Dr. Milledoler, 1849-1850, by reason of the illness of the latter ; Rev. S. F. 
Wiley, September 13, 1850, to November, 1852 ; Rev. Dr. Deodatus Babcock, supply during part of 
1852-1853 ; Rev. John S. Kidney, February 23, 1853, to April, 1858 ; Rev. Robert C. Rogers, May 10, 
1858, to July, 1861 ; Rev. Edmund Rowland Deacon, July 5, 1861, to October, 1863; Rev. Francis C. 
Wainwright, November 12, 1863, to May, 1865; Rev. G. C. V. Eastman, officiating clergyman from 
May, 1865, to April, 1866 ; Rev. John B. Gibson, April 20, 1866, to 1869 ; Rev. Dr. Norman W. Camp, 
1869 to 1873 ; Rev. Joseph Carey, D. D., 1873 to the present time, 

"^ The existing public school system in Saratoga Springs was organized in pursuance of a 
special act of the Legislature passed April 12, 1867, consolidating all school districts in the village 
into the Union Free school district of Saratoga Springs. The law named Oliver L. JBarbour, 
Augustus Bockes and John Shipman as trustees of the first class; Joseph A. Shoudy, Thomas 
Flanigah and Aaron Hill as trustees of the second class, and John Woodbridge, John Palmer and 


move the school house "to R. Putnam's lot next north of James Cald- 
well's lot, No. 61." 

A Masonic lodge existed at Saratoga Springs as early as 1821. Rising 
Sun lodge had been organized several years before in that part of the 
town of Northumberland which subsequently became the town of Wil- 
ton. The first known records of the lodge bear date of October 4, 1808, 
when Nicholas Angle was worshipful master, Daniel Wicks was senior 
warden and Jonas King was junior warden. The lodge then probably 
was working under a dispensation, as the charter now in the possession 
of Rising Sun lodge is dated September 6, 1809, when Nicholas Angle 
was still worshipful master, Stephen King senior warden, and Jared 
Palmer junior warden. In 1821 it was decided to remove the lodge to 

Charles S. Lester as trustees o£ the third class. This, the first board o£ education, was organ- 
ized April 16, 1867, by the election of Charles S. Lester as president. The Union School employs 
fifty-six teachers and occupies ten different buildings. The High school building was erected in 
1885. There are tour comparatively new buildings— No. 3, built in 1890; No. 1, built in 1891; No. 7, 
built in 1893, and the annex to the High school, built in 1894. The presidents of the board of edu- 
cation since its organization have been: 

Charles S. Lester April 16, 1867 to October 4, 1869 

James L. Cramer October 6, 1869 to October 28, 1869 

Hiram A. Wilson October 28, 1869 to September 31, 1871 

Lewis E. Whiting September 21, 1871 to October 24, 1872 

Paoli Durkee October 24, 1872 to October 27, 1873 

George P. White November 10, 1873 to October 38, 1874 

John B. Hulbert October 28, 1874 to October 26, 1875 

Lemuel B. Pike November 8, 1875 to August 13, 1877 

Charles H. Tefft, jr August IS, 1877 to October 26, 1877 

John Shipman October 26, 1877 to October 22, 1878 

Isaac Y. Ouderkirk November 9, 1878 to October 27, 1879 

John Foley November 3, 1879 to October 24, 1882 

Levi S. Packard October 31, 1882 to November 6, 1882 

Bostwick Hawley November 6, 1883 to October 24, 1883 

Charles F. Pish October 24, 1883 to October 36, 1887 

William R. Waterbury — October 26, 1887 to Ofctober 34, 1888 

Thomas Douglass October 24. 1888 to October 23, 1889 

John Shipman, jr October 33, 1889 to October 29, 1890 

Charles M. Davison October 29, 1890 to October 29, 1891 

Charles O. Van Dorn October 39, 1891 to October 39, 1892 

William MoNamara October 29, 1893 to October 29, 1893 

George M. Crippen October 29 1898 to October 24, 1894 

A. de R. McNair October 24, 1894 to October 33, 1895 

C. B. Thomas October 23, 189S to October 38, 1896 

D. J. Tynan October 28, 1896 to October 27, 1897 

E. D. Starbuck October 27, 1897 to 

The superintendents of schools and secretaries have been : 

James N. Crocker August 1, 1867 to February 1, 1869 

David L. Rouse February 12, 1869 to September 6, 1869 

Levi S. Packard September 6, 1869 to August 31, 1882 

George T. Church September 1, 1883 to August 15, 1885 

Edward N. Jones August 15, 1885 to August 31, 1893 

Thomas R. Kneil September 1, 1893 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1800-1831. 139 

Saratoga Springs, but the Grand lodge did not approve of the removal 
until June 5, 1824. Before this, however, as early as 1833, lodge meet- 
ings had been held in the old Congress Hall, then known as Drake's 
building. Subsequently meetings were held in the Columbian hotel, 
corner of Broadway and Lake avenue, and elsewhere. 

The earliest cemetery in the vicinity of Saratoga Springs, as far as 
known, was the old Sadler burying ground, which stood on the hill in 
the northeast part of the village. Interments were made here as early 
as 1785 probably, as a stone inscribed with that date stood in the cem- 
etery before its destruction. In 1810 Gideon Putnam gave to the 
village a tract of land in the heart of the village, which was used as a 
cemetery for many years. Dr. John Clarke, Nathan Lewis and his 
family, and several other prominent persons of the olden time were 
interred there. 

This village was plentifully supplied with stores in the early days, 
with here and there a small manufactory or mill. In 1813 John and 
Ziba Taylor had a well stocked store, which had been in existence several 

years, and Gleason had a blacksmith shop. The year following, 

or a little later, Palmer & Waterbury started a bakery. About that 
time Beach & Farlin opened another grocery store. Hendrick & Knowl- 
ton began business as merchants in 1815, Nathan Lewis in 1816, Ash- 
bel and Ferdinand Andrews in 1818, Robert McDonald in 1819 or 1820, 
and Joseph Westcot in 1820. McDonald soon afterward abandoned the 
grocery business to start a hardware store. Mr. Langworthy also had 
a hardware store. Asa Wright and Mr. Reynolds were also early mer- 
chants. John Swain had a lime kiln near the Empire spring. 

The Saratoga County Bible Society was organized August 24, 1815, 
nearly a year before the organization of the American Bible Society. 
Its first officers were : President, Rev. Samuel Blatchford, D. D. ; vice- 
presidents, Rev. Dirck C. Lansing, Rev. James Mairs; corresponding 
secretary. Rev. Reuben Sears; treasurer, Elisha Powell. 

An early libel suit in Saratoga Springs is thus referred to in the 
Ballston Spa Gazette of January 7, 1823. The item was printed among 
the advertisements upside down : 

Davison's Confession. — Some time in the month of January, 1821, Mr. Davison, 
editor of the Saratoga Sentinel, published a gross libel on Samuel M. Hopkins, Esq. 
of the Western District, and although he was furnished with the evidence that what 
he had published was a wilful falsehood, he had not the candor to retract it, until 
coMrELLED to do SO, by a prosecution in the Supreme Court — when Mr. Davison 


"gladly" compromised the suit, by signing a humble " confession," thereby admit- 
ting what he had published was a lie. 

While the village of Saratoga Springs was prospering as a summer 
resort, the neighboring village of Ballston Spa was developing rapidly 
along the same lines; but it was also taking a prominent and substan- 
tial position as a commercial and industrial centre as well. By the end 
of the period of which we are now writing, when the first steam rail- 
road to Ballston Spa was opened for traffic, the latter village had be- 
come one of the most thriving communities, considering its population, 
in New York State ; while Saratoga Springs was glorying in its world- 
wide reputation as the greatest of all American summer resorts— and 
with prospects of a future even a thousand times more brilliant than 
its past ! 

Little remains to be said regarding the progress of the town of Sara- 
toga Springs during this period. The village seemed to attract nearly 
everything and everybody. Outside the village, the town pursued the 
the even tenor of its way. The development of the farming lands was 
pushed, school houses were erected, and various business interests were 
established; but the latter were so closely identified with those of the 
village that it is difficult to separate the two. 

One of the most important events occurring in the southern part of 
the county in the early part of the century was the construction of the 
bridge across the Hudson river at Waterford, connecting Waterford 
and Lansingburgh, in 1804.' When the bridge was constructed it was 
deemed a marvel of engineering skill. How the public looked upon 
the structure at that time is manifested by the elaborate character of 
the exercises which attended its opening. The Lansingburgh Gazette, 
in its issue of December 4, 1804, said : 

Union bridge, lately erected over the Hudson, between this village and Water- 
ford, was yesterday opened for passengers. The particulars of the celebration of 
this event will be given in our next paper. 

The next issue of the paper, December 11, 1804, devoted more than 
a column to a description of the event. Among the interesting clauses it 
contained were these: 

This handsome structure, which promises to be of durable and important public 
utility, was commenced early the present season, and is now so far completed as to be 
adjudged by the proper authority fit for the uses of travelers. The work was exe- 
cuted under the direction of Theodore Burr, principal architect ; by James McElroy, 

' This is said to' be the oldest wooden bridge in the United States. 

WATERFORD, 1800-1831. 141 

head mason, and Samuel Shelly, master carpenter, and unites a degree of strength 
and elegance which reflects the highest credit on these gentlemen. 

The day was a holiday in both Waterford and Lansingburgh. A 
" very numerous procession" was formed at noon at Johnson & Jud- 
son's hotel in Lansingburgh, marched to the bridge, and thence across 
into Waterford, " under the discharge of seventeen cannon," where a 
dinner had been provided at Gerardus Van Schoonhoven's hotel at the 
expense of the stockholders of the bridge. Among the prominent per- 
sons in attendance were Governor Morgan Lewis, Thomas Tillotson, 
secretary of state; Elisha Jenkins, state comptroller; Simeon Uewitt, 
the surveyor-general, " and a large number of the respectable gentle- 
men from Albany and adjacent villages," who "partook in much har- 
mony and conviviality. " The bridge was rebuilt in 1813-1814, at an 
expense of $20,000." 

The village of Waterford was extensive enough in 1801 to support a 
newspaper, the second published in Saratoga county. It was called the 
Waterford Gazette, and was started either in 1800 or 1801 by Horace L. 
Wads worth. It was continued until after the close of the war of 1813- 
14. After a lapse of several years another newspaper, the Waterford 
Reporter, was started in 1833 by William L. Fish. This paper had a 
short career. The third venture was the Anti-Masonic Recorder, 
which was established in 1830 by J. C. Johnson, as the local organ of 
the Anti-Masonic party. It ceased to be published soon after the sub- 
sidence of the Anti-Masonic agitation. 

The village was incorporated in 1801. It was then a prosperous 
community, with several important manufacturing concerns and a num- 
ber of mercantile establishments. Flouring mills were started there at 
an early date, a'nd two or more grist mills and saw mills were located 
on the banks of the creek at the beginning of the century. Before 
1815 these merchants were doing business in town : Wynant Vanden- 
burgh, Foster & Vandenburgh, Henry Ten Broeck, House, Myers & 
Co., Stewart & Knickerbacker, John Vibbard, Scott & Fowler, King & 
Foster, Davis & Thorn, Moses Scott, Close & Vandecar, all of whom 
were doing a general business; Horace Hudson, hardware merchant; 
Samuel Drake, druggist; George Edson, leather store; Roger Evans, 
jeweler; James Fowler, tailor and Mr. Grant, hatter. Among the man- 

' This structure is eight hundred feet long and thirty feet wide, comprising four arches which 
are supported by three piUars and two abutments. It is owned by the Union Bridge Company, 
of which Thomas A. Knickerbacker is president and John Knickerbacker treasurer. 


ufacturers , James Oliphant ran a tannery, Mr. Grant had a flouring 
mill, John Robinson made boots and shoes, James Hale had a forge 
and blacksmith shop. There were several lawyers in town, including 
James Van Schoonhoven, Samuel Huntington, William Given and John 
Cramer. Dr. Whitmore and Dr. Porter had offices in town about this 
time. Taverns were kept by Gerardus Van Schoonhoven, Samuel 
Demarest, Mr. Smith and Mr. Haight. Between 1815 and 1820 other 
business enterprises were established, including the store of Todd & 
Comstock, Isaac Bailey and D K. Lighthall. N. B. Doe opened a law 
office about 1816. 

For many years, beginning about 1825, the cooperage business was 
an important industry in Waterford, where thousands of barrels and 
tubs of all kinds were turned out annually. Among the early man- 
ufacturers were men named Brewster, Driscoll, Preston and Sheridan. 

In 1838 the industrial standing of Waterford was greatly enhanced 
by the construction of a hydraulic canal. This canal was designed and 
built by John Fuller King, of Coleraine, Mass., an inveiitor of canal 
locks and a genius of great value to the community. The work was 
called, in his honor, "the King canal." It began above the falls in 
the Mohawk river and extended to the edge of the hill in the western 
part of the village. The construction of the fine water-power induced 
numerous manufacturers to locate in Waterford. At the lower end of 
the canal a cotton factory was located for many years. Kilby & Van- 
dewerker had a furnace there, Colonel Olney had a machine shop, and 
others had a twine factory, an ink factory and a flour and grist mill. 
The canal was lengthened in 1831, and numerous other manufactories 
availed themselves of the advantages it offered. 

It was at Waterford that one of the most noted schools for young 
ladies in the United States was first located. This was the Emma 
Willard Female Seminary (now known as the Emma Willard School). 
Mrs. Emma Willard was the wife Dr. John Willard. In 1814 she 
established a boarding school for girls at Middlebury, Vt. While act- 
ing as principal of that school she conceived a plan for the incorpo- 
ration and endowment of an institution for the higher education of 
young women. Believing that New York State offered superior ad- 
vantages for the location of such a school, she communicated an out- 
line of her plan to Governor De Witt Clinton, who at once agreed to 
assist her. According to his promise, the governor caused to be passed 
a legislative enactment incorporating a female seminary at Waterford 

WATERFORD, 1800-1831. 143 

under the care of the Regents of the University of the State of New 
York, and appropriating thereto its proper quota of the public moneys. 
The seminary was opened in the spring of 1819. After it had been 
successfully incorporated the citizens of Troy, appreciating the advant- 
ages which would accrue to them from the location of the school in 
that city, proposed to Mrs. Willard that she remove the seminary to 
Troy, agreeing to contribute freely of their means to its establishment 
and maintenance. To this proposition she assented, though efforts 
were made to induce her to remain in Waterford, and in the summer of 
1821 the school was removed from Waterford to Troy, where it has 
since been maintained. 

Waterford had good public schools during this period, and one acad- 
emy at which many of her best citizens were educated. 

Several religious societies were organized in Waterford during the 
first three decades of the present century. The first of these was the 
society which ultimately became the Presbyterian church of Waterford. 
Some authorities say that organization was effected before 1800, but if 
this is true, it was very weak, and lay dormant for several years. The 
Reformed Dutch church erected a house of worship in 1799, and the 
Presbyterians then united with this society. In 1803 the union be- 
tween the Presbyterian churches at Troy and Lansingburgh was dis- 
solved. About the same time the pulpit of the Dutch Reformed 
church of Waterford became vacant, by reason of the failing health of 
Rev. John Close, who had been pastor since 1797. X^^onsequently the 
Presbyterian church of Lansingburgh invited the Presbyterians of 
Waterford to join with them in calling Rev. Samuel Blatchford of 
Bridgeport, Conn., to the pastorate. This proposition was agreed to, 
and the Presbyterian church of Waterford was reorganized^ ecclesias- 
tically distinct from both the other churches. July 18, 1804, Rev. Mr. 
Blatchford was installed as pastor of the two churches. In that year 
the Dutch Reformed church placed its house of worship at the disposal 
of the new Presbyterian organization, and for twenty-one years united 
with it in supporting the pastor. In 1826, the Reformed church desir- 
ing to revive its organization, the Presbyterians held services in Classic 
Hall, on First street, but at once began the erection of their church on 
the corner of Division and Third streets. This building, which cost 
$4,000, was dedicated in September, 1826. Dr. Blatchford continued 
to be pastor until his death, March 17, 1828.' 

1 In 1865-66 this building was enlarged and remodeled at an expense o£ $20,000. The organ 
placed in the church at that time was the gi£t of John Cramer. The edifice was rededioated 


Grace Protestant Episcopal church of Waterford was organized Sep- 
tember 17, 1810, by the election of Richard Davis, jr., and John 
Vibbard as wardens; and Guert Van Schoonhoven, Henry Davis, 
Hezekiah Ketchum, James Meeker, Benjamin Chamberlain, William 
McDonald, Joseph Ketchum and Ward Rice as vestrymen. At a meet- 
ing of the vestry December 10 following, John Davis was chosen clerk, 
William M McDonald collector and John Davis treasurer. July 1, 
1811, the meeting-house which had been used by a Methodist congre- 
gation' was purchased, and at once repaired and refurnished, being 
consecrated by Bishop Hobart August 30, 1813. May 20, 1814, Rev. 
Parker Adams was called as the first rector.' 

The Baptist church of Waterford was not organized until 1821, 
though Baptist gatherings had been held in town as early as 1812. 
After three years of worship at the home of Deacon Whitney, meetings 
were held in the old school house, until the erection of the first house 
of worship." 

Waterford was the first village in Saratoga county to enjoy the privi- 
leges which accrue to any community by reason of the establishment of 
a banking institution. May 29, 1830, the Legislature passed an act 
incorporating the Saratoga County bank of Waterford, the capital stock 
of which was fixed at $100,000. John Knickerbacker, James Thomp- 
son, John Cramer, Miles Beach and John W. Kirtland were named as 
commissioners to receive subscriptions for stock and call the first meet- 
ing. John Knickerbacker, John Cramer, John Vibbard, Eli M. Todd, 
Moses Scott, Samuel Thompson, Matthew Bailey, Samuel Cook and 

May 10, 1866. The edifice was renovated and a new pipe organ placed back of the pulpit in 1886. 
In 1897 the old windows were replaced by beautiful figured stained glass windows. The pastors 
of the church since the death of Dr. Blatchford have been : Rev. Ebenezer Cheever, April 9, 
1828, to March, 1830 ; Rev. Lawrence L. Van Dyke, Rev. George Bush supplies to 1831 ; Rev. Reu- 
ben Smith, May, 1831, to April 1, 1848 ; Rev. Alexander B. Bullions, September 14, 1848, to 1853 ; 
Rev. Lewis H. Lee, 185.3 to 1863 ; Rev. Arthur T. Pierson, October 6, 1863, to 1869 ; Rev. R. H. P. 
Vail, September 14, 1869, to March 31, 1876 ; Rev. A. B. Riggs, 1876-1889 ; Rev. Robert W. Beers, 

1 No record of this early Methodist church is extant. 

2 The first church was burned in the great fire of 1841, but soon after a new edifice was con- 
structed of brick at a cost of about $6,000. In 1865 this was enlarged, remodeled and completely 
refurnished, including the purchase of a fine organ, at a total expense of about $10,000. The rec- 
tors succeeding Rev. Parker Adams have been Revs. George Uphold, Henry Stebbins, George 
B. Eastman, Joshua Morss, Joseph J. Nicholson, Edward Edwards, Richard S. Adams, William 
Walsh, Joseph Carey, George F. Ferguson, Charles H. Lancaster, P. A. Shoup, Walter Thomp- 
son, William D. Maxon, William Rollins Webb, Charles E. Freeman, S. T. Street and John Mills 

'This church, a brick structure, was built in 1842, chiefly through the efforts of George Hurd, 
Merritt Potter and T. J. Eddy. Tl^e structure was rebuilt in 1867 at a cost of nearly $20,000. 

STILLWATER, 1800-1831. 145 

Miles Beach were named as the first directors, and at their first meet- 
ing, held July 14, 1830, they elected John Knickerbacker president, 
Jonathan H. Douglas cashier, and John Cramer attorney, and named John 
Vibbard, Eli M. Todd and John House as a committee to select a build- 
ing for a banking house. 

September 24, 1804, a number of members of the Masonic fraternity 
residing in the town of Milton met at the residence of William G. Boss, 
at Milton Hill, and organized a lodge of that order. March 32, 1805, 
this organization received from the Grand lodge a charter giving it the 
title of Friendship lodge No. 118, F. & A. M. Meetings were held 
in the town of Milton until January 2, 1821, when the lodge was re- 
moved to Ballston Spa. Here communications were held for fourteen 
years, at the end of which period the charter was surrendered. The 
lodge was never revived. 

The following advertisment appeared in the Ballston Spa Gazette of 
January 7, 1823 : 

Waterford Ladies' School.— MISS HAIGHT respectfully informs the public, that 
she has opened a school for the instruction of young ladies, in which are taught 
the following branches: — Spelling, Reading, Writing, Definitions, English Gram- 
mar, Arithmetic, Geography and Composition, $5 per quarter. Mappery, History, 
Rhetoric, Elements of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy, Use of Globes, Geometry, 
Astronomy, Logic, Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, separate or in conjunction 
with the above branches, $6 per quarter. Drawing and Painting, ^5. Painting on 
Velvet, $5. Both branches taught together, $8 per quarter. The French language 
and music will be taught provided a sufficient number should apply to compose a 

Waterford, October 3, 1822. 

THE undersigned cheerfully permits himself to be referred to both for the char- 
acter and accomplishments of Miss Haight, and he has no doubt, the public will soon 
perceive the advantage of encouraging the seminary of which this lady has the 
charge. Samuel Blatchford, D.D. 

Lansingburg, Oct. 12, 1822. 

The first noteworthy industrial advance in the town of Stillwater 
occurred about 1812, when Rensselaer Schuyler, a man of wealth and 
enterprise, purchased a tract of land now occupied by a portion of the 
village of Stillwater and established mills. Already there were in and 
near the village a grist mill, saw mill, flour mill, a tannery, an ashery 
and other smaller industries. The opening of the Champlain canal in 
1825 gave a great impetus to trade. Soon after that auspicious event, 
Ephraim Newland became the promoter of several enterprises. Mills 



were established by him for the manufacture of flannel and knit goods, 
and soon after a second knitting mill, a wall paper plant and a straw 
board mill were started. These industries caused the population of the 
place to increase rapidly. The village had been incorporated in 1816, 
the bounds being from the Stillwater creek half a mile up the river, 
and more than a quarter of a mile west of the river. In 1817 the 
Schuyler mills and all the additions built after the erection of the orig- 
inal buildings were burned. The property afterward was owned by 
Philip J. Schuyler, who erected a grist mill and clothing factory. About 
the time the canal was constructed a brick kiln was erected, employing 
the clay thrown from the bed of the canal for the manufacture of brick. 

The original Presbyterian church of Stillwater ceased to exist as an 
organized body about 1795. In 1816 the Presbyterians and Congrega- 
tionalists of the village united and formed ' ' The First Presbyterian 
Congregational church of Stillwater." But this organization was not 
a success, there being a constant conflict of authority, although the 
confession of faith and covenant were alike for both denominations. 
Denison Andrews, John W. Patrick, Samuel Low and John Sullivan 
were the first elders, and Thomas Morey, William Seymour and Peter 
Andrews deacons. When it was seen that the two denominations 
could not exist as one society, the church was dissolved and a Presby- 
terian church organized March 11, 1818, with John W. Patrick, Jesse 
Warren and Alfred Benedict as elders, and Amos Hodgman as deacon. 
Rev. Dirck C. Lansing, who had been pastor of the united body, re- 
tired at this time, and Rev. Mark Tucker became the first pastor of 
the new society, serving in this capacity until 1834.' 

Methodism gained a foothold in town early in the century. A society 
was organized at Ketchum's Corners about 1800, but little is known of 
its early history. Rev. Datus Ensign was the pioneer of Methodism 
at Stillwater. In 1838 he held his first meeting in the school house in 
the northern part of the village, where a small class was formed. From 
this class sprang the present Methodist church of Stillwater." 

' The first house of worship of this Presbyterian church, built in 1791, was replaced by a com- 
modious brick edifice in 1842. 

^ This society was regularly united with the Stillwater circuit in 1835, Rev. E. Goss preaching 
regularly once in two weeks. Soon after the church was attached to the society at Mechanic- 
ville, but in 1857 the present M. E. church of Stillwater was organized, as a separate station, 
under the ministry of Rev. Reuben Westcott. Eleven years before the organization of the so- 
ciety, or in 1846, a house of worship was erected at an expense of $800, being dedicated by Rev. 
Allen Steele. In 1874, under the pastorate of Rev. A. C. Rose, the erection of the present edifice 
was begun. It was completed during the second pastorate of Rev. W. D. Hitchcock in 1886-1888. 

HALFMOON, 1800-1831. 147 

The industrial development of Halfmoon was slow until the opening 
of the Champlain canal in 1825. Numerous grist mills and saw mills, 
with at least one brick kiln, were in operation in the early part of the 
present century, but few other manufacturing concerns were erected 
until after the first decade. 

Edward A. Morehouse, who came to Mechanicville in 1835, recalls a clear picture 
of the village of that date. South of the kill, Dr. Guerdon ; two Boillo families ; a 
colored family; the old tavern; the blacksmith shop; further down, McMuUigan. 
The Guerdon house was partly log, on the site of the present parsonage. On the 
Stillwater side, west of Main street, Morehouse's tailor shop, Vernam's store, John 
Gross's tavern ; joining the store was Garrington's residence, then a house and store 
kept by William Pierce. On the east side of the street. Skinner's blacksmith shop, 
Farnum's store, where the meat market is now, a brick house, Squire Hutton's resi- 
dence, now Widow Boardman's, Garrington's harness shop, over it Lockwood's shoe 
shop, Lynott Bloodgood's; at the corner old-fashioned hay scales, wagon and all 
swung up by chains to be weighed ; beyond these eight or ten other buildings, and 
in the rear the factory and grist mill, as now. The factory had been erected by 
Squire Hutton many years before, had been burned, rebuilt, and in 1835 was owned 
by Bloodgood.' 

Few manufacturing concerns existed outside of Mechanicville in these 
days. The chief occupation of the inhabitants of the town was agri- 
culture, for the soil of the town is generally very fertile and productive, 
both on the flats and the uplands. 

Several religious societies were organized in Halfmoon during thip 
period. Early in the century a Friends' meeting was established about 
three miles southwest of Mechanicville, but the meetings were discon- 
tinued about 1850. The Second Baptist church of Halfmoon, located 
for many years at Clifton Park village, and the old Baptist church at 
Middletown were successors of the original church at Newtown. The 
Methodist church of Mechanicville had its inception in a class organ- 
ized in 1828. This resulted in the erection of a chapel in 1832.'' 
Though the Protestant Episcopal church at Mechanicville (now St. 
Luke's church) was not formally organized until August 2, 1830, the 
erection of the house of worship was begun at least a year before that 
date. It was consecrated August 24, 1830, by Right Rev. John Henry 
Hobart, bishop of New York. The first ofiftcers of the church were: 

1 Sylvester's History of Saratoga County, 1878. 
2 Rev. Mr. Ensign was the first pastor of this church, vi^hich now [1898] is under the pastoral 
charge of Rev. Dr. William H. Hughes. The church edifice on William street which served the 
society so many years was sold in 1883 to the Baptist congregation, and a new church was 
erected in that year on North Main street, at the cost of $20,000. This building was dedicated 
by Bishop Thomas L. Bowman December J8, J884, 


Wardens, John C. Valentine and William Gates; vestrymen, Hugh 
Peebles, John Cross, Munson Smith, William L. R. Valentine, Lynott 
Bloodgood, William Tyler, William Tibbitts and Cramer Vernam. ' 

Good schools existed in town and were well patronized. The old 
Halfmoon academy, located at Middletown, was considered the best, 
not only in Halfmoon, but within many miles thereof. Among the 
school commissioners who served at the beginning of the century were 
Hezekiah Ketchum, Benjamin Mix, Solomon Waite and Robert Ken- 
nedy. Among those who served after the passage of the general school 
law of 1812 were Ira Scott, Ashbel Philo, David Garnsey, Nathan 
Garnsey, jr., Samuel Reynolds, Nicholas B. Doe, John E. Vischer, 
John B. Miller, Elnathan Smith, Nathan Peck, Henry Clow, Nehemiah 
G. Philo, Silas Sweetland, Joseph Read, Benjamin Hall and Powell 

The history of Schuylerville and the town of Saratoga, commonly 
known as Old Saratoga, during the first third of the century, can be 
told in a few words. Little else is to be recorded but the development 
of the agricultural interests of the community. The inhabitants of, 
Schuylerville did not feel that their village was important enough to 
ask for incorporation until 1831, the end of the period covered by this 
chapter. The early manufactures, aside from those referred to in a 
preceding chapter, were few but important. The old fulling mill 
established by the Schuyler family before 1800, passed into the hands 
of Mr. Lawrence in 1819. This he operated until about 1830, when he 
took charge of a woolen factory located in a part of the old biiilding 
formerly occupied as a distillery by Mr. Schuyler. The manufacture of 
woolen goods was continued in this building until it was destroyed by 
fire about 1850. In 1838 Philip Schuyler built a cotton factory, which 
was operated continuously for many years, finally becoming the prop- 
erty of the Saratoga Victory Manufacturing company. This is believed 
to be the oldest mill of its kind but one in New York State. 

A Masonic lodge existed in Schuylerville for man}-- years, but it was 
disbanded during the great Anti-Masonic agitation and was never re- 
organized. A lodge of Odd Fellows was established there in the early 
days of that order, but this too was discontinued many years ago. 

^ When the funds were subscribed for the construction of this church it was stipulated 
that it should be dedicated by the bishop of New York, though all religious bodies were per- 
mitted to worship therein. This naturally led to dissensions and July 15, 1835, the vestry of St. 
Luke's having obtained a release from all societies using the church except the Episcopalians, 
the property came into the sole possession of St. Luke's church. 

SARATOGA, 1800-1831. 149 

Several school houses were located in town during this period, but lit- 
tle is known of them. In 1813, in pursuance of the general school law 
enacted the preceding year, the town was divided into eighteen school 
districts and these school commissioners were elected : Wallace Craw- 
ford, Harvey Granger, John R. Mott. The inspectors chosen were: 
Philip Duryea, Martin L. Bryan, Reuben Perry, Esek Cowen, David 
Evarts, Zeno Remington. Other commissioners who served during 
this period included James Green, jr., Jonas Olmstead, James Mott, 
William Davis, Eli Granger, James W. Smith, Edward Fitch, Henry 
D. Chapman, Francis R. Winney, James Anibal, Oliver Cleveland, 
Henry Wagman, James Place, Ira Lawrence, William Wilcox, Elna- 
than Patterson, William B. Caldwell, Henry F. Sherman 3d, Richard 
M. Livingston, Joseph Soule, Orville B. Dibble, Stephen H. Dilling- 
ham, Henry T. Sherman and Abram B. Barker. Among the school 
inspectors of this period were John H. Steele, John R. Mott, Richard 
M. Livingston, William L. F. Warren, Dudley Farlin, James Green, 
Henry D. Chapman, Elnathan Spinner, James W. Smith, Aaron Blake, 
William B. Caldwell, Abram Van Duzen, Rockwell Putnam, Harmon 
J. Betts, Philip Schuyler, Daniel Morgan, jr., Oliver Brisbin, Joseph 
Welch and James C. Milligan. 

At least two churches existed in the town of Saratoga at the opening 
of the century — the Reformed Dutch church and the Baptist church of 
Schuylerville. January 30, 1827, a subscription was made to raise 
funds to build a house of worship for the Methodists residing in the 
town. The document contained this interesting statement: 

From Lansingburg along the valley of the Hudson for fifty miles, with a breadth 
of from eight to ten miles, the Episcopal Methodists have not one house dedicated 
to the worship of God. Private dwellings, school houses and barns have hitherto 
offered to their classes a precarious yet acceptable resort. Perhaps there is not a 
spot in that rich and populous district of country where so many of this denomi- 
nation of Christians would meet as at Schuylerville if a suitable edifice could be 

This plea was successful, and in the summer of 1827 a house of wor- 
ship was bailt, and dedicated the following autumn. At the time of 
the building the trustees were John Cox, Jedediah Beckwith, Oliver 
Cleveland, Johp Seeley and George Strover. John Cox, John Seeley 
and Asa Welch were the class leaders. Among the first preachers were 
B. Griffin, W. P. Lake, W. H. Norris, G. Lyons, C. P. Clark, D. Ensign 
and J. Beaman. No other churches were organized in this town until 
1838, when the Episcopal church of Schuylerville was founded. 


That politics three-quarters of a century ago was conducted on much 
the same plan as to-day is evidenced by the following from the Ballston 
Spa Gazette of January 7, 1823 : 

Reward of Merit.— On the 9th of February last, Mr. Gilbert C. Beedell, esq., a 
meritorious ofBcer, was removed from the ofBce of Post-Master, at Schuylerville, in 
the town of Saratoga, to make room for Mr. O. C. Dibble, who, we understand, re- 
ceived his appointment by means of an invidious representation, made to the post- 
master-general, and which, it will be recollected, was shortly after exultingly an- 
nounced in the "Sentinel." We have now the satisfaction of announcing that a 
proper statement has been laid before the P. M. G. and that Mr. peedell was rein- 
stated in that office on the 1st instant. 

Several small mills were built at Corinth, on the banks of the Hud- 
son principally, soon after the opening of the century. About 1804 a 
saw mill, the first in the town, was built at the falls in the river. In 
1810 it was owned and operated by Ira Haskins. In 1835 it was torn 
down and a new mill was built by William, Thomas and Ebenezer Ide. 
Thomas Harsha had built a grist mill a few years earlier. In 1820 
George W. and Matthew Harsha built a woolen factory. About 1829 
Beriah Palmer of Ballston purchased the property, with the power, 
and for nearly thirty years afterward it remained idle. 

Schools were established at Jessup's Landing and South Cornith 
about 1800. These were taught by Mrs. Church, Nehemiah Price, 
Stephen Olney, Mr. Sabine and Mr. Spaulding. 

The first church organized in Corinth during this century was the 
Presbyterian church of Corinth, which was started August 29, 1814, as 
the Congregational church of Hadley and Luzerne. The church was 
instituted by Rev. Cyrus Comstock, missionary; Rev. Lebbeus Arm- 
strong of Moreau and Reuben Armstrong of Bolton. At this meeting 
Edward Sherman and Nezer Scofield were chosen deacons. In Decem- 
ber of that year this society connected itself with the Albany presby- 
tery. In 1822 it changed to a Presbyterian church and took the name 
of the Presbyterian church of Corinth.' 

The early days of the century, as now, were devoted almost exclu- 
sively to agricultural pursuits by the inhabitants of the town of Balls- 

■ The first church edifice was constructed in 1833 at Jessup's Landing. In 1853 the society be- 
came extinct and the property was sold by an order of the county court. The pastors of this 
church were : Rev. Joseph Farrar, 1816; Rev. William Williams, 1818; Rev. Mr. Manly, 1823; Rev. 
Mr. Cook, 183;8; Rev. Mr. Beckley, 183.5; Rev. Josiah Comstock, 1836; Rev. T. Redfield, 1838; Rev. 
Joel Wood, 1833; Rev. T. Redfield, Rev. Jeremiah Wood and others. The present church was not 
organized until February 17, 1867, when Thomas Brown and John C. Herrick were elected elders. 
The house o£ worship near Palmer's Palls was built, at an expense of $3,500, in the fall of 1873, and 
dedicated in April, 1874, Rev. Henry Darling preaching the dedicatory sermon. 

CHARLTON— GALWAY, 1800-1831. 151 

ton residing outside the village of Ballston Spa, which occupied a por- 
tion of the town. Not unmindful of the welfare of the young, these 
inhabitants supported several good schools. About 1804 the " Ballston 
academy/j" referred to in preceding pages in this chapter, was opened, 
and many of the farmers residing as far as five miles distant sent their 
children to school there. There was another excellent school at Acad- 
emy Hill, another at Burnt Hills and still another at East Line. The 
latter was patronized by the inhabitants of both Ballston and Malta. 

In the neighboring town of Charlton there existed, between 1820 and 
1835, a hamlet called Little Troy, located about a mile and a half 
southeast of the village of Charlton. This place at one time promised 
to become a thriving village. In it was located a fulling mill, a card- 
ing mill, a saw mill, a grist mill, three distilleries, a blacksmith shop, 
a store and a tavern. Hardly a trace of the manufactories is in exist- 
ence to-day. Aside from this industrial venture Charlton has had in 
its history few manufacturing establishments except such as were 
necessary for the convenience of the farming community, such as saw 
mills, grist mills, wagon shops and blacksmith shops. There were 
few schools in town in the early days, and of these practically nothing 
is known. 

The first church organized in Charlton during this century, and the 
third in the town, was St. Paul's Episcopal church, which was formed 
December 10, 1803, by the election of these officers: Wardens, Jere- 
miah Smith and James Sherwood ; vestrymen, Robert Benedict, James 
Bradley, John Lendrum, Eleazer Dows, Eliud Davis, Matthew La Rue, 
Joseph Van Kirk and Patrick Callahan. The following spring a house 
of worship was erected by Eleazer Dows. The first rector, Rev. Fred- 
erick Van Horn, assumed charge of the church August 9, 1805.' 

Agriculture has always been the chief occupation of the inhabitants of 
Galway, and nothing of consequence can be said of, the early industrial 
development aside from this branch. Gen. Earl Stimson, a citizen of 
prominence in the early part of the century, had a store, hotel, boarding- 
house and meat-packing establishment about 1810 on the hill known as 
Stimson's Corners. He also owned stores at Galway and Broadalbin. 
Thomas Mairs of Argyle, Washington county, who settled in Galway 
in 1832, embarked in the mercantile business in 1829, continuing nearly 
half a century. 

' The first church was repaired and remodeled in 1836. Since 1857 the church has been con- 
nected with the society o£ Calvary church at Burnt Hills, both being served by one rector. 


That the inhabitants of Galway in the early days were a deeply 
religious people is evident from the fact that, though sparsely popu- 
lated, there existed at least half a dozen churches in town by the end 
of the period under consideration— 1800 to 1831— three of which were 
organized between 1807 and 1820. The first of these was the First 
Associate Presbyterian church of Galway, which was duly organized 
February 24, 1807. This body at first assumed the Congregational form 
of government, but was allowed to become attached to the Albany 
presbytery. Some time before this the Presbyterians had started the 
construction of their house of worship, which was begun in 1804 and 
finished in 1806. The original membership was but seventeen, but in 
two years this had increased to one hundred and thirty three. The 
first governing committee, appointed February 6, 1808, consisted of 
Joel Smith, Avery Starkweather, Earl Stimson, Justus Harris, Joseph 
Mather, Nehemiah Conde, Jehial Dean, Daniel Dean, Israel Phelps and 
Ezra Kellogg. ' The second church was the First Christian church of 
Galway, organized July 11, 1814. The year following Reuben Wait 
and Jacob Capron were elected deacons. Rev. Maxson Mosher was 
the most prominent of the early pastors of the church. He was or- 
dained to the ministry April 30, 1820,' and served the church as pastor 
for about a quarter of a century. The first house of worship was built 
in 1814 at Mechanic Street, about three miles north of Galway. It was 
the first Christian church erected in the State of New York." 

In the town of Edinburgh there is little to record for this period. 
The building of the necessary saw mills and grist mills were practically 
the only industries in the town. Little is known of the early schools. 
In 1812 a school was taught by Titus Andrews in the house of Abijah 

^ In 1834 the church assumed the Presbyterian form, the first session consisting of Elders 
Perez Otis, Piatt B. Smith, Benham Smith, George Davidson, Calvin Preston, William Beers 
and William Cruttenden, and Deacons Enoch Johnson and Stephen C. Hays. A new church 
edifice was erected in 1853 at an expense of about $6,000, being dedicated April 18, 18.54. A 
parsonage costing $2,400 was erected in 1874. The pastors of the church have been : Revs. Syl- 
vanus Haight, Noah M. Wells, William Chester, Samuel Nott, R. Deming, James Harper, Dun- 
can Kennedy, Henry Lyman, J. L. Willard, Laurin E. Lane, McFarlane, William H. Mill- 
ham, Oliver Hemstreet, 1872-1880 ; William C. McBeth, 1880-1881 ; James P. Bryant, 1881-1888 ; J. 
A. B. Ogliver, 1888-1889; Charles E. Herbert, 1889-1894; Lewis R. Webber, 1894 to present time. 
For many years the pastors of this church have had charge of the Presbyterian churches at 
Galway and West Galway jointly. 

2 Many of the members of this church having embraced the doctrines of Second Adventism, 
the society was reorganized August 25, 1855, by the election of Restcome Hall as deacon, Daniel 
T. Hart, Reuben Wait and Hiram Wait as trustees, and Samuel G. Rider as clerk. In 1845 
thirteen members of this church organized the church at Barkersville. The house of worship 
was repaired in 1861. 

EDINBURGH— MALTA, 1800-1831. 153 

Stark. About the same time the Sandy Hill school was in existence. 
In 1816 another school was started on Liberty Hill. The school in the 
Anderson neighborhood was one of the earliest in town. 

The first church established during this century was the Presby- 
terian church at Batchellerville, which was started as a Congregational 
church by the Edinburgh Congregational society, organized September 
5, 1808, by Rev. Sylvanus Haight of Galway. The first house of wor- 
ship, erected in 1815, was located at Fish House (Northampton), but 
in 1824 another was erected in Edinburgh, near' the old cemetery be- 
tween Beecher's Hollow and the bridge over the Sacandaga. In this 
year the society divided, part going to the church at Northampton and 
part remaining in Edinburgh. Soon after its organization the society 
became Presbyterian, but in 1831 it again became Congregational, 
though still remaining under the care of the Albany presbytery." Two 
Methodist churches were established in the town during these years. 
The first of these was the Methodist Episcopal church at Beecher's Hol- 
low (Edinburgh), which was organized about 1820, and the "Edin- 
burgh Hill " M. E. church, organized a year or two later." 

Agriculture having been almost the sole occupation of the inhabitants 
of Malta since the settlement- of the town, little remains to be said of 
the early industrial pursuits. The people have always been progressive, 
and early in the history of the town maintained good schools. Among 
the school commissioners who served from 1812 to 1831 were such 
prominent men as Richard Dunning, Thomas Hall, John B. Hall, 
Elliot Green, Zadock Dunning, Reuben Doolittle, David Everts, 
William Baker, Dennis Marvin, Stephen Valentine, Peter Fort, 
Robert Hunter, Palmer Cady, Gould Morehouse, Zalmon Olmstead, 
Moses Dunning, Thomas CoUamer, Daniel A. Collamer and Alford 

^The church built in 1824 was abandoned and torn down in 1866, when the society again be- 
came purely Presbyterian and erected a house of worship in the growing village of Batcheller- 
ville at a cost of $8,000. There the society has been located ever since, but most of the time the 
pastors have supplied the church at Northampton in connection with the Batchellerville society. 
The pastors of the church since ISllhave been : Revs. N. M. Wells, Lebbeus Armstrong, Will- 
iams, Joseph Farrar, Halsey A. Wood, Monteith, M. Donalds, Benjamin H. Pitnam, Royal A. 

Avery, P. R. Burnham, H. Rinker, S. P. Rollo, L. H. Pease, Isaac De Voe, B. P. Johnson, Henry 
Lancashire, H. C. Stanton, James R. Bryant, 1877-1881; H. R. Rundall, 1881-1883; W. B. Stewart, 
1882-1883; James B. Campbell, 1883-1885; D. M. Countermine, 1886-1889; William H Hudnut (supply), 
1889; Rev. Mr. Renshaw, 1889-1890; John G. Lovell, June 1, 1890, to the present time. Mr. Lovell's 
pastorate has been the longest in the history of the society, since it became a Presbyterian church 
in 1867, when the present house of worship was dedicated. 

2 The latter church had no house of worship until about 1835. This was razed in 1871 and a 
new one erected, being dedicated in 1873 by Rev. J, K. Wager. In 1883 the interior of the church 
at Beecher's Hollow was remodeled. In 1897 a parsonage was purchased. 


Scribner. School inspectors serving during this period included, 
besides some of the men already mentioned, Philo T. Beebe, Mataliah 
Lathrop, jr., Luther Hulbert, Samuel Hunter, Jared Seymour, Isaac 
Andrews, David Powers, Henry Doolittle, Lewis Waterbury, Bockes 
Barrett, Stephen Thorn, Abner Carpenter, Danforth Shumway, Moses 
Landon, Barzillai Millard, Daniel A. CoUamer, William Marvfn and 
Roswell Day. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at East Line, now extinct, was 
built in 1809 by the first religious society in town. Many of its mem- 
bers, however, lived in the town of Ballston, and the house of worship 
was erected on the town line for the convenience of all. The building 
is now used as a school house. It is believed that this pioneer society 
of the town was the M. E. church of Stillwater, incorporated March 
26, 1800, as the original town of Stillwater in that year embraced the 
town of Malta. Services were discontinued here in 1870, the members 
being transferred either to Ballston or Jonesville. Another church of 
this denomination was organized about 1827 at Malta Ridge. For 
many years it has been supplied by the pastors at Round Lake and 
elsewhere. In 1829 the Methodist Protestant church of Malta Ridge 
was organized, and three years later a house of worship was erected at 
a cost of $1,000. 

Northumberland, too, has been principally an agricultural town, 
though it had some manufactures in the early days of the century. 
These were mainly saw mills, grist mills and flour mills, with at least 
one tannery and a wagon shop. Stores were numerous. Charles Car- 
penter had the second store in the town, at Northumberland village, in 
1800. Three years later another was opened by Mr. Van Tuyl of New 
York. The first store at Gansevoort was not opened until 1831 or 1832, 
when Morgan Lewis was established in business. Several lawyers lo- 
cated in town at an early date. The most important law firm was that of 
Cowen & Gansevoort, of which Esek Cowen was the head. This firm 
was in business at Gansevoort as early as 1807. John and WiUiam 
Metcalf had a law office at Northumberland village four or five years 
earner. All had extensive practice. At Northumberland village, 
which afterward was known as Fort Miller Bridge, an incorporated 
company erected a wooden bridge in 1803. This was superseded by a 
a new bridge in 1845. 

The first church in Northumberland, the Reformed church, was not 
organized until November 30, 1820. It sprang from the pioneer church 

HADLEY, 1800-1831. 155 

at Schuylerville, and was organized at Bacon Hill. At the institution 
of the church, John Terhune and Carruth Brisbin were ordained elders 
and Andrew Johnson and Jonas Olmstead deacons. Rev. Philip Dur- 
yea, pastor of the Schuylerville church, was engaged to preach part 
of the time for the new church. 

The early industries of the town of Hadley were unimportant. 
Jeremy Rockwell built a grist mill at Hadley village in 1803, and 
opened a store in 1807. Soon after two saw mills were erected at 
Conklingville, one each side of the Sacandaga river. In 1828 Johnson 
& Wait built a dam across the Sacandaga at that point, and in 1831 
another was built by Isaac Barber. Both were carried away by a flood 
in 1848. A bridge at the mouth of that river was built by Obadiah 
Wilcox in 1813. Of the early schools almost nothing is known. 

About the year 1825 the first religious meetings in Hadley were held 
at the house of John Loveless. The following year an open commun- 
ion Baptist society was organized, with Rev. Chandler as pastor 

and John Loveless and John Jenkins as deacons. The society had no 
house of worship however for many years. ' 

Of Moreau there is little to be said as bearing on this period. Almost 
the sole industries of these times were such as were necessary to the 
existence of the inhabitants. In 1813 a ferry was established by one 
Tillottson at the great bend in the Hudson. At this time saw mills 
and jg^rist mills were about the only enterprises in the town. 

In 1802 Amos Hawley, who had removed to Hadley from Connecti- 
cut, became instrumental in the organization of a Congregational 
church, of which he became one of the first deacons. Rev. Lebbeus 
Armstrong, the first pastor, was installed in 1804. Internal affairs in 
the church appear to have been far from harmonious, atid dissensions 
were almost continuous; even to such an extent that one faction left 
the society and built a separate church. The church finally became so 
weak, and there were so many other churches of essentially similar 
faith in adjoining towns, that it became extinct in 1859. 

An important event in the history of the town was the organization 
of "The Moreau and Northumberland Temperate Society" in 1808, 
mainly through the efforts of Dr. Billy J. Clark, .an early physician. 
This society is referred to more in detail in a preceding chapter. 

1 This society was reorganized in 1841 as the Free Will Baptist church of Hadley, and in 1844 
Elder David Hyde built the first house of worship, a cheap frame structure for temporary use. 
A new church was built in 1869 at a cost of $3,600, and dedicated January 20, 1870, by Rev. 
George T. Day of Dover, N. H. The fii;st pastor was Rev. John H. Loveless. 


Several events of more than passing interest transpired in the town 
of Greenfield in the early years of the century. One of the first, as 
well as the most noteworthy, of these, was the organization of St. 
John's Lodge No. 33, F. & A. M., which was chartered by the Grand 
lodge February 20, 1803, as No. 90. Upon the reorganization of Ma- 
sonry in this State in 1839 after the great anti-Masonic agitation, the 
lodge was given the number 23. June 2, 1803, the lodge was duly in- 
stituted and the following officers elected and installed : John St. John, 
W. M.; Jeremy Rockwell, S. W.; Potter Johnson, J. W. ; Joseph 
Blackleach, secretary; James Vail, treasurer; Benjamin Worden, S. D. ; 
Daniel Hicks, J. D. ; Frederick Weed and Asa Chatfield, stewards. 
Front the time of its organization until 1870 the lodge continued to 
meet at Porter's Corners, but in that year the headquarters were 
changed to Greenfield Centre, where about $3,600 were spent in pur- 
chasing and refitting the Ingerson store at that place. The masters of 
St. John's lodge from its institution up to the present time and the 
year of their election have been : 

1803, John St. John; 1803, Jeremy Rockwell; 1804, Asahel Porter; 1806, Oliver C. 
Comstock; 1807, Daniel Hicks; 1808, John St. John; 1809, Lewis Scott; 1811. Abner 
Medbery: 1812, Joseph Blackleach; 1813, Nathan Medbery; 1814 Lewis Scott; 1815, 
Nathan Medbery; 1818, Simeon Gray; 1819, Nathan Medbery; 1822, George Sax; 
1824, Rensselaer Sax; 1828, Hiram Medbery; 1830, Rensselaer Sax; 1882, John E. 
Harris; 1834, George Riddell; 1836, William Burnham; 1837, George Riddell; 1838, 
Rensselaer Sax; 1842, John Gifford; 1844, John S. Weed; 1847, Daniel Wing; 
1848, John S. Weed; 1849, John Gi£ford; 1853, Daniel Wing; 1854, John 
Gifford; 1857, John S. Weed; 1860, Morgan H. Chrysler; 1861, Truman E. 
Parkman; 1863, lanthus G. Johnson; 1864, Gideon W. Scofield; 1875, Edward A. 
Rood; 1876, Gideon W. Scofield; 1877, Albert G. Wing; 1887, Charles W. Spaulding; 
1888, lanthus G. Johnson; 1889, Albert G. Wing; 1892. Clifford E. Cady; 1893, 
Arthur W Johnson ; 1894, Clarence E. Latham ; 1895-1897, Charles B. Mallory. 

February 7, 1805, a mark lodge was chartered there, in connection 
with St. John's lodge, and called "St. John's Lodge, Mark Master 
Masons, No. 36," with John St. John as master, Asahel Porter as 
senior warden and Beroth BuUard as junior warden. This lodge con- 
tinued until February 3, 1835, when St. John's Chapter No. 103, R. A. 
M., was chartered, with these officers: High Priest, Elihu Wing; 
king, Lewis Scott ; scribe, Abner Medbery. The high priests of St. 
John's Chapter since its organization have been : 

1827, Lewis Scott; 1828, Rensselaer Sax ; 1829, Woodruff Gibbs; 1830-1833, Rens- 
selaer Sax ; 1834-1835, William Burnham ; 1836-1842, Rensselaer Sax ; 1843, John S. 

GREENFIELD— DAY, 1800-1831. 157 

Weed; 1844, Rensselaer Sax ; 1845-1848, John S. Weed; 1849, John Gifford; 1850- 
1853, John S. Weed; 1854, Samuel Eddy; 1855, Daniel Wing; 1856, John E. Com- 
stoct; 1857, Matthew Owen; 1858, John S. Weed; 1859, John Gifford; 1860, William 
L. Putnam; 1861, Daniel Wing; 186a--1863, Truman E. Parkman; 1864, Alonzo 
Russel; 1865, Truman E. Parkman; 1866-1871, lanthus G. Johnson; 1872, Truman E. 
Parkman; 1873-1875, lanthus G. Johnson; 1876-1888, Elihu Wing; 1889, Albert G. 
Wing; 1890-1898, Elihu Wing; 1894^1898, William H. Harris. 

At the organization of St. John's Chapter there were eighty three 
chapters in this State, and the total number in the State now working 
is one hundred and eighty-eight.' 

In April, 1809, several of the representative citizens of the town met 
and organized the Greenfield Temperance Society by electing Rev. 
Elias Gilbert president and secretary, and Howell Gardiner, Salmon 
Child and Jonathan Wood an executive committee. In 1839 it was re- 
organized on total abstinence principles. 

The third event in mind was the organization of the Universalist 
church of Porter's Corners. The church edifice was constructed in 
1816, but the society was not organized until 1819. It was called the 
First Universalist Church and Society of Greenfield. The first board 
of trustees was composed of Frederick Parkman, Abner Medbery and 
John W. Creal. Rev. Hosea Parsons was the first pastor. 

For many years after its settlement the principal industry in the town 
of Day was the development of the lumber interests. One of the most 
noted lumbermen there was Eliphaz Day," after whom the town was 
named. His business furnished employment to a number of men. In 
1804 Thomas Yates, an Englishman, came from Schenectady and taught 
school during the winter of 1804-5. Sanders's mill, on Daly's creek, 
was built about 1808. In the fall of 1835 a dam was built across the 
Sacanadaga at the mouth of Bell brook, and a saw mill was built there. 
It was owned by Eliphaz Day, Abner Wait and John Johnson. The 
dam was torn out in 1828 and the mill was movfed further down the 
stream, into the town of Hadley. Rev. Dr. Wellman, a Methodist 
minister, preached at the house of Daniel Hines as early as 1807, but 
no church was organized for many years. A Baptist society was or- 
ganized in 1813 by Elder Simmonds, who, with Daniel Corey, preached 

' The author is indebted to lanthus G. Johnson, M. D., of Greenfield Centre, tor this complete 
history of St. John's lodge and St. John's Chapter. 

'Eliphaz T>a.y partially cleared thousands of acres along the Sacanadaga, floating the logs 
down that river and the Hudson to market. April 19, 182?, he was drowned while passing through 
the " horse race " at Conklingville in a row boat. The name of the town was changed from Con- 
cord to Day, in his honor, a short time after his death. 


at private houses for several years. No church was ever built, and the 
society finally became extinct. 

Nothing is known of any industries of importance, excepting agri- 
culture, which existed in Wilton in this early period. Most of the 
inhabitants were farmers, and that they were God-fearing men and 
women is shown by the fact that churches were organized while the 
population of the town was yet quite small. Probably as early as 
1805 a meeting-house was erected at Emerson's Corners, and here 
Rev. Lebbeus Armstrong, pastor of the Congregational church of Mo- 
reau, used to preach. The church was opened to all denominations. 
About 1815 the Baptist church of Wilton was organized, and some of 
the early preachers were Elders Blakeman, Fletcher and Carr. A brick 
church was built in 1854, but the society has been extinct since 1874. 
The Methodist church was also organized during this period, but little 
can be learned of its history. 

Agriculture has been the principal occupation of the inhabitants of 
Clifton Park since the settlement of the town, and the manufacturing 
industries, as a rule, have been small. The history of the town is little 
more than the plain story of the development of farm lands, the estab- 
lishment of schools and churches and such other features as are com- 
mon to other rural communities. Of the first schools, however, the 
records fail to tell anything very definite. Among the early business 
enterprises, we learn that in the year 1800 an ashery, a distillery and a 
general store were established in Amity, and operated by Benjamin 
Mix. At Rexford's Flats the year 1818 marked the construction of the 
first bridge. Upon the opening of the Erie canal other stores were 
opened to accommodate the increasing population. Among them were 
that of Isaac Howard, who was succeeded by Curtiss & Wakeman. Lack 
of water power prevented the building of mills, as a rule. 

The first church in the town was the Baptist church, referred to in a 
preceding chapter, which was organized in 1795. The second society 
formed was the Reformed church of Amity, which was organized in 
1803 as the " Reformed Protestant Dutch church of Amity." The first 
elders were Jacobus Van Vranken and John Miller, and the first dea- 
cons were Daniel F. Fort and Evert Van Vranken. The first house of 
worship was erected in 1803, with Rev. Mr. Hardenburg as the first 
pastor. In 1805 the churches of Amity and Niskayuna engaged Rev. 
Thomas Romeyn as pastor, building a joint parsonage at Amity. Mr. 


Romeyn's ministry extended over a period of twenty-one years.' The 
Methodist church at Groom's Corners was one of the first of that de- 
nomination founded north of the Mohawk river. The Methodist Epis- 
copal church at Jonesville was built in 1835. The society formed a 
part of a circuit comprising Half moon, Clifton Park and Gal way." The 
M. E. church at Clifton Park village was formed about 1830. Services 
were suspended for a while, but preaching was again begun in 1842 by 
Rev. Henry Williams, and a house of worship built at an expense of 

Little can be said of the town of Providence in these days. The 
principal fact of historical interest appears to have been the building 
of the old Quaker meeting-house in 1815, to take the place of the 
original edifice, which had been abandoned. The chief and almost 
sole occupation of the inhabitants has always been farming. 


By far the most important enterprises undertaken in Saratoga county 
during this period — and the most important in the State of New York, 
from a commercial standpoint — were the construction of the great Erie 
and the Champlain canals. It was Governor George Clinton who first 
officially proposed, in 1792, that canals be constructed between the 
Hudson and Lake Ontario and the Hudson and Lake Champlain. 
Upon his recommendation legislative acts were passed organizing two 
canal companies — the Northern Inland Navigation Company and the 
Western Inland Lock Navigation Company. These companies were 
authorized to improve the navigation of the Hudson and Mohawk 
rivers, and to form connections between the upper waters of the Mo- 
hawk river, and Oneida and Ontario lakes, as well as between the 
Hudson river and Lake Champlain. Such were the first steps toward 
a grand system of canals. The disaster which overtook the first-named 
company has been described in a preceding chapter. In later years it 
became the general belief that no enterprise of such magnitude could 
succeed without either State aid or complete State control, with the 
public moneys back of the project. 

It is entirely uncertain who originated the first idea of constructing a chain of 
water communication through the State. All of the early efforts were directed to 

' A new church was erected in 1871 and dedicated January 18, 1872. 
2 This society organized as a separate church in 1842. In 1855 a new church was built at a 
cost o£ $4,000. This was considerably repaired in 1897, 


efEecting a passage through the Mohawk, Wood creek, Oneida lake and Oswego river 
to Lake Ontario. The western connection was sought by locking around Niagara 
Falls. In 1800 Gouverneur Morris first suggested the idea of a direct canal from 
Lake Erie to the Hudson, through the centre of the State. His plan was to tap Lake 
Erie, and have a continuous slope from the lake to the high land that borders upon 
the Hudson and a series of locks thence to the river. In 1803 he stated the outline 
of his plan to the Surveyor-General, Simeon De Witt, who looked upon it as chimer- 
ical. The next year Mr. De Witt, in a conversation with James Geddes, then a land 
surveyor of Onondaga county, stated the plan of Mr. Morris as one of the impracti- 
cable schemes which had been advanced. Mr. Geddes, however, looked at the mat- 
ter in a different light, and, after some little reflection, he concluded that the plan, 
with some modifications, was by far the best that had yet been suggested. He 
counseled with Jesse Hawley upon the subject and the latter, convinced of the feasi- 
bility of the project, wrote a series of papers which were published in the Genesee 
Messenger from October, 1807, to March, 1808. These essays were signed " Her- 
cules," and were the first ever printed in favor of the Erie canal. In 1808, Joshua 
Forman, then a member of the Assembly, introduced a resolution for the survey of 
a canal route, to the end that Congress might be led to grant moneys for the con- 
struction of a canal. The sum of |600 was granted for the surveys under the direc- 
tion of the Surveyor-General. James Geddes was intrusted with this service, and 
was directed to level down from Oneida lake to the mouth of Salmon creek, to ascer- 
tain whether a canal could be opened from Oswego Falls to Lake Ontario and to 
survey the best route for a canal around Niagara Falls. He was also directed to 
survey a route eastward from Lake Erie to Genesee River, and thence to the waters 
flowing east into Seneca Lake. He finished this work and made a report showing 
the practicability of the last-named route and its great superiority over the others 
which had been proposed. This report at once excited general attention, and se- 
cured the influence of De Witt Clinton, then a member of the Senate, and many other 
prominent men. In 1810, commissioners, at the head of whom was De Witt Clinton, 
were appointed to explore a canal route through the centre of the State. On the 8th 
of April, 1811, an act was passed to provide for the improvement of the internal 
navigation of the State, and efforts were made to obtain aid from the General Gov- 
ernment, but without success. The report of the commissioners stated the impor- 
tance of this measure with such force and eloquence that a law was passed the next 
year continuing the commissioners, and authorizing them to borrow and deposit 
money, and take cessions of land, for the proposed canal, but the war suspended 
active operations. The project, however, continued to be discussed, and an act was 
passed on the 17th of April, 1816, providing for a definite survey. The canal was 
begun at Rome, July 4, 1817, and on the 33d of October, 1819, the first boat passed 
from Utica to Rome. 

The completion of the canal was celebrated by extraordinary civic and military 
ceremonies throughout the State, and especially in New York city, on the 4th of 
November 1835. As the first boat, with Governor Clinton on board, entered the 
canal at Buffalo, at 10 o'clock, (October 36,) a line of cannon, previously arranged a 
few miles apart, passed a signal along to Albany, and down the Hudson to Sandy 
Hook, from whence it was returned in a like manner. The signal was heard at New 
York, at 11.30. The flotilla with the Governor was everywhere greeted with en- 


thusiastic rejoicing. Upon reaching New York it passed down to Sandy Hook, and 
the waters of the lake were mingled with those of the ocean with imposing cere- 

The canal commissioners under whom the Erie and Champlain canals were con- 
structed, were Stephen Van Rensselaer, De Witt Clinton, Joseph Ellicott, Samuel 
Young and Myron Holley. Henry Seymonr was appointed in place of Ellicott in 
March, 1819, and William C. Bouck was added to the number in March, 1821. The 
chief engineers were James Geddes, of Onondaga county, and Benjamin Wright, 
of Rome, neither of whom had ever seen a canal, or enjoyed means of acquiring a 
practical knowledge of engineering other than that obtained from surveying land. 
The precision with which their canal surveys were executed, under the circum- 
stances, may be regarded as truly wonderful. Among the assistant engineers were 

Peacock, David Thomas, Nathan S. Roberts, David S. Bates, Canvass White, 

Davis Hurd, Noah Dennis, Charles T. Whippo, William Jerome, Henry G. Sargent, 
Frederick C. Mills, Isaac J. Thomas, Henry Farnam, Alfred Barrett, John Bates, 
William H. Price, John Hopkins and Seymour SkiflE.' 

The canal was completed October 26, 1835. As first constructed, it 
was three hundred and sixty-three miles long, twenty-eight feet wide 
at the bottom, forty feet wide at the top, and four feet deep. The 
locks were ninety feet long between the gates and fifteen feet wide. 
The original cost was $7,143,789.86. The canal crosses the Mohawk 
river from Schenectady county at Rexford's Flats, in the town of Clif- 
ton Park, by means of an aqueduct. Thence it traverses the extreme 
southern parts of the towns of Clifton Park and Halfmoon, following 
the northern bank of the Mohawk as closely as practicable, recrossing 
that river into Albany county at Crescent. At the aqueduct at Rex- 
ford's Flats, twenty-six miles distant from Albany via the canal, and 
three hundred and twenty-six miles from Baffalo, the canal is about 
one hundred and seventy-five feet above the level of the sea. The 
canal was first enlarged in pursuance of a law passed May 11, 1835, and 
the work of improvement has been carried on steadily, with rare excep- 
tions, ever since. In 1895 the voters of the State appropriated, at the 
general election, the sum of $9,000,000 to pay for further improve- 
ments, including the deepening of the canal to a uniform depth of nine 
feet, but the appropriation was found insufficient after the most of the 
money had been expended. 

The Champlain canal follows the Hudson river along its west bank, 
or as near thereto as practicable, through the towns of Waterford, 
Halfmoon, Stillwater and Saratoga, crossing the Hudson into Wash- 
ington county about three-fouirths of a mile north of the southern 

> Historical and Statistical Gazetteer of New Yorli State. By J. H. French. 1860. 


boundary of the town of Northumberland. It passes, in Saratoga 
county, through the villages of Waterford, fifty-five feet above sea 
level ; Mechanicville, Stillwater, Wilbur's Basin, Coveville and Schuy- 
lerville, one hundred feet above sea level, a total distance of twenty- 
six miles. The entire length of the canal from Albany to Whitehall is 
seventy-one miles. The highest point is at the Glens Falls feeder, one 
hundred and fifty feet above sea level. 

The work of constructing the Champlain canal was inaugurated June 
10, 1818, less than a year after the beginning of work upon the Erie 
canal. It was finished as far as Waterford November 28, 1823, and 
totally completed September 10, 1823. The original cost was $875,000, 
exclusive of the Glens Falls feeder. The canal was built of the same 
dimensions as the Erie, and has been greatly improved from time to 
time; but the expenditures of public money therefor have not been so 
great as for the improvement of the Erie canal. When the canal was 
first opened, slackwater navigation upon the Hudson was used eight 
miles above and three miles below Fort Miller, with a short canal and 
two locks around the falls at that place. The use of the channel of the 
Hudson is now entirely superseded by a canal along its bank, built in 
1827-28. This portion of the old canal was fed from the Hudson by 
means of a high and costly dam near Fort Edward ; but this dam has 
given place to a feeder to a point above Glens Falls, which enters the 
canal at the summit level, one and a half miles northeast of Fort Ed- 
ward. In 1859-60 the locks were enlarged to a capacity 15^ by 100 


The semi-centennial anniversary of the declaration of American in- 
dependence was celebrated July 4, 1826, by imposing and elaborate cere- 
monials at Ballston Spa and Schuylerville. At the former place there 
was a gorgeous parade, the principal feature of which was a float or 
car forty-two feet long and fourteen feet wide, called the Temple of 
Industry. This was intended to exhibit the industrial development of 
the country during the first half century of the nation. This car was 
drawn by thirteen yoke of oxen, representing the thirteen original 
States. Upon it were thirteen representatives of an equal number of 
the mechanical arts, each plying his vocation. While this parade was 
moving William Van Ness, representing the shoemaker's craft, made a 
pair of shoes for the president of the day, Hon. Samuel Young, then 


speaker of the State Assembly. Another feature of the procession was 
a company of thirty-seven veterans of the Revolutionary war. Of this 
band, Jeremiah Pierson held aloft the Stars and Stripes, Lemuel Wil- 
cox carried a standard inscribed " Declaration of Independence," and 
John Whitehead bore another standard inscribed " Constitution of the 
United States. " A corps of Union Cadets, composed of two uniformed 
and well drilled companies of students of Union college, was under 
command of Major Holland, a veteran of the war of 1813 and register 
of the college. The two companies comprising this corps were com- 
manded respectively by Captain Knox and Captain Jackson. 

After the parade services were held at the Baptist church at the head 
of Front street, on Milton avenue, Hon. Samuel Young presiding. 
Rev. Dr. Eliphalet Nott, president of Union College, opened the pro- 
ceedings with prayer, after which the Declaration of Independence was 
read by Anson Brown,' a young attorney of Ballston Spa. Hon. John 
W. Taylor, then speaker of the House of Representatives, followed 
with an eloquent oration, closing with remarks addressed personally to 
the assembled body of Revolutionary veterans, who arose in a body. 

At the close of these services the participants divided into two par- 
ties and were banqueted at the principal village hotels. The Union 
Cadets feasted at the Sans Souci hotel, while the toasts of the day were 
offered at the Village hotel. One of the toasts proposed on this occa- 
sion was as follows: 

" John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
the surviving signers of the Declaration of Independence. As the 
measure of their days, so is that of their fame, — overflowing." 

It is a peculiar coincidence — though unknown at the time by those 
who were enjoying the celebration and offering this toast to three of 
the nation's heroes — that while the festivities of the day were in prog- 
ress, and but a short time before this sentence had been uttered, both 
the illustrious Adams and Jefferson had passed to their eternal rest. 

The president of the day addressed the Union Cadets in complimen- 
tary phrases, to which Major Holland responded, proposing this toast: 
" The county of Saratoga — its hills, monuments of valor; its springs, 
resorts of fashion; its hamlets, signalized by patriots and statesmen." 
Two of the alumni of Union college complimented their alma mater 
and its president by these toasts: By Thomas Palmer — "Union college: 
Crevit, crescit, crescat." By Anson Brown — " The president of Union 

' He died whije serving as a representative in the 36th Congress. 


college: Dignum laude virum musa vetal mori." Edward Watrous 
proposed this emphatic and unequivocal toast: " The Legitimates of 
Europe: May they be yoked, poked, and hoppled, cross-fettered, tied 
hand and foot, and turned out to browse on the pine plains of Old 
Saratoga! " 

Lyman B. Langworthy, then sheriff of Saratoga county, had general 
charge of this celebration, and the remainder of the committee of ar- 
rangements consisted of James Merrill, David Corey, William Clark, 
John Dix, Jeremiah Penfield, Charles Field, Alexander Russell, Robert 
Bennett, Roswell Herrick, David F. White, George W. Fish, Hiram Mid- 
dlebrook, Joseph Barker, David Herrick, Sylvester Blood, Samuel R. 
Garrett and Abraham Middlebrook. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the birth of the American Republic was 
also celebrated at Schuylerville with appropriate ceremonies. Briga- 
dier-General De Ridder, a veteran of the war of 1812, was mounted at 
the head of a troop of light-horse and other military companies. Philip 
Schuyler, a grandson of General Philip Schuyler of Revolutionary fame, 
had general charge of the celebration. On the grounds of old Fort 
Hardy a number of tables were set under canopies, to protect the guests 
from the rays of the sun, and here the participants in the celebration 
were banqueted. The oration was delivered in a grove near at hand 
by Rev. Hooper Cummings of Albany. A dozen or more Revolution- 
ary veterans sat on front seats, among them being John Ward, one of 
the body guard of General Schuyler, who was carried to Canada by the 
Tory Waltermeyer, when the latter attempted to abduct the general 
from his home in Albany. 


The Saratoga County Medical society was organized at Ballston Spa 
in July, 1806, by the election of these officers: 

President, Daniel Bull; vice-president, William Patrick; secretary, John Stearns; 
treasurer, Samuel Davis ; censors, Elijah Porter, Asa C. Barney, Samuel Pitkin, 
Billy J. Clark, Ephraim Childs ; delegate to the New York State Medical Society, 
John Stearns. 

Among the early members of the society, beside those mentioned as 
officers, were Drs. Elisha Miles, William C. Lawrence, Thomas S. Lit- 
tlefield, Daniel Hicks, Alpheus Adams, Jesse Seymour, Grant Powells, 
Isaac Finch, Francis Pixley, Beroth Bullard, John H. Steel, Josiah 
Pulling, Nathan Thompson, Oliver Brisbin, Samuel Freeman, John D. 


Bull, Henry Reynolds, William Tibbetts, Silas Wood,, Abel Baldwin, 
Darius Johnson, George Burroughs, Isaac Youngs and Gideon Thomp- 
son. Since the earlier days of the society its members have included 
practically all the prominent physicians in Saratoga county. 


The Saratoga County Bible society was organized August 34, 1815, 
nearly a year before the formation of the American Bible society, and 
only seven years later than the formation of the Philadelphia Bible so- 
ciety, the first organized in this country. At the first meeting, held at 
Ballston Spa, Rev. Samuel Blatchford, D.D., was chosen chairman, 
and Rev. Gilbert McMaster clerk. Sixty-eight persons subscribed to the 
constitution on the day of organization, aud they elected these officers: 

President, Rev. Samuel Blatchford, D. D. ; vice-presidents, Rev. Dirck C. Lansing, 
Rev. James Mairs; corresponding secretary. Rev. Gilbert McMasters; recording 
secretary, Rev. Reuben Sears; treasurer, Elisha Powell; managers, Salmon Child, 
Greenfield; Parker Adams, Waterford; Isaac B. Payne, Northumberland; John 
Taylor, Charlton; Ezra Nash, Milton; George Palmer, Stillwater; John W. Taylor, 
Ballston; John Dunning, Malta; Amos Hawley, Moreau; Jeremy Rockwell, Hadley; 
William Foster, Galway; Rev. Abijah Peck, Half moon; James Brisbin, jr., Saratoga; 
Guert Van Schoonhoven, Waterford. 

This society, during its career, has numbered among its active 
workers some of the most prominent men of Saratoga county. Among 
its presidents have been Chancellor Reuben H. Walworth, Hon. John 
C. House, Hon. Roscius R. Kennedy, Lebbeus Booth, Hon. James B. 
McKean, Prof. Hiram A. Wilson, Hon. C. S. Lester, Hon. Abraham 
Marshall and others. Its members residing in various communities 
have organized town or village societies. The Ballston auxiliary was 
organized in the fall of 1815 by Hon. John W. Taylor and others. The 
Northumberland society was organized in 1831. 


Unfortunately for the present generation, the early State and county 
records, like the colonial records, were not preserved with the care and 
accuracy which characterize the work of public officers of the present 
day. Doubtless there was, at some time, a tolerably complete record 
of the military forces of Saratoga county during the early days; but if 
so, many of these valuable papers have been either lost or destroyed. 
Prior to the year 1804 few records were maintained. Those covering 


the period from 1812 to 1830, including the second war with Great 
Britain, are for the most part entirely missing. The names which are 
given here have been taken from the records in the office of the adju- 
tant-general at Albany, and though incomplete, are official, as far as 
they go. Probably no person would have the patience to make the 
practically endless research which would be entailed were the individual 
family records of the county to be studied ; and even should such re- 
search be instituted the result would not be official, and far from sat- 
isfactory. Furthermore it is a question for debate whether such in- 
formation would be sought for with eagerness sufficient to reward the 
person undertaking such a gigantic — perhaps lifelong — task. 

In the Revolutionary period we have a partial record of two "regi- 
ments " — called so by compliment — organized by inhabitants of Saratoga 
county. The first of these was known as the Twelfth Regiment of the 
New York State Militia. It was organized in the Half Moon and Balls- 
ton districts, and the commissions granted to the officers were dated 
October 20, 1775 — about the beginning of the Revolution. Of this 
regiment the official records show these commissioned officers: 

Colonel, Jacobus Van Schoonhoven ; lieutenant-colonel, James Gordon ; first major, 
Ezekiel Taylor; second major, Andrew Mitchell; adjutant, David Rumsey; quarter- 
master, Simeon Fort. 

The six companies of which this regiment (more properly a battalion) 
was formed were officered upon their organization as follows : 

First Company. — Captain, Gerardus Cluet; first lieutenant, Albert Van De Wer- 
ker; second lieutenant, Robert Rowland; ensign, John Van De Werker. 

Second Company. — Captain, Nanning N. Visscher; first lieutenant, John Van 
Vranken ; second lieutenant, Nicholas Van Vranken ; ensign, Maas Van Vranken. 

Third Company. — Captain, Jeremiah Vincent; first lieutenant, Joseph Pinkney; 
second lieutenant, Peter Ferguson; ensign, Elias Van Steenburgh.. 

Fourth Company. — Captain, Joshua Losee ; first lieutenant, Thomas Hicks ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Cornelius Villing; ensign, Oliver Wait. 

fifth Company. — Captain, Tyrannus Collins; first lieutenant, William McCrea; 
second lieutenant, Benjamin Wood ; ensign, David Clark. 

Sixth Company. — Captain, Stephen White; first lieutenant, Thomas Brown ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Epenetus White ; ensign, Nathan Raymond. 

This regiment and the Thirteenth Regiment of the New York State 
Militia, whose officers were commissioned the same day, rallied to the 
defense of the country and did valiant service in the fight for independ- 
ence. The Thirteenth Regiment was organized among the inhabitants 
of the Saratoga district, and was comprised of seven companies. The 
first officers were as follows : 


Field and Staff. — Colonel, John McCrea; lieutenant-colonel, Cornelius Van 
Veghten; first major, Daniel Dickinson; second major, Jacob Van Schaick; adjutant, 
Archibald McNiel ; quartermaster, John Vernor. 

First Company. — Captain, Peter Van Woert; first lieutenant, James Storns; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Jonathan Dunham; ensign, Gerrit Van Buren. 

Second Company. — Captain, John Thompson ; first lieutenant, Josiah Benjamin ; 
second lieutenant, John Hunter; ensign, Joseph Row. 

Third Company. — Captain, Henry O'Hara; first lieutenant, Benjamin Giles; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Jonathan Pettit; ensign, James Pettit. 

Fourth Company. — Captain, Ephraim Woodward; first lieutenant, Thomas Bal- 
lard ; second lieutenant, Holturn Dunham ; ensign, Abe Belknap. 

Fifth Company. — Captain, Ephraim Lake; first lieutenant, Samuel Sheldon; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Jabez Gage ; ensign, Benajah Sheldon. 

Sixth Company. — Captain, Joseph Palmer; first lieutenant, John Davis; second 
lieutenant, Hezekiah Dunham ; ensign, Alpheus Davis. 

Seventh Company. — Captain, David Jones; first lieutenant, Samuel Perry; second 
lieutenant, Peter Winne ; ensign, Elisha Bentley. 

This practically completes the official knowledge of the militia of 
Saratoga county during the Revolutionary war. There is no official 
record of promotions, though, as we have seen in earlier chapters, 
some of these officers were promoted from time to time. Then, too, 
we have learned of a number of inhabitants who were officers in the 
patriot army during the Revolution, whose names do not appear in 
this official list. 

Below are given the names of the principal officers of the militia, 
with the years of their commissions, as far as can be learned, from 
1803 to the opening of the war of 1813: 

Ninth Brigade. 

Field and Staff.— 180S, Asahel Porter, brigade inspector; 1804, Samuel Clark, 
brigadier general; 1808, David Rogers, brigade major; 1809, Daniel L. Van Ant- 
werp, brigade quartermaster; 1810, Daniel G. Garnsey, brigade major; 1811, Dudley 
Smith, brigade major: Leonard H. Gansevoort, brigade quartermaster. 

Captain.— 190B, Daniel Rathbun. 

First Lieutenants. — 1803, James Garnsey; 1804, Joseph Hanchdt. 

Second Lieutenants.— y^B, Joseph Hanchet, jr., 1804, Ebenezer Couch. 

The Ninth Brigade, which was composed of inhabitants of Saratoga 
county, consisted of six regiments — the Twenty-Fourth, the Thirty- 
Second, the Forty-First, the Fifty- Ninth, the Sixty-Third and the One 
Hundred and Forty- Fourth. The principal officers of these regiments, 
and the years in which they were commissioned, were as follows : 



Forty-Fourth Regiment. 

Field and Staff.— \%')^,'\.come Potter, lieutenant-colonel; Ezra Kellogg, first 
major; Isaac Gere, second major; Willard Trowbridge, adjutant; Pilgrim Durkee, 
second major; Stephen Sherman, first major; Stephen Potter, surgeon; 1806, Isaac 
Gere, lieutenant-colonel; John Rhodes, first major; Gershom Proctor, second major; 
1807, Nathan Thompson, surgeon; 1811, Amos Cook, adjutant; Earl Stimson, pay- 
master; 1812, Isaac Gere, lieutenant-colonel; Charles Rhodes, second major; Thad- 
deus Jewett, paymaster; John Rhodes,, lieutenant-colonel; Eli Smith, first major; 
Jonathan Delano, second major. 

Captains.— -19.^^, Eli Smith, Daniel D. Wolf, Amasa Sumner, Edward Shipman, 
Eleazer Smith, Amos Smith, Anson Fowler; 1805, Elihu B. Smith; 1806, Oliver 
Edwards, Peter Boss, Jonathan Smith, Othniel Allen; 1807, Job Wells; 1808, Charles 
Rhodes; 1810, Phineas Warren, Jonathan Delano; 1811, Samuel Hawley, Ely 
Beecher, James Carpenter, James N. Smith, Benjamin Wright, Noah Sweet; 1812, 
Andrew Comstock, Michael Dunning, Earl Stimson, James N. Smith, Paul Edwards. 
Lieutenants.— \%f)A,, Barnet Stillwell, Joseph Brewster, Jonathan Smith, Oliver 
Edwards, Othniel Allen, jr.. Job Wells, Elihu B. Smith, David Fortes, Nathaniel 
Adams; 1805, Elihu Dean; 1806, Charles Rhodes, Samuel Hollister, Abraham B. 
Walker, Miles Ely, Thomas Grimes; 1807, Michael Dunning, John Blair, James 
Smith, John Salisbury, William Randall; 1808, John Hamblen, James Carpenter, 
Henry Skinner; 1809, Jonathan Delano, John Hamilton, James Perry, Samuel 
Hawley; 1810, James Perry, Aaron Wheeler, Aaron Griswold; 1811, John Derrick, 
Noah Sweet, William Tripp, Paul Edwards, Andrew Comstock, Joseph Brewster, 
Philo Dauchy, Edmund Hewitt, jr.; 1812, John Brown, William Richardson, jr., 
Henry Warren, John Herrington, Joshua Finch. 

Thirty-Second Regiment. 

Field and Staff. — 1803, Uriah Gregory, lieutenant-colonel ; John Nash, first major ; 
Walter Patchin, second major; Jonathan Kellogg, quartermaster; 1805, Matthew 
McKinney, first major; Ebenezer S. Coon, second major; William Kingsley, ad- 
jutant; Jason Bannister, surgeon's mate; 1806, Ebenezer S. Coon, lieutenant-colonel; 
Eliud Davis, first major ; Chauncey Belding, second major ; 1807, Jason Bannister, 
surgeon; Eliud Davis, lieutenant-colonel; Chauncey Belding, first major; David 
Rogers, second major; 1808, Dudley Smith, second major; Edward Satterlee, ad- 
jutant; William Taylor, quartermaster; Eliud Davis, lieutenant-colonel; Chaun- 
cey Belding, first major; Edward Satterlee, adjutant; 1809, William Hawkins, jr., 
adjutant: 1810, David Rogers, lieutenant-colonel; Dudley Smith, first major; Jacob 
L. Sherwood, second major; Amos Smith, paymaster; 1811, Jacob L. Sherwood, 
first major, Zerah Beach, jr., second major; William H. Bridges, adjutant; 1813, 
Zerah Beach, jr., first major; John Holmes, jr. , second major; Samuel Pitkin, surgeon. 

Captains. — 1803, Onesimus Hubbard, Jonathan Hunting, Chauncey Belding, Da- 
vid Rogers; 1805, Dudley Smith, Zerah Beach, jr., Jacob L. Sherwood, Alexander 
Ferguson ; 1806, Levi Benedict, Samuel Belding ; 1807, Ezekiel Horton ; 1808, Eze- 
kiel Horton, Silas Foster, Daniel Ostrom, Nathaniel Jennings; 1811, Jonathan Minor, 
Richard Freeman, James Williams, jr., John Holmes, jr., Isaac Smith, jr. ; 1812, 
Sherwood Leavitt, Philo Hurd, Sylvester Harmon, John Holmes, William Ely, Alex- 


ander Dunlap, Andrew Rich, David Gordon, Stephen R. Warren, James Smith, 
Isaac Curtis. 

Lieutenants. — 1803, Solomon Rowland, Lemuel Wilcox, Asa Beach, Samuel Bel- 
ding, Ezekiel Horton ; 1805, Joseph Meach, Miles Beach, Aaron Angle, David Hub- 
bel; 1806, Reuben Hollister, John Holmes; 1807, Silas Foster, Nathaniel Gunning, 
Daniel Ostrom, John Holmes, jr.; 1808, James Wilkins, jr., David Fowler, Isaac 
Smith, jr., Philo Hurd, Sylvester Harmon; 1809, Jonathan Minor; 1810, David Gor- 
don, James Smith, William Ely, Andrew Ritchie, Richard Freeman ; 1811, Stephen 
R. Warren, Alexander Dunlap, Benjamin H. Burnet, John Bell; 1813, Mansfield 
Barlow, Samuel Richards, John Ferguson, Joel Sherwood, Isaac Curtis, John L. Lu- 
ther, Seth Kirby, jr., Henry Miller. 

Forty-First Regiment. 

Field anal Staff. — Samuel Clark, lieutenant-colonel ; 1804, Deliverance Andrews, 
lieutenant-colonel; John Dunning, first major; Robert Hunter, second major; 1806, 
Pontius Hooper, adjutant; 1807, Reuben Smith, quartermaster; John Tuttle, pay- 
master; 1808, George Palmer, jr., adjutant; 1809, Elijah W. Abbott, adjutant; Will- 
iam Fellows, quartermaster ; 1810, John Dunning, lieutenant-colonel ; Robert Hunter, 
first major; Reuben Woodworth, second major; John W. Patrick, ad jutant ; Ephraim 
Child, surgeon; Danforth Shumway, surgeon's mate; Peter Andrews, paymaster; 
1811, Reuben Woodworth, first major; Lawrence Hooper, second major; 1812, Law- 
rence Hooper, first major; Coleman Gates, second major. 

Captains. — 1803, Eusebius Matthews, Felix Fitzsimmons; 1804, Samuel Cooper, 
Amos Hodgman, Noah Gates, Lawrence Hooper; 1806, Richard Dunning, Dean 
Chase; 1807, Samuel Clark, jr., Selah Horsford, Joseph Wilbur; 1808, Coleman Gates; 

1810, David G. Keeler, John Montgomery, Daniel Weeks; 1811, Patrick Parks, Ste- 
phen Valentine, Peter Fort, Edward Col well, John Wilcox, David Benedict; 1812, 
William Dunning, John Weeks, Noadiah Moody. 

Lieutenants. — 1803, George Peck, John Barber, Ashbel Horsford, Lawrence 
Hooper; 1804, Daniel Cole, John Montgomery, Abraham Lathrop, Pontius Hooper; 
1805, Joseph Wilbur ; 1806, Coleman Gates, John Gilbert, Robert Montgomery; 1807, 
Daniel Weeks, Goodrich Keeler, John Wilcox, jr., Henry Curtis; 1808, William Dun- 
ning; 1810, William Strang, jr , Noadiah Moody, Stephen Valentine, Zerah Wilbur; 

1811, Reuben Bidwell, Lewis Smith, Robert Crawford, Jonas Olmsted, William 
Cooper, Machivel Andrews ; 1813, Moses Landon, David Scidmore, Ira Betts, Ger- 
ardus Downey. 

Sixty-Third Regiment. 

Field and Staff. — Thomas Rogers, lieutenant-colonel; 1804, Abel Colwell, adju- 
tant; 1805, Nicholas W. Angle, adjutant; Thomas Littleton, surgeon; Billy J. Clark, 
surgeon's mate; 1806, Nicholas W. Angle, adjutant; 1808, Jesse Billing, quartermas- 
ter; Zerah Barnes, paymaster; 1810, John M. Berry, first major; Malcolm Crofoot, 
second major; Daniel Hicks, surgeon's mate; 1811, Billy J Clark, surgeon; 1812, 
James Burnham, second major; Henry Reynolds, surgeon's mate ; Jeremiah Ter- 
hune, adjutant. 

Captains —1803, Jonah Mead, John Thompson, Asa Welsh, James Milligan, Wal- 
ter Hewitt; 1804, James Burnham, Harmanus Van Veghten, Philip Delano; 1805, 


David Tillotson, Jolin Pettit; 1806, Harmon Gansevoort, John S. Taylor, Luke Fen- 
ton, Ebenezer Brown; 1808, Jacob Dennis, Thomas Lang, Thomas Reed, Wm. 
Burnham; 1810, Seth Perry; 1811, Wm. Ross; 1812, Selah Bishop, Daniel Finch, 
Daniel Lindsay, James Mott. 

Lieutenants.— W)%, John Pettit, James Vandewerker, Thomas Reed, Seth Perry, 
jr. , Josiah St. John, John J. Taylor ; 1804, Selah Bishop, Walter Van Veghten, Sol- 
omon Dunham, Ebenezer Brown ; 1805, Abel Caldwell, Eldad Garnsey ; 1806, Wm. 
Harris, jr., Peter Butler, Samuel Ludlum, Joseph Rockwell; 1809, Wm. Wilcox, 
Wm. Chub, Daniel French, John Payne, Wm. Smith; 1810, Dudley Emerson, Sam- 
uel Cripton; 1811, Wm. Ross, Samuel Crippen, Wm. Wilcox, Daniel Lindsay; 1813, 
Elijah Dunham, Wm. Kings, David Patterson, John McDowell, Abraham Bennett, 
Josiah Perry, jr. 

Fifty-Ninth Regiment. 

Field and Staff. — Rufus Price, lieutenant-colonel; 1803, Isaac Young, second 
major; 1804, Asa C. Barney, surgeon; 1805, Gideon Goodrich, lieutenant-colonel; 
John Prior, first major ; Samuel Bailey, second major ; Daniel Hicks, surgeon's mate ; 
1806, Joshua Swan, paymaster; 1808, Howell Gardner, adjutant; Abel Baldwin, 
surgeon's mate; 1809, Isaac Young, quartermaster; 1810, John Prior, lieutenant- 
colonel; Samuel Bailey, first major; John Bockes, second major; 1813, Walter 
Hewit, second major; Darius Johnson, surgeon's mate. 

Captains.— ISOd, Abel Deuel; 1804, Eli Couch; 1805, Caleb Bailey, George Peck, 
Ezra Starr, Wm. G. Boss, Wm. Waterbury; 1807, Samuel Anable; 1809, Lewis 
Scott, Asher Taylor, Giles Fitch; 1811, George H. Benham, Jacob Kellogg, John 
Smith, jr. ; 1813, Aaron Hale, jr., Wm. Scofield, Joseph Morehouse, jr., Alsop Weed. 

Lieutenants.— 1803, Amos Smith, Stephen Seamans; 1805, Lewis Scott, Isaac 
Darrow, Aaron Hale, jr., Wm. Waterbury; 1806, Perez Billings, Isaac Van Austin, 
Wm. Scofield, Joseph Morehouse, Samuel Anable ; 1807. John Ladue, John Billings, 
Barzillai Richmond; 1808, George Eighmy; 1809, Lotus Watson, John King, Zacha- 
riah Curtis, Isaac Van Ostrand, David Bockes; 1810, George H. Benham, John 
Smith, jr., Darius Wright, Abner Medbery; 1811, Edward Gilman, Alsop Weed, 
Burr Hendrick; 1812, Potter Johnson, Nathaniel Ingerson, Wm. W. Deake, Jona- 
than Kellogg, Nicholas Carpenter. 

One Hundred and Fourty-Fourth Regiment. 

Field and Staff.— Hezekmh Ketchum, lieutenant-colonel'; 1803, Gerardus Clute, 
second major; Joseph Ketchum, adjutant; 1805, John Stearns, surgeon; Elijah 
Porter, surgeon's mate; 1806, John Haswell, adjutant; Henry Ten Broeck, second 
major; Henry Fanning, paymaster; 1808, Henry Fanning, quartermaster; Joshua 
Mandeville, paymaster; 1810, Henry Bailey, second major; 1811, Samuel Stewart, 
second major; Nathan Bailey, adjutant; George W. Ten Broeck, quartermaster; 
Samuel D. Lockwood, paymaster; Elijah Porter, surgeon; John Haight, surgeon's 
mate ; 1812, Samuel G. Huntington, second major ; Wm. McDonald, paymaster. 

Captains.— 180Z, Samuel Stewart, Benjamin Mix, Jacobus Rosecrans, John Mow, 
Christian Sackrider; 1805, Joseph Peck, Nathan Garnsey; 1806, Joseph Ketchum' 
Wm. Comstock, Adam I. Van Vranken, Samual Weldon; 1809, Cornelius C. Van 
Santford ; 1810, Andrew Emigh ; 1811, Nathan Bailey, Joshua Mandeville, Samuel 


Demarest, Wm. Neff, jr., Jonathan Irish, Ephraim Knowlton; 1812, Anthony S. 
Badgely, Andrew Frasier. 

Lieutenants. — 1803, James Weldon. Joseph Peck, Peter Davis, Jason Gillespie; 
1805, Samuel Demarest, Andrew Emigh, John Cramer, Gideon G. DegrafE, John 
Barnes; 1806, Benjamin Hicks, Wm. Neff, David Garnsey, Ephraim Knowlton, 
Jonathan Irish; 1808, Francis Drake, Cornelius C. Van Santford; 1809, Jacob 
Pudney; 1810, Anthony S. Badgely; 1811, Felix Tracy, Asahel Philo, Tertullus 
Frost, John Nestle, Garret J. Van Vranken, Smith Irish, Frederick Clements; 1813, 
Laurence Travers, Benjamin Chamberlain, John Stewart, Silas Sweetland, David 
Ashe, Wm. Gates. 


The only cavalry organization in the coitnty during this period, as 
far as the records show, was the First Squadron of the Seventh Cavalry 
Regiment, which probably included all the cavalry in the couijty. The 
officers were as follows. 

Field Officers. — 1812, Henry Edson, adjutant; Daniel Dickinson, quartermaster; 
Wm. Robards, major; Isaac Q. Carpenter, adjutant. 

Captains. — 1811, Daniel Montgomery, John LinnendoU, Daniel Starr; 1813, Sidney 
Berry, jr., Curtis Burton, Noah Vibbert, Nathan Rogers, John Sayles. 

Lieutenants. — 1811, Daniel Dickinson, Isaac Q. Carpenter, Sidney Berry, jr., 
George Reynolds, jr., Curtis Burton, Parker Manning, Henry Duel, Chas. Foster; 
1813, Henry Duel, James Meeker, Isaac Q. Carpenter, John Sayles. George Rey- 
nolds, Seth Pope, Parker Manning, Samuel Bacon, Stephen Swan, Elijah E. Smith, 
Hezekiah Reynolds, Jeremiah Rundle. 


The appointments for the Second Battalion of the Fourth Regiment 
of Artillery are given below. This battalion appears to be entered in 
the office of the adjutant general as a part of the Fifth Regiment about 
1810 when it consisted of the artillery in the counties of Saratoga, 
Montgomery and Schoharie : 

Field and Staff. — 1805, Amos Potter, second major; 1809, Kiah Harnden, pay- 

Captains. — 1805, Solomon Day, Cornelius Whitney, James Hawley; 1806 Joseph 
I. Green; 1807. Lott Wood, James Garnsey; 1809, David Richardson; 1810, Joseph- 
Ketchum; 1811, David Waterman, Simeon Sammons, Samuel Drake; 1812, Thomas 
Mackin, jr. 

Lieutenants. — 1805, Israel Hand, Butler Beckwith, John Savage, John Baker, 
Isaac Phelps, jr., Abner Stone, George W. McCracken ; 1806, John M. Thompson, 
Aaron Waters, Ebenezer Rice, Robert Archibald ; 1807, Wm. Van Kark, Lemon Foot, 
Walter Reed, Solomon Warner, Thomas Talmage, Peter Roe; 1809, Absalom Daley, 
Henry Harris, Abel Foster; 1810, Francis Drake, Jesse Tracy; 1811, Chauncey Garn- 
sey, Hiram Mosher, Jacob Snyder, John B. Miller, Wm. H. Satterlee, Ely Foster, 


Peter Sternberg, Wm. Fowler; 1813, Wm. H. Satterlee, John Yatman, John G. Mur- 
ray, Nathaniel Stewart, Jessup Raymond, John Eddy, Silas Wood. 

The appointments for the Saratoga County' Battalion, which after- 
ward was organized as the One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Regiment of 
Artillery, were as follows : 

Field and 5^a^.— 1806, George Taylor, major; 1809, John Cornwall, adjutant; 
1810, "Wm. Leavens,' second major; Ira Woodworth,^ paymaster; 1812, Levi Scovill, 
major; Avery Benedict, surgeon; Willard Leavens,' quartermaster; Isaac Wood- 
worth,* paymaster. 

Ca//az«J.— 1806, Daniel Hunt; 1807, Daniel Church, John Lindsay ; 1809, David 
Walker; 1810, Joseph Rockwell, Ira Heath; 1813, Peter Butler. 

Lieutenants.— \m^, David Walker; 1807, Gideon Orton; 1809, Wm. Johnson, Ira 
Heath, John Taylor; 1810, Luke Johnson, Lawrence Barber; 1813, Artemus Aldrich, 
David Hemstreet. 

Other Officers. 

There is a hiatus in the records from 1812 to 1830. From 1830 to 
1833 commissions were issued to the following militia officers in Sara- 
toga county : 

In 1830. — October 30, Egbert C. Noxon, Half moon, first lieutenant. First Artillery, 
Third Brigade, Second Division; Joel Gould, Clifton Park, captain. First Artillery; 
November 20, Gilbert Purdy, Saratoga, captain. Sixty-third Infantry, Fifty-first Bri- 
gade, Fifteenth Division ; Leonard Adams, Wilton, lieutenant. Sixty-third Infantry ; 
James McCreedy, Saratoga, ensign. Sixty-third Infantry; August 7, Lemon A. 
Grippin, Corinth, ensign. One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Infantry, Fifty-first Brigade, 
Fifteenth Division; Alfred Mallory, surgeon's mate. One Hundred and Sixty-sixth 
Infantry; August 14, Francis Milliman, lieutenant. Twenty- fourth Infantry, Fifty- 
first Brigade, Fifteenth Division; Ira Swan, ensign. Twenty-fourth Infantry ; August 
4, John S. Andrews, Milton, major. Seventh Cavalry, Third Brigade, First Divis- 
ion; December 10, Henry C. Rice, Stillwater, captain. Forty-first Regiment; No- 
vember 11, Gilbert Purdy, Saratoga, captain; Leonard Adams, Wilton, lieutenant; 
James McCreedy, Saratoga, ensign; Septembers, Thomas C. Hale, ensign. Fifty- 
ninth Regiment. 

In 1831. — February 8, William Fuller, Ballston, captain. Thirty-second Cavalry, 
Ninth Brigade, Fifteenth Division ; Isaiah Blood, Ballston, lieutenant. Thirty-second 
Cavalry; Samuel Irish, Saratoga, ensign. Thirty-second Cavalry; February 19, Jo- 
seph W. Wood, Ballston, captain. Thirty-second Cavalry; Samuel Rue, Balhton, 
lieutenant. Thirty second Cavalry ; William D. F. Jennings, Ballston, ensign. Thir- 
ty-second Cavalry ; April 30, Aaron R. Pattison, Ballston Spa, colonel. Thirty-second 
Cavalry; Archibald Spier, jr., Ballston, lieutenant-colonel. Thirty-second Cavalry; 
James A. Brinkerhoff, Ballston, major. Thirty-second Cavalry; Samuel Irish, 
Milton, lieutenant. Thirty-second Cavalry; Ira Howell, Ballston Spa, ensign, 
Thirty-second Cavalry; Isaiah Blood, Milton, captain. Thirty-second Cavalry; 

' Probably the same person. = Probably the same person. 


Daniel P. Wakeman, Ballston Spa, captain, Thirty-second Cavalry; May 7, John 
Penfield, Ballston, captain. Seventh Cavalry; Elijah W. Weed, Saratoga, first 
lieutenant, Seventh Cavalry; Clement Patchin, Milton, second lieutenant. Sev- 
enth Cavalry; Hiram Loomis, Milton, cornet. Seventh Cavalry; June 1, Thomas 
M. Burtis, Saratoga Springs, paymaster. Seventh Cavalry; April 23, Thomas L. 
Hewitt, Gal way, ensign. Twenty-fourth Regiment; June 4, George Hanford, Gal- 
way, major. Separate Battalion Riflemen; July 4, John Shurter, Malta, captain. 
Forty-first Regiment, Ninth Brigade, Fifteenth Division; ElishaD. Miller, Ballston, 
lieutenant, Forty-first Regiment; Hiram Hutchinson, Malta, ensign. Forty-first 
Regiment; July 3, Henry Van Duzen, Clifton Pai-k, captain, One Hundred and For- 
ty-fourth Regiment, Ninth Brigade; George Peck, Clifton Park, lieutenant. One 
Hundred and Forty-fourth Regiment; Lewis E. Sheldon, Clifton Park, ensign. One 
Hundred and Forty-fourth Regiment; September 30, Lemuel Spier, Ballston, sur- 
geon. Thirty-second Regiment; September 10, Jesse Morey, Ballston, captain, Thir- 
ty-second Regiment ; September 8, Ephraim Hill, Saratoga, ensign ; September 28, 
Chauncey D. Buel, Saratoga, surgeon's mate; November 12, Henry D. Chapman, 
Saratoga, colonel; September 14, Clark Tabor, Providence, captain; Pardon Soule, 
Providence, lieutenant; Huestin McMullen, Providence, ensign; September 24, 
Philip James, Galway, captain; Richard M. Livingston, jr.. Gal way, lieutenant; 
John H. Dingman, Galway, ensign ; November 13, Samuel Lewis, Northumberland, 
lieutenant-coionel ; Henry Holmes, Saratoga, major ; October 39, Rensselaer Thomp- 
son, Moreau, captain; Charles A. Sill, Moreau, lieutenant; Richard Davenport, Mo- 
reau, ensign; August 37, Benjamin F. Prior, Greenfield, captain; October 5, James 
A. Swartwout, Wilton, ensign; August 37, Rensselaer Ballou, Greenfield, lieutenant; 
Alvin Day, Greenfield, ensign; October 7, Isaac Ambler, Greenfield, quartermaster; 
September 8, Uriah B. Couch, Milton, lieutenant; Charles M. L. Andrus, Milton, 
ensign ; John Potter, Milton, captain ; Isaac K. Frink, Milton, lieutenant ; Porter W. 
Earl, Milton, ensign; October 8, Daniel D. A. Green, Milton, lieutenant-colonel; 
October 29, Uriah B. Couch, Milton, captain ; Charles M. L. Andrus, Milton, lieuten- 
ant; Benjamin M. Loomis, Milton, ensign; December 81, Gordon Jenkins, Hadley, 
captain ; Jefferson Jeffers, Hadley, ensign ; November 26, Ephraim Hill, Saratoga, 
captain; Giles B. Slocum, Saratoga, lieutenant; James A. Granger, Saratoga, en- 
sign; December 10, Stephen Welch, 2d, Schuylerville, captain; Orra Warner, Mo- 
reau, first lieutenant ; John W. Vandenburgh, Saratoga, second lieutenant ; Septem- 
ber 10, Isaac E. Garnsey, Clifton Park, captain; William Golden, Ballston, first 
lieutenant; John Cole, Stillwater, second lieutenant; August 37, David T. Zimmer- 
man, Stillwater, captain ; John A. J. Countryman, Stillwater, first lieutenant ; Cor- 
nelius Cronkhite, Stillwater, second lieutenant ; September 10, William McGregor, 
jr., Wilton, quartermaster; William H. Walton, Greenfield, paymaster. 

In 1882. — March 10, Lodewick P. Shew, Providence, colonel ; John S. Green, 
Galway, ensign; Jonathan Bristol, Edinburgh, captain; March 81, George W. Down- 
ing, Edinburgh, lieutenant; George B. Robinson, Edinburgh, ensign; April 16, 
Henry I/. Swartwout, Wilton, quartermaster; March 10, Jonathan Edgecomb, Gal- 
way, major ; March 31, Seth Warren, Galway, captain ; Thomas L. Hewitt, Galway, 
lieutenant; Solomon Ellithorp, Edinburgh, lieutenant-colonel; May 13, Archibald 
Spier, Ballston Spa, colonel; William Fuller, Ballston, lieutenant-colonel; Isaiah 
Blood, Milton, major; May 10, Joshua T. Blanchard, Saratoga Springs, quarter- 


master, cavalry; April 28, Andrew Taylor, Half moon, first lieutenant, cavalry; Chris- 
topher Snyder, Half moon, second lieutenant, cavalry: Mina Morse, Halfmoon, cor- 
net, cavalry; Duncan McMasters. Charlton, captain; William Fowler, Charlton, 
lieutenant; Robert Gilchrist, Charlton, ensign; August 18, Wright I. Esmond, Half- 
moon, captain; William Gates, jr., Halfmoon, lieutenant; Abraham James, Half- 
moon, ensign ; August 20, Shadrach Burlison, Waterford, captain ; Harry B. Scott, 
Waterford, lieutenant; Mason K. Eastman, Waterford, ensign; April 13, John R. 
McGregor, Wilton, aid-de-camp; July 7, Samuel Rice, Ballston, captain; A. R. Red- 
field, Ballston, lieutenant; James Wakeman, Ballston, ensign; June 30, Hiram 
Barras, Greenfield, ensign ; Roswell Finch, Saratoga, ensign ; Henry W. Peck, Sar- 
atoga, first lieutenant; Robert Burdee, Saratoga, second lieutenant; Henry W. 
Dennis, Saratoga, ensign;- June 9, Alvah Dake, Greenfield, second lieutenant; Levi 
B. Alcott, Greenfield, ensign ; March 9, William Stewart, Edinburgh, captain ; Orson 
Wright, Edinburgh, lieutenant; August 31, Azariah E. Stimson, Galway, adjutant; 
John O. Ellithorp, Edinburgh, quartermaster; September 14, Clark Tabor, Prov- 
idence, captain ; Pardon Soule, Providence, lieutenant. 

WAR OF 1812. 

The war of 1812 caused little interruption in the development o£ the 
county, though many of its inhabitants, some of whom had fought in the 
Revolution, enlisted in the American army and took up arms against Great 
Britain. The Saratoga brigade of cavalry united with the companies or- 
ganized in Rensselaer county, and on September 19, 1813, they left Troy 
for the Lake Champlain region. They were accompanied as far as 
Waterford by Governor Tompkins in person, and proceeded from there 
to Plattsburgh, where they participated in the victory over the British 
at that point. Early in 1813 many men from this county who had not 
already enlisted in the home companies, joined General John E. Wool's 
command being organized at Troy, and were sent to the frodt, where 
they served with honor. December 3, 1814, most of those who had fought 
in that war joined the Rensselaer and Albany county veterans in giving 
an enthusiastic reception to Commodore Thomas MacDonough, whose 
flotilla had achieved a complete and glorious victory over the British fleet 
on Lake Champlain. It is to be regretted that no complete official records 
of the men who served in this war are extant. As far as can be learned 
from meagre but authentic sources, however, the following enlisted 
from the various towns of the county, some of the names being those 
of members of the State militia which appear in preceding pages : 

Saratoga Springs. Ham, Danforth. 

Milton — Captain Reuben Westcott, Freeman Thomas, Cornelius Schermerhorn, 
Daniel Beach, W. J. Stillwell, Oliver Whitehead, John Wheeler, Timothy Bailey, 
Alvah Robertson. 


Ballston. — Captain Isaac Curtis, Chester Clapp, Silas Smith, Wm. Evans, S. Cur- 
tis, Lewis Miller. 

Saratoga. — Captain James Mott, Isaac Ackerman, Wm. Clements, George Strover, 
Henry D. Chapman, Nathaniel Somes, Elisha Phillips, Justus Fuller, Martin Rogers, 
Archibald Fuller, Wm. Ward, Samuel Eldredge, Nicholas Viele, John Rogers, 
James Rogers. 

Stillwater. — ^James Hodgman, Lieut. John R. Myers, David C. Flagler, Wm. 
Baker, Peter Baker, Wm. Scouten, James McNeal, Thomas Elms, Daniel Hewett, 
jr., Samuel Edmonds, John Tompkins, David Blood. 

Charlton. — Captain John Ferguson, Joseph Beach, James Ritchie, Lawrence Gar- 
diner, Jared Smith, Delsa Benjamin, Ezra Seeley, Swart, Captain David Gordon, 

Major Millard, Surgeon David Low, Jonas Crane, Thomas Kirby, Asher Cox, Joseph 

Waterford. — Teunis Waldron, Nelson, Benjamin Goewey, Wm. Van Every, 

Rubens Ryms, James Wilson, Daniel Guire, John R. Maxiber, George Finan, 
George Musgrave, Philip Argersinger, Rusk Norway, Perth Mudhuling, Wm. Car- 
pensy, George Nichols, John Ives, Collins, Kline, Kuth. 

Halfmoon. — Lieut.-Col. Shubael Taylor, Gilbert Williams, Samuel Coon, Oliver 
Waite, G. A. Robinson, Elijah Brown, Peter Van Santford, Isaac M. Deyoe, Wm. 
Smith, James Houghtaling, Ezra Crittenden, John Potts, Jeremiah Francisco, Ger- 
man Van Voorhees, Henry Soper, Esau Wilson, Thos. Follett. 

Galway.— Ebenezer Olmstead, John McDonald, Wheeler Bradley. 

Edinburgh. — Capt, John Gordon, Lieut. John Brown, Sergt. Silas Washburne, Col. 
Godfrey Shew, John Akley, Ananias Akley, Wm. Van Avery, Daniel Buckalow, 
Myron White, Nathaniel Robinson, Ephraim Potter, Wm. Hill, Solomon Scott, 
James Rhodes, Stephen White. 

Malta. — Adjt. Gould Morehouse, Seneca Hall, Daniel D. Tompkins, Eli Dunning, 
Peter Dunn, Barney Vail, John Story, John Van Arnam, Henry Pell. 

Corinth. — Peleg Eddy, Daniel Cole, Thomas Wheaton. 

Northumberland. — Adjutant Jeremiah Terhune, Charles McCreedy, Gamaliel Mc- 
Creedy, Jeremiah McCreedy, William McCurdy (or McCreedy), William Coffinger, 
Higgins Coffinger, Joseph Stevens, Osborne. 

Hadley. — John Gilbert, James De Long, Rufus Wells, Harry Burke, Squire 

Moreau. — James Coburn, Samuel Putnam, Bloster Merritt, Tompkins, 

Solomon Parks, Captain Elisha Danford, Truman Wilcox. 

Greenfield. — None known. 

Day. — Moses Colson, WiUiam Colson, jr., Daniel Fraker, Joseph Flansburgh, 
Thomas Totman, Zabin Shippy, Arnold Paul. 

Wilton. — Colonel Seth Perry, Captain Jason Adams, Caleb Perry, James Woodard, 
Benedict Woodard, Henry Strong, Drew Laing. 

Clifton Park. — Henry Palmer, James Groom, Adam R. Van Vranken, Michael 
Doty, John Millins, Peter Doty, Solomon C. Peck, Everett Hawley, Richard Spire, 
David Wiltsiei Andrew Evans, Jeremiah Clute, Timothy Doty, Deacon Palmer. 

Providence. — None known. 



Construction of the Railroad from Schenectady to Saratoga Springs, the First in 
Saratoga County— The Rensselaer and Saratoga Road Built Soon After— Rivalry 
Between the Two Concerns— Other Roads Merged in the Rensselaer and Saratoga 
—All Pass Under the Control of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company— The 
Old Albany, Vermont and Canada— The Adirondack— The Fitchburg and the Mount 
McGregor Lines— Projected Lines Which Were Never Constructed— Modern Elec- 
tric Railways in Saratoga County. 

As the opening of the Erie and Champlain canals marked a new era 
in the history of Saratoga county, so also did the construction of the 
first railroad extending into the county. 

February 16, 1831, the State Legislature granted a charter to the 
Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad company, which was empowered to 
construct and maintain a steam railroad between Schenectady and Sara- 
toga Springs, passing through the village of Ballston Spa. The incor- 
porators named in the act were Henry Walton, John Clarke, William 
A. Langworthy, John H. Steele, Miles Beach, Gideon W. Davison, 
Rockwell Putnam, and "such other persons as shall associate with them 
for that purpose." The road was directed by law to be either a single 
or double track, to pass as nearly as practicable through the centre of 
of the village of Ballston Spa. The charter was for fifty years. 
Churchill C. Camberling, Walter Bowne, Henry Walton, John Clarke, 
Samuel Young, Thomas Palmer, Daniel J. Toll, John J. De Graff, 
William James, James Stevenson and John Townsend were designated 
as commissioners to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of $150,- 
000. The work of construction was begun during the spring of 1831, 
and the road was opened for traffic as far north as Ballston Spa July 
12, 1833. But it was not completed to Saratoga Springs until the fol- 
lowing year. The early business of the road was so limited that opera- 
tions frequently ceased entirely in the winter season, the company 
carrying such passengers as might apply for passage by horse and 
sleigh. It was not until the road was leased to the Rensselaer and 
Saratoga Railroad company that its business assumed profitable pro- 


In an old book containing brief sketches of the various railroads in 
the United States, constructed or projected,' published about 1833 by 
an engineer, the following description of this railroad appears:' 

Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad. — This road was commenced the 1st of 
September, 1831, and was opened for travelling 12th July, 1832, except a short dis- 
tance at Ballston, which was completed in April, 1833. Its length is 31 1-3 miles. 
Its cost, $317,201.33, exclusive of the land it occupies, and some trifling agencies 
and travelling apparatus, but including everything, when in complete operation, 
$397,237. About 3 miles of it is put down on stone foundation. Trenches were dug 
2 1-13 by 3 1-3 feet, and filled with broken stone, closely rammed; and upon this 
square blocks of about 3 cubic feet were placed, 8 feet from centre to centre. On 
these stone blocks cast iron chairs are placed to receive the wooden rails, upon which 
is the iron plate. Cross-ties of timber secure the rails from spreading. The re- 
mainder of the road is laid upon longitudinal sills, upon which the sleepers rest, 
notched on both sides, to secure the sills in their place, and also to receive the wood 
rail, upon which rests the iron plate, as in the first part of the road. It has but a 
single track, with turn-outs. The road is mostly level, and in no case does the in- 
clination exceed 16 feet to the mile. Steam power is used to great advantage, and 
the net income of the road from April 1, 1888, to February, 1834, was within a frac- 
tion of 10 per cent, upon its capital. It will be much more profitable when the Sar- 
atoga and Fort Edward road shall be completed, so as to bring the travel from the 
north via Saratoga to Albany. Chartered in 1881. 

About the time of the construction of this road the trade of Northern 
New York, especially of Saratoga and Washington counties, was 
assuming considerable proportions. The people of Albany already had 
built a railroad from Albany to Schenectady, the second enterprise of 
the kind in the United States, and in order to draw this northern trade 
from Troy, to which it most naturally would flow, the inhabitants of 
Albany attempted to divert it from that channel by the construction of 
the road from Schenectady to Saratoga Springs. 

Appreciating the motives of the 'rival city of Albany, the business 
men of Troy at once set to work to secure a charter for a new road 
from Troy to Ballston Spa, a distance of twenty-six miles. This fran- 
chise was granted them April 14, 1832, the articles of incorporation 
naming as the first directors George Griswold. John Cramer, Elisha 
Tibbits, John Knickerbacker, Richard P. Hart, Townsend McCoun, 
Nathan Warren, Stephen Warren, Le Grand Cannon, George Vail, Williams, John P. Cushman and John Paine. John Knicker- 
backer of Waterford, John House, also of Waterford, Stephen Warren, 

* A copy of this book is now in possession of William Buchanan, superintendent of motive 
power and rolling stock of the N. Y.C. & H. K. R. R, 


William Pierce, William Haight, James Cook and Joel Lee o£ Ballston 
Spa were designated as commissioners to open books of subscription. 
Work upon the road was begun the next year, and October 6, 1835, the 
first passenger train, north bound, left Troy. The northern terminus 
of the road was near the present depot in Ballston Spa, and the south- 
ern terminus was at No. 10 First street, Troy. 

While tljis road extended as far north as Ballston Spa only, the 
Schenectady and Saratoga railroad had been built as far north as Sara- 
toga Springs, the latter road thereby securing a monopoly of the traffic 
between Saratoga Springs and Ballston Spa. As soon as the Rensse- 
laer and Saratoga railroad had been completed, an endeavor was made 
to enter into an agreement with the other road whereby the passenger 
and the freight traffic of the Rensselaer and Saratoga road might be 
carried on north of Ballston Spa over the tracks of the Saratoga and 
Schenectady road. The project was selfishly opposed, however, by the 
management of the latter road, comprised almost wholly of inhabitants 
of Albany, who were jealous of Troy's commercial success, and doubt- 
less would have come to nought had it not been for the fact that the 
directors of the Rensselaer and Saratoga road had an unexpected oppor- 
tunity to purchase of a New York broker a sufficient number of shares 
of stock of the other road to give them its control. This settled the 
question, and the two other roads thereafter worked in harmony. Di- 
rect communication between Troy and Saratoga Springs was at once 
established. The first cars used on this road were made by Gilbert, 
Veazie & Eaton, then famous car builders of Troy. The passenger 
cars were looked upon as marvels of beauty, crude as they were, and 
were twenty-four in number. They were twenty-four feet long, eight 
feet wide, and a little over six feet high inside. Each was divided into 
three apartments. The seats were " cushioned and backed with crim- 
son morocco, trimmed with coach lace, each apartment is surrounded 
by movable panels, thus affording the comforts and facilities of either 
a close or open carriage to suit the convenience of the passengers." 

This road finally went into the hands of its creditors; was purchased 
by a new organization, who raised the capital stock to $600,000, and 
later on to $800,000. In June, 1860, it leased the Saratoga and Sche- 
nectady and the Albany and Vermont railroads. In 1865 it leased the 
Saratoga and Whitehall and the Rutland and Washington railroads. 
In 1868 it leased and became owner of all the capital stock of the Glens 
Falls railroad. In February, 1870, it leased the Rutland and Whitehall 


road. May 1, 1871, the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad company 
leased all its roads and leased lines to the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
company, which since that time has operated the entire system. 

The Saratoga and Washington Railroad company, (now a part of the 
Delaware and Hudson system) was chartered May 2, 1834, with a cap- 
ital stock of $600,000, but the company was not fully organized until 
April 30, 1835. The work of construction was begun at once and over 
$60,000 expended, when it was stopped in 1836. The time was ex- 
tended April 13, 1840; May 6, 1844, and April 4, 1850, and the capital 
stock was increased to $850,000 April 7, 1847. March 7, 1848, the 
company was granted permission to extend the road east to Vermont. 
Upon resuming work a route was in part adopted, and the work of 
laying rails was begun April 10, 1848. August 15 of that year the road 
was opened from Saratoga Springs toGansevoort; December 10, 1848, 
it was opened to Whitehall, and April 9, 1851, to Lake Station, a mile 
and three-quarters beyond Whitehall junction. The road was sold 
February 27, 1855, on foreclosure of second mortgage, when the name 
was changed to Saratoga and Whitehall Railroad. The new company 
was organized June 8, 1855, with a capital stock of $500,000, and its 
complete road runs from Saratoga Springs to Castleton, Vt., a distance 
of fifty-two and one-half miles, sixteen miles of which lie in Saratoga 
county. This road was the successor to the Saratoga and Fort Edward 
railroad, which was incorporated April 17, 1833, with a capital of $300,- 
000, to construct a road from Saratoga Springs to Fort Edward, a dis- 
tance of seventeen miles. By the act of May 3, 1834, nothing having 
been done in the mean time toward the building of the road, its sur- 
veys, maps, etc., were allowed to be sold fo the Saratoga and Washing- 
ton Railroad company. 

The history of the old Albany, Vermont and Canada railroad, com- 
monly know as the Albany Northern, part of which has been aban- 
doned many years, is interesting. This railroad was originally projected 
by the Albany. Bennington and Rutland Railroad company, which was 
organized April 23, 1850, with a capital stock of $400,000. This enter- 
prise was soon afterward merged in the Albany Northern Railroad 
company, which was organized February 12, 1851, with a capital stock 
af $335,000. This company built a railroad, single-track, from Albany 
to Eagle Bridge, thirty-three miles, passing through West Troy, 
Cohoes, Waterford, Schaghticoke, Pittstown, Johnsonville and Bus- 
kirks, to Eagle Bridge. The road crossed the Hudson river about 


three miles above Waterford, and the old roadbed east of the tracks of 
the Rensselaer and Saratoga branch of the Delaware & Hudson Canal 
company's road, above Waterford Junction, may still be seen. The 
road was opened for traffic about July 1, 1853. But it became financially 
involved, and was sold under foreclosure of mortgage October 16, 
1856, assuming the name of Albany, Vermont and Canada railroad 
November 7, 1856. October 6, 1859, the company filed articles of in- 
corporation as the Albany and Vermont Railroad company, and June 
12, 1860, it leased its line to the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad 

The Adirondack railroad is the tangible outcome of several unsuc- 
cessful attempts to construct a road from the valley of the Hudson at 
or near Albany, through the southern part of the Adirondack wilder- 
ness to the east end of Lake Ontario, or the headwaters of the St. 
Lawrence river. The first attempt to establish such a road was made 
in April, 1839, when the first Adirondack Railroad company, was in- 
corporated. It did not attempt to build the projected road, however. 
The next project was the Sackett's Harbor and Saratoga railroad, 
which was incorporated with a capital stock of $2,000,000 April 10, 
1848. This company began the work of grading for the contemplated 
road, but finally abandoned the effort. April 6, 1857, this company 
was reorganized as the Lake Ontario and Hudson River Railroad com- 
pany, but still did nothing toward building any portion of the road. 
Then, on August 11, 1860, the Adirondack Estate and Railroad com- 
pany was incorporated; but nothing was done until it had been merged 
in the Adirondack company, which filed articles of incorporation 
October 24, 1863, and soon after began the work of building its single- 
track railroad from Saratoga Springs northward. March 31, 1865, the 
Legislature gave it permission to extend its road to Lake Ontario or 
the St. Lawrence, also to increase its capital stock to $5, 000, 000. The 
road was constructed from Saratoga Springs to North Creek, Warren 
county, a distance of sixty-two miles, passing through Greenfield, 
King's Station, South Corinth, Jessup's Landing and Hadley in Sara- 
toga county. July 10, 1870, the charter was amended and the capital 
stock increased to the limit allowed by the law of 1865. 

The Adirondack Railway company was incorporated as a reorganiza- 
tion of a corporation known as "The Adirondack company," under a 
plan or agreement filed in the office of the secretary of state July 7, 
1882. The Adirondack company was incorporated October 24, 1863, 


and empowered "to construct and operate a railroad from some point 
in the county of Saratoga, up and along the valley of the Upper Hud- 
son in the wilderness in the northern part of the State, to purchase, 
take and hold lands to the amount of one million of acres in the said 
wilderness, in addition to the lands it was authorized to take under the 
general railroad law, to convert and prepare for market the natural 
products of the forest; to mine and prepare for market the iron and 
other ores and piinerals upon its lands, and to transport, sell and dis- 
pose of the same. " The Adirondack Railway companj% by virtue of 
its incorporation and under such reorganization was vested with all the 
rights, privileges and franchises, and possessed of all the lands, property 
and immunities possessed by the original Adirondack company as cov- 
ered by its mortgage and sold under the proceedings to enforce the 

Several other early railroads which were projected were abandoned. 
The Saratoga Springs and Schuylerville railroad was incorporated April 
6, 1832, with a capital stock of $100,000, to build a line from Saratoga 
Springs to Schuylerville. The Saratoga and Montgomery railroad was 
incorporated May 6, 1836, with a capital stock of $150,000, to build 
a road from Ballston Spa to the west branch of the North river. The 
Albany and Saratoga Springs railroad was organized September 20, 
1852, with capital stock of $200,000, to build a line connecting Saratoga 
Springs with the Albany Northern railroad. The Saratoga and Hud- 
son River railroad was organized April 16, 1864. The Saratoga, Schuy- 
lerville and Hoosac Tunnel railroad filed articles April 14, 1870, with a 
capital stock of $300,000, intending to build a road from Saratoga 
Springs to Schuylerville. But none of these railroads existed except 
on paper. 

The Schenectady & Mechanicville railroad, chartered May 9, 1867, 
was built and is owned by the Delaware & Hudson Canal company. It 
was opened in January, 1882, and extends from Schen^fctady to Me- 

The Mount McGregor Railroad company was chartered February 27, 
1882, and the road, a narrow-gauge line extending from Saratoga 
Springs to the summit of Mount McGregor, in the town of Moreau, 
was constructed soon afterward. March 6, 1893, the road was sold at 
foreclosure by John Person, referee, arid the deed given to Douglass 
W. Mabee of Ballston Spa as trustee. June 10, 1896, the Saratoga and 
Mount McGregor Railroad company was incorporated for the purpose 


of operating the road, which on that date was leased to this company 
by Douglass W. Mabee as trustee. January 29, 1897, an agreement 
was made between said trustee and Edmund A. Manice for the sale of 
the road upon the performance of certain conditions on or before July 
1, 1898. In 1898 the Mount McGregor Railroad company was merged 
into the Saratoga Northern Railroad company, and it is the intention 
of the latter company to extend the tracks to Glens Falls and operate 
an electric railway. May 28, 1898, the Mount McGregor Railroad 
company was peremptorily ordered to vacate and surrender to the Del- 
aware & Hudson Canal company premises in Saratoga which the latter 
company had leased to the Mount McGregor company. The land is 
seven feet in width and 3,693 feet in length, and runs parallel to the 
tracks of the Delaware & Hudson road. The original lease was for one 
year only. The Mount McGregor railroad is operated during the sum- 
mer months only. 

The Troy, Saratoga and Northern Railroad company was chartered 
September 2, 1886, and subsequently was leased to the Fitchburg Rail- 
road company. Its tracks extend from Saratoga Springs and Schuyler- 
ville to Stillwater, where they meet the main line of the Fitchburg road. 

The Fitchburg railroad extends through Saratoga county from its 
bridge at Stillwater, through Mechanicville, to Rotterdam Junction, It 
was chartered March 3, 1893, it originally having been known as the 
Troy & Boston railroad. 

The Saratoga & St. Lawrence Railroad company was chartered 
August 17, 1885, and leased to the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain 
Railroad company June 1, 1889. None of the road completed lies in 
Saratoga county. 

The Hudsqn River & Washington County Midland Railroad com- 
pany was chartered September 6, 1895. It was the original intention 
to build in the spring of 1896. The right of way has been secured, 
the engineering work mostly completed, stone for bridges laid down at 
points where it is to be used, and grading has been commenced, but 
the road has not yet been constructed. 

Besides these steam railroads there are several electric railroads in 
Saratoga county. The Saratoga Street railway was incorporated in 
1897, the Saratoga Electric railway in 1889, the Saratoga Rapid Tran- 
sit railway and the Union Electric railway of Saratoga in 1890, the 
Saratoga Traction Co. and the Saratoga Lake railway in 1897. The 
Saratoga Traction Co. owns all the original property of these com- 


panics, to wit : a road to The Geysers two miles in length, and a road 
to Saratoga lake a little over five miles in length. The former branch 
will shortly be extended to Ballston Spa, and possibly to Mechanicville. 
The officers of the Saratoga Traction company are : President, Theo- 
dore P. Hamilton of Saratoga Springs; treasurer, P. S. Storrs of New 
York; secretary, R. Smith of New York. R. E. Dunston is general 
manager of the road. 

The Ballston Terminal railway, the operation of which was begun in 
the summer of 1898, was chartered March 11, 1896. The work of con- 
struction was begun June 2, 1896. The first officers of the road were: 
President, John Noblit; vice-president, Frank Jones; treasurer, C. E. 
Lent; secretary, A. B. Paine. The following description of this unique 
road is taken from the Electrical World of April 30, 1898 : 

A novelty in electric railways is now under construction in the northern part of 
New York State, its peculiarity being that the road, although situated in the open 
country and designed mainly for freight service, is to be driven electrically. The 
road is called the Ballston Terminal Railway and runs from Ballston Spa, where it 
connects with the Delaware & Hudson system, 12}^ miles along the Kayaderosseras 
creek to Middle Grove, passing on the way many large paper and pulp mills, which 
it is intended to serve. The road is single track, built mainly on private right of 
way, and is constructed on regular steam railroad lines, with 70pound steel T rails, 
standard ties and gravel ballast. The trestles and bridge work are all of standard 
railway construction, the latter being of steel on masonry foundations. The reasons 
for adopting electric power were the desire to run the road in places beside the high- 
way where steam locomotives are objectionable, the reduced fire risk in and about 
the paper mills and their wood yards, and the increased passenger traffic which it is 
expected can be obtained with the more frequent service possible with the lower 
train mile charges of the electric system. The electric cars can also overcome better 
the grades and curves, the reduction of which to steam railroad standards would 
have been quite expensive on this line. The maximum grade is 2J^ per cent, and 
the sharpest curve has a radius of 150 feet. 

The Stillwater and Mechanicville Street Railway company received 
its charter November 13, 1882. Work upon the road was completed 
the year following and cars began running June 1, 1883. In 1884 the 
line was extended to the Delaware & Hudson depot in Mechanicville. 
In 1895 the motive power was changed from horses to electricity, and 
the electric cars began running December 25 of the latter year. May 
5, 1898, the State Railroad commission approved an increase in the 
capital stock from $60,000 to $250,000, the additional capital to be used 
by the company in the construction of a new line to run from Mechanic- 
ville to Waterford, where it is to connect with the Troy City railway. 


With the construction of this line and the projected southerly extension 
of the line of the Saratoga Traction company, the public will be afforded 
means of transportation by electric railway from Troy and Albany 
to Saratoga Springs. The projected extension of the Mount McGregor 
railroad northward to Glens Falls and the changing of its motive power 
from steam to electricity will give electric railway communication in 
an almost direct line from Troy and Albany to Glens Falls, Sandy Hill 
and Fort Edward. 

Sunday, August 15, 1898, a branch of the Stillwater and Mechanic- 
ville electric railway was opened from Mechanicville to Waterford. 

The Waterford & Cohoes Street Railway company was chartered Feb- 
ruary 8, 1883, for the purpose of operating a street railroad between 
Waterford and Cohoes. The road was built in 1884 and August 19 of 
that year was leased to the Troy and Lansingburgh Railroad company. 

The Schuylerville & Greenwich Electric Railway company received a 
charter in 1896 granting the right to construct an electric railway line 
from Schuylerville, in Saratoga county, to Greenwich, in Washington 
county. The road has not yet been built. 


Second Period of the Century, 1831 to the War of the Rebellion— Days of Great 
Prosperity at Saratoga Springs— Reconstruction of the Early Hotels and the Build- 
ing of Many Handsome New Ones— Dr. Clark's Waterworks System— Banks, 
Churches and Schools— Foundation of Temple Grove Seminary— Societies Organ- 
ized—The Numerous and Important Manufactures of Ballston Spa Established 
During This Period— The Ballston Spa National Bank— Religious and Secret So- 
cieties—Academies, Schools and Churches Established Throughout the County— 
The Development of the Water Power of the Hudson and the Kayaderosseras. 

In following the career of Saratoga county through the period be- 
ginning with the commercial, revolution wrought by reason of the con- 
struction of the first railroads in the county and ending with the 
memorable straggle known as the Civil war, or war of the Rebellion, in 
which the lives of many gallant sons of the county were sacrificed, 
one is impressed by the fact that the peaceful development of the in- 
dustry and commerce of the county, coupled with the establishment of 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1831—1861. 185 

numerous fine schools and academies and religious societies, was riot 
marred by any of the unpleasantnesses which characterized so many 
other communities during the same period. In the principal villages of 
the county — Saratoga Springs, Ballston Spa, Mechanicville, Waterford, 
Stillwater and Schuylerville — this growth naturally was more marked 
than elsewhere in the county. In the rural districts little else trans- 
pired excepting the increased cultivation of the soil. 

In the village of Saratoga Springs the most important changes and 
improvements were to be seen in the erection of a large number of 
splendid hotels for the accommodation of the rapidly increasing num- 
ber of summer visitors, and the laying out of the beautiful Congress 
park, which for many years has been such an attraction at this world- 
famed resort. 

The most important of these magnificent hotels are the United 
States, the Grand Union and Congress hall. There are several others 
noted for their sumptuous entertainment of guests, though not so com- 

The Grand Union is the oldest of the Saratoga hotels. The story of 
the erection of the original hotel by Gideon Putnam has been told in a 
preceding chapter. It was first locally known as Putnam's tavern, and 
above its entrance was a quaint sign intended to represent the entrance 
of Israel Putnam into the wolf's den. After the death of Gideon Put- 
nam in 1812, his widow conducted the establishment for several years. 
In 1836, Rockwell and Washington Putnam, two of her sons, purchased 
the interests of the remainder of the family, named the hotel Union 
hall, and continued the management until January, 1849. In that 
year Henry H. Hathorn succeeded to the ownership of Rockwell Put- 
nam's interest. The next spring, before the opening of the house 
uader the new management,Washington Putnam died, and his widow and 
Mr. Hathorn conducted the establishment as Putnam & Hathorn until 
January, 1853, when Mrs. Putnam disposed of her interest to Seymour 
Ainsworth. After one season's management by Hathorn & Ainsworth, 
Mr. Hathorn, in January, 1854, sold his interest to George R. Putnam, 
son of, Rockwell Putnam, and Putnam & Ainsworth were the pro- 
prietors for two seasons. In January, 1856, Charles H. Payn purchased 
Mr. Ainsworth's interest, and Putnam & Payn managed the hotel until 
May, 1864, when the entire property was sold to Warren Leland. 
During these years many improvements were made to the property. 
In 1842, for instance, the building had a frontage of one hundred and 


fifty-four feet on Broadway, the south wing extended one hundred and 
twenty-two feet on Congress street, the north wing extended westward 
eighty-seven feet, and was joined to a structure containing lodging 
rooms, called the " garden house. " This was eighty-five feet long and 
thirty feet wide. The sale in 1849 was made on a basis of a valuation 
of $40,000. In 1854 the valuation was above $80,000, while ten years 
later, so great had been the improvements and the general increase in 
values, that the figures had risen to $200,000. The year after Warren 
Leland purchased the property he bought the Ainsworth property 
adjoining and added it to the hotel. He also took into partnership 
with him his brother, Charles Leland, and the firm of Leland Brothers 
continued to make great improvements and additions to their property. 
Several pieces of adjoining property were purchased, an opera house 
was constructed on the grounds, many thousands of dollars were ex- 
pended in new furnishings and luxuries such as Saratoga never before 
had seen, the old front was superseded by a new one, and the Grand 
Union of old was no more. But these extraordinary expenses quickly 
exhausted the resources of the Lelands, who were too progressive for 
the times, and in the spring of 1873 their rapidly increasing troubles 
culminated when the entire real and personal property was sold at 
auction, by order of the United States District Court. It was pur- 
chased by Alexander T. Stewart, the merchant prince of New York, 
for $532,000, and he announced his intention of making it the largest 
and most complete summer hotel in the world. 

With this expectation Mr. Stewart bought about a dozen pieces of 
property adjoining the hotel, for which he paid $100,000. But the 
owners of two lots desired by him refusing to sell, he was compelled to 
abandon his original project. Determined to do all he could to im- 
prove his new possession, he removed the Ainsworth building on the 
north of his property and erected a front there to correspond with the 
front of the south half of the building, which had been erected by 
Leland Brothers. He also completed numerous other improvements 
begun by his predecessors before their failure. The hotel to-day is 
substantially the same as when Mr. Stewart had effected the changes 
therein which are here described — one of the most elegant and com- 
modious summer hotels in the country, its only superiors being those 
which, in later years, have been erected in various parts of the country 
on more modern principles of architecture. 

The early career of Congress hall, the erection of which was begun 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1831—1861. 187 

in 1811 by Gideon Putnam, the builder of the Grand Union, has been 
described in a preceding chapter. Samuel Drake, who managed the 
hotel for several years for Guert Van Schoonhoven, the owner, his 
uncle, retired in 1828, when it was leased by Joseph and James R. 
Westcot. It was enlarged in 1831 by the erection of an additional story 
to the south wing. Stephen S. Seaman and Calvin Hunger became 
propietors in 1836 or 1837. Soon after Seaman died, and Mr. Munger 
managed it until his death in 1846. In that year Joshua Collins opened 
it as a temperance house. Various persons conducted it until 1854, 
when' it was purchased by Henry H. Hathorn. Reformed a partner- 
ship with H. P. Hale, and they made many improvements, including 
the erection of an additional story on the north wing and a ball room. 
This hotel was burned in 1866, after which the present handsome edifice 
was constructed. Like the Grand Union and the United States, it has 
since ranked as one of the best summer hotels in the country. 

The establishment of the magnificent United States hotel by Elias 
Benedict in 1834 has already been noted. Numerous additions and im- 
provements were made up to 1865, when, while it was in the height of 
its early glory, it was destroyed by fire. John Ford, the first proprietor, 
was succeeded in 1830 by James M. Marvin. For one year after that 
date Ford & Marvin were the proprietors. In 1831 Samuel Drake, an 
early proprietor of Congress hall, was associated with Mr. Marvin in 
its management, but in 1832 the latter was sole proprietor. The fol- 
lowing year it was managed by Joseph and James R. Westcot and John 
C. Dillon. In 1834 Mr. Marvin again took possession, and from 1835 
to 1837 he was assisted by Stephen S. Seaman. In 1838 the latter was 
succeeded by John Thomas of Albany, and for four years Thomas & 
Marvin were the proprietors. In 1842 Judge Thomas J. Marvin pur- 
chased the interests of Mr. Thomas, and the Marvin brothers main- 
tained the house until the death of Judge Marvin in 1852. From that 
time until the burning of the United States, June 18, 1865, it was 
managed by James M. Marvin. 

As to the ownership of the hotel during this time, Judge Marvin 
bought the property of Mr. Benedict, his uncle, in 1832, the year fol- 
lowing selling a half interest to Lewis Benedict of Albany. These 
owners then allowed Elias Benedict to come back into the firm by pay- 
ing one-third of the expense of the improvements made. Elias Bene- 
dict's heirs dying, James M. Marvin secured their interests, thus 
leaving the house owned in equal shares by Thomas J. Marvin, James 
M. Marvin and Lewis Benedict. 


It is a noteworthy fact that it was just one century after John Arnold 
of Rhode Island had built his rude log tavern at the Springs when the 
new United States hotel was opened for guests, to take the place of the 
one destroyed by fire. Built of brick, after the Norman style of arch- 
itecture, the hotel at that time undoubtedly was without a superior, in 
point of elegance and comfort, in the world. It covers and incloses 
over seven acres of ground, and even to-day, after a life of a quarter 
of a century, it still ranks as one of the most attractive and commodious 
summer hotels in the country. 

The Marvin house was started in 1833 as the Railroad house, and its 
first proprietor was Mr. Caldwell. In 1853 it was purchased by Philip 
Snyder, who built a new hotel, called the Marvin house, on the site. 
June 18, 1869, it was burned, but Adam and Daniel Snyder, the pro- 
prietors, at once rebuilt it at a cost of $100,000. It was opened to 
the public July 33, 1866. 

The American hotel was built about 1840 by George W. Wilcox, 
who, with his son-in-law, E. Darwin Pitkin, conducted it for many 
years. William Bennett subsequently succeeded to the management. 

The Clarendon hotel was built in 1860 by Mrs. Mary I. Jones, and 
opened that year by Alexander Putnam. Charles E. Leland purchased 
it in 1873, after having managed it as lessee for eight years. 

The Worden, which has been conducted for several years by William 
W. Worden, is the leading hotel which remains open all the year round. 
It stands at the northwest corner of Broadway and Division street. 

The Windsor, on the corner of Broadway and William street, was 
built in 1876, and ranks among the finest hotels of its size in the State. 
Like most of the others, it is closed during the winter season. 

The Adelphi hotel was built in 1877, on Broadway at the head of 
Phila street. It remains open all the year. 

The Commercial is another hotel which remains open for guests 
twelve months in the year. Great improvements were made in this 
hotel in 1898-1899 by the proprietor, John Wandell. 

Among the other hotels in the village may be mentioned the Colum- 
bian, an attractive resort ; the Holden house, the Waverly, the Albe- 
marle, the Bates, the Empire, the Continental, the Everett, the 
Heustis and the Mansion house. 

The rapid growth of the village after the building of the first three 
great summer hotels in the first quarter of the century necessitated a 
number of public improvements. The most important of these was 
inaugurated in 1833, when Dr. John Clark, son of Saratoga's most pub- 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1831—1861. 189 

lie spirited man, began the construction of an elaborate water supply- 
system — elaborate for those days, at least. On the hill in the southern 
part of the village, on the present site of Congress Spring park, he 
erected, in that year, a tower about fifty feet high. He also laid 
wooden conduits through the streets of the village, from which connec- 
tions were made by individuals and for fire purposes. By means of 
pumps water was raised through pipes to the top of the wooden tower, 
in which was a reservoir, and passed thence, by gravity, into the con- 

In 1847, this reservoir and the pressure being unequal to the de- 
mands made upon it, a large reservoir was built about two miles from 
the village, in the town of Greenfield. The water was carried to the 
village through iron pipes. But this supply, too, soon proved insuffi- 
cent, especially during the summer, and another reservoir, for fire pur- 
poses only, was placed between the first one and the village. This 
proved almost useless, however, by reason of the small supply of water 
and the low pressure. No change in the system was made, however, 
until the amendment of the village charter in 1866. Before this date, a 
fire department, consisting of hand engines, with other essential appa- 
ratus, was organized. This, too, had undergone material changes. 

In 1840 an association was formed having for its object the establish- 
ment of a new cemetery, which was laid out in that year and named 
Green Ridge cemetery. The remains of many persons who had been 
buried in the old Sadler burial ground, the Putnam burial ground, and 
elsewhere, were transferred to the new site, and a number of hand- 
some monuments were placed there to mark their resting place. In 
August, 1844, the body of William L. Stone, the author, was interred 
in Green Ridge — the first regular burial in that cemetery. Many of 
the most noted personages of the earlier days of the county also are 
buried there. 

The business men of Saratoga, realizing how great would be the 
benefits accruing therefrom, joyfully hailed the organization of the first 
banking institution in that village in 1848. This bank, a private insti- 
tution, was established in accordance with the general banking law of 
the State by Thomas J. Marvin and James M. Marvin of Saratoga 
Springs and Rufus H. King and J. B. Plumb of Albany. It had a 
nominal capital of $60,000, and started in business with Judge Thomas 
J. Marvin as president and James M. Marvin as cashier. The office of 
the bank was at first in the old insurance building on the southeast 


corner of the United States hotel property. Soon after beginning busi- 
ness John S. Leake of the New York State bank of Albany was engaged 
as cashier. By 1852 the increasing business necessitated a change in 
the bank, which then increased its capital stock to $100,000 and reor- 
ganized as an "associate bank," with John Beekman Finlay as presi- 
dent and John S. Leake as cashier. Four years later Dr. Samuel Free- 
man became president, remaining in that office until his death in 1870. 
He was succeeded by James M. Marvin. 

In 1878 Augustus Bockes was made president and his son, William 
Hay Bockes, became cashier. In 1894 James M. Marvin again became 
president and fills the position at the present day. Henry B. Hanson 
is vice-president and William Hay Bockes cashier. The capital stock 
of the bank was increased in 1885 from $100,000 to $125,000. The 
bank owns its banking house on the southeast corner of Broadway and 
Phila street. 

Another important step in the direction of public improvement was 
the organization, in 1854, of the Saratoga Gaslight company. This 
concern was incorporated with a capital stock of $75,000 and these 
directors: L. H. Tupper, J. M. Corliss, T. M. Lockwood, S. S. Dauchy, 
John S. Manning, S. G. Clements and R. D. Bardwell. In the year of 
its organization the company began the work of erecting a large gas 
manufacturing plant and laying pipes through the streets of Saratoga 
Springs for the purpose of distributing the commodity to the patrons 
of the company." 

A circuit called Saratoga was organized by the M. E. church in 1791, 
taking its name from the county. Methodist services were not intro- 
duced into the town until 1829, when Rev. Mr. Stebbins occasionally 
preached in the place, there being but two resident Methodists there at 
the time. In 1830, under the ministry of Rev. Dr. Stoiuel Luckey," 

■ This company was reorganized in 1876 with a capital stock of $40,000 and these officers: Will- 
iam Bennett, James R. Chapman and Charles H. Holden. March 1, 1887, the name was changed 
to the Saratoga Gas and Electric Light company, the addition to the name showing the expansion 
of the business. The company failed November 29, 1893, and went into the hands of Lafayette -B. 
Gleason of New York city as receiver. April 7 on default of $11,000 interest and maturing bonds 
the concern was sold to the bondholders' committee. In March, 1897, the company was reorgan- 
ized under the name of the Saratoga Gas, Electric Light and Power company on a financial basis 
of $200,000 first mortgage bonds, $300,000 preferred stock and $100,000 common stock. The present 
officers are: President, Edgar T. Bracket! of Saratoga; vioe-presidentj Alexander W. Smith of 
New York; secretary and treasurer, Osborn W. Bright; superintendent, Patrick F. Roohan of 

2 Samuel Luckey, D.D., was born at Rensselaerville, N. Y., April 4, 1791, and entered the 
traveling ministry of the M. E. church in 1811. In 1832, two years after the organization of the 
church at Saratoga, he was elected principal of the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, and in 1836 he 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1831—1861. 191 

the first M. E. church edifice was erected. Up to the inauguration of 
the annual conferences of the M. E. church in 1835, Saratoga Springs 
was one of the appointments of what was then called Stillwater circuit, 
comprising Greenfield, Wilton, Schuylerville, Malta Ridge, Clifton 
Park, Stillwater and Saratoga Springs. For three or four years before 
this Rev. J. D. Moriarty preached here. On the former date the con- 
gregation worshiped in the old church on North Broadway. In June, 
1840, the conference made Saratoga Springs a regular station, with 
Ephraim Goss as missionary in charge. The church edifice, built in 
that year, was dedicated in 1841.' 

In 1834 the first mass ever celebrated in Saratoga Springs was con- 
ducted by Rev. John Kelly, pastor of the Roman Catholic church at 
Sandy Hill. For seven years after that date there was no resident 
priest here and no stated time for the services, which were held from 
time to time. Rev. Father McCloskey, who became pastor of the 
Schenectady church in 1838, celebrated mass occasionally, as did Rev. 
Peter Havermans of Troy, and others. The former took the first steps 
toward organizing the congregation. September 13, 1839, John Costi- 
gan purchased of Thomas J. Marvin the lot on which St. Peter's church 
now stands, with the building on it, known as the Lyceum. This was 
at once converted into a Catholic house of worship ; but it was not until 
September, 1843, that the young church had its first regular pastor. 
In that year Rev. Anthony Farley became the first priest in charge, 
but in May of the following year was succeeded by Rev. Father Dono- 
hue. He was succeeded in November, 1844, by Rev. Bernard Van 
Reeth, who in turn was succeeded in the summer of 1847 by Rev. 
Thomas Daly. In July, 1850, Father Cull assumed charge, and at once 
set himself to the task of building a new church for his flock. This 
was dedicated August 15, 1853, by Monseigneur Bedini, then apostolic 
delegate to the United States, and Archbishop Hughes. Father Cull 

was elected editor of the Christian Advocate and Journal, in New York. Shortly retiring from 
the editorship he returned to the Genesee conference, where he remained until his death October 
11, 1869. He also served as a Regent of the University of the State of New York. 

1 The first house of worship, erected in 1830, stood near the corner of Broadway and Green- 
field avenue. It was used as an academy by E. K. Bangs, and later as a boarding house, after 
the society abandoned it in 1839. The church built in 1840 and 1841 was dedicated July 33 of the 
latter year by Dr. John Kennedy of Philadelphia and Dr. Noah Levings of New York, Rev. Ste- 
phen Remington of Schenectady preaching the sermon. The church struggled under a heavy 
debt for many years after this, and it was not wiped out until 1865, during the pastorate of Rev. 
C. F. Burdick. In 1855, while Rev. Dr. Bostwick Hawley was pastor, the house of worship was 
considerably enlarged and otherwise improved. The church was rebuilt on Washington street 
in 1870 and dedicated by Bishop James, March 20, 1871. 


did not stop when he had built the church. He also procured a pastoral 
residence and cemetery, purchased the Hugh Dennin property, spent 
a considerable sum on improvements thereto, and introduced a branch 
of the Sisters of St. Joseph, to take charge of the parochial schools. 
He was one of the most valued members of the community for many 
years. " 

Saratoga Springs has ever been celebrated for its excellent schools 
public and private. One of the best known and most widely patron- 
ized private schools in the State of New York for many years was the 
boarding and day school for young ladies opened by the Misses Way- 
land in Saratoga in 1831. It stood on the corner of Broadway and 
Washington street, the site now covered by a portion of the Grand 
Union hotel. The number of pupils was always limited, and every 
lady placed in charge of the Misses Wayland was educated as in a 
home." The second noted private school at the Springs was that opened 
in 1854 by Mr, Carter, also for the education of young ladies. Rev. 
Luther F. Beecher became Mr. Carter's partner in the enterprise the 
year following, and in 1856 they built the institution at Temple Grove. 
The school did not pay, and nine years afterward the building was sold 
for hotel and school purposes combined. This undertaking, too, was 
not successful and the school was suspended.' 

Other schools existed in this village during the period under discus- 
sion, but the school of the Misses Wayland and Temple Grove Semi- 
nary were the most important in the village. Miss Martha Thompson, 
daughter of Dr. Thompson, had a young ladies' school in the northern 

* Rev. Father Cull died January 3, 1873. Five years before that date he retired from the active 
work of the priesthood, and in January, 1868, Rev. Father Sheehan succeeded him. In 1870, dur- 
ing the pastorate of the latter, the church was incorporated under the title of St, Peter's church, 
by Bishop John J. Conroy of Albany, Edgar E, Wadhams, V, G,, M, Sheehan, the pastor; John 
Foley and B, McGovern, 

' This school was removed in 1875 to Putnam street, in the rear of Congress Hall, Three 
years later its doors were closed by reason of changes in the family circle which rendered this act 

' Rev. Charles F, Dowd saw a future for a ladies' seminary here, however, and in 1808 he pur- 
chased the Grove property, made extensive alterations and additions to the building, and 
equipped it thoroughly for the purposes for which it was originally intended. In 1869 the school 
was incorporated under the supervision of the Regents of the University of the State of New 
York. The ofiHcers of the school named in the charter were: President, Rev. CharlesP. Dowd, 
A. M,; vice-president, Re'v. John Woodbridge; Benjamin F, Bancroft, treasurer; Henry M. Dowd, 
secretary; Hon. Frederick A. Conkling, Rev. P. R. Day, Rev, L. M, Woodruff, Rev. John P, Gib- 
son, Hon. Charles S, Lester, Alexander Cherry, Prof, Hiram A. Wilson, Charles N, Lockwood 
and Paoli Durkee, trustees. The grounds of the seminary occupy the entire square on Spring 
street, between Circular and Regent streets. Prof. Dowd retired from active control of the Semi- 
nary in 1898, leaving it in charge of his son, Frank D, Dowd. 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 1831—1861. 193 

part of the village for' several years. Elijah K. Bangs, who bought 
the old Methodist meeting-house for a school building in 1839, had 
already been maintaining, for three years, an excellent school for boys. 
From 1838 to 1839 he had a school at Hempstead, Long Island, but in 
the latLer year returned and reopened his Saratoga school, teaching 
here until 1845. Paoli Durkee opened a classical school for boys in 
1849, maintaining it for nine years.' 

Rising Sun lodge, F. & A. M., whicli was removed from the town of 
Wilton to the village of Saratoga Springs in 1824, had a precarious ex- 
istence for many years. During the period of the great anti-Masonic 
agitation it ceased to exist, from 1830 to 1835. In the latter year an 
attempt to revive it failed, and this experience was repeated several 
times until December 16, 1844, when the Grand lodge granted a dis- 
pensation for the organization of a lodge to be known as Union lodge, 
which was to cease May 15, 1845. On the day preceding that date a 
petition requesting the revival of Rising Sun lodge was sent to the 
Grand lodge. This prayer was granted and the next month the lodge 
was revived and renumbered as Rising Sun lodge No. 103, F. & A. M. 
Since that date it has continued in successful operation, and to-day is 
one of the strongest Masonic lodges in the State. The charter memr 
bers of the revived lodge were G. M. Davison, Robert McDonnell, 
Alvah Marvin, Gardner Bullard, D. D. Benedict, Joseph White and 
Joseph M. Wheeler. D. D. Benedict was the first worshipful master. 

Rising Sun Chapter No. 131, R. A. M., was instituted February 2, 
1847. The charter officers were: H. R, Joseph M. Wheeler; K., D. 
D. Benedict; S., Richard L. Allen. 

Cryptic Council No. 37, R. & S. M., was instituted February 1, 1870. 
The charter officers were: T. I. M., C. H. Holden; R. I. D. M., L. B. 
Putnam; I. P. C. W., G. H. Gillis, 

Washington Commandery, No. 33, K. T., was organized September 
14, 1864. The charter members were Hon. Reuben Hyde Walworth, 
H. V. Sayles, C. H. Holden, George B. Fish, H. A. Van Dorn, L. B. 
Putnam, W. R. Winchell, T. G. Young, C. E. Durkee, C. H. Brown, 
Charles Carpenter, R. C. Blackall and F. T. Parkman. The command- 
ery has since become one of the strongest in this section of the State. 
The following have been the commanders : 1864-1865, George B. Fish ; 

> After the latter year this school was successively taught by Rev. Mr. Proudfit and Mr. Robb. 
The late Rev. Dr. J. N. Crocker, a Presbyterian clergyman, had a good school here for several 
years. There were many oth^r ^rnall private schools in the village. 


1866-1872, Charles H. Holden; 1873, F. D. Wheeler, jr.; 1874, George 
H. Gillis; 1875, Charles H. Sturges; 1876, John L. Perry; 1877, Charles 
H. Holden; 1878-1885, Robert C. McEwen; 1886-1887, Charles H. 
Holden; 1888-1889, J. M. Colcord; 1890-1891, H. L. Waterbury; 1892- 
1893, A. P. Knapp; 1894, John Bennett. 

Saratoga lodge No. 15, 1. O. O. F., was instituted November 17, 1843. 
The present charter was granted December 1, 1850. The first officers 
elected were: N. G., C. W. Burlingame; V. G., A. S. Piper; R. S., C.N. 
Maynard; P. S., O. T. Sparks: treasurer, A. R. Barrett; trustees, F.T. 
Hill, A. S. Hays, A. J. Holmes. 

Saratoga Division, Sons of Temperance, was instituted in 1842 or 
1843, but ceased to exist after a few years. Another division was or- 
ganized in 1858 and still another in 1868. The latter died out about 

While Saratoga was prospering as a summer resort, Ballston Spa was 
enjoying great industrial advancement. When Hezekiah Middlebrook 
constructed a dam across the Kayaderosseras in the northern part of 
the village and erected the old "Blue Mills," as they are known to this 
day, he assisted materially in giving added momentum to the wave of 
prosperity which had begun to be felt in the growing village. These 
mills were extensive grist mills, and for years were the most important 
in the county. The original grist mill erected by Daniel Thomas was 
located about a third of a mile further up the stream. 

In 1836 Jonathan S. Beach and Harvey Chapman bought seventy-two acres of 
land, east of Milton avenue, between Malta avenue and the railroad, near North 
High street, including all the water power of the lower dam now occupied by Mr: 
West. Soon after this purchase they built the west mill of the three on the island ; 
this was opened and operated as a woolen mill for a few years, but finally discon- 
tinued. About the year 1840 Beach & Chapman erected the second or middle build- 
ing upon the island ; they sold it in a short time to P. H. McOmber, and he trans- 
ferred it finally to Samuel H. Cook. This was a cotton mill and it was in operation 
down to the year of 1861. In the year 1844 Beach & Chapman erected the third mill, 
the one now run by Mr. West as a paper mill ; they soon sold' this, with the water 
power and land still remaining to them, to James M. Cook. This was also a cotton 
mill, and was operated until 1861. All of this island property was then bought by 
Jonas Hovey. 

The Ballston Spa Mill Company was formed in 1838 to 1840, consisting of Jon- 
athan S. Beach, Harvey Chapman, James Thompson, John W. Thompson, George 
Thompson, Lebbeus Booth and others ; they bought the land and water-power west 
of Milton street, north of Gordon creek, and south of the Blood and Thomas prop- 
erty. This was purchased of the Middlebrook family. In early times Daniel 
Thomas and Hezekiah Middlebrook had owned together a very large tract in and 

BALLSTON SPA, 1831—1861. 195 

around the northern portion of the present village. They divided the property, 
Middlebrook retaining the water-power and Thomas taking the lands, covered then 
with valuable pine timber. In after years the water privileges became far more val- 
uable than the other. The Ballston Spa Mill company did not continue as a cor- 
poration, but the parties named above as joint proprietors erected the Union cotton 
mill, sometimes known as No. 1. The mill was operated by Ziba H. Cook and 
others for manufacturing print cloths until about the year 1855. The same proprie- 
tors built the brick mill on the hill, the one now occupied by Mr. West in the man- 
ufacture of paper bags. This was opened for a knitting mill, operated by H. Chap- 
man & Son, also by Bassett and Hiro Jones; the latter owning the real estate. It 
was sold, as was the other factory, to Jonas Hovey in 1864-65. Mr. Hovey, having 
thus become the owner of all these mills, operated them, to a greater or less extent, 
until the time of his death in 1873. In connection with his extensive operations 
here, he built the residence now owned by George West. On this house is said to 
have been expended $50,000. 

Bfeach & Chapman also built about the year 1850 a woolen mill, known as the Glen 
woolen mill property, now owned by Edwin H. Chapman. It has been occupied by 
Chapman and others as a blanket and cloth mill to the present time.' 

About 1850 Messrs. Booth, Wait, Moore, Wakeman and Thomas 
opened an extensive oil -cloth manufactory, which was operated for a 
quarter of a century, turning out large quantities of a high grade of oil- 
cloth." Several other manufacturing concerns were doing business in 
town before the war, but those referred to were considered the most 

The hamlet of Bloodville, now a part of Ballston Spa, has been an 
important manufacturing point since 1824. In that year Isaiah Blood' 
began the erection of a scythe factory, in partnership with his father, 
Sylvester Blood. The latter in that year purchased the splendid water 
power on the Kayaderosseras creek at that point, manufacturing scythes 
at that place in connection with his old factory below Ballston Spa. 
About 1837, having purchased the interest of his father, he greatly 
increased the facilities of the plant, and added a department for the 
manufacture of axes. He erected a large factory just below the scythe 

' Sylvester's History of Saratoga County.— 1878. 

' This factory was turned in 1875 and never rebuilt. 
^Isaiah Blood, born at Ballston, February 13, 1810, was a son of Sylvester Blood, who began 
the manufacture of scj-'thes about 1805 two miles south of Ballston Spa. In 1831 he married Jane 
E. Gates of Ballston, and soon formed a partnership with his father. In 1837 he bought out the 
latter's interest and at once began enlarging the business, adding a department for the manufac- 
ture of axes. He was a lifelong Democrat. In 1847 he was elected supervisor of the town of 
Milton, which generally gave a Whig majority; in 1851 was elected to the Assembly from the first 
Saratoga district ; in 1859 was again chosen supervisor ; in the same year was elected to the State 
Senate from the fifteenth district ; in 1869 was again elected senator, and died November 29, 1870, 
before the expiration of his term. Albert P. Blood of Ballston Spa, who died in April, 1898, was 
a son. 


shop for this department,' and immediately gave employment to a 
greatly increased force of men. He continued to increase the output 
of his great plant until his death in 1870, when the concern passed into 
the hands of his son-in-law, Henry Knickerbocker of New York.' 

Ballston Spa enjoyed home banking facilities at an early day. The 
Ballston Spa Bank, the first in town, was organized in 1838 by the elec- 
tion of these directors: James M. Cook, Isaac Frink, Anson Brown, 
Lebbeus Booth, Jonathan S. Beach, Samuel Freeman, Eli Barnum, 
John W. Thompson, Stephen Smith, John Kelley, Harvey Chapman, 
Philip H. McOmber and Samuel Hides. They elected James M. Cook 
president, Isaac Fowler cashier, and John J. Lee teller. May 15, 1839, 
the bank opened its doors for business." 

Three churches were erected in Ballston Spa during the period to 
which this chapter is devoted. These were the Presbyterian church 
which is still standing, the Methodist church and the Catholic church, 
which have since been superseded by handsome new edifices. The 
First Presbyterian church was organized in June, 1834, by families who 
had been attending services at Ballston Centre and Milton Centre. At 
the preliminary meeting held May 10, 1834, sixty six members pre- 
sented letters from the two churches named and signed the member- 
ship roll. July 8 following Philip H. McOmber, Jonathan S. Beach, 
Edward W. Lee, Moses Williams, James Comstock and Christopher 
Earle were elected trustees. The following year the house of worship 
was erected at the northeast corner of High and Bath streets, at a cost 
of $10,000, and was dedicated in November of that year. In 1856 a 
parsonage was purchased at an expense of nearly $3,000, and in 1860 
Samuel H. Cook erected a chapel on Milton avenue, on the site of the 
present chapel.' The Methodist Episcopal church was not formally 

' The plant is now owned by the American Axe and Tool company. The real estate of the 
corporation is valued at $79,450. 

' In 1865 the institution was reorganized as a national bank, taking the name of Ballston Spa 
National Bank. Its capital stock is $100,000. The presidents havu been : James IM. Cook, 1839- 
1856 ; John W. Thompson, 1856-1893 ; George L. Thompson, 1893-1896 (the year of his' death) ; An- 
drew S. Booth, 1896 to the present time. James L. Scott, vice-president, acted as president for a 
short time in 1896 during the last illness of President George L. Thompson, who died December 
39, 1895. The cashiers have been : Isaac Fowler, 1839-1856 ; John J. Lee, 1856-1887 ; George L. Thomp- 
son, 1887-1893 ; Thomas Kerley, 1893 to the present time. William Ingham and William H. Ball 
are the present vice-presidents, Egbert Clute is teller, and C. O. MoCreedy, jr., clerk. 

' This chapel was torn down several years ago and a new one erected in its place. The 
pastors have been: Revs. James Wood, Samuel J. Prime, A. T. Chester, Daniel Stewart, George 
T. Todd, Nathaniel S. Prime, Richard H. Steele, Nathaniel B. Klink, David TuUy, S. Mattoon, S. 
A. Hoyt, jr., David Murdock, A. R. Olney, D. D., and Henry L. Teller, the present occupant of 
the pulpit. 


BALLSTON SPA, 1831—1861. 197 

organized until 1836, though a class existed in the village as early as 
1823, when Ballston Spa and Saratoga Springs were together for one 
year, with William Anson and Elisha P. Jacobs, supernumerary, as 
preachers. After this nothing is known except that a preacher named 
Clark held class meetings until August 25, 1836, when a society was 
organized. It purchased the old academy building, which stood near 
the spot now occupied by the D. & H. railroad turntable, moved it to 
the corner of West High and Charlton streets and remodeled it into a 
house of worship. Rev. Noah- Levings preached the dedicatory ser- 
mon. In 1845 a brick church was built on the site of the present edi- 
fice on Milton avenue, and the old academy building was sold to the 
Catholic congregation. ' 

There is little to be learned by whom Catholic services were held in 
Ballston Spa prior to 1849, but at this date we learn that Father Haver- 
mans celebrated mass on Ash Wednesday. The meetings were held at 
this time in the old Methodist meeting-house which the Catholics had 
purchased. The cornerstone of a new church was laid in December, 
1859, under the pastorate of Father Cull, and was at that time located 
on the east side of Church street, the property which is now owned by 
ex-Sheriff D. F. Winney, and subsequently removed to its present 
location, which property was purchased at a cost of $10,500. In 1867 
Rev. Anthony McGough became pastor of this charge, prior to which ' 
it had been under the supervision of the Saratoga Springs pastorate. 
Father McGough remained in charge until 1873, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Father Bayard, who continued in charge until October 
6, 1878, when Rev. Bernard J. McDonough commenced what has 
proved a most acceptable and fortunate pastorate for St. Mary's so- 
ciety. An idea of the wonderful and continuous growth of this society 
is gained from the fact that its membership now numbers more than 
two hundred and fifty families. 

The new church edifice recently Completed is one of the finest in 
Saratoga county, having cost over $60,000. It was designed by Archi- 

1 In 1892-1893 a handsome new church, of brick, was built on the site of the old one, during the 
pastorate of Rev. Joseph C. Russum. Half the coat of its construction was contributed by ex- 
Congressman George West, a member of the church. The corner-stone was laid October 19, 
1893, and the church was dedicated October 2.3, 1893. January 4, 1893, N. R. Vandenburgh, one of 
the contractors employed in building the church, fell from a plank in the incomplete building 
and fractured his skull, which caused his death January 7 following. The first pastor who served 
this church exclusively was Rev. S. L. Stillman, Who came in 1846 and remained one year. Dur- 
ing the pastorate of Rev. W. H. Washburn, 1883-1885, West chapel was built through the liber- 
ality of Hon. George West. 


tect E. W. Loth of Troy, N. Y. , and erected under the supervision of 
Dennis Manogue of Ballston Spa. The foundation of this imposing 
structure wis commenced July 29, 1895, this being the day that marked 
the close of a quarter of a century of active work in priesthood by the 
pastor, Rev. Father B. J. McDonough. The church is situated at the 
corner of Milton avenue and Van Buren street. Its dimensions are: 
Length, one hundred and twenty-five feet; width, sixty-eight feet; 
gables, sixty feet high; tower, one hundred and seventy-eight feet 
high. Its style is Gothic and its furnishings are in hard wood. 

The early schools of Ballston Spa and the establishment of the pres- 
ent Union school system under the direction of Prof. Thomas C. 
Bunyan have been described in a preceding chapter. In addition to 
the admirable public schools of the village, there is an excellent and 
well-patronized private school, which has been conducted for several 
years by Miss Almeda James. 

An institution which once gave promise of becoming an important 
feature among the many worthy enterprises of Saratoga county was 
the "State and National Law School," established by JohnW. Fowler 
in the old Sans Souci hotel at Ballston Spa in 1849. In his history of 
the Bench and Bar of Saratoga County Enos R. Mann refers to this 
school as follows : 

Mr. Fowler opened it with a full corps of competent professors and secured an 
abundant patronage. Among the graduates may be mentioned the names of Col. 
Slocum of the 1st Rhode Island Infantry, who fell at the head of his regiment fight- 
ing at Bull Run ; Governor Gilbert C. Walker of Virginia, Judge Abraham R. Law- 
rence, Surrogate Delano C. Calvin and Gen. Roger A. Pryor of New York, and ex- 
Judge Samuel D. Morris of Brooklyn — an alumni that would reflect honor on any 
institution. At the commencement in 1850, there were present ex-President Van 
Buren, Governor Hamilton Fish, and the great Kentucky commoner, Henry Clay. 
The latter made a memorable address to the students, addressing through them for 
the last time the young men of America in words of earnest counsel to be true to 
themselves and their country. But the projector of this law school, to balance all 
his other attainments, lacked what Gen. McCook called a " level head." He was 
very improvident, knowing nothing of the financial problems conducive to success, 
and. after three years of active and useful life, the institution went into bankruptcy. 

Franklin lodge No. 90, F. & A. M., was chartered by the Grand lodge 
June 3, 1842. It succeeded and took the name of Franklin lodge No. 
37, which, founded in Ballston in 1794, forfeited its charter in 1834. 
Some of its original members were also identified with Friendship 
lodge No. 118, of Milton, which surrendered its charter in 1836." 

' These lodges are referred to more at length in a preceding chapter. 

BALLSTON SPA, 1831—1861. 199 

For a period of seven years, from 1835 to 1842, there was no Masonic 
organization in Ballston Spa. Nearly all the members of Franklin 
lodge, No. 37, and of Friendship lodge. No. 118, became members of 
the new lodge, which has maintained its regular communications in 
this village to the present time.. In the proceedings of the Grand 
lodge, under date of June 3, 1842, is found the following: 

The Committee on warrants reported in favor of granting a warrant to constitute 
a Lodge at Ballston, in the county of Saratoga, by the name of Franklin Lodge, of 
which Bro. Wm Saunders is to be first Master; Bro. Wm. Hawkins, S. W., and Bro. 
Joseph Jennings, J. W., and that the property of the late Franklin Lodge, No. 37, 
be returned to said new Lodge, on payment of the usual fee for the Warrant. 

Franklin lodge has numbered among its members several brethren 
who have attained high positions among the fraternity, and in the 
civil walks of life. Of the latter Bro. James M. Cook, who received 
the Masonic degrees in this lodge, was for several years superintendent 
of the State Banking Department, and also represented his district in 
both houses of the State Legislature. He was buried with Masonic 
honors, and his remains now rest in the cemetery in this village. 
Among those whom the craft have delighted to honor, we find the names 
of W. Bro. George Babcock, at one time grand commander of the 
Knights Templar in this State ; W. Bro. Seth Whalen, district deputy 
grand lecturer for two years, and master of the lodge for seven years; 
and R. W. Jonathan S. Smith, district deputy grand master,' 

' The iirst ofttcers o£ Franklin lodge, at the time o£ its organization, were: William Saunders, 
W. M.; William Hawkins, S. W.; Joseph Jennings, J. W. In 1843 these officers held the same 
chairs, in addition to which William Ford was treasurer, Stephen Fox was secretary, Stephen 
Seaman was S. D., Reuben Thompson was J, D. and Joseph Kelso was tiler. Since that date the 
masters of this lodge have been: 1844, William Hawkins; 1845, Joseph Jennings; 1846, Abel Meeker; 
1947, S. A. Emerson; I»i8-l»t9, Reuben Westcot; 1850, Abel Meeker; 1851, Harvey N. Hill; 1862, 
Abel Meeker; 1833, George Babcock; 1854, Harvey N. Hill; 1855, Abel Meeker; 1856-1857, Harvey N. 
Hill; 1858, George H. Millham; 1859, George W. Ingalls; 1860-1862, Harvey N. Hill; 1863, S. H. 
Drake; 1864, P. G. Newcomb; 1865, Graham Pulver; 1866-1867, Seth Whalen; 1868, Benjamin Allen; 
1869-1873, Seth Whalen; 1874, Jonathan S. Smith; 1875, Albert J. Reid; 1876, Jonathan S. Smith; 
1877-1880, Edward P. Grose; 1881-1882, C. Fred Wheeler; 1883-1884, Frank Jones; 1885-1887, David 
Frisbie; 1888-1889, David H. Winnie; 1890, George W. Maxon; 1891, Davie Frisbie; 1892-1894, Will- 
iam Spencer; 1895-1898, Albert P. Miller; 1897, Edward P. Grose; 1898, David Frisbie. 

Warren chapter No. 2-3, R. A. M., was organized March 30, 1809, in pursuance of a dispensation- 
granted to Seth C. Baldwin and others. The preceding year the Mark Mason's lodge, to be known 
as Friendship No. 39, had been authorized. The latter ceased to exist when" Friendship lodge, F. 
& A. M., surrendered its charter in 1835. No officers were elected by Warren chapiter in 1813, and 
the Chapter remained dormant from 1828 to 1840, when William Hawkins was chosen H. P. for 
the balance of the year. The following is a list of the high priests of the chapter, with the year 
each was elected: 1809, Eliakim Corey; 1810, William Anthony; 1811, Amos Alcott; 1812, George H. 
Benham; 1814, Nathan D. Sherwood; 1815, Nathan Warden; 1816, Philo Hurd; 1817-1818, William 
Hawkins; 1819, Philo Hurd; 1820, William Hawkins; 1821-1823, Jonathan Edgecomb; 1823, William 
Clark; 1824-1826, L. B. Langworthy; 1837, John Dix; 1838, Jonathan Edgecomb; 1846, William Haw- 


A lodge of Odd Fellows was organized in Ballston January 9, 1844 
as Kayaderosseras lodge No. 17, I.O.O.F. The charter members were 
David Maxwell, Samuel H. Cook, William T. Odell, James G. Stebbins, 
William Smith and Edward Gilborne.' 

Waterford made great industrial strides during the period from 1831 
to the beginning of the war of the Rebellion. During these thirty 
years a large number of manufacturing industries were established in 
town, some of which are still maintained on the same lines as those on 
which they were founded, though under different management. At 
the opening of this period several concerns were located near the 
hydraulic canal and elsewhere. The stock, die and tool works founded 
in 1829 by Daniel B. King, brother of Fuller King, the projector 
of the hydraulic canal; and the Waterford soap and candle factory, 
opened about 1830 by Joshua and Elisha Morse, were among the 
most important enterprises here at this time, aside from those men- 
tioned in an earlier chapter. It was in the buildings occupied by the 
latter concern that the great fire of 1841 began. Some time between 
1830 and 1834 the Franklin ink works were established. This plant 
subsequently was devoted to the manufacture of lamp black alone. The 
Button fire engine works, which since have become known as among 
the most celebrated in the United States, were established in 1834 by 
William Piatt & Co., L. Button being a member of that firm. The 
first works were located on the King hydraulic canal, but the site was 
afterward occupied by the Gage machine shop. In 1850 the Button 
concern abandoned water power and adopted steam in its place, mov- 
ing the plant to the foot of Third street. The Gage machine works, 
founded in 1835 by George Gage, were operated by him up to the time 

kins; 1847-1848, Reuben Westcot; 1849, Abel Meeker; 1850-1851, Harvey N. Hill; 1852, Reuben West- 
cot; 1853-1854,-H. N. Hill; 1865, Abel Meeker; 1856-1864, H. N. Hill; 1865, Jesse S. L'Amoreaux; 1866- 
1869, Graham Pulver; 1870-1884, Jonathan S. Smith; 1885, George E. Terry; 1886, Edward F. Grose; 
1887-1891, William Spencer; 1893-1892, David Frisbie; 1894 to the present time, William Spencer. 

1 The noble grands of this lodge, in the order of their service, were : Samuel H. Cook, David 
Maxwell, William P. Odell, P. H. Cowen, William Smith, Lorenzo Kelly, John J. Lee, Henry 
Wright, Edward Gilborne, G. V. Mix, Harrison Emerson, Squire Barrett, George Thompson, Sel- 
den A. Emerson, Spencer Twitchell, John McKown, John Wilder, James Ashman, James W. Mor- 
ris, Amos W. Cook, Daniel W. Culver, Abraham Carey, Lawrence W. Bristol, George Babcock, 
H. P. Jones, A. J. Goffe, Isaac D. Gibbons, H. C. Hakes, Edson O. Arnold, William W. Simmons, 
Cornell M. Noxon, Nelson H. Huested, Isaac H. Sears, James W. Culver, C. H.Van Valkenburgh, 
E. C. Foster, John C. Sullivan, Henry A. Mann, Burdick F. Davis, Joshua B. Boss, William W. 
Day, John H. Westcot, Edwin Miller, Josiah B. Hall, John C. Newman, John F. Bortles, James S. 
Garrett, C. C. Hill, J. P. Weatherwax, E. A. Frisbie. This lodge was dissolved in 1865, and five 
years later Kayaderosseras lodge No. 270 was instituted. Ballston Encampment, No. 72, organ- 
ized November 9, 1854, was continued but a few years. The Odd Fellows' lodge at Ballston owns 
a handsome building, containing lodge rooms and a commodious hall, built In 1891. 

WATERFORD, 1831—1861. 301 

of his death, a period of nearly half a century. They afterward became 
the property of members of his family. In the same year the man- 
ufacture of nuts was begun in a building owned by Mr. Gage, by a 
man named Brooks, and continued after the latrer's death by his sop. 
The year 1847 was also marked by the establishment of three impor- 
tant industries in the village. These were the stock and die factory 
founded by James Holroyd, for the manufacture of dies for the use 
of blacksmiths and machinists, and for gas and steam fitting;. the Rock 
Island flouring mills, established by J. B. Enos & Co., and the iron and 
brass foundry and machine shop founded by C. W. Eddy (afterward 
the Mohawk & Hudson Manufacturing Co.'s plant). The first mills of 
J. B. Enos & Co. were burned in 1862 and new mills erected. Hol- 
royd's first buildings were torn down in 1864, when new ones were 

About four o'clock on the afternoon of Saturday, July 11, 1841, fire 
was discovered in a stable in the rear of the Episcopal church on the 
west side of Third street, between Broad and Middle streets. A strong 
wind was blowing from the northwest and the sparks and flaming 
brands were carried across Third, Second and Broad streets. The 
village fire department had a hand engine, but its efforts to stay the 
ravages of the fire were futile. When it was seen that the greater part 
of the village was doomed unless help were forthcoming, the near-by 
cities and villages were notified, and soon nine engines from Troy, 
Lansingburgh, Cohoes and West Troy were in the village directing 
their efforts toward subduing the flames. The fire was under control 
about six o'clock that evening, but not until the Episcopal church, 
twenty-eight stores, thirty residences and seventy other buildings had 
been reduced to ashes. The loss was estimated at over $150,000 — not 
a large amount for these days, but a tremendous loss to Waterford in 

Half a century ago — in 1848 — a number of Masons residing in Water- 
ford, applied for and obtained a dispensation from the grand master of 
the State of New York and proceeded to organize a lodge of Master 
Masons. Of those who formed the new lodge, which was instituted 
Decen;ber 28, 1848, as Clinton lodge. No. 140, F. & A. M., seven were 
members of Phoenix lodge No. 58 of Lansingburgh and two were 
brethren from Old Orange lodge No. 43, which was in existence long 
before the great anti-Masonic excitement which followed the mysterious 
disappearance of William Morgan of Batavia in 1826. James M, 


Austin was the first master of the newly organized lodge. His great 
ability and untiring zeal for the welfare of the new lodge singularly 
qualified him for the position, which he held for four consecutive years. 
He afterward became grand secretary of the Grand lodge of the State 
of New York. The other officers on the foundation were: John 
Hinde, S. W. ; John Fulton, J. W. ; F. W. Allen, secretary; John 
Higgins, treasurer; Joseph H. Cudworth, S. D.; John MuUiken, J. D. ; 
Samuel Landsborough, S. M. C. ; Joseph M. King, J. M. C. ; John Roe, 
tiler. Following is a complete list of the masters of Clinton lodge, in 
the order in which they held office :, 

James M. Austin, John Fulton, John Higgins, Rev. R. L. Schoonmaker (after- 
ward grand chaplain of the Grand lodge), D. M. Van Hovenberg, Edward Lansing, 
Thomas Breslin, Russell Porter, S. A. Northrup, Horace T. Stiles, William Hum- 
phreys, Marvin T. Scott, John E. Gage, John Polhamus, Henry De Freest, Emanuel 
Mead, George L. Rogers, Frank B. Barnfatber, Roland H. Stubbs, M. D., Charles 
L.i Mitchell, George E. Holroyd, William A. Dennis, John W. Ford, Samuel Snyder, 
William Roberts, Samuel Snyder, William Saxe. 

Charles H. Vanderwerker, secretary of Clinton lodge, has served in 
that office for sixteen consecutive years. During that time he has also 
been secretary of Waterford chapter. 

Waterford chapter No. 169, R. A. M., connected with Clinton lodge, 
was organized February 14, 1860. 

The most important venture in the industrial line in the village of 
Mechanicville during this period was the establishment of the American 
Liiien Thread company's plant in 1850 by a company of which Samuel 
Chase was president and Lewis E. Smith secretary, treasurer and gen- 
eral manager. Power was derived from Anthony's kill, which also 
supplied a grist mill owned by this company. A preparing mill, a saw 
mill, with sixteen acres of land and about forty-five tenement houses, 
were also owned by this company, the location of whose plant at that 
point undoubtedly did more toward the upbuilding of the village of 
Mechanicville than any other enterprise up to that period. The village 
as it stands to-day is of practically modern growth, and more extended 
reference to its industries has been left for a succeeding chapter. 

The town of Halfmoon, in which part of Mechanicville is situated, 
had excellent educational facilities in these days. Among the town 
superintendents of common schools, under the then existing laws, were: 
James B. McKean, 1844; Reuben Stewart, 1845; Nathan F. Philo, 
1846; George W. Peake, 1847-1850; Nathan F. Philo, 1851; John O.' 

MECHANICVILLE, 1831—1861. 203 

Mott, 1852; John Cassidy, 1854-1856. Beginning with June, 1856, 
supervision by assembly districts followed. The most noted school in 
Mechanicville in these days was the Mechanicville academy, which was 
founded in 1860. This institution was situated on Main street, near 
the Hudson river, and was at first surrounded by a beautiful grove. 
Lewis Smith, prominent as a manufacturer and a public spirited cit- 
izen, was the first president of the academy, Rev. Edward Noble the 
secretary, J. Wesley Ensign the treasurer, and the remaining trustees 
were Isaac Clements, B. B. Hutchins, Isaac M. Smith, Joseph Baker, 
John C. Holmes, Samuel B. Howland, E. A. Lindley, Bloom Baker 
and Robert Moon. The school enjoyed a prosperous career for many 
years. ' 

The First Baptist church of Halfmoon, at Middletown, which was 
organized about 1835, was one of the successors of the old church at 
Newtown. The latter society had ceased to exist and its house of 
worship had been torn down several years when the society at Middle- 
town was organized. Rev. Elisha D. Hubbell first served the Middle- 
town church as pastor. The house of worship was built in 1834-1835 
and dedicated in the latter year. St. Paul's Roman Catholic church of 
Mechanicville was organized in 1845, and a church edifice was erected 
in 1852. The Presbyterian church of Mechanicville sprang from the 
Congregational church of Stillwater, which worshiped in the old 
"yellow meeting-house " referred to more at length in an earlier chap- 
ter. The two societies worshiped together for many years. 

In 1852 the Crescent Methodist Episcopal church was organized by 
the election of these trustees : William Carey, John B. Schermerhorn, 
Silas H. Sweetland, Seymour Birch and Nathan F. Philo. The first 
house of worship was dedicated in the winter of 1853 by Bishop Janes. 
Until 1859 Crescent was alone as a pastoral charge, but in the latter 
year it was united to the Halfmoon circuit. In 1865 it was again made 
a distinct charge. 

The earliest secret society in Halfmoon was the Odd Fellows' lodge, 

1 Bernice D. Ames, for many years principal of the Mechanicville academy, was born at Shore- 
ham, Vt.. December 26, 1817, and died at Mechanicville, January 5, 1876. He was graduated from 
Middlebury college, Middlebury, Vt.,, when twenty-six years old. During the next three years 
he was professor of Latin and Greek in the seminaries at Fort Plain and Fort Edward, N. Y. 
During 1863 and 1864 he was principal of the Providence Conference seminary at East Greenwich, 
R. I. He became principal of the Mechanicville academy in 1868 and continued in that position 
until his death in 1876, when his widow, Sarah E. King-Ames, was elected to succeed him. She " 
remained as principal until 1889, when the academy building was burned and the career of the in- 
stitution closed. 


established at Mechanicville September 4, 1845, as Mechanicville North 
Star lodge No. 174. James Lee was the first noble grand. This lodge 
ceased to exist after a career of about ten years. A division of the 
Sons of Temperance was organized at Mechanicville about 1848. This, 
too, ceased to exist after a few years. ' 

The village of Stillwater always has been more or less noted for its 
manufactures, though these were limited in number until after the 
middle of the present century. The mills of the Schuyler family lo- 
cated at this point were of considerable importance for many years. 
After they were burned in 1817 Philip J. Schuyler built a new mill, 
part of which was used as a grist mill and part as a clothing mill. A 
new saw mill was also erected there about the same time. In 1838 
Ephraim Newland and John F. Wetsell purchased the entire Schuyler 
property at that point and continued the mills this family had owned 
for so many years. At this time Stillwater had been a place of consid- 
erable importance for several years. In 1833 a wooden bridge" had 
been erected across the Hudson, and this brought to the village a great 
deal of trade from the east side of the river, which up to that time had 
gone to Fort Edward, Schuylerville or Troy. About 1847 the local indus- 
tries were increased by the erection of a paper mill by William Mosher 
and Elihu Allen. They employed about a dozen hands, beginning 
their work by manufacturing wall paper. These were the principal 
industries of the place until after the beginning of the war of 1861-1865. 

During this period an academy was conducted for several years in 
Stillwater. This institution, known as the Stillwater academy, was 
founded about 1847, and for a while was under the care of the Regents 
of the University of the State of New York. The brick building it 
occupied stood near the Baptist church. Almon Richards was its 
principal for a long term of years. This finally became a private semi- 
nary, which declined, and the building was used for the occupancy of 
select schools until the organization of the union school system in 1873. 

The Second Baptist church of Stillwater was the only religious soci- 
ety organized during this period of three decades. The society was 
organized by members of the First Baptist church in 1836, and the first 

' In 1866 another division was organized with E. O. Rowland as W. P., Dr. F. K. Lee as W. A., 
George R. Moore as secretary, and J. Frank Terry as conductor. .The charter was surrendered 
February 25, 1869, when Union lodge No. 836, Independent Order o£ Good Templars, was organ- 
ized, with J. Frank Terry as chie£ templar. This lodge gave up its charter at the end o£ a year. 

' This bridge, with the hotel near by, was burned in 187.5. The following year an iron bridge 
was erected in its place. 

SCHUYLERVILLE, 1831—1861. 205 

house of worship, in the village of Stillwater, was dedicated February 
23, 1837, Rev. Dr. Weatch of Albany preaching the sermon.' 

Three Masonic bodies existed in Stillwater between 1791 and the 
anti-Masonic movement of 1830. Reference is made to them in an 
earlier chapter. Montgomery lodge No. 504, F. & A. M., was in- 
stituted June 37, 1860, by a dispensation from the Grand lodge. The 
charter officers were: Rev. W. J. Heath, W. M. ; P. Mosher, S. W. ; 
D. F. Wetzel, J. W. ; John A. Quackenbush, treasurer; H. H. Mont- 
gomery, secretary; John V. W. Vandenburgh, S. D. ; H. Badgley, J. 
D. ; Nathan Taylor and George K. Deming, masters of ceremonies; J. 
W. Buffington, tiler.' 

Schuylerville, like Stillwater, is and for many years has been princi- 
pally noted for its manufactures. Nearly^ perhaps quite a century and 
a half have passed since the pioneer Schuylers established their first 
mills on the site of the historic village which has since borne the name 
of that noted family. Philip Schuyler, a descendant of the original 
manufacturer, built a large mill a little further south in 1828, which, 
in 1857, was purchased by the Saratoga Victory Manufacturing com- 
pany and for many years operated as a cotton factory by this corpora- 
tion. This company established its first mills at Victory Mills in 1846, 
the original capital invested being about $425,000. The works have 
been greatly increased and improved since that year, over half a cen- 
tury since.' Lawrence's old woolen factory was another important in- 
dustry of these days. It was located in Philip Schuyler's old distillery 
building. In a part of the same building and the basement of the 
woolen factory adjoining, David B. French of Argyle, N. Y., estab- 

^ After having been used by this society for thirty-iive years, the first house of worship was 
abandoned and a new one dedicated September 3, 187.3, duringthe pastorate of Rev. Thomas Cull, 
Rev. John Peddie preached the dedicatory sermon. The pastors of the church have been: Revs. 
Isaac Westcott, from organization to January 12, 1851; M. G. Hodge, June 7, 1851, to March 25, 1854; 
A. A. Sawin, May 26, 1855, to February 1, 1856; J. I. Pulton, April 26, 1856, to March 1, 1859; J. O. 
Mason, July 31, 1859, to August 1, 1880; J. C. Stevens, November 3, 1860, to May 1, 1865: Charles J. 
Shrimpton, June'24, 1865, to October 80, 1869; Thomas Cull, November 5, 1870, to May 10, 1874; Dr. 
Thomas MacClymont, September 20, 1874, to Ov:tober 1, 1877; Dr. Isaac Westcott, supply March 2, 1878, 
to September 6, 1879; Daniel Corey, November 1, 1879, to September 26, 1881; Albert P. Brigham, 
August 27, 1882, to September 6, 1885; Edson J. Farley, April 29, 1889, to January 19, 1893; RoUand 
J. Thompson, May 1, 1893, to October 1, 1895; Harvey W. Choller, April 1, 1896, to the present time. 
In 1885 a parsonage was erected at a cost of $3,000. 

2 Montgomery chapter was instituted by a dispensation granted November 28, 1870; but the 
charter was not granted until February 8, 1871. The first oflScers of the chapter were : D. Van 
Wie, H. P.; P. Van Veghten, K.; C. S. Ensign, scribe; J. G. Lansing, treasurer ; L. Vandemark, 

3 The plant of this company is a very extensive one, employing hundreds of hands. In 1897 
its real estate holdings alone were assessed at $270,500. 


lished an iron foundry in 1833. This became one of the most impor- 
tant foundries north of Albany. ' 

The rapid and substantial development of the manufactures of Schuy- 
lerville and Victory Mills resulted in a demand for home banking 
facilities. Therefore, in 1853 William Wilcox opened a private bank 
having a capital of $50,000. Three years later it was merged into an 
organized institution known as the Bank of Old Saratoga. This con- 
cern had a capital of $100,000. William Wilcox was president and 
Giles S. Brisbin was cashier. 

Among the local organizations formed in this period was Battle 
Ground Division No. 247, Sons of Temperance, organized April 19, 
1847, numbered several prominent men among its members. George 
Strover was the first presiding officer. The other charter members 
were Walter Mott, Richard S. Sheldon, Joseph T. Smith, John A. Clapp, 
James G. Stebbins, Joseph Darby, John B. Brisbin and William Be- 
ment. This society suspended its meetings after a career of three years. 

St. Stephen's Protestant Episcopal church of Schuylerville dates 
from 1838, when Rev. Reuben Hubbard began conducting services 
from house to house. From 1844 to 1850 services were held in the 
academy building. The society was formally organized March 2, 1846, 
when these officers were chosen : Wardens, Jesse Finne and James Pick- 
ering; vestrymen, John Finne, Joseph Finne, Benjamin Losee, James 
Pickering, George N. Gates, James E. Stebbins, John R. Preston and 
Henry W. Merrill. The cornerstone of the house of worship was laid 
Tuesday, June 2, 1868, Dr. Charles H. Payne having donated the 
amount required for its construction. The stone was laid by Rev. P. 
B. Gibson, and Rev. J. Ireland Tucker of Tro}' preached the dedicatory 
sermon. The ground on which the church was erected was the gift of ' 
the Victory Manufacturing Co. The edifice was opened for worship 
Christmas day," 1868, and consecrated by Rt. Rev. William C. Doane, 
bishop of Albany, February 24, 1870. 

The Church of the Visitation (Roman Catholic) was established dur- 
ing this period. A congregation existed as early as 1850. Father 

1 Mr. French retired in 1865, being succeeded by David Craw & Co. 

2 The society was without a rector from 1850 to 1867, when Rev. George Fisher began a two 
years' pastorate. The subsequent rectors have been : Rev. John H. Babcook, who came April 
20, 18T0 ; Rev. John Walker, June 5, 1870 ; Rev. Dr. George W. Deane, October 19, 1875 ; Rev. 
H. C. E. Costello, September 18, 1880 ; Rev. George L. Neide, 1881-1884 ; Rev. H. C. Hutchings, 1884- 
1886 ; Rev. Allan B. Clark, June 37, 1886, to July 1, 1888 ; Rev. J. F. Esch, January 1, 1890, to July 1, 
1892 ; Rev. W. F. Parsons, July 1, 1892, to 1896 ; Rev. Eleutheros Jay Cooke, Dec. 1, 1896, to present 

MILTON, 1831—1861. 207 

Roach was the first resident priest the parish had. The first land was 
purchased in 1850, being two lots, from Hugh Thorp and Deborah, his 
wife, by deed, dated March 4, 1850. These lots were purchased in the 
name of Bishop McCloskey. The second two lots were purchased by 
Father Tull September 13, 1854, from Michael Kelly and wife of Schuy- 
lerville. A temporary church had been built in 1850. The parish had 
no resident priest till 1860. These lots purchased by Father Tull, were, 
on December 27, 1859, deeded to Bishop McCloskey. Father Tull re- 
mained but two years and was succeeded in 1861 by Father H. B. Fin- 
negan. He remained till his death, October 18, 1883.' 

In the town of Milton there was considerable industrial development 
during the three decades from 1831 to 1861. In 1840 Rowland & Kil- 
mer built a large paper mill at Rock City Falls, on the bank of the 
Kayaderosseras. This mill was burned in 1844, and was rebuilt the 
following year, by Kilmer & Ashmun. This firm was almost imme- 
diately succeeded by Buchanan & Kilmer, and later by Harlow, Kilmer 
& Co. Upon the death of Mr. Kilmer it was sold to George West of 
Ballston Spa. About 1846 Isaac Rowland, jr., remodeled the old grist 
mill at Rock City Falls and converted it into a paper mill. The enter- 
prise did not succeed at first and was sold soon after its establishment 
to Buchanan & Kilmer. It subsequently became the property of 
Chauncey Kilmer & Son. This was the second mill in the United 
States which entered upon the manufacture of straw print. For many 
years Samuel Haight conducted an extensive tannery at Milton Centre, 
employing about a hundred hands.' At Craneville a paper mill was 
established about 1860. It subsequently became the property of Hon. 

* The old church was burned in 1870, and all the old records were destroyed. The cornerstone 
o£ the present structure was laid in 1872 by Bishop Conroy of Albany. Father McGuire of St. 
Patrick's church of Albany delivered the sermon. In 1873 Rev. Father McNierney of Albany and 
Rev. J. J. Swift of Troy succeeded in raising $50,000 towards paying for the new edifice. Father 
Pinnegan died October 18, 1883, and was succeeded by Rev. Francis McGuire, now rector of the 
cathedral at Albany. He remained four years, namely, to 1887, when Rev. J. J. Hefternan, on 
March 4, 1887, came to the parish. 

The congregation of Notre Dame church (French Roman Catholic) was formed by seventy- 
flve or eighty families from Victory Mills, Thomson's Mills and Sohuylerville, in 1889. Many of 
them had formerly been members of the Church of the Visitation. The new congregation was 
greatly encouraged by the Victory Manufacturing Co., which donated a lot on which to erect a 
house of worship. Work upon the church was begun in the fall of 1889 and the structure was ded- 
icated by Rt. Rev. Francis McNierney, bishop of Albany, May 30, 1890. Father Peneaux was then 
the priest in charge. He has been succeeded in turn by Father Patreau, Father Vellevue and 
Father Prud'homme. 

3 This industry is now located at Ballston Spa, where it is conducted by Theodore S. Haight 
and Vassar Haight, sons of the founder of the business. Matthew Vassar, for many years a mem- 
ber of the firm, retired in 1898. 


George West. The manufacturing plants at Bloodville and Factory- 
village, in operation during this period, have been referred to in a pre- 
ceding chapter. 

March 2, 1844, a number of persons who affiliated with the Methodist 
Episcopal denomination met at Rock City Falls and organized a church 
there. March 9 the following were chosen as trustees ; Seth Whalen, 
Charles R. Lewis, Joshua Swan, James Mcintosh and Harlow Kilmer. 
A house of worship was begun in May of that year and completed in 
time for occupancy in the fall. This house of worship was the suc- 
cessor of an older one built at Swan's Corners in 1811. 

Ballston has always been an agricultural town principally, and there 
is little to be said of its history during these thirty years. In 1848 a 
paper mill was established at Burnt Hills. The employes were princi- 
pally Englishmen, most of whom were members of the Church of Eng- 
land, and soon after their arrival they organized Calvary Protestant 
Episcopal church. This society was incorporated May 7, 1849, princi- 
pally through the efforts of Rev. Edward Davis and Cady Hollister, the 
proprietor of the paper mill. The house of worship was completed in 
the summer of 1849 at an expense of $2,500, a large part of which sum 
was given by Rev. Mr. Davis, and the first service therein was held on 
Christmas day of that year. July 11, 1850, the church was consecrated 
by Rt. Rev. William R. Whittingham, bishop of Maryland. It was 
considerably enlarged and improved in 1858. The rectory, built in 
1856, was presented by the family of Mr. Davis. The first wardens of 
the parish were Daniel K. Smith and William Wheeler.' 

The Christian church at East Line was founded about 1858. The 
celebrated Rev. Josiah G. Holland preached the dedicatory sermon.' 
The society died out after an existence of about fifteen years, when the 
church was abandoned. This society originated among members of the 
Christian church at Burnt Hills, which was established about 1848. 

The tremendous water power furnished by the falls in the Hudson 
river where it passes along the northern boundary of the town of Cor- 
inth was utilized for manufacturing purposes at an early day; but, as 
has been told in earlier pages, from 1830 to 1859 the early mills built 
at that point were not operated. In the latter year Thomas Brown of 
Niagara Falls purchased the property, built a large raceway to con- 

• Rev. Edward Davis served as the rector of Calvary church until a short time before his 
death in 1863, acting as rector of the church at Charlton at the same time. 

" Mr. Holland was an editor of the Springfield, Mass., Republican at this time. He afterward 
became editor-in-chief of Scribner's Monthly, of which he was one of the founders. 

EDINBURGH, 1831—1861. 209 

duct the water to his works, and then constructed a plant for the 
manufacture of edged tools. He began to operate this plant in 1860, 
but the Civil war causing a great rise in the price of iron and labor, the 
concern was closed, and no further industrial development took place 
there until the close of the war. In 1855 Powell & Co. built a small 
tannery at South Corinth, on the Kayaderosseras creek. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Corinth was not erected until the 
summer of 1858, though a class had been formed there as early as 1830 
and meetings held in the meanwhile. In September, 1858, the church 
was dedicated. Rev. Mr. Robinson preaching the sermon. Rev. P. M. 
Hitchcock was pastor at that time. The Sunday school connected 
with the church was established in 1850. 

Corinth lodge No. 174, I. O. O. F., was chartered August 7, 1853, the 
first officers being: N. G., Darling P. Mallery; V. G., Zina Mallery; R. 
S., Luke C. Bartlett; F. S., William Ide; warden, Silas Allen; con- 
ductor, John M. Ellsworth. 

Charlton always has been essentially an agricultural town, with few 
manufactures. Among the churches of the town the Methodist Epis- 
copal society was organized about 1838. Among the pastors have 
been Rev. John H. Coleman, Rev. S. S. Ford and Rev. David T. 

Galway's principal industry being agriculture, little is to be said of 
the development of the town in the middle period. The manufactures 
have always been few and not very important. At Mosherville a 
foundry and plow shop was established about 1847. There is the usual 
complement of saw mills, grist mills and wagon shops. The Methodist 
Episcopal church at East Galway, organized in 1858 as a class by Rev. 
J. B. Wood, was an offshoot of the church at Rock City Falls. Philip 
Smith was the first class leader, and he and William Cole, F. Walter, 
W. T. Crouch, S. V. R. White, Enos Mead, John Tubbs, Peter P. 
Smith and Pardon Allen constituted the first board of trustees. The 
house of worship was erected and dedicated in 1859, the dedicatory 
sermon being delivered by Rev. Taylor Lewis of Troy. 

Three wooden ware factories located at Batchellerville were the prin- 
cipal industries established in the town of Edinburgh before the war. 
That village at one time was quite prosperous and gave promise of be- 
coming a village of considerable size and importance. In 1833 the 
place consisted of a saw mill, a grist mill and two dwellings. In that 
year Ambrose Batcheller bought the mills, and the place became known 


as Batchellerville. In 1837 Sherman and Samuel Batcheller built a 
shop for the manufacture of wooden ware. This shop was burned and 
rebuilt in 1851, and again in 1859. In 1848 a saw mill which stood on 
the site occupied by the wooden ware factory of Lucien De Golia was 
torn down and the latter establishment erected. This building was 
burned about 1888. Sherman Batcheller built another factory in 1853, 
which became the property of Mr. De Golia five years later. In 1865 
Samuel Batcheller sold his factory to Benjamin R. Jenkins, who in 
turn sold it to Noyes & Early, Mr. Jenkins removing to Conklingville. 
In 1860 Henry C. Whitney purchased of Sherman Batcheller the fac- 
tory the latter had built in 1853. In 1864 it was sold to Cyrus Sumner, 
in 1868 to George S. Batcheller, in 1869 to King, Steers & Person, and 
in 1870 to King, Snow & Co. In 1858 Levi Porter and Lucien De 
Golia began the manufacture of washboards in the old factory bought 
of Sherman and Samuel Batcheller. The dam and shop were destroyed 
by a flood in 1863. Immediately afterward Mr. De Golia built a large 
establishment a short distance farther down the stream. This was 
burned in 1876, but immediately reconstructed. All these buildings 
have since been burned. 

Malta's industries have always been small, excepting farming. Grist 
mills and saw mills have existed since the early settlement of the town, 
but little attempt at other manufactures has ever been made. The 
Presbyterian societ}' organized at Malta in 1843 was the outgrowth of 
the Presbyterian society of East Ballston, founded in 1793. The old 
Union church at Maltaville is said to have been built and dedicated in 
1806. A number of men were out working on the road, and while they 
were resting some one proposed that they build a church. Before they 
left the subject that day they had laid their plans where to build, of 
what size and style, and that they would get what oak timber they 
needed from an oak grove that stood some distanfce north and west of 
the spot where they built. There was also plenty of yellow pine in the 
place then, so that they did not lack for material of the best sort; the 
small timbers of the floor, braces, etc., were sawed at the mill close by. 
The first existing record of the church was made March 8, 1831. The 
members, differing very little in their discipline, agreed to come under 
the Presbyterian rule. They were mostly Congregationalists from New 
England and descendants of the old Dutch called Dutch Reformed. 
In 1837 Rev. Clark Lockwood became pastor. In 1842 he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Thomas Rawson of Albany. He was followed the next 

MOREAU, 1831—1861. 211 

year by Rev. Prentice W. Marsh, under whose pastorate a Presbyterian 
church at Dunning Street was built and under the control and integral 
part of this society at Malta, till, according to this record, the society 
divided February 15, 1845, and the old church took the name of the 
Congregational society of Malta. The new church was made ready for 
use previous to 1844. The house of worship, upon the disbanding of 
the Presbyterian society, was occupied for several years by the local 
Methodists. The building is now in ruins. 

In Northumberland the Methodist Episcopal church of Gansevoort 
was erected in 1839 and the Reformed church of the same place the 
year following. The Methodist Episcopal society had then been or- 
ganized for several years. The corner stone of the Reformed church 
was laid in June, 1840, and the edifice was dedicated February 4, 1841. 
Rev. John Birkley was the first pastor. 

Home lodge No. 398, F.& A. M., was organized June 38, 1856. The 
first master was Gilbert Purdy, and the other charter members were 
Robert Washburn, P. D. Esmond, H. Reynolds, M. D., Jeremiah Ter- 
hune, John Terhune, John Burke, Payne K. Burt, George W. Lincoln 
H. D. Curtiss and David DeGarmo. 

The history of the industrial development of the town of Hadley dur- 
ing this period is practically a history of the village of Conklingville. 
This village was founded in 1848 by Gurdon Conkling, who, beginning 
that year, built there a large tannery, a store, a hotel and several resi- 
dences. Twenty years before a dam and two saw mills had been built, 
but it was left for Mr. Conkling properly to develop, the resources of 
the locality. The first dam, with the mill at the south end, built in 
1831 by Isaac Barber, was carried away by a flood in 1848, when the 
new industries were at once established by Mr. Conkling. Within a 
dozen years the place had grown to considerable proportions, and sup- 
ported a variety of manufacturing industries. Gurdon Conkling's tan- 
nery, built in 1848, subsequently was operated by several different pro- 
prietors. It employed a large number of hands from the beginning, 
tanning hides which came from all parts of the world. 

The Wesleyan Methodist church of Hadley was organized in 1844, 
when Walter R. Sutliff was chosen class leader. The house of worship 
was built in 1845. 

Aside from agriculture, the industrial development of Moreau during 
this period was confined principally to the village of South Glens Falls 
and vicinity, where a number of lumber mills were established. The 


village was laid out in 1837. Folsom's cotton factory, which burned 
in 1832, for many years was an extensive plant. 

In 1843 a Methodist class was organized at South Glens Falls, but it 
was 1869 before a chapel for worship was erected. The Methodist 
Episcopal church at Fortsville was founded during this period. 

The manufacturing industries of Greenfield have never been very 
important. At Porter's Corners Asahel Porter had a distillery and tan- 
nery, which long since were burned. In 1836 John W. James built a 
dam across the Kayaderosseras creek at Jamesville (which was named 
in his honor) and erected a paper mill — the first mill built in this county 
for the manufacture of paper by machinery. He also built several 
residences for the use of his employes. About twenty years afterward 
he failed in business and returned to New York, where he previously 
had been in business. Soon afterward the mill was rebuilt, but was 
again burned, when the vacant power was purchased by West & Brown. 
A glass factory was also established in the northwestern part of the 
, town about 1850, and about it sprang up a little village named Mount 
Pleasant. This industry subsequently was removed to a point on the 
Delaware & Hudson railroad just south of Saratoga Springs, and Mount 
Pleasant was abandoned. 

Among the churches of this town, the Methodist Episcopal church of 
Greenfield Centre was built in 1840, and dedicated by Rev. Charles 
Sherman December 32 of that year. Class meetings had been held for 
many years prior to that date. In 1836 a class was formed at South 
Greenfield, and the year following a house of worship was erected, be- 
ing dedicated in August, 1837, by Rev. Noah Levings of Schenectady. 
This church ceased to exist in 1847. In 1850 the building was sold to 
a Unitarian society, which moved it to the town of Milton. The Meth- 
odist Episcopal church at Porter's Corners was formed in 1840. The 
site for a house of worship was donated by General Isaac I. Yates, and 
the structure erected in 1845. The Baptist church of Jamesville, 
which sprang from the society which worshiped in the old stone church 
at Milton, was organized April 4, 1846. The house of worship was 
built by the united society in 1839. Rev. Samuel R. Shotwell was the 
first pastor. 

In the town of Day, a tannery was built at Croweville in 1856 by 
William Fowler, who sold it three years later to Crowe & Kyne. It 
gave employment to from fifteen to twenty hands. In 1833 a woolen 
factory was built on Paul creek by John B. Yates, but it went to decay 

CLIFTON PARK, 1831—1861. 313 

nearly half a century since. Lumbering for many years was one of the 
principal industries of the town. 

Though its house of worship was not erected until 1845-1846, the 
First Christian church of Day was organized by Elder H. V. Teal 
November J 8, 1833. Rev. Elias Sloat was the first pastor. The Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch church of Day was organized by Rev. Dr. 
Andrew Yates, at Day Centre, November 14, 1842. A stone church 
was built two years later, at a cost of $3,000. Upon the completion of 
the structure the Board of Domestic Missions of the Reformed Presby- 
terian Dutch church installed Rev. J. A. Lansing as pastor." The 
Second Christian church, afterwards called the Christian church of 
West Day, was formed December 19, 1857, by Revs. Elias Sloat and 
Latham Coffin. The house of worship was commenced in 1861, but 
was not completed until December, 1865, when it was dedicated by 
Rev. W. B. H. Beach. 

Wilton being an agricultural town little is to be said of its industrial 
or commercial growth. It is worthy of note, however, that an attempt 
was made in 1859 to found a permanent academy in town. In that 
year Stephen Fradenburgh of Moreau came to Wiltonville and erected 
a building west of the village. In it he opened a school in the fall of 
1859, calling it Wilton academy. After a precarious existence of about 
two years the enterprise failed for want of financial support. 

The Loudon Protestant Methodist church of South Wilton, an offshoot 
from the Methodist Episcopal, church, built a house of worship in 1833. 
Deyoe Esmond was an early preacher. 

Clifton Park, too, is an agricultural town principally, its other indus- 
tries being unimportant. The town formerly supported an excellent 
educational institution, known as the Jonesville academy. This insti- 
tution was founded by Roscius R. Kennedy. It originated in a small 
select school opened in 1836 by Mrs. Roger King. In 1840 the school 
was removed to the premises where the academy was finally located, 
where John Oakley of New York opened it for boarding pupils. In 
that year a brick building was erected, suitable for the accommodation 
of fifty boarding pupils. In 1841, with Prof. Hiram A. Wilson' as 

' From law to 1867 the church was without a pastor. In June of the latter year it was decided 
to change the society into a purely Presbyterian one, and to join the Albany presbytery. Rev. 
David Edgar became the first pastor of the reorganized society. 

= Hiram A. Wilson, son of Abijah Wilson, was born in Winchester, Conn., December 19, 1818 ; 
graduated from Wesleyan university at Middletown, Conn., in 1888 ; sailed the same year for 
Buenos Ayres, where for two years he conducted the first missionary school in that city. He 


principal, it was formally opened as an academy. He remained in 
charge until 1860. In 1849 the academy was incorporated and passed 
under the protection of the Regents. Upon the retirement of Prof. 
Wilson these persons acted as principals: Rev. Messrs. B. M. Hall, 
Austin, Fenner, King, Brino, Kempton and Savage. The institution 
became financially embarrassed in 1870 and was compelled to give up 
its charter, and six years later closed its career. Roscius R. Kennedy, 
the founder, who became sole trustee upon its incorporation, was for 
many years the principal support of the academy. 

October 8, 1836, the M. E. Church at Rexford's Flats, in Clifton 
Park, was organized, the first officers being William Shepherd, Roscius 
R. Kennedy, Nathan D. Garnsey, Henry M. Hayner and Luther B. 
Orcutt. The house of worship, erected the following year, was ded- 
icated December 9, 1840. 

Half a dozen saw mills and grist mills and one or two tanneries com- 
prised the bulk of the industries of Providence up to the time of the 
war, aside from farming. Two churches were organized in the town 
during the period under discussion. One of these was the Protestant 
Methodist church at West Providence, which was formed in 1841-1842. 
Rev. Peter Esmond was the first pastor. The church was built about 
one and one-half miles northeast of Hagedorn's Mills.' The other 
church was the Christian church at Barkerville, an offshoot of the Gal- 
way church, and was organized May 3, 1845. The house of worship 
was built that year and dedicated in the spring of 1846, Rev. Allen 
Hay ward preaching the sermon. 

The Saratoga County Agricultural society was organized in the court 
house At Ballston Spa June 24, 1841, in accordance with a law passed 
May 15, of that year, providing for the formation of agricultural so- 
cieties in the various counties of the State. At this meeting Howell 
Gardiner of Greenfield was appointed chairman and Archibald Smith 

then returned home; May 13, 1841, married Hannah Bosworth of West Hartland, Conn., and in 
the fall of that year became principal of the Jonesville academy, remaining nearly twenty years. 
He then removed to Brattleboro, Vt., where he became superintendent of public instruction. In 
1863 he removed to Saratoga Springs, where he spent the remainder of his life. There he became 
president of the board of education and took an active part in the founding of the present public 
school system of that village. He was actively interested in the building of tlie M. E. church 
there. In the first general conference of the M. B. church which admitted lay-delegates (in 1873) 
Prof. Wilson was one of the two lay delegates representing the Troy conference. 

' After an existence of thirty years this society died out in the fall of 1871, when a Methodist 
Episcopal society was organized, and the church property passed into its hands. Henry T. Tre- 
vett and John Shanley were the first trustees, and Rev. Julius Stewart the first pastor. This so- 
ciety, too, finally died out. 


of Ballston Spa secretary. Calvin Wheeler, A. J. Chadsey, Judiah Ells- 
worth, Increase Hoyt and John A. Corey were made a committee to 
draft a constitution and by-laws. The first officers of the society, 
chosen at that meeting, were : 

President, Howell Gardiner, Greenfield; first vice-president, Calvin Wheeler, Provi- 
dence ; second vice-president, Jacob Denton, Saratoga Springs ; treasurer, Hiram E. 
Howard, Milton ; corresponding secretary, Archibald Smith, Ballston Spa ; recording 
secretary, John A. Corey, Saratoga Springs; executive committee, Isaac Curtis, 
Stephen Merchant, Ballston; John Low, Henry Ostrom, Charlton; Abijah Peck, jr., 
Henry Palmer, Clifton Park ; David Rogers, Edward Edwards, Corinth ; E. M. Day, 
Amos Hunt, Day; Samuel Batcheller, Ira Beecher, Edinburgh; Jesse H. Mead, 
Jeremiah Whitlock, Galway; Joseph Daniels, Henry Lincoln, Greenfield; Charles 
Stewart, Harmon Rockwell, Hadley; N. G. Philo, Stephen R. Smith, Halfmoon; 
John Tallmadge, ' Seneca Hall, Malta; Seth Whalen, George B. Powell, Milton; 
Thomas S. Mott, G. P. Reynolds, Moreau ; Walter Doty, Coles Golden, Northumber- 
land; William V. Clark, Seymour St. John, Providence; Henry D. Chapman, William 
Wilcox, Saratoga; P. H. Cowen, John H. Beech, Saratoga Springs; Lewis Smith, 
Yates Lansing, Stillwater; John Knickerbacker, John Cramer 3d, Waterford; John 
Morris, Duncan McGregor, Wilton. 

For the first two or three years the annual fairs of the society were 
held at Ballston Spa, when the society located at Saratoga Springs. 
The grounds and buildings thereon were sold in 1870, and in the fol- 
lowing year the society leased the grounds known as Glen Mitchell, 
where the fairs were held for many years. In 1865 the New York 
State Agricultural society held a fair at Glen Mitchell, the Saratoga 
County society giving no exhibit that year. In the fall of 1882, largely 
through the efforts of Col. F. D. Curtis of Charlton, the fair was located 
permanently at Ballston Spa, where it has since been held annually. 
The present grounds were purchased in 1890. The presidents of the 
society have been : 

1843, Howell Gardiner; 1843, Elisha Curtis; 1844, Joseph Danjels; 1845, David 
Rogers; 1846, Henry D. Chapman; 1847, Samuel Cheever; 1848^ Samuel Young; 
1849, Jesse H. Mead; 1850, Seth Whalen; 1851, Lewis E. Smith; 1854, William Wil- 
cox; 1855, Seneca Daniels ; 1856, Chauncey Boughton ; 1857, Nathaniel Mann; 1858, 
Oscar Granger; 1859, Isaac Frink; 1860, William Wilcox; 1861, Joseph Baucus; 
1863, Sherman Batcheller; 1863, Samuel J. Mott; 1864, Edward Edwards; 1865, 
Chauncey Boughton ; 1866-1867, Isaiah Fuller; 1868, Frank D. Curtis ; 1869, De Witt 
C. Hoyt; 1870, John Titcomb; 1871-1873, John P. Conkling; 1873, William Lape; 
1874, Henry C. Holmes; 1875, Joseph B. Enos; 1876, A. B. Baucus; 1877, Charles 
Lela'nd; 1878-1879, Benjamin F. Judson; 1880-1881, Seymour Gilbert; 1883-1885, 
Frank D. Curtis; 1886, George West; 1887, William J. Parkinson; 1888, William A. 
Collamer ; 1889-1895, William C. Tallmadge ; 1896, George C. Valentine ; 1897- 
Henry C. Dater. 


We have endeavored to trace, in this and preceding chapters, the 
development of various communities of the county along the various 
lines of commerce and industry, of education, of religious growth, etc., 
up to the year 1861, when the country was plunged into the horrors 
of its terrible Civil war. The hardships wrought by this war, the 
scarcity of money, the interruption of commerce and the high prices 
demanded, of necessity, for the various commodities necessary to the 
operation of manufacttiring plants, as well as to actual existence, ren- 
dered the maintenance of many industries unprofitable, and Saratoga 
county suffered as did all other sections of the country. Before pro- 
ceeding with the story of the modern development of the county, 
we shall endeavor to describe, accurately if not with eloquence, the 
part which the inhabitants of Saratoga county played in the great, 
awful drama of war from 1861 to 1865. 


Participation of Saratoga County in the War of the Rebellion— The Seventy- 
Seventh and Thirtieth Regiments of Infantry and Their Career During the War — 
Morgan H. Chrysler's Second Veteran Cavalry— The One Hundred and Fifteenth 
— Other Regiments in which Inhabitants of the County Fought — Officers of the 
Seventy-Seventh and Thirtieth, with Promotions, Discharges, Resignations and 
Deaths — Names of the Men from Saratoga County Who Fought in the War, and the 
Towns Which Furnished Them. 


In recording the history of the participation of the inhabitants of 
Saratoga county in the great Civil war, or the war of the Rebellion, it 
is unnecessary to go into the details of that tremendous crisis in our 
nation's career. All know of the causes leading up to that memorable 
struggle. After the defeat at the first battle of Bull Run, the North 
was greatly humiliated, while the South was correspondingly elated. 
The rebels had established their government, with Richmond as their 
capital and Jefferson Davis as their president. The first two calls for 
volunteers had been met promptly by the loyal States. Anticipating 
a further demand for reinforcements for the army in the field, Hon. 
James B, McKean of Saratoga Springs, then representing his congress- 


ional district (the Fifteenth, now the Twenty-second) in the House of 
Representatives, on August 21, 1861, issued a circular letter to his 
constituents. It was also published in the Daily Saratogian, of Sara- 
toga Springs, and afterward reprinted in many other papers through- 
out Saratoga and adjoining counties. The letter read as follows : 

Fellow Citizens of the Fifteenth Congressional District: 

Traitors in arms seek to overthrow our constitution and to seize our capitol. 
Let us go and help to defend them. Who will despond because we lost the battle of 
Bull Run? Our fathers lost the battle at Bunker Hill, but it taught them how to gain 
the victory at Bemus Heights. 

Let us learn wisdom from disaster, and send overwhelming numbers into the field. 
Let farmers, mechanics, merchants, and all classes — for the liberties of all are at 
stake — aid in organizing companies. 

I will cheerfully assist in procuring the necessary papers. Do not misunderstand 
me. I am not asking for an office at your hands. If you who have most at stake 
will go, I will willingly go with you as a private soldier. 

Let us organize a Bemus Heights Battalion, and vie with each other in serving 
our country, thus showing we are inspirited by the holy memories of the Revolution - 
ary battle fields upon and near which we are living. 

Jas. B. McKean. 
Saratoga Springs, Aug, 21, 1861. 

The effect of this call to arms was electrical. The response was in- 
stantaneous and general, not only throughout every town in Sar3,toga 
county, but from adjoining counties. Recruiting stations were opened 
.in many places. Everywhei^e enthusiasm abounded. From the office 
of the adjutant general at Albany orders were issued establishing a 
branch depot and recruiting station at Saratoga Springs, and directing 
that all companies being organized for the new regiment should ren- 
dezvous there preparatory to being mustered into the service of the 
United States government. The county fair grounds east of the vil- 
lage were selected as a camping ground and soon put in readiness for 
the new troops. The place was named Camp Schuyler, in honor of the 
gallant General Philip Schuyler of Revolutionary fame. So general 
and so rapid was thie response to the call of Mr. McKean, that by Octo- 
ber 1 over six hundred men, divided into seven companies, had enlisted 
and encamped at this rendezvous. These companies_^elected officers as 
follows : 

Saratoga Springs company.— Captain, Benjamin F. Judson; first lieutenant. L. M. 
Ballston Spa company. — Captain, C. C. Hill ; first lieutenant, N. P. Hammond. 
Wilton company. — Captain, Winsor B. French; first lieutenant, John Carr. 


Northumberland company — Captain, Calvin Rice ; first lieutenant, James Terhune. 
Greenfield company. —Captain, Lewis "Wood; first lieutenant, William B. Carpenter. 
Charlton company.— Captain, A. F. Beach ; first lieutenant, N. H. Brown. 
Westport company — Captain, R. W. Arnold ; first lieutenant, William Douglas. 

After October 1 the following companies entered camp : The Water- 
ford company, in command of Jesse White ; the Stillwater and Half- 
moon company, in command of John C. Green; the Clifton Park com- 
pany, in command of J. B. Andrews; the Edinburgh and Providence 
company, in command of John J. Cameron; the Keeseville company, 
in command of Wendell Lansing; the Greenwich company, in com- 
mand of Henry R. Stone, and the Gloversville company, in command 
of N. S. Babcock. 

Several of these little commands not being full organizations, the 
companies from Waterford, Stillwater, Halfmoon, Clifton Park, Edin- 
burgh and Providence were soon afterward consolidated into one com- 
pany, which elected J. B. Andrews captain, Jesse White first lieutenant 
and John J. Cameron second lieutenant, John C. Green of Mechanic- 
ville having been compelled to return home on account of ill health. 
The companies from Keeseville and Greenwich also consolidated, choos- 
ing Wendell Lansing captain and Jacob F. Haywood, first lieutenant. 
Gloversville sent a complete company. Soon after going into camp 
the officers secured quarters at Congress Hall, where they studied mil- 
itary tactics and received instructions in the manual of arms, sword 
practice and army regulations, until the regiment was ready to go 
south. Every day recruits were added to the ranks, and the company 
orgianizations were finally completed. 

Several changes in officers were made. Winsor B. French, who had 
entered camp as captain of the Wilton company, holding the rank of 
fourth captain, resigned at the request of Colonel McKean and be- 
came adjutant on the latter's staff, with the rank of first lieutenant. 
On account of age and ill health Wendell Lansing resigned as captain of 
the company recruited from Keeseville and Greenwich, and Frank Nor- 
ton of Greenwich was chosen to succeed him. James Terhune, first 
lieutenant of the Northumberland company, resigned and was succeeded 
by George S. Orr. Each company by this time having full ranks, the 
organization was completed and the captains drew by lot their places in 
line, as follows: 

Company A.— Captain, Read W. Arnold; first lieutenant, William Douglas; sec- 
ond lieutenant, James H. Farnsworth ; all of Westport, Essex county. 


Company B.— Captain, Clement C. Hill; first lieutenant, Noble P. Hammond; 
second lieutenant, Stephen S. Horton ; all of Ballston Spa. 

Company C. — Captain, Benjamin F. Judson; first lieutenant, Luther M. Wheeler; 
second lieutenant, John Patterson ; ail of Saratoga Springs. 

Company D. — Captain, John Carr ; adjutant and first lieutenant, Winsor B. French ; 
second lieutenant, Chester H. Fodow; all of Wilton. 

Company E. — Captain, Lewis Wood, Greenfield ; first lieutenant, William B. Car- 
penter, Providence ; second lieutenant, Halsey Bowe, Saratoga. 

Company F. — Captain, Judson B. Andrews, Mechanicville ; -first lieutenant, Jesse 
White, Waterford ; second lieutenant, John J. Cameron, Saratoga. 

Company G. — Captain, Calvin Rice, Northumberland ; first lieutenant, George S. 
Orr, Gansevoort ; second lieutenant and quartermaster, Lucius E. Shurtleff, Galway. 

Company H. — Captain, Albert F. Beach, Ctiarlton ; first lieutenant, N. HoUister 
Brown, Charlton ; second lieutenant, George D. Storey, Malta. 

Company I. — Captain, Franklin Norton, Greenwich; first lieutenant, Jacob F. 
Haywood, Keeseville ; second lieutenant, Martin Lennon, Keeseville. 

Company K. — Captain, Nathan S, Babcock ; first lieutenant, John W. McGregor ; 
second lieutenant. Philander A. Cobb; all of Gloversville. 

The following field and staff officers were then appointed : 

Colonel, James B. McKean, Saratoga Springs ; lieutenant colonol, Joseph C. Hen- 
derson, Albany; major, Selden Hetzel, Albany; surgeon, John L. Perry, M. D. , 
Saratoga Springs; assistant surgeon, George T. Stevens, M. D., Westport; chaplain, 
David Tully, Ballston Spa; adjutant, Winsor B. French, Wilton ; quartermaster, 
Lucius E. Shurtleff, Galway. 

These officers were all duly commissioned by Governor E. P. Mor- 
gan and, with the enlisted men, on November 23, 1861, mustered into 
the service of the United States for the whole period of the w,ar. Five 
dayp later the regiment, which had been given the number of seventy- 
seven," marched out of camp and started on the journey to Washington. 
On account of sickness and absence on furloughs a few men in each 
company were not able to leave with the regiment. First Lieutenant 
Noble P. Hammond of Company B was left at Camp Schuyler and a 
few days later left for the front in charge of those whose departure had 
been delayed by these circumstances. 

The Seventy Seventh Regiment proceeded to Albany over the line 
of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad, passing, through Ballston Spa, 

1 The Seventy-seventh Regiment was also popularly known as "the Bemus Heights battalion," 
a name which had been given to it while in process of organization by James B. McKean. The 
numerical strength of the regiment when fiuUy organized at Camp Schuyler was as follows : 
Total strength, eight hundred and sixty-four men, divided as follows : Field and staff, eight ; 
Company A, eighty-seven ; Company B, ninety-four ; Company C, eighty-one ; Company D, 
eighty-three; Company E, eighty-three; Company F, eighty-five; Company G, eighty-eight: 
Company H, eighty-three ; Company I, eighty-two ; Company K, ninety. These figures include 
the oiHcers, three to each company. 


Mechanicville and Waterford. All along the route of travel the regi- 
ment received a continued ovation. At Albany the journey was con- 
tinued to New York by boat down the Hudson river. In the metrop- 
olis a number of people who formerly resided in Saratoga county 
banqueted the soldiers, and presented to the regiment a handsome 
banner and guidons. One side of the banner contained a representa- 
tion of an engagement in which soldiers of the Revolution, led by 
Washington, were fighting under the old flag with thirteen stripes and 
the Union Jack. On the other side was pictured Burgoyne's surrender 
under the new flag, the Stars and Stripes, which was first unfurled in 
battle at Bemus Heights. 

December 1, 1861, the Seventy-seventh Regiment arrived at the na- 
tional capital and went into camp at Meridian Hill, about two miles 
north of the city. Here it remained until February 15, 1862, when it 
crossed the Potomac and joined the Third Brigade of the Second Divi- 
sion, at Camp Griffin. The regiment remained a part of this brigade 
and division until the close of the war. This brigade also included the 
Thirty-third and Forty-ninth New York and the Seventh Maine Regi- 
ments, and was in command of General Davidson. The division was in 
command of General William Farrar Smith, popularly known as " Old 
Baldy." From here, on March 8, the division proceeded to Manassas. 
No enemy being found there, it was decided to proceed by way of 
Fortress Monroe and the Peninsula against Richmond. Moving down 
the river, the Seventy-seventh debarked at Hampton, a small village 
west of the fort. On the 26th of the month a reconnaissance in force 
was ordered,' but there was no engagement with the enemy until April 
4. On that day the Confederates were found entrenched at Lee's Mills, 
about three miles west of Yorktown, their earthwork extending across 
the peninsula, about seven miles. In the first skirmish Private Frank 
Jeffords of Company C was killed, the first death in battle in the Sev- 
enty-seventh Regiment. The regiment remained in this locality about 

* Dr. George T. Stevens of Westport, who was assistant surgeon on Colonel McKean's staff, 
writing at the close of the war of the movements of the regiment, said: " In this advance or re- 
connaissance of the whole army the qualities of the indi vidual soldiers composing it were brought 
out in bold relief. During the months we had been in winter quarters many officers and men 
had established marvelous reputations for bravery and hardihood, merely by constantly herald- 
ing their own heroism. But from this time these doughty heroes went back. Officers suddenly 
found cause for resigning, and enlisted men managed to get sent to the rear, and never showed 
their faces at the front again. On the contrary, sonie who were really invalids insisted on drag- 
ging themselves along the column, fearful that an engagement might take place in which they 
would not participate. A sifting process was thus commenced throughout the whole division, 
and, to its honor, the poltroons were very soon sifted out; and from that time forth Smith's 
Division never afforded a comfortable resting place for men of doubtful courage." 


a month, and during this time many deaths from fever occurred. May 
3 and 4 the enemy retreated to Williamsburgh, whither the Union 
forces followed them, engaged them in a long and severe battle, and 
drove them from the field. During this fight, however, the Seventy- 
seventh was not called into action. 

May 15 the army advanced to White House, on the Pamunkey river, 
where part of it was reorganized, the Second Division becoming apart 
of the Sixth Corps of the Army of the Potomac. May 23 the regiment 
reached Mechanicsville, a small village within sight of Richmond. This 
place was defended by the Seventh and Eighth Georgia Regiments and 
a battery. The latter opened fire, which was quickly returned. Soon 
Colonel McKean was ordered to charge the village with his regiment. 
As soon as the order was given the men of the Seventy-seventh rushed 
forward with a yell, charging furiously and noisily down the little hill. 
The rebel infantry, well nigh paralyzed by the onslaught, fired one 
volley and fled precipitately, as did the rebel battery.' 

Until June 5 our army remained in this vicinity, principally in the 
captured village. June 5 it was ordered to Golden's Farm, on the south 
bank of the Chickahominy. Then did the regiment realize that it 
would not then, at least, participate in the advance upon Richmond. 
For about three weeks the regiment lay at this point, little of moment 
occurring until Colonel McKean, broken down by illness, was obliged 
to leave the regiment. Other officers and a large number of enlisted 
men also fell victims to swamp fevers and other great hardships, and 
the ranks of the Seventy-seventh were greatly depleted. 

In the lull that followed the battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, May 
31 and June 1, in which McClellan succeeded in driving the Confeder- 
ates back, though he did not achieve a decisive victory, he formed the 
design of changing his base of supplies from the White House, on the 
Pamunkey, to some suitable point on the James river. The movement 
was one of the utmost hazard, and before it was fairly begun General 
Robert E. Lee, who on June 3 had succeeded General Joseph E. John- 
ston as commander-in-chief of the Confederate army, the latter having 
been severely wounded in the battle of Fair Oaks, on June 35 swooped 
down on the right wing of the Union army at Oak Grove, and a hard- 
fought battle ensued without decisive results. . On the next day an- 
other desperate engagement occurred at Mechanicsville, and this time 

■ This engagement was a part of the general movement of the Army of the Potomac against 
the rebel capital. 


the northern forces won the field. The result of this great fight was 
heralded as a great victory for the Union army, and the joy of the 
victorious forces knew no bounds. Everybody believed that the cap- 
ture of Richmond was but a matter of a few hours — that the onward 
march of the victors would be irresistible. 

But the hope was not fulfilled. On the following morning the brave 
Confederate leader renewed the struggle at Gaines's Mill, winning a 
victory. On the 28th there was but little fighting. Meantime the 
Seventy-seventh had been told to prepare quietly to retreat on a moment's 
notice, preparing the way by destroying all but the necessities and the 
most valuable effects of the soldiers, and leaving the tents standing. 

About three o'clock on the morning of Sunday, June 29, the entire 
Second Division quietly marched to Savage's Station, where on that 
day they assisted in the repulse of the rebel forces. All that night 
they marched toward White Oak Swamp, which was reached at day- 
break of the 30th. After a brief respite the rebels opened a terrific 
artillery fire upon the division, throwing it into the utmost confusion. 
Before its batteries could return the fire with any appreciable effect, 
the horses were killed and most of the cannon rendered useless. The 
whole division was thrown into a panic, and at once retreated, led by 
the Seventy-seventh Regiment. This battle is known as that of Frazier's 
Farm or Glendale. 

On that night the Second Division, with the rest of the army, reached 
Malvern Hill, just south of the great White Oak Swamp, on the north 
bank of the James, twelve miles below Richmond. Although this posi- 
tion was protected by the Federal gunboats in the river, General Lee 
determined to carry the place by storm. Accordingly, on the morning 
of July 1 the whole Confederate army rushed forward to the assault. 
The Sixth Corps held the right of line, and was not actually engaged. 
All day long the furious struggle for the possession of the high grounds 
continued. Not until nine o'clock at night did Lee's shattered columns 
fall back exhausted. For seven days the terrific din of battle had been 
heard almost without cessation. No such dreadful scenes had ever be- 
fore been enacted on the American continent ! 

This practically ended the campaign. The Federal army had lost 
more than 15,000 men, and the Confederate losses had been still heavier. 
The capture of Richmond, the great object for which the expedition 
had been undertaken, seemed further off than ever, and all the moral 
effect of a great victory remained with the exultant South. July 2, the 


day following the battle of Malvern Hill, General McClellan retired 
with his army to Harrison's Landing, a few miles down the river. 

The Seventy- seventh Regiment had suffered terribly from battle and 
the ravages of disease. It went to the Peninsula with nearly a thou- 
sand men, but by the middle of June but a quarter of that number 
were in condition for active service. Many had been killed in battle, 
others had died of fever, and others lay desperately ill or wounded. 
Yet the losses in battle had been the least considerable, though the 
regiment had always been in close proximity to the enemy. Colonel 
McKean, stricken with typhoid fever, had been removed to Washington 
and thence to his home at Saratoga Springs, to the profound regret of 
himself and the officers and men of his regiment.' Sooii after a de- 
plorable accident occurred. Second Lieutenant Halsey Bowe of Com- 
pany D, one of the most popular young men in the regiment, had 
returned to the camp July 18, after an absence of several weeks, fully 
restored to health. The following day, while in a tent conversing with 
several other officers, he was fatally wounded by an accidental shot 
from a pistol. He died in Philadelphia August 16. 

Besides the forced retirement of Colonel McKean, several other 
changes occurred among the officers of the regiment about this time. 
Among them Lieut. -Col. Joseph C. Henderson resigned June 19, and 
Quatermaster Lucius Shurtleff resigned June 21. Maj. Selden Hetzel 
had been dismissed by order of the secretary of war. May 15. Surgeon 
John L. Perry had resigned, February 1. Chaplain David Tully 
resigned July 8." Winsor B. French of Wilton, who had entered the 
regiment as captain of the Wilton company, but who, at the solicitation 
of Colonel McKean, had resigned to become adjutant on his staff, with 
the rank of lieutenant, was promoted to major June 1 and to lieutenant- 
colonel July 18. 

August 16 the regiment left Harrison's Landing and proceeded to 
Hampton, near Fortress Monroe, where transports were waiting to 
carry the Sixth Corps to Alexandria, where it arrived August 23. Its 
next engagement was in the battle of Crampton Pass, following which 
it participated in the battle of Antietam. Lee's invasion of Maryland 

1 When Colonel MoKean tendered his resignation, Secretary Stanton, instead of accepting it, 
granted him an indefinite leave of absence, and advised him to go to his home at Saratoga 
Springs and try to regain his health. He did so, but his health did not soon return. So ill was he 
that for six years he was unable to practice his profession. In July, 1863, while confined to his 
bed, he again tendered his resignation, which was finally accepted. 

2 Several other less important changes are noted in succeeding pages in this chapter. 


was being pushed with all the haste possible. In the Confederate gen- 
eral's rear was McClellan's whole army. On the night of September 
14 Lee fell back to Antietam creek and took a strong position in the 
vicinity of Sharpsburg. On the morning of the 15th there was some 
sharp but desultory fighting between the Union and Confederate 
cavalry. During the afternoon the Federal advance, coming in on the 
Sharpsburg road from Keedysville, received the opening salutes from 
the Confederate guns on the Antietam. But nightfall came without a 
serious conflict. On the following morning there was great activity of 
preparation in both armies. Later in the day General Hooker's corps, 
on the Union right, was thrown across the stream which separated the 
combatants and brought into a favorable position for action. In this 
quarter of the field the Confederate left under General Hood was 
assaulted and driven back a half mile in the direction of Sharpsburg. 
The rest of the day an irregular cannonading was continued. During 
the night General Mansfield's corps crossed the Antietam on the north 
bridge and joined General Hooker. 

On the morning of September 17 both commanders had their armies 
well into position, the Union forces being strongest in number and the 
rebels having the advantage of an unfordable stream in their front. It 
was of the first importance that General McClellan should gain and 
hold the four stone bridges by which only his forces could be thrown to 
the other side. General Burnside, who was ordered to take the lower 
bridge, cross over, and attack the division of A. P. Hill, encountered 
unexpected delays and was greatly retarded in his movements. On the 
right Hooker renewed the battle at sunrise, and until late in the after- 
noon the conflict raged with almost unabated fury. 

In this engagement Captain Babcock of Company K was in command 
of the Seventy-seventh. The regiment rushed forward and received 
the fire bravely, and though far ahead of all other regiments, it stood 
its ground and steadily returned the fire. Volley after volley cut down 
the soldiers, still they never wavered in their unprotected position until 
ordered to do so by General Smith. When it formed again it had 
thirty-three men killed or wounded. But the advent of the corps to 
which it belonged had decided the contest upon the right of the line, 
and after the first charge of the Third Brigade the battle lulled. Be- 
fore the next day General Lee withdrew his shattered forces from their 
position and recrossed the Potomac into Virginia. This conflict cost 
each army more than ten thousand men, but was indecisive in its 


Before the army left Harrison's Landing Major French and Lieutenant 
Caw were sent to Saratoga Springs to recruit for the Seventy-seventh. 
Soon after their arrival a war meeting was held, and a large number 
of men enlisted. In October, 1862, these officers, with the new recruits, 
rejoined the regiment, when the former, now Lieutenant-Colonel 
French, took command of the regiment and reorganized it. Companies 
F and K were consolidated, the latter was replaced by the new com- 
pany from Schuylerville, and the remainder of the new recruits were 
assigned to Companies D and L Soon after the first battle of Fred- 
ericksburg occurred, but the regiment, being held in reserve, met with 
no losses. It soon after went into winter quarters at White Oak Church, 
where it remained until spring. 

On the second day of May, 1863, the Army of the Potomac once more 
crossed the Rappahannock and the valiant Sixth Corps was ordered to 
carry the heights of Fredericksburg by storm. The Seventy-seventh 
Regiment led the Third Brigade as a skirmish line, crossed the plain 
at double-quick and in perfect line, under command of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel French. Inspired by the coolness and bravery of the latter officer, 
the men acted as if they were simply manoeuvering for practice, with 
no thought of an enemy. In the face of an awful hail of musketry, 
grape and canister the brave fellows charged onward. Men fell every 
instant, but others sprang into their places and with cheers continued 
to lead the assault, their bayonets fixed determinedly. Their rush was 
splendid, irresistible, and the rebels retreated in confusion. The Sev- 
enty-seventh, unwavering in its advance, was the first to reach the 
summit of Marye's Hill, where it captured two heavy guns, great num- 
bers of small arms, a stand of colors belonging to the Eighteenth Missis ■ 
sippi Regiment, and a large number of prisoners, among whom was Colo- 
nel Luce, commander of the latter regiment. The Seventy-seventh lost 
heavily, but it covered itself with glory in making one of the most 
brilliant and successful charges of the war. Among those killed was 
Captain Luther M. Wheeler of Company I, who fell at the foot of 
Marye's Hill. 

The following day the fight was resumed and the Sixth Corps was 
compelled to fight Lee's entire army; but again the Seventy-seventh 
Regiment held the left front of the line and maintained its position as 
firmly as a stone wall. A few days afterward the regiment, with the 
rest of the army, went into camp near White Oak Church, where it 
remained until ordered to pursue Lee into Pennsylvania. In the march 



to Manchester, Pa. , they forced their way over a hundred miles in 
four days, and then, almost exhausted, they were compelled to proceed 
at once to the relief of General Reynolds at Gettysburg. All night 
and all day they picked their way through fields, over fences and ra- 
vines, up hill and down, marching thirty-six miles in fourteen hours 
with almost no food or drink. This corps was not called into actual 
action in this terrible battle of the first three days of July, but was held 
in reserve until Lee's shattered legions began their retreat, when it 
followed the rebel forces over the mountains to Waynesboro. 

The remainder of the summer and the fall were passed in compara- 
tive quiet by the Seventy-seventh, which proceeded by easy stages to 
the Rapidan. While encamped for three weeks at Stone House Moun- 
tain the line officers of the regiment presented to Colonel French a 
handsome sword, following which were festivities of a most pleasing 

Winter was now coming on. On December 1 the short campaign of 
Mine Run began, followed by the return to camp at Brandy Station. 
Here the Seventy-seventh held the extreme right front in the attack, 
and when the army retreated across the Rapidan it acted as rear guard 
to the entire corps. 

May 4, 1864, the regiment broke camp at Brandy Station and marched 
across the Rapidan, participating actively the following day in the first 
of the great battles of the Wilderness. On the 8th they reached Spott- 
sylvania, and two days later took part in one of the most terrific and 
bloody charges of the war. The Seventy-seventh, and eleven other 
picked regimentSj were placed under command of Colonel Upton, who 
led them in a charge against the right centre of the Confederate line. 
It was desperate work, and the rebels would not retreat until forced to 
do so at the point of the bayonet, in a hand-to-hand fight; but the first 
intrenchment, then the second, and finally the third were captured and 
the rebels driven from their rifle-pits. The fire of the enemy was ter- 
rible and did great havoc, but not a man faltered for an instant. The 
enthusiasm in the face of such deadly peril was tremendous. The Union 
ranks were frightfully reduced, however, among those killed being 
Captain William B. Carpenter of Company D, and Second Lieutenant 
William F. Lyon of the same company.' 

May 11 occurred the fight in the " bloody angle," when the regiment 

' Lieutenant Lyon was officially reported as missing, but is believed to have been killed in 
tbis action. 


fought hand to hand with the enemy. In all the awful "battles of the 
Wilderness " the regiment participated, generally standing the first 
shock of battle, and likewise sustaining severe losses. This experience 
was repeated at Petersburg on June 10, when the ranks of the regiment 
were still further thinned out. 

On July 9 the First and Second Divisions of the Sixth Corps started 
for the defense pi Washington against the threatened attack under 
direction of General Early. On this day the Seventy-seventh Reg- 
iment left the Army of the Potomac forever. It arrived at the national 
capital July 13, where it received a perfect ovation from the inhab- 
itants, who had been fearful of being compelled to flee from the city. 

General Early had stationed his forces in front of Fort Stevens, and 
Colonel French was ordered to take the Seventy-seventh New York, 
the Forty-ninth New York and the Seventh Maine Regiments and dis- 
lodge the daring rebel commander. Colonel French's command made 
a brilliant charge, which was witnessed by President Lincoln and other 
prominent officials who were in the fort, putting the rebels to flight. 
Still the latter made a stout, though brief, resistance, firing as they re- 
treated and doing great damage to the pursuing brigade. 

The " campaign in the valley," which virtually ended the war, gave 
the noble Seventy-seventh Regiment one more opportunity to add to the 
many laurels it already had won. After helping to drive Early from 
before Washington the regiment, with the Sixth Corps, was assigned 
to the Army of the Shenandoah, which had been placed in command 
of the valiant Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, succeeding General Wright. 
Its first engagement, as a part of this army, was the battle of Win- 
chester. The troops placed at Sheridan's disposal numbered nearly 
40,000, and with these he at once moved up the valley. On Septem- 
ber 19 he came upon Early's army at Winchester, attacked and routed 
him in a hard-fought battle. In this fight the Seventy-seventh again 
met with heavy losses. After Winchester, Early retreated to Stras- 
burg, where he occupied a very strong position; but Sheridan, un- 
daunted, assailed his position and once more routed the daring rebel 

On October 19 the regiment took part in the famous battle of Cedar 
Creek, "with Sheridan twenty miles away." At a point when the vic- 
torious rebel column were driving the disorganized fragments of the 
Eighth and Nineteenth Corps through the ranks of the Sixth corps, the 
latter band of veterans, " the wearers of the Greek Cross, whose fame 


was already among the choicest treasures of American history, was to 
show to the country and the world an exhibition of valor which should 
tower above all the grand achievements of the war. The corps, num- 
bering less than 12,000 men, now confronted Early's whole army of 
more than thirty thousand men, who, flushed with victory, already 
bringing to bear against us the twenty-one guns which they had just 
captured from the two broken corps, rushed upon our lines with those 
wild, exultant yells, the terror of which can never be conceived by those 
who have not heard them in the field. With fearless impetuosity the 
rebel army moved up the gentle rise of ground in front of the Sixth 
corps, and the attack from one end of the line to the other was simul- 
taneous. It was like the clash of steel to steel. The astonished col- 
umns were checked. They had found an immovable obstacle to their 
march to victory.'" 

The greatest shock of the attack fell upon the Second Division. Bid- 
well's Brigade made a desperate charge, and the rebels fled in confusion 
down the hill which they had just ascended with such confidence. But 
our men were driven back by a fearful fire from the rebel artillery. In 
the engagement many lives were lost. General Bidwell fell while per- 
sonally directing the charge. Captain Martin Lennon of Company I 
fell mortally wounded." First Lieutenant William J. Taber of Com- 
pany K and First Lieutenant John W. Belding of Company I were 
killed while making the charge. 

The wounding- of General Bidwell, who was horribly torn by a burst- 
ing shell, left Colonel Winsor B. French of the Seventy-seventh in 
command of the brigade. Under hig directions the broken line was 
once more quickly formed as the rebels advanced again up the hill with 
their hideous yell. Once more the brigade stood firm as a rock ; then 
came the counter-charge, which once more drove the rebels back in 
disorder, down the hill and across the creek. The field was now cov- 
ered with the dead and wounded of both armies. 

But the Confederates had gained a distinct advantage, and the Union 
forces felt they were losing ground, despite their desperate fighting. 
The latter retired and the rebels pursued them as far as Middletown, 
two miles in the rear, and there, believing the victory complete, paused 
to eat and rest. This was Early's fatal error. 

After Sheridan had posted his army on Cedar Creek he felt secure, 

' Dr. George T. Stevens's account. 
' Captain Lennon died from his wounds November 1, 1864. 


at least temporarily, and rode to Washington on important business. 
In the meantime Early had surprised the Union camp and, as described 
in the foregoing, sent the routed troops flying in confusion toward 
Winchester, as far as Middletown. On the previous night the gallant 
Sheridan had returned to Winchester, and was now coming to rejoin 
his army. On his way he heard the sound of battle, rode his magnifi- 
cent horse twelve miles at full speed under the spurs, and met the 
panic-stricken fugitives not a moment too soon. His approach was 
hailed with the wildest cheers and other manifestations of delight on 
the part of the well-nigh discouraged Northern troops. As he came 
onward at a wild gallop and passed the long trains of ambulances in 
which lay hundreds of his beloved troops, with shattered limbs or 
mangled bodies, they rose and cheered their commander with the wild- 
est enthusiasm. 

Reorganizing the line, another advance upon the astonished rebels 
was ordered, the Second Division being ordered to proceed slowly. 
Colonel French, in command of the Third Brigade, which was sub- 
jected to galling fire, with heavy loss of life,' said to General Getty, " I 
cannot take my brigade over that field slowly." " Then go quickly," 
responded General Getty. With a rush and prolonged cheer the men 
crossed over the field and drove the rebels from their strong position. 
Soon the Confederate line was put to rout, the Sixth Corps pursuing it 
through the valley in one of the wildest races ever beheld in any battle. 
For three miles they chased the panic-stricken rebels, capturing hun- 
dreds of prisoners and many batteries without stopping to reload their 
guns. This ended the battle and the participation of the gallant Sev- 
enty-seventh Regiment in the war. 

Soon after this the regiment was ordered to Saratoga Springs, where 
it arrived November 33, 1864, after three years of hard fighting. It 
was received with a remarkable demonstration on the part of a large 
concourse of people from all parts of Saratoga and surrounding coun- 
ties. But the regiment was a regiment in name only. Of the thirteen 
hundred and sixty-nine men who, three years before, had left for the 
front amid huzzas of the assembled multitude, but fourteen officers 
and one hundred and five men had returned ! 

iln this charge the color-sergeant of the Seventy-seventh Regiment fell dead. Another ser- 
geant who seized the flag also fell. Adjutant Gilbert F. Thomas, a handsome and brave young 
officer, seized the fallen flag, shouted, '■' Forward, ^iien! " and instantly fell, pierced by a buUet. 
Thomas was promoted to a corporal in Company C January 6, 1863, and to second lieutenant May 
1, 1863. 


These survivors of this awful struggle were escorted to the public 
hall where they were welcomed by the president of the village, John S. 
Lake, on behalf of the citizens of Saratoga Springs. After a prayer 
by David TuUy, the first chaplain of the regiment, an address of wel- 
come was delivered by Colonel James B. McKean,' to which Colonel 
French responded. Dr. Luther F. Beecher read a poem of welcome 
which had been composed by Mrs. M. C. Beecher. In the evening the 
returned heroes were banqueted at the American hotel, when speeches 
were made by Hon. C. S. Lester, Hon. James M. Marvin, Hon. A. 
Pond, Hon. James M. Cook, William A. Sackett, W. M. Potter, officers 
and soldiers of the regiment aud others. 

December 13, 1864, the regiment was mustered out of the service of 
the United States; but the war not yet having terminated, many of the 
men who had enlisted during the previous winter re enlisted and, with 
the recruits added to the regiment in 1862 and subsequently, were or- 
ganized into a battalion under Captain David J. Caw and remained at 
the front until the close of the war. December 9, 1864,- this battalion, 
with the Sixth corps, returned to Petersburg. While engaged in that 
vicinity March 25, 1865, several men were killed, including Captain 
Sumner Oakley and First Lieutenant Stephen H. Pierce. In the final 
charge at Fort Fisher April 2, the battalion and the Forty-ninth New 
York led the way, helping to capture thousands of prisoners, many 
stands of colors and many guns. Following this came the fight at 
Sailor's Creek, and finally the surrender of the Army of Virginia, which 
closed the war. The battalion soon afterward returned to Albany, 
where it was mustered out June 27, 1865. The one thousand three 
hundred and sixty-nine members of the regiment were reported as fol- 
lows when the mustering out occurred, December 13, 1864: 

> James B. McKean was born at Hoosick, Rensselaer county, N. Y., August 5, 1831, a son of 
Rev. Andrew McKean and Catharine Bedell. Subsequently the family removed to the town o£ 
Saratoga, thence to Halfmoon. While here he taught in the Jonesville academy and other 
local schools. When twenty-three years of age he was elected colonel of the One Hundred and 
Forty-fourth Regiment of the New York State militia, receiving his commission from Gover- 
nor Silas Wright. In June, 1847, he began the study of law with BuUard & Cramer, at Water- 
ford ; was admitted to the bar March 5, 1849, and opened an office at Ballston Spa. June 20, 
1850, he married Katharine Hay, daughter of Judge William Hay, and the following year re- 
moved to Saratoga Springs. Prom 1855 to 1858, inclusive, he was judge of Saratoga county, hav- 
ing been elected on the first Republican ticket ever nominated in the county, probably in the 
State. In 1865 President Lincoln sent him to Spanish-America to exchange, the ratifications of 
a treaty with Honduras. In 1870 President Grant appointed him chief justice of the Supreme 
Court of Utah Territory, in which office he served five years, subsequently engaging in the 
practice of his profession in Salt Lake City. 


Mustered out with the regiment 105 

Transferred to battalion and left in field (veterans) 151 

Transferred to battalion and left in field (recruits) 364 

Killed in action 83 

Died of wounds received in action 40 

Died of disease 140 

Missing in action, most of whom supposed to be dead. 25 

Died in rebel prisons 30 

Deserted 61 

Discharged on account of disability.. ^ 300 

Discharged on account of wounds received in action 56 

Promoted to commissioned officers 24 

Total - 1,369 


The Thirtieth Regiment, New York State Volunteers, ranked second 
to none in faithfulness of service and valorous deeds in time of war. 
It was composed of Company A, recruited at Lansingburgh ; Company 
B of Troy, Company C of Schenectady, Company D of Saratoga, 
Company E of Poughkeepsie, Company F of Saratoga, Company G of 
Saratoga county, Company H of Hoosick, Company I of Troy and 
Company K of Valatie and Kinderhook. The regiment was organized 
by the election of Edward Frisby of Albany as colonel, Charles E. 
Brintnall of Troy as lieutenant-colonel, and William M. Searing of 
Saratoga Springs as major. The other officers were : Richard C. Bent- 
ley of Albany, adjutant; Charles E. Russ of Albany, quartermaster; 
Dr. Francis L. R. Chapin of Albany, surgeon; Dr. Julius A. Skilton, 
assistant-surgeon; Robert W. Cross, sergeant-major; Bernard Gilligan, 
quartermaster-sergeant ; and Thomas Tilley, standard-bearer. 

The Thirtieth was organized under the first call of President Lincoln 
for 75,000 men to serve two years. The line officers of the several 
companies comprising it were as follows: 

Company A. — Captain, Samuel King; first lieutenant, John H. Campbell; second 
lieutenant, Francis Dargen. 

Company B. — Captain, Walter L. Laning; first lieutenant, Philip Casey; second 
lieutenant, J. Seymour Scott. 

Company C. — Captain, B. M. Van Voast; first lieutenant, M. V. V. Smith; second 
lieutenant, Edward Van Voast. 

Company D. — Captain, Miles T. Bliven; first lieutenant, Mervin G. Putnam, sec- 
ond lieutenant, John H. Marston. 

Company E. — Captain, Harrison HoUiday ; first lieutenant, Edgar S. Jennings ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Nathaniel Palmer, 


Company F. — Captain, Albert J. Perry ; first lieutenant, Andrew M. Franklin ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, James M. Andrews, jr. 

Company G. — Captain, Morgan H. Chrysler; first lieutenant, William T. Conk- 
ling ; second lieutenant, Asa L. Gurney. 

Company H. — Captain, Walter P. Tillman; first lieutenant, Lemuel Ball; second 
lieutenant, F. W. Barnes. 

Company I. — Captain, John M. Landon; first lieutenant, Samuel W. Potts; second 
lieutenant, Alonzo Alden. 

Company K. — Captain, Bartholomew Pruyn; first lieutenant, Gilbert W. Becker; 
second lieutenant, Adam Lampman. 

This organization was completed at Albany, June 1, 1861, when the 
regiment was mustered into the service of the United States for the 
term of two years. For a while before leaving for the front it en- 
camped on the old Rensselaer county fair grounds between Troy and 
Lansingburgh. The regiment was armed with ancient flint-lock mus- 
kets altered to cap-lock, and on June 26 left Albany for Washington, 
by way of the Hudson river. From Washington it made its first camp 
at Bright Wood, near where Fort Stevens was built. Frorn there it 
proceeded to Arlington, where it was brigaded with the Twenty-second 
and Twenty-fourth New York and the Brooklyn Fourteenth (afterwards 
the Eighty- fourth New York), making the First Brigade in the First 
Division of the First Army Corps. 

From this time until April, 1862, the First Brigade spent the most of 
its time in building forts and doing picket duty between Washington 
and Fredericksburg. In the latter month General McClellan prepared 
to move the grand Army of the Potomac toward Richmond, and all 
felt that the capture of the Confederate capital and the subjugation of 
the rebellious South was a matter of a few months only. This army 
numbered nearly 200,000 men. The advance proceeded as far as Ma- 
nassas Junction and Centre Hill, the Confederates falling back and 
forming a new line of defenses on the Rappahannock. At Manassas 
the skirmish line moved forward, and carried the works of the enemy 
by assault — only to find that the rebels had fled five days before. Soon 
after the entire First Division proceeded to Fredericksburg. It partici- 
pated in the action at the latter place, described in the story of the 
Seventy seventh's career; then, until August, 1862, it performed picket 
duty and made reconnaissances. In the latter month it was joined by 
the army of General Pope, engaging under his command-in the battles 
of Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock Station, White Sulphnr Springs, 
Gaines's Corners, Grafton and the Second Bull Run. It then entered 


McClellan's army again and fought in the battles of South Mountain 
and Antietam. In the battle of Chantilly, August 30, 1862, Colonel 
Frisby was killed, and sixteen other officers and two hundred and four- 
teen men were either kiUed or disabled. Lieutenant Colonel Searing 
was itpmediately promoted to the command of the Thirtieth Regiment. 

From here the army, now in command of General Meade, pursued 
the enemy to Fredericksburg, where they were engaged December 12 
and 13. Soon after they went into winter quarters at Belle Plain, Va., 
General Wadsworth then being in command. 

Among those killed in the battle of Chantilly were Captain Samuel 
King and Lieutenant Frank Dargen of Company A. Lieutenant Philip 
Rice of Company G (Saratoga) was killed in the night attack at Grove - 
ton on August 29. The brigade became popularly known as Hatch's 
Iron Brigade or foot cavalry,' being highly complimented for its be- 
havior under fire. Early in the summer of 1863 the Thirtieth Regi- 
ment was ordered home, and on June 18 was mustered out and dis- 
charged at Albany. A number of the officers and men subsequently 
joined Lieutenant- Colonel Morgan H. Chrysler, who organized the 
Second Veteran Cavalry Regiment, re-entered the service in October, 
1863, and served with distinction until the close of the war. 

The Thirtieth Regiment participated in the following battles: Fal- 
mouth, April 7, 1862; Massapomax, August 6, 1862; Rappahannock 
Crossing, August 21, 22 and 23, 1862; White Sulphur Springs, August 
26, 1862; Gainesville, or Gaines's Corners, August 28, 1862; Groveton, 
August 29, 1862; Bull Run, August 30, 1862; South Mountain and 
Antietam, September 4, 1862; Fredericksburg, December 13," 14 and 
16, 1862; Chancellorsville, April 29 to May 6, 1863." 


While the majority of the inhabitants of Saratoga county who fought 
in the war served in either the Seventy-seventh or Thirtieth Regiments, 
the county was represented in other organizations. Among these was 

' The controversy which for years existed as to which brigade was entitled to be called the 
Iron Brigade, was decided in favor of that to which the Thirtieth Regiment belonged, and it is 
so recorded in history. The Western Regiments which claimed the title are now known as the 
*' Western Iron Brigade." 

^A permanent organization of the regiment was effected at Saratoga Springs June 28, 1886. 
when the name of " Thirtieth Infantry New York State Volunteer Association " was adopted, 
On the official list giving the percentage of josses incurred at the battle of Bull Run, the Thir- 
tieth stands third with nineteen per cent. This regiment is one of the few which received from 
the United States government a flag of merit. 


Colonel Morgan H. Chrysler's troop of veteran cavalry (the Second), 
the One Hundred and Fifteenth, tlie Ninety-third, the Fifty- fourth, the 
One Hundred and Sixty-second, the One Hundred and Sixty -ninth, the 
One Hundred and Fifty third, the Ninety-second, the Fifty-first, the 
Twenty second, the Ninety seventh, the Fifty-sixth, the Ninety ^ixth, 
the One Hundred and Twenty-third, the One Hundred and Eighteenth, 
the Fifty-third, the Thirteenth, the Forty-seventh, the Eighty-third, 
the Sixty-third, the Seventy-eighth, the Twentieth, the Twenty-fifth, 
the One Hundred and Thirty -fourth and the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fifth Regiments, New York Volunteers; the Twenty-fifth, the Sixth 
and the Twenty-first Regiments of Cavalry; the Sixteenth Heavy 
Artillery Company, the Thirteenth Artillery Company, the First Bat- 
tery, the First Rifle Corps, the Veteran Reserve Corps, and perhaps in 
some other organizations, as well as in the regular army and the navy. 
The Second Regiment, Veteran Cavalry ' was organized at Saratoga 
Springs by Col. Morgan H. Chrysler and others, to serve three years. 
The companies of which it was composed were raised in the counties 
of Saratoga, Schenectady, Montgomery, Clinton, Essex, Warren, Albany, 
Rensselaer and Columbia. It was mustered into the service of the 
United States from August 16 to December 30, 1863, and was mus- 
tered out of service November 8, 1865. Following is a register of the 
officers : 

Morgan H. Chrysler, lieutenant-colonel, December 14, 1863; promoted to colonel 
December 14, 1863 ; brevet brigadier-general and major-general ; mustered out with 

Asa L. Gurney, lieutenant-colonel, December 14, 1868; mustered out with reg- 

Duncan Cameron, major, December 14, 1863; brevet lieutenant-colonel; mustered 
out with regiment. 

Edward Van Voast, major, December 14, 1863; mustered out with regiment; 
brevet lieutenant-colonel. 

John S. Fassett, major, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment ; brevet 
lieutenant- colonel. 

Michael A. Stearns, adjutant, December 14, 1863 ; resigned March 29, 1864. 

Henry W. Heartt, adjutant. May 18, 1864; deserted to the enemy October 19, 1864. 

Robert Barber, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; promoted to adjutant, Decem- 
ber 7, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

David Keene, quartermaster, December 14, 1863 ; promoted to captain May 18, 
1864; discharged August 27, 1865. 

1 The brief history of this and other military organizations subsequently referred to in this 
chapter is taken from the official records in the office of the adjutant-general of the State, of New 
York at Albany. 


Charles P. Carter, quartermaster, May 18, 1864; promoted to captain December 

14, 1864; died of wounds July 13, 1864. 

Charles W. Johnson, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; quartermaster, Sep- 
tember 34, 1864; discharged August 27, 1865. 

Hamilton B. Littlefield, commissary, December 14, 1863 ; discharged July 38, 1864. 

Foster S. Taylor, commissary, September 31, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

John L. Perry, surgeon, December 14, 1863; resigned June 12, 1864. 

Lucien Dumainville, assistant-surgeon, December 14, 1863 ; promoted to surgeon 
June 30, 1864 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Ichabod King, assistant-surgeon, November 15, 1864; not mustered. 

Galusha B. Balch, assistant-surgeon, January 8, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Ransom C. Dwyer, chaplain, February 6, 1864; died at St. James Hospital, New 
Orleans, June 80, 1864. 

Daniel P. Cilley, chaplain, April 32, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Lucius E. Wilson, captain, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment ; brevet 

Thomas F. Allen, captain, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment. 

David Keene, captain, May 18, 1864 ; discharged August 27, 1865. 

Joseph Strunk, captain, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment ; brevet 

Gifford W. Chrysler, captain, December 14, 1863; mustered out with regiment; 
brevet major. 

Smith J. Gurney, captain, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Henry W. Sanford, captain, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Charles H. Bentlej', captain, December 14, 1863; mustered out with regiment. 

Gilbert W. Becker, captain, December 14, 1863; mustered out with regiment; 
brevet major. 

William H. Arlin, captain, December 14, 1863 ; missing since June, 1864. 

Christopher Dolan, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863; promoted captain July 21, 
1864; mustered out with regiment; brevet major. 

Andrew M. Franklin, captain, December 14, 1863 ; resigned April 21, 1864. 

Thomas B. Smith, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863; promoted captain July 21, 
1864; died of disease February 26, 1865. 

John J. Baker, captain, December 14, 1863 ; discharged September 33, 1864. 

Israel Litno, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; first lieutenant, July 21, 1864; 
captain November 23, 1865; not mustered as captain, commission revoked; mustered 
out with regiment. 

Mason W. Covell, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863; captain, December 7, 1864; 
mustered out with regiment. 

Frederick D. Ellis, captain, missing since December, 1863, 

Henry L. Jewett, first lieutenant, December 16, 1863 ; not mustered. 

Thomas Ledwick, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; first lieutenant, March 

15, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Horace W. Lacca, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment. 
Delos M. Whife. first lieutenant, December 14. 1863; resigned November 22, 1864. 
Charles W. Van Patten, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; first lieutenant, 
January 30, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 


Albert Westinghouse, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; killed in action Decem- 
ber 10, 1864. 

Luman L. Cad well, first lieutenant, January 20, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 

Dan. D. Stone, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; died on board U. S. transport 
" Iberville," bound to New Orleans, April 12, 1864. 

Augustus P. Higby, second lieutenant, December 14, 1868 ; first lieutenant, July 
21, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

George W. Steele, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; discharged February 26, 

Eliakim Chase, first lieutenant, October 10, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Melville S. Dunn, first lieutenant, December 14', 1863 ; killed in action April 4, 1864. 

Henry W. Thayer, second lieutenant, July 21, 1864; first lieutenant, November 23, 
1865 ; not mustered as first lieutenant ; mustered out with regiment. 

Mason I. Gibson, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; first lieutenant. May 18, 
1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Thomas Hall, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; died of wounds April 14, 1864. 

Charles Palmer, second lieutenant, July 21, 1864; first lieutenant, (but not mus- 
tered) November 23, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Henry D.- Doty, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; first lieutenant, July 31, 
1864; cashiered September 39, 1865. 

Miles T. Bliven, first lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; discharged August 9, 1864. 

George F. Beach, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; first lieutenant, Decem- 
ber 7, 1864; mustered out with regiment; brevet captain. 

Henry M. Bailey, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; first lieutenant July 31, 
1864; mustered out with regiment; brevet captain. 

Harper W. Rogers, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863 ; first lieutenant Decem- 
ber 7, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Enoch H. Gurney, promoted second lieutenant March 15, 1865 ; mustered out with 

George B. Lyon, second lieutenant, December 14, 1868; resigned November 
18, 1864. 

Darwin L. Weeks, promoted second lieutenant December 7, 1864; mustered out 
with, regiment. 

Albert W. Thompson, promoted second lieutenant January 30, 1865 ; mustered out 
with regiment. 

Charles A. Gray, promoted second lieutenant December 80, 1864, but not mustered. 

Harrison P. Kingsley, promoted second lieutenant March 14, 1865; mustered out 
with regiment. 

A. Hallock Holbrook, promoted second lieutenant July 31, 1864; mustered out 
with regiment. 

William Fisher, promoted second lieutenant December 7, 1864; deserted. 

Leroy Hoaglin, promoted second lieutenant May 18, 1864; mustered out with 

" Charles W. Howard, promoted second lieutenant December 7, 1864 ; mustered out 
with regiment; brevet captain. 

George E. Hutchings, promoted second lieutenant July 31, 1864, but not mustered; 
killed in action. 



W. Scott Whitney, promoted second lieutenant December 7, 1864 ; mustered out 
with regiment. 

Charles E. Shaw, second lieutenant, December 14, 1863; discharged November 
13, 1864. 

Sherman A. Case, promoted second lieutenant January 20, 1865; mustered out 
with regiment. 

George W. Decker, promoted second lieutenant November 23, 1865 : not mustered. 

Albert Case, promoted second lieutenant November 23, 1865 ; not mustered. 

Enos Van Voast, promoted second lieutenant November 23, 1865; mustered out 
with regiment. 

Frederick W. Stevens, quartermaster sergeant; brevet second lieutenant. 

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment of Infantry was organ- 
ganized at Fonda to serve three years. The companies of which it 
was composed were raised in the counties of Fulton, Hamilton, Mont- 
gomery and Saratoga, then forming the Fifteenth Senate District. It 
was mustered into the United States service August 26, 1862, and was 
mustered out June 17, 1865. Simeon Sammons of Sammonsville, Mont- 
gomery county, went out as colonel of the regiment. He was dis- 
charged on account of disability November 19, 1864. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Nathan J. Johnson acted as colonel after April 29, 1865, and 
was commissioned colonel on the day the regiment left the service, but 
was not mustered in as such. George S. Batcheller, then a resident of 
Batchellerville, Saratoga county, was the first lieutenant-colonel, his 
commission bearing date of August 30, 1862. He resigned November 
14:, 1863. Ezra L. Walrath was commissioned lieutenant colonel on 
the day the regiment left the service, but was not mustered in. Among 
others who served as officers of the One Hundred and Fifteenth were: 
Majors Patrick H. Cowan, Ezra L. Walrath and Egbert B. Savage; 
adjutants, Thomas R. Horton, Hugh S. Sanford and John A, Collier; 
Captain William H. McKittrick, who was commissioned September 10, 
1862, and was killed in action at Chapin's Farm, Va., September 29, 
1864; Captain Walton W. French, commissioned September 10, 1862, 
and discharged June 11, 1864; Captain Cyrus N. Ballon, who was com- 
missioned April 6, 1865; Alfred G. Noxon, commissioned May 18, 1863, 
and resigned October 25, 1863. Henry W. Heaton, John W. Filkins, 
Francis D. Barnum, Levi Sheffer, Aaron C. Slocum, William J. Jen- 
nings and George H. Curreen were also officers in this regiment. The 
One Hundred and Fifteenth fought in these battles : Maryland Heights, 
Olustee, Drewry's Bluff, Coal Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom, Cha- 
pin's Farm, Darbytown Road, Fort Fisher and Wilmington. 


The Twenty- fifth Regiment of Cavalry, popularly known as the 
"Sickles Cavalry," was organized at Saratoga Springs to serve three 
years. The companies of which it was composed were raised princi- 
pally in the counties of Saratoga, New York, Delaware and Sullivan. 
It was mustered into the service of the United States from October, 
1863, to October, 1864, and was mustered out June 27, 1865. Gurden 
Chapin was the first colonel, his commission dating October 31, 1864, 
Aaron Seeley was lieutenant colonel. The regiment had at various 
times these majors: Samuel W. McPherson, afterwards breveted lieu- 
tenant colonel; Charles J. Seymour, Clinton G. Townsley, John L. V. 
Danesi and Charles F. Willard. Samuel W. McPherson, William A. 
Brusle, jr., and Robert M. Cumming each served as adjutant. The 
other staff officers were: Quartermaster, Isaac V. Truss; commissary, 
Edwin Dunn; surgeon, James D. Jones; assistant surgeons, George 
Sumner and Arnold Dufloo; chaplain, Ethan Ray Clark.' 

The Thirteenth Regiment of Infantry was organized at Elmira, was 
mustered into service May 14, 1861, and mustered out May 13, 1863. 
Isaac F. Quimby was the first colonel. He was succeeded in turn by 
John Pickell and Elisha G. Marshall. The Twentieth Regiment of in- 
fantry was organized in New York city, was mustered into service May 
6, 1861, and mustered out June 1, 1863. The Twenty-second Regiment 
was organized at Albany, was mustered in June 6, 1861, and mustered 
out June 19, 1863. The Twenty-fifth Regiment was organized in New 
York city, was mustered into service in June, 1861, and mustered out 
July 10, 1863. The Forty-seventh Regiment was organized in New 
York city, was mustered into the service in September, 1861, and mus- 
tered out August 30, 1865. The Fifty first Regiment was organized in 
New York city, was mustered into the service from July 27 to October 
23, 1861, and was mustered out July 25, 1865. The Fifty-third Regi- 
ment was organized in New York city, was mustered into the service 
from August 27 to November 15, 1861, and was mustered out March 
31, 1862. The Fifty-fourth Regiment was organized in New York city, 
was mustered into the service from September 5 to October 16, 1861, 
and was mustered out April 14, 1866. The Fifty-sixth Regiment was 
organized at Newburgh, was mustered into the service from July 31 to 
December 10, 1861, and was mustered out October 17, 1865. The 
Sixty-third Regiment was organized in New York city, was mustered 
into the service from August 7 to November 13, 1861, and was mus- 
tered out June 30, 1865. The Seventy-eighth Regiment was organized 


in New York city, was mustered into service from October 1, 1861, to 
April 12, 1863, and was consolidated with the One Hundred and Second 
Regiment June 29, 1864. The latter regiment was mustered out July 
21, 186.5. The Eighty-third Regiment was organized in New York 
city, was mustered into the service from May to August, 1861, and at 
the expiration of its term of service the veterans and recruits were 
transferred to the Ninety-seventh Regiment. The Ninety-second 
Regiment was organized at Potsdam, was mustered into service Janu- 
ary 1, 1862, and mustered out January 7, 1865. The Ninety-third 
Regiment was organized at Albany, was mustered into service from 
October, 1861, to January 1862, and was mustered out June 29, 1865. 
The Ninety-sixth Regiment was organized at Plattsburgh, was mus- 
tered into service from February 20, 1862, to March 7, 1862, and was 
mustered out February 6, 1866.' The Ninety-seventh Regiment was 
organized at Boonville, was mustered into service from September, 1861, 
to February, 1862, and was mustered out July 18, 1865. The One 
Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment was organized at Plattsburgh, was 
mustered into service August 30, 1862, and mustered out June 13, 1865. 
The One Hundred and Twenty-third Regiment was organized at Salem, 
Washington county, was mustered into service September 4, 1862, and 
mustered out June 8, 1865. The One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment was organized at Troy, was mustered into service August 29, 
1862, and mustered out June 5, 1865. The One Hundred and Thirty- 
fourth Regiment was organized at Schoharie, was mustered into service 
September 22, 1862, and mustered out June 1, 1865. The One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-third Regiment was organized at Fonda, and was mus- 
tered into service October 18, 1862. The companies of which it was 
composed .were raised in the counties of Saratoga, Fulton, Montgomery, 
-Clinton, Essex and Warren. Duncan McMartin, the first colonel, was 
succeeded May 26, 1863, by Edward P. David, who was breveted brig- 
adier-general. The regiment was mustered out of service October 2, 
1865. It saw service in the battles at Sabine Cross Roads, Pleasant 
Hill, Marksville, Cane River, Mansura and Alexandria, La. The One 
Hundred and Sixty-second Regiment was organized in New York city, 
was mustered into service from August 22 to October 18, 1862, and 
mustered out October 12, 1865. The One Hundred and Sixty ninth 
Regiment was organized at Troy, was mustered into service from Sep- 
tember 25 to October 6, 1862, and mustered out July 19, 1865. 

1 This regiment participated in thirty-one battles. 


The Sixth Regiment of Cavalry was organized in New York city, 
was mustered into service from September 12 to December 19, 1861, 
and was consolidated with the Fifteenth New York Cavalry as the Sec- 
ond New York Provisional Cavalry June 17, 1865. The Twenty-first 
Regiment of Cavalry was organized at Troy, was mustered into service 
from August to October, 1863, and was mustered out by detachments. 

The Sixteenth Regiment of Heavy Artillery was organized in the 
State at large, was mustered into the service from September 28, 1863, 
to January 28, 1864, was mustered out August 21, 1865. The Thir- 
teenth Regiment of Heavy Artillery was organized in New York city, 
was mustered into the service from August, 1863, to September, 1864, 
and transferred to the Sixth New York Artillery June 27, 1865. The 
First Battery of Light Artillery was organized at Auburn, was mustered 
into service November 23, 1861, and mustered out June 23, 1865. The 
First Regiment Mounted Rifles was organized in New York city, was 
mustered into service from August 31, 1861, to September 9, 1862, and 
was consolidated July 21, 1865, with the Third Regiment New York 
Cavalry, as the Fourth Provisional New York Cavalry. 


The story of Saratoga county's participation in the war of the Rebel- 
lion would not be complete without more than a passing mention of 
the famous Ellsworth Zouaves, or the Eleventh New York Volunteer 
Infantry, organized in New York city in April, 1861. But before 
speaking in detail of this regiment, which in itself was not of particu- 
lar interest to the people of Saratoga county except that it was organ- 
ized and commanded by Col. E..E. Ellsworth, let us look into the life 
of the young commander. 

Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth was born in the town of Malta April 11, 
1837, the son of Ephraim D. Ellsworth. As a boy he served as a clerk 
in a store at Mechanicville. At the age of sixteen years he went to 
Troy and continued in mercantile life. But this was not a pursuit to 
his liking, and he journeyed to New York. Finding competition there 
too great, in the spring of 1859 he went to Chicago and began the study 
of the law in the office of J. E. Cone. While pursuing his studies he 
gained a wonderful knowledge of the manual of arms and became an 
expert fencer. 

All this while he was suffering the pangs of poverty, and almost 
starvation. Many a night he threw himself on the floor of Mr. Cone's 


law ofiSce, hunger-stricken and wearied to exhaustion. He had organ- 
ized a company of cadets, and before long Chicago was singing the 
praises of the Ellsworth Zouaves. So great did the degree of perfection 
of these Zouaves attain, that in the summer of 1860, in response to 
many requests, Ellsworth made a tour of the country at their head, 
scoring an unbroken series of triumphs. 

After this tour young Ellsworth became one of the most talked of 
young men in the country. While on his return to Chicago from the 
East he met Abraham Lincoln, then a candidate for the presidency. 
Mr. Lincoln offered Ellsworth a place in his office, and the offer was 
quickly accepted. After Mr. Lincoln was elected to the presidency 
Ellsworth received at his hands' a commission as lieutenant in the army, 
and was detailed for special duty in Washington. When the war be- 
gan he was anxious to enter into active service at once. To do this he 
therefore resigned his commission as lieutenant, went to New York 
city and obtained permission of the chief of the metropolitan fire de- 
partment to recruit a regiment from among the firemen. The request 
being granted, he sent to Chicago for some of the men of his old Zouave 
company, and they joined him at once. 

The rapidity with which this regiment (the Eleventh New York Vol- 
unteer Infantry, usually called the New York Zouaves) was recruited 
is shown by the fact that Ellsworth arrived in New York April 17, 1861, 
and April 29 the new regiment of eleven hundred men embarked on 
the steamer Baltic for Washington. They were mustered into service 
by General Irwin McDowell in the presence of President Lincoln in 
front of the capitol May 7, the first regiment mustered in "for three 
years, or during the war," previous enlistments having been for three 

May 24 the Eleventh was transferred to Alexandria, Va. In that 
place Colonel Ellsworth, leaving Lieut. -Col. Noah L. Farnham in com- 
mand, accompanied by Sergeant Frank B. Marshall and a squad of 
men proceeded to the Marshall house to remove a rebel flag which 
floated from the top of that building. After sending Sergeant Mar- 
shall back to the regiment for Company A, he went inside of the hotel, 
posting one of his escort at the door, another on the first floor, another 
at the foot of the stairs, and Corporal Frank E. Brownell, of Troy, N. 
Y., on the .third floor. Colonel Ellsworth then ascended to the top of 
the house to obtain a view of the surroundings and remove the obnox- 
ious flag. Securing the latter he started to descend the stairs, when 



he heard the report of a gun. Hastening down, he came around a 
turn in the stairs just in time to receive the second charge from a 
double-barelled shotgun in the hands of James W. Jackson, the land- 
lord of the Marshall house. The gun was aimed at Brownell, who had 
knocked the gun up. ' 

Hardly had the shot been fired when Corporal Brownell leveled his 
gun at the assassin and fired, killing him instantly. It was sub- 
sequently learned that the murderer was crazed with drink, having 
been on a prolonged debauch. 

Many criticisms of Ellsworth have been published, accusing him of 
tyranny, vanity, undue pride and foolhardiness. But all such criti- 
cisms, it is now generally believed, had their source either from those 
who had suffered from a necessary discipline, agreed to by themselves 
and afterwards violated, or from the friends of these men. Not one 
surviving member of his Zouaves, who remained faithful to the end, 
agrees with such criticism. On the other hand, they accord to the 
heroic Ellsworth unparalleled fixedness of purpose, industry and clear- 
headedness in all matters pertaining to military affairs. They believe 
that on the roll of great captains, when the greatest of all wars closed, 
the name of Ellsworth might have stood second to none, had it not 
been for his untimely end. 

Ephraim D. Ellsworth, father of Col. E. E. Ellsworth, was born in 
the town of Halfmoon, May 22, 1809. Previous to his nineteenth year 
he learned the tailor's trade at Waterford and afterwards worked at it 
in Troy and Jonesville, this county. In 1836 he married Phebe Den- 
ton of Malta, and located at Mechanicville to carry on his trade, resid- 
ing there the remainder of his days, excepting ten years spent in the 
service of the government. November 16, 1861, President Lincoln 
commissioned him captain in the ordnance department and he was 
assigned to duty at Fortress Monroe. This was six months after the 
assassination of his son. Captain Ellsworth soon resigned this position 
and was placed in charge of the Champlain arsenal at Vergennes, 
Vt., where he remained about ten years, returning to his home at Me- 
chanicville in the fall of 1871. 


The following is a list of the officers of the Seventy-seventh Reg- 
iment, New York Volunteers, with promotions, discharges, resigna- 
tions and deaths, from November 23, 1861, to the close of the war: 



James B. McKean, colonel, resigned July 27, 1863. 

Joseph C Henderson, lieutenant colonel, resigned June 19, 1862. 

Selden Hetzel, major, dismissed by order of the secretary of war. May 15, 1863. 

Lucius ShurtlefE, quartermaster, resigned June 31, 1862. 

John L. Perry, surgeon, resigned February 1, 1863. 

Augustus Campbell, surgeon, resigned February 7, 1863. 

John M. Fay, assistant surgeon, dismissed March 3, 1863. 

David TuUy, chaplain, resigned July 8, 1863. 

Winsor B. French, adjutant, promoted major June 1, 1863; lieutenant-colonel, July 
18, 1863 ; colonel, August 25, 1863 (not mustered out as colonel, regiment being re- 
duced below minimum number of men); breveted brigadier-general United States 
Volunteers for gallant and meritorious conduct on the field; mustered out with reg- 

Nathan S. Babcock, captain, promoted major, August 31, 1863 ; mustered out with 

William H. Fursman, first lieutenant Company K, promoted adjutant, May 3, 
1863; resigned February 13, 1864. 

Lawrence Van Demark, second lieutenant Company C, promoted first lieutenant, 
and adjutant, February 13, 1864; resigned September 30, 1864. 

William W. Worden, sergeant Company C, promoted second lieutenant, Novem- 
ber 33, 1863; adjutant, October 34, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Thomas M. White, private Company C, promoted commissary sergeant, Feb- 
ruary 37, 1863; second lieutenant, February 10, 1865; first lieutenant and adjutant, 
March, 1865 ; mustered out with battalion ; breveted major for services rendered in 
battle April 3, 1865. 

Jacob F. Hayward, first lieutenant Company I, promoted quartermaster, June 21, 
1862 ; mustered out with regiment. 

George T. Stevens, assistant surgeon, promoted surgeon, February 27, 1863; mus- 
tered out with regiment. 

Justin G. Thompson, assistant surgeon, November 17, 1863 ; transferred and mus- 
tered out with battalion. 

Norman Fox, jr., chaplain, appointed from civil life, December 10, 1863; mustered 
out with regiment. 

Job S. Safford, promoted from sergeant Company F, to sergeant-major. 

Seymour Burch, sergeant-major, discharged February 1, 1863. 

Wendell Lansing, commissary-sergeant, discharged. 

Aaron B. Quivey, private Company C, promoted commissary-sergeant, June 5, 
1862; discharged March 1, 1863; re enlisted and killed on picket, May 18, 1864. 

Luther F. Irish, principal musician, discharged. 

Isaac D. Clapp, corporal Company C, promoted sergeant-major, May 15, 1863; ad- 
jutant, June 1, 1863; captain, June 6, 1863; major (but not mustered), June 13, 1864; 
mustered out with regiment. 

William A. De Long, assistant-surgeon, appointed from civil life, March 3, 1868 ; 
mustered out with regiment. 

Charles D. Thurber, private Company D, promoted quartermaster-sergeant; sec- 
ond lieutenant Company E ; quartermaster ; mustered out with battalion. 


Andrew Van Wie, private Company C, promoted principal musician, July 1, 1864. 

Alexander P. Waldron, private Company D, promoted hospital steward, Septem- 
ber 8, 1863. 

Sidney O. Cromack, sergeant Company B, promoted sergeant-major, May 3, 1863 ; 
first lieutenant, June 5, 1863; discharged March 11, 1865. 

George H. Gillis, sergeant Company C, promoted sergeant-major, November 17, 
1862; second lieutenant, February 25, 1863; mustered out with regiment. 

Edward S. Armstrong, corporal Company C, promoted quartermaster-sergeant, 
January 1, 1862; first lieutenant Company B, May 19, 1863; discharged January 14, 

Thomas S. Fowler, private Company D, promoted quartermaster-sergeant, April 
3, 1862 ; second lieutenant, October 2, 1863 ; discharged on account of wounds Au- 
gust 12, 1864. 

Gilbert F. Thomas, corporal Company C, promoted second lieutenant, May 1, 
1863; killed in action at Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. 

Charles H. Davis, sergeant Company D, promoted adjutant of battalion, February 
18, 1865 ; captain, April 22, 1865 ; mustered out with battalion. 

Obed M. Coleman, private Company C, promoted quartermaster-sergeant. 

Edward H. Thorn, private Company C, promoted commissary-sergeant. 

David J. Caw, private Company H., promoted second lieutenant, May 21, 1863; 
first lieutenant, September 23, 1862; captain, December 10, 1862; major, December 
30, 1864 ; lieutenant-colonel, December 24, 1864 ; colonel (but not mustered) July 6, 
1865 ; mustered out with battalion. 


Company A. — Captain Read W. Arnold, resigned April 3, 1863. First Lieutenant 
William Douglass, resigned April 21, 1863. First Lieutenant Stephen S. Hastings, 
resigned December 33, 1863. Second Lieutenant James Hj. Farnsworth, resigned 
February 8, 1862. Captain George S. Orr, promoted from lieutenant April 3, 1863 ; 
lost right arm at Cedar Creek ; mustered out with regiment. Captain Charles E. 
Stevens, promoted from ranks to second lieutenant March 31, 1863; first lieutenant, 
January 38, 1863; captain, September 16, 1864; commissioned colonel (but not mus- 
tered) ; mustered out with battalion. Second Lieutenant Lewis T. Vanderwarker, 
promoted from private January 37, 1863 ; first lieutenant, November 10, 1863 ; mus- 
tered out with regiment. Second Lieutenant Sorell Fountain, promoted from pri- 
vate April 33, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. First Lieutenant Adam Flans- 
burgh, promoted in battalion. 

Company B. — Captain C. C. Hill, resigned July 1, 1863. Captain Stephen S. Hor- 
ton, promoted from second lieutenant to captain July 35, 1863; discharged May 31, 
1863, on account of wounds received at Antietam. Captain Frederick Smith, dis- 
missed. First Lieutenant Noble P. Hammond, resigned July 34, 1862. Second 
Lieutenant G. R. McGunnigle, dismissed. Second Lieutenant Sidney O. Cromack. 
(See Staff.) Second Lieutenant William H. Quackenbush, promoted February 16, 
1865 ; mustered out with battalion. 

Company C— Captain Benjamin F. Judson, resigned March 29, 1863. Captain 
Luther M, Wheeler, fitst lieutenant, promoted captain March 39, 1863 ; killed in ac- 


tion at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863. First Lieutenant John Patterson, resigned 
September 8, 1863. Captain E. W. Winne, first sergeant, promoted Second lieuten- 
ant March 39, 1863; first lieutenant, September 8, 1863; captain Company F, May 9, 
1863 ; discharged September 9, 1864. Second Lieutenant Gilbert F. Thomas. (See 
Staff.) Second Lieutenant Stephen H. Pierce, transferred to battalion ; promoted 
first lieutenant March 15, 1864; killed in action March 35, 1865. Second Lieutenant 
David Pangburn, promoted from sergeant. 

Company D. — Captain John Caw, resigned at White House, Va., May 18, 1863, on 
account of disability and died before reaching home. Captain Seth W. Deyoe, pro- 
moted from first sergeant to first lieutenant November 38, 1861 ; captain, September 
8, 1862; discharged on account of wounds received in action, July 36, 1864. Second 
Lieutenant Chester H. Fodow, resigned May 31, 1863. Second Lieutenant Robert 
H. Skinner, promoted June 4, 1863; discharged on account of wounds received in ac- 
tion, March 13, 1868. First Lieutenant Joseph H. Loveland, promoted captain, No- 
vember 3, 1868 ; mustered out with regiment. Captain Sumner Oakley, sergeant, 
promoted first lieutenant September 6, 1864; transferred to battalion January 30, 
1865; killed in action, March 35, 1865. Second Lieutenant Robert E. Nelson, ser- 
geant, promoted second lieutenant. May 25, 1864; first lieutenant August 20, 1864; 
transferred to and mustered out with battalion. 

Company E. — Captain Lewis Wood, discharged on account of disability, October 4, 

1863. Captain William B. Carpenter, first lieutenant, promoted captain December 
35, 1863; killed in action May 10, 1864. Second Lieutenant Halsey Bo we, accident- 
ally shot in camp at Harrison's Landing, Va., and died of the wound in Philadelphia 
August 16, 1863. First Lieutenant Henry C. Rowland, promoted from sergeant 
January 33, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment. Second Lieutenant William F. Lyon, 
promoted March 17, 1863; missing; believed to have been killed in action May 10, 

1864. Second Lieutenant Charles D. Thurber. (See Staff.) Second Lieutenant 
Thomas M. White. (See Staff.) First Lieutenant James A. Monroe, promoted 
from first sergeant November 15, 1864; mustered out with battalion. 

Company F. — Captain Judson B. Andrews, resigned July 16, 1862. Captain Jesse 
White, promoted from first lieutenant, September 33, 1863, discharged for disability, 
February, 1863. Second Lieutenant Emmett J. Patterson, resigned December 18, 
1863. Second Lieutenant Thomas S. Fowler. (See Staff.) Second Lieutenant John 
J. Cameron, died on the Peninsula May 6, 1862. 

Company G. — Captain Calvin A. Rice, dismissed by order of secretary of war, 
October 4, 1862. First Lieutenant Edward S. Armstrong. (See Staff.) Second 
Lieutenant William K. Young, resigned April 15, 1863. Captain George Ross, ser- 
geant, promoted second lieutenant, January 23. 1863 ; first lieutenant, March 17, 1863 ; 
captain, December 28, 1865 ; mustered out with battalion. Second Lieutenant George 
H. Gillis. (See Staff.) Captain Orin P. Rilgg, sergeant, promoted second lieuten- 
ant, April 28, 1863; captain, December 10, 1863; killed in action May 13, 1864. 

Company H, — Captain Alfred H. Beach, resigned January 28, 1862, on account of 
physical disability. Captain N. HoUister Brown, promoted from first lieutenant, 
January 30, 1863; resigned December 36, 1862. First Lieutenrnt George D. Story, 
promoted from second lieutenant January 30, 1862 ; resigned May 31, 1862. First 
Lieutenant Frank Thomas, promoted second lieutentant from first sergeant. Com- 
pany C, January 23, 1863; first lieutenant, March 13, 1863; discharged August 10, 


1864, on account of wounds received in action May 10, 1864. Captain David J. Caw. 
(See Field.) First Lieutenant Alonzo Rowland, appointed second lieutenant from 
civil life, August 10, 1863 ; promoted first lieutenant, November 15, 1864; mustered 
out with battalion. Second Lieutenant William Caw, promoted from sergeant, 
January 20, 1865 ; mustered out with battalion. 

Company /.—Captain Franklin Norton, resigned in August. 1863, and appointed 
lieutenant-colonel, One Hundred and Twenty-third New York Volunteers. Second 
Lieutenant Carlos Rowe, promoted sergeant, June 1, 1863; second lieutenant. May 1, 
1863; mustered out with regiment. First Lieutenant Jacob F. Hayward. (See Stafif.) 
First Lieutenant William E. Merrill, promoted second lieutenant, November 15, 1864 ; 
first lieutenant, April 23, 1865; mustered out with battalion. Captain Martin 
Lennon, promoted from second lieutenant, December 10, 1862; died November 1, 
1864, from wounds received at Cedar Creek October 19, 1864. First Lieutenant 
John W. Belding, promoted first lieutenant, March 19, 1863; killed at Cedar Creek 
October 19, 1864. 

Company K. — Captain Nathan S. Babcock. (See Field.) First Lieutenant Ansil 
Dennison, sergeant, promoted second lieutenant, February 6, 1863; first lieutenant, 
March 11, 1863; died February 28, 1863, from wounds received in action at Antietam. 
First Lieutenant William Fursman. (See Staff. ) Captain John R. Rockwell, dis- 
charged for disability October 2, 1863. First Lieutenant John W. McGregor, dis- 
charged February 10, 1862. First Lieutenant Philander A. Cobb, discharged May 
11, 1863. Second Lieutenant Cyrus F. Rich, resigned on account of physical dis- 
ability November 30, 1862. Second Lieutenant Stephen Redshaw, dismissed Octo- 
ber 31, 1863. First Lieutenant William J. Tabor, promoted from sergeant. May 3, 
1863; killed in action at Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, Second Lieutenant Jeremiah 
Stebbins, promoted from sergeant. May 9, 1863 ; mustered out with battalion. 

The following are the names of 'the officers of the Thirtieth Regi- 
ment, New York Volunteers, with promotions, discharges, resignations 
and deaths: 

Edward Frisby, colonel, killed at battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

William M. Searing, major, promoted lieutenant-colonel March 32, 1863; colonel 
September 20, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Charles E. Brintnall, captain, promoted lieutenant- colonel May 31, 1861; resigned 
March 11, 1862. 

Morgan H. Chrysler, captain, promoted major March, 11, 1862 ; lieutenant-colonel 
September 20, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Albert J. Perry, captain, promoted major October 29, 1862; mustered out with 
regiment; brevet lieutenant-colonel. 

Richard C. Bentley, adjutant, promoted major Sixty-third Regiment February 
16, 1863. 

Alonzo Alden, second lieutenant, promoted adjutant June 10, 1863. 

Miles T. Bliven, captain, dismissed December 31, 1861 ; commissioned adjutant Octo- 
ber 37, 1863; resigned January 17, 1863. 

Zebulon M. Knight, adjutant, mustered out with regiment. 

Charles E. Russ, quartermaster, promoted to captain and acting quartermaster 
August 5, 1863. 


Stephen W. Trull, quartermaster, mustered out with regiment. 

Francis L. R. Chapin, surgeon, mustered out with regiment. 

Julius A. Skilton, assistant surgeon, promoted surgeon Eighty-seventh Regiment 
January 17, 1863. 

Fowler Prentice, assistant surgeon, promoted surgeon Seventy-third Regiment 
March 39, 1863. 

R. M. Deering, assistant surgeon, mustered out with regiment. 

Horace T. Hawks, assistant surgeon, mustered out with regiment. 

Nathan G. Axtell, chaplain, resigned October 8, 1863. 

Samuel King, captain, died September 1, 1863. 

John H. Campbell, first lieutenant, promoted captain October 39, 1863; mustered 
out with regiment. 

Warren L. Lansing, captain, mustered out with regiment. 

J. Seymour Scott, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant November 1, 1861 ; 
captain January 27, 1863; mustered out with regiment. 

Barent M. Van Voast, captain, dismissed March 7, 1863. 

Mause V. V. Smith, first lieutenant, promoted captain May 13, 1863; resigned. 

Samuel D. Potts, first lieutenant, promoted to captain February 19, 1863; mus- 
tered out with regiment. 

Edgar S. Jennings, first lieutenant, promoted to captain January 37, 1863 ; dis- 
missed April 4, 1863. 

Harrison HoUiday, captain, died September 17, 1863, of wounds received in action. 

Joseph Williams, first lieutenant, promoted captain October 17, 1863; mustered 
out with regiment. 

Robert B. Everett, captain, transferred to Seventy-sixth Regiment May 25, 1868. 

Asa L. Gurney, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant December 12, 1861 ; 
captain April 9, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment. 

John Van Rensselaer, captain, not mustered. 

Walter P. Tillman, captain, mustered out with regiment. 

John M. Landon, captain, mustered out with regiment. 

Bartholomew Pruyn, captain, discharged October 3, 1863. 

Adam Lampman, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant January 27, 1863; 
captain February 19, 1863; mustered out with regiment. 

William Shelley, first lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

Philip Casey, first lieutenant, died October 4, 1861, at Upton Hill, Va. 

Harrison Holt, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, February 19, 1868; 
discharged March 18, 1863. 

Bernard Gilligan, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant. May 9, 1863 ; mus- 
tered out with regiment. 

Edward Van Voast, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant. May 18, 1863; 
Clustered out with regiment. 

Mervin G. Putnam, first lieutenant, resigned January 13, 1863. 

John H. Marston, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, January 37, 1863, 
but not mustered as such. 

James M. Andrews, jr., second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, March 13, 
1863 ; mustered out with regiment. 


Alfred Sherman, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, October 37, 1863; 
dismissed March 5, 1863. 

Theodore Buckman, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant. May 9, 1863; 
mustered out with regiment. 
Andrew M. Franklin, first lieutenant, discharged September 11, 1863. 

Philip Keller, first lieutenant, transferred to Seventy-sixth Regiment, May 25, 

William T. Conkling, first lieutenant, died November 28, 1861, at Washington, 
D. C. 

Walter Cutting, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, April 9, 1863; captain 
and aid-de-camp, July 13, 1863. 

Thomas Smith, first lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

Lemuel B. Ball, first lieutenant, resigned October 11, 1861. 

Sylvester W. Barnes, second lieittenant, promoted first lieutenant, October 39, 
1861 ; dismissed September 18, 1863. 

Robert W. Cross, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, October 37, 1863 ; 
dismissed December 13, 1863. 

Thomas Hall, first lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

Charles Roth, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant, March 4, 1863; mus- 
tered out with regiment; brevet major. 

Gilbert W. Becker, first lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

Francis Dargen, second lieutenant, killed August 30, 1863, at Bull Run, Va. 

William D. Jones, second lieutenant, not mustered. 
. Andrew Smith, second lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

William L. Peck, second lieutenant, not mustered. 

Alexander Gillespie, second lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

George H. Overocker, second lieutenant, resigned December 30, 1863. 

Herbert H. Bryans, second lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

Nathaniel Palmer, second lieutenant, cashiered January 30, 1863. 

William Buchanan, second lieutenant, transferred to Seventy-sixth Regiment, 
May 34, 1863. 

Robert G. Noxon, second lieutenant, transferred to Seventy-sixth Regiment, May 
25, 1863. 

John W. Gafney, second lieutenant, not mustered. 

Philip Rice, second lieutenant, killed in action, August 39, 1863. 

William S. Haight, second lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

Henry Osborn, second lieutenant, resigned December 30, 1863. 

David Burnham, second lieutenant, mustered out with regiment. 

William Morse, second lieutenant, killed in action at Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

Michael Long, second lieutenant, transferred to Seventy-sixth Regiment, May 35, 

George Trainor, second lieutenant, not mustered. 

It is a matter of great and everlasting regret that the officials of 
many of the towns in Saratoga county did not keep an accurate list of 
the names of the brave men who went to the front for the defense of 



the Union between the years of 1861 and 1865, In 1875 the State en- 
acted a law directing the compilation of a record of the soldiers in that 
war, by every town and city in the State ; but some towns either neg- 
lected to write such a record or since that time their officers have lost 
it. The following list of names is the most accurate obtainable.' The 
names are given under the headings of the township in which they re- 
sided at the time of enlistment. Those whose names are marked with 
asterisks died in the service : 

Francis I. Allen, 
James H. Adams, 
James A. Andrews, 
William H. Austin, 
Reuben Alden,* 
John Adams, jr., 
Reuben Alden, 3d, 
James M. Andrews, 2d, 
Henry Adams, 
James W. Austin, 
R. Alden, 
John Adkins, 
William Adkins, 
James F. Austin, 
Sylvester Andrews, 
John Abbott, 
William Beardsley, 
John Betts, 
Julius P. Bennett, 
Pennis S. Barringer, 
Charles H. Benedict, 
John H. Briggs,* 
Clarence Bruce, 
Mansfield Bruce, 
Halsey Bowe,* 
George BuUard, 
William H. Brown, 
John W. Belding,* 
Jeremiah Baker. 
Herbert H. Bryant, 
Lewis Brassel, 
Lester D. Bardwell, 

Saratoga Springs. 

Peter Bell, 
George Bourne,* 
Samuel Burpee, 
Norman Bennett, 
Frederick Bennett, 
Royal B. Brown, 
James Burke, 
John Berigin, 
William G. Bryant, 
Cassius M. Busbee, 
Richard A. Betts, 
John A. Brown, 
George W. Brisbin, 
Rollin D. Baker, 
Luther Bingham, 
Louis L Bruso, 
William H. Brown, 2d, 
Alfred M. Baldwin,* 
Ambrose Blodgett, 
Spencer L Blanchard, 
John M. Bennett, 
Charles Bacon, 
Lewis H. Balch, 
Charles Blanchard, 
Elon BuUard, 
Charles K. Burnham,* 
Erskine B. Branch, 
George Bellamy, 
John Boyd, 
Timothy Brophy, 
Charles G. Bemens, 
George Brooks, 

Schuyler Boyce, 
Amasa Bartlett, 
William H. Blackwood, 
George N. Blackwood, 
Arthur L. Burns, 
Norman Barnum, 
Edgar A. Burt, 
Dennis G. Bushnell, 
John Ballard, 
L. D. Bardwell, 
Samuel B. Burk, 
Richard A. Betts, 
John Beach, 
Smith Brill, 
Miles T. Bliven, 
John Brainard, 
William Beagle, 
Richard Brewer, 
Silas B. Blowers, 
Duncan Cameron, 
Lewis E. Close,* 
Enos Crandall, 
Michael Costello, 
Paul Crandall, 
John Collins, 
Edward Curry, 
Thomas Costello, 
Wilbur M. Clark, 
Selden Colebridge, 
Patrick Colophy, 
Hiram E. Collins, 
Joljn Croate, 

' We are indebted to Sylvester's History of Saratoga County tar these names of residents of 
Saratoga county who participated in the war of the Rebellion. The author advertised the list 
tor correction in each town, and it undoubtedly is as nearly correct as will ever be obtainable. 



Thomas Casey, 
Henry B. Clute, 
John G. Casey, 
John H. Cozzens, 
William. Carlow, 
Augustus Cook, 
Isaac D. Clapp, 
James E. Couch, 
James Church, 
Simon Cary, 
Albert Close, 
Charles Cook, 
John J. Cameron,* 
Isaac L Crook, 
Piatt Clute, 
Richard C. Cary, 
James M.Cole, jr.', 
William R. Chase, 
George W. Carragan,* 
Henry Clayton, 
Daniel Casey,* 
Timothy Conners, 
Timothy Cady, 
William Cheeney, 
Theron Conklin, 
Thomas Cochrane, 
James Connelly, 
Thomas Clark, 
Michael Casey, 
George R. Chase, 
Selden C. Clabridge (?), 
Patrick Curran, 
James Curran, 
John W. Case, 
Richard Clary, 
Obed M. Coleman, 
William Cole, 
Benjamin Crandell, 
William Conklin, 
Thomas Cahill, 
Michael Clerman, 
George M. Close,* 
James L. De Graff, 
Ruloff H. Deyoe, 
John N. Delo'ff, 
Jacob A. Deyoe, 
William Dutcher, 

William Dingham, 
Elijah Dean, jr., 
Charles Davis, 
John H. Derby, 
John B. Darrow,* 
Alexander Dunn, 
Darius L. Davis, 
Henry C. Darrovr,* 
Andrew J. Dowen,* 
John H. Dowen, 
William Dowen, jr., 
Barnett Dowen, 
John D. Dowen, 
Josiah Dowen, 
Seth Duel, 

George W. Dingman, 
William D. Doolittle, 
William Doe,* 
William H. Deyoe,* 
Chester Dowd,* 
Michael Danby, 
George Derby, jr. , 
Edwin Delong, 
Beecher Deming, 
Horace Deming, 
John M. Dubois, 
Charles B. Deland, 
John Deyoe, 
William Devine,* 
John Dumphy, 
John Digraan,* 
Thomas Dunnigan,* 
Jacob A. Deyoe, 
Patrick Dolan, 
Tlfomas Delany, 
James Deneffe,* 
John Donahue, 
Peter Davis, 
Samuel E. Davis, 
Charles W. Derby, 
George Deuel, 
Eh Dietz, 

William H. Dwyer, 
John E. L. Deuel, 
James Evans, 
Harry W. Eggleston, 
Theodore Eggleston, 

George Elliott, 
Jarvis Emigh, 
Oliver Evans, 
Charles Esmond, 
Clarence E. Elems, 
Charles Elems, 
James Eames, 
Gilbert Edmonds, 
Sampson Ellis, 
Austin Elmer, 
Andrew J. Freeman, 
John W. Freeman, 
George S. Freeman, 
Charles Fitzgerald, 
William Flood,* 
Lawrence Funk, 
Clinton B. Fay, 
Thomas S. Fowler, 
John W. Fay, 
Lucas A. Folmsbee, 
John Flaherty, 
William Foley, 
Andrew M. Franklin, 
Henry D. Forbush, 
Charles Fryer, 
Michael Fitzgibbons, 
William Foyle,* 
Edward H. Fuller, 
Leonard Fletcher, 
Winsor B. French, 
Horatio N. Finch, 
Francis W. Fletcher,* 
George Farrar, 
Jacob A. Garey, 
James Gailor, 
Joel G. Gailor, 
Clarence F. Goodspeed, 
Stephen H. Guest, 
Henry G. Gurney, 
Henry Gilbert, 
Smith J. Gurney, 
Frank Gilbert, 
David H. Graves, 
Elijah H. Garner, 
John A. Gilbert, 
George H. Gillis, 
George Gick, 



Truman I. Gilbert, 
John A. Gazeley, 
Lorenzo Gregory, 
Charles H. Goss, 
James Goss, 
Samuel Gilbert,* 
James Green,* 
Horace B. Gilbert, 
James Garry, jr., 
Lodwick S. Green, 
Thomas Greenleaf, 
J. T. Goodspeed,* 
Joseph W. Height, 
Benjamin B. Hyde, 
Elisha Hewitt, 
Dennis Heenan, 
George Hagadorn, 
John H. Houghton, 
Harman Hagadorn, 
John Hardy, 
Griffin Haight, 
Jerome Hudson, 
John W. Ham,* 
Edwin Ham, 
Smith Herrick,* 
Benjamin A. Harrington, 
Richard Hutchings, 
Elias Hunter, 
Charles H. Hodges, 
Francis W. Horton, 
William Hall, 
James R. Hinds, 
James Hendrick,* 
Delos Hammond, 
Warren C. Hall, 
Myron B. Hall, 
Henry Haas,* 
William H. Hall, 
Jefferson J. Hyde, 
Charles N. Hall, 
James G. Hall, 
Charles Hudson, 
William H. Hoffman, 
William J. Hammond, 
Thomas Hoey, 
James R. Hinds, 
Alexander Hays, 

William Hoffman,* 
Aaron Hase,* 
Jonathan Hopkins, 
Horace Hamell, 
John Hall 3d, 
Henry Hunt, 
Harmon Holt, 
William Hays, 
John H. Hudson, 
Hiram Hendrick, 
Henry Hagadorn, 
Alden S. Huling, 
Edward M. Holcomb, 
John Handley, 
James H. Huested, 
Joel Hays, 
James H. Hudson, 
Christopher C. Hill, 
Edmund J. Huling, 
Ferdinand Height, 
Charles W. Hemingway, 
George Ingersoll, 
George W. Ingersoll, 
James B. Johnson, 
Frederick U. Jordan, 
Horace L. Jordan, 
David E. Johnson, 
Jeptha Johnson, jr., 
Enoch I. Johnson, - 
Henry Johnson, 
Frank H. Juncket, 
Benjamin F. Judson, 
Michael Jennings, 
Harvey Jones, 
John G. Kitchner, 
Peter Knickerbocker,* 
William Kimpton,* 
William Kelly, 
Thomas Kelly, 
John Kelly, 
Horace Kelly, 
Morris Kelly, 
Robert Keith, 
Daniel W. Kendall, 
John Kennedy, 
Charles Ketchum,* 
Peter Kemp, 

Martin Lowery,* 
David W. Langdon, 
George Lawrence, 
Peter Lyons, 
Martin De Lacture, 
Joseph Larose, 
James A. Lee, 
Alexander Lee, 
George B. Lyons, 
Luther M. Loper, 
Francis Leroy, 
Edward Lorance, 
Oscar F. Lockwood, 
George Laney, 
John Layan, 
John La Clare, 
Joseph H. Loveland, 
Edwin Lawrence, 
James M. Lowery,* 
Timothy Lowery,* 
Francis Le Clerk,* 
James H. Leggett,* 
Franklin E. Lawrence,* 
John Lowery, 
William A. Langdon, 
Frank Loveland, 
Andrew M. Lee, 
David McNeil,* 
John G. Michaels, 
Herman McPherson, 
Andrew Mcllwain, 
Florence McCarty, 
Nicholas D. Maffitt, 
Levi Mcintosh, 
John J. Monroe, 
William H. Monroe, 
Ira McNeil, 
George B. Mingay, 
Warren E. Miller, 
Allen Mcl^ean, 
William H. McClean, 
John D. McDonald, 
John Miller, 
James McDonaldson, 
Edward Marsham, 
Patrick McDonald, 
William McGovern, 



William McDade,* 
Michael McDade,* 
William McCall, 
James B. McKean, 
James Minnick, 
Peter Murphy, 
Charles Myers, 
Justus J. May, 
Riley Miller, 
Allen McLain, 
George Moore, 
Edward McNary, 
Peter McCue, 
George H. Miller, 
Hiram Myers, 
Isaac Myers, 
Lafayette Myers, 
Alexander Martin, 
William L. Monroe, 
Charles C. Morehouse, 
Adreal Moore, 
William Marshall, 
William Morrison, 
George H. Morris, 
James Mingay, 
Thomas Mathew, jr., 
Michael McCormick, 
Moses Milliman, 
Erastus Mitchell, 
John W. Murray, 
John C. Marston, 
Joseph Muirer,* 
George McGovern, 
Tunis Nesbitt, 
Austin Nash, 
Martin V. Norton,* 
Charles Nevins, 
Martin Nash,* 
Thomas Ostrander, 
John Obein, 
John Oheren, 
Frederick N. Owen, 
Samuel Osburn, 
Thomas Putnam, 
John R. Peace, 
Abram Price, 
George H. Putnam, 

George H. Potts, 
Charles Phelps, 
George Pitkin, 
Nathan G. Phelps, 
Henry F. Putnam, 
Edward S. Pearsall, 
John Patterson, 
Emmett J. Patterson, 
Stephen H. Pierce,* 
George E. Pulling, 
John L. Perry, 
James Plunkett,* 

Hugh J. Patterson, 

William Poucher, 

Mervin G. Putnam, 

Albert J. Perry, 

Hiram Augustus Peck, 

William C. Putnam, 

William Putnam, 

John M. Putnam, 

Jerome Purdy, 

George F. Peruvielle, 

Robert S. Prior, 

Horatio G. Peck, 

Albert I. Quimby, 

Simeon D. Russell,* 

George R. Reno, 

John Redmond, 

John Rose, 

Gilbert N. Rose,* 

Sherman Raymond, 

John Reed, 

Simeon W. Rowley,* 

Gideon M. Rowley,* 

Henry C. Rowland, 

Orrin R. Rugg,* 

Charles O. Richardson, 

Alexander Rouch, 

James Ryan, 

James Reagan, 

Joseph H. Rogers, 

Edwin Rasell, 

Lester Rose, 

Solomon W. Russell, 

Charles N. Reno, 

Cornelius Rose, 

Hiram Root, 

Louis Sicard,* 
Josiah Stiratton, 
Franklin Spicer, 
Frank Snow, 
Thomas B. Smith, 
Frederick Suntler, 
Henry St. Clair, 
James M. Steenburgh, 
Elisha A. Steen, 
William O. Sullivan, 
Abram B. Smith, 
William H. Sexton,* 
Andrew J. Smith, 
Robert H. Skinner, 
Daniel Smith,* 
James H. Smith,* 
Elum Sustin, 
Andrew J. Smith, 
Edward W. Smith, 
Dennis B. Smith, 
George H. Scidmore, 
James Stevens, 
Thomas H. Sexton, 
Charles E. Sexton, 
Benjamin F. Stillwell,* 
James Stevens, 
Benjamin F. Slecht, 
Charles Sexton, 
Howard T. Sexton, 
Lewis J. Smith,* 
Thomas Stewart, 
John Sagon, 
Henry H. Shill, 
John Smith, 
Don D. Stone,* 
John H. Shaft, 
William H. Salisbury, 
Oliver Smith, 
George R. Smith, 
Edward Silvey, 
James E, Snyder, 
Riley V. Suydam, 
Abner Smith,* 
George A. Smith, 
Egbert B. Savage, 
Charles S. Sherman, 
Edward Squires, 



Nelson Swan, 
William M. Searing, 
Owen Sullivan, 
Edward Sullivan, 
Charles H. Tompkins, 
Peter Taylor,* • 
Edward H. Thorn, 
John Thornton, 
R. S. Tourtellot, 
John Turner, 
Michael Teathers, 
William Taylor, 
John Tompkins, 
Charles DeForest Thurber, 
William J. Taber,* 
George Thompson, 
Jesse B. Thorn, 
Stephen Trumble, 
William B. Thorn, 
Jacob Thompson, 
Edward Van Rensselaer, 
Newman Van Wie, 
Charles W. Van Petten, 
Joseph Valentine, 
Frederick Voxman, 
Abram L. Viele, 
John R. Valentine, 
William W. Worden, 
William H. Walker, 

Augustus R. Walker, 
Oscar B. Walker, 
James H. Wilson, 
D. J. Wheeler. 
George H. Weeks, 
Andrew J. Williamson, 
Thomas M. White, 
Luther M. Wheeler, 
Henry Whitman, 
Andrew A. Weatherwax, 
John W. Whittaker, 
James Welch, 
Hiram Weatherwax, 
Jerome Weatherwax, 
Patrick Winn, 
Samuel Wilcox, 
Thomas J. Wheaton, 
Dennis Welch, 
Frederic G. Woodward, 
George H. Winne, 
Charles Welch, 
Andrew Weed, 
Joseph H. Weatherwax, 
David W. Weatherwax, 
Wallace W. Wickham, 
Alexander K. Waldron, 
Lewis Wood, 
Alonzo Williams, 
Elisha A. Waters, 

Henry W. Whitman, 
John Weeks, 
Thomas A. White, 
Addison Walker, 
Daniel Webster, 
Robert Williams, 
Bernard Winn, 
Edwin Washman, 
Samuel Weeks, 
Andrew J. Weed, 
James Wiley, 
Charles H. Wildy, 
Daniel G. Wager, 
Luke Welch, 
John Washburn, 
George Washburn, 
George A. Webb, 
James B. Walley, 
John C. Winney, 
Bruce Winney, 
Smith C. Whitcomb,* 
Edward W. Winne, 
William K. Young, 
George Young, 
George Young, jr. , 
Uriah Young, 
William H. Yale, 
Frederick Zwanker, 
Gustavus Zack.* 

Edward S. Armstrong, 
Thomas Andrews, 
Frazer Atkins, 
William Abbs, 
Andrew J. Armstrong, 
William G. Bradshaw, 
Alexander j. Beach,* 
Jay Burnham, 
Henry W. Burnham, 
George H. Briggs, 
Abram G. Bradt, 
William Bradt, 
George H. Bradt, 
John Barnhart, 
George W. Bigelow, 


William G. Ball, 
Marcus S. Barrows, 
Frank Clark, 
W'illiam Davis, 
Thomas H. Dorsey, 
Apdrew J. Dubois, 
Josiah Dean, 
James Dunk, 
Christopher Emperor, 
Warren Earls, 
John Emperor, 
John S. Fuller, 
David Frisbie, 
James Grooms, 
Patrick Goon an. 

Stephen S. Horton, 
George Hughes, 
Philip M. Hill, 
Joshua Heritage, 
Frank Harris, 
George Hoyt. 
Edwin C. Hoyt, 
Thomas Harris, 
Joseph F. Jones,* 
DT K. Smith Jones,* 
Ransom Knight, 
Michael Kildea, 
Otis King, 
John Kildea, 
John Kearnes, 



Alfred H. Kingsley, 
Hugh Kelley, 
Truman M. Loveland, 
John Lanehart, 
Jacob Lansing, 
Moses Lewis, 
Richard Millard, 
Frederick Martin, 
William H. Mcintosh, 
Richard L. Mcintosh, 
Edward Middleton, 
Patrick McGarr, 
John Morris, 

Dennis Avery, 
Russell Avery, 
Dennis Aley, 
Jacob H. Aley, 
Madison Aley, 
William Armstrong, 
Dudley Avery, 
Calvin B. Allen, 
Harlow Abbott, 
Alexander Annable,* 
Solomon Ageter, 
David Avery, 
Charles Barbour, 
John Burdick, 
Charles H. Bartlett, 
James Bourne,* 
Abraham Brewer, 
Alonzo D. Bump, 
Edward Baker,* 
Charles D. Brown, 
David Borst,* 
Benjamin A. Briggs, 
George M. Boise,* 
Cornelius P. Brewer,* 
John Brainard, 
Frederick Burdick, 
Lorin Brown, 
William Brewer, 
Nelson Bonder, 
George W. Brazier, 
Robert Barber, 

Charles Massey, 
Samuel H. Nelson, 
Samuel Nelson,* 
Beekman Near, 
Adam Niles, 
William H. Quivey, 
Aaron B. Quivey, 
Patrick Reidy,* 
Horace L. Stiles, 
George E. Springer, 
Hiram R. Sweet, 
William Schism, 


William H. Brewer, 
Edwin W. Burrage, 
Charles H. Bordwell, 
Seymour Burch, 
Henry Baker, 
Levi Clapper, 
Henry Crandall, 
Joseph Cartright, 
Louis Colburn, 
Alonzo B. Carpenter, 
Alonzo B. Clark, 
Albert H. Clements, 
Edward Conners, 
Volney Craw, 
John Chapman, 
John J. Clements, 
Daniel A. Cole, 
McKendrick Curtis, 
James Clark, 
James Curtis,* 
Asa J. Clothier, 
Norman Casler, 
Enos Crowningshield,* 
Francis Cooney, 
Thomas Cooney, 
John Cooney, 
John Conners, 
Philander A. Cobb, 
Charles Chedell, 
William Cooney, 

John Spicer, 
John H. Shivis, 
Benjamin J. Severance, 
James D. Thompson, 
Alonzo Vandenberg, 
James "H. Vanderwerker, 
William W. Worden, 
William Wait, 
John J. Wood, 
Gilbert Warren, 
Jacob Wager, 
Norman F. Weeks. 

Nelson W. Cadman, 
Ephraim P. Cooper, 
Henry Culver, 
Patrick Cooney, 
Charles Davis, 
Robert Dixon, 
James Dawenson, 
Dennison Dodge, 
Chauncey Dudley, 
Pliny F. Dunn, 
Andrew Duval, 
Harrison Davenport, 
Charles S. Dudley, 
Emery Doolittle, 
John Davenport, 
Martin Davis, 
George Davenport, 
David Davenport, • 
Andrew B. Deuel, 
Edward Dunston, 
John Dance, 
George Delavarge, 
William Diamond, 
Jonathan Dean, jr.,* 
Edward Dwyer, 
Joseph A. Eastman, 
Thomas Elems, 
EUery Elems, 
Isaac K. Finch,* 
John Flanders,* 
William H. Fursman, 



James O. Fairchilds, 
John H. Forester, 
Michael Falon, 
Michael Fitzgibbons, 
Thomas Fox, 
Daniel Flanagan, 
Stephen Frost, 
Jonah D. Groesbeck, 
William Green,* 
Albert S. Green, 
Joseph A. Green,* 
Earl Green,* 
Wells Green, 
Patrick L. Gilroy,* 
Patrick Galvin, 
Morgan L. Holmes, 
George R. Holmes, 
Newton C. Harris, 
James H. Hazard, 
Henry Haas (or Hass),* 
Jerome Hudson, 
Erebus Hulburt, 
Jacob F. Haywood, 
Joseph Hazeltine, 
Edward Hickok, 
William H. Harrington, 
Charles Hart,* 
Warren M. Haight, 
Thomas Hoyt, 
Griffin Haight, 
Richard Hays, 
George Hess,* 
Eugene Hopkins, 
Frank Hall,* 
John H. Hilkey,* 
David R. Husted, 
Mansfield M. Harrington, 
Sylvester S. Haight, 
George H. Hammond, 
Joseph H. Hays, 
Jonathan Hopkins, 
Alonzo Hammond, 
John W. Hines, 
Thomas Hallagan, 
William H. Hamilton, 
Thomas Harlow, 
Corwin Holmes, 

Jerome Huet, 
Alvin S. Hemstreet, 
William Ingham, 
John Jones, 
Philip Johnson, 
James JefiEords, 
Francis I. Jeffords, 
Ebenezer Jacquith, 
Oliver Jones, 
Lyman Jones, 
Samuel D. Jeffords, 
James Knowlton, 
William Kelley, ' 
Naphthali W. Kenyon, 
John Kern, 
John Kritley, 
Elisha Lohnes, ■ 
Andrew V. Leonard, 
James Lynch, 
John Lee, 
Adelbert Lucas, 
Joseph Laport, 
George D. Lovejoy, 
Nathan Munn, 
James H. Myers, 
Edwin A. Merchant,* 
John McMurray, 
George H. Myers, 
Michael Munster, 
John McClellan, 
John Moon, 
Michael McGuire, 
Warren E. Miller, 
Patrick McDaniel, 
Joseph Meurer,* 
William McGovern, 
William McCall, 
Henry Munn, 
Edwin McCullough, 
Lewis Martin, 
William H. Marsh,* 
Alexander Maltby, 
Edward Murray,* 
Willard McCreedy, 
Melvin McCreedy,* 
George McCreedy, 
Henry McCreedy, 

Robert McPherson,* 
Hugh McMahon, 
James Mason, 
Samuel McCreedy, 
John W. McGregor, 
Edward P. Marshall, 
James A. Monroe, 
William McNulty, 
Thomas Mushgrove,* 
Edwin Marshall, 
James McLane, 
Nathan Munn, 
Charles H. McNaughton, 
James H. Myers, 
John Moore, 
, John A. Myers, 
John McLarnon, 
Prosper Morrison, 
Wesley Mott, 
George McGovern, 
Albert Ogden, 
Charles M. Osborne,* 
James O'Brien, 
Henry Owen, 
Sumner Oakley,* 
Benjamin Orton, 
John S. Osborne, 
William H. Osborne, 
Aaron Osborne, 
James Palmer, 
Henry Plant,* 
William Pike, 
Lorenzo Phillips, 
David A. Pennock, 
Fletcher B. Pennock, 
Philip Purdy, 
Jerome Purdy, 
Henry Pratt, 
Patrick Quigley, 
James Robertson, 
Thomas Ryan, 
George Rice, 
Henry Robertson, 
John R. Rockwell, 
Patrick Ryan, 
John H. Radley, 
William Richards,* 



Joseph Rested, 
John Rowlej', jr., 
Jonathan I. Rhodes, 
John A. Reuchler,* 
Cyrus F. Rich, 
George Root, 
R. H. Saint, 
William Slocum, 
James Strong, 
Morris Sullivan, 
Franklin Short, 
George R. Smith, 
Henry B. Shreeves,* 
Edward Smack,* 
John Stone, 
Pierpont Stickney, 
Jerome Snow, 
Eli W. Smith, 
Seneca Smith, 
Murty Sullivan, 
John Sanborn,* 
William H. Smith, 
John G. Strang, 
Samuel S. Squires, 
Henry Simpson, 
Adolph Schmidt, 
William M. Searing, 
B. H. Searing, 
Matthew Simonds, 
Charles Stahr, 
Rensselaer Stafford, 
George Sutfin,* 

Adna Abbs, jr., 
William Arnold,* 
Charles Andrews, 
Alonzo Allen, 
Arnold T. Ayers, 
Braman Ayers, jr., 
William Abbs, 
William Campbell, 
Ephraim J. Tripp, 
William Bartel, 
William Borttill, 

» Four o£ 

George T. Stevens, 
Lucius E. Shurtliff. 
Arthur Scott,* 
Franklin Stay, 
Daniel C. Simonds, 
James A. Stearns,* 
Hiram Storrs, 
Ernest Schmidt, 
Frederick Straucher, 
Joseph Swarts, 
Edward L. Smith, 
George Smith, 
Frank Thomas, 
Gilbert F. Thomas,* 
Frederick Tombs,* 
Kenyon Tefft, 
Israel F. Tanner, 
Samuel W. Tanner, 
James Tighe, 
Henry Tovee, 
Reuben K. Thompson, 
Loren M. Toms,* 
George Thompson, 
Levi Van Schaick, 

Lewis Wood, 
John Williams, 
Hiram K. Wilcox, 
John Wright, 
Thomas Whitman, 
Jarhes H. Whaley, 
William Wildey, 
George H. Welch, 
Hiram Weaver, 
John B. Welch, 
Joseph Welch, 
Stephen Welch, 
Andrew J. Weed, 
Charles H. Welch. 
De Witt C. Winney.i 
Gardner Winney, 
Bruce Winney, 
Francis K. Winney, 
John C. Winney,' 
Washington H. Wood, 
Leroy Whitman, 
Hamilton White, 
John A. Walrath, 
H. W. Wright, 
Lucius E. Wilson, 

Robert Van Slyke, 
Warner Van Valkenburgh,*Titus C. White, 
Gordon Van Valkenburgh, Silas S. White, 
Richard Van Antwerp, Henry Wilbur, 

Benjamin Viele, Clifford Weston,* 

Samuel Van Order, Charles Wilsey, 

Seneca Van Ness, Thomas White. 


Daniel E. Bortell, 
Thomas C. Black, 
Marcus Burras, 
James Bortell,* 
William A. Baker, 
William G. Ball, 
George Bolton,* 
Isaac Boise, 
William H. Boise,* 
Nathan Brown, 
Andrew Brower, 
> Killed June 25, 1876, at the Custer massacre, 
these representatives of the Winney family were brothers. 

David Borst, 
James W. Bacon, 
Case Ballou, 
Edwin Bobenreath, 
Alexander J. Beach, 
John H. Briggs, 
Miles E. Burby, 
William Barrett, 
George Bowers, 
Thomas J. Bradt, 
James Conlan, ,, 



William Craig,* 
Joseph Cromack,* 
Charles P. Cornell, 
Lewis Calkins,* 
Benjamin H. Carr, 
Clark Collins, 
George H. Curreen, 
Patrick Cannon, 
Philip S. Christy, 
Mark Cochran, 
James W. Cole, 
Eugene N. Carroll, 
George Cruise, 
James Cuyler, 
Jared L. Crouch, 
Charles M. Carter, 
Hubert Curtis, 
William J. Chilson, 
Thomas Craig, 
John Crouch, 
Egbert W. Davis, 
Robert N. Delong, 
Joseph R. Day,* 
Benjamin H. Day,* 
Truman Deuel, 
Stephen Davis, 
James Dunk, 
John Duckett, 
Wesley J. Date, 
Henry C. Delong, 
Henry C. Dye, 
Robert Delong, 
Henry Davis, 
William Eastbam, 
Nathan Eldredge, 
Alfred Eighmy, 
Edward Estabrook, 
Patrick English, 
Leonard Englehart, 
Warren Earl, 
James Emperor,* 
Schuyler Freeman, 
William D. Freeman, 
Cyrus M. Fay, 
Robert Fox,* 
Andrew J. Freeman, 
George F. Foster, 

James V. Fogg,* 
Herman C. Fowler, 
Samuel Farnsworth, 
Collins Foster, 
John Fuller, 
A. M. Fitzgerald, 
Elenah Gildersleeve, 
David E. Goffe, 
Gottfried Gleesattle, 
George T. Graham, 
Justus M. Gilson,* 
Frederick Gleesattle, 
James K. Gillespie, 
John Greer, 
Harley Groesbeck, 
David Galusha, 
Terence Gregg, 
John Goeghan, 
George R. Goodwin, 
Dudley Goodwin, 
John Hegeman, 
Charles Howard, 
Ozias Hewitt, 
Clement C. Hill, 
Noble G. Hammond, 
Alanson F. Hatch,* 
Amasa A. Holbrook, 
Otis Holbrook,* 
Cornelius S. Huyck, 
Edward Hall, 

Dallas Hoyt, 
Alexander C. Holmes, 
William H. Hewitt, jr., 

James A. Hanna, 

Seymour Harris, 

Smith Harlow, 

Orrin Hill, 

William B. Horton, 

John B. Harlow, 

John M. Hammond, 

George L. Hayes, 

Andrew Hassett, 

William Hall, 

John Howard, 

Frederick Hope, 

Stephen Harris, 

Nicholas Hudson, 

Alva Hickok, 

William H. Hewitt, 

Martin Hunter, 

Thomas Harris, 

George W. Ingalls, 

Edwin R. Ingalls, 

Benjamin J. Jones, 

William J. Jennings, 

William H. Johnston, 

James Jermain, - 

Frederick Keenholtz,* 

Christopher F. Keenholtz, 

Oscar Kemp, 

Edwin L. Lockwood, 

George D. Luffman, 

Lewis Lakey,* 

Francis Love,* 

Matthew Love,* 

Moses Lewis, 

John E. Lansing, 

Lewis Lane, 

George Le Clare, 

Jesse R. Lewis, 

William Lewis, 

Henry Lowery, 

Joseph Lewis, 

Wallace Morrison, 

John Mitchell, 

Alexander Morrison, 
Thomas Mainhood, 
Alexander Slead, 
David D. Miller,* 
Alexander Mcintosh, 
John F. Mosher,* 
Frederick Morehouse, 
John Mosher, 
George Milham, 
Ferdinand Miller, 
James McNab, 
Wallace Mcintosh, 
John S. McKnight, 
Patrick Murray, 
James B. McLean, 
E. Wilson Merriam, 
Charles MasSey, 
Samuel Massey, 
James C. Milliman, 



H. T. Medbery, 
Robert E. Nelson, 
Henry O'Neil,* 
Elijah Olmstead,* 
Leonard Osman,* 
John O'Neil, 
W. H. Owen, 
Charles A. Perry, 
Robert Porter, 
Archibald Phillips, 
Anson J. Palmatier, 
Alfred Pickett, 
Cyrus Padelford, 
Reuben Parkhurst, 
Isaac Porter, 
Charles Pettit. 
Asahel W. Potter, 
Henry Packard, 
Albert J. Reid, 
Patrick D. Rooney,* 
James E. Reed, 
Frederick Smith, 
Benjamin T. Simon, 
Lafayette Schermerhorn,* 
Arnold Spicer, 
Paul Settle, jr., 
Charles Shiegel, 
John Southwart, 
Simeon Sill, 
Lorenzo Smith, 
Philip SchaflEer, 

John W. Arnold,* 
Lucian Annable, 
John R. Armstrong, 
Loren Abel, 
James Anthony, 
Charles D. Atkinson, 
Adolphus Arnold, 
Julius P. Bennett, 
George Bostwick, 
Orramel T. Bostwick, 
William Burger, 
James Bloomingdale,* 
John Burras, 
Archibald Brown, 

Elijah Sherman, 
Edward C. Slocum, 
Thomas S. Stairs, 
John P. Staples, 
John G. Sternbaur, 
Harris T. Slocum, 
Benjamin Severance, 
Martin V. Sheffer, 
Hiram Sweet, jr., 
Charles H. Sullivan, 
Horace Salisbury, 
Hiram P. Sherman, 
Darius Shill, 
Tobias Salisbury, 
Charles Searles, 
Zagar Strong,* 
Gideon A. Tripp, 
Flavius A. Titus, 
Ira Tripp,* 
James D. Thompson, 
George W. Trumble, 
Royal M. Tenny, 
Ephraim Tiff, 
Isaac Thorp, 
Miletus Taft, 

Sandy R. Van Steenburgh, 
Asa Van Dyke, 
George Van Dyke, 
William R. Van Arnum, 
Jacob H. Van Arnum, 


Stephen F. Baker, 
Benjamin A. Briggs, 
Henry Bradt, 
Levi A. Brooks, 
William R. Britton, 
John Barnes, 
Charles H. Betts, 
James Buchanan,* 
Thomas J. Bradt, 
John D. Bristol, 
Lysander Bortle, 
Joseph M. Bullock, 
William M. Carl, 
William S. Comstock,* 

John H. Van Steenburgh, 
Michael Van Horn, 
George L. Van Steenburgh, 
James E. Webster,* 
Joseph S. Wayne,* 
Edmund Williams, 
George M. Wood, 
Horace Weaver, 
Samuel H. Weldon, 
Datus E. Wilbur, 
James M. Wood, 
James A. Wager, 
Eugene Werner, 
Jeremiah Wager, 
Albert L. Wood, 
Norman Wood, 
Charles F. Wait, 
Isaac Warn, 
Albert A. Weatherwax, 
John Walls, 

Alonzo M. Weatherwax, 
William Weatherwax, 
William Webb, 
John R. Wilbur, 
Atwood Wilbur, 
Lee Whalen, 
Daniel Webster, 
George Webster, 
Harvey Young, 
Waldo Young, 

Slocum Clark, 
Seth Codman, 
Michael Cary,* 
Joseph Clark, 
Chauncey Crandall, 
George Carr, 
Thomas H. Curley, 
George H. Collamer, 
William S. Comstock, 
Jesse D. Comstock, 
Joseph Caho, 
Charles Conner, 
Edwin C. Collamer, 
Thomas Collamer, 



James Cowhey, 
Charles Devoe, 
John Dyer, 
Thomas Delany, 
Lorenzo Delun , 
Eli D. Eitzo,* 
Thomas Elms, 
William C. Ensign, 
Thomas Emperor, 
Charles Elms, 
Clarence Elms, 
Charles B. Fellows,* 
Simon Flansburg, 
William Francisco, 
Adam Flansburg, 
Peter Folmsbee 

(or Formsby), 
Jacob Force, 
Elisha R. Freeman, 
John Flynn, 
Henry G. Force, 
Augustus Farrimar, 
George Fry, 
Arthur W. Force, 
John Guest, 
Hubert Gallup,* 
Michael Goodwin, 
William H. Gorham, 
Stephen Guest, 
James Gilbert, 
Lewis G. Gorham, 
George H. Golden, 
Stephen C. Hanson, 
Henry Hagadorn, 
Charles Hart, 
George F. Houghtaling, 
Theodore Hermance, 
Ashton M. Howard, 
B. A. Harrington, 
George W. Hurley, 
Alonzo Howland, 
George W. Hammond, 
Walter Hewitt, 
George Houseman, 
Isaac V. Hammond,* 
Richard Hutchins, 
Sylvester S. Haight, 

Thomas Jones, 
Allen Jones, 
William D. Jones, 
Charles JefEers, 
Martin Jackson, 
Thomas Keller, 
Isaac Kipp, jr.,* 
Tunis Kipp, 
John H. Kipp, 
George Kline, 
Abel J. Loren, 
Abram Lent, 
Abraham Latham,* 
George E. Lane, 
Reed Loomis, - 
Mark Merger, 
Orin Myers, 
Peter M. Mooney, 
Thomas Myers, 
Lafayette M. Myers, 
Henry Milliken,* 
Francis I. Montgomery, 
Alfred Milliken, 
Charles Milliken,* 
Amos McOmber, 
Isaac Myers, jr., 
Leander Milliken, 
Thomas McCue, 
Andrew M. Carlin, 
George B. Myers, 
Charles Mott. 
Samuel McGowan, 
James Nolan, 
Michael Nolan, 
George W. Ostrander, 
Elias T. Overocker, 
James F. Outing, 
De Witt C. Overocker, 
Thomas F. Outing, 
William N. Overocker, 
Robert E. Parker, 
James E. Poucher, 
Seneca Poucher, 
Samuel Porter, 
Horatio G. Peck, 
Isaac Porter, 
David Pangburne, 

William Poucher, 
Henry Parris, 
John Phelan, 
James Parker,* 
Peter M. Post, 
Henry O. Packard, 
James Palmer, 
William H. Quackenbush, 
Tunis W. Quackenbush,* 
Michael Quinlan, 
William R. Rogers, 
Albert A. Rudd, 
Samuel W. Seymour, 
John Smith, 
George Snow, 
Harlow B. Spencer, 
Andrew Sterrett, 
William Shein, 
Nelson W. Stearns,* 
Russell Seymour, 
Henry H. Shell, 
William Smith,* 
Francis D. Short, 
George Snyder, 
James Smith, 
Edward Smith, 
John Stewart,* 
Job S. Safford, 
Warren Seymour, 
Frank Thomas, 
James Taylor, 
David A. Thompson, 
William Taylor, 
Benjamin Thackery, 
Israel Tanner, 
Truman M. Tourtellot, 
Samuel Van Norder, 
Henry J. Van Wie, 
Cornelius Vandenburg, 
Barnard Van Auder 

(or Van Norder), 
Andrew J. Van Wie, 
William N. Viele, 
Newman Van Wie, 
Lawrence Vandenmark, 
John Van Wie, 
Charles Vandeburg, 



A. J. Walker, 
Horace Wing, 
Charles Webb, 
Michael Wall, 
Richard Walsh, 

Joel S. Alexander,* 
Oscar Alexander, 
William H. Alexander, 
William G. Barhydt, 
Walter Barnard, 
John Barnes,* 
Frank D. Barnum, 
Albert Fisk Beach, 
Aaron Berger, 
Henry Bethman, 
Patrick Bolin, 
Samuel C. Bradt,* 
Lewis Broughton, 
Thomas Broughton, 
Nathan H. Brown, 
Edward Cain, 
I/evi Callen, 
William H. Cath, 
David J. Caw, 
George Chambers,* 
Isaac H. Conde, 
John H. Cook,* 
James Cooney, 
Abraham Coonradt,* 
Philip S. Coonradt, 
James H. Corl,* 
Gilbert C. Davidson,* 
Thomas Delong, 
James Drummond, 

Arthur Ashdown, 
John R. Britton, 
Ira Billingham, 
Nelson Batt, 
Courtlandt Backman, 
James H. Bratt, 
Benjamin Bace,* 
Charles Bace, 

William H. Westcot, 
Lewis C. Ward, 
Charles Wilsey, 
John J. Williams, 
MelvinW. Wilson, 


James L. Dows,* 
William Foyle,* 
James W. Finch, 
John L. Fort,* 
Oren Fowler,* 
Lawrence Gardiner, 
Garrett S. Grovenstein, 
Harvey B. Grovenstein, 
John Grovenstein, 
William C. Harmon,* 
William H. Hart, 
Henry W. Heaton, 
Francis Haynes, 
George Houseman, 
Leroy Hoyt,* 
Orey Hudson, 
Briggs N. Jenne, 
Oscar I. Jenne, 
Edward O. Jennings, 
William H. Jones, 
Charles H. Jones, 
Michael Kildea, 
Alfred H. Kingsley. 
Joseph F. Kingsley, 
James D. Knight, 
Andrew Manning,* 
John Martin, 
David Millard, 
John C. Morehouse, 


Joseph Black,* 
Sylvester Black,* 
Martin Cody, 
William Curtis, 
John W. Clute, 
Hiram Clute,* 
Patrick Conway,* 
Henry Dummer, 

Lee Whalen, 
Gardner Winney, 
De Witt Winney, 
Edwin Williams, 
John A. Whitman. 

Charles H. Murray, 
John W. Owen, 
William H. Owen, 
John C. Quinn, 
John Rector,* 
Henry C. Riley, 
James Riley, 
John D. Riley, 
Simon Riley, 
Charles W. Rowley, 
Charles R. Severance, 


Henry A. Smith, 
William H. Smith, 
Louis W. Stanhope, 
Lorenzo Smith, 
Thomas Stairs, 
George Tanner,* 
Frank Underbill,* 
James H. Underbill, 
Frederick Valentine, 
John Van Evera, 
Peter Wager, 
John W. Ward, 
Manly Warren, 
Barent Wemple, 
George C. Wilder,* 
William E. Wilder,* 
James K. Wilson. 

John Dugan, 
Abram Devitt, 
A. L. Estabrook, 
J. H. Francisco, 
James Frazier, 
James H. Gettings, 
Thomas H. Glavin, 
John Halpin, 



Lawrence Wiggins, 
James 1. House, 
Baker Honsinger, 
Patrick Hussey, 
Henry W. Hart, 
Joseph Harriman, 
Samuel Johnson, 
Charles N. Kilby, 
Daniel Lavery, 
Edward Lavery, 
Oscar E. Little, 
Patrick Morrissey, 
Patrick McCall, 
John Murray,* 
John M. Martratt, 
Matthew H. Martratt, 
Patrick McCartey, 
Charles E. Martratt, 
Charles Ogden, 
Benjamin O'Connor, 
George H. Parkman, 

James W. Parks, 
George W. Porter, 
Edwin Porter, 
J. G. Porter,* 
Samuel H. Peters,* 
Newton Peters. 
George L. Rogers, 
Oliver Shaw,* 
Ezra T. Stone, 
Harrison A. Stone, 
Martin Slatterly, 
Ralph A. Savage, 
John W. Schofield, 
Charles A. Schofield, 
. John Singleton, 
Charles W. Shepherd,* 
Henry Simpson, 
Duane Shepherd, 
John Ten Broeck, 
John H. Van Orden, 

James Van Orden, 
Barna Vandekar, 
Joseph C. Vandewerker, 
Schuyler Vandekar, 
William Van Antwerp, 
T. B. Vandekar,* 
John H. Vandewerker,* 
Jesse White, 
Martin Welsh, 
Joseph Wright, 
Edward White, 
Giles B. Wood, 
Lewis Wells, 
Daniel G. Waldron, 
William Welch, 
Ira M. Wilson, 
Lemand Wager, 
John Wright,* 
Edward Welch, 
Lewis B. Wells.* 

Oscar L. Ackley,* 
Judson B. Andrews, 
John M. Brewer, 
Joseph H. Bullock, 
Charles H. Betts, 
Ebenezer C. Broughton, 
Augustus W. Bayard, 
George E. Brockway, 
George W. Bortle, 
Charles Burnham,* 
Rev. Fred N. Barlow, 
James H. Clark, 
George D. Cole, 
Rev. Sylvester W. Clemens, 
William S. Clemens, 
George Carr, 
Henry G. Craig, 
Simeon W. Crosby, 
Henry Clark, 
Aaron Dillingham,* 
Thomas Donahue, 
Charles W. Dusten, 
Henry B. Dummer, 


Thomas Empterns, 
William H. Evartts,* 
John W. Filkins, 
Ambrose Fowler, 
Peter Folmsbee, 
E. Raymond Fonda,* 
Abram Filkins, 
Losee Filkins, 
George Freeman, 
Isaac L. Fonda, 
Alfred Gould, 
Fred S. Goodrich, 
William H. Gorham, 
Edward Greene, 
Henry Haylock, 
George T. Hoag, 
George H. Houghtaling, 
James K. P. Himes,* 
James H. Hicks,* 
John Hoover, 
Henry Honeyer, 
Edward Holland, 
Isaac V. Irish, 

John Irish, 
Patrick Kelly, 
James T. Kennedy, 
George Kilmer, 
John Kelly,* 
Aaron Lewis, 
William B. Look, 
Philip Link,* 
Abbott C. Musgrave,* 
John Mulligan, 
Charles H. Milliken,* 
Leander Milliken, 
John McGuire, 
Alfred G. Noxon, 
S. Mitchell Noxon, 
Alfred Phoenix, 
George W. Pettit, 
Hiram Richardson,* 
William Ryan, 
Frank Short, 
William Smith,* 
Henry Sampson, 
Marvin Steenburgh, 



Henry Shouts, 
Andrew H. Smith, 
John P. Silvernail, 
Duane Shepherd,* 
Almon E. Stone, 
Jacob Sever, 
De Witt Sickler, 
Samuel W. Seymour, 
Samuel D. Stevenson, 

John Smith, 
Solomon P. Smith, 
Chalsey W. Simmons,* 
Frank Smith, 
Benjamin Thackrah 

(or Thackeray), 
Elias D. Tuttle, 
Thomas Thackeray, 
George Vandercook, 

Warren Van Olinda, 
George T. Van Hoesen, 

Van Dervort, 

James Wilson,* 
John R. Wait, 
Samuel A. Winslow, 
James Wade, 
Albert Wood in. 

Merritt B. Allen, 
Samuel Allen,* 
Thomas Armer,* 
Gideon A. Austin, 
Orville W. Austin, 
Vernam Barber,* 
Henry Bertrand,* 
George Bevin,* 
Henry Boughton,* 
Henry Bolton, 
Miles Bowen, 
Smith Briggs,* 
Michael Brusnihan, 
Hiram Broughton, 
John E. Cavert, 
Nicholas Cavert,* 
James Clancy, 
J. W. Clark,* 
John Clifford, 
John Clifford, jr., 
George Colony,* 
Almonte Crater, 
David B. Crittenden, 
James Driscoll, 
Richard Dunberg, 
Charles S. Fisher,* 
Henry Fisher, 
Thomas Fitzgerald,* 
Edward Fosmire, 
Frederick Foss, 
William Foss, 
Alonzo Hermance, 


Alfred Hickok, 
John H. Hicks, 
John P. Hudson, 
Nathan B. Hudson, 
John Hunter, 
James Ireland, 
William Ireland, 
Robert Kelly, 
Oliver Lansing, 
William Leach, 
Everts Lingenfelter, 
John Lowry, 
Joel McCouchie, 
Terence McGovern, 
Thomas McGovern, 
Alonzo H. McKee, 
Samuel McKinney,* 
Ezra McOmber, 
George A. McOmber, 
Simeon D. Mirandeville, 
Henry Morgan, 
Charles Mow, 
John C. Mow, 
James Norris, 
John Norris, 
Benjamin C. Northrup, 
William Orr, 
Charles Ostrander,* 
Calvin W. Preston, 
Frederick W. Putzar,* 
Frederick Quant, 
Patrick Ready,* 
James Reese,* 

James Reese, jr., 
Matthew Relyea, 
William Relyea, 
John L. Root,* 
Seth B. Root, 
John Rubach, 
Simon Ryan, 
Daniel Shayne, 
Thomas Shayne, 
Michael Sheehy, 
Lucius E. Shurtliff, 
John A. Smith, 
William Sullivan, 
Henry Tanner,* 
William Tompkins,* 
William Turner, 
Cornelius Ty meson, 
Eldert Tymeson,* 
Charles F. Wait, 
George W. Welch, 
John W. Whitmarsh, 
Walter W. Zears, 
Charles Cornell, 
James Cowhey, 
Charles H. Crouch, 
Christopher Hyer, 
Lyman E. Miller, 
William R. Miller, 
W. W. MiUiman, 
C. Palmatier, 
Horace A. Post, 
John Shear. 



William Henry Ames, 
Thomas Andrews, 
Thomas Barney, 
David W. Barry, 
General George S. Batchel- 

Commander Oliver H. Bat- 

cheller, U.S.N.,2 
Preserved A. Benson, 
Wesson Benson,* 
George W. Bidwell, 
David L. Bowman, 
Amos O. Brown, 
Calvin Brown, 
Daniel W. Barney, 
Amos Burk, 
Carmi Betts, 
John Booth, 
Daniel Cady, 
Timothy Cady,* 
John G. Casey, \ 

Lorin Cole,* 
William T. Conkling,* 
Charles D. Cozens, 
Addison L. Davenport,* 
John S. Dean, 
Asa Deming, 
Asa Deming, 


Ezekiel Deming, 
Horace Demingi 
John H. Deming, 
Mansfield A. Deming,* 
Simeon Deming, 
James B. Douglas,* 
Anson J. Downing, 


George T. Downing, 
Morris J- Drymau,* 
William Dullard, 
George M. Evans, 


George Fox, 
John Freeman, 
Leman Frost, 
Otis Frost, 
John G. Graves,* 
Julian W. Graves, 
William Graves,* 
William Greenfield, 
Abner Hall, 
William B. Hall, 
Emery W. Hosley,* 
George L. Hayden,* 
Charles D. Herrick, 
Joseph M. Herrick, 
William Douglass Herrick, 
Charles J. Houghtaling, 
John H. Hulburt, 
George W. Hutchinson, 
Charles W. Jenkins, 
William H. Jenkins,* 
Nicholas Jensser,* 
David W. Jones,* 
Willard Jones.* 
George B. King, 
John S. King, 
Samuel W. King, 
Warren E. Kinney, 
Charles W. Knight, 
Jesse Lewis, 
William H. Lewis, 
James Lockwood, 

Jesse Low, 
David E. Lyon, 
Louis Mackay, 
Henry C. McCuen, 
James McLean, 
Jonas McLean, 
Jesse Moore, 
Frankhn Morrill, 
Edward Mott, 
Levi Myers, 
John H. Noyes, 
Newton S. Noyes, 
Charles A. Perkins, 
Henry P. Perry, 
Franklin Priest, 
George R. Priest, 
Peter S. Putnam, 
Edwin C. Resseguie, 
Henry Rhodes, 
Samuel Rhodes, 
William Rhodes, 
Francis Rice, 
Michael Rice, 
John Ross, 
Hayden Shew, 
Mahlon Robinson, 
Amasa D. Shippey, 
Robert P. Smith, 
Joseph H. Snow, 
George Steele, 
Lyman Steele,* 
William F. Stewart,* 
James Tabor, 
Foster Taylor, 
Charles E. Thorn, 
Smith Travis, 

' Georg-e S. Batcheller was lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred and Fifteenth New York 
Volunteers; was afterward made inspector-general of New York State, and later was appointed 
a judge in the International Court at Cairo, Egypt. He has also served 'several terms in the 
New York State Assembly, has been United States minister to Portugal, and assistant -treasurer 
of the United States, and is now serving his second term as judge of the International Court at 

^ Oliver H. Batcheller was graduated from the United States Naval academy at Annapolis, 
Md., and became a lieutenant in the navy. He served with Farragut at Mobile and Port Hudson, 
was promoted to be lieutenant-commander, and later was put in command of the Navy yard at 
Charlestown, Mass. 



James Varney, 
Russell Varney, 
Thomas J. Wheaton, 
John H. Whitaker,* 
Henry W. Whitaker, 

Charles D. Atkinson, 
Philip J. Austin, 
Charles Atkins, 
Chauncey L. Beebe, 
Charles C. Clark, 
Charles S. Dunham, 
Albert Dunning, 

Frederick W. Andrews,* 
Horace Ballou, 
Aaron Bratt,* 
Timothy Brewer, 
Archibald E. Brooks,* 
George Brooks, 
Francis Brower, 
David T. Burnham, 
Daniel Cady, 
Henry W. Cass, 
Charles Chapman, 
Asa J. Clothier, 
J. S. Clothier, 
William M. Clothier, 
Dwight Combs, 
Justin Combs,* 
Charles Davis,* 
R. H. Densmore, 
S. T. Densmore,* 
Peter Deuel,* 
Elijah Earls, 
James Early, 
Luther Frazier,* 
Truman Gray, 

William H. Austin, 
Joseph W. Abiel, 
Thomas H. Adock, 
Isaac Bemus, 

Myron White,* 
Wing A. White, 
Frank Whitney, 
Hartwell H. Whitney,* 
John H. Wickus,* 


George D. Fish, 
Erastus H. Harder, 
William H. Kane, 
Charles W. Miller, 
William McCarty, 
Abner Mosher, 
Edward Olmstead, 
Joseph Pairer, 


Byron Guiles, 
Samuel Guiles,* 
Harmon Hagadorn, 
John Haggerty, 
Ambrose C. Hickok, 
Solomon Hickok,* 
Daniel B. Ide, 
Gilbert C. Ide, 
Havillah J. Loop, 
F. La Pierre, 
George B. Lyon, 
William P. Lyon, 
Henry W. Mallery, 
Levi Manning, 
Hugh McCouchie, 
Joseph McCouchie,* 
John Merritt, 
J. I. Monroe, 
William H. Monroe, 
Frederick Parkman, 
George Place, 
Isaac Plue,* 
John Redmond, 
Philip Rice,* 


Edward Brady, 
James C. Brisbin, 
Lewis A. Burdick, 
John Brainerd, 

Paul R. Williams, 
John Wood, 
Norman B. Wood, 
Theodore Worden. 

William H. Rose, 
George D. Story, 
Eugene Shears, 
John Stewart, 
Sidney Smith, 
Michael Van Horn,* 
George W. Vail. 

John St. John, 
Darius Schofield, M, D. , 
Chauncey Searls, 
Augustus Sherman, 
Alexander Showers, 
Joseph H. Showers,* 
Thomas Smith, 
Joel Taylor, 
James Turner, 
Reuben Varney, 
Alexander Walker,* 
David L. Walker, 
Epaphroditas Walker,' 
Romaine Walker, 
Benjamin Wheaton, 
Emory J. White, 
Myron W. Wilcox, 
Hamilton B. Woodcock 
Henry J. Woodcock, 
Hiram Woodcock,* 
Jesse F. Wood, 
William Woodward,* 
Uriah Young.* 

John P. Bijrns, 
George H. Brown, 
James Burns, 
James Baths,* 



Frederick Bocher, 
John Burke, 
John A. Chase, 
John Case, 
James H. Carr, 
Rodolphus Cook, 
John Conners, 
John C. Coon, 
Su'mner S. Clark, 
Joseph Carney, 
William CofEnger, 
Alfred Chase,* 


John Donnelly,* 
Henry J. Davis,* 
George H. Ellison, 
William Ellett, 
William T. Fuller, 
Thomas S. Fuller, 
Walter GifBord, 
David Galusha, 
Charles Goodwin, 
Edward Gawner, 
James Galusha, 
James K. Galusha, 
George M. Galusha,* 
James Harrington, 
John Horrigan,* 
James Hays, 
Thomas Hackett, 
Joseph M. Hays, 
Henry Kurd, 
Philip Harder, 
George Hanner, 
Frank Hall,* 
Charles Juba, 
Patrick Keney, 
Franklin Kirkham, 

Warren Baker, 
Amasa Bartlett,* 
Charles Blackwood, 
George N. Blackwood, 
William Blackwood,* 
Edward Blower, 
John Brown,* 
Joseph Campbell,* 

George D. Lovejoy, 
Charles Leack,* 
Francis Leack, 
William Limber, 
Octavius Landon, 
Amos Laduke, 
Leander Laduke, 
Michael Labare, 
David Laraw, 
Abraham Y. Lansing, 
Ambrose McOdock, 
Victor Matott,* 
James McLane, 
Charles W. Mott, 
Hugh McMann, 
Peter Murphy, 
Ambrose Matott,* 
Timothy Madigan, 
Joseph Merchant, 
William McCartey, 
Edward Moran, 
Thomas Money, 
Henry M. Moody,* 
William H. McLane, 
Samuel McGown, 
Jacob Newman, 
Moses Newell, 
Thomas Newalk, 
Taylor I. Newell, 
George S. Orr, 
John L. Osborne, 
Aaron H. Osborne, 
Hiram A. Perkins, 
Charles E. Phillips,* 
George H. Pearsall, 
John W. Palmer, 
Daniel Peck, 

Dennis Costello, 
William Dingman,* 
John W. Dubois,* 
Samuel Ellis, 
Elam Evans,* 
George Evans,* 
Samuel Evans, 
John J. Flanders, 

Joseph Pepo, 
Reuben E. Robinson, 
Daniel Reardon, 
Harper N. Rogers, 
John Robinson,* 
Calvin A. Rice, 
James Shaw, 
James G. Scott, 
Alvin Smith, 
Sanford Shearer, 
Samuel A. Shaver, 
Joseph Smith, 
Washington Sherman,* 
Jaipes Shurter,* 
Patrick Savage, 
James M. Terhune, 
Loren M. Toms,* 
Reuben K. Thompson, 
Patrick Toumey, 
James H. Terhune, 
William Vanduzen, 
Charles Van Kleeck,* 
Taylor Vandewerker, 
Sidney Vandenburg, 
James Van Wagner,* 
Lewis W. Vandenburg,* 
James P. Vandewerker,* 
James C. Vandenburg,* 
Lyman Vandenburg, 
Dennison J. Willard, 
Isaac H. Wilson, 
Shallum We^, 
William Wildy, 
John P. Winney, 
Henry Wilder, 
Patrick Welch, 
Ch3,rles Wheeler." 

Jonathan Flanders, 
John Gilbert, 
Briggs Gray, 
George Harrington,* 
Eugene Holland, 
John Holland, 
Charles Jeflfers, 
RoUin Jenkins, 



Joel J. Loveless, 
William Mahar, 


John McCormick, 
Zabin Mills,* 
William Newton,* 
Charles H. Palmer,* 
Mandelbert J. Palmer,* 
William H. Palmer, 
John Peart, 
Joseph Reed, 
Frank Rice,* 
Wade Rice, 

Michael Ahr, 
Henry H. Barker, 
Albert M. Burroughs, 
Walter D. Barnes,* 
Charles Brice,* 
Thomas E. Brice, 
George Burnham, 
Frank Breese, 
James C. Brisbin, 
Joel Brown, 
William H. Bennett, 
Charles H. Brodie, 
Walter Brodie, 
George W. Campbell, 
Luther Church, 
Charles Cutler, 
Reed Church, 
Patrick Callan, 
C. M. Cool, 
Patrick Conoly, 
Asa J. Clothier, 
Walter Dwyer,* 
Ransom O. Dwyer,* 
Abraham L. Davis, 
Stephen Decker,* 
Josepli Dorvee, 
George De Long, 
Henry H. Day, 
William Dorvee, 
John Davis, 
Philip Donahue, 

Joseph Ross, 
Samuel Ross, 
Edwin Ruthven, 


Wesley Scovill, 
Edward Sherman, 
Zabin Shippey, 
Irving Simpson, 
Charles Stewart, 
Daniel A. Stewart, 
Truman B. Stewart, 
Walter Sutliff, 


Alonzo Ensign 
David Ellison, 
A. Ellison, 
James Ellison, 
Danford Edmonds, 
Danford Edmonds 2d, 
Tobias Fralenburgh, 
Henry G. Gurney, 
Enoch Gurney, 
Truman Gilbert, 
Frederick Gleesattle, 
John W. Hilton, 
John Hilton,* 
Timothy Hodges, 
George E. Hutchins, 
Lewis Hamlin, 
James Brisbin, 
Clark Hawley, 
William Higgins, 
Richard Isby,* 
Joseph Jump, 
Sylvester Jacobus,* 
Samuel E. Kidd, 
Andrew J. Keys, 
Franklin Kirkham, 
N. J. Latimore, 
Joseph La Rose, 
Samuel Malison,* 
Daniel Morse, 
Daniel E. Morse, 
Michael Mehan, 
Newton F. McOmber, 

Henry Townsend,* 
Cassius Varney,* 
Obadiah Varney,* 
Simeon Wait,* 
Michael Ward, 
Frederick Washburn, 
Henry Washburn, 
Ira Washburn,* 
Elbridge Wheelock,* 
William Wheelock, 
Ariel Loveless, 
Richard M. Sprague. 

William McNeil, 
Jeffrey Merrill, 
Henry Merrill, 
George Merrill, 
John McGinnis,* 
William McCormic, 
Tabor Newton, 
William T. Norris,* 
Henry C. Newton, 
Andrew Normand, 
William Orton, 
Albert H. Ott, 
Morgan L. Purdy, 
George Purdy, 
Solomon H. Parks, 
Wallace Parks, 
Lawrence Palmer, 
George H. Putnam, 
Edward Pearson, 
George Ross. 
Joseph R. Rey, 
William Rising, 
James Reynolds, 
Reuben Robinson, 
Benjamin Robinson, 
Nathaniel Rice. 
Charles Sill, 
William Sweet,* 
Milton F. Sweet, 
Rowland Sherman, 
James M. Shurter.* 
Dudley E. See,* 



George W. Smith, 
James Smith, 
Reuben Sherman,* 
Levi Shaffer,* 
Jacob A. Sisson, 
George H. Skym, 
James C. Smith,* 
Ira Scott, 
George Sumner, 

Seneca Ackley, 
Henry Allen, 
James Armstrong, 
Lewis S. Bailey, 
Charles N. Baker, 
Henry Baker, 
Isaac Baker, 
Stephen F. Baker, 
Lester D. Bardwell, 
William Bartman, 
William Beardsley, 
Charles Bemus, 
Alfred Bender, 
Oliver Bennett, 
James Benson, 
George C. Bentley,* 
Henry Bentley, 
Washington P. Bentley, 
Andrew Benton, 
George Bishop, 
Silas E. Blowers, 
Frank L. Brewster, 
Charles Brown, 
John Brown, 
Willard Brown, 
William J. Brown, 
John T. Bryant, 
James H. Burdick, 
Lewis A. Burdick, 
William H. Burdick. 

George Scott, 
Martin Snyder,* 
Franklin Smith, 
George Sleight,* 
George Storer, 
George C. Tucker, 
Jesse Thompson,* 
James C. Vandenburg,* 
Lyman Vandenburg, 


Jesse Burlingham, 
Charles Burpee, 
Frank Cady, 
John Cady, 
Oscar Cady, 
Alexander Campbell, 
Henry C. Campbell, 
Albert Carp, 
Truman Carpenter, 
Joel Carr,* 
Charles Chapman, 
Morgan H. Chrysler,' 
Wilbur M. Clark, 
Robert B. Conde, 
John Conklin, 
Joseph Conners, 
John Connery, 
Richard B. Coutant, 
Zina H. Cowles,* 
Jeremiah Coy, 
Zera Coy, 
Samuel S. Craig,* 
Enos Crandall,* 
Joseph Crandall, jr., 
Paul D. Crandall,* 
Commodore P. Curtis, 
Winslow J. Dake,* 
Darius S. Davis, 
Frederick O. Day, 

Elias Washburn, 
C. Frank Winship, 
James White, 
Lloyd Weston,* 
William H. Yattaw, 
John J. Yattaw, 
Christopher Yattaw, 
Robert Yattaw, 
Hiram Yattaw. 

Elijah Dean, jr., 
Sylvanus T. Densmore,' 
Dennis Desmond, 
Edwin B. Deuel, 
James C. Deyoe, 
Andrew J. Dorman, 
James Dorley,* 
Andrew J. Dowen,* 
Ezra W. Drake, 
William H. Drake, 
Augustus Dunham, 
Charles S. Dunham, 
Holtum Dunham, 
Thomas Dunn, 
Stephen Eddy, 
Henry Elliott,* 
James Emperor,* 
George D. Ferris, 
Simeon E. Ford, • 

John Gibbons, 
Andrew W. Gifford,* 
Allen S. Glenn, 
James D. Goodhue, 
Robert B. Goudie, 
Alonzo Green, 
Davis Green,* 
Oscar F. A. Green,* 
William Green,* 
William W. Green, 
Asa L. Gurney, 

^ Colonel Chrysler, who entered the service as captain of Company G, Thirtieth New York 
Volunteers, enlisting May 7, 1861, was promoted to major March 11, 1862, and to lieutenant-colonel 
September 20, 1862. He was mustered out with his regiment June ^, 1863, and soon after re-en- 
listed as colonel of the Second New York Veteran Cavalry. He was severely wpunded through 
the chest at Atchafalaya Bayou, La., July 28, 1864, and was soon after brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral, and was mustered out of the United States service November 26, 1865. 



George W. Gurney, 
George Hagamore, 
George Hanse, 
Clinton Harris, 
Ezra Harris, 
JohnS. Harris, 
John T. Harris, 
Lyman W. Harris,* 
Mark C. Harris, 
Morris Harris, 
George W. Hazard,* 
James H. Hazard, 
Hiram Hendrick, 
James Hendrick,* 
Herman Hermanghans, 
John Hill, 
John W. Hill,* 
Josiah Hill, 
Seth Hill, 
George H. Hodges, 
John G. Holsapple, 
David A. Hopkins, 
Nelson Hopkins,* 
Silas Hopkins, 
John J. Hindson, 
James H. Huested, 
Henry J. Hurd, 
Charles E. Ingerson, 
James H. Ireland,* 
Michael Jennings, 
George W. Johnson, 
Henry Jones, 
Henry F. Jones, 
John Jones, 
Lewis S. Jones,* 
Oliver Jones, 
Thomas J. Jones, 
William Jones, 
Leonard J. Jordan, 
William Jordan, 
John Kelly, 
Oscar Kemp, 
John Kennedy, 
Edward M. Kerriett, 
Jonas Kested, 
John Killiard, 
Benedict A. King, 

Isaac King, 
Herman Laner, 
David W. Langdon,* 
Charles Lee, 
Martin Leonard, 
Henry M. Lewis, 
Moses Lewis, 
Henry L. Lincoln, 
Sidney D. Lincoln,* 
Sigsmund Lockhart, 
Zebbee Lockwood, 
John Louther, 
Daniel W. Lovell, 
Henry Lynett, 
James S. Lyon, 
John Mack, 
Nicholas D. MafEett, 
Frank Mangin, 
Henry Marcellus, 
Hiram Marks, 
Andrew Martin, 
Harrison H. Mastin, 
Henry Mastin, 
Florence McCarty, 
George McCollum, 
John McCollum, 
Melvin McCreedy, 
George H. McLaughlin, 
David McNeil, jr.,* 
Charles Merritt,* 
Samuel C. Miller, 
David A. Millis, 
John Mitchell, 
Frank Mooney, 
Frederick A. Morehouse, 
Charles W. Mosher, 
David Mosher,* 
Eugene Mosher, 
Hiram Mosher, 
Lewis Mosher, 
Michael Mullin, 
Allen Munroe, 
John Nelson, 
Richard Newman, 
John O'Brien, 
Henry C. Old, 
Thomas Olson, 

Martin V. B. Ostrarider, 
Cyrus R. Padelford, 
James S. Palmer,* 
William H. Palmer, 
Charles L. Parker,* 
William Parker, 
William B. Parker,* 
George N. Peacock, 
Andrew J. Peckham,* 
Abram F. Price,* 
James H. Rawling, 
Robert S. Remington, 
Edwin C. Rhodes, 
Daniel Rose, 
Jarvis W. Russell, 
John N. Rose, 
Lester Rose, 
Lewis H. Rose,* 
William A. Rose. 
Francis M. Rowland, 
Joseph G. Rowland, 
John S. St. John, 
William G. Sears, 
Frank Seeley, 
John Seeley,* 
John Thomas Seeley,* 
William J. Seeley,* 
Cyrus ShiflEer, 
John H. Shaft, 
Thomas R. Skinner, 
William J. Snyder,* 
Gilman Spaulding, 
Arnold Spicer, 
Thomas Spaulding, 
Albert Standish,* 
George W. Steele, 
John Stevens, 
Alfred Stewart, 
Norman Stuart, 
Charles I. Stoddard,* 
Charles S. Taylor,* 
James S. Taylor, 
William O. Taylor, 
Michael Tethers,* 
Thomas L. Thomas, 
Charles A. Thornton,* 
John Thornton, 



John S. Tinney, 
Edmund B. Tourtellot, 
Truman M. Tourtellot,* 
Charles W. Townsend, 
Charles W. Trumble, 
Mark I. Trumble,* 
John Van Antwerp, 
Charles Van Petten, 
Edward Van Rensselaer, 
Benjamin Van Steenburg, 
Elbert J. Watson,* 
George Webb, 

Dudley G. Allen, 
John Beers, 
Elijah Bennett, 
Richard Bills, 
Rufus Black, 
Silas C. Blowers, 
Harmon Bovencamp,* 
Henry Bovencamp, 
Aaron Bradt,* 
John Bradt, 
Elnathan Bristol, 
Peter Butler,* 
Henry Clute,* 
James Colson, 
John H. Colson, 
John S. Colson, 
Byron Daniels,* 
James Daniels, 
Edwin Delong, 
Lafayette Delong, 
Andrew Deming, 
Edgar L. Deming, 
John Deming,* 
Gordon Dimick, 
George Dickerson, 
Joseph Ellison,* 
Elam F. Evans,* 

James N. Webb, 
John Webb,* 
Thomas H. Webb, 
James Webster, 
George L. Wendell, 
Edwin E. West, 
Harvey L. Whipple, 
Henry Whitman, 
James H. Wickin, 
Daniel Williams, 
Henry E. Williams,* 


Gilbert F. Edmond, 
Michael Flansburgh,* 
Julian Graves, 
Daniel Guiles, 
Irving W. Guiles, 
George Guiles, 
Rensselaer Havens, 
Charles Herrick, 
Thomas Hopkins, 
Wendell B. Howe,* 
William C. Howe, 
William A. Hunt, 
David Kinney, 
Jonathan Kinney, 
Abram R. Lawrence,' 
Philo Roswell Lawrence, 
C. F. Marcellus, 
John H. Mason, 
Edward Mattison, 
Zera H. Mattison, 
John Michaels, 
Rienzi Michaels,* 
Ambrose Milliman, 
Cutler Milliman, 
William Milliman, 
John McGuire, 
Zabin Mills,* 

Samuel Williams, 
William Williams, 
William N. Williams, 
Charles Willis, 
James H. Wilson, 
William G. Wing, 
Henry C. Wood, 
Frederick G. Woodward, 
William H. Wood, 
John E. Wood worth,* 
Henry Young. 

Abijah Ovitt,* 
Chauncey Palmer, 
Arunah Perry, 
George Pixley, 
James Pixley, 
William Pixley, 
Edwin Rhodes, 
John Ross, 
Charles Ryther, 
William Scott, 
Samuel B. Shepard, 
Dennis Springer,* 
John Stead,* 
Beecher Truax, 
Henry Truax, 
John W. Van Arnum, 
John Vanderhoof, 
Ransom Varney, 
Solomon Wheeler, 
Timothy White, 
Lorin Woodcock, 
Stephen Woodcock, 
George Woodworth, 
Charles A. Yates, 
Edgar F. Yates, 
William H. Zenstine. 

William Brown, 
Edward Bobenreath, 


Andrew Brisbin, 
Lorin Brisbin, 

John R. Burnham, 
William Baker, 

■Also served in the Florida war and the Mexican war. 



John Brainard, 
Richard Brewer, 
Claudius Baker, 
John Carr, 
Noah B. Clark, 
George Carr,* 
James Cannon, 
Seth W. Deyoe, 
James G. Deuel, 
William Dorvee, 
Michael Dowling, 
Henry Deyoe,* 


Alfred Dran, 
John Deyoe, 
Peter A. Deyoe, 
William H. Deyoe,* 
Mynard C. Deyoe, 
Lewis Deyoe, 
James Ellison, 
Winsor B. French, 
Charles H. Fodow, 
Walton French, 
Luke Folmsbee, 
Walter Freeman, 
Dorson Falloon, 
Thomas Farrell, 
Henry N. Gilbert, 
Jesse Gower, 
George Green, 

Albert Gruber, 
Edgar Hain, 
Alonzo J. Hubble,* 
John J. Hudson, 
Isaac S. Hodges, 
Miles Hudson, 
Otis T. Hall, 
Charles Holden, 
Solomon Holden,* 
William Harvey, 
Aaron Irish, 
Aftus H. Jewell, 
Sidney B. King, 
George Lawson,* 
Edwin A. Lockwood, 
Antoine Lapoint, 
Alexander Lamara, 
Henry Laroy, 
Edwin McPherson, 
Henry M. Myers, 
Charles Munn, 
Hanford Myres, 
Cornelius Myres, 
David McNeil, 
Ira McNeil, 
William Miller,* 
John McGovern, 
Joseph Martin, 
Stephen Nisbeth,* 
William E. Newton, 

John S. Nobles, 
Robert Price, 
Frederick N. Perkins,* 
Harmon E. Perry, 
Robert Pryor, 
John Powers, 
Arthur Perry, 
Harlaem E. Potter, 
Gardner Perry, 
James A. Padelford, 
Harvey A. Reed, 
John H. Reynolds, 
Charles H. Ruggles,* 
John H. Rose, 
Warren L. Smith,* 
Alfred M. See,'* 
Daniel Steenburgh, 
Isaac W. Souls, 
Peter Schermerhorn, 
Hiram Tyrell,* 
William Taylor, jr.,* 
George Van Antwerp,* 
Stephen O. Viele,* 
Lewis T. Vanderwerker, 
George H. Wildey, 
Richard B. Wood, 
Lloyd Weston, 
Henry Weatherwax, 
Elias Washburn, 
Eugene M. Warner. 

Samuel Allen, 
John Anderson, 
Peter Butler, 
Jeremiah Baldry, 
Joseph P. Bowers, 
Samuel S. Butler, 
William Butler, 
Anthony S. Badgely, 
Martin V. B. Billings, 
David Borst, 
David Barker, 
John Barker, 
Henry Clark, 
John Cudahy, 

Clifton Park. 

Abram Clark, 
Albert Carnall, 
Van Rensselaer Conklin, 
Ransom Conklin, 
Levi Clapper, 
Sidney T. Cornell, 
George W. Cornell,* 
Jacob H. Clute, jr. , 
Charles H. De Graff, 
Robert De Graff, 
George Davis, 
Levi De Graff, 
Edward H. Dater,* 
David H. Dater, 

William H. Evarts, 
Edward Evans, 
William Filkins, 
John Fisher, 
Peter Friel, 
George Gregory, 
Wesley Heyner, 
James Haley, 
Thomas R. Holland, 
William H. Haylock, 
James Johnson, 
Albert Jofles, 
John Jones, 
Lyman Johns, 



Christian C. Kellogg, 
John Kelley, 
John H. Lapius, 
Michael Lamey, 
Andrew S. McEchron, 
Christopher Mulligan, 
Robert McPherson, 
Matthew Mulligan, 
John Mulligan, 

Benjamin Northrup, 
Henry C. Peterson, 
William D. Peterson, 
James Roach, 
Reuben Stokam, 
Lewis Shouts, 
Peter B. Simmons, 
John Simmons, 
William Van Saulsbury, 

Orlando Swartwout, 
William H. Shouts, 
Andrew Stewart, 
Jeremiah Stebbins, 
William Taylor, 
William D. Town, 
Christian Walker, 
Alexander H. Wicks. 

James Allen, * 
Joseph Armer, 
James F. Austin, 
Eli Bailey, 
John G. Baker, 
James C. Barber, 
David S. Barker, 
Ira J. Barker, 
William W. Barton, 
Wilson Barton,* 
Arnold Bates, 
Austin Bates, 
Charles H. Bates, 
Dennis Bates, 
George Beeman, 
James H. Bell, 
James C. Benson, 
Asa C. Bentley, jr. , 
George H. Bentley, 
Gilbert Bentley, 
Hector Bentley, 
John H. Bentley, 
Joseph J. Bentley, 
Nathaniel S. Bentley, 
William A. Bentley, 
Charles Betts, 
Francis C. Betts, 
Wilhelm Bink, ' 
Charles A. Briggs,* 
Noah D. Bronson,* 
Eli Brooks, 
James B. Brooks,* 
Uriah C. Buck, 
Norris Burfit, 
John Burns, 

- Providence. 

Nelson W. Cad man,* 
Seth Cadman, 
William B. Carpenter,* 
John W. Clark,* 
Henry Clunis, 
John M. Clute, 
Simon Cohen, 
Arnold Cole, 
Charles Cole,* 
James W. Cole, 
William Cole,* 
William B. Collins, 
Charles Colony,* 
James S. Colony,* 
George Colony,* 
Edward J., Colony,* 
John H. Cook, 
Thomas Cooper, 
William H. Cornell,* 
John Costello, 
Michael Costello, 
Thomas Cunning, 
John L. Dalton, 
Robert Dawson, 
Charles E. Duel, 
Thomas Donahue, 
Edward Dumphrey, 
Mason Delano,* 
Waldron G. Evans, 
William George Evans, 
William W. Finch, 
John Flanagan, 
Timothy Foley, 
William M. Fowler, 
James French, 

Henry Frey, 
Levi Garwood, 
Edward H. Gates, 
Elbridge Gates,* 
Hiram Gifford,* 
Russell W. H. Gifford, 
Irving Gre^en,* 
Chauncey Hagadorn, 
H. Seymour Hall, 
Michael Harrigan, 
Benjamin E. Harrison, 
Edward Hayes, 
Alfred Hickok, 
Ferdinand Hoffman, 
John Holland, 
Joseph W. Honeywell,* 
James H. Jeffords,* 
Orville F. Jeffords,* 
Samuel King, 
Edward Laporte, 
Peter Lasher,* 
Addison Like, 
Stephen Marihew,* 
Thomas McCormick, 
Terence McGovern, 
Thomas McGovern, 
James McMahon, 
Michael McWiUiams,* 
Philip Mead, 
Michael Miller, 
Thomas Mina, 
A. N. Morgan, 
J. Morgan, 
Ephraim D. Mosher, 
Lewis Mundell, 



John Nadew, 
Elijah Olmstead,* 
Jacob H. Olmstead, 
Edward Orry, 
George Packer, 
Richard Parker, 
William W. Pease, 
Benjamin Perry,* 
John A. Pettit, 
William A. Pulling, 
William Reed, 
Larry C. Rice, 

Edmund Ricketson,* 
Joseph H. Rogers, 
Robert Russell, 
George S. Schermerhorn,* 
Daniel C. Sherman,* 
Jethro P. Sherman, 
Philo D. Sherman, 
Solomon Sherman, 
William H. Sism, ' 
Alonzo P. Slocum, 
James A. Slocum, 

Peter Smith, 
William W. Smith, 
David Sowl, jr., 
Francis Sowl, 
John Sparks, 
Henry H. Tabor, 
P. D. Thompson, 
Alonzo P. Van Epps, 
Levi Whistler, 
William J. Woolsey,* 
Daniel Wylie. 


The Latter Years of the County's History, and the Causes of Its Prosperity Since 
the Days of the Civil War— The Development of the Older Industries and the 
Establishment of New Ones— The Manufacturing Centres— New Churches— Growth 
of the Educational System— Newspapers, Past and Present — Financial Institutions 
-^Some of the Leading Public Institutions— Clubs, Societies, etc. — Centennial Cele- 
brations of 1876 and 1877— Anniversaries of the Battle of Bemus Heights and the 
Surrender of General Burgoyne — The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument at Ballston 
Spa — Death of General U. S. Grant — Other Happenings of Interest. 

To write anything more than a brief outline of the development of 
the various industries of the county of Saratoga since the period of the 
Civil war, with the many and varied changes in its large number of in- 
stitutiojis — educational, religious, eleemosynary, philanthropic, com- 
mercial — would require a vast amount of space and many years of hard 
labor in its compilation and publication. It is doubtful if the public 
interest in such an undertaking would be sufficient to warrant the un- 
dertaking. In the succeeding pages we shall endeavor to trace, in out- 
line, the history of the county as a whole, illustrating its growth along, 
the lines and omitting, as far as possible, the minor details of an unes- 
sential character. Of the numerous manufacturing industries of the 
various communities of the county, brief historical sketches of the most 
important appear. No effort has been made to go into details regard- 
ing all the industrial enterprises of the county, the aim of the author 
being simply to preserve, for future generations, such data as will best 
serve to illustrate the building which has been erected on the founda- 

E(D)Ki(SE WEgTc 

1861-1898— MANUFACTURES. 273 

tion laid by the forefathers — not to inspect every timber which has 
entered into the industrial, educational, social and political fabric of 
which it is composed, but to paint, in epitome, the various steps taken 
toward the upbuilding of the still unfinished structure. 

The beginning of the war of the Rebellion, the most awful civil war 
in the history of modern nations, found the county of Saratoga mak- 
ing rapid strides in all directions. New manufactures were springing up 
everywhere. Capital was being invested with lavish hands in a score 
or more of communities in all sections of the county. The water 
power on the Hudson was being still more carefully harnessed for the 
service of mankind ; the agrarian communities — which ever have dom- 
inated the county — were beginning to realize, more than ever, the 
value of improved transportation facilities, growing markets and good 
prices ; the summer resorts in the county were reaping splendid har- 
vests, and many other things were contributing to add to the wealth 
and general prosperity. But the existence of a fierce internal war was 
most disheartening, and all industry suffered a severe check. The up- 
building of most of the enterprises which have made the county 
famous in modern years has occurred since the war, with the single ex- 
ception of the paper manufacturing industry; and even in this de- 
partment it was not until some time after the close of the war that 
great industrial strides were made, with a single exception, which is 
noted later on. 


The industrial centres of Saratoga county are Ballston Spa, Mechan- 
icville and Stillwater, Waterford, Schuylerville, Saratoga, and South 
Glens Falls. For many years one of the principal industries of the 
county has been the manufacture of paper. Until recent years the 
various mills in the county manufactured the coarser grades of paper, 
such as manilla and news paper; but in recent years the finer grades 
of writing paper have also been turned out in immense quantities. 
Probably no community of equal size or population in the country is 
so widely noted for paper manufacture as Saratoga county and the 
section adjoining it to the north and northeast. Hon. George West of 
Ballston Spa is at the head of a concern which in itself owns and oper- 
ates eleven mills, which are situated on the banks of the Kayaderos- 
seras creek. 

Mr. West came to Ballston Spa in 1861. Having learned the best 



processes for the manufacture of paper, he entered the employ of C. S. 
Buchanan, proprietor of the paper mills at Rock City Falls. A year 
later, in June, 1862, with a capital of only about $3,000, he purchased 
the Empire paper mills at Rock City Falls. From the start his success 
was pronounced, for the paper he made was of a very superior quality 
and the demand for it was heavy. Soon he was compelled to increase 
his facilities. In 1866 he built the Excelsior mills and dam at Rock 
City Falls, and about the same time became a partner in the purchase 
of the Angell paper mills at Waterford. In 1870 he retired from the 
management of these mills in order to devote his entire attention to his 
properties in Saratoga county. The same year he bought the mills at 
or near Middle Grove, rebuilt them, and at once purchased the Pioneer 
mill at West Milton. But so rapid was the increase in the demand for 
his paper that in 1874 he found it expedient to purchase the Eagle mill, 
located two miles above Ballston Spa. The following year he bought 
the Island mill in Ballston Spa, formerly owned and operated by Jonas 
A. Hovey as a cotton mill. These three buildings were immediately 
converted into a paper mill. About the same time he purchased the 
cotton mill known as the Union mill and the woolen mill near it, both 
of which were soon devoted to the manufacture of paper, paper bags 
being manufactured in the old woolen mill. For many years Mr. West 
manufactured manilla paper exclusively. All his mills are located on 
the banks of the Kayaderosseras creek. He is reputed to be the heavi- 
est individual paper manufacturer in the United States. 

The tannery of Haight & Co. at Ballston Spa is one of the most im- 
portant industries of Saratoga county and one of the largest tanneries 
in the country. This industry was established at Milton Centre about 
1830 by Seth Rugg. It was subsequently owned by Mr. Morey, then 
by Jacob Adams, who sold it to Samuel Haight. Mr. Haight greatly 
increased the business and in 1883 moved it to its present location in 
the village of Ballston Spa. For several years Matthew Vassar was in 
partnership with Mr. Haight, up to the time of the death of the latter, 
October 6, 1891. The firm is now composed of Matthew Vassar, H. 
Vassar Haight and Theodore S. Haight, the two latter being the sons 
of the late Samuel Haight. The tannery operated by them employs 
about 300 men, and contributes immensely to the prosperity of the 

The National mill at Ballston Spa, which manufactures manilla box 
board, and produces about nine and a quarter tons per day, was pur- 

1861-1898— MANUFACTURES. 275 

chased in the spring of 1892 by the National Folding Box and Paper 
company of Hartford, Conn. Many improvements have been made 
since that time, including a new dam constructed in 1895 at a cost of 
$8,000. The mill was formerly known as the Idlewild mill It was at 
first owned and operated by John McLean, then by John McLean and 
Harvey J. Donaldson, and later by Mr. Donaldson and Harvey M. 

While Mr. West was investing so heavily in paper mills others were 
establishing paper mills and other industries in various parts of the 
county, though on a smaller scale. In 1865 Thomas Brown, of Niagara 
Falls, who six years before had purchased the old woolen mills at Cor- 
inth, and established an edge-tool factory, built a large woolen mill 
there, which began operations in 1866. This mill was run by him for 
over three years. On the evening of November 7, 1869, Mr. Brown 
was mistaken for a burglar or incendiary by his night watchman, 
while coming from his mill, and shot, his death occurring a few 
moments later. The factory was burned in 1870, but was soon rebuilt 
a short distance south of the original site. Until 1874 it was operated 
as a woolen mill, but in the latter year it was purchased by the Hudson 
River Pulp and Paper company and used by that concern for a store- 

The latter corporation began operations in a large new mill Septem- 
ber 1, 1869, at first manufacturing wood pulp. The year following it 
bought the old edge-tool factory and began in it the manufacture of 
printing paper. In 1873, the demand for its product increasing, a new 
mill for the manufacture of the finer qualities of printing paper was 
erected, and began running in May, 1873. In April, 1877, the large 
mill was burned by spontaneous combustion, but soon after rebuilt. 

The tannery at Corinth built in 1855 by Powell & Co. was burned in 
August, 1874, but was immediately rebuilt by Rugg & Co. of Schnec- 
lady. About 1875 Morgan L. Prentiss began the manufacture of bolts 
and nuts and other carriage iron in the building which originally was 
built by Washington Chapman, in 1805, for a woolen factory. 

At South Glens Falls the Morgan Lumber company operated four 
large lumber mills as early as twenty years ago. In connection with 
this industry this corporation also began, about the same time, the 
operation of a planing mill and a box factory. The Glens Falls Paper 
company, which began business at this point neary a quarter of a cen- 
tury since, has become one of the most extensive manufacturers of 


paper in the country. In 1872 Reynolds, Dix & Co. began working a 
large marble and stone quarry, sending the surplus limestone to lime 
kilns. Stone works had been established there as early as 1836 by 
Julius H. Rice. 

In 1863 Henry Poor & Son of Boston purchased the Lynwood tan- 
nery at Conklingville, which was established in 1848 by Gurdon Conk- 
ling. The new proprietors, possessed of abundant capital, made 
numerous improvements and increased the facilities of the tannery 
until it became an enterprise of considerable importance. In 1872 
James L. Libby of New York established a paper-box factory at Conk 
lingville, employing from seventy to eighty hands. The wooden-ware 
works in this village, operated for many years by Benjamin R. Jen- 
kins, formerly of Batchellerville, who died in 1877, were established 
soon after the war, and from time to time their capacity was increased 
until, in recent years, they have become a mammoth enterprise, em- 
ploying more than a hundred hands. 

Lewis E. Smith of Mechanicville for many years had charge of the 
works of the American Linen Thread company of that village, begin- 
ning with 1853. The company manufactured all kinds of sewing and 
machine threads, and employed from one hundred and fifty to two 
hundred hands. 

Mechanicville's manufactures are mostly of modern growth. The 
immense plant of the Duncan company, established in 1888, located on 
the banks of the Hudson river, just north of the village, in the town of 
Stillwater, is one of the most important industries of its kind in the 
country. It owns besides 'its mammoth mill, a large and finely con- 
structed dam in the Hudson, which furnishes most of its power. 

South of the village is located the extensive power house of the Hud- 
son Power and Transmission company, incorporated in 1896. This 
plant, including a fine dam across the Hudson, was completed in 1898. 
The building is supplied with generators, operated by water power, 
which develop electricity and transmit it by means of many wires to 
the works of the General Electric company at Schenectady. 

Among the other manufacturing concerns in Mechanicville, many of 
which have been established within the last decade, are the knitting 
mills of W. B. Neilson, Mechanicville Knitting company. Sagamore 
Knitting company; the shoddy mill of Cunningham Bros. & Whitbeck; 
the sash, door and blind mills of Barnes & La Dow and J. B. Orcutt & 
Son; the plant of the Fiberite company; the Mechanicville brewery; 
John Smith's machine shop, and the foundry of Longstaff & Son. 


1861-18!)8— MANUFACTURES. 277 

The G. F. Harvey company, naanufacturing chemists, of Saratoga 
Springs, though of modern establishment, has risen to a position of 
great prominence in the business v/orld. This company was incorpo- 
rared May 13, 1890, by George F. Harvey, S. A. Rickard and Edgar 
T. Brackett, with a capital stock of $^00,000. The stock was increased 
to $850,000 April 4, 1895, and upon its increased valuation the com- 
pany has paid an annual dividend of five per cent, each year. The 
present officers of the company are: S. A. Rickard, president; L. H. 
Cramer, vice-president and treasurer; James Mingay, secretary; E. T. 
Brackett, attorney. The business of the company extends over the 
entire United States, including the manufacturing branch at Mille 
Roches, Ont. It has sixty-six salesmen constantly traveling, who make 
daily reports to the head office at Saratoga Springs, or those who travel 
in the Canadas to the branch house at Mille Roches. The company 
employs over one hundred hands at its factory, and as its entire busi- 
ness is conducted with customers out of town, all the money paid for 
help every Saturday (which amounts to nearly $1,000) is from funds 
brought in from outside. The company has over thirty thousand cus- 
tomers upon its books and its business is constantly increasing. It is 
the intention, within a very short time, to establish a western depot, 
not for the purpose of manufacturing, but for distributing goods to cus- 
tomers remote from the home office. 

Stillwater's manufactures have made the place noted. The paper 
mill established in 1847, which has been referred to in a preceding 
chapter, was the first extensive industry at that point. It had not been 
in operation long before the splendid facilities at that point were no- 
ticed by capitalists and manufacturers elsewhere. About 1863 Gardner 
Howland & Sons built a large paper mill opposite Baker's lock. This 
was burned, but at once rebuilt, and the business continued on a larger 
scale than ever. In 1866 D. & W. Penible established the straw-board 
mill there. In 1873 Newland & Dennison established a mill for the 
manufacture of knit underwear, and Ephraim Newland in the same 
year built a mill for the manufacture of hosiery and underwear. The 
water power in the Hudson at this point is utilized by nearly all the 
manufacturers in town, and is capable of still greater development. 

Waterford had become an important manufacturing centre long be- 
fore the war. Numerous changes have been made since that time, 
however. In 1864 Levi Dodge purchased the feed mill formerly owned 
by Henry Lape and converted it into a straw-board factory. This 


building, probably the oldest on the hydraulic canal, was originally 
used as a button factory, then as a barley mill, then a feed mill, and 
finally a card-board mill. The old mill was burned and a new one was 
erected in 1874, passing into the hands of the Saratoga County bank of 
Waterford, and being operated by Edwards & Younglove. In 1864 E. 
Van Kleeck began the manufacture of brushes, but the business was 
removed to Lansingburgh a few years later. In 1870 Holroyd, Safely 
& Dowd remodeled the old flouring mill of T. M. Vail & Sons and con- 
verted it into the Alaska knitting mill. In 1877 it passed into the con- 
trol of the Hudson Valley Knitting company. The Massasoit Knitting 
mills were erected in 1872 on the foundation of the old Shatemuck 
flouring mills, and were placed under the management of E. G. Mun- 
son. The Mohawk & Hudson paper mill was established in 1873 by a 
stock company, but soon afterward was sold to Frank Gilbert of Troy, 
who still operates it, turning out large quantities of printing paper. 
The Waterford sawing mills, established in Cohoes in 1835, were re- 
moved to Waterford in 1873, when the plant was greatly increased in 
size. The Globe iron foundry was established in 1873 by Robert Pink- 
erton in a building formerly occupied by the Button Fire Engine com- 
pany. The Pilot knitting mill was started in 1875 by Van Schoonhoven 
& Co. 

The Eureka knitting mills were established in 1881 by John W. Ford 
and John H. Pynes, the latter succeeding to the sole control in 1891. 
The manufacturing facilities are comprised in a three-story brick build- 
ing, covering an area one hundred and fifty feet square. 

The Waterford Knitting company was incorporated in 1885 with a 
capital stock of $50,000. The oflScers are: President and treasurer, 
Thomas Breslin; vice-president, Charles L. Mitchell; secretary, C. C. 
Ormsby; superintendent, Michael Organ. The mill is a four story 
brick building eighty by one hundred and twenty feet in dimensions. 

The Bishopton knitting mill was established in 1886. It is owned by 
L. Kavanaugh and managed by C. H. Kavanaugh. 

The Kavanaugh Knitting company's mill was erected in 1891. It is 
a handsome three-story brick structure, having a large square tower on 
the front elevation. 

The paper-box manufactory of Sidney D. Sault was established in 
1892 at Cohoes but soon afterward removed to Waterford, where the 
proprietor now has a finely equipped plant. 

The Clyde Knitting company is the successor to the Meeker, Spotten 

1861-1898— MANUFACTURES. 279 

& Meeker compaay, which was organized in 1892 with John H. Meeker 
as president and James H. Spotten as treasurer. This concern failed in 

1896, and in November of that year the mill was sold to the- Clyde 
Knitting company,. which occupies the same building. The latter com- 
pany is officered as follows: President, Thomas Breslin; vice-president, 
Samuel Bolton, jr.; secretary, James H. Shine; treasurer, John H. 

The Clover Knitting company is the successor to the Hudson Valley 
Knitting company. The latter company failed, and in the summer of 

1897, after the mill had been idle for about a year and a half, the Clover 
Knitting company began operating it. The officers of the latter com- 
pany are : President, Peter McCarthy ; vice president, Thomas Breslin ; 
treasurer, John H. Pynes; secretary, Robert E. Stover; superintendent, 
G. M. Langner. 

The Ormsby Textile company was incorporated in 1893 and began 
operations in 1895 in a large new mill located on King's canal. This 
mill is a four-story and attic building, constructed on the slow-burning 
principle. The officers of the company are : President, Thomas Bres- 
lin; vice-president, Charles L. Mitchell; secretary, Michael Organ; 
treasurer, Charles C. Ormsby. 

The plant of the Eddy Valve company comprises a group of sub- 
stantial brick buildings, and its products comprise a general line of 
valves from half an inch to 56 inches in diameter. In addition to the 
company's own plant its management also controls the operations of 
the Mohawk & Hudson Manufacturing company of Waterford, iron and 
and brass founders. The officers of the company are: President, 
John Kinckerbacker; vice-president, H. C. Rogers; treasurer, T. A. 

Schuylerville has also been, for many years, one of the leading in- 
dustrial centres of Saratoga county. Its early enterprises have been 
referred to in the preceding pages. One of the many resources from 
which the village derives a benefit is the paper mill. This industry 
was established in 1863-1864 by D. A. Bullard & Co. as the " Schuyler 
paper mill." In 1870 Mr. Bullard purchased the interests held by his 
partners and introduced his sons into the business. 

From time to time during this period industries of various kinds were 
established at other points in the county, but those mentioned were the 
most important. While the commercial interests of the community 
were being cared for, the inhabitants were not unmindful of the men- 


tal and spiritual welfare of the rising generation, as is illustrated by 
the increase in the number of religious institutions, the establishment 
of new schools and the great improvement of the old ones. 


Several new churches were organized during this period in Saratoga 
Springs. March 8, 1865, witnessed the founding of the First Congre- 
gational church at Saratoga Springs. Rev. E. N. Sawtelle, D. D. , the 
first pastor of the church, was installed in April, 1865. The church 
edifice was not erected until 1868. Nearly all the original members 
were from the First Presbyterian church, and the first trustees of the 
new society were Dexter H. Knowlton, Lewis E. Whiting, Waldo M. 
Potter, Solon B. Bushnell, Hiram P. Trim, Abisha Bailey, Jacob Myers, 
Andrew Hall and Joseph A. Shoudy. 

In 1869 a number of members of the First Presbyterian church who 
resided at an inconvenient distance from their house of worship formed 
a new society, which subsequently became the Second Presbyterian 
church. August 31 of that year the corner stone of their chapel was 
laid by Rev. Dr. John Woodbridge, then pastor of the First Presby- 
terian church, and the edifice was dedicated by him January 30, 1870. 
Rev. James N. Crocker was at first placed in charge of the mission 
work. The church was not regularly organized until August, 1871, 
when John Newland, B. M. Fay and B. F. Edwards were installed as 
elders. August 28 Charles F. Dowd, George S. Batcheller, John New- 
land, Adam B. Smith, Alexander Bennett and Samuel H. Freeman 
were elected trustees. The church was received under the care of 
the Albany Presbytery October 10, and October 22 Rev. James N. 
Crocker was instetlled as the first pastor. 

The First Free Methodist church was organized October 2, 1865 ; the 
house of worship was built in 1869, and dedicated January 8, 1870, by 
Rev. B. T. Robert. The first pastor was Rev. A. B. Burdick, and the 
first trustees F. A. Town, Seneca Weed and Seth Grawberg.' 

The African M. E. Zion church was organized in June, 1863, by Rev. 
J. Boler, who, with A. Freeman and J. Lewis, constituted the first board 
of trustees. The house of worship was dedicated in 1863 by Bishop 
William H. Bishop. In November, 1866, the building was destroyed 

' The pastors are as follows : Revs. A. B. Burdick, D. M. Sinclair, William Gould, James 
Odell, Harry Mathews, B. Winget, James Odell, O. W. Young, W. H. CUrk, Almiron Smith, 
Zenas Osborne, M. D. McDougall, H. W. Fish, A. B. Burdick, D. C. Johnson, M. N. Downing, W. 
H. Clark. 

1861-1898— CHURCHES. 281 

by fire, but was rebuilt the following year and dedicated by Bishop J. 
J. Clinton. 

The Second Baptist church was organized as the Union Avenue Bap- 
tist Sunday school by members of the First Baptist church, February 

7, 1874, after services had been held in various places for nine months. 
February 22, 1876, the society was duly organized as the Second Baptist 
church. Rev. Daniel Corey, the first pastor, began his labors in April 

The New England Congregational church of Saratoga Springs was 
organized March 1, 1880. The main part of the present house of wor- 
ship was erected that year, and the chapel in 1881. Rev. Thomas W. 
Jones served as pastor from 1880 to 1888; Rev. Clarence F. Swift from 
1888 to 1896; and the present pastor. Rev. William Orr Wark, began 
his labors in January, 1895. 

The Congregational Methodist church of Saratoga Springs was or- 
ganized September 30, 1896. The church edifice was commenced April 

8, 1897, and dedicated August 15, 1897. Its cost, including the lot, 
was $8,700. Rev. L. C. Pettit has been the pastor since the organiza- 
tion of the society. 

All the churches at Ballston Spa were erected before the war. In 
1876 a number of Spiritualists of that village erected Centennial hall, 
which for several years was devoted to services of that sect, but in 
recent years the building has been devoted to various purposes. 

The only church organized in the town of Halfmoon during this 
period was the M. E. church at Smithtown. In the town of Stillwater, 
the Presbyterian church at Ketchum's Corners was incorporated Jan- 
uary 22, 1866, when Tyler Dunham, Edward Moore and William Flag- 
ler were elected elders and John H. Brightman deacon. The house of 
worship was dedicated December 12, 1866, by Rev. A. M. Beveridge 
of Lansingburgh. Rev. William M. Johnson was the first pastor. 

Until 1874 the Catholics of Stillwater attended church at Mechanic- 
ville. In that year a separate society was formed at Stillwater, the old 
edifice of the Protestant Episcopal society was purchased and a society 

The Episcopal church at East Line, in the town of Ballston, was 
established in 1876, under direction of the Rev. William Delafield, 
rector of Christ Episcopal church at Ballston Sp^. Services have not 
been held there regularly for several years. 

In Corinth, the Free Methodist church at Jessup's Landing was or- 
ganized as a class in November, 1867. 


In the fall of 1868 Rev. C. T. V. Eastman, rector of the Church of 
the Redeemer at Northampton, Fulton county, organized St. John's 
Episcopal church at Conklingville. Thomas Gillespie and Samuel 
Kinnear were the first wardens, and James Parker, John Hall, sr., 
Thomas Evans and William W. Foulks the first vestrymen. The 
corner stone of the house of worship was laid by Bishop Doane of 
Albany September 17, 1870. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Day Centre was formed as a class 
in October, 1865. The church was erected in the fall of 1868 and ded- 
icated the following winter. Rev. J. K. Wager was its first pastor. 

St. Paul's Catholic church at Rock City Falls was built early in 1873, 
and the society regularly organized and incorporated in July, 1874, by 
Rev. Father McMenomy, who attended it while residing at Saratoga 
Springs. The church was dedicated by Bishop McNierny, in Septem- 
ber, 1877. Rev. Father Smith, then Rev. Father Mullany, were the 
first pastors, the latter being the first resident priest. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1884 by Father Donahue, who attended Gal way as a mission, 
and built the church there about 1884. Father McGeough of Ballston 
Spa bought the land where the present St. Mary's church in Galway 
now stands. In May, 1888, Father Quinn succeeded Father Donahue. 
Father Quinn established his residence at Galway, and Rock City Falls 
then became a mission to Galway. In October, 1897, Rev. Father 
Barrett of St. Mary's church, Troy, became pastor of the two churches. 

The Wilton Methodist Episcopal charge comprises the three churches 
of that denomination within the town — at South Wilton, Gurn Spring 
(formerly Kent), and Wilton (formerly Wiltonviile). The house of 
worship at Wilton was built in 1860, during the pastorate of Rev. R. G. 
Adams, At Gurn Spring a church was erected in 1886 during the 
pastorate of Rev, Charles B. Lewis. The old "Union church " is now 
the property of the town and is used as a town hall. For many years 
the M. E. society at South Wilton has been quite strong. About 1888 
the interior of the church was entirely renewed at considerable expense, 
and during 1897-98, under the pastorate of Rev. William H. Edwards, 
it was repainted. The latter is the present pastor of these churches. 

A Methodist Episcopal church was built at Middle Grove, in the 
town of Greenfield, in 1888. The present pastor is Rev. George M. 

1861-1898- SCHOOLS. 283 


For years the youth of Saratoga county have enjoyed educational 
advantages unexcelled by those of any other community in the country. 
In preceding chapters reference is made to some of the earlier schools, 
as well as to some of those which attained a high standard even before 
the war, and yet occupy a high position. The public school system of 
Waterford has attained a conspicuous position in comparatively recent 
years. The Waterford high school enjoys the distinction of having 
been the first in this State to have a military cadet corps. The com- 
pany-is composed of fifty boys, ranging from fourteen to twenty years 
of age, with a fife and drum corps. Alexander Falconer, the present 
superintendent of schools, was elected to the position August 24, 1893, 
and during his incumbency of the office the schools have made rapid 

The first record of a public school in Waterford is dated 1821. It 
was held in Classic hall, now Knickerbocker hall, on First street. This 
building was erected in 1813. A. M. Steele was the first principal of 
this school. He was succeeded by Xenophon Haywood, who remained 
until 1836. William W. Day followed and continued until 1850, when 
he retired. Upon retiring Mr. Day made a report which showed a 
registration of two hundred and thirty-two pupils in 1838, and himself 
to be the only teacher. The report also showed that six private schools 
existed in Waterford, including the academy, with two hundred and 
four students. 

The need of a more commodious school house became apparent, and 
in 1849 a new building was erected on the corner of Fourth and Divi- 
sion streets. The structure contained six rooms. At that time oppo- 
sition to the erection of the building was encountered, but through the 
efforts of Lysander Button and others the project was consummated. 
In 1854 a union free school system was organized. The first board of 
education consisted of: Charles Johnson, president; W. T. Seymour, 
James R. Blake, M. C. Powell, Daniel Murray, John Cramer 2d, John 
Higgins, Stephen Munson and J. M. King. 

After the establishment of the union free school system public school 
work increased in favor and a corps of teachers was employed, with 
Silas J. Pratt as principal of school 1, J. Weldroij principal of school 
2 and Amanda Thorne principal of school 3. Professor George H. 
Stowits was principal from 1855 to 1859. Among the others who held 
the position of principal were: W. H. Bently, 1859-1861; John L. 


Hill, 1861-1863; I. S. Bothwell, 1862-1864; C. G. Clark, 1864-1865; 
N. D. Bidwell, 1865-1866; Professor A. J. Robb, 1866-1874; P. E. 
Wager, 1874; E. E. Ashley, 1875-1887, and Charles N. Cobb, who be- 
came the first superintendent of the schools. Mr. Cobb remained two 
years. Mr. Cobb was succeeded by H. H. Loomis of Palatine Bridge, 
who remained three years and resigned to attend the law department 
of Cornell university. 

The present union school system at Mechanicville was organized 
October 12, 1887. The first board of education was comprised of C. 
W. Keefer, M. D., W. B. Neilson, Thomas J. Sweeney, W. W. Smith, 
Charles F. Crosby, D. E. La Dow and George Rogers. Mr. La Dow 
has been president of the board since its organization. The school 
building was completed in the fall of 1888, and on November 5 of that 
year it was opened for instruction with the following corps of instruct- 
ors: L. B. Blakeman, principal; Miss Ella R. Church, assistant prin- 
cipal ; Misses Mary A. Van Vleck, Amy S. Peet, Louise G. Franklin, 
Harriet A. Massey, Sarah M. Couch and Mary E. Hewitt. From a 
teaching force of eight persons, the growth has been such as to require 
at present (1898) nineteen teachers and a superintendent of schools. 
The appointment, October 7, 1897, of Mr. Blakeman to the position of 
superintendent left a vacancy in the principalship, which was filled by 
the election of Louis R. Wells. 

The first schools in Stillwater were supported by subscription and 
were held in private houses. In 1804 the Masonic fraternity erected a 
building in the upper part of the village and donated the use of the 
lower portion as a public school room, the only restriction being that 
the village should keep it in repair. In 1847 an academy was organ- 
ized and was successfully conducted for many years. About the be- 
ginning of the civil war it failed, and after that time there were three 
public schools in the village for primary instruction. 

May 30, 1873, the union free school of Stillwater was organized. 
The first board of education consisted of: Wm. H. Davenport, Ed- 
ward I. Wood, Matthew Pack, Egbert Gardner and Peter V. Wetsell. 
The first officers were: P. V. Wetsell, president; E. I. Wood, secre- 
tary; James Rundle, treasurer; John St. John, collector. C. A. Deyoe 
was elected principal and continued as such nearly four years. His 
successors have been William M. Whitney, T. O. Fisk, C. H. Stock- 
well, James R. Thompson, Ira H. Lawton, D. L. Kathan, F. H. 
Ames, Alexander Falconer, and the present principal, Willis U. Hin- 

1861-1898— SCHOOLS. 285 

man, who has held the position since 1892. The present school build- 
ing was erected in 1883 at a cost of $12,000. It is of brick, three 
stories high, heated with steam, has six school rooms, two recitation 
rooms, library, and an auditorium on the third floor seating five hun- 
dred. The school is now rated by the University of the State of New 
York as a Senior Academic School, giving three years academic work. 
There are at present seven teachers employed. 

The public school system of South Glens Falls has undergone radical 
changes in recent years. In the summer of 1880 another story was 
added to the union school building, making it a two-story structure. 
In 1893 and 1894 the present building was erected. The present 
school is a graded high school under the supervision of the Regents of 
the University of the State of New York, having been admitted as a 
Regents' school of junior grade December 12, 1894, and raised, after 
inspection, to the grade of high school December 7, 1897. Nine teach- 
ers are employed. The presidents of the board of education since 1877 
have been : 

1877, Rufus White; 1878-79, John Delaney; 1880-84, John Jackson; 1885, Charles 
Robinson; 1886-89, Herman B. Parks; 1890, George I. Jackson; 1891, Herman B. 
Parks; 1892, George I. Jackson; 1893, S. H. Van Derwerker; 1894-95, Theodore 
Comstock; 1896, Hern;an B. Parks; 1897, Theodore Comstock. 

These persons have served, during that period, as principals of the 
schools : 

1877-78, Herman B. Parks, Jennie A. Payne ; 1879, Margaret M. Kelly, George 
M. Watkins; 1880. Margaret M. Kelly, H. B. Parks; 1881, H. B. Parks; 1882-1884, 
Michael A. Breen ; 1885, M. A. Breen, Margaret Keenan ; 1886, Margaret Keenan ; 
1887, Margaret Keenan, Jeanette Reynolds; 1888-89, George M. B. Bradshaw; 1890, 
G. M. B. Bradshaw, James Mace Smith; 1891-93, J. M. Smith; 1893-98, James E. 

The Corinth union school is the outgrowth of the earlier district 
schools. It was organized as a union free school in 1889, and a hand- 
some and commodious new school building was erected in 1891. In 

1892 the school was placed under the supervision of the Regents, and a 
training class department was organized in September, 1894. William 
H. Harris, the first principal of the school, served one year. In 1892 
he was succeeded by W. C. Franklin, who also served one year. In 

1893 A. M. Hollister was chosen principal, and still serves in that 
capacity. The board of education consists of Warren Curtis, T. Elix- 
man, Michael Carey, A. C. Hickok, C. H. Pitts, Joseph B. Ross and 
James A. Dayton. 



The first newspaper in Saratoga county was issued more than a cen- 
tury ago. June 14, 1798, the Saratoga Register or Farmers' Journal 
was published at Court House Hill in the town of Ballston, by Increase 
and William Child. It was a small sheet, four pages, and almost abso- 
lutely devoid of local news. The first issue of the paper made the an- 
nouncement that the office of publication was "over the store of Messrs. 
Robert Leonard & Co., nearly opposite the Court House." The Jour- 
nal, as it was commonly known, supported the administration of Presi- 
dent John Adams, then the head of the Federal party. This paper has 
undergone many changes, and is now known as the Ballston Journal, 
published at Ballston Spa by H. L. Grose & Sons. 

The second newspaper printed in this county was the Waterford 
Gazette, which was established at Waterford October 37, 1801, by Hor- 
ace L. Wadsworth. The Gazette was continued until 1816, when pub- 
lication was suspended. Following the founding of the Waterford 
Gazette, these newspapers have been established : 

The Waterford Reporter, published in 1832 by William L. Fisk. 

The Anti-Masonic Recorder, published at Waterford in 1830 by J. C. 

The Waterford Atlas, founded December 1, 1833, by WiUiam Holland 
& Co. In 1834 it was changed to 

The Waterford Atlas and Manufacturers', Mechanics' and Farmers' 

The Democratic Champion, published at Waterford in 1840 by H. 

The Waterford Sentinel, established May 18, 1850, by Andrew Hoff- 
man. In 1858 it was sold to J. H. Masten, afterward to William T. 
Baker, in 1870 to Hayward & Palmateer, and in 1871 to S. A. Hathaway. 
In April, 1873, R. D. Palmateer began the publication of the 

Waterford Advertiser. In July, 1873, he purchased the Waterford 
Sentinel, the publication of which was then discontinued. From Octo- 
ber 1, 1883, to June, 1891, the Advertiser was published by Palmateer 
& Smith. Since then J. W. Smith has been sole proprietor. 

The Saratoga Advertiser was established at Ballston Spa in 1804 by 
Samuel B. Brown. It was soon after changed to 

The Aurora Borealis and Saratoga Advertiser, and published by 
Brown & Miller. In 1810 it again passed into the hands of Samuel B. 
Brown, and was called 


The Advertiser, continuing as such for several years. 

The Independent American was started September 37, 1808, by 
William Child. In 1818 it appeared as 

The People's Watch Tower, published by James Comstock, and in 
1820 as 

The Saratoga Farmer, published by H. G. Spafford, author of Spaf- 
ford's Gazetteer of the State of New York. In 1821 it was changed to 

The Ballston Spa Gazette and Saratoga Farmer, and in 1822 to 

The Ballston Spa Gazette, published by J. Comstock. April 20, 
1847, it appeared as 

The Ballston Democratic Whig Journal, edited by J. O. Nbdyne. 
In 1848 it was changed to 

The Ballston Journal, and was published by Albert A. Moore. In 
1860 it passed into the hands of H. L. Grose & Sons, who ever since 
have been its publishers. 

The Saratoga Courier was published at Ballston Spa in 1818 by Ulys- 
ses F. Doubleday. 

The Saratoga Journal was published for a short time at Ballston Spa 
by Josiah Bunce. 

The Saratoga Recorder and Anti-Masonic Democrat was published 
at Saratoga in 1831 by D. Tehan. 

The New York Palladium was published in 1831 by Ansel Warren. 

The. Schenectady and Saratoga Standard was published at Ballston 
Spa in 1832-3 by Israel Sackett. 

The Ballston Democrat was started in 1843 by Newell Hine. In 
1853 it was united with the Northern Mirror and published as 

The Ballston Democrat and Mirror. It was subsequently published 

The Ballston Atlas, by Seymour Chase, until 1863, when it passed 
into the hands of E. W. Reynolds, who removed it to Saratoga. 

The Gem of the North was started in 1850 by Curtis & Lee, and 
published about one year, when it was changed to 

The Northern Mirror, and in 1853 it was united with the Ballston 

The Saratoga Gazette was published at Saratoga Springs in 1810. 

The Saratoga Patriot was started by Samuel R. Brown. In 1812 
it was removed to Albany. 

The Saratoga Sentinel was founded in 1819 by G. M. Davidson. In 
1845 it was merged in the Republican. 


The Saratoga Whig was started in 1839 by Ruling & Watts. In 
1840 it passed into the hands of G. W. Spooner, and afterwards was 
owned by E. G. Ruling. In 1851 it was changed to 

The Saratoga County Press. A daily edition started in 1844 was 
published in 1855 as 

The Saratoga Daily News. Ruling & Morehouse were the publish- 

The Daily Sentinel was started in 1842 in Saratoga Springs by Wilbur 
& Palmer. From 1855 to 1857 it was issued as 

The Daily Post, and then was changed back to the Sentinel. Jan- 
uary 1, 1879, it was united with the Republican. 

The Republican was started in 1844 and issued daily and weekly 
by John A. Corey. In 1853 it passed into the hands of Thomas G. 
Young, and January 1, 1859, it was united with the Sentinel and 
published as 

The Republican and Sentinel, daily and weekly, by Thomas G.Young. 

The Old Letter was published at Saratoga in 1849 by A. R. Allen. 

The Advent Review and Sabbath Rerald was published semi-monthly 
in 1850, by James White. 

The Temperance Helper was started in January, 1850, by the Sara- 
toga County Temperance Alliance. In 1855 it was purchased by Potter 
& Judson, and in 1856 it was changed to 

The Saratogian. A daily edition was published for several years 
during the summer season, but it is now continued through the year. 
The firm of Potter & Judson was composed of Waldo M. Potter and 
Benjamin F. Judson. Upon Mr. Potter's withdrawal in September, 
1870, his place was taken in the firm by David F. Ritchie, and the firm 
of Judson & Ritchie was thus formed, which conducted the paper for 
some time, until Mr. Judson's interest was purchased by Charles F. Paul 
and the firm of Paul & Ritchie was then formed. About 1881 this firm 
was dissolved by judgment of the Supreme Court and the partnership 
assets afterward sold and purchased by a corporation formed in Janu- 
ary, 1882, known as "The Saratogian." This corporation has con- 
tinued as the publisher of "The Saratogian," a weekly edition, and 
" The Daily Saratogian" since that time. 

The Saratoga Sentinel was started in 1854, by Allen Corey, and sold 
in May, 1855, to Clark & Thayer. In 1859 it was united with the Re- 



The Schuylerville Herald was published at Schuylerville in 1844 by 
J. L. Cramer. 

Old Saratoga was started in 1848 at Schuylerville by J. L. Cramer, 
and continued until 1852. 

Battle Ground Herald was published at Schuylerville from August, 
18n3, to July, 1857, by R. N. Atwell & Co.' 

The Saratoga County American was started in December, 1857. It 
was afterwards published at Schuylerville by J. R. Rockwell. 

The Stillwater Gazette was started at Stillwater in 1845 by Isaac A. 
Pitman, and was published three years. 

The Cold Water Battery was published at Stillwater in 1845 by Isaac 
A. Pitman. 

The Hudson River Chronicle was published at Mechanicville from 
October, 1856, to March, 1858, by Samuel Heron. 

The Crescent Eagle was published in 1852 by C. Ackerman. 

The Morning Star was published at Mechanicville in 1854-5 by C. 
Smith & Co. 

The Ballston Democrat was started in 1865 by Curtis & Mann, and 
published by them until August 16, 1866, when it passed into the hands 
of J. M. Waterbury, by whom it was published until February, 1868, 
when it passed into the hands of William S. Waterbury. In 1888 it 
was purchased by M. P. Morse, its present proprietor. 

The Saratoga Sun was started in September, 1870, by Albert S. 
Pease. December 11, 1882, it was purchased by Edward P. Howe. 
January 14, 1892, the latter associated with him his son, Lewis Mc- 
Henry Howe. 

The Saratoga Eagle was founded in 1879 by John Johnson and Tim- 
othy Harrington. In May, 1889, Frank M. Cozzens and Frederick M. 
Waterbury purchased it. In May, 1897, Mr. Waterbury bought the 
interest of Mr. Cozzens and is now sole proprietor. 

The Mechanicville Mercury was established in 1881. It is now pub- 
lished by Farrington L. Mead. 

The Upper Hudson Mail was established about 1890 at Mechanic- 
ville by Mr. Snell. It ceased publication in 1893. 

The Ballston Spa Daily News was founded in 1888 by M. P. Morse. 

The Corinthian is published at Corinth by C. H. Wyman. 

The Ballston Daily Journal, a daily edition of the Ballston Journal, 
was started by H. L. Grose & Sons in 1892. 

The Saratoga Union was founded in 1872. It became extinct in 1894. 



The Stillwater Journal was founded in June, 1892, by Robert Har- 
court, the present proprietor. 

The Round Lake Season was published at Round Lake from June 
1 to September 28, 1895, by Rev. Edward C. Hoyt. 

The Round Lake Enterprise was published weekly at Round Lake, 
by Rev. Edward C. Hoyt, from May 1, 1896, to August 27, 1897. 

The Register, a monthly paper, was established at Ballston Spa, by 
Rev. Dr. Charles Pelletreau, in 1897. 


Several important changes in the banking institutions of Saratoga 
county have occurred in the period of which we are writing. Soon 
after the close of the war the Commercial National bank of Saratoga 
Springs was organized under the State banking laws. Judge John 
Willard wSs its president for several years. It was reorganized later 
as a national bank. At the time of its reorganization and for several 
years thereafter Charles S. Lester was its president. He was succeeded 
by John T. Carr. In 1873 the Union Savings bank of Saratoga Springs 
was chartered by an act passed March 28. The new bank began busi- 
ness April 1, 1873, with J. S. Leake as president and S. H. Richards 
as secretary and treasurer. Deposits were received at the First Na- 
tional and Comnlercial National banks. April 16, 1874, Charles H. 
Hulbert was chosen to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. 
Richards' as treasurer and trustee. July 1, 1875, the bank located in 
quarters at the south end of the United States hotel. Its career was 
short, however. In December 1878, both the Commercial National 
and the Union Savings banks failed and never were reorganized. 

The Citizens National Bank of Saratoga Springs was organized Sep- 
tember 1, 1881, with a capital of |li30,000. The first officers were: 
President, Daniel A. Bullard; vice-president, Henry S. Clement; 
cashier, John H. De Ridder. January 2, 1882, Mr. De Ridder was 
succeeded as cashier by Lester A. Sharp. In February, 1889, Charles 
D. Thurber succeeded Mr. Sharp. In March, 1892, Mr. De Ridder 
again succeeded to the cashier's desk and is now filling the position. 
Mr. Bullard retired from the presidency in February, 1889, and John 
Foley was elected to succeed him. Mr. Foley is still the official head 
of the institution. In February, 1883, Henry S. Clement was succeeded 
as vice-president by William H. Clement, who was succeeded by Hiram 
Newell in January, 1888. William T. Rockwood became vice-president 

BANKS. 291 

in February, 1890, and occupies the position at present. The bank has 
leased for thirty years of Abel Putnam, Jr., the brick block on the 
northeast corner of Broadway and Phila street. It has been elaborately 
remodeled and the corner store converted into a modern banking house. 
Theatre Saratoga is included in the bank's leased property. 

The National Bank of Schuylerville originated in a private bank es- 
tablished in 1853 by William Wilcox. Its capital Viras $50,000. Three 
years later it was merged into an organized institution known as the 
Bank of Old Saratoga, which started business in 1856 with a capital 
stock of $100,000 William Wilcox became its president and Giles C. 
Brisbin, cashier. In 1865 this bank was succeeded by the National 
bank of Schuylerville, which started business with a capital stock of 
$100,000. The concern was reincorporated in 1885, its capital being 
reduced to $50,000. D. A. Bullard, for many years president of this 
bank, established the Citizens National bank at Saratoga Springs in 
1881-1882. The first president of this bank was C. W. Mayhew. He 
was succeeded by George L. Ames and the latter by D. A. Bullard, 
who still holds that office. The cashiers of the bank in the order of 
their service, have been: George Watson, John H. De Ridder and 
C. E. Brisbin. 

The First National bank of Ballston Spa was organized and began 
business April 1, 1865, with a paid-in capital of $100,000, and an author- 
ized capital of $250,000; but it has never been increased to that figure. 
The first president was Hiro Jones, who ser.ved until March 5, 1879, 
resigning on account of continued ill health. George West, who was 
vice-president when Mr. Jones resigned, acted as president until Feb- 
ruary 2, 1880, at which date he was elected president. He still serves 
in that capacity. James W. Horton was the first vice-president of the 
bank, serving until February 15, 1870, when Henry A. Mann was 
chosen. December 6, 1875, he was succeeded by George West. The 
first cashier was John D. Bancroft; he served until December 18, 1871, 
when he was succeeded by Stephen C. Medbery. Mr. Medbery, at 
that time but twenty -four years of age, enjoyed the distinction of being 
the youngest bank cashier in New York State, if not in the United 
States. He still continues to act in that capacity, and to his great dis- 
cretion and financial ability much of the success of the bank is due. 
George C. Beecher was the bank's first teller. He was succeeded in 
turn by Stephen C. Medbery, Egbert T. Clute, Mr. Durkee, Charles 
H. Cook and Charles E, Fitcham, who has occupied that position since 


March 1, 1895. R. M. Medbery has been clerk since June 18, 1888. 
The bank has a surplus of $100,000. 

The First National bank of Mechanicville was chartered May 1, 1884, 
with these directors, which had been elected March 6 preceding: John 

C. Greene, George Rogers, Charles H. Cory, Ephraim C. Ellsworth, 
Edgar Holmes, William W. Smith, George R. Moore, J. Frank Terry, 
Henry Newland, George B. Perry, John J. Beattie, John Hall and 
Thomas Coleman. They elected John C. Greene president, George 
Rogers, vice-president and S. C. Bull cashier. Mr. Greene served as 
president until May 3, 1887, when George Rogers was elected to the 
office. His successors as president have been: William W. Smith, 
elected January 17, 1888 (died January 20, 1891); Edgar Holmes, 
elected January 24, 1891; Ben B. Smith, elected January 24, 1892. 
The latter is still in office. S. C. Bull was cashier until March, 1888, 
when Adelbert J. Harvey, the present cashier, succeeded him. The 
vice-presidents have been: George Rogers, 1884 to 1887; William W. 
Smith, elected May 3, 1887; David Akin, elected January 17, 1888; 
Ben B. Smith, elected January 24, 1891 ; David Akin, elected- January 
19, 1892. The latter is still the incumbent of that office. The original 
capital stock of this institution, $50,000, remains unchanged. The 
bank is carrying on business in the building it erected the year the 
concern was organized. 

Mechanicville's industries increasing in number and extent very rap- 
idly, it was deemed advisable to establish a new bank in 1896, and 
April 16 of that year the Manufacturers' National bank was chartered, 
with a capital stock of $60,000. This institution began business May 4, 
1896, in the building at the corner of Main street and Park avenue. 
The present officers are the same as at first elected. They are : Pres- 
ident, Edgar Holmes; vice-president, John C. Duncan; cashier, Charles 

D. Thurber; directors, Edgar Holmes, Edward H. Strang, William L. 
Howland, W. B. Neilson, O. Tompkins, Adelbert B. Orcutt, Joseph H. 
Packer, John C. Duncan, George Rogers, J. E. Lamb, W. R. Palmer. 

The banking house of S. C. Bull & Co. of Waterford is the successor 
to the old Saratoga County bank, which was incorporated May 29, 
1830, with a capital stock of $100,000. John Knickerbacker was the 
first president, and Jonathan H. Douglas the first cashier. In Decem- 
ber, 1856, the capital stock of this bank was increased to $150,000. In 
May, 1865, it was reorganized as a national bank, in 1871 again became 
a State bank and in 1880 a national bank again. In 1885 it went into 


voluntary liquidation. Those who served as its presidents were John 
Knickerbacker, John Cramer, Hugh White, William Scott and Chaun- 
cey Boughton. April 1, 1886, the banking house was purchased by S. 
C. Bull. In October, 1887, F. F. Follet entered into a copartnership 
with Mr. Bull, under the firm name of S. C. Bull & Co. , which has 
existed to the present time. The bank is a private institution, and the 
only one in Waterford. 


The first county clerk's office' was erected at Ballston Spa in 1834, 
while Thomas Palmer was serving as county clerk.' In 1824 the State 
Legislature passed a law authorizing the erection of a suitable building 
for the preservation of the county records, at an expense of $1,000, and 
named Edward Watrous, Eli Barnum and Moses Williams as a com- 
mittee of construction. The result of the work was the erection of a 
small but substantial stone building at Ballston Spa. In 1865 the 
board of supervisors, finding this building inadequate and inconvenient 
in its location, decided to erect a more commodious house on the ground 
adjoining the site of the court house to the west, on the north side of 
High street. The board appointed Arnold Harris, Joseph Baucus, 
David T. Lamb, James W. Horton, Edwin H. Chapman, Charles S. 
Lester and William V. Clark a committee to erect the new building, at 
a cost of $10,000. The work was completed and the new officers first 
occupied it in the summer of 1866, Mr. Horton previously having re- 
moved the county records to the State armory' on High street. 

The Saratoga waterworks are operated under what is known as the 
Holly system, the water being pumped from Loughberry lake, which 
is in the town of Saratoga Springs. When the works were set in mo- 
tion July 10, 1871, a gang pump supplied a million gallons of water 
daily. Three years after the pumping machinery was increased to the 
capacity of two and a half millions of water daily. In 1883 a Gaskell 
engine' capable of furnishing five millions daily was added, and in 1890 

• This venerable relic still stands on the south side of Front street at Ballston Spa, just east of 
the Delaware & Hudson railroad bridge. 

= Mr. Palmer was county clerk from 1818 to 1833. 
' This building for many years has been used by Christ P. E. church as a chapel. 

* The purchase of the fir.«;t Gaskell ensrine in 1883 was the occasion for a bitter legal and polit- 
ical struggle. This engine was the first of its type and a, considerable departure from preceding 
types of pumping engines. Its performances were so remarkable that they excited distrust in 
the minds of experts. The engine was condemned as a fraud, the commissioners who had pur- 
chased it accused of corruption and suits brought to prevent the completion of its purchase. The 


a $50,000 Holly engine, with a capacity of eight millions every twenty- 
four hours, was purchased. The two later engines now constitute the 
sole pumping machinery, the others having been removed. David 
Holland was chief engineer from the time the works were started until 
1887, when his assistant, George F. Bacon, was appointed to the posi- 
sition, and Charles J. Traver was appointed assistant. Messrs. Bacon 
and Traver hold their respective positions at present. 

The Saratoga Springs fire department originated in an organization 
formed after the first fire in 1825 by Nathaniel H. Waterbury. It con- 
sisted of ten young men who volunteered their services. Soon after 
the incorporation of the village, which occurred April 17, 1826, two 
fire companies were formed, and the first organization of the old volun- 
teer system was effected. The first fire wardens of the village were 
William A. Langworthy, Miles Beach and Joseph White. Rockwell 
Putnam was chief engineer and Ransom Cook assistant. Mr. Lang- 
worthy was made captain of Company No. 1, and Nathaniel H. Water- 
bury captain of Company No. 2, which were organized at that time. 
May 1, 1827, the board of trustees were sworn into office, and Wash- 
ington Putnam, John A. Waterbury and Eli Holbrook were appointed 
fire wardens. Rockwell Putnam was continued as chief engineer and 
Samuel Holbrook was made assistant. During the year Dr. John Clark 
was authorized to buy a fire engine for the village, and $400 was ap- 
propriated for that purpose. The engine was a small one worked by 
hand brakes, and the pipe holder stood on top of it and directed the 
stream on the fire. In 1830 another hand engine was purchased for 
$500. April 16, 1836, a hook and ladder company was organized. 

In 1844 a reservoir of about 3,000 hogsheads capacity was erected on 
Franklin square, into which ran the water from the aqueduct of Thomas 
J. Marvin and from several springs. The water was distributed through 
the village in wooden conduits. In 1845 a new hand engine, costing 
$650, was purchased. Three years later the records show that the 
village supported three fire companies and one hook and ladder cpm- 
pany. One of the fire companies was disbanded in that year, but soon 
was reorganized. 

November 29, 1844, a disastrous fire occurred, causing a loss of $15,- 
000, a large amount for those days. A new system of water works was 

litigation not only vindicated the merits of the engine and the honesty of the commissioners bnt 
served to malce the superiority of the engine widely known and led to its extensive adoption for 
similar use throughout the country. 


established soon, the reservoir being located in the town of Greenfield. 
October 2, 1855, Engine Company No. 4 was organized. In 1858 the 
engine under control of the Congress and Empire Spring company was 
placed in charge of the viUage and Engine Company No. 5 was organ- 
ized. In 1863 a new engine was purchased for Engine Company No. 3. 

March 28, 1866, the first steam fire engine, called the "Saratoga," 
was purchased of the Button works at Waterford for $3, 500. It was 
located in the house of Engine Company No. 1 on Hamilton street, and 
Dennis Madigan was appointed engineer in charge. 

The burning of the famous United States hotel June 18, 1865, caus- 
ing a loss of $350,000, was the greatest fire up to that time in the his- 
tory of Saratoga Springs. The local fire department was unable to 
cope with the overpowering conflagration, and the news of the fire 
having reached neighboring towns, Eagle engine No. 1 and Star engine 
No. 2 from Ballston Spa and Hugh Rankin steamer from Troy were 
sent by special train to the scene of the catastrophe. With their assist- 
ance the fire was soon checked. 

Congress Hall burned on the night of May 38, 1866, but the depart- 
ment succeeded in saving the adjacent property. In the fall of that 
year the village purchased a new steam engine, which was named the 
"John H. White." 

September 18 and 14, 1871, a grand firemen's tournament was held 
at Saratoga Springs. On the second day of the festivities fire destroyed 
the Crescent, the Park Place and the Columbian hotels, with several 
other buildings, causing a loss of $300,000. 

October 1, 1874, the Grand hotel took fire, and despite the most 
heroic efforts on the part of the local department, assisted by engines 
and firemen from Troy, Ballston Spa and other places, this magnificent 
hotel was destroyed. 

In 1877 a fire alarm telegraph system was constructed. Since that 
date numerous other improvements have been made, until the Saratoga 
Springs department is today one of the best equipped departments in 
any town of its size in the country. 

The Saratoga paid fire department succeeded the volunteer compan- 
ies in 1883, taking the place of six hose companies, three steamer com- 
panies, one protective company and a hook and ladder. The first chief 
engineer was Elias J. Shad wick, who has filled this position contin- 
uously with the exception of from May, 1893, to November, 1893, when 
Charles F. See was chief, John T. Dillon was the first assistant chief, 


and served until November, 1886. The only other assistant chief has 
been Richard Mingay, jr., who at present fills the position. The de- 
partment includes nine permanent and thirteen call firemen, and is 
eqipped with a Hayes truck. The central house is on Broadway. 

The fire department of Ballston Spa consists of two hose companies 
and a hook and ladder company, which have been in existence several 
years. They are Eagle Fire company No. 1, Union Fire company No. 
3 and Matt Lee Hook and Ladder company No. 2. Water is taken 
from a reservoir two miles and a half north of the village, and the pres- 
sure is sufficient to do away with the necessity of a fire engine. 

Mechanicville has an excellent fire department. May 31, 1875, the 
village purchased of L. Button & Son of Waterford an engine known as 
Washington engine No. 1. This was sold in 1897 to the village of 
Schaghticoke. The successor of Washington Engine company is known 
as the La Dow Steamer and Hose company. A system of water works 
was constructed in 1891 and 1893, at an expense of about $140,000. 
The reservoir is located three miles northwest of the village, above 
Willow Glen. The sewer system of Mechanicville was constructed in 
1896 at a cost of $40,000. 

The Saratoga Athenaeum and School of Design was organized in 1884 
and incorporated in 1885. The founder was Prof. Nathan Sheppard, 
who was its president until his death in 1887. Charles C. Lester is the 
present president. The object of the Athenaeum is the maintenance of 
a public circulating and reference library and school of design and art 
gallery. The headquarters are in the French building on Broadway 
and the hope of the members and officers is that in time a handsome 
building will be the home of the worthy institution which aims to instill 
into the hearts of the community a love for the best in art and litera- 
ture. The trustees of the Athenaeum are Charles C. Lester, Winsor B. 
French, James Mingay, Charles F. Dowd, Edgar T. Brackett, Antoine 
de R. McNair, Theodore F. Hamilton, Tabor B. Reynolds, Cassius B. 
Thomas, John W. Shackelford. 

The floral fetes which have been the culmination of Saratoga's sum- 
mer season for four years had their inception in a speech made in 1893 
by Franklin W. Smith, proprietor of the House of Pansa. The first 
fete held in 1894 was a revelation, the echoes of which did not die 
down until the fete of the following year, which brought 50,000 people 
to witness the gorgeous pageant of carriages and floats^ The fete of 
1895 retained the features of its predecessors and in line with the 



times, brought into prominence the bicycle. There were myriads of 
blossom bedecked wheels divided into squadrons and cavalcades. Gov. 
Levi P. Morton rode in the van of the pageant. In 1896 the fete de- 
veloped into such prominence that 100,000 excursionists visited Sara- 
toga. The event was no longer a local one and, the country for miles 
around was called on to contribute flowers used in ornamenting the 
cortege of equipages which passed through floral arches on streets 
lined with gay decorations and thronged with admiring thousands. 
The fete of 1897 was the climax of the series. The street display was 
rivaled by the floral ball, which, although a pdpular part of previous 
fetes, reached the zenith of perfection this year. Convention hall, 
where the ball took place, was turned into a tropical bower, upon whose 
brilliant verdure countless lights flickered and glistened Six thousand 
people looked on while two thousand participated in the terpsichorean 
ecstasies. Scores of children took part in a spectacular fantasie, "The 
Realms of the Rose," composed and arranged by M. S. Frothingham 
of New York. The fetes are conducted early in September by a floral 
festival association, and their object is for the general glory of Saratoga 
and to show that some attention is paid to the esthetic. 

The Charlton Industrial Farm school is a quasi public institution. 
In the fall of 1894 John S. Hawley of New York city, who had become 
interested in the welfare of wayward youth, opened a correspondence 
with Dr. James T. Sweetman of Charlton, of which town Mr. Hawley 
was a native, with the object of beginning an industrial farm school in 
Charlton. Dr. Sweetman talked of the project with his neighbors; 
meetings were held and the result was that the Valentine farm, one of 
the best in the town, was selected for. the location of the proposed in- 
stitution, Mr. Hawley donating the sum of $35,000 to begin the work. 
The farm cost about $14,000, besides stock, tools, etc. The institution 
was opened about the beginning of the year 1896. Subscriptions for a 
new building have come in, so that the managers now have on hand 
money sufficient, to erect a building that will accommodate from thirty 
to forty boys. It is expected that this building will be erected very 
soon. The object of this -school is to reclaim boys who, for lack of 
parental restraint, are drifting toward a life of crime. The boys are 
committed by legal process to the custody of the school. Being thus 
removed from their vicious associates, they are brought under good 
moral influences, taught the value of character, trained to industry and 
given a good elementary education. James M. Bell is superintendent 


and Mrs. Kate De R. Thorburn is matron. The directors are Rev. A. 
Wareham, president; William Chalmers, vice-president; James T. 
Sweetman, M. D., secretary and treasurer; George C. Valentine and 
Walter I. Cavert. The outlook for the institution is most promising. 

The articles of incorporation of the Schuylerville Steamboat com- 
pany were filed in the office of the county clerk May 3, 1898. The 
capital is $30,000, and the object of the corporation is to perfect and 
maintain steam navigation for fifty years on the waters of the Upper 
Hudson river between Schuylerville and Stillwater. The incorporators 
are Joseph A. Powers, Albert W. Powers, Edward F. Powers, James 
H. Caldwell, John Knickerbacker, Henry Newland, Herbert O. Baiky. 
The company operates a steam yacht for passenger traffic between the 
villages named, connecting at Stillwater with the electric railway for 
Troy and Albany. 

The Dunsbach Bridge company began, in 1898, the construction of 
a bridge across the Mohawk river at Dunsbach's Ferry, and had spent 
about $18,000 upon the work when the Half moon Bridge company, 
which operates a bridge over the Mohawk at Crescent, began an action 
to restrain the first-named company from continuing the work, claim- 
ing that the new company sought to infringe upon the rights of the 
older company. The matter is not yet decided. 


The most noted social organization in Saratoga county probably is 
the Saratoga club of Saratoga Springs. 

The Saratoga club was organized in 1892, and in January, 1894, the 
club occupied its handsome North Broadway home. The club house 
and site cost $30,000 and the materials used in its construction are brick 
and terra cotta. S. Gifford Slocum of New York and Saratoga was the 
architect. In the personnel of its membership and in the appointments 
of its club house the organization has no superior between Troy and 
Montreal. James M. Marvin was the club's first president and he has 
been successively re-elected every year. In 1893 and '93 George P. 
Lawton was vice-president, John C. Shepherd treasurer and Wharton 
Meehan secretary. In 1894 the officers were the same, with the ex- 
ception of the vice-president, who was J. Willard Lester. In 1895 Mr. 
Lester was vice-president, Mr. Shepherd treasurer, and C. E. Durkee 
secretary. The officers in 1896 and 1897 were John A. Manning, vice- 
president, Mr. Shepherd treasurer and Heman L. Waterbury secretary. 


In 1898 John A. Manning was elected vice-president, Lynn R. Rich, 
treasurer to succeed Mr. Shepherd, deceased, and Mr. Waterbury 

The Utopian club of Ballston Spa is another leading social organiza- 
tion of the county. The following entry in the records of the club ex- 
plains its organization : 

Monday Evening, Sept. 7, 1885. 

According to agreement a party of young men assembled at the store of John H. 
Westcot, to take up the question of organizing a social or dancing club. There were 
present, William J. Mitchell, Herbert C. Westcot, Horace E. McKnight and Herman 
W. Gunther. 

After considering the question in its different phases and agreeing to support a 
club of the kind, it was resolved, considering the small number present, to call a 
meeting of the young men of the village, who would naturally be interested, at the 
Medbery Hotel parlor, Friday Evening, September 11, 1885, to organize a club. 

The permanent organization of the club took place September 18, 
1885, the following officers being elected: President, John H. Burke; 
vice-president, William J. Mitchell; secretary, Herman W. Gunther; 
treasurer, Herbert C. Westcot. 

Mr. Burke continued to act as president until September 17, 1886. 
Andrew S. Booth was elected president and continued to act as such 
from September 17, 1886, to September 9, 1887. Alfred N. Wiley was 
elected and acted as president from September 9, 1887, to January 11, 
1889. The club was incorporated December 30, 1887, the trustees for 
the first year being: Alfred N Wiley, Irving W. Wiswall, Seth S. 
Whalen, David L. Wood and Calvin Whiting. Andrew S. Booth was 
elected president January 11, 1889, and has been regularly elected each 
year since. The membership is limited to sixty-five. 

The Waterford club, a social organization of which many of the most 
prominent men in the village are members was organized January 39, 
1885, when William Holroyd was chosen president and Thomas O'Con- 
nor secretary. The club has handsomely furnished rooms in the town 
hall. The following have served as presidents of the club in the order 
named : 

William Holroyd, Thomas Brisbin, John H. Pynes, John W. Ford, C. C. Ormsby, 
Charles L. Mitchell, William A. Dennis, William L. Porter, George Neil. 

William A. Saxe, secretary of the club, has served in that capacity 
since 1894. 

The Homoeopathic Medical Society of Saratoga County, was organ- 
ized in 1863. Practically all of the homoeopathic practitioners in the 


county have been connected with it at some time during its existence 
of thirty-five years. Among the early members were Drs. S. J. Pear- 
sail of Saratoga Springs, Thomas E. Allen of Saratoga Springs, J. F. 
Doolittle of Ballston Spa, Zina Clement of Saratoga Springs, A. G. 
Peckham of Waterford, William E. Rogers of Rexford's Flats, B. F. 
Cornell of Fort Edward. 

Empire Lodge No. 79, K. of P., of Saratoga Springs, was instituted 
with twenty-nine members, February 5, 1873. The charter officers 
were: Chancellor commander, N. Waterbury; vice-chancellor, B. H. 
Searing; prelate, C. H. Sanborn; master at arms, C. H. J. Moutgom- 
,ery; keeper of records and seals, Henry Marshall; master of finance, 
T. B. Valentine; master of exchequer, William F. Calkins; inner guard, 
G. W. Zahn; outer guard, W. L. Graham; past chancellor, F. W. 
H or ton. 

Merriam Rebekah Degree lodge of Saratoga Springs was chartered 
May 1, 1884, with thirty three members. The first officers were: N. 
G., A. P. Mallery; V.G, Ellen M. Martin; secretary, Mary E. Rob- 
bins; treasurer, Miriam Boyce; conductor, Nellie E. Briggs; warden, 
Addie Robbins; inside guardian, Helen Weed; outside guardian, Mar- 
garet Kirkpatrick; R. S. N. G., Hannah Sanborn; L. S. N. G., Sarah 
Tooley; R.S.V.G., Josephine Carlue; chaplain, Sarah Sanborn. Feb- 
ruary 18, 1885, the name of the lodge was changed to Yaddo. The 
presiding officers, in the order of their service, have been : Ellen M. 
Martin, Miriam Boyce, Nellie E. Briggs, Sarah Sanborn, Ella Farring- 
ton, Anna R. Lorman, Sarah J. Tooley, Minnie Eddy, Viola G. B. 
Martin, Mary E. Briggs, Mary C. Price, Saraii J. Putnam, Minnie E. 
Clark, Ella B. Myers. 


The one hundredth anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of 
Independence was celebrated with great festivities at Saratoga Springs, 
Ballston Spa and Schuylerville. At Saratoga Springs Judge Augustus 
Bockes of the Supreme Court occupied the chair at the meeting in the 
evening, held in the town hall, and the late Nathaniel Bartlett Sylves- 
ter delivered a historical address. At Ballston Spa the historical ad- 
dress was delivered by Hon. George Gordon .Scott, and Hon. Jesse S. 
L'Amoreaux pronounced a centennial oration. At Schuylerville an 
address was delivered by Genera] E. F. Bullard. 

In 1877 two great historic events were celebrated in the town of Sar- 


atoga. The first of these was the hundredth anniversary of the battle 
of Bemus Heights, which occurred September 19, 1777. Thousands 
of people from all sections, but principally from Saratoga county, were 
present. About nine o'clock in the morning a magnificent procession 
formed on the square at Bemus Heights hotel, near the river, and 
marched to the battlefield, half a mile distant. The order was as fol- 

First Division. — Platoon of police; General Winsor B. French of Saratoga, grand 
marshal, and staff; Major-General Joseph B. Carr of Troy and staff; Brigadier- 
General Alonzo Alden of Troy and staff; Doring's Band of Troy; Chadwick's Guards 
of Cohoes, Captain P. H. Chadwick commanding; Troy Citizens' Corps, Captain J. 
W. Cusack commanding; Troy Tibbits Corps, Captain J. Egolf commanding; Troy 
Tibbits Cadets, Captain J. H. Patten commanding; Sherman Guards of Port Henry, 
Captain F. G. Atwell commanding; Hughes's Light Guard of South Glens Falls, 
Captain F. Gleesattle commanding; Burleigh Corps of Whitehall, Captain G. T. 
Hall commanding; Battery B of Troy, Captain A. H. Green commanding; Generals 
Hughes and Tracy and Colonel Lodewick of the Governor's staff; Brigadier-General 
Dickerman of Albany and staff; Hon. George Gordon Scott of Ballston Spa, presi- 
dent of the day; orators, poet and clergy. 

Second Division. — Colonel D. J. Caw, assistant marshal, and aids; Seventy-seventh 
Regiment band Of Saratoga Springs ; Saratoga veterans, carrying the old Bemus 
Heights regimental flag, commanded by Captain Frank Thomas ; Saratoga Conti- 
nentals^ mounted ; representative citizens of Saratoga Springs. 

Third Division. — Captain Benjamin F. Judson, assistant marshal, commanding; 
marshal's aids; Huling's band of Ballston Spa; Eagle Engine company of Ballston 
Spa; Hovey Fire company of Ballston Spa; Ballston Spa veterans and citizens; 
Schuylerville band ; Schuylerville Fire company; mounted yeomanry; Schuylerville 

The exercises at the battle-ground began about noon. After prayer 
by Rev. Peter Stryker, D. D., of Saratoga Springs, Hon. Georg^ G. 
Scott of Ballston Spa, president of the day, delivered a brief address. 
He was followed bj'- Hon. Martin I. Townsend of Troy, who delivered 
an eloquent oration. Lieutenant-Governor Dorsheimer also made an 
address. Hon. Austin A. Yates of Schenectady read the anniversary 
poem, written by Robert Lowell of Union college. John Austin 
Stevens of New York delivered the historical narrative, giving, in de- 
tail, the history of General Burgoyne's rerliarkable campaign. After 
lunch and a review of the troops by Lieutenant-Governor Dorsheimer 
and General Carr and staff, the military companies present participated 
in a sham battle, after which the assembled multitude returned to their 

In his remarks. Judge Scott said : 


It is difficult to realize the far-reaching consequences of this world-renowned bat- 
tle. It has been said with much force that without it Bunker Hill would have been 
insignificant and Yorktown impossible. It secured to us the alliance and aid of 
France; it inspired us with confidence in ourselves; and foreshadowed the ultimate, 
if not early, accomplishment of American independence, which, fifteen months pre- 
vious, had been boldly, but in the apprehensions of many, prematurely and rashly 
promulgated. It is ranked by historians among the few battles in the history of the 
world that have changed the course of empires and shaped the destinies of our race. 
It has resulted in this great confederated republic, which, in spite of the defects in- 
herent in that form of government and of the severe trials through which, during its 
marvellous growth and territorial expansion, it has passed, is, for the highest pur- 
poses for which governments are instituted, superior to any other, ancient or modern. 

In the early part of his long but exceedingly interesting and valuable 
address, John Austin Stevens said : 

The ground upon which we stand is memorable. Before the discovery of the con- 
tinent this territory, at whose southern angle we are now gathered, was the battle- 
field of the Indian tribes, whose war trails lay upon its boundaries, and from the 
days of European settlement it has been the debatable ground of the French and 
Dutch, the French and English, and the colonists and English, by turns. Here the 
fate of the American empire has been repeatedly sealed. 

In closing his address Mr. Stevens said : 

The series of engagements known as the battle of Saratoga has been styled one of 
the fifteen decisive battles of the world. Its consequences were of such vast im- 
portance as to entitle it to this distinction. The long-cherished plan of the British 
Ministry, pursued through two campaigns with persevering obstinacy, was finally 
defeated. The open alliance of France was secured ; the United States of America 
were recognized by the continental powers. The news of the victory spread rapidly 
over the land, carrying joy to the hearts of the patriots. Washington viewed it as 
a signal stroke of Providence. Congress voted the thanks of the nation to General 
Gates and his army, and a gold medal was struck and presented to him in commem- 
oration of the event. 

The second event to which reference has been made was the celebra- 
tion of the centennial anniversary of the surrender of Burgoyne, which 
was held at Schuylerville October 17, 1877. The occasion was made 
doubly interesting by the ceremony of laying the corner stone of the 
Saratoga battle monument. The number of persons in attendance is 
variously estimated at between 30,000 and 40,000. 

It was about noon before the splendid procession took up the route 
of march. It moved in the following order: ' 

Platoon of police ; Gen. Winsor B. French, chief marshal; chief marshal's staff, 
Capt. Benjamin F. Judson, Maj. W. J. Riggs, Surgeon Wm. H. Hall, Col. Hiram 
Rodgers, Capt. A. A. Patterson, J. W. Lester, R. A. Heminway, Capt. William W. 


Worden, Maj. Edgar T. Brackett, Capt. Edward P. Howe, Capt. P. F. Allen, Samuel 
F. Corey, Capt. James M. Andrews, jr., Saratoga Springs; Capt. Walton W. French, 
Ballston Spa; Capt. Geo. Robinson, Capt. Thomas, Dr. Gray, Delcour S. Potter, A. 
Welch, J. S. Dillenbeck, Charles H. McNaughton, S. McCreedy, P. S. Wheeler, Dr. 
N. C Harris, Lieutenants Dillenbeck, Fletcher, Pennock, Schuylerville ; Doring's 
band of Troy; Co. F. Tenth regiment, Capt. George Weidman commanding, of 
Albany ; Co. I, Twenty-fifth regiment, Capt. Walker commanding, of Albany ; First 
Company Governor's Foot Guards of Hartford Conn., in Old English uniform worn 
in George Ill's reign, W. A. Talcott, major, commanding battalion; Colt's band, 
Hartford, Conn., Thomas G. Adkins, leader; Capt. A. H. Wiley, commanding first 
company; Lieut. R. D. Burdick, commanding second company; Lieut. S. E. Hascall, 
commanding third company; Lieut. W. E. Eaton, commanding fourth company; 
Park Guards of Bennington, Vt., Capt. O. N. Wilcox, commander, with band; 
Hughes Light Guards of Glens Falls, Captain Gleesattle, commanding; Grand Mar- 
shal of Knights Templar and aides ; Ballston Cornet band ; Washington Commandery 
of Saratoga Springs; Apollo Commandery of Troy; Temple Commandery No. 2 of 
Albany ; Holy Cross Commandery of Gloversville ; La Fayette Commandery of Hud- 
son; Little Falls Commandery o£ Little Falls; Desoto Commandery No. 49 of Platts- 
burgh ; Killington Commandery of Rutland, Vt. ; Bennington band ; Tefft Command- 
ery of Bennington, Vt. ; St. George's Commandery No. 37, of Schenectady; M. W. , 
J. J. Couch, grand master of Masons in the State of New York; R. W., Edmund L. 
Judson, deputy grand master; R. W., Jesse B. Anthony, senior grand warden; Ben- 
jamin Flagler, junior grand warden; New York State officials; president of the day, 
Alexander H. Rice, governor of Massachusetts; orators; poets; speakers; clergy and 
chaplain in carriages ; the Saratoga Monument association ; invited guests in car- 
riages; Schuylerville Cornet band; veterans of the late war; Grand Army of the Re- 
public ; veterans of the war with Mexico ; veterans of the war of 1812 ; descendants of 
revolutionary soldiers ; Seventy-seventh Regimental band of Saratoga Springs ; cav- 
alry in continental uniform, Maj. J. S. Fassett, commanding, Saratoga Springs; 
Ballston Spa cavalry. Col C. T. Peck, commander ; civic associations ; municipal au- 
thorities of Schuylerville. 

The route of march was as follows : 

Gates avenue to Grove street; Grove to Pearl to Burgoyne; Burgoyne to Broad; 
Broad to Spring ; Spring to Church ; Church to Burgoyne ; Burgoyne to Pearl ; Pearl 
to Saratoga; Saratoga to Green; Green to Burgoyne; Burgoyne to Cemetery. 

The order of exercises at the monument were as follows: 

Music, Doring's band; prayer. Rev. Rufus W. Clark, D.D., of Albany, chaplain of 
the day; music; introductory address by president of the day. Governor Rice of 
Massachusetts; music; oration by ex-Gov. Horatio Seymour; music; oration by Hon. 
George William Curtis; poems by Gen. J. Watts De Peyster and Alfred B. Street; 
Fitz Green Halleck's " Field of the Grounded Arms," read by Gen. James Grant 
Wilson ; music ; historical address by William L. Stone of New York city ; short ad- 
dresses by Hon. Austin A. Yates of Schenectady, H. L. Gladding and others; grand 
banquet; closing with a brilliant military spectacle representing the surrender of 
Burgoyne's army. 


As this magnificent celebration was in commemoration of the most 
important battle ever fought on American soil, and as many of those 
who participated in the occasion have since died, we append a list of 
the officers and committees whose services contributed so largely to 
make the event so memorable: 

President of the day, Gov. Alexander H. Rice of Massachusetts ; vice-presidents — 
Hon. George Bancroft, Washington, D. C. ; Hon. Charles O'Conor, William CuUen 
Bryant, Hon. Hamilton Fish, ex-Governor Hoffman, New York; Hon. Frederick 
De Peyster, president of the New York Historical Society ; Hon. Ellis H. Roberts, 
Utica; E. F. De Lancey, Hon. A. S. Sullivan, Hon. George L. Schuyler, Hon. John 
Bigelow, New York; Benjamin H. Hall, Troy; Joel Munsell, Albany; John V. L. 
Pruyn, Albany; Giles B. Slocum, Trenton, Mich.; James McFarlane, Plainfield, 
New Jersey; William A. Thomas, Bergen, New Jersey; Manton Marble, New 
York; Ethan Allen, New York; Hon. John H. Starin, Fultonville; Parker Handy, 
New York; John F. Seymour, Utica; E. H. Tenny, New York; Hon. B. W. Throck- 
morton, Bergen, N. J. ; S. G. Arnold, Newport, R.I ; Hon. E. A. Merritt, Newport, R. 
I. ; Hon. Hiland Hall. Bennington, Vt. ; C. M. Bliss, secretary Bennington Monument 
Association, Benoington, Vt. ; Hon. Henry G. Root, Bennington, Vt. ; Maj. A. B. 
Valentine, Bennington, Vt. ; Hon. M. S. Colburn, Manchester, Vt. ; ex-Gov. John B. 
Page, Rutland, Vt. ; Lieut.-Gov. Redfield S. Proctor, Rutland, Vt. ; Lieut. -Gov. Ed- 
ward J. Phelps, Burlington, Vt. ; ex-Gov. John W. Stewart, Middlebury, Vt. ; Hon. 
Frederick E. Woodbridge, Vergennes; William H. Clement, Morrow, Ohio; Pres- 
ident Potter, Union College, Schenectady; Clarence Bate, Louisville, Ky. ; Col. John 
Hay, Cleveland, Ohio; Henry G. Burleigh, Whitehall. 

Saratoga County — Saratoga — R. English, H. Cramer, George Strover, H. Scid- 
more, E. Raymond, F. Dodd, F. K. Marshall, W. R. Clothier, P. Dennis, G. Wright, 
Rev. A. F. Bailey, Rev. D. K. Van Dorn, Rev. G. W. Dean, Rev. H. B. Finnegan, 
N. Bennett, J. Osborn. Saratoga Springs — Hon. James M. Marvin, Hon. Augustus 
Bockes, Hon. O. L. Barbour, Stephen H. Richards, Benjamin F. Judson, John W. 
Crane, Charles S. Lester, G. L. Ames, Gen. Joshua T. Blanchard. Ballston — George 
G. Scott, Neil Gilmour. Charlton— W. B. Consalus, F. D. Curtis. Clifton Park— J. 
Peck, Hiram Parker. Corinth — E. Edwards, N. M. Houghton. Day — I. W. Guiles. 
E. Darling. Edinburgh — I. Noyes, jr., Silas H. Torrey. Galway — Dr. Preston, I. 
Brockett. Hadley — C. Rockwell, A. Palmer. Halfmoon — H. S. Sheldon, Ephraim 
D. Ellsworth, C. Clute. Malta— Captain John D. Rogers, J. Tripp. Milton— George 
West, Chauncey B. Kilmer, Henry Knickerbacker. Moreau — J. W. Shurter, W. A. 
Sherman. Northumberland — A. B. Baucu.s, A. L. Finnic, W. Tice, D. H. Deyoe, 
H. Thompson. Providence— W. B. Clark, P. Mead. Stillwater— G, W. Neilson, G. 
A. Ensign, L. Van Demark. Waterford— J. B. Enos, D. Lamb. Wilton— B. B. 
Grippen, C. Boyce. 

Washington County— Greenwich— R. H. Lowber, S. L. Stillman, Mr. Andrews. 
'Easton— J. A. Van Schaick, I. Burton, E. W. HoUister. Fort Edward— J. E. King, 
S. McLean, A. O. Waite. Sandy Hill— J. Dwyer, A. L. Allen. Fort Ann— J. Hall. 
Whitehall— W. A. Wilkins, W. H. Tefft. Granville— R. C. Betts. Argyle— A. 
Barkley, H. Dodd. Hartford— M. J. Ingalsbee, J. M. Northup. Salem— J. Gibson, 
jr., S. W. Russell. Cambridge— J. S. Smart, H. Gordon. 


Warren County— Glens Palls— T. S. Coolidge, W. W. Rockwell, I. Mott, H. M. 
Harris, N. Cole, M. B. Little, John Keenan, L. G. McDonald, Augustus Sherman, 
Jerry Finch. Luzerne— B. C. Butler. 

Rensselear County— Schaghticoke— J. A. Quackenbush, J. Knickerbacker. Troy 
—J. M. Francis, A. G. Johnson, J. B. Parmenter, E. L. Fursman, M. I. Townsend, 
Mayor Murphy, I. McConihe, J. J. Filkins. 

_ Albany County— Albany— Mayor Banks, J. W. Smith, C. E. Smith, A. A. Keyes, 
L. Thompson. Cohoes— C. H. Adams, D. J. Johnson. 

Schenectady County — C. Sanford, ex-Mayor Hunter. 

Montgomery County— Charles R. Winegar, Adam W. Kline, Frothingham Fish. 

Clinton County— Smith M. Weed. 

Secretaries — William L. Stone, secretary Monument Association, New York ; Da- 
vid F. Ritchie, A. S. Pease, E. J. Huling, of Saratoga Springs; H. L. Grose and W. 
S. Waterburyof Ballston Spa; R. L. Palmateer of Waterford; H. C. Morehouse of 
Greenwich; H. D. Morris of Salem; H. T. Blanchard of Fort Edward; J. L. McAr- 
thur of Granville ; J. H. Cushman of Bennington. 

Grand Marshal — Gen. Winsor B. French, Saratoga Springs. 

Assistant Marshals — Gen. Dickerman of Albany, Gen. Carr of Troy, Gen. Charles 
Hughes of Sandy Hill, Capt. James M. Andrews, jr., and Capt. A. A. Patterson of 
Saratoga Springs, Capt. George Rohinson of Schuylerville, Capt. Thomas of Still- 
water, Dr. Gray of Greenwich. 

Committees — Reception, N. C. Harris, N. J. Seelye, O. Brisbin, F. Gow, H. A. 
McRae ; music, C. M. Dennis, S. R. I^awrence, J. T. Smith, J. O. Hannum ; finance, 
S. Sheldon, G. F. Watson, W. H. Smith, A. M. Greene, H. C. Holmes, S. Thorn, S. 
F. Brott, J. Billings, jr., J. R. Deyoe; entertainment, E. Doolittle, J. H. DeRidder, 
R. N. Atwell, C. E. Ingerson, E. C. BuUard, M. Grippin; transportation, J. H. Dill- 
ingham, T. Toohey, G. H. Bennett, C. E. Washburn; decoration, G. P. Laing, R. 
W. Rice, I. Whitman, F. McNaughton, B. J. Bristol; military, D. S. Potter, A. 
Welch, J. S. Dillenbeck, C. H. McNaughton, S. McCreedy, S. Wheeler; grounds 
and battlefield arrangements, W. P. Ostrander, W. P. Finch, H. Marshall, C. Win- 
ney, D. Craw; auditing, D. Dean, R. Sutfin, T. Sweet; printing, R. Mingay, jr., 
Charles F. Paul, C. L. Atwell, E. M. Carhart. 


On October 17, 1856, the seventy-ninth anniversary of Burgoyne's 
surrender to General Gates, John A. Corey, George Strover and other 
patriotic gentlemen met at the old Schuyler mansion ' in Schuylerville 

1 This famous house stands at the southern limit of Schuylerville on the bank of Fish creek. 
An uncle of General Schuyler's settled at Schuylerville quite early in the eighteenth century and 
erected some mills. Some time prior to 1767, General Philip Schuyler came into possession of the 
estate. At his death it fell to his brother John, from whom it passed to the latter's son Philip, a 
nephew of the general. Philip becoming financially involved, the mansion and a large farm sur- 
rounding it was sold by his assignee to Colonel George Strover, a former agent of Schuyler, who 
resided on the place for many years. Burgoyne used this house for his headquarters after the 
retreat from Bemis Heights, and a few days after it was burned by his own orders. The present 
house was erected either shortly after the surrender in 1777, or the peace of 1783, according to 
diflEerent writers. It stands a short distance west of the former mansion. It contains many in- 
teresting relics. 


and discussed the preliminary steps necessary to the organization of a 
society which should have in view the erection of a battle monument 
on the site of the famous battles of Saratoga. The result of the meet- 
ing was the organization, in 1859, by Hamilton Fish, Horatio Seymour, 
John A. Corey, Peter Gansevoort and others of the Saratoga Monument 
Association, under a perpetual charter from the State of New York, 
whose object was the erection of a fitting memorial on the site of Bur- 
goyne's surrender. The original board consisted of the following per- 
manent trustees or directors : Colonel George Strover, William Wilcox 
and Henry Holmes of Saratoga; Hon. James M. Marvin, John A. 
Corey and James M. Cook of Saratoga Springs; Leroy Mowry and Asa 
C. Tefft of Washington county; Peter Gansevoort of Albany; Hamil- 
ton Fish of New York ; Philip Schuyler of Westchester county ; George 
W. Blecker of Brooklyn, and Hon. Horatio Seymour of Utica. In 1860 
Mr. Blecker died, and Benson J. Lossing, the historian, was elected to 
fill the place. The first officers, chosen soon after the incorporation of 
the association, were: President, Hamilton Fish of New York; vice- 
president, Philip Schuyler of Pelham; treasurer, James M. Marvin of 
Saratoga Springs; corresponding secretary, John Romeyn Brodhead 
of New York; secretary, John A. Corey of Saratoga Springs ; trustees, 
Horatio Seymour, Utica; Benson J. Lossing, Poughkeepsie ; Peter 
Gansevoort, Albany; James M. Cook, Ballston Spa; Edward C. Dela- 
van, Ballston Centre; William Wilcox, Schuylerville ; Henry Holmes, 
Cornith ; Asa C. Tefft, Fort Miller, and Leroy Mowry, Greenwich. 

The work of the association was interrupted by the Civil war, and it 
was not until 1872 that operations were resumed. The Legislature, on 
April 30, 1873, through the exertions of Mr. Corey, amended the sec- 
tion of the charter naming the board of trustees to read as follows : 

The first board of trustees shall consist of Hamilton Fish and William L. Stone 
of the city of NeW York; Horatio Seymour of Utica; Benson J. Lossing of Pough- 
keepsie ; Asa C. Tefft of the town of Fort Edward; Leroy Mowry of the town of 
Greenwich ; James M. Marvin and John A. Corey of Saratoga Springs, and Dr. 
Charles H. Payn of Saratoga. 

In 1874 the Legislature voted an appropriation of fifty thousand dol- 
lars, with the proviso that the proposed monument should cost not less 
than two hundred thousand dollars, nor more than five hundred thou- 
sand dollars, the sum appropriated to be paid after all other subscrip- 
tions had reached a sufficient sum, with the amount specified, to com- 
plete the monument upon plans to be submitted to and approved by 


the governor and comptroller ot the State of New York. But two 
years elapsed and the work upon the monument had not been begun, 
and, according to law, the appropriation by the Legislature lapsed. 
The Legislature of 1877 appropriated ten thousand dollars to enable 
the association to build the foundation and celebrate the laying of the 
corner stone, but Governor Robinson vetoed the measure. The asso- 
ciation then raised, by popular subscription, sufficient to proceed with 
the work of laying the corner stone, which was done with appropriate 
ceremonies on October 17, 1877, the otie hundredth anniversary of the 
surrender of General Burgoyne. The Grand Lodge of the State- of 
New York, F. & A. M., conducted the exercises of laying the stone. 
A procession two miles in length — the most magnificent, civic. Masonic 
and military pageant ever witnessed in Northern New York,- marched 
to the site of the monument where, in the presence of forty thousand 
people, the corner stone was laid by the grand master of the Grand 
Lodge, J. J. Crouch. 

Exercises of a high and most impressive character followed. These 
included music; the reading by Colonel E. P. Howe of a poem written 
by Alfred B. Street; the reading by William L. Stone, secreta;ry of the 
monument association, of "The Star Spangled Banner," arranged for 
the anniversary of Burgoyne's surrender by Colonel B. O. Butler ; prayers 
by Rev. Rufus W. Clark, D. D., of Albany, and Rev. F. E. King of 
Fort Edward; the reading by Colonel D. F. Ritchie of letters from 
Benson J. Lossing, Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth, Giles B. Slocum, and 
General Stephen D. Kirk of Charleston, S. C. ; and eloquent addresses 
by ex-Governor Horatio Seymour, Hon. George William Curtis, Hon. 
Charles S. Lester, Hon. Lafayette S. Foster, Hon. George W. Schuyler, 
William L. Stone, Hon. B. W. Throckmorton, of New Jersey, Hon. 
A. A. Yates, H. L. Gladding, Hon. Algernon S. Sullivan and Edgar 
L. Fursman; the reading by General James Grant Wilson of Fitz Green 
Halleck's " Field of the Grounded Arms;" the reading by Rev. J. R. 
Van Doren of an ode by General J. Watts de Peyster; the exercises 
concluding with a brilliant military spectacle representing the surrender 
of Burgoyne's army. 

The monument was built after a design submitted by J. C. Markham. 
The association obtained two appropriations — $15,000 and $10,000 — 
from the State Legislature through the efforts of Charles S. Lester and 
Delcour S. Potter; $30,000 from Congress through the efforts of Hon. 
John H. Starin, then president of the association; and finally $40,000 


more from Congress through the efforts of Hon. Edward Wemple, M. 
C, Hon. John H. Starin, Algernon S. Sullivan, S. S. Cox and George 
William Curtis, a total of $95,000. The entire cost of the structure was 
about $125,000. 

The monument, which is of rock- faced New London granite, and is 
one hundred and fifty-four feet high, stands on a high bluff nearly three 
hundred feet above and overlooking the Hudson, thus giving it an 
actual height above the river level of about four hundred and fifty feet. 
In its base there is a room fourteen feet square, with entrances on each 
of the four sides. From this room a bronze staircase leads to the top, 
from which is seen the whole region of country between Lake George 
on the northeast, the Green mountains on the east, and the Catskills on 
the south. The entrances at the base are about fourteen feet in height 
and have double doors of oak with plate glass windows and brass trim- 
mings. On the second floor there is a niche on each side of the monu- 
ment for a statue. Over the entrance gables rise to a height of forty- 
two feet, and at each corner of the monument, at a height of about 
twenty feet, a granite eagle with half-folded wmgs, measuring about 
seven feet across the back, has been placed. The cornices of each of 
the doors and windows are supported by pillars of polished black gran- 
ite from Maine, with carved capitals. There are forty pillars in all. 

On the four corners of the platform are mounted four of the large, 
ornamental bronze cannon taken from the English at the time of sur- 
render. Of the large niches in the four gables, three are filled with ap- 
propriate groups of sculpture, representing the three generals, Schuy- 
ler, G«,tes and Morgan, with their accessories, the fourth being vacant, 
with the name of Arnold inscribed underneath. The historic scenes 
represented by tablets in the interior of the monument, are sixteen in 
number, as follows : 

1. Women of the Revolution. 2. Ladies of the British Court. 3. The Town 
Meeting. 4. The Rally. 5. George III. in Council. 6. Burgoyne Addressing the 
Indians. 7. The Wives of British Officers, in Their Caloches, Traveling Through 
the Wilderness. 8. Schuyler Felling Trees to Obstruct the Enemy's March. 9. Mrs. 
Schuyler Firing Her Wheat Fields. 10. The Murder of Jane McCrea. 11. Bur- 
goyne Reprimanding His Indian Allies for Their Barbarities. 13. Schuyler Trans- 
ferring His Command to Gates. 13 The Passage in a Boat of Lady Ackland to the 
American Camp. 14. The Wounding of Arnold at Brey man's Redoubt. 15. The 
Burial of General Frazer. 16. Burgoyne Surrendering His Sword to Gates. 

In the autumn of 1887 the monument was struck by lightning. The 
heavy cap-stone was lifted from its place and carried a short distance 


from the base of the monument, and for about seven feet below the cap- 
stone the structure was shattered ; but fortunately the damage did not 
reach lower down. 


The dedication of the soldiers' and sailors' monument at Ballston Spa, 
June 14, 1888, called out a large concourse of people. This monument, 
which stands at the foot of Low street, facing Fr'ont street, was erected 
by the citizens of Ballston, Milton and Malta in the memory of the 
soldiers and sailors from those towns who served in the Revolutionary 
war, the war of 1813, the Mexican war and the war of the Rebellion. 

In 1886 the members of Post McKittrick, G. A. R., began the work 
of interesting the public in a plan for the erection of this memorial. 
December 27, 1886, a committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions, 
devise plans, etc. This committee consisted of George D. Story, 
George W. McCreedy, Martin Lee, J. Boocock, George F. Foster, J. 
Hegeman, John Mitchell, J. M. Wood, Charles Massey, H. White, rep- 
resenting the veterans, and George West, Arnold Harris, Dr. Leverett 
Moore, Chauncey Kilmer, Jesse S. L'Amoreaux, George L. Thompson, 
Stephen C. Medbery, Charles O. McCreedy, James W. Verbeck and 
James L. Scott, representing the citizens of Ballston Spa. Stephen C. 
Medbury, then president of the village, co operated actively in the 
work, and Hon. George West contributed $550 to the expense of the 
monument. The monument as completed is of Barre granite — a shaft 
surmounted by the figure of a Union soldier with his gun at rest. 

At the unveiling and dedication, June 14, 1888, Albert J. Reid was 
the grand marshal of the parade which formed an interesting feature 
of the exercises. The procession was formed as follows : 

Saratoga Citizens Corps (Twenty-second Separate Company), under Captain R. C. 
McEwen ; General Daniel Butterfield of New York and staff; Maschke's Cadet band 
of Troy; Troy Citizens Corps, Captain J.W. Cusack commanding; Frederick Town- 
send camp, Sons of Veterans, of Albany, George W. Addington commanding ; Lew 
Benedict Post, G. A. R., of Albany, Major James MacFarlane commanding; Lyons 
Post, G. A. R., of Cohoes, J. W. Ablett commanding; Luther W, Wheeler Post, 
G. A. R., of Saratoga, Charles H. Hodges commanding; Rice Post, G. A. R., of 
Corinth, A. C. Hickok commanding; Corinth band; Thurlow Weed Post, G. A. R., 
of Albany; Tibbits Post, G. A. R., of Troy, C. A. Frlnk commanding; Carlin Post 
pf Sandy Hill; A. Walton Camp, Sons of Veterans, Schenectady; Colonel E. E. Ells- 
worth Post, G. A. R., of Mechanicville, Samuel Reid commanding; Lew O. Morris 
Post, G. A. R., of Albany, A. H. Spier commanding; Horsfall Post, G. A. R., of 
Schenectady, George W. Marlette commanding; Excelsior Cadets of Ballston Spa, 


Edward J. Sweeney commanding ; civic organizations from Ballston Spa, Mechanic- 
ville. Victory Mills, Saratoga Springs, Greenwich, Glens Falls and Troy. 

The column formed on High street, at the head of Bath street, and 
marched over High to Pleasant, to Milton avenue, and countermarched 
on Milton avenue to Front street, thence to the monument. 

The ceremony of unveiling the monument began at 2 p. m. from a 
platform, on the Sans Souci grounds. Keller's American Hymn was 
rendered by the musical association, led by, Prof. Van Olinda of Troy. 
Prayer was offered by Rev. W. T. C. Hanna, pastor of the Baptist 
church of Ballston Spa. William H. Morse then unveiled the monu- 
ment, immediately after which a large number of young girls rendered 
the " Star Spangled Banner." William J. Parkinson, president of the 
day, made the introductory address, following which General Daniel 
Butterfield of New York delivered the historical address. General 
Newton M. Curtis of Ogdensburg followed with a brief address. Letters 
of regret were then read from Hon. George West, Colonel Frederick 
D. Grant, General William T. Sherman, General Abner Doubleday, 
Hon. Warner Miller and Captain W. W. French. The exercises were 
concluded by the reading, by John Person, of a poem Written by Fred- 
erick Emerson Brooks of San Francisco. 

The year 1885 was marked by the death, in Saratoga county, of the 
illustrious warrior and statesman. General Ulysses S. Grant. The 
house in which General Grant died was owned by Joseph W. Drexel, a 
wealthy New York banker, which its owner gladly gave up to the use 
of the illustrious sufferer and his family when his physicians decided 
that he could seek relief in mountain air on the approach of hot weather 
in the city. It stands near the top of Mount McGregor, about twelve 
miles north of Saratoga Springs. 

General Grant had been ill for several months at his residence in 
New York. June 16 was fixed upon as the day of his removal. His 
death occurred on the morning of July 23, 1885. The last days of this 
great American are thus described by one of General Grant's biog- 

When he came out to enter his carriage that beautiful June day, he was like a 
man walking toward his open grave. . . . The day after Grant's arrival at 
Mount McGregor was made memorable by a significant message. After returning 
from a walk which he seemed to enjoy, Grant grew restless and unaccountable in 
action. He moved to and fro in the cottage as if seeking something, and at last, by 

' Hamlin Garland, in McClure's Magazine for May, 1898. 


signs, he made known his wish for pencil and paper. Being furnished therewith, 
he sat writing busily for some time, and then handed two letters to Colonel Grant 
One was addressed to Dr. Douglas; the other one bore the superscription: "Mem- 
oranda for my family." 

There was something ominous in his action, and the son tore open the letter in 
anxiety. It was a message of death. "I feel that I am failing," he had written; 
and then passed on to certain things which he wished taken care of after his 
death. . 

The days that followed were simply days of pain arid great endurance as his life 
forces slowly ebbed away. Occasionally he hobbled out into the sunshine on the 
piazza, but for the most part he kept to his chair and mused in statue-like immo- 
bility on incommunicable themes. 

People from the surrounding country came in procession past the cottage, eager 
to catch a glimpse of the most renowned man of his time. The railway brought 
other swarms of curious or sympathetic tourists, and they stole nea,r and gazed 
silently upon the dying man, and then moved on. . . . 

He continued to work a little on his book, for it was conceded that it could do him 
no harm and might relieve his suffering. The Fourth of July was a great anniver- 
sary for him. On that day he had won Vicksburg. . . . 

A few days later there came to Mount McGregor a company of Mexican journal- 
ists, and, though suffering with special acuteness that day, the General welcomed 
them gladly. He received them in unwilhng silence (for he could not even whisper). 
. . . About this time General Simon Buckner paid a visit to his old classmate and 
conqueror. . . . 

On the 22d of July he expressed a wish to be in bed. His bones were intolerably 
weary of the chair in which he had spent night and day during months of ceaseless 
suffering. The physicians looked at each other significantly. He was transferred to 
his bed, and as he stretched out his tired limbs and lay full length at last, he drew a 
sigh of relief and smiled. A deep, untroubled sleep fell upon him almost at once, 
but the physicians read the advance of death in the labored breathing and fluttering 
pulse. The family at last were all there. The loyal wife sat often by his side, where 
she could touch his face and press his hand. His oldest son, erect, calm and 
soldierly, scarcely relaxed his painful vigil. It was a long and terrible watch, and 
when midnight came, it was evident that death was present in the room at last. The 
great soldier lay in a doze which was the lethargy of dissolution, but still responded 
to the agonized words of love from his wife and daughter by opening his eyes in a 
peculiarly clear, wide penetrating glance. . . . All danger of a violent death 
was over. He was passing peacefully away, his face calm and unlined by pain. 
His body, wasted and grave-weary, composed itself for final rest. The coldness 
crept slowly but inexorably toward the faintly'-bfeatibg heart. The birds sang out- 
side, and the sun rose, warming the earth, but ho waking and no warmth came to 
fhe Great Commander lying so small and wfeak beheath his coverlet. 

At seven minutes past eight, in the full fldsh of k glorious morning, he drew a 
deeper breath, and then uttered a long, gentle sigh, like one suddenly relieved of a 
painful burden. In the hush which followed, the watchers waited for the next 
breath. It did not come. The doctor stole Softly to the bedside, and listened ; then 
rose a,nd said in a low voice: " It is all over." 

Ulysses Grant was dead. 


A legal trial of unusual interest occurred at Ballston Spa in July, 
1889, when Arthur J. McQuade, an alderman of the city of New York, 
was placed on trial on the charge of having received money from the 
Broadway Surface Railway company of New York in consideration for 
voting to grant a franchise to that company. Governor David B. Hill 
appointed an extra Court of Oyer and Terminer for the trial of the 
action, the venue having been removed to Saratoga county on the plea 
that a fair trial could not be obtained in New York county. The court 
convened July 9, Hon. Charles Daniels of Buffalo presiding. The 
prosecuting attorneys were John R. Fellows, district attorney of New 
York county, McKenzie Sample, assistant district attorney of New 
York county, and Theodore F. Hamilton, then district attorney of 
Saratoga county. The defense was conducted by Jesse S. L'Amoreaux 
of Ballston Spa, John Foley and James W. Houghton of Saratoga 
Springs, and Hon. Edgar L. Fursman of Troy. One hundred and four 
jurors were called and examined before the twelve required were se- 
cured. The names of those finally accepted were: Piatt Mulford, 
David B. Eggleston, Enos Jerome, James Gellan, Adam Phin, Frank 
D. Roods, John Devereux, Charles Pitts, Wallace R. Clayton, Henry 
D. Kellogg, Truman A. Kelso and John H. Allen. District Attorney 
Fellows summed up the case for the people, and Hon. Edgar L. Furs- 
man summed up for the defense. These are said to have been two of 
the most eloquent pleas ever heard within the halls of justice in Sara- 
toga county. The trial resulted in a victory for the defense and the 
acquittal of McQuade. It cost about $3,00.0, the expenses being paid 
by New York county. 



The War With Spain, and the Participation of Saratoga County Therein — Enlist- 
ment of the Twenty-second Separate Company of Saratoga Springs — Assigned to 
the Second New York Provisional Regiment — Its Gradual Movement to Hempstead 
Plains, L. I., Thence to Chickamauga Park and Tampa, Fla — Promotions in the 
Regiment — Those Who Volunteered — Others from This County Who Volunteered in 
Other Commands — Relief Measures — The One Hundred and Twenty-second Sepa- 
rate Company. 

While the country was recovering from the disastrous effects of the 
financial and industrial panic which began in 1892 and left a depressed 
condition in the business world for nearly half a dozen years, it was 
suddenly plunged into a war with Spain as the result of American in- 
terference in behalf of the patriots of Cuba who had been fighting for 
indpendence from the Spanish crown since February, 1895. From the 
early days of the Cuban revolution filibustering expeditions had fre- 
quently left the shores of the United States, the Cuban Junta in New 
York in this way furnishing the revolutionists with arms, ammunition 
and other stores necessary for the continuance of the struggle and the 
success of Cuban arms. The United States government did everything 
in its power to prevent the sailing of these numerous expeditions. It 
dispatched armed vessels to suspected rendezvous, and on numerous 
occasions, in its efforts to prevent Americans or others who found a 
shelter in this country from violating the laws of nations, it prevented, 
by force, the sailing of these expeditions, even arresting and imprison- 
ing some of the filibusters. 

But Spain was not satisfied with the efforts of this country and 
accused America of duplicity. Gradually the relations between the 
two countries became more strained. In the winter of 1897-98 Senor 
Dupuy De Lome, the Spanish ambassador to the United States, inju- 
diciously gave expression to his personal opinioits and ideas in an un- 
diplomatic manner, and was recalled. In the meantime Congress had 
been considering the question of Cuban independence. Finally, in 
April, 1898, that body decided upon intervention in behalf of the 
Cubans, and President McKinley issued a dispatch recalling Gen. 


Stewart L. Woodford, our ambassador at Madrid. Through an act of 
Spanish treachery the Spanish government was made aware of the con- 
tents of the note to Ambassador Woodford before it was transmitted to 
him, and, to circumvent the United States government, it thereby 
gave to Senor Palo de Bernabe, De Lome's successor at Washington, a 
chance to resign before Woodford could be recalled. This incident 
nerved each country up to a highly excited state, and each considered 
the action of the other tantamount to a declaration of war. 

Acting upon the assumption that Spain, by her treacherous and un- 
friendly act, had practically declared war. President McKinley acted 
quickly. Havana and other ports on the north coast of Cuba were de- 
clared to be blockaded and our navy began seizing prizes flying the 
Spanish flag. Soon a formal declaration of war was made by our gov- 
ernment. The national troops were mobilized at points on or near the 
Atlantic seaboard and gulf coast, a portion of our navy was dispatched 
to Cuban waters, the squadron under command of Commodore Dewey 
was sent from Hong Kong to the Philippine Islands, and, on April 23, 
President McKinley issued a call for 125,000 volunteers. The call read 
as follows : 

By the President of the United States. 


Whereas, By a joint resolution of Congress approved on the twentieth day of 
April, 1898, entitled "Joint resolution for the recognition of the independence of the 
people of Cuba, demanding that the government of Spain relinquish its authority 
and government in the island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from 
Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the President of the United States to use the 
land and naval forces of the United States to carry this resolution into effect," and 

Whereas, By an act of Congress entitled " An act to provide for temporarily in- 
creasing the military establishment of the United States in time of war and for other 
purposes," approved April 32, 1898, the President is authorized, in order to raise a 
volunteer army, to issue his proclamation calling for volunteers to serve in the Army 
of the United States: 

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, by virtue 
of the power vested in me by the Constitution and the laws, and deeming sufficient 
occasion to exist, have thought fit to call forth, and hereby do call forth, volunteers 
to the aggregate number of 135,000, in order to carry into effect the purpose of the 
said resolution ; the same to be apportioned, as far as practicable, among the several 
States and Territories and the District of Columbia, according to population, and to 
serve two years, unless sooner discharged. The details for this object will be im- 
mediately communicated to the proper authorities through the War Department. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United 
States to be affixed. 


Done at the city of Washington this twenty-third day of April, A. D. 1898, and of 
the independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-second. 

William McKinley. 
By the President : 

John Sherman, Secretary of State. 

These troops were immediately recruited from the ranks of the Na- 
tional Guard organizations of the various States of the Union. New 
York's quota was about 13,000 men. The Twenty- second Separate 
company, New York National Guard, otherwise known as the Saratoga 
Citizens Corps, was assigned as one of the twelve companies which 
formed the Second Provisional New York Regiment. In the organiza- 
tion of this regiment James W. Lester, captain of the Twenty-second 
Separate company, was promoted to the office of major of the Third 
Battalion of the regiment. Amos W. Rich, first lieutenant of the com- 
pany, was subsequently elected to the captaincy. 

Monday, May 2, 1898, the company left the armory soon after 6 a. m., 
headed by Major Lester and Captain Rich, and marched to the depot 
under the escort of the veterans of Post Wheeler, G. A. R. , other vet- 
erans and citizens, village officials, the staff of the Citizens Corps, the 
veterans of the Citizens Corps and the Jeffersonian club, headed by the 
Seventy-seventh Regiment band. The departure of the company was 
described in these words by the Saratogian of that date : 

While the spectators thronged the line of march and inspected the marching 
bodies with curiosity and the veterans with the admiration that was due their past, 
still the thoughts of all were on the citizen soldiers in the rear, who were voluntarily 
answering their country's call and going to the front. 

Never before probably was there such a jam of people at the Delaware and Hud- 
son depot. Every inch of platform surface had a covering of jostling, pushing, 
struggling humanity. The Corps reached the depot just previous to the arrival of 
lihe train that was to take them on the way southward. The thought that the im- 
mediate destination of the troops was only Hempstead, Long Island, did not allay 
the fears of the multitude and the good-byes were just as fervent and demonstrative 
as if the boys were going directly to Cuba. The crowd was so dense that the sol- 
diers had to cut their way through the depot platform to reach the cars. The train 
from the north with the Whitehall and Glens Falls companies had to plow its way 
through the crowd that blocked both sides of the track. Groups of young men gath- 
ered on the tops of the cars and looked down on the sea of faces, the scene being 
illuminated by flags and bunting galore. 

The Seventy-seventh Regiment band played patriotic airs as the parade ap- 
proached the station, but the din at the depot drowned out many of the notes of the 
musicians. " Union Forever" and " Way Down in Dixie " were readily recognized 
during the intervals when the atmosphere was not surcharged with explosions of fire- 


works and artillery. High above the cheers and the clamor and the powder crackers 
was heard the detonating and reverberating discharges of the artillery. The armory 
cannon had been transferred to Franklin Square, and in charge of Clarence Fish, 
who had also fired the reveille, did thundering work. The concussion of the cannon 
shattered probably fifteen large windows in the United States hotel. The cost and 
trouble of replacing these will be a substantial contribution to patriotism. 

Eyes which on these gala occasions have gleamed with joy were dimmed with 
tears. There were cheers and noise, it is true, but there was also an undercurrent 
of regret, for in a town of this size, eighty-four men of the kind to volunteer their 
services must be missed. 

The stay at the depot seemed all too short. At seventeen minutes of seven o'clock 
the Saratoga cars were switched across Washington street and joined to the cars 
from the north, and the gaily decorated locomotive was soon disappearing in the dis- 
tance, while the band struck up the historic but always appropriate refrain of " The 
Girl I Left Behind Me.'' The girl tearfully wended her way homeward and commit- 
ted her love to the mercies of the God of battles. A firing squad of twelve sturdy veter- 
ans under command of R. S. Remington fired three salutes at the speeding train. 
The cannon roared a good-bye. Nine locomotives at the round house emitted a 
valedictory, as their whistles blew until a pressure of from 80 to 130 pounds of steam 
was exhausted. Railroad torpedoes punctured the engines' blasts, and the train was 
lost in a cloud of steam and smoke as the reverberating echoes of a glorious good-bye 
lingered in the ears of Saratoga's volunteers. 

The company, with the Ninth of Whitehall and the Eighteenth of 
Glens Falls, proceeded to Troy, where they were joined by the other 
companies comprising the regiment, and all proceeded to Camp Black, 
at Hempstead Plains, Long Island. The Twenty-second Separate 
company, when it left Saratoga Springs, was constituted as follows : 

Captain — Amos C. Rich. 

First Lieutenant— John A. Schwarte. 

Second Lieutenant — Obed M. Coleman. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant— Charles M. Dobbin. 

Corporals— John K. Walbridge, Fred E. Calkins, Lynn R. Rich, Jesse S. Morris, 
Fred L. Pennoyer, Frank G. Ritchie. 

Musicians— Robbin Mingay, Louis J. Follett. ** 

Privates— John X. A'Hearn, Edwin M. Arnold,* Frank A. Burd, George P. Ban- 
nister, jr., Joseph P. Brennan, Charles A. Baker, John Burt, Joseph H. Blichfeldt, 
Fred A. Brazee,* Bert A. Burrows,* Stanley J. Bush,* Foster K. Carpenter,* 
Frank J. Clements, George I. Clements, Thomas C. Coleman, Townsend, 
J. Durkee, Elmer E. Durkee, Raymon E. Dennin,* George H. Dowd, J. Rem- 
sen Ditmars,* Fred W. Dunson,* Walter J. Flynn,* George E. Foster, Winsor P. 
French, Benedict D. Gerberg, Charles W. Gibbs,* Albert M. Greenough,* Edwin P. 
Hays, Fred P. Heminway, Arthur E. Hope, Rockwell P. Holden,** George W. 
Heaslip,* George W. Ingalls, William P. Kinns,* Charles T. Lockhart, William H. 
Lee,* Joseph Monahan,* Edward A. Mabie,* James H. McGhan,* Harry J. Morris, 
James F. Miner,* Harry J. Olmsted, Samuel Ostrander,* Fred C. Paul,** Ernest L. 


Potter,* Robertson Parker, Fred Reagan, George Ramsey, Fred A. Russell,** Wil- 
son A. Sawyer,* George P. Smith, William J. Searing, George Schmidt, Henry E. 
Starks, Alfred G. Schwarte, John H. Squires, James F. Swartwout, jr.,* Harry E. 
Simpson,* Edgar H. Spaulding,* Earl St. John,* James J. Sweeney,* William F. 
Town, Hiram C. Todd, Harry F. Thomas, Henry Wildy,* George M. Welsh,* Will- 
iam H. Waterbury, Benjamin K. Walbridge, James W. Whitney, Fred W. Wells, 
William F. Winchester,* Orville E. Wells.* 

* Recruits, 30. ** Ex-members, 4. 

Soon after reaching Camp Black the company with the balance of 
the Second Regiment, was mustered into the service of the United 
States for the term of two years, unless sooner discharged. The 
Twenty-second Separate Company was designated as Company L. May 
16 the Third Battalion, composed of men from the Forty-sixth, Thirty- 
first, Thirtieth and Thirty-seventh, designated respectively as Com- 
panies H, G, E and F, were mustered in, and Maj. Austin A Yates of 
Schenectady was mustered in and placed in command of them ; after 
which the companies composed of men from the Eighteenth, Thirty- 
second, Twenty-second and Ninth, designated respectively as Compan- 
ies K, M, L and I, were mustered in, and Maj. James W. Lester of 
Saratoga Springs was mustered in and placed in command. Part of 
the other battalion being absent on provost guard duty, only two com- 
panies from it were mustered in, viz., the Seventh and Tweiity-first, 
designated respectively as Companies B and D.- Lieut-Col. James H. 
Lloyd of Troy was mustered in and placed in command of the ten com- 
panies. May 17 the companies composed of men from the Twelfth 
and Sixth, designated Companies C and A, were mustered in, after 
which the regiment was formed in line of masses and the oath was 
administered to Col. E. E. Hardin, who was placed in command. 

No change was made in the officers of the regiment as they came 
from their home stations except in the following cases: Lieut. B. L. 
Aldrich of Company K was not mustered in, owing to his physical con- 
dition; Lieut. Michael Sullivan of Company D was mustered in in 
place of Lieut. Sylvester W. Wright; Quartermaster-Sergeant Chester 
D. Wager of the Twenty-first Separate Company was not mustered in ; 
First Lieutenant John S. Wilson, who was appointed assistant surgeon of 
the regiment, resigned to accept the position of surgeon of the Twenty- 
second Regiment, New York Volunteers. 

The officers of the regiment and the companies constituting it at this 
time were as follows: 

Colonel, Edward E. Hardin, Seventh U. S. Infantry ; lieutenant-colonel, James H. 


l!,loyd (Troy), Thirteenth Battalion, N.G.N.Y. ; major, James W. Lester (Saratoga 
Springs), Fourteenth Battalion, N.G.N.Y. ; major, Austin A. Yates (Schenectady), 
Fifteenth Battalion, N.G.N.Y.; surgeon, Lewis Balch (Albany), major and acting 
assistant surgeon general ; chaplain. Hector Hall, D.D. (Troy); adjutant, James J. 
Phelan (Troy), adjutant Thirteenth Battalion, N.G.N.Y. ; quartermaster, George M. 
Alden (Troy), qurtermaster Thirteenth Battalion, N.G.N.Y.,; sergeant-major, W. 
Swift Martin (Troy), Sixth Separate Company, N.G.N.Y. 

Thirteenth Battalion. — Company B (Seventh Separate Company, Cohoes): Cap- 
tain, T. Campbell Collin ; first lieutenant, John J. McGaffin ; second lieutenant. Ed- 
ward J. White. Company C (Twelfth Separate Company, Troy): Captain, John P. 
Treanor; first lieutenant, Rufus M. Townsend; second lieutenant, William Baker. 
Company D (Twenty-first Separate Company, Troy): Captain, Merrill M. Duns- 
paugh ; first lieutenant, William J. Gilbraith ; second lieutenant, Michael Sullivan. 
Company A (Sixth Separate Company, Troy): Captain, E. Courtland Gale; first lieu- 
tenant, Henry P. Sherman ; second lieutenant, Carroll L. Maxcy. 

Fourteenth Battalion, Major James W. Lester commanding. — Company K 
(Eighteenth Separate Company, Glens Falls); Captain, Loyal L. Davis; first lieu- 
tenant, Seldon W. Mott. Company I (Ninth Separate Company, Whitehall): Cap- 
tain, Ernest A. Grenough; first lieutenant, Emmet J. Gray; second lieutenant, 
Alanson D. Bartholomew. Company M (Thirty-second Separate Company, Hoosick 
Falls): Captain, Frank L. Stevens; first lieutenant, Walter A. Wood, jr.; second 
lieutenant, Louis E. Potter. Company L (Twenty-second Separate Company, Sara- 
toga Springs): Captain, Amos C. Rich; first lieutenant, John A. Schwarte; second 
lieutenant, ObedM. Coleman. 

Fifteenth Battalion, Major Austin A. Yates commanding. — Company H (Forty- 
sixth Separate Company, Amsterdam) : Captain, Darwin E. Vunk ; first lieutenant, 
George Hughes; second lieutenant, Daniel Hasten. Company F (Thirty- seventh 
Separate Company, Schenectady): Captain, Frank Bauder; first lieutenant, George 
M. Crippen; second lieutenant, Albert Wells. Company G (Thirty-first Separate 
Company, Mohawk): Captain, Horatio P. Witherstine; first lieutenant, Delos M. 
Dodge; second lieutenant, Wilbur Eddy. Company E (Thirty-sixth Separate Com- 
pany, Schenectady): Captain, J. M. Andrews, jr. ; first lieutenant, George De B. 
Greene ; second lieutenant, Donald Button. 

A number of the volunteers of the regiment failed to meet the re- 
quirements of the severe examinations of the surgeons at Camp Black 
and were sent home on account of disability. Those from the Saratoga 
company who failed to pass this severe physical test were Privates 
Sawyer, Welsh, Clements, Blichfeldt, Wells, Heaslip, Durkee, Reagan 
and Hope. Subsequently the ranks of the company were filled by the 
following recruits. 

Howard C. Jamieson, Fredrick P. McNair, William H. Wells, Arthur J. Case, Don 
Agard Epler, James H. Gillis, Walter H. McNaughton, Charles G. Fryer, Thomas 
R. Pierce, Oscar Welch and George Ross. 

Subsequently the following members of the new One Hundred and 


Twenty-second Separdte Company were sent to the front to hdlp com- 
plete the regiment : 

Philip Reilly, William J. Fortin, jr., J. Maxwell Browne, Harry S. Fosmire, Erwin 
M. Rouse, Frank J. Righmey, Willard H. Myers, F. F. Legnard, J. O. Holmquist, 
C. Brayman, James H. Holden, Charles A. Ostrander, James H. Teeling, Frederick 
H. West, Tracy E. West, Frederick W. Harper, Charles H. Hawkins, George W. 
Ainsworth, W. T. Porter, Elmer J. Jordan, Charles Reed, Thomas W. McNamara, 
James E. McGarr, William Neef, Archibald Kaulfuss, James Turner, Frederick 
King and D. Hill. 

May 18 the Second Provisional Regiment left Camp Black for Chick- 
amauga Park, near Chattanooga, Tenn. Every man was perfectly 
uniformed and eq;uipped. Not a single piece was missing from any 
man's equipment. Colonel Hardin being a " regular army " officer, 
and a perfect disciplinarian, the men showed the result of the terrific 
drilling they had been subjected to during their stay in their first camp. 
The New York Herald, in describing the departure, said : 

In excellent trim, with equipments complete and all details of its transportation 
promptly executed, the Second Provisional Regiment, formed of crack separate 
companies from Troy and other up-state towns, left for Chickamauga yesterday under 
the command of Colonel E. E. Hardin, formerly of the Seventh United States in- 
fantry. The Second contains a small percentage of raw recruits as compared with 
other regiments. A committee of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution presented 
a flag to the regiment before its departure. Members of the Second left Camp Black 
yesterday morning on two special trains, which arrived at Long Island City shortly 
after 11 o'clock. •' Here they come!" was the cry that came from the crowd gath- 
ered three blocks above the station when the soldiers made their appearance. A 
great cheer went up. Less than two score relatives and friends of the up-state sol- 
diers accompanied them from camp. Wives and sweethearts, mothers and fathers 
marched by the side of their heroes as the troops passed down Borden avenue to the 
river front. Men and officers, 1,017 strong, went aboard the ferryboat Central, 
which descended the river, followed by floats carrying the freight cars. In the fac- 
tories on the New York and Long Island shores, the noon whistles had just sounded. 
Workmen, busy with their lunches, no sooner beheld the big transport heading down 
the river than they cheered with might and main. From windows and roofs caps 
were waved. Hoarse whistles sounded from tugboats, and from crowded piers on 
either shore came a medley of cries. 

Into her slip, at Communipaw, ran the Central at 20 minutes to 1 o'clock. The 
troops marched into the passenger yard, where there were waiting three special 
trains of 14 cars each, of which 11 were passenger and one Pullman. There had ar- 
rived also the members of the committee of the Sons of the Revolution, consisting 
of Charles Woodruff, one of the Vice-presidents of the society ; Captain J. M. Andrews, 
Melville Hatch and Messrs. Olyphant and Montgomery. When the committee pre- 
sented the national colors to Colonel Hardin, Mr. Woodruff expressed his regret that 
the state colors to be bestowed upon the regiment had not yet been completed. The 


state arms are being embroidered upon a yellow field and will be sent to the regi- 
ment within 30 days. The disappointment was caused by the hurried orders re- 
ceived by the Second. The flag presented had been finished only a few hours before. 
Being a provisional regiment, the Second possessed no regimental colors, each com- 
pany having colors of its own. Colonel Hardin thanked the members of the committee 
and the soldiers gave voice to a great cheer, as their flag was carried by its bearer 
to the colonel's car. 

The regiment arrived at Chattanooga on the night of May 20, and 
early next morning proceeded to the site for its new camp on the great 
Chickamauga battle ground of the Rebellion. They were tired and 
begrimed, but the march was made in good order. The regiment 
went into camp Saturday, May 21, in the southeastern part of the Na- 
tional Military' Park just north of the intersection of the Thedford Ford 
road with the Dalton Ford road. At first the command suffered from 
a lack of good water, but after three or four days a pipe line was laid 
in the rear of the camp and good water for bathing and culinary pur- 
poses was at hand. The first few days there was a number of cases of 
sickness, due to the change in drinking water and the advent into a 
warmer climate. 

Here the regiment was brigaded with the Fifth Maryland and the 
Second Nebraska, under command of Colonel Hardin, as the Second 
Brigade, and attached to the First Division, commanded by Colonel 
Frederick D. Grant of the Fourteenth New York Volunteer Infantry, 
and the First Army Corps under Major-General Wade. Colonel Har- 
din subsequently was succeeded by Colonel Bills of the Second Ne- 
braska Volunteer Infantry, and Colonel Grant by Brigadier-General L. 
H. Carpenter. Major Lewis Balch was detached and assigned to duty 
as acting chief surgeon of the First Division. He organized a divis- 
ion hospital and ambulance company. Lieutenant George De B. 
Greene of Company E was appointed acting assistant adjutant-general 
of the brigade under Colonel Hardin, and Lieutenant Walter A. Wood, 
jr., was appointed brigade commissary. Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd was 
advanced to the command of the Second Regiment; Lieutenant John 
A. Schwarte was made quartermaster of the division hospital ; Dr. H. 
C. Baum was appointed regimental surgeon ; Captain Andrew assistant 
adjutant-general of the division, and Surgeon A. Burgman assistant 
surgeon of the Second Brigade. 

On June 1 four regiments left Chickamauga for Tampa, Fla., where 
the main body of the army was to encamp preparatory to the invasion 
of Cuba. The first regiment to leave was the Second New York. 


After a hurried breakfast, eaten in the gray dawn of the summer morn- 
ing, the order was given to fall in. The members of the two regiments 
with which the Second New York was brigaded were on the alert, and 
as the New York boys wheeled into line they gave them a rousing 
cheer. The bands struck up a lively march, and, with Colonel Hardin 
in command, the boys started on the march along the dusty road to- 
ward Rossville, five or six miles away. It was a most inspiring scene. 
The innumerable hucksters, wagons and other vehicles on their way to 
the camp turned aside for the soldiers to pass, and many of the long- 
haired mountaineers gazed in wonder on the unexpected scene of a 
marching regiment on the Rossville road, along which Forrest's cavalry 
thundered on the day after the great fight at Chickamauga, in Septem- 
ber, 1864. To the Second New York was given the honor of being the 
first regiment to lead the way to Tampa. At Rossville the entire 
command embarked on the cars of the Southern railroad, and in a re- 
naarkably short time section after section rolled away, bearing the regi- 
ment on the journey southward. Tampa was reached after some de- 
lays, June 3, when the regiment encamped and awaited orders to board 
transports to carry them either to Santiago de Cuba, where Commodore 
Schley had the Spanish squadron under Admiral Cervera's command 
effectually "bottled up" in the harbor, or to San Juan, the capital of 
Porto Rico, where, it was then generally believed, the administration 
intended to land troops for the capture and occupation of this Spanish 

June 6 the resignation of Lieutenant Carroll L. Maxcy of Company 
A was accepted and he was honorably discharged. Private John Flynn, 
jr., of Company A was also discharged to accept a position as lieuten- 
ant in the Engineer corps. June 8 Private Michael F. Sheary of Com- 
pany A was directed to be discharged to accept a commission as pay- 
master, with the rank of major, in the U. S. Volunteers, and on the 
same day Private Sanford L. Cluett was transferred to the First Reg- 
iment U. S. Volunteer Engineers. June 14 Private Eugene Warren of 
Company A was discharged to accept a clerkship under Major Sheary. 
June 15 the resignation of Rev. Hector Hall as chaplain was accepted 
and he was honorably discharged. June 21 Private George W. Kinne 
of Company D was transferred to the First Regiment U. S. Volunteer 
Engineers. June 10 Major Lewis Balch, surgeon of the regiment, was 
appointed chief surgeon of the division, and First Lieutenant Rufus M. 
Townsend of Company C was appointed chief commissary of subsist- 



ence of the division. Pursuant to orders issued by Major-General Cop- 
pinger under date of June 15, Major Austin A. Yates, Captain Loyal 
L. Davis and Captain Merrill M. Dunspaugh, with one man from each 
company, left Tampa on the same day on recruiting service, with in- 
structions to recruit each company up to the maximum strength of 
one hundred and six enlisted men. 

After the regiment was mustered in at Camp Black notification was 
received that it would be entitled to another major and three battalion 
adjutants,. Attempts were made to have the officers appointed to fill 
these positions mustered in at Camp Alger by the mustering officer 
there because the officers had not received their formal commissions. On 
June 20, at Tariipa, the following officers of the. regiment were mus- 
tered in : 

Thomas C. Collin, captain of Company B, as major of the Third Battalion with 
rank from May 23. 

George De B. Greene, first lieutenatit of Company E. 

Thomas W. Hyslop, private of Company A, and 

William Swift Martin, regimental sergeant-major, as battalion adjutants with rank 
from May 28. 

Daniel J. Hogan, sergeant of Company K, as second lieutenant of Company K, 
with rank from May 18, and 

Calvin S. McChesney, quartermaster-sergeant of Company A, as second lieutenant 
of Company A, with rank from June 13, vice Carroll L. Maxcy resigned. 

June 28 the following additional officers were mustered in: 

John McGaffin as captain of Company B, vice Collin promoted, with rank from 
June 22. 

Edward J. White as firSt lieutenant of Company B, vice McGafEn promoted, with 
rank from June 22, 

William Leiand Thompson, a private of Company A as second lieutenant of 
Company B, vice White promoted, with rank from June 22, and 

Donald J. Hutton as first lieutenant of Company E, vice Greene appointed battal- 
ion adjutant, with rank from June 22. 

June 25 orders were received that the regiment be fully equipped to 
be loaded on to transports destined for Cuba or Porto Rico. But 
the order to sail did not come. 

July 1 several men were discharged to accept positions as second 
lieutenants in the new volunteer regiments to be formed in the State 
of New York as follows ; 

Private George L. Hare, jr., of Company A and Private H. C. Todd of Company 
L, in the Two Hundred and Second Regiment. 


Private Esek B. Williamson of Company A and Private Winsor P. French of Com- 
pany L in the Two Hundred and First Regiment. 

Privates Griswold Green and George Alford Cluett of Company A in the Two 
Hundred and Third Regiment. 

During the month of July a vast amount of sickness occurred among 
the troops stationed at Tampa and during the latter part -of the month 
the Second Regiment was ordered to remove to Fernandina, Fla., 
where the climate was more salubrious. The regiment arrived at the 
latter place July 27 and was assigned to a place on the extreme south 
of the camp. Many cases of sickness were reported, mostly malarial 
fever contracted at Tampa; but the men were enthusiastic over the 
new camp, greeting the cooler air and more healthful surroundings 
with expressions of delight. 

On July 34 the regiment was transferred to the First Brigade, First 
Division, of the Fourth Army Corps and brigaded with the Fifth Ohio 
and Thirty-second Michigan Volunteers. Two days later it left its 
camp at Tampa and proceeded to Fernandina. August 21 it was re- 
lieved from duty, transferred from the Department of the East and 
ordered to Troy, N. Y. Camp was struck August 34 and three days 
later the command reached Troy. The following day the regiment 
moved to Averill Park, pitching camp near Sand Lake. 

September 13 the regiment received a furlough for thirty days and 
the muster out took place as follows: October 35, Companies A, B, C 
and D; October 26, Company M; October 37, Companies I and L; 
October 38, Company K; October 31, Companies E and F; November 
1, Companies G and H ; November 3, the regimental field and staff as 
follows : 

Colonel, Edward E. Hardin; lieutenant-colonel, James H. Lloyd; 
majors, James W. Lester, Austin A. Yates, Thomas Campbell Collin ; 
regimental adjutant, James J. Phelan; battalion adjutants, Thomas 
W. Hislop, George De B. Greene, William Swift Martin ; quartermaster 
George M. Alden; surgeon, Henry C. Baum; assistant surgeon, Albert 
F. Brugman ; chaplain, Edmund P. Easterbrook. 

The following members of Company L (the Saratoga company) died 
in the service : 

Private Frank S. Legnard, died July 31, 1898, of cerebral apoplexy, 
at Fernandina, Fla. 

Private Tracey E. West, died August 7, 1898, of typhoid fever, at 
Fernandina, Fla. 


Private Elmer J. Jourdan, died August 17, 1898, of typhoid fever, at 
Fort McPherson hospital, Ga. 

Private William J. Searing, died August 19, 1898, of typhoid fever, 
at Fernandina, Fla. 

Private Robertson A. Parker, died September 5, 1898, of typhoid 
fever, at Troy, N. Y. 

Private Thomas W. McNamara, died September 7, 1898, of typhoid 
fever, at Troy, N. Y. 

Private James A. Holden, died September 13, 1898, of typhoid fever, 
at Troy, N. Y. 

Corporal Frederick P. McNair, died October 18, 1898, of typhoid 
fever, at Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 


For twenty years Saratoga county has been represented in the New 
York National Guard by the military company which became one of 
first to offer its Services to the federal government when the war with 
Spain began. 

No national guard company existed in Saratoga county previous to 
1877. The idea of organizing the Twenty-second Separate Company, 
or the Saratoga Citizens' Corps, originated at the time of the centennial 
celebration at Bemus Heights in 1877, when general attention was 
called to the fact that there was no military organization in Saratoga 
county to receive the Governor's Foot Guards. In the fall of 1877 the 
work of enlistment was begun. The company was organized March 
14, 1878, and mustered into the service of the State March 25 follow- 
ing, with a total strength of three officers and one hundred men. The 
first officers were: Captain, John T. Fassett; first lieutenant, George 
H. Gillis; second lieutenant, Hamilton P. Burney; third lieutenant, 
John L. Perry, M. D. Captain Fassett remained in command of the 
company until May, 1883, when Dr. R. C. McEwen was elected cap- 
tain, serving until 1891. In January, 1893, James W. Lester was elected 
to the captaincy and had charge of the organization until promoted to 
major of the Fourteenth Battalion. Third Brigade (of which the Twen- 
ty-second Company forms a part) in' March, 1898. In April, 1898, 
Amos C. Rich was elected captain and as such headed the command in 
its expedition to the front as a part of the Second Regiment, New York 

Succeeding the first officers of the company, besides the captains, the 
following have served in the order given : 


First lieutenants, Patrick McDonald, A. L. Hall, Amos C. Rich, John A. Schwarte ; 
second lieutenants, Patrick McDonald. A. L. Hall, Waldo L. Rich, Obed M. Cole- 
man, Frederick M. Waterbury; surgeons. Dr. W. H. Hall, Dr. John A. Moore. 

For several years the armory of the company was in the Saratoga 
Town Hall building, and drills were held in the Town Hall and the 
Casino. Since 1891 the company has occupied its handsome and com- 
modious armory on Lake avenue. 

From the date of the organization of this company, the pride of Sar- 
atoga, to the present time, some of the more important events in its 
career have been as follows : 

1878: June 21— A. B. C. and S. C. C. banquet at Clarendon hotel. August 8— 
Escort Worcester Continentals. September 12 — Sham battle. Twenty-second Sepa- 
rate Company, Eighteenth Separate Company, Glen Mitchell. October 11 — Excur- 
sion to Ballston. December 9-16 — Fair of Twenty-second Separate Company. 

1879: February 6 — Glens Falls, reception Eighteenth Separate Company. June 
17 — Albany, re-union G. A. R. September 4 — Sham battle at county fair. Glen 

1880: January 26-February 2 — Fair of Twenty-second Separate Company. July 
5 — Independence Day at Cohoes. August 16 — Escort to Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. September 7 — Escort Tibbits Veteran Corps of Troy. October 16 — One 
hundred and third anniversary Burgoyne's surrender, Schuylerville. 

1881: July 4 — Independence Day at Johnstown. August 3 — Ecsort Worcester 
^Continentals. September 12 — Escort Tibbits Veteran Corps of Troy — ^Presentation 
of colors. September 16 — Picnic to Saratoga lake. 

1882: January 30-February 4— Fair of Twenty-second Separate Company. May 
30 — Banquet Adelphi hotel. May 30-June 1 — Excursion to Worcester, Mass. 

1883: September 5— Escort Paterson Light Guards of Paterson, N. J. 

1884: September 23— Escort Putnam Phalanx of Hartford, Conn. 

1885. February 12-16 — "Love and Duty," produced at Town hall. July 4— Inde- 
pendence Day at Plattsburgh. July 22— Escort Elizabeth Veteran Zouaves of 
Elizabeth, N. J. August 4.— Guard duty. Funeral of General Ulysses S. Grant. 

18S6: January 35-30 — Fair Twenty-second Separate Company. July 5 — Inde- 
pendence Day at Johnstown. July 23 — Albany, Bi Centennial celebration. 

1887: May 35-31— Excursion to Washington, D. C. May 80— Escort, Logan 
Guard of Honor, Washington, D. C. June 7— Albany, entertained by Company A, 
Tenth Battalion. June 32— Escort Army of the Potomac re-union at Saratoga. 
September 8— Ballston, escort to Governor David B. Hill. September 15-17 — Cen- 
tennial celebration, Philadelphia. 

1888: June 14— Ballston, dedication of Soldiers' monument. August 7 — Escort 
Keck Zouaves of Johnstown. October 1 — Escort Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company of Boston. 

1889 : January 1 — Albany, inauguration Governor David B. Hill. April 29-May 
1— New York, via " Grand Republic," Centennial celebration, Washington's inaug- 
uration. November 33^Corner stone armory Twenty-second Separate Company 


1890: November 26— Entertained by Thirty-second Separate Company at Hoo- 
sick Falls. 

1891: February 3-7— Fair of Twenty-second Separate Company. August 21— 
Saratoga, escort to Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States. October 13 
— Utica, dedication soldiers' monument. 

1893: June 35- July 3— State Camp, Peekskill. July 4— Banquet to A. B. C. at 
Windsor hotel. July 13— Escort to Benjamin Harrison, President of the United 
States. October 31— Albany, Columbus Day celebration. 

1893: April 36-38— Naval parade in New York city. July 4— Skirmish drill at 
Woodlawn Oval. November 30-35— Fair of Twenty-second Separate Company. 

1894: June 33-30— State Camp at Peekskill. 

1895; September 5— Floral parade. Escort to Governor Levi P. Morton. Sep- 
tember 16-31— Field service. Saratoga battle ground, Bemus Heights, Saratoga 

1896: June 6 — Albany, guests of Company A, Tenth Battalion. 

1897: April 37 — New York city, dedication Grant monument. September 6 — En- 
tertain Company A, Tenth Battalion, at Saratoga lake. September 7 — Floral parade 
Bicycle Corps. 

1898: May 2 — Left Saratoga for Camp Black, Hempstead Plains, Long Island. 
May 16 — Sworn into the service of the United States. May 18 — Left Camp Black 
for Chickamauga Park. June 1 — Proceeded from Chickamauga Park for Tampa, 

Others Who Served. 

In addition to the Twenty-second Separate company of Saratoga, a 
number of other inhabitants of Saratoga county took up arms against 
Spain, and many others endeavored to volunteer, but found that when 
they offered themselves the quota of New York already had been filled. 
Captain Guy Ellis Baker of Ballston was an aide on the staff of General 
Robert Shaw Oliver, commander of the Third Brigade of the National 
Guard of New York. Paul M. Pelletreau, son of Rev. Dr. Charles 
Pelletreau of Ballston Spa, accompanied the Second Regiment as a 
corporal in the Thirty-sixth Separate Company of Schenectady. Charles 
E. Van Pelt of Saratoga was a member of John Jacob Astor's Light 
Battery, destined for service in the Philippines. William H. Newkom 
of Ballston Spa served as a musician in the regular army. Gerrit V. S. 
Quackenbush, son of Edwin Quackenbush of Ballston Spa, was com- 
missioned second lieutenant of Company L of the Sixty-fifth Regiment 
of Buffalo, which he helped to recruit. Capt. William H. McKittrick, 
son of Capt. William H. McKittrick of Ballston Spa, whq was killed in 
the war of the Rebellion, served as a member of the staff of his father- 
in-law, Major-General Shafter, of California. Among the others who 
enlisted as volunteers were Charles C. Cook, Charles Crippen, Harry 


B. Ford, Charles H. Williams and Harry Snyder, all of Ballston Spa. 
Cadet Joseph W. Powell, who took part in the expedition which sank 
the American collier Merrimac in the entrance to the harbor of Santiago 
de Cuba, tinder command of Lieutenant Richmond Pearson Hobson, by 
which action Admiral Cervera's fleet was imprisoned in that harbor, is 
a grandson of ex-Sheriff Powell of Milton, and a great-grandson of 
Elisha Powell of Milton, a former judge of the Saratoga county Court 
of Common Pleas. 


But Saratoga county's patriotism in this war did not stop here. The 
citizens of Saratoga Springs raised, by subscription, several thousand 
dollars, to be devoted to the purchase of necessities and comforts for 
the men in the field, and other places in the county followed their ex- 
ample. The Woman's National War Relief Association of the United 
States of America, incorporated at Albany, May 31, 1898, had for its 
, president Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth of Saratoga Springs. The 
society was formed to give expression in a practical way to the patri- 
otic sentiment of the women of the nation by finding means to supple- 
ment with material aid the sacrifices of time, strength, and life by men 
of the nation in the present war; to keep in remembrance the cause of 
humanity and the preservation of liberty which made this war neces- 
sary, and to cultivate a sensitive regard for the honor of the nation 
and the flag ; to collect money and have it. applied to the promotion of 
the health and comfort of officers, soldiers, and sailors in the army and 
navy according to the approval of the president of the United States, 
the secretaries of war and of the navy, and the surgeon general. 
This association raised large sums of money for the surgeon-general's 
fund of the army and navy, and to help to equip the ambulance ship 
Relief, fitted out in New York harbor to accompany the ships and 
troops to Cuba. 

On July 4, 1898, the inhabitants of Saratoga county were afforded 
another opportunity to display their patriotism by furnishing comforts 
to the soldiers of the Second Regiment in the field. On that day 
thousands of persons attended the festivities held on the fair grounds 
at Ballston Spa under the management of citizens of that village. Sat- 
urday evening, June 11, a mass meeting was held at the Sans Souci 
opera house, when it was unanimously decided to hold a gigantic festi- 
val on the nation's birthday, the proceeds of which should go to the 


soldiers of the Second Regiment. Rev. Dr. Charles Pelletreau was 
chosen manager of the festival. He named several committees to look 
after the details of the work, including an advisory committee consist- 
ing of Rev. B. J. McDonough, Rev. G. G. Johnson, Rev. Henry L. 
Teller, Rev. W. W. Cox, Rev. C. W. Eede, Frank Jones, Hon. Har- 
vey J. Donaldson, Thomas Kerley< Hon. Stephen C. Medbery, Hon. 
John H. Burke, Andrew S. Booth, T. C. Kelley and H. H. Ferris. 
Large quantities of provisions, etc., were donated by citizens, and the 
celebration was one of the most interesting ever held in Saratoga 
county. There were horse races, bicycle races and other sports, and 
all the choirs of the village joined together and sang patriotic songs. 
The sum of $1,200 was realized from the occasion. 


Soon after the departure of the Twenty-second Separate company 
from Saratoga Springs, the work of recruiting a new company was be- 
gan by Lieutenant Frederick M. Waterbury; and so rapidly was the 
work prosecuted that on May 16 the new company, the One Hundred 
and Twenty-.second Separate company, was mustered into the National 
Guard and ready to respond to another call to arms if its services should 
be desired. The ceremony of mustering in took place at the armory. 
Those who took the oath were : 

Members of the original Twenty-second Co. — E. B. Ashton, Bernard Brunner, 
H. J. Blichfeldt, Arthur L. Churchill, W. R. Calkins, George Clements, Frank W. 
Case, Charles A. Douglass, George Ellsworth, H. J. Epler, Clarence J. Fish, Arthur 
P. Hope, Fred C. Humeston, W. F. Ingham, Frank M. Jenkins, John H. Morris, 
Robert McNaughton, George A. Putnam, H. Allison Rood, E. M. Sipperly, jr., 
Charles Smith, Charles L. Starks, Charles P. Vaughn, Philip S. Wakeley, Fred 
West, James H. Reagan, R. Mingay, jr., G. R. P. Shackelford, W. L. Thompson, 
Mervin Sanford. 

Volunteers.— ]ames Burdick, Harry Brazee, Josiah W. Boyce, O. E. Deyoe, A. L. 
Deyoe, Charles Doolittle, J. Harry Eddy, Alvin Freeman, George W. Fish, William 
Gamby, W. M. Hill, Alfred R. Houseworth, Fred Harper, Harry Hall, Alfred 
Holmquest, Albert Hudson, James Holden, Archibald Kaulfuss, F. S. Legnard, 
Joseph Matthews, W. H. Myers, Harry Ostrander, W. P. O'Brien, W. E. Ouderkirk, 
W. Porter, George Phillips, E. M. Rouse, Francis Reilly, William Stein, Will W. 

Smith, Teeling, George Turner, E. S. Warner, Harry Fosmire, O. A. Mosher 

Will Snyder. 

Before the men were dismissed these officers were elected: Captain, 
Frederick M. Waterbury; first lieutenant, James H. Reagan; second 
lieutenant, Richard Mingay, jr. 


Since its organization this company has twice filled the ranks of 
Company L, at the front, having sent in all thirty-nine additional men. 




The town of Saratoga Springs is located a little to the southeast of 
the geographical centre of the county. It is bounded on the north by 
the towns of Greenfield and Wilton, on the east by Saratoga, on the 
south by Malta and on the west by Milton. The Revised Statutes of 
New York State define the town as follows: 

The town of Saratoga Springs shall contain all that part of sai,d county bounded 
northerly by Greenfield and Wilton, westerly by Milton, southerly by Malta, and 
easterly by a line beginning at the northeast corner of Malta, then down the middle 
of Saratoga lake and Fish creek to a point two rods above Stafford's Bridge, and 
running thence, so as to include said bridge and a piece of land four rods wide, to a 
point two rods below said bridge, and then due north to the south bounds of Wilton. 

The surface of the town is gently undulating. A portion of Saratoga 
lake forms the southeast corner of the town. Kayaderosseras creek 
traverses the southern boundary. Its most important creek beside 
Kayaderosseras and Fish creeks, lying on the boundaries, are Ellis 
creek, which empties into the Kayaderosseras. There are several small 
lakes or ponds within the borders of the town. The tracks of the Del- 
aware & Hudson Canal company's railroad traverse the county from 
the southwestern to the northeastern parts; a branch of the Fitchburg 
railroad enters the town from the east and extends to the village of 
Saratoga Springs; the Adirondack railroad runs northerly from that 
village, and the Mount McGregor railroad takes a northeasterly course 
therefrom. This town possesses that which is claimed by few other 
localities — beds of peat of considerable extent — though the fact is not 
generally known. It is also celebrated the world over f jr the number 
and excellence of its mineral springs, which are more fully described 
in another chapter. 

The first settler in the town is believed to have been Samuel Norton, 


who for several years conducted a rude log hotel near High Rock spring. 
Others had preceded him, but for one reason or another they remained 
but a short time. Norton came in 1776 and made the immediate locality 
of old High Rock spring his permanent home. Amos Stafford was 
the first to locate in that part of the town afterwards known as Staf- 
ford's Bridge. A short time after John, Henry and Nicholas Wagman, 
brothers, located near by, as did Amos Peck. The families were all 
related by marriage. In the southeastern part of the town Benjamin 
Frenchwas the first settler of whom anything is known, he having lo- 
cated there about 1780. Jonathan Ramsdell built a home on the west 
side of the lake about 1801. David Abell and Benjamin Avery came 
to the town about 1790. 

Upon the farm of Mr. Abell, on the shores of Saratoga lake, proba- 
bly the first school in town was established some time before 1800. 
Very little is known of the other early schools. Few have ever been 
established in town except those in the village of Saratoga Springs. 
Grist mills and saw mills were established at an early day. Robert 
Ellis built a saw mill soon after 1800 at the locality now known as The 
Geysers. A few years later he built a grist mill at the same place. 
Sylvester Bishop and Warren Cady were early tavern keepers, their 
primitive hostelries being located near the site of the Star spring. 
John and Ziba Taylor, brothers, were doubtless the pioneer merchants 
of the town, their store being located at Saratoga Springs village. 
George Peck did an extensive business as a scythe maker, near the Gey- 
ser spring, soon after 1800. Early in the century the population of the 
town began to increase at a rapid rate, the newcomers being an ener- 
getic and prosperous class of men. In 1831 work upon the Saratoga 
and Schenectady railroad was begun. This road subsequently came 
under the control of the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad company, 
organized in 1832, and both roads ultimately passed into the hands of 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal company. The Saratoga and Wash- 
ington railroad, now a part of the Delaware and Hudson system, was 
begun in 1835, but it was 1848 before it was opened for business as far 
as Gansevoort. In the fall of 1863 the work of constructing the Adi- 
rondack railway was begun, and the track in the town of Saratoga 
Springs was laid at once. The Mount McGregor railroad was con- 
structed in 1883, and the Troy, Saratoga and Northern, now a part of 
the Fitchburg system, in 1886 and 1887. 

Saratoga Springs is the principal village in the town. It is situated 


in the northern part of the town, just west of the centre. Its first per- 
manent settler was Samuel Norton, who ran a small log tavern near 
High Rock spring in the fall of 1776. This early tavern had been built 
in 1771 by Dirck Schouten, from Waterford, and occupied by him ; 
then by John Arnold, in 1774. In 1790 Benjamin Risley and his son- 
in-law, Gideon Putnam, bought considerable land in the vicinity of the 
springs ; and in 1800 the latter began the erection of Union Hall, the 
first large hotel in the village. In 1811 he began the erection of Con- 
gress Hall. The mineral springs here, to which extended reference is 
made elsewhere in this work, already had become famous, and with the 
construction of these hotels the future greatness of Saratoga was as- 
sured. The population increased rapidly; new springs were discovered 
and new hotels of magnificent proportions were built for the accommo- 
dation of the thousands of visitors who now flocked to the springs 
every year. The village was incorporated by the Legislature April 17, 
1826, the act defining the corporate limits as follows: 

All that district of country lying in the town of Saratoga Springs, county of Sara- 
toga, and State of New York, situated between two lines parallel to, and each half of a 
mile distant from the following described line, to wit: Beginning on the line between 
the Livingston and Ostrander lots, in the centre of the highway, near the house of 
Jesse Ostrander ; running northerly as the highway runs, till it strikes Broad street, 
as laid out on a map of lots at Saratoga Springs, belonging to Gideon Putnam ; 
thence northerly along the centre of Broad street till the said line intersects the high • 
way leading from the upper village to Greenfield, near the Methodist meeting-house ; 
thence north to Greenfield line, shall continue to be called and known by the name 
of the village of Saratoga Springs. 

The boundaries of the village have been greatly altered since then 
notably in 1866, by act of the Legislature. The first officers of the new 
village were: Presiding justices, John H. Steel, William L. F. Warren; 
president, Joshua Porter; trustees, John Bryan, Rockwell Putnam 
Robert McDonnal, David Cobb; clerk, Peter V. Wiggins; treasurer, 
John A. Waterbury; constables, Joshua Blum, Joseph White; path- 
master, Samuel Matthews. The following is a complete list of the 
village presidents and clerks since the incorporation of the village. 

Village Presidents. , 

1836, Joshua Porter ; 1839-86, John H. Steel ; 1837, Saipuel Chapman ; 1838-39, 
Thomas J. Marvin; 1840, Robert Gardner; 1841-43, Thoinas J. Marvin; 1843, Abel 
A. Kellogg; 1844, T. J. Marvin; 1845, Daniel D. Benedict; 1846-49, Washington 
Putnam; 1850-56, John A. Corey; 1857-58, John H. White; 1859-60, Peckham H. 
Green; 1861, John H. White; 1863, Charles S. Lester; 1863, J. H. White; 1864-65, 


John S. Leake: 1866-69, J. H. White; 1870-71, James H. Wright (appointed January 
7.1870, to succeed J. H. White, resigned); 1872-73, Caleb W. Mitchell; 1874^75. 
Charles A. Allen; 1876-77, Stephen H. Richards: 1878-79, Thomas Noxon; 1880-81, 
James R. Chapman; 1882-83, R. F. Milligan; 1884-85, P H. Cowen; 1886-87, Lewis 
Wood; 1888-91, Deyoe Lohnas; 1892-94, Caleb W. Mitchell; in 1895 Mr. Mitchell 
was legislated out of office and Charles H. Sturges took office May 6, 1895, serving 
to May 1, 1897, when Adelbert P. Knapp, the present president, came into office. 


1826, P. V. Wiggins; 1827, Miles Taylor; 1828, William C. Waterbury; 1829, Dan- 
.iel T. Reed; 1830, Miles Taylor; 1831-32, Daniel D. Benedict; 1833, James H. Robin- 
son; 1834-37, Henry P. Hyde; 1838, John C. Hulburt; 1839-40, Carey B. Moon; 1841, 
Samuel Pitkin; 1842-43, William H. Andrews; 1844, James H. Wescott; 1845, Will- 
iam H. Andrews; 1846, Samuel Pitkin; 1847, George W. Spooner; 1848-51, John W. 
Crane; 1852, Jesse L. Eraser; 1853, J. R. Rockwell; 1854. Charles H. Hulbert; 1855- 
56, C. C. Morehouse; 1857, James H. Huling; 1858-60, William L. Putnam; 1861-62, 
John Gunning, jr. (resigned in 1862 and L. B. Putnam appointed to fill unexpired 
term); 1863, Ferdinand Height; 1864-65, Lorin B. Putnam; 1866-69, F. Height; 1870, 
William L. Grahame; 1871, Charles A. Tefft, jr.; 1872-75, Patrick McDonald; 1876- 
79, W. D. Grahame; 1880-89, Samuel F. Corey; 1890-91, Amos S. Browne; 1892-94, 
John T. Dillon ; 1896-98, James D. McNulty. 

In addition to the numerous world-famed hotels at Saratoga Springs, 
the village has two handsome public buildings. The town hall, which 
stands on North Broadway, was built by the town authorities in 1871. 
The Convention hall, one of the handsomest and most commodious 
structures of its kind in the United States, was built in 1892 and 1893, 
at a cost of about $100,000, principally for a headquarters for the many 
conventions which are held annually in the village. It is a large brick 
structure, located on South Broadway, below Congress Park, and is an 
imposing structure. It was completed in the fall of 1893. 

Saratoga's fame rests principally upon its wonderful mineral springs 
and magnificent hotels, some of which for many years have ranked 
among the most elegant, in appointment and service, in the world. 
These have been described in preceding pages. 

The oldest church in town is the First Baptist church, organized in 
1791 by ten members of the First Baptist church of Stillwater. The 
First Presbyterian church was organized in 1816, Bethesda Protestant 
Episcopal church in 1830, the First M. E. church in 1830-1831, St. 
Peter's Catholic church in 1839, the First Congregational church in 
1865, the Second Presbyterian church in 1869, the Second Baptist 
church in 1873, the First Free Methodist church in 1865, the African 
M. E. Zion church in 1863, the Universalist church about 1840, the 


New England Congregational church in 1880, the Congregational 
Methodist church in 1896. The school from which Temple Grove 
Seminary sprang was started in 1854 by Mr. Carter. The present 
public school system was organized in 1867. Rising Sun lodge No. 
103, F. & A. M., at first instituted in that part of the town now North- 
umberland during or before 1808, was finally revived under a charter 
granted in June, 1845. Saratoga lodge No. 15, I. O. O. F., was organ- 
ized November 17, 1843, with C. W. Burlingame as noble grand, and 
is the oldest lodge of Odd Fellows in the district. Grace lodge No. 413 
was instituted December 8, 1874, with A. M. Boyce as noble grand. 
Saratoga Division, Sons of Temperance, was first instituted in 1843. 
Another division was organized in 1858. Several other prosperous 
secret and fraternal societies exist in the town. The Young Men's 
Christian Association was organized in 1866, with Prof. Hiram A. Wil- 
son as the first president. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
was organized March 17, 1874, with Mrs. Henry R. Lawrence as presi- 
dent. Empire lodge No. 74, Knights of Pythias, was instituted Febru- 
ary 28, 1872, with N. Waterbury as presiding officer. There are two 
posts of the Grand Army of the Republic in Saratoga Springs. The 
first of these. Post Luther M. Wheeler, No. 92, was chartered June 5, 

1877, and was organized October 11, 1877. The second. Post James B. 
McKean, No. 498, was chartered April 16. 1891, and organized May 1 
following.' Crystal lodge. No. 512, I. O. G. T., was instituted June 15, 
1882.= Putnam lodge, No. 134, A. O. U. W., was organized March 9, 

1878, with J. F. Lamberton as P. M. W., and Robert A. Hemingway 
as M. W. The Saratoga Musical association was organized in Febru- 
ary, 1869, with Samuel E. Bushnell as president and Dr. C. F. Rich as 
musical director. The first grand concert was given April 11, 1870, 
and the first grand musical convention was held in February, 1872, with 
L. O. Emerson as musical director. 

Saratoga Springs has had four banks, two of which are now in ex- 

■ The commanders of Post Luther M. Wheeler have been : E. T. Woodward, David F. Ritchie, 
Antoine De R. McNair, William H. Hall, Albert F. Mitchell, Hiram W. Hays, Robert F. Knapp, 
Charles H. Hodges, Winsor B. French, Hosea B. Ormsbee, Edward H. Fuller, Robert S. Riming- 
ton, filias J. Pendrick, William P. Hall and John S. Fassett. The commanders of Post James B. 
McKean have been : William M. Searing, 1891-1892; James H. Reagan, 1893; Augustus R. Walker, 
1894; James R. Gibbs, 1895; Charles D. Thurber, 1896; Seth W. Deyoe, 1897; Porteus C. Gilbert, 1898. 
The latter died June 11, 1898. 

' The following have filled the position of Chief Templar : Arthur Crosby, John Barton, Will- 
iam Spencer, Emory Potter, J. H. Parks, F. S. Harlow, James D. Stiles, Prank Ames, M. Thomp- 
son, C. G. Monford, Spencer M. Sterns, Ira A. Brooks, James H. Myers, T. Perry, J. M. Fake, 
George Ramsey, Henry Cunningham, P. K. Barrett and F. H. Partridge. 


istence. These are the First National bank, organized in 1848, and the 
Citizens National bank, organized in 1881. The Commercial National 
bank, and the Union Savings bank, chartered in 1873, both failed in 
December, 1878. The Saratoga Gaslight Company was organized in 
1854. The Saratoga Volunteer Fire Department was organized in 
1836. This was succeeded by a paid department in 1883. The vil- 
lage has an excellent waterworks system, started in 1832 by Dr. John 
Clark and improved by the construction of a large reservoir in Green- 
field in 1847. 

In 1831 the Saratoga Recorder and Anti-Masonic Democrat was 
established by D. Tehan. Since that time the village has supported 
several newspapers. The Saratogian, daily and weekly, and the Sara- 
toga Eagle and Saratoga Sun, weekly, are now published in the village. 

Stafford's Bridge, Eddy's Corners, Ashley's Corners, Ellis Corners, 
Cady's Hill and The Geysers are the principal hamlets or localities in 
the town, aside from Saratoga Springs village. Ellis Corners and 
Cady's Hill in recent years have become known as The Geysers. 

The town of Saratoga Springs was set off from Saratoga April 9, 
1819. The first town meeting was held at Union hall March 7, 1820, 
when these officers were elected : 

Supervisor, Ashbel Andrews; town clerk, Harmon J. Betts; assessors, Walter 
Crawford, Richard Searing, Nathan Lewis; commissioners of highways, Daniel 
Crawford, Samuel Stafford, Samuel S. Wakeman ; overseers of the poor, John Eddy, 
Gilbert Waring; collector, John Bemus; commissioners of common schools, John 
Glean, George Peck, Rockwell Putnam; inspectors of common schools. Rev. Francis 
Wayland, Rev. James O. Griswold, William L F. Warren; constables, Solomon 
Spaulding, Joseph White, Frederick Avery ; poundmaster, Richard Searing; inspec- 
tors of weights and measures, George Peck, John Bryan, Richard Searing. 

The following is a list of the principal officers of the town since the 
date of its organization : 


1820, Ashbel Andrews; 1831-1823, Esek Cowen; 1823-1837, George Peck; 1828- 
1829, John H. Steel; 1880-1834, James R. Westcot; 1835, Rockwell Putnam ;' 1836- 
1838, Samuel Chapman ; 1839, James R. Westcot ; 1840-1843, Samuel Chapman ; 
1844, Joel Clement ; 1845, James M. Marvin ; 1846-1848, John L. Perry ; 1849, John 
A. Corey; 1850, Samuel Chapman: 1851, Samuel Pitkin; 1852, Thomas J. Marvin; 
1853, Samuel Freeman; 1854, Cruger Walton; 1855, Franklin Hoag; 1856, Cruger 
Walton ; 1857, James M. Marvin ; 1858, Henry H. Hathorn ; , 1859, John H. White ; 
1860, Henry H. Hathorn ; 1861, Hiram H. Martin ; 1862, James M. Marvin ; 1863,' 
John W. Crane; 1864-1865, Charles S. Lester; 1866-1867, Henry H. Hathorn; 1868- 


1869, John W. Crane; 1870-1871, James P. Butler; 1872-1873, James I. Wakefield; 
1874, James M. Marvin; 1875-1876, Anson M. Boyce; 1876, Patrick H. Cowen (ap- 
pointed to succeed Boyce, resigned) ; 1877, Thomas Noxon ; 1878-1881, Joseph Baucus ; 

1883, Thomas Noxon; 1883-1884, Joseph Baucus; 1885-1886, Isaac Y. Ouderkirk; 
1887-1888, Augustine W. Shepherd , 1889, Frank M. Boyce ; 1890, Davis Coleman ; 
1891-1895, James M. Ostrander; 1896-1897, Harry Crocker ; 1898, Frank H. Hathorn. 

Town Clerks. 

1820-1831, Harmon J. Betts; 1833, Joel Clements; 1833, Harmon J. Betts; 1834- 
1839 James R. Wescott; 1830-1833, Washington Putnam; 1833-1834, Rockwell Put- 
nam; 1835, Abel A. Kellogg; 1836, John A. Corey; 1837, Joseph M. Wheeler; 1838, 
Ezra Hall; 1839, Rockwell Putnam; 1840, S. R. Ostrander; 1841, Horace Fonda; 
1842, Patrick H. Cowen; 1843, Horace Fonda; 1844, William H. Andrews; 1845, 
William E. Castle; 1846, William S. Balch; 1847, Charles S. Lester; 1848, John T. 
Carr; 1849, William L. Griswold; 1850, William S. Balch; 1851-1853, C. W. Burlin- 
game; 1853-1854, Robert Nichols ; 1855, Charles H. Hulbert; 1856, George L. Stearns; 
1857, Charles C. Morehouse; 1858, C. W. Burlingame; 1859-1860, Lorin B. Putnam; 
1861-1863, Abram B. Jenner; 1864-1866, James M. Ostrander; 1867, Daniel T. Rock- 
well; 1868, Henry Marshall ; 1869, L. L. Brintnall; 1870, Frederick N. Owen; 1871, 
George H. Gillis; 1873, William M. Searing, jr.; 1873, Patrick McDonald; 1874, 
George H. Gillis; 1875-1877, Daniel Eddy; 1878-1879, Isaac Y. Ouderkirk; 1880- 
1893, Michaels. Cummings; 1894-1895, Daniel S, Woodworth; 1896-1898, Michael 
S. Cummings. 

Justices of the Peace. 

1831. Wm. A. Langworthy; 1833, Ransom Cook, Eli Holbrook; 1833, John B. Gil- 
bert ; 1834, Wm. A. Beach ; 1835, Daniel T. Reed, John A. Waterbury ; 1836, Ransom 
Cook; 1837, John B. Gilbert; 1838, Sidney J. Cowen; 1839, George W. Wilcox; 1840, 
Sheleraiah R. Ostrander; 1841, Ransom Cook; 1843, Joseph White; 1843, John C. 
Hulbert; 1844, Augustus Bockes; 1845, Abel A. Kellogg; 1846, Joseph R. Plunkett, 
1847, Wm. E. Castle; 1848, Chas. S. Lester; 1849, Abel A. Kellogg; 1850, Seymour 
Gilbert, John T. Carr; 1851, John T. Carr; 1853, John H. White; 1853, Lemuel 
B. Pike; 1854, John B. Felshaw; 1855, John T. Carr; 1856, John R. Putnam; 
1857, Joseph D. Briggs; 1858, John H. White; 1859, Wm. C. Barrett; 1880, 
Jerome B. Buckbee; 1861. Esek Cowen; 1863, Joseph D. Briggs; 1863, Wm. C. 
Barrett; 1864, Silas H. Peters, Lewis Varney; 1865, Lewis Varney, John B. Fin- 
ley; 1866, J. S. B Scott; 1867, Wm. C. Barrett; 1868, Elias H. Peters (appointed); 
1869, Anson W. Boyce, James M. Andrews; 1870, Phineas F. Allen; 1871, John 
Foley; 1872, Lewis Wood; 1873, Wm. C. Barrett; 1874, Phineas F. Allen; 1875, 
Augustine W. Shepherd; 1876, Thomas G. Young; 1877, Chas. M. Davison, Wm. C. 
Barrett (long term) ; 1878, Lewis Wood ; 1879, Michael G. Berrigan ; 1880, John L. 
Henning; 1881, Wm. C. Barrett; 1883, Frank M. Jenkins; 1883, David Maxwell; 

1884, Wm. A. Pierson; 1885, Daniel E. Wing; 1886, Frank M. Jenkins; 1887, David 
Maxwell; 1888, James F. Swanick; 1889, George A. Swart; 1890, Frank M. Jenkins 
(long term), James T. Brnsnihan (short term) ; 1891, John F. Sullivan ; 1892, Joseph 
P. Brennan; 1893, Wm. D. McNulty; 1894, Frank M. Jenkins; 1895, Frank H. Mc- 
Donald; 1896, Prank Gick; 1897, John H. Morris; 1898, Charles B. Andrus. 



Police Justices. 
1848-1849, Abel R. Plunkett; 1850-1853, Abel A. Kellogg: 1854-1861, Matthias A. 
Pike' 1862-1863, John H. White; 1864-1865, Wm. H. Searing; 1866-1867 Patrick H. 
Cowen; 1868-1869, Wm. C. Barrett; 1870-1875, James S. B. Scott; 1876, John H. 
White (died in office); 1877-1879, Charles H. Teffit, jr. (appointed to fill vacancy; 
and regularly elected in 1878); 1880-1883, Augustine W. Shepherd; 1884-1887, John 
L. Barbour; 1888-1889, Wm. A. Pierson; 1890-1893, Chas. Allen; 1893, George A. 
Swart (appointed vice Allen resigned); 1894-1895, John M. Fryer; 1896-1897, George 
A. Swart; 1897, Wm. D McNulty (appointed Dec. 1, 1897, to fill vacancy caused by 
death of George A. Swart; served till March, 1898); 1898, Wm. J. Delaney. 


1820, John Bemus; 1821-1826, Joseph White; 1827-1828, Joshua Bliven ; 1829-1831, 
Eli Holbrook; 1832, Joshua Bliven; 1833, Joseph White; 1834, Lucien Hendrick; 
1835-1836, Daniel Wait; 1837, Joseph Brisbin; 1838, Marvin S. Putnam; 1839-1840, 
Amasa Patrick; 1841 Daniel Potts; 1842, Clement Gibbs; 1843-1844, William C. 
Owen; 1845, William Wait; 1846, William A. Muredell; 1847, John B. Felshaw; 1848, 
Hiraniowen; 1849, George Burnham; 1850, Daniel D. Eddy ; 1851, George Burn- 
ham; 1852-1854, Gardner Bullard; 1855, Riley V. Surdam; 1856, John Rouse; 1857- 
1858, Joseph H. Hodgeman; 1859, Ezra Hall; 1860, Charles W. Whitford; 1861, 
Charles H. Brown; 1862, Alfred P. Mallory; 1863, Thomas Eldredge; 1864, Charles 
W. Whitford; 1865, A. P. Mallory; 1866, Daniel T. Rockwell; 1867, Calvin M. Avery; 
1868, John Foley; 1869, Harmon S. Hoyt; 1870, Jonathan S. Howland; 1871, Will- 
iam F. Calkins; 1872, William E. Dexter.' 

Receivers of Taxes. 

1872-1874, William E.- Dexter; 1875-1878, Lewis Wood; 1879-1881, L. H. Cramer; 
1882-1885, Lewis Wood; 1886-1887, Thomas Douglas; 1888-1891, Byran J. Town; 
1892-1894, Patrick F. Roohan ; 1895-1897, Byron J. Town ; 1898, William B. Milliman. 


The town of Milton is second in importance to Saratoga Springs in 
point of population and wealth, but probably the first town in the 
county in the extent and value of its manufactures. Milton is bounded 
on the north by Greenfield, on the east by Saratoga Springs and Malta, 
on the south by Ballston and Charlton, and on the west by Galway. It 
contains 20,935 acres. The Revised Statutes describe the town as fol- 

The town of Milton shall contain all that part of said county bounded northerly by 
Greenfield, easterly by the east line of the fourteenth allotment of the Kayadrossera 
patent and the same continued to the north line of the sixteenth allotment, southerly 
by a line beginning in the southeast corner of the fourteenth allotment of the Kaya- 

1 The office of collector was abolished in 18?2, and was succeeded by that of receiver of taxes. 


drossera patent and running thence west along the bounds of the said allotment to 
the middle of the south bounds of lot number nine in the subdivision of the allot- 
ment aforesaid, and westerly by a line running from thence due north to the south- 
west corner of the town of Greenfield. 

The surface of the town is undulating in the south and moderately- 
hilly in the north. The Kayaderosseras creek flows southeasterly 
through the center of the town, turning at Ballston Spa and flowing 
easterly through Saratoga Springs into Saratoga lake. Gordon creek, 
which joins Kayaderosseras from the west at Ballston Spa, is one of its 
principal tributaries. The water power furnished by the Kayaderos- 
seras has been employed from the days of earliest settlement, and 
along -its banks are nearly a score of extensive mills and factories. The 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's railroad passes westerly and 
northeasterly through the southeast corner of the town. 

The earliest settlements in Milton were made at Milton Hill and a short 
distance north, of that point. Just before the Revolution David Wood 
and his sons, Stephen, Benjamin, Elijah, Nathan and Enoch, pur- 
chased 600 acres at Milton Hill and moved into the town. Justus 
Jennings, a Revolutionary soldier, settled near Hop City about 1783. 
About the same time Sanborn Ford located at Spier's Corners. Abel 
Whalen built a home near him about the same time. Benajah Douglas, 
grandfather of Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, built a log house in 1787 
near the old public spring at Ballston Spa, for the accommodation of 
visitors. This spring was discovered in 1769 while men were at 
work surveying the Kayaderosseras patent. Several other springs 
were subsequently discovered near by in the same valley. In 1817 
four springs, within twenty feet of one another, were discovered in 
the bed of the stream (Gordon creek). Soon afterward their water 
became fresh. 

Benajah Douglas's house was the first tavern in Milton. In 1792 
Nicholas Low built a tavern just east of that of Douglas." Mr. Douglas 
built a more commodious house in 1793 and 1793, and the year follow- 
ing summer visitors from all sections began to pour into the village to 
drink of the waters of the then famous mineral springs. In 1803 Mr. 
Low built the Sans Souci hotel, a spacious and elegant hostelry for 
those days.' Several other hotels were built after this, and several 
boarding houses were also opened. The Sans Souci hotel entertained 

* This hotel underwent many changes. The last hotel was torn down In 1887, and the follow- 
ing year the Sans Souci Opera House block was built in the western part of the site it had occu- 



many of the most noted men of those days, including Joseph Bona- 
parte in 1827. While he was visiting here a messenger brought him 
the letter announcing the death of Napoleon Bonaparte at St. Helena. 

Hezekiah Middlebrook built a grist mill in 1799 or 1800 above the 
site of the present blue mill on the Kayaderosseras. Saw mills and 
grist mills were located at Rock City Falls, then known as Hatch's 
Mills, before 1800. This was the first use of the fine water power at 
that point. Epenetus White, Mr. Warren and Mr. Sears had stores 
early in the century on the low ground near the original spring at 
Ballston Spa. 

Beside the five churches at Ballston Spa, there have been in the town 
St. James' Protestant Episcopal church at- Milton Centre, founded in 
1796; the Presbyterian church at Milton Hill, organized in 1791, be- 
came extinct in 1840; the Baptist church near Rock City known as the 
" stone church," organized about 1798; the Presbyterian church of West 
Milton, organized soon after the Revolution; the M. E. church at Rock 
City Falls, organized in 1844, and the Catholic church of Rock City 
Falls, organized in 1872. 

Ballston Spa, the county seat of Saratoga county, is the principal 
village in Milton, though a part of the corporate limits of the village 
extend into the town of Ballston. Its early settlement has been re- 
ferred to in the foregoing. The village is located in the extreme south- 
eastern part of the town. The village was incorporated March 21, 1807, 
and at the first village elciction, held the first Tuesday in May following, 
these officers were elected : 

Trustees, Joshua B. Aldridge, Stephen H. White, Nathan Lewis ; assessors, John 
Warren, David McMaster, Archy Kasson ; treasurer, Epenetus White, jr. ; collector, 
Eli Barnum; clerk, William Shepherd; constables, Elihu Roe, Samis Blakely. 

Previous to 1842 no president was elected, the three trustees being 
equal in authority. In 1842 the number of trustees was increased to 
five, and thereafter a president was elected annually by the board at its 
first meeting. Subsequently the presidents were, and now are, elected 
annually by the people. The following have been the presidents of the 
village since 1842 : 

1842-43, James M. Cook ; 1844, Reuben Westcot ; 1845, James M. Cook ; 1846-47, 
Abel Meeker; 1848, Samuel H. Cook; 1849, Abel Meeker; 1850. George Thompson; 
1851, Reuben Westcot; 1853, George Babcock; 1853, William P. Odell; 1854, Law- 
rence W. Bristol ; 1855, Reuben Westcot ; 1856, Edward H. Chapman ; 1857, James O. 
Leach; 1858, Edward Gilbourn; 1859, Seymour Chase; 1860, Hiro Jones; 1861, John 


H. Westcot; 1862, David Maxwell; 1868, Levi Weed; 1864, John Wait; 1865, David 
Maxwell; 1866-67, John H. Westcot; 1868-69, George G. Scott; 1870-78, Henry A. 
Mann; 1874, Albert P. Blood; 1875, Henry A. Mann; 1876-77, Stephen C. Medbery; 
1878-81, Alonzo M. Shepherd; 1883, Jeremiah Griffin ; 1883-84, Alfred N. Wiley; 1885, 
Stephen C. Medbery ; 1886, Rush H. Young'; 1887-89, Stephen C. Medbery; 1890, 
Alonzo M. Shepherd; 1891, Abijah Comstock; 1893, Douglas W. Mabee; 1893, Charles 
O. McCreedy; 1894-95, Eben S. Lawrence; 1896, Thomas Finley; 1897-98, Douglas 
W. Mabee. 

The prosperity of the villag-e was due at first to the presence of the 
excellent mineral springs discovered there; but, secondly, and most 
important, to the splendid water power of the Kayaderosseras creek. 
Along this creek numerous mills and factories were built at an early 
day, grist mills and saw mills being located there before 1800. Early 
in the century other industries were established there. The paper mills, 
which afford a means of livelihood to the town, were started before and 
during the war of the Rebellion. In 1836 Jonathan S. Beach and Har- 
vey Chapman started a woolen mill on the island in the Kayaderosseras, 
and four years later they built a cotton mill near their first mill. In 
1844 they built a third mill, for cotton manufacture. The second mill 
mentioned was operated until 1861. Their third mill finally became 
the property of George West, who converted it into a paper mill. In 
1850 Beach & Chapman built the Glen woolen mill, which subsequently 
manufactured cloths and blankets. In 1875 George West, who already 
owned four paper mills, bought of Jonas A. Hovey the island mill he 
had purchased in 1861 of Beach & Chapman, and converted it into a 
plant for the manufacture of paper. He also bought the first mill re- 
ferred to, the Union mill, and the woolen mill; converted the latter 
into a paper bag mill, and leasing the cotton mill. The tannery of 
Haight & Co. was removed from Milton Centre to Ballston Spa in 1883 
and its facilities greatly increased. The axe and scythe shops at Blood- 
ville, a suburb of Ballston Spa, were established by Isaiah Blood in 1834. 

The county seat was removed from Court House Hill in Ballston to 
Ballston Spa after the burning of the original court house and jail in 
1817. The new court house in Ballston Spa was opened in the spring 
of 1819. The present court house was built in 1889. The first county 
clerk's office was built in 1824 on Front street. The present office west 
of the court house was erected in 1865-1866 and first occupied in the 
summer of that year. 

A new union school building was erected on Bath street in 1873-1874. 
Plans are now [1898] being made for increasing the school facilities of 


the village. A "State and National Law School" was established in 
the old Sans Souci hotel in 1849 by John W^ Fowler, but closed after a 
career of three years. 

There are five churches in Ballston Spa— Christ Protestant Episcopal 
church, founded at Ballston Centre in 1787, and removed to Ballston 
Spa in 1817, seven years after the organization of the original St. 
Paul's parish in this village; .the First Baptist church, founded in 1791 ; 
the First Presbyterian church, founded in 1834; the M. E. church, 
founded in 1836, and St. Mary's Roman Catholic church, whose first 
edifice was erected in 1859. A new M. E. church was built in 1892- 
1893, and a new Baptist church in 1895-1896, and a new Catholic 
church in 1896. 

The Ballston Spa National bank was established in 1838, and the First 
National bank in 1865. ■ 

Franklin lodge No. 90, F. & A. M., was instituted in 1842. It is 
the successor of Franklin lodge No. 37, instituted in the town of Balls- 
ton in 1794, and of Friendship lodge No. 18, instituted at Milton Hill 
in 1805, both of which early lodges had forfeited their charters. Among 
the numerous other thriving fraternal organizations in the village are 
Kayaderosseras lodge No. 17, I. O. O. F;, instituted January 9, 1844; 
Post William H. McKittrick No. 46, G. A. R., organized in May, 1875; 
Hermion lodge No. 90, K. of P., organized in December, 1873; the 
Utopian club; Ballston Spa Castle No. 3, K. of G. E. ; Home lodge 
No. 135, A. O. U. W. ; the Royal Templars of Temperance. The 
Ballston Spa fire department consists of Eagle Fire company No. 1, 
Union Fire company No. 2. and Matt Lee Hook & Ladder company 
No. 1. 

Factory Village and Bloodville are suburbs of Ballston Spa, and are 
inhabited, for the most part, by employes of the axe and scythe shop 
and the other industries of that locality. Factory Village was so named 
because of the two paper mills located there soon after the war. The 
paper mill there now is owned by the National Folding Box and Paper 
company of Hartford, Conn. Bloodville, which contains the immense 
plant of the American Edge Tool company, manufacturers of scythes 
and axes, was named after Isaiah Blood, the founder of the industry. 
Craneville, a hamlet, is located further up the Kayaderosseras. The 
paper mill at that point was purchased by George West soon .after the 
war. Milton Centre is located in the centre of the town. Here Gen- 
eral James Gordon built a grist mill at the close of the Revolution. 



The tannery of Samuel Haight, which was removed to Ballston Spa in 
1882, was located at this point for many years. -West Milton is a con- 
solidation of Spier's Corners and Clute's Corners. Daniel Campbell 
built a grist mill there about 1798. Ezekiel Whalen opened the first 
store there. Rock City Falls is located at the upper water power of 
the Kayaderosseras. Rowland & Kilmer built a paper mill there in 
1840, which afterwards was purchased by George West. Chauncey 
Kilmer has owned a paper mill there for several years. Hilton Hill is 
now hardly a hamlet. Rowland's Mills or Rowland Hollow is located 
in the eastern part of the town. It was named after H. R. Rowland, 
who built the early grist mills and saw mills there. 

The town was organized in 1892, at first including that portion of 
Greenfield which was a part of the old district of Ballston. Greenfield 
was erected in 1793, since which time the limits of the town have been 
unchanged. The records of the town clerk up to 1798 have been lost. 
The following have been the principal town officers since 1792, except- 
ing the clerks from 1792 to 1798: 


1793, John Ball; 1793-94, Abel Whalen; 1795-96, Elisha Powell; 1797-99, Walter 
Patchin; 1800-01, Henry Frink ; 1802-03, Jeremy Rockwell ; 1804, Silas Adams ; 1805- 
08, Elisha Powell ; 1809-13, Joel Keeler; 1813-15, Daniel Couch, jr.; 1816-18, Joel 
Keeler; 1819-21, Thomas Dibble; 1823-33, Thomas Palmer; 1883-37, Isaac Frink; 
1838, James M. Cook; 1839, Abraham Middlebrook ; 1840-41, Sylvester Blood ; 1843- 
43, Hiram Rowland; 1844-45, James M. Cook; 1846, Hiram Wood; 1847, Isaiah 
Blood; 1848, Daniel W. Culver; 1849, John Talmadge; 1850-51, James Ashman; 
1853, Daniel W. Culver; 1853, George W. Ingalls; 1854, John W. Thompson; 1855, 
Johns. Jones; 1856, D. W. Culver; 1857, G. W. Ingalls; 1858, William T. Odell; 
1859, Isaiah Blood; 1860, William T. Odell; 1861, G. W. Ingalls; 1863, George W. 
Chapman; 1863, Cornwell M. Noxon; 1864-65, Edwin H. Chapman; 1866-68, Hiro 
■ Jones; 1869-70, Isaiah Blood; 1871, Hiro Jones; 1873, Clarence B. Kilmer; 1873, 
John McLean; 1874^75, George West, jr.; 1876-79, George L. Thompson; 1880, 
Truman C. Parkraan; 1881-84, George L. Thompson; 1885, Abijah Comstock; 1886, 
Martin Lee; 1887, John Richards; 1888-89, Abijah Comstock; 1890, William W. 
Sweet; 1891, Eben S. Lawrence; 1893, Frank J. Sherman; 1893, Samuel Thompson ; 
1894^97, Frederick H. Beach ; 1898, Thomas Finley, 

Town Clerks. 

1799-1808, Ezekiel Whalen; 1809-12, Silas Wood; 1813-41, Alpheus Goodrich; 
1843, Horace Goodrich ; 1843-44, William T. Odell ; 1845-46, Wheeler K. Booth ; 1847, 
David Maxwell; 1848, Samuel De Forest; 1849-53, John H. Westcot; 1853, Seymour 
Chase; 1854, Lawrence W. Bristol ; 1855, Peter C. Gordon ; 18S6-65, Charles E. Jones ; 
1866-1867, Jonathan S. Smith ; 1868, Joseph H. Thomas ; resigned, and Seth Whalen 


appointed in his place; 1869-70, William G. Ball; 1871, John V. N. Barrett; 1872, 
William G. Ball; 1873, George W. Oakley; 1874, W. B. H. Outt; 1875-76, Leverett 
J. Seeley; 1877, W. H. Chapman; resigned, and James W. Morris appointed; 1878, 
John L. Carlin; 1879, James E. Lee; 1880-82, William S. Waterbury; 1883-84, Her- 
bert C. Westcot; 1885-86, Frank D. Groat ; 1887-88, Edwin F. Howard; 1889, Jesse 
Young; 1890, Johp Augustus Raymond; 1891, Braman Ayers, jr. ; 1892-93, John D. 
Wait ; 1894 to date, James Munn. 

Justices of the Peace. 

1830, Alpheus Goodrich; 1831, William J. Angle; 1832, Thomas Palmer; 1833, 
Gran G. Otis, Daniel Couch; 1834, Alpheus Goodrich; 1835, William J. Angle; 1836, 
George G. Scott; 1837, James Ladow; 1838, Eliphalet St. John; 1839, William J. 
Angle; 1840, G. G. Scott; 1841, James Ladow; 1842, Abram T. Davis; 1843, William 
J. Angle ; 1844, G. G. Scott ; 1845, Ezra Westcot ; 1846, David Maxwell ; 1847, Hen- 
ry Crippen ; 1848, Callender Beecher ; 1849, Le Grand Johnson ; 1850, David Max- 
well, Ezra Westcot, Samuel De Forest ; 1851, Daniel Bronson ; 1853, Charles D. 
Allen, M. L.Williams, William Wilson; 1853, Ezra Westcot; 1854, Augustus E. 
Brown; 1855, James Ladow, Abraham Middlebrook; 1856, David Maxwell; 1857, 
Henry Crippen ; 1858, Seymour Chase ; 1859, James Ladow ; 1860, David Maxwell ; 
1861, Seth Whalen; 1862, David Morris; 1863, James Ladow; 1864, David Maxwell, 
Solomon A. Parks; 1865, Cornwell M. Noxon; 1866, Aaron G. Waring; 1867, James 
Leggett, Charles H. Wickham; 1868, David Maxwell; 1869, Seth Whalen; 1870, 
Samuel D. Sherman; 1871, James Leggett; 1872, David Maxwell; 1873, Stephen B. 
Jackson, Jacobs. Settle; 1874, Daniel Boyce; 1875, David Morris; 1876, Theodore 
Hamilton; 1877, John H. Smith, Palmer S. Kilmer; 1878, Samuel D. Sherwood (full 
term), James Miller (short term); 1879, James A. Burnham (full term), Thomas Fin- 
ley, William W. Sweet, James McFarland (all short term); 1880, David Morris; 1881, 
Oscar W. Brown; 1882, J. Albert Cipperly (full term), George W. Maxon (short term); 
1883, John H. Smith (full term), Silas H. Torrey (short term) ; 1884, George W. 
Maxon; 1885, Oscar W. Brown; 1886, Silas H. Torrey; 1887, Calvin Whiting; 1888, 
Horace E. McKnight ; 1889, George R. Beach (full term), Brightman Briggs (short 
term); 1890, John Pierson (short term and long term); 1891, Brightman Briggs; 1892, 
Thomas Finley ; 1893, Obed R. Mosher (full term), Frank H. Brown (short term) ; 
1894, Charles R. Clapp ; 1895, Andrew Benton ; 1896, Willard W. Brown (full term),' 
Edwards. Coons (short term) ; 1897, Clarence B. Kilmer; 1898, Edwin R. Quacken- 
bush (full term), Willard W. Brown and Charles Van Buren (short term). 

Police Justices. 

Under a special statute the town was authorized, in 1863, to elect a 
police iustice once in every two years. Those serving in that office have 

1863-66, David Maxwell ; 1867-74, John B. McLean ; 1875, G. W. Hall (resigned 
and Alvah C. Dake appointed in his place) ; 1877-78, A. C. Dake ; 1879-84, John 
H. Smith; 1885-88, Silas H. Torrey; 1889-94, James H. Burnham; 1895-96, George 
L. Lewis ; 1897-98, Andrew J. Freeman. 



The town of Waterford occupies the extreme southeastern corner of 
the county. Its area is the smallest of any of the twenty towns in the 
county, being but seven square miles. It is bounded on the north by 
Halfmoon, on the east by the Hudson river, on the south and west by 
the Mohawk river. The Revised Statutes define the limits of Water- 
ford as follows: 

The town of Waterford shall contain all that part of said county beginning in the 
bounds of the county in the Mohawk river, at the mouth of a certain creek or run 
of water which crosses the road leading from the village of Waterfotd to Balls- 
ton, at the foot of the hill a little to the northwestward of the dwelling house now or 
late of Claudius Stannard, and running up the said creek to where it crosses the 
road as aforesaid; then south seventy three degrees and thirty minutes east one 
hundred and sixty chains and thirty links to where a creek called the Mudder Kill 
intersects the public road leading from the village of Waterford to Stillwater; then 
down the said Mudder Kill to its entrance into Hudson river ; then east to the bounds 
of the county ; and then along the bounds of the county southerly and westerly to 
the place of beginning. 

The surface of the town lies mostly from fifty to one hundred feet 
above the Hudson river. An almost perpendicular range of slate 
bluffs extend along the Mohawk, and the Hudson valley is bordered 
by a range of low clay hills. The soil is exceedingly fertile, especially 
the flats occupying that part of the town north of Waterford village. 

One of the finest water powers in the world is furnished by the 
Cohoes falls in the Mohawk. The Albany branch of the Delaware & 
Hudson railroad enters the town from Cohoes and a mile above the 
village joins the Troy branch of the same road, which enters the 
southern part of the village within three hundred feet of the Hudson. 
From Waterford Junction the road extends northerly through the town. 
The Champlain canal traverses the town from north to south. 

The survey of the Van Schaick patent, which included the present 
towns of Waterford and part of Halfmoon, reads as follows, viz. : "The 
boundaries of a certain parcel of land in the county of Albany, con- 
firmed under Anthony Van Schaick, by Governor Charles Dongan, 31st 
May, 1687. A certain parcel or tract of land, and being to the north 
and above the town of Albany, and is commonly called and known by 
the name of Half-Moon, which stretches up alongst the north river, 
from a certain place where are several streams of water, to a creek or 
kill where there is a fall of water which, running into the land, hath its 
course into the north river; the said creek, or kill, and fall being by 


the Indians called Tieuwenendahow ; and from thence runs up the 
Maquas-Kill westward, to a place called Dowaelsoiaex, and so strikes 
presently eastward up along by the said stream and then to the north 
river aforementioned." 

The first settlements in Saratoga county were made in Waterford, 
then called Half Moon Point, a few years after the early settlements at 
Albany. The site for the village was purchased in 1784 by Colonel 
Jacobus Van Schoonhoven and several others, and settlers came rapidly 
to occupy the building sites offered. Van Schoonhoven was probably 
the first merchant and innkeeper in town. Numerous small manufac- 
turing concerns were established in town at a very early day, but the 
industrial development was not very great until after the completion 
of the hydraulic canal in 1839. Two years later the manufacture of fire 
engines was begun, and the product since turned out has made the 
name of Waterford famous throughout the country. 

The pioneer religious society of Waterford, which has been extinct 
for many years, was the Reformed Dutch church, which probably was 
established long before the Revolutionary period. Of the other 
churches in town, Grace Protestant Episcopal church was founded in 
1810, the Presbyterian church about 1793, the Baptist church in 1821, 
the Methodist church in 1830, and the Catholic church soon after the 
Civil war. 

Waterford is the principal village in the town, and the oldest in the 
county, having been incorporated in 1801. The first trustees were 
Hezekiah Ketchum, Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, Matthew Gregory, 
Isaac Keeler, John Pettit, Duncan Oliphant and Thomas Smith. Un- 
fortunately the village records were destroyed in the great fire of 1841. 
Since that year the presidents of the village have been : 

John House, 1841; John Stewart, 1846-47; John Knickerbacker, 1848-49; John 
Wood, 1850 ; John Stewart, 1851; William H. King, resigned November, 1852; J. H. 
Cudworth, elected December, 1852 to fill vacancy; William Scott, 1853; John Law- 
rence 1854; John Cramer, 1855; L. G. Hoffman, 1856; John Stewart, 1857; Daniel B. 
King. 1858-65; E. B. Cole, 1866; John Titcomb, 1867-70; William Holroyd, 1871-73; 
Moses Bedell, 1873-74, died August 1, 1874; C. A. Waldron, elected August 5, 1874, 
to fill vacancy; Edward Stewart, 1876; David T. Lamb, 1877-78; John Proper, 1879; 
George Stewart, 1880; Gad H. Lee 1881-84, died August, 1884; William Holroyd,' 
elected to fill vacancy ; William Holroyd, 1885; Eli M. Powell, 1886-89; Jeremiah 
Husted, 1890 ; James W. Brooks. 1891-98. 

There are five churches in the village. The public school system 
is an excellent one. The union school is the outgrowth of the once 


famous Waterford academy. The latter institution, which stood on 
the corner of Division and Sixth streets, where St. Mary's church now 
stands, was incorporated by the Legislature April 28, 1834, and ad- 
mitted by the Regents February 6, 1839. William T. Seymour was 
principal in 1836-38; Samuel R. House, 1839-40, and William G. 
Lloyd, 1841-47. The last few years of the career of the academy it 
was located in the building on Second street previously occupied by 
Mrs. Emma Willard. The Emma WiUard Female seminary, which 
subsequently removed to Troy, was at one time one of the most noted 
female schools in the United States. The Masonic lodge in the vil- 
lage was instituted in 1848. Waterford lodge. No. 331, I.O.G.T., was 
organized in 1867, and Maple Valley lodge. No. 437, I.O.O.F., in 1875. 
The Saratoga County bank was incorporated May 29, 1830, with a 
capital stock of $100, 000, with John Knickerbacker as the first pres- 

The Waterford Waterworks company was incorporated in 1885 and 
on October 6 of that year made its first contract with William Holroyd, 
then president of the village, to supply the village with water. Frank 
A. Hinds was the first president of the company. Water is pumped 
from the Hudson river to a standpipe on Prospect hill, three quarters 
of a mile from the village, whence it is distributed by mains. 

The Waterford town hall is a commodious building located on Broad 
street. The corner stone of the structure was laid September 16, 1873. 

Waterford's manufactures have always been of considerable impor- 
tance. The famous Button Fire Engine works were established in 1834. 
Holroyd's stock and die manufactory in 1847, the straw board mill in 
1864, the Rock Island flour mills in 1847, the Gage machine works in 
1835, Frank Gilbert's Mohawk & Hudson paper mill in 1872, the Brooks 
nut factory in 1835, Van Schoonhoven & Co.'s knitting mill in 1875, 
the Franklin ink works in 1831, the Waterford sawing mills in 1872, 
the Globe Iron works in 1873, the Waterford soap and candle factory in 
1830, the Massasoit knitting mills in 1872, King's stock, die and tool 
works in 1829, the Mohawk & Hudson Manufacturing company in 1847, 
Van Kleeck's brush factory in 1864, the Hudson Valley knitting com- 
pany in 1870, the Shawtemack mills in 1834, the Munson knitting mill 
in 1871, the Eureka knitting mills in 1881, the Waterford knitting 
company in 1885, the Bishopton knitting mill in 1886, the Kavanaugh 
knitting company in 1891, Sidney D. Sault's paper box manufactory in 
1892, the Clyde knitting company (successor to the Meeker, Spotten & 


Meeker company) in 1893, the Clover knitting company (successor to 
the Hudson Valley knitting company) in 1897, the Ormsby Textile 
company in 1893, and the Eddy Valve company in 1891. 

The town of Waterford was not formed until several years after the 
incorporation of the village. It was originally known as Half Moon 
Point. The supervisors since that time have been: 

1816, John Cramer; 1817-18, Jacobus Van Schoonhoven; 1819, Daniel Van Alstine; 
1820-35, William Given; 1826-28, Joshua Mandeville; 1829, Nathan Bailey; 1830, 
Joshua Bloore ; 1831-33, Eli M. Todd ; 1834, John Stewart ; 1835, John Vernam ; 1836, 
Charles Scott; 1837, Joshua Bloore; 1838, Robert Blake; 1839, Joseph H. Cudworth; 
1840, James I. Scott; 1841^2, George W. Kirtland; 1843, William Scott; 1844, Will- 
iam T. Seymour; 1845-47, David Brewster; 1848, David T. Lamb; 1849, Abram L. 
Brewster; 1850, David T. Lamb; 1851-52, Daniel G. Smith; 1853, John Fulton; 1854, 
W. C. Vandenburgh; 1855, Joshua Mors; 1856-58, John Titcomb; 1859-66, David T. 
Lamb; 1867-70, Courtland Brewster; 1871-72, Thomas Breslin; 1878-75, David T. 
Lamb; 1876, James H. Brewster; 1877-78, Henry C. Vandenburgh; 1879, John Law- 
rence; 1880-81, John B. Palmer; 1883-84, James H. Shine; 1885-90, John E. Gage; 

1891. Jeremiah Husted; 1892-97, Eli M. Powell; 1898, James H. Glavin. 

The following list of town clerks of Waterford is as nearly complete 
as it can be made from the records: 

1832-34, John Cramer, 2d; 1835-41, M. C. Powell; 1848-49, William A. Waldron; 
1850-52, Courtland Brewster; 1853, John Smith; 1854, Lyman U. Davis; 1855, Charles 
E. Pickett; 1856-57, Millen Bedell; 1858-63, George S. Waterman; 1863-70, Samuel 
A. Northrop; 1871-75, George E. Pickett; 1876, Benjamin Singleton; 1877. Major B. 
Winchell; 1878. George E. Pickett; 1879-81, James H. Lloyd; 1883-83, Frederick W. 
Williams; 1884, Frank D. Barnfather; 1885, Thomas G. Dunwoody; 1886-87, Lewis 
S. VanArnum; 1888-1889, Thomas G. Dunwoody: 1890-91, David D. Steenbergh; 

1892, W. Frederick Lawrence; 1893-97, James H. Glavin; 1898, John G. Cole. 

The justices of the peace have been as follows: 

1848, Joseph H Cudworth; 1849, William T. Seymour; 1850, Charles Johnson ; 1851, 
John Cramer, 2d ; 1852, Robert Moe, Joshua M. Todd ; 1853, Joseph H. Cudworth, 
Cornelius A. Waldron ; 1854, John Wood ; 1855, John Cramer, 3d ; 1856, Lewis G. 
HoflEman; 1857, Chauncey Sherman; 1858, James McKallor; 1859, John Cramer, 3d; 
1860, Joseph H. Cudworth; 1861, Chauncey Sherman ; 1863, Anthony J. Brease; 1863,' 
John Cramer, 3d; 1864, Joseph H. Cudworth; 1865, Chauncey Sherman, GadH. Lee'; 
1866, Gad H. Lee, John F. Pruyn; 1867, John Cramer. 3d; 1868, Pearl SpafEord; 1869,' 
J. F. Pruyn; 1870, Peter Quackenbush; 1871, John Cramer, 2d;1873, John A. Waldron'; 
1873, Henry Foley, William Shepherd; 1874, Chauncey Sherman ; 1875, Peter Quack- 
enbush; 1876, George S. Waterman; 1877, Charles W. Barringer; 1878, Henry Foley; 
1879, Peter Quackenbush, Frank D. Peck; 1880, Frank D. Peck, John D. Lewis; 
1881, Charles W. Barringer; 1883, Henry S. 'f'racy; 1883, William A. Dennis, John 
Evers; 1884, Benjamin Singleton; 1885, Charles W. Barringer; 1886, William K. 
Mansfield; 1887, George E. Pickett;. 1888, J. William Atkinson; 1889, Benjamin 


Singleton; 1890, William K. Mansfield; 1891, John Evers; 1893. J. William- Atkin- 
son; 1893, Benjamin Singleton; 1894, William K. Mansfield; 1895, Frederick W. 
Kavanaugh ; 1896, J. William Atkinson ; 1897, William German ; 1898, William K. 

The term of the police justice's office is two years. The incumbents 
of this office have been : 

1879-80, Henry Foley; 1881-82, George E. Pickett; 1883-84, Henry Foley; 1885-90, 
Charles McKallor; 1891-93, William Curtis, sr. ; 1893-96, George E. Pickett; 1897-98, 
Michael Brown. 


The town of Saratoga, commonly known as Old Saratoga, to dis- 
tinguish it from the town of Saratoga Springs, which originally formed 
a part of this town, occupies the centre of the eastern tier of towns. It 
is bounded on the north by Wilton and Northumberland, on the east by 
the county line (the Hudson river), on the south by Stillwater, and on 
the west by Saratoga Springs and Malta, part of the two latter towns 
consisting of the water of Saratoga lake. The Revised Statutes de- 
scribe the town as follows : 

The town o£ Saratoga shall contain all that part of said county bounded northerly 
by Northumberland and Wilton, easterly by the east bounds of the county, southerly 
by Stillwater, and westerly by Saratoga Springs and Malta. 

The eastern part of the county, bordering on the Hudson river, is 
flat. The central and western parts are occupied by a range of hills 
extending north and south. Most of the land is productive. Saratoga 
lake forms the southern half of the western boundary. Fish creek, the 
principal stream, is the outlet of the lake, and flows easterly into the 
Hudson through the northern part of the town. The Quaker mineral 
springs, three in number, lie a short distance southeast of the centre 
of the town. 

Saratoga is the most historic town in the county. Settlement was 
begun in the latter part of the seventeenth century. As early as 1687 
Governor Dongan endeavored to persuade a band of Christian Iroquois, 
whom the French missionaries had led to Caughnawaga, on the St. 
Lawrence, to return and settle in Saratoga under English protection, 
that they might form a barrier between Albany and the hostile French 
and Indians of the north. Here, in February, 1690, Lieut. Le Moyne 
de St. Helene with his band of Canadian Indians left for Schenectady, 
where they committed the historic massacre. Here, too, in the sum- 


mer of the same year Major Peter Schuyler of Albany, with some 
Dutch troops, erected a small fort and named the place Seraghtoga. 
In 1709 Schuyler, now a colonel in command of the advance guard of 
the second great army of northern invasion, built another fort, on the 
east side of the river. It was in this town, too, that one of the most 
important battles in the world's history was fought — the conflict -which 
resulted in the surrender of Burgoyne's army of invasion in 1777. 
During the French and Indian wars Saratoga was in the direct path 
trod by many armies whose operations resulted in transferring all the 
territory south of Canada to the English crown. 

The pioneer settler in the town probably was Bartel Vroman, who 
located on the bank of the river as early as 1689, perhaps before that 
date. As early as 1709 or 1710 it is believed that representatives of the 
famous Schuyler family built mills and other buildings on the south 
side of Fish creek, near the historic Schuyler mansion. In 1745, at the 
attack upon old Fort Saratoga, several saw mills and other buildings 
upon Fish creek and the Hudson river were burned, and about thirty 
families were killed or taken prisoners. At this time Captain Peter 
Schuyler was killed in his own house. But we have no record of 
the names of these victims, most or all of whom may have been set- 
tlers in this town. After the peace of 1763 between France and Eng- 
land settlers began coming into the town in large numbers. Among 
them were Abraham Marshall, Thomas Jordan, John Strover, Heze- 
kiah Dunham and James I. Brisbin. The western part of the town was 
not settled until the close of the Revolution. About 1790 Jesse Toll 
built mills at Grangerville. The first tavern in Schuylerville was 
opened about 1800 by Mrs. Taylor, a widow. About 1812 Daniel Pat- 
terson built a tavern on the site of the Schuylerville house. Madame 
Riedesel's letters refer to a tavern just below Schuylerville kept by a 
man named Smith. The first store in town was probably kept by John 
Douglas. Two branches of the Fitchburg railroad run through the 
town, and the Cham plain canal traverses the eastern part of the town, 
running north and south. 

Schuylerville is the most important village in the town. It was in- 
corporated April 16, 1831. The first officers, elected June 7, following, 
were: Trustees, Gilbert Purdy, Richard W. Livingston, James Strang, 
Cornelius Letcher, John Fonda; treasurer, Ira Lawrence; collector, 
David Willianjs. The trustees elected Gilbert Purdy president and 
James Strang clerk. The village enjoyed a great impetus to its in- 



dustries upon the opening of the Champlain canal, and is now a manu- 
facturing town of considerable importance. It contains six churches — 
the Reformed Dutch church, organized in 1772; the Baptist church, 
1790; the M. E. church, 1827; the Episcopal church, 1846; the Roman 
Catholic Church of the Visitation, 1845-1847 ; and Notre Dame Catho- 
lic church, 1889. It also contains a fine public school system under the 
direction of Prof. R. H. Whitbeck. The National bank was organized 
in 1853. There are several thriving fraternal organizations in town. 
The paper mills were founded by D. A. Bullard & Co. in 1863. In 
1832 David B. French established a foundry there. The Ploricon cot- 
ton mills were established in 1828. The State dam across the Hudson 
at this point was built in 1871-1873 by Dennison, Belden & Gale of 
Syracuse. Following its construction numerous new industries were 
established at or near Schuylerville. One of the most important of 
these is the concern known as the Thomson Pulp and Paper company, 
incorporated June 11, 1888, by Lemon Thomson, John A. Dix, Curtis 
N. Douglass and J. D. Powers. The capital stock is $100,000. The 
village has an excellent fire department, which has made itself famous. 
The first company was organized August 15, 1836. The hand engine 
owned by the village for many years held the world's record, having 
thrown a stream of water 235 feet in the air several years ago, at Coney 
Island, N. Y. 

Victory Mills is a suburb of Schuylerville, lying just south of that 
village. Here the Saratoga Victory Manufacturing .company estab- 
lished immense mills in 1846. The original capital invested was $425,- 
000, but large amounts have since been expended. The village was 
incorporated in 1849, when William E. Miner, Patrick Cooney, George 
McCreedy, Russell Carr and Benjamin Kelsey were chosen trustees, 
William E. Miner, president and James Cavanaugh, clerk. 

Coveville, Grangerville, Quaker Springs and Dean's Corners are ham- 
lets. Coveville is on the Champlain canal in the southern part of the 
town. Quaker Springs is southeast of the centre and Dean's Corners 
west of the centre. Grangerville is on Fish creek. 

The town was organized March 7, 1788, as a town of Albany county. 
It had a district organization as early as 1772. In 1791 it became a' 
town of the newly erected county of Saratoga, but then comprised the 
territory now within the towns of Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, North- 
umberland, Moreau and Wilton, and parts of Malta and Greenfield. 
In 1789 the town of Easton, in Washington county, had been taken off. 


A part of Greenfield was taken off in 1793, all of Northumberland 
(which then included Moreau and Wilton) in 1798, a part of Malta in 
1805, and Saratoga Springs in 1819. The records of the first and many 
other town meetings have been lost. The following is a list of the 
supervisors of Saratoga since 1789 : 

1789-91, John B. Schuyler; 1793-94, Alexander Bryan; 1795, John B. Schuyler; 
1796-1800, Daniel Bull; 1801-04, Jesse Mott; 1805, James Brisbin, jr.; 1806, Thomas 
Ostrander; 1807-09, George Cramer; 1810-13, William Wait; 1814, George Cramer; 
1815, Jonas Olmstead; 1816-17, William Wait; 1818-19, Jesse Mott; 1830, Harvey 
Granger ; 1831, George Cramer ; 1833, Philip Schuyler ; 1833, Daniel Morgan, jr. ; 1834, 
George Cramer; 1835-30, Daniel Morgan, jr.; 1831-83, Walter Van Veghten; 1833, 
James Mott; 1834, Henry D. Chapman; 1835-36, Daniel Morgan, jr. ; 1837, William 
Wilcox; 1838, John B. Wright; 1889, Daniel Morgan; 1840, Samuel J. Mott; 1841, 
Henry D. Chapman; 1843-43, William Wilcox; 1844, Mayo Pond; 1845, Daniel 
Morgan ; 1846, Phineas Richardson ; 1847, George W. Lester ; 1848-49, Henry Holmes ; 
1850-51, S. H. Dillingham ; 1853, Henry Holmes ; 1853, Samuel J. Mott ; 1854, Phin- 
eas Richardson ; 1855, John Lewis ; 1856, Peter J. Cook ; 1857, Ralph Brisbin ; 1858- 
59, Peter J.' Cook ; 1860, George W. Wilcox; 1861, Samuel J.' Mott; 1862-66, William 
P. Ostrander; 1867, Thomas Sweet; 1868-69, Edmond Raymond; 1870, George P. 
Watson; 1871-72, Henry C. Holmes; 1878-75, Douw F. Winney; 1876, John H. De 
bidder; 1877, William H. Smith; 1878, Daniel A. Bullard; 1879-81, Charles H. At- 
well; 1882, James B. Bailey; 1883, John H. De Ridder; 1884-86, Charles H. Sarle; 
1887-88, Hector A. McRae; 1889, Edward C. Bullard; 1890, James Mealey , 1891, 
Hector A. McRae; 1892, Charles M. Doolittle; 1893-95, George R. Salisbury; 1896- 
97, Elmer E. Baker; 1898, Jaquith. 


Stillwater is one of the eastern tier of towns. It is bounded on the 
north by Saratoga, on the east by the county line, on the south by Half- 
moon and on the west by Malta. The Revised Statutes define the town 
as follows: 

The town of Stillwater shall contain all that part of said county bounded southerly 
by Halfmoon, easterly by the east bounds of the county, westerly by Malta, and 
northerly by the north bounds of lot number seventeen in Saratoga Patent, contin- 
ued in the same direction west to the town of Malta. 

The surface of the town is moderately hilly. The hills known as 
Bemus Heights lie partly in the northern part of the town. The flats 
along the Hudson are bordered by a range of bluffs from sixty to a 
hundred feet high. None of the streams are of importance. Saratoga 
lake occupies a small part of the northwestern corner of the town. 
Extending into the lake is a promontory known as Snake-head hill or 
Snake hill. At the south end of the lake is a famed mineral spring, 


known as the White Sulphur spring. In the southwestern part of the 
town is. a sandy tract interspersed with swamps. 

The first settlements north of Half-Moon Point, on the west side of 
the river, aside from those at Schuylerville, were made at Stillwater 
between 1730 and 1740. Forts had been erected in the town many 
years before. In 1709 Col. Peter Philip Schuyler built Fort Ingoldsby 
near the present site of Stillwater village. Isaac Mann, who located 
in town about 1750, was the first settler of whom anything definite is 
known. William Mead was an early innkeeper. Harmanus Schuyler, 
in 1770, built mills a short distance below the present village of Still- 

The industries of the town were greatly benefited by the opening of 
the Champlain canal, which traverses the eastern part of the town, 
running north and south. The Fitchburg railroad enters the town 
across the bridge at Stillwater, whence its branches extend southward 
to Mechanicville, and northwest to the shore of Saratoga lake. An 
electric railroad connects Stillwater and Mechanicville. 

Stillwater is the principal village. It is located near the centre of 
the eastern border of the town on the bank of the Hudson river. It was 
originally called Up-town, then Upton, as it was the first and for a long 
time the only settlement north of Waterford, excepting Schuylerville. 
A Presbyterian church and an Episcopal church were organized before 
1800, as was also a Masonic lodge, chartered in 1791, and a well patron- 
ized school. The village was incorporated in 1816. For many years, 
while Dirck Swart was county clerk, the county clerk's office was in 
the village. The first meeting of the board of supervisors of the 
county was held at his house in 1791. A fire company was organized 
and a hand engine purchased in 1875; Stillwater academy, founded in 
1847, was succeeded by the present union school system in 1873. The 
Congregational church, organized at Canaan, Conn., in 1752, removed 
to Stillwater in 1762; the First Baptist church was organized in 1762; 
the Presbyterian church in 1791; the Second Baptist church in 1836; 
the M. E. church in 1857, and the Catholic church in 1874. 

The dam in the river at Stillwater furnishes power for a number of 
enterprises. Newland & Denison established a knitting mill in 1873 ; 
William Mosher and Elihu Allen a paper mill in 1847 ; Ephraim New- 
land a hosiery mill in 1873; D. & W. Pemble a straw-board mill in 
1866, and Gardner Howland & Sons a paper mill in 1863. The village 
now contains a new pulp and paper mill, two knitting mills, a flouring 


mill, two card board mills, two saw mills, a leather-board mill, a shank 
and counter mill, a dry dock and boat yard. 

Mechanicville lies partly in the town. The village is referred to 
more in detail in the gazetteer of Half moon. Ketchum's Corners is 
located in the northwest corner of the town. The Presbyterian church 
there was organized in 1866, and the M. E. church very early in the 
century. Wayville is a hamlet near by. Bemus Heights, Wilbur's 
Basin and Stillwater Centre are other hamlets in the town. 

The clerks of the town of Stillwater for many years have not kept 
the town records as the law provides, so it is impossible to give an 
authentic list of all the officers of the town. The list of supervisors 
was obtained from the county clerk's office. The names of the other 
town officers, as far as the records show, are also given. The super- 
visors have been : 

1791, Elias Palmer; 1793, Samuel Bacon; 1793-94, John Bleecker; 1795, Reuben 
Wright ; 1796-98, Cornelius Vandenburgh ; 1799-1804. John Hunter ; 1805-18, Thomas 
Morey; 1819-30, Daniel Rogers; 1821-32, George Palmer; 1833, Richard Ketchum ; 
1824, Daniel Rogers; 1835-33, George Palmer; 1834-37, Richard Ketchum; 1838, 
Abraham Leggett; 1839-45, Henry E. Barrett; 1846^8, William Baker; 1849, Abra- 
ham Y. Lansing; 1850, Abraham Leggett; 1851, Tyler Dunham; 1853, George W. 
Neilson ; 1853, Charles Moore; 1854, William Baker; 1855, William Denison; 1856, 
Philip J. Powell; 1857, Edward Moore; 1858-59, Andrew Hunter: 1860, John W. 
Buffington; 1861-65, Henry W. Arnold; 1866-67, John T. Baker; 1868-70, Henry A. 
VanWie; 1871-73, John T. Baker; 1873-75, George A. Ensign; 1876, George W. 
Neilson; 1877, Lyman Smith; 1878, Peter A. Van Wie; 1879-80, William L. Deni- 
son; 1881, Edgar Holmes; 1883-83, Elias Hewitt; 1884-85, Clarence M. Curtis; 1886- 
87, Alfred P. Williams; 1888-89, William B. Neilson; 1890, Hiram Williams; 1891, 
Herbert O. Bailey; 1893, Alfred P. Williams; 1893, G. P. H. Taylor; 1894-95, Frank 
W. Neilson; 1896-97, John C. Baker; 1898, William S. Donnelly. 

The records show the names of the following town clerks : 
1795, Henry Davis; 1803, 1806 and 1807, William Seymour; 1809 and 1813, George 
Palmer; 1820, Charles Nelson ; 1831 to 1824, and 1826, William Seymour; 1834-36, 
Henry E. Barrett; 1887, Samuel F. Pruyn; 1838-1841, Ashbel Palmer; 1842-46,' 
Morgan Hunger; 1847, John Patrick; 1848, Archibald C. Tearse; 1849, John Hat- 
field; 1850-53, Morgan Hunger; 1854, Ashbel Palmer; 1855-56, Lyman Smith; 1857, 
Jared W. Haight; 1858, Joseph Wood; 1859, J. W. Haight; 1860. Sylvenus Arnold'; 
1861, George W. Flagler; 1863-68, Ashbel Palmer; 1869-73, Charles C. Neilson! 
1874, Joseph Wood; 1875-78, Morey G. Hewitt; 1886-93, Horey G. Hewitt; 1894-97,' 
Frank Stumpf ; 1898, Wesley E. Stufflebean. Records missing, 1788 to 1794 1796 to 
1802, 1804 to 1805, 1808, 1810 to 1811, 1813 to 1819, 1835, 1827 to 1833, and from 1879 
to 1886. 

The justices of the peace elected by the people, excepting those elected 
from 1879 to 1886, whose names are not obtainable, were as follows: 


1833. Ashbel Palmer; 1884, Cramer Vernam ; 1835, David Benedict; 1886, Ashbel 
Palmer; 1837, Richard Ketchum; 1838, Cramer Vernam; 1839, David Benedict ; 1840, 
Ashbel Palmer; 1841, Charles Ensign; 1842, James Bradshaw; 1843, Hiram A. Fer- 
guson, George S. Finch; 1844, Ashbel Palmer, Alfred Elms; 1845, Samuel Cheever; 
1846, John Elmer; 1847, John W. Neilson; 1848, Daniel Bradt, Thomas S. Gleason; 
1849, William Denison; 1850 John Elmer; 1851, Samuel B. Hicks; 1853, Daniel' 
Bradt, Alfred Elms; 1853, Alexander Flanney; 1854. Nathan Taber; 1855, Reuben 
H. Barber; 1856, Charles Moore, James Lee; 1857, Alexander W. Davis; 1858, John 
Elmer; 1859, R. H. Barber; 1860, Daniel Bradt; 1861, Theophilus Cook; 1863, John 
Elmer; 1863, R. H- Barber; 1864, Joseph Wood; 1865, Theophilus Cook; 1866, John 
Elmer; 1867, R. H. Barber; 1868, Theodore Baker; 1869, Duncan Van Wie; 1870, 
John Elmer; 1871, R. H. Barber; 1872, Theodore Baker; 1873, Duncan Van Wie; 
1874, E. Corning Chase; 1875, R. H. Barber; 1876, David A. Van Wie. Charles Hunt; 
1877, William S. Miller; 1878, Eugene E. Curtis; 1886, Eugene E. Curtis; 1887, 
Charles Hunt ; 1888, David A. Van Wie ; 1889 J. H. Massey ; 1890, Eugene E. Cur- 
tis; 1891, Charles Hunt; 1893, George Perkins (short term), B. E. Tabor (long term) ; 
1893, Robert C. Baxter; 1894, George Perkins; 1895, Charles Hunt; 1896, B. E. Tabor; 
1897, Robert C. Baxter; 1898, Eugene E. Curtis. 


Halfmoon occupies a part of the southeastern corner of the county. It 
is bounded on the north by Malta and Stillwater, on the east by the 
east bounds of the county, on the south by Waterford and the south 
line of the county, and on the west by Clifton Park. The Revised 
Statutes define the town as follows : 

The town of Halfmoon shall contain all that part of said county bounded north- 
erly by Anthony's Kill, easterly by the east bounds of the county, southerly by 
Waterford and the south bounds of the county, and westerly by a line beginning at 
the outlet of Round Lake ; then running south to the east side of William Gates' 
grist mill ; then southerly through the centre of the mill pond across the bridge over 
said pond; then southerly to the w^est side of Joseph Merrill's dwelling house; then 
south to the Van Schaick line, then along said line to the Mohawk river, varying the 
same at the dwelling house of Ephraim Stevens so as to leave the same on the west 
side of the line. 

The surface is undulating and contains several small streams running 
in places through narrow ravines. The eastern section, extending 
along the river bank, is flat and fertile, as is most of the land. An- 
thony's creek and Dwaas' kill flow into the Hudson, and Steena kill 
into the Mohawk. The Erie canal passes through the western half of 
the southern part of the town, running nearly parallel to the Mohawk 
river. The Champlain canal traverses the eastern part of the town 
from north to south. The Delaware & Hudson Canal company's rail- 
road runs nearly parallel with this canal, and east of it, from Water- 



ford to Mechanicville, running thence in a westerly direction about 
parallel with the north line of the town. The Fitchburg railroad also 
extends westerly from Mechanicville nearly parallel with the northern 
line of the town. 

The earliest settlements in Halfmoon located on the banks of the Mo- 
hawk about 1680. Killiaen Vandenburgh built a home near Duns- 
bach's Ferry in 1718. The earliest building in Mechanicville doubtless 
was Gates's tavern. Henry Bailey had a tavern about a mile below, 
near the river, soon after the Revolution, perhaps earlier. Shubael 
Cross had another at Middletown before the Revolution. 

Mechanicville is the principal village in Halfmoon. It lies partly in 
the northeast corner of the town and partly in Stillwater. It is a man- 
ufacturing and railroad centre of considerable importance. Here are 
located large shops of the Delaware & Hudson and the Fitchburg rail- 
roads, the immense plant of the Duncan company, manufacturers of 
fine paper; two large sash and blind factories, two large brick kilns, 
four knitting mills, a shirt factory, important lumber yards, a factory 
for manufacturing electrical goods, and other manufactures. The Dun- 
can company is supplied with power principally from a dam across the 
Hudson river. In 1897 and 1898 a second large dam was erected in the 
Hudson for the development of power for transmission to the works of 
the General Electric company at Schenectady, about fifteen miles away. 
The electric current will be transmitted from Mechanicville to Schenec- 
tady by heavy insulated wires. The village has excellent railroad fa- 
cilities, including, beside the steam roads mentioned, an electric line 
between Mechanicville and Stillwater. A line extending southward 
and connecting with Troy and Albany is in course of construction, and 
plans are being made for an extension to Saratoga Springs. The 
school system has undergone great improvements in' recent years, and 
two new school buildings are soon to be constructed. There are five 
churches in the village — Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, 
Protestant Episcopal and Roman Catholic. There are also a Masonic 
lodge, and Odd Fellows lodge, three social clubs and several other fra- 
ternal organizations. It also has a well organized and equipped fire 
department. Mechanicville was not incorporated by law as a village 
until 1870. It was chartered by the County Court in July, 1859, and 
at the first election, September 10, following, ninety- five votes were 
cast. These trustees were elected: Cyrus Gilbert, Stephen Burtis, 
Lewis Smith, Job G. Viall, A. A. Buckhout. The board of trustees 



elected Lewis Smith chairman and William P. Harris clerk. Until 1870 
the chief executive officer of the village was the chairman or president 
of the board of trustees. Thiese officers were : 

1859, Lewis Smith ; 1862, William Clements ; 1863, Lymau Dwigbt ; 1864, Isaac M. 
Smith; 186i, John W. Ensign; 1866, John Elmer; 1867, John C. Greene; 1868, John 
C. Greene (removed from village and succeeded by Alonzo Howland); 1869, Lewis 
E. Smith; 1870, William W. Smith. 

In 1870 the State Legisla