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Cornell University Library 
F 127S9 H67 

..H story of Suffolk county. New York, 

3 1924 028 834 848 
olin Overs 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 






ustrations, portraits, & Sketches 




36 Vesey Street. 








Discovery of New York— The Indians of 

the Five Nations 7,8 


New York under the Dutch— English Gov- 
ernors to 1675 8-10 

War with France and the Commencement 

of the Revolution 10, 11 

Revolutionary Events in New York— The 

State Government Established 11, 12 

The War of 1812 between the United States 

and Great Rritain 12,13 

Internal Improvements — Constitutional 
Amendments— Schools— Statistics 13-15 


A Sketch of the Topography, Geology and 

NaJural History of Long Island 16-18 

The Indians of Long Island— Territory, 
Characteristics, and Relations with the 

Whites 18-22 

Discovery and Settlement of Long Island 

—History of Colonial Times 22-26 

Customs,! Characteristics and Institutions 

of the Early Lons: Islanders 27-30 

The participation of Long Island in the 

War with France 30,31 

Beginning of the Revolution— Prevalence 
of Toryism— Independent Spirit in Suf- 
folk .*: 31-34 

The British In vasion- Battle of Brooklyn- 
Washington's Retreat 34-36 

Long Island in British Hands— Raids from 
the Mainland— Smuggling —The Prison 

Ships— Nathaniel Woodhull 37-41 

The War of 1812— Privateering— The For- 
tification of Long Island 41-43 

The Construction of Wagon Roads and 
Railroadson Long Island 43,44 

TheAgriculturalCapabilitiesand Develop- 
ment of Long Island 44-46 

Formation and Growth of the Long Island 
Historical Society 46-48 


Indian Tribes of Suffolk County— The Ad- 

ventof the White Man 49-52 


A Sketch of Pioneer Experience — , 52-66 

The Colonial perio^- Growth of Civil and 

Religious institutions 56-62' 

Suffolk County in the Revolution— Wash- 
ington's Tour— The War of 1812 62-65 

Civil History of the County— Statistics of 

Population 65-67 

Religious, Temperance and Educational 
E fforts— A Group of ounty Societies... . 87-70 
The Record of Suffolk County's Volunteers 

in theCivil War 70-'i'9 

Physical Features— Climate— Industries- 
Means of Communication 79-82 


following page 82 and arranged in alphabetical 
order, as follows: 












Arthur, F. 0., S.mithtown 21 

Bailey, Edwin Brookhaven 100 

Baj'les, James M Brookhaven 61 

Beecher, Lyman, Bast Hampton 16 

Beers, Daniel, Southampton 

Beers, Daniel, Southold 

Belmont, Perry, B ibylon 

Budd, John, Southold 

Buel. Samuel, East Hampton 

Burnet, MatthiaSi East Hampton 

Burr, Carll S., Huntington 

Carll, Gilbert, Huntington 

Carll, Jesse, Huntington 

Carman, George F., Brookhaven 

Carpenter, E. A., East Hampton 

Cartwright, B. C, Shelter Island 

Case Family, Southold 

Case, H. H Southold 

Case, J. Wickham, Southold 

Chatfleld, Thomas East Hampton 

Cleaves, George H Southold 

Cochran, Walter Babylon 

Conklin, Jacob, Huntington 

Conklin, Jacob, Babylon 

Conklin, Douglass Huntington 

Conklin, John, Southold 

Conklin, Richard B Southold 

Cook, Nehemiah B Southold 

Cook, Joel, Babylon 

Cooper, James B Babylon 

Corwin, Matthias Southold 

Daggett, Herman, Southampton 

Davenport, James,.., Southold 

Dayton Family East Hampton 

Dering Family Shelter Island 

Deverell, Thomas H., Babylon 

Dickerson, Philemon, Southold 

Dingee, Arthur Babylon 

Dingee, Selah, Babylon 

Dodd, Edward, Babylon 

Douglas, Josiah, Sou thampton 

Dowden Brothers, Babylon 

Edwards, Lewis A., Southold 

Fleet, H.L Southold 

Fleet, Thomas Huntington 

Floyd, Benjamin, Brookhaven 

Floyd, John G.,. Brookhaven 

Floyd, Richard Brookhaven 

Floyd, Gen. William, Brookhaven 

Floyd, William, Brookhaven 

Fordham, Robert, Southampton 

Foster, N. W., Riverhead 

Foster, P. H., Babylon 

French, Stephen B Southampton 

Gardiner, A. S Huntington 

Gardiner, Abraham Bast Hampton 

Gardiner, David, East Hampton 

Gardiner Family East Hampton 

Gardiner, Lion, East Hampton 

Gardiner, Nathaniel, East Hampton 

Gardiner, Samuel Buel, East Hampton 

Gelston, Samuel, Southampton 

Gleason, Luther, Babylon 

Goldsmith, John, Southold 

Goldsmith, B. T., Southold 

Hallook, B. G., Southold 

HaJsey, Hugh, Southampton 

Hand, Nehemiah, Brookhaven 

Hartt, Joshua, Huntington 





■ 4 












Havens, AsherC, Shelter Island 

Havens, C. S., Brookhaven 

Havens Family, : Shelter Island 

Havens, J. S., Brookhaven 

Hawkins, Edward, Kiverhead 

Hawkins, Simeon S., Kiverhead 

Hazzard, Joseph Southold 

Hedges Family Southampton 

Hedges, Henry P., Southampton 

Hobart, Joshua Southold 

Homan, Mordecai, Brookhaven 

Horton, Barnabas Southold 

Howell, Stephen, Southampton 

Huntington, Abel, East Hampton 

Hunttlng, David H., East Hampton 

Huntting Family, Southampton 

Hnntting, J. B., Southampton 

Huntting, Jonathan, Southold 

Hu ntting, Nathaniel, East Hampton 

Huntting, Samuel, East Hampton 

Hurlburt, John, .Sou thampton 

Hutchinson, B. T., Brookhaven 

Ingrabam. William, Babylon 

Ireland, John L., Brookhaven 

James, Thomas, F.ast Hampton 

Jayne, Scudder Brookhaven 

Jones, Eliphalet,.. Huntington 

Jones, W. L Brookhaven 

Kissam, Baniel W., Huntington 

Latham Family Southampton 

Latting, Bichard, Huntington 

Lawrence, W. C. Smithtown 

Leverlob, William ; Huntington 

L'Hommedieu, Samuel, Southampton 

Louden, John Babylon 

Ludlow, Isaac Southampton 

Marvin, Joseph Brookhaven 

Mather, John B Brookhaven 

Miller, Burnett East Hampton 

Miller, Eleazer, East Hampton 

Miller, George .Kiverhead 

Miller, Nathaniel, Brookhaven 

Mills, George P Brookhaven 

Moore, Thomas Southold 

Mount Family Brookhaven 

Moubray , Jarvis K., Islip 

Multord Family, East Hampton 

Murray, Lindley, Islip 

NiooU Family, Islip 

" Shelter Island 

NicoU, Hon. Samuel B., Shelter Island 

NicoU, S. B., M. D Shelter Island 

Norton, Humphrey Southold 

Oakes, George Huntington 

Osbom, Edward, Brookh aven 

Osborn Family, East Hampton 

Overton, F. H., Southold 

Paynes John Howard, Bast Hampton 

Pelletreau Family, Southampton 

Phillips, George S., Smithtown 

Plerson, Abraham, Southampton 

Placide, Henry Babylon 

Post, W. B Southampton 

Prime, Bbenezer, Huntington 

Prime, Ezra C Huntington 

Provost, William Y., Babylon 

Hackett, S. P., Southold 

Hay, Joseph H Huntington 

Beid, J. B Babylon 

Bemsen, Phoenix . .'. Babylon 

Rice, James, Brookhaven 

Bice Family Brookhaven 

Rogers, Stephen C Huntington 

Eolph, Jarvis E Huntington 

Rose, A. T Southampton 

Rose Family Southampton 

Rose, John, Brookhaven 

Sage, Ebenezer Southampton 

Sammis, D. S. S Babylon 

Sehleier, C. S Babylon 

Scudder Family Huntington 

Scudder, Henry G.,. Huntington 

Scudder, Henry J Huntington 

Scudder, Tred well, Islip 

Shaw, Peter H Southampton 

Skinner, Abraham, Babylon 




Sleight, Brinley D., East Hampton 

Sleight, Cornelius, East Hampton 

Smith, Charles Jeffrey, Brookhaven 

Smith, David, Babylon 

Smith, Edward Henry Smithtown 

Smith, Egbert T., Brookhaven 

Smith, Elizabeth, Smithtown 

Smith, Col. Henry Brookhaven 

Smith, J. Lawrence Smithtown 

Smith, Gen. John, Brookhaven 

Smith, Josiah Brookhaven 

Smith, Joshua B, Smithtown 

Smith, Lyman B., Smithtown 

Smith, Oakley, Babylon 

Smith, Ralph Southold 

Smith, Richard, Smithtown 

Smith, Richard W Brookhaven 

Smith, Seba, Brookhaven 

Smith, William, Brooktiaven 

Smith, Colonel William, Brookhaven 

Smith, William Henry, Brookhaven 

Smith, William Sidney, Brookhaven 

Smythe, Richard, Smi thtown 

Storrs, John Southold 

Street, Charles B Huntington 

Strong, Benajah, Islip 

Strong, Samuel,. Islip 

Strong, Selah, Brookhaven 

Strong, Judge Selah Brewster, Brookhaven 

Strong, Selah B., jr Brookhaven 

Strong, Thomas S Brookhaven 

Strong, Thomas Brookhaven 

Sylvester Family Shelter Island 

Taylor, Joseph, Southampton 

Terry, Richard, Southold 

Thompson, Benjamin F Brookhaven 

Thompson, Isaac Islip 

Thompson, Jonathan, Islip 

Throop, William Southold 

Titus, H. W., Brookhaven 

Udall, Bichard Islip 

Vail, J. H., Islip 

Von der Luehe, Huntington 

Whitaker, Epher, Southold 

Wells, William Southold 

White, SylvanuB, Southampton 

Whiting, Joseph,, Southampton 

Williamson, John M., Brookhaven 

Wilson, A. D Brookhaven 

Wilson, Hugh N Southampton 

Winthrop Family, Southold 

Wiswell, U. F Southold 

Wood, John Islip 

Wood, SUas Huntington 

Wood, W. W., Huntington 

Woodend, W. D., Huntington 

WoodhuU, Abraham Brookhaven 

WodhuU, General Nathaniel, Brookhaven 

Woodh uU, Richard, Brookhaven 

Woolsey, Benjamin Southold 

Worth, Theron B., Southold 

Young, Thomas, Huntington 

Youngs, Rev. John Southold 

Youngs; Colonel John Southold 


Bayles, James M., Brookhaven 

Belmont, Perry Babylon 

Burr, Carll S., Huntington 

Carll, Gilbert, Huntington 

Carll, Jesse, Huntington 

Carman, George F., Brookhaven 

Carpenter, E. A East Hampton 

Cartwright, B. C Shelter Island 

Case, H. H Southold 

Cleaves, George H., Southold 

Conklin, Douglass, Huntington 

De Laraater, C. H . , Huntington 

Edwards, Lewis A., Southold 

Floyd, William, Brookhaven 

Foster, Nathaniel W., Rl verhead 

Foster, P. H., Babylon 

French, S. B., Southampton 

















Gardiner, A. S Huntington 

Gardiner, S.B East Hampton 

Goldsmith, B. T Southold 

Hallook,. G Southold 

Hand, N Brookhaven 

Havemeyor, Henry Babylon 

Havens, C. S Brookhaven 

Havens, J. S Brookhaven 

Hawkins, Edward Rivorhead 

Hawkins, S S Rirerhead 

Hedges, H. P Southampton 

Huntting, D. H., East Hampton 

Huntting, J. B. Southampton 

Ireland, John L Brookhaven 

Lawrence, W. C, Smithtown 

Louden, John, Babylon 

Mairin, Joseph, Brookhaven 

Mather, J. R., Brookhaven 

Miller, George, Kiverhead 

Moubray, J. R Islip 

Muhlenberg, W. A., Smithtown 

Nicoll, Hon. S. B Shelter Island 

Nicoll, S. B., M. D ' Shelter Island 

Osborn, Edward Brookhaven 

Overton, F. H., Southold 

Phillips, George S., Smithtown 

Post, W. K., Southampton 

Prime, Ezra C Huntington 

Provost, William Y., Babylon 

Reid, J. R., Babylon 

Bemsen, Phenix, Babylon 

Bice, James, Brookhaven 

Rogers, Stephen C, Huntington 

Kolph, J. R., Huntington 

Sammis, D. S. S., Babylon 

Sehleier, Charles S., Babylon 

Scudder, Henry G Huntington 

Scudder, Henry J Huntington 

Sleight. B. D., East Hampton 

Smith, Egbert T Brookhaven 

Smith, E.H., Smithtown 

Smith, J. Lawrence Smithtown 

Smith, Joshua B Smithtown 

Smith, Lyman B., Smithtown 

Smith, William Sidney, Brookhaven 

Street, Charles E., Huntington 

Strong, Selah B., Brookhaven 

Titus, Henry W., Brookhaven 

Vail, J. H Islip 

Woodend, W. D., Huntington 

Wood, .Tohn, Islip 

Wood, W. W Huntington 

Worth, T. B Southold 

Young, Thomas Huntington 


Bailey, E. & Son, Planing-Mill, Brookhaven 

Carll, Jesse, Residence Huntington 

Conklin, R. B , Residence Southold 

Conklin. R. B., Stables, Southold 

Davis, C. E., Residence Brookhaven 

Davis, C. H., Residence, Huntington 

DeLamater, C. H., Residence, Huntington 
De Lamater, C. H., Beacon Farm, Hunting- 

Dowden Brothers, Store Babylon 

Esterbrook, R. jr., Residence, Southampton 

Fleet, Henry L , Residence Southold 

Frontispiece, General History 

Havens, A. C, Residence Shelter Island 

Jayne, Scudder, Residence, .... Brookhaven 

Mulford, John (Letter), East Hampton 

Parsons, M. B., Hotel, Southold 

Rackett, S. P., Residence, Southold 

Rico Family Monument, Brookhaven 

Rolph, J. R., Residence, Huntington 

Sammis, D. S. S., Hotel, Babylon 

Scudder, H. J., Residence, H untington 

Smith, J. Lawrence, Residence, Smithtown 

Smythe, Richard— Arms Smithtown 

Sutton, E. B., Residence Babylon 

Map of Long Island, General History.... 
Map of East Hampton East Hampton 



















To one whose own neighborhood has been the theater 
of events that have entered into the nation's annals, the 
history of those events is the most interesting of all his- 
tory. To the intrinsic fascination of stirring incidents 
is added the charm of their having occurred on familiar 
ground. The bay is more than harbor or fishing ground 
to one who knows how it has affected the course of 
events for centuries — determining the location first of 
the Indian camp and then of the white man's village; 
welcoming the Puritan immigrant to a home of freedom, 
and anon floating the hostile man-of-war or plowed by 
the whaleboats of the Revolutionary marauders. The 
road that has been traveled unthinkingly for years is in- 
vested with a new interest if found to have followed an 
Indian trail. The people will look with heightened and 
more intelligent interest upon ancient buildings in their 
midst — already venerated by them, they hardly know 
why — when they read the authentic record of events with 
which these monuments of the past are associated. The 
annals of a region so noted as that of which the follow- 
ing pages treat give it a new and powerful element of 
interest for its inhabitants, and strengthen that miniature 
but admirable patriotism which consists in the love of 
one's own locality. 

It has heretofore been possible for the scholar, with 
leisure and a comprehensive library, to trace out the 
written history of his county by patient research among 
voluminous documents and many volumes, sometimes 
old and scarce; but these sources of information and the 
time to study them are not. at the command of most of 
those who are intelligently interested in local history, 
and there are many unpublished facts to be rescued from 
the failing memories of the oldest residents, who would 
soon have carried their information with them to the 
grave; and others to be obtained from the citizens best 
informed in regard to the various interests and institu- 
tions of the county which should be treated of in giving 
its history. 

This service of reseach and compilation, which very 
few could have undertaken for themselves, the publishers 
of this work have caused to be performed; enlisting in 
the effort gentlemen whose standing in the community, 
whose familiarity with local events, and whose personal 
interest in having their several localities fitly represented, 
afford the best guaranty for the trustworthiness of their 
work. The names of these gentlemen appear in connec- 
tion with the sections of the history contributed by them 
(except that the n-ame of Richard M. Bayles was inad- 

vertently omitted from page 49). They have therein 
acknowledged the aid derived from the authorities most 
serviceable to them. In addition to such acknowledg- 
ments the author of the history of Huntington furnishes 
the following: 

" In the preparation of the statements concerning 
Huntington's first settlers I have freely consulted the 
works of Savage on New England Genealogies, Hotten's 
lists of emigrants from England, Charles B. Moore's 
Southold Indexes and numerous other publications. I 
am also indebted to Henry Lloyd and Horace Rusco for 
special aid in exploring this branch of the subject, and. 
in some instances to the descendants of the settlers 
named in the list. No attempt is made at tracing down 
the relationship between these early settlers and those- 
now living in Huntington of the same name, as space 
would not permit. In most instances however the- 
genealogy and relationship can be traced. Acknowledg- 
ments are due to Hon. George H. Fletcher for aid in 
procuring documents from the office of the secretary of 
state at Albany." 

So much time is necessarily consumed in preparing 
and printing a work of the magnitude of this that the 
parts first done may not in all cases embody the latest 
facts, as, for example, in giving a list of the pastors of a 
church or the incumbents of office. The list of county 
officers and representatives on pages 66 and 67 was 
printed before the present county treasurer, J. Henry 
Perkins, and the present member of Assembly, George 
M. Fletcher, entered upon their duties; and the list of 
school commissioners on page 69 for the same reason 
lacks the names of the present incumbents^George H; 
Cleaves in the first district and Douglass Conklin in 
the second; and some matter was received too late for 
publication in its proper place, for example the follow- 
ing names of citizens of the town of Babylon who have 
held county offices: James B. Cooper, county clerk; 
Stephen J. Wilson, sheriff; John R. Reid, county judge; 
Elbert Carll, county treasurer. Such an omission 
might unavoidably occur at whatever time the volume 
was issued. 

While some unimportant errors may perhaps be found 
amrd the multitude of details entering into the compo- 
sition of a work of this character, the publishers con- 
fidently present this result of many months' labor as a 
true and orderly narrative of all the events in the his- 
tory of the county which were of sufficient interest to 
merit such record. 







*N 1524 John de Verazzano, a Florentine navi- 
gator in the service of Francis the First of 
France, made a voyage to the North American 
coast, and, as is believed from the account 
which he gave, entered the harbor of New 
York. No colonies were planted, and no results 
followed; and the voyage was almost forgotten. 
Though discoveries were made by the French north 
from this point, and colonies planted by the English 
farther to the south, it is not known that New York was 
again visited by Europeans till i6og, when the Dutch 
East India Company sent Ilendrick Hudson, an English- 
man by birth, on a voyage of discovery in a vessel called 
the "Half Moon." He reached the coast of Maine, sailed 
thence to Cape Cod, then southwesterly to the mouth of 
Chesapeake Bay, then, coasting northward, he entered 
Delaware Bay on the 28th of August. From thence he 
proceeded northward, and op the 3d of September, 1609, 
anchored in New York Bay. On the 12th he entered 
the river that bears his name, and proceeded slowly up 
to a point just above the present site of the city of Hud- 
son; thence he sent a boat's crew to explore farther up, 
and they passed above Albany. September 23d he set 
sail down the river, and immediately returned to Europe. 
In 1607 Samuel Champlain, a French navigator, sailed 
up the St. Lawrence, explored its tributaries, and on the 
4th of July in that year discovered the lake which bears 
his name. 

At the time of the discovery of New York by the 
whites the southern and eastern portions were inhabited 
by the Mahican or Mohep:an Indians; while that portion 
west from the Hudson River was occupied by five con- 
federate 'tribes, afterwards named by the English the 

Five Nations, and by the French the Iroquois, and by 
themselves called Hodenosaunee — people of the long 
house. The long house formed by this confederacy ex- 
tended east and west through the State, having at its 
eastern portal the Mohawks, and at its western the Sen- 
e'cas; while between them dwelt the Oneidas, Ononda- 
gas, and Cayugas; and after 1714 a sixth nation, the 
Tuscaroras, southeast from Oneida Lake. Of these 
Indians Parkman says that at the commencement of the 
seventeenth century "in the region now forming the 
State of New York, a power was rising to a ferocious 
vitality, which, but for the presence of Europeans, would 
probably have subjected, absorbed or exterminated every 
other Indian community east of the Mississippi and 
north of the Ohio." 

" The Iroquois was the Indian of Indians. A thorough 
savage, yet a finished and developed savage^ he is, per- 
haps, an example of the highest elevation which man 
can reach without emerging from his primitive condition 
of the hunter. A geographical position commanding on 
the one hand the portal of the ^reat lakes, and on the 
other the sources of the streams flowing both to the 
Atlantic and the Mississippi, the ambitious and ag- 
gressive confederates advantages which they perfectly 
understood, and by which they profited to the utmost. 
Patient and politic as they were ferocious, they were not 
only the conquerors of their own race, but the powerful 
allies and the dreaded foes of the French and English 
colonies, flattered and caressed by both, yet too sagacious 
to give themselves without reserve to either. Their or- 
ganization and their history evince their intrinsic superi- 
ority. Even their traditionary lore, amid its wild pueril- 
ities, shows at times the stamp of an energy and force in 
striking contrast with the flimsy creations of Algonquin 
fancy. That the Iroquois, left under their own institu- 
tions, would ever have developed a civilization of their 
own, I do not believe." 

These institutions were not only characteristic and 
curious, but almost unique. Without sharing the almost 
fanatical admiration for them of Morgan, or echoing 


the praises which Parkman lavisnes on tnem, it may be 
truly said that their wonderful and cohesive confederation 
furnished a model worthy to be copied by many civilized 
nations, while, so long as they were uncontaminated by 
the vices of civilization, they possessed, with all their 
savagery, many noble traits of character, which would 
adorn any people in their public, social, or domestic 

They made themselves the dreaded masters of all 

their neighbors east of the Mississippi, and carried their 

• victorious arms far to the north, the south, and the east. 

Their dominance is thus eloquently pictured in Street's 

"Frontenac": i 

'* The fierce Adirondacs had fled from their wrath. 
The Hurons been swept from their merciless path; 
Around, the Ottawas, like leaves, had been strewn. 
And the lake of the Eries struck silent and lone. 
The Lenape, lords once of valley and bill,- 
Made women, bent low at their conquerors' will. 
By the far Mississippi the Illini shrank 
When the trail of the Tortoise was seen on the bank; 
On the hills of New England the Fequod turned pale 
When the howl of the Wolf swelled at night on the gale; 
And the Cherokee shook in his green, smiling Ixjwers 
When the foot of the Bear stamped his carpet of flowers." 

It will hereafter be seen that the Iroquois acted an im- 
portant part in the early history of the State. 

Space will not permit a description of their league, or 
confederation, a sketch of their tribal relations, and their 
religious, social and domestic customs, or a history of 
their warlike achievements. 

Only an allusion may here be made to the many dim 
and shadowy records of a pre-existing people of whom 
not even a faint tradition remains. These records con- 
sist of stone, terra cotta, or bone weapons, implements 
or ornaments, that are occasionally discovered, and of 
the remains of defensive works found here and there 
through the State. Many similar works have been leveled 
by the plough, and those that remain are slowly 
crumbling and passing to oblivion. Some of them, 
though they would not be regarded as models of military 
engineering at the present day, give evidence of an 
adaptation to the circumstances that probably existed 
when they were built, and of skill in construction, which 
are not discreditable to their builders. 



TO 1765. 

^N 1610 another vessel was sent from Holland 
to trade with the natives and in 161 2 two 
more, soon after followed by others; and a 
small fort and a few rude buildings were 
erected at the southern extremity of Man- 
hattan Island, and the place was named New 
Amsterdam. In 1614 the States General of Hol- 
land granted a charter to the merchants engaged in these 

expeditions, giving exclusive privileges of trade for four 
years. The Hudson River had been ascended by Hen- 
drick Christiansen, and a fort and trading house erected 
near the present site of Albany, which was named Fort 

In 162 1 the Dutch West India Company was chartered, 
and in 1623 settlers were sent thither. In 1626 Peter 
Minuit. as director-general or governor of the province, 
arrived with other settlers, and purchased the island of 
Manhattan from the Indians for trinkets of the value of 
about ^24. In 1629 the company offered grants to 
patroons who should found settlements in the province 
(which had been named New Netherlands) of fifty or 
more adults, and several availed themselves of this offer. 
In 1633 Minuit was recalled and Wouter Van Twiller ap- 
pointed in his place. During his administration the con- 
troversy concerning jurisdiction was commenced between 
the Dutch and the English, who claimed the country on 
the ground of prior discovery by Cabot and the grant of 
James I. covering the territory. 

In 1638 Van Twiller was succeeded in the government 
of the colony by William Kieft. By reason of hostilities 
which occurred with the Indians on Long Island in 
1643-44, for which Kieft was censured, he was recalled, 
and succeeded by Peter Stuyvesant in 1647. The con- 
troversy concerning jurisdiction continued during his 
administration, till, in 1664, Charles II. of England, re- 
gardless of the claims of the Dutch to New Netherlands, 
granted to his brother, the Duke of York and Albany, 
afterwards James II., the whole country from the Con- 
necticut to the Delaware, including the entire Dutch pos- 
sessions. A fleet was sent under Colonel Richard NicoUs 
by the duke to enforce his claim, and on the 3d of Sep- 
tember, 1664, the province was surrendered without 
bloodshed, and the government of the colony passed into 
the hands of the English. 

Colonel Nicolls at once assumed the functions of gov- 
ernor; the name New Amsterdam was changed to New 
York, and Fort Orange to Albany, laws for the govern- 
ment of the province were prescribed, and courts for the 
administration of these laws established. In 1668 Gov- 
ernor Nicolls resigned, and was succeeded by Colonel 
Francis Lovelace. England at about this time became 
involved in a war with Holland, and this government 
sent a squadron to repossess its province in America 
This squadron arrived July 30th, 1673, aid the fort at 
New York was surrendered without resistance by Captain 
John Manning, who was in command. Captain Anthony 
Colve became governor; but his reign was short, for on 
the conclusion of peace between the two powers, Febru- 
ary 9th, 1674, the province reverted to the English. A 
new patent was issued, confirming the first, and Sir Ed- 
mund Andros was commissioned governor. The despotic 
agent of a despotic ruler he was unpopular with the peo- 
ple, and became involved in difficulties with the neigh- 
boring colonies. He was recalled and his successor. 
Thomas Dongan, arrived on the 22nd of August i68?' 
In the autumn of the same year the first colonial assem- 
bly was convened, many needed reforms were instituted. 


and better times than the colonists had ever known ap- 
peared to have dawned. The most important act of this 
Assembly was the adoption of a charter of liberties and 
privileges, or bill of rights. The hopes thus raised were 
soon disappointed. On the accession of James II. to the 
English throne he refused his confirmation of the priv- 
ileges which had been granted while he was Duke of 
York, prohibited the Assembly, forbade the establishment 
of a printing press in the colony, and filled the principal 
offices in the province with Roman Catholics. 

In 1687 a war broke out between the Iroquois and the 
French. The country of the former was invaded by the 
French, under De la Barre and M. de Nonville success- 
ively, and in retaliation the Iroquois, twelve hundred 
strong, fell upon the French on the south side of the 
island of Montreal, " burnt their houses, sacked their 
plantations, and put to the sword all the men, women and 
children without the skirts of the town. A thousand 
French were slain in this invasion, and twenty-six wfere 
carried'into captivity and burnt alive." Shortly after- 
ward, in another attack, the lower part of the town was 
destroyed, and in all this the assailants lost only three. 

In 1688 New York and the Jerseys were annexed to 
the jurisdiction of New England, and Sir Edmund An- 
dres was made governor of all. Governor Dongan was 
removed, and Francis Nicolson succeeded him. The 
government was vested in a governor and council, who 
were appointed by the king without the consent of the 

In 1689 William and Mary ascended the English 
throne. Sir Edmund Andres was seized at Boston, and 
Jacob Leisler seized the fort at New York, under the 
pretence of holding it for the new sovereigns. During 
the two years of Leisler's usurpation the French and In- 
dians made a descent on Schenectady, February 8th, 
1690, and massacred about sixty of the inhabitants. The 
danger by which they were threatened induced. the people, 
— who, though favorably disposed toward William and 
Mary, were opposed to Leisler — to submit to his authority 
.for the time. On the arrival, in March, 1691, of Colonel 
. Sloughter, who had been commissioned governor in 1869, 
Leisler at first refused to surrender the government to 
him. For this he was tried by a special commission, and 
sentenced to death.. The governor, who refused to sign 
his death warrant, was persuaded, while intoxicated, to 
do so, and he was executed before the governor had re- 
covered from his intoxication Governor Sloughter died 
in July, 1691, after a weak administration of only a few 

The colonial Assembly was again established during 
this year, and the oppressive laws which had been im- 
posed on the colony repealed. In the interim between 
the death of Sloughter and the arrival of his successor 
the chief command was committed to Richard Ingoldsby. 
In August, 1692, Benjamin Fletcher arrived with a com- 
mission as governor. He was narrow, violent, avaricious 
and bigoted, and his administration was a continual ex- 
hibition of these qualities. 

In 1693 the French and Indians under Count Frontenac 

invaded the country of the Iroquois, killed some, and 
took three hundred prisoners. In 1696 he made another 
incursion, and ravaged a portion of the coun ry. The 
Indians retaliated by hostile incursions among their 
enemies, but the peace of Ryswick, betv/een France and 
England, terminated these hostilities. 

Governor Fletcher was succeeded in 1698 by Richard, 
Earl of Bellomont, who died in 1701, and John Nanfan, 
the lieutenant-governor, succeeded him till the arrival of 
the next governor, Lord Cornbury, in 1702. The admin- 
istration of this governor was chiefly distinguished for 
religious intolerance; and he received the unenviable 
distinction of being the worst governor under the English 
regime. He was succeeded, December i8th, 1708, by 
Lord Lovelace, who died on the sth of the following 
May. Under Lieutenant-Governor Ingoldsby, who ad- 
ministered the government after his death, an unsuccess- 
ful expedition against Canada was undertaken. Gerardus 
Beekman succeeded him as governor pro tern., till June 
14th, 1710, when the next governor, Robert Hunter, 
arrived. In 171 1 another disastrous expedition against 
Canada v/as made, but in 17 13 the treaty of Utrecht ter- 
minated the war between England and France, and put 
an end to Indian hostilities. In 17 19 Hunter returned 
to England, and Peter Schuyler was governor, ad interim, 
till the arrival of William Burnet in 1720. On the acces- 
sion to the throne of George II. Burnet was transferred 
to the government of Massachusetts, and succeeded, 
April isth, 1728, by John Montgomery, who died July 
ist, 1731. Rip Van Dam, by virtue of seniority in the 
council, was his successor till the arrival of William 
Cosby, the next governor, finished his administration and 
began one rendered memorable for its arbitrary proceed- 
ings and tumult, rather than for striking or important 
events. Cosby died March loth, 1736, and was succeeded 
by George Clark, senior counselor after Van Dam, whom 
Cosby had caused to be suspended. Clark was com- 
missioned lieutenant-governor in the following October. 
An antagonism had been growing during some time be- 
tween the democratic and the aristocratic parties in the 
colonies. Clark at first sought to conciliate both, but in 
the end had the confidence of neither, and his retirement, 
on the arrival of his successor, Admiral George Clinton, 
September 23d, 1743, was but little regretted. The ad- 
ministration of Governor Clinton was characterized by a 
continual conflict* with the people, represented in the 
provincial Assembly. Unable by repeated prorogations 
and dissolutions to coerce them into submission, he re- 
signed after an administration of ten years, and was suc- 
ceeded, October loth, 1763, by Sir Danvers Osborne. 
He was charged with still more stringent instructions 
than his predecessors, and met with still firmer resistance 
from the people. After an administration of a few days 
he committed suicide by hanging, probably because of 
the embarrassment by which he was surrounded, and 
grief for the death of his wife. He was succeeded by 
Lieutenant-Governor James De Lancey till the arrival, in 
September, 1755, of Sir Charles Hardy, who, though nom- 
inally governor, surrendered the duties of the office into 


the hands of De Lancey. Governor Hardy resigned in 
1757 and De Lancey became governor. He died on the 
30th of July, 1760, and Cadwalader Golden, president of 
the council, took charge of the government. He was 
commissioned lieutenant-governor in August, 1761, and 
in October of the same year General Robert Moulton, 
who had been appointed governor, assumed the guber- 
natorial functions; but on the 13th of the following mondi 
he left the administration of affairs in the hands of Golden, 
and went on an expedition against Martinique. Colden's 
administration continued till 1765. 



S early as 1722 a trading post was established 
at Oswego by Governor Burnet, with the view 
of establishing others farther west on the 
lakes, and securing the trade of the western 
Indians. To intercept this, and secure this 
trade for themselves, the French established a 
post and erected a fort at Niagara, with the 
design of extending a chain of military posts to the Ohio 
River, and thus limiting the English trade. 

In March, 1744, war was declared between France and 
England, in which the colonies of New York and New 
England participated. During its continuance the coun- 
try north from Albany was frequently ravaged by parties 
of French and Indians. Saratoga was burned, and nearly 
all the inhabitants either killed or made prisoners, and 
the village of Hoosic taken. 

In 1746 an unsuccessful expedition against Canada was 
undertaken, for which the colony of New York furnished 
sixteen hundred men. Peace was concluded at Aix La 
Chapelle in 1748, and a period of nominal tranquillity 
followed, though the frontier was desolated by 
parties, encouraged by the French. 

In 1755; with the view of checking their encroach- 
ments, four expeditions were sent against them, two of 
which were in the colony of New York. One of them 
that against Niagara, was unsuccessful, but the other, 
against Crown Point, achieved a success, which was not 
however followed up. 

It was not till 1756 that the English ministry aroused 
from its imbecility and formally declared war. In the 
campaign of 1756 the English and colonial forces met 
with no success, but the two forts at Oswego were lost 
with 1,600 prisoners and much war material. The cam- 
paign of 1757 was equally unsuccessful and disastrous. 
Fort William Henry, on Lake George, with 3,000 men, 
fell into the hands of the French under Montcalm. 

On the accession of William Pitt to the head of the 
British ministry in 1758 new energy was infused into 


their measures, and a fresh impulse given to the colonies. 
Success soon turned in favor of the English, and, with 
few exceptions, continued till Canada was subdued. 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara and Quebec fell in 
1758, and Montreal, Detroit, Michilimackinac and all 
other Canadian posts in 1760. A great obstacle to the 
prosperity of New York was removed by the conquesi, of 
Canada, which prevented further hostile incursions of 
French and Indians into its territory. 

In 1763 a controversy arose between the colonies of 
New York and New Hampshire concerning the jurisdic- 
tion over the territory between Lake Champlain and the 
Connecticut river, now comprising the State of Vermont. 
Proclamations and counter proclamations were issued, 
but the matter was finally referred to and settled for the 
time by the crown. 

During many years the government of Great Britain 
had attempted to make encroachments on what the col- 
onists regarded as their rights, but without success. The 
taxation of the people without their consent was sought 
to be accomplished in some insidious manner, and was 
steadfastly and watchfully guarded against by the col- 
onists, through their representatives in the colonial As- 
sembly. In 1764 the notorious act was passed 
and its enforcement in the city of New York attempted. 
It was resisted by the populace, the effigy of Governor 
Golden, who was charged with its execution, was hanged 
and burned in the streets, and finally a quantity of the 
stamped paper was seized and consumed in a bonfire. 

Through the influence of London merchants, whose 
colonial trade suffered by reason of the act, the odious 
law was repealed in 1766, but its repeal was followed by 
a declaration by Parliament of the right " to tax the col- 
onies in all cases whatsoever." Troops were quartered 
in New York city, really for the purpose of enforcing the 
laws that Parliament might enact. Collisions occurred 
between these troops and the people, and the Assembly 
refused appropriations for their support. Parliament 
declared the legislative powers of the Assembly annulled 
till compliance was had with the demands of the govern- 
ment. In June, 1767, a bill was enacted by Parliament 
imposing duties on certain articles imported into the col- 
onies. This was followed by a revival of the non- 
importation agreement that had previously been entered 
into by the colonists, and again the influence of the 
English merchants procured the repeal of all these duties, 
except that on tea, which was retained by reason of a de- 
termination, to assert and maintain the right of taxation. 
Sir Henry Moore succeeded Governor Golden in 1765, 
and his administration continued till his death, in 1769, 
when the government again devolved on Cadwallader 
Golden. Between the soldiers and those colonists who 
were known as the Sons of Liberty animosities continued 
to exist, and finally, on the i8th of January, 1770 five 
years previous to the battle of Lexington, a collision oc- 
curred at Golden Hill, in New York city, in which several 
of the citizens were wounded. 

In October, 1770, Lord Dunmore superseded Golden 
in the government of New York, and in 177 1 hg ^g^ 



transferred to the government of Virginia and succeeded 
in New York by William Tryon, who was rendered in- 
dependent of the people by a royal decree that his salary 
should be paid from the revenue. 

The non-importation agreement was continued so far 
as related to tea, and the East India Company suf- 
fered severely in consequence. Doggedly determined to 
maintain the assumed right of taxation, the British gov- 
ernment abolished the export duty on such tea as was 
shipped to the colonies, thus enabling the company to 
sell it there cheaper than in England, and appointed 
consignees in the colonial ports for its sale. Regardless 
of this appeal to their cupidity, the people made such 
demonstrations of resistance that the consignees in New 
York resigned, and when an attempt was made to land a 
quantityof teaclandestinelyit was thrown overboard by the 
vigilance committee, and the vessel sent out of the harbor. 

It is hardly necessary to say that in the other colonies 
the oppressive acts of the King and Parliament met with 
as firm resistance as in New York. The battle of Lex- 
ington was the signal for a general rush to arms through- 
out the colonies. 

In New York city the arms in the arsenals were seized 
and distributed among the people, and a provisional gov- 
ernment for the city was organized. Ticonderoga was 
seized on the loth of May, 1775, by Connecticut patriots 
under Colonel Ethan Allen, and two days later Crown 
Point, both without resistance, and thus the command of 
Lake Champlain was secured. 

The Continental Congress assembled on the loth of 
May, and on the 22nd of the same month a Provincial 
Congress assembled in New York. 

In August an attack was made by the British ship of war 
" Asia " on a party who were engaged in removing some 
cannon from, the battery in New York, and considerable 
damage was done to the buildings in the vicinity but the 
guns were removed. In the autumn an armament was 
collected by General Schuyler at Ticonderoga and an ex- 
pedition went against Canada. The forts at Chambly, 
St. Johns and Montreal were taken, and Quebec was as- 
saulted, but the colonial force was here repulsed and 
driven out of Canada. 



ARLY In 1776 General Lee, with a force of 
twelve hundred men, occupied the city of 
New York. General Schuyler with a small 
force had disarmed the tories of the Mohawk 
valley and a like service had been rendered on 
Long Island by the New Jersey militia. About the 
first of July General Howe who had previously 
evacuated Boston and sailed for Halifax, appeared off 

Sandy Hook with his army, where he was soon afterward 
joined by his brother, Admiral Howe, with a force of 
British regulars and Hessians, and Clinton and Parker, 
on their return from an unsuccessful attack on Charles- 
ton, making an aggregate force of about 30,000 men. 

The Provincial Congress of New York adjourned to 
White Plains, where it convened on the 9th of July, and 
ratified the Declaration of Independence by the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

On the 22nd of August a British force landed on Long 
Island, and on the 27th a battle was fought, resulting in 
the defeat of the Americans, who on the night of the 
29th, favored by a thick fog, retreated to New York. 
The plan had been formed to capture New York, ascend 
the Hudson, effect a junction with a force from Canada 
under General Carlton, and thus cut off communication 
between the patriots of New England and those of the 
middle and southern colonies; but the movements of 
Washington and the failure of Carlton frustrated the 

On the isth of September General Howe took posses- 
sion of New York, and the Americans retreated to Har- 
lem Heights. General Howe sought to gain their rear, 
but Washington's movements frustrated his designs. 
' Opposed to General Carlton at the north was General 
Gates, who abandoned Crown Point and concentrated 
his forces at Ticonderoga. A small squadron was 
formed and placed on Lake Champlain under command 
of Arnold in August. An action took place in October 
between this squadron and the fleet which Carlton had 
prepared at St. Johns, in which the Americans were de- 
feated and fell back on Ticonderoga. Not deeming it 
prudent to attack them there General Carlton withdrew 
to Canada. 

On the 2ist of April 1777 a State constitution was 
adopted, and under it George Clinton was elected gov- 
ernor, and he assumed the duties of the office on the 
31st of the following July. 

The principal object of the British in the campaign of 
1777 was to carry out the cherished design of separating 
the eastern from the southern colonies by controlling the 
Hudson River and Lake Champlaip. Lieutenant-General 
Burgoyne, who had superseded General Carlton, was to 
force his way from Canada, and meet Sir Henry Clinton 
at Albany, while Colonel St. Leger was to ascend the 
St. Lawrence, and, with a force of loyalists and Indians, 
sweep through the Mohawk valley from Oswego and 
Rome, and join them at Albany. 

In June Burgoyne moved on Ticonderoga, which the 
American commander. General St. Clair, evacuated. As 
the American army retreated some fighting took place, 
without decisive results, till at Bennington the Amer- 
icans, under General Stark, achieved a victory over' a 
detachment of the enemy under Colonel Baum, who was 

Colonel St. Leger advanced and invested Fort Schuy- 
ler, otherwise called Fort Stanwix, now Rome. The 
battle of Oriskany was fought, soon after which St. Leger 
abandoned his undertaking and returned to Canada. 



General Burgoyne advanced to Saratoga, where he was 
surrounded, and on the 1 7th of October was compelled 
to surrender. 

While operations were in progress in the vicinity of 
Saratoga Sir Henry Clinton sought to make a diversion 
in favor of Burgoyne. He proceeded up the Hudson, 
captured Forts Montgomery and Clinton, devastated the 
settlements along the banks of the river, burnt Kingston, 
and, on learning of the surrender of Burgoyne, returned 
to New York. 

In the campaigns of 1778 and 1779 no very important 
operations were carried on in New York. The Indians 
of the Six Nations (except the Oneidas and a few others) 
were induced to carry on against the Americans their 
savage and cruel warfare, and devastation, slaughter and 
massacres were the result. To arrest these depredations 
General Sullivan, in the summer of 1779, with an army 
of 3,000 men, ascended the Susquehanna to Tioga Point, 
where he was joined by General Clinton with a thousand 
men. With these forces they penetrated the country of 
the savages, destroyed their towns, and laid waste their 
cornfields and orchards. Though not subdued by this 
punishment, they were so crippled that their inroads were 
less frequent and destructive afterward. 

During the years 1780 and 1781 the Mohawk valley 
was the scene of devastation by the savages of the Six 
Nations, particularly the Mohawks, under their celebrated 
chief Brant; but aside from these New York was not the 
scene of important hostile operations. The year 1780 
was made memorable by the treason of Arnold. This 
gallant officer had, for some irregularities in Philadelphia 
in 1778, been court-martialed and sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief. He apparently ac- 
quiesced in the sentence, but his pride was deeply 
wounded, and he thirsted after revenge. He solicited 
and obtained command of West Point, and entered into 
negotiations with Sir Henry Clinton for the delivery of 
that fortress into the hands of the British. In the course 
of these negotiations Major Andre, of the British army, 
met General Arnold on the banks of the Hudson. In 
attempting to return he was captured, about thirty miles 
from New York, by three militiamen named Paulding, 
Williams and Van Wert, who refused his offered bribes 
and delivered him to their commander. He was tried, 
condemned and executed as a spy. 

The Revolutionary war virtually closed with the sur- 
render of Cornwallis and his^army at Yorktown on the 
19th of October, 1781. A treaty of peace was entered 
into on the 3d of September, 1783, and on the zsth of 
November in the same year the Btitish troops evacuated 
on New York. 

After the United States had achieved their independ- 
ence it was early perceived that the confederation, which 
had been established for a particular purpose, lacked 
that cohesive force which was requisite for an effectual 
national government. Measures were accordmgly insti- 
tuted, first for a revision of the Articles of Confederation, 
but finally the formation of a national constitution was 
determined on; and such constitution was formed by the 

convention in Philadelphia in 1787. After its adoption 
by the requisite number of States it was ratified in con- 
vention by the State of New York, by a close vote, on 
the 26th of July, 1788, but with the recommendation of 
several amendments, which, however, were not adopted. 

The difficulties arising out of the conflicting claims of 
New York and New Hampshire to the territory now com- 
prising Vermont, which had been held in partial abey- 
ance during the Revolutionary struggle, were finally set- 
tled by the admission of the disputed territory into the 
Union as a State, in 1790, under the name of Vermont. 

By reason of indefiniteness and confusion in the original 
grants Massachusetts claimed a portion of the territory 
of New York. This claim was settled by the cession .to 
Massachusetts of all rights, except that of political sov- 
ereignty, over about one-fourth of the State. The largest 
tract of these lands, embracing what has been known as 
the Genesee country, was sold by Massachusetts for the 
sum of one million dollars. 



T the commencement of the present century 
difficulties arose between this country and 
Great Britain concerning the rights of neutrals 
on the seas, and the aggressions of the British 
became a subject of bitter animosity. In ad- 
dition to other encroachments, the English gov- 
ernment claimed the right to search American ves- 
sels and impress into their service such of their crews as 
they chose to regard as British subjects. Outrages were 
committed in the enforcement of this pretended right, and 
for the suppression of the practice, and the vindication 
of the national honor, war became necessary; and it was 
declared on the 19th of June, 181 2. To this measure 
there was a strong opposition, both in New England and 
New York, and this opposition embarrassed the govern- 
ment to some extent in the prosecution of the war. An 
invasion of Canada was determined on, and for that pur- 
pose forces were collected in the vicinity of Plattsburg, 
on Lake Champlain, under General Dearborn, and at 
Lewiston, on the Niagara River, under General Van 
Rensselaer. A naval force . was fitted up on the lakes, 
and Commodore Chauncey was placed in command of it. 
Unsuccessful attacks were made by the British fleet on 
Sackett's Harbor and Ogdensburg, while, on the other 
hand, the British vessel " Caledonia " was captured at 
the foot of Lake Erie An attack was made on the 
heights at Queenston, on the Canadian bank of the 
Niagara, and though at first the Americans were success- 
ful they were finally compelled to surrender. Nothing 
beyond slight skirmishing occurred in this quarter during 
the remainder of the year. 



Early in the spring of 1813 a successful expedition to 
Canada was made from Ogdensburg, and in retaliation 
an attack was made on that place, some stores taken, sev- 
eral vessels destroyed and the property of citizens injured. 
In April a successful expedition was sent by General 
Dearborn against York, now Toronto. In May the Brit- 
ish were driven from Fort George, on the Niagara River, 
near Lake Ontario, and the enemy's post on that frontier 
evacuated. Sackett's Harbor was attacked by the British, 
who were repulsed, and an unsuccessful attack was also 
made by them on the village of Black Rock. 

The brilliant victory of Commodore Perry, on Lake 
Erie, was achieved on the loth of September in this year, 
but the operations on Lake Ontario were less decisive. 
Late in the autumn an unsuccessful attempt was made to 
invade Canada under General Wilkinson. The Ameri- 
can generals Izard and Hampton were repulsed near the 
border of Franklin county. In December the British 
took Fort Niagara, and massacred a large part of the gar- 
rison and even hospital patients. Lewiston was burned, 
and the villages of Youngstov/n, Manchester, Schlosser 
and the Indian village of Tuscarora were devastated by 
the enemy. The village of Black Rock and Buffalo were 
also burned, and thus the desolation of the Niagara fron- 
tier was completed. 

Early in 1814 an attempt was made by the British to 
capture some military stores at Oswego Falls, but without 
success. On the 3d of July, 1814, Fort Erie was taken 
by the Americans, and on the 25th a battle was fought 
at Lundy's Lane. In August Fort Erie was besieged by 
the British, who were comoelled to retire about the mid- 
dle of September. 

The plan of a dismemberment of the Union, by pos- 
sessing Lake Champlain and the Hudson River from the 
north, and capturing New York, was again formed, and 
it was hoped that discontent and opposition to the war 
in New England, and possibly in New York, might lead 
to the conclusion of a separate peace with these States. 
The people, however, were fully aroused, and the de-- 
fenses of New York were strengthened and strongly gar- 
risoned. An invasion was undertaken from Canada, and 
a descent was made on Plattsburg by an army of 14,000 
men under Sir George Prevost, but after a severe engage- 
ment on the nth of September this army was compelled 
to retire with great loss. The British fleet, under Com- 
modore Downie, was on the same day captured on Lake 
Champlain by Commodore Macdonough. No further 
invasion of this frontier took place. On the 24th of De- 
cember a treaty of peace was concluded at Ghent. 

No other interruption of the peaceful relations between 
this country and England has occurred. Some infrac- 
tions of the neutrality laws have been attempted by peo- 
ple on the Canadian frontier, the chief of which took 
place during the Canadian rebellion, commonly known 
as the "Patriot war," in 1837-38. 

What were known as the anti-rent disturbances com- 
menced as fearly as 1839, and were not terminated till 
1846. Laws were enacted to modify the process of col- 
lecting rents and to extend the time for " re-entry " on 

lands where rents were in arrears. Participators in out- 
rages were pardoned, and quiet was finally restored. 

The annexation of Texas to the United States led to 
hostilities between Mexico and this nation, and on the 
nth of May, 1846, Congress declared that, by the acts 
of the Mexicans, war existed between the two nations. 
The Americans were victorious in all important engage- 
ments with the Mexican army, and the part taken by the 
troops from the State of New York was conspicuous and 
highly creditable to their valor. 

From time to time the Legislature enacted laws con- 
cerning slavery, down to the year i8ig. A law passed 
in 1799 provided for the gradual extinction of slavery in 
the State. "In 1817 a further act was passed, decreeing 
that there should be no slavery in the State after the 4th 
of July, 1827. Ten thousand slaves were set free by this 

The recognition of slavery in the territories of the 
United States was earnestly resisted during many years, 
and the controversy finally resulted in a gigantic civil 
war. On the election of Abraham Lincoln to the pres- 
idency, in i860, on the platform of avowed hostility to 
the extension of slavery, and the failure to effect a com- 
promise by which the institution should be recognized or 
tolerated in any of the territories, the southern States de- 
termined to secede from the Union and establish a sep- 
arate government. The attack by the Confederates, as 
these States styled themselves, on Fort Sumter was the 
first overt act of the Rebellion, and on its occurrence, in 
April, 1861, was the commencement of active hostilities. 
Before the close of that year the State of New York had 
placed in the field one hundred and fifteen regiments. 

In July, 1863, during the execution of a draft ordered 
by Congress, an alarming riot occurred in the city of 
New York. The police were unable to check its progress, 
and during several days the city was convulsed with law- 
lessness, rapine and murder. The outbreak was finally 
quelled by military force, but not until a large amount of 
■property had been destroyed and many lives sacrificed. 
The war was prolonged till the spring of 1865, when it 
terminated with the complete success of the Union arms, 
and peace has since prevailed. 



N 1 791 the Legislature ordered an exploration 
and survey to ascertain the most eligible 
method of removing obstructions from the 
Mohawk and Hudson rivers, with a view to 
improve their navigation by the construction 
of canals. The following year two companies 
were incorporated, styled the Northern and West- 
ern Inland Lock Navigation Companies, for the purpose 



of facilitating navigation by connecting Lake Ontario 
with the Mohawk and Lake Champlain with the Hudson 
by canals. 

In 1810 a provision was made by the Legislature " for 
exploring the route of an inland navigation from Hudson's 
River to Lake Ontario and Lake Erie." It was at first 
proposed to solicit aid from the general government to 
carry out this work, but in 181 2 a commission reported 
to the Legislature that sound policy demanded that this 
should be done by the State. War with Great Britain 
interrupted the project. 

On the termination of the war the policy was revived; 
and notwithstanding the formidable character of the un- 
dertaking, and the difficulties in its way, through the 
untiring energy and perseverance of De Witt Clinton an 
act prepared by him was passed in April, 181 7, author- 
izing the construction of the work. It was commenced 
on the 4th of July in that year, and on the 26th of Oc- 
tober, 1825, the first flotilla of boats left Buffalo for New 
York. The departure of this flotilla was communicated 
to New York in one hour and twenty minutes, by the dis- 
charge of cannon stationed within hearing of each other. 
This was then regarded as a rapid transmission of intelli- 

The first railroad in the State, that between Albany and 
Schenectady, was chartered in 1826 and completed in 
1 83 1. Other roads through the central portion of the 
State were soon constructed, and railroad connection be- 
tween the great lakes and Hudson River established. In 
1851 these different roads were consolidated into the 
present immense New York Central Railroad, and subse- 
quently connection was established, through the Hudson 
River Railroad, with the city of New York. In 1833 the 
New York and Erie Railway was commenced, but it was 
not completed till 1852. The enlargement of the Erie 
Canal to its present capacity was commenced in 1835 ^"d 
completed in 1862. These constitute the main avenues 
of travel and transportation through the State between 
the eastern and western extremities, but connecting routes 
in every direction have come into existence, and the fa- 
cilities for transportation and travel in this State are not 
excelled by those of any other. It is hardly necessary 
to call attention to the telegraph lines that ramify through 
all parts of the State. 

It has already been stated that a State constitution was 
adopted in 1777. Several amendments to this constitu- 
sion were adopted in a convention held for that purpose 
in 1801. In 1821 it was revised by a convention chosen 
for that purpose, and the new constitution was adopted 
early in 1822, at a popular election held for that purpose, 
by a majority jof more than 33,000 in a total vote of 

On the ist of June, 1846, another constitutional con- 
vention met at Albany, and it continued in session mort 
than four months. The amendments to the constitution 
adopted by that body were ratified by the people in the 
following November by a majority of more than 20,000 

In 1867 another constitutional convention assembled. 

on the 4th of June, and continued its session, except 
during an adjournment of two months, several weeks into 
1868. The amended constitution framed by this con- 
vention was submitted to the people in November, 1869, 
and resulted in its rejection, except the article making 
changes in the judiciary, by a majority of more than 
66,000. The judiciary article was accepted by a small 

In 1872 a commission of thirty-two persons was ap- 
pointed to propose to the Legislature amendments to the 
constitution. In 1873 several important amendments 
were recommended, and ratified at the election in 1874. 
It is a notable fact that, as changes have been made in 
the constitution of the State, the right of the elective 
franchise has been extended; till now complete manhood 
suffrage is established. 

In 1787 a law was enacted incorporating the Regents 
of the University of New York, and in their report for 
1793 they called attention to the importance of instituting 
a common school system. At different times from 1787 
to 1795 Governor Clinton called the attention of the 
Legislature to the same subject, and in that year an act 
was passed appropriating $50,000 annually for five years 
for the encouragement of schools. In 1805, after atten- 
tion had repeatedly been called to the subject by the dif- 
ferent governors, the Legislature passed an act laying the 
foundation of the present common school fund. In 181 2 
the first common school system was adopted, comprising 
substantially the features of the system as it existed up to 
1840. Changes in this system have from time to time 
been made, till now the free school system of this State is 
believed to be, with scarcely an exception, the most 
nearly perfect of all in existence. 

The State Agricultural Society, which has been pro- 
ductive of such great benefit, was organized at a conven- 
tion in Albany in 1832. It was reorganized in 1841, and 
measures were adopted for raising funds and holding 
annual fairs. 

In 1836 the Legislature ordered a scientific survey of 
the State for the purpose of devjloping a knowledge of 
its geology, mineralogy and natural history. The pub- 
lished reports of this survey are of very great value. 

The following list of the governors, lieutenant-govern- 
ors and presidents of the council who have administered 
the government of the colony and State of New York 
from 1629 to the present time will be found convenient 
for reference. 

Under the Dutch regime: Wouter Van Twiller, 1629; 
William Kieft, 1638; Peter Stuyvesant, 1647. 

English governors, etc.: Richard Nicolls, 1664; Francis 
Lovelace, 1667; Anthony Colve, on the recapture of the 
province by the Dutch, 1673. After the surrender to the 
English: Sir Edmund Andros, 1674; Anthony Brockholls, 
1681; Thomas Dongan, 1683; Francis Nicholson, 1688; 
Jacob Leisler, 16S9; Henry Sloughter, 1691; Richard 
Ingoldiby, 1691; Benjamin Fletcher, 1692; Richard, 
Earl of Bellomont, 1698; John Nanfan, 1699; Lord 
Cornbury,i7o2; Lord Lovelace, 1708; Richard Ingoldsby, 
1709; Gerardus Beekraan, 1710; Robert Hunter, 1710: 



Peter Schuyler, 1719; William Burnet, 1720; John 
Montgomery, 1728; Rip Van Dam, 1731; William Cosby, 
1732; George Clark, 1736; George Clinton. 1743; Da"" 
vers Osborne, 1753; James De I.ancey, .1753; Sir Charles 
Hardy, 1755; James De Lancey, 1757; Cadwallader 
Colden, 1760; Robert Monkton, 1762; Cadwallader 
Golden, 1763; Henry Moore, 1765; John, Earl of Dun- 
more, 1770; William Tryon, 1771. 

Governors of the State: George Clinton, 1777; John 
Jay, 1795; - George Clinton, i8oi-; Morgan Lewis, 1804; 
Daniel D. Tompkins, 1807; De Witt Clinton, 1817; 
Joseph C. Yates, 1822; De Witt Clinton, 1824; Martin 
Van Buren, 1828; Enos T. Throop, 1830; William L. 
Marcy, 1832; William H. Seward, 1838; William C. Bouck, 
1842; Silas Wright, 1844; John Young, 1846; Hamilton 

Fish, 1848; Washington Hunt, 1850; Horatio Seymour, 
1852; Myron H.Clark, 1854; John A.King,i856; Edwin D. 
Morgan, 1858; Horatio Seymour, 1862; Reuben E. Fenton, 
1864; John T. Hoffman, 1868; John A. Dix, 1872; Samuel 
J.Tilden,i874; Lucius Robinson, 1876; A. B. Cornell, 1880. 

The population of the colony and State of New York 
was in 1698,18,067; 1703,20,665; 1723,40,564; 1731, 
50,824; 1737,60,437; 1746,61,589; 1749,73-348; 1756, 
96,790; 1771, 163,337; 1790, 340,120; 1800, 586,756; 
i8io, 959,049; 1820, 1,372,812; 1830, 1,918,608; 1840, 
2,428,921; 1850, 3,097,394; i860, 3,880,735; 1870, 
4-382,759; 1880, 5,083,173. 

Of the total population there were in 1790, 21,324 
slaves; in 1800, 33,343; i8ro, 15,017; 1820, 10,088; 1830, 
75; 1840,-4. 





J HE time has long since gone by when a belief 
in the sudden creation of the earth in its 
present form was generally prevalent. Once 
it was considered not only heterodox but 
almost blasphemous for a man to avow his 
conviction that he saw on the surface of the earth 
indications of changes that occurred at a period 
previous to about six thousand years since. That con- 
tinents, or even islands, should rise from the sea, become 
submerged, and emersje again in the lapse o£ immense 
time, was not deemed possible. Within the limits of 
historic time no record was given of more than slight 
changes, and men had not learned to read the record 
which is written in the strata beneath the surface, and 
which science has made legible on the edges of those 
strata where they are visible. The man w.ho ventured 
to assert that Long Island was once submerged, and that 
its emergence was of comparatively recent date, would 
have been regarded by some as impious and by others as 
mad. That' period of ignorance has passed, and people 
have come to recognivse the fact that, as far as the 
records of the past can be deciphered, the earth has been 
steadily changing, in the midst of its changing environ- 
ments, and that, as far as science is able to peer into the 
future, changes will continue to succeed each other. 

An inspection of the map of Long Island shows that 
it, as well as the coast south from it, had its birth from 
the sea, in what, geologically speaking, may be termed 
modern times; and there are evidences of vertical oscilla- 
tions of the surface here which may have caused a suc- 
cession of partial or complete submergences and emerg- 

The island extends from east to west about one hun- 
dred and twenty miles, and has an average width of 
about fifteen miles. Along the northern coast an averaee 
elevation of about one hundred feet is found, though 
there are places where the hills are much higher. On 
this coast numerous " necks " of land and inlets or es- 
tuaries of the sound are seen; and the water along this 
shore is deeper than on the southern coast. Between the 
heights along the sound shore and the irregular range of 
hills which extend lengthwise through the island near the 
middle, for most of its length, and which are termed the 
backbone, the surface is in many places much broken. 
Harbor Hill, in North Hempstead, one of the highest 
points on the island, was found by actual measurement to 
be three hundred and eighty-four feet in height. 

The northern coast of the island is indented by eight 
principal bays, or fiords, which extend inland from three 
to six miles and have a width of from half a mile to a 
mile and a half. In some places in these the water has 
a depth of from thirty to fifty feet, and the average depth 
is about twenty feet. South from this central range the 
surface slopes to the coast gradually, and so evenly as to 
have the appearance of a level plain. 

Along the south shore are numerous shallow bays and 
inlets, especially toward the western extremity of the 
island. Along this shore also is a narrow sand beach, which 
incloses a bay, or rather a succession of narrow bays, for 
most of the length of the coast. This beach is crossed 
at different points by inlets, formerly called "guts'" 
(Dutch " gat," or gate), which connect these bays with 
the ocean, and divide the beach into a succession of long 
narrow beaches; as narrow necks of land connect these 
beaches with the mainland and divide the long narrow 
bay into a succession of bays, some of which do not 
communicate with the ocean, Outside these long narrow 
beaches is a shifting sand bar, and inside th»; bays are 
extensive salt marshes, or meadows. About forty miles 
.of the eastern end of the island is divided by a succession 
of bays into two peninsulas, each having an average 



width of about five miles and the southern extending 
some twenty miles further east than the northern, though 
the last seems to be continued to about the same distance 
by a succession of islands. 

When the geological survey of the State was made — 
nearly forty years since — it was believed that the forma- 
tion of the island was due to the action of opposite and 
resultant currents, and probably its foundation on the 
primary rock which underlies it was thus laid, in a pre- 
glacial period. The Gulf Stream from the south, as it is 
believed to have flowed; the Arctic current from the 
north, and the actio. 1 of the tides in the Atlantic, all 
combined to bring hither and deposit the materials of 
which this foundation consists. 

It is believed by geologists that the strata of rocks 
here were formerly from three hundred to one thousand 
feet lower than they now are. Then the southeastern 
shore of the United States was farther inland, and the 
Gulf Stream swept from the south parallel with and 
nearer to the base of the primary Atlantic chain of moun- 
tains than at present. Along the course of this stream, 
from Georgia to Maryland, extended a. broad belt of 
primary rocks. These rocks, which were various in their 
character, were remarkably prone to disintegration, and 
the results of their wearing down were extremely various. 

These debrita were borne northward beneath the sur- 
face by the equatorial current, and deposited, as in its 
course northward this current became less rapid; hence 
the deposits of various kinds that are found in Virginia, 
Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey. At this period 
the basin of the St. Lawrence and Hudson valleys was 
occupied by an inland sea, through which came the Arctic 
current, bringing its freight of debrita to be deposited 
when circumstances favored its subsidence. The effect 
of the oblique meeting of those currents in the region of 
Long Island, when the force of both was partially spent, 
was to arrest their northward and southward flow, and to 
produce a gentle resultant current toward the east, with 
eddies that were influenced by the form of the sea bot- 
tom where the currents met, by storms that swept over 
the surface here, and by other storms at the north or 
south, which temporarily deflected, retarded or ac- 
celerated these currents. Thus, it was believed, were the 
materials of the strata which underlie Long Island brought 
hither; and thus in the resultant comparatively still water 
and eddies were they deposited; hence the lignite and 
the bones of marine and terrestrial animals that are found 
at great depths when wells are sunk and excavations 

After the process of piling the foundation of the island 
on the sea bottom had gone on, in the way indicated, 
during indefinite time, the upheaval took place. Previous 
to the adoption of the glacial theory it was believed that 
icebergs floated hither, bringing the boulders, etc., that 
they had torn from their beds in the north, and dropping 
them, one by one, as they slowly melted while circulat- 
ing in the eddies here; and that at a later period they 
became stranded or ran aground in shallow water, and 
there melted, leaving their entire cargoes to constitute 

the hills on the island as the surface was further up- 
heaved. The researches of modern geologists seem to 
show that subsequent to the period spoken of, but in 
pre-glacial times, an upheaval occurred which carried 
the surface here from three hundred to four hundred feet 
higher than it now is, and that it remained thus elevated 
during the glacial period. 

It is believed that during this time of elevation the 
Hudson River had its mouth eighty miles farther to the 
southeast than at present, and that its course and the 
former littoral plain through which it ran, as well as the 
old coast lines, are traceable by soundings. During the 
time of elevation the ice period occurred, and it is thought 
that the terminal moraine of the glacier extended length- 
wise through the island and far to the east along the 
New England coast, as well as west across New Jersey; 
and that the drift material of the island was brought by 
this agency from the regions to the north and west, where 
it existed in place. Thus were brought the deposits 
of clay, sand and gravel which are found especially on 
the north half of the island, and which often vary so 
greatly in their character, though separated only by short 
distances. Thus, too, were brought hither the boulders, 
some of which are of immense size. One at Manhasset 
contains upward of 20,000 cubic feet, and one on Strong's 
Neck, in Suffolk county, 14,000 cubic feet. 

The primary rock which underlies the island comes to 
the surface at Hell Gate and Hallett's Cove, on its north- 
western extremity, and here the drift deposit lies di- 
rectly on this rock. Elsewhere it is superposed on older 

It is certain that since the glacial period a subsidence 
of the surface has taken place, and it is not considered 
impossible that several vertical oscillations have occurred. 
Mr. Lewis says: "If a depression of two hundred feet 
should take place all of Long Island that would remain 
above the water \vould be a broken range of hills. With 
an elevation of two hundred feet Long Island Sound 
would be converted to dry land. The Connecticut and 
Hudson Rivers would roll along deeper channels, and 
discharge their waters many miles seaward; while Brook- 
lyn and New York would be "inland cities." It is believ- 
ed, as before stated, that the vertical oscillations in past 
time have carried the surface of the land here more than 
two hundred feet higher as well as lower than its present 
elevation. At present the surface is subsiding, though 
at the rate of only a few inches in a century. Evidences 
of this subsidence are found in abundance where excava- 
tions or borings are made, and in some instances where 
the bottom of the sea at some distance from the coast is 
explored. The stumps of submerged or buried forests 
are thus found, as well as other products of the former 
surface. Evidences of a former subsidence, much greater 
than at present, are found in the occurrence of marine 
deposits at points in the higher parts of the island. It 
is believed that every rood of the space from the central 
range of hills " has been the shore line of first an invad- 
ing, afterward of a receding ocean, and the scene of those 
great coast changes which waves produce." These 


changes, which occur from time to time now as the re- 
sults of storm and ocean currents, it is hardly necessary 
to detail. As the swell rolls obliquely from the eastward 
along the coast the beach is modified by the deposit or 
the washing away of the sand; inlets to the bays are 
choked up and obliterated, and others break out at other 
points; sand spits and beaches form, and southerly winds 
drift the sands on the island, to be again washed away 
by the waves. 

Along the northern coast changes have taken place, 
and they are still going on, by shore erosion and the 
transportation of the detritus by storms and tidal currents. 
Portions of the main island have been thus cut off and 
have become islands, and the material washed away has 
been deposited, sometimes at considerable distance, to 
form shoals, beaches, or necks connecting what had thus 
been made islands with the shore again. Beaches have 
thus been formed and obliterated, inlets and channels 
have been excavated and again filled up, islands have 
been cut off and joined again to- the island, or washed 
away, and changes, many of which are now difficult to 
trace and doubtless others that cannot now be traced, 
have in the lapse of time occurred. Some of the more re- 
cent of these may, however, be easily discerned, and peo- 
ple whose lives have been spent here have been able to 
note many that have gradually occurred, or to remember 
others that were effected by violent storms. 

The species of animals which were found on Long Isl- 
and when it was first discovered did not differ from 
those on the main land. Of course its insular condition 
prevented the annual or occasional migrations which oc- 
curred elsewhere by reason of climatic changes or other 
causes, and the complete extinction here of many of 
those species -took place earlier by reason of that condi- 
tion. With the long stretch of sea coast which the island 
has, of course it was the habitat of all those species of 
aquatic birds which are found in this latitude. The isl- 
and was annually visited too by those migratory land 
birds that frequent regions in this latitude, and at the 
present time it is the annual resort of many species that 
attract hither sportsmen during each season. The mu- 
seum of the Long Island Historical Society has specimens 
of many of these species of animals and birds, and in this 
department it is proposed to make it quite complete. 

By reason of the prevailing character of the soil, the 
botany of the island does not embrace as wide a range of 
species as are sometimes found on equal areas in the same 
latitude. Of the trees formerly covering large portions of 
the island the oak, pine and chesnut were the most abund- 
ant and valuable ; and it is said that the quality of this 
timber was far superior to that of the same species found 
elsewhere. Among the most valuable species of timber 
growing on the island at present the locust occupies a 
prominent position. It is thought that Captain John 
Sands, who came to Sands Point about 1695, introduced 
this tree, from Virginia, about the year 1700. Since that 
time it has spread extensively here. The quality of this 
timber grown here is greatly superior to that of the same 
species in the region whence it was brought. A few gi- 

gantic specimens of this tree are standing on the lawn at 
the residences of Mr. Bogart, of Roslyn, and of the late 
Elwood Valentine, at Glen Cove. Says Lewis : "It is 
believed that those on Mr. Bogart's ground, several now 
or recently at Sands Point, and two in the dooryard of 
the old Thome mansion at Little Neck, now occupied by 
Eugene Thorpe, Esq., are of the first imported and plant- 
ed on Long Island". About eighty species of forest 
trees — indigenous and those that have become acclimat- 
ed — are growing without cultivation on the island. Speci- 
mens of many species of these are now in the Historical 
Society's museum, in which a competent and energetic 
member of the society proposes to place a complete set 
of specimens of the flora and fauna of the island. 



EFORE the settlement by the Dutch were the 
dark ages of island history. The wampum 
or wampum belts give no record of the red 
men's origin, migrations, wars or loves. Im- 
mense heaps of the broken shells of the quahog 
or periwinkle are their only monuments. 

Every locality where one or more families 
were located had a name which gave designation to a 
tribe. The authorities on this subject have recognized 
thirteen tribes, as follows: 

The Canarsie tribe claimed the whole of Kings 
county and a part of the town of Jamaica. They includ- 
ed the Marechawicks at Brooklyn, the Nyacks at New 
Utrecht, and the Jamecos at Jamaica. Their principal 
settlement was at the place called Canarsie, which is still 
a famous place for fishing and fowling, and was doubt- 
less the residence of the sachem and a great portion of 
the tribe. In 1643 the name of the sachem was Penha- 
witz. In 1670 the deed of that part of the city of Brook- 
lyn constituting Bedford was signed by Peter, Elmohar, 
Job, Makagiquas, and Shamese, sachems. In 1656 the 
deed of Newtown was signed lay Rowcroesteo and Pom- 
waukon, sachems supposed to have been of Canarsie. 
The confirmatory deed of Gravesend in 1650 was signed 
by Johosutum, Airemakamus, Aeramarka and Assanched, 
sachems who called the Indian name of the place Massa- 

The RocKAWAY tribe was scattered over the southern 
part of the town of Hempstead, which with a part of 
Jamaica and the whole of Newtown constituted their 
claim. The greater part of the tribe was at Near Rock- 
away. Part lived at the head of Maspeth Creek, in 
Newtown, arid deeds for land there were executed by the 
Rockaway sachem. This tribe had also a settlement of 
several hundred acres on Hog Island, in Rockaway Bay. 



The first Rockaway sachem known to the Dutch was 
Chegonoe. Nowedinah was sachem in 1648, Eskmoppas 
in 1670, Paman in 1685, and Quaquasho or the Hunter 
in 1 69 1. 

The MoNTAUK tribe had jurisdiction over all the re- 
maining lands to Montauk, probably including Gardiner's 
Island; and there seems to be evidence that the sachem 
of this tribe was conceded the title and functions of 
grand sachem of Paumanake, or Long Island; 

The Merrick, Meroke, or Merikoke tribe claimed all 
the territory south of the middle of the island from Near 
Rockaway to the west line of Oyster Bay, and was in all 
probability at some former period a part of the Marsa- 
pequa or Marsapeague tribe. A part of the land in the 
town of Hempstead was bought from this tribe. They 
had a large settlement on Hicks's Neck, and occupied 
the other necks between that and their principal site, 
where the village of Merrick now stands. Their sachem 
in 1647 was Wantagh. 

The Marsapequa or Marsapeague tribe had its prin- 
cipal settlement at Fort Neck, in South Oyster Bay, and 
thence extended eastward to the bounds of Islip and 
north to the middle of the island. Here were two Indian 
forts, the larger of which was stormed by Captain John 
Underbill, in the service of the Dutch, in 1653, with 
great slaughter of the Indians. The remains of the fort 
have been encroached upon and covered by the waters 
of the Great South Bay. Tackapousha was sachem of 
this tribe in 1656; also chief sachem of the western chief- 
taincies of the island, after the division between the Dutch 
and the English. 

The Matinecock tribe claimed jurisdiction of the 
lands east of Newtown, as far as the west line of Smith- 
town and probably to the Nissaquag River. This was a 
numerous tribe, and had large settlements at Flushing, 
Glen Cove, Cold Spring, Huntington and Cow Harbor 
A portion of the tribe took part in the war of 1643, under 
Gunwarrowe; but their sachem at that time remained 
friendly to the Dutch, and through his diplomacy suc- 
ceeded in establishing peace. Whiteneymen (one-eyed) 
was sachem in 1643, and Assiapam in 1653. 

The Nesaquake or Missaquogue. tribe possessed the 
country from the river named after them to Stony Brook 
and from the sound to the middle of the island. The 
extensive shell banks near the village of Nissaquag show 
that it was the site of a considerable settlement, and it 
was probably the residence of the sachem. Coginiquant 
was sachem in 1656. 

The Setalcat or Setauket tribe claimed from Stony 
Brook to the Wading River and was one of the most 
powerful. Its members inhabited Strong's Neck and the 
banks of the different creeks, coves and harbors. Warra- 
waken was sachem in 1655, and Gil in 1675. 

The Corchaug tribe owned the territory from the 
Wading River to Oyster Ponds, and was spread along 
the north shore of Peconic Bay and over the necks ad- 
joining the sound. It probably claimed Robin's Island 
also. There is reason to believe that it was a numer- 
ous and powerful tribe. Momometon was sachem in 1648. 

The Manhasset tribe peopled Shelter Island and 
probably Hog Island. This tribe, although confined to 
about 10,000 acres, could, if tradition is reliable, bring 
into the field at one time more than 500 warriors, Pog- 
gattatuck, brother of Wyandanch, was sachem in 1648, 
and Yokee or Youghco in 1651. His residence was on 
Sachem's Neck. 

The Secatogue tribe adjoined the Marsapequas on 
the west and claimed the country as far east as Patch- 
ogue. The farm of the Willets at Islip is called Seca- 
togue Neck, and here is supposed to have been the prin- 
cipal settlement and probably the residence of the sachem, 
who in 1683 was Winnequaheagh. 

The Patchogue tribe extended its jurisdiction east 
from Patchogue to Westhampton, and as some think to 
Canoe Place. The main settlements were at Patchogue, 
Fire Place, Mastic, Moriches and Westhampton. Tobac- 
us was sachem in 1666. 

The Shinnecock tribe claimed the territory from 
Canoe Place to Easthampton, including Sag Harbor and 
the whole south shore of Peconic Bay. 

The Indians of Long Island vi^ere designated on the 
Dutch maps Mohegans, and have been so called by his- 
torians. This is but a sub-title under the general term 
Algonquins, covering a great race of savages scattered 
over Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware and other 

The Indians of the island were tall and straight, mus- 
cular and agile, with straight hair and reddish-brown 
complexion. Their language was the Algonquin, the 
highly descriptive tongue in which the apostle Eliot 
wrote the Indian Bible, and which was used by other 
missionaries. It was the language that greeted the col- 
onists at Roanoke, and the Pilgrims at Plymouth. It 
was spoken through twenty degrees of latitude and sixty 
degrees of longitude. Strange that a language which a 
century ago was spoken so widely and freely between the 
aborigines and the settlers should have so perished that 
it is doubted whether a man is living who can speak it or 
read the Indian Bible, so laboriously prepared by the 
apostolic John Eliot. 

The Indian names of Long Island are said to be Se- 
wanhacky, Wamponomon and Paumanake. These names, 
or at least the first two, seem to have arisen from the 
abundance of the quahog or hard clam, the shell of which 
furnished the wampun or sewant, which in the earlier 
times was the money of the country, as well as the 
material for the embroidery and the record symbols of 
the Indian belts. Matouwacs is the name given the 
island on the earliest Dutch maps. The. deed to the 
settlers at Easthampton styles it Paumanake. Rev. 
William Hubbard, of Ipswich, in his history of New 
England, called it Mattamwake. In books and deeds it 
bears other names, as Meitowax, Metoac, etc. Sewan- 
hacky and Wamponomon both signify the island, or place, 
of shells. Of Mattanwake Judge Furman says: "In 
the Narragansett language mattan was a term used to 
signify anything fine or good, and duke or ake meant land 
or earth; thus the whole word meant the good or pleasant 



land, which was certainly highly characteristic of Long 
Island, even at that period of its early settlement." 

The religious notions of the Long Island Indians are 
described in a communication from the Rev. Samson 
Occum, published in the collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. His words are: " They believe in a 
plurality of gods, and in one great and good being, who 
controls all the rest. They likewise believe in an evil 
spirit, and have their conjurors or paw-waws." The 
ceremony performed by these characters was so odious 
in the opinion of the whole people that the duke's laws 
of 1665 enacted that ''no Indian shall be permitted to 
paw-waw or perform worship to the devil in any town 
within this government." It is evident, however, that they 
still kept up their devil worship at the visit of the 
Labadists in 1679-80. They also had divinities in the 
winds and waters. It is surprising how few tokens are 
found, in the shape of idols, or carvings of any kind, to 
signify a reverence for their gods. The only thing which 
has attracted particular attention is " the foot-print of the 
evil spirit "^the impression of a foot on a boulder, now 
iu the possession of the Long Island Historical Society, 
which had lain upon Montauk Point from the earliest 
English knowledge, and probably for centuries before, 
and which was always an object of Indian veneration. 

The lodges or wigwams of the Long Island Indians 
were fifteen or twenty feet wide, having a frame of two 
rows of poles bent together and covered with rushes, 
except along the ridge, where an opening was left for 
smoke to escape. This frame of poles was interlaced 
with the bark of trees, and continued to a length of 180 
feet or more, as the families conjointly occupying the 
wigwam might require. Fires were built along the floor, 
each family having its own for cooking and for comfort 
in cold weather. The principal household utensils were 
earthen pots and gourds for holding water. 

The original fur and feather clothing of these savages 
gave place to cloth after the advent of Europeans. At 
first a blanket about the shoulders and a cloth hanging 
from a belt about the waist composed their costume, but 
they afterward imitated the dress of the whites. All were 
fond of decoration. In early deeds from them there is a 
peculiar reservation of " the trees in what eagles do build 
their nests," doubtless in order to secure to them the 
feathers of the royal bird, which were among their valued 

Their canoes were of different sizes, from the light 
shallop to those of sixty feet in length. They were 
wrought out of logs with stone axes, with the help of fire. 
Their pottery, of which specimens are found in the shell 
heaps, is of clay, mixed with water, hollowed out by the 
hand and baked. Most of the specimens are very inferior. 
Private collections abound in arrow-heads, stone axes, 
and the pestles and mortars which served them for mills. 
The Long Island Historical Society has a collection of 
Indian relics, in which the only metallic instrument is 
an ax of native copper unearthed a few years ago at 
Rockaway, together with a few stone axes and a quantity 
of spear heads, apparently buried for preservation. 

Long Island was the great source of the supply of 
wampun or sewant — the Indian shell money, as well as 
the beads which they wore as ornaments or fastened to 
their clothing. Along the shores of the island immense 
deposits of shells once existed (some of which yet remain), 
from which the blue portion forming the eye was care- 
fully removed for making blue beads; these were 
worth three times as much as the white, which were 
made from the inner pillars of the conch shell or 

Long Island will always be a monumental point in 
history as the place to which Hudson and his mariners 
first came as the key to open a world in commerce and 
civilization, to which the discoveries of Columbus were 
but the vestibule. The earliest account of the Indians 
of the island is that given by Hudson in the narrative of 
his voyage of 1609. On the 4th of September of that 
year he came to anchor in Gravesend Bay. He says the 
Canarsie Indians came on board his vessel without any 
apprehension and seemed very glad of his coming. They 
brought with them green tobacco and exchanged it for 
knives and beads. They were clad in deer skins, well 
dressed, and were "very civil." On a subsequent visit 
some of them were dressed in "mantles of feathers " and 
some in " skins of diver sorts of good furs." Hudson states 
that " they had yellow copper, and red copper tobacco 
pipes, and ornaments of copper about their necks;" also 
that they had currants and "great store of maize or 
Indian corn, whereof they made good bread." They also 
brought him hemp. Some of his men landed where is 
now the town of Gravesend and met many men, women 
and children, who gave them tobacco. They described 
the country to Hudson as " full of great tall oaks, and 
the lands as pleasant with grass and flowers and goodly 
trees as they had ever seen." 

Doubtless the natives presented their very best festal 
appearance to the great captain of the "big canoe;" 
though when, seventy years after (in 1679-80). when they 
were visited by the Labadist agents, Dankers and Sluyter, 
after contact with the early settlers, they had sadly de- 
generated, and the best collection that has been made of 
their utensils and adornments fails to show any of the 
yellow copper ornaments. 

The Dutch and English found the river Indians and 
the Long Island tribes greatly reduced by their conflicts 
with the more warlike Iroquois or Five Nations, who had 
laid them under tribute. The powerful Pequots of Con- 
necticut did the same before their own extermination. 
After the coming of the Dutch, under a promise of pro- 
tection by them, the Canarsies neglected to pay their 
tribute to the Mohawks, representing the Five Nations 
and in 1655 the latter made a descent on Staten Island,' 
where they killed 67 of the natives, and going thence to 
Gravesend, Canarsie and other places made a thorough 
butchery. A bare remnant of the Canarsies escaped to 
Beeren Island, and Mrs. Abraham Remsen left the state- 
ment that she made a shroud for the last individual of 
them. The consistory of the Dutch church at Albany 
thereafter for many years acted as agent for the Indians 



down the Hudson in the payment of their tribute to their 

The settlers at the east end of the island found Wy- 
andanch, the grand sachem, at war with Ninigret, the 
sachem of the Narragancetts of Rhode Island. There 
had been retaliatory massacres on both sides. Ninigret 
struck the finishing blow on the occasion of the marriage 
of a daughter of Wyandanch to a young chieftain of his 
tribe, at Fort Pond, on Montauk. Knowing that all pre- 
caution would be overlooked in the revelry of the festive 
occasion Ninigret came down in force upon his unpre- 
pared enemy; slaughtered half the tribe, including the 
bridegroom, and bore away the bride as his captive to 
the mainland. This blow broke the power and the spirit 
of Wyandanch, who then by a cession of Montauk came 
under the government and protection of Easthampton. 

Hereby hangs a romance which can not be done away 
with by any captious objectors, like those who have 
sought to resolve the story of Pocahontas into a myth. 
It is secured by deed. On a square bit of paper, written 
plainly in the old English character, framed and placed 
in the noble building of the Long Island Historical 
Society, is a conveyance to Lion Gardiner, then lord of 
the Isle of Wight or Gardiner's Island, of the great part 
of Smithtown, as a consideration for his services in re- 
gaining from Ninigret the captive daughter of Wyan- 
danch; the last named signed the deed, as also did his 
son Wyancombone, and the latter's wife. 

Thompson ascribes the war between the Montauks and 
the Narragansetts to the refusal of the Montauk monarch 
to join in the plot for exterminating the Europeans. 
Roger Williams traced the war to the pride of the con- 
tending sachems. The Long Island chief he said was 
"proud and foolish;" Ninigret, "proud and fierce." 

Lion Gardiner, in his notes on Easthampton, says that 
the Block Island Indians, acting as allies of the Narra- 
gansetts, attacked the Montauks during King Philip's 
war and punished them severely. The engagement took 
place on Block Island, whither the Montauks went in 
their canoes, and the latter on landing fell into an am- 
buscade. He says: "The Montauk Indians were nearly 
all killed; a few were protected, by the English and 
brought away; the sachem was taken and carried to Nar- 
ragansett. He was made to walk on a large flat rock 
that was heated by building fires on it, and walked several 
times over it, singing his death song; but his feet being 
burned to the bones he fell, and they finished the tragical 
scene as usual for savages." 

The Long Island Indians joined the neighboring main- 
land tribes in the hostilities between them and the Dutch, 
which grew out of the murder of an Indian at New York 
in 1641. In 1643 some Dutch farmers on the island 
ventured to seize and carry off two wagon loads of corn 
belonging to the Indians; the owners attempting to de- 
fend their property two of them were killed. 

The Long Island and Hudson River Indians burning 
to avenge such outrages, more than two thousand of them 
rose in open war and made the greatest possible de- 
struction of the property and lives of the settlers. A 

transient peace was patched up, the Canarsie chief Pen- 
hawitz being one of an embassy to New Amsterdam for 
that purpose. In a few months war broke out again, 
this time, it is said, on account of Governor Kieft's em- 
bezzling the presents for the natives by which the treaty 
should have been ratified. The savages, crossing to the 
island from Westchester county, destroyed the settlement 
of Mespat, now Newtown; also the first house built in 
Brooklyn, that of William Adriance Bennett, near Gow- 
anus. They then fell upon the settlement of Lady 
Moody at Gravesend, but were beaten off by a company 
of forty men, who had been recruited and disciplined by 
Nicholas Stilwell, and who were concealed in Lady 
Moody's log house. From the neighboring villages more 
than a hundred families flocked to New Amsterdam for 
protection. From these was raised a company of fifty 
men, who under the famous John Underhill participated 
in the massacre of over five hundred of the Indians in 
March 1644, at Strickland's Plain, on Horse Neck, near 
Greenwich, Conn. As one of the results of this decisive 
blow several of the Long Island chiefs went to New Am- 
sterdam and made a treaty of peace. 

In 1655 Hendrick Van Dyke, the late " schout fiscal " 
of New Amsterdam, shot and killed a squaw who was 
stealing peaches from his garden. He was soon killed by 
the Indians in revenge. At the same time they perper- 
trated terrible massacres on Staten Island and in New 
Jersey, and spread terror on Long Island, though doing 
no damage there. Governor Stuyvesant ordered all 
persons living in secluded places to gather and "form 
villages after the fashion of our neighbors of New Eng- 
land," but little attention was paid to his command. 

On the division of the island in 1650 between the 
English and the Dutch, the English taking the eastern 
and the Dutch the western part, the jurisdiction of 
Grand Sachem Wyandanch was nominally divided, 
Tackapousha being elected sachem of the chieftaincies in 
possession of the Dutch, namely, those of the Marsape- 
quas, Merricks, Canarsies, Secatogues, Rockaways and 
Matinecocks. In the winter of 1658 the smallpox de- 
stroyed more than half the Montauks, while Wyandanch 
lost his life by poison. The remainder of the tribe, to 
escape the fatal malady and the danger of invasion in 
their weakened state, fled in a body to their white neigh- 
bors, who entertained them for a considerable period. 

Wyancombone succeeded his father in the sachemship, 
and, being a minor, divided the government with his 
mother, who was styled the squaw sachem. Lion Gard- 
iner and his son David acted as guardians to the young 
chief by request of his father. At Fort Pond — called by 
the Indians Konkhongank — are the remains of the burial 
ground of the chieftaincy, and here once stood the citadel 
of the monarch Wyandanch. 

From the numerous array of tribes mentioned on a 
preceding page it is evident that the island was in the 
earlier periods of its history thickly settled by the Indians, 
who found support and delight in its ample resources of 
hunting, fishing and fowling; but their position exposed 
them to invasion, and their stores of wampum tempted 



the fierce tribes of the mainland. They were evidently 
in constant fear of aggression, and at two points — Fort 
Neck, at Oyster Bay, and Fort Pond, Montauk — forts 
were built, capable of sheltering five hundred men. Gov- 
ernor Winthrop in 1633, referring to Long Island, which 
had just been reconnoitred by his bark, the "Blessing," 
says, doubtless upon mere report: " The Indians there 
are very treacherous, and have many canoes so great as 
will carry eighty men." 

But the natives soon dwindled in numbers and power 
upon contact with the whites. The Dutch at the west- 
ern end of the island, coveting their corn lands, soon 
found means to purchase and appropriate them, while at 
the east end the Narragansetts drove^ the tribes into the 
arras of the English. All over the island their lands were 
bought at a nominal price from the too easy owners. 

Their inordinate fondness for " fire-water" had a large 
share in their ruin. Rev. Azariah Horton was a mis- 
sionary to the Long Island Indians in 1741-44. He 
states that in 1741 there were at the east end two small 
towns of them, and lesser companies settled at a few 
miles distance from each other through the island. Up 
to the close of 1743 he had baptized 35 adults and 44 
children. He took pains to teach them to read, and some 
of them made considerable progress; but, notwithstand- 
ing all this, Mr. Horton in 1744 complained of a great 
defection by a relapse into their darling vice of drunken- 
ness, to which Indians are everywhere so greatly addicted 
that no human power can prtvent it. 

In 1761 the Indians had so diminished on Long Island 
as in some places to havo entirely disappeared; and 
the once powerful Montauks could muster but 192 souls. 
This number was reduced by the withdrawal of many 
who went to Brotherton with Rev. Samsom Occum. This 
celebrated Indian preacher went about 1755 to Montauk, 
where he preached and taught about ten years. He went 
to England and raised ;^r,ooo for establishing schools 
among the Indians. 

Rev. Paul Cuffee was another Indian preacher on the 
island. He was buried about a mile west of Canoe Place, 
where the Indian meeting-house then stood, and a neat 
marble slab has been erected to his memory by the Mis- 
sionary Society of New York, which employed him. The 
writer has conversed with persons who gave testimony to 
his piety and the fervor of his eloquence. 

The Indian kings at Montauk have for a century and 
more borne the name or Pharoah or Pharo. This was 
doubtless conferred upon them by the first misssionaries, 
who are also responsible for Solomons, Tituses and other 
Christian and classic names. A squaw who died recently 
at Easthampton at a very advanced age was named Han- 
nah Hannibal. One of the Montauk Pharoahs died about 
three years ago and his brother succeeded him. He bore 
the traits of pure blood in the sallow complexion and long 
straight hair of his race. With the advance of settlements 
on the island the Montauks have faded away, till but a 
remnant of scarcely a dozen pure bloods remains on the 
reserved "Indian fields" on the promontory of Montauk. 
Subject to their reservations the whole promontory was 

recently sold in partition sale of the property to Arthur 
VV. Benson, of Brooklyn, for $151,000. 

The influence of their friends at Easthampton kept 
these Indians from taking part in King Philip's and other 
wars, and from being violently blotted out like most of 
their brethren. Elsewhere many of them have succeeded 
in whaling enterprises, and they have been ingenious in 
basket making. Some of those remaining around Mon- 
tauk are useful sailors or domestics. 

The Shinnecock tribe, much modified by negro inter- 
marriages, still cluster about Southampton to the number 
of about 200. They are in general a worthy and indus- 
trious people, with a good school and much pride of 
character. Many will recollect the mourning which went 
abroad on the loss, in the wreck of the "Circassia," of 
that fine corps of sailors of the Shinnecock tribe, whose 
courage and manliness were of a high heroic type. 




HE names by which Long Island was called 
by the Indians were various. Among them 
were Mattanwake, Meitowax, Sewanhacky 
(Island of Shells), Paumanake, etc. By rea- 
son of its form the early settlers applied to 
the island its present name. The colonial Legis- 
lature in 1693 changed it to Nassau, in honor of 
William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, and required that 
all legal instruments should recognize that name. It 
never acquired more than a partial use, and though the 
act is unrepealed the name is obsolete. 

There have been traditions that this island was visited 
by Europeans prior to its discovery by Hudson; but 
these are probably no more reliable than similar traditions 
concerning other regions. An account of a voyage by 
John de Verazzano, in 1524, was published, and from his 
description it is believed by some that he entered the 
harbor of New York. Others insist that his journal gives 
no foundation for such a belief. 

The first discovery of Long Island by Europeans was 
made early in September 1609, by Henry Hudson, an 
Englishman in the employ of the Dutch East India 
Company. He had sailed in the " Half Moon " from 
Amsterdam on the 2Sth of the preceding March in search 
of a northwest passage to India. After touching at var- 
ious points on the coast north he sailed south to the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay; then, passing north, entered 
Delaware Bay, from which he again sailed northward and 
entered New York Bay on the 3d of September. During 
the week that he remained there a boat's crew, engaged 
in making explorations, landed at Coney Island— the 
first portion of Long Island pressed by the foot of a white 



man. On the 6th, John Colman, of a party that was sent 
up the river to sound and explore, was killed and two 
others were wounded by a party of twenty-six savages in 
two canoes. The next day Colman's body was buried on 
the shore, and the place of his interment was named Col- 
man's Point. Bysomethisis believed to have been Sandy 
Hook; by others. Coney Island. After the discovery of the 
island by Hudson the region was visited by private adven- 
turers to trade, but in 1614 a decree of the States General 
forbade this and gave to the East India Company monopoly 
of this trade. In that year Adrian Block and Hendrick 
Christiance visited this region under the East India Com- 
pany and built a fort and some dwellings on the island of 
Manhattan or Manhattoes, as it was called by the Indians. 
Captain Block passed with his vessel through. Hell Gate 
and sailed throu^^h the sound, and first discovered the 
insular condition of Long Island. Block Island, which 
was called by the Indians Manissees, was named in 
honor of him. It is said that his vessel was accidentally 
burned, and that he built another on or near Manhattan 
in the summer of 16 14. If so, it was the first vessel 
built in the United States. 

When English settlements were made in New England 
a rivalry at once sprang up between the English and the 
Dutch, each power striving to strengthen its authority by 
extending its settlements. Under these circumstances the 
settlement of the western end of the island by the Dutch 
commenced. It is not known who was the first actual 
settler on Long Island. Settlements were made in Flat- 
lands, Kings county, as early as 1636, possibly earlier. 
It is not probable that any settlement was made at the 
Wallabout prior to 1636. The name of this bay is cor- 
rupted from " Wahle Bocht " or " Waale Boght," which 
according to the late Hon. Teunis G. Bergen means " the 
Beach or Shore of the Cove;" Samuel Ogden renders it 
" the Bend of the Inner Harbor." Settlers came and 
located as caprice or circumstance seemed to dictate, 
without any provision for local government. At nearly 
the same time permanent settlements were made on the 
west end of the island by the Dutch and on the east by 
the English. Both purchased theii lands from the 
Indians; the English directly, and the Dutch through 
their governor.", who first extinguished the Indian title, 
then parceled out the land to individuals in various ways, 
or gave permits to purchase from the Indians. 

On the west end of the island the Dutch in 1636 set- 
tled Brooklyn, first named Breuckelen after a town of that 
name in the province of Utrecht, in Holland; Flatlands, 
first New Amersfort, after a place of the same name in 
Holland, also in 1636; Flushing, or in Dutch Vlissingen, 
also after a place of the same name in Holland, 1645; 
Flatbusb, originally Midwout, after Midiyout in Holland, 
1 651; New Utrecht in 1657, and Bushwick orWoodtown 
in 1660. 

English immigrants were permitted to settle- on territory 
claimed by the Dutch on taking the oath of allegiance to 
the Dutch government. Of the English towns under 
the jurisdiction of the Dutch Hempstead was settled in 
1643; Gravesend in 1645; Jamaica, originally Rusdorp, 

in 1655, and Newtown, first called Middlebury, in 1656- 
The jurisdiction of Oyster Bay, which was settled in 
1653, was not during many years determined, but it finally 
came under Connecticut. 

The Dutch towns appear to have been wholly under 
the control of the governor, whose will in all matters — 
general and individual, civil and ecclesiastical — was ab- 
solute. The English towns under Dutch jurisdiction 
were allowed to choose their own officers, subject to the 
approval of the governor, to hold their town meetings, 
and manage their own matters as nearly like the eastern 
towns as circumstances would permit. 

It was hardly to be expected that in the exercise of 
power so nearly absolute the representatives of their High 
Mightinesses, as the States General was termed, should not 
at times yield to their caprices, their sympathies or an- 
tipathies, and do arbitrary and oppressive acts. In the 
case of Governor Stuy vesant his tyrannical disregard of the 
people's rights led to the assembling, in 1653, of delegates 
from New York, Brooklyn, Flatbush, Flatlands, Graves- 
end, Newtown, Flushing and Hempstead, and the adoption 
of an address to the governor and council and States 
General, setting forth their grievances, and asking that 
they be redressed. To this no reply was given, though a 
pfbtest was entered on their minutes against the meeting. 
When, in the same year, a second meeting assembled, 
the governor ordered them " to disperse and not to as- 
semble again on such business." 

A line had, in 1650, been established between the 
Dutch towns on the west and the English on the eastern 
end of the island by four commissioners — two from the 
Dutch government and two from the united colonies of 
New England, •although the New England colonists had 
at that time no jurisdiction on the island. This line ran 
southward across the island from the " westernmost part 
of Oyster Bay." Notwithstanding this arrangement the 
Dutch governor continued to claim jurisdiction over 
Oyster Bay. 

The people at about this time were sorely troubled by 
what were known as "land pirates" or outlaws, who had 
been banished from New England, and against these the 
Dutch governor failed to afford them protection. 

It may here be remarked that the administration of 
Governor Stuyvesant, from about 1656 to the conquest in 
1664, was disgraced by a degree of religious intolerance, 
and especially by persecution of the Quakers, which 
rivaled but which did not equal that of the Puritans of 
New England, of whom it may truly be said that the 
principle of religious liberty never dawned on their minds. 
For this persecution he was rebuked by the authorities in 
Holland. These persecutions were renewed about the 
commencement of the eighteenth century under .the ad- 
ministration of Lord Cornbury, who in religious intoler- 
ance was fully equal to Peter Stuyvesant. 

In 1662 a new charter was granted to Connecticut, and 
this charter was interpreted to include the whole of Long 
Island. The eastern towns gladly availed themselves of 
this interpretation, and in 1663 the English towns under 
Dutch jurisdiction resolved to withdraw from that juris- 



diction and place themselves also under Connecticut. 
Soon afterward two commissioners were appointed by 
Connecticut to organize the government of that colony 
in these towns; but it does not appear from history that 
they fulfilled their mission, and the unsatisfactory con- 
dition of things continued till the conquest in 1664. 

As has been stated, the settlements of the Dutch were 
limited to the western end of the island, and their juris- 
diction to a comparatively small portion of that end. 
The eastern end was settled by English immigrants, un- 
der different auspices, and its settlement commenced a 
■few years later. 

In 1620 King James L of England granted to the 
Plymouth Company a charter for all the land between 
the 40th and 48th degrees of north latitude, extending 
from "sea to sea", which territory was termed New 
England. In 1636, at the request of King Charles I., 
the Plymouth Company conveyed by patent to William 
Alexander, Earl of Stirling, the whole of Long Island 
and the adjacent islands. Earl Stirling appointed James 
Farret his attorney for the sale of his real estate, and 
authorized him to select for -himself twelve thousand 
acres of the territory. Farret selected Shelter Island 
and Robin's Island in Peconic Bay, and in 1641 sold 
these to Stephen Goodyear, of New Haven. Soon after 
the death of Earl Stirling and his son in 1640, the heir 
of the latter, grandson of the earl, for a consideration of 
three hundred pourids, surrendered to the crown the 
grant from the Plymouth Company, and it was embodied 
in the grant to the Duke of York, April 2nd 1664, which 
thus described it: "And also all that island or islands 
commonly called by the several name or names of Meito- 
wacks, or Long Island, situate, lying and being toward 
the west of Cape Cod and the narrow Higansetts, abut- 
ting upon the mainland between the two rivers there 
called or known by the several names of Connecticut 
and Hudson's River.'' 

In 1662 the Connecticut colony claimed Long Island 
under that clause in their charter of that year which in- 
cluded the "islands adjacent," and in 1664 sent a com- 
mission to the island to assert jurisdiction. The conquest 
in that year put an end to their proceedings. With this ex 
ception no claim was made by any power to the eastern 
portion of the island between the years 1640 and 1664. 

The eastern towns were settled by the English as fol- 
lows: Gardiner's Island (annexed in 1680 to Easthamp- 
ton) in 1639. It was purchased in that year by Lion 
Gardiner from the attorney of Lord Stirling. Mr. Gar- 
diner had previously purchased it from the Indians. This 
was the first English settlement, and Mr. Gardiner was 
one of the first English settlers in the State of New York. 
Southampton and Southold were settled in 1640, East- 
hampton in 1648, Shelter Island in 1652, Huntington and 
Oyster Bay in 1653 though the latter was claimed by the 
Dutch, Brookhaven in 1655, and Smithtown in 1663. 

Most of the settlers in these towns were previous im- 
migrants in New England, who crossed the sound iu 
larger or smaller companies and established independent 
settlements, which as their numbers increased came to be 

little republics, completely independent of all other 
powers. Although there were differences in the details 
of the government of the different towns, there was a 
general similarity among them. Each had its legislative, 
executive, and judicial department. The people assem- 
bled in town meeting constituted the legislative depart- 
ment, and in important cases the judicial also. In that 
case the assembly was sometimes termed the general 
court of the town. Two or three magistrates, a clerk, 
and a constable usually constituted the ordinary judicial 
and executive functionaries of the town. Of course the 
people required no bill of rights or constitution to pro- 
tect them from oppression by their rulers, for they were 
their own rulers. They organized companies of citizen 
soldiers, erected and garrisoned forts when necessary, 
enacted and enforced laws to regulate not only civil but 
also social and religous matters, and to guard against 
threatened vices as well as to restrain existing evils 
churches were erected, schools were established, and 
ministers and teachers were supported by taxes on the 
property of the citizens, imposed by the people them- 
selves in their legislative character. 

It is hardly necessary to say that these original settlers 
were Puritans, and that, although they were not guilty of 
such manifestations of bigotry and intolerance as disgraced 
the Puritans of New England, they jealously guarded 
against the introduction among them of innovations which 
would exert what they deemed a deleterious influence. 
They required of those who p'roposed to settle among 
them a probation of from three to six months, and if at 
the end of that time they were not satisfactory to the 
people they were notified to leave within a specified time. 
They were thus able to prevent undesirable people from 
coming among them, and to maintain their religious faith 
free from contamination by those holding heterodox 
opinions. To guard against the evils of intemperance 
the sale of intoxicating drinks was restricted under heavy 
penalties. The profanation of the Sabbath, lying, profane 
cursing and slander were penal offences in most of the 
towns, and the whipping post, the stocks, pillory, etc. were 
in common use. Thus, each town managed its own 
affairs, without any combination with neighboring 
towns, till the island came to be a part of New York 
in 1664. 

In view of their exposed situation and the difficulty of 
defending themselves against hostile attacks by the Indians 
or invasions by the Dutch, these towns one by one placed 
themselves under the protection of the New England 
colonies; without, however, subjecting themselves to tax- 
ation by those colonies, or relinquishing to the sHghest 
extent their self-government. Southampton did this in 
1644, Easthampton in 1657, Brookhaven in 1659, and 
Huntington in 1660. These came under the protection 
of Connecticut. Southold and Shelter Island assumed 
the same relation to New Haven in 1648. Connecticut 
and' New Haven became united under a new charter in 
1662, and these towns became a part of the new colony 
of Connecticut, sent representatives to the colonial As- 
sembly, and contributed toward the expense of the gov- 



ernment. In the same year Oyster Bay also assumed 
this relation. 

The oppression to which the people in the towns under 
the jurisdiction of the Dutch were subjected has been 
spoken of. The inhabitants of both the Dutch and English 
towns had submitted to the tyranny of their rulers be- 
cause they saw no way of escape. In November of 1663 
the people of the English towns held a mass meeting at 
Jamaica to consider their condition and devise means for 
their relief; but, alt)iough no attempt to disperse them 
was made, no results were accomplished. They weTe 
therefore ready to welcome anything which promised 

Early in 1664 Charles the Second of England granted 
to his brother James, Duke of York, territory which in- 
cluded New Amsterdam and all of Long Island. An ex- 
pedition wns at once fitted out and sent under Colonel 
Richard Nicolls, who was commissioned deputy governor, 
to take possession of the colony. On his arrival at New 
York in August of that year he demanded of Governor 
Stuyvesant the surrender of his possessions, which was 
refused. Colonel Nicolls and the commissioners, Robert 
Carr, George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick, who had 
been sent with him to assist in the government of the 
colony, landed at Gravesend, and, at a meeting held for 
that purpose, consulted with the people, and with Gov- 
ernor Winthrop of Connecticut, and exhibited to them 
the royal grant to the Duke of York. He also issued a 
proclamation promising protection and all the privileges 
of English subjects, and sent officers for volunteers in the 
western towns of the island. After consultation with his 
burgomasters and the people Governor Stuyvesant, find- 
ing that the current of popular opinion set strongly in that 
direction, reluctantly consented to a surrender, and thus, 
without bloodshed, the government passed to the English. 

The people of the towns on the west end of the island 
acquiesced in the change, relying on the promise of Gov- 
ernor Nicolls and the commissioners that they should 
enjoy all the privileges of English subjects — a promise 
which was not fulfilled. The eastern towns, however, 
which had been independent, and which were then a part 
of Connecticut, were not willing to sever their political 
relations with that colony and become subject to the 
Duke of York, and Connecticut at first maintained her 
claim to them. Governor Winthrop, who had been one 
of the commissioners to arrange the terms of surrender, 
"informed the English on Long Island that Connecticut 
had no longer any claim to the island; that what they had 
done for them was for the welfare, peace and quiet set- 
tlement of his Majesty's subjects, they being the nearest 
organized government to them under his Majesty. But 
now that his Majesty's pleasure was fully signified by his 
letters patent their jurisdiction had ceased and become 


In March 1665 a convention of delegates from the 
towns assembled at Hempstead, in accordance with a 
proclamation of Governor Nicolls, " to settle good and 
known laws within this government for the future, and 
receive yor best advice and information at a genall meet- 

ing." At this convention the boundaries and relations of 
the towns were settled and determined, and some other 
matters adjusted. New patents were required to be taken 
by those who had received their patents from the Dutch 
authorities, and it was required that patents should be 
taken by those who had never received any, as was the 
case with the eastern towns. These required a quit-rent 
— a relic of feudal customs — which was the source of 
much trouble, and the subject of abuse afterward. A 
code of laws for the government of the province was also 
promulgated. These, which had been compiled at the 
dictation of the governor, were termed the duke's laws. 
They contained many of the provisions which had been 
adopted by the eastern towns, and many of the enact- 
ments would be looked on at the present day as curios- 
ities. With some modifications they were continued in 
force till 1683, when the first provincial Assembly held 
its session. Thompson says: "In addition to other mat- 
ters which occupied the convention at Hempstead in 1665, 
Long Island and Staten Island (and probably Westchester) 
were erected into a shire, called after that in England 
Yorkshire, which was in like manner divided into sep- 
arate districts denominated ridings; the towns now in- 
cluded in Suffolk county constituted the East ' Riding;' 
Kings county, Staten Island, and 'the town of Newtown 
the 'West Riding,' and the remainder of Queens county 
the 'North Riding' of Yorkshire upon I^ong Island." 
The word " riding" thus used is a corruption of trithing 
— a third. The original names of some of the towns were 
changed to the present ones at this meeting, it is sup- 
posed. So highly pleased were the delegates at this con- 
vention with the prospect before them, under the assur- 
ances of the governor, that they adopted and signed an 
address to the king, pledging loyalty and submission in 
terras that were not pleasing to the people and that were 
criticised with such severity that the court of assize is- 
sued an edict forbidding further censure of these dep- 
uties, under penalty of being brought before the court 
" to answer for the slander." 

Under the duke's laws the justices — one in each town 
— were appointed by the governor, as was also the high 
sheriff of the shire, and a deputy sheriff for each riding- 
Each town elected at first eight and afterward four over- 
seers and a constable, who constituted a town court, with 
jurisdiction limited to cases of _;^^ or less. They also 
assessed taxes and regulated minor matters. Each riding 
had a court of sessions consisting of the justices, with 
whom the high sheriff, members of the council, and sec- 
retary of the colony were entitled to sit. It had criminal 
jurisdiction, and in civil cases its judgments were final in 
cases less than ^£20. The court of assize, which con- 
sisted of the governor, council and an indefinite number 
of magistrates, had appellate jurisdiction in cases from 
inferior courts, and original jurisdiction in suits for de- 
mands above ;^2o. 

No provision was made for a legislature; and, while 
this court of assize was nominally the head of the gov- 
ernment, the governor, who appointed the members of it, 
and who could remove roost of them at his pleasure, 




really possessed unlimited legislative, executive and ju- 
dicial authority. Thompson says : "In this court the 
governor united the character of both j udge and legislator. 
He interpreted his own acts, and not only pronounced 
what the law was but what it should be." 

Although the people on the western end of the island 
became aware that the government under the Duke of 
York was framed on no better model then that under the 
Dutch governor, and those in the English towns that they 
were shorn of all their former privileges. Governor 
Nicolls exercised his powers so carefully and judiciously 
as to allay their discontent. 

He relinquished the reins of government in 1668 
and was succeeded by Francis Lovelace, who during 
his administration acquired the almost unanimous ill- 
will of the people. When, in 1670, a levy was made 
on the towns to raise money for repairing the fort at New 
York, nearly all the English towns, by vote, refused to 
obey the order for the contribution or levy unless " they 
might have the privileges that other of his Majesty's sub- 
jects have and do enjoy." Thompson says: " The 
English colonists on Long Island brought with them the 
doctrine that taxes could only be imposed with the con- 
sent of the people by their representatives in a general 
assembly." It is not known that this tax was ever col- 
lected in those towns. This was the first open manifes- 
tation in this country of a spirit of resistance to the in 
vasion of this right — a resistance which led, a century 
later, to the American Revolution. 

The resolutions of refusal were laid before the governor 
and council, and were by them ordered to be publicly 
burned before the town house of the city. It is said of 
Governor Lovelace that in 1668 he wrote to Sir Robert 
Carr in New Jersey, that to keep people submissive the 
best method was "to lay such taxes upon them as may 
not give them liberty to entertain any other thoughts but 
how they shall discharge them." 

Had not the administration of Governor Lovelace come 
to an end by a sudden and unexpected event, he would 
probably have suffered the full consequences of the pop- 
ular indignation which his disregard of the people's rights 
aroused. " The country, which had now been nine years 
governed by the Duke of York's deputies, and experienced 
in very full measure the ill effects of ignorance and indis- 
cretion in the conduct of its rulers, came once more 
under the government of their ancient masters, the 

Between 1672 and 1674 the English and Dutch were at 
war, and in the latter part of July 1673 a small Dutch 
squadron entered New York harbor,- and Captain Manning, 
the commandant of the fort, surrendered it without re- 
sistance. For this act he was afterward sentenced to have 
his sword broken over his head. 

Captain Anthony Colve was by the commanders of the 
squadron appointed governor of the colony, and he at 
once set about the re-establishment of the authority of the 
Dutch government. In the towns that had before been 
under the Dutch regime submission was readily made, 
but in the towns of the East riding his task was more 

difficult. Huntington and Brookhaven yielded after a 
time on certain conditions, but Southold, Southampton 
and Easthampton rejected all overtures, and petitioned 
for admission to the colony of Connecticut. They were 
accepted, and when Governor Colve attempted to reduce 
these towns to submission by force Connecticut sent 
troops to their assistance, and the Dutch were repulsed. 
In November 1673 the New England colonies declared 
war against the Dutch, and made preparations for active 
hostilities. The conclusion of peace, early in 1674, be- 
tween the English and Dutch of .course arrested their 
proceedings. On the restoration of the duke's govern- 
ment these towns were unwilling to become subject again 
to a rule under which they had been oppressed. Resist- 
ance was unavailing, however, and they were compelled 
to submit to a repetition cf the former despotic sway of 
the duke's governors. 

Sir Edmund Andros became governor on the restor- 
ation of the duke's authority, and his administration, 
which continued till 1681, was even more despotic 
than that of Governor Lovelace. Colonel Thomas 
Dongan succeeded Governor Andros. On his arrival, 
in 1683, he at once issued orders for summoning a 
general assembly. This was the result of a petition 
to the duke by the grand jury of the court of assize 
in 1681. 

At the first session of this colonial Assembly, in 1683, 
they "adopted a bill of rights, established courts of justice, 
repealed some of the most obnoxious of the duke's laws, 
altered and amended others, and passed such new laws 
as they judged tliat the circumstances of the colony re- 
quired." At this session the "ridings" were abolished, 
and the counties of Kings, Queens, and* Suffolk or- 
ganized. Another session was held in 1684, at which, 
among other acts, the court of assize was abolished, and 
another Assembly was summoned to convene in the fol- 
lowing year. 

"Charles II. died February 6th 1685, and the Duke of 
York succeeded him by the title of James II.; as he de- 
termined to have as little to do with parliaments as pos- 
sible so it is probable that he revoked the power which 
he had given to his governors to call assemblies, and de- 
termined that they should rule the colony by his instruc- 
tions alone, without admitting the people to any partici- 
pation in the public councils." Under the government 
of James no other session of the Legislature was ever 

On the occurrence of the revolution in England which 
placed William and Mary on the throne a party of sympathi- 
zers with that revolution, led by Jacob Leisler, seized the 
government of the colony, and during two years matters 
here were in an unsettled condition. Long Island gave 
only a partial support to Leisler; and when, in i6go, he 
summoned a general assembly, no members from Suffolk 
attended and one from Queens refused to serve. It ap- 
pears that Leisler attempted to use force against some 
portions of Long Island which he declared to be in a state 
of rebellion, but that his efforts proved entirely unsuc- 





, HE customs of the early Dutch settlers on the 
west end of the island were in many respects 
quite different from those of the people who 
settled other parts of it. An account of some 
of them is given by Mr. Furman in his 
"Antiquities of Long Island," from which most of 
the following brief sketches are condensed. 
At first most of those on the north side or middle of 
the island buried their dead in private or family burial 
grounds, without monuments. On the south or level 
portion interments were made in the churchyards, and 
even in the churches in some instances. The governors 
and colonial Assembly in 1664 and 1684 enacted laws 
against this practice. Their funerals were quite different 
from those ot the present time; wines and liquors and 
cold collations were provided for the guests, and often 
linen scarfs, gloves, funeral cakes etc. were distributed 
among them. Funerals were thus made very expensive, 
and often bore a strong resemblance to joyous feasts. 
It was also customary for young men, on arriving at their 
majority, to convert the first money they earned into 
gold and lay it aside to defray the expense of a respect- 
able funeral should they die early. Another practice was 
to lay aside for each member of the family a linen shirt, 
handkerchief, etc., and never suffer them to be worn, but 
keep them clean to bury them in. In case a woman died 
in childbed a white sheet, instead of a black pall, was 
spread over her cofifin as she was carried to the grave. 

They took especial care to provide for the education 
of their children. The teachers were appointed only on 
the recommendation of the governor, and their duties 
were very accurately prescribed. In modern times a 
teacher would smile to find that his contract required 
him to. instruct the children in the common prayer and 
catechism; to be chorister of the church; to ring the bell 
three times before service, and read a chapter of the 
Bible between the ringings of the bell; to read the Ten 
Commandments, the articles of faith, and set the psalm 
after the last ringing", to read a psalm of David as the 
congregation were assembling in the afternoon; to read a 
sermon, in the absence of the clergyman; to furnish a 
basin of water for the baptisms, report to the minister the 
names and ages, and names of the parents and sponsors 
of the children to be baptized; to give funeral invitations, 
toll the bells, serve as messenger for the consistories, etc., 
etc., and to receive his salary in wampum, wheat, dwell- 
ing, pasturage and meadow. Such were the provisions of 
a contract with a Dutch teacher in 1682. 

The practice of nicknaming prevailed among them and 
even in the public records are found such names as Friend 
John, Hans the Boore, Long Mary, Old Bush, and Top 
Knot Betty. The same practice prevailed among them 

that is found among the Swedes now, of taking the par- 
ent's Christian name with "sen" or "son" added to it, and 
for this reason it is often difficult to trace genealogies. 

Both negro and Indian slavery prevailed on Long Isl- 
and. Not many records are left of cruelty on the* part 
of masters toward their slaves, and it is believed that the 
"peculiar institution" here did not possess some of the 
opprobrious features which characterized it in the south- 
ern States. A species of white slavery also existed here 
as elsewhere. Indigent immigrants sold their services for 
definite periods, during which they were as much the sub- 
jects of purchase and sale as veritable slaves. Frequently 
advertisements appeared in the papers offering rewards 
for fugitive negro or Indian slaves. 

At the time of the negro plot to burn New York some 
of the slaves on Long Island were suspected of complic- 
ity; and it is recorded that one was sentenced "to be 
burnt to death on the i8th of July 1741." 

What was termed samp porridge (from the Indian 
seaump — pounded corn) was made by long boiling corn 
that had been pounded in a wooden mortar — a process 
that was learned from the Indians, What was known as 
"suppaan" was made in the same way from more finely 
ground meal. The same dish was called suppaan by the 
Palatines who afterward settled in the Mohawk valley. 
These mortars or pioneer mills, as they were sometimes 
called, were at first the only means the settlers pos- 
sessed of converting their corn into coarse meal, 
and the process was called niggering corn, because 
the work was usually done by negro slaves. In the 
absence of shops or manufactories, which have so 
universally come into existence, every farmer was his 
own mechanic. He was, by turns, mason, carpenter, 
tanner, shoemaker, wheelwright and blacksmith; and the 
women manufactured their cloth from flax and wool, fre- 
quently, it is said, taking their spinning-wheels with them 
on afternoon visits to each other. Houses and their fur- 
niture among these people in early times were quite dif- 
ferent from those of the present day; white floors 
sprinkled with sand, high-backed chairs, ornamented with 
brass nails along the edge of the cushioned seat and 
leathern back; pewter and wooden plates and dishes — 
which were preferred by the conservative old Knicker- 
bockers long after the introduction of crockery, because 
they did not dull the knives — and silver plate among the 
wealthy were the common articles of furniture. This 
silver plate was in the form ot massive waiters, bowls, 
tankards, etc., and had usually descended in the family 
from former generations as an heirloom. Sometimes 
china plates were seen hanging around as ornaments — 
holes having been drilled through their edges and ribbons 
passed through by which to suspend them. Punch, which 
was a common beverage, was drunk from a common bowl 
of china or silver, and beer or cider from a tankard. 
The wealthy Dutch citizens had highly ornamented brass 
hooped casks in which to keep their liquors, which they 
never bottled. Holland gin, Jamaica rum, sherry and 
Bordeaux wines, English beer or porter, beer from their 
own breweries and cider were common drinks in early 



times. When a wealthy young man among these settlers 
was about to be married he usually sent to Maderia for a 
pipe of the best wine, a portion of which was drunk at his 
marriage, another portion on the birth of his first son, 
and the remainder was preserved to be used at his 
funeral. Tea drinking was a custom of later date. The 
custom of visiting each other on Sunday afternoons long 
prevailed; but the clergy and the strictest of the laity, 
influenced perhaps by the views of their New England 
neighbors, came to regard it as an evil, and it was grad- 
ually discontinued. Furman says: " It seems more like 
Puritanic rigor than as an exhibition of Christian feeling 
to break up such kindly and social meetings as these, 
after the religious services of the day had been performed." 
Previous to 1793 no post-office was established on the 
island and no mail was carried on it. A Scotchman named 
Dunbar rode a voluntary post as early as about 1775. 
This was in violation of the law, but the necessity of the 
case caused the offense to be winked at. The people on 
the west end of the island were supposed to receive their 
letters from the post-office in New York, and those on the 
east end from New London. Even as late as 1835, Fur- 
man says, the mail stage left Brooklyn for Easthampton 
no oftener than once a week, and mail packages were of- 
ten left and taken at designated places, such as a particu- 
lar rock or a box nailed to a tree. Hotels were few 
then, and the hospitalities of the people living along ihc 
route through the island were always readily extended to 
the few travelers who passed over it. 

Under the colonial government nearly all marriages on 
the island were under a license from the governor — a prac- 
tice which increased his income and added to the expense 
of entering the matrimonial state. Marriage by publica- 
tion of the banns seems to have been held in disrepute. 
In 1673 there was an officer at New York whose duty, 
which extended to Long Island, was to hear and deter- 
mine matrimonial disputes. He was styled " the firsi 
commissary of marriage affairs." Such an officer at the 
present day would lead a busy life. 

Many of the amusements, sports, and fireside enjoy- 
ments of the people here, as well as their religious customs 
and superstitions, were transplanted from the native 
countries of the original settlers. The origin of many of 
these m the remote past is lost; but customs often out- 
live the ideas which gave birth to them. On the annual 
return of Christmas the yule log. and Christmas candles 
were burned among the English settlers as in ancient times 
in "raerrie England" and the Dutch celebrated the holi- 
days with still greater zest alter the manner of their fore- 
fathers in the Netherlands. St. Nicholas, or "Santa 
Klaas," was regarded among the Dutch children as a veri- 
table personage, and they had a hymn in the Dutch lan- 
guage which they sang on the occasion of their Christmas 
festivities, the first line of which was, "Sanctus Klaas goedt 
heyligh man" (St. Nicholas good holy man). The prac- 
tice which was introduced by these Dutch settlers of hav- 
ing their children's stockings hung up to be filled by 
Santa Klaas is far from being extinct. New Year's eve 
and the first of January were formerly celebrated in a 

noisy way by firing guns at the doors in a neighborhood, 
when the neighUors thus saluted were expected to invite 
their friends in to partake of refreshments and then join 
them to thus salute others till all the men were collected 
together, when they repaired to a rendezvous and passed 
the day in athletic sports and target firing. It was finally 
deemed necessary to arrest, by legal enactments, this 
practice of firing guns on these occasions. When the style 
was changed the Dutch here at first refused to recognize 
the change in their celebration of these festivals: New 
Year was never celebrated with greater cordiality and 
hospitality than by these people, and their old customs 
are plainly traceable in the manner of keeping the day 
still in vogue here. 

St. Valentine's day, called among the early Dutch here 
" Vrouwen dagh " or women's day, was a time of great 
hilarity among the young people. One peculiarity in 
their manner o( celebrating it is thus described by Fur- 
man: '' Every girl provided herself with a cord without a 
knot in the end, and on the morning of this day they 
would sally forth, and every lad whom they met was sure 
to have three or four smart strokes from the cord be- 
stowed on his shoulders. These we presume were 
in those days considered as 'love taps ' and in that light 
answered all the purposes of the " valentines ' of more 
modern times." 

Easter day, or " Pausch " (pronounced Paus), was ob- 
served by religious services as well as merrymakings, and 
these continued through Easter week. Among their 
customs was that of making presents to each other of 
colored eggs, called Easter eggs, and this still prevails 
among some of their descendants. 

" Pinckster dagh," or Pentecost, was once celebrated 
by the Dutch here on the first Monday in June by good 
cheer among neighbors, among which soft wafflis were 
peculiar to this festival. 

Among the Dutch people in the days of slavery the 
custom prevailed of presenting the children of their fe- 
male slaves, at the age of three years, to some young 
member of the family of the same sex, and the one to 
whom the child was presented at once gave it a piece of 
money and a pair of shoes, and this event was often fol- 
lowed by strong and lasting attachments between these 
domestics and their destined owners. 

Of the domestic, social and religious customs of the 
English or New England settlers on Long Island it is 
unnecessary to speak. Some of these customs, modified 
by changes in the surroundings of these people during 
more than two centuries, and by the increasing cosmopol- 
itanism of the American people, are still in vogue among 
their descendants — faint traces of a bygone age, but 
sufficiently distinct to indicate their Yankee origin. These 
characteristic Yankee customs are generally known. 

The peculiar circumstances by which these settlers 
were surrounded led to the adoption of some customs 
which have quite passed away as these surroundinfs have 
given place to others. 

Since very early times the species of gambling that is 
designated " turf sports " has been very prevalent on 



Long Island, and the files of old newspapers abound with 
notices of races that were to take place, or accounts of 
those that had occurred. Lotteries too were not only 
tolerated but were often instituted to raise money for 
erecting churches, or founding religious or benevolent 
associations. The latter form of gambling is now pro- 
hibited by law, but whether or not the moral sense of the 
people will ever frown down the former is an unsolved 

During many years whaling was an important industry 
on the southeastern coast of the island, and at intervals 
along the shore whaleboats were kept for launching 
whenever whales were sighted. Mr. Furman, in describ- 
ing a tour around Long Island in old times, says that there 
might be seen "occasionally, at long intervals, small 
thatched huts or wigwams on the highest elevations, with a 
staff projecting from the top. These huts were occupied, 
at certain seasons, by men on the watch for whales, and 
when they saw them blowing a signal was hoisted on this 
staff. Immediately the people would be seen coming 
from all directions with their whaling boats upon wagon 
wheels, drawn by horses or oxen, launch them from the 
beach, and be off in pursuit of the great fish. You would 
see all through this region these whaling boats turned 
upside down, lying upon a frame under the shade of some 
trees by the roadside, this being the only way in which 
they could keep them, having no harbors; four or five 
families would club together in owning one of these boats 
and in manning them." So much a standard industry 
was this that shares in the results of the fisheries were 
sometimes made portions of the salaries or perquisites of 
clergymen. In July 1699 it was said: " Twelve or thir- 
teen whales have been taken on the east end of the 
island." In 1711 it was reported that four whales were 
taken at Montauk, eight at Southampton, two at Moriches, 
two and a calf at Brookhaven, two at Islip, and one 
drift whale that yielded twenty barrels of oil. In 172 1 
it was said that forty whales had been taken on Long 
Island, but in 1722 only four were reported. In 1741 
they were reported as being more abufidant. The whales 
that formerly frequented this coast have long since been 
exterminated or driven away, though occasionally strag- 
glers have been seen in comparatively recent times. The 
New York Times of February 27th 1858 published the 
following from a correspondent in Southampton: "At 
noon to-day the horn sounded through the streets, which 
is the signal to look out for a whale. In a few minutes 
tough old whalemen enough had mustered on the beach 
to man several boats and push out into the surf in chase 
of three whales which were leisurely spouting in the 
ofifing. After an exciting but brief chase the lance 
touched the life of one of the three, who spouted claret 
and turned up dead. He was towed to the shore and 
will make — the judges say — forty barrels of oil." 

The taking of shellfish in the bays and on the coast 
has been an important and increasing industry, and the 
capture of fish for the expression of oil and the manufac- 
ture of fertilizers has come to be a business of some im- 

It was the custom of the Indians on this island before its 
settlement by the whites to annually burn the herbage on 
large portions of it, which were thus kept free from trees 
and underbrush. This enabled the early settlers to enter 
at once on the cultivation of the land, and to convert 
large tracts into common pastures. The arrest of the 
annual fires permitted underbrush to spring up in such 
profusion that the male inhabitants of the towns between 
the ages of sixteen and sixty were called out by the court 
of assize during four days of each year to cut away this 
growth. On the wooded portions of the island the timber 
was cut and converted into staves so rapidly by the early 
settlers that within the first twenty years the towns insti- 
tuted rules regulating or prohibiting the cutting of trees. 

At first the scarcity of a circulating medium compelled 
people to make exchanges in various kinds of produce, 
and this method necesitated the fixing of the value of 
produce, either by custom or law. The Indian sewant 
or wampum was very much used in the place of money, 
and both it and produce were used not only in business 
transactions but in the payment of taxes, fines etc. By 
reason of the facility with which the material could be 
procured the manufacture of wampum was sometimes 
engaged in by the whiles within the memory of some now 
living. John Jacob Astor employed men to manufacture 
it here, that he might send it to the northwest and ex- 
change it with the Indians there for furs. The following 
schedule of the value of produce in the middle and latter 
part of the seventeenth century, when this custom pre- 
vailed, is taken from Wood: " Pork per lb., 3 pence; beef, 
2; tallow, 6; butter, 6; dry hides, 4; green hides, 2; lard, 
6; winter wheat 4s. to 5s. per bush.; summer wheat, 3s. 6d. 
per bush.; rye, 2S. 6d. to 3s. 6d. per bush.; Indian corn, 
2S. 3d. to 2S. 6d. per bush.; oats, 2s. per bush." Stock in 
1665 was legally valued as follows: " Colts, one to two 
years, ;^3 each; two to three, ^/^ each; three to four, 
_^8; horses four years or more of age, ;^i2; bullocks, 
bulls or cows, four years or upward, ^£6 each; steers and 
heifers, one to two years, each £^1 los; two to three, jQi 
los.; three to four, ^4; goats, one year, 8s.; sheep, one 
year, 6s. 8d.; hogs, one year, £^x. These were the prices 
fixed for the guidance of the town authorities in receiving 
produce, etc., in payment of taxes. Produce in place of 
a circulating medium continued in use till about 1700, 
when money had become sufficiently abundant for the re- 
quirements of trade. Board was 5s. per week; meals 6d. 
each; lodgings, 2d. per night; beer, 2d. per mug; pasture 
per day and night, is.; labor per day, 2s. 6d. 

About the commencement of the present century 
President Dwight traversed the island, and said of it that 
by reason of its insular situation the people must always 
be contracted and limited in their views, affections and 
pursuits, that they were destitute of advantages that 
were calculated to awaken and diffuse information 
and energy, and if such were to spring up here they 
would emigrate, and that it must continue for an 
indefinite period to be a place where advantages that 
were enjoyed elsewhere would be imperfectly realized. 
Eighty years have passed, and one has only to glance 



over the island to see that his predictions have been 
very "imperfectly realized." Instead of becoming an 
intellectual waste by reason of its insularity, it has come 
to be the abode of wealth, refinement and intelligence, in 
a degree quite equal to that of any region in the country. 
The salubrity of its climate, its proximity to the great 
commercial metropolis of the country, the excellent fa- 
cilities for travel and communication which its railroad 
system affords, and its unsurpassed pleasure resorts and 
watering places, combine to make it one of the most de- 
sirable places of residence in the country; and year by 
year people tivail themselves more and more of these ad- 



fONG ISLAND was not the theater of hostil- 
ities during the French and Indian wars. 
Military operations were carried on along 
what was then the northern frontier of the 
colony, and each of the belligerents sent hos- 
tile expeditions into the territory of the other, but 
no force of the enemy ever penetrated to this 

Only very imperfect records retnain of the names and 
deeds of those from Long Island who had part in this 
war. It appears by an extract from the Assembly journal, 
made by H. Onderdonk jr., that in the war against France 
which had been proclaimed in 1744 an act was passed in 
1746 to raise _;^i3,ooo "for further fortifying the colony 
of New York, and for canceling the bills of credit. The 
quota of Queens was ^^487 9s. sd.; that of Kings ^^245 
i8s.; that of Suffolk ;£'433 6s. 8d. yearly for three years." 
In June of the same year Jonathan Lawrence, of Queens, 
and James Fanning, of Suffolk, were authorized to raise 
recruits. " In July Fanning had one hundred men mus- 
tered, of whom Hempstead sent seventy-eight and Jamaica 
twenty-two, under Captain Wraxhall." 

In August of the same year it was stated: " Five com- 
plete companies of the force raised in New York and 
Long Island for the expedition against the Canada border 
are now embarked for Albany, on their way to the place 
of rendezvous." 

In November 1747 an account was rendered by Lieu- 
tenant James Thorn of Colonel Hicks's regiment for 
Queens county "for forty-four days of service of himself 
and men in the fort at Schenectady," ;^ii3 9s. 6d. 

In June 1749 a public thanksgiving was appointed in 
the colony " for the late glorious peace;" which, however, 
does not appear to have proved glorious or permanent. 

After the declaration of war in 1755 a regiment was 
enlisted in New York city and its vicinity, which, under 
the command of Colonel William Cockroft, joined Gen- 

eral Johnson at the southern extremity of Lake George. 
In this regiment it is believed were many from Long 
Island. On the reception of the news of the battle of 
Lake George the inhabitants of Queens county sent a 
thousand sheep and seventy cheeses to the army, as a 
token of their approbation; and the county of Kings 
raised _;^57 6s. 4d. for the transportation of these sheep to 

In 1756 Captains Thomas Williams and Potter raised 
companies in Suffolk and Queens counties, and joined the 
British forces near Lake George. In March 1757 it was 
stated that " to the French and Indian war Queens county 
sends thirty-eight men; Suffolk thirty-eight; Kings eight. 
It must be remembered that at that time the population of 
this island was a large proportion of that of the whole 
colony; and when, in the years 1758-60, provincial troops 
were called for to assist the regular forces in their oper- 
ations against the French, the quota of New York was 
1680, of which the allotment of Long Island was about 
one fourth, or 657. Of these 300 were assigned to Queens, 
289 to Suffolk, and 68 to Kings. In the attempt to reduce 
Fort Ticonderoga, in 1758, nnd in :he expedition of Col- 
onel Bradstreet immediately afterward against Fort 
Frontenac, there were from Long Island, Lieutenant Col- 
onel Isaac Corsa, Major Nathaniel Woodhull, Captains 
Elias Hand, Richard Hewlett, and Daniel Wright, and 
Lieutenants Ephraim Morse and Dow Ditmars, with 
many soldiers. In the attack on Fort Frontenac Colonel 
Corsa with his Long Island men did efficient service. 
He volunteered to erect a battery, which he did, under 
the fire of the enemy, during the night of August 26th; 
and on the morning of the 27th the cannonade from this 
battery compelled an immediate surrender. 

At the reduction of Fort Niagara' in 1759 there were 
several hundred soldiers from Long Island, a portion of 
whom were commanded by Captain Ephraim Morse, who 
had been promoted; George Dunbar and Roeloff Duryea 
were his lieutenants. Honorable mention is made of the 
services of Captain Morse and his command in this cam- 
paign. On the 6tH of November in that year a public 
celebration of the victories of the British and colonial 
arms was held at Jamaica. Captain Morse was engaged 
in the campaign of 1760, with Roeloff Duryea and 
Abraham Remsen as his lieutenants. They were at the 
surrender of Montreal, in the autumn of that year, which 
completed the conquest of Canada. In addition to the 
officers already mentioned the names of the following are 
preserved: Captains PetrusStuyvesantand Daniel Wright; 
Lieutenants Daniel Wright, William Alges, David Jones, 
Morris Smith, James Cassidy, Isaac Seaman, Joseph 
Bedell, Michael Weeks, Edward Burk and John Dean; 
Sergeanis John Allison, Joseph Cassidy, James Palmer, 
Samuel Brown, Nicholas Wilson, Timothy Hill, Simeon 
Smith, George Dunbar, James Marr and Cornelius 
Turner; Corporals Daniel Southard, Cooper Brooks, John 
Halton, John Larabee, Isaac Totten, James Brown, Jere- 
miah Finch, John Walters and Matthew Robins, and 
drummer Benjamin Agens. 

During the war privateers occasionally made their apr 



pearance on the coast, to prey upon the commerce of 
New York and New England. Mr. Onderdonk records 
among his gleanings from the Postboy the following: 
"October 2Sth 1755.— Captain Wentworth, of Flushing, 
being at St. Thomas, mustered as many New Yorkers as 
he could find (twenty-four hands in all) and in his new ves- 
sel, indifferently mounted with great guns, put to sea in 
pursuit of a French privateer cruising off the harbor and 
chasing New York vessels, but the privateer thought fit 
to disappear." 

From time to time during the war troops were billeted 
on the inhabitants of the island or quartered among them; 
and their presence was not agreeable to the people, who 
feared the influence on their youth of soldiers who were 
uncontrolled by the restraints of public opinion. From 
the Assembly journal it appears that the sheriff from time 
to time presented bills for " lodging and victualling " these 
troops. These bills appear to have been paid to the 
sheriff, and the money to have been distributed 
among the people on whom the troops were 
billeted. In some cases the people petitioned the 
Assembly for relief from the burdens which the billeting 
of soldiers imposed on them. 

French prisoners also were brought hither and billeted 
on the inhabitants in different parts of the island, and 
many bills were rendered for the entertainment of these. 
It is said that the officers and men thus billeted passed 
their time and relieved the tedium of their imprisonment 
by hunting the game with which the island abounded, and 
engaging in other sports. When the treatment of these 
prisoners is contrasted with that of the prisoners in New 
York, or in the prison ships at the Wallabout during the 
Revolution, or with that of the Union prisoners at the 
south during the late civil war, the descendants of 
those early settlers of the island have no reason 
to blush because of the inhumanity of their ances- 

Prisoners — if they may be so termed — of another class 
were sent here during this war. When, in 1713, the prov- 
ince of Nova Scotia was acquired by Great Britain the 
French inhabitants, who were simple, quiet people, 
strongly attached to their ancient customs and religion, 
were permitted to retain their possessions on taking the 
oath of allegiance to the English government. This oath 
was not well kept, and on the breaking out of war it was 
deemed expedient to expatriate these people, who under 
the guise of neutrality gave aid to the enemy. Accord- 
ingly they were dispossessed of their houses, separated, 
and sent to widely distant regions. They were known 
here as the " neutral French," and were distributed 
among the people in different parts of the island. From 
the Assembly journal of July ist 1756 it appears that 
" the justices of Kings, Queens and Suffolk counties are 
empowered to bind out the neutral French from Nova 
Scotia who are distributed in said counties." It also 
appears that in November of the same year " bills were 
paid by order of the general Assembly for supporting the 
neutral French, brought here in May last and sent to the 



E hive mentioned the fact that on Long 
Island the first protest against taxation 
without representation was made. It was 
in 1691 that the first permanent assembly 
of representatives of the people was estab- 
d, and this was the first step in the direction 
of a free government in the colony of New York. 

The colonial governors had possessed very large — 
almost absolute — power, and that power had sometimes 
been arbitrarily exercised. The people's money had 
been used at the discretion of the governors, and, it was 
believed, had often been misapplied and embezzled. On 
application, in 1706, to Queen Anne the Assembly was 
authorized to appoint a treasurer to receive and disburse 
all money which was raised under its authority, and it 
accordingly "assumed general control of all the finances 
by making specific appropriations." In 1711 the Assem- 
'bly denied the right of the council (which was claimed) 
to alter revenue bills, asserting that the power of the 
council flowed from the pleasure of the prince, personified 
by the commission of the governor, but that the power of 
the Assembly, in relation to taxes, flowed from the choice 
of the people, who could not be divested of their money 
without their consent. 

From this time forward an almost constant struggle 
was going on between the crown, through its representa- 
tives — the governors — on one side.and the people,through 
their representatives — the Assembly — on the other. The 
governors sought to vex and coerce the Assembly into 
compliance with their demands, or to punish what they 
considered contumacy and contempt by frequent proro- 
gations and dissolutions. Under the absurd pretext 
that the colony had been planted and sustained in its 
infancy by the mother country, the right of almost ab- 
solute control over it afterward was claimed. The con- 
flict continued, with the result of constantly calling the 
attention of the people to the subject and leading them 
to investigate the principles which lie at the foundation 
of just government and the sources whence the powers 
of so-called rulers are derived. They thus came to know 
and appreciate the value of their rights, and thus was 
nurtured and developed the spirit of resistance to the ex- 
ercise of a power which they had come to believe had no 
just foundation. This conflict between the spirit of 
liberty and the encroachments of arbitrary power cul- ■ 
minated in the resistance, on the part of the colonies, to 
the oppressive acts of the crown and Parliament of Great 
Britain that inaugurated the Revolution. 

It must be remembered that during all this conflict the 
inhabitants of Long Island constituted a large proportion 
of the colony, and even in 1787 more than one-fifth of 
the tax of the State was assessed to the counties of Kings, 



Queens and Suffolk. Their resistance to the encroach- 
ments of regal power was as uncompromising as that of 
the people of other regions; though, by the force of cir- 
cumstances, many were loyalists during the Revolutionary 
struggle. Because of their well known conservative 
character the Dutch on the western end of the island 
were averse to engaging in a rebellion in which it required 
no extraordinary prescience to enable them to predict 
immediate serious consequences, and probable ultimate 
failure. They desired, as they had always, to pursue the 
even tenor of their way and make the best of the circun:i- 
stances by which they were surrounded, rather than to 
seek a change the result of which appeared to them 
doubtful. A different people inhabited Suffolk county. 
They were the descendants of the original Puritans, in 
whom resistance to oppression was almost an instinct; 
and, had circumstances permitted, they would have been 
rebels with as great unanimity as were the New Eng- 
landers. In Queens county the loyal sentiment was 
always largely in the ascendant, though, had circumstances 
favored, the rebel feeling would have become dominant 
here. It must be remembered that Long Island had 
about 300 miles of vulnerable coast, which could not have 
been successfully defended against a marine force. 
Thompson says: 

" Motives of personal safety and the preservation of 
their property would necessarily induce many either to 
remain inactive or join with the ranks of the opposition. 
Others, and those not inconsiderable in number, were de- 
sirous for the opportunity of rioting upon the property of 
their neighbors, thereby benefitting themselves without 
the liability of punishment; and it so happened that more 
frequent and daring outrages upon persons and property 
were practiced by our own citizens than by many who had 
come 3,000 miles to force our submission to the tyranny 
of a foreign master. The engagement of the 27th of 
August 1776 was followed by an abandonment of Long 
Island to the enemy; and the town and county committees 
in many instances, either through fear or necessity, were 
induced to repudiate all legislative authority exercised by 
the provincial and legislative Congresses. The inhabi- 
tants who continued on the island were compelled to 
subscribe to the oath of fidelity to the king. General 
Howe had, immediately on landing at Gravesend, issued 
a proclamation promising security of person and property 
to those who should remain peaceably upon their farms. 
The island became therefore at once a conquered territory, 
forts being erected and garrisons established in different 
places. Martial law prevailed, the army became a sanc- 
tuary for criminals of every grade, and means the most 
despicable were resorted to for increasing the numerical 
force of the enemy. Those inhabitants who had thereto- 
fore taken an active part as officers of militia and com- 
mitteemen deemed it most imprudent to remain, and con- 
sequently took refuge within the American lines, leaving 
the greater part of their property exposed to the ravages 
of an unprincipled foe. The British commanders were 
exorbitant and exaclious, requiring the more peaceable 
and unoffending inhabitants to perform every species of 
personal service; to labor on the forts, to go with their 
teams on foraging parties, and transporting cannon, am- 
munition, provisions and baggage from one place to 
another at the option of every petty officer. The enemy 
took possession of the best rooms in their houses, and 
obliged the owners to provide them accommodations and 
support for men and horses. The property of those who 

had fled from their homes, and especially those engaged 
in the American service, was particularly the object of 
rapine, and in many instances the damages were immense. 
Woods and fences were lavishly used for fuel, and in any 
other way which served the purposes of those stationed 
in the neighbprhood, as well as for the garrisons of Brook- 
lyn and New York. Churches and places for religious 
worship were desecrated for any objects which suited the 
convenience of the army, except those of the Episcopal- 
ians, which were, it seems, scrupulously regarded, doubt- 
less in pursuance of governmental instructions, their 
members (upon Long Island) being in general in the 
interest of England. 

" When the British army invaded Long Island, in 1776, 
many persons who belonged to the island and had joined 
the British forces on Staten Island landed with the in- 
vading army. Those royalists were ordered to wear red 
rags in their hats, as badges of friendship, to distinguish 
them from the rebels. The red rag men proceeded with 
the army in every direction, giving information against 
every person whom they disliked, and causing them to be 
plundered, imprisoned and tormented at their pleasure. 

" Shortly after the army landed General Howe ordered 
that every inhabitant who desired favor should attend at 
headquarters and receive a certificate of protection. 
Many obeyed as friends, and many from fear, but the 
greatest number remained at home. Every one who at- 
tended at headquarters was ordered to mount a red rag 
in his hat. When those persons who remained at home 
found out that there was magic in a red rag they all 
mounted the badge; negroes, boys, old and young wore 
rid rags. These badges of submission soon produced a 
scarcity of the needful article, and then, forsooth, red 
petticoats suffered. Many were torn into shreds for hat 
bands, and those who wore them were held in derision 
by the British and called the petticoat gentry." 

It has always been said of the loyalists or tories on 
this island that they were guilty of greater atrocities 
toward the rebels or Whigs than were the British soldiers 
who were sent to reduce the rebellious colonies to sub- 
jection; and this was doubtless in many instances true, 
for these soldiers were under military discipline, and, to 
some extent at least, were held to an observance of the 
rules of civilized warfare. The tories carried on hostil- 
ities without any such restraint, and the worst among 
them formed marauding bands who, under the pretense 
of loyalty, plundered and often murdered their rebellious 
neighbors. On the other hand it is a matter of history 
that the Whigs were not behindhand in carrying on this 
predatory kind of warfare. Parties from the New Eng- 
land States crossed the sound and united with some of 
the worst characters among the Whigs on the island to 
plunder the tories, or to kill or make prisoners of them. 
Similar expeditions were made from New Jersey. 

A century has passed since the Revolutionary struggle, 
and scarcely a word has been uttered in condemnation or 
even mild censure of the lawless acts and crimes of the 
patriots, while, on the other hand, not even an apology is 
offered for any of the deeds of the tories. In this case, 
as in many others, success or failure is the criterion by 
which they are judged, and the measure of praise be- 
stowed or of reproach heaped on them. In the American 
colonies the spirit of liberty had been developed more 
than a century, and when the mother country sought by 
her unjust, arbitrary and oppressive acts to crush out 



this spirit open resistance followed, and a nation was es- 
tablished which has astonished the world by its rapid 
growth and prosperity, and has solved the previously 
doubtful problem of man's capacity for self-government. 
Unmeasured praise is lavished on those who achieved the 
success which has led to this stupendous result, the mo- 
tives by which some of them may have been actuated are 
never questioned, and no word of censure is ever applied 
to any of their acts. Had the rebellion failed, had the 
authority of the parent country been re-established, and 
had the American colonies grown great under English 
rule, there is no reason to doubt that the loyalists would 
have been recorded in history as the conservators of the 
blessings by which they were surrounded, the friends of 
good order, and the foes of that anarchy which the rebels 
sought to establish; and that the Whigs would, even now, 
be stigmatized as traitors who sought to subvert the au- 
thority of a beneficent government and inaugurate a reign 
of lawlessness, and that their acts would by many be con- 
sidered execrable crimes against humanity. 

As before stated, many of the inhabitants of the island 
were tories because of the force of circumstances. Policy 
or fear prompted them to give their adhesion to a cause 
which they would not otherwise have embraced; and by 
association they ultimately came to be earnest supporters 
of that with which they had at first no sympathy. In this 
case, as in every similar one, a large class were noisy adher- 
ents of the crown because the popular current bore them 
unresistingly in that direction; while their honest convic- 
tions of right prompted a portion to remain loyal to the 
government of Great Britain. In other regions the rebels 
or Whigs were influenced by similar motives, though a 
much larger proportion of them than of the tories here were 
controlled by principle. When people learn to look with 
more charity on those who differ with them in opinion, 
and to recognize in others the same freedom of thought 
which they claim for themselves, this will be a better 
world than it now is. 

Lawless bands, both of tories and Whigs, who were 
not controlled by military discipline, committed robberies 
and even murders with impunity. There is hardly a town 
on the island the history of which in that period does not 
contain accounts of raids by these marauders. Thompson 

"Most parts of the island, and particularly along the 
sound, suffered greatly from depredations of little bands 
of piratical plunderers designated ' whaleboat men,' from 
the fact of their craft resembling those used in whaling 
along shore. With these they would make frequent de- 
scents under cover of night, attack detached houses, rifle 
the inhabitants of their money, plate, and other valuables, 
and, availing themselves of the speed of their vessels, 
reach their lurking places among the islands of the sound, 
or upon the main shore, before any effectual means could 
be taken to intercept them. Indeed, so great was the 
apprehension of these sudden attacks that many of the 
inhabitants had their doors and windows protected by 
iron bars; and it became usual for people to pass the 
nights in the woods and other secret places, to avoid 

In many cases these whaleboat men were downright 
robbers and pirates, who plundered Whigs and tories 

without discrimination, and were often guilty of murder, 
either wantonly or under some flimsy pretext. Besides 
these whaleboat marauders, who infested the shores for 
purposes of robbery, there were those who were known 
as whaleboat privateers, who prowled around the western 
end of the island and greatly annoyed British troops 
there and at New York, as well as the shipping in the 
harbor and vicinity. Many vessels were captured or de- 
stroyed by them, and many officers and prominent loyal- 
ists made prisoners. At times they rendered the waters 
in this region unsafe except for large vessels, and unavail- 
ing efforts were made to destroy them. It must be ad- 
mitted that they were not always over scrupulous in their 
transactions. Space will not permit a recital of their 
many adventures here. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution the strong tory pro- 
clivities of a majority of the people in Kings and Queens 
counties became known to the Revolutionary leaders and 
the Provincial Congress. Active and in some cases 
rather unscrupulous efforts were made to crush out this 
feeling, but without success. English ships of war were 
cruising off the southern coast, and with these the tories 
maintained communication in spite of the vigilance of the 
rebels who then had possession of the island. Attempts 
to disarm these tories were only partially successful, and 
the arms taken from them were speedily replaced from 
the British ships cruising off the coast. The enforcement 
of a draft was also a failure, though the recusant tories, 
who were termed deserters, were hunted in their hiding 
places in the swamps and elsewhere like wild beasts. 
Doubtless this active persecution by the Whigs was not 
forgotten by the tories when their time of triumph came. 

Although in Kings and Queens counties the loyal sen- 
timent was from the first largely in the ascendant, Suffolk 
early gave evidence of her adhesion to the republican 
cause. Says Field: 

"Out of its whole population of freeholders and adult 
male inhabitants, numbering 2,834 between the ages of six- 
teen and sixty, only 236 were reckoned as being of 
loyalist proclivities. The enrolled militia of the county 
exceeded 2,000, of whom 393 officers and privates were 
in the ranks of Colonel Smith's regiment, the best disci- 
plined and armed on the island. It was the only one 
which could be considered in any form to have survived 
the shock of the 27th of August, and only a small part 
even of this body ever did service after that fatal day. 

" In Queens county the whole force of the Whigs which 
could be mustered under arms was insufficient to overawe 
their loyalist neighbors. Seventeen hundred and seventy 
ablebodied men among her citizens were enrolled on the 
roster of her militia, while only 379 were by the most 
stringent measures induced to appear in arms." 

The comparative numerical strength of the Whigs and 
tories in Kings county is not known. It is certain, how- 
ever, that the tory element was largely in the ascendant. 

Early in 1776 a conspiracy was discovered, in which 
the leading loyalists on Long Island bore a conspicuous 
part. Governor Tryon, who had been for some time on 
board the English man-of-war "Asia," cruising off the 
coast, and whose gubernatorial functions were exercised 
in the cabin of that vessel, was probably among the chief 
of those who concocted the plot. Though the conspiracy 



had extensive ramifications, Long Island was to be the 
principal theater of the events which were to be accom- 
plished, and a majority of the leading conspirators were 
residents of Kings and Queens counties. The timely 
discovery of the conspiracy and the frustration of the 
conspirators' designs prolonged the rule of the rebels on 
the island for a brief time, but the plans of the conspira- 
tors were in part followed when the island was invaded 
by Lord Howe in the succeeding August. 




N June nth 1776 the British army, which had 
a short time previously evacuated Boston^ 
where it had been closely besieged by the 
Americans, sailed from Halifax for New York 
harbor. The strategic importance of this 
point had long been apparent to the British 
commander, and it had been foreseen by Wash- 
ington that this would be the next point attacked. The 
plan of the British campaign was to possess New York 
and Long Island with an army of about 35,000 men; then 
to ascend the Hudson river and effect a junction with an 
army of some 13,000 that was to pass the lakes, penetrate 
to the Hudson and descend that river. The eastern 
provinces were thus to be divided from the middle and 
southern, and active operations were at the same time to 
be carried on at the south, and thus the rebellion was to 
be crushed in a single campaign. The failure of the 
southern campaign before the arrival of Howe at New 
York and the interruption of the Canadian army at the 
lakes frustrated the British commander's plan for the 
speedy subjugation of the rebellious colonies. 

As early as the preceding March Washington had or- 
dered the commencement of fortifications at Brooklyn, 
and when, after the sailing of the British fleet from 
Halifax, it became certain that this was to be the next 
point of attack, the work was pushed with the utmost 
vigor. To prevent the sailing of the fleet at once into 
the East River, and the immediate possession by the 
enemy of Brooklyn Heights, obstructions were placed in 
the river, of such a character as to be thought by both 
parties impassable, though at the present day they would 
not be looked on as formidable. 

On the 29th of June the fleet from Halifax entered the 
lower bay of New York. It was at first the intention of 
General Howe to land at once on Long Island at Grave- 
send Bay; but he was deterred from doing so by intelli- 
gence that was communicated to him, from spies, of the 
character of the defenses. On the ninth of July the Brit- 
ish troops were landed on Staten Island, where they re- 
raained during a month and a half, receiving reinforce- 

ments almost daily. The naval forces were under the 
command of Admiral Sir Richard Howe; and his brother, 
General William Howe, was in command of the land for- 
ces. Both were brave, skillful, and experienced oflficers, 
and the plan and conduct of the battle which followed 
fully sustained their good reputation. 

Space will not permit a detailed account of the defensive 
works which had been constructed on the heights of Brook- 
lyn and in its vicinity. In the construction of these works 
and in the disposition of the forces that were to man there 
the American officers found it necessary to provide a- 
gainst different possible plans of attack, and in doing so 
the effective American force of 20,000 men (the nominal 
force was 27,000) was extended from Kings Bridge, on 
Manhattan Island, and from the Wallabout Bay to Gow- 
anus Meadow, a line many miles in length. It is proper 
to say that the plan of these fortifications has since been 
made the subject of criticism. 

The transfer of the British from Staten Island to Long 
Island is thus described by Field: 

"The morning of the 22nd of August dawned, with 
tropical brilliancy, on a scene of unequaled interest to the 
spectators of both armies. T.onp; before the sun had risen 
the British army had been under arms, and from the vari- 
ous camps the entire force was marching, with the loud 
strains of martial music, to the place of embarkation. 
The men of war had quit their anchorage and were stand- 
ing up the bay under easy sail, with open ports and guns 
ready for action. At the landing on Staten Island seventy- 
five fleet boats, attended by three bateaux and two gal- 
leys, received four thousand of the Hessian troops on 
board, and at the firing of a signal gun their thousand 
oars dipped almost simultaneously into the waters of the 
bay. Another corps, of five thousand men, was embarked 
upon the transports which now took up their position 
under the guns of the men of war, attended by ten bat- 
eaux to aid in their landing. In another instant the sur- 
face of the bay between the two islands was covered with 
the flotilla rowing swiftly towards the Long Island shore. 
In advance sailed the galleys and bateaux over the shoal 
water where the great ships could not float, firing from 
their bow guns as they approached the land. The scene 
was not less magnificent than appalling. The greatest 
naval and military force which had ever left the shores 
of England was now assembled in the harbor of New 
York; for the mightiest power upon the globe had put 
forth its greatest strength to crush its rebellious colonies. 
Thirty-seven men of war guarded a transport fleet of four 
hundred vessels, freighted with enormous trains of artil- 
lery and every conceivable munition of war, with troops 
of artillery and cavalry horses, and provisions for the 
sustenance of the thirty-five thousand soldiers and sailors 
who had been borne across the ocean in their hulls. Amid 
all the stirring scenes which ninety years past have wit- 
nessed in the great metropolis of the western world, noth- 
ing which will compare in magnitude and grandeur with 
that upon which dawned the morning of the 22nd of Aug- 
ust 1776 has human eye since beheld in America." 

By noon 15,000 men and forty pieces of artillery had 
been landed at Denyse's dock, now Fort Hamilton, which 
was the landing of a ferry from Staten Island, and at 
what is now Bath. Hitherto the point of attack had 
been uncertain, but this landing of the enemy dispelled 
the uncertainty, and troops were hurried across from 
New York to reinforce those holding the defenses. The 



following account of the battle which followed is taken 
from Thompson's history of Long Island: 

"The English, having effected their landing, marched 
rapidly forward. The two armies were separated by a 
oJiain of hills, covered with woods, called the heights, and 
which, running from west to east, divide the island into 
two parts. They are only practicable upon tliree points, 
one of which is by the road leading from the Narrows to 
Brooklyn. The road leading to that of the center passes 
the village of Flatbush, and the third is approached, far 
to the right, by the route of a road from the village of 
Flatlands to East New York and Bedford. Upon the 
summit of the hills is found a road, which follows the 
length of the range, and leads from Bedford to Jamaica, 
which is intersected by the road last described; these 
ways are all interrupted by hills, and by excessively diffi- 
cult and narrow defiles. The American general, wishing 
to arrest the enemy upon these heights, had carefully 
furnished them with troops; so that, if all had done their 
duty, the English would not have been able to force the 
passage without extreme difficulty and danger. The 
posts were so frequent upon the road from Bedford to 
Jamaica that it was easy to transmit from one of these 
posts to the other the most prompt intelligence of what 
passed upon the three routes. Colonel Miles, with his 
battalion, was to guard the road of Flatlands, as well as 
that of Jamaica, and to reconnoitre the movements of the 

" Meanwhile the British army pressed forward, its left, 
wing being to the north and its right to the south; the 
village of Flatbush was found in its center. The Hessians, 
commanded by General De Heister, formed the main 
body; the English, under Major-General Grant, the left; 
and the other corps, conducted by General Clinton and 
the two Lords Percy and Cornwallis, composed the right. 
In this wing the British generals had placed their prin- 
cipal hope of success; they directed it upon Flatlands. 
Their plan was that, while the corps of General Grant and 
the Hessians of General De Heister should disquiet the 
enemy upon the two first defiles, the right wing, taking a 
circuit, should march through Flatlands and endeavor to 
seize the point of intersection of this road with that of 
Jamaica, and then, rapidly descending into the plain 
which extends at the foot of the heights on the other 
side, should fall upon the Americans in flank and rear. 
The English hoped that, as this -post was most distant 
from the center of the army, the advanced guard would 
be found more feeble there, and perhaps more, negligent. 
Finally, they calculated that the Americans would not be 
able to defend it against a force so superior. This right 
wing of the English was the most numerous, and entirely 
composed of fresh troops. 

" On the evening of the 26th of August General Clinton 
commanded the vanguard, which consisted of light 
infantry; Lord Percy the center, where were found the 
grenadiers, the artillery and the cavalry; and Cornwallis 
the rearguard, followed by the baggage, some regiments 
of infantry and of heavy artillery. All this part of the 
English army put itself in motion with admirable order 
and silence, and leaving Flatlands traversed the country 
called New Lots. Colonel Miles, who this night per- 
formed his service with little exactness, did not perceive 
the approach of the enemy; so that two hours before day 
the English were already within half a mile of the road 
to Jamaica, upon the heights. Then General Clinton 
halted and prepared himself for the attack. He had met 
one of the enemy's patrols, and made him prisoner. 
General Sullivan, who commanded all the troops in ad- 
vance of the camp of Brooklyn, had no advice of what 
passed in this quarter. He neglected to send out fresh 
scouts; perhaps he supposed the English would direct 

their principal efforts against his right wing as being the 
nearest to them. 

" General Clinton, learning from his prisoners that the 
road to Jamaica was not guarded, hastened to avail him- 
self of the circumstance, and occupied it by a rapid move- 
ment: Without loss of time he immediately bore his left 
toward Bedford, and seized an important defile which the 
Americans had left unguarded. From this moment the 
success of the day was decided in favor of the English. 
Lord Percy came up with his corps, and the entire col- 
umn descended by the village of Bedford from the 
heights into the plain which lay between the hills and the 
camp of the Americans. During this time General Grant, 
in order to amuse the enemy and divert his attention from 
the events which took place upon the route of Flatlands, 
endeavored to quiet him on his right. Accordinly, as if 
he intended to force the defile which led to it, he had put 
himself in motion about midnight and had attacked the 
militia of New York and Pennsylvania who guarded 
it. They at first gave ground; but. General Parsons bemg 
arrived and having occupied an eminence, he renewed 
the combat and maintained his position until Brigadier- 
General Stirling came to his assistance with 1,500 men. 
The action became extremely animated, and fortune 
favored neither the one side nor the other. The Hes- 
sians, on their part, had attacked the center at break of 
day; and tlie Americans, commanded by General Sullivan 
in person, valiantly withstood their efforts. At the same 
time the British ships, after having made several move- 
ments, opened a very brisk cannonade against a battery 
established in the little island of Red Hook, upon the 
right flank of the Americans who combated against Gen- 
eral Grant. This was also a diversion, the object of which 
was to prevent them ffom attending to what passed in 
the center and on the left. The Americans defended 
themselves however with extreme gallantry, ignorant that 
so much valor was exerted in vain since victory was al- 
ready in the hands of the enemy. General Clinton, being 
descended into the plain, fell upon the left flank of the 
center, which was engaged with the Hessians. He had 
previously detached a small "corps in order to intercept 
the Americans. 

"As soon as the appearance of the light infantry ap- 
prized them of their danger they sounded the retreat and 
retired in good order toward their camp, bringing off 
their artillery. But they soon fell in with theparty of the 
royal troops which had occupied the ground in their rear, 
and who now charged them with fury. They were com- 
pelled to throw themselves into the neighboring woods, 
where they met again with the Hessians, who repulsed 
them upon the English; and thus the Americans were 
driven several times by the one against the other with 
great loss. They continued for some time in this desper- 
ate situation, till at length several companies, animated 
by a heroic valor, opened their way through the midst of 
the enemy and gained the camp of General Putnam, while 
others escaped through the woods. The inequality of 
the ground, the great number of positions which it of- 
fered, and the disorder that prevailed throughout the line 
were the causes that for several hours divers partial com- 
bats were maintained, in which many of the Americans fell. 

"Their left wing and center being discomfited, the 
English, desirous of a complete victory, made a rapid 
movement against the rear of the right wing, which, in ig- 
norance of the misfortune which had befallen the other 
corps, was engaged with General Grant. Finally, having 
received the intelligence, they retired. But, encountering 
the English, who cut off their retreat, a part of the sol- 
diers took shelter in the woods; others endeavored to make 
their way through the marshes of Gowanus cove, but here 
some were drowned in the waters or perislied in the mud. 



A very small number only escaped the hot pursuit of the 
victors and reached the camp in safety. The total loss 
of the Americans in this battle was estimated at more 
than three thousand men, in killed, wounded, and pris- 
oners. Among the last were found General Sullivan and 
Brigadier General Lord Stirling. Almost the entire regi- 
ment of Maryland, consisting of young men of the best 
families of that province, was cut to pieces. Six pieces 
of cannon fell into the power of the victors. The loss of 
the English was very inconsiderable. In killed, wounded 
and prisoners it did not amount to four hundred men. 

"The enemy encamped in front of the American lines, 
and on the succeeding night broke ground within six 
hundred yards of a redoubt on the left, and threw up a 
breastwork on the Wallabout heights upon the Debevoise 
farm, commenced firing on Fort Putnam, and reconnoi- 
tered the American forces. The Americans were here 
prepared to receive them, and orders were issued to the 
men to reserve their fire till they could see the eyes of 
the enemy. A few of the British officers reconnoitered 
the position; and one on coming near was shot by 
Willam Van Cott, of Bushwick. The same afternoon 
Captain Rutgers, brother of Colonel Rutgers, also fell. 
Several other British troops were killed, and the column 
which bad incautiously advanced fell back beyond the 
the range of the American fire." 

It has been truly said that previous to the battle on Long 
Island there existed an uncertainty which of two move- 
ments that seemed equally to promise good results would 
be chosen by the British commander, and that it was 
Washington's misfortune to be compelled to act as though 
certain that both would be adopted. On the 29th of 
August that uncertainty had been removed. The battle 
had been fought, and what remained of the American 
army, dejected and dispirited, was confronted by the vic- 
torious and exultant hosts of the enemy. With these in 
their front, and the river, which might at any time be en- 
tered by the war vessels lying below should wind and 
tide favor, in their rear, it has been a matter of much 
wonder to many that a sagacious leader like Washington 
should hesitate a moment in his determination. On the 
afternoon of that day a council of war was convened in 
the Pierrepont mansion, near where the foot bridge 
crosses Montague street. This council unanimously de- 
tided to abandon the lines at Brooklyn and retreat across 
the river, and made a memorandum of the reason for so 
deciding. Field gives the following excellent descrip- 
tion of the arrangements for this retreat: 

"The preparations for this important movement, 
scarcely less fraught with danger than its alternative, were 
entered upon with the profoundest caution and secrecy. 
Everything which could convey the slightest intimation 
of the design to the enemy was carefully avoided; and 
never, perhaps, for a movement so important, were the 
plans more skillfully devised, or the performance of them 
more exact, where a thousand untoward events might 
have destroyed them. It was little that the boats for 
transporting the army were abundant in New York. 
They must be gathered with expedition and secrecy, and 
the troops transferred to the opposite shore during the 
short night of midsummer. Even the management of the 
boats by skilled oarsmen was important, for that service 
could not be left to the clumsiness of common soldiers. 
Fortunately the necessities of the occasion were not 
greater than the means at hand for meeting them. Col- 
onel Glover's Marblehead regiment provided seven hun- 

dred of the ablest men for this service, whose stout arms 
could safely and swiftly pass the men through the dense 
fog; and they were accordingly v/ith drawn from the ex- 
treme left of the line for that purpose. 

"At the same time that all the troops were warned to 
prepare for an attack upon the enemy, orders were quietly 
communicated to the alternate regiments along the front 
to fall in line; and long before those on the right and 
left were aware of any movement' their comrades had 
silently moved away into the darkness, and the void was 
only felt, without being known. Often the first intimation 
that adjoining regiments received of the departure of 
those on their right and left was the whispered order to 
extend their own lines, and cover the space so mys- 
teriously vacated. Again and again was this maneuver 
performed on the constantly thinning line; and one reg- 
iment after another flitted away into the gloom, until 
nothing but a long line of sentinels occupied the breast- 
works, and preserved the empty show of a defense." 

So well was this retreat planned and so skillfully was 
the plan executed, that not only had the enemy no inti- 
mation of what was transpiring, but the men in the 
American army believed that these maneuvers portended 
a general assault on the lines of the enemy on the morrow. 
There were instances of mistakes and of a want of caution, 
but fortunately none-of them seriously embarrassed the 
movement. A heavy fog, which hung over the island 
toward morning, concealed the movements of the retreat- 
ing troops from their enemies, who were so near that the 
sounds of their pickaxes and shovels could be distinctly 
heard. Not only were all the details of this retreat 
planned by the commander-in-chief, but the movement 
was executed under his immediate superintendence. 

After this evacuation of the island by the American 
forces it remained in the possession of the British and 
tories. Such of the patriots as had been active became 
exiles from their homes, which were plundered, and if 
they returned they were imprisoned; but, as before 
stated, those wearing red badges enjoyed immunity. 
Had the advantage gained by the English in this battle 
been followed up at once by the passage of the slender 
barrier, and the entrance of the ships of war into the 
East River, the American army must inevitably have been 
captured or annihilated; a result which the delay of a few 
hours in the retreat would have insured, for the British 
fleet below was preparing to weigh anchor for that purpose. 

Thompson says: " The unfortunate issue of the battle 
of Long Island is doubtless due to the illness of General 
Greene. He had superintended the erection of the works 
and become thoroughly acquainted with the ground. In 
the hope of his recovery Washington had deferred sending 
over a successor till the urgency of affairs made it 
absolutely necessary, and then General Putnam took 
command without any previous knowledge of the posts 
which had been fortified beyond the lines, or of the places 
by which the enemy could make their approach, nor had 
he time to acquire the knowledge before the action." 

The defeat of the American forces in this battle re- 
moved the restraint which had kept in check the strong 
feeling of loyalty in Queens county, and in the following 
autumn about fourteen hundred signed a declaration of 
loyalty and petition for protection. 





^T has already been stated that in the eastern 
half of the island, previous to the battle of 
August 27th, the feeling of loyalty to the 
crown of Great Britain was very weak. Meet- 
ings were held in the different towns and 
districts in the county of Suffolk, at which res- 
olutions were adopted expressive of sympathy with 
the cause. of the rebels; and committees of correspondence, 
as they were termed, were appointed to represent them 
in county conventions and to devise such measures as the 
welfare of the country seemed to demand. In a county 
convention of these committees as early as 1774 resolu- 
tions were adopted recommending aid to the poor of 
Boston, and approving the doings of the Continental 
Congress. In the provincial convention for the appoint- 
ment of delegates to the Continental Congress Suffolk 
county was represented by Colonel William Floyd, Col- 
onel Nathaniel Woodhull, Colonel Phineas Fanning* 
Thomas Tredwell and John Sloss Hobart. 

During the summer of 1775 British vessels prowled 
about the east end of the island, and occasionally raided 
on and carried away the stock. To guard against these, 
troops that had been raised were retained and others 
were sent, but considerable depredations were committed 
on Fisher's and Gardiner's Islands, and still more efficient 
measures were adopted for protection. After the decla- 
ration of independence by the Continental Congress and 
the approval of this action by the Provincial Congress 
the enthusiasm of the Whigs in this part of the island 
rose to a high pitch. Public demonstrations were made, 
and in one instance at least the effigy of George III. was 
publicly hanged and burned. 

The evacuation of Xong Island by the continental 
forces and its possession by the British after the battle of 
Brooklyn quenched this enthusiasm in a great measure. 
The regular continental troops withdrew from the island, 
and the militia disbanded. The peaple submitted to the 
inevitable condition, the actions of the committees were 
revoked, and no further public demonstration of sympathy 
with the rebels took place. Those who had been active, 
open rebels fled, and their property was unceremoniously 
taken. In the autumn of 1776 upward of six hundred in 
Snffolk county signed a testimonial of submission and 
allegiance to the British crown, and so far as open rebel- 
lion was concerned the subjugation of this part of the 
island was complete. This submission, however, was 
made by many under the force of circumstances and with 
large mental reservations. 

During the remainder of the Revolution the condition 
of the people in this part of the island was insecure. To 
insure the doubtful loyalty of a portion of the inhabitants 
British troops, the ranks of which were increased by en- 

listments from among the tories, were stationed at differ- 
ent points, and against the lawlessness of these there was 
no protection. Robbery was carried on by marauding 
gangs under the guise of Whig or tory partisanship, and 
frequent raids were made by parties of continental troops 
from the Connecticut shore of the sound, although noth- 
ing occurred which can justly be dignified by the name 
.of a battle. A few of these may be mentioned here. In 
November 1776 three or four hundred troops crossed 
from New Haven to Setauket, where a sharp skirmish 
was had with a detachment of General Howe's troops. 
Eight or ten of the British troops were killed, and 23 
prisoners and 75 muskets taken. 

In April 1777 an expedition was planned by General 
Parsons, the object of which was to destroy a quantity 
of forage and provisions that had been collected at Sag 
Harbor. For that purpose a party of two hundred men, 
under Colonel Meigs, crossed the sound from New Haven 
on the 23d of May in whaleboats. They secreted their 
boats about three miles from Sag Harbor; marched to 
the village, arriving at 2 a.m.; impressed guides, by 
whom they were conducted to the quarters of the com- 
manding officer, whom they captured; forced the outpost 
by a bayonet charge and proceeded to the wharf, where 
in three-fourths of an hour, although under the fire of an 
armed schooner one hundred and fifty yards away, they 
burned twelve brigs and sloops, one hundred and twenty 
tons of hay and a quantity of grain, and destroyed ten 
hogsheads of rum and a quantity of merchandise. They 
also killed six of the enemy, took ninety prisoners, and 
returned after an absence of a little more than twenty- 
four hours without the loss of a man. For this service 
Congress presented a sword to Colonel Meigs, and Gen- 
eral Washington, in a letter, complimented General 

In August 1777 General Parsons organized an expe- 
dition of about one hundred and fifty men to break up a 
British outpost at Setauket, where a Presbyterian church 
had been fortified by surrrounding it with an embank- 
ment six feet in height and placing swivels in four of the 
gallery windows. After an engagement of two or three 
hours with the loss of only four men General Parsons 
withdrew, fearing his retreat might be cut off by the cap- 
ture of his sloop and boats. It is a notable fact that one 
of the volunteers in this expedition, Zachariah Green 
was twenty years afterward installed a minister of this 
same church. 

In the autumn of 1780 Major Benjamin Tallraadge 
planned and successfully executed one of the most 
audacious exploits accomplished on the island during the 
war. At Smith's Point, Mastic, on the south side of the 
island, an enclosure of several acres had been made, tri- 
angular in form, with strongly barricaded houses at two 
of the angles, and a fort, ninety feet square, protected by 
an abattis, at the other. The fort was completed and 
garrisoned by about fifty men, and in it two guns were 
mounted. On the 21st of November Major Tallmadge 
embarked at Fairfield, Conn., with eighty dismounted 
dragoons, and landed at 9 in the evening at Mount Sinai, 



where the boats were secured. They attempted to cross 
the island, but a rain storm drove them back to their 
boats and kept them there till 7 the next evening, when 
they again set out. At 3 the next morning they arrived 
within two miles of the fort (which was called Fort 
George), and arranged to attack it simultaneously at 
three points, which was done. A breach was made, the 
enclosure entered, and the main fort carried at the point 
of the bayonet without the firing of a gun, the two other 
attacking parties mounting the ramparts at the same time 
with shouts. They were fired on from one of the houses, 
but they forcibly entered it and threw some of their as- 
sailants from the chamber windows. With none killed 
and only a few slightly wounded they destroyed the fort, 
burned a vessel and took fifty-four prisoners and a 
quantity of merchandise, with which they returned. A 
party of ten or twelve, with Major Tallmadge, visited 
Coram and burned some four hundred tons of hay. For 
this exploit Major Tallmadge was commended in a letter 
by General Washington. 

A year later Major Tallmadge sent a party of 150 
under Major Trescott to destroy Fort Slongo, in the 
northwestern part of Smithtown. The force crossed from 
Saugatuck River in the night, attacked and destroyed the 
fort, which was garrisoned by 140 men, burned the block- 
house, destroyed two iron guns, killed four and wounded 
two of the enemy, took twenty-one prisoners, one brass 
field piece and seventy muskets; and. returned with none 
killed and but one seriously wounded. 

In 1778 a fort was erected on Lloyd's Neck by the 
British for the protection of wood cutters and djfense 
against raiders from the mainland. An unsuccessful 
attack was made on this fort on the 12th of July 1781, by 
a force of French under Count de Barras, assisted by 
American volunteers. In this affair a few of the assail- 
ants were wounded and one or two killed. 

Allusion has been made to the fact that the restraints 
of military discipline prevented the British troops on the 
island, during its long occupation by them, from the per- 
petration of such atrocities as the lawless marauding 
bands of tories or piratical whaleboat crews were guilty 
of. The following, from the pen of the excellent historian 
Henry Onderdonk jr., of Jamaica, is quoted as an illus- 
tration of this: 

"Billeting Soldiers. — During the summer British troops 
were off the island on active service, or if a few remained 
here they abode under tents; but in winter they were 
hutted on the sunny side of a hill, or else distributed in 
farmers' houses. A British officer, accompanied by a jus- 
tice of the peace or some prominent loyalist as a guide, 
rode around the country, and from actual inspection de- 
cided how many soldiers each house could receive, and 
this number was chalked on the door. The only notifi- 
cation was: 'Madam, we have come to take a billet on 
your house.' If a house had but one fireplace it was 
passed by, as the soldiers were not intended to form part 
of the family. A double house for the officers or single 
house with a kitchen for privates was just the thing. The 
soldiers were quartered in the kitchen, and the inner 
door nailed up so that the soldiers could not intrude on 
the household. They, however, often became intimate 
with the family and sometimes intermarried. The Hes- 

sians were more sociable than the English soldiers, and 
often made little baskets and other toys for the children, 
taught them German and amused them in various ways, 
sometimes corrupting them by their vile language and 
manners. Any misconduct of the soldiers might be re- 
ported to their commanding officers, who usually did 
justice; but some offenses could not be p'roven, such as 
night stealing or damage done the house or to other prop- 
erty. As the soldiers received their pay in coin they were 
flush and paid liberally for what they bought, such as 
vegetables, milk, or what they could not draw with their 
rations. These soldiers were a safeguard against robbers 
and whaleboat men. Some had their wives with them, 
who acted as washerwomen, and sometimes in meaner 

" From a perusal of the orderly book of General De- 
lancey, it appears that he used every means to protect 
the persons and property of the inhabitants of Long 
Island from the outrages of British soldiers. They were 
not allowed to go more than half a mile from camp at 
daytime (and for this purpose the roll was called several 
times during the day), nor leave it under any pretext 
after sundown without a pass; but now and then they 
would slip out and rob. On the nth of June 1778 Mr. 
John Willett, of Flushing, was assaulted at his own house, 
at 1 1 o'clock at night by persons unknown but supposed 
to be soldiers from having bayonets and red clothes, who 
threatened his life and to burn his house. The general 
offered a reward of $10 to the person who should first 
make the discovery to Major Waller, and a like reward 
for the discovery of the person who robbed Mr. Willett 
on the 9th of June of two sheep, a calf and some poultry, 
as he was determined to inflict exemplary punishment 
and put a stop to practices so dishonorable to the King's 
service. Again, March 9th 1778, Mrs. Hazard, of New- 
town, having complained that the soldiers of the guard 
pulled down and burnt up her fence, that was near the 
guardhouse, the general at once issued an order to the 
officer that he should hold him answerable thereafter 
for any damage done the fences. So too if a soldier 
milked the farmers' cows, he should be punished without 
mercy; nor should he go in the h-ayfield and gather up 
new mown grass to make his bed of. Generally the 
farmers were honestly paid for whatever they sold. For 
instance, April 23d 1778, they were notified to call on 
Mr. Ochiltree, deputy commissary of forage at Flushing, 
with proper certificates and get payment for their hay." 

In January 1777 the American prisoners in New York 
were paroled and billeted on the people in Kings county. 
Of their situation there Colonel Graydon wrote: 

" The indulgence of arranging ourselves according to 
our respective circles of acquaintances was granted us, 
and Lieutenant Forrest and myself were billeted on Mr. 
Jacob Suydam, whose house was pretty large, consisting 
of buildings which appeared to have been erected at dif- 
ferent times. The front and better part was occupied by 
Mr. Theophilus Bache and family from New York. 
Though we were generally civilly enough received, it 
cannot be supposed we were very welcome to our Low 
Dutch host, whose habits were very parsimonious, and 
whose winter provision was barely sufficient for them- 
selves. They were, however, a people who seemed 
thoroughly disposed to submit to any power that might 
be imposed on them; and whatever might have been their 
propensities at an earlier stage of the contest, they were 
now the dutiful and loyal subjects of King George the 
III. Their houses and beds we found clean, but their 
living extremely poor. A sorry wash made up of a 
sprinkling of bohea and the darkest sugar, on the verge 
of fluidity, with half baked bread (fuel being very scarce) 



and a little stale butter, constituted our breakfast. At 
our first coming a small piece of pickled beef was occa- 
sionally boiled for dinner, but to the beef, which was soon 
consumed, there succeeded cleppers or clams; and our 
unvaried supper was suppaan or mush, sometimes with 
skimmed milk, but more generally with buttermilk blended 
with molasses.'which was kept for weeks in a churn, as 
swill is saved for hogs. I found it, however, after a little 
use, very eatable, and supper soon became my best meal. 
The religion of the Dutch, like their other habits, was 
unostentatious and plain; and a simple, silent grace be- 
fore meat prevailed at the table of Jacob Suydam. 
When we were all seated he suddenly clapped his hands 
together, threw his head on one side, closed his eyes, and 
remained mute and motionless for about a minute. His 
niece and nephew followed his example, but with such an 
eager solicitude that the copied attitude should be prompt 
and simultaneous as to give an air of absurdity to what 
might otherwise have been very decent." 

During the British occupation of Long Island illicit 
trade- was carried on between the people here and in 
Connecticut by means of many ingeniously devised plans- 
Previous to the separation of the colonies non-impor- 
tation associations had existed, and the patriotic colonists 
had accustomed themselves to drinking sage and sassafras 
tea and wearing homespun. After the separation no 
motive of patriotism stood in the way of indulgence in 
the use of British goods, and with the facilities which the 
long stretch of the north coast, with its numerous estuariesj 
inlets and harbors, and the narrow sound beyond, af- 
forded for smuggling, it is not surprising that Yankee 
shrewdness should elude the sleepy vigilance of govern- 
ernment officials, and the people of Connecticut come to 
be well supplied with goods that had been brought from 
New York ostensibly to supply the wants of loyal Long 
Islanders. All the ordinary devices of smuggling were 
resorted to, and even collusions were entered into with 
the so-called piratical- whaleboat men, and stores were 
robbed and the goods taken across the sound, the owners, 
of course, sharing the profits of the adventure. In many 
cases government officials winked at this trade, because 
it supplied necessaries that were difficult to procure 
otherwise. In some instances it was believed they were 
secretly interested in the transactions. By reason of the 
long sound coasf of Suffolk county and the secret rebel 
sympathies of many of its inhabitants a large share of 
this trade was done throught it. 

No chapter in the history of the American Revolution 
is more appalling or revolting to every human feeling 
than that which records the sufferings of the prisoners 
who fell into the hands of the British. In all cases of 
this kind the account which prisoners themselves give 
of their treatment should be taken with many grains of 
allowance, for they were very prone to exaggerate; but 
if the half of that which was related by American prisoners 
is true the inhumanity of their keepers was truly shock- 
ing. The capture of New York in September 1776 and 
of Fort Washington in November of the same year threw 
into the hands of the British a. large number of prisoners, 
which, added to those already in their hands, swelled the 
aggregate to about 5,000 in the city of New York. To 
the confusion and embarrassment which this sudden 

accumulation of prisoners necessitated were added 
the negligence of the British commander and the brutal- 
ity of Provost Marshal Cunningham and his subordi- 

But if the condition ot the prisoners in New York was 
pitiable that of the seamen confined in the prison ships at 
the Wallabout was horrible. The crowding together of 
many human beings in the hold of a ship, even with the 
best means of ventilation and the utmost care for their 
cleanliness and comfort, is disastrous to the health of 
those so situated. If then, as was the case with these 
prisoners, they are compelled to breath over and over 
again the pestilential emanations from their own bodies 
and from the filth by which they are surrounded, and to 
subsist on food .insufficient ifi quantity and almost poison- 
ous in quality, it is not a matter of wonder that, as was 
the case with those confined in these ships, few survive 
their imprisonment. From the autumn of 1776, when 
the British came in possession of New York, during six 
years one or more condemned hulks were stationed at the 
Wallabout, in which were confined such American seamen 
as were taken prisoners by the British. The first of these 
was the "Whitby," which was moored in the Wallabout 
in October 1776. In May 1777 two other large ships 
were also anchored there, one of which was burned in 
October of the same year, and the other in February 
1778. In April 1778 the old "Jersey " was moored there, 
and the "Hope" and the " Falmouth "—two so-called 
hospital ships — were stationed near. Up to the time 
when these hospital ships were stationed there no phy- 
sicians had been in attendance on the sick in the prison 
ships. Rev. Thomas Andros, of Berkley, Mass., was a 
prisoner on the old "Jersey," and relates his experience 
and observation as follows: 

" This was an old sixty-four gun ship, which through 
age had become unfit for further actual service. She was 
stripped of every spar and all her rigging. After a battle 
with a French fleet her lion figurehead was taken away 
to repair another ship; no appearance of ornament was 
left, and nothing remained but an old, unsightly, rotten 
hulk. Her dark and filthy external appearance perfectly 
corresponded with the death and despair that reigned 
within, and nothing could be more foreign from truth 
than to paint her with colors flying, or any circumstance 
or appendage to please the eye. She was moored at the 
Wallabout Bay, about three-quarters of a mile to the east- 
ward of Brooklyn ferry, near a tide mill on the Long Isl- 
and shore. The nearest place to land was about twenty 
rods; and doubtless no other ship in the British navy 
ever proved the means of the destruction of so many 
human beings. It is computed that not less than eleven 
thousand American seamen perished in her. After it was 
next to certain death to confine a prisoner here the inhu- 
manity and wickedness of doing it was about the same as 
if he had been taken into the city and deliberately shot 
insome public square; but, as if mercy had fled from the 
earth, here we were doomed to dwell. And never while 
I was on board did any Howard or angel of pity appear, 
to inquire into or alleviate our woes. Once or twice, by 
the order of a stranger on the quarter deck, a bag of 
apples was hurled promiscuously into the midst of hun- 
dreds of prisoners, crowded together as thick as they 
could stand, and life and limbs were endangered by the 
scramble. This, instead of compassion, was a cruel sport. 



When I saw it about to commence I fled to the most dis- 
tant part of the ship. 

" On the commencement of the first evening we were 
driven down to darkness, between decks secured by iron 
gratings and an armed soldiery, and a scene of horror 
which baffles all description presented itself. On every 
side wretched desponding shapes of men seen. 
Around the well room an armed guard were forcing up 
the prisoners to the winches to clear the ship of water and 
prevent her sinking, and little else could be heard but a 
roar of mutual execrations, reproaches, and insults. 
During this operation there was a small, dim light ad- 
mitted below, but it served to make darkness more vis- 
ible, and horror more terrific. In my reflections I said 
this must be a complete image and anticipation of hell. 
Milton's description of the dark world rushed upon my 
mind: — 

" sights of woe, regions of horror doleful, 

Shades where peace and rest can never dwell." 

" If there was any principle among the prisoners that 
could not be shaken it was their love of country. I 
knew no one to be seduced into the British service. They 
attempted to force one of our prize brig's crew into the 
navy, but he chose rather to die than to perform any 
duty, and was again restored to the prison ship. 

' When I first became an inmate of this abode of 
suffering, despair and death there were about four hun- 
dred prisoners on board; but in a sKort time they 
amounted to twelve hundred, and in proportion to our 
numbers the mortality increased. All the most deadly 
diseases were pressed into the service of the king of ter- 
rors, but his prime ministers were dysentery, small-pox, 
and yellow fever. There were two hospital ships near to 
the old ' Jersey,' but these were soon so crowded with 
the sick that they could receive no more. The conse- 
quence was that the diseased and the healthy were 
mingled together in the main ship. In a short time we 
had two hundred or more sick and dying lodged in the 
fore part of the' lower gun deck, where all the prisotiers 
were confined at night. Utter derangement was a com- 
mon symptom of yellow fever, and, to increase the hor- 
ror of the darkness that shrouded us (for we were allowed 
no light between decks), the voice of warning would be 
heard, ' Take heed to yourselves! There is a madman 
stalking through the ship with a knife in his hand!' I 
sometimes found the man a corpse in the morning by 
whose side I laid myself down at night. At another 
time he would become deranged and attempt in the 
darkness to rise, and stumble over the bodies that else- 
where covered the deck. In this case I had to hold him 
to his place by main strength. In spite of my efforts he 
would sometimes rise, and then 1 had to close in with 
him, trip up his heels, and lay him again upon the deck. 
While so many wers sick with raging fever there was a 
loud cry for water, but none could be had except on the 
upper deck, and but one allowed to ascend at a time. 
The suffering then from the rage of thirst during the 
night was very great. Nor was it at all times safe to at- 
tempt to go up. Provoked by the continual cry for leave 
to ascend, when there was one already on deck, the sen- 
try would push them back with his bayonet. By one of 
these thrusts, which was more spiteful and violent than 
common, I had a narrow escape of my life. In the 
morning the hatchways were thrown open and we were 
allowed to ascend, all at once, and remain on the upper 
deck during the day. But the first object that met our 
view was an appallingspectacle — a boat loaded with dead 
bodies, conveying them to the Long Island shore, where 
they were slightly covered with sand. I sometimes used 
to stand and count the number of times the shovel was 
filled with sand to cover a dead body; and certain I am 

tbat a few high tides or torrents of rain must have disin- 
terred them, and had they not been removed I should 
suppose the shore even now would be covered with huge 
piles of the bones of American seamen. There were 
probably four hundred on board who had never had the 
small-pox. Some perhaps might have been saved by in- 
oculation, but humanity was wanting to try even this ex- 
periment. Let our disease be what it would, we were 
abandoned to our fate. Now and then an American 
physician was brought in as a captive, but if he could ob- 
tain his parole he left the ship; nor could we blame him 
for this, for his own death was next to certain and his 
success in saving others by medicine in our situation was 
small. I remember only two American physicians who 
tarried on board a few days. No English physician or 
any one from the city ever, to my knowledge, came near 
us. There were thirteen of the crew to which I be- 
longed, but in a short time all died but three or four. 
The most healthy and vigorous were first seized with the 
fever and died in a few hours. For them there seemed 
to be no mercy. My constitution was less muscular and 
plethoric, and I escaped the fever longer than any of the 
thirteen except one, and the first onset was less violent." 

Alexander Cofifin jr., who was twice a prisoner on the 
old "Jersey," has related some of his experiences there. 
Of the firmness and patriotism of the American prisoners, 
even under these circumstances, he said: 

" Although there were seldom less than i,ooo prisoners 
constantly on board the ' Jersey ' — new ones coming 
about as fast as others died, or were exchanged (which, 
by the bye, was seldom) — I never, in the two different 
times that I was on board, knew of but one prisoner 
entering on board a British ship of war, though the boats 
from the fleet were frequently there and the English offi- 
cers were endeavoring to persuade them to enter; but 
their persuasions and offers were invariably treated with 
contempt, and even by men who pretty well knew they 
should die where they were. These were the men whose 
bones have been so long bleaching on the shores of the 
Wallabout; these were the patriots who preferred death 
in its most horrible shape to the disgrace and infamy of 
fighting the battles of a base and barbarous enemy against 
the liberties of their country; these were the patriots 
whose names suffer no diminution by a comparison with 
the heroes and patriots of antiquity." 

The bodies of those who died on these ships were 
buried in the sand along the shore, on the slope of a hill, 
in a ravine, and in several other localities. The bones of 
many were washed out of the sand and were seen lying 
along the shore. In 1803 some societies began to agitate 
the subject of awarding funeral honors to the remains of 
these martyrs, but nothing was accomplished till 1808. 
The Tammany Society, which then embraced many Rev- 
olutionary patriots, took the lead in the work, and the 
corner stone of a monument to these heroes was laid 
April 13th of that year, on land donated by John Jack- 
son, Esq., near the Brooklyn navy yard. Their bones, to 
the amount of about twenty hogsheads, were collected, 
placed in thirteen capacious coffins, and on the 26th of 
May 1808 each coffin, in charge of one of the Tammanial 
tribes and escorted by eight Revolutionary soldiers as 
pall bearers, was borne to the place of sepulture, and all 
were, with solemn and imposing ceremonies, deposited in 
a common tomb. 

After the interment of these remains steps were taken 
toward providing funds to erect a suitable monument to 



the memory of these martyrs, but the interest which was 
at first felt in the matter subsided, and at length the iot 
on which the vault was constructed was sold for taxes. 
It was purchased by Benjamin Romaine, who, to prevent 
its further desecration, fitted it up as a burial place for 
himself and family, and there, at his death, in 1844, he 
was entombed. After his death another movement was 
made looking toward the erection of a monument, and an 
association for that purpose was formed; but "yet there 
is no monument — no stone bearing the record of their 
patriotic devotion to principle, and their more than he- 
roic death." 

The self-sacrificing patriotism, the meritorious services, 
the pure, unselfish life, and the tragic death of General 
Nathaniel Woodhull render a brief sketch of him appro- 
priate here. He was born in 1722 at Mastic, in Brook- 
haven, received a sound education, and early displayed 
those mental traits that qualified him for public useful- 
ness. In 1758 he entered the army in the French and 
Indian war of 1754-60, and held the position of major. 
He was at Ticonderoga under General Abercrombie, and 
was with General Bradstreet in the expedition against 
Fort Frontenac and the reduction of that fortress. He 
did important service in the expedition from Schenectady 
to the Oneida carrying place in the same summer, and in 
1760, having been promoted to the rank of colonel, he 
went in command of the 3d regiment of New York troops 
in the expedition against Canada. On the termination of 
hostilities he was discharged with the troops of the prov- 
ince and returned to private life. In 1769 he was .made 
a member of the colonial Assembly from Suffolk county, 
and he continued a member of that body till the dissolu- 
tion of the colonial government in 1775. He was chosen 
a delegate to the Provincial Congress in May 1775, and in 
August of the same year was made president of that 
Congress, and acted in that capacity till August loth 1776. 
He was also, in August 1775, appointed brigadier-general 
of the militia of Suffolk and Queens counties. On the 
loth of August 1776 he obtained leave of absence from 
the Provincial Congress. On the 24th, two days previous 
to the battle of Long Island, he was ordered by the con- 
vention to take command of a force of militia and " use 
all possible diligence to prevent the stock and other pro- 
visions from falling into the hands of the enemy." He 
discharged this duty to the best of his ability with his 
meager force, driving beyond the reach of the enemy all 
the cattle that could be collected, at the same time making 
known to the convention his inability to maintain himself 
with the force at his command. The unfortunate issue 
of the battle of Long Island and the impracticability of 
sending the desired reinforcements will be remembered. 
In the hope of receiving these, however, and in accord- 
ance with his sense of honor and duty, he did not make a 
final retreat, but on the 28th ordered his troops to a point 
four miles east of Jamaica, where, in the afternoon, he 
attempted to join them. A thunder storm arrested him 
some two miles from this town, at the tavern of Increase 
Carpenter, and he was overtaken by a party of dragoons 
and infantry, guided by some tories. Wood says: " The 

general immediately gave up his sword, in token of sur- 
render. The ruffian who first approached him [said to be 
a Lieutenant Huzzy], as is reported, ordered him to say 
' God save the King.' The general replied ' God save us 
all;' on which he most cowardly and cruelly assailed the 
defenseless general with his broadsword, and would have 
killed him on the spot if he had not been prevented by 
the interference of an officer of more honor and humanity 
(said to be Major De Lancey of the dragoons), who ar- 
rested his savage violence." He was removed to Jamaica, 
his wounds were dressed, and with other prisoners he was 
confined till the next day in a stone church. He was 
then sent to Gravesend and confined with eighty others 
in a vessel that had been used for the transportation of 
live stock, with no provision for comfort or health. 
Thence he was removed to a house in New Utrecht. 
Here it was found his injuries necessitated the amputa- 
tion of his arm. Previous to the operation he sent for 
his wife, and made arrangements for the alleviation of 
the suffering of the American prisoners at his own ex- 
pense. Mortification soon succeeded the operation, and 
on the 20th of September he died. Wood says of him: 
"With personal courage he possessed judgment, decision 
and firmness of character, tempered with conciliating 
manners, which commanded the respect and obedience 
of his troops and at the same time secured their confi- 
dence and esteem." 



N the i8th of June 1812 a formal declaration 
of war against Great Britain was made by 
the United States. Allusion has elsewhere 
been made to the causes which led to this 
war, in which, as in the case of the French 
wars. Long Island was not the theater of active 

In the latter part of 1812 and early in 1813 British 
cruisers were stationed on the American coast. From 
the files of a paper called War, which was published in 
New York at the time, it appears that on the igth of 
January 1813 a British 74, two frigates and a gun brig 
were stationed off the entrance to New York harbor, and 
on the 26th it was stated that this fleet had been aug- 
mented, and several prizes taken. Commodore Lewis, 
in command of the flotilla in New York harbor, attempted 
to go down, but was prevented by the ice. It was not 
till the 20th of March 1813 that the entire coast of the 
United States, with the exception of Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, was declared in a 
state of blockade. 

In April of that year, it was stated that a British 74 
and several privateers were cruising in Long Island 




Sound, that they had captured a number of coasting ves- 
sels, and that " the naval force now in this harbor is 
sufficient either to capture or drive them off, but for 
some unaccountable reason the ' United States ' and 
'Macedonian' have been suffered to lie upward of 
three months at the navy yard entirely dismantled; our 
enemy when occasion requires can fit out a ship of war 
in three weeks, or even less time." 

In June 1813 the daring privateer "Governor Tomp- 
kins," of New York, came through the sound. • Off 
Fisher's Island she was chased by the enemy's tquadion 
cruising there, but escaped. 

Prime relates that "in June 1813, while a British 
squadron under Commodore Hardy lay in Gardiner's 
Bay, a launch and two barges with 100 men attempted 
to surprise Sag Harbor in the night. They landed on 
the wharf, but, an alarm being quickly given, the guns of 
a small fort were opened upon them with such effect 
that they had only time to set fire to a single sloop, and 
retreated with so much precipitation as to leave a large 
quantity of guns, swords, and other arms behind them. 
The flames were speedily extinguished, and no other in- 
jury sustained." 

In September of the same year a flotilla of thirty gun- 
boats, under Commodore Lewis, passed through Hell 
Gate to Sands Point in quest of some armed vessels of 
the enemy that were cruising in the sound. The weather 
was not favorable for close action, and after a few shots 
at long range the flotilla anchored; a frigate which had 
drawn away from its consorts returned, and the enemy's 
ships retired eastward. 

November i6th 1813 Admiral Warren, commanding 
the blockading squadron, issued a proclamation in which 
he declared a blockade of " all that part of Long Island 
Sound being the sea coast lying within Montaug Point, 
or the eastern point of Long Island, and the point of 
land opposite thereto, commonly called Plack Point, sit- 
uate on the sea coast of the main land; together with all 
the ports, harbors, creeks, and entrances of the East and 
North rivers of New York, as well as all the other ports, 
creeks, and bays along the coast of Long Island and the 
State of New York,'' etc. 

In 1813 the "Amazon," Captain Conklin, of Hunting- 
ton, the " Sally," Captain Akerly, of Cow Harbor, and 
the " Arago " and " Juno," Captain Jones, of Brookhaven, 
were captured in the sound by the British vessels "Acas- 
ta" and "Atalanta." During the same year a British fleet 
entered and remained some time in Gardiner's Bay. 

In May 18 14 the sloop " Amelia," bound for Rhode 
Island, laden with rye, pork, and flour, was made a prize 
by a barge from the British ship of war " Bulwark." One 
of the owners of this sloop was, with two or three other 
men, suspected of treason. They were tried and acquit- 

In August of the same year a small schooner was chased 
on shore at Rockaway by the boats of the blockading 
squadron, and set on fire. The fire was extinguished, 
though those engaged in extinguishing it were several 
times fired upon. 

In 1814 the British vessels "Pomona" and "Dispatch," 
arriving off Setauket harbor, sent seven barges into 
Drown Meadow Bay, where they captured the vessels 
" Two Friends," " Hope," Herald," and " Mercantile," 
and burned the " Oneida," which were all anchored in 
the bay. 

It was believed that New York, which was then as now 
the commercial metropolis of the nation, would become 
a point of attack, and that the western end of Long Isl- 
and might become, as it had been in the Revolution, the 
theater of active hostilities. In view of this danger the 
citizen soldiery organized and prepared for possible emer- 
gencies; but beyond this the island did not become the 
scene of active warlike preparations till the summer of 
1814. A large British fleet was then concentrating near 
the Bermuda Islands, and in view of the possibility that 
this might be the objective point it was deemed exped- 
ient to take such measures as would prevent a repetition 
of the disaster of August 1776. By a letter received 
from John Lyon Gardiner, of Gardiner's Island, by 
Jonathan Thompson, collector of internal revenue of 
New York, the fact became known and was communi- 
cated to Governor Tompkins that such an attack was in- 
tended. The people aroused from the lethargy into 
which they had been lulled by their hope of a favorable 
termination of the pending negotiations for peace. A 
committee of defense which had been constituted recom- 
mended measures for the protection of Brooklyn against 
attack by land, and issued an address calling on the citi- 
zens to organize and enroll for resistance to hostile 
attacks, and to aid, by voluntary contributions of labor 
and material, in the construction of defensive works at 
Brooklyn and elsewhere. The response to this appeal 
was made with alacrity. Citizens and associations, with- 
out distinction of party and social condition, at once 
offered their services. Stiles says: " The rich and the 
poor proffered their services, and mingled their labors on 
the same works in the purest spirit of patriotic emulation. 
Those who from any cause were unable to give their 
personal labor to the common cause voluntarily and 
liberally contributed of their means for the employment 
of substitutes, while many both gave and worked. Even 
the women and schoolboys caught the inspiration of the 
hour and contributed their quota of labor upon the 
works, and the people of the interior towns in the neigh- 
boring states of Connecticut and New Jersey hastened 
to proffer their assistance in averting what was felt to be 
a common national danger." 

In addition to the labor of the different military or- 
ganizations the members of different societies and trades 
in various localities came in bodies and labored on these 
works. The tanners and curriers, the plumbers, the 
students of medicine, wire factory operators, founders, 
journeymen cabinet makers, fire companies, exempts' 
members of churches, under the lead of their pastors, 
carpenters, parties of citizens in bodies from various lo- 
calities, large parties of Irishmen, colored people both 
from New York and Long Ijjjand, freemasons in a body, 
and even at one timea party of some two hundred ladies 



came in a procession and performed a few hours' 

At one time the committee of defense announced their 
want of several thousand fascines, and stated that patterns 
were left at Creed's tavern in Jamaica, and at Bloom's in 
Newtown. The answer to this appeal was the bringing 
to Fort Greene of a hundred and twenty loads of fascines, 
averaging twenty-five bundles to a load, by the citizens 
of Jamaica, headed by the Rev. Mr. Schoonmaker. 
" Mr. Eigenbrodt, the principal of the academy at Ja- 
maica, with his pupils, aided in cutting these fascines." 
The works were commenced on the 9th of August 1814 
and completed early in September. They were at once 
occupied by a large force from different localities, in- 
cluding a brigade of Long Island militia, 1,750 strong, 
under command of General Jeremiah Johnson, of Brook- 
lyn, subsequently well known as an antiquarian-and his- 

In addition to these, fortifications were erected along 
the coast below Brooklyn. A block-house was located 
one-half or three-fourths of a mile north from Fort Ham- 
ilton, near the shore of the bay, on land then owned by 
Mr. Barkuloo. On the site of Fort Hamilton was an 
earthwork, and on that of Fort Lafayette was a log fort. 
A block-house was located on the shore of New Utrecht 
Bay, about midway between Fort Hamilton and Bath, 
near the residence of the late Barney Williams. From 
the fact of this block-house having been located there 
the place was long known as the "gun field." This 
block-house stood several years after the termination of 
the war. About one-fourth of a mile southeast from Bath, 
also on the shore of New Utrecht Bay, stood another 
block-house, on land owned by the late Egbert Benson 
and now the property of his heirs. In August 1776 the 
forces of General Howe were landed in the vicinity of 
where these last two block-houses stood, and they were 
probably erected in view of a possible attempt to land 
troops here during this war. Each was armed with a 
large barbette gun. They were built in the fashion of 
block-houses of those times, with a projection of some 
feet, twelve or fifteen feet above the ground, from which 
assailants could be fired on through loopholes from 
directly overhead. At Rockaway inlet another block- 
house was erected during the war. Boat's crews 
from the blockading squadron had entered through 
this inlet and committed depredations on the inhab- 
itants near the shore of Jamaica Bay, and to 
prevent a repetition of such attacks this block-house 
was built. Several regiments of militia were encamped 
in and about the works in the vicinity of Bath 
and Fort Hamilton during the continuance of hostil- 

It is not known that any hostile vessels came within 
Sandy Hook. The storm of war was averted, and Long 
Island was not made the scene of such strife as desolated 
it in 1776. Peace was concluded early in 1815, and the 
joy of the people here was testified by ilUuminations, 
bonfires, etc. 



T first highways were established in the differ- 
ent towns according to the apparent necessi- 
ties of the people in those towns, without 
reference to the convenience of the people 
elsewhere. No thoroughfares were projected 
till a long time afterward, and the irregularity 
of the roads was such that guides were necessary 
in some cases to conduct strangers from place to place. 
These roads were often facetiously termed cow paths 
because of their irregularity, which is still a notable fea- 
ture of the ordinary highways. 

In view of the urgent necessity which had come to be 
felt for better facilities for travel the Legislature in 1704 
enacted a law by which three commissioners in each of 
the counties on the island were appointed to lay out a 
road four rods in width from Brooklyn ferry to East- 
harapton. Twenty years later by another act of the 
Legislature commissioners were appointed "for better 
clearing and further laying out the roads on the island." 
By the action of these commissioners the direct road 
from Brooklyn to Easthampton was established. This 
road ran through the center portion of the island, and 
during many years it was the main thoroughfare between 
New York and the " east end." As time went on parallel- 
roads were opened both north and south from this, and 
turnpikes were established between different localities. 
As late as 1764 the first post route was established 
through the island, and it was called the circuit. The 
mail was carried (on horseback) once in two weeks east- 
ward through the north part of the island, returning 
along the south shore. 

About the year 1847 what has been termed the Plank 
Roadia began to prevail through the country and it 
reached its height about 1850 or 1851. The level sur- 
face of Long Island afforded better facilities for the con- 
struction of these roads than existed in many regions, 
and within three or four years after the first was built 
they had greatly multiplied in all parts of the island and 
a new era of travel was thought by some to have dawned. 
The impracticability of these roads, however, soon be- 
came apparent, and here as elsewhere the mania sub- 
sided almost as rapidly as it had arisen. The projection 
of new roads ceased and those which had been con- 
structed were abandoned or converted into turnpikes 
and then into common highways. Of the many that 
came into existence none remain as plank roads. 

Long Island has a railroad system which fully meets 
the wants of its inhabitants and 'affords ample facilities 
for pleasure seekers from abroad to visit the seaside 
resorts along its southern shore. The sole reliance of 
the roads on the island for support is"on_local patron- 



age; none of them are parts of thoroughfares that open 
into regions beyond. 

The first railroad constructed on Long Island was that 
from South ferry in Brooklyn to Jamaica. This was 
opened for travel April i8th 1836. In the same year the 
Long Island company commenced the extension east- 
ward of this road, and in August 1837 it was in opera- 
tion to Hicksville. In 1841 it reached Suffolk Station, 
and on the 25th of July 1844 the first train of cars passed 
over it to Greenport, a total length of ninety-five miles. 

From Hicksville a branch was opened to Syosset in 
1854, and an extension completed to Northport in 1868, 
and thence a road was completed to Port JeffersOn in 
1872. Branches were also constructed from Mineola to 
Hempstead and to Locust Point and from Jamaica to 
Far Rockaway. 

In 1869 the Sag Harbor branch was built, diverging 
from the main line at Manor Station, passing through 
the Hamptons and terminating at Sag Harbor. The 
road from Hunter's Point to Flushing was opened in 1854 
and it was subsequently extended to Manhasset. A road 
was also constructed from Hunter's Point to Whitestone. 
On the south side a road was opened from Jamaica to 
Babylon in the autumn of 1867 and extended to Patchogue 
in 1868. Branches of this road were also built. A. T. 
Stewart constructed a road to Garden City and this was 
extended to Babylon. Other roads and branches sprang 
into existence and a competition arose that was not con- 
ducive to the prosperity of the roads. 

A consolidation of these roads under the control of 
the Messrs. Poppenhusen by leases and otherwise was 
effected. Lavish expenditures were made and much 
business was done, but the management was not success- 
ful, and in 1877 Thomas R. Sharp was appointed receiver 
of the consolidated corporation. 

In the latter part of 1880 a controlling interest in the 
Long Island Railroad passed into the hands of a syndi- 
cate of Boston capitalists, at the head of which is Austin 
Corbin, under whose management the road has come. 

Within a comparatively recent time several roads for 
the conveyance of passengers to and from the summer 
resorts on the south coast of Long Island have come into 



jHATEVER may be the general impression 
of the value and fertility of the lands of 
Long Island, they do and will command a 
price far in excess of soils equally fertile 
but which are not situated near a great 
market. Easy, cheap and uninterrupted water 
communication with a center of trade aggregating 
a population of nearly two millions will always make 

Long Island a place of peculiar interest to tillers of the 
soil. The vast and increasing demand of the city of 
New York" for vegetables and fruits of a perishable na- 
ture, as well as the peculiar adaptation of the soil for 
their culture, has already made Kings and a large portion 
of Queens county one immense garden. Previous his- 
tories of the island are nearly silent upon this the chief 
business of its inhabitants. 

The early settlers of Long Island, coming as they did 
chiefly from the New England colonies, naturally followed 
the same system of tillage and rotation of crops to which 
they had been accustomed. Probably the first settlers 
found sufficient cleared land for their purpose; as, ac- 
cording to early traditions, there was much cleared land, 
or land not covered with timber, besides the great plains. 
They very soon discovered that success depended upon 
the application of manures. As early as 1653 the first 
settlers, by the terms of the patent from the Dutch 
governor for the lands they occupied, were required to 
pay to the government one-tenth of the revenue arising 
from the ground manured. This tai for the town of 
Hempstead amounted in 1657 to one hundred" schepels 
of wheat (the Dutch bushel of three pecks). In 165 1 
Hempstead produced from the proceeds of the servants 
labor corn, beef, pork, butter, tobacco and staves, which 
were exchanged for liquor and merchandise. 

Cattle were imported for breeding as early as 1625, 
and a cow in New York was worth _;^3o. The abundant 
grass on the plains, doubtless, turned the attention of the 
early settlers to the raising of stock. But as yet there 
were few or no fences; so herdsmen were hired by the 
town to take care of the cattle from the nth of May till 
the 23d of October, when the Indian harvest would be 
wholly taken in and housed. In 1667 the town of Hemp- 
stead hired Abraham Smith to keep the cattle from 
destroying the corn planted in the plain called " the 
field," and he was to have one and a half bushels per 
acre paid him for this service. So important was this 
office deemed that the conditions of agreement were 
entered at large on the town book. A half hour after 
sunrise, at the blowing of a horn, the owners of cattle 
drove them from their several pens into one common 
herd, when they were taken under the care of the cow- 
keeper and his dog, and driven on the plains. He was 
to keep them from going astray, or wandering in the 
woods, or getting on tilled land; to water them at some 
pond at reasonable hours; to drive them weekly to the. 
south meadows, and then bring them home half an hour 
before sunset that they might be milked. For this ser- 
vice (in 1658) the hire was twelve shillings sterling per 
week in butter, corn and oats. The calves were cared 
for by another keeper, who was required to water them 
twice a day, drive them to the salt meadows once in two 
weeks, and put them in an inclosure at night to protect 
them from the wolves. After a while cowherds were 
dispensed with, and it was found necessary to fence the 
pasture lands. Thus Cow Neck in 1669 was fenced 
from Hempstead Harbor to Great Neck, as the turnpike 
now runs. Rockaway had in 1690 a fence running from 



the landing across to Jamaica Bay. Each proprietor had 
the right to put cattle in the pasture ground in propor- 
tion to the- length of fence he had made. At that time 
cattle were sold to butchers in New York, and exported 
alive to the West Indies. In 1658 cattle were bought on 
thfi^reat plains to be shipped to the colony of Delaware. 
In 1678 the city of New York consumed only four hun- 
dred beeves. 

Sheep were not introduced until a later date; in 1643 
there were not over sixteen in the whole colony of New 
York. In 1670 sheep were pastured on the plains, under 
the care of a shepherd, who'had directions not to let 
them go over half a mile in the woods, for fear of their 
being lost or destroyed by wolves. Each proprietor had 
an ear mark for his own sheep, which was recorded in 
the town book. In 1737 the New York Gazette says: 
" Vast losses have been sustained in this colony and 
those adjacent by the death of cattle for the want of 
fodder, and many persons have been almost ruined 
thereby. We hear from Long Island that five thousand 
head of cattle have been lost this winter, besides sheep 
and lambs innumerable." 

Corn, wheat, rye, oats, flax, wood for fuel, fat cattle 
and sheep were for nearly two hundred years, or until 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, the staple' 
products of the island, and the chief source of income. 
During the Revolutionary war a tory advised a British 
minister to land the forces destined for the subjugation 
of the colonies on Long Island; " for," said he, " it is 
one hundred and thirty miles long, and is very fertile, 
abounding in wheat and every other kind of grain, and 
has innumerable black cattle, sheep, hogs etc.; so that 
in this fertile island the army can subsist without any 
succor from England. It has a fertile plain twenty-four 
miles long, with a fertile country about it, and is twenty 
miles from New York; and from an encampment on this 
plain the British army can in five or six days invade any 
of the colonies at pleasure. The spot I advise you to 
land is at Cow Bay." The suggestion was acted upon. 
The English army occupied Long Island, with New York 
city as its headquarters, for nearly seven years; and 
drew its supplies of fresh and salt hay, oats, straw, 
wheat, rye, corn, buckwheat and firewood from our 
island. For an encouragement to farmers to raise plenti- 
ful supplies of fresh provisions, vegetables and forage 
for the army, the British commandant forbade all per- 
sons from tresspassing, or breaking down or destroying 
fences, or carrying away produce from the owners. In 
1780 the requisition on Queens county was for four 
thousand five hundred cords of wood. 

Since the advent of the present century, and within 
the memory of many now living, radical changes have 
been made in the system of agriculture, in the crops 
produced, fertilizers applied, machinery employed, do- 
mestic manufactures and manner of living. There are 
many localities in Suffolk and a few in Queens county 
in which, from their peculiarity of position, primitive 
farming is still followed— that is, corn upon old sod, 
followed by oats the second year, which is succeeded in 

the fall by either wheat or rye with which clover and 
timothy seed are sown. Then good crops of hay are 
cut for from three to five years; it is then pastured one 
or two years, and the same routine repeated 

With the growth of New York and Brooklyn grew the 
demand for vegetables, milk, hay, straw and such articles 
of a perishable and bulky nature as cannot be profitably 
transported long distances. Hence we see that the area 
necessary for their production has extended, not only 
eastward over nearly two counties, but the country for 
miles around every harbor which indents the shores of 
Long Island, as well as near every depot of its railroads, 
has been put under contribution to supply the demand. 
Consequent upon this change the product of cereals is 
greatly reduced, and stock-raising is entirely abandoned 
as a source of profit. 

Nearly all the produce raised within twenty-five miles 
of New York is carted in with teams by the proprietors 
in the night. The largest part is sold at wholesale to 
dealers or middle-men, between midnight and daylight, 
chiefly in the vicinity of Washington market, which until 
recently was the center of the retail as well as the whole- 
sale trade. Three years ago, in consequence of the great 
throng of market wagons, which for years had greatly im- 
peded business in the lower part of the city, a market 
was established in the vicinity of West Twelfth street and 
Tenth avenue. Those who do not sell at wholesale re- 
main until daylight, when the retail trade begins. The 
grocer^ then come for their daily supply. Produce sent 
by water or rail is consigned to commission dealers. 

Twenty-five years ago all the milk supplied by Long 
Island was produced within so small a distance from the 
city that it was taken in in wagons. Market garden- 
ing becoming more profitable, the area of milk produc- 
tion was gradually extended eastward along the lines of 
railroad, until at the present time it has assumed im- 
mense proportions. Swill milk is still produced largely 
in the suburbs of Brooklyn; but that industry is by com- 
mon consent ruled out as an agricultural pursuit. 

The selling of hay was the first innovation upon the 
old system of stock raising as a source of income. The 
old theory that unless the hay and corn were fed upon 
the land its fertility would be reduced was soon exploded; 
and the wisdom of the new enterprise was demonstrated 
by the fact that the returns from the sale of hay were So 
much greater than from the sale of stock that the farmer 
could afford to buy stable manure, street sweepings, 
lime and ashes from the city to apply to his land. The 
benefits of liberal expenditures for these fertilizers in 
market gardening are still more apparent. Guano and 
artificial or manufactured fertilizers have been largely 
used with good results; but 'after being applied for a 
series of years their efficacy is so diminished that they 
are generally abandoned, and the more bulky articles 
named are resumed. 

On the margins of creeks along the south side of the 
island are immense shell banks left by the Indians; these 
clam or quahaug shells have been burnt and the lime used 
profitably. The fish called menhaden, however, has been 



most largely employed. Thompson, in his history of 
Long Island, published in 1839, estimated that a hundred 
million were annually taken for that purpose. He says: 
"The profusion of this species of fish and the consequent 
cheapness of the article will probably always insure its 
use in those parts of the island where they abound," But 
the establishment of factories for extracting oil from them 
has long since precluded their use, although the refuse is 
dried and sold under the name of fish guano. 

Whelher the great plains have deteriorated in fertility, 
or whether by an improved system of husbandry it is more 
profitable to pasture cattle only on the farm, it is difficult 
to determine; but the fact is that, in place of hundreds of 
cattle and thousands of sheep which once subsisted upon 
its abundant grasses from May until October, it is now a 
rare occurrence to see even a drove of a dozen or two 
cows attended by a boy, and there are no sheep. 

Montauk Point is about forty miles long and contains 
nine thousand acres. It has been owned in common by 
about forty individuals in shares. It has never been 
tilled or used for any purpose other than pasturage, each 
owner being entitled to place upon it seven cattle or forty- 
nine sheep per share. 

There are more than one hundred square miles or 
seventy thousand acres of salt meadows bordering the 
bays and harbors of Long Island. From these marshes 
immense quantities of hay are taken, which with corn 
stalks is largely used for wintering young stock and dry 
cattle. There are three kinds of grasses growing upon 
them, distinguished by the names of sedge, salt and black 

The scarcity and advance in the price of farm labor, as 
well as the advantages attending their use, have caused 
the' introduction of the best farm implements and agricul- 
tural machinery. Stones are used to some extent as fenc- 
ing material where they are available, but by far the 
largest part of the island is entirely destitute of stones 
large enough for the purpose. Chestnut timber is abund- 
ant on all the rolling woodlands, and furnishes the ma- 
terial for about all the farm fences. 

Why the attention of cranberry culturists has not been 
attracted to Long Island ere this it is hard to tell. The 
southern portion is watered for miles by numerous streams 
bordered by bogs now almost worthless, which could 
easily be converted into cranberry swamps. It is a well 
known fact that many a piece of marsh capable of being 
made to produce an annual profit of hundreds of dollars 
produces nothing now but coarse grass and bushes and a 
fine specimen of Long Island mosquito. 

The soil of the southern half of the island, beginning 
at the foot of the line of hills which divide it through its 
entire length, is alluvial, and of comparatively recent for- 
mation. Vegetable matter and loam are deficient, sand 
preponderating. The action of the water appears to have 
taken away a portion of its soluble minerals. The soil, 
being of light, friable character, is adapted to garden 
farming, whereas a clay soil by constant tillage becomes 
still more tenacious. 
.The Hempstead plains, which, through a mistaken pol- 

icy, have until recently been held as public domain, are 
susceptible of remunerative cultivation. The soil, which 
is composed of black sand and vegetable mould, is a foot 
or more in depth. The hollows which cross the tract at 
regular intervals appear to have been ancient water 
courses, with but little and in some places no soil to cover 
the substratum of coarse gravel which appears to underlie 
the whole formation. There is another and still more ex- 
tensive tract extending eastward from the plains, reaching 
to the head of Peconic Bay, composed so nearly of pure 
sand as to be incapable of profitable cultivation by any 
process now known. Scrub oak and pines, with a little 
wiry grass, which usually dries up in the hot summer 
sun, are the only products. The northern and hilly or 
undulating half of the island has a soil rich in the mineral 
elements and phosphates essential to plant growth. Hence 
wheat, potatoes, cabbage and other strong growing crops 
are more successfully grown than on the alluvial portions 
of the island. 





HE first steps toward the formation of the 
Long Island Historical Society were natur- 
ally taken by a native Long Islander, who 
had affinities by birth, marriage and resi- 
dence with each of the three counties. He pre- 
pared and caused to be widely distributed the 
following circular: 

Brooklyn, February 14th, 1863. 
Dear Sir: The time has arrived when the city of 
Brooklyn should found and foster institutions — religious, 
historical, literary, scientific, educational and humani- 
tarian — beyond the scope of former undertakings. As 
one of these a historical society associated with our 
peculiar geographical position naturally suggests itself. 
We propose to establish 


The threefold Indian, Dutch and English history of 
the island is full of interest, and there are doubtless con- 
cealed treasures in each department, which will be de- 
veloped by research and inquiry. By calling out the 
recollections of the living who will soon pass away, 
drawing public records and private writings from their 
concealment, having a fit place for the collection and de- 
posit of trophies, memorials and historic materials, and 
also for conventions and lectures upon historic topics, it 
cannot be doubted that much valuable knowledge will be 
saved and communicated which would otherwise be irre- 
trievably lost. 

It is proposed to establish, first, a library and repository 
of books, documents and manuscripts, memorials, trophies 
and pictures. For this purpose all persons are requested 
to favor us with any appropriate material in their posses- 
sion, either by gift or on deposit. 



It is also proposed to encourage lectures upon historic 
and kindred topics. 

Without further developing our plans and objects in 
this circular, we invite your attendance at the rooms of 
the Hamilton Literary Association, Hamilton Building, 
corner of Court and Joralemon streets, Brooklyn (the door 
nearest the corner), on the evening of Tuesday March 3d 
1863, at 8 o'clock, to take measures to organize the 

Henry C. Murphy, 

Alden J. Spooner, 

John Greenwood, [►Kings County. 

John Winslow, 

Joshua M. Van Cott, , 

R. C. McCORMICK JR., ) ^ /-. ^ 

TT /-\ r Oueens County. 

Henry Onderdonkjr, ( ^ ' 

Henry P. Hedges, Suffolk County. 

At the time and place mentioned there was an unusual 
attendance of the educated and progressive citizens. 
Other meetings were held in the same place, which devel- 
oped a warm interest. The subject was debated in a be- 
coming spirit, the society was resolved upon, and appro- 
priate committees were appointed to prepare an aTct of 
incorporation under the general law and a constitution 
and by-laws, and provide the requisite rooms. The or- 
ganization was ultimately effected, and rooms were se- 
cured under the Hamilton rooms, on the corner of 
Court and Joralemon streets. 

The first election of officers took place in these rooms 
in May 1863, the following full board being elected: 

President, James C. Brevoort; first vice-president, John 
Greenwood; second, Charles E. West; foreign correspond- 
ing secretary, Henry C. Murphy; ' home corresponding 
secretary, John Winslow; recording secretary, A. Cooke 
Hull, M. D.; treasurer, Charles Congdon; librarian, Henry 
R. Stiles. 

Directors. — Charles Congdon, Roswell Graves, Thomas 
W. Field, A. C. Hull, M. D., J. M. Van Cott, Ethelbert 
S. Mills, R. S. Storrs jr., D. D., Henry R. Stiles, M. D., 
A. N. Littlejohn, D. D., Charles E. West, LL. D., A. A. 
Low, George W. Parsons, Alden J. Spooner, John Wins- 
low, S. B. Chittenden, Hon. John Greenwood, George A. 
Stephenson, Hon. Henry C. Murphy, William Poole, 
Henry Sheldon, J. Carson Brevoort, W. I. Budington, 

D. D., Elias Lewis jr., Theodore L. Mason, M. D., Henry 

E. Pierpont. 

Counsellors. — Kings County: Hon. John A. Lott, Francis 
Vinton, D. D., T, G. Bergen, F. A. Farley, D. D., Ben- 
jamin D. Silliman. Hon. James Humphrey. Queens 
County: William Cullen Bryant, Hon. John A. King, 
Richard C. McCormick, John Harold, L. B. Prince, Sol- 
omon D. Townsend. Suffolk County: Hon. Selah B. 
Strong, Hon. J. L. Smith, William S. Pelletreau, James H. 
Tuthill, Rev. E. Whitaker, Henry P. Hedges. 

Executive committee. — R. S. Storrs jr., D. D. (chair- 
man), J. M. Van Cott, Alden J. Spooner, E. S. Mills, 
George W. Parsons, Henry Sheldon, Simeon B. Chitten- 
den, Henry R. Stiles (secretary). 

The first annual meeting (second year) was held May 
5th 1864, at which all the above officers were re-elected 
and the first annual report was presented, which exhibits 

a beginning of great vigor and hopefulness. In this re- 
port Dr. Henry R. Stiles, the librarian, says: 

" The nucleus of a library, with which we commenced 
our operations on the 4th of June last, comprised about 
800 bound volumes and 1,000 unbound volumes and 
pamphlets. This collection, consisting chiefly of works 
relating to Long Island and American local history, 
family genealogies and newspapers, was contributed 
mainly by Messrs. J. C. Brevoort, A. J. Spooner, E. B. 
Spooner, Henry Onderdonk jr. and Henry R. Stiles. We 
then occupied two apartments, one used as a lecture- 
room; the other and smaller of the two was shelved as a 
library room, having, as we then modestly thought, ample 
accommodations for the next two years. We soon found, 
however, that we had quite underestimated the liberality 
of our friends; for so large was their sympathy, so active 
their co-operation, and so steady the influx of their gifts 
— never intermitting for a single day, it might almost be 
said for a single moment — that it soon became evident 
we should need more book room. At this point in our 
history (in September 1863) the receipt of nearly 1,100 
valuable volumes from the trustees of the former City 
library fairly overwhelmed our slender accommodations, 
and obliged us to extend our borders by securing three 
large and commodious apartments adjoining the library." 

These claims for additional space, made by the natural 
history and museum department as well as the library, 
soon compelled the occupation of the entire third stories 
of the two large buildings which front on Court and 
corner on Joralemon street, comprising eight ample and 
convenient rooms, there being one reading room espec- 
ially for ladies, with cosey alcoves for books and appro- 
priate spaces for a large collection of valuable pictures. 
In these rooms the collections remained until removed to 
the society's own building. Even to this space had to be 
added, for the annual courses of lectures, the large lec- 
ture room of the Packer Institute, near at hand on Joral- 
emon street; and at times the Athenaeum, Atlantic av- 
enue and Clinton street. For additional space for the 
lectures the society for several years latterly has occupied 
the Second Presbyterian Church, Clinton and Fulton 
streets; and for some of the lectures of 1880-81 the beau- 
tiful auditorium of the First Baptist Church, Pierrepont 
and Clinton streets. 

The society having been greatly favored in the accum- 
ulation of the materials of history, a spirit sprung up 
among the members of individual and mutual labor on 
works of local history. The principal of these were: 

A History of Brooklyn, in three volumes, by Henry R. 

The Wallabout Series of Memoirs of the Prison Ships, 
with annotations by Henry R. Stiles. 

Journal by two Labadists, Dankers and Sluyter, of a 
voyage to New Netherland from Holland in 1679-80. 

History of the Battle of Long Island, by Thomas W. 

The Campaign of 1776 around New York and Brook- 
lyn, including particulars of the Battle of Long Island, 
by H. P. Johnson. 

Sketch of the first settlement of Long Island, by Silas 
Wood; reprinted with biography and address by A. J. 

History of Brooklyn, by Gabriel Furman; reprinted 
with biography by A. J. Spooner, and notes by H. R. Stiles. 

Revolutionary Incidents in Kings, Queens and Suffolk, 
by Henry Onderdonk jr., of Jamaica. 



Dr. Stiles resigned his office of librarian, and was suc- 
ceeded by George Hannah, who has served since July 
ist 1865. 

The collections in books and objects of art and curios- 
ity increased so largely as to make an irresistible appeal 
for the always contemplated building; and about three 
years ago the board resolved upon a determined effort. 
An active committee was appointed, which prosecuted 
the work with zeal and success. In November 1877 it 
was reported that $roo,ooo had been subscribed. Plans 
were solicited, and those of George B. Post, a New York 
architect, were preferred. Under his care the building 
has proceeded, and it was formally taken possession of, 
with appropriate ceremonies and speeches, Wednesday 
January 12th 1881, in the lecture room of the new build- 
ing. Samuel McLean was chairman of the building com- 
mittee. The number of subscribers to the building fund 
was exactly 300. The amount subscribed was $137,684. 
The cost of the building was $121,250. The three lots 
on which it stands cost in 1867 $32,500, on which $20,- 
000 was then paid by subscribers, leaving a mortgage of 
$14,500; this was paid off on the delivery of the building, 
and a balance of $2,000 paid to the society. The society, 
like the Academy of Music and the Mercantile Library, 
has demonstrated the high-toned intelligence and liberality 
of the "City of Churches " in whatever concerns its re- 
ligious, moralor social welfare. Among the benefactors 
of the society (much too numerous to mention all, or even 
the leading contributors) should be named the two sisters 
Thurston, who gave $2,000 for a department of the his- 
tory of Egypt and the Holy I-and,' and Miss Maria Gary, 
who subscribed $2,500 to found a department of American 
biography. An unknown giver donated $2,000 as the 
nucleus of a permanent fund for increasing the library. 
The principal addition to this fund has been Mr. Seney's 
gift of $50,000, while he also gave $12,000 for immediate 
expenditure in books, and $25,000 for binding books. 
There are other invested funds for special departments. 

The society is now established and fully equipped in its 
new and superb building, Clinton and Pierrepont streets^ 
Brooklyn. The number of books in the library is about 
30,000, with about an equal number of pamphlets. To 
these there has been a large addition of rare and valuable 

books in every department from the splendid donations 
made for such purpose. 

The museum and natural history department is ar- 
ranged in the spacious upper hall of the building, and is 
under the competent and energetic care of Elias Lewis jr., 
whose reputation as a naturalist and scientist is well known 
on the island. The collections have since the removal 
been furnished with appropriate cases for their full display. 

For all the privileges of the library, museum and lec- 
tures the fees are $5 for initiation and the same amount 
annually; life membership $100. There are over 1,300 
annual and life members. 

At the last election for officers of the society the fol- 
lowing officers were chosen: 

President, Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D. D., LL. D.; first 
vice-president, Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL. D.; second 
vice-president, Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott; foreign corre- 
sponding secretary, Hon. Benjamin D. Silliman; home 
corresponding secretary. Rev. Charles H. Hall, D. D.; 
recording secretary, Chauncey L. Mitchell, M. D.; treas- 
urer, A. W. Humphreys; librarian, George Hannah; 
curator, Elias Lewis jr. 

Directors. — Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D. D., LL. D.; 
Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL. D., Samuel McLean, Alfred 
S. Barnes, Rev. Charles H. Hall, D. D., James R. Taylor, 
Henr y E. Pierrepont, A. Abbott Low, Henry Sheldon, 
Walter T. Hatch, Alexander M. White, Bryan H. Smith, 
Hon. Simeon B. Chittenden, Hon. Benjamin D. Silliman, 
J. Carson Brevoort, LL. D., Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott, 
Edwards S. Sanford, Rev. Alfred P. Putnam, D. D., Elias 
Lewis jr., Chauncey L: Mitchell, M. D., John S. Ward, 
George I. Seney, Joseph C. Hutchinson, M. D., A. W. 
Humphreys, Henry D. Polhemus. 

Councillors. — Kings county: Alden J. Spooner, Rt. Rev. 

A. N. Littlejohn, D. D., Hon. J. S. T. Stranahan, Abraham 

B. Baylis, Peter C. Cornell, David M. Stone, Hon. John 
Greenwood, Rev. Frederick A. Farley, D. D., Prof. Darwin 
G.- Eaton, George L. Nichols, Rev. N. H. Schenck, D. D., 
Hon. Joseph Neilson. Queens county: Henry Onder- 
donk jr., William Floyd Jones, John A. King, Benjamin 
D. Hicks, Henry W. Eastman. Suffolk county: James 
H. Tuthill, Hon. J. Lawrence Smith, Hon. John R. Reed, 
Rev. Epher Whitaker, William Nicol, Samuel B. Gardiner. 






UFFOLK COUNTY covers about two-thirds 
of Long Island. In the opening of historic 
times the red man was lord of the domain. 
The Indians occupying it were divided into 
several tribes. The jurisdiction of the Ma- 
tinecocks extended a few miles into the north- 
western part. The Nissaquags joined them, oc- 
cupying the section about what is now Stnithtown. The 
Setakats or Setaukets held the land now forming the 
northern half of Brookhaven township, and were joined 
on the east by the Corchaugs, whose domain ran to the 
eastern extremity of the land on the northern branch. 
Shelter Island was owned by the Manhassetts. On the 
south side the Marsapeagues ran into the southwest 
corner and met the Secatogues, who occupied some part 
of what is now Islip township. The Patchogues held 
what is now the south half of Brookhaven, and were 
joined on the east by the Shinnecocks, lyhose land ran 
away eastward until it met the holdings of the superior 
tribe of the island, the Montauks. Above the mass of 
all these Indians there loomed three characters of such 
commanding power and superior qualities that they were 
accorded a higher position in the popular estimation than 
that of ordinary chiefs, a sort of royal triumvirate, in the 
persons of three brothers— Pogattacut, chief of the Man- 
hassetts, Wyandanch, chief of the Montauks, and Nowe- 
dinah, chief of the Shinnecocks. Of these the first held 
the title — though it would seem in a sense scarcely more 
than honorary — grand sachem of the island Indians ; 
while upon the second rested the more practical burden 
of duties and authority belonging to that title. The 

third might be called a sort of prince, a reserve, and per- 
haps an adviser, 

To realize the primitive condition of things, let us in- 
dulge imagination for a moment by looking in upon a 
scene of that period. We have wandered along the ocean 
shore, and listened to the hoarse song of the sea; our 
faces have felt the burning of the glancing sunlight, and we 
have breathed the strong salt air. There were no mammoth 
hotels, no villages of bathing-houses, no light-houses, no 
life-saving stations nor fragments of stranded wrecks. 
From the seashore coming through the interior we see 
no roads, no houses, no farms, but life is represented by 
the animals and birds that dart away from our approach, 
and by the fruit and flower-laden vines and shrubs that 
obstruct our movements. From an interior hill we can 
see now and then a little band of Indians following some 
obscure trail through the valley below, as they move from 
tribe to tribe upon some unknown embassy of friendship 
or of hatred. As we stand there and look across the val- 
ley we see where an Indian huntsman has secreted him- 
self hard by a little sheet of clear, fresh water, to watch 
for the deer that may come thither to drink. While we 
look, the sharp twang of the bow, the whirr of the death- 
dealing arrow and the commotion of the bushes where 
the game has fallen in its dying struggle tell us that he 
has not watched in vain. 

On the shores of the different bays we find the Indians 
congregating in villages. These locations are the most 
favorable to their convenience and habits of life. From 
the adjacent waters the fish and bivalves which consti- 
tute an important part of their bill of fare may be ob- 
tained, as well as the shells from which they manufacture 
wampum. The numerous springs of fresh water, burst- 
ing from the pebbled shores, afford them a bountiful sup- 
ply of that pure element. Approaching one of these rude 
settlements unobserved, we may take refuge for the pur- 
pose behind one of these old oaks which, unmolested by 
the destructive hand of what we call improvement, has 
braved the storms of heaven and the decay of time for 



more than a century; or, if we choose, hide ourselves 
within the hollow trunk of its neighboring ancestor, and 
from this covert watch the movements of the savages 
before us. They know nothing of the existence of any 
race of beings in the shape of men besides themselves. 
Their lives, habits, religion and language are unmixed — 
and shall we say uncorrupted ? — by contact with the 
white man. 

From the elevated position which we have taken we 
look down upon a quiet Indian village in the immediate 
foreground, located upon a low bluff, rising from the 
shore of a bay, which with its partially encircling belt of 
white sand and the verdure-clothed hills rising from it in 
beautiful undulations presents a landscape scene of sur- 
passing loveliness. Beyond the glimmer and sheen of 
the nearer waters the view takes in a glimpse of the 
wider expanse which loses itself in the hazy vail that 
obscures the distant horizon. On the placid water be- 
fore us half a dozen canoes are paddling lazily about, 
some containing a single Indian each, others with several, 
returning perhaps from some neighborly errand to another 
tribe, or different village of the same tribe, or it may be 
from some hunting or fishing expedition. There comes 
one canoe containing three half-grown boys and a quan- 
tity of long coarse grass or rushes which they have gath- 
ered from the bog just across the cove. They are bring- 
ing them to be made into mats by that group of women 
seated on the slope just in front of us. That rude man- 
ufacture in which they are engaged is to them one of the 
fine arts. But a much finer art is being practiced by that 
little company which you see to the right of them, hover- 
ing about that heap of shells. They are working out from 
the shells they have gathered, by a slow and tedious pro- 
cess, the details of which we are not near enough to see, 
those curious little beads which when strung are called 
wampum and are used for ornaments as well as for 
money. The facilities of the island Indians for obtaining 
desirable materials are superior to those of many living 
on the mainland; hence this is an article of export, as far 
as their relations with those tribes allow commercial 
transactions. Then there are others about that shell- 
heap busy opening clams which they have taken from 
the flats not far away, and which when opened they ex- 
pose in the sun until they are thoroughly dried. These 
dried clams are an important commodity with them, 
being in demand for home consumption and exportation 
as well. The great quantities of them found beneath 
waters here afford an exhaustless supply to the moderate 
wants and industry of the Indian. 

Back on the rolling elevation to the right of us and in 
the rear of the little cluster of wigwams lies their corn- 
field. In it six or eight women are at work pulling weeds 
and stirring the soil with some kind of rude implements. 
Just here on our left two men are digging clay from the 
side of the very hill upon which we stand. This clay 
they are forming roughly into some sort of primitive 
dishes, which they will presently harden by baking in a 
hot fire when all is ready. A little way from them three 
old mer> sit ghatting rather sociably for Indians, and 

pecking away at stone arrowheads which they are form- 
ing for the use of the younger and more active men, two 
of whom may be seen just now returning from the woods 
bringing with them the carcass of a fine fat buck which 
their skilled aim and the magic qualities of the old men's 
arrows have brought to the ground. 

Between the primitive pottery works and yonder clump 
of cedars which crowns the projecting bluff some men 
have rolled the trunk of a huge tree down from the 
higher hill where it grew, and are working perseveringly 
■with fire and water and their stone axes digging it out 
and shaping it for a canoe. This is primitive ship-build- 

As we gaze upon the scene before us, ruminating on 
the contrast two hundred and fifty years will bring, two 
Indian girls emerge from the cedar thicket and come 
running down the slope where these men are at work. 
With excited gestures they tell the men of something 
they have seen from the hill behind the cedars. We can- 
not hear their story, but from the manner of its recital 
and the absorbing attention the men are ready to give to 
it we are led to wonder what startling news the little girls 
have brought. Presently the men throw down their im- 
plements and start with quick and stealthy tread, follow- 
ing the lead of the girls as they retrace their steps until 
the whole party disappears among the cedars. 

Some women who were at work about the shell-heap 
and wigwams, having seen the movements we have just 
noticed, come over to where the old men are shaping ar- 
row points and inquire what strange story the little 
girls brought to the other men. The old arrow-makers 
are evidently the sages of the village, whose superior 
wisdom is recognized and sought whenever any mystery 
is to be solved. These old men are doubtless believed 
to possess some peculiar spirit charm, by which they can 
divine things not made known to ordinary minds. This 
peculiar charm invests their arrows with additional 
value. To them the women come for the solution of a 
mystery which troubles them, in regard to the movements 
of those men who have gone into the cedar-crowned 
mount. But the old men give them no relief. Then the 
returned hunters come over to the spot, and the small 
boys come running up from the shore with the same in- 
quiry upon their lips. The collecting group attracts the 
attention of the women out in the cornfield, and they 
leave their work to come and learn the cause of its 
gathering together Now nearly all the Indians of the 
village who happen to be anywhere within sight have 
joined the mystified company. 

As they stand there considering the proposition to send 
two swift-footed young men to find out what they are all 
anxious to know, the absent men and girls are seen 
emerging from the thicket and running down the hill and 
across the valley to where the wondering group is wait- 
ing. They are almost too much out of breath and over- 
come with excitement to say more than that they have seen 
a strange sight that they fear is an omen of danger. As 
they recover sufficient calmness and possession of their 
faculties they explain that away out on the great water 



something was moving, something like a great canoe, so 
large that a big tree was growing out of it, and a very 
great blanket was hung upon the tree. The wind blow- 
ing against it pushed the thing along. What it was they 
could not tell. Whether it was a great canoe with men 
in it, or some terrible monster of the sea, with wings, 
or a veritable delegation from the spirit world, good or 
bad, is a matter of speculation with them. They could 
not even tell which way the thing was trying to go, for it 
would move first m one direction, then in another, chang- 
ing its course so often that it was impossible to calculate 
01) its intentions. While the men hold their listeners en- 
tranced with a" description of what they have seen, the 
thing itself shoots out from behind the cedar-crowned 
point into full view less than half a mile away. Its sudden 
appearance is greeted by an exclamatory chorus which 
we may interpret as'fbeing equivalent to " There it is!" 
and this is followed by a silent contemplation of the won- 
derful spectacle. The children cling tremblingly to their 
mothers, while the squaws crouch nearer to their hus- 
bands and the warriors, and all draw instinctively together 
as they press around the old men, who have thrown down 
their work and sit gazing in speechless wonder at the ap- 
proaching nondescript. Fear seizes every heart, and the 
breast of even the bravest warrior is troubled with deep 
misgivings as to what the end of this may be. There 
they stand, like so many statues, fixed and silent. Pres- 
ently the spell is broken, and one of the wisest of them 
explains this singular phenomenon to this effect: 

"The Great Spirit is angry, and is coming in his big 
flying canoe to look for some warrior who has done some 
wicked thing, or for some other man who has displeased 
him; but maybe he will not find the bad one here. If 
he wants any of us we must go. It is no use to try to 
run away from him, so we might just as well stay where 
we are." 

Another explains: "I don't think it is the Great 
Spirit. He don't travel that way. I think it is a great 
big canoe loaded with men. Maybe they are Pequots, 
may be Narragansetts, maybe Mohawks, maybe some 
other tribe from away off somewhere." 

" No," answers a third, whose clearer vision has allow- 
ed him to see the faces of those on board, " these are not 
men like us. They are pale-faced, — more than our dead 
fathers and brothers are. They must be spirit men. 
That is a more beautiful canoe than any man could make 
in this world. It comes from the spijit land where our 
fathers and our chiefs have gone. Its wings are white 
and beautiful. They are made of the skins of the ani- 
mals that are hunted in that world where everything is 
so white and good. Maybe the spirit men in the canoe 
are our friends who are looking for us, to take us in the 
beautiful canoe to the happy hunting grounds which 
they have found." 

But still the young warriors and hunters think, whatever 
may be the errand upon which the approaching party 
comes, it would be well to be ready for the worst, at least 
as far as the power to prepare for it is theirs. So their 
bows and their arrows are made ready and brought out 

with them to be at hand in case of need. But some of 
the squaws, though they have never heard the proverb 
" Distance lends enchantment," still have an instinctive 
conviction of its truth, and act on that conviction by re- 
treating beydnd the cornfield, as the approaching vessel 
anchors in the harbor and a small boat with a few men 
starts for the shore. Some of the Indians at the same 
time move cautiously down the slope. 

As the representatives- of two different races of men 
approach each other the new comers are able to convey 
to the Indians — by what sort of language who shall ever 
know ? — the impression that their mission is a friendly 
one; that they intend no harm to them, but that they 
have brought some very useful and curious things which 
they will show them, by way of friendly entertainment. 
And then they show them some of these wonderful con- 
trivances: knives of metal, so sharp that they will cut a 
sapling clean off at one thrust; awls, which the Indians at 
once see will be very useful for boring out the holes 
through their wampum beads; axes, bright and sharp and 
smooth^dged, with which they can cut a tree down more 
than ten times as easily as they can with their own clumsy 
tools; and other things which we cannot afford time or 
space to enumerate. The Indians are allowed to go 
aboard and examine the big canoe and all the appurte- 
fiance's'of civilization which the pale-faces have brought 
with them, until they are fairly intoxicated with curiosity 
and wonder. 

The setting sun that evening closed a day never to be 
forgotten by those who participated in the events which 
we have portrayed — the day which saw the meeting of 
two races of men upon the soil which had been, no one 
knows how long, the home of one, and was to be, no one 
knows how long, the home of the other. While the one 
should decrease the other should increase. 

The Indians had never learned to place any particular 
value upon land. They knew of no use for it but that 
to which they appropriated it. They saw no danger of 
exhausting its limits; so when the new comers told them 
that they wanted to come and live on their lands and be 
friends with them, and would- actually make them the 
owners of a certain number of these axes, awls, knives, 
blankets, coats and such things, which the Indians saw 
would be of great use to them, in exchange for some of 
their land, they were ready to comply with the terms and 
close the bargain. But when the new comers explained 
to them the mysteries of their fire-arms, and demonstrated 
their great utility, their wonder was excited to the high- 
est pitch, and when they were allowed to taste and ex- 
perience the mystical effects of that liquid substance 
which they afterward named " fire-water '' they doubtless 
felt that two things were needed to complete their happi- 
ness, and those two things were guns and rum. To obtain 
these they were willing to sell their birthright, if neces- 
sary. The great men of the tribe agreed with the new 
comers that they could have to cultivate and use as they 
saw fit all the land included within certain boundaries, 
indefinitely expressed and still more indefinitely compre- 
hended; and to make the ceremony more impressive, as 


well as to establish some sign by which they would after- 
ward be reminded of the circumstance, they consented to 
make a mark upon the piece of dressed skin which the 
pale-faces had nearly covered with strangely confused 
and tangled lines and scratches. The territory upon 
which the new comers were allowed to set themselves 
down was inland from their own village and was of little 
value to them except for hunting grounds, and they had 
no idea that their occupancy of it would interfere much 
with the freedom of range over it for that purpose. So 
the Indians were rich and happy in the possession of 
those wonderful inventions which the strange people in 
the great canoe had brought them. 



, HE Strangers whose arrival we have noticed 
had come from a land of political, social and 
religious oppression far away beyond the 
sea — from the old England of Europe to the 
New England of America — to find a home for 
themselves and their posterity. Having visited 
some part of the mainland and thinking they 
might do better here, they had voyaged on until their 
eyes rested on the green hills of this beautiful island, 
where the " cloud " and " pillar " which seemed to 
guide them rested, and they felt that this was their 
promised land, their Canaan, their home. 

Having gained, as we have already noticed, the favor 
of the Indians and excited their curiosity by the exhibi- 
tion of various articles of convenience, the founders of 
the little colony sought and found a desirable spot for 
their occupancy, and negotiated with the Indians for its 
purchase. The plot thus selected was at some distafice 
from the Indian village. This selection was the mo§t 
desirable to both parties. It was the part of discretiofi 
for the whites not to mix too intimately with the natives. 
Their safety was probably better secured by being at a 
distance from the latter, and the natives were doubtless 
more ready to sell the land that lay remote from their 
own settlement and was consequently of little value to 

The way thus prepared, the hardy sons of toil, for such 
we must suppose the most of them were, set to work pre- 
paring, as best they could, the wilderness for their occu- 
pancy. The settlers must accommodate themselves to 
the circumstances by which they are surrounded, and at 
first a rude hovel made of sticks braced against a ridge- 
pole and covered with boughs, grass and dirt served the 
purpose of a house until some of the land could be 
broken up and planted with corn. Some spots were 
found sufficiently clear of timber growth to allow the 
work of planting to go on without serious hindrance. 
Then the seeds of other grains and vegetables appropri- 
ate to the climate were planted and cultivated. In the 
mean time, as their crops grew, they set about making 
themselves more secure against the possible depredations 
of their savage neighbors, and betteir protecting them- 
selves against the inclemency of the long, cold wintet 
which would soon be upon theni. Trees were felled and 
the logs brought together and laid up in a more perma- 


nent form of house. Grass from the neighboring mead- 
ows was placed upon the roof, and a chimney of sticks, 
" cob-housed " up and plastered on the inside with mud, 
answered to carry off the smoke, or a simple hole in the 
roof allowed its escape. Other houses were provided 
for the security and protection of the animals which had 
been brought from the English home or from their neigh- 
bors on the mainland. 

We may suppose that the settler, here during the long 
winter, when nothing could be done in the way of culti- 
vation, devoted his spare time to the felling of trees and 
preparing from them, besides firewood, material for fences 
to be made on the return of spring. As he is thus busied, 
plying his axe through the cold winter day, we wonder 
what musings fill the settler's mind. Perchance the soli- 
tude and dreariness and coldness of his surroundings 
press his very soul with overwhelming regrets that he has 
chosen this course for himself. Does he in his mind look 
back to the associations of the home that he left across 
the sea, with a yearning heart, and wish that it, with all 
its oppression and unhappy features were his again ? 
Does he reflect that the scenes of his early life, and the 
civilization of his fathers, which Were his own inherit- 
ance are as dead to him here as all nature seems to be ? 
If such reflections cross his mind they are followed, no 
doubt, by the thought that brighter days are in the 
future, and as time will shortly remove this cold mantle 
from nature, and bring new life to all things around him, 
so it will remove the social dreariness which surrounds 
him and bring new life, improvement and culture in its 
stead And the thought that he is helping to bring about 
sttch a change in this naturally fair island of his adoption. 

nerves him to fresh exertions, and the echoes come 
quicker and stronger and the crash of falling trees more 
frequent, as his strong arm prepares the way for the com- 
ing era of civilization. 

Within his humble dwelling the domestic fuTniture and 
implements are scanty and simple. A few conveniences 
brought from the "mother country," anil a few more 
simple and rude contrivances which the materials at hand 
enabled the settler to construct for himself, rhake up thei 
equipments with which the operations of household econ- 
omy are carried on. The plain and homely fare which 
comes upon the settler's board is in keeping with the 
plainness and rudeness of the' table upon which it is 
served and the appliances with which it is prepared. But 
he is a freeman, and he rejoices in that liberty. The 
thought nerves him to toil, and toil brings its own sweet 
reward, the keen enjoyment of rest and the comforts 
which his labor has earned. We venture to say no 
gaunt spectre of dyspepsia haunts him to bring to 
mind the sins that luxurious, living has prompted him 
to commit. 

With appetite sharpened by free "exercise, and the 
thought that his own exertions, aided by the genial in- 
fluences of nature, had_Qbtained the food before him, he 
could partake of that coarse fare with a relish that a king 
might envy. For the clothing worn by himself and his 
family he had at first to depend upon the supply brought 
from afar, but soon he manufactured from the products 
of his animals and his fields most of the garments worn 
by himself and the members of his family. Those 
garments, rude though they may have been, were sub- 
stantial and answered as well the original and necessary^ 



purposes of clothing as the most expensive fabrics of 
modem manufacture could have done. 

The rigor of the circumstances by which the settlers 
were surrounded was modified somewhat by the fact that 
the individual members of a company who came together 
were not far separated from each other in the location of 
their homes. This gave each the benefit of a small circle 
of associates of the same nationality and about the same 
social grade as himself. Of the tract of land which they 
had purchased of the Indians, a part was divided into 
home lots, to each settler a share, and other parts were 
enclosed in large common fields for cultivation or for 
pasturage of such stock as they might want to hold more 
more closely for immediate use. The greater part of 
their cattle were turned loose upon the open plains and 
hills to roam at large and find pasturage, while a man was 
employed to keep watch of them. 

As one season follows another the hand of improvement 
widens the area of culture and adds new features of at- 
traction, of beauty, and of convenience to the settlers' 
surroundings. His stock is multiplied by the annual in- 
crease. The cottage and the adjoining garden have been 
enclosed by a substantial fence. The cottage itself has 
been improved by a solid roof of slabs in place of the one 
of "thatch," glass in the window in place of parchment 
stretched across a frame which had previously done duty 
there; while beside the door a cluster of some climbing 
plants, trained no doubt by the careful hand of the set- 
tler's bosom partner, has reached the eaves and fills the ^ 
air with the fragrance of a thousand blossoms. Some 

medicinal herbs have been planted beside the house, and 
a few choice plants, brought from the home of her child- 
hood, are watched over by the young housewife and 
mother, to whom they are dear as mementos of those as- 
sociations between which and herself roll the ocean and 
a widening expanse of passing years. 

The settlers lived in harmony among themselves. 
Being mostly of a common nationality and having com- 
mon interests their sympathies were with each other, and 
they stood united. They worked much together, with 
and for each other, gathering the timber and enclosing 
their common fields for common cultivation or pasture, 
and standing firmly together in the employment of means 
for their protection and the general good. In this way 
there grew a uniformity of sentiment and habits, so 
strong that in some of the settlements the changes of 
more than two hundred years have not entirely effaced 
It. Standing thus unitedly, and having a well matured 
policy of kindliness toward the Indians, they experienced 
but little actual opposition ox trouble from them. 

As the years passed on the settlers found the country 
about them being taken up and occupied by other little 
colonies like their own, and a friendly intercourse soon 
sprung up between them. Roads were established for 
the accommodation of this intercourse, and frequent com- 
munication was also kept up with the settlements which 
had been made'upon the mainland. The vicissitudes of 
political fortune harassed them for many years with fre- 
quent changes in the government with which they were 
at different times either permitted or commanded to as- 



sociate themselves. The institutions of religion and edu- 
cation were among the first to receive attention. In 
some cases the settlers were organized into religious bod- 
ies before they came hither, and brought with them their 
minister, while in all the settlements the minister of the 
gospel and the school teacher were the first professional 
men to find employment. 

As the organization of the little colony became more 
perfect, regulations which seemed necessary were from 
time to time adopted for the preservation of the public 
welfare. Fortifications were thrown up and organization 
effected, a series of well understood signals adopted for 
alarm, and every precaution taken against a possible sur- 
prise from the Indians. They also passed strict regula- 
tions concerning the dispensing of "fire water " to the 
Indians. A vigilant eye was kept upon the internal af- 
fairs of the body politic, which had now assumed the 
name of a town, and held as a sacred principle its own 
independence. The character of those who desired to 
join it was closely scrutinized, and if not approved they 
were not allowed to become residents. Taverns were es- 
tablished for the accommodation of temporary sojourners, 
but the selling of spirituous liquors was carefully restricted 
to certain limits. Mills were built on some of the streams. 
Stores, in which a few of the common necessities of life 
were kept, were by degrees established, and in their trans- 
actions a system of barter was adopted, very little money 
being circulated among the Settlers in that early period. 
Gradually the different trades and business occupations 
demanded by the times were introduced, the danger from 

Indian aggression became less, and the little colony set- 
tled down to the quiet enjoyment of a moderate degree 
of prosperity as a factor in the colony of New York. 

A hundred years have flown. The ideal gettlers, whose 
surroundings we have pictured, have been gathered to 
their fathers. Succeeding generations have added their 
measure of improvement to the accumulating aggregatei 
and the humble home of the pilgrim cottager has become 
the almost pretentious homestead of his descendant of 
the fourth generation. The rude environments of the 
wilderness have dissolved, and their places are occupied 
by the conveniences and adornments of progressive 
culture, aided by definite calculation and well directed 

A new era of prosperity has dawned, and the outlook 
is encouraging; for the seven years of war which followed 
a long period of growing discontent on account of the op- 
pressive and unsatisfactory character of the colonial gov- 
ernment have passed, and the sunlight of peace is srriil- 
ing upon the land more brightly than ever before. 

After the release of the old homestead from the grasp 
of a foreign invader, which had been upon it during those 
dark and anxious years, its owner returned from his exile 
and speedily rebuilt the waste places. The fields and 
grounds which had been stripped to feed the fires of the 
enemy were refenced and a new barn was built in place 
of the old one, which had been nearly demolished by the 
same destroyer. An orchard has been planted, a more 
generous garden than ever before is being cultivated, and 
some attention is even paid to laying out grass-plats, beds 



and paths, and planting a few ornamental shrubs and 
flowers about the door. A saw-mill has been erected 
upon the brook, a substantial bridge spans the stream 
where the highway crosses, and in the opposite direction, 
exposed to view by the recent removal of the timber, 
may be seen in the distance the open door of the school- 
house. The earth is yielding her bounteous stores to the 
farmer's tillage. As he labors to harvest the generous 
burden from a new-mown hayfield he looks out upon 
the waving corn and his well-fed cattle quietly resting 
through the noon-day heat in the shade of the wood, 
and he feels that the smile of Providence is resting upon 

The era of prosperity made rapid strides. Under the 
benign influence of that government which Americans 
have come to regard almost as an inspiration, commerce, 
agriculture and arts of civilization flourished vigorously. 
The war of i8r2 cast but a passing shadow over the 
brilliant career of that government. The occasional out- 
breaks which occurred here and there within its borders 
and the few hostile engagements with other powers did 
not seriously hinder its grand onward progress. From 
the terrific civil struggle of four years into which it was 
plunged by the rebellion of 1861 it came forth " fair as 
the sun, clear as the moon, and terrible as an army with 

We turn to notice the changes that have taken place 
about the " old homestead " since we took the last view 
of it. The house which then occupied the site has been 
torn down, and its place is supplied by a larger one, of 
more recent design and construction. Lattice-work, 
cornice and mouldmg, in their appropriate places add 
beauty to the symmetrical appearance of the whole. A 
nice picket fence marks the highway line. A modern- 
ized barn has been erected, and carriage houses, sheds 
and granaries surround it. A bright winter morning 
looks down upon the scene, and the farmer and his boys 
are busy taking care of the stock. A grocery peddlar 
from the village store — an adjunct of modern enterprise 
— is driving up to the kitchen door to Supply the family 
with whatever is needed in his line. A new bridge, an 
arch of stone this time, has been built over the brook, 
and just above it stands a mill which has been recently 
equipped with improved machinery. A cutter dashing 
down the road and a loaded sleigh from the mill give 
life to the foreground, while a railroad train, as it runs 
across the fields toward the station, half a mile away, 
animates the background. The forest which once ob- 
structed our vision has been cleared away, opening to 
view the scattered farm-houses, the little village and the 
old church in the distance. Through all these genera- 
tions the inhabitants of the country about here have 
regularly attended that church, and near it rest the re- 
mains of those who have passed away. The background 
stretching away to the distant hills is filled with cleared 
farms, whose thorough cultivation is increasing from year 
to year the wealth of their owners, and thus adding to 
the aggregate of the country's wealth and prosperity. 



HE towns of Suffolk county were all settled by 
English immigrants. It is the oldest county 
of purely English settlement within the limits 
of the State of New York. The first settler 
was Lion Gardiner, who purchased and begun to 
make improvements upon Gardiner's Island in 
1639. During the following year settlements were 
made at Southampton and Southold. Easthampton was 
settled in 1648, Shelter Island in 1652, Huntington 
in 1653, Brookhaven in 1655 and Smithtown about 
1663. The latter, however, was not recognized as a dis- 
tinct town until several years latter. Neither did Shelter 
Island exercise the functions of an independent town for 
several years after its settlement. 

Southampton, Southold, Easthampton, Huntington 
and Brookhaven were independent colonies until the 
new charter of Connecticut was granted (1662), by the 
provisions of which they became a part of that colony. 
They had it is true formed alliances with the New Eng- 
land colonies, but those alliances were for the protection 
and assistance of these towns and did not interfere with 
their independence. They were formed as follows: — 
Southampton with Connecticut in 1644, Southold with 
New Haven in 1648, Easthampton with Connecticut in 
1657, Brookhaven with the same in 1659 and Huntington 
with the same in 1660. 

Title to the soil was acquired by the satisfaction of 
two claims — that of the Indians and that of the crown of 
Great Britain. Land was purchased of the Indians by com- 
panies and by individuals, in tracts varying in size, loca- 
tion and valuation as circumstances or opportunity hap- 
pened to suggest. Boundaries were indefinite, and it 
often happened that a tract of land was claimed by dif- 
ferent tribes or chiefs, so that double Indian claims had 
sometimes to be satisfied. The patent of James I. to 
the Plymouth Company in 1620 and that of the latter to 
Earl Stirling in 1635 comprehended this territory. After 
the death of Earl Stirling, in 1640, and that of his son a 
few months later, his heir surrendered the grant to the 
crown. The earliest settlers were required to recognize 
the rights of Earl Stirling, but after those rights were 
thus surrendered they had only the Indian claims to 
satisfy until the conquest of 1664, which threw the forts 
and government at New York into the hands of the 

In 1662-63 some plan seems to have been under con- 
sideration for a union of the eastern towns. Committees 
were appointed by Southold, Southampton and East- 
hampton to confer together and with the general court 
at Hartford in reference to the establishment of govern- 
ment here. Just what kind of a settlement of govern- 



ment was contemplated does not appear, but from the 
fact that a patent was spoken of we may presume that 
the organization of a colony here distinct from that of 
Connecticut, with a patent from the king, may have been 
designed. It is inferred that the price which these towns 
were to pay for this patent was about five hundred pounds 
sterling. But whatever may have been their plans, the 
discussion of which appears to have been continued 
with much earnestness into the early part of 1664, their 
fulfillment was doubtless defeated by the events of that 
year, when these towns were required to become a part 
of the colony of New York. Some of the easternmost 
ones strongly objected, and, though they were compelled 
to submit, afterward retained and asserted a decided 
affinity for the former allegiance. 

Upon the organization of the government under Rich- 
ard NicoUs, the first English governor, the boundaries of 
townships and individual holdings of real estate were 
more definitely settled, and to perfect their title they 
were required to obtain patents from the governor, for the 
granting of which he demanded such perquisites as he 
thought proper. As not all of the land had at this time 
been bought of the Indians, the governor himself in some 
instances satisfied their claim in the name of his Royal 
Highness, and then granted patent deeds for the same to 
the planters who might desire to purchase. Governor 
Nicolls's price to his subjects varied from one penny per 
acre for land where the Indian claim had been satisfied 
down to a rate of two shillings and sixpence for a hun- 
dred acres where the responsibility of satisfying the In- 
dian claims was assumed by the purchaser. 

A uniform code of laws was also given to each towni 
similar in general to those of other English colonies of 
that tim^. They contained many of those regulations 
for the suppression of Sabbath-breaking, drunkenness, 
profanity and slander so common among the enactments 
of the English towns before the conquest. 

The towns of Huntington, Brookhaven, Southold, 
Southampton and Easthampton were by the Hempstead 
convention of 1665 organized as the " east riding " of 
Yorkshire. The further judicial arrangements made at 
the same time are described on page 25. 

The popular impression that the practice of witchcraft 
should be suppressed by the strong arm of the law found 
but few opportunities here to develop itself. Two cases 
are on record, that of " Goody Garlicke," of Easthamp- 
ton, in 1657, and that of Ralph Hall and his wife, of 
Setauket, in 1665. The charges were gravely considered 
in high courts, the former at Hartford and the latter at 
New York, but nothing appears to have been developed 
worthy of punishment. 

At this time the principal products of the land were 
corn and cattle. These articles were no doubt exported 
to some extent. Tfie expenses of government were met 
by direct taxes upon the people. Each individual planter 
had his own portion of corn ground to cultivate, also his 
own allotment of meadows adjoining the bays, from which 
to cut grass, but the wide ranges of pasture land were 
used in common by the inhabitants of a town. 

When the Dutch recovered New York in 1673 the 
eastern towns of Long Island took the opportunity to seek 
again an alliance with the colony of Connecticut. The 
governor was able to induce Huntington and Brookhaven 
to continue their connection with the government at New 
York, but Southold, Southampton and Easthampton were 
uncompromising in their determination to return to their 
former associations. They implored the protection of 
Connecticut through a delegation of deputies, who were 
successful in their efforts, and accordingly these three 
towns were organized into a county under that jurisdic- 

October 30th 1673 the Dutch governor, Anthony 
Colve, sent a commission to induce these towns to submit 
to his government. Visiting Shelter Island and Southold 
this commission found the people in no mood for sub- 
mission, but in arms ready for resistance. The Dutch 
authorities were so much incensed by this attitude that 
they threatened to reduce the obstinate towns by fire and 
sword. In execution of this purpose an armed force was 
sent down the sound to the east end. Connecticut in the 
meantime having sent troops to the assistance of the 
English towns, the Dutch forces were repulsed at every 
effort, and finally driven from the island. 

The colony reverting to the English in 1674, a new 
patent was issued by the king to the Duke of York, and 
he appointed Sir Edmund Andros to re- establish his gov- 
ernment. The three eastern towns of Suffolk, anticipating 
the demand which would be made upon them to resume 
allegiance to the duke's government, sent a committee to 
Connecticut to obtain a firmer establishment of their al- 
liance. In compliance with this request the general 
court of that colony, May 14th 1674, appointed commis- 
sioners to go over and settle the government of the county 
on a more permanent basis. Soon afterward the towns 
appointed a committee to petition the king to grant them 
authority to remain with Connecticut. The petition, if 
ever presented to the king, was not granted. 

Andros immediately set about organizing the govern- 
ment. The three eastern towns' in a memorial to him 
declared themselves to belong to the government of Con- 
necticut, with a determination " so to continue." Novem- 
ber 1 6th a requirement was sent to these towns to rein- 
state the former constables and overseers, under penalty 
of being declared rebels. The deputies who had signed 
the rebellious memorial — John Mulford, of Easthampton, 
John Howell, of Southampton, and John Youngs, of 
Southold — were also called to New York to answer for 
their action. These towns, being unable to retain their 
connection with Connecticut, were obliged to submit, 
with the other towns of the island, to the duke's govern- 

The government reestablished under Andros was the 
same as before the Dutch interregnum. The towns were 
taxed to support the government at New York, and in 
making assessments a uniform scale of valuations was 
prescribed, for the principal items of personal property 
as well as real estate. Upon the basis of such valuations 
applied to the real and personal property of each town. 




as enumerated by its officers, a tax of one penny on a 
pound was exacted. This arbitrary scale of valuations 
ran as follows : Improved land or meadow belonging to 
an individual owner, ^^i to an acre; oxen j£6 each ; 
cows four years old and over, ^5; three years old, ^£4 ; 
two years old, j£2 ics.; one year old, ;£i los.; horses 
four years old and over, ^^12; three years old, ;£8; two 
years old, ;^s; one year old, j^^'t goats, 8s.; sheep, 
6s. 8d.; hogs, ;£i each. An assessment of ;^i8 on each 
head (probably each adult male citizen) was also added 
as the basis of a poll tax. These arbitrary valuations 
were probably much higher than the average of prices 
which the same property would at that time bring in the 
market. The representatives of Southampton in 1675 
claimed as an notorious fact that the assessment of horses 
was unreasonably high. They hinted that those estimates 
of value belonged to former years, when the price of 
horses ruled higher than at that time; and petitioned that 
their assessment might be amended so as to value horses 
at _;£4, three-year-old colts at ^3, two-year-olds at ^2, 
and yearlings at ^1, which prices they declared to be 
still above the market. The governor appears to have 
conceded their petition. In 1675 the assessment of these 
towns was as follows: — Huntington, ^6,339; Brook- 
haven, ;^3,o65 i6s. 8d.; Southold, ;^io,93S los ; South- 
ampton, ^13,667; Easthampton, ^6,842 i6s. 8d. The 
figures show the comparative wealth and importance of 
these towns at that time. Applying the rate of one penny 
to the pound we find that these five towns paid into the 
New York treasury an annual tax of ^^170 4s. 2ji^d. 

The stock owned by the inhabitants of these towns 
numbered 4,297 cattle, 896 horses, 2,030 hogs, 1,262 
sheep, and an inconsiderable number of goats. Individ- 
ual owners held 5,687 acres of improved and meadow 
land, besides that which was used in common for pastur- 
age. The planters of that period no doubt found cattle 
to be the most profitable kind of stock to raise. Proba- 
bly owing to the danger from dogs and other animals, 
sheep were not generally raised. Among the wild animals 
which the settlers found here were wolves, and the Indians 
it is said had a habit of catching the young ones and 
training them for dogs. The natural propensities of these 
animals made them still a terror to sheep. Efforts were 
made to exterminate them, and the early settlers adopted 
the practice of setting guns in the woods for them. This 
practice was countenanced by the town authorities but 
some of the towns passed requirements that such guns 
should be taken up by sunrise in the morning, so as not to 
endanger the life of any person who might be going into 
the woods about his legitimate business. Owing to these 
causes only now and then a man ventured to keep a flock 
of sheep, while nearly every man owned from ten to 
twenty-five cattle. Horses were also raised in consider- 
able numbers. It is probable that the average farmer of 
two hundred years ago on the soil of Suffolk kept a great- 
er number of horses, cattle and hogs than the average 
farmer on the same soil does at the present time. Some- 
thing had been done toward improvement in a few locali- 
ties outside the jurisdiction of either of the towns above 

named, but the figures of their taxable wealth probably 
would not materially swell those we have given. Such 
localities were Gardiner's Island, Shelter Island, Fisher's 
Island, the Smithtown patent and a few points scattered 
along the south side from Southampton to the boundaries 
of Huntington. 

An illustration of the high-toned moral sense of the 
people of that day is furnished by the following instance: 
One Saturday in the spring of 1682 Nathaniel Baker, of 
Easthampton, went to look for a stray ox. Not finding 
him readily he continued his search until the following 
morning, when he found the ox and drove him home. 
For this offense he was arraigned before the court of ses- 
sions and compelled to pay a fine of ^^9 3s. 3d., which 
included court charges, and wns further required to give 
bonds in the sum of ;^2o for his good behavior. 

When we consider the mint-tithing exactness with 
which the people of that day demanded obedience to the 
Sinaitic decalogue we are almost surprised at the language 
of the following postscript to a communication from the 
magistrates of Southampton to the authorities at New 
York in 1675: "Wee are greived to heare of ye loss of 
English blood by ye cruell damned pagans and very 
many are Sorry the Indians here have theire guns returned 
to them." 

The governors seemed to consider it their province to 
look after the spiritual as well as the temporal interests 
of their subjects. Hence we find them frequently advis- 
ing, instructing, admonishing or directing the people or 
their ministers in regard to their religious duties. In 
167 1 Governor Lovelace, in a letter to Rev. John Youngs, 
of Southold, intimates that the privilege of exercising 
his religion after his own manner is an " extraordinary 
indulgence " afforded by the governor, and he exhorts 
him to administer the sacraments of the Lord's Supper 
and baptism of infants to those who desire it though they 
are not of his own church, and to otherwise exercise a 
liberal spirit toward those of other denominations or be- 
liefs; hinting that if he by refusing to do so should incur 
the displeasure of the governor he might be " Inter- 
rupted in ye Exercise of that Church ffunction, which he 
now so peaceably enjoys." In 1682 Governor Brock- 
hoist received a complaint from some of the inhabitants 
of Huntington that Rev. Eliphalet Jones refused to bap- 
tize their children; but on inquiry he found that Mr. 
Jones was willing to baptize the children of Christian 
parents, but that_ many of the inhabitants who solicited 
the ceremony were so loose in their conduct as scarcely 
to deserve the name of Christian. Mr. Jones promised 
the governor that in deciding who should be accepted as 
Christian parents he would " use his Endcauour to be as 
Moderate therein as possible." The governor instructed 
Justice Wood to allow the minister's salary account, 
which was considerably in arrears^ to be collected in 
the usual way, and concluded his letter with the follow- 
ing benediction to the people: "I wish you all to be 
& Continue in one faith and one minde and that you 
may bee Soe Bound & United togather in the Bond 
of Peace that all Jealosies and Dissentions may be 



Removed which will be to yor Owne Comforts & Re- 
joyceing off Your affectionate ffriend." 

By action of an Assembly called by Governor Don- 
gan in 1683, the county of Suffolk was formed in place 
of the east riding of Yorkshire. The court of sessions 
was now organized, to meet twice a year, and to consist 
of the justices of the peace of the county. Three com- 
missioners were appointed in each town to constitute a 
local court, with power to decide cases not exceeding 
^S value. This Assembly also provided for a revenue 
to the government from duties on imports as follows: 
Rum* brandy and distilled liquors, 4 pence a gallon; Ma- 
deira, Malaga, sherry and all sweet wines, 40 shillings 
per pipe; powder, 12 shillings a barrel; lead, 6 shillings 
per hundred weight; every gun or gun-barrel with lock, 
6 shillings; general merchandise not otherwise specified, 
an ad valorem duty of 2 per cent.; all merchandise in- 
tended for the Indian trade, 10 per cent. The follow- 
ing merchandise was exempt: salt, brick, pan-tiles, coal, 
fish, sugar, molasses, cotton wool, ginger, logwood, 
" brasalette,'' fustic. West India hides, tobacco, bullion 
and plate. An excise was also placed upon all liquors 
sold in less quantities than five gallons, of 12 pence a 
gallon, except beer and cider, which were rated at 6 
shillings .a barrel. An export duty was also laid upon 
all skins of animals sent away. In computing the value 
of skins and the duty thereon a whole beaver skin was 
taken as the standard or unit of value, and other skins 
were reckoned by it. The duty on a whole beaver was 
nine pence, and the same on its equivalent in any other 
skins, as follows: two half-beavers, four " lapps," three 
" drillings," ten " ratoons," four foxes, four " fishers," 
five cats, twenty-four " mees-catts," ten " mailers," 
twenty-four pounds of deer skin and the same weight of 
moose skin. 

The growth of Suffolk county, as well as the compara- 
tive importance of the different towns, may be inferred 
from the following figures, which show the ratable prop- 
erty of each town according to the returns of 1683: 
Huntington, ;^6,7i3; Smith's Towne, ^1,340; Brook- 
haven, ;^S,o29 ; Southold, _;^io,8i9 ; Southampton, 
;^i6,328; Easthampton, ;^9,o75; total, ^49,304. There 
were also a few localities not comprehended in these 

Under Governor Dongan the towns were required, in 
order that they might be compelled to pay an increased 
quit rent, to take out new patents wherever the governor 
could find some patch of land that had not been bought 
of the Indians previous to the issue of a former patent. 
This appears to have been the case with Huntington, 
Brookhaven, Southampton and Easthampton. " The 
methods that I took," says the governor, "for the 
obliging them to this, was finding several tracts of land 
in their townships not purchased of the Indians, and so 
at his Ma'ty's disposal. They were willing rather to 
submit to a greater quit rent than have that unpurchased 
land disposed of to others than themselves." 

The Assembly met again in October 1684. At this 
session the court of assize, which had been held at New 

York annually, was abolished, and in its stead a court of 
oyer and terminer was created, to be held in each county 
once a year. The members of this court were one of two 
judges appointed for the province, and three justices of 
the peace belonging to the county. This court had 
power to hear appeals from inferior courts. The court 
of chancery was composed of the governor and his coun- 
cil, of which there were ten, and it was the supreme court 
of the colony. To it appeals might be taken from any 
inferior court. 

It is probable that the arbitrary character of the gov- 
ernment under James II. alienated the people of Suffolk 
county in a greater measure, if possible, than those in 
other parts of the province. As a consequence the people 
were not over scrupulous about paying the full amount of 
revenue to which the law entitled the government. The 
collection of the excise on liquors, etc., seems to have 
been "farmed out" to contractors in different sections. 
Governor Dongan about this time declared that in Long 
Island there is " great consumption of Rumm," and there- 
fore he refuses to accept the offer of ^52 a year for the 
excise thereof. He also found here considerable difficulty 
in collecting other items of revenue, such as the duty on 
imported goods. In the governor's opinion the people 
of the island, "especially toward the east end, are of the 
same stamp with those of New-England, refractory @ 
very loath to have any commerce with this place [New 
York] to the great detr'm't of his Ma'ty's revenue® ruin 
of our merchants.!' It was convenient for the inhabitants 
to have commerce 'with their New England neighbors, 
and they found a market in Boston for their whale oil 
and other products, and could there buy the goods from 
other countries which they desired. In order to accom- 
modate the people who desired to have commerce with 
Boston, so that they need not be obliged to come to New 
York to enter or clear, the governor allowed them a port 
and appointed Isaac Arnold collector. The people still 
persisted in smuggling goods from the eastern colonies, 
so that the governor and council abandoned the east end 
port and ordered that all trade should enter and clear at 
New York. To enforce that order, and to intercept any 
illicit passage of goods, he sent a bark with ten men on 
board to cruise about the east end. Even with this array 
of naval dignity it is to be doubted whether he was able 
to command a very full obedience to his order. The 
rigorous administration of the government at this time 
may have been the cause of an apparent suspension of 
immigration into the province. The governor in deplor- 
ing this circumstance declared that there had not twenty 
families from Great Britain come to this province in seven 
years, but on the contrary the inhabitants of Long Island 
— which by the way he declared to be the " best peopled 
place in this government " — were moving into the neigh- 
boring province. 

Events of importance now rapidly succeeded each 
other. The incursions of the French upon the Iroquois 
Indians. west of Albany excited the attention and alarm 
of the colony, and the government made preparations to 
sustain the Indians. August 20th 1687 the council 



ordered a special tax for this purpose, to be paid in 
before the ist of May following. The amount of this 
tax required of Suffolk county could not have have been 
less than ;^255. It was a tax of one and a half pence to 
the pound sterling. A few weeks later, September nth, 
the council ordered that every tenth man of all the 
militia of the province, except those who were out 
whaling, should be drawn to go to defend Albany against 
an attack from the French. On May 3d 1688 the 
council ordered another special tax for the use of the 
government in sustaining its alliance with the Iroquois 
and resisting the French. Suffolk was drawn upon by 
this call to the amount of ^£^434 los., which sum was just 
equal to that required of the city and county of New 
York. How fully these calls were met by the people of 
Suffolk we are not informed; but from the remoteness of 
the contested territory and the weakness and unpopular- 
ity of the government at that time it may be supposed 
that a full compliance was not yielded. 

Governor Dongan was succeeded in 1688 by Lieu- 
tenant Governor Nicholson, who had been appointed 
over the colony of New York by Edmond Andros, who 
had been commissioned as governor of all the American 
colonies. The following April brought the news of the 
succession of William and Mary to the throne from 
which James II. had been driven by the English revolu- 
tion. Encouraged by the demonstrations that followed 
the receipt of this news at Boston, where Andros had 
been seized and imprisoned by the people, the inhabit- 
ants of Suffolk county held popular meetings and sent a 
delegation to New York urging the people there to rise 
and take possession of the fort. This was done about 
the last of May, 1689, and the commission was so suc- 
cessful that the people almost unanimously rose, and, 
receiving no opposition from Nicholson, took possession 
of the fort and assumed the government, while the lieu- 
tenant governor, being no longer needed, left the prov- 
ince. The sequel of these movements was the assump- 
tion of the government by Jacob Leisler. Leisler com- 
missioned the following officers for Suffolk county : 
Justices — John Howell, Richard Smith, Samuel Mulford, 
Thomas Mapes, and Ebenezer Piatt; Matthew Howell, 
high sheriff. At a council meeting on the 17th of De- 
cember Captain Ebenezer Piatt, of Huntington, was com- 
missioned to administer the oaths of office to the other 
justices. On the i8th John Howell was appointed clerk 
of Suffolk county, and on the day following was commis- 
sioned as collector. On the 19th Leisler sent orders to 
Suffolk county coinmanding the people to proclaim Wil- 
liam and Mary their king and queen, with appropriate 
ceremonies at the chief town of the county, and " with 
all convenient speed." The following commissions 
wei-e issued to Suffolk county early in 1690: Richard 
Osborn, of Madnan's Neck, captain; John Hubbs, of 
Madnan's Neck, lieutenant; Joseph Sutton jr., of Mad- 
nan's Neck, ensign; John Willet, Easthampton, captain ; 
Thomas Wicks, Huntington, captain; John Wood, Hunt- 
ington, lieutenant; Thomas Hickly, Huntington, ensign. 

March loth 1690 Easthampton, represented by Samuel 

Mulford, Samuel Pierson and Thomas Chatfield, politely 
protested to Leisler that the people could not comply 
with the demands made upon them to accept his author- 
ity, because of their desire to rejoin Connecticut and the 
fact of their isolation; but they assured him that they in- 
tended keeping a walch on Montauk to give notice of the 
apprehended approach of their common enemy, the 
French, by way of the sea. 

On the 8th of April 1690 Leisler made a call for an 
assembly of representatives, two from each county. It 
appears that Suffolk refused to be represented in this. 
May 19th Leisler sent Samuel Edsall, one of his council, 
to secure the allegiance of Suffolk county to his govern- 
ment. It is probable that but a small measure of success 
attended this commission. In July 1690 an alarm 
reached Leisler that the French were cruising and com- 
mitting depredations about the east end of Long Island. 
He accordingly ordered Major Thomas Lawrence to 
conscript seventy men and go thither for the assistance 
and defense of Southold. This was followed by an ex- 
pedition of four vessels which he fitted out on the 23d 
and sent to cruise down the sound and about the east 
end as far as Block Island, with instructions to capture 
any French vessels they might find committing outrages 
there. What success attended this expedition we are not 
informed. Suffolk county did little or nothing to avert 
the overthrow of Leisler, who was arrested, tried and 
convicted of treason, and was executed on the i6th of 
May 1691. 

The government thereupon established by Governor 
Sloughter remained substantially the same for a period 
of more than four score years, which may be called the 
colonial period proper, and which closed with the advent 
of the American Revolution. The disturbed condition of 
affairs which had for so long a time prevailed was super- 
seded by comparative quietude and harmony. All 
grants, charters and patents previously issued were now 
confirmed. The Assembly was established again and 
was never afterward abolished. Courts were established, 
including in Suffolk the county court or court of common 
pleas, composed of a judge and the justices of the county, 
having cognizance of civil actions except where the title 
(O land was concerned, and final power in cases of value 
less than ;^2o; the court of sessions, composed of the 
justices of the county; and the justices' courts, wherein 
a single justice had power to decide a controversy to 
the amount of forty shillings. The justices were ap- 
pointed by the governor. Surveyors of highways, col- 
lectors, assessors and constables were elected by the 

Suffolk county had in ,1693 the following justices: 
John Howell, Samuel Mulford, Richard Smith, William 
Barker, Matthew Howell, Ebenetus (probably Ebenezer 
or Epenetus).I*latt and Thomas Mapes. Josiah Hobart 
was sheriff at the same time, and Isaac Arnold judge of 
the cominon pleas. These names are often met with in 
the history of those years, and they were doubtless 
among the leading men of their day, and the most of 
them probably held office for many years. At this time 



the militia of Suffolk consisted of nine companies of foot, 
numbering 533, commanded by Col. John Youngs. 

The following statistics of population of the different 
counties of the province of New York in 1698 will show 
by comparison the importance of Suffolk county at that 
time: Albany, 1,476; Ulster and Dutchess, 1,384; Orange, 
219; Westchester, 1,063; Richmond, 727; New York, 
4,937; Kings, 2,017; Queens, 3,565; Suffolk, 2,679. 

In the year 1700 the militia of the province numbered 
3,182 men. At the same time the militia of Suffolk 
numbered 614 men. These composed a regiment and its 
field officers were: Isaac Arnold, colonel; Henry Pierson, 
lieutenant colonel; Matthew Howell, major. The ofificers 
of its town companies were as follows: 

The Brookhaven company — Samuel Smith, captain; 
Richard Floyd, lieutenant; Joseph Tucker, ensign. 

The Huntington company — Thomas Wicks, captain; 
John Wood, lieutenant; Epenetus Piatt, lieutenant. 

The Southampton company — Abraham Howell, cap- 
tain; Joseph Fordham, lieutenant; Isaac Halsey, ensign; 
John Lupton, lieutenant; Joseph Moore, ensign; Thomas 
Stephens, captain; Joseph Pierson, lieutenant; Jeremiah 
Scott, ensign. 

The Southold companies — Thomas Young, captain; 
Samuel Glover, lieutenant; Richard Brown, ensign; Jon- 
athan Harlow, captain; Mr. Griffin, lieutenant; Mr. 
Emmons, ensign; Thomas Mapes, captain; Joshua Har- 
low, lieutenant; John Booth, ensign. 

A company in Easthampton — John Wheeler, captain; 
Enoch Fithian, lieutenant; Cornelius Conkling, ensign. 
The names of the ofificers of one or two other com- 
panies in this town are not given in the list from which 
we copy, though it is intimated that such companies ex- 

The first churches here were independent and after- 
ward became Presbyterian. The ministers were supported 
by the towns in which they officiated, and their salaries 
as early as 1678 were from ;^4o to ;^70 a year, with the 
use of a house and land. The Church of England did 
not find as auspicious a field here during the colonial 
period as it did in some other parts. One of its adherents 
in 1704 declares: " In Suffolk county, in the east end of 
Long Island, there is neither a Church of England minis- 
ter nor any provision made for one by law, the people 
generally being Independents, and upheld in their sep- 
aration by New England emissaries." The first churches 
of that denomination were established near the middle of 
that century. 

In 1677 the people of Huntington complained that the 
Quakers came into their meetings and by making boister- 
ous noises greatly disturbed them. The sect never 
gained any strength in this county. In 1756 there were 
only nine persons who registered according to law as 
Quakers, of whom six were at Islip, two at Huntington, 
and one at Brookhaven. 

Negro slaves had been introduced previous to 1678, 
and at that time they were valued at ^^30 to. ^35. The 
. institution of slavery grew moderately, and was maintained 
until after the Revolution. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century the dispo- 
sition to move westward, even from this newly settled 
section, began to show itself. Colonies from these com- 
paratively old towns then branched off from the parent 
stem and planted themselves in other parts of the prov- 
ince and in the neighboring provinces; as Governor Hun- 
ter in 1716 remarks: "Great numbers of the younger 
sort leave Long Island yearly to plant in the Jerseys and 

Among the products and exports of the country here 
as early as 1678 were corn, wheat, beef, pork, fish, timber, 
staves, horses, and whale oil. Considerable trade with 
the West Indies was carried on during the latter part of 
the seventeenth century. This consisted of wheat or its 
products, and staves, in exchange for rum, sugar, mo- 
lasses, and logwood. Whale oil and bon"e were the chief 
exports to Europe. The king and his representatives 
here used their pov.-er to prevent any trade with other 
countries than those belonging to the crown. 

The agents of royalty looked with a jealous eye upon 
any effort in the direction of manufacturing which the 
colonists here made. The governors frequently recom- 
mended the home government to encourage the produc- 
tion of naval stores as a means of diverting the attention 
of the people from manufacturing. In their view the 
chief object of the colonies was to serve the interests of 
England, and to this end it was necessary to secure their 
dependence upon the mother country by every possible 
means. The people, however, had other objects and am- 
bitions, and they steadily pursued them. 

Woolen manufacture was commenced here about the 
year 1700. A woolen cloth called serge was produced. 
This manufacture, commencing not only in Suffolk but 
in Connecticut, alarmed the agents of royalty, for they 
saw in it a strong factor of self-dependence for the colon- 
ies of America. Some idea of the way in which this matter 
was regarded by different governors at different points of 
the colonial period may be gained from the following ex- 
tracts. Governor Cornbury writes to England in 1705: 

"I am well informed that upon Long Island and Con- 
necticut they are setting up a woolen manufacture, and I 
myself have seen serge made upon Long Island that any 
man may wear. Now if they begin to make serge, they 
will in time make coarse cloth and then fine. * * 
* I hope I may be pardoned if I declare my 
opinion to be that all these colonies, which 
are but twigs belonging to the main tree 
[England], ought to be kept entirely dependent upon 
and subservient to England; and that can never be if 
they are suffered to go on in the notions they have, that 
as they are Englishmen so they may set up the same 
manufactures here as people may do in England; for 
the consequence will be that if once they can se3 they 
can clothe themselves, not only comfortably but hand- 
somely too, without the help of England, they, who are 
not very fond of submitting to government, would soon 
think of putting in execution designs they had long 
harbored in their breasts. This will not seem strange 
when you consider what sort of people this country is 
inhabited by." 

Caleb Heathcote, member of the council, writes to 
England in 1708; 


" They are already so far advanced in their Manu- 
factoryes that J^^ of ye linen and WoUen they use is 
made amongst 'em, espetially the Courser sort; & if some 
speedy and effectual ways are not found to putt a stop 
to it they will carry it on a great deal further, & perhaps 
in time very much to the prejudice of our manufactorys 
at home." 

These were no doubt the views of extremists, who 
pictured the case in stronger lights than the facts would 
warrant. The alarm raised in them is hardly supported 
by the following statement of Governor Cosby to the 
Board of Trade in 1732: 

" The inhabitants here are more lazy and inactive 
than the world generally supposes, and their manu- 
facture extends no farther than what is consumed in 
their own families — a few coarse linsey woolseys for 
clothing, and linen for their own wear." 

Governor Moore in 1767 writes: 

"It does not appear that there is any established 
fabric of broadcloth here; and some poor weavers from 
Yorkshire, who came over lately in expectation of being 
engaged to make broadcloths, could find no employ- 
ment. But there is a general manufactory of woolen car- 
ried on here, and consists of two sorts, the first a coarse 
cloth entirely woolen, ^ of a yard wide; and another 
stuff, which they call linsey woolsey. The warp of this 
is linen and the woof woolen, and a very small quantity 
of it is ever sent to market. * * * "phe custom of 
making these coarse cloths in private families prevails 
throughout the whole province, and almost in every 
house a sufficient quantity is manufactured for the use of 
the family, without the least design of sending any of it 
to market. This I had an opportunity of seeing in the 
late tour I made, and had the same accounts given me 
by all those persons of whom I made any inquiry; for 
every house swarms with children, who are set to work 
as soon as they are able to spin and card, and as every 
family is furnished with a loom the itinerant weavers who 
travel about the country put the finishing hand to the 

The business of tanning and preparing leather for 
manufacture was begun as early as the latter part of the 
seventeenth century. From the first settlement the skins of 
animals were prepared for various uses, but the product 
could hardly be called leather. The manufacture of hats 
from beaver fur was begun about 1715. In 1732 this 
branch had received so much attention, and had grown 
to such threatening proportions, that it was considered 
necessary by Parliament to pass an act prohibiting the 
exportation of hats made here. The trade of hat-making 
grew to be an important one, and was carried on in shops 
in the different villages about the county. As then con- 
ducted the business has long since become obsolete. The 
farmers began to make cider from the fruit of their or- 
chards as soon as those orchards began to bear fruit 
enough for the purpose. Linseed oil began to be made 
from the product of the flax-fields about the year 1715. 
The first paper-mills were established here but a short 
time before the Revolution. 

The limitations of space compel us to draw this sketch 
of pre-Revolutionary Suffolk to a close. In doing so we 
may present the following table of population, which will 
show the growth of the county and its relative import- 

ance in comparison with the colony of New York at dif- 
ferent periods. The table includes whites and negroes, 

but not Indians. 





New York. 





New York. 


* 500 

* 2,500 


t 7,675 




* 7>S°o 






















* These figures are the result of careful estimates based upon imper- 
fect data. 

+ In 1731 there were 715 Indians reported in the county. 



TOUR — THE WAR OF l8l2. 

T would be difificiilt to name any date as the 
point in the history of this county when the 
revolutionary spirit began to rise. It was 
like the priesthood of Melchisedec, without 
beginning of days or end of life. The people 
of Suffolk never rested easy under the yoke of 
royalty. The heavier that yoke pressed the more 
recalcitrant they grew. A general convention of com- 
missioners from the colonies of New York, New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania was called to meet at Albany 
in June 1754 to make presents to and confirm peace and 
friendship with the Indians of the Six Nations. During 
the deliberations it was agreed that a union of all the 
colonies was necessary for their security and defense. A 
committee of one from each colony represented was ap- 
pointed to draft a plan for such a union. In this com- 
mittee William Smith, of Suffolk county, represented New 
York. The plan decided upon by that convention may 
be considered the germ out of which developed in time 
the union of the States. 

In the movements inaugurating the Revolution the 
people of Suffolk were not behind their neighbors in man- 
ifestations of patriotism and interest in the cause of 
American liberty. The different towns and districts of 
the county held special meetings and passed resolutions 
expressing their readiness to take part in resisting op- 
pression, and their sympathy with their friends of Boston. 
Committees were appointed to represent them in conven- 
tions of the county, to devise measures for the public 
welfare and to arrange for united action in executing 
those measures. " Committees of correspondence " for 
Suffolk met at Riverhead November 15th 1774, and 
passed the following expression: 

"Voted, That we recommend it to the several towns in 
this county to set forward a subscription for the employ- 
ment and relief of the distressed poor in the town of 
Boston, to be collected in such manner as the committees 



in each town shall judge proper, to be in readiness to be 
forwarded early next spring. 

''Voted, That John Foster have the care of procuring a 
vessel to call at the several harbors in this county, to re- 
ceive and carry the above donations to Boston. 

"Voted, That we fully approve of the proceedings of 
the late Continental Congress, and recommend it to the 
committees of the different towns to see that the associa- 
tion by them entered into on behalf of themselves and 
their constituents be strictly observed. 

" Ezra L'Hommedieu, Clerk." 

February 23d 1775 the committees of observation 
;:=::::Sn.-i-''nting the people of Huntington, Smithtown, Islip 
^na^SDuthampton, with some of the principal inhabitants 
of Brookhaven, met at Smithtown and passed resolutions 
approving the course of the late Continental Congress, 
and advising the representatives of the county in the 
Assembly to join in the appointment of delegates to the 
Continental Congress which was to be held in Philadel- 
phia in May following. The Assembly did not make the 
appointment of such delegates, and a provincial conven- 
tion was called for the purpose. A meeting of the com- 
mittees of the several towns was held at Riverhead 
April 6th 1775, and appointed Col. William Floyd, Col. 
Nathaniel Woodhull,_,Col. Phineas Fanning, Thomas 
Tredwell and John Sloss Hobartto represent the county 
in this convention. 

The colonial Assembly having adjourned for the last 
time on the 4th of April, a Provincial Congress of New 
York was convened on the 22nd of May. In this con- 
gress Suffolk was represented by Nathaniel Woodhull, 
John Sloss Hobart, Thomas Tredwell, John Foster, Ezra 
L'Hommedieu, Thomas Wickham, James Havens and 
Selah Strong. The people were recommended to ap- 
point county and town committees, for the management 
of the government, which was done, and thus the govern- 
ment was wrested from the hands of English royalty. 
These representatives of the people administered affairs 
until the organization of the State government in 1777. 

During the summer of 1775 several British vessels 
were prowling about the east end of the island. These 
occasionally carried off stock from the pasture fields of 
Montauk. In reply to a petition from the people of 
Southampton and Easthampton Congress gave direction 
for troops to be sent to guard the stock. Two com- 
panies raised in the neighborhood for service in the 
common cause were allowed to remain for that purpose. 
On the 7th of August thirteen sail of British shipping 
were seen off Orient Point. To be prepared against a 
raid upon the stock about the east end, which seemed 
imminent, four companies from Gen. Wooster's com- 
mand at Harlem were ordered thither under Col. 
Phineas Fanning, and Congress voted two hundred 
pounds of powder to the order of Ezra L'Hommedieu 
and John Foster. Notwithstanding these precautions it 
is said that about one hundred cattle and nearly three 
thousand sheep were taken from Fisher's and Gardiner's 

The second Provincial Congress met December 6th 
1775, and the third in May 1776, and in both bodies Suf- 

folk was represented by John Sloss Hobart, Thomas 
Tredwell, Selah Strong, Nathaniel Woodhull, Ezra 
L'Hommedieu, David Gelston, Thomas Wickham and 
Daniel Brown. 

The militia of Suffolk numbered at this time a little 
more than two thousand men. Companies of minute- 
men were organized, and preparations were made for the 
best possible defense of the county. January 5th 1776 
Congress sent 1,000 pounds of powder to the Huntington 
Committee. In April the force of continental troops 
on guard at the east end was increased to three com- 

Prominent among the illustrious signatures attached to 
the immortal Declaration of Independence is that of 
William Floyd, a native and resident of Suffolk, and one 
of the four delegates from the colony of New York to 
that Congress which adopted the Declaration. 

The fourth Provincial Congress of New York met on 
the 9lh of July 1776. Suffolk was represented in it by 
Nathaniel Woodhull, Ezra L'Hommedieu, John Sloss 
Hobart, Burnet Miller, Thomas Dering, David Gelston, 
William Smith and Thomas Tredwell. They were author- 
ized by their constituents to " establish a new form 
of government," which that Congress immediately set 
about doing, and completed the following year in the or- 
ganization of the State government. 

Toward the latter part of July the independence of the 
American colonies was proclaimed in the different towns 
and villages of Suffolk, and resolutions of the Provincial 
Congress approving the action of the Continental Con- 
gress were read amid enthusiastic demonstrations of the 
people. At Huntington an effigy of George III., wear- 
ing a wooden crown stuck full of feathers, was hung upon 
a gallows, and having been partly filled with powder was 
blown to pieces and burned. The " union " and the 
words " George III." were cut from the flag which had 
been waving from the liberty-pole, and burned with the 
effigy in presence of a parade of the people. 

It was well perhaps that the people of Suffolk did not 
know the fate that awaited them; for such a knowledge 
might have influenced them to be less decided in their 
expression of patriotism, and had Suffolk faltered in that 
critical moment who can tell how disastrous the result 
might have been to the destinies of the country ? It is 
not all vanity that prompts Suffolk county to claim a 
leading influence and position in the movements of that 
eventful period. Besides the influence which Mr. Floyd 
wielded among his fifty-five associates in the famous old 
hall at Philadelphia, the representatives of Suffolk stood 
in the front ranks of the Provincial Congress of New 
York, while one of their number. General Nathaniel 
Woodhull, was president of that body all through the 
most trying days of its existence. 

The tidal wave of enthusiasm which swept over the 
country after the declaration of independence was quickly 
followed by the disastrous battle of Long Island, on the 
27th of August, by which the British troops gained full 
possession of the island. Suffolk in company with her 
sister counties now lay at the mercy of the enemy. On 



receiving news of the engagement at Brooklyn and its 
unhappy result the few companies of regular troops 
within the county withdrew to Connecticut and the militia 
disbanded and went to their homes. August 29th the 
English general, William Erskine, to whose care the east- 
ern part of Long Island had been committed, issued a 
proclamation to the people of Suffolk, enjoining them to 
use their utmost efforts to preserve the peace of the 
county, directing all men acting under authority of the 

rebels '' to cease at once, requiring all men in arms to 
surrender, exhorting all persons to assist his Majesty's 
forces by furnishing cattle, wagons, horses, and whatever 
else lay in their power to furnish; and intimating that if 
such requirements were not immediately complied with 
he should march into the county and "lay waste ihe 
property of the disobedient." 

Civil government in this county was now suspended. 
The various town and county committees were dissolved 
and the members of them compelled to revoke their 
former actions and disclaim all allegiance to Congress 
and the cause of American independence. Many of those 
who had been most active in the recent demonstrations 
left their homes and fled beyond the lines of British oc. 
cupancy, some to Connecticut and some to other parts 
of the country, while some were seized and thrown into 
prison. Their property was appropriated without re- 
serve to the use of the conquerors, or wantonly destroyed 
by the lawless soldiery. Presbyterian churches were used 
for barracks or stables, and the resting places of the dead 
were shamefully desecrated, graves being leveled and 
tombstones removed or broken to pieces. Levies were 
made upon the inhabitants for grain and other forage 
which generally required all that the farmers had to 
spare, frequently much more, and sometimes their whole 
supply. The people were compelled to take the oath of 
allegiance to the king. In October a testimonial of that 
nature petitioning for the restoration of the county to 
"his Majesty's protection and peace," addressed to the 
king's commissioners, was circulated through the county 
and, probably through some delusive representation, six 
hundred and fourteen persons were induced to sign it. 

During the war British troops were stationed in dif- 
ferent parts of the county wherever the best fields for 
plunder invited, committing such acts of violence upon 
the property or persons of the people as their unre- 
strained propensities suggested. Their numbers were in- 
creased by enlistments of tories. But not alone from the 
British troops did the inhabitants suffer. They were fre- 
quently plundered by mercenary Whigs and tories as well, 
who sometimes made raids upon the island from the Con- 
necticut shore. From these predatory attacks neither 
Whig nor tory was exempt, nor was there any redress for 
the sufferers. 

Mr. Onderdonk in his " Revolutionary Incidents " 
says: — 

" In Suffolk county the ilicit trade forms a striking 
feature. This consisted in buying imported goods in 
New York (with the professed design of retailing them to 
faithful subjects in the county), and then carrying them 

down the island to secret landing places, whence they 
were sent across the sound in whaleboats, under cover 
of night, and exchanged with the people of Connecticut 
for provisions and farmers' produce, of which the British 
army stood in great need. Though this trade was pro- 
hibited bybothAmerican and British authority, yet the cun- 
ning of the smugglers (who often acted as spies) generally 
eluded the sleepy vigilance of government ofificials. This 
trade was protected by the sparse population of Suffolk 
county, the extensive sea border, the absence of a British 
armed force, and the proverbial insincerity of the people 
in their professed allegiance." 

In the foregoing we have given a general idea of the 
condition of the county during those seven years of mili- 
tary rule. Details of particular engagements and affrays 
will be found in other parts of the work. On the organi- 
zation of the State government in 1777 provision was 
made for the representation of those parts of the State 
situated similarly to Suffolk by men who had moved 
from their homes and were temporarily staying outside 
the territory occupied by the British. This county was 
represented in that way in the State Legislature un- 
til the withdrawal of the British troops in the early 
part of 1783 closed the long reign of confusion and 
insecurity and allowed the people to reorganize the 
machinery of civil government. 

The Whigs who had left their homes and property at 
the beginning of the war now returned and began the: 
work of rebuilding the places that had been laid waste. 
The condition in which they found their property need 
not be described. It was what may readily be imagined 
as the result of seven years' occupancy by a lawless mili- 
tary force and frequent raids of plunderers from abroad. 
In view of the fact that Suffolk had been unable to join 
actively in carrying on the war, an act of the State Legis- 
lature passed May 6th 1784 imposed upon this county a 
tax of ;^io,ooo to reimburse other parts of the State in 
the extra expense incurred by them for that purpose. 
The property of a few of the most prominent opposers 
of the American cause was confiscated and sold. Among 
the representatives of New York in the Continental Con- 
gress during its existence were the following from Suffolk 
county: William Floyd, 1774 to 1782; Ezra L'Homme- 
dieu, 1779 to 1783; Zephaniah Piatt, 1785. June 17th 
1788 a convention met at Poughkeepsie to adopt the 
constitution of the United States. In that convention 
Suffolk was represented by Henry Scudder, John Smith, 
David Hedges, Jonathan N. Havens and Thomas Tred- 
well. The war ended and the State government in suc- 
cessful operation the people breathed the air of freedom, 
their industries revived, and an era of prosperous growth 

During the presidency of General Washington he 
made a tour into Suffolk county, and his impressions 
were noted down in his diary, from which the following 
extract is taken: 

"April 2 1 St 1790. — We dined at Captain Zebulon 
Ketcham's, Huntington South, which had been a public 
house, but now a private one; that is, received pay for 
what is furnished. This house was about 14 miles 
from South Hempstead, and a very neat and decent one. 



After dinner we proceeded to a 'Squire Thompson's, 
such a house as the last; that is, one that is not public, 
but will receive pay for everything it furnishes in the 
same manner as it it was. The road on which I passed 
to-day and the country here is more mixed with sand 
than yesterday, and the soil is of inferior quality; yet 
with manure, which all the corn ground receives, the 
land yields on an average 30 bushels to the acre, often 
more. Of wheat they do not grow much on account of 
the fly, but the crops of rye are good. 

"April 22nd. — About 8 o'clock we left Mr. Thomp- 
son's, halted awhile at one Green's, distance 11 miles, and 
'dined at Hart's tavern, in Brookhaven township, five 
miles farther. To this place we traveled on what is 
called the South road, but the country through which it 
passed grew more and more sandy and barren as we trav- 
eled eastward, so as to become very poor indeed; but a 
few miles further eastward the land took a different com- 
plexion, as we were informed. From Hart's we struck 
across the island for the north side, passing the east end 
of bushy plains and Coram, 8 miles; thence to Setauket, 
seven miles more, to the house of Captain Roe, which is 
tslerably decent, with obliging people in it. The first 
five miles of the road is too poor to admit inhabitants or 
cultivation, being a low, scrubby oak, not more than two 
feet high, intermixed with small and ill-thriving pines. 
Within two miles of Coram there are farms, but the land 
is of indifferent quality, much mixed with sand. Coram 
contains but few houses. From thence to Setauket the 
soil improves, especially as you approach the sound, laut 
it is far from being of the first quality, still a good deal 
being mixed with sand. The road across from the south 
to the north side is level, except a small part south of 
Coram, but the hills are trifling." 

The war of 181 2 gave Suffolk comparatively little 
trouble beyond some anxious apprehensions of danger 
that threatened. In 1813 a British fleet occupied Gar- 
d'iher's Bay, and from their headquarters there made at- 
tacks upon the shipping at different points. The partic- 
ulars of these attacks will be found elsewhere. A draft 
wa's made upon the militia for a three months' service at 
Sag Harbor, where the danger of an attack seemed great- 
est. Several frigates cruised the sound and harassed the 
trading sloops plying between the ports along the north 
shore of the county and New York. This interfered 
seriously with the shipping of cordwood from the forests 
of the county to the New York market, which was in 
those days a business of considerable importance. The 
searcity of wood in the market stimulated prices, and 
those who were daring enough to undertake the risk and 
fortunate enough to reach the city with a load of wood 
received a price two or three times as great as they or- 
dinarily expected for it. The cruising frigates were on 
the alert, and their diligence was every now and then re- 
warded by a prize. Some of the vessels thus captured 
werfe held for a ransom, on receipt of which they were 
returned to their owners, and others were burned. 
iiiovtgh by this means some property was destroyed there 
were during the whole war but few if any lives lost. 

With the events of these years closed the war history 
in which this county was directly concerned until the 
outbreak of the rebellion of 1861. Nearly fifty years of 
liiiinterrupted peace gave Suffolk an era of tranquil 
prosperity, during which her resources were developed. 

her industries promoted and her culture encouragingly ad- 
vanced. During those years many thousand acres of valu- 
able land were improved, the great interests of ship-build- 
ing and the whale-fishery rose and flourished, the rail- 
road and telegraph were introduced, villages were built 
up and the population increased more than a hundred 
per cent. These matters will receive particular atten- 
tion on other pages. 



HE courts of this county were held at Southold 
and occasionally at Southampton until the 
year 1729, when, a court-house having been 
erected at Riverhead, they were removed to 
that place, where they have been held ever since. 
The old building, which was abandoned on the 
building of a new church at Southold, was bought 
by the county, and used as a prison until the court-house 
was built at Riverhead. This building answered both as 
court-house and jail, and the first session of court was 
held in it March 27th 1729. About a century afterward it 
was repaired and a new jail building erected. A new 
court-house and jail were built in 1854. The county 
offices are also located at Riverhead. 

The record of capital punishment in this county is as 
follows: John Slocum was executed September 4th 1786, 
for horse-stealing. The readiness with which the death 
sentence was passed scarcely a hundred years ago is 
vividly shown in this case, wherein a man gave his life 
in expiation of a crime for which in these days he would 
hardly be arrested. It is said that he only took the horse 
from its owner's stable and after riding it ten or twelve 
miles let it go. William Erskine (colored) was executed 
October 5th 1791, for rape; William Enoch January 
12th 1835, for the murder of his wife; John Hallock 
July 2nd 1836, for the murder of a colored woman; 
Samuel Johnson July 6th 1841, for the murder of his 
wife; Nicholas Behan December 15th 1854, for the mur- 
der of James Wickham at Cutchogue June 2nd of the 
same year. 

From the earliest period each town took care of its 
own poor. The former method with some towns was to 
" farm out " the keeping of those dependent upon public 
charity to those who would take care of them at the least 
expense to the town. This system was often attended 
with inhuman abuses, and the system of providing a house 
for the care of the poor under the supervision of the 
town authorities was adopted. In 1870 the towns agreed 
to try the experiment of keeping their poor in a county- 
institution. -Accordingly a farm was purchased at Yap- 
hank and buildings were erected upon it in 1871, at a 
total expense (including the site) of about $70,000, 




Additions have since been made to both grounds and 

The office of coivnty superintendent of poor, though 
not a new one, having been brought into a position of 
increased importance by the inauguration of the county 
almshouse and its accompanying system of keeping the 
poor, we give below the list of those who have filled that 
office since that time. The board of superintendents, to 
whose charge the general oversight of the institution falls, 
consists of three men, holding triennial terms, one being 
elected every year. The dates given show the beginning 
of the term for which each was elected : 

William J. Weeks, 1869; Edward Dayton, 1870; Stephen 
R. Williams, 1871, 1874, 1877, 1880; Edward L. Guard 
1872; E, Hampton Mulford, 1873; Thaddeus H. Corwin, 
1875; William T. Hulse, 1876, 1879; J. Madison Wells 
1878, 1881. 

In the following lists are contained the names of those 
who have held important offices in the county at differ- 
ent periods from its organization down to the present 

Judges under the Colonial Government. — 1723, Henry 
Smith, Richard Floyd, Benjamin Youngs; 1729, Henry 
Smith, Beniamin Youngs, Samuel Hutchinson; 1738, 
Henry Smith, Joshua Youngs, Thomas Chatfield; 1752, 
Richard Floyd, Elijah Hutchinson, Hugh Gelston; 1764, 
Richard Floyd, Samuel Landon, Hugh Gelston; 1771,1775, 
William Smith, Samuel Landon, Isaac Post. 

County Judges since the Revolution. — Selah Strongi 
1783-93; Ebenezer Piatt, 1793-99; Abraham Woodhull. 
1799-1810; Thomas S. Strong, 1810-23; Joshua Smithi 
1823-28; Jonathan S. Conklin, 1828-33; Hugh Halsey. 
1833-47; Abraham T.Rose, 1847-52; William P. Buffett, 
1852-56; Abraham T. Rose, 1856, 1857; George Miller. 
1857; J. Liwrence Smith, 1858-66; Henry P. Hedges. 
1866-70; John R. Reid, 1870-74; Henry P. Hedges, 1874- 
80; Thomas Young, 1880 to the present time. 

District Attorneys {vir\Atx 'Cat constitution of 1846). — 
William Wickham, 184857, 1876-79; J. Lawrence Smith, 
1857-59; George Miller, 1859-62; Henry P. Hedges, 
1862-66; Samuel A. Smith, 1866, 1867; James H. Tuthill, 
1867-76; Nathan D. Petty, 1879 to the present time. 

County Clerks. — Henry Pierson, 1669-81; John Howell 
jr., 1681-92; Thomas Helme, 1692-1709; Henry Smith, 
1709-16; C. Congreve, 1716-22; Samuel Hudson, 1722- 
30; William Smith, 1730-50; William NicoU, 1750-75; 
William B. Bevans, 1783, 1784; Ezra L'Hommedieu, 
1784-1810; Hull Osborn, 1810-12; Charles H. Havens, 
1812-20, 1822-29; Charles A. Floyd, 1820-22; Joseph R. 
Huntting, 182938; George S. Phillips, 1838-40; Samuel 

A. Smith, 1840-44; J. Wickham Case, 1844-50; Benjamin 
T. Hutchinson, 1850-53; James B. Cooper, 1853-56; 
Wilmot Scudder, 1856-59; Charles R. Dayton, 1859-62; 
John Wood, 1862-68; Stephen C. Rogers, 1868-71; 
George C. Campbell, 1871-77; Orville B. Ackerly, 1877 
to the present time. 

County Treasurers. — Nathaniel Smith, 1749-64; Josiah 
Smith, 1764-86; Selah Strong, 1786-1802; William Smith, 
1802, 1803; Nicoll Floyd, 1803-34; William Sidney 
Smith, 1834-48; Harvey VV. Vail, 1848-52; J. Wickham 
Case, 1852-55; Lester H. Davis, 1855-58; Elbert Carll, 
1858-61; Francis M. A. Wicks, 1861-64; Jarvis R. Mow- 
bray. 1864-67; Joseph H. Goldsmith, 1867-69; Stephen 

B. French, 1869-76; Joseph H. Newins, 1876 to the 
present time. 

Sheriffs have taken office as follows: Hugh Gray, 1702; 

John Brush, 1710; Daniel Youngs, 1718; Samuel Dayton, 
1723; William Sell, 1728; Joseph Smith, 1730; Jacob 
Conklin, 1734; Thomas Higbe, 1740; George Munson, 
1748; Thomas Wicks, 1785, 1791; Silas Halsey, 1787; 
Phineas Carll, 1793, 1799; John Brush, 1797; Josiah 
Reeve, 1803, 1808, 1811, 1813; Phineas Smith, 1807; 
Benjamin Brewster, 1810, 1812; Nathaniel Conklin, 1814; 
Samuel Carll, 1819; Abraham H. Gardiner, 1821, 1829; 
Samuel Smith, 1826; Richard W. Smith, 1832; Silas 
Horton, 1835; Samuel Miller, 1838; David C. Brush, 
1841; Henry T. Penny, 1844; David R. Rose, 1847; 
John Clark (3d), 1850; Samuel Phillips, 1853; George 
F. Carman, 1856; Stephen J. Wilson, 1859; Daniel H. 
Osborn, 1862; John Shirley, 1865; George W. Smith, 
1868; J. Henry Perkins, 1871; Egbert G. Lewis, 1874; 
George VV. Cooper, 1877; Robert L. Petty, 1880. 

Representatives in the Colonial Assembly. — Henry Pierson, 
16911701; Matthew Howell, 1691-1705; John Tuthill, 
1693-98; William Nicoll, 1702 23; Samuel Mulford, 
1705-26; Epenetus Piatt, 1723-39; Samuel Hutchinson, 
1726-48; Daniel Pierson, 1737-48; Eleazer Miller, 1748- 
69; William Nicoll (2nd); 1739-69; William Nicoll (3d), 
1768-75; Nathaniel Woodhull, 1769-75. 

Representatives in the State Assembly. — 1777 to 1783 — 
Burnett Miller, David Gelgton, Ezra L'Hommedieu, 
Thomas Tredwell, Thomas Wicks. 1784 to 1785 — Da- 
vid Gelston, Thomas Young", Ebenezer Piatt, John 
Smith, Jeffrey Smith. 1786 — Jonathan N. Havens, Da- 
vid Hedges, Thomas Youngs, Jeffrey Smith, Nathaniel 
Gardiner. 1787 — Jonathan N. Havens, David Hedges, 
Daniel Osborn, John Smith, Caleb Smith. 1788 — Jona- 
than N. Havens, John Smith, Daniel Hedges, Daniel' 
Osborn. 1789— Jonathan N. Havens, David Hedges, 
Nathaniel Gardiner, John Smith, Henry Scudder. 1790 
— Nathaniel Gardiner, Henry Scudder, John Smith, Jona- 
than N. Havens, Jared Landon. 1791 — Jonathan N. 
Havens, John Gelston, John Smith, Philetus Smith, 
Thomas Wickham. 1792 — Jonathan N. Havens, John 
Smith, John Gelston, Henry Scudder. 1793 — Jonathan 
N. Havens, John Smith, Ebenezer Piatt, John Gelston. 
1794 — Jonathan N. Havens, John Smith, John Gelston, 
Joshua Smith jr. 1795 — Jonathan N. Havens, John 
Gelston, Isaac Thompson, Joshua Smith jr. 1796 — 
Abraham Miller, Silas Wood, Jared Landon, Joshua 
Smith jr. 1797— The same. 1798— Abraham Miller, 
Silas Wood, Josiah Reeve, John Howard. 1799 — John 
Smith, Jared Landon, Nicoll Floyd, Joshua Smith jr. 
i8oo— Silas Wood, John Smith, Jared Landon, Nicoll 
Floyd. 1801— Nicoll Floyd, Mills Phillips, Abraham 
xMiller, Jared Landon. 1802— Israel Carll, Jared Landon, 
Abraham Miller, Tredwell Scudder. 1803— Israel Carll, 
Josiah Reeve, Jonathan Dayton. 1804 — David Hedges,' 
Israel Carll, Sylvester Deering. 1805— Jared Landon', 
Israel Carll, Jonathan Dayton. 1806— jared Landon, 
Israel Carll, David Hedges. 1807— Israel Carll, David 
Hedges, David Warner. 1808— Israel Carll, Jonathan 
Dayton, Thomas S. Lester. 1809— Mills Phillips, Abra- 
ham Rose, Daniel T. Terry. 1810— Abraham Rose, John 
Rose, Tredwell Scudder. i8ii-— Tredwell Scudder, 
Thomas S. Lester, Jonathan S. Conklin. 1812 — Abra- 
ham Rose, Usher H. Moore, Nathaniel Potter. 1813 — 
Benjamin F. Thompson, Henry Rhodes, Caleb 
Smith. 1814— Thomas S. Lester, Nathaniel Potter, 
Jonathan S. Conklin. 1815— Tredwell Scudder' 
John ■ P. Osborn, John Wells. 1816— Abraham 
Rose, Benjamin F. Thompson, Phineas Carll 
1817— Israel Carll, Thomas S. Lester, Abraham 
Parsons. 18 18— Charles H. Havtns, John P. Osborn 
Nathaniel Miller. 1819— John P. Osborn, Isaac Conk- 
lin, Daniel Youngs. 1820— Charles H. Havens, Abra- 
ham Parsons, Ebenezer W. Case. 182 1 — John M. Wil- 



liamson, Isaac Conklin, John P. Osborn. 1822— Tred- 
well Scudder, Hugh Halsey, John M. Williamson. 1823— 
Samuel Strong, Joshua Fleet. 1824— Hugh Halsey, 
Josiah Smith. 1825 — Joshua Smith, David Hedges jr. 
1826 — John M. Williamson, Usher H. Moore. 1827 — 
Samuel Strong, George L. Conklin. 1828— Tredwell 
Scudder, Abraham H. Gardiner. 1829 — John M. Wil- 
liamson, David Hedges jr. 1830- Samuel Strong, Noah 
Youngs. 1831— George S. Phillips, George L. Conklin. 
1832— John M. Williamson, Saniuel L'Hommedieu jr. 
1833 — David Hedges jr., William Wickes. 1834— Wil- 
liam Sidney Smith, John Terry. 1835 — George S. Phil- 
lips, George L. Conklin. 1836— Charles A. Floyd, 
Nathaniel Topping. 1837 — John M. Williamson, Josiah 
Dayton. 1838— Charles A. Floyd, Sidney L. Griffin. 
1839 — Joshua B. Smith, J. Wickham Case. 1840 — John 
M. Williamson, David Halsey. 1841 — Alanson Seaman, 
Josiah C. Dayton. 1842 — Richard A. Udall, Benjamin 
F. Wells. 1843— Samuel B. Nicoll, Joshua B. Smith. 
1844 — Richard W. Smith, Silas Horton. 1845 — John 
H. Dayton, Darling B. Whitney. 1846 — Richard A. 
Udall, Samuel B. Gardiner. 1847 — Henry Landon, J. 
Lawrence Smith. 1848 — Edwin Rose, William Sidney 
Smith. 1849 — Edwin Rose, Nathaniel Miller. 1850 — 
David Pierson, Walter Scudder. 1851 — Franklin Tut- 
hill, Egbert T. Smith. 1852— Henry P. Hedges, Zophar 
B. Oakley. 1853 — Abraham H. Gardiner, William H. 
Ludlow. 1854 — George Miller, William S. Preston. 
1855 — John E. Chester, David Piatt. 1856— David G. 
Floyd, William Sidney Smith. 1857 — Edwin Rose, 
Abraham G. Thompson. 1858 — George Howell, George 
P. Mills. 1859 — Benjamin F. Wiggins, Richard J. Cor- 
nelius. i860 — Philander R. Jennings, Richard J. Cor- 
nelius. 1861 — James H. Tuthill, Alexander J. Bergen. 
1862 — John C. Davis, John S. Havens. 1863 — Benjamin 
F. Wiggins, John S. Havens. 1864 — William H. Gleason, 
Henry C. Piatt, 1865 — William H. Gleason, Henry C. 
Piatt. 1866— James H. Tuthill, Richard A. Udall. 
1867 — Alfred Wagstaff jr. 1868— James M. Halsey. 
1869— William A. Conant. 1870— Brinley D. Sleight. 
1871, 1879 — George F. Carman. 1872, 1873 — John S. 
Marcy. 1874, 1875 — Nathan D. Petty. 1876 — Samuel 
B. Gardiner. 1877 — Francis Brill. 1878 — Charles S. 
Havens. 1880, 1881 — E. A. Carpenter. 

The canvassers' return in 1879 showed 4,572 votes for 
Charles T. Duryea and 4,571 for George F. Carman. 
The certificate of election was given to Mr. Duryea, but 
after he had taken his seat, an error being shown in the 
count, the Assembly unseated him and recognized Mr. 
Carman as the representative of Suffolk. 

The nationality of the inhabitants of this county is 
largely English. But little more than eleven per cent, 
of its population is of foreign birth, while fully seventy- 
one per cent, were born within the county. In this 
percentage of home-born inhabitants Suffolk is exceeded 
by only one county in the State. 
Classified Table op Population as eetubned by Census op 1875. 







21 yrs. old and 
over, unable 
to read and 






























" 45 






■ 5,802 






Suffolk County 






Population op the Towns at Dipperent Periods. 

Huntington — 



Shelter Island.. 


Southampton . . 

Suffolk County. 



Easthampton .. 



Shelter Island. . 


Southampton . . 








8 949 




















4,! " 























Suffolk County 33,469 34.579 36,932 41,066 43,275 43,869 46.924 51,873 

* Formed from Huntington March 3d 1872. 



HE first churches were independent. They 
had in their practice some form of Congre- 
gationalism, but there was no organized 
union between them, and they seem to have 
had no denominational connection. All the 
churches that were organized here within at least 
half a century of the first settlement afterward be- 
came Presbyterian. The Presbytery of Long Island was 
organized at a meeting held at Southampton April 17th 
171 7. It belonged to the Synod of Philadelphia. The 
growth of the denomination called for the organization of 
the Presbytery of Suffolk, which took place April gth 
1747. This was reorganized in October 1790, under the 
title of Presbytery of Long Island, which has ever since 
been preserved, though its territorial limits have at differ- 
ent times been curtailed as the number of churches in- 
creased, until it now comprehends only that part of Suf- 
folk county lying east of the west line of the town of 
Brookhaven. The churches west of that line belong to 
the Presbytery of Nassau, which also comprehends 
Queens county. 

Strict Congregational churches were organized here as 
early as the middle of the last century, but no union 
existed between them until the organization of the " Strict 
Congregational Convention of Long Island " at Riverhead, 
August 26th 1791. This organization embraced a few 
churches, principally in the county, and retained its ex- 
istence till April 1845, when it was dissolved. Other 
associations of this denomination have at different times 



The Methodist Episcopal denomination began work in 
this county about one hundred years ago. Its growth 
has been steady and rapid, and it now has a larger mem- 
bership and a greater number of churches than any other 
denomination in the county. The churches are under 
the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the New York East Con- 
ference. Other sects of Methodists are also represented. 

The Protestant Episcopal church gained an introduction 
here a hundred and fifty years ago, and the Baptist church 
followed it but a few years later. Neither of these made 
much progress until within a few years past. The Roman 
Catholic Church has been established in different parts of 
the county within the last forty-five years. It had in 1875 
eleven organizations and ten church edifices in the county, 
every other denomination having an edifice for each or- 
ganization. Other denominations are represented in the 
county, as will be seen by the accompanying table of 
church statistics, taken from the State census of 1875: 


African Methodist Episcopal. ■ ■ . 


ChristiaD Connection 


Metbodist Kpiscopal 

Methodist Protestant 

New Jerusalem 


Protestant Episcopal 

Beformed (Dutch) Church 

Komau Catholic 


United Metbodist Eree Church. 

Totals 1.54 14,145 974,970 81,465 




^ I 
















d ^Q 









The Suffolk County Sabbath-school Association was 
organized about twenty-three years ago, and has been in 
active operation most of the time since. For several 
years it held four sessions a year, then three, and finally 
two sessions a year. The zeal with which its work was 
pushed has been fluctuating, but doubtless in the main it 
has exerted a considerable influence ih exciting the in- 
terest of Sunday-school workers. For several years a 
paper called the Suffolk County Sabbath-School Journal 
was issued quarterly under the direction of its secretar)', 
and contained reports of its meetings. 

The Long Island Bible Society has for many years 
done a good work in this county in the distribution of the 
Scriptures. Local societies, auxiliary to this, are sus- 
tained in many of the villages, and through them and the 
churches collections are made annually for the work of 
the society. Through the same channel the object of 
supplying the Scriptures to all who desire them is also 
carried on. 

The Suffolk County Temperance Society was organized 
in 1850, and has been in operation ever since, most of 
the time holding meetings monthly in the different vil- 
lages. Its sessions usually last two days. 

In 1873 no less than twenty-nine divisions of Sons of 
Temperance were in operation in as many villages of the 

county. The order soon began to decline, and there are 
now but few representatives of it left. 

Pursuant to an act passed May 14th 1845, and another^ 
amending the same, passed February i6th 1846, a special 
election was held May 19th 1846, for the purpose of de- 
ciding by vote of the people whether licenses for the 
sale of spirituous liquors should be granted in this county 
or not. The vote in the several towns stood as follows : 

"For License." 

Huntingix)n 505 

laUp 141 

Smithtown 73 

Brookhaven 150 

Eiverhead 82 

Southold 6 

Shelter Island 2 

Southampton 186 

Easthampton 48 

' No License." 




Total 1,193 2,235 

"No License" majority, 1,042. 

Such a radical change as the entire withholding of 
licenses was at that time a severe rhock to public senti- 
ment, and a " re-trial " of the question was demanded. 
A special election for that purpose was held in most of 
ihe towns April 27th 1847, with the following result: 

" For License." 

Huntington .598 

Islip 186 

Brookhaven 458 

Southampton 188 

Easthampton 101 

" No Licence." 





1,511 1,422 

Majority for license, in the five towns making returns, 89. 

The first n( wspaper published in the county was the 
Long Island Herald, started at Sag Harbor, May loth 
1791, by David Frothingham. Since that time no less 
than twenty-six others have been started, of which ios^- 
teen are still issued. 

The Suffolk County Medical Society was organized 
July 22nd 1806. Its early records have been lost. The 
names of Drs. A. G. Thompson, W. S. Preston and B. D. 
Carpenter are prominent in its history during the gener- 
ation now declining. The society holds a regular meet- 
ing at Riverhead in April of each year, and a semi-annual 
meeting in some other village in the county in October, 
It has at the present time thirty-six members, and its 
officers are: E. F. Preston, president; W. W. Hewlett, 
vice-president; J. H. Benjamin, secretary; H. P. Terry, 
treasurer, and R. H. Benjamin, librarian. 

In the early part of the presentcentury the towns were 
divided into school districts, and the division and nutn- 
bering, with occasional changes to meet the growth of 
certain localities, remain the same to the present time. 
The school system was at first under the care of three 
commissioners in each town. The office of county 
superintendent was created in 1842, and continued about 
six years, after which the duties of that office were dis- 
tributed among town superintendents. This arrange- 
ment continued until the office of Assembly district com- 
missioner was constituted. That office has been held by 
the following gentlemen: In the first district, comprising 
the five eastern towns — Jonathan W. Huntting, 1858-61;, 
E. Jones Lu,dlqw, 186.1-64; CordeUo D. Elijn^i:, 1864-70, 



1879-82; Horace H. Benjamin, 1870-79; In the second 
district, comprising what is now the five western towns — 
William Nicoll, 1858-64; Thomas S. Mount, 1864-73, 
1876 79; S. Orlando Lee, 1873-76; Justus Roe, 1879-82. 

The first association of school-teachers of which we 
can learn was organized at Islip in 1830. It was called 
the "Teachers' Association of the Town of .Islip." 
Among its prominent organizers and early members were 
Amos Doxsee, Henry Brewster, William Brewster, Henry 
Doxsee and Jonas Jarvis. The association met semi- 
monthly, and continued in successful operation several 
years. Another association was organized at Hunting- 
ton about 1842, and was made up of the teachers of 
that town, Islip and Smithtown. Hon. Samuel A. Smith, 
then county superintendent of schools, has the honor of 
suggesting it. It held monthly meetings in different 
places, and had a profitable existence of ten or twelve 
years. Besides the regular meetings of these associations 
the growing demand for some means or medium for the 
interchange of ideas and progressive enlightenment on the 
great subject of popular instruction gave rise to the as- 
sembling of an occasional convention. One of these, 
called by Hon. Selah B. Strong as early as 1837, met at 
South Haven, and another was held at Riverhead in 
1844, which was addressed by distinguished speakers 
from abroad. 

The Suffolk County Teachers' Association was organ- 
ized at Riverhead, in June 1852. Its original members 
were James H. Tuthill, H. H. Skinner, L. H. De Loss 
Crane, B. H. Saxton, J. Andrew Hallock, M. D. Loper, 
A. M. Young, S. Orlando Lee, G. O. Wells and W. C. 
Booth. This association met at first quarterly, in the 
different villages as invited by the people. As the work 
of the teachers' institute, commenced about twenty-five 
years ago, covered much of the same ground, the asso- 
ciation meetings became less frequent than before. Since 
1863 it has met simultaneously with the institute, occu- 
pying the evenings while the sessions of the latter occu- 
pied the daytime. Its successive presidents from the 
first to the present time have been James H. Tuthill, 
Rev. Robert Cruikshank, J. R. Howell, S. Orlando Lee, 
H. H. Skinner, H. T. Funnell, A. G. Merwin, A. V. 
Davis, William Nicoll, A. S. Higgins, E. F. Preston, S. 
T. Badgley, William H. Clark jr., Horace H. Benjamin, 
L. Homer Hart, David B. Beale, W. S. Webb, H. F. 
Candee, Jehial S. Rayncr, E. H. Hulse, G. W. Rorer, 
John J. Wells, A. Curtis Almy, Cyrus F. Smith, E. S. 
Hall, Levi Seeley jr., E. R. Shaw, and William E. Gor- 
don. The association now meets once or twice a year 
and remains in session five days. Occasionally a session 
is held independent of the institute. Auxiliary associa. 
tions have been organized within a few years past, one 
on the north side, another on the south side, and another 
at the east end. 

The following statistics from the commissioners' re- 
ports for the school year ending September 30th 1880 will 
give some idea of the attention given to public education 
in this county. 

Number of school-houses in the county, 147; total 

value of school-houses and sites, $262,843; teachers em- 
ployed 28 weeks or more, 222; number of children on 
school registers, 11,412; average daily attendance at the 
schools, 6,248; total expense for teachers' wages, $76,- 
977.31; total expense for other school purposes, $30,- 

Of the 316 persons who v/ere engaged in teaching in 
the schools of the county, during any portion of the year, 
216 were females and 100 were males. At the annual 
school election in October 1880 three women were 
elected to the office of trustee in as many districts in 
different parts of the country. 

The Suffolk County Agricultural Society, or the so- 
ciety from which it grew, was formed in 1841. Its first 
record is lost. In 1843 it was reorganized, and from 
then till 1853 it held a fair each year in the town of 
Huntington, Islip or Smithtown, except the one for 1849, 
which was held at Greenport. From 1853 to 1865 no 
fairs were held. February ist of the latter year a meet- 
ing was held at Thompson station, near Brentwood, and 
thes ociety was again reorganized. A fair was held that 
year at Riverhead, and another in 1866 at the same 
place. In 1867 the fair was held at Greenport. The 
fair for 1868 was held at Riverhead, upon a plot of 
twenty acres, which had been purchased by the citizens 
of that village and donated to the society for a per- 
manent ground. Fences and buildings were placed up- 
on it, and the fair has been annually held there ever since. 
The debt of the society, incurred in erecting buildings 
and improving the grounds, has been reduced to about 
$2,500. At the last fair the amount paid for premiums 
was about $950. The society has at present 314 life 
members, and its officers for 1881 were: Alvah M. Sal- 
mon, president; George W. Cooper, vice-president; 
Samuel Griffin, treasurer; Nathaniel W. Foster, secre- 

The Hampton Agricultural Society, designed to pro- 
mote interest in agriculture in the southern peninsula of 
the east end, was organized in August 1875, with the 
following officers: Orlando Hand, president; Jonathan 
F. Gould, vice-president; Addison M. Cook, secretary ; 
Edward A. Hildreth, treasurer. The first fair was held 
on the premises of Orlando Hand, at Bridgeharapton, in 
the autumn of that year. In 1876 the society leased 25 
acres of land of Henry Howell, in Bridgehampton, 
which it has occupied as a fair ground ever since. The 
buildings, fences and other improvements are estimated 
to be worth at least $3,000. A fair has been held every 
fall, and since the first year an exhibition every June, 
called a " market and general sales day." These fairs 
and exhibitions have excited much interest among the 
people of the Hampton towns, and the number in attend- 
ance has sometimes reached 5,000 persons. The present 
officers (1881) are: Addison M. Cook, president; T. 
Oscar Worth, secretary; E. A. Hildreth, treasurer. 

The Suffolk County Poultry and Pet Stock Association 
was organized at Riverhead in the autumn of 1869, with 
officers as follows: Henry A. Reeves, of Greenport, pres- 
ident; Irad W. Gildersleeve, of Mattituck, secretary ; 



Edwards. Brown, of Greenport, treasurer; William H. 
Pullis, of Bay Shore, superintendent. The first exhibi- 
tion was held at Terry's Hall, Riverhead, February 3d- 
7th 1880. A second annual exhibition was held at the 
same place January 26th-29th 1881, at which about $250 
was distributed in premiums. The prir.cipal officers of 
the society remain as named above. 

The Mutual Benefit Association of Suffolk County, or- 
ganized July 6th 1876, has for its object the legitimate 
purposes of life insurance, so simplified as to secure the 
maximum benefit to the friends of deceased members 
with the minimum expense. It is rapidly increasing in 
strength and has several hundred members. 



HE Story that might be written of the partici- 
pation of Suffolk in the great struggle which 
disturbed the nation during those four sad 
years, 1861 to 1865, cannot be admitted 
within the limits of this article. The towns 
of Suffolk nerved themselves for the terrible work 
before them, and responded promptly to the calls 
of the country's need. Sympathy with the Union cause 
was most emphatically the popular sentiment. Intense 
interest was felt in the events which followed each other 
during the spring of 1861 and inaugurated the war. . The 
general enthusiasm was manifested by raising the " stars 
and stripes " in nearly every village and hamlet in the 
county. As the war bfecame an established fact the 
different towns held special town meetings to raise 
money and devise means for filling their quotas of 
volunteers. Bounties were offered for enlistments, and 
when the drafts were ordered some of the towns assisted 
their citizens in securing substitutes or paid them large 
bounties to go. 

Of those who went from Suffolk a greater number en- 
listed in the 127th N. Y. infantry than in any other regi- 
ment. Several companies of this were almost entirely 
made up from the county, mainly from about Southold, 
the Hamptons, and Huntington. The Hamptons also 
gave a considerable number to the 81st N. Y., of which 
Col. Edwin Rose, of Bridgeharapton, went out in com- 
mand. Company C of the i6sth N. Y. was recruited 
mainly from the vicinity of Orient. A company in the 
12th N. Y. was largely made up from the neighborhood 
of Patchogue, and a number from Huntington and differ- 
ent parts of the county joined the 102nd N. Y. The 
2nd, 6th and nth N. Y. cavalry regiments each received 
a number of recruits from this county. As will be seen 
from the subjoined list, many others were scattered 
among a number of regiments from this and other States, 

while the maritime inclinations of the people gave to 
the navy a fair percentage. 

In the following list we aim to give the name of every 
man who went from the county to engage in the war, 
with the locality from which he went, the regiment in 
which he served, and his fate. We have taken great 
pains to make the list as nearly complete and accurate 
as possible, seeking information in every promising chan- 
nel, and studiously endeavoring to avoid all possible 
mistakes. While the list may not be without an error, 
we believe it to be a very near approach to completeness 
and accuracy. 

We have used in the list a few abbreviations, which 
will be readily understood. These are: r, returned; 
w, wounded; k b, killed in battle; d s, died in service; 
d p, died a prisoner; d w, died of wounds; m, missing; 
d c s, died of disease contracted in the service. 

Some regiments were known by names other than their 
number. Of these synonymous titles it may be in place 
here to mention the following: The 5th N. Y., called 
" Duryea's Zouaves;" the i6sth N. Y., called " Second 
Duryea's Zouaves;" the i27fh N.Y., called the "Monitor 
regiment;" the 2nd N. Y. cavalry, called " Harris Light 
cavalry;" the 6th N. Y. cavalry, called " Ira Harris 
Guards," and the nth N. Y. cavalry, called Scott's Nine 
Hundred." In the list the numbers represent New York 
regiments where not otherwise indicated. 

John D. Acker, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. Ira W. 
Ackerly, Huntington, 127th; r. Nathan S. Ackerly, 
Northport, 48th; lost a leg; r. Samuel Ackerly, North- 
port, 40th; d s. Key West. Edwin Ackerly, Northport, 
navy. William N. Ackerly, town of Brookhaven. Henry 
E. Ackerly, Patchogue, 12th; d w. Francis Adriance, 
Hauppauge, 139th; r. William G. Alberson, Riverhead, 
127th; d s. Folly Island. Ebenezer Albin, Brookhaven, 
2nd cav. ; r. John W. Albin, East Moriches, 102nd; r, 
James M. Albin, Patchogue, i4Sth; r. Jeremiah Albin. 
Babylon, 127th; d s, Upton Hill, Va. John E. Albin, 
Babylon, 127th; r. Daniel E. Albin, Riverhead, S2nd; 
d s. George, Thomas B., William H. and Samuel Albin, 
town of Brookhaven; m. John E. Albin jr., town of 
Brookhaven, 12th; w; r. Daniel W. Aldrich, Sayville, 
2nd Metropolitan; d c s. James B. Aldrich, 127th; r. 
William Alexander, Huntington, 127th; r. Jonathan 
Allen, Springs, 48th; k b, Fort Wagner. Jeremiah Allen, 
Amangansett, 48th; r. John Allen, Amityville, 127th; r. 
George H. AUyn, i6sth; r. Benjamin Anderson, town 
of Brookhaven, 99th. John J. Anderson, town of Brook- 
haven, 2nd cav. Ephraim Arch (colored), Quogue, navy; 
r. Robert Armstrong, Sag Harbor, 127th; d s, Upton 
Hill, Va. John E. Arnold, Babylon, 127th; r. William 
E. Austin, town of Huntington, navy. Sineus R. Austin, 
town of Huntington, navy; d c s, June 9 1863. Thomas 
Thomas D. Avery, Greenport, i6sth; w; r. Lodowick 
Babcock, Sag Harbor. Gilbert A. Babcock, Sag Harbor, 
8 1 St; d w. Joseph S. Bachelor. James Bacon, Bridge- 
hampton, 8ist; d s. William B. Bailey, Springs, 127th; r. 
John Bailey, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. Jacob Bainer, 
captain, town of Huntington, S4th; r. James Baker, Say- 
ville, 2nd cav.; r Henry L. Baker, Easthampton, 127th 
and 54th; r. David J. Baker, Easthampton, ist Me. art. 
William H. Baker. Jacob Baldwin. David Baldwin, 
Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Abram Bancker, Patchogue, 5th. 
George L. Barber, Centerville, 127th; r. James Barclay, 
Southampton, 6th cav.; r. George W. Barrett, Hunting- 



ton, navy. Edward A. Barto, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. 
John Batcher, East Setauket, 5 7th; r. Theodore Batcher, 
East Setauket, 5 7th; w; r. William J. Batcher, Matti- 
tuck, 5th Conn. Thomas Baxter, Southold, 6th cav.; r. 
Albert E. Bayles, Middle Island, 139th; k b. Cold Har- 
bor, Va. Edward F. Bayles, Middle Island, 139th; k b, 
Cold Harbor, Va. John S. Baylis, Huntington, 127th; r. 
David B. Beale, Patchogue, 139th; r. John H. Beale, 
Patchogue, navy. David F. Beale, lieutenant, 139th. The- 
odore F. Beale, Patchogue, 1 2th. Lewis Becker, Hunting- 
ton, 127th; r. Andrew J. Becktill, Watermill, 127th; r. 
Thomas Beckwith, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Smith Bedell, Amity- 
ville, 127th; d p, Belle Island. William Bedell, Amityville, 
127th; r. Terry Bedell, Sayville, 9Sth and navy. Daniel 
F. Beebe, Southampton, 127th; d s, April 17 1864. James 
Beekman, Bridgehampton, 81st. William H. Beers, 
Elwood, 127th; r. George A. Bell, Bridgehampton, nth 
cav.; r. Robert F. Benedict, Watermill, 127th; w; r. 
John P.Benjamin, East Moriches, 17th; d w. Selah 
Benjamin, Bay Shore, 9th N. J.; r. John F. Benjamin, 
Riverhead, 9th N. J.; r. James S. Benjamin, River- 
head, navy; r. Hiram E. Benjamin, Riverhead, 
127th; d s, Cole's Island, S. C. John H. Benjamin, Mat- 
tituck, 127th; d s, August 27 1863. Andrew J. Ben- 
nett, Cutchogue, 127th; r. Lyman M. Bennntt, Springs, 
127th; r. Gilbert Bennett, Springs, 127th; w; r. 
Milton Bennett, Springs, 6th cav.; k b. George Bennett, 
Springs, iith cav.; r. Myron T. Bennett, Amagansett, 
127th; d s. Augustus B. Bennett, Amagansett, i27tl\; w; 
r. Nathan M. Bennett, Amagansett, 127th; r. William 
J. Bennett, Amagansett, 127th; d s, Folly Island, S. C. 
George E. Bennett, Amagansett, 9th cav.; r. Sylvester 
H. Bennett, Amagansett, 6th cav.; r. Charles G. Bennett, 
Amagansett, 48th; d s, September 20 '63. Albert L. Ben- 
nett, Oregon, 127th; r. Theodore Bennett, Easthamp- 
ton, 127th; r. Jonathan A. Bennett, Easthampton, 127th; 
d s, September 11 '63. Selden S.Bennett, Peconic, 127th; 
r. William E. Bennett. Robert Bennett, Huntington, 
127th; r. Hammond Berls, town of Huntington, 5th 
Kansas; r. John Berry, Greenport, 165th; w; r. George 
Betts, Huntington, 127th; r. John Betts, Huntington, 
loth; d s. Charles F. Biggs, Flanders, 10th cav. Alden 
Biggs, Riverhead, loth cav. Edward Bill, Sag Harbor, 
127th; r. Robert Bill, Sag Harbor, nth cav. Barnabas 
T. Billard, Cutchogue, T27th; r. William E. Birch, town 
of Huntington, 44th; w; r. William H. and Harry S. 
Bishop, Bayport, 2nd cav.; r. Charles H. Bishop. Frank 
E. Blacker, musician, Brentwood, 5th N. J.; r. Hanni- 
bal Black, Amityville, navy; d s. Jonathan Black, 
Amityville; r. Henry and James Blake, Lakeland, 2nd 
cav. George W. and Stephen Bloxsom, Huntington, 
127th; r. Ichabod Blydenburgh, Selden, 133d; r. E. 
S. L. Bond. Andrew B. Bogne, 8ist. Daniel E. Bone, 
Easthampton, 2nd West Virginia. Joseph S. and John 
J. Bone, Easthampton, 8ist. Horatio N. Booth, Southold, 
127th; r. George L. Booth, Cutchogue, 127th; r. James 
Bostwick jr., Babylon, 127th; r. David Bouton. Wil- 
liam H. Bowers, Port Jefferson, navy. James L. Bowles, 
town of Brookhaven, loist; lost a leg. George Box, 
Babylon, 127th; r. John W. Boyenton, Sag Harbor, 8ist. 
George Boyle, Islip, nth Ct. Giles Bradley, Moriches ; 
k. Philip Brady, Speonk, 12th; w; r. George Brewin, 
Bridgehampton, 81st; r. Charles D. Brewster, Amity- 
ville, 20th; r. Zachariah Brewster, Amityville; r. 
Governeur Brewster (colored), 26th; r. James Brigs, 
Mattituck, 2nd Excelsior; w. Thomas Brittain, lieu- 
tenant, Riverhead, S7th; r. John R. Brooker, town of 
Southampton, iS9th; d s. New York city. George B. 
Brown, Islip, 139th. Isaac Brown, Islip, 2nd cav. George 
D.Brown, Islip, 159th; d s. Charles H.Brown, Bridge- 
hampton, nth cav.; d s. New Orleans. William H. 

Brown, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. John J. Brown, Red 
Creek, nth Ct.; r. George W. Brown, Elwood, 31st; r. 
Silas E. Brown, Springs, 127th; r. George W. Brown, 
Huntington, 127th; r. John J. Brown, Huntington, 127th; 
r. John A. Brown, Riverhead, 14th; k b. Bull Run. 
Buel A. Brown, Riverhead, 176th. James Ira Brown, 
Centerville, 5th heavy art.; r. Zebulon H. Brown, 
Southold, 127th; r. John and George G. Brown, Baby- 
lon, 127th; r. David E. Brown, Sag Harbor; navy. 
Charles L. Brown, Southampton, 127th; k b. Honey Hill. 
S. C. Gilbert A. Brown, Southold, 127th; m January 3 
'63. Frederick Brudgeworth, Bridgehampton, navy ; r. 
Henry Brudgeworth, Bridgehampton, nth cav.; r. 
Theodore S. Brush, Elwood, 127th; r. Van Rensselaer 
Brush, Cold Spring, 102nd; d w received at Gettysburg. 
George Brush, Huntington, 48th; r. George R. Brush, 
Sayville; navy. George H. Bryant, Northport, 127th; r. 
George A. Buckingham, lieutenant, Riverhead, 12th ; r. 
William J. Buckly, Greenport, 127th; r. Edward H. 
Bumpstead, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; w. Jacob Bumstead, 
Patchogue, 12th; r. Israel Bunce, Northport, navy; d s, 
Cuba. Edgar P. Bunce, Huntington, 127th; r. Albert 
J. Bunce, town of Brookhaven, 124th; w. John W. 
Burke, lieutenant. Sag Harbor, 81st; k. June 2 '64. 
Whitford Burnett, Smitht-own, 102nd; r. George T. Burns, 
Riverhead, 176th. Robert Burns, Riverhead, 12th; dc 
s. Andrew J. Burr, Bayshore, U. S. sharpshooters; w; 
r. William E. Burr, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. David 
Bush, Patchogue; r. Charles Bushnell, Sag Harbor. 
John Busannah, Riverhead, 127th; r. Leonard T.Butler, 
Southold, 127th; r. Samuel C. Butler, Easthampton, 
29th U. S. colored. John Byron, Bridgehampton, 6th 
cav.; r. James Campbell, Babylon, sharpshooters ; r. 
George Campbell, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. James 
Carll, Babylon, 127th. William Carll (colored), Brook- 
haven, navy; r. Edward J. Carmick, captain, Sayville, 
r24th;kb, Petersburg. Stephen J. Carmick, Sayville, 
2nd cav.; r. George W. Carpenter, Babylon, 4th art. 
William Carpenter, Babylon, 31st colored; r. Walter 
Carpenter, Southold, 127th; r. Charles T. Carpenter, 
Moriches, 89th. John S. and Hosea V. Carr, Hunting- 
ton, 127th; r. Severn Carr, Amityville, 8th R. I. art.; d 
s, Galveston. Bernard Carrington, Easthampton. John 
Carroll, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Thomas J. Carroll, 
Easthampton; navy. James and Martin Carroll, Hunting- 
ton, 127th; r. Michael Carroll. John Carroll, East- 
hampton; marine art. David Carter, Moriches, 2nd 
cav.; r. Ichabod G. Carter, Manor, 133d; r. Gil- 
bert H. Carter, Patchogue, 12th; r. Nicholas O. 
Cartwright, Amityville, 90th; r. Edmund A. Cartwright, 
Shelter Island, 14th N. J.; r. Albert W. and Jesse G. 
Case, Peconic, 127th; r. George C. Case, lieutenant. 
Shelter Island, 57th; w; r. George Case, Greenport, 
57th; r. Michael Cash, Cold Spring. Albert Cass, Sag 
Harbor, 4th New Hampshire. James Cayton, Shelter 
Island. Edward Cessman, Mastic; w; r. George H. 
Champlin, Orient, 165th; r. Emile Cheron, Bayshore, 
139th; r. William H. Chester, Sag Harbor, navy; k on 
board the " Picket." Charles H. Chichester, Amity- 
ville, 127th; r. Andrew Chichester, Amityville, 127th; 
lost a foot; r. Israel Chichester, Amityville, navy. 
George Chichester, town of Huntington, 173d. Charles 
W. Chichester, town of Brookhaven, 57th; d p, Ander- 
sonville. Henry Chissell, Patchogue, 90th; r. Avlyn S. 
Clark, Springs, 127th; d s, December 3 '63. Robert 
Clark, Smithtown; r. Ezra Clark, Greenport, 165th; 
m. Ezra B. Clemence, Patchogue; quartermaster. John D. 
Cleveland, Southold, 127th; r. Lawson Clock, Islip, 
9th N. J.; m. Charles Coats, Central Islip, 12th; r. 
Charles R. Coats, Central Islip, 73d. Charles Codman, 
Islip, 102nd; r. Michael Coffee, town of Islip, 14th 



cav. William Colbert, Elwood, 87th. Jeremiah Coles, 
Easthampton, navy. William H. Collet, Southampton, 
8ist; r. John Collins, Mattituck, 127th; r. William 
W. Collum, Easthampton, 127th; d s, July 9 '64. Samuel 
P. Colvin, Sag Harbor, 127th; r. William L. Conant, 
Huntington, 127th; r. Robert C. Congdon, Shelter Is- 
land, 139th. Gilbert Conklin, Calverton. James D. 
Conklin, Shelter Island, navy. David T. Conklin, 
Southold, 127th; r. George W. Conklin, Babylon, 
127th; r. John A. Conklin, Sag Harbor, 127th. John 
H. Conklin, Greenport, 32nd; k b. Francis Conklin, 
Northport, 48th; k, Morris Island. Henry C, Conklin, 
Huntington, 127th; r. William H. Conklin, Hunting- 
ton, 48th; r. Benjamin K. Conklin, Huntington, 127th; 
r. James B. Conklin, Easthampton, 102nd. Lewis O. 
Conklin, Port Jefferson, 102nd; r. Edward S. and 
Samuel S. Conklin, town of Brookhaven, 12th; r. George 
Conklin, Riverhead; r. William C. Conklin, Good 
Ground, 99th; r. David S. Conklin, Greenport, 4th; d 
s Henry T. Conklin, Easthampton, 8ist; d s, October 
3 1864. Howard Conklin, Greenport, California regi- 
ment; d s. Melville R. Conklin, Northport, 48th; r. 
Hickford Conner, Sag Harbor, navy. William Connell, 
Huntington, 127th; d s. Charles P. Cook, lieutenant. 
Sag Harbor. Edward D. Cook, Sag Harbor, 8ist. 
William Cook, Greenport, S7th. Michael Copney. Ed- 
ward T. Cooper, Bellport, 92nd; k b. Cold Harbor. 
Edward M. Cooper, Sag Harbor, navy. James H, 
Cooper, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Michael Cooper, town of 

Huntington, navy. Cooper (colored). Springs; 

d s. William Corey, Bridgehampton, nth cav.; r. 
Henry J. Corey, Bridgehampton, 127th; d s. Beaufort, 
S. C. Daniel B. Corey, Patchogue, navy; r. Jacob 
Cornelius, Huntington, 127th; r. George E. Corwin, 
Bellport, 131st; r. George W. Corwin, Riverhead, 
127th; w; r. Egbert C. Corwin, Riverhead, 127th; r. 
Theodore Corwin, Riverhead, rath. Hannibal Corwin, 
Riverhead, navy; r. J. Addison Corwin, lieutenant, 
Greenport, 127th. Chatham Corwin, Greenport, 127th; 
d c s. John L. Corwin, Easthampton, nth cav.; d s. 
William Cowan, Huntington, 127th; r. Daniel R. Cox, 
Mattituck, 57th; w. Elbert Crawford, Centreport, 
127th; r. Jacob Crees, Blue Point, 4th. Gilbert Crom- 
well, Half Hollow Hills. Stephen H. Crowell, Sag Har- 
bor, 127th; r. George P. Crowell, Islip; r. Benjamin 
E. Crowell, Sag Harbor, nth cav. John A. Crum, Say- 
ville, ist; r. Joshua Cuffee (colored), Bayshore, 26th 
U. S. colored; d s, Beaufort. Warren N. Cuffee (colored), 
Easthampton, 20th. Stephen N. Cuffee (colored), East- 
hampton, 14th R. I. Richard Cullum. George C. Cul- 
ver, Peconic, 127th; r. George Culver, Southampton, 
127th; r. Josiah H. Culver, Easthampton, assistant 
surgeon. John Curtiss, 165th; r. Leonard M. Cutting, 
Babylon, 54th; r. Manuel Cyphers, Huntington, 127th; 
r. Henry Dahlems, Brentwood, 39th; w; r. Augustus 
E. Danes, Blue Point. Jeremiah Daily, Northport, 
127th; r. Samuel Dare, Selden, 165th; r. John Dar- 
rough, Riverhead, 127th; d c s, November 8 1863. 
Albert L. Davis, Yaphank, 133d; r. Thomas J. Davis, 
Springs, navy. Charles H. Davis, Riverhead, nth cav.; 
r. Charles W. Davis, Rocky Point; r. Edward Davis, 
Babylon, 127th; d s. John B. Davis, Babylon, 127th; r. 
Jeremiah Davis, Ronkonkoma, Brooklyn Phalanx; r. 
Edwin Davis, Greenport, colored regiment; r. Smith 
R. Davis, town of Brookhaven. Samuel Davis, Coram, 
navy; d s. Sylvester Day, Amity ville, 127th; r. Silas 
C. Day, town of Huntington, navy; r. Daniel E. Day- 
ton, Centreville, 5th heavy art.; k b. William H. Day- 
ton, Centreville, 5th heavy art.; r. John H. Dayton, 
Charles B. Dayton, Easthampton, 127th; r. Andrew 
Dayton, Atlanticville, nth cav.; r. George W. Day- 

ton, Patchogue; d c s. Charles Dayton, Patchogue, 
12th; r. Smith A. Dayton, town of Brookhaven, 
navy. George Dayton, town of Brookhaven, 7th. 
Abraham De Bevoise, captain. Sag Harbor, i27lh; r. 
Pattern Delone (colored), Islip, 26th U. S. colored. 
Daniel Denning, Amityville, 127th; d p. Charles J. 
Dennis, Bay Shore, 9th N. J.; k b, Petersburg. Daniel 
Dennis, Bay Shore, 9th N. J.; r. George W. and Na- 
thaniel Dennis, Bay Shore, 158th. William Dickerson, 
Wading River; k b. Benjamin Dickerson, Wading 
River; r. Samuel G. Dickerson. Charles L. Dickerson, 
Greenport, 176th; d c s. Daniel Dickinson, Orient, 
i6sth; k, Port Hudson. Tobias Dillon, Centreport, 
48th; r. Nathan H. Dimon sen. and jr., Bridgehamp- 
ton, 81st; r. John Divine, Springville, 6th cav.; r. John 
Dix, Bridgehampton, 6th cav.; r. Michael Dolan, Blue 
Point, 2nd cav. Patrick Dolan, town of Brookhaven, 
regujar; r. Harvey Doolittle, Babylon, 127th; r. Frank 
Dombey, town of Brookhaven. William Dorman, 
Huntington, 127th; r. Edward Dow, Brentwood, 9th 
N. J. Michael Dowd, Greenport, 165th; w; r. John 
Downing, Huntington, 14th art.; r. James A. Downs, 
Riverhead, 127th. Isaac S. Downs, town of Brookhaven. 
George W. Downs, Good Ground, 9th Ct. John Downs, 
town of Southampton. William L. Downs, Huntington, 
2nd cav.; r. James B. Downs, Middle Island, 5th. 
Francis W. Doxsee, Islip, navy. John Doyle, town of 
Brookhaven. Richard Drake, Calverton. Daniel Drin- 
ning, Huntington, 127th; d s. Michael Drislane, Hol- 
brook, 5th; w; r. James B. Duff jr., Patchogue, 131st- 
John Dunn, Greenport, 127th; r. Dwight F. Durham, 
Sag Harbor, 127th. Samuel B. Dutcher, 81st; r. 
Elias E. Earl, surgeon. Lakeland. Joseph Earl. 
Jacob Eath, Rocky Point. Garrett F. Eaton, lieutenant, 
Islip; 127th; r. William B. Eaton, Islip, 127th; r. 
Robert Ebbitts, Orient, 127th; r. Jonathan Edgar, 
Babylon, 20th U. S. colored. Henry A. Edgar, Brent- 
wood, 102nd; r. A. and G. F. Edon, Huntington, 127th. 
Joseph S. Edwards, Amityville, 127th; w. Orlando B. 
Edwards, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Lewis J. Edwards, 
Bridgehampton, 48th; r. Charles M. Edwards, Bridge- 
hampton, 6th cav.; r. Edmund B. Edwards, Bridge- 
hampton, 127th; r. Elbert P. Edwards, Bridgehampton, 
6th cav.; r. Charles N. and Silas C. Edwards, Bridge- 
hampton, 127th; r. Charles B. Edwards, Amagansett, 
navy. Edwin H. Edwards, Amangansett,8ist; r. Roger 
Edwards, Sag Harbor, 48th. Henry L. Edwards, Sag Har- 
bor, 2nd cav.; k. Benjamin W. Edwards, Sag Harbor, 
8;st. Henry G. Edwards, Sag Harbor, 127th. Eli 
Edwards, navy. William W. Edwards, Easthampton, 
15th Conn. Edward C. Edwards, colored, Moriches, 
Jefferson Edwards, town of Brookhaven, navy. Auguste 
C. Eichel, Southampton, 44th; r. George A. Eldridge. 
J. W. Eldridge, Huntington, 127th; r. Joshua Ellison, 
Southampton, 81st; r. Joseph Ellison, Southampton, 
81st; k b. Cold Harbor. John Ellison, Bridgehampton, 
nth cav.; r. John Elsebough, Smithtown, 139th; r. 
Robert M. Ellsworth, Southampton, 8ist; r. Jesse Ells- 
worth, 81st; r. Samuel Ellsworth, Stony Brook, navy. 
Antoine Engler, Orient, 7th; r. Abraham Enos, colored, 
Quogue, navy; r. Peter Eshoe. Orient, 4Sth; r. Smith 
Evarts, Peconic, 127th; r. Charles W. Evarts, Bayport, 
loth; r. Frederick Ewald, Southold, 127th; r. William 
Fagan, Northport, 90th; r. Isaac Fallman, Selden, 13th 
cav. Wesley Fanning, Atlanticville, 8th; r. James 
Farley, Sag Harbor, 127th; r. Thomas Farley. Samuel 
Field, Springs; r. James Fields, Sag Harbor, navy. Ben- 
jamin H. Fielder, town of Islip, 14th N. J.; r. George 
E. Filer, Easthampton, 81st. Charles W. Filer, East- 
hampton, 4th Conn. Henry Finlayson. Henry Fish, 
Brentwood, 84th; m. Andrew Fisher, Huntington, 127th; 



r. Smith Flandun, Cold Springs, 8th heavy art.; k. 
Augustus Fleet, Northport; k b. George W. Fleet, 
Huntington; r. William Fleet, town of Huntington, 
t02nd; d s. James A. Fletcher, Riverhead, navy; r. 
Edward Flynn, Southold, 2nd; d s. John G. Floyd jr., 
captain, Mastic. Philip Floyd, colored, Mastic; d s, 
New Orleans. Charles T. Fodell, Sweet Hollow, 127th; 
r. William Fogerty, Islip, 70th; w; r. Francis Foley, 
Quogiie, 47th; r. William Ford, Ronkonkoma, 5th Pa. 
cav. Edward L. Ford, Ronkonkoma, 99th Pa. cav. Isaac 
Fordham, Selden, 139th. Charles H. Fordham, Sag 
Harbor,8ist; r. Elbert Fordham, Sag Harbor, 3d Mass. 
cav. William Fordham, Northport, 40th; r. William 
Fordred, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Drayson Fordred, Sag 
Harbor, 8ist; k. Albert Fosbert, Sag Harbor. Avlyn 
Foster, Springs, navy; w; r. James R. Foster, Watermill, 
2nd cav.; d p, Andersonville. Austin A. Foster, Pon- 
quogue, 6th cav.; w; r. William B. Foster, Sag Harbor, 
8ist. Edward I^. Fountain, Holtsville, 12th; r. Charles 
C. Fox, Northport, 127th; r. Charles Fox, Huntington, 
48th; d w. Roger A. Francis, Bridghampton, 8ist; w; r. 
John Frazier, Islip, r. Charles A. Frederick, Speonk, 
127th; r. Peter French, maj., Sag Harbor, 8ist; r. 
Decatur H. Frisbee, lieutenant, Lakeland, 133d. Lewis 
and Emery Frost, Babylon, 127th; d s. John Furguson, 
Patchogue, 12th; r. Lewis Furman, Babylon, 127th; d s. 
Henry Gaffga, Southold, 127th; w; r. Peter Gaffga, 
Sag Harbor, i6sth; w; r. Henry M. Galveston, South- 
old, 127th; r. Michael Galvin, Centerport, 127; r. 
John H. Gammage; r. Theodore K. GammagS, 
Holtsville, 79th; w. Smith P. Gammage, chaplain, 
.Patchogue, 7Sth La. colored. Henry T. Garaghan, 
captain. Sag Harbor, 48th. Henry W. Gardiner, Orient, 
20th Ct.; r. Henry Gardiner, town of Islip, 8th N. J.; 
r. Harvey Gardiner, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Smith F. 
Gardiner, Cold Spring, 127th; r. Barnard C. Gardiner, 
Babylon, ist; r. James Gardiner, Jamesport, i6sth; r. 
William Gates, Stony Brook, 4th; r. George A. Gatz, 
East Marion, i6sth; k b. Port Hudson. John Geehring, 
Greenport, 16.5th; r. Thomas C. George, Brentwood, 
84th; w; r. Martin Gerard, Baiting Hollow, 5th heavy 
art.; r. Edward- Gerard, Hauppauge, 139th; d s. Ed- 
mund S. Gerard, Sayville, 2nd cav. John W. Gerard. 
East Setauket, 57th; k b, Antietam. John Germain, Sag 
Harbor, 127th. George Gettze, Orient, 165th; k. Port 
Hudson. William H. Gilchrist, Islip, 8th U. S. colored. 
Piatt Gildersleeve, Port Jefferson, 127th; r. L.Welling- 
ton Gillette, Orient, 127th; r. Reuben Gillian, Sayville, 
5th. Michael Gilraartin, Huntington, 127th; r. Robert 
Gilmore, Sag Harbor, 127th. Edward Ging, Patchogue, 
12th; r. WilUam Glines, town of Huntington, sth art. 
James R. Glover, Orient, 165th; r. Zebulon B. Glover, 
Shelter Island, isgth; d' s. Franklin B. Goldsmith, 
Southold, 127th; r. Austin B. Goldsmith, Peconic, 
i6sth; r. James E. Good, Huntington, 127th; r. W. 
H. Good, Huntington, navy. Charles E. Goodall, South- 
ampton, 12th; d s, David's Island. James M. Goodall, 
Southampton, sth Ct.; d s, Atlanta, Ga. James D. Good- 
man, Westhampton, 127th; w; r. George Gordon, East- 
port, nth cav.; r. Isaac L. Gordon, Sayville, 9th N. J.; 
w; r. William H. Gordon, Riverhead, Sth heavy art.: r. 
Milton Gordon, Manor; k b. Samuel H. Gordon, River- 
head, 6th cav.; r. John D. Gough, Bridgehampton, 8ist; 
r. Theodore P. Gould, Easthampton, 127th; d s, Wash- 
in<yton. Alexander Gould, Easthampton, 8ist. Richard 
N° Gould, Smithtown, 9th N. J. William E. Gould, 
Mattituck, navy. Jerome B. Graham, Easthampton, ist 
Cal. David Graham, town of Huntington, ist L. L 
William C. Gray, Patchogue. James M. Green, Southamp- 
ton 2pd cav.; r. James R. Green, Southampton, 8ist; r. 
Obadiah Green, Sayville, 12th; d s. William D. Green, 

Wading River; d s. Henry Green, Sag Harbor. Nathan 
F. Green, town of Brookhaven. Charles H. Green, 
Easthampton, 29th Ct; d s, Dec. 1864. John H. Greg- 
ory, Sag Harbor, nth cav.; r. Dennis Gregory, Bridge- 
hampton, 17th Mich.; r. George Gregory, town of 
Brookhaven. Randolph C. Grififing, Shelter Island, 48th; 
d s, Hilton Head. Charles Marcus Grififing, Shelter 
Island, 5th R. I.; r. Charles C. Grififing, Shelter Island. 
James E. Grififing, Westhampton; d s. Thomas H. 
Grififing, town of Brookhaven, 13th. William H. Grit- 
man, Patchogue, 158th; w; r. Herman Grossman, Mel- 
ville, 4th cav.; r. Robert J. Grundy, Lakeland, 73d; 
d p, Andersonville. G. S. Gullen, town of Brookhaven. 
Stephen J. Haff, Amity ville, 90th; r. Silas C. Haff, 
Amityville, 145th; w; r. George W. Haff, Sayville, 
127th; r. Philip Haff, West Islip, 2nd cav.; m. Paul Haff, 
town of Brookhaven. John Haggerty, Elwood, 6th cav.; 
r. William Haight, Huntington, 127th; w; r. Isaac S. 
Haines, musician, Brentwood, 5th N. J.; r. Theodore 
F. Haines, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Henry Haines, 
Peconic, 165th; d s.- George Buel Hall, Melville, 127th; 
d s. William H. Hall, Sag Harbor, 127th. Henry M. 
Hallock, Mattituck, 127th; r. Franklin B. Hallock, 
lieutenant, Quogue, nth cav.; d w. Daniel Y. Hallock, 
Centreville, 4th heavy art.; r. Joshua T. Hallock, Blue 
Point,. 2nd cav.; r.. John M. Hallock, Middle Island, 
ist U. S. cav.; r. Alfred B. Hallock, Huntington, 127th; 
r. E. M. Hallock, Huntington, navy. William F. Hal- 
sey. Sag Harbor, California cav. Jesse C. Halsey, Sag 
Harbor, 8 ist. Dennis Halsey, Sag Harbor, nth cav.; r. 
C. E. Halsey, Bridgehampton, 40th; d s, Baltimore. S.. E. 
Halsey, Bridgehampton, 127th; d s, Upton Hill, Va. 
Albert Asbury, Erastus E. and William M. Halsey, 
Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Oliver Halsey, Bridgehampton, 
6th cav.; r. Henry Halsey, Bridgehampton, sth; r; 
Charles A. Halsey, Watermill, 36th 111.; w; r. Silas E. 
Halsey, Watermill, 127th; k, Boyd's Landing. Abraham 
Halsey, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Henry W. Halsey, 
Greenport, i6sth; r. Oliver Halsey jr., Riverhead, 
navy; Claudius H. Hamilton, Amagansett, 127th; d s. 
Edwin C. Hammond, New Village, 6th cav.; d s, Fal- 
mouth. Albert O. and Wilbur F. Hammond, New Vil- 
lage, 6th cav.; r. Bernard J. Hammond, Sag Harbor, 
i2th cav. Daniel E. Hammond, Greenport, 165th; r. 
William P. and Lewis E. Hammond, Greenport, i6sth; r. 
Orlando and. E. C. Hand, captains, Bridgehampton, nth 
cav.; r. Samuel Hand, Sag Harbor,i27th. George M. Hand, 
Good Ground, 2nd cav.; John A. Hand, Cutchogue, 170th. 
Aaron Handy, Sag Harbor, 127th; r. Arthur Haney, 
Mattituck, 127th. William D. Hannagan, Huntington, 
102nd; m. Edward Hardy, town of Brookhaven, 107th 
Pa. William M. Harned, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; w. 
George Harper, town of Huntington, 13th cav. Francis 
Harper, town of Huntington, 87th; r. Thomas H. Harries, 
Shelter Island, 93d Ohio. Cornelius Harris, West Islip, 
26th U. S. colored. William P. Harris, Bridgehampton, 
127th; d s, Hilton Head. Samuel E. Harris, Cutchogue, 
127th; r. Joseph C. Harris, Sag Harbor, 127th; d s. 
Charles C, Harris. Edwin A. Harris, town of Brook- 
haven, 44th; r. Clark Hart, Huntington, navy; r. Peter 
Hartered, Orient, 165th; d s. Camp Parapet, La. Maltby 
Hartt, Northport, k b, Petersburg. Christian Hassenger, 
Middle Island. Charles H. Havens, Shelter Island, 
127th; d s, Washington. Jeremiah Havens, Moriches ; 
r. Harrison Havens, Greenport, 176th; k b. Joseph 
A. Havens, master, Easthampton, navy. Austin and 
Charles E. Havens, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Ripley F. Havens, 
Sag Harbor, 127th. Henry H. Havens, Sag Harbor. 
Charles B. Haverstrite, Southampton, 127th; r. Charles 
A. Hawkins, Brookhaven, is8th; r. Richard A. Haw- 
kins, Stony Brook, 39th. Alfred C. Hawkins, .Sayville, 




107th; w; r. M. Smith Hawkins, Sayville, 133d. Azariah 

F. Hawkins, New Village, 15 9th; d c s, Baltimore. 
George Hawkins (colored). Mastic; d s. James H. Haw- 
kins, Bellport, 92nd; r. Nelson Hawkins, Bellport, 96th; 
r. George Hawkins, Cutchogue; navy; r. George M. 
Hawkins, town of Brookhaven, navy. John W. Hawkins, 
town of Brookhaven, navy; r. Steward G. Hawkins, 
town of Brookhaven, 12th; d s. William W. Hawkins, 
West Islip, 48th; d p. Edward Hawley, Islip, navy. Reeves 
H. Hayens, Atlanticville, nth cav. ; d s, Port Royal. 
William Hayes, Bridgehampton, 8ist. Peter Hayes, 
Islip, navy. Luther Haymer, Rocky Point; r. Henry 
Headley, town of Islip, gth N. J. Anthony Heanne, 
Mattituck, 127th; r. John S. Hedge, Brookhaven, 127th. 
Frederick B. Hedge, Brookhaven, 35th. David H. Hedge, 
Brookhaven, 13th cav. Lyman G. Hedges, Bridgehamp- 
ton, 127th; k b, November 30 1864. Jeremiah L. 
Hedges, Sag Harbor, navy. Sebastian L. Helfrich, 
Greenport, 165th; r. Charles A. Hellems, Huntington, 
127th; w; r. Nathaniel Hempstead, Riverhead, loth 
cav. James Madison Hempstead (colored), Shelter Is- 
Island, 29th; d s. John Hempstead, Riverhead, 
127th ; w; r. Clement M. Hempstead, Riverhead, 
127th. Peter Henderson, Coram. Isaac W. Hender- 
son, Northport, 127th. David Hendrickson, Cold 
Spring, 127th; r. Daniel Hendrickson, Bay Shore, navy. 
Charles Hennegar, Sag Harbor, 139th. James Hennesey, 
Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Robert Henry, Southampton, 
47th. Alfred W. Herron, Northport. Walter R. Hew 
lett, captain, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Charles Hicks, 
Babylon, sharpshooters; r. James S. Higbee, Northport, 
navy; r. Oscar A. Hildreth, Southampton, 127th; r. 
Isaac N. Hildreth, Watermill, T27th; r. Curtis Hil- 
dreth, Stony Brook, 170th. Eliphalet Hill, Bay Shore, 
sharpshooters; r. Lester S. Hill, Riverhead, 127th; r. 
Harvey Hill. Seth R. Hill, Islip, navy. George Hine, 
town of Islip, Spinola's brigade. John Hoffansack, 
Greenport, 127th; r. Gilbert Homan, Sag Harbor; d s. 
Charles O. Homan, Bellport, g2nd; k. John G. Homan, 
Sayville, 12th; w; r. Richard S. Homan, Yaphank, 2nd 
cav.; r. Willam H. Homan, Yaphank, 57th; r. Selah 
H. Homan, Mount Sinai, 84th; r. Daniel L. Homan, 
town of Brookhaven. Charles Homan, Easthampton, 
48th and navy. Luther Homan, Mount Sinai. William 
W. Homan, Blue Point, 6th art.; lost an arm. Benjamin 
S. Homan. town of Brookhaven, 9th; d p, Andersonville. 

G. Frank Hommel, Southold, 127th; r. Thomas Hop- 
kins, Coram. Henry O. Horton, Cutchogue, 127th; r. 
Edward Horton, Cold Spring, 8th heavy art.; d w re- 
ceived at Fair Oaks. Benjamin A. Horton, Cutchogue, 
127th; r. John Horton, Cutchogue, 170th; r. James 
H. Horton, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; d p. Francis Horton, 
town of Brookhaven. Floyd B. and Sylvester E. Horton, 
Patchogue, 12th; r. George Howell, Sweet Hollow, 127th; 
r. George B. Howell, Islip, 158th; r. Hiram C. Howell, 
Islip, 2nd cav.; dp. Orlando J. Howell, Bridgehampton, 
8ist; r. Samuel H. Howell, Bridgehampton, navy; r. 
Charles R. Howell, Yaphank, 2nd cav.; d p, Anderson- 
ville. John H. Howell, Southampton, 2nd cav.; r. James 
L. Howell, Southampton, 8ist; r. Isaac Howell, Say- 
ville, r. Isaac Howell, Atlanticville, nth cav.; r. John 
A. Howell, Cutchogue, 170th; r. James R. Howell, Sag 
Harbor, 127th; r. William G, Howell, Sag Harbor, 5th; 
d s. Henry B. Howell, Sag Harbor; d s. Israel Howell, 
town of Huntington, 139th. Addison Howland, Sag 
Harbor, 8ist. Erastus R. Howland, Good Ground, navy; 
r. Seth R. Hubbard, Bay Shore, 9th N.J. ;r. Daniel O. 
Hubbs, Smithtown, navy; d s. John A. Hubbs, Cold 
Spring, 127th; d s, Charleston. Charles Hubert, town of 
Brookhaven. William B. Hulse, Moriches, navy; d s, 
Pensacola. Albert Hulse, Moriches, i4Sth and 107th; r. 

William F. Hulse, Huntington, 127th; r. George 
W. Hulse, Port Jefferson, i4Sth; k b, Chancellors- 
ville. Albert Hull. Easthampton, 24th Conn. Arthur 
Humphries, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Flora Hunker, 
Bridgehampton, navy; r. E. Z. Hunt, Sag Harbor, 
2nd 111. Robert Hunt, Mattituck, 150th; r. Charles 
Huntington, Huntington, 127th; r. Benjamin Hunt- 
ting, Southampton, 3d Iowa; w; r. Edward Foster 
Huntting, Southold; 127th; k b, Olustee, Fla. Henry 
H. Huntting, Sag Harbor; d s. Elbert Hutchinson, East 
Marion, 127th; r. Henry Ingraham, Bridgehampton. 
John Irwin, lieutenant, Centreport, 91st; k. Leonard T. 
Jackman, Cutchogue, 127th; r. Charles A. Jackson, 
Good Ground, 6th cav.; r. Barzilla Jackson, Flanders, 
127th; d s, New Orleans. Patrick Jackson, town of 
Brookhaven. J. Jackson, Huntington, 26th U. S. colored. 
M. Jackson (colored), Huntington, navy; r. Lyman 
Jackson, Riverhead, 45 th. John H. Jacobs, town of 
Southampton, 127th; r. Joseph W. Jacobs, Good 
Ground, 127th; r. William S. Jacobs, Southampton, 
127th; d s, Hilton Head. Oscar L. Jagger, Southamp- 
ton, 127th; r. William S. Jasser, Sag Harbor, 127th; r. 
Benjamin James, Central Islip, 20th U. S. colored. 
Stephen D. James, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Richard 
James, Ronkonkoma, 5th. Riker R. James, Ronkon- 
koma, 40th. John January, Bay Shore, 29th Ct. ; d s. 
Ebenezer N. Jarvis, Melville, 74th; r. Ira F. Jarvis, 
Centreport, 94th; r. John E. Jarvis, Babylon, 127th; r. 
William H. Jarvis, Huntington, 127th; d s. John S. 
Jayne, Bay Shore, 9th N. J.;r. George Jayne, Bay Shore, 
8th U. S. colored; r. Charles E Jayne, lieutenant, 
Stony Brook, 102nd; w. Richard Jayne, Cold Spring, 
127th; r. George E. Jayne, Babylon, 127th; r. William 
C. Jayne, Eastport, 57th; r. Isaac Jayne, town of Brook- 
haven. Joseph H. Jayne, Smithtown, 5th Ct. Robert 
Jayne, veterinary surgeon, Patchogue, 13th cav. Robert 
Jefferson, Southold, 127th; r. William M. Jenkins, musi- 
cian, Brentwood, 5th N. J.; r. David Jenkins, town of 
Brookhaven, 47th; r. Horace Jenkins, town of Brook- 
haven, 173d. Samuel B. Jennings, Shelter Island, 165th; 
r. Gilbert W. Jennings, Southampton, 75th 111.; k, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. John Terry Jennings, Upper Aquebogue, 
159th; w. James F. and William M. Jennings, River- 
head, 127th; r. Stephen J. Jennings, Patchogue, 5th 
Kansas cav. ; r. William T. Jennings, Patchogue, 
12th. Jacob A. Jerodette, 127th; r. John H. Jessup, 
Westhampton, 127th; k b, Devoe's Landing, S. C. 
William P. Jessup, Riverhead, 127th. Charles L. and 
Edmund Jessup, Sag Harbor, 48th; d s. Samuel D. Jes- 
sup, Sag Harbor, 127th. John Jewesbury, town of 
Brookhaven, 31st; d s. William Jewett, Bridgehamp- 
ton, 8ist; r. Richard M. Johnson, Springs, nth 
cav.; d s, New Orleans. James Johnson, Hunting- 
ton, 127th; r. William C. Johnson, Babylon. Thomas 
Johnson, Sag Harbor, 90th Pa. George Jones, 
Setauket, 26th U. S. colored; d s. William Jones, 
colored, East Moriches, 6th Pa.; t. William H. Jones, 
Huntington, 102nd; 'r. William H. H. Jones, Hunting- 
ton, 102nd; k. Thomas Jones, Cold Spring, 127th; r. 
George F. Jotry, Smithtown, 31st; r. George Jupiter, 
colored, 29th Ct. William O. Kaler, Moriches, 102nd; 
r. Joseph I. Kampie, Huntington, 127th; r. James 
Kane, Southampton, navy; d s. New York, December 
1864. Francis Kappel, Riverhead, 127th; m. John H. 
Kasson, Greenport, 127th; d s. Michael Kearns, Bay 
Shore, 2nd cav.; r. Sylvester S. Kelley, Central Islip, 
66th. Edward Kelley, Sag Harbor, navy; r. Peter 
Kelley, town of Brookhaven. Harvey C. Kennard, Islip, 
25th. Patrick Kennedy, Bridgehampton, nth cav.; d s. 
James Kennedy, town of Huntington, 20th cav.; w; r. 
Andrew Kentz, Islip, 7th. Frank Kentz, Islip, 159th'; d 



w. Patrick Kernon, Patchogue, 1 2th. Warren Ketcharn, 
Elwood, 40th; r. Jacob, IJunce R.. and Fleet Ketcham, 
Elwood, 127th; r. Ira P. Ketcham, Elwood, 48th; r. 
Smith Ketcham, Amityville, 127th; d s. Jesse Ketcham, 
Amityville, 90th; d s, Key West. Henry Ketcham, 
Bridgehampton, 8ist; r. Charles A. Ketcham, Babylon, 
2nd cav.; r. Thomas B. Ketcham, Babylon, 127th; d s, 
Luther S. Ketcham, Huntington, 48th; d p. Charles M. 
Kiesling, town of Brookhaven, 133d. Venus E. King, 
Springs, 127th and navy; r. Wilson B. King, Springs, 
127th; w; r. Horace P. King, Springs, nth; d s, Wash- 
ington. Oliver G. King, Springs, navy. George C. King, 
Springs, nth cav.; r. Harvey B. King, Springs, 127th; 
r. William P. King, Amagansett, 127th; d s, Morris 
Island, S. C. Samuel R. King, Amagansett, loth Ct.; d 
s. Charles E. King, Patchogue, 12th; r. Lodowick H, 
King, Amagansett, isth; r. Parker D. King, 127th. 
Thomas King, Patchogue, navy, Oscar R. Kingsland, 
Westhampton, 112th. William W. Kingsland, Moriches, 
1st cav.; r. George W. Kinner, Port Jefferson, 139th; 
lost a foot; r, John W. Kloipp, Greenport, 127th; r, 
Sylvester Knapp, Sayville, 2nd cav.; r. George M. 
Knapp, 8ist; k October 2Sth 1864. Frank Kockendoeffer, 
Orient, 165th; w; r. John C. Lake, Islip, 8th N. J.; r. 
Thrastus C. Lake, Islip, navy. Elisha R. Lamb, Moriches, 
145th; r. David Lamphier, town of Brookhaven, t33d. 
George W. Lane, Bayport, 2nd cav.; r, Abram Lane, Wad- 
ing River; r. ' George F. and Charles H. Lane, River- 
head, 127th; r. Henry J. Lane, town of BrookhavMi. 
John Lane, Northport, 90th; d s. Key West. AVarren T. 
Jyane, Riverhead, 13th. Gilbert B. Lane, Riverhead, 
i2th; r. Charles E. Lane, Riverhead, 47th; k b. James 
Larrison, Babylon, sharpshooters; r, Edwin Larry, 
Southampton; w; r. Eldridge J'. Latham, Orient, 6th 
cav.; k b, Shenandoah Valley. George E. Latham, 
Orient, 127th; d w, Devoe's Neck, S. C. James N. La- 
tham, Northport, 51st Pa. George and William Lattin. 
Babylon, sharpshooters; r. James E. Laughlin, Haup- 
pauge, 9th; r. John V>. Lawrence^ Amagansett, navy; r. 
William H. Lawrence jr., Sag Harbor, 127th; r. Amos 
H. Laws, Rocky Point, iS9th and navy; r. John G. 
Laws, Rocky Point, 159th; k b. George J. and John 
Lawton, Central Islip, 9th N. J,; r. John J. Learie, 
Speonk, 50th Pa,; r. Peter Leary, town of Brookhaven. 
George B. Ledyard, Southold, 127th; r. George D. Lee, 
Port Jefferson, 102nd; r. Edward Lee, Huntington, 
127th; r. David R. Lee, town of Brookhaven. John 
D. Leek, Babylon, loth cav.; r. David H. Leek, East- 
hampton, 8th art.; d s. JaraesH. Leek, Babylon, 127th; 
r. Rufus Lent, Moriches. David Leodham, Manor, 
5th heavy art.; r, Charles Leodham, Riverhead, loth, 
Robert Leslie, (^utchogue, 6th cav.; r. AVilliam Lester, 
Springs, 5 th heavy art.; d p, February 24 1864. George 
F. Lester, Springs, nth cav.; d s. James W. Lester, 
Springs, 127th; r. Charles Lester, Springs, nth cav. Gil- 
bert Lester, Springs, nth cav.; r. George O. Lester, Se- 
tauket; r. Isaac B. Lewis, Selden, nth cav. George 
W. Lewis, Huntington, 127th; r. Thomas Lewis, North- 
port; w, J. Longette L'Hommedieu, Centreville, 127th; 
r. Lyman B, L'Hommedieu, Riverhead, 127th; r. 
Lewis L'Hommedieu, Bay Shore, navy. Charles L'Hom- 
medieu, Islip, navy. Richard W. L'Hommedieu, Stony 
Brook, 139th. James L'Hommedieu, Middle Island, 
127th; r. Joseph Liscomb, Bridgehampton, ist mounted 
rifles; r. William Lobert, town of Islip, John E. Lock- 
wood, Bay Shore, 139th; r, George Lonckcr, Northport, 
15th Ct.; r, Hewlett J, Long, captain, Huntington, 
127th; r. John Longworth, Sayville, 12th; d s, Win- 
chester. Benjamin Loper, Bridgehampton, 127th; d s, 
Morris Island. Henry J. Loper, Bridgehampton, 8ist; 
k b, Cold Harbor. Daniel B. Loper, Easthampton, 127th 

and navy. Abraham B. Loper, Southampton, 127th; d 
s. Cole's Island, S. C. Oliver L. Loper, Ama- 
gansett, 9th; r. Charles G. Loper. Charles L. Lo- 
per; d s. Thomas Loper, 8ist, John F. Love- 
joy, 8ist. AVilliam Lowen, jr., Easthampton, 15th. 
Cornelius Lucy, Orient, 165th; r. William H. 
Ludlow, Sayville, colored, on General Dix's 
staff; r, William Ludlow, Sayville, brevet major en- 
gineer corps; regular. Nicoll Ludlow, Sayville, navy ; 
regular. Matthias Lynch, Huntington, 127th; r. Michael 
Lynch, Easthampton, nth cav., d s. Dennis Lynch, 
Riverhead, 127th. Samuel Lyons, Amityville, navy ; r. 
Daniel E, Lyons ^colored), Amityville, navy; r. James 
Lyons. David H. Lyons ("colored), Amityville, navy; r. 
James E. McCabe, navy. Frank McCloskey, Islip, 3d; 
r. Michael McDonnell, Bridgehampton, 6th cav. ; r. 
Daniel McGinley, Smithtown, navy. Michael McGinn, 
Mattituck, 47th; kb. John McGregor, Northport, 127th; 
r. Andrew J. and James N. McGregor, Huntington, 
127th; r. Frank McGurk, Bridgehampton, 165th ; k. 
Port Hudson, John McGurk, Bridgehampton, navy; r. 
Gustavus McKeruan, Easthampton, navy. William 
McKinney, Riverhead, 8th heavy art. John McMahon, 
Sag Harbor, 127th; k b. William P. McManes, Shelter 
Island, 127th; d w, Pocataligo, S. C. William McMinn, 
Southampton, 46th. Joseph McNamee, Greenport, 127th; 
r. David 'McNeil, Bay Shore, 127th; r. John McNeil, 
town of Brookhaven. Joseph McWilliams, Easthamp- 
ton, 8th Pa. Furman S. .Mahan, Cold Spring, 102nd; w. 
Dennis Maloney, Huntington, T27th; r. James Maloney, 
Huntington, 127th. Walter F. Mapes, Smithtown, 3d 
mounted battery. Allen March, Elwood, 87th; d s. 
Thomas Marion, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Matthew 
Martin, Stony Brook, 38th; w, Jeremiah Matthias, 
Northport, 49th; r. Oliver A, Mayo, Mattituck, 127th; 
r. John Mead, Islip. Edgar C. Meigs, Sag Harbor, Sist. 
Joseph Mencee, Mattituck, 127th; d s. Charles Mer- 
chant, Sag Harbor. Jonathan C. Merrill, Southold, 
127th; r. John W. Meyer, Sag Harbor, nth cav.; r. 
Thomas Middleton, Huntington, 127th; r. James Miller, 
Sag Harbor, regular army; r. Henry Miller, Babylon, 
48th; r. Frederick E. Miller, captain. Miller's Place, 
1st mounted rifles; r. John Miller (colored), Amityville, 
navy; r. Robert Miller (colored), Amityville, 20th ; r. 
Nathaniel J. and Elias H. Miller, Amagansett, 127th; r. 
Nathaniel Miller, Amagansett, nth cav.; r. William B. 
Miller, Amagansett, 127th; r. Jonathan A. Miller, Springs, 
navy; lost a hand; r. Josiah P. Miller, Springs, 127th ; 
r. David K. Miller, Greenport, 165th; r. Charles G. 
Miller, Brentwood, 8th N. J.; d c s. Gilbert Miller, 
Southaven; ra. Abram H. Miller, Easthampton, 
127th ; w. r. Thomas W. Miller, Easthampton, 127th. 
Lewis B. Miller, Easthampton, nth cav. ; d s. 
Samuel A. Miller, Babylon, 127th ; r. Philander 
B, Miller, town of Brookhaven, 12th; r. James 
J, Miller, town of Brookhaven, 5 7th; d s, Frederick F. 
Miller, town of Brookhaven, Henry R, Mills, Smith- 
town, 29th Ct, Byron Mills, town of Brookhaven; r, 
Horace J. Mingo jr. (colored), 'Bay Shore; d s. James B. 
Mist, Moriches, 4th cav. Frederick W. Moddle, Hun- 
tington, 127th; r. Wilson Moger, Sayville, 173d; r. Lor- 
enzo D, Moger, Patchogue, 8th cav, Benjamin Moger, 
Patchogue, 12th. John A. Montcalm, Sag Harbor,i27th; 
r, Augustus Moon, Islip, navy. Dingenus Mooney, 
Amityville, 127th; d s. Francis J. Mooney, Sag Harbor, 
127th; r. John F. Mooney, Sag Harbor, 127th, Charles 
B, Moore, Orient, 127th; r, Thomas Moore, Quogue, 
127th; r. Silas H, Moore, Southaven, 170th; r, Isaac 
T, and Benjamin F, Moore, Cutchogue, 127th; r, Orrin 
G. Moore, Cutchogue, 44th; r, Christopher B, Moore, 
Greenport, 165th; r, Cornelius L, Moore, Greenport, 



57th; r. John Moore, Huntington, 127th; r. Andrew 
B. Moore. Henry Moore, Bridgehampton, 14th U. S. 
Thomas Moore, Huntington, 127th; r. Henry Morgan, 
Springs, 127th; r. George C. Morris, Sag Harbor, i6th 
Gt.; r. Thomas Morris, Huntington, 127th; r. Francis D. 
Hosier, Centreville, 5th heavy art.; d w rec'd at Winches- 
ter. James .0. Mott, Selden, 133d; r. George Mott, 
Babylon, 127th; r. Edgar S. Mt)tt, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; 
w; r. Horatio Mott, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; d s. David 
Mott. Charles W. Mott, Patchogue, iSgth; r. John A. 
Mott, Northport, 127th. Alonzo A. Mott, Selden, i6th 
Kansas; r. E. Hampton Mulford, lieutenant, Orient, 
165th; w;r. W. E. Mulford, Northport,57th; lost a hand; r. 
Charles J. Mulford, Easthampton, 8ist. John Mullen, 
Cold Spring, 102nd; m. John Mulrooney, Cold Spring, 
102nd; k b, Cedar Mountain. Jesse Muncey, Babylon, 
127th; r. Jesse Munsell, Bellport, 92nd; d s, Richmond. 
Nathaniel N. Munsell, Middle Island, loth Conn.; r. 
Alexander Munsell, Middle Island, ist U. S. cav.; d s, 
Alexandria. Daniel H. Murdock, Moriches, 90th; r. 
Peter Murphy, Melville, 127th; d s. Morgan Murphy, 
Cold Spring, 102nd; r. Edward Murphy, Greenport. 
127th; r. William H. and John J. Murray, Islip, 26th 
U. S. colored; r. John Murthur, Middle Island, 32nd 
battery; r. Thomas S. Nash, Islip, 17th Pa. Henry 
T. Nash, Islip; r. Abram H. Nash, Islip, 2nd Ohio. 
Horatio S. Nelson, Cutchogue, 132nd; killed by accident. 
Michael Neville, Deer Park, 99th; r. John Newart, East 
Marion, 165th; r. Joseph Newton, Greenport, 127th; 
r. William H. Nichols, Northport, 127th, r. Charles 
Henry Nichols, Greenport, 31st; r. Stephen Nichols-, 
Islip, 9th N. J.; r. James Nichols, Smithtown, 102nd; r. 
James R. Nichols, Middle Island, 165th; d s, Baton 
Rouge. Floyd C. Nichols, Middle Island, 159th; d w. 
Joel Nichols, Centreport, 91st; k b. George W. Nichols, 
Mattituck, 165th. Sylvester Nicoll, captain. Shelter 
Island; killed by accident on gunboat " Picket." Edward 
T. Nicoll, Sag Harbor, 127th; r. Smith J. Noe, Say- 
ville, iS9th; r. Lewis H. Noe, Sayville, navy; r. B B. 
Norton, Selden, S7th; r. Elbert N. Norton, Selden, 3d 
heavy art.; r. Harrison Norton, Riverhead, 127th; k b. 
John R. Norton, Mattituck, 127th. Charles N. Nye, navy; 
w. John Oakley, Babylon, 127th; d s. Oscar J. Oakley, 
Coram, 139th; r. James M. Oakley, lieutenant. Coram, 
12th; r. John O'Brien, Babylon, 127th. John O'Keefe 
jr., Islip, 5th U. S. dragoons; r. Absalom E. Oldershaw, 
Sag Harbor, navy; w; r. Thomas H. Oldershaw, Sag 
Harbor, i6th Conn. Edward Oldrin, Cutchogue, 127th; 
r. Adolph Oliver, Hauppauge; r. William H. Oliver, 
Riverhead, 12th; r. William Osborn, Bellport, 11th cav.; 
drowned. Henry N. Osborn, Bellport, g2nd; r. Lewis W. 
Osborn, Moriches, 139th; d s, Point of Rocks. William 
Osborne, Peconic, 127th; r. Richard H. Overton, Bridge- 
hampton, 176th; r. Josiah W. Overton, Moriches, 145th; 
w; r. Charles E. Overton, Southold, 127th; r. Elisha W. 
Overton, Coram, 1st cav.; r. J. Theodore and Warren R. 
Overton, Peconic, 127th; r. Joel G. Overton, Middle 
Island, 32nd battery; r. Moses W. Overton, Riverhead, 
i2th; d c s. Joseph A. Overton, Riverhead, navy; d c s. 
George H. Painter, Huntington, 127th; r. Frederick 
Palow, town of Brookhaven, 178th. Joseph Parish, 
Shelter Island. Henry Parker, Easthampton. Silas M. 
Parker, Sag Harbor, nth cav. Richard H. Parks, Patch- 
ogue, 127th. T. Augustus Parsons, Orient, 165th; d p, 
in rebel hospital, Richmond. Theodore Parsons, Springs, 
N. J. regiment; r. Elias H. Payne, Shelter Island, 81st. 
Edwin E. Payne, Amityville, 20th; d s, Riker's Island. 
Valentine Payne, Amityville, 8th Rhode Island art.; d s, 
Fort Jackson. Albert M.Payne, Springs, 48th; w; r. 
Charles Payne, Springs, navy; r. Elias R. Payne, Ama- 
ganSett, 127th; w; r. Wesley Payne, Hauppauge, 139th; 

k b. Fort Harris. James S. Payne, lieutenant, 139th; w; 
r. Jeremiah Payne, Bridgehampton, 127th; d s, Alex- 
andria. Thomas B. Payne, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. 
Baldwin T. Payne, Southold, 127th; r. Benjamin S. Payne, 
Sag Harbor, 81st; r. Charles Payne, Sag Harbor, 8ist. 
Robert H. Payne, Sag Harbor, navy. Huntting Payne, nth 
cav. Ezra Pearsall, Amityville, 127th; w; r. Silas C. and 
John Pearsall,Amityville, 127th; r. Grove Pease,Mattituck, 
127th; r. Charles H. Peck, Port Jefferson, 139th; r. Piatt 
Pedrick, Cold Spring, 127th; d s, Hilton Head. Joseph 
H. Pedro, Sag Harbor, 48th. B. Riley Penney, Peconic, 
127th; d s. Oliver F. Penney, Flanders, 111. regiment; 
d s, Chattanooga. Jonathan R. Penney, Bay Shore, 9th 
N. J.; r. Alexander H. Penney, Good Ground, 6th cav.; 
r. Benjamin L. Penney, Peconic, 127th; d s, Cloud's 
Mills. Charles Perdue, Moriches, 1st colored cav.; r. 
George Perkins, 127th. Sidney B. Petty, Orient, 127th; 
d s, Morris Island. William E. Petty, Springs, navy; w; 
r. Stephen Pharaoh, Montauk Indian; r. W. H. H. 
Phillips, Southampton; r. Stephen Phillips, Northport, 
48th; r. Clinton R. Phillips, Westhampton, 12th. Wil- 
liam E. Phillips, town of Southampton, navy. Andrew 
Pickett, Orient, 6th cav.; d s, Norfolk, Va. Stephen 
Pidgeon, Sag Harbor, 127th; r. George Pidgeon, Sag 
Harbor, navy. John Pidgeon, Northport, navy; r. Ed- 
ward C. Pierce, Brentwood, 14th; w; r. David Pierson, 
Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Alanson Pierson, Sag Har- 
bor, 14th. Nathan H. Pierson, Sag Harbor, 8ist; d s. 
Enoch Pierson, Sag Harbor, 127th. Osias Pike, lieuten- 
ant. Central Islip, 2nd cav.; w; r. Horace J. Pike, lieu- 
tenant. Central Islip, 2nd cav.; r. Calvin Pike, lieuten- 
ant, Ronkonkoma, 7th Ct. Christopher Pike, major, 
Ronkonkoma, 5th. John Pilkington, town of Hunting- 
ton, 35th; d s, Nashville. George E. Pinckney, town of 
Brookhaven, 131st. Charles E. Pitts, Babylon, 127th; r. 
Henry R. Pitts, Riverhead, 127th; r. Richard L. Place, 
Amityville, 127th; r. Jesse Piatt, Huntington, 127th; k 
b. Eben G. Piatt, Huntington, 1st cav.; r. Ezra W. 
Piatt, Bellport. D. Piatt, Huntington, 1st cav. Gus- 
tavus H. Pokoming, town of Islip, 4th cav.; w; r. Tred- 
well Poley, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. George H. Pollard, 
Sag Harbor, 81st. William L. Polly, Bridgehampton, 
6th cav.; r. Samuel M. Polly, Easthampton, 4th light 
art.; r. Edward Pounder, Bridgehampton, nth cav.; r. 
James H. Post, Southampton, 44th; d s. John Potter, 
Sag Harbor; r. Delone Potter, Islip, 26th N. Y. Henry 
H. Preston, Shelter Island, 6th cav.; w. Solomon Price, 
Hauppauge, 139th; d s. George Price, Babylon, 127th; 
r. William E. Price, Greenport, 127th; r. James H. 
Price jr., Easthampton, 53d and 8ist. Henry W. Prince, 
Southold, 127th; r. George S. Prince, Southold, 6th 
cav. Isaac Quinn, Springs, Connecticut regiment; r. 
John Quinn, Atlanticville, nth cav.; r. George 
C. Racket, Cutchogue, 126th; w; r. Joseph Raf- 
ferty. Mattituck, 127th; r. Samuel M. Ranger, 
Easthampton, 127th. Warren Raynor, Wading 
River. Nathan Raynor, Calverton, 165th; d p. 
Camp Ford, Texas. Leander Raynor, East Mor- 
iches, 102nd; d s. J. Ivison Raynor, Eastport, 133d; r. 
Preston Raynor, Manor, 133d; r. Laban Raynor jr., 
Moriches, 102nd; r. John W. Raynor, lieutenant, River- 
head, 127th; r. Henry S. Raynor, Atlanticville, nth 
cav.; d s.. Hart's Island. Jesse Raynor, Huntington, 
127th; r. William C. Raynor, Westhampton, 47th; r. 
Jonah Raynor jr.. Manor, 2nd cav. William S. Raynor, 
Riverhead, 5th heavy art.; r, John R. Reade, East- 
hampton, nth Ct.; d s. James Ready, Quogue, 127th; 
r. Michael J. Reardon, Patchogue, 12th; k b, Bull Run. 
Thomas Reason, Sag Harbor, 81st. Charles A. Redfield, 
Bridgehampton, 8ist; k b. Henry J. Redfield, Sag Har- 
bor, 127th. Jehial B. and Edmund P. Reeve, Moriches, 



133d; r. Oliver F. and John W. Reeve, Centreville, 5th 
heavy art.; r. Thomas H. Reeve, Moriches, 145th. 
Thomas E. Reeve, Mattitituck, 127th; r. Miner B. 
Reeve, Riverhead, S7th; d c s. George B. Reeve, Mat- 
tituck, 127th; r. Egbert Reeves, Cold Spring, 102nd; r. 
William H. Reeves. Jacob Reise, Orient, 127th; k b. 
Nine Mile Ordinary, Va. John Reney jr., Sag Harbor, 
8ist; r. William Rhodes, Sayville. Alfred Rhodes, Bay 
Shore, is8th; r. Hugh Rhody, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Hen- 
ry W. Rice, Orient, ist R. I. light art.; r. Albert Rich- 
miller, Huntington, 127th; r. John Rick, Manor, 119th; 
r. John J. Riddell, lieutenant, Greenport, 127th; r. 
John Riggs, Huntington, 176th; r. William Riker, 
Holtsville, sth heavy art.; r. Frederick Ricker, Sag Har- 
bor, 176th. Sidney H. Ritch, Middle Island, 127th; r. 
Henry T. Ritchie, Huntington, 127th; d s, Morris Isl- 
and, Smith W. Robbins, Amityville, 127; w; r. Charles 
Robbins, Cold Spring, 102nd. Edward S. Roberts, Sag 
Harbor, 81st; r. George and Jarvis Robinson, Islip, 
158th; r. Carman Robinson, Bellport, nth cav.; lost an 
arm; r. Robert C. Robinson, Springs, 158th; w; r. 
Eckford J. Robinson, Eastport, 102nd; r. John G. 
Robinson, Westhampton, 127th; w; r. James T. Robin- 
son, Westhampton; 12th; w; r. Edward V. Robinson, 
Moriches; r. George G. Robinson, town of Southampton, 
145th; d s, Washington. Timothy W. Robinson, West- 
hampton; d s. Floyd Robinson, town of Southampton, 
13th cav. Jeremiah J. Robinson, Patchogue, navy. Wil- 
let H. Robinson, Patchogue, navy. Richard E. Robin- 
son, Riverhead, Sth; k b. Henry Rockwell, Patchogue, 
95th; w. Frank Rockwell, Patchogue, 12th; d s, Bedloe's 
Island. William P. Roe, 139th: r. Thomas Roe, Sag 
Harbor, 127th; r. Smith Roe, town of Brookhaven. 
Benjamin F. Rogers, Bridgehampton, 8ist; r. George 
Rogers, town of Brookhaven. James H. Rogers, surgeon, 
Easthampton, i6th Wis. William W. Rogers, Islip, 12th; 
r. ■ Charles A. Rogers, Port Jefferson, navy; r. Israel 
Rogers, Moriches, 65th; r. Patrick Rork, Cold Spring, 
102nd; r. Edwin Rose, colonel, Bridgehampton, 8ist ; 
resigned. Edward Rose, Southampton, 8ist; w; r. 
Frederick H. Rose, Watermill, 127th; r. George T. Rose, 
town of Brookhaven, 92nd. Elbert B. Rose, Brook- 
haven, •145th. David J. Rose, Moriches, 54th. Edward 
Rowland, Southaven; k. Sylvester Rowland, town of 
Brookhaven, navy;r. Gilson Rowland, Patchogue, 13th 
cav. William Rowley, Selden. John Rudd, Good Ground, 
25th battery. George B. Rugg, Bridgehampton, navy; r. 
J. Edwin Ruland, Moriches, 57th; k b, Antietam. Nel- 
son S. Ruland, Selden; d s. New Orleans. William Ru- 
land, Islip, 8th N. J.; k b, Williamsburgh, Va. Manly 
F. Ruland, town of Brookhaven. George W. Rumbles, 
165th; r. Miner B. Russell, Lakeland, 2nd cav.; r. 
Jan^es B. Russell, Sayville, 2nd cav. Bartlett Russell, 
Bayport, 2nd cav.; r. James S. Russell, Setauket, 159th; 
r. Thomas Ryan, Islip, 139th. William Ryder, Bridge- 
hampton, i68th; r. Smith Ryder, Moriches, i4Sth; r. 
William H. Ryder, Sag Harbor, 133d. George Ryerson, 
Huntington, 127th; r. William Rylands, Bridgehamp- 
ton, 81st; r. George Saddington, Central Islip, 20th; r. 
Cornelius Sammis, Huntington, 127th; r. Theodore 
Sammis, Babylon, looth. John A. Sammis, Babylon, 
127th; r. Gilbert Sammis, Northport, 48th; d w. 
Franklin Sammis, Northport, 48th; d s, Hilton Head. 
Cornelius M. Sammis, Centreport, 48th; r. Charles 
Sammis, Northport, 127th; d p, Andersonville. Charles 
A. Sammis, Huntington, 127th; d w. George S. and 
N'elson Sammis, Huntington, 127th; r. Theodore Sands, 
Babylon, sharpshooters; r. Henry H. Sanford, Bridge- 
hampton, 8ist; r. Selah K. Satterley, Cutchogue, 6th 
cav.; r. William R. Satterley, Bay Shore, 158th; w; r. 
Charles Satterley, Bay Shore, 6th cav. William H. 

Satterley, Bay Shore, 66th; r. William Satterley, East 
Marion, cav.; r. Henry C. Saunders, Islip, Spinola's 
brigade; d s. Benjamin F. Saxton, Bay Shore, 2nd cav.; 
r. George S. Saxton, Port Jefferson, loth Ct.; w; r. 
William Wallace Saxton, Port Jefferson, 5th; w; r. 
James S. and Matthew H. Sayre, Watermill, 127th; d s, 
Upton Hill, Va. Christy Schafer, Sag Harbor, 27th; 
George R. Schellenger, "Sag Harbor, 81st; r. Henry 
Schoonmaker, Brookhaven, 2nd cav. Ferdinand and 
Nicholas Schorr, town of Huntington, 127th. Matthias 
Schorr, town of Huntington, i5lh heavy art.; w. John 
Schumacker, Huntington, 127th; r. Titus Scofield, Cold 
Spring, 127th; r. James G. Scott, Miller's Place, art.; r. 
Stephen B. Scudder, Northport, 48th; d s, Belle Isle. 
William S. Scudder, Northport, 48th; d p, Richmond. 
Silas C. Seaman jr., Sayville, 12th; r. Jacob and Wil- 
liam Seaman, Babylon, 127th; r. Uriah Seaman, East- 
port, ist mounted rifles; r. William Searles, Patchogue, 
12th; r. George H. Sears, Sag Harbor, 127th. John 
W. Secor, Northport, 127th; r. Charles Seymour, 
Cutchogue, 47th. C. B. Seymour, Huntington, navy. 
John B. Sharp, Setauket, ist Wis. heavy art.; r. Francis 
J. Shattuck, town of Brookhaven, 12th. John Shaw, 
Upper Aqaebogue, 12th; r. William Sheffield, 
town of Islip, 14th U. S. regulars. Samuel Shep- 
ard. Central Islip, 31st. Thomas Shepard, Islip, 
navy; r. John Sheridan, town of Brookhaven. 
George R. Sherman, Sag Harbor, 7th Ct. David S. 
Sherry, Sag Harbor; r. William H. Sherwood, Sag Har- 
bor, navy; d s. Joseph Sherwood, Sag Harbor. James 
F. Shipman, Sweet Hollow, iS5th; w. William E. Ship- 
man, Greenport, 127th; r. Nicholas and Ferdinand 
Shore, Huntington, 127th; r. David Shotwell, Hunting- 
ton, 127th; r. John Simons, Sag Harbor, 8th Ct.; k b. 
John P. Simons. Smith Silsby, Patchogue. W. W. Sil- 
veira, Sag Harbor, navy; r. James Simpson, Elwood, 
87th. Theodore Skidmore, Riverhead, 127th; r. Henry 
A. Skidmore, Good Ground, 127th; k b. Honey Hill, S. C. 
Albert F. Skidmore, chaplain. East Setauket, 139th; r. 
Barton D. Skinner, Greenport, 127th; r. Joshua Small- 
ing, Babylon, 127th; r. Jonathan Smith, Hauppauge, 
139th; k b. Cold Harbor, Va. Jarvis W.Smith, Islip, 
2nd cav.; r. Daniel Smith, Peconic, 127th; r. Herman 
Smith, lieutenant, Sayville, 159th; d w, rec'd at Winches- 
ter. Egbert T. Smith, Mastic, Delaware regiment; r. 
I. Wallace Smith, Patchogue. r. Lorenzo H. Smith, 
Amityville, 90th; d s at Key West. John H. Smith, 
Baiting Hollow, '2nd cav.; k by accident. David Smith, 
Sweet Hollow, 127th; r. John H. Smith, Stony Brook, 
5th; r. Loi-enzo D. Smith, Sayville, 12th; r. Samuel 
D. Smith, Sayville, navy; r. Joel B. Smith, Babylon, 
127th; w; r. Henry Smith, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. 
William H. and Medad Smith, Babylon, 127th; r. 
Ellis Smith, lieutenant, Patchogue, 12th; r. Charles 
Smith, Blue Point. A. Judson Smith, Greenport. 
127th ; r. John C. Smith, Sag Harbor, 8ist. 
George W. Smith, Sag Harbor, navy; r. Ferdinand 
Smith, Northport, 90th; d s, Key West. Thomas Smith, 
lieutenant, Northport, navy; r. Jacob C. Smith, North- 
port, 127th; r. Charles L. Smith, Huntington, 38th; r. 
Nelson P., John H. and Mordant L. Smith, Hunting- 
ton, 127th ; r. Walter Smith, Huntington, 48th ; r. 
Jesse Smith, Huntington, 48th; kb. James R. Smith, 
town of Brookhaven. Charles A. Smith, Moriches, 139th. 
Robert A. Smith, Port Jefferson, 159th and navy. George 
R. Smith, Brookhaven, 2nd cav.; d p, Andersonville. 
William H. Smith, Easthampton, navy. Thomas M. 
Smith, Westhampton; d s. Montville Smith, Northport, 
navy. Jacob Smith, town of Huntington, 5th art.; k b. 
Snicker's Gap. Theodore Smith, town of Huntington, 
145th. Amos Smith, Islip, navy. William H. Smith, 



Port Jefferson, 12th. Philip Smith (colored), Moriches; 
d s. Nehemiah O. Smith, Patchogue, sgth. Orin Smith, 
town of Brookhaven, sharpshooters. William M. Smith, 
Patchogue, 4th art.; r. George H. Smith, town of 
Brookhaven, 12th; k. by accident, Gaines Mills. Robert 
Smith, Greenport, 6th cav.; r. George Smith, Southold, 
127th; r. John H. Snedicor, Bay Shore, 131st; k b, 
Winchester. Charles Snedicor,town of Babylon, 127th. 
John O. Snooks, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Charles E. Snow, 
Southaven, navy. Elisha Snow, Sag Harbor, 8ist. Theo- 
dore Soper, Elwood, 127th; r. Charles D. Soper, El- 
wood, 9th N. J.; d s, Newbern. Strong Soper, Smith- 
town, 102nd; d p, Andersonville. Ebenezer Soper, 
Smithtown, 102nd; r. Ezra Soper, Babylon, sharpshooters; 
r. Ira T. Soper, Huntington, 127th; r. Matthew 
Southard, Islip, sth;dp. Walter Southard, Islip, T39th ; 
d s, Yorktown. Nelson Southard, Babylon, 6th cav.; d s. 
William Southard, Babylon, 127th; r. Daniel Spencer, 
Sag Harbor, 81st. Hamilton R. Sprague, 127th; r. 
Edward Sprague, 127th; d s. Folly Island. . Frederick 
W. Sprague, Bay Shore, 139th; r. Charles Sprague, town 
of Huntington, 54th; r. George P. Squires, Red Creek, 
127th; r. Edward Squires, Amityville, 20th; r. Leander 
Squires, Amityville; nth art.; r. J. Hampton Squires, 
Watermill, 95th Ohio; r. Henry Squires, lieutenant, 
Southampton, 8ist; r. Edward L. Squires, Good Ground, 
127th. Stephen L. Squires, Sag Harbor, 127th; d s, 
Morris Island. Charles Squires, Sag Harbor. Isaac 
Stanbrough, Sag Harbor; d s. James Stanbrough, 
Sag Harbor, nth New Hampshire; d s. Joseph B. 
Stanton, Sag Harbor, 8isl. Oscar F. Stanton, Sag 
Harbor, navy. William C. Stanton, Sag Harbor. William 
H. Stanley, Southampton, 4th Rhode Island; r. Thomas 
Stearns, Centreport, ist mounted rifles; r. John Steele, 
Amityville, 20th; d s. David H. Steele, colored, town 
of Huntington, 20th. David Stephens, Port Jefferson, 
navy; r. William W. Sterling, Cutchogue, 127th; r. 
Edward Stevens, Quogue, 127th; d s. Henry Still, town 
of Brookhaven. George Stilwell, Huntington, 102nd; r. 
Andrew Stillwell, Huntington, 127th; r. William H: 
Stilwell, Huntington, 102nd; r. Isaac D. Stillwell, town 
of Brookhaven. James Stilwell, Babylon, 2nd cav.; w; r. 
John R. Strickland, Bayport, 2nd cav.; w; r. Arthur J. 
Strong, Islip, 8th U. S. colored; r. Silas P. Strong, Bay 
Shore, 9th N. J.; k b, Drury's Bluff. James M. Strong, 
Bridgehampton, 127th; r. Charles H. and Thomas H. 
Strong, Sag Harbor, navy; r. Jeremiah Sullivan, Shelter 
Island, 127th; r. Patrick Sullivan, Babylon, 117th. Lyman 
W. Sutton, Greenport, 127th; r. Jacob Sutton, town of 
Brookhaven. Henry H. Suydara, Babylon, 127th; r. 
Nathaniel Suydam, town of Huntington, navy; r. Warren 
W. Swezey, Islip, 9th N. J. Richard M. Swezey, Sag 
Harbor, 81st; r. Moses Swezey, town of Brookhaven, 
2nd cav.; d s. Stephen J. Swezey, Huntington. Evi 
Swezey, Patchogue. Joseph Sylve, Sag Harbor, navy; r. 
William Sythes, Sag Harbor, 13th New Hampshire. 
Elbert W. Tabor, Orient, 6th cav.; r. William T. Tabor, 
Orient, 6th cav.; d s. Belle Island. Richard Tainey, 
Northport, 127th; r. Nathaniel M. Talmage, lieutenant. 
Springs, 5th cav.; r. William H. Talmage, Sag Harbor, 
127th; r. Edward C. Taylor, 8ist. George F. Teal, 
town of Brookhaven, 2nd art. Thomas S. Terrell, Islip, 
99th.. Charles S. Terrell, Patchogue, 145th and 107th; r. 
La Fayette Terrell, Atlanticville, 127th; r. Walter 
Terrell, Patchogue, 12th; r. George H. Terry, East 
Moriches, 102nd; r. Brewster Terry, Holtsville, iSgth; r. 
George W. Terry, Moriches, 102nd. Leander Terry, 
Jamesport, 165th; r. Scudder H. Terry, Holtsville, 13th; 
d p, Danville, Va. Columbus F. Terry, Centreville, 5th 
heavy art.; r. James B. Terry, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. 
Charles E. and Benjamin H. Terry, Southold, 127th; r. 

Albert' H. Terry, Riverhead, 127th; r. Parmenas Terry, 
Riverhead, 127th; d w, Beaufort, S. C. James M. Terry, 
town of Brookhaven. George A. Terry, Easthampton, 
112th. Jesse A. Terry, town of Southampton, navy. 
Gideon H. Terry, Moriches, 102nd; k b, Point of Rocks. 
Bryant B. Terry, Patchogue, 48th; r. Sidney Terry, 
Holtsville, 133d. Henry C. Thatford, Sag Harbor, 6th 
Ct.; r. Robert H. Thompson, Orient, 165th; r. Alonzo 
F. Thompson, Brentwood, 84th; d c s. George F. 
Thompson, Islip, 158th; r. Walter Thome, Central 
Islip, 1 16th United States colored. Jacob B. Thur- 
ber, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; r. John R. Thurber, Bay 
Shore, 8th N. J.; k b, Williamsburgh, Va. Daniel 
J. Thurber, Patchogue, 2nd cav.; r. Stephen W., 
John W. and Smith R. Thurber, Islip, navy. Elias H. 
and Benjamin E. Tichenor, Amityville, 127th; r. John 
B. Tichenor, town of Huntington, 61st; w; r. Charles 
S. Tillinghast, Southold, 127th; r. Charles E. TilHng- 
hast, Easthampton, 8ist; d s. Alfred C. Tillotson, 
Babylon, 127th; r. Jacob P. Tillotson, Huntington, 
127th; r. Abraham Tobias (colored), Setauketj 26th. 
Erastus Tooker, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. Floyd 
Tooker, Babylon, 127th; r. M. Howell Topping, Bridge- 
hampton, '100th; r. William O. Topping, Bridgehamp- 
ton, 7th Wis.; killed. Edward Topping, Easthampton, 
8ist; d s. Albert E. Topping, Bridgehampton, navy; r. 
James R. Topping, Bridgehampton, navy. Joshua Town- 
send, Cold Spring, 20th U. S. colored; r. William H. 
Tredwell (colored), Islip, 14th R. I. heavy art. Theo- 
dore Tredwell, Rocky Point. Oliver R. Trembly, Amity- 
ville, 127th; r. Walter Tully, Bridgehampton, nth 
cav.; r. Arthur W. Turbush, Peconic, i27tli; r. Hal- 
sey C. Tuthill, Jamesport, 8th heavy art.; r. George W. 
Tuthill, Jamesport, 127th; r. Luther M. and Daniel 
Y. Tuthill, Orient, i6sth; r. Thomas P. Tuthill, Hunt- 
ington, 127th; r. Erastus W. Tuthill, Cutchogue, 127th; 
d p, Richmond. Orin O. Tuthill, New Suffolk, 170th; 
d p. Belle Isle. Cyrus D. Tuthill, Westhampton; d p, 
Andersonville. Preston Tuttle, Westhampton, nth 
cav.; r. William J. Tuttle, Speonk, 127th; r. George H. 
Tyler, New Suffolk, is8th; r. Oliver E. Vail, captain, 
Peconic, 127th; r. Henry F. Vail, Riverhead, 127th; r. 
Thomas H. Vail, Sag Harbor, 81st; r. William H. 
Vail, town of Brookhaven. Edward Valentine, Cold 
Spring, 127th; r. William H. Valentine, Huntfngton, 
127th and S4th. Oliver Valentine, Huntington, 127th; 
d s. Samuel A. Van Cott, Bay Shore, 2nd cav.; d p, 
Belle Isle. Henry Van Cott, Babylon, 127th; r. Peter 
Van Cowin, Middle Island; r. James A. Van Houton, 
Sag Harbor, 8th Pa.; r. S. Van Nostrand, captain. 
Blue Point, 27th N. J. George Van Stephenburgh, 
town of Brookhaven, 12th; d s. Andrew J. Velsor, 
Centreport, 127th; d w. Daniel S. Velsor, Huntington, 
127th; d s. Jonas A. Velsor, Huntington, 127th; r. 
James E. Verity, Islip, 2nd cav. Anthony Verway, 
Lakeland; 2nd cav. John Vincent, Riverhead, 131st; 
w; r. Jared and Charles B. Wade, Sag Harbor, 81st; r. 
Frederick J. Wadley, Southampton, 6th cav.; r. Alfred 
Wagstaff jr., lieutenant, West Islip, 91st; r. John H. 
Walker, Southampton, 20th U. S. colored; d s, at 
sea. John A. Walker, Babylon, surgeon in navy. 
John Walsh, Cold Spring, 1st; r. William Walsh, River- 
head, 158th; r. Max Walters, Shelter Island, 132nd; r. 
Andrew C. Walters, Amityville, 90th; d s. Key West. 
George S. Walters, lieutenant, Cold Spring, 102nd ; r. 
J. Conklin Walters, Cold Spring, 102nd; k b. Cedar 
Mountain. C. C. Walters, Huntington, 6th Ct. Ephraim 
and Charles M. Walters, Smithtown, 139th. Thomas 
Ward, Riverhead, 39th. George W. Ware, Southampton, 
6th cav.; d s, near Washington. Timothy Warren, 
Watermill, 127th; r. Washington Warren, Northport, 



i2oth; w. Alfred Warner, Sag Harbor, 8ist. John T. 
Warner, Southold, 165th; r. John Wasson, Moriches, 
90th Pa.; r. Edwin A. Waterbury, Huntington, 127th; 
r. Alexander Watts, Bay Shore, 158th; r. Job Webb, 
Sag Harbor, 127th. William Webster, Elwood, 6th cav.; 
r. George A. Weed, Bridgehampton, 127th; r. W. H. 
Weed, town of Huntington, navy; w. George Weeks, Islip, 
navy. George S. Weeks, Sayville, 127th; r. Jesse Weeks, 
Huntington. James Weeks, town of Huntington, 102nd; 
d w. John Weidner.'Bellport, 107th; r. Edward Weidner, 
town of Brookhaven. Thomas Welch, Riverhead; w. 
John Weller, Northport, 3d U. S. art. George B. Wells, 
Peconic, 127th; w; r. William H. Wells, Stony Brook ; 
r. Elisha Wells, Upper Aquebogue, 2nd Ct.; r. George 
C. Wells, Southold, 127th; r. Morgan L. Wells, South- 
ampton, 127th; m. Calvin H. Wells, Greenport, 127th ; 
r. William T. Wells, Port Jefferson, 159th and navy. 
Ellsworth E. Wells, Riverhead, 127th; w. Henry Wells, 
Greenport, 127th. Edward T.Wendling.Yaphank, 2nd cav. 
Michael Wench. Charles Wescott, town of Brookhaven. 
Jacob Wetzel, Orient, 165th; d w. New Orleans. James 
Wheeler, Cold Spring, 102nd; w. E. F. Wheeler, Sag 
Harbor, 8ist; r. Franklin A. Whitbedk, Yaphank, 158th. 
Robert White, Brentwood, 9th N. J.; r. George H. 
White, Sagg, navy; r. Hubert White, Southampton, 
2nd cav. ; r. Charles H. White, Rocky Point; r. William 
White, Manor, 165th; k b. John White, Wading River, 
k b. ^'Jjdrew White, Cold Spring, 8th heavy art.; 
k. Lewis ^L. White, Stony Brook, 26th U. S. colored. 
Edward L. White jr., Riverhead, 127th; w. George 
Whittemore, town of Huntington, navy. Peter Whittle, 
Southampton, 127th; r. George Whitney, Babylon, 
sharpshooters; r. George and Charles Whitney, town 
of Southampton, nth cav. William H. Wick, South- 
ampton, 89th; k b, Antietam. Sidney S. Wicks, 
Patchogue, Spinola's brigade. L. B. Wicks, town ot 
Brookhaven. John E. and Samuel C. Wicks, town of 
Brookhaven. George Wicks, town of Huntington, 127th; 
r. Joseph Keenan Wier, Middle Island; r. George W. 
Wiggins, Babylon, sharpshooters; r. John Wiggins, 
Centreport, 48th; r. Thomas A.Wiggins, Peconic,i27th; 
w; r. William S, Wiggins, Greenport, 12th; r. Joseph 
C. Wiggins, Mattituck, 127th. A. H. Wilbur, Hunting- 
ton, ist engineer corps. Nathan T. Wilcox, Shelter 
Island, ist R. I. cav. Theodore Wilkins, town, of Brook- 
haven. Albert Wilkinson, Southaven, 145th; r. Marion 
Willett, Huntington; w. Samuel V. Willetts, town of 
Brookhaven, 12th. Henry J. Willey. William F". 
Williams, colored, Southampton, 20th; d s. William E. 
Williams, Greenport,i65th; m. John and Henry Williams, 
town of Brookhaven. Evi Williams, Northport, 26th Ct. ; r. 
Julius W. Williams, Northport, 26th Ct.; w; r. Richard 
Williams, town of Huntington, cav.; r. Charles E. Wil- 
liams town of Brookhaven, 1st mounted rifles. Horace 
Williams, Patchogue, navy ; r. Jeremiah Williams, 
Greenport, navy. William N. Williamson, Sag Harbor, 
12th Ct.; d s. Edward J. Williamson, Sag Harbor; d s. 
Frederick B. Williamson, Sag Harbor, 16th Ct.; r. D. 
Halsey Williamson, i6sth; r. George O. Williamson, 
Riverhead, 12th. Charles M. Willis, Sag Harbor, Harri- 
son's light art.; d s. Daniel S. Wilmarth, Amityville, 
127th; r. Alfred D. Wilson, assistant surgeon. Port 
Jefferson, 3d; r. Albert Wilson, Coram, 145th, w; r. 
Hiram H. Wines, Westhampton, 127th; k b, Devoe's 
Landing. George W. Winters, town of Brookhaven, 
navy. George Wood, Babylon, 20th U. S. colored. Ira 
Wood, Cold Spring, iz7th; w; r. Henry H. and Henry 
K. Wood, Peconic, 127th; r. George S. Wood, Cutch- 
ogue, 163d; r. Arnold Wood, Huntington; k b. John 
F. Wood, Huntington, navy. Daniel Wood, Northport, 
r27th. William H. Wood, town of Huntington, 26th U. 

S. colored. Havens W. Wood, Patchogue, 12th; r. John 
M. Wood, Patchogue, 12th; d s, Annapolis. Levi N. 
Woodbury, Holtsville, 35th N.J. Francis Woodbury, 
Holtsville, 47th Mass.; d s. Joseph H. Woodhull, James- 
port, 8th heavy art.; r. Alfred Woodward, captain. Sag 
Harbor, 66th. Eph/aim Woodworth, East Moriches, 130th 
Ind. William H. Worth, Sayville, navy. Sylvester 
Worth, Sayville, navy; r. Sylvester H. Worth, Port Jef- 
ferson, 56th; d s, Hilton Head. Edwin F. Worthington, 
Bridgehampton, navy; d s. Henry M. Worthington, 
Riverhead, 169th. John F. Worthington, Riverhead, 
164th. George W. Worthington, Riverhead, navy. 
Nathan H. Wright, Bridgehampton, loth Ct. ; r. 
Frederick Wright sen. and jr., Islip, 2nd cav.; r. 
Lee Wright, Islip, 2nd cav. Joseph C. Wright, Babylon, 
127th; r. Isaac Wright, Easthampton, navy. Jeremiah 
S. Wright, Easthampton, navy. Julius B. and George 
W. Young, Orient, 6th cav.; r. James H. Young, lieu- 
tenant, Orient, 127th; r. John H.Young, Orient, 127th; 
w; r. John S. Young, Orient, 127th; d c s, at home. 
Joseph C. Young, Cutchogue, 165th. Johnson H. Young. 
Thomas Young, Cutchogue, major, 8th U. S. colored. 
James F. Youngs, Baiting Hollow, 2nd cav.; r. Charles 
and Harrison Youngs, Hauppauge, 139th; r. George 
Youngs, Speonk, isth art.; r. John Elliot Youngs, 
Middle Road, 8th heavy art.; w. John F. Youngs, 
Bridgehampton, 8ist; r. John Yack, Orient, i6sth; 
w; r. 

Under the internal revenue act, which was called 
into existence by the necessities of the war, the assistant 
assessors appointed for the different localities of Suffolk 
county were: Edmund A. Bunce, Huntington; Edwin A. 
Smith, Smithtown; Philander T. Hawkins, Islip; George 
C. Campbell and John Roe sen., Brookhaven; David F. 
Vail, Riverhead; Jonathan W. Huntting, Southold; 
Hiram L. Sherry, Easthampton; Daniel Y. Bellows, 
Southampton. The income tax in Suffolk amounted to 
more than all the other taxes combined. The largest 
ever paid by a single individual was that of Thomas 
Garner sen., of Islip, on an annual income of $150,000. 
The greater part of the taxes imposed by the act have 
for many years been abolished, and with them the offices 
of assessor and assistant assessor. The whole work of 
the internal revenue business in Suffolk has been given 
to one office, that of a deputy collector, which l^from its 
creation to the present time has been filled by Philander 
J. Hawkins, of Islip. The principal revenue is now 
derived from the tax on licenses for selling liquors and 
tobacco, and the manufacture and sale of segars. There 
were in 1880 thirty-seven segar manufactories in opera- 
tion in the county, and the revenue collected on segars 
sold- during the year amounted to $19,542.60. 



UFFOLK COUNTY is bounded on the west 
by Queens county, and is surrounded on all 
other sides by Long Island Sound and the 
Atlantic Ocean. Its area, including all 
meadows, marshes, bays and harbors, is 
1,200 square miles, though only about three- 
fourths of that amount is solid land. The coun- 



ty is 90 miles in length, and at the west end the greatest 
width is 20 miles. 

The surface is elevated and broken along the north 
side, and low and flat along the south side. Through 
the middle from west to east runs a chain of hills, in 
which is found the highest land of the county. One of 
these hills, near the west end of the county, is called 
" Jayne's," or " Oakley's " hill, and has the reputation 
of being the highest point; it rises 354 feet above tide 

Numerous springs of fresh water burst from the hill- 
sides about the shores of the north side, and from the 
low marshes of the south side, where they supply fre- 
quent streams. The largest of these streams furnish 
power for grist-mills, and the smaller ones afford excel- 
lent facilities for the cultivation of trout, to which pur- 
pose a great many of them have been devoted. Some 
parts of the interior abound in fresh water ponds, many 
of which have neither outlet nor inlet. 

The soil of the northern part is a heavy, rich loam. 
That in the southern part is lighter, but affords many 
fertile spots. The Hampton peninsula — by which we 
mean all that part of the island east of Canoe Place — 
though on the south side contains some of the richest 
farming land in the county. The central belt, which is 
traversed by the range of hills spoken of, presents a great 
variety. In it hills of sand and gravel alternate with 
marshes, from which a number of streams course away 
to fall into the neighboring harbors or bays, while 
patches of fertile bottom and beds of clay and peat are 
frequently to be found. 

Fully two thirds of the land area of the county is still 
unimproved. Only a part of this large extent is occu- 
pied by thrifty forest growth, and that portion, owing 
to the frequency of devastating fires, is rapidly becoming 
less. But little of the forest land is profitable to its 
owners, while a large part of what was once occupied by 
healthy timber growth is now practically a waste, covered 
by a sea of worthless scrub-growth from which here and 
there a single tree rears its ragged crown. The business 
of cutting and marketing cordwood, which once employ- 
ed many men, has been almost abandoned on account of 
the degeneration of the forests and the universal intro- 
duction of coal. The bays which break in upon the shore 
on all sides afford rich stores of fish, eels, oysters, clams, 
crabs, scallops "and other species of animal life, besides 
the vegetable matter of different kinds which is gathered 
from the waters for use as fertilizing material upon the 
adjoining farms. Besides the employment which these 
bay fisheries give to thousands, and the mines of wealth 
which the farmers draw from the water, these bays and 
creeks offer a great attraction to sportsmen in the num- 
bers of water-fowl which frequent them. We estimate 
that Suffolk county has a shore line, bordering on salt 
water, counting that on the bays, sound and ocean, of not 
less than six hundred mile's. 

In salubrity of climate the reputation of Suffolk is 
good. The longevity of the people is a subject of fre- 
quent remark. The fact is developed by statistics that 

only 2.3 per cent, of the native white population of New 
York State reach the age of 70 years, but 3.8 per cent, of 
the same class in Suffolk county reach that age. The 
variations of temperature range during the year from go° 
down to zero. These extremes are rarely passed, and 
they are reached on but a few days in any year. 

Within the last decade malarial diseases have become 
more common than they ever were before, though even 
now they can hardly be called prevalent. Ten years ago 
the memory of the often quoted " oldest inhabitant " 
could scarcely recall a case of chills and fever. We may 
almost say that the disease was absolutely unknown here, 
except in isolated cases that had been brought from some 
other part. During latter years it has become common 
in some localities. 

As has been already intimated, the fisheries in the bays 
and adjacent waters furnish employment to a large class 
of people. Modern enterprise has carried these fisheries 
beyond the bays into the sound and ocean. Bass, cod 
and blue-fish are caught in their season. The most com- 
mon fish is the menhaden. Fish of this kind were for- 
merly used mainly as a fertilizer, but within thirty years 
the business of extracting oil from them has sprung up. 
Factories have been established upon the shores for this 
purpose, and fleets of vessels during the season are con- 
stantly cruising the waters, especially about the east end, 
in search of " schools " of these fish. In recent years 
steam vessels have been introduced into this business, 
and the manufacture of oil by improved apparatus on an 
enlarged scale engrosses an immense amount of capital. 
The refuse after the oil has been extracted from the fish 
is a valuable fertilizer, and finds a ready market among 
the farmers. 

Of the bivalve fisheries the oyster furnishes the most 
important. In addition to the natural beds, which abound 
in many of the bays, the producing area has been largely 
increased by cultivation. Within a few years the de- 
mand for exportation to Europe has enhanced the prices 
and given an increased impetus to the business. Clams 
and scallops are taken in most of the bays, and from 
some points they are shipped in considerable quanti- 
ties to New York, New England and other parts of the 

The whale fishery as an important interest began almost 
with the settlement of the first towns. Boats were kept 
in readiness, and whenever a whale was discovered off 
the shore a company of the inhabitants would man them 
and pull off to capture it. This practice was pursued 
with profitable results for a long time. Even to the 
present day the apparatus is kept in readiness upon the 
Hampton shore, but occasions for its use do not occur 
so often as they once did. A few vessels had been fitted 
out to cruise for whales before the Revolutionary war, 
and soon after that time the enterprise developed with 
greater rapidity. The height of its prosperity was 
reached about forty years ago, and was soon followed by 
a rapid decline. During its palmy days nearly every 
maritime village of the county was more or less inter- 
ested in it, but there are now but few persons here en- 



gaged in the business and but very little capital in- 

Ship-building has engaged the attention of most of the 
seaport villages. It has been carried on most exten- 
sively in the villages lying near the sound, some of 
which have been built up and sustained by it more than 
by any other agency. Like the whale fishery it has seen 
its palmy days and seems now on the decline. Foreign 
and coastwise commerce has from an early period en- 
gaged a large part of the inhabitants of this county, as 
sea captains and sailors, and occupied a large share of 
their surplus capital. 

Suffolk is not a manufacturing county, Agriculture 
■and commerce give the people their chief employments. 
A few distilleries were in operation something like a cen- 
tury ago, and woolen factories were more common till a 
later date; but these, with the exception of a single 
■woolen mill, together with all the accessories of the 
home manufacture of cloth, the village hatters and the 
itinerant shoemakers, are numbered with the things of 
the past. Grist-mills, — some run by water, some by 
-wind, and some by steam, — turning, planing and mould- 
ing-mills, and straw-board paper-mills, are the most fre- 
•quent manufacturing establishments at present to be m^et 
with. Manufactories of cotton, rubber, segars, carriages, 
leather, pottery, fertilizers, buttons and vulcanized goods 
have been established. Brick-making has also been quite 
extensively carried on in some parts. Extensive beds of 
•clay are found in the interior and on the north side, 
-where every facility for working, such as sand, water and 
fuel, is at hand. 

The extent of farm land under cultivation in the 
■county is 156,760 acres, and this is divided into about 
four thousand farms. The amount of capital invested 
in agriculture, including farms, implements, stock and 
buildings, exclusive of dwellings, is more than $25,000,- 
•000, and the gross annual sales of produce not consumed 
upon the farm are about four per cent, on that amount. 
Suffolk invests more in fertilizers than any other county 
in the State except Queens. In proportion to the extent 
of improved land this county produces nearly three 
times as much Indian corn as the average product of the 
State, and is only exceeded in this comparison by two 
counties, Wayne and Kings; the rural section of the 
latter being so small it can hardly be considered as a fair 
rival in this respect. While the average yield per acre 
through the State is 32.33 bushels the yield in Suffolk 
county is 35.74 bushels. In the amount of winter wheat 
in proportion to the extent of improved land this county 
produces more than double the average of the State, and 
more than three times that of any other county east of 
Onondaga. It ranks as twelfth among the great wheat 
producing counties of New York, and is the third county 
in the State in the average yield per acre. While the 
average yield in the State is only 16.16 bushels, Suffolk 
produces 19.48 bushels to the acre. In the amount of 
poultry sold it is the fourth county in the State, and in 
the value of eggs sold it stands at the head, its annual 
sales exceeding those of any other county by more than 

$20,000. The cultivation of potatoes, cauliflower and 
strawberries is a specialty on the northern peninsula of 
the east end, wheat on the southern peninsula and in the 
northwest part, cucumbers in the interior at the west end, 
turnips in the northern part, and cranberries, melons and 
garden vegetables through the central portions. 

The following table shows some of the principal facts in 
relation to the agriculture of the county and its products, 
as given by the State census of- 1875: 


Basthampton . . 




Shelter Island . 


Southampton . 

Suffolk County.. 





0) > 


S <^ 




































« <K bo 

fo? a 






The number of apple trees in the orchards of the 
county was found to be 130,406; horses on farms, 8.365; 
horned cattle, 16,114; swine, 20,577; sheep, 10,071. 
The va,lue of poultry sold in 1874 was $65,575; of eggs, 
$118,049. There were 604,482 pounds of butter made, 
and 41,980 tons of hay produced; and of other farming 
staples the following numbers of bushels were harvested: 
Apples, 308,315; corn, 582,690; oats, 280,566; rye, 
53,871; winter wheat, 182,867; potatoes, 405,237. 

Three public roads traverse the county from east to 
west, one on the north side, another on the south side, 
and a third near the middle. These were laid out about 
the year 1733, and in their course they touch nearly 
every village in the county. Before the introduction of 
railroads mail stages were driven through the island upon 
these routes. They are called the " country roads." 

Soon after the completion of the Brooklyn Central and 
Jamaica Railroad, in 1836, the Long Island Railroad was 
continued from the latter point eastward, and after mak- 
ing a terminus at Hicksville for about four years entered 
this county at Farmingdale and reached Suffolk Station, 
near Central Islip, in 184c. Three years later it was com- 
pleted to Greenport, its present terminus, and the first 
train ran over it July 25 th 1844. This road runs 64 miles 
in this county. A branch from Hicksville, having been 
built to Syosset in 1854, was continued into this county 
as far as Northport in 1868. From a point on this line a 
little short of the end it was extended to Port Jefferson 
in 1872, giving this branch a le'ngth of 25 miles in the 
county. The branch from Manorville to Sag Harbor, a 
distance of 35 miles, was constructed in 1869. The 
Sogth Side Railroad, which had been projected in i860 
but delayed by the war, was commenced in May 1866, 
and completed to Babylon inpctober 1867. It was ex- 
tended to Patchogue in 1868, and that point was for 
many years the terminus. In 18^1 it was continued to 
Eastport, where it makes a junction with the Sag Harbor 
branch, covering a distance of 40 miles in this county, 




and making a continuous line along the south side of 
Long Island through almost its entire length. The con- 
tinuation of Stewart's " Central " railroad from Garden 
City eastward runs into this county about five miles, to 
Babylon, where it makes a junction with the South Side 

By the figures we have given it will be seen that Suffolk 
county has 169 miles of railroad line. The distances from 
the western terminus (either Brooklyn or Long Island 
City) to the different junctions and termini in this county 
are: To Babylon 37 miles, to Sag Harbor 100 miles, to 
Greenport 95 miles, to Manor 65 miles, and to Port Jef- 
ferson 58 miles. All these roads have been for several 
years consolidated under one management. The cost 
of constructing the old Long Island road per mile was 
$3T,i9i; the South Side $51,560; the Central (Stewart's 
line), $66,356; the Smithtown and Port Jefferson, $111,- 


At an early period communication by water was es- 
tablished between the settlements located upon conven- 
ient bays and New York, as well as with different points 
of New England. The practice of making regular, trips 
at stated intervals with small vessels commenced simul- 
taneously with the earliest settlement, and was kept up 
until the introduction of steamboats and the pushing 
competition of railroads crowded out the sailing packets. 
Communication by steamboats with New York has been 
established at Sag Harbor, Greenport, Shelter Island. 
Southold, New Suffolk and Cold Spring; also between 
Port Jefferson and Bridgeport, and between the east end 
ports and different points on the Connecticut shore. 

To facilitate the navigation of the adjacent waters the 
government has established twelve light-houses upon the 
shores of this county. These are at Eaton's Neck, Old 
Field, Horton's Point, Plum Island, Little Gull Island, 

North Dumpling (near Fisher's Island), Long Beach 
(near Orient), Gardiner's Island, Cedar Island (near Sag 
Harbor), Montauk, Ponquogue and Fire Island. Life- 
saving stations have been established along the ocean 
shore at intervals of four or five miles. These stations 
are provided with all the practicable appliances for 
reaching and assisting vessels that may be driven upon 
the shore, and rescuing and caring for distressed mari- 
ners. During the half of the year most disastrous to- 
shipping a crew of men is kept on duty at each station, 
patrolling the beach at frequent intervals to look out for 
anything that may need their assistance. Many thousands- 
of dollars'have been appropriated by the State and the 
United States for the improvement of navigable waters 
within the county. Attention in this way has been given 
to Huntington, Port Jefferson, Riverhead, and points in 
the south bays. A project to unite the bays of the south 
side with Peconic Bay at Canoe Place has been agitated 
at different times, and twice received sufficient attention 
to secure an organization and a survey of the field, but 
practically nothing further. These organizations were 
the " Long Island Canal Company,'' of 1828, and the- 
"Long Island Canal and Navigation Company" of 1848. 

Fire insurance companies have been established in the 
county, at Southold in 1836 and at Huntington in 1857. 
A savings bank was established at Southold in 1858, and 
another at Riverhead in 1872. All these have been well 
managed and have met with eminent success. The post- 
offices of th'e county at present number 84. 

The population of the several townships was returned 
by the census of 1880 as follows: Babylon, 4,739; Brook- 
haven, 11,544; Easthampton, 2,515; Huntington, 8,098; 
Islip, 6,490 ; Riverhead, 3,939 ; Shelter Island, 732 ; 
Smithtown, 2,250; Southampton, 6,352; Southold, 7,267; 
total, 53,926. 


By James B. Cooper. 

,HIS town previous to March 13th 1872 con- 
stituted the southern portion of Huntington. 
The second section of the act creating the 
town of Babylon reads: 

" The town of Babylon shall be bounded 
as follows: On the north by a line commencing 
at the boundary line between the towns of Hunt- 
ington and Oyster Bay, one mile north of the line of the 
Long Island Railroad, and running thence easterly and 
parallel with said Long Island Railroad until it reaches 
a point on the boundary line between the towns of 
Huntington and Islip one mile north of the Long Island 
Railroad; on the east by the town of Islip; on the south 
by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by the town of 
Oyster Bay; the eastern and western boundaries being 
the lines now established and recognized as the town 
divisions of the said several towns respectively." 

Territory and Title. 

The territory included within these boundaries was for- 
merly occupied by the Massapequa or Marsapeague tribe 
of Indians. This tribe claimed jurisdiction from the 
present west line of the town of Oyster Bay eastward to 
Sumpawams River, now the eastern boundary of Baby- 
lon and the western boundary of Islip. About the year 
1653 Captain John Underbill, with a considerable body 
of troops, had a severe battle with this tribe at its prin- 
cipal settlement, in the south part of the town of Oyster 
Bay, not far from the present residence of William Floyd- 
Jones. The Indians were completely worsted, and 
their fort demolished. The place has since been called 
Fort Neck. 

Doubtless few if any dwellings or other buildings were 
erected in this portion of Huntington previous to the 
year 1709. The land first purchased on the south side 
was bought by the settlers on the north shore. They 
bought the marshy necks of land on the South Bay, 
which were then and now are covered with an abundant 
growth 0^ salt sedge and black grass. These lands at 
that period appear to have been more highly prized by 
the inhabitants of the town than the uplands. The farm- 
ers were in great need of hay with which to feed their 
domestic animals, and English grasses were but little cul- 
tivated on Long Island until about 1800.' The early 
yeomen spent the greater portion of the fall months in 

cutting, curing and carting the hay from these marshes 
to their north-side homes. Although these lands are still 
used for the same purposes, they are regarded as of less 
value, since farmers have during the present century 
given more attention to the growing of domestic grasses. 
The marsh land portion of the town adjoins the north- 
erly and southerly sides of the Great South Bay — that on 
the north side of the bay being about one mile in width 
from north to south and extending east and west from 
the Islip line to the boundary of Oyster Bay. The tract 
on the south side of the bay adjoins the beach. It ex- 
tends the whole length of the town, but is only about half 
a mile in width. These lands are overflowed by every 
high tide. 

It is rather a sin-gular fact that, although more than 
two centuries have elapsed since the town has been set- 
tled-by the white race, and its western limits are only 
about thirty miles from New York city, more than three 
quarters of the land in the town remains in an unculti- 
yated slate; that portion which is cultivated being on the 
eastern and northwestern parts and along the southern 
or post road. 

With the exception of the sand dunes which border 
the Atlantic Ocean, and a narrow ridge of hills known as 
the Half Way Hollow Hills, the surface of the town is re- 
markably level. 

The center portion, consisting of level plains, up to 
forty years ago was covered with pine forests. Since 
railroads have been operated through these pine lands 
numerous fires have occurred, mostly kindled by sparks 
from locomotives, causing great destruction to the pine 
timber, and there are now only found thick tangled 
scrub oaks and stunted pines. Only a small portion of 
this kind of land is under a good state of cultivation. 
The soil is mostly a sandy loam. The land is easily 
cleared, and is adapted to the growing of grain and root 
crops, and probably in a few years large tracts will be 
cleared and cultivated. 

A number of the original deeds given by Indian chiefs 
for land in this town are among the town records of 
Huntington. One dated June 5th 1657, between Jonas 
Wood of Huntington and " Meantaquit [Montauk] 
sachem," witnesses that Wood, for himself and his 


neighbors of Huntington, " bought five necks of land 
lying next adjoining to Massapaugs sachem's land," 
giving for it " twenty coats, twenty howes, twenty 
hatchets, twenty knives, ten pounds of powder, ten 
pounds of lead, and one great settell, and one hat, pres- 
ent in hand; and doth further promis to give the above 
said sachem every year a coat for six years next ensuing." 

A deed dated July 23d 1657, made between Jonas 
Wood and Wyandanch, " the sachem of Secotaughe," 
conveyed to Wood for himself one half neck of meadow 
lying- " betwixt a river that bounds the necks bought by 
the inhabitance of Huntington eastward and so to trees 
that are marked, beirJg next going to Massapeqs sachem's 
land," " for and in consideration of one new gun and 
one pistol and two pounds of powder." This deed was 
" signed in the presence of John Strickline, John Lion." 

May 1 2th 1659 Wyandanch (who was the sachem of 
Montauk but exercised jurisdiction over all the Indian 
lands on the island) confirmed the sale last mentioned, 
speaking of the land as " that half neck from the 
water along the creek into the highway that headeth 
it." The deed of confirmation was signed, sealed and 
delivered in the presence of David Gardiner, Jeremiah 
Conklin and Lion Gardiner. 

By deed dated August 17th 1658 the same sachem 
" sold to Henry Whitney, of Huntington, for the use of 
the whole town of Huntington, * * * three whole 
necks of meadow land lying on the southward side of 
this town, and westerly by the six necks which were 
bought before;" and sent his '-agent Checanoe to deliver 
upon conditions as foUoweth: first they shall pay or cause 
to be paid to me or my assigns these following goods 
punctually, that is — first, twelve coats, each coat being 
two yards of tucking cloth, Jwenty pounds of powder, 
twenty dutch hatchetls, twenty dutch howes, twenty 
dutch knives, ten shirts, two hundred of muxes [awl 
blades], five pairs of handsome stockens, one good dutch 
hat, and a great fine looking glass; and for Checanoe for 
his wages and going to mark out the land shall have for 
himself one coat, seven pounds of powder, six pounds 
of lead, one dutch hatchet, as also seventeen shillings in 

The seller acknowledged payment in the following 
words: " Received this 23d May 1659 from the inhabi- 
tants of Huntington that satisfaction and payment for 
the meadow I sold last to them, which my man Checke- 
now marked out for them, which joins to that neck that 
belongs to Mr. Stikland and Jonas Wood and so goes 
westward so far as Chakenow hath marked, being pur- 
chased in August last, which was 1658." 

By a deed dated July 12th 1689 " Jeffery, Will Chepie, 
and Whawacem, Secatogue Indians and proprietors of a 
neck of land lying on the south side of this island, com- 
monly called Sautepauge, with the consent of Pamequa 
and Wampas, and the rest of the owners of that neck of 
upland," "for the kindness and great love" they had 
" unto Captain [Epenetus] Piatt, Lieutenant Thomas 
Wicks, Jonathan Rogers sen., Nathaniel Foster and the 
rest of the owners of the meadow land of that neck 

aforesaid," conveyed to them all that "tract or parcel of 
upland aforesaid from the edge of the fresh meadow 
southward unto the Indian path, northward as now it is, 
and from the river eastward that parts Guscomgiraram 
from the said Sautapague unto the river westward that 
parts Sautapague and Naguntepague;" stipulating 
"that the upland aforesaid may be equally divided unto 
every English owner of meadow and upland answerable 
to their proportion of meadow, to the end that the Eng- 
lish and Indians may not be trespassers one to the other, 
but that there may be neighborly love continued between 
English and Indians. * * * Whereas it is said in 
the 17 line the upland to be divided according to the 
proportion of meadow, it was a mistake — the upland is 
to every man alike according to the intent of the In- 

A deed dated July 13th 1689 " witnesseth that Jeffrey, 
the Indian living at Secotauke — that being the name that 
it is commonly called by " — had sold to Robert Kellum 
of Huntington " eight acres of land at Neguntatague, he 
having a right ther^ whensover the Indians see cause to 
sell it. And the said Jeffrey doth engage that the said 
Robert Kellum shall have this eight, acres of upland at 
the south end of the neck above mentioned where the 
said Robert Kellum shall see cause to take it in." This 
was witnessed by Jonathan Harnott and Elizabeth 

November 5th i68g " Wanchas, Pamequa, Chippas, 
Will Cheepye, Wawerweeram, Peetawas, chief heads of 
all ye Sequatauge Indians," gave a deed to Jonas Wood 
sen., Captain Thomas Fleet, Isaac Piatt and Captain 
Piatt, of Huntington, for " a certain neck of meadow 
land lying and being on the south side of this island 
eastermost of all the purchased necks, commonly called 
or known by the name of Sampawams*, bounded on the 
south side with the sound [here meaning the Great 
South Bay], the east with a river or creek, and north with 
the Indian path that now is the west with a river or 
creek. We say all the aforesaid neck of. meadow land, 
both fresh and salt, with its upland within the bounds, 
and wood for sellars, gards and firings above the Indian 
path, unto the said Jonas Wood sen. and others, their 
heirs & assigns, and the use of the town of Huntington, 
for and in consideration of the sum of fower score and 
ten pounds, in silver or goods at silver prices, all in hand 
secured before the selling and delivery hereof." 

This was signed by the above named Indians with 
their " marks." 

November 13th 1689 the Secatogue Indians Pumshau, 
Wamchas, Pamequa, Will Chepie, Coucecukkua and Jef- 
frey sold to Samuel Ketcham of Huntington, for _;^io 
los., "a certain island ot meado>y and the beach called 
by' them Sucrunkas and "bounded on the east by a 
certain crick which runs through the said island which 
we have sold to the said Samuel Ketcham, Nesauaske, 

* Spelled at Vofi present time " Sumpawams," the neck of land being 
the site o( the part of Babylon village situated south of Prospect 
street. The "Indian path" crossed the neck of Sampawams about 
where Prospect street is now located. 


which creek is called by us Pascurucks — all the meadows 
lying westward of Pascurucks of the said Island Scre- 
kunkas.'' " And that there may be no mistake of this 
saile it is to be remembered and noted that the west 
bounds of the said island is to be reconed where the 
fishing houses formerly stood." 

A deed dated March 7th 1691, from " Ould Cheepie, 
Will Cheepy, Massapague Indians," conveyed to Robert 
Kellum, of the town of Huntington, "one island or 
islands of meadow, lying and being on the south side of 
the island, between the south beach and the south mead- 
ows of the town of Huntington, against a parcel of mead- 
ow commonly called or known by the name of Half 
Neck." Through the island of meadow "aforsaid there 
runs a small creek, as two islands, but we accompt it as 
one island." 

September 21st 1691 Wamcos, sagamore of the Se- 
catogue Indians, with otheft of the Secatogues, sold to 
Epenetus Piatt, Richard Brush, Jonas Wood and Thomas 
Brush, with their associates, all of Huntington, "the 
upland of a neck of land lying on the south side of this 
island, called Naqueetatogue. Tlie meadow land of 
that neck belonging to Justice Piatt, Richard Brush, 
Jonas Wood, Thomas Brush and their associates; but all 
the upland from the fresh meadow to the Indian patli 
that now is from Sautepague River on the east side to 
Little Neck River west, with liberty to cut wood or 
timber for gards or sellars on the north side of the 
Indian path, the aforsaid Indians, being the true proprie- 
tors, do alienate and confirm all of the said land above 
mentioned on the south side of the Indian path, and 
what benefit on the north side of the path as is recited." 
By a deed dated November 28th 1693, "in the fifth 
year of our Sovereign Lord and Lady, William and 
Mary," Sowames, an Indian of Marsapeague, conveyed 
to John Wood, of Huntington, "a parcel of land lying 
in the town of Huntington, Copiag Neck, and bounded 
eastward on the land of Samuel Wood, of the aforesaid 
town of Huntington, westward upon Tacaraackacackee 
Crick, southward upon the meadows already purchased, 
northward upon the commons, that is to say, forty rods 
above the nowe Indian path." The deed was acknowl- 
edged before John Wicks, one of their Majesties' justices 
of the peace, July 9th 1696. 

A deed by certain Secatogue sachems to Samuel Wood, 
dated July 2nd 1696, recites that the sachems of Mon- 
tauk and Secatogue in 1657 and 1659 conveyed to 
" Jonas Wood of Halifax, of the town of Huntington, a 
half neck of land and meadow lying at the south side, 
called Copiag Neck, which was bounded northward by 
the head of Copiag River, east by the creek, and west- 
ward by the Marsapeague Sachem's land;" and proceeds 
to confirm the former conveyance. 

Mamome, Sucuctom and WillChopy, Marsapeague In- 
dians, on the 5th of May 1697 sold to John Ketcham 
and Jonas Piatt of. Huntington " a certain neck of land 
lying on the south side of this island, within the bounds 
of Huntington, called by the Indians Scuraway and by 
the English Josiah's Neck, * * * from the south 

meadows, and so running north by the swamp called by 
the English the West Neck Swamp, to the line of the said 
swamp upon the brushy plains; then on a straight line 
upon the brushy plains till it comes against the head of a 
short swamp joining to the south meadows lying between 
his^neck said and a half neck; then to run from the head 
of this half neck swamp on a northeast line northeast 
upon the bushy plains." 

May nth 1697 William Chopie, Cungome, and Mam- 
ome, Marsapeague Indians, deeded to John Ketcham, 
James Chichester and Timothy Conklin, sen., of Hunt- 
ington, for ;^i6 7s. " a certain neck of land lying on the 
south side of this island called West Neck, being the 
westermost neck of Huntington bounds, bounded on the 
east by a river and swamp which parts this said neck 
and a neck called by the Indians Scuraway, by the Eng- 
lish Josiah's Neck, and running northward by the said 
swamp upon the brushy plains to a cart path which 
leadeth from Thomas Powell's house to the Great Neck; 
bounded on the west by a river and a short swamp join- 
ing to this neck, and a neck called by the English Lat- 
ten's Neck, called by the Indians Taukoms, running 
northward to the head of this short swamp on the west 
side upon a straight line north to the aforesaid Thomas 
Powell's cart path, that leadeth from his house to the 
Great Swamp; and bounded by the said path on the 
north from the east side to the west." 

December 2nd 1697 several Secatogue Indians sold to 
Joseph Wood, Thomas Fleet and Nathaniel Foster, of 
Huntington, " a certain neck of land lying on the south 
side of this island within Huntington ' patten,' joining 
to a river that parteth said neck and a neck called Sum- 
paumes; this river is called by the Indians Warask- 
cumuncake [now Carl I's River, upon which the paper- 
mill is situated]. The said neck is called by the Eng- 
lish Eastermost East Neck, or commonly known by the 
name of Captain Fleet's Neck, and by the Indians Arasc- 
cascagge, and is bounded on the west by a swamp that 
parteth the other east neck and this said neck; all this 
said neck from the edge of the meadow to the head of 
the swamp that parteth these two east necks, and to run 
on a straight line east across this said neck to the great 
river that 'parteth this neck and a neck called Sam- 

Certain Marsapeague Indians on the 4th of May 1698 
sold to the town of Huntington: 

" All that parcel or tract of land and beach, the beach 
bounded by the west side of Marsapeague Gut and run- 
ning westward to the patent line, the upland being 
bounded as followeth: On the north by our south bounds 
that were formerly marked out by Suammee, bounded 
on the west by Thomas Powell's line to the head of Mar- 
sapeague east branch, so running eastward to the head 
of Rugua Swamp, and so running eastward to the land 
on the west neck bought of John Ketcham and James 
Chichester of the aforesaid Sewamas, and so running 
eastward by the said John Ketcham's and Jonas Piatt's 
lands, running by their east line till coming within 40 
rods of the Indian path, ori the west side of the Great 
Neck, and running eastward by the land already pur- 
chased on the aforesaid neck, and so stretching eastward 


to the meadow of Copiague; bounded on the south by 
John Wood's land; so stretching northward to the south 
path by the single pine, and so bounds on the east side 
by the south path till it comes to our south bounds laid 
out by Suammee." 

By a deed dated May 13th 1698 the Indians Pameanes 
and Charles Pamequa sold to Epenetus Piatt, Jonas Wood 
and John Brush, in behalf of them and their associates 
of the town of Huntington, "all that neck or part of up- 
land situate and lying on the south side of this island 
commonly called by the English East Neck, by the In- 
dians Causcuncruarau, being bounded as follows: On the 
west with the middle of Sautapogue Swamp, so running 
northward to the head of s„iJ swamp; so running east to 
the north corner of Thomas Fleet's and Joseph Wood's 
lyne; so running southward to their west lyne to the 
meadows already purchased." 

December i6th 1699 the Secatogue Indians within the 
bounds of Huntington sold to that town land " bounded 
by marked- trees between the Indians and the inhabitants 
of Huntington, east according to the bounds set forth on 
the patent of the said town, south by the purchased 
necks and west by the south path that leads to Copiague." 

July 2nd 1700 the town trustees bought of the Seca- 
togues " all that certain tract of land situated on a cer- 
tain neck * * * called Sautapauge, * * * 
bounded north by a straight line running from the head 
of Sautapague Swamp to a great pond at the head of the 
East Neck Swamp; east and west by the main rivers 
called Sautepague and Neguntatague rivers, and south 
by the former purchase." 

April 14th 1702 the town trustees bought "all that cer- 
tain tract of land situated, lying and being on a certain 
neck on the south side of the island of Nassau commonly 
called Sampaumes* * * * bounded on the west side 
by the middle of a river or creek, on the east side by our 
patent line, on the south by our former purchase, on 
the north by the heads of the said swamps."* 

A deed dated May 20th 1702 conveyed from Wam- 
caus, Will Harnot, Chopous, Pompat, Charles Pamescau, 
Mumsuaram, Wanascut, Beames, Joseph Chopous, Wa 
Wharam and Aromskis, Indians of Secatogue, to the 
town of Huntingdon " all that certain tract of land lying 
and bounded northward of a former purchase by the 
cart path that goes down to Sumpaumes, southward by a 
red oak tree, so running westerly to a white oak tree by 
'a pond, so running southwest to a single white oak tree 
upon the plains, to the south path." 

November 17th 1703 Wheamcaues, sachem of Seca- 
togue, Chepous and Nepaunneck deeded to Joseph 
Wood, "living on the East Neck at South, his heirs and 
assigns, a certain piece or tract of land situate, lying and 
being upon the south side of this island Nassau, upon a 
neck called East Neck, bounded on the south by the 
said Joseph Wood's former purchase, on the east by the 
great river, on the north by the head of the branch of 

* This deed conveyed all the land on Sumpawams Creek north of 
Prospect street in the village of Babylon and south of the Long Island 
Bailroad. It is difttcult at the present day to fix the exact northern 
boundary of the tract degcribed. 

said river on the plains near the highway or cart path, 
on the west by said highway or cart path." 

Several Secatogue Indians on the 24th of October 
1705 sold to the town of Huntington all their "right of 
unpurchased land " within the patent bounds of the 
town " except a certain piece of land from the head of 
the Lattens Neck Swamp to the Indian path that goes 
across said neck. All our right of unpurchased land 
within the foresaid patent bounds followeth: On the 
south with this aforementioned piece of land and joining 
to Joseph Wood's line upon the East Neck, and by the 
land already purchased by the trustees of said town of 
Huntington on the north, and by the patent line on the 
east; on the west by a cart path leading from Copiague 
to town." 

October 29th 1705 the Indian proprietors sold to the 
town of Huntington a certain beach lying on the south 
side of the island, boundea on the east by the patent 
line; on the west "by our former purchase .on the west 
side of Massapague Gut "; on the south by the sea, and 
on the north by the Great South Bay. 

By deed dated November 20th 1705 the native pro- 
prietors conveyed to the town of Huntington a tract on 
the south side of the island upon a neck called Nagunta- 
togue; " bounded on the south side by land lying above 
the meadows purchased by the town of Huntington 
aforesaid; bounded on the north by the heads of the 
two swamps and the last land purchased by the town of 
Huntington; bounded on the east by the river that 
parteth this said neck and the little neck; to them as 
tenants in common, without any pretense of joint ten- 
ancy or survivorship; always providing * * * that 
it shall be lawful for the said Indians to hunt on ye said 

A portion of the Bethpage purchase is situated in the 
town of Babylon, but the larger part is in the town of 
Oyster Bay in Queens county. The original deed is 
in the possession of John C. Merrit of Farmingdale, L. 
I., and is dated i8th day of 8th month 1695. It was 
given by Maumo (alias Sowoncams) and William Choppy, 
Soar-ranking and Wamussau, Indian proprietors, to 
Thomas Powell sen. The easterly line of this purchase 
runs very near the house now owned and occupied by 
Phineas Seaman. On the east of the Bethpage purchase 
is the territory included in the Baiting Place purchase 
the eastern boundary of which is the Neguntatogue 
road; and on the east of the Baiting Place purchase is 
situated the Squaw Pit purchase, extending eastward to 
Sumpawams River. 

Revolutionary Characters. 

At the time of the American Revolution but few 
persons had settled in the limits of the present town. 
Colonel Piatt Conklin at that time owned a large and 
valuable farm at Half Way Hollow Hills, and also a 
tract of considerable size at West Neck, now Amityville. 
Thomas Fleet was also considered a large farmer and 
landed proprietor. His farm was upon the south main 
road. During the occupation of the island by the British 


troops Mr. F. was. forced to furnish large quantities of 
hay and grain for the soldiers and horses belonging to 
Colonel Thompson's dragoons (the Queen's Rangers) 
and other corps. Foraging parties frequently came from 
the British quarters at Huntington to procure supplies 
from the farms on the south side. 

Flouring mills and mills for fulling cloth had been 
erected on some of the streams in this town several 
years before this period. 

While it is probable that several residents of what is 
now the town of Babylon served in the American army 
during the war of independence, it is impossible at this 
late day to obtain their names. The town however has 
been honored by having been the home of two w^ll 
known individuals who participated in that eventful con- 

Colonel Abraham Skinnej^ a distinguished lawyer and 
Revolutionary patriot, resided in Babylon from about 
1808 to his death, which occurred here in 1825. He 
was born in New York, June 6th 1753. His family oc- 
cupied a high social position and were related to the 
Van Cortlandts, De Peysters and De Lanceys. At the 
early a^e of 20 he married Miss Catherine Foster of Ja- 
maica. When the Revolutionary struggle began Skinner 
was a young lawyer, engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession in New York city. Although only about 23 
years of age he appears to have been on terms of intimacy 
with and to have won the confidence of General Na- 
thaniel Greene when the latter was in command of the 
continental forces at Brooklyn, just previous to the 
battle there. Thompson in his history of Long Island 
says that Skinner was a zealous and active Whig in the 
Revolution, and was honored with the confidence of 
Washington, by whom he was appointed a deputy com- 
missary of prisoners; and that as a lawyer he was dis- 
tinguished for his talents and eloquence. In the winter 
of 1781 he carried on a correspondence with Mr. Sproat, 
the British commissar^'- of prisoners at New York, re- 
lating to the sad condition of American prisoners con- 
fined in the various ships in New York harbor. In 
Washington's campaign in the Jerseys Skinner held the 
rank of captain, and acted in some capacity requiring 
him to be near the commander in chief. At the close of 
the war he was promoted to the rank of colonel. At the 
bar of Suffolk county he had no superior as an orator. 
In politics he was a staunch Federalist. He was twice 
married, but left no children. His remains are laid in 
the Episcopal church yard at Jamaica. 

Captain Joel Cook, a native of Wallingford, Conn., 
was born October 12th 1760, and died at Babylon, De- 
cember 8th 1851. When the war of independence be- 
gan he was about 16 years of age. He applied for ad- 
mission into one of the companies then being raised in 
Connecticut, but being small of stature, even for his age, 
he was considered unfit for duty. An officer however 
offered to take him as a waiter, and he accepted. A 
year later he enlisted as a private soldier, and continued 
to bear arms until the close of the war, participating in 
most of the important battles of that memorable struggle 

for freedom. On the breaking out of hostilities between 
this country and Great Britain in 1812 Captain Cook 
was residing at New Haven, Conn. He raised a com- 
pany at that place and fought in several severe battles 
with the English and Indians, He was engaged in the 
battle of Tippecanoe, in which the great Indian chief 
Tecumseh was killed; and was present at the inglorious 
surrender of General Hull at Detroit, where he became 
a prisoner of war. After being taken into Canada and 
detained some time he was exchanged and returned to 
the service. In 1814 he was appointed an inspector of 
customs at New Haven. After the war he removed to 
Ohio, and for a time resided at Chilicothe, and in 1818 
was entered on the pension list of the Ohio agency, as a 
private late of the army of the Revolution. In 1824 
his name was transferred to the roll of the New York 
agency. Captain Cook in 1840 resided at Yonkers, 
Westchester county, N. Y., and at the Fourth of July 
celebration held at that place that year he was enter- 
tained at a public dfnner and presented with a gold 
medal. The presentation speech was made by W. W. 
Schrughan, afterward a judge of the supreme court. 
The following are the inscriptions on the medal: 

" Presented to Capt. Joel Cook by the citizens of 
Yonkers, in honor of his patriotic services in defense of 
liberty, July 4 1840." 

" At the battles of Danbury, White Plains, Trenton, 
Stony Point, Springfield atid Tippecanoe." 

Another Revolutionary soldier who lived and died in 
this town was David Smith. He was a native of the old 
town of Huntington (or of^ Southampton), L. I., and 
served nearly the whole period of the war. A part of 
this time, in consequence of ill health, he was engaged in 
making and repairing the clothing of the soldiers. 

While nearly the entire population of this section was 
favorable to the cause of independence there were a few 
who refused to aid in what they termed a rebellion 
against the constituted governtrient. Among this small 
minority was one Arthur Dingee. He owned a large 
tract of land, a part of which is situated in the present 
village of Babylon. The tract lay on both sides of the 
Sumpawams road, and extended from the present Rail- 
road avenue as far north as the nursery of Prince H. 
Foster. Mr. Dingee appears to have been a decided 
tory. He fled to St. Johns, Nova Scotia, in August 
1783. His name however does not appear in Sabine's 
" Sketches of American Loyalists,'' About four months 
previous to his departure he executed to his son.Selah a 
warranty deed for all his real estate before mentioned, 
and also a bill of sale of all his personal property. The 
deed is dated March 31st 1783, and is witnessed by 
Amos Baldwin and Ruth Van Cott. It was proved De- 
cember 5th 1791 before Caleb Smith, judge, and is re- 
corded in the Suffolk county clerk's office, liber C, page 
219. In August 1787 Mr. Dingee's wife and daughter left 
Long Island to join him in Nova Scotia. Those were 
the times which tried the souls of royalists, as the years 
immediately preceding had tried the souls of patriots. 
Doubtless Mr. Dingee, in opposing tht cause of Ameri- 


can independence, acted from a sense of duty, iind had 
the attempted Revolution failed probably he would have 
been rewarded and honored. 

There were others in the town who held the same 
opinions as Mr. Dingee, but he was the only one who 
suffered banishment. Selah Dingee, the son of Arthur, 
died February 26th 1791, and the father returned in the 
following year to his home. About eight years had been 
spent in exile, and probably the feeling' of hostility to 
the loyalists in that time had softened lo such a degree 
that Mr. Dingee could dwell at his old home on terms of 
friendship with his neighbors. The deed above men- 
tioned was doubtless given to prevent a confiscation of 
the property described therein, which afterward became 
the property of Isaac Seaman, who married the daughter 
of Selah Dingee. 

The War of 1812. 

Among the citizens of this town who rendered military 
service to their country during the war of 1812 may be 
mentioned the following: Richard Dingee, captain, at 
Sag Harbor; Silas Tooker, at Sag Harbor and Brooklyn; 
John Tooker, Daniel Sammis, Israel Sammis, Jesse 
Samrais and Jesse Abbott, at Sag Harbor; Jesse Whit- 
man, on the frontier, in the United States army; Silas 
Cooper, in the privateer and naval service. 

The following entered the service as inhabitants of 
other localities, but afterward became residents of this 
town: Alanson Seaman, ensign, served at Brooklyn; 
Lawrence Seaman jr., Thomas Rhodes, Piatt Frost, 
Thomas Hendrickson, John Brower and Peter Brower, 
at Brooklyn; Henry Sands, at Brooklyn and Sag Harbor; 
Henry Ferris, of Greenwich, Conn., drummer boy U. S. 
army; was at the battle of Little York, Canada. 

Edward Dodd was lieutenant of the privateer "Gover- 
nor Tompkins." He was a native of Hartford, Conn., 
but resided in Babylon many years previous to his death 
there, July 17th, 1843. He rendered important service 
and is honorably mentioned in Cooper's Naval History. 
The " Governor Tompkins " was one of the best sailers 
in the privateer service, and did great damage to the 
commerce of (he enemy. She took a valuable prize, and 
Lieutenant Dodd, being placed on board the same as 
prize master, brought the prize into New York, but the 
"Governor Tompkins" was never heard of more. It is 
supposed that in a gale which prevailed soon after the 
capture of the prize vessel the guns of the privateer 
shifted and she went under. 

During this war the south coast of the island was in a 
very exposed condition. British men-of-war daily cruised 
from Sandy Hook to Montauk in sight of the shore, cap- 
turing small coasting vessels and occasionally landing 
and carrying away supplies. The inhabitants upon this 
as well as other parts of the coast were frequently alarm- 
ed by the reports which prevailed of the landing of 
troops from the British ships. On one occasion of this 
kind the militia of this town were called out, but the 
alarm, like many others, proved groundless. ^ nfew 
schooner, owned by Benjamin Rush more and Simon W. 

Cooper and called the " Fair Trader," in charge of 
Capt. Richard Jackson and loaded with a valuable cargo, 
was captured near New Inlet, by a party sent in a barge 
from one of Admiral Cockburn's ships. Some years 
later the " Fair Trader " was seen in the harbor of Hali- 
fax, N. S., where she was owned. 

A horse express at this time was run on the south side 
of the island from New York to Sag Harbor. The sol- 
diers who performed this duty were called videttes. 
Each vidette was directed to ride from one station to 
another, a distance of ten miles, in an hour, and deliver 
his mail to another vidette mounted and waiting. The 
relay house for this service was at Zebulon Ketcham's, 
about half a mile east of Araityville. 

In the month of July 1814 the village of Babylon and 
vicinity were one day thrown into a state of high excite- 
ment by the appearance in Sumpawams Creek of a whale- 
boat loaded with armed men in uniform. It proved to 
be Captain David Porter and ten of his sailors, who had 
survived the hard-fought and sanguinary battle of Valpar- 
aiso. The singular circumstance of their sudden advent 
is worthy of mention. In the latter part of March 1814 
two American naval vessels, the " Essex " and the 
" Essex jr.," under the command of Captain Porter, lay 
in a disabled condition in the neutral port of Valparaiso. 
According to the laws of nations they were safe from 
attack. But in the afternoon of March 28th 1814 the 
American ships were suddenly and unexpectedly fired 
upon by two large and well armed British ships. After 
making a brave resistance for several hours Captain 
Porter was obliged to surrender. Of 225 brave men who 
went into the fight 55 were killed, 66 were wounded and 
31 missing. Only 75 effective men remained. By an 
arrangement with the British Captain Hillyard the " Es- 
sex jr." was made a " cartel," and in this vessel Captain 
Porter and his surviving companions sailed for New 
York. After a voyage of about 73 days they arrived on 
the south coast of Long Island, and on the morning of 
July 5th 1814 fell in with H. B. M. ship " Saturn," Cap- 
tain Nash, who examined the papers of the " Essex jr.," 
treated Captain Porter with great civility, furnished him 
with late newspapers, sent him a basket of fruit and 
made him an offer of kindly services. The boarding officer 
endorsed the papers and permitted the ship to proceed. 
But in a couple of hours afterward the "Essex jr." was 
again brought to, the papers re-examined and the ship 
searched. It was then stated that Captain Hillyard had 
no authority to make the arrangement. Captain Porter, 
regarding this treatment as a violation of all honorable 
rules of warfare, and finding that he was about to be 
made a prisoner, determined to escape from his base 
captor. The next morning about 7 a boat was low- 
ered, manned, armed and provisioned. In this boat 
Captain Porter, with about 10 men, pulled off, but he was 
soon discovered and pursued by the "Saturn," which 
was favored by a fresh breeze that sprung up about the 
same time. Fortunately however for the Americans a 
fog then set in, concealing them, and changing the 
course of their little craft they were soon out of danger 


from their pursuers. After rowing and sailing about 60 
miles, Captain Porter with much difficulty succeeded in 
entering Fire Island Inlet. Here he was found by 
James Montfort, who piloted him up Sumpawams Creek. 
When he stepped from the boat Stephen B. Nich- 
ols told him that he doubted his being an American 
naval officer, and intimated that he might be from the 
other side. "Then, my good friend," said the captain jo- 
cosely, " I will surrender to you; " at the same time hand- 
ing Nichols an iron cutlass. When they reached the center 
of the village, in front of Rushmore's store, which then 
stood where Guilick's drug store is now situated, a large 
and excited crowd gathered. The story of Captain Por- 
ter appeared so extraordinary that few were inclined to 
believe it. Of course nothing had been published re- 
specting a naval battle at Valparaiso, no vessel having 
reached the United States with an account of the same. 
Mr. Rushmore informed Captain Porter that his neigh- 
bors still believed him to be a British officer in disguise. 
Upon this he pulled out his commission, which he 
fortunately had with him. Then all doubts were dis- 
pelled and he was treated by the villagers with the great- 
est hospitality. The best carriage and horses that could 
be had were soon ready and at his disposal. The whale- 
boat was lashed upon a farm wagon and into the boat 
sprang the brave tars. In this manner the party was 
conveyed to the Brooklyn navy yard. Singular as it may 
seem in these days, when news is flashed in a few seconds 
all over the globe, Captain Porter brought the first infor- 
mation of his fight at Valparaiso. 

Captain Nash, finding that the commander of the 
" Essex jr." had escaped, permitted the latter vessel to 
continue her voyage to New York. 

Desertions from British war vessels then cruising along 
this coast were not infrequent. Several of the deserters 
became residents of this locality. One of them, Thomas 
H. Deverell, taught the public school in this village in 
1816, 1817 or 1818. He had been a lieutenant in the 
British navy and had done duty on board the " Endy- 
mion." From this ship he deserted and landed on Mon- 
tauk Point. The story he told was this: One evening, 
in the commandei's cabin, the officers were playing cards 
and drinking wine. A dispute, such as frequently arises 
on such occasions, occurred, and Deverell, losing control 
of his temper, struck his commander. The latter was 
notorious for his vindictiveness and severity. To avoid 
serious punishment, perhaps death, by the advice of his 
fellow officers Deverell determined to escape. By the 
aid of friends he managed to leave the ship in a small 
boat, and landed on Long Island. He married, and 
spent the greater part of his life at Patchogue, and died 
at Port Jefferson about i860. He was a man of educa- 
tion, and his manners and conversation were those of a 
gentleman. Respecting his personal history he was 
usually remarkably reticent. It is said, however, that to 
a very intimate friend not long before his death he stated 
that he was a natural son of a certain duke. His story 
was generally believed, for he was a man not given to 

Another of these runaways, calling himself William 
Ingraham, lived many years in this town. His account 
of his escape was that he was a common sailor on board 
the "Saturn." A number of the sailors, including him- 
self, had often been most cruelly flogged, and had sworn 
to desert at the first favorable opportunity. A safe time 
soon came. A boat was made ready and the men were 
selected for the crew, for the purpose of capturing an 
American vessel loaded with provisions. When the 
vessel appeared a barge was sent in charge of a lieuten- 
ant to take her. It happened that nearly every sailor in 
the barge had been flogged, and naturally meditated re- 
venge. At a convenient distance from the ship, on a 
given signal, the lieutenant was seized and bound. He 
threatened, protested, and begged, but to no purpose. 
The mutineers rowed the boat to Staten Island or the 
New Jersey shore, where there was an encampment of 
United States troops. The sea at the time was quite 
rough, and in coming through the breakers the boat was 
upset and the officer, being bound, was drowned. 

Ingraham always said that none of the party intended 
to cause the officer's death, but that it was impossible to 
save him. The deserters were kindly received by the 
Americans, and Ingraham soon after came to Babylon. 
He was often heard to say that he could never set foot on 
English soil, and for that deprivation he cared little pro- 
vided he could see his old mother before he died; but in 
that particular he was never to be gratified. 

Walter Cochran, an Irishman, also took leg bail from 
the English naval service. He came on shore as waiter 
to an officer, and stood not on the order of his going but 
went at once. 

A native of the town, Oakley Smith, had the mis- 
fortune to be taken prisoner by the British and to be 
confined in the famous prison at • Dartmoor, England. 
He shipped as a sailor on board an American schooner, 
which proved to be engaged in furnishing the enemy 
with provisions. While lying alongside of an English 
ship he was arrested and sent to Dartmoor prison, where 
he was confined about a year. It is supposed that he 
was seized at the request of the master of the American 
craft, who, being engaged in a contraband trade, was 
afraid Smith would give information against him. 


Although shipwrecks on the south coast of Long 
Island have for centuries been of frequent occurrence, 
they are fewer now than formerly, particularly in this 
locality. The erection of light-houses, and the careful 
surveys made and excellent charts published by the 
national government, have proved of great service to 
mariners in enabling them to avoid the dangers of this 

One of the most destructive wrecks occurred within 
the limits of this town in the night of Sunday October 
27th 1822. We copy some newspaper reports. An item 
from the Long Island Star of November 7th 1822 reads 
as follows: 

"In the gale of Sunday night, the 27th ult., a large 


ship came on shore near Babylon, L. I., and went entire- 
ly to pieces, and every soul on board is supposed to have 
perished. Eleven bodies have come on shore. The ship 
is ascertained to have been the " Savannah," Captain 
Coles, from Liverpool to New York. The^cargo of coals 
and crates of goods is mostly lost. Captain Coles we are 
informed left a family residing on Long Island." 

From the Long Island Star (Brooklyn) November 14th 
1822: " The body of Captain Joseph Coles of the ship 
" Savannah," of this port, which was cast away on the 
south side of Long Island on or about the 27th of Octo- 
ber, has been recognized by his family from among the 
eleven bodies that were driven ashore. The remains 
have been carried to Mosquetah Cove [Glen Cove], L. 
I., the captain's late residence." 

Neiv York Daily Advertiser: " The ship had on board 
a large sum of gold and silver money, which was in the 
captain's trunk. This came ashore on a part of the 
wreck, but the action of the waves broke open the trunk 
and the coin was scattered on the beach. In this con- 
dition it was found by a man named Smith Muncy, who 
was first and alone at the wreck at daylight on Monday 
morning. It was a sad sight. The ship had gone to 
pieces, and the dead bodies, together with the debris, 
lay strewn along the strand. Had Mr. Muncy been so 
disposed he could have secreted the treasure and appro- 
priated the whole of it to his own use, for no human eye 
was upon him. But he was an honest man and delivered 
every dollar of the money to the wreck master." 

Tlie " Savannah " was the first ship propelled across 
the Atlantic Ocean by means of steam power. The ex- 
pected event was announced in the London Times of 
May nth 1819 as follows: "Great Expf.ri.ment. — A 
-new steam vessel of 300 tons has been built at New York 
for the express purpose of carrying passengers across the 
Atlantic. She is to come to Liverpool direct." This 
steamer was built at New York city, by F"rancis Fickett, 
for Daniel Dodd. Her engines were made by Stephen 
Vail at Morw'stown, N. J. She was launched on the 22nd 
of August 1818. She could carry only 75 tons of coal 
and 25 cords of wood; was commanded by Captain 
Moses Rogers and navigated by Stephen Rogers, both of 
New London, Conn. She sailed from Savannah, Georgia, 
May 25th 1819, bound for St. Petersburg via Liverpool, 
and reached the latter port on the 20th of June. The 
voyage to Liverpool was made in 26 days, steam being 
used 18 days. For further particulars of tliis remarkable 
voyage the reader is referred to Harper's Monthly Maga- 
zine of February 1877. The "Savannah " was afterward 
commanded by Captain N. Holdredge, when her steam 
machinery was taken out, and she was converted into an 
ordinary sailing vessel; In this condition, while in 
charge of Captain Coles, she was wrecked. 

The brig " Voltaire " and the ship " Sullivan " were 
also wrecked upon this shore. 

The brig " Brilliant," Captain Webber, met the same 
fate. This vessel struck on Cedar Island Beach, in this 
town, and the officers and crew, being in imminent dan- 
ger, were landed in a small boat from the wreck by a 

fisherman named Ezra Sammis. A rather romantic in-- 
cident in connection with this wreck deserves mention: 
Some years after the occurrence above mentioned John 
Webber, a son of the captain, married a daughter of Mr. 
Sammis at his home in Babylon. At the wedding Cap- 
tain Webber, on being introduced to the bride's father, 
remarked that they had met before; but Mr. Sammis 
had no recollection of ever having seen the veteran 
mariner. Captain Webber reminded him of the circum- 
stance of the wreck, and remarked that on that occasion 
he was in such peril and so glad to see his rescuer that it 
was not easy to forget his countenance. The next day 
the captain was shown a small building used as a school- 
house, which he recognized as the former cabin of the 
brig " Brilliant." 

Steam Navigation. 

The Great South Bay is admirably adapted for vessels 
)f light draught. This sheet of water is land-locked and, 
although quite shoal in the greater part of it, has a num- 
ber of channels of sufficient depth to permit the use of 
small sailing craft and steamboats. About the year 
1830 a gentleman from New York brought into the bay 
a tiny steamer, shaped something like a Brooklyn ferry- 
boat, and attempted to use it for pleasure purposes; but 
owing to the weakness of the machinery the boat proved 
a failure. About 20 years later John D. Johnson, of 
Islip, used a steam yacht named the " Bonita." Although 
not of large dimensions she was well built and properly 
equipped. About 1856 D. S. S. Sammis, proprietor of 
the Surf Hotel, Fire Island, chartered this boat and 
began making regular trips between that place and 
Babylon. This was the first successful attempt to es- 
tablish a ferry across the bay. 

Some years later Charles A. Chesebrough, of New 
York city, furnished a handsome steamer belonging to 
him, which for some time carried passengers between 
Islip and Fire Island. 

About 1859 D. S. S. Sammis and Henry Southard 
purchased a steamer called the " Wave," which for one 
season plied between Babylon and the Surf Hotel dock. 
Mr. Southard having disposed of his interest in the 
" Wave," Mr. Sammis obtained from the Legislature an 
act authorizing him to establish and maintain a steam 
ferry between his hotel and Babylon, and in accordance 
with the provisions of that act regular communication 
has since been maintained during the summer months. 

In the Civil War. 

When the war of the late Rebellion began a number 
of the young men of this town were early in the field. 
The first who entered the service enlisted in the corps 
known as " Berdan's shatpshooters," a regiment of rifle- 
men. Erastus Tooker of this regiment lost a finger and 
received a ball in the leg. Henry Smith, John Bailey, 
John Courtney, George Whitney, John Suydara, Ezra 
Soper and Edward Barto, were members of this regi- 
ment, which took part in several of the principal battles 
in Virginia. 


In the Harris light cavalry were Nelson H. Southard 
and Augustus Ketcham. The former was taken prisoner 
and died at Andersonville, Georgia. 

Micah Cooper, Henry and Miles Oakley, John Sam- 
mis, William Brewer, Oliver Carpenter (colored), and 
Jacob Jarvis (colored) entered the naval service from 

In the 56th regiment N. Y. volunteers were Henry Mil- 
ler and George Smalling, the latter of whom was shot and 
taken prisoner, and died. 

In the 127th regiment New York volunteers Com- 
pany I contained the following sergeants from Babylon: 
Harvey Doolittle, ist; Samuel A. Miller, 2nd; Medad 
Smith, 3d; William Southard, 4th; George E. Jayne, 
Sth. Also the following corporals: ist, James Bostwick; 
2nd, Alfred C. Tillottson; 3d, Charles E. Pitts; 6th, 
William H. Smith; 7th, John E. Albin; Sth, Thomas B. 
Ketcham. Wagoner Henry H. Suydara was from Baby- 
lon, as were privates Jeremiah Albin, John E. Arnold, 
George Box, George G. Brown, John Brown, George W. 
Conklin, John Davis, Edward Davis, Emery Frost, Lewis 
Furman, John E. Jarvis, James H. Leek, George F. 
Mott, Jesse Muncy, John Oakley, George Price, William 
Seaman, Jacob Seaman, Joshua Smalling, Joel B. Smith, 
John A. Sammis, Floyd Tooker, Henry Van Cott, George 
S. Weeks and Joseph C. Wright. 

The 127th regiment was commanded by Colonel Wil 
liam Guerney. Only those who were residents of this 
town are given in the above list. Emery Frost, named 
above, had but one arm when he enlisted. He was a 
brave fellow and died in the service. 

Life-Saving Service. 

Upon that part of the south coast of Long Island em- 
braced within the boundaries of this town are located 
two life-saving stations. No 27 is situated nearly south 
of Amityville, and is under the charge of Francis E. 
Weeks; and No. 26, south of Babylon, is in charge of 
keeper Henry Oakley. The men go on duty at the 
station house on the first of September and remain until 
May ist. They are thoroughly drilled in the duties of 
their calling. 

Town Officers. 

The officers of the town have been as follows: 

Supervisors. — Elbert Carll, John E. Ireland, Charles T. 
Duryea, Stephen A. Titus. 

Town Clerks. — J. James Robbins, WoodhuU Skidmore, 
Daniel J. Runyon, Frederick N. Conklin. 

Justices of the Peace. — John D. Capen, William Gauk- 
ler, David Lamed, William Walker, Ferdinand Beschott, 
James B. Cooper, Warren D. Lewis, George W. Conklin. 

The Dominican Convent. 

This building, situated about two miles north of Amity- 
ville, is an imposing structure, costing $256,000. It is built 
of brick and stone, and forms a parallelogram 176 feet 
in front and 183 feet deep. The north portion is the 
church and pastor's apartments. 

The tract of land upon which this edifice stands 
contains about sixty acres, and was in 1876 deeded by 
Adam Schlegel to the orphanage and hospital of Trinity 
Church (R. C), Montrose avenue, Brooklyn, E. D., both 
of those institutions being in charge of the Sisters of St. 
Dominick. The corner stone was laid May Sth 1878, and 
the dedication took place March 3d 1879, with appropri- 
ate ceremonies by Rev. M. May, V. G., of Brooklyn. In 
the Court surrounded by the four sections of this struc- 
ture is a beautiful garden with a fountain. 

The land adjacent to the convent is devoted to the 
growing of produce used by the inmates. On the prem- 
ises are a large barn, a wind-mill for raising water, and 
other buildings. Four horses and a number of cows are 
kept on the farm. 

The Sisters of St. Dominick are a community number- 
ing about two hundred. Many of them become disabled 
or need rest from their labors in the city, and are sent to 
this convent to receive the benefit of the invigorating air 
of the vicinity. A bath house on the shore of the South 
Bay adds to the comfort and health of the occupants of 
the building. The entire number of inmates, including 
priests, sisters, orphans and old people, is about two 

The house is divided as follows: ist. Church of the 
Rosary; 2nd, parsonage and hall; 3d, convent; 4th, 
novitiate; 5th, orphanage; 6th, apartments for the 

The institution is under the charge of Rev. Father P. 


There are now three villages of considerable popula- 
tion in the township — Babylon, Breslau and Amityville, 
neither of which is incorporated. The first named is 
the oldest and largest, and is situated in the southeast 
portion of the town on Sumpawams Neck. 

The name Babylon is said to have first been given to 
this locality by Mrs. Conklin, the mother of Nathaniel 
Conklin, on the occasion of the erection of a dwelling 
house formerly situated on the site of Guilick's drug 
store, at the corner of Main street and Deer Park avenue. 
A tablet was placed in the chimney front of this house 
inscribed as follows: 

" New Babylon. — This house built by Nat. Conklin, 

As early as 1770 a few houses had been erected and 
several farms were under cultivation in this locality; but 
the number was not sufficient to entitle the place to be 
regarded as a hamlet or village, or even to be designated 
by a name. 

Probably the first house erected on the site of the 
village was the Heartte house, built about 1760, It 
stood upon the premises now owned and occupied by 
Mr. Post, on Main street. The Heartte family owned 
large possessions of Sumpawams Neck. At the period 
of the Revolution Nehemiah Heartte was the owner of 



the premises. One of his sons, Philip Heartte, removed 
to Troy, N. Y., and a son of the latter, Jonas C. Heartte, 
was mayor of that city. 

About the beginning of the present century Abraham 
G. Thompson, afterward a distmguished merchant of 
New York city, kept a store upon the site where the brick 
store of Dowden Brothers is now situated. There were 
then a flouring-mill and a saw-mill upon Sumpawams 
Brook, and similar establishments upon the stream where 
the paper-mill now stands. 

Jesse Smith, the grandfather of S. C. Smith, the pres- 
ent proprietor of the Watson House, was the owner and 
keeper of a tavern now known as the American House, 
situated at the corner of Main street and Deer Park 
avenue. Mr. Smith also owned a considerable tract of 
land in this vicinity. He afterward conveyed the prop- 
erty to Nathaniel Conklin, who some years later sold 
the same with other lands to Benjamm Rushmore and 
Simon W. Cooper, and they made a division of the same 
by quit-claim deeds to each other. As the deed from 
Conklin to Rushmore and Cooper affects the title to 
many lots in Babylon village an abstract of it is here 

Warranty Dee-d. Dated 

Nathaniel Conklin, 


Simon W. Cooper and Ben- 
jamin Rushmore. 

May 9 1815. Recorded in 
the county clerk's office of 
> Suffolk county in Liber D 
of deeds, page 423, on the 
28th day of February 1816, 
Charles H. Havens clerk. 

■All those several parcels or tracts of cleared and tim- 
ber land in Huntington aforesaid, on a neck at the south 
side called Sumpawams. 

The first piece situated on the north side of the high- 
way or country road, and the west side of the highway 
leading up said neck, and bounded southerly and east- 
erly by said highways, northerly by land of Edward 
Dodd in part and partly by land of Timothy Carll, and 
westerly by land of said Timothy Carll. 

The second piece, being a triangular one, situated on 
the south side of said highway or country road and the 
west side of the highway leading down said neck, and 
bounded northerly and easterly by said highways and 
westerly by land of Timothy Carll aforesaid. 

The third piece situated on the south side of said high- 
way or country road and the east side of the highway 
which leads down said neck, and bounded northerly and 
westerly by said highways and southerly and easterly by 
land sold by Nathaniel Conklin aforesaid to Thomas 

The fourth piece situated on the north side of said 
country road or highway and the east side of the high- 
way leading up said neck, bounded westerly by the high- 
way last mentioned in part, partly by land of Jordan 
Taylor and partly by land of the heirs of David Smith; 
easterly by land of Nathaniel Conklin in part and partly 
by land sold by said Conklin to Thomas Gould; and 
southerly by land of said Nathaniel Conklin in part, 
partly by land sold by said Conklin to Thomas Gould, 
partly by land reserved for the school-house, the church 
and the burying-ground, and partly by said country road 
or highway. 

Containing in the first piece by estimation 2 acres, 
three-quarters and 22 rods; in the second, i acre, three- 
quarters and 24 rods; in the third, 2 acres; in the fourth, 
69 acres, three-quarters and 37 rods. And in the whole. 

76 acres, one-quarter and 3 square rods, be the same 
TOore or less. 

Acknowledged before Abraham Skinner, master in 
chancery, February 7th 1816. 

There are no educational institutions in the town other 
than the public schools, seven in number, and two private 
day and boarding schools, conducted respectively by 
Miss Gannon and Mrs. James B. Cooper, both of which 
are located in the village of Babylon. 

-Churches of Babylon Village. 

First Presbyterian. — The history of this church ex- 
tends over a period of 150 years. It was first organized 
as " The First Presbyterian Church of Islip and Hunt- 
ington South." In 1859 the title was changed to "The 
Presbyterian Church of Huntington South," in conse- 
quence of the withdrawal of a large number of members 
who resided at Islip and the erection at that place of a 
new edifice. In 1870 the name was changed to the 
"First Presbyterian Church of Babylon, Long Island." 

The first building erected for this church was com- 
pleted about 1730. Its site, as near as can be ascer- 
tained, was in the western part of the town of Islip, 
on the premises of C. Du Bois Wagstaff, about three 
rods east of the walnut tree which marks the southeast 
corner of the land of E. B. Sutton. It was a small and 
plain frame structure, and was only occasionally occu- 
pied, as the neighborhood at that period was not popu- 
lous. In 1778 it was demolished by the British military 
authorities and the greater part of its material taken to 
Hempstead for the purpose of constructing barracks for 
the soldiers then stationed at that place. 

At the close of the war, November 4th 1783, the site 
near which the present church structure stands was 
obtained, and soon afterward a new edifice was com- 
pleted. This building was of wood, two stories high, 
the frame being of the very best large oak timber, most 
of which was hewed. The interior, excepting the pulpit, 
was devoid of paint or ornament. The pulpit was nar- 
row, very high, and painted blue or lead color. A wide 
gallery extended around on every side except the north, 
where was placed the pulpit. When the minister was 
seated he could not be seen by any portion of the con- 
gregation, not even by persons seated in the gallery. 
Only when standing at the sacred desk was he ^visible. 
Those who attended service in those days kept tl^eirfeet 
warm by footstoves. About 1831 a large stove for burn- 
ing wood was first introduced. This solid building 
stood adjoining the highway until it was removed, in 
1839, lo make way for a new church. It is still in good 
condition, and is owned and occupied by D. S. S. Sam- 
mis for his residence. It appears that 84 persons sub- 
scribed for its erection the sum of ;^32 4s. Those who 
contributed ;^ I or more to the building fund were Isaac 
Thompson, Aaron Higbie, Nathaniel Conklin, Phebe 
Conklin, Garrett Montfort, John Moubray, Arthur 
Dingee, Jesse Conklin, Timothy Scudder, Silas Muncy 
and Jesse Weeks. 

The congregation was received into the Presbytery of 


Long Island April nth 1797, and on January ist 1798 
those who wished to be united as a church under the 
care of the presbytery signed a covenant which had been 
drawn up for that purpose. The following names appear 
signed thereto: Isaac Thompson, Jesse Ketcham, Tred- 
well Scudder, Sarah Thompson, Gunning Moubray, 
Thomas Ketcham, Temperance Ketcham, Keziah Scud- 
der, Mary Moubray, Rebecca Sammis, Phebe Ketcham, 
and Jeremiah Sprague. January 20th 1798 Isaac 
Ketcham and Tredwell Scudder were elected elders and 
Jesse Ketcham was elected deacon. The trustees were 
Jesse Ketcham, Tredwell Scudder and Nathaniel Conk- 
lin. On the first Sunday in April of the same year the 
Lord's Supper was for the first time administered in the 
new church. 

Previous to this time — say in the summer of 1796 — an 
effort was made to procure the services of the Rev. 
Luther Gleason as permanent pastor. The sum of ;^79 
js. was contributed by 75 persons for the pastor's sup- 
port. An agreement was entered into with the Presby- 
terian church at Smithtown to call Mr. Gleason totake 
charge of the two congregations, he to preach one half 
of the Sundays in the " meeting-house " at Smithtown 
and the other half in the " meeting-house " at Hunting- 
ton South. In case of public fasts or Thanksgiving days 
the Smithtown congregation was to have the minister's 
services. The salary was fixed at ;i£^i6o per year, and 
Mr. Gleason was to have the use of the parsonage house, 
barn, and lands belonging to the same, situated at 
Smithtown. He entered upon his pastoral duties July 9th 
1797, and continued to discharge the same — traveling 
between the two places — for nine years. He is said to 
have been a man of rather limited education, but a very 
companionable man and a pleasing preacher; and he 
made many warm friends. The fact of his having been 
a chaplain in the Continental army during the Revolu- 
tion doubtless tended to make him popular. He won 
the hearts of his parishioners to such an extent that he 
retained their confidence even after he had been deposed 
from the ministry. On the 20th of March 1804 he was 
convicted by the Presbytery of Long Island on charges 
of " making too free use of intoxicating liquors " and " a 
lightness of deportment unbecoming the sacred profes- 
sion." He confessed his guilt, and was restored to his 
former standing. On June 17th 1806 he was arraigned 
on charges of a more serious nature. A trial was held, 
lasting five days, which created great excitement, and he 
was found guilty and suspended. Still further charges 
being preferred, he refused a trial and left the presby- 
tery. He was finally deposed, October i6th 1807. The 
action of the presbytery was, however, not approved by 
a large portion of the congregation, who petitioned to 
have Mr. Gleason restored to them, and, on being re- 
fused, asked for letters of dismissal. 

Much dissension prevailed until 1812, when Ihe disaf- 
fected were excluded from the communion. That act 
so weakened the church that it was found impossible to 
support a pastor. In April 1818 the unfortunate differ- 
ences were partially reconciled, and on a Sunday of the 

same month the Lord's Supper was administered for the 
first time since July 21st 181 t, but entire harmony was 
not restored until several months later. 

Rev. Samuel Weed began his labors as a missionary in 
1817, and was ordained May 21st 1819, but not installed. 
While attending a meeting of the General Assembly at 
Philadelphia, June 25th 1820, he died. The church at 
this time had only 29 members. For further and full 
particulars relating to the history of this organization the 
reader is referred to an interesting account of the same 
by the Rev. James C. Nightingale, in the South Side 
Signal, July 22nd 1876. 

The following named ministers have since Mr. Weed's 
death filled the position of pastor of the church or min- 
ister in charge: 

Alexander Cummings, 1820-24; Nehemiah Baldwin 
Cook, 1824-32; Jonathan Cable, four months in 
1833; Ebenzer Piatt, 1833-37; HoUis Reed, 1838; 
Alfred Ketcham, 1839-48; Edward Vail, 1848-51; Gay- 
lord L. Moore, 1852-56; Charles W. Cooper, 1857-69; 
James McDougall jr., 1871-73; James C. Nightingale, 
1873-79; Walter B. Floyd, 1881 to the present time. 

The third house of worship was erected in 1838 and 
1839, and the present handsome church edifice and a 
parsonage situated on Deer Park avenue were completed 
in 1873. 

Babylon M. E. Church. — Previous to 1840 the Method- 
ists in this vicinity worshiped in private houses and 
school rooms. In that year a lot of land was pur- 
chased of S. W. Cooper, situated on the east side' of 
Sumpawams road (Deer Park avenue), adjoining the 
premises of S. G. Wilson, and a church building 30 by 
40 feet was erected. This building having become insuf- 
ficient to accommodate the increasing congregation, an- 
other lot, a few rods further north, was purchased and 
presented by William R. Foster. 

In 1859 and i860 a much larger and more ornament- 
al edifice was erected on the newly acquired premises. 

The pastors of this charge since 1840 have been Na- 
than Rice, William E. Bates, Timothy C. Young, Henry 
Hatfield, James D. Bouton, G. A. Graves, Charles 
Stearns, Gershom Pierce; Robert Codling, 1857, 1858; 
H. Asten, 1858-60; S. D. Nickerson, i86r, 1862; L. P. 
Perry, 1862-64; William Gothard, 1864, 1865; 1866, 
supply; A. O. Hammond, 1867-69; J. V. Saunders, 

1769-71; Lavall, 1871, 1872; J. W. Horn, 18.72, 

1873; George Dunbar, 1873-76; E. A. Blake, 1876-79; 
W. H. Russell, 1879, 1880; William P. Estes, 1880-82. 

Trinity Episcopal Church. — In 1862 a Protestant Epis- 
copal church was organized, with the title of. "Trinity 
Church Babylon," but in consequence of the organiza- 
tion, some years later, of Christ Church West Islip, and 
the building by the latter of a beautiful edifice east of 
the village, in the town of Islip, Trinity church has 
practically been merged in the other organization. 

Babylon Baptist Church. — In 1872 the Baptists effected 
a church organization, and in the following year the 
handsome house of worship now standing at the corner 
of Main street and Carll avenue was completed. The 



erection of this building was principally due to the lib- 
erality of E. B. Litchfield and Mrs. Sarah Bertine. The 
pastors have been George LaValley, James S. Ladd and 
John B. L'Hommedieu. 

Si. Joseph's Raman Catholic Church, situated on the 
north side of Grove place, is a handsome and appropriate 
structure of the gothic style of architecture. It was 
erected in 1878. From 1878 to 1880 Rev. Joseph 
Coughlin was the parish priest. He was succeeded by 
Rev. James Blake, the present incumbent. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Sampawams Lodge, No. 104, was instituted July 27th 
1849. The charter members were Jesse Conklin, 
Stephen Leek, Stephen J. Wilson, Henry Southard, Val- 
entine Sprague, Henry Bedell, E. V. Brown, Ebenezer 
Kellum, Charles Pascoe and John Snodgrass, 

The first officers were: Jesse Conklin, N. G.; Stephen 
Leek, V. G.; John Snodgrass,- secretary; Ebenezer Kel- 
lum, treasurer. 

The present officers (1882) are: Henry Baylis, N. G. ; 
Frank S. Weeks, V. G.; Jonathan Sammis, secretary; 
Joel S. Davis, treasurer. 


The American House, before mentioned, is probably the 
oldest hotel on this island, having been in continuous 
use as a place of entertainment for nearly a century. 
The east wing is the part longest erected, and bids fair 
to stand for many years longer. 

Under the roof of this venerable hostelry numbers of 
eminent personages have been sheltered and fed. 
Among the number may be mentioned Joseph Bonaparte, 
ex-king of Spain and the eldest brother of the great 
Napoleon. The ex-king made a tour through Long 
Island in 1816, stopped at this hotel, and in consequence 
of sickness was detained thereat for several days. 
Although free from haughtiness, he traveled in good 
style and with a dife regard for comfort. An Italian 
gentleman was his traveling companion, and in his train 
he had several carriages. The vehicle in which he rode 
was drawn by four splendid horses; another carriage car- 
ried his cooks and other servants, and the third was 
loaded with silverware, wines and cooking utensils. It is 
said that this distinguished tourist at one time contem- 
plated purchasing a farm located about three and a half 
miles east of this village. He subsequently purchased a 
large estate near Bordentown, N. J. 

Commodore David Porter was also a guest. In 1840 
Daniel Webster, on his way to attend a great political 
mass meeting of the Whigs at Patchogue, stopped here 
over night, occupying the apartment now used as the trav- 
elers' room. Cephas Halsey and Major Philip Thomas 
boarded in this house a number of years previous to 
1848. They were both gentlemen of the old school, the 
former having been a successful trader in the West 
Indies, and the latter having served his country in im- 
portant military and civil positions. Major Thomas was 
a native of Maryland, and distinguished himself as an 

officer at the battle of North Point (Baltimore) during 
the war of 1812. 

During the fifty years preceding 1841, in which the 
U. S. mails were carried in stages over the south post 
road, this building was one of the important resting 
places. Here horses were changed, and passengers who 
were going to the city breakfasted and those returning 
took dinner. The owners of this site have been Jesse 
Smith, Nathaniel Conklin, Benjamin Rushmore and 
Simon W. Cooper, Jordan Seaman, E. W. Underbill, 

Selah C. Smith, Clarendon, Schmull and David 

S. S. Sammis; and the place has been kept by Jesse 
Smith, Philo Snedecor, John Bedell, Jordan Seaman, 
Edwin Dodd, J. E. Dodd, Jetse Conklin, C. E. Snedecor, 
William Watson, S. C. Smith, Martin Willetts, William 
Pitman Kellinger, D. S. S. Sammis, and Mrs. P. A. 

Other fiotels have been in operation in the village and 
are now discontinued. About 1814 Thomas Gould had 
a public house near where is now the residence of 
Colonel Post on Main street. Another was kept by Pat- 
rick Gould about 1829 on the site of S. L. Seaman's 
store, at the corner of Main street and Placide avenue. 

This place was afterward under the management of 
Jesse Conklin, Elkanah Jarvis, Ira Kellum, and U. H. 

The Sumpawatns Hotel was opened about 1850, by 
Thomas J. Seaman, and conducted by him until his 
death, in 1856. The house was then kept by his widow 
until 1872. The property, situated on the south side of 
Main street, is now owned by L. H. Fishell, and used for 
various business purposes, containing the post-office, the 
store of the owner, Trave's meat market and Johnson's 
confectionery establishment. 

The Watson House, one of the finest watering place 
hotels in the country, is situated on the east side of Pla- 
cide avenue. It was built in 1870, by S. C. Smith, is 
now under his management, and is frequented by persons 
from every section of the country. 

The Argyle Hotel was erected on the property owned 
and occupied as a country seat at one time by E. B. 
Litchfield of New York and named by him " Blythe- 
bourne." It was purchased by the Long Island Improve- 
ment Company, an association of English and American 
capitalists, in 1881, from L. H. Thayer of New York. In 
February 1882 work was begun toward the erection of a 
mammoth summer hotel. This structure was completed 
in June of the same year, and is a very handsome edifice, 
beautifully located. It has a frontage of 300 feet and a 
depth of 155 on the ends and 60 feet in the center. It is 
built in the Queen Anne style. It has room for 700 
guests and is luxuriously furnished throughout. It was 
opened June 20th 1882. James P. Colt is the manager. 

Trade and Manufactures. 

Of persons who have been engaged in merchandising 
may be named Abraham G. Thompson, Foster Nostrand 
Benjamin Rushmore, Benjamin K. Hobart, Thomas H. 
Smith, Timothy P. Carll, Lawrence Seaman jr., Smith 



Woodhull, Ezra C. Stadge, Silas Tooker, Wm. A. Took- 
er, Samuel C. Wicks, S. S. Bourdette, Alanson Seaman, 
James H. Carll, B. T. Hunt, Thomas J. Seaman, Walter 
W. Robbins, John M. Oakley, Sidney Bruce, Aaron 
Smith, Charles Jayne, Timothy S. Carll, John Robbins, 
Theodore N. Hawkins, Mark Ketcham, Washington T. 
Norton, Sidney L. Seaman, S. J. Wilson, E. J. Moore, 
Leopold H. Fishell, J. James Robbins, Elbert Dean and 
Dowden Brothers. 

Although the place has never been remarkable for its 
manufacturing industries it has not been entirely devoid 
of enterprise in that line. As early as 1801 Nathaniel 
Conklin, at that time the most wealthy, enterprising and 
extensive land owner in the vicinity, established a tan- 
nery; and for several years, with Simon W. Cooper as 
foreman, he conducted a large business. In conse- 
quence of failing health Mr. Conklin sold out to his 
foreman, under whose ownership the tannery remained 
untilhis death, in January 1852. His son George D. 
Cooper then carried on the concern until he died, in 
October i860, when the business was discontinued. 

About 1 810 Major Timothy Carll commenced on the 
stream of water called Blythebourne the manufacture 
of a good quality of woolen goods; and after his death, 
February i8th 1826, his son Selah Smith Carll was pro- 
prietor until his death, in 1829, with Samuel Har- 
graves, an Englishman, well skilled in the business, as 
superintendent. The factory was afterward run by 
several persons in succession, the last being one Park- 
hurst, under whose management the buildings were de- 
stroyed by fire. 

About 1849 Isaac Willetts purchased the property and 
water power and erected new buildings, and for a num- 
ber of years he manufactured straw paper on a large 
scale. The paper business was afterward conducted 
successively by Martin Willetts, Sherman Tweedy, 
George W. Ingalls, S. Harned and Elbert H. Walters. 

The property is now owned and used by the Argyle 
Hotel Company. 


The first post-ofifice within the limits of the town was 
established here in the first years of this century. For 
about 20 years it was known as " Huntington South P. 
O." The name was subsequently changed to Babylon. 
The first postmaster was Major Timothy Carll fmajor to 
distinguish him from others of the same name). His 
successors have been: Simon W. Cooper, 1815-36; Tim- 
othy Piatt Carll, 1836-49; Walter W. Robbins, 1849-53; 
Lawrence Seaman jr., 1853-61; Walter W. Robbins, i86t- 
63 (died in office); John Robbins, 1864-66; Sidney L. 
Seaman, 1866-69; Theodore N. Hawkins, 1869-71; John 
Robbins, 1871-82. 


The first newspaper published in this town was the 
Suffolk Democrat. For about 15 years previous to 1859 
it had been published at Huntington. In that year Hon. 
John R. Reid became its owner and assumed its edito- 

rial and business management, which he retained about 
six years. The first number of the paper printed here 
was issued April 8th 1859. During the editorship of 
Judge Reid the paper attained a large circulation as well 
as influence, and was regarded as the leading Democratic 
journal of the county. For about a year it was published 
by Charles Jayne, when it was removed to Hunt- 
ington and its name changed to Suffolk Bulletin. 

On the 9th of July 1869 Henry Livingston, as editor 
and proprietor, issued the first number of the South Side 
Signal. From that time to the present it has had an 
eminently successful career, and it now has an extensive 
circulation. Its especial attention to local news through 
the. medium of a numerous corps of sub-editors has 
greatly contributed to enlarge its list of subscribers. 

In the spring of 1876 the press, stock and fixtures of 
a newspaper which had been published at Islip were 
purchased by an association, and the first number of the 
Babylon Budget was issued. March 25th 1876. The paper 
has since been under the management of John R. Reid, 
W. S. Overton, Jesse S. Pettit, John Louden, Charles T. 
Duryea, and J. R. Reid the second time. It is now con- 
ducted by S. A. Titus, and is in a prosperous condition. 

While directed by Judge Reid the Budget obtained a 
wide reputation for the terse, vigorous style of its edito- 
rials, as well as for its originality and its able and inde- 
pendent treatment of public questions. 


This village is situated in the southwestern portion of 
the town, near the easterly line of Queens county, and is 
next in size and population to Babylon. Previous to 
1840 it was known as West Neck South. At that date 
the locality could properly be classed as a hamlet, there 
being only a few houses scattered along the old post road 
from Hempstead to Babylon. 

Colonel Piatt Conklin, son of Captain Jacob Conklin, 
was about the middle of the last century the owner of a 
large tract of land in this vicinity, which he probably 
sold about 1770. 

At an early period a grist-mill and saw-mill was erected 
on the stream known as Ireland's Brook. This mill 
property has been owned by three successive generations 
gf the Ireland family. 

One of the first houses built on the south road in this 
immediate locality was erected by Abraham Wanzer. It 
afterward became the property of Thomas Wiggins, who 
conveyed it to Joshua Hart sen., March 21st 1794. The 
premises are now owned and occupied by Joshua Hart 
son of the last named. 

The earliest house of entertainment was that of 
Zebulon Ketcham, which was situated half a mile east of 
the present village. Washington on his tour through 
Long Island while president dined here. An account of 
this journey in "Onderdonk's Annals," states that "Presi- 
dent Washington passed up the south side as far as 
Patchogue; thence crossing over to Smithtown via Coram 
he returned through Oyster Bay, Hempstead Harbor, 



and Flushing. He was attended by his suite of officers 
and rode in a coach drawn by four gray horses, with out- 
riders. He dined at Zebulon Ketcham's, Huntington 
South, and begged the landlord to take no trouble about 
the fare, and on leaving gave a half ' Joe ' and a kiss to 
his daughter." 

At a later period, about 1810, Thomas Ireland, be- 
sides his mill business, kept a public house. 

During the Revolution Joshua Ketcham had a good 
farm down on the neck. He was a thrifty farmer and 
suffered considerably from the depredations of "British 
foraging parties. 

One of the first merchants here was Ebenezer Chiches- 
ter, who had a store in 18 16. He afterward formed a 
partnership with John O. Ireland. The latter in 1824 
was in business on his own account in a store situated 
on the corner of the turnpike and the Farmingdale road. 
Mr. Ireland is now living at Greenport, In 1836 Na- 
thaniel Williams commenced business on the site last 
mentioned, and he continued the same until 1859. The 
present store-keepers in the village are Messrs. Wood- 
hull Skidmore and Purdy. 

The place has two churches, both Methodist Epis- 
copal. The first church edifice was erected on the north 
side of the country road. About 1845 a new building 
was erected on the same site, which remained there un- 
til 1874, when it was removed to the east side of Farm- 
ingdale road and remodeled into a handsome church. 

About the year 1870 a considerable number of this 
congregation, and about 30 members of the church, de- 
siring to have a place of worship nearer their homes, 
erected a building for religious meetings half a mile north 
of the railroad. Services are now held on alternate 
Sundays, the same minister officiating in both churches. 

The population of the territory, properly included in 
the village is about 1,500. The village is situated in the 
midst of a fine section of farming land, and the residences 
in this locality indicate a thrifty population. 

The three hotels of this place, the Douglass House, 
King's Hotel (formerly the Revere House), and the Bay 
View Hotel, are well filled during the summer months. 

In 1867 Charles Wood established a large lumber 
yard near the railroad depot, and he has since continued 
to transact a large business. He is said to be one of the 
most enterprising business men on Long Island. He has 
recently commenced operating a large sawing and plan- 
ing mill. 

'J'he most noted establishment of Amityville is the 
new institution for the treatment of the insane, known 
as the " Long Island Home Hotel." It is owned by an 
incorporated company, organized in 1881. It is a hand- 
some edifice, 250 feet in length, containing a central 
building four stories high, surmounted with a cupola, 
and has wings on each side 75 feet long. Its internal 
arrangements are very complete. The insane are treated 
with kindness, instead of harshness; and in pleasant 
weather are allowed 'to busy themselves about the 
grounds in such out door employment as their taste dic- 
tates. The success of this treatment has been very 

great; the larger number of the patients have been en- 
tirely restored. John Louden is the superintendent. 
The trustees are William Blake, Townsend Cox. A. D. 
Bailey, P. H. Foster, J. Lpuden, D. J. Runyon, D. S. S. 
Sammis, and S. R. Williams. The president is Town- 
send Cox; vice-president, William Blake; treasurer, S. 
R. Williams. 

About four years ago a company was organized here 
for the purpose of planting and growing oysters in the 
waters of the South Bay. The company purchased and 
laid down in waters near the villag'e several hundred 
bushels of seed -oysters, and it is said that the venture 
has proved decidedly profitable. The business bids fair 
to increase to a great extent at no distant day. 


This village'is situated about midway between Babylon 
and Amityville. Its history does not extend back more 
than 13 years. In 1869 the land upon which the village 
now stands was covered with pine trees and an under 
growth of bushes. About that time Charles S. Schleier, 
a German by birth but a resident of this country since 
1849, conceived the idea that Long Island presented ex- 
cellent facilities for the building up of a manufacturing 
and industrial community on the co-operative plan. In 
company with a number of intelligent gentlemen he ex- 
amined the site and became satisfied that it was a suita- 
ble place in which to test the feasibility of his scheme. 
Some of the land was purchased by Mr. Schleier, and 
some by Thomas Wellwood. It was divided -into lots and 
sold to settlers, who were mostly Germans. 

The place grew rapidly and a manufacturing establish- 
ment was put up about 1872. It was a brick building 
three stories high, 120 feet by 40, and was intended for 
a shoe factory. A Massachusetts firm, however, com- 
menced the manufacture of papier mache goods there, 
and probably would have been successful had not the 
long period of business depression prevailed soon after 
the beginning of the enterprise. As it was, the firm 
failed. The building is now occupied as a button manu- 
factory: bone, celluloid, rubber and other materials be- 
ing worked up into buttons. A larj^e number of hands 
are now employed in the work, and the business gives 
indications of success. On the north side of the railway, 
nearly opposite the button manufactory, is a large frame 
building furnished with steam power. In this building 
trimmings of various kinds for ornamenting ladies' dresses 
are made, of worsted, silk, cotton, and linen materials. 

It is not unlikely that ere long other industries will be 
undertaken, the location being so well adapted for manu- 
facturing purposes. 

The present inhabitants are nearly all of German birth, 
and are industrious. Their houses give evidence of thrift 
and comfort. Many of the dwelling houses have been 
enlarged and improved since they were first erected, in 
the early days of the settlement. Every year shows de- 
cided gains in the development and prosperity of the 




The school district which embraces Breslau is number 
4 in the township. The public school is well attended 
and the children are taught the different branches; prin- 
cipally in English, but are also taught to speak the Ger- 
man language grammatically. 

There are three churches, Lutheran, Methodist and 
Roman Catholic. 


John R. Reid 

was born in the town of Brookhaven, Suffolk county, 
N. Y., February 8th 1836. After obtaining a common 
school education, by which he profited to the utmost, he 
commenced teaching in his fifteenth year. Alternately 
teaching and attending school — he having no income 
save that which he earned — he became thoroughly 
versed in Latin and French, familiar with the higher 
mathematics, and well grounded in rhetoric, logic and 
metaphysics, with an earnest love for polite literature. 
As a student he was energetic and ambitious, always 
standing well in all his classes and leading in most. 

In his twentieth year he began the study of law. He 
graduated at the State and National Law School, with 
the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and was admitted to the 
bar on attaining his majority. He immediately entered 
upon the active practice of his profession, having an 
office in New York city as well as at Babylon, where he 

He has also taken an artive part in political matters, 
editing with marked ability two Democratic newspapers 
for several years and being foremost with voice and pen 
in efforts to promote the mental, moral and social well- 
being of the community. As a speaker on literary and 
educational topics, temperance, odd-fellowship and 
masonry he has been earnest, entertaining and instruc- 
tive. He has an excellent command of language, and 
his wit and humor are keen, delicate and scholarly. 
Being both rhetorical and logical he is very effective in 
his appeals as an advocate. As a stump speaker he is 
ready and versatile. In Suffolk county he is regarded 
as the ablest criminal lawyer and advocate at that bar, 
and in the profession generally he holds a prominent po- 
sition. As a jury lawyer he has a recognized eminence. 

As an editor he was noted for his sparkling, incisive 
style; while as a paragraphist he elicited praise from all 
who could appreciate keen wit, delicate humor, and 
polished gatire, united to inexorable logic. During his 
editorship the Babylon^et gained an extended repu- 
tation for its originality, its fearlessness, its fairness and 
its scholarship, and his exit from the editorial chair was 
sincerely regretted. He is a man of convictions, never 
concealing his sentiments oti any 'of the great questions 
of the day; and in party matters he is recognized even 
by his foes as one of .the few politicians who stand by 
their party for principle rather than for pay. 

• Oaly ttiose of Captain Jaool) Conlclin and Heury Ptaeide were writ- 
ten by Mr. Cooper. 

He is a persistent and discriminating reader, and has 
one of the largest and best selected private libraries in 
the State, gathered with the enthusiasm of a book-lover 
and the refined taste of a cultured student — a collection 
of more than 15,000 volumes, in which there are not half 
a dozen books which a scholar would not deem a prize. 

He is fond of music; is an excellent violinist, and 
possesses instruments of rare value. 

He holds a conspicuous place in the masonic fraternity; 
is an active Odd Fellow; is a counsellor- of the Long 
Island Historical Society, and a member of New York's 
famous Lotos Club. 

In 1869 he was elected county judge and surrogate of 
his native county, and conducted the office with accept- 
ance to the bar, while winning respect from all who 
transacted business in the courts over which he pre- 
sided, by his dignity, courtesy, judicial fairness and 
official independence and discrimination. At the end 
of his term he declined a renomination on account of 
the inadequacy of the salary, and returned with renewed 
vigor and increased knowledge to his professional work, 
in which he is now actively engaged. 

Jacob Conklin. 

The oldest house in the town, perhaps in the county, 
is situated near the Huntington line. It was built by 
Captain Jacob Conklin, who was impressed on board of 
Captain -Kidd's ship and served under him on one of his 
voyages. On Kidd's return from his last voyage, and 
while his vessel, the "San Antonio," lay in Cold Spring 
Harbor, Conklin and others, having been sent on shore 
for water, hid themselves and did not return to the ship. 
Doubtless they feared Kidd's arrest and trial, and dread- 
ed lest they might be punished with him. They were for 
some time secreted among the Indians. Conklin pur- 
chased a large tract of land from the natives, of which 
the farm late the property of Colonel James F. Casey is 
part, and upon which the venerable mansion above allud- 
ed to is situated. The house was probably erected about 
17 10, and every part of it bears evidence of its antiquity. 
The high hill behind the dwelling commands a splendid 
though distant view of the ocean and bay. Near by are 
several fine springs of water, one of which is said to be 
of medicinal character. 

Captain Jacob Conklin was born in Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, probably in 1675, ^"d died at his residence in this 
town in 1754. His wife was Hannah Piatt of Hunting- 
ton, by whom he had several children, among them Col- 
onel Piatt Conklin, who was an ardent patriot during the 
Revolution. The latter had only one child, Nathaniel, 
who was sheriff of the county. He was the third owner 
of the premises above described. This property de- 
scended to the grandchildren of Sheriff Conklin, thus 
having been owned by four successive generations of the 
family. It has since been owned by Dr. Bartlett, for- 
merly editor of the Albion, Colonel James Y. Casey, 
and Ulysses S. Grant jr., the present owner. 


From Photograph by lIo^Ardua 


Prince H. Foster. 

Prince Hiller Foster, of Babylon, was born August 
loth 1812, in the town of Pleasant Valley, Dutchess 
county, N. Y. His father, John I. Foster, was born in 
what is now Babylon, when it was a part of Huntington. 
His grandfather was a Hempstead man, living but a 
short time in Huntington, when he returned to Far 
Rockaway, where he died. His grandfather on his mo- 
ther's side was Prince Hiller, of Rhode Island. The 
Hillers were Quakers. His father went to Dutchess 
county when about 21 years old, and settled in that part 
of Pleasant Valley called the "Nine Partners." He 
was a weaver by trade, and left Queens county because 
he heard that the land up the Hudson was so rich it 
needed no manure. This he found to be a mistake. 

The subject of this sketch when a boy spent very lit- 
tle time in school, not more than two years in all. At 
the age of 16 he was bound as an apprentice to learn 
the shoemaker's trade, which poor health obliged him to 
quit after two years. Then he shouldered his axe and 
went out to chop cordwood at from 25 to 31 cents per 
cord. After a rough and tumble experience of a few 
weeks of this work he hired to a farmer December ist 
1831 to work a year for $85, which contract he faithfully 

In 1833 he went to Brooklyn to visit his uncle William 
Foster, and thinking he would try city life engaged as 
clerk in a grocery on the corner of Bridge and High 

streets. He staid there one month and then engaged 
with Thomas McCormick in the same business on the 
corner of Prospect and Gold streets, at $6 per month 
and board. Here he worked eleven months, suffering 
all the time from poor health. He then worked a while 
in a crockery store in New -York at $10 per month and 
board. This was in the cholera season of 1834. 

About this time, although his father had brought him 
up a Democrat, he concluded after much examination 
and thought to quit the party and vote with the Whigs, 
which he did, and afterward with the Native Americans. 

The next spring he leased a store on High street, 
Brooklyn, near Gold, and commenced in a moderate way 
the grocery business for himself. Feeling the need 
of a partner for life he soon after married Adeline, 
daughter of John Prince of Southold, who was a de- 
scendant of old Captain John Prince — one of the settlers 
who came to the town soon after 1640. The year 1836, 
just before the financial reverses that spread over the 
country, was a good time for the retail busines's in Mr. 
Foster's line. The next year his-first child was born, and 
he bought a house and lot, and was fairly prosperous in 
everything except his health, which continued poor. He 
was energetic, and withal a little odd in some of his 
methods of bringing his business to the attention of the 

In 1844 he sold out, and on settling up found his ■ 
ready money was $600. He took a trip to the west, to 
see how that famed country looked, visiting Cleveland, 



Cincinnati, and other places. When he came Ifack the 
Long Island Railroad was built as far as Suffolk Station, 
now called Central Islip. In the fall of 1844 he located 
as a dealer in pork and poultry on James street, Brook- 
lyn, on a site now covered by the suspension bridge. 
Mr. Foster says he was the first man who made a special- 
ty of connecting the poultry and pork trades. His 
health failing he sold his business in 1847, and went to 
Oyster Bay to a water cure, which did him little or no 
good. Then he bought stall 3 in Brooklyn market and 
operated for a short time in pork. In 185 1 he bought 
opposite the City Hall, and fitted up a place for the pro- 
vision trade, which he conducted till burned out in May 
1853, losing a part of his insurance. Then he went into 
the old Military Garden on Fulton street and fitted p 
place for business at a cost of $7,500. In 1856 he bought 
the place in Babylon on which he now lives, doing busi 
ness in the city winters and living on his farm sum- 

After selling his business and having to take it back 
once or twice, he finally in 1864 made a final sale for 
$15,000 and turned his attention to his farm and his 
health. During the next few years he made several ex- 
periments in gardening and tree-raising, but with no def^ 
inite purpose of starting a nursery. These small begin- 
nings proving profitable and interesting he decided about 
1869 to add to his stock and see what could be done. 
That year he sold $256 worth; in 1881 $4,500, and over 
$5,000 in the first half of 1882. People are fast learning 
that plants and trees grown near home are more apt to 
live and flourish than those brought from a distance. 
Mr. Foster's reputation for square dealing and exact rep- 
resentation stands enviably high. 

His health has gadually improved since he left the 
city. He has studied deeply, for a man absorbed in other 
business, into the conditions of health and the causes of 
sickness. Believing that contagious diseases are con- 
tracted in many cases by inhalation of germs frpm the 
air, he invented and has had patented a wire gauze 
mask to wear over the mouth and nose in localities 
where danger exists. His invention has been pronounced 
valuable by investigating men competent to judge. It is 
in the line of the discoveries of Professor Pasteaure, the 
eminent French chemist and savant, whose recent dem- 
onstrations in regard to disease germs have been pro- 
nounced the most wonderful since the times of Jenner, 
and have caused the British Medical Association to pro- 
nounce him the greatest living scientist. 

In politics Mr. Foster is a genuine Republican, active 
and foremost when hard work is to be done. 

In religious matters he is a free thinker, believing that 
religion is a matter of growth, the faith of a people al- 
ways changing and rising with its intellectual develop- 
ment. He thinks the religious dogmas of our forefathers 
no better adapted to our use than their plows, their 
sickles, or their stage coaches. He believes our concep- 
tions of the Almighty will always enlarge with our com- 
prehension, and that the best way to serve Him is to help 
His children. 

Fnmi P1iotogrft|]Ii by ByBardHB. 


John Louden. 

John Louden of Amityville, superintendent of the 
" Long Island Home Hotel," was born in the town 
(now city) of Calais, Maine. His family came from New 
Hampshire, where their record stood high, his grand- 
father serving in the war of 1812, and his great-grand- 
father in the Revolutionary war. When 9 years old he 
left home and lived at the village hotel a year, making 
himself generally useful. He then did farm work till 14 
years old. He next hired to a stock and general produce 
dealer, who also had a grocery store, and staid with him 
five years, at $8 per month for the first year, and an in- 
crease of $2 per month each succeeding year. 

Like so many Long Island lads this Maine boy was 
smitten with a desire to go to sea, and he indulged it, 
sailing first as cook, then before the mast, and later as 
mate. He was offered a ship, but the sailor's life did not 
suit him. 

In 1861 he enlisted in the 12th Maine regiment, and 
did his duty in a patriotic soldierly way till his health 
failed, about a year after, when he was discharged and 
sent to the Massachusetts general hospital, where he lay 
five long months. During this sickness the surgeon told 
him he had every known fever. His strong constitution 
finally threw them all off, but when he left the hospital 
he could barely stand. Home was sought, but a three 



months stay resulted only in a very slow improvement. 
At this juncture he tried a voyage from Maine to Boston. 
It lasted 22 days and ended in a shipwreck, but the in- 
valid was nearly cured by it. 

The first work he did after his army experience was as 
advance agent for " Cooper Brothers' Great Show," in 
which capacity he crossed the ocean and traveled seven 
months in Great Britain, returning to Calais a well man. 
Then he was engaged in the general produce business 
five years. During this time he was a policeman in the 
city of Calais for a short time, and in 1865 was very active 
in the recruiting business. He was also deputy ma^-shal 
and helped capture the St. Albans bank robbers, so no- 
torious at the time. He was afterward appointed a cus- 
tom-house officer of the port of Calais, which position he 
retained one year. 

Not liking the climate of Maine he in 1869 sold out 
in Calais and moved to Brooklyn, where he was engaged 
for six months in the general produce business. This 
did not pay, and Mr. Louden removed to Babylon. There, 
with Yankee aptitude, he went to work as a carpenter, 
and from that to driving a butcher's wagon. He remain- 
ed two years with the firm of Wood & Terry, butchers 
and dealers, as driver and general managing agent. His 
duties took him ail over the country and brought him in 
contact with all classes, who soon knew him as a re- 
markably active, clear-headed, enterprising man. 

This acquaintance with the people resulted in his 
being offered the superintendency of the Suffolk county 
alms-house at Yapliank, which he accepted and held 
six years and two months. He employed the inmates 
so skillfully that he cleared up the county farm and made 
it the finest in that section. His reputation soon spread 
abroad, and he was offered by the charity commisioners 
■ the position of assistant superintendent of the out-door 
poor of the city of New York. He resigned his place at 
Yaphank to accept this position and performed its duties 
eleven months, when he was appointed deputy superin- 
tendent of the work-house on Blackwell's Island, where 
he staid five months. At this time he was appointed gen- 
eral superintendent of Blackwell's Island, and afterward 
general inspector of the institutions of charity and cor- 
rection of the city of New York. This position he held 
when, at his suggestion and by his exertions, the Long 
Island Home Hotel at Amityville was commenced. He 
resigned his post at New York in October 188 1 to enter 
upon active duty as its superintendent. 

But for John Louden this humane institution would 
not have been in existence to-day. It is essentially the 
child of his heart and brain. While superintendent at 
Yaphank he had large experience with insanity in its 
many shades and manifestations, and he proved by actual 
and successful trial that common sense and humanity are 
the qualifications needed in dealing with the insane. He 
took off their straight jackets and treated them kindly, 
and was rewarded by seeing in a great many cases 
reason resuming her throne. It was the burden of his 
thought how to best restore these unfortunates. He was 
so practical and so successful with his theories that his 

fame as' a manager spread far and wide, other managers 
coming long distances to see the working of his system. 

To these experiences and these results the public is 
indebted for the new Amityville home, which Mr. Lou- 
den has been instrumental in creating, with the help of 
large-hearted men of means and brains. It is believed 
that here the mentally disordered can find a real home 
and a host of real friends, through whose aid they may 
be restored to sanity and to their families. 

Mr. Louden has been for many years an earnest work- 
ing Republican in politics. Wherever there has been the 
most to do there he has always been found, active, hon- 
orable and true. 

In 1864 he married Sarah, daughter of Richard Trim- 
ble of Calais, by whom he has had five children, three 
boys and two girls. Four of his children are living, one 
daughter having died. 

Perry Belmont. 

Hon. Perry Belmont, son of August Belmont, was 
born in New York city, December 28th 1851; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1872; was admitted to the bar in 
1876, and has since been engaged in the practice of law. 
In 1881 he was nominated for member of the House of 
Representatives in the XLVJIth Congress by the Demo- 
crats of the first district of New York, consisting of the 
counties of Suffolk, Queens and Richmond; and was 
elected over the Republican candidate, John A. King, by 
a vote of 20,815 '° 18,163. As a young man, in his first 
term of Congressional service, he has taken remarkably 
high rank and attracted unusual attention, especially in 
connection with the foreign relations of the United 
States government. 

Henry Placide. 

Henry Placide, an eminent comediaii, made Babylon 
his residence for about 24 years previous to his death, 
which occurred there in 1872. He was born in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. His grandmother was the cel- 
ebrated actress Mrs. Pownall, and his father, mother, 
brother and sister ranked high in the same profession. 
The last was the wife of William E. Blake, equally dis- 
tinguished in the theatrical vocation. Mr. Placide pos- 
sessed talents of a high order. The particular line in 
which he acquired the greatest reputation was genteel 
comedy. Honest and capable critics have affirmed that 
in some characters he was without a peer. Some years 
ago the venerable Thurlow Weed, whose praise is praise 
indeed, in an able article published in the New York 
Times testified to Mr. Placide's extraordinary profes- 
sional ability. In private life he was kind in his family, 
strictly honest in his dealings and warm and sincere in 
his friendships. In social intercourse with his neighbors 
his deportment was gentlemanly and his conversation 

-^ng ^ 'by AIL FUKU'^^ 



David S. S. Sammis. 

David Sturges Sprague Sammis was born in the town 
of Huntington, near Babylon, in the year 1818. His 
father, Daniel Sammis, was a soldier in the war of 181 2, 
and lived to be 84 years old. His mother is still living, 
in her 90th year. His grandfather served in the Revolu- 
tionary war. The Sammises originally came from Hol- 
lond, four brothers settling on Long Island. 

Up to the age of 17 our subject lived on a farm, and 
learned to handle the shovel and the hoe. In the year 
1835 he went to New York to learn the druggist's busi- 
ness with Edward A. McLean, 208 Greenwich street. 
There he staid two years, but, the peculiar atmosphere 
of a drug store not agreeing with him, he left and en- 
gaged as a clerk with Mackarel & Simpson, stage pro- 
prietors. In the year 1848 he leased of James Rowe, 
father-in-law of the late Dr. James R. Wood of New 
York, the property on the corner of East Broadway and 
Pike street, New York, where he opened a hotel under 
the name of the East Broadway House, which was recog- 
nized as the headquarters for politicians, without regard 
to party. In 1855 he bought an undivided portion of 
Fire Island, which had been used theretofore only as 
a pasture for cattle. The next year he had built a hotel 
with accommodations for 100 guests, on his recent pur- 
chase. Under his skillful and- liberal management the 
place at once became popular, proving a financial suc- 
cess. During the following winter he added 100 feet to 
his building, making everything first-class, to the extent 

of introducing gas throughout the whole hotel. In 1858 
he sold the East Broadway House to the well known 
Nicholas Houseman of New York, since which time 
he has devoted his entire time to his large and constantly 
growing interests in Suffolk county. 

On another page is to be seen a view of this monster 
palatial summer resort, which furnishes the very best 
accommodations for over 500 guests. From its first be- 
ginnings to the present time it has been the child of Mr. 
Sammis's own rearing, conceived in his fertile brain, and 
developed and perfected by his hand and his purse. The 
undertaking has beenevery year more and more success- 
ful, but some losses have attended its history. A $25,000 
steamboat, built to carry his patrons across the Great 
South Bay, was caught in an ice gorge one winter night 
and utterly ruined except her boiler and some of her 
machinery. The next spring, with his accustomed energy, 
Mr. Sammis replaced the wrecked boat with a bet- 
ter one. To further add to the comfort of visitors 
to Fire Island he has built a street railroad from 
the depot in the village of Babylon to the steamboat 

Besides this great watering place enterprise, Mr. Sam- 
mis has large property interests in the village of Babylon, 
where he resides and where he is noted for personal 
worth and public spirit. Mr. Sammis is a representative 
man of the times, wide awake, far-seeing, of excellent 
judgment and perfect integrity, with a large heart and 
a broad, genial nature, that makes a host of friends and 
holds them. 


The town of babylon. 

Charles S. Schleier. 

Few men have the natural or acquired ability of brain 
or purse to become the founders of cities. Grasp of the 
present, penetration of the future, knowledge of men, 
the power of concentrated action, and the means to move 
the machinery of accomplishment, these are the indis- 
pensable qualifications of a great organizer. One man 
whose acts prove the possession of this combination is 
Charles S. Schleier, the founder of the city of Breslau. 

He is a native of the celebrated old city in Germany 
after which he has named the vigorous town he has 
planted in Suffolk county. There he was born, in 1823, 
and there he would have continued a very successful 
mercantile career. But in the revolution of 1848 he es- 
poused so heartily the rights of the many against the 
usurpations of the privileged few as to become obnox- 
ious to the government. In such a land he could not 
enjoy his personal rights, and he came in 1852 to 
America and settled in the city of Brooklyn. There he 
engaged successfully in the paper hanging and wall dec- 
orating line of business. In a few years he became a 
noted man. His business expanded from store to store 
and street to street. 

But his nature was too large and' too active to be con- 
fined within the harness of any one line of occupation. 
He put new life into the people of his nationality in 
Brooklyn. He started the first German weekly in that 
city — the Brooklyn Volksblatt. In 1864 he started the 
Brooklyn Deutsches Wochenblatt, which he has conducted 
ever since as editor and publisher. 

In social matters he displayed the same fertility of 
conception and rapidity of execution that characterized 
the operations by which he obtained his livelihood. In 
1855: — only three years after his arrival — he organized 
the first dramatic social club, known as the " Thalia,'' 
which numbered 165 members, who owned their club 
house. In i860 he started the "Urania" dramatic club, 
in 1868 the "German Dramatic Club," and in 1873 the 
" German-American Association,'' at 500 Atlantic avenue. 
In most of these clubs he was honored with the presi- 
dency, and in all of them he was an active member. 

In politics he was equally interested and energetic, 
organizing in 1862 the German reform party of Brooklyn, 
which controlled nearly 8,000 votes and was known as 
the " German-Ametican Democratic Central Asso- 
ciation." Until 1870 he was either president of the cen- 
tral club or of the executive committee, from the active 
duties of which his Breslau undertaking compelled him 
to retire. The many German processions in honor of 
McClellan, Seymour and Hoffman were planned and 
conducted by him. 

He was foremost in forming many secret and benevo- 
lent orders; the well known order of " Herman's Sons" 
delegated him in 1868 to represent over 100 lodges at 
the great convention in Chicago, where he was elected as 
second grand national president, for a term of two years. 
In business enterprises he has interested himself in 
many a venture. In 1867 he started the " Unger Patent 

Chair Company," of which he was president. He was 
interested in the New York Pier and Warehouse Com- 
pany, and was agent for the (Baltic Lloyd) Stettien 
steamship line. These were a few of the activities of 
the man who planned and in 1869 executed the founding 
of the city of Breslau. 

Through industry, perseverance and economy he had 
accumulated a fortune, which he proceeded to invest in 
this vast undertaking. By the Germans, in whose par- 
ticular interest it was done, the planting of this town 
was thought a most important event, and he permitted 
no occasion to pass unimproved in which its interests 
could be brought prominently before the public. His 
extensive acquaintance, the confidence reposed in him, 
and his general knowledge of mankind, with his individual 
resources, all went to make up the broad vantage ground 
on which this important enterprise rested. After the 
preliminaries were finished, and his plan was duly pro- 
mulgated, people flocked to him to make purchases. In 
a few months nearly a thousand lots were- sold, and a 
building association was formed of over 500 members. 
The corner stone of the first building was laid June 6th 
1870, on which occasion no less than 10,000 people from 
far and near were present. 

The amount of land originally purchased by Mr. 
Schleier was 6,000 acres, which was surveyed and laid 
out in lots of various sizes. The number of lots sold up 
to July 8th 1882 was 25,209. The growth of the city has 
been steady, but not rapid. Like most other undertak- 
kings of great proportions, it has met and overcome un- 
expected obstacles. The number of families on the 
ground as actual settlers is about 600. In 1881 36,000 
letters were received and distributed at the post-office, 
and during the same year there were 52 births. Mr. 
Schleier donates land to all manufacturers who will 
locate their works there. Among the new manufactories 
which have accepted his terms are establishments for 
making canes and umbrellas, dress trimmings, cutlery 
and cigars; and a company has been formed for planting 
mulberry trees here and producing silk cocoons. 

One of the finest beds of clay known exists at North 
Breslau, suitable for the manufacture of brick; and so 
pure is the clay that an expert from Germany pronounces 
t the best he has ever seen for making the finest porce- 
lain ware. "The Breslau Brick Company "has been or- 
ganized, with an office in New York. C. S. Schleier is 
president and D. G. Harriman is secretary. The com- 
pany aims to manufacture all goods of which clay is the 
raw material. 

In 1870 Mr. Schleier built at Breslau, at a cost of 
$2,300, a depot on the South Side Railroad and gave it 
to the company. 

To him clearly belongs the honor of being the first 
man to make a move in the direction of utilizing to any 
considerable extent the uncultivated lands on the south 
side for the benefit of the laboring classes of Brooklyn 
and New York. Although well advanced in years Mr. 
Schleier still retains his full mental and physical activity 
and confidently believes he will live to see Breslau a city 

''"'^r-zr-zr^ y^^=^ 


David, last named, married Elizabeth Hendrickson, of 
Huntington, L. I., by whom he had seven children. Six 
of them are now living. John C. Provost, the eldest son, 
is well known in business circles in Brooklyn and New 
York; Peter C, for many years in the insurance and 
real estate business, is now retired and living in Suffolk 
county; Andrew J., a lawyer, has practiced in his native 
city for the past thirty years; he represented his district 
in the Assembly two terms, refusing a third nomination 
on account of his business, and is now living at his 
country seat at Whitestone, Queens county, L. I., sur- 
rounded by his family and all that taste could desire. 
Hannah M. Lake, the eldest daughter, is still living in 
Brooklyn. Sarah E., wife of James W. Valentine, also 
resides in Brooklyn, her boys all grown to man's estate 
(viz.: David H., a contractor, who has contributed largely 
to the improvements of his native city; Richard L., as- 
sociated with him, and Andrew J., a lawyer). Elizabeth 
married the Rev. Mr. Mansfield, an Episcopal clergyman, 
and is now residing in Massachusetts, the only member 
of the family not a resident of their native State. 

William Y. Provost, the subject of this sketch, is now 
a practicing physician in Babylon, where he located in 
1871. He was educated in a private school in New 
York city taught by Dr. Tyng, an Episcopal clergyman, 
and matriculated at the Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege in 1860-61. He was a private pupil of the late Pro- 
fessor James R. Wood of New York city. He entered 
the service of the Sanitary Commission during the Rebel- 
lion and was busily engaged in relieving the wounded 
in the peninsula campaign. He returned in August 1862; 
was cited before a board of examiners at Albany, and 
was duly commissioned by Governor E. D. Morgan as 
assistant surgeon of the 159th regiment New York vol- 
unteer^. He was mustered into the service and joined 
his regiment at East New York September 6th 1862, un- 
der the command of Colonel E. L. Molineux. In 
December 1862 the regiment joined the Banks expedi- 
tion and started for Baton Rouge, La. Upon arriving 
there it went into garrison, and while there our men were 
fitted for the active campaigns which soon followed, viz.: 
the first upon Port Hudson in the rear to allow Commo- 
dore Farragut to run his boats past that almost impreg- 
nable stronghold, which was in the main successful; the 
attempt to cut off the rebel troops in western Louisiana, 
which failed, although costing the gallant 159th dearly, as 
at Irish Bend they lost 200 men in killed and wounded, one 
field officer killed, and General Molineux wounded, who 
was carried off the field of battle by Dr. Provost; then 
the Red River campaign, which was also disastrous; and 
the siege and capture of Port Hudson. This command 
after sharing the varying fortunes of General Banks was 
ordered north and joined the forces of General Sheridan 
in the Shenandoah Valley, and at Winchester and Cedar 
Creek the men proved to the enemy the stuff of which 
they were made. After the Shenandoah campaign they 
joined General Sherman's army at Savannah, and con- 
tinued to do garrison duty in that city and Augusta until 
the close of the war. 

In 1863 Dr. Provost was promoted surgeon of his regi- 
ment. He was in charge of the hospitals at Baton Rouge, 
Savannah, Thibadaux and Augusta, and served upon the 
staff of Major-General Grover as medical director. After 
the war he returned home and at once began practice in 
New York city. 

In 1868 he married Miss Evelyn Tsilmage, daughter of 
Hon. D. M. Talmage, then minister to Venezuela. They 
immediately sailed for Europe, where Dr. Provost spent 
most of his time in the hospitals of London, Dublin and 
Paris. He returned the following fall, and from that 
time to the present has identified himself with Long 
Island. He is health officer of his town and member of 
the board of education. 

Three children were the issue of his marriage — Wil- 
liam W., Frederick T., and Florence M. Provost. 

In all branches of his profession Dr. Provost is an 
acknowledged authority. He realizes that no other pro- 
fession is as rich in recent developments of important 
discoveries, with all of which he keeps fully abreast. 
The selection of Babylon as his permanent home was a 
recognition of its prominent position among the villages 
of Long Island. The choice of this village for summer 
or permanent residence by so many families of wealth 
and taste renders it a peculiarly fitting field for a physi- 
cian to whose extensive city experience have been added 
large army and hospital practice in medicine and surgery, 
and extended foreign travel for special professional re- 

Phoenix Remsen. 

This family, whose original cognomen was Van der 
Beeck, dates back to a remote period in Germany and 
the Netherlands. The arms borne by it were grant- 
ed in 1 162 by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. 
They indicate reputation in the knight service, etc., and 
the waved lines across the shield represent a brook, and 
denote the origin of the family name — the words Van 
der Beeck signifying of the brook. 

No other family has given as many merchants to the 
city of New York. There were three Henry Remsens 
in New York city who were eminent as merchants. 

The first Henry (or Hendrick) was born in 1708. His 
father was Rem Remsen, born in 1685. His grave was 
in 1852 to be seen in the ancient grave yard in Fulton 
street, Brooklyn. He was a son of Rem who was a son 
of the first Rem, whose real name was Rem Jansen Van 
der Beeck. His son was called Rem's son Rem, and 
finally became Rem Remsen. The first Rem Jansen 
Van der Beeck came out from Holland in 1642. He 
went to Albany to reside, but came back and settled in 

His descendant Henry (or Hendrick) Remsen, who 
was born in 1708, made a great deal of money in New 
York. Hedied July 7th 1771, aged 63. His wife Cata- 
lina died in 1784, aged 81. 

His son Henry was born April 5th 1736. He married 



Cornelia Dickerson December 28th 1761. He was a 
merchant of eminence in New York; and in 1768 Henry 
Remsen jr. & Co. did a very large business. He was 
the son of the Henry who died in 1771. His store 
was in Hanover square; but at that time no part of New 
York was numbered. This house did a very heavy im- 
porting business. 

Henry Rutgers Remsen was the first child of Henry 
Remsen of New York (first child of Hendrick Remsen of 
Brooklyn, the latter being the third child of a former 
Hendrick Remsen of Brooklyn, who was the second 
child of Rem Remsen of Brooklyn, second child of Rem 
Remsen Van der Beeck of Wallabout, third child of 
Rem Jansen Van der Beeck of Wallabout). He was born 
in New York, May 31st 1809, and died there April 4th 
1874. He was a lawyer. He was married in Morris- 
town, N. J., October 21st 1834, to Elizabeth, daughter of 
Waldron Phoenix, of that place. 

Phoenix Remsen, sixth child of Henry Rutgers Rem- 
sen, was born in New York, January 7th 1846, and re- 
moved to Islip, where he now resides, in 1882. He was 
married in New York, January i8th 1870, to Sarah 
Louisa, daughter of Dr. Alfred Wagstaff, of New York. 
He is a lawyer, as was his father. 

Of all the Knickerbocker families of New York none 
were more worthily conspicuous than the Remsens. 
Henry Remsen was as distinguished in banking as Peter 
Remsen was as a merchant. He was at one time private 
secretary to Thomas Jefferson, president of the United 
States, and it was proverbial in after years, when Remsen 
was president of the Manhattan Bank, that he was ex- 
ceedingly polite and scrupulously honest. 

All the old people may remember the immense double 
house of brick which Mr. Remsen erected and occupied 
to the last, on Clinton street at the corner of Cherry, 
New York, within one hundred feet of his relative 
Colonel Rutgers's private grounds, at that time quite out 
of town. 

James B. Cooper. 

The above named gentleman is one of the native citi- 
zens of this town. He was born here on December ist 
1825. His father, Simon W. Cooper, was born at South- 
ampton, L.. I., and came here to reside about 1804, and 
for many years conducted the tanning business on quite 
an extensive scale. The mother of James B. Cooper 
was Miss Grace Dibble, of Stamford, Conn. Mr. Cooper 
is a descendant of John Cooper, who was one of the 
first settlers of the town of Southampton. He was a 
native of Olney, Buckinghamshire, England. Being a 
staunch Puritan, he, with many others, in 1635 left 
England. He came in the ship " Hopewell," bringing 
with him his wife and four children, and took up his res- 
idence at Lynn, Mass. In 1640 he removed to South- 
ampton, L. L Howell, in his history of that town, says: 
" It would seem from records concerning Mr. Cooper 
that he was a man of bold and determined spirit, as fully 

exemplified in the stern warning given by him to the 
agents of the Dutch government not to bring their flag 
within gunshot of Southampton or to attempt to compel 
the inhabitants of that town to swear allegiance to. the 
Dutch government." The same peculiar trait appears to 
have characterized most of his progeny. The family 
pedigree is easily traced, and is as follows, viz.: 

I, John Cooper, of Olney, England; 2, Thomas 
Cooper, born in Olney, England; 3, Thomas Cooper, 
born at Southampton, L, I.; 4, David Cooper, born at 
Southampton, L. I.; 5. Silas Cooper, born at Southamp- 
ton, L. I.; 6, Simon W. Cooper, born at Babylon, L. I.; 
7, James B. Cooper, born at Babylon, L. I. 

The latter has held a number of important public 
ofifices, having been one of the trustees of the town of 
Huntington and county clerk of Suffolk county in the 
years 1853, '^54 ^^^ '^SS- During the years 1861, '62, 
'63, '64, '65 and '66 he was an inspector of customs at 
the port of New York. He was removed from the cus- 
toms service — his political opinions not being in accord- 
ance with the Johnson administration. Mr. Cooper 
then purchased the H&mpstead Inquirer., a newspaper 
located at Hempstead, L. I. This journal he conducted 
with considerable ability. The editorials, though some- 
what lacking in polish, showed sound reasoning and a 
vigorous and original manner of expression. This news- 
paper enterprise not proving remunerative, Mr. Cooper 
sold out his interest in the paper, and was soon after- 
ward appointed assistant assessor of internal revenue. 
This position he held for four years, or until after his re- 
turn to his native village. Soon after his return he was 
elected a justice of the peace of the town of Babylon — a 
place he held for six years, being twice elected without 
opposition. He discharged the disagreeable duties of 
this office with marked ability, receiving high compli- 
ments from the county judge and from members of the 
bar for his able and impartial administration of justice, 
civil and criminal. It is a singular fact that from Justice 
Cooper's rulings and judgments only three appeals were 
taken, and in each instance they were sustained by the 
appellate court. In fact all the several public stations 
which he has filled, and the various duties which he has 
discharged, have given ample evidence of his executive 
ability. Whatever may have been said of his obstinacy 
or of his opinionativeness, no one has ever questioned his 
honesty or capability. He has been called peculiar, which 
is probably true; all men of intense convictions are pe- 
culiar, and they are not infrequently rather unpleasant 
companions, nevertheless, they seldom fail to command 
the respect of the conscientious and thinking portion of 
the community. Mr. Cooper, the subject of this sketch, 
has generally been found in the minority on all new 
questions, but there has hardly been an instance in 
which his views have not eventually been in accordance 
with those of the populace. In early life he was a strong 
Democrat, but separated from his party on the slavery 
issue. He was a member of the Democratic State con- 
vention which gave birth to the Republican party of the 
I State of New York, and has twice been a member of the 



Republican State committee. Mr. Cooper may be said 
to be a politician in the true, biit not in the popular 
sense of the term. No one can justly say he is a dema- 
gogue. His education was acquired entirely in the 
common schools, and may be said to have been of a 
very crude order; but, notwithstanding, he has written 
much for the press, and his articles have not been with- 
out influence on the public mind. Of late he has de- 
voted much attention to matters of local history, and 
has published several interesting sketches relating to 
that subject. He is a warm-hearted man, who sym- 
pathizes so deeply with erring' humanity that he has 
sometimes been accused of being a weakly sentimentalist.' 
He is noted for bis hostility to capital punishment, and 
for his firm friendship to those whom he professes to 

DowDEN Brothers^ 

The members of the firm of Dowden Brothers, Baby- 
lon, are F. Augustine Dowden and T. Edward Dowden, 
the two youngest of a family of eleven children. Their 
oldest brother, who died recently, was professor of St. 
James Academy of Binghamton, N. Y., for twenty-six 
years. One brother is now doing a successful business 
at Glen Gove, four others are in business in the town of 
Huntington, and two are successful business men in 
the western States. Their father settled in Cold Spring 
in 1833, where he was connected with the woolen mills 
until they ceased operation. He is still living, being 
now in his 80th year. Their mother died in 1879, in 
her 66th year. 

Both these young men attended the district school, 
where they acquired a good coimmon English educa- 
tion, and. later attended the higher schools of New York. 


F. A. Dowden soon engaged in the wool and hide busi- 
ness at Cold Spring, and T. Edward Dowden taught 
school for a time, and afterward engaged in the mer- 
cantile business in New York, where his health was 
not good. 

In 1877 the present firm was formed to conduct a 
general dry goods and grocery business, to which has 
been added hardware, flour, feed and grain. They 
moved, in 1880, into their large and finely located brick 
store, a cut of which appears above. Their business, 
which has attained extensive proportions by fair and 
just dealing, is among the largest, and their store one of 
the finest in Suffolk county. 


By K. M. Bayles.* 

rN extent of territory, in population and in 
wealth Brookhaven is the- first town in 
Suffolk county. It occupies a central posi- 
tion, and extends from sound to ocean. Its 
average width in that direction is eighteen 
miles, and its length from east to west on a line drawn 
through the middle of the island is twenty-one miles. 
This distance is diminished on the sides by the apparent 
intrusion of Riverhead upon the northeast and Islip upon 
the southwest. The bay and beach, however, extending 
along against the Islip shore six miles, belong to this 
town. The geographical center of Brookhaven is fifty- 
seven miles from the city hall in New York. The town 
contains 250 square miles of land, besides 70 square 
miles of water in the bays. These bays are Conscience 
Bay, Setauket Harbor, Port Jefferson Bay and Mount 
Sinai Harbor upon the north side, and on the south side 
East Bay and a considerable part of the Great South 
Bay, sections of which are known as Brookhaven, Patch- 
ogue and Bellport Bays. Exclusive of the shore line of 
these bays this town has more seacoast than any other 
on Long Island, having nineteen miles on the sound and 
twenty-four miles on the ocean. 

The surface of the town is diversified — like its soil, 
climate and the character and interests of its inhab- 
itants. The north side is elevated, broken and rugged in 
the immediate vicinity of the shore, but more level a few 
miles inland. Through the middle a range of hills extends 
from west to east, and in their neighborhood the land is 
rolling, and ponds, marshes, streams, clay beds and rich 
deposits of muck or peat abound. South of this range 
the land is flat and low, having an almost imperceptible 
slope to the sea. Spots of rich, heavy loam may be found 
in different parts of the town, but they are most common 
upon the north side. The soil of the central and southern 
parts is considerably 'enlivened with sand. 

Brookhaven may also boast of having more waste land 
and a more scattered population than any of its sister 
towns. The greater part of its surface is still covered 
with forest and scrub growth; besides, thousands of acres 
which once were cleared have been abandoned again to 
the forest, while the rising generations, to whom this 
same neglected soil gave robust youth and vigorous 
manhood, have gone to spend that vigor in some new 

field of life and action. Probably the greater part of the 
best farming land of this town is yet unreclaimed and 
almost worthless woodland. Immense quantities of cord- 
wood were in years past cut from the oak and pine forests 
and sent to market, but the frequency of forest fires has 
seriously interfered with the growth of timber, and the 
diminished call for the product has still further helped 
to reduce the cordwood business to an unprofitable in- 
dustry. Most of the settlements of the town are located 
in three ranges, one along either shore and the third 
through the middle. Between these ranges lie unbroken 
plains of woodland: 

The Acquisition of Land. 

The history of the settlement of this town is enveloped 
in obscurity. The documentary evidences bearing on 
the point are meagre and broken. The traditions are 
few. There are, however, enough to warrant the sup- 
position that in the early part of the year 1655 a com- 
pany of six pioneers from the English colonies on the 
main found their way to an interview with the chief men 
of the Setalcott tribe of Indians, whose villages rested 
upon the inviting shores of those beautiful bays and 
coves which cluster about the site of the present village 
of Setauket. These six men were John Scudder, John 
Swezie, Jonathan Porter, Thomas Mabbs (Mapes), Roger 
Cheston and Thomas Charles. From what part they had 
sailed, or by what authority they were commissioned, we 
are not informed. They may have called at the settle- 
ment of Southold, which had at that time been estab- 
lished some fifteen years. One of the number (Thomas 
Mabbs) had also been one of the settlers of that town, 
and it may have been through the recommendation of 
the people there that this party, which seems to have 
been acting as a locating committee, proceeded up the 
sound to select a spot for the establishment of a colony. 
Where they dropped anchor, or how they introduced 
the subject of their errand, we cannot tell, but the result 
of their negotiations with the Indians was the purchase 
of a tract of land, the limits of which were vaguely de- 
fined as " next adioyning to the bounds of Nesequagg, 
and from thence, being bounded with a river or great 

*Mr. Bayles Is also the author of the general history of Suffolk 
county, pages 49-82. 


napock nerly nemaukak eastward, and bounded next 
unto Nesequakee bounds, as by trees being marked doth 
appear." The document standing as evidence of this 
transaction was dated April 14th 1655, and contained 
the signature marks of the Setalcott sachem Warawakmy 
and fourteen of his associates, viz.: Charels, Mahew, 
Foreket, Westwak, Profet, Kelhellacawe, Yayanfysu, 
Callawancess, Uaskake, Callaven, Cataus, Ewbecca, Ma- 
sachus, Wetanek. The price of this purchase was 10 
coats, 12 hoes, 12 hatchets, 50 muxes, 100 needles, 6 
kettles, 10 fathoms of wampura, 7 chests of powder; a 
pair of child's stockings, 10 pounds of lead and a dozen 
knives. The settlers were also given liberty to let their 
cattle run beyond the bounds of their purchase, and to 
cut timber as far east as they pleased. The bounds 
were to be renewed every two years, and the Indians and 
the proposed settlers agreed to live on peaceable terms 
with each other and to make satisfactory amends for any 
wrong that either party might do the other. The In- 
dians also agreed not to entertain unfriendly Indians 
near the white settlers, but to give warning of any 
unfriendly movement that should be discovered by them, 
the settlers agreeing to exercise the same favor toward 
the Indians, "to the end that peace may be maintained 
amongst us." 

Having thus secured an understanding with the In- 
dians, the assurance of their friendship, and a location 
for the planting of a colony, the party returned and re- 
ported to their constituents, and preparations were no 
doubt made at once to improve the concession. Of the 
committee who thus prepared the way only two became 
members of the colony of original settlers. This colony 
is supposed to have come hither from Boston, where the 
■colonists, or at least the most of them, may have found 
a temporary home. There are however no records that 
show a well organized plan of settlement to have existed 
from the start. On the other hand the few glimpses of 
fact that appear to us through the darkness of the 
centuries suggest that after the first installment of immi- 
grants had planted themselves here as a nucleus individu- 
als and groups joined them;'but for several years no well 
defined organization existed as was the case from the 
very outset with some of the other towns of the county. 

The settlejs of this town came from different sections, 
through different channels, and from different social 
classes. To this heterogeneous character may be attribu- 
ted the fact that the people have never shown that 
unanimity of sentiment and harmonious action which the 
people of some others, particularly the eastern towns, have 
exhibited to such a marked degree. Not that we would 
leave the impression that the early inhabitants of this 
town were a discordant people do we say this, but the 
facts of histoty compel the admission that in perfection 
of organization and unity of action Brookhaven was not 
equal to the others mentioned. 

Gradually the management of their corporate affairs 
took the form of a town government. This at first was 
probably very simple. There was no array of officials or 
extravagance of political machinery, but the little com- 

pany of settlers held their stated meetings for consulta- 
tion, and in these gatherings, which were frequent and 
expeditious, they were their own legislators, adjudicators 
and executives. No bulky record tomes were used to 
preserve the account of their deliberations, but every 
man interested was expected to be present, to know the 
simple decisions of the body politic, and to remember 
and abide by them. There is a great scarcity of any 
preserved records of those early years. It is probable 
there were but few records made. Education was not 
as broadcast then as now, and many of those hardy pio- 
neers could neither read nor write. Their mental and 
their physical energies were given to the subduing of the 
wild soil and the active and exciting occupation of mak- 
ing a home amid the new and strange surroundings which 
here enwrapped them. So they had but little time or 
thought to bestow upon records concerning themselves 
or their movements, and as the desires of future histori- 
ans were not anticipated they left but little written testi- 
mony concerning those matters in regard to which the 
present generation would be glad to learn. 

The first minute of any transaction in town meeting 
now to be found is dated December ist 1659. This is a 
regulation establishing a fine of two shillings six pence 
for being absent from a lawfully called town meeting, un- 
less satisfactory reason could be given for such failure to 

Besides the first purchase of land, already referred to, 
in a few instances small parcels were bought of the 
Indians by individuals, the transactions being consented 
to by the settlers as a body. Whatever rights were thus 
acquired were merged in the common interest, and an 
equalization was made by which the proportionate 
amount of each man's interest was definitely estabHshed. 
The number of the settlers was increased by occasional 
accessions, and the proprietary rights thus taken up in 
the course of a few years reached the number of fifty- 
five, at which point they remained. These proprietary 
rights were called "accommodations." At what time they 
reached the limit mentioned cannot be determined. For 
many years one or more of these proprietary rights re- 
mained in possession of the town corporate. Many of 
the first settlers were of a shifting and adventurous dispo- 
sition, and after remaining a short time saw what appear- 
ed to them as better prospects elsewhere, and wished to 
dispose of their interests here. This they did by sale or 
exchange, negotiated with parties who wished to settle 
here, or with speculative capitalists already here, or by 
sale of their interests to the town corporate. This body 
excercised considerable care to prevent the introduction 
of undesirable persons into their society, and forbade, 
under penalty of a heavy fine, any inhabitant selling 
houses or lands without license of the proper authorities. 
When a settler desired to sell his interest, and no desira- 
ble person was at hand to purchase, the town sometimes 
paid him for his improvements and held the "accommo- 
dation" until an approved purchaser appeared. 

The settlers laid out a town plat in the neighborhood 
of what is known as the Green at Setauket. Lots in 


this plat were called home lots. One was reserved for a 
minister, another for a weaver, another for a shoemaker 
and another for a blacksmith. Different sections of land 
■and salt meadows were divided among the proprietors, 
so that a freeholder soon came to Own a number of 
patches of a few acres each, here and there, scattered 
among the different sections of land so divided up. For 
example let us enumerate the various parcels of land be- 
longing to the " accommodation " which Zachariah Haw- 
kins sold to Peter Whitehaire September i6th 1668. 
This comprehends his home lot, "-taking in three rows of 
apple trees, running to the harbor;" four acres in "the 
field" between land of Arthur and Robert Smith; three 
acres between land of William Fancy and Thomas 
Thorpe; four acres in Crane's Neck; one acre " that was 
of Cock's lot;'' two and a half acres in the Little Neck; 
ten acres at the Old Man's; two five-acre lots at New- 
town, numbers 2 and 21; enough in the 3-acre lots to 
make forty acres; " a share of meadow that belongs to 
Cock's lot," a share at the fresh pond, a share upon the 
beach, a share at "the Old Man's," and a share at the 
south; " with all commonage and privileges whatsoever 
doeth belong to one acomraodation." 

The settlers appear to have lived on friendly terms 
with the Indians. They have left no evidences of any 
■serious difficulty occurring with them. On the contrary 
they seem to have moved from the earliest period with 
little apprehension or fear of molestation by them. They 
extended their operations of building and improving 
isolated patches in different directions, which placed them 
in a much exposed position, but we have not learned that 
the Indians took any unfair advantage of such exposure. 
They seemed to live in almost absolute peace and quie- 
tude. The settlers soon pushed their explorations across 
the island; and, finding there great fields of natural 
meadow abounding in luxuriant grass, they negotiated 
with the Indians whom they found in possession of them 
for some portions of their abundant domain. 

Through the instrumentality of Richard Woodhull the 
settlers obtained (July 20th 1657) from the grand sachem 
Wyandanch and Wenecoheage a deed for a large tract of 
meadows at Mastic. For this the Indians were to re- 
ceive 20 coats, 20 hoes, 20 hatchets, 40 needles, 40 muxes, 
10 pounds of powder, 10 pounds of lead, six pairs of 
stockings, six shirts, one trooper's coat, 20 knives and 
■one gun. The bounds of this tract were "from a River 
called Connecticut, and So to a River called Wegontho- 
tak Eastward." 

It is however probable the Indians residing in the 
vicinity either were not satisfied or afterward changed 
their minds, for we find that in 1670 John Tooker and 
Daniel Lane bought of Wapheege a tract of upland and 
meadow in Unkechauge Neck covering mainly the same 
ground. Moreover, nearly a year later — August 22nd 
1671 — the town at a public meeting appointed a com- 
mittee to go to view the meadows at Unkechauge and 
negotiate with the Indians concerning them. To facili- 
tate negotiations the committeemen were duly author- 
ized to carry " some likers with them to the Indians upon 

the towne's acount." This commission was probably not 
directly successful. Finally, in 1674, assisted by the 
favorable influence of Governor Lovelace, Tobacus and 
his associates gave the town of Setauket a deed for " all 
the mowable medow land, whether hier land or lower, 
that lieth betweene a River called conitticut to another 
River called Mastick," with the privilege of setting up 
houses and yards for the care of their hay, and "fre 
egres and Regres to their medowes without any mollesta- 
tion." This deed is dated September 19th 1674. The 
land thus obtained was spoken of as the "New Pur- 
chase," while the tract extending from Accombamack to 
Yampkanke Creek was known as the "Old Purchase." 

June loth 1664 the inhabitants of Brookhaven ob- 
tained a deed from Tobacus, the sachem of Unchachage, 
for all that tract on the south side lying within the fol- 
lowing bounds: " On the South with the Grate baye and 
on the weste with a fresh ponde, aioying to a place com- 
anly called a combamack, and on the Este with a river 
called Yaraphanke, and on the north it extendes to the 
Midell of the Island." These bounds comprehended all 
the land on the south side ever bought of the Indians by 
the proprietors in common of Brookhaven, except the 
meadows above spoken of. At the same time the sachem 
reserved " Seficient planting land for thos that are the 
true Natife propriaters and thare ayers." The price 
named in the deed for this considerable tract of land was 
the value of fifty fathoms of wampun, which when paid 
— as the sachem's receipt, dated March 31st 1665, shows 
— was equal to six pounds and ten shillings. 

On the same date as the above transaction, June loth 
1664, a deed for the pasturage and timber of all the lands 
from Old Man's to Wading River was given by Mayhew, 
sachem of Setauket, to the town. This transfer was 
made through the medium of the committee of Connect- 
icut appointed for the " settling of business on Long 
Island," and it is probable that the other transactions 
bearing that date were consummated through the influ- 
ence or exertions of the same committee. The price 
paid for this grant was one coat, one knife, one pair 
stockings, two hoes, two hatchets and two shirts. 

By another writing bearing the same date, " Masse- 
tewse and the Sunke squaw, native proprieters and 
owners of all the lands belonging to the trackte of land 
commonaley cawled the ould manes," sold to the inhab- 
itants all their rights in the same for 4 coats, 4 pairs of 
stockings, 2 chests of powder, 10 bars of lead, 6 hoes, 10 
hatchets, 10 knives, 4 shirts and 3 pickle kettles. 

The purchase of Old Field was made at an early day. 
A deed of confirmation was given by Wyandanch, but it 
bears no date. It must have been made, however, pre- 
vious to 1659, since that potentate died that year. It 
engages to " maintain and defend " the rights of the in- 
habitants to the land " against all that shall hereafter 
disturb them." The memorandum of an agreement 
made by Wyandanch, without date, but appearing on the 
records about the same time, leads us to suppose that 
this was the neck called by the Indians Cataconock or 
the Great Neck, and that the following goods were paid 


for it: 6 coats, 6 kettles, a brass gun, a trooper's coat, lo 
knives, a pair of shoes, 2 pounds of powder, 2 pounds of 
lead, 20 muxes and 40 needles. 

The purchase of all the land between Stony Brook 
and Wading River, from the sound to the middle of the 
Island, was finally confirmed to the inhabitants of Brook- 
haven and Richard Woodhull November 19th 1675. 
This deed of confirmation gives to Richard Woodhull 
whatever remnants of land there may be within the 
bounds named that have not been already bought of the 
Indians. It is signed by the sachem Gy, and his associ- 
ates Massetuse, John Mahue, Nasseceage, Achedous and 
Coraway, or Puding. The inhabitants on the same day, 
through their representatives, Richard Woodhull, John 
Tooker, Andrew Miller and Thomas Biggs, gave to the 
Indians an instrument guaranteeing to them and their 
heirs sufficient land for planting, and free liberty to hunt, 
fowl or fish within the bounds of the town. November 
23d following Richard Woodhull assigned to the inhabit- 
ants the rights gained by the above deed and received in 
return a farm of eighty acres at Wading River, and half 
the meadow that the town owned there at the time. 

The inhabitants of Brookhaven secured a deed of con- 
firmation of their title to the beach, from the bounds of 
Southampton westward-to the inlet, signed by Winecros- 
cum, Runkes, Wenemerithew, Ryotty, Peenais, Weump 
and Weramps. This instrument bears date November 
10th 1685, and recites the assertion of a claim to the 
said beach by the inhabitants of Southampton. The lat- 
ter claim was founded upon a deed given by Wyandanch 
to Lion Gardiner June loth 1658, in which the Indians 
above named assert that they were not consulted, neither 
allowed any share in whatever may have been received in 
payment for it. They declare their action to be in ac- 
cordance with the consent and order of their sachem 
Tobacus, and deny the right of any one else to this beach 
but the inhabitants of Brookhaven. 

December 8th 1690 Richard Woodhull jr., acting no 
doubt for the town, obtained a deed for the highways 
eight rods wide running down on either side of the neck 
lying between Connecticut River and Paterquas, then 
called by the English Rattlesnake Neck. This deed also 
granted fencing stuff and building timber, and all other 
privileges needed for the use and enjoyment of the 
meadows, and a strip of woodland eight rods wide around 
the neck at the head of the meadows. It further em- 
bodied a confirmation of the title to those meadows as 
well as all other meadows and uplands, both of the old 
purchase and the new, that had already been given by 
the Indians. This deed was signed by Tobackas, Wesqua- 
sesac, Awaekhous, Waphege, Aiot, Pammulup and Wae- 

A deed for the South Bay was given to the trustees of 
Brookhaven by the Indians claiming to be the proprie- 
tors of it, whose signatures appear as Rubin, Sunney, 
Solomon, Nimrod, Richard, Harey Umpequd, Richard, 
Jothan, Harry, Hanibal and Tim. This was dated April 
8th 1755, and it conveyed " all that tract of land, covered 
with water, situate and being in said Brookhaven, con- 

tained between the South Beach and the firm land^ 
bounded eastward by the mouth of Connecticut River 
and westward by the west line of said township of Brook- 
haven, with all and singular the profits, advantages and 
privileges of fishing, fowling, oystering and other privi- 
leges whatsoever thereunto belonging, or in any wise ap- 
pertaining.'' The consideration named in this deed was 
five pounds lawful money of New York. 

The foregoing purchases cover the whole territory oc- 
cupied or claimed by the early proprietors of Brookha- 
ven, and indeed, as we shall see further on, a larger ex- 
tent than they were able to hold in unquestioned pos- 
session. These evidences afford us the gratifying assur- 
ance that the early settlers and proprietors were not dis- 
posed to trample upon the rights of the Indians or to- 
secure possession of land without respecting their claim; 
but, as far as we can see, in every case fairly purchased 
their lands of them. 

"In compliance with the requirements of the duke's- 
government the freeholders and inhabitants of this town, 
applied for and received from Governor Nicolls a patent 
confirming their right and title to all the lands which they 
had already purchased or should afterward purchase 
within the bounds stated, viz.: " That is to say, the west 
Bounds to begin at the Line run by the Inhabitants of the 
said Towne, between them and Mr. Smith's lands of Nesa- 
quake, as in his Patent is sett forth, and to go East to the 
head of the Wading River or Redd Creeke; from whence,, 
as also from their west Bounds, to stretch North to the 
Sound, and South to the Sea or Maine Ocean." This- 
patent was dated March 7 1666, and it invested the free- 
holders and inhabitants with all the privileges belonging 
to a town in the government, with the requirement of na 
other quit-rent or demand than the payment of such 
duties and acknowledgments as should from time to tirrie 
be required by the laws of the government. The men 
named as patentees were "Capt. John Tucker, Mr. Daniel 
Lane, Mr. Richard Woodhull, Henry Perring and John 

A second patent was granted by Governor Thomas^ 
Dongan, December 27th 1686. By this patent John Palmer, 
Richard Woodhull, Samuel Eburne, Andrew Gibb, William 
Satterley, Thomas Jenner and Thomas Helme were con- 
stituted a body corporate and poHtic under the name of 
the Trustees of the Freeholders and Commonalty of the 
Town of Brookhaven. The territory covered by the for- 
mer patent was granted and confirmed to them and to 
their successors forever, " to be held in free and common 
socage, according to the tenure of the Manor of East 
Greenwich in the county of Kent, England;" and to pay 
a quit-rent of one lamb or two shillings current money of 
the province on the 25th day of March annually. The 
board of trusteed thus incorporated was at the same time 
invested with powers and duties substantially as follows: 
They were not to interfere in any way with the possession 
of land by persons holding land either through individual 
grants or allotments or as tenants in common of undivi- 
ded lands. From their jurisdiction were reserved the 
quit-rents due his Majesty from several individuals hold- 


ing former grants within the limits of the patent, as also 
were the several necks of land along the south side that 
remained unpurchased of the Indians. By the same name 
they were to have succession forever, and to be compe- 
tent to receive, to hold and to dispose of property of any 
kind whatsoever, and to sue or be sued in any court in 
the province. They were to have and to use a common 
seal, and all their acts and orders should be certified 
under it and signed by the president of the trustees, or 
in his absence by any two of them. They should upon a 
public summons of any three meet together " to make 
such acts as they might think convenient," so long as 
those acts were not repugnant to the laws of England or 
of this province. Such acts were to be made by vote of 
the major part of such of the trustees as were assembled, 
there being not fewer than five present at any such meet- 

The patent also ordained that there should be chosen 
annually, on the first Tuesday in May, by the freeholders 
and freemen of the town, seven trustees, as the successors 
to the board named in the patent, one clerk, one con- 
stable, and two assessors. The trustees were further, 
constituted commissioners of the town, with power to levy 
such sums of money as they thought necessary for tjie 
public expenses of the town; to give directions to the 
assessors from time to time how to proceed in their assess- 
ments on the estates of the inhabitants, and to order the 
disbursement of money so raised for the use of the town. 

Record of the Settlers. 

Having now reviewed the basis upon which the title to 
lands occupied by the settlers of this town rested, we 
give herewith the names of the early settlers themselves 
and what few scraps of evidence we are are able to find 
in relation to each of them. The following persons were 
freeholders in this town at some time during the first 
twenty-five years of its settlement : 

Robert Akerly had a lot in the first divisions of land. 
His name appears on a list of inhabitants m 1664. The 
same name appears again in i7i8as a town trustee, which 
probably referred to a descendant of his. He was 
probably an elderly man at the time of settlement and 
died in a few years thereafter. 

Samuel Akerly, probably a son of the former, had a 
half lot from his father, which he traded with Henry 
Perring for the lot, etc., which had been Joshua Gar- 
lick's. He had a lot in the first "loot mente," and his 
name appears as an inhabitant in 1664. He was em- 
ployed as a herdsman by the inhabitants of the " hie 
strete " during the summer of 1672, at two shillings six 
pence a day. He held the office of fence-viewer in 1695. 

Edward Avery, a blacksmith, agreeing to work for the 
town's people "as cheap as other smiths do," received 
from the town the home lot that was Matthias Dingle's, 
with the privilege of a new purchaser's accommodation 
on payment of the just proportion, December 6th 1667. 

Philip Allcock, of East Hampton, was accepted as a 
townsman April 2nd 1672, provided he could produce a 
satisfactory certificate of good behavior. He had already 

purchased, March 3d 167 1, of Daniel Lane the home 
lot formerly owned by William Sirason and later by 
Richard Briant. Whether or not his certificate of good 
behavior was produced is not known. He sold the 
property he had bought here to Robert Wolley October 
31st 1672. 

Robert Arnold appears to have been an inhabitant of 
the town in 1662. He was that year one of four men — 
John Jenners, Mr. Tucker and Mr. Smith being his asso- 
ciates — appointed at a town meeting September 25th to 
act in settling differences, with the same power as magis- 
trates, till the end of the year. 

Alexander Briant, of Milford, Conn., appears as one of 
the proprietors in 1661. He sold his accommodations to 
Richard Floyd, May 9th 1673. 

Richard Briant, of Milford, Conn., bought of Thomas 
Mapes accommodations of a new purchaser May nth 
1670, and sold the same to Edmond Thompson on the 
27th of the same month. He returned to Milford. 

Nathaniel Brewster, a minister of the gospel, graduate 
of Harvard University in the first class, and grandson of 
Elder William Brewster, one of the " Pilgrims," came to 
this town about the time of the first settlement. He is 
supposed to have been the first minister here. He had a 
lot in the first "loot mente," and another in the second 
division of Old Field. October 24th 1665 the constable 
and overseers purchased the house of Mathew Priar for 
his accommodation and use as their minister. His three 
sons, Timothy, Daniel and John, afterward became prom- 
inent men in the early town history, the first as clerk 
twenty-three years, and the second in the same office for 
twenty-six years following. He died in 1690. 

Barker, probably a blacksmith, had occupied a 

home lot, which reverted to the town, and was given to 
Henry Brooks in August 167 1. 

Thomas Biggs sen., one of the first settlers, was an in- 
habitant in 1664, living by the brook upon which Daniel 
Lane's mill was located. March 14th 1669 he exchanged 
accommodations with John Bayles, of Jamaica, which 
exchange was reversed April 22nd 1674. 

Thomas Biggs jr., son of the former and likewise one 
of the first settlers, was a prominent citizen of the primi- 
tive commonwealth. He was a fence-viewer in 1695, 
president of the first elected board of trustees in 1688, 
and held the same office the following year, and was 1 
trustee for several years afterward. 

John Bosweek — sometimes spelled Boswick or Beswick 
— was from Southampton, and bought accommodations 
of Henry Rogers March ist 1671; was accepted as a 
townsman August 22nd 1671, and bought part of an ac- 
commodation of Jacob Longbotham June ist 1672. 

Robert Bloomer, a blacksmith, appears to have been 
an inhabitant of the town previous to 1663. An action 
was commenced against him that year for debt and tres- 
pass to the amount of ;£s°> ^V John Scott, who appears 
to have obtained judgment and in execution seized his 
bellows and tools. June 9th 1664 the judgment of the 
inferior court appears to have been reversed by the com- 
mittee of the General Assembly of Connecticut, who then 


ordered that the constable deliver to Bloomer the bellows 
and other tools, and that one of Mr. Scott's cows be given 
to Bloomer in place of one of his that had died after be- 
ing seized by Scott. Bloomer was sued again by S.imuel 
Edsall for ^^4. in 1666, and his rights in the town were 
sold by the high sheriff to John Tooker in November 
of the last named year. 

John Budd appears as an owner in the first " loot 
mente." He probably was not settled here many years 
together. Having lived at Southold just before, he bought 
all the accommodation of William Cramer here October 
28th 1666, and afterward — about 1673 — sold the same to 
Andrew Miller. In June 1668 he exchanged some prop- 
erty which he owned at Huntington with Captain John 
Piatt for his home lot and one-fourth of commonage, 
which he afterward sold to John Thomas. He is supposed 
to have returned to Southold after disposing of his prop- 
erty here. 

Henry Brooks was granted an accommodation by town 
meeting in August 1671, with the home lot "that was 
Barker's." From his having possession of the " smith's 
accommodation " we infer that he was a blacksmith. A 
part of this he sold to the town July 15th 1672. 

Roger Barton appears as an inhabitant of this town in 
1664. His signature as "recorder " is attached to several 
copies of documents from the court of Connecticut. His 
term of residence here was probably short. 

William Brunkly was accepted as a blacksmith by the 
town and given a home lot and privilege of a " new pur- 
chaser's accommodation," July loth 1669. It was under- 
stood that he was to do the town's blacksmith work at 
fair rates, and to occupy his lot three years to perfect his 
title. Nothing more is heard of him. 

John Bayles, from Jamaica, traded accommodations 
with Thomas Biggs, and removed hither in March 1669. 
He was chosen an overseer in 167 1 and was placed on 
the committee to purchase meadows at South, August 
22nd of the same year. He was a magistrate of the town 
in 1673. April 22nd 1674 he traded his accommodations 
back again with Thomas Biggs and returned to Jamaica. 

Elias Bayles: But little is known of him, except that 
the town meeting November 17th 1671 granted him an 
allotment in the new village at Wading River. 

Roger Cheston was one of the first six purchasers of 
1655. He received lots in the divisions of Old Field, 
and October 2nd r66i sold his accommodations and 
home to Daniel Lane. 

James Cock was among the earliest settlers, and re- 
ceived lots in Old Field which he sold to Henry Perring. 
He probably left the colony within a few years. In 1668 
some of his land was owned by Zachariah Hawkins. 

William Crumwell (or Cromwell or Cramer) was one of 
the early settlers and a man in whom the townsmen 
doubtless placed some confidence. He was appointed 
an appraiser of John Scott's property June 9th 1664. 
He evidently left the town at an early period. October 
28th 1666 he sold all his accommodations to John Budd 
for ;^3o. 
John Coombs (Comes or Cooms) appears to have been 

one of the early inhabitants, though his name is but lit- 
tle mentioned in'the records except as the index to an 
allotment in several later divisions of land. He was evi- 
dently in the town as late as 1674. 

James Cumfield was a la.idholder in the town in 
1660; beyond which fact nothing is known. 

John Dier was one of the early freeholders. His name 
soon passed into obscurity, except so far as it may be 
preserved as the ancient name of the neck of land which 
lies between the harbors of Port Jefferson and Setaiiket, 
which was known as Dier's Neck. His name appears as 
an inhabitant in 1664. 

Samuel Dayton was a son of Ralph Dayton, one of the 
early settlers of East Hampton. He lived a while at 
Flushing, then settled in Southampton in 1648, and 
about 1658 came to Brookhaven, as is supposed. He 
bought a home lot of Richard Smith, May 8th 1668, 
besides having a lot in the first "loot mente." He was 
appointed on the commission to the Unkechauge Indians 
August 22nd 1671. He was probably the progenitor of 
a numerous posterity reaching to the present generation. 

Abraham Dayton was probably a son of the last 
named; his name does not appear until several years 
after the first settlement. On a rate list of 1675 he is 
assessed for three acres of meadow, five horses and 
several cattle, in all valued at .^^104. 

Joseph Davis, formerly of Southampton, a weaver of 
cloth, was granted the weaver's lot by town meeting De- 
cember 23d 1668. He was also granted an accommoda- 
tion on "paying as others do," and agreed to weave the 
town's yarn into cloth on as reasonable terras "as they 
do generally upon the island." 

John Davis does not appear at the first, but February 
i6th 1675 receives a half accommodation from the over- 
seers and constable 

F'oulk Davis, of Jamaica, appears as the owner of a 
house and accommodation, bought of Daniel Lane — the 
former property of Samuel Akerly — and he sells the 
same to William Salyer October 2Sth 1671. That prob- 
ably closes his residence here. It is probable that from 
one or more of the last three mentioned descended the 
numerous families of the name of Davis at present found 
in this town. 

Matthias Dingle had a lot in the town plat previous to 

Samuel Edsell appears as a witness to the Indian deed 
of the beach to the town November loth 1685. He 
also appears in a suit against Bloomer. He was but little 
known to the records. 

William Fancy was one of the early settlers. He had 
a share in the successive allotments of land from the 
earliest ; was an inhabitant in 1664 and a subscriber to 
the minister's salary in 1697. He probably died soon 
after that date, ;ind left a widow. 

William Frost received from the town a " new pur- 
chaser's accommodation " September 26th 1672, and had 
other allotments of land. 

Richard Floyd, a native of Wales, came to Setauket in 
1656 and took an active part in the public affairs of the 



little colony. Being a man of some education, refine- 
ment and wealth, he quickly advanced to a position of 
prominence and received the confidence of his neighbors. 
By the investment of his means he became possessed 
•of several shares in the proprietorship of the town. He 
probably introduced the first negro slave in this town. 
This he did in 1672, and sold the same to John Kurd of 
Stratford March 9th 1674. He held several offices in 
the town: was collector in 1690; commissioned "to 
supervise the taxes " in 1692, 1695, 1697 and 1704; 
president of trustees 1696, 1699, 1700 and 1704. He is 
supposed to have died soon after the latter date. His 
■descendants through successive generations have held 
positions of honor and prominence not only in the town, 
but in the county and State. His family name, however, 
is almost extinct in the town. His ashes repose in the 
■old burying ground at Setauket, laid out from his own 
home lot, but the march of the centuries has almost ob- 
literated all trace of his grave. 

Joshua Garlick wa6 an inhabitant of the town for a 
short period. He bought a home lot of Richard War- 
ing, lying between the latter and Thomas Biggs, Novem- 
ber i6th 1666. June ist 1668 he sold the same again to 

Robert Goulsbery : AH that we know of him is that 
he bought an accommodation of Richard Floyd August 
29th 1679. 

Thomas Harlow drew a share in the division of land 
about 1661. He probably remained here but a short 

Zachariah Hawkins was one of the early settlers, and 
the holder of several shares in the proprietorship. The 
records show his transactions in real estate to have been 
comparatively frequent. He appears on a jury in 1663 ; 
and in 1666 brings a suit against Robert Akerly for 
damage done by the latter's hogs, claiming eight bushels 
of peas. The court returns judgment for four bushels 
and costs. He held the office of trustee in 1696 and 
1697. He appears to have been a man of honest prin- 
ciple and sober, plodding habits, and was somewhat 
addicted to the acquirement of property. These quali- 
ties, associated with a tenacious vitality, appear to have 
been transmitted through the generations to a numerous 
posterity, as the fact that on the town assessment books 
at the present time this family name appears more fre- 
quently than any other may suggest. 

William Herrick appears only as the owner of lot No. 
23 of the fifty-acre lots. He was probably a resident of 
Southampton, the son of James Herrick, one of the early 
settlers of that town, who was employed to beat the drum 
on Sabbath days to call the people to worship. 

Thomas Helme was an active member of the early 
community, and a shareholder in the proprietorship. 
He occupied a number of positions of confidence and 
honor ; was one of the second patentees ; was commis- 
sioned with Richard Woodhull to lay out Little Neck in 
1687 ; was town clerk the same year, as well as a " com- 
missioner ; " held the latter office in 1690 ; was a justice 
in 1691, president of trustees in 1694, 1695 and 1698, a 

justice in 1701, justice and trustee in 1702, one of the 
commissioners for Suffolk county to lay out highways in 
1704, and a justice in 1706. His descendants have been 
honored and respected, and a remnant still lingers in the 

Joseph Hand in 1663 sold his home lot and accommo- 
dation to John Scott. 

John Hurd, of Stratford, Conn., bought of Richard 
Floyd one and a half accommodations November 12th 

Thomas Higam was taken as a townsman in 1676, and 
ten acres of land were granted to him. No more is known 
of him. 

John Jenners (Jenner or Gennors) was one of the early 
settlers. His name appears as that of a juror in 1663, 
and as one of the patentees of 1666. September 25th 
1662, probably as an initiatory step toward the organiza- 
tion of the new Connecticut government, he was elected 
one of the four men to act as magistrates until the end 
of the year. He was a delegate to the convention to 
elect burgesses in 1691. 

Thomas Jenners was a younger man, and probably the 
son of the former. November 17th 16*71 he received an 
allotment at Wading River. He was commissioned by 
the town to join Mr. Gibb in goin^ to New York to apply 
for a patent' December loth 1686, and became one of the 
trustees incorporated by that patent; was constable in 
1690, and trustee in 1701, 1703, 1709 and 1711. He was 
employed by the town to join Benjamin Smith in sur- 
veying meadows at Old Man's, June 25th 1701, and was 
one of the four men appointed by the town to oversee 
the clearing of highways in May 1704. His name ap- 
pears on the records as late as 1723. 

William Jayne, sometimes erroneously spelled Jean, 
first appears on a committee appointed by the town to 
secure a parsonage site. May 7th 1689. He was a trustee 
in 1 701. His numerous descendants cling to the old 
stamping-ground at Setauket. The legend on his tomb- 
stone in the ancient burial plot — now defaced almost be- 
yond recognition — tells us that he was a native of Bris- 
tol, England, and that he died March 24th 17 14, at the 
advanced age of ninety-six years. 

Robert Kellam was a former resident of Southampton. 
His name appears as a shareholder in the " fifty-acre lots" 
of this town. 

Gabriel Linch, a weaver by trade, received from the 
town the weaver's accommodation March 30th 1667, he 
agreeing to weave the town's cloth " as cheaply as it is 
commonly woven." 

Jacob Longbotham, or Longbottom, was one of the 
primitive inhabitants, and son-in-law of Henry Perring. 
He sold part of his accommodation to John Beeswick 
June ist 1672. He appears in possession of the mill as 
part owner with his mother-in-law, the widow Perring, 
February 4th 1674, at which time the overseers agree to 
make up the dam to the height of ten feet from the bot- 
tom of the pond, and then the town is to have no more 
expense with it. 

Joseph Longbotham was a brother of the last named, 

- -A 



and also a son-in-law of Henry Perring. November 17th 
1671 he received an allotment in the new settlement at 
Wading River. The descendants of these brothers still 
hold some of the land occupied by them. The family is 
noted for the longevity of its members. But few gene- 
rations bridge between the earliest and the latest. 

Daniel Lane appears to have been a man of large busi- 
ness capacity, which quality gave him a favorable intro- 
duction to the townspeople. He was one of the early 
settlers, and was frequently intrusted with important com- 
missions in behalf of the town. He owned a large share 
in the proprietary interests, and his traffic in real estate 
waa constant. Having bought of the Indians a tract of 
land'in Little Neck he assigned it to the inhabitants April 
6th 1663, they reimbursing him in the expense; March 31st 
1665 he was the bearer of money, ^6 ids., to the Indian 
Tobacus on behalf of the town in payment for land and 
meadows purchased June loth 1664. In 1666 he was 
one of the first patentees. In 1664 he agreed with a 
number of the inhabitants to build a mill. June 17th 1667 
he was commissioned by the town to petition the governor 
for the right to w^hales coming upon the seashore to be 
given the town. 

Daniel Lane jr. was granted an allotment at Wading 
River, to be " convenient to the wJter for his calling," 
November 17th 1671. 

Thomas Mapes, or, as it is more commonly spelled in 
the old records, Mabbs, was one of the six first purchasers 
of J 655. He received shares in the various divisions of 
land, and May nth 1670 sold anew purchaser's accomo- 
dation to Richard Briant. He brought an action (date 
not given) against Henry Rogers for defamation, claiming 
damage to the amount of ;£^ioo, to which the court re- 
sponded with a verdict for ^^ and a public acknowledg- 
ment, or ;^io and costs. The records do not tell us which 
of the alternatives the defendant chose. He was a justice 
of the peace in 1693, but probably removed from this 
town to Southold soon after that date. His name ap- 
pears as that of a militia captain in the latter town in 

Andrew Miller, a son of John Miller of East Hampton, 
bought an accommodation of William Poole, his home 
lot and one-fourth commonage, March 30th, and the re- 
remainder of his rights October i6th following. About 
1673 he purchased an accomodation of John Budd. He 
was the founder of the beautiful hamlet Miller's Place, 
and there his posterity still lives. 

Francis Moncey was one of the early proprietors. He 
received an allotment of meadow at South Fireplace in 
1664 or thereabout, and another in the new settlement at 
Wading River November 17th 1671. He died shortly 
before 1675, and left a widow, who afterward held his 

Nathaniel Norton, from Southampton, bought an ac- 
commodation of Captain John Piatt March 27th 1668, 
for ;^4o, payable in cattle. He was a carpenter by 
trade, and the following year engaged to frame the new 
meeting-house and put it up ready for the covering, the 
town people hauling the timber and helping to raise it, 

for which service he was to be free from all rates for six: 
years. September 17th 1674 the town voted to give him 
apiece of meadow near " Mt. Misery House," with "j 
pole of land ", for clapboarding and shingling the meet- 
ing-house, he finding materials. He was chosen an over- 
seer in 1676. He is still represented in his posterity^ 
among whom have appeared some well known names. 

Matthias NicoUs was a nephew of Governor Richard 
Nicolls and secretary of the colony. He received fronr 
the town meeting January 25th 1674 a new purchaser's ac- 
commodation with a home lot in the town plat, in con- 
sideration of his assistance in the purchase of meadows^ 
at South. This he gave to his son William, March 9th 

William Nicolls, son of Matthias and patentee of the 
large part of Islip known as NicoUs's patent, was a pro- 
prietor in this town but never a resident for any length 
of time. His history belongs to that of Islip. 

Thomas Pierce was one of the early freeholders of 
whom but little is known. He was a magistrate, appointed 
by the court at Hartford in 1661. 

Matthew Priar, one of the pioneers, held proprietary 
rights at an early period. Having been unfairly distressed 
by Mr. Scott, the committee of the General Assembly of 
Connecticut, June 9th 1664, ordered that some of Mr. 
Scott's goods should be sold and three cows be bought 
with the proceeds for the present benefit of Priar's fam- 
ily. He sold his house and. lot to the constable and over- 
seers of the town for the use of the minister October 24th 
1665, for ^12, to be paid in corn, wheat and peas. His 
house was probably something more than ordinary for 
those days, since the fact that it had glass windows, doors 
and partitions seemed worthy ot remark in the deed. 
After this he removed to Matinecock, and still later sold 
his accommodation here to Captain John Piatt, July i8th 

Henry Perring, one of the town fathers, dabbled con- 
siderably in real estate and was a man of some business 
qualities. He was one of the patentees of 1666, had 
allotments in several divisions of land and owned a mill 
in'the. town. This he gave in 167 1 to his two sons-in-law 
Jacob and Joseph Longbotham, reserving a life lease 
upon it, and inserting a direction that their three sisters 
were to go " tole free" but that his daughter Hannah was- 
to be " tole free forever, and her heirs." He was chosen 
overseer, and surveyor of highways in 1671, and the fol- 
lowing year was authorized (March i6th 1672) to con- 
struct and maintain a "pound," and to be " pounder."" 
For his services in this direction he was to collect fees 
for pounding,—! penny for a hog, 2 pence for a beast^ 
3 pence for a horse, }4 penny for a sheep or goat, and to 
have the old pound for his own use. He had been on 
the committee to purchase meadows at South in 167 1 
and July 20th 1674 the town granted him three little 
islands in Unkachaug Bite. He is supposed to have 
died that year. 

Captain John Piatt bought an accommodation of Mat- 
thew Priar July i8th 1666, and sold the same to Na- 
thaniel Norton March 27th 1668. In June of the same 


year he sold the home lot and one-fourth commonage 
(which probably had been reserved from the former 
sale) to John Budd for his rights in Huntington. 

William Poole was a citizen of the early days; his 
name appears as an inhabitant in 1664, but he was prob- 
ably settled here much earlier than that. By two sales, 
bearing date March 30th and October 16th 167 1, he 
transferred all his rights in this town to Andrew Miller. 

Stephen Person: Town meeting voted him a new pur- 
chaser's right on his paying the necessary proportion of 
charges, December 17th 1669. 

" Henry Rogers was an early citizen of this land of free- 
dom, whose ideas of free speech were too liberal for the 
times. Consequently he was fined by a court of four 
magistrates and six jurors, December 8th 1663, for lying, 
ten shillings; and on another occasion was sentenced by 
the court to pay ^^ and make a public confession, or 
;£io and costs without such confession, for traducing the 
character of his neighbor Thomas Mapes. 

Edward Rouse was a transient resident, who bought 
accommcdations of John Scudder and sold the same to 
John Tooker June 8th 1662, for accommodations in Ja- 
maica, whither he probably removed. 

Simeon Rouse's name appears as that of an inhabitant 
in 1664. 

John Roe was a shoemaker, and an inhabitant of 
Southampton in 1666. He came to this town the fol- 
lowing year, and December 6th the town gave him the 
home lot that was laid out for a minister, and a new pur- 
chaser's right when he should pay for it as others had 
done. He at the same time agreed to work at his trade 
for the town's people. He was elected constable, collect- 
or and trustee January loth 1688, to fill out the unex- 
pired term of .William Satterly, deceased. Among the 
generations of his descendants have been many honored 
and respected citizens. 

William Rogers received from the overseers a home 
lot and accommodation February 16th 1675. 

Samuel Shermon is a name that stands among the 
early settlers of whom little is known. 

William Satterly was a member of the proprietary 
brotherhood. He was an overseer in 167 1, and was 
made constable in 1676, an office then of considerable 
note. In 167 1 he was also chosen to act "in the place 
of a church warden." He died early in January 1688 or 
late in the previous year, holding the offices of constable, 
collector and trustee. 

Richard Smith probably joined this settlement as early 
as 1656; a man of more than ordinary powers and ac- 
quirements, he was a leading spirit, and figured con- 
spicuously in the affairs of the town. He held a propri- 
etary interest here for many years, was a justice of the 
peace, and on the disruption of the government in June 
1689 was elected by the town as alternate or second to 
Richard Woodhull, to represent the town in the council 
at New York "for the good of the country." He is 
best known as the progenitor of the " Bull " Smiths and 
founder of the town which bears his name. 

Arthur Smith was one of the first settlers of the town; 

his name appears as an inhabitant in 1664. He probably 
died about 1665, leaving a widow and two sons, Benjamin 
and John. 

Benjamin Smith, one of the young men, succeeded to 
the rights of his father, and by his own exertions ad- 
vanced to a position of considerable prominence and in- 
creased possessions. He was ordered by the town to 
join Thomas Jenner in surveying meadows at Old Man's 
June 25th 1701; was trustee that year and the year fol- 
lowing; and was appointed one of the superintendents 
of the work of clearing the highways in May 1704. 

John Smith, a weaver, probably a brother of the last 
named, bought with Thomas a share in the nevy pur- 
chase at South in 1674. In 1670 he bought a horse of 
Richard Woodhull, to be paid for in weaving at regular 

Thomas Smith, probably a wheelwright by trade, was 
an early settler to whom the town granted a new purcha-. 
ser's right March i6th 1672. In 1673 he exchanged his 
home lot with Samuel Akerlyfor the one that was Joshua 
Garlick's, and agreed to give in the bargain a "sufifiisent 
pair of Cart Wheels." In 1674 he received from the town 
one-sixth of the west meadows at Old Man's, and bought 
half a share in the new purchase at South. He held the 
office of overseer in 1676. 

Robert Smith, an early freeholder, sold his right in the 
new purchase at South to John Thompson, April 7th 1674. 

Daniel Smith was a citizen of whom but little is said. 
Richard Woodhull loaned him a horse, which died in his 
possession, whereupon the owner brought suit and re- 
covered;^i8 and costs, December 28th 1664. He was town 
clerk in 1669. 

William Salyer was a son-in-law to Foulk Davis, from 
whom he received a home lot and accommodation, Octo- 
ber 25th 167 1. He probably came here from Southampton, 
where he was a resident in 1668. His name is perpetuated 
on the records as the index to a proprietary right. 

Obadiah Seward was one of the early proprietors; his 
name is frequently met on the records, but generally in 
personal transactions. Though he does not appear to have 
held any important public trusts he still had occasions of 
difference with his neighbors, as most men do. On one of 
these Thomas Thorp became so demonstrative as to fall 
upon him with blows and set his dogs upon him, the latter 
biting his legs severely. The case was brought into 
court, but was settled privately. A tradition lingers that 
he was the ancestor of the late statesman William H. 
Seward, but no evidence is at hand either to confirm or 
disprove its truth. His name has for some time been ex- 
tinct in this town. 

William Simson was one of the early settlers. July nth 
1660 he agreed to keep a boat in the town, and in con- 
sideration of that convenience the townspeople granted 
him a ten-acre lot lying next to James Cumfield's. His 
name appears as an inhabitant in 1664, but before 1671 
he had sold his home lot to Richard Briant. It is prob- 
able that he sailed his boat as a packet, making trips to 
points on the Connecticut shore, and after selling his in- 
terest here made his home elsewhere. 


John Scudder was one of the first six purchasers of 
1655. He had a share in the proprietorship, which he 
sold to Edward Rouse previous to 1662. 

John Scott was a former resident of Hartford and later 
of Southampton, where he appears as an attorney, prac- 
ticing law in the primitive courts as early as 1660. He 
was a resident of this town in 1663, having bought a home 
lot and accommodation of Joseph Hand that year. He 
was a magistrate at the same time, and wore the titulary 
honors of captain and esquire. He brings suit in 1664 
against Robert Bloomer, for ^£30, but failing to appear 
in court is " non-shewted;" also claims damages against 
Arthur Smith for " outrayege an victious Acktio-ns " to 
the amount of ;^i,ooo, to which the jury return a verdict 
for j^^o and costs. March 26th 1664 he sold his home 
lot and accommodation to Zachariah Hawkins. After 
this he appears to have been absent from the town, hav- 
ing left a quantity of glass and iron, and a dependent 
family. The committee of the General Assembly of Con- 
necticut, being here June gth 1664, appointed three men 
to take an inventory of his goods — glass and iron — and 
ordered them stored in John Ketcham's house for safe 
keeping. The committee at the same time ordered that 
a quantity of the goods be sold to procure funds with 
which to buy three cows for the present use of Matthew 
Priar, whom Scott had unjustly oppressed; and also that 
goods to the amount of thirty or forty shilling worth be 
sold to supply the present need of Scott's family for 
"bred and corn." February ist 1666 he sold all his lands 
to Zachariah Hawkins. 

Eben Salsberry appears as one of the early residents; 
he sold his accommodation to Daniel Lane March 2nd 
1666, delivering the same — according to an old custom — 
"by twig and turf." He appears as high sheriff in 

John Sweasey, or Swesie, of Southold, was one of the 
original six who secured the first Indian deed of 1655. 
If he shared any material interest in the original pur- 
chase he probably transferred it, and afterward bought, 
January 13th 1672, of John Thomas one-half his accom- 

Thomas Thorp is but seldom mentioned, except in a 
numberof court records, where he appears as the defendant 
under various charges, among which are running a book 
account with Richard Mills, of Southampton, in 1651; 
trespass and damage done Richard Woodhull in 1666, 
and assaulting and setting the dogs on " Obed " Seward 
at another time. He however held a proprietary right in 
Brookhaven, and his name is perpetuated as its signa- 

John Tooker was one of the most active members of 
the primitive democracy. He was concerned in several 
real estate transactions at an early period. He was a 
man of considerable business tact, and was frequently 
chosen by his fellow townsmen to missions of importance. 
With Daniel Lane he bought part of Unkechage Neck of 
the Indian Wapheege in 1670, and August i6th 167 1 he 
was appointed on a committee to purchase meadows at 
South. An evidence of the trust reposed in him by the 

inhabitants is seen in the fact that he was appointed to 
many-offices. He was town clerk many years; just how 
long is uncertain, but it is known that he commenced to 
serve as early as 1668 and probably earlier, and contin- 
ued until 1677 or later. He was empowered as a magis- 
trate September 25th 1662; was one of the patentees of 
1666; chosen constable in 1671, and a trustee in 1702. 
June 17th 1667 the town authorized him to keep an 
" ordnery," and appropriated upland and meadow about 
" Mt. Misery House " for that use. July 12th 1670 High 
Sheriff Captain Salisberry and Richard Woodhull, magis- 
trate, licensed him to retail strong drink so long as he 
should keep a house of entertainment. September 6th 
1677 the town granted him fifty acres of land wherever 
he might choose it, in recognition of his services in 
" writing the records to date." His name is perpetuated 
by numerous descendants. 

John Thomas, from Rye, was taken as an inhabitant 
August 22nd 1671, and instructed in regard to soiling 
land to any one not approved by the town that such vio- 
lation of laws would work forfeiture of all his rights. 
He was a constable in 1686. 

John Thomas sen,, son of the last named, appears as 
the owner of a share in the " old purchase " of meadows 
at South Fireplace. 

John Thompson, a blacksmith, is supposed to have 
come to Setauket in 1656. July 15th 1672 he received 
from the town the " smith's accommodation " on condi- 
tion that he should do the town's work. His descend- 
ants still hover about Setauket, though the name is ob- 
solete there. 

Anthony Thompson received from the overseers and 
constable a home lot and accommodation February i6th 

Captain John Undrell, or Underbill, was the owner of 
a proprietary right here at an early period, though as 
early as 1668 his name appears as a resident of Oyster 
Bay. He probably never resided in Brookhaven for any 
length of time. 

Christopher Tooly received from the overseers and 
constable a home lot and accommQdation February i6th 

George Wood, having obtained an unsavory name in 
Southampton, joined this settlement and secured small 
lots of land. He remained however but a short time. 

Peter Whitehaire was one of the early freeholders of 
the town and founders of the settlement. He was elect- 
ed to the office of commissioner in 1687 and again in 
1690. He died, holding the office of trustee, about the 
year 1698. His name has long since become extinct. 

Richard Waring, an early settler, sold his accommoda- 
tion to Joshua Garlick November i6th 1666, and bought 
the same back again June ist 1668. He was employed 
in 1672, by the people of the "hie strete," as a " cow- 
ceeper" or herdsman, whose duty it was to drive the 
cattle from their yards to the plains to pasture every 
morning, and bring them back again at night. For this 
service he was paid 2s. 6d. a day, in butter, corn, wheat 
and peas. 


Thomas Ward, one of the early land holders, was grant- 
ed by the town (August 22nd 167 1) two necks of meadow 
next beyond the "ould man's medow " for his share. 

William Williams was accepted as a townsman in 1676 
or 1677, and granted a half allotment, in accordance with 
the town's order in relation to young men. 

Richard Woodhull: In verification of the Scriptural 
statement "The first shall be last," etc., this name appro- 
priately falls at the close of this list. Were we called 
upon to write a eulogy on the foremost man among the 
settlers of Brookhaven, we could not select a more 
worthy subject. But he needs no such effort at our 
hands. The records of Brookhaven and the facts of 
history concerning him are the modest but unfaltering 
witnesses to a character which for principles of honor 
and justice, unselfish motives, far-seeing discretion, kind- 
liness of manners, and constant zeal in public service 
has few superiors among the honored names that grace 
the first pages of American history. He is said to have 
descended through an ancient lineage from a subject of 
William the Conqueror who came with him from Nor- 
mandy into England in 1066. He was born in North- 
amptonshire, England, September 13th 1620, and is sup- 
posed to have come to' this country when a young man. 
His first appearance here of which we find any definite 
evidence is at Southampton in 1644. He was probably 
there before that date, and may have come from Lynn 
with the original company of settlers of Southampton. 
He appears to have manifested there the same untiring 

energy and active interest in the affairs of the town that 
made him afterward so conspicuous in Brookhaven. He 
was frequently placed on juries, on committees and on 
many important missions. The records of that town 
give frequent testimony of the esteem in which he was 
held as a training officer and a surveyor, as well as. a man 
of general intelligence and sound judgment in all public 
affairs. He appears to have left Southampton about the 
year 1655; and after a year or two, spent perhaps in 
looking for a desirable place to locate, he appears 
among the early settlers of Brookhaven. His name 
appears here as early as 1657, when, July 20th, he pur- 
chased of Wyandanch two necks of meadow at Mastic for 
the town. He was appointed a magistrate for the town 
by the court at Hartford, May i6th 1661, which position 
he continued to hold for many years. He was one of the 
patentees of 1666, and again of 1686, and was a surveyor 
and conveyancer of superior abilities. He was appointed 
to many offices and acted on many important commissions, 
one of the most conspicuous of which was that masterly 
stroke of diplomacy by which the title of the town to the 
whole northern territory was forever freed from the com- 
plication of Indian claims under which it was liable to 
fall. The name of his father was probably the same as 
his own; that of his wife was Deborah, and his children 
were Richard, Nathaniel and Deborah. He died in Octo- 
ber 1690. The name as it appears in the early records is 
variously rendered, as Odell, Oodell, Wodhull, and 

The Division of Lands. 

Table showing the number of each proprietor's lot or lots in each of the divisions of common land in this town as shown 

by the records. 

The number at the head of each column refers to the explanation following the table. 
























-. on 















Names of Drawers or 
Owners of Lots. 







•0 s 

S u 





2 a 










R a 





















> .- 





















































Robert Akerly 




















Samuel Akerly 
























Edward Avery 


Alexander Briant — 


Nathaniel Brewster. . 








Thomas Biggs sen.... 





















Thomas Biggs jun. . . . 





















John Bosweek 



John Budd 




















Henry Brooks 


Timothy Brewster. . . . 

















Daniel Brewster 

















lot 30 



iof 49 

Koger Cheston 

James Cocl£ 





■William CrumweU . 

John Cetchuta 

Jolin Coombs 

Samuel Dayton 

Half Dayton 

John Dier 

Joseph Davis 

John Davis 


Samuel Edsell... 
Samuel Eburne ■ 
David Eddows-.. 
Widow Fancy... 
William Fancy . - 
William Frost... 

Bichard Floyd.. 

Joshua Garlick — 
William Herricks. • 

Thomas Helme 

Thomas Hulse 

Thomas Harlow. ■ . 

Zachariah Hawkins . . 

John Jenners 

Thomas Jenners.. . 
Widow John Jenners 

William Jayne.. 
Bohert Kellam. 

Jacob Longbottom.. 
Joseph Longrbottom. 

Daniel Lane — 
Thomas Mapes . 
Andrew Miller.. 

Francis Money .... 

Joseph Mapes 

Hugh Mosier 

John Money 

John Mosier 

Widow Money 

Cap Matthias Nickels 
Nathaniel Norton.. 
Jonathan Owen .... 

Henry Perring... 

Thomas Price 

Capt. John Piatt. . 
William Poole — 
Widow Perring:- . 
George Phillips... 

Henry Hogers.. 
Edward Rouse.. 

John Roe.. 

Bichard Smith 

Samuel Shermon. 
Arthur Smith .... 
William Satteriy . 

Benjamin Smith.. 

Robert Smith 

William Salyer... 
Thomas Smith.... 

Obadiah Seward.. . 

John Smith 

Selah Strong 

Col. Henry Smith . 
Thomas Thorp 


John Thomas sen .. 
John Oniomasjun.. 

John Thompson 

William Tayler 

Capt. John Underbill. 
Richard WoodhuU . 

Richard Waring.. 

George Wood 

John Wood 

Thomas Wood 

Peter Whltehaire... 

Thomas Ward 

John Ward 

Robert Woolley 

William 'Williams.. 
John Wade 











































































{of 36 








4of 12 

4of 16 





























iof 15 



iof 25 





*of 51 















iof 19 

iof 47 


iof 47 

iof 24 





Jof 26 
iof 5(1 


iof 21 


iof 24 


iof 28 


iof 10 


iof 16 

iof 19 iof 47 


iof 51 

iof 8 







Iof 34 





iof 28 




iof 40 

iof 17 



iof 26 

iof 16 




iof 19 

iof 9 

iof 51 


iof 21 


iof 24 








lof 10 
iof 16 







lof 34 
jot 7 


iof 44 

iof 40 



iof 33 jof 27 


iof 46 

lof 26 







iof 15 

iof 34 


iof 43 

31 Jof IS 



iof 38 
iof 44 


39' 53 



iof 7 

iof 27 
Jof 46 




iof 4 

iof 19 






Jof 48 



jof 21 


Jof 43 




iof 43 

iof 15 







iof 43 

iof 38 




iof 17 

iof 12 


iof 18 

jof 54 



iof 40 


iof 26 















Jot 30 

lof 25 



of 21 

lof 38 



lof 43 

lof 26 





iof 17 









iof 40 

iof 5 







iof 18 










lof 49 












Errors may exist in the opposite table, or wrong- impiessioua arise 
from it ia consequence of the following oauses:-The same names were 
so often preserved in families that what appears in the list as one man 
drawing lots in different divisions made many years apart may have 
been two or more men, belonging to as many successive generations. 
On the other hand the reckless orthography practiced in olden times 
upon proper names has doubtless caused In some instances the same 
individual to be represented on different lists by different names. Then 
again it appears that the names of some men were preserved as 
representing their estates or rights in common long after the men 
themselves were dead. The records also may have led us into error by 
the occasional omission of the distinguishing affixes junior and senior 
to names that are otherwise duplicated. The lists furnish evidences 
which support suspicion of these inaccuracies, but we are hardly war- 
ranted in attempting to correct them. 

The following explanations refer by the numbers to the different di- 
visions in the table: 

1. The division of Old Field of 1661 was made in six-acre lots. 

2. The second division of Old Field was made later, in lots of three and 
four acres, the numbers in each class commencing at 1, &c. The figure 
and letter a attached to each number denote which class is meant. 

3. The tract of meadows at Fireplace belonging to the tract of upland 
and meadows bought of Tobacus June 10th 1664. It was probably divid- 
ed in 1670, agreeable to a resolution of the trustees on the 16th of Janu- 
ary of that year. 

4. The lots in Newtown, memoranduni of which is dated 1667, contain- 
ed two classes, a division to the original settlers and another to the new 

5. A memorandum of this "first lootmente" is dated 1668, and ap- 
pears to have reference to no particular division of lots, but was simply 
designed to show who were shareholders in the town, and the number 
of shares held by each man. The names of Henry Brooks, Thomas 
Smith and William Frost, however, show evidence of having been 
placed on the list at a later date. The records otherwise show these men 
to have been admitted to proprietary rights respectively August MW, 
March 16th 1672, and September 26th 1672. The name of " Mr. Bayly '. 
was on the list, but was crossed, and this agrees with the fact that John 
Bayles was a resident here from March Uth 1669 to April 23nd 1674. 

6. The meadows lying between Connecticut and Mastic rivers, called 
the " New Purchase," the final deed for which was obtained, after re- 
peated attempts, September 19th 1674. The division is dated 1675. 

1. The date of this division is uncertain. It was laid out about the 
year 1680 and was located near the Old Man's. 

8, 9, 10 and 11 were divisions of meadow in different part of the town. 

The last one was largely made up of patches here and there, some of 

the individual shares being described as follows: " Thomas Ward, at 

Stony Brook ;" " Zachariah Hawkins, at W. Meadow ;" " Henry Brooks, 

on Ward's Island;" "Mr. Lane, on the olde field Beach;" "Eobart 

Wolle, wethin ye olde field Gate;" "Samuel Dayton, by the Mill 

Creek;" " William Frost, by John Hallat in ye meadow mill creek;" 

" Samuel Akerly, by Kichard Woodhull close;" "John Wade, between 

Richard Woodhull & Nathl. Brewster;" "Wm. William, by John Wood's 

house;" and " Joseph Mapes, by William Satterly barn, on the east side 

of the Mill creek." 
13. This was land upon which most of the village of Yaphank lies. 

13. Extending from the east line of the town west to Miller's Place, it 
was bounded on the south by the Country road and reached north to the 
sound except where land already appropriated intervened along the 
north side. This division was completed May 4th 1729, by Hiehard 
Woodhull and Nathaniel Brewster, surveyors. 

14. These lots covered a tract from the Smithtown line to the Con- 
necticut Elver, and from the Country road south to Winthrop's patent, 
on the Middle Island line. (This line runs from a point nearSwezey's 
mills at Taphank westward to a point about four and a half miles 
south of the Country road at the Smithtown line.) The survey of this 
division was completed May 4th 1731, by the same surveyors as the above. 

15. The east division on the south side, commonly called " Great Divi- 
sion," was made December 10th 1733, the survey being made by Nathan- 
iel Biggs and Samuel Smith. This comprehended a tract bounded north 
by the Middle Island line, south by an irregular line along the northern 
bounds of lands already taken up, east by the west line of Smith's pat- 
entship and west by the " Little Division." The irregular line spoken 
of - the south bound of both " Great Division " and " Little Division " 
— ran from a" White Oak tree nereyamphank" [creel:], ass the path 
Euns [south Country road from Southaven] to bever Dam Swamp, and 
then Euning due Sothwest untill it comes to a Due North Line from a 
pine tree in the heed of Dayton's swamp [Osborn's Brook], said to bee 
Eobert Hose's bound tree:" thence running due west to the line of 
Winthrop's patent. The stump of " Robert Rose's bound tree " was re- 
placed by a permanent stone fixed there by a committee of town 
trustees January 26th 1872. This division extended nearly three miles. 

16. This, called " Little Division," lay between the one last mentioned 
and Winthrop's patent, being bounded north and south by the exten- 
sion of the same lines as the north and south bounds of the other. It 
was laid out at the same time and by the same man. Its extent east 
and west was about four-fifths of a mile. 

17. The West Division of Long Lots extended from the west line of 
the town to a point about Selden, where it joined the East Division of 
Long Lots, and from the Country road north to the irregular line of the 
vai'ious parcels of land along the north side that were otherwise dis- 
posed of. It was laid out March 10th 1734 by Samuel Thompson, John 
Wood, Thomas Strong and Samuel Smith. 

18. This was bounded north and south by the continuation eastward 
of the same bounds as the last named, and extended eastward from that 
division to the Wading River Great Lots, joining that division between 
Middle Island and Coram, about seven and seven-eighths miles east of 
the Smithtown line. It was laid out at the same time and by the same 
men as the last. 

19. This division of "skirts" was the clearing up of the "odds and 
ends" after the two divisions north of the Country road had been 
made. It was made about the year 1735. 

20. A small division lying at Middle Island, between a former one (12j 
and the Country road, and reaching from the head of Connecticut River 
to the line of Smith's patent. It was laid out April 20th 1739. 

21. A division near Nassekeag, extending in a northeasterly and 
southwesterly direction about one and one-eighth miles and being 
about two-thirds of a mile in width. This was laid out Aprir24th 1739, 
by Robert Robinson and John Smith. 

22. Another small division near Nassekeag, being a triangular piece, 
laid out May 2nd 1743. 

23. Lots on the South Beach from Whalehouse Point to Long Cove, a 
distance of three miles 54 chains, surveyed and divided in June 1774. 

Besides the above divisions there were others of smaller size in dif- 
ferent parts, mostly about the north side, in the neighborhood of the 
original settlement. Among these were the home lots in the original 
town plat; the 20-acre lots laid out April Sd 1716, lying west of the town; 
the " Equalizing Division," ordered June 5th 1721 ; the Sheep Pasture 
Division at Old Man's, laid out February 14th 1737 ; the Sheep Pasture 
Division southeast of the town, laid out April 6th 1738; the West 
Meadow Neck Division, and the 30-acre lots. 

The Town Government. 

At the early town meetings punctual attendance of 
all the members of the colony was desired. When the 
work of the town meeting was impeded by the tardiness 
or non-attendance of some it was deemed necessary to 
establish some punishment to remedy or prevent difficulty 
on this score. Accordingly on the first of December 
1659 the town meeting ordered a forfeit of two shillings 
six pence for such delinquency where a sufficient ex- 
cuse could not be given. The same desire to stimulate 
promptness in attendance seems to have taken hold upon 
the trustees, for they about 1695 ordered a fine of a pint 
of rum to be paid by any one of their members who did 
not appear at the time and place appointed for an offi- 
cial meeting. In the compilation of the town records 
that have been printed the compiler remarks in a foot 
note that the records do not show that the fine had ever 
been collected. To this may be suggested the proba- 
bility that such fine may have been many times collected 
but disposed of in some other way than being " spread 
upon the minutes." An amendment seems to have been 
made to this in 1702, when the fine for delinquency was 
fixed at three shillings for being even an hour late. This 
was reduced in 1702 to two shillings, and in 1704 one 
"bitt" for being an hour late, or two " bitts " for not 
attending at all. In 17 10 the fine for not attending was 
raised to three shillings. The regulation no doubt soon 
became a dead letter. 

The character of men was closely watched by the set- 
ters. Moral irregularities were often severely dealt with. 
At a court held December 8th 1663 William Poole was 
fined ten shillings for cursing, and William Fancy and 
Henry Rogers were each found guilty of lying and fined 
ten shillings. Actions for defamation were frequent in 



the courts, and the plaintiff generally laid his claim for 
heavy damages; but a small part ever being allowed, 
however. These defamation cases were not confined to 
the male members of the community, but we have start- 
ling reminders that the bane of a slanderous tongue fre- 
quently fastened itself upon the fair sex as well. 

Corporal punishment in some form — though not to the 
rigid extent that it was practiced in some towns — was in 
vogue here. May nth 1696 Jonathan Owen was em- 
ployed to make a pair of stocks for the town, in connec- 
tion with certain work of repairing the meeting-house. 
May 2nd 1716 the town meeting voted a pair of stocks 
for the use of Justice Brewster at Fireplace. 

Wolves were more or less common when the European 
settlers commenced their work here. The town meeting 
March loih 1667 voted a premium of sixpence a head 
for every wolf killed ; the head to be brought to the con- 
stable, who was to pay the premium. As late as 1806 the 
town meeting voted a bounty of fifty cents a head for 
every fox caught within the town limits. Again in 
1833 the town voted to raise a bounty for the destruc- 
tion of foxes. 

Among the most curious of the early town regulations 
we quote the following: 

" Orders and constatutions maed by the Athoaty of 
this towne 8th July 1674, to be duly cept and obsarved. 

" I. Whereas there have beane much abuese a pro- 
phaneing of the lord's day by the younger sort of people 
in discourssing of vaine things and Runing of Raesses. 
Therefore we make an order that whoesoever shall doe 
the lieke againe notis shall be taken of them, and be pre- 
sented to the nex court, there to answer for ther falts 
and to Reseve such punishment as thay desarve. 

" 2. Whereas It have bene two coman in this towne for 
young men and raaieds to be out of ther father's and 
mother's house at unsesonable tieras of niete, It is there 
fore ordered .that whoesoever of the younger sort shall 
be out of there father's or mother's house past nien of 
the clock at niet shall be sumonsed in to the next court, 
and ther to pay cort charges with what punishment the 
cort shall se cause to lay upon them, ecksept thay can 
give suffissient Reson of there being out late. 

"3. Whereas god have bene much dishonered, much 
pressious tyme misspent and men Impovershed by drink- 
ing and tipling, ether in ordnery or other privet houses, 
therefor, we maek this order that whoe soe ever shall 
thus transgres or sett drinking above two houres shall 
pay 5s. and the man of the house for letting of them 
have it after the tyme perfixed shall pay los., exsept 
strangers onely. 

"4. that whosoever shall run any Rases or Run other- 
wise a hors back in the streets or within the towne platt 
shall forfet los. to thee use of the towne. 

"These above sayed orders is sett up and mad knowne 
the day and daete above written." 

That the town fathers were considerably disposed to 
make use of strong drinks, and from that down to the 
use of cider, may be seen from the above regulation^ 
which seemed necessary at that early period, as well as 
by the item that an " ordnary " was licensed July 12th 
1670 to sell strong drinks at retail. The instructions of 
the town to its committee August 22nd 1671 to take 
" likers " with them when they went to purchase the 
south meadows of the Indians show to some extent the 

value they pfaced upon strong drinks. Then we have 
reason to believe that the settlers were strongly attached 
to cider, and began making preparations for its produc- 
tion very soon after their arrival. In 1667 — only ten or 
twelve years after their coming — the regular fee for the 
services of arbitrators in settling disputes between neigh- 
bors was a "gallant of sider." 

In line with the matter just referred to the following 
extract from the records is more worthy of preservation 
as a curiosity than for any practical value. 

" Memorandum upon the 4th day of January 1699. 

" it was agreed by the majority of all those that weare 
present at the Raising of the frame of the towne's well 
that on Condition that Moses Owen would treate all those 
that weare present at the saide raising aforesaide, then he 
the saide Moses Owen shall have privilidge of drawing 
water att the aforesaide well, provided that hee the said 
Moses doe beare an Equall proportion of the charge of 
providing and mainetaining buckitts & well ropes for the 
drawing of water thereat, which hee the aforesaide Moses 
accordingly performed." 

" Entered per Timothy Brewster, Clerk." 

Now that the subject of wells is suggested it may be 
remarked that the construction of a well was. in those 
days an undertaking of considerable magnitude, and the 
town occasionally interested itself in the matter, as in the 
case above. May 4th 1701 the. trustees allowed David Ed- 
wards liberty to dig a well in the highway against his 
house, and to have the use of it himself for seven years, 
but he was required to give security for any damage that 
might be done by cattle falling into it. January 14th 1722 
the trustees ordered the payment of fifteen pounds to 
Nathaniel Brewster for "Repairing the Well and the 
Towne house." The fact that the well is the first men- 
tioned admits the inference that it was the principal item 
in the combination. The fact that a frame and ropes and 
buckets (plural) are spoken of may suggest that the method 
of drawing water from these primitive wells was by the 
pulley. If so the old " crotch and pole " system may 
have been a later invention, though that is supposed to be 
an ancient one. It may still have been in use at the same 

It has already been hinted that the trades of shoe- 
maker, weaver and blacksmith were especially encouraged 
by the primitive townspeople. This was more emphati- 
cally true with regard to the blacksmith. That trades- 
man was probably a much more important factor in the 
town at that time than either of the others. The settlers 
had to depend upon him for a large part of their farming 
implements, their nails for building, and a hundred other 
articles of every day use or convenience which in these 
days are furnished by the foundries and machine shops, 
then unknovyn, and by processes of manufacture then un- 
discovered./ Accordingly, December loth 1686, the people 
in town meeting voted " that Christofer Swaine be ad- 
mitted and incouraged as a smith for this town, and that 
a shop shall be built for ye sd Christofer about May 
next, he paying the workmen by work at his trade." In 
January 1699 the town gave an old shop — perhaps this 
one — to David Edwards, to be his as long as he should 
do the town's work. 



Dogs began to be a nuisance at an early period. De- 
cember i8th 1728 the trustees recite that no care is taken 
to prevent dogs running about without their masters, and 
that great damage has been done by them to flocks of 
sheep; therefore the trustees enact that any person shall 
be at liberty to kill any dog found more than a quarter of a 
mile away from home without being with his master, and 
in case of suit this act to be shown in defense. 

The Products of the Forests. 

At the time of its first occupation by white people the 
greater part of the lands of this town were probably 
covered with a growth of heavy timber. It is probable 
that pine was then, as now, the predominating wood. The 
•cutting of cordwood was begun at an early period. The 
wood growing upon common land was freely appropria- 
ted by the individual owners and perhaps sometimes by 
others. There was danger of abuse, and to prevent this 
the trustees JVlarch 9th 1813 forbade any person cutting 
cordwood or exposing the same for sale in the common 
land without first obtaining license from the trustees or a 
majority of the proprietors. May sth i6go the town 
meeting had voted to- enforce the act of assembly pre- 
viously passed forbidding the turning of swine loose in 
the woods. The claims on trees in the common land 
were regulated by an act of the trustees December 18th 
1728, to the effect that any person cutting down a tree 
and neglecting to trim it for twelve days should forfeit the 
same, and any tenant in common was then free to trim 
out and take possession of such tree. Some timber was 
used at an early date in the manufacture of pipe staves. 
The manufacture of tar was carried on to some extent, 
though but little account of this industry remains. Inci- 
dental reference to it is made as early as 1678, which 
suggests that previous to that date a house occupied by 
men engaged in the business stood upon a certain piece 
of land on Dayton's Neck, at what is now Brookhaven. 
From this circumstance the locality gained some reputa- 
tion as Tarmen's Neck. The industry must have made 
some progress, for in 1716 it was looked upon as of im- 
portance sufficient to excite the trustees to levy a tax 
upon it. June 4th of that year they enacted that every 
barrel of tar made in the town should pay a tax of nine 
pence, and every man having no rights in the town patent 
or commons should pay one shilling six pence a barrel 
for all that he made. Officers were appointed to collect 
this tax — Colonel Floyd on the south side and Selah 
Strong on the north side, and Mr. WoodhuU and Lieu- 
tenant Owen to assist both as needed. 

The greatest use, however, to which the wood of these 
timber lands has ever been put has been for cordwood. 
This industry grew up in the early days, and facilities for 
transporting to market being much better than in many 
parts of the country where timber grew as lustily, the 
business flourished until the discovery and general intro- 
duction of coal supplied the market with a more con- 
venient article of fuel. Long before the railroad pene- 
trated the interior there were frequent landings on the 
shores of the town from which wood was shipped to mar- 

ket. To facilitate the loading of seagoing vessels in the 
South Bay, where the water is shallow near the shore, 
piers were built far out in the bay, and small boats were 
used to carry wood from shore to them, and from them 
vessels of greater draft were loaded. A grant for such a 
pier or frame was given by the trustees to Smith Mott, 
May sth 1812. This pier was to stand a little west of the 
riiouth of Connecticut River, twenty-five rods from the 
shore of his land, and in size to be 16 by 45 feet. A grant 
for a similar one was made to Zophar Tooker, February 
2nd 1819; this to be located a little west of Long Point. 
They were not continued long. 

Now that the subject of docks is suggested it may not 
be out of place to remark that the trustees, beginning 
about one hundred years ago, have granted privileges of 
extending docks or wharves into the water from the shores 
of the town in cases too frequent to admit of specific 
mention. These grants were at first given for an indefinite 
term — usually as long as a wharf should be maintained in 
good repair — as a public convenience. The rates of 
wharfage were established and regulated from time to 
time by the trustees, and they reserved to the town the 
right of free passage over wharves for all articles belong- 
ing to the corporation. Later the custom of limiting the 
grant to a term of years, at a small annual rental, came 
into use. 

First Mills. 

Previous to the erection of any mills in the town it is 
said the settlers sent their grain to Connecticut to be 
ground. The need of more convenient facilities for con- 
verting their grain into flour being strongly felt, Daniel 
Lane, with the assistance and encouragement of the towns- 
people, was the first to undertake the enterprise of es- 
tablishing a mill here. On the twelfth day of the 
tenth month in the year 1664 eighteen of the princi- 
pal inhabitants placed their hands to an agreement that if 
Mr. Lane would build a substantial mill, and keep it in re- 
pair for the grinding of the town's corn, they would erect 
a strong dam, and pay him besides twenty shillings a lot 
for the proprietary rights they represented. He was further 
to have absolute possession of the mill and dam, and to 
have for grinding two quarts of every bushel of English 
grain, and two quarts and a pint of every bushel of Indian 
corn. Subsequently mills were established in different 
parts of the town under grants from the trustees, who 
generally stipulated that the grantee should keep in repair 
a " good and sufficient " mill, and grind the town's grain 
at toll rates which were established by the grant. In case 
of his failure to comply with the conditions at any time 
the right of the stream was to revert to the town. May 
28th 1701 the trustees appointed a committee to notify 
Arthur Futhy that if he failed to put his mill in " good 
and sufficient repair " within six months the privilege of 
the stream would be sold at public sale. 

Whale Fishing. 

Brookhaven was interested at an early period in the 
whale fishery, though not to the extent that the towns on 



the ocean eastward were. The custom of running out 
with small boats and striking whales as they came along 
the shore was practiced, and its results appear to have 
been very profitable. June ryth 1667 the town instruct- 
ed Daniel Lane to " speke to his honer the governer con- 
cerning the whales at the south that comes within our 
bounds to be at our dispossing." The Indians had been 
in the habit of appropriating the whales that drifted 
upon the beach, and the while settlers, seeing the gain 
that might be derived from them, were anxious to buy 
off the Indian claim and secure to themselves the man- 
aging interest in an enterprise which they believed 
they could operate to great advantage. Whatever 
was the result of Mr. Lane's interview with the gov- 
ernor we find that on the 23d of the following March the 
inhabitants of Brookhaven bought of the Unkachaug 
sachem Tobacus the right to all the whales that should 
come within the bounds of their patent upon the beach. 
For this right the inhabitants agreed to pay a royalty of 
five pounds in wampum or some other commodity for 
each whale they received. Some convenient point seems 
to have been designated as a place for trying out the oil, 
and the inhabitants further agreed with the Indians to 
give three fathoms of wampum to the party that should 
inform them of the coming of a whale upon the beach, 
and ten fathoms for bringing a whale round to the place 
designated for their reception. January 6th 1687 the 
trustees directed the assessors to raise a tax, a part of 
which was to be paid in whale oil (thirty-nine barrels) at 
twenty shillings a barrel. Some idea of the magnitude 
of this source of profit may be gained from the report of 
Earl Bellomont to the Lords of Trade July 22nd 1699, 
in which he declares that Colonel Smith admitted to him 
that he had in a single year cleared ^^500 by the whales 
taken along the beach then claimed by him. A company 
of men under the direction of Stephen Bayley at some 
time previous to 1693 were engaged in whale-fishing from 
the shore, and were stationed upon the beach opposite 
Moriches, where they had a lookout from which they 
could discern a whale some distance at sea. This stage 
or scaffold upon which the watchman stood gave the 
locality its name Bayley's Stage, which was in use many 
years afterward. 

Control of Settlement and Land Sales. 

It has been already intimated that the primitive town 
exercised vigilance in guarding against the admission of 
undesirable persons to the rights of proprietors and the 
privileges of its citizenship. In 1662 it appears that a 
man by the name of Richard Bulleck strayed into the 
town and bought some timber and plank of John Ketch- 
am for the purpose of building a boat. The townsmen, 
learning of this circumstance, agreed to give him four 
months' time in which to complete his boat, and then 
instructed him to leave the town, and in the meantime 
not to make any disturbance or buy any land in the town. 
To this the said Bulleck was required to consent, and 
further that the penalty for violation of these terms 
should be confiscation of all his property. March 8th 

1664 the town meeting ordered that, to the end that the 
town be not " spoyled or impoverished," no accommoda- 
sions should be divided and sold in small parts, but that 
they should be sold entire, unless consent of the over- 
seers and constable were obtained. At the same time 
it was ordered that consent from the same authority 
must be obtained by any one desiring to be admitted as 
an inhabitant. The overseers and constable June 29th 
1666 established a fine of twenty pounds sterling for vio- 
lation of this principle. Instances of such violation oc- 
curred in i67r. February i2th -charges had been made 
against John Roe, Joseph Daves, and Samuel Akerly for 
selling land without the necessary permission, and the 
court fined the first three pounds, or to get his land back 
again, which the others having already done, they were 
only required to pay a fine of two shillings six pence 
each. The court, however, supplements its leniency 
with the declaration, "forever hereafter noe man to 
plede Ignorance, but to pay the full fine." 

Land was taken up during the first years with great ir- 
regularity — small patches being laid out to individual 
owners wherever they chose, and as they might select. 
May 2nd 1704 it was ordered that no land shall be taken 
up within a mile and a half of the meeting-house. Some 
who were more greedy than others took advantage of 
their opportunity for doing so and obtained more land 
than belonged to them. This being discovered a com- 
mittee was appointed June sth 1721 to survey and lay out 
lands so that all might have alike. 

The following interpretation of the bounds of lots ly- 
ing adjacent to the shores was given by the trustees Feb- 
ruary 6th r753: 

" Lotts that were laid out on ye Sound and harbors 
ware Designated to extend to ye Bottom of ye Clefts 
against ye said lotts, that is, including all of ye said Clefts 
to ye Bottom; and that Each and every person owning 
Such Lotts shall be Entitled to ye Same to the Extent by 
force of this vote." 

As the initiatory restrictions faded into disuse the num- 
ber of inhabitants in the town increased more rapidly. 
Occasional tracts of common land were sold and the 
money appropriated to such uses as the trustees approved. 
Those uses however were not always such as were ap- 
proved by all the proprietors. Individual owners — es- 
pecially those holding large shares— did not care to have 
their property disposed of in that way. Accordingly 
we find in May 1725 Colonel Floyd and Daniel Brewster 
protesting against the town selling any more common 
land. January r4th 1733 there had been a lawsuit car- 
ried on between the trustees and Major William Smith 
with regard to the ownership of certain meadows. Some 
undivided land of the town had been sold to pay the ex- 
pense incurred by the trustees. As some of the propri- 
etors had no interest in the meadows a committee com- 
posed of Samuel Thompson, Samuel Smith and Richard 
Woodhull was appointed to equalize the proprietors' rights. 

The Common Pastures. 

The following notes of orders in regard to the 




mon pastures will show something of the way in which 
they were managed. 

August 22nd 167 1 a town meeting voted that the 
" old feld and litle neck shall be fred of cattle and 
hogs six weeks after niiklmes next and all fenses cept up 
as it is in somer, and so to continue from yere to yere 
untell the towne se cause to breke this order." 

June loth 1672 the inhabitants of the high street em- 
ployed Richard Waring and Samuel Akerly to take their 
cows from home every morning, drive them to the com- 
mon pasture, look after them through the day and re- 
turn them at night; their patroos being the people who 
lived between Goodman Jenner's corner and Robert Ak- 
erly's hollow. The arrangement was to continue through 
the season, and the " cow ceepers " were to be paid two 
shillings six pence a day and a pound of butter for 
every cow, payment to be made in corn, wheat and 

The common land about the Old Man's was set apart 
as a pasture, and the decree of August 6th 1689 pro- 
nounced it a pasture in common forever. 

May 5th 1690 a town meeting voted to enforce the act 
of assembly passed October 31st 1683 forbidding the 
range of the woods to swine. This regulation must have 
been wantonly disregarded; we see frequent mention of 
orders to the same effect, and prescribing fines for viola- 
tion of them, but still the violation s-eems to have con- 
tinued. As late as 1800 and several years afterward the 
practice of letting hogs run at large seems to have pre- 
vailed to such an extent as to be a nuisance, requiring 
frequent legislation of the trustees. The town meeting 
of the last named year forbade hogs running at large 
without yokes and rings and ear-marks. The trustees 
confirmed the action and added a fine of twenty-five 
cents. The town meeting in 1802 ordered that hogs 
should not run in the highways without yokes, rings in 
their noses, and their owner's ear-marks. In 1803 this 
was strengthened by- a fine of seventy-five cents for every 
violation. The same restriction was repeated in the 
following years until 1826, when the trustees. May 
2nd, altogether prohibited hogs running in the 

The following abstract from the records is a curiosity 
worth preserving. It is added to the confirmation of 
former laws concerning cattle, cornfields and fences, in 
this language: 

"Whereas swine are unruly creatures & not, easily 
turned by fenceing It is further ordered that all Swine 
from halfe a yeare old & upward shall not run in the 
comons near any inclosiers without yoakes of a foot or 
nine inches above the neck and a cross barr of two foot 
under the throate & all swine under halfe a yeare old 
shall bee kept within their owners inclosiers and not to 
runn at randum in the commons: And by Reason much 
damage is done yearely by unRuly horses being Turned 
loos in the Comons: without being sidlined with a paire 
of fetters noe horses or maires shall runn within a mile 
of the Towne without being lyable of Poundige ordered 
likwise that all fences shall bee of four foot & a halfe 
high good & strong and soe closse that sheep cannot goe 


May nth 1696 the trustees, expressing their fears that 
the commons will be overstocked with cattle, order that 
no man shall turn upon the commons more than fifteen 
cattle, five horses and twenty sheep on one right of com- 
monage. Any one violating this order subjected his 
stock in excess of the lawful number to be impounded, 
and in case of refusal to pay the pound fee the animals 
should be sold publicly and the trustees should give a 
warranty. On the same day it was ordered that any man 
was justified in destroying any swine turned loose within 
a mile of the town plat without being yoked. 

May 4th 1697 the town meeting directed that all the 
common lands westward of the two swamps on the south 
side of the Old Man's path above the head of Drown' 
Meadow, extending southward to the edge of the Great 
Plains, northward to the Old Man's path, and west a mile 
beyond the south path, lie common for feed for cattle 
and sheep. 

The clearing of underbrush upon the commons so as 
to favor the growth of grass for pasture received in early 
years general attention and united effort. In 1696 every 
man having a right of commonage was required to fur- 
nish two days' work a year toward clearing the under- 
brush. The town surveyors were charged with the duty 
of appointing the days for this worlc, and were required 
to give a week's notice. 

Three sheep pastures were laid out in 1714; one, con- 
taining 150 acres, near the Old Man's, another near Nas- 
sekeag and another west of the town. 

About 1715 a custom prevailed of selling the grass of 
the common meadows at South annually at auction to 
the highest bidder. 

April 13th 1730 a large tract of land lying between the 
"Old Man's cart path " and the "path that leads to 
Nassakeag " was set apart for a sheep pasture, "to lie and 
remain unappropriated forever.'' 

November 19th 1733 the trustees ordered that no sheep 
should run at large in the common from November 25th 
to March 31st, under penalty of having them impounded. 
During that part of the year no one was required to fence 
against sheep. Any freeholder driving stray sheep to the 
pound was entitled to receive from the owner one penny 
per head, but the fee was in no case to amount to more 
than a shilling. 

The little bayberries which may even now be seen 
growing upon wild lands were in early times highly valued 
for their product of tallow. They then probably grew 
more abundantly than now, and the greedy disposition of 
some prompted them to begin gathering them before 
their maturity had perfected the greatest possible amount 
of tallow. To prevent this abuse of a public interest the 
trustees, August 6th 1787, enacted that no bayberries 
should be gathered upon the commons or beaches of the 
town until the isth of September, under penalty of a 
fine of sixteen shillings, one-half of which was to be paid 
to the person giving information and the other half to 
the town. 

As the animals running in herds upon the common 
pastures became more numerous the system of ear-marks 



was devised to enable the different owners to identify 
their property. Both ear-marks and brands were in use 
as early as the year 1700. The latter probably soon af- 
ter fell into disuse. A description of the peculiar mark 
of each individual was registered upon the books of the 
town, and the entry generally accompanied a rude illus 
tration to correspond. We copy from the town records 
a few of the earliest and most curious of these entries for 
example. The number of earmarks registered be- 
tween April 6th 1758 and February 9th 1792 was five 
hundred and sixtv-six. 

"May ye 18th 1758." 

"Thomas Helme his Ear mark is a Crop on ye Right 
Ear and a Slope ye under Side ye Same Ear and a half 
penny ye uper Side ye Left Ear and a Crop on ye Left 

" September ye sth 1758." 

" William Brewster his Ear marke is a Swallow fork in 
Each Ear." 
" October ye igth 1758." 

" Humphrey Avery Jr — his Ea'r mark is an Ell ye uper 
sid of ye Right Ear." 

" The said Avery hath given up this mark." 
" October ye 26th 1758 " 

" Humphrey Avery Jr — his Ear mark is Squar Crop 
on ye Left Ear and a Slop Crop on ye uper Sid ye Right 
" May ye i8th 1759 " 

Isaac Biggs his Ear mark is a Crop on ye Left Ear 
and-a half flower of Deluce ye under Side ye S.ime Ear." 

"July ye 17th 1759 " 

"Frank Burtos Ear mark is a crop on ye Left Ear and 
a half penny ye uper Side of ye Right Ear and a nick 
ye under Side of ye Right Ear." 

"February ye 25th 1760: Selah Strongs Ear mark is a 
half penny the under side of ye Right Ear and a hole in 
ye Same Ear." 
" May ye 19th 1763 " 

" Able Swezey his Ear mark is a Crop on ye Right 
Ear and a half penny ye under side of ye same ear and a 
half penny ye uper Side the Left Ear and a Slit in ye 

"April the 22nd 1788 Zebulum WoodhuU's Earmark is 
a hollow Crop in the right Ear." 

" May the i2th 1788. John Biggs his Ear Mark is a 
Slop under the left ear and a latch under the Right and 
a half penny under each." 

A pound for the confinement of animals found at 
large in violation of law was at an early day found to be 
necessary. The first mention of one is in 1672, when 
(March 16th) Henry Perring is authorized to construct 
one and to act as pound master. But there had been 
one in use before that time, probably from the very first 
year of settlement, since we find the old one is given to 
Perring for his own use. At that time the " pounder's " 
fees were established as follows: three pence for a horse, 
two pence for a beast, one penny for a hog and a half- 
penny for a sheep or goat. Other pounds were subse- 
quently established — one in 1701 " against Jacob Long- 
bothan's near the Brook," in 1716 another to be built at 
Fireplace, another at a place not named in 1727, and 
another at Old Man's in 1740. In 1722 Nathaniel 
Crewster was chosen to keep the pound key for a year. 

Town Finances. 

In relation to the matter of raising taxes the town 
meeting voted May 2Slh 1668 that rates should be levied 
by lands only, and that every accommodation should pay 
alike. To make the justice of this order more apparent 
it was at the same time ordered that every inhabitant 
should have his lands made up equal in acres. 

At the town meeting in July 1672 it was voted that no 
more land should be laid out to strangers. This may 
have been the time when the number of proprietary rights 
was fixed at its maximum limit. 

A town meeting held May 9th 1676 was made notable 
by the presence of the governor of the colony. It is 
presumed that he took some part in the deliberations and 
probably gave some wise advice to their action. It was 
at that time agreed that every man's allotment of forty 
acres should be made up as near as convenient, and after 
that land might be given to any approved young man 
who should apply to the constable, justice and overseer. 
Ten acres seems to have been the quantity generally 
given to young men according to this order. 

When the question of obtaining a patent under Gover- 
nor Dongan was agitated a special town meeting for the 
consideration of the subject was held at the meeting- 
house on Monday the 29th of November 1686. Some 
steps had already been taken and Samuel Eburne had 
gone to New York on the business. At that meeting the 
town voted to pay the expenses already incurred by Mr. 
Eburne, and delegated Andrew Gibb to join him in repre- 
senting the town, with instructions to proceed according 
to former agreements. There appears to have been a 
difference of opinion between Mr. Eburne and the town 
in regard to the matter — perhaps touching the form and 
terms of the patent; for a few days later, the town being 
apprised of Mr. Eburne's refusal to act according to 
their instructions, another meeting was held (December 
Toth) and Thomas Jenner was chosen to join Mr. Gibb 
in prosecuting the application for a patent. The busi- 
ness was then successfully accomplished and the patent 
issued on the 27th of the same month. January 6th of 
the following year the trustees ordered that releases be 
given to the inhabitants for all houses and lands possess- 
ed then or taken up before the town's patent. A warrant 
was given to the assessors at the same time for raising 
;^ri2 to meet the expense of the patent. Of this sum 
^20 was to be paid in twenty barrels of whale oil de- 
livered at New York, jQig in nineteen barrels of whale 
oil delivered on the south coast, and the balance in cows 
and calves or current money, before the 15th of the en- 
suing April. In order to make the assessment equitably 
the town meeting ordered later that all the inhabitants 
be required to bring accounts, " fairly written," of their 
respective properties, to the assessor's, " at or before the 
29th day of September being Michaelmas day." Each 
man neglecting to do so should pay the assessor six pence 
for the trouble of calling upon him, and any man with- 
holding a full account of his land should forfeit five 
shillings an acre for all that his account was short. 



The different rates to be made up in 1688 were county 
rate, judge's rate, minister's rate, quit-rent rate, governor's 
rate and the town rate. The most of these rates were 
payable in produce or cattle, but the quit-rent probably 
had to be paid in money. 

In respect to the payment of quit-rents we are led to 
suppose that great irregularity existed. The forty shil- 
lings named in the patent was paid for the following two 
years, but the change of government which followed gave 
occasion for change in this matter. Under some pretext 
or another the demand of Governor Fletcher, whose ad- 
ministration commenced in 1692, must have been for a 
greater sum than the patent named, since we find a rate 
of £^\2 los. 3d. being ordered June 9th of that year for 
the payment of quit-rent. In 1695 the trustees ordered 
a quit-rate to be levied on improved land and stock. This 
was collected, — what sum we are not told, — but it does 
not appear to have been paid over; for August 30th of 
that year the trustees ordered that the money which had 
been left " in bank " with Timothy Brewster " with an in- 
tent for the quit-rent " should be otherwise appropria- 
ted — at least a part of it. This leads us to conjecture 
that after raising the money the authorities determined 
not to pay more than the amount originally named. How 
long the payment of even that sum was continued we are 
not informed. March i6th 1702 a town meeting was 
called for the purpose of considering the subject, the town 
being then several years delinquent in its payments. The 
justice failing to appear at this meeting nothing was done. 
It is probable that the payment of quit-rents from that 
time, or soon after, ceased. 

Brookhaven in Leisler's Time. 

The following items indicate something of the position 
of Brookhaven during the period of anarchy which fol- 
lowed the accession of William and Mary to the throne 
of England, February i6th 1689, and at the restoration of 
order in 1691. 

At a town meeting held April 29th 1689 it was voted 
that Joseph Tooker should continue constable until an- 
other should be chosen in his stead, and that the 
inhabitants would be obedient to the officers of militia 
formerly established, and that they would regard and 
obey Richard Woodhull jr. as justice of the peace 
until further order. The town also voted the same day 
to render the same respect and obedience to Richard 
Smith jr. 

Fearing that the popular excitement and unsettled con- 
dition of the government might suggest to the Indians an 
opportunity of committing acts of hostility, or that they 
might sympathize with the belligerent tribes of the north- 
ern-frontier, the town meeting on the 7th of the following 
month decided to disarm the Indians and to leave the 
guns of those on the south side with Captain Woodhull 
there. It is probable that no trouble of a serious nature 
was experienced in carrying out this order. Owing to 
the uniformly friendly relations existing between the 
townspeople and the Indians, and the confidence which 
the latter reposed in Captain Woodhull, they were ready 

to submit to almost any demand that with a little argu- 
ment could be made to appear at all reasonable. 

On the 8th of June the town meeting delegated Cap- 
tain Woodhull to represent the town in the convention at 
New York in the interest of the " good and security of 
the country," and the trustees were instructed to give 
him the proper credentials. Justice Richard Smith was 
also authorized to go as second or alternate, and the 
town agreed to bear the expense of the delegation. 

May 19th 1690, in accordance with a plan that had 
been adopted by the neighboring towns, this town 
elected officers to carry on a temporary government. 
These were: Thomas Jenner, constable; Peter White- 
haire, Arthur Futhy and Thomas Helme, commissioners; 
Timothy Brewster, clerk; John Jenners and Timothy 
Brewster, assessors; and Richard Floyd, collector. The 
operation of the town government by virtue of the patent 
was suspended, and the ruling power reverted to its origi- 
nal seat, the democratic people. As a consequence the 
election of trustees in 1690 was passed over. November 
24th a town meeting warned by the constable was held; 
the question of a tax levy of three pence to the pound 
was discussed, and a committee was appointed to gather 
from the inhabitants the valuations of their estates and 
report them to the assessors. 

Governor Sloughter having taken the head of the gov- 
ernment at New York in March 169 1, on the 28th of that 
month a town meeting was held here, under his warrant, 
for the election of burgesses for Suffolk. The town 
chose John Jenner and Timothy Brewster to go to South- 
ampton to represent Brookhaven in convention there. 
The general commission of peace, the great seal of the 
province, and the governor's commission to the military 
officers of the town were published and proclaimed at a 
town meeting on the 6th of April following, and on the 
2 1 St of July the several acts of the last Assembly " weare 
publiquely read." Thus after a suspension of govern- 
ment for about two years the town resumed its place in 
th? colonial government, under which it continued until 
the outbreak of the Revolution. 

" The Time of the Smallpox." 

It may be noted here in passing that in the year 1732 
the smallpox was prevalent in this town. It must have 
made-^as those epidemics generally do — sad havoc 
among the Indian and negro population. Precautions 
were taken by the trustees to prevent as far as possible 
the spread of its ravages. They forbade the inhabitants 
furnishing in any way any strong drink to those classes; 
required masters of families to prevent their servants 
from going out after dark; and offered a premium of 
three shillings for the arrest of any Indian servant or 
negro slave who should in violation of this order be ab- 
sent from home after dark. The decree ordered that 
the persons so convicted should be publicly whipped, 
unless their masters paid for them a fine of six shillings. 
The same premium was offered and the same fine or 
punishment was prescribed for any Indian found drunk 
either by day or by night. Fences were erected — probe- 



bly temporary ones surrounding, infected houses — to pre- 
vend the spread of the disease, and the trustees solemnly 
warned the people against pulling down those fences. 
These regulations were made on the loth of April, and 
were declared to be in force for three months. 

The records show that October 31st 1740 the trustees 
ordered that Henry Smith be reimbursed to the amount 
of twenty shillings for his gun, which was lost by fire 
while in the service of the town "at the time of the 

Old Roads. 

The early trustees and people were zealous in protect- 
ing the rights of the public in the highways. To prevent 
encroachments the trustees, May 28th 1701, called upon 
the people to notify the town clerk of any encroachments. 
As a stimulus to the surveyors of highways to be vigi- 
lant in the discharge of their duties the town meeting, 
May ist 1705, voted that they should be allowed three 
shillmgs an acre for all the land they could find en- 
croached upon by the inhabitants adjoining the high- 

At a meeting of the trustees April 20th 1704 it was 
decided that the inhabitants should engage in the work 
of clearing the highways, according to the directions that 
should be given by Thomas Helme, one of the commis- 
sioners of the county for laying out highways. The 
work was to be performed or begun on May 2nd follow- 
ing, and Thomas Jenner, Timothy Brewster, Daniel 
Brewster and Benjamin Smith were to oversee the work. 
The inhabitants were to work according to their several 
assessments in the county rate, a day's work for every 
fifty pounds or fraction thereof in the county rate. The 
following year the town ordered that men should be sent 
four days in the year to clear the commons and repair 
the highways. In August of that year (1705) men went 
out to clear the middle Country road, one squadron going 
east to " Horn Tavern " and the other going west to the 
Smithtown line. Orders were given again in 1707 tbat 
every freeholder should work two days in clearing the 
commons and highways of undergrowth. It was the duty 
of the surveyors to designate the days when this service 
should be performed. 

The following early record of roads will be of interest 

" March 27th 1712: Att a meeting of ye Trustees, Pres- 
ent Coll Smith, William Satterly, Thomas Jenners, Samuel 
Tomsun, Selah Strong, ordered yt ye Hyways Layd 
oute by the servaires & aproued at ye Courte of sesshons 
bee Entered by ye Clarke. 

" Laide oute at ye olde mans Betwen Mr. Helmes 
Land & Richard miller a hiwaye four Rod wide to ye 

"Betwen John Robersun land & Samuel Daytons 
Lande to ye olde mans Beach a hiwaye layde oute tu Rod 
wide a swinging gate alowed : 

" From ye East side of Mr. Helmes fifty akerlot a 
hyway from ye head of pipestaue Brooke fower Rod wide 
to ye plaines. 

'* A hiwaye Laide oute betwen Ben Davish & Rob- 
crd Robersuns Land to ye heade of ye spring fower 

Rod wide a swinging gate allowed from ye springs to ye 
landing place at ye harbor. 

"A hiwaye Layd from a marked pine tree below 
Ricard Grenes & so rounde by ye pint to Jonathan 
Nortons Brook tu Rod wide & : 4 : Rod wide : by : 
moses Burnets & by Cristel Brooke fower Rod wide to ye 
plaines : : A hiway betwen William Jean and William 
Healmes Lande to ye Drowne medow Beach fower Rod 

"Layd out a hiwaye betwene Jonathan Roses : 20 : 

Aker Lot & moses owens: 20a Lot fower Rod wide 

to ye plaines. Layd out a hiwaye from ye south End of 
ye Towne by Sam'l Muncys a long Joseph Akerlys path 
fower Rod wide to ye plaines. Layde out a hiwaye by 
bengeraans Smiths fielde to ye mouth of Stony Brook 
fower rods wide from ye Towne. A hiwaye layd a Long 
by ye Claye pit & so by John hallats jr. & so to stony 
Brook fower Rod wide. Layd out a hiwaye by John 
Fa — Land upon Jacsbs Longbothom Lande so greed to 
ye fresh pon in ye olde fielde." 

" Suffolk Att a Court of Sessions held at Southampton 
in ye County aforesaid on Last tuesdaye in March 17 13 
the wethin written is Allowed & approved in open Court. 

" Pr. Gradus. a. Gibb, Clarke." 

The oldest road of any considerable length opened in 
this town is that running from Setauket in a southeasterly 
direction through Coram (old Town, road) to Fireplace. 
It was opened soon after the settlement, and was the 
main thoroughfare of travel between the " Town " and 
the settlement and meadows on the south side. For 
many years it was used more than any long road in the 
town, but at the present time its dust is seldom stirred 
by a passing vehicle. Roads from the town to the Wad- 
ing River east and to Smithtown west were also opened 
at an early day. The old Country road through the mid- 
dle of the town east and west was probably broken 
through before the beginning of the last century, and the 
parallel roads on either side were established soon after. 
A road from Old Man's to South was laid out in 1728, 
and another from Old Man's to Wading River at the same 
date. A road from Wading River to South was estab- 
lished in 1738, though having been previously used. The 
following are the principal roads not already mentioned 
that had been laid out before the latter part of the last 
century: The Horseblock, running from Southaven to 
Stony Brook on a generally northwest course; the "Sills 
road," from Bellport to Swezey's mills, Yaphank, in a 
north-northeasterly direction; a road southerly from Co- 
ram to Patchogue; another through Halsey's manor and 
Brookfield southwest to FirepLice mills; the " Wading 
River Hollow road", from Woodville to Middle Island, 
in a southwesterly direction; a road from Yaphank to 
Moriches, running southeasterly; another running on a 
southeasterly course from Miller's Place to Middle Isl- 
and, then following the left bank of Connecticut River 
to Mastic; the "Granny road," running from a point 
just below Middle Island westward to a junction with 
the Horseblock; a short distance beyond which another 
road diverges from the latter on the left, continuing a 
westerly course to Ronkonkoma Pond; a road from Stony 
Brook southerly to the same pond; one from Miller's 
Place to Coram, southwesterly; another from Old Man's 
to Middle Island, southeasterly; and the " Crystal Brook 

trtfi TOWN Of* BROOKrtAVEN. 


Hollow" road, from Strong's Neck — west part of Old 
Man's — to Coram, in a southerly direction. The road 
from Coram to Drown Meadow was laid out August i8th 

The commissioners of highways in the year 1830 di- 
vided the town into forty road districts, which number 
has been iij'ci«ased by the subdivision of original dis- 
tricts as convenience or equity from time to time sug- 

Church and Town. 

From the first years of settlement the observance of 
public worship and the support of gospel principles and 
ordinances was considered one of the most im- 
portant concerns of the town association. True 
to the idea that their duties toward God and toward 
their fellow men went hand in hand, and that it was 
the legitimate province of government to secure the 
fulfillment of both, we find the little colony at a town 
meeting on the 12th of May 1662 voting to give 
Mr. William Fletcher forty pounds a year for dispensing 
the word of God among them. This salary was raised by a 
rate upon the individual inhabitants, and so continued, as 
may be seen from an incidental mention of the fact in g 
record of the following year. Rev. Nathaniel Brewster 
became the minister of the town in 1665, and to provide 
a home for him and his family the constable and overseer 
purchased, October 24th of that year, the house of Mat- 
thew Priar, which, as the record states, had doors and 
partitions and glass windows. 

How long Mr. Fletcher continued in the ministry here 
we are not informed, but the spirit that prompted the 
vote calling him lived and gathered strength with the 
growth of the settlement. When the building of a house 
for the purpose of all public meetings was discussed, Na- 
thaniel Norton, a carpenter, submitted a proposal to build 
one which should be 26 by 30 feet and 10 feet high. 
The matter appeared to stand for a time without motion, 
but in 1671, February 2nd, it was decided that a meeting- 
house 28 feet square should be built. At this time the 
minister's salary was being raised as usual, and that year 
William Satterly in the place of a church warden looked 
after the collection of the minister's rates. 

"At a training day it was ordered by ye major part of 
ye Towne that Mr. Jonah Fordham, of South Hampton, 
be sent unto desiring him to officiate in ye worke of ye 
ministry in this place. Sept. ye 26th 1687." 

The subject of a permanent parsonage seems to have 
been under discussion in 1689, and at a town meeting 
May 7th a committee was appointed to select a suitable 
location. This committee did its work promptly and re- 
ported in favor of the land that had been Goodman 
Moshier's. On the i8th of the same month the town 
meeting accepted the site and resolved to build upon it a 
house the same size as Jonathan Smith's, and it was voted 
to pay ^65 for the land, and the trustees were instructed 
to have the house built at the town's expense. 

April isth 1690 a liberal minded merchant named 
Robert Simpson visited the town and made a donation of 

forty shillings to the minister, which fact is duly pre- 
served on the town records. On the same day a call was 
given by the town to Mr. Dugal Simpson to be its min- 
ister. In this the people of Smithtown joined those of 
this town. 

May 29th 1694 the trustees sent a committee to Fair- 
field to solicit Mr. Webb to be their minister. But a few 
months later, January ist 1695, the trustees instructed 
Timothy Brewster to invite Nathaniel Stone, of Norwalk, 
to visit the town with a view to settlement as their min- 
ister. On the 4th the same month, Colonel Smith, of the 
newly established manor of St. George, and the people 
of Smithtown having joined the townspeople of Brook- 
haven, a yearly salary of ;^40 in money and the use of 
the parsonage were offered by the town meeting to Mr 
Stone. The cost of sending a letter to Mr. Stone was 
twelve shillings, which the trustees afterward paid. 
This, it will be remembered, was before the organization 
of any regular mail service. 

The parsonage land, not being used, was let to Mr. 
Wakeham for a year for forty shillings, and the house 
was let to Moses Owen, who agreed to make some re- 
pairs in payment of rent. 

April 26th 1696 the trustees sent a man to invite Mr. 
Boetell to visit them, and May nth ordered Mr. Owen 
to repair the meeting-house by shingling and clap-board- 
ing and putting in a new sill on the south side. The 
town on the 25th of May sanctioned the action of the 
trustees in inviting Mr. Boetell, and offered the ;^4o in 
money per annum; also at this time hired the house, 
barn and home lot of David Eddows for the use of the 
parish for three years. Mr. Boetell accepted the propo- 
sal made him and was removed hither, the town paying 
the charge by an order of the trustees July 31st 1696. 
But his ministry seems to have been short, for April 6th 
1697 the trustees were again looking for a minister. An 
invitation was sent to Mr. Phillips of Jamaica to visit the 
town with a view to settlement. Timothy Brewster was 
engaged to entertain him when he should come, and 
Lieutenant Floyd to take care of his horse, and the rea- 
sonable charge of all was to be paid by the town. The 
result of this visit was a formal call made April 30th fol- 
lowing, in which the townspeople, with Smithtown and 
the manor of St. George, agreed that, if after one year of 
trial all parties were satisfied with each other, Mr. Phil- 
lips was to receive ^^40 annually in current money; "and 
also for the consideration of his remaining their minister 
during the term of his natural life he is to have the house 
and home lot that was Thomas Jenners's, and one hun- 
dred acres of land near Nassakeag Swamp;" the public 
to be at the expense of moving him hither and putting 
the house in habitable repair. To this agreement the 
names of thirty parishioners are signed. The one hun- 
dred acres of land referred to were laid out by Richard 
Woodhull November 12th 1697, and their boundaries 
were: on the north a line beginning at a " whiteoake 
Tree marked four sides," and running westerly to the 
middle of Nassakeag Swamp, " Joyning to the Land of 
John Bigs; & from thence Running a little Southerly to 



another white oake tree marked four sides; & from 
thence Southerly to a Red oake under a hill marked 4 
sides; soe running Easterly by the sd hill to a chesnutt 
Tree marked 4 sides, to ye Eastward of a Round Swamp; 
soe returning northerly to'the first whiteoake Tree wheare 
first began." 

About this time there appears to have arisen some 
contention between different individuals in regard to 
which should occupy the " chief places " in the church. 
It is possible that this contention may have been carried 
to the extent of a hand-to-hand scuffle for the occupa- 
tion of certain seats of honor. To whatever extent the 
" rude actions " were carried, however, it was ordered 
that every one should be seated in the church according 
to a prescribed plan, which designated that the president 
of the trustees and the clerk should sit under the pulpit — 
which in those days was very much elevated — the trus- 
tees in the front seat; the justices and all who paid forty 
shillings toward the minister's salary at the table — at 
which also Colonel Smith's lady, but no other " woman- 
kind," should be admitted; and the pews to be occupied 
by different classes, graded according to the amount sub- 
scribed to the minister's salary. The scheme was so ar- 
ranged that men, women, girls and boys should not be 
mixed in the same pews. Captain Clarke and Joseph 
Tucker were to act as ushers and see that the arrange- 
ment was carried out. 

The records show that the church and its organization 
and methods were continually undergoing change. It is 
probable that in its forms of worship the primitive church 
observed some of the ceremonies of the Episcopal church. 
Several years earlier than the time of which we are 
speaking Rev. Samuel Eburne, who is supposed to have 
been elected the minister of the town about 1685, at the 
earnest request of some to whom the service from the 
book of common prayer was offensive, consented to omit 
those ceremonies in public worship and in the adminis- 
tration of sacraments to those who desired it. It is fur- 
ther evident that the payment of minister's salaries 
by an arbitrary tax was by this time (1700) discon- 

On the i2th of June 1701 the town meeting voted to 
give Mr. Phillips one hundred acres of land near the 
west line of the town, in addition to the one hundred 
acres already given him. Mr. Phillips having selected 
the location of the land it was granted to him by the 
town February 19th 1702. The location was a place 
called by the Indians Cutsqunsuck. On the 6th of 
August 1702 the trustees gave a warrant for the 

Mr. Phillips desiring to be ordained in due form the 
trustees, October 13th 1702, appointed a committee 
to represent the town in the services of ordination. 

The house in which Mr. Phillips lived being somewhat 
out of repair, the trustees, in accordance with their prom- 
ise, ordered (April 12th 1706) Justice Helme and Daniel 
Brewster to compute the cost and have the old end of 
the house recovered with good oak shingles, and the well 
belonging to it stoned up before winter. At this time 

the two hundred acres of land which had been condition- 
ally granted to him were confirmed to his possession. At 
his own proposition he afterward accepted eight pounds 
from the town in consideration of repairs on tlfe house, 
and agreed to keep the house in repair himself during 
the time he should occupy it. 

In 1 7 10 there seems to have arisen a desire pn the part 
of some for a new meeting-house. The questton was dis- 
cussed in private and in public, and on the 28th of Aug- 
ust, at a town meeting, it was voted upon and agreed that 
a new house should be built, and men were appointed to 
solicit subscriptions for that purpose. There were some, 
however, who opposed the measure and advocated the 
repairing and enlargement of the old one. The sympa- 
thies of a New York merchant, Captain Thomas Clarke, 
were enlisted in the latter plan, and at his own expense 
he built a new end to the building during the year last 
mentioned, and gave it to the town. This gave room for 
several more pews. Still the old house must have been 
in bad condition, and so it continued until. May 6th 1712, 
the town meeting again took up the discussion of the 
question and voted that the old house should be given up 
and a new one built. On the 27th of the same month, 
however, the trustees decided to repair the old house 
enough for temporary use, and also to build a new one 
as soon as practicable. They at the same time ordered a 
;^35 rate to be made for the purpose of carrying forward 
these combined plans. The work now went forward, and 
the location after considerable strife was fixed by lot near 
the old church or town hall. The building was erected, 
and on the gth of August 17 14 was solemnly dedicated 
to the " Honour of Almity God in ye purity of holy Rele- 
gion & in quallyte of a Presbeterian Meeteing House for- 
ever, and no other use or uses whatsoever." The major 
part of the expense of this building was probably met by 
voluntary subscriptions; but the trustees had charge of the 
matter. Some of the subscribers were slow in making 
their payments, and in 1715 the trustees decided to pros- 
ecute those who refused thus to meet their obligations. 
March 5 th 1716 the trustees decided that the meeting- 
houses hould be ceiled within with boards " with all con- 
venient speed." 

At the time of the dedication of the meeting-house 
Richard Floyd gave to the town half an acre of land, to 
be laid out of his home lot adjoining the burying ground 
already established, for the purpose of a burying ground 

December 22nd 1718, the town and Mr, Phillips en- 
tered into an agreement by which the former was to make 
good any valuation of permanent improvements made 
upon the house occupied by the latter whenever he should 
be called to leave his charge. 

Some arrangement had been adopted for seating the 
congregation in church; whether the particular one of 
which we have spoken or some other form of grading 
the seating according to the money paid does not appear 
plain; but, whatever it was, dissatisfaction had grown out 
of it, to quiet which those holding seats under the ar- 
rangement relinquished all such claims, only holding to 

ME TOW^ 6P BfeoOlii-lAVfiM. 


the position that the house should remain to the " pres- 
teran ministry." This release was made December 4th 
1719 and signed by thirty-one holders of seats. 

In those early days church bells were and from the be- 
ginning had been unknown here, their purpose being 
answered by the drum, which was beaten in the church 
door on Sabbath morning to call the worshipers together. 
But little is said of this custom in the early records of 
this town, but on the 7th of May 1723 the trustees agreed 
with Nathaniel Tooker to perform the office of " Beate- 
ing the Drum on ye Lorde's Daye and for sweeping ye 
meteing house for ye yeare above written," for which he 
was to have thirty shillings. 

Mr. Phillips, who had now served the church for many 
years, in April 1725 had laid out to him by Selah Strong 
and Samuel Thompson, surveyors for the town, another 
hundred acres of land, six acres of which lay between 
John Bayles's and Cardell's line, and the remainder at the 
north end of the long lots, in a body 128 rods eastward 
by 125 rods southward. In consideration of this he re- 
leased to the trustees all claim upon the house in which 
he lived, that it might be for the use of a " Presbyteran 
Ministry " according to the original intent. 

As the infirmities of age crept upon this faithful expo- 
nent of the gospel, and the individuals by whom he had 
been called to this field of labor one by one were laid to 
rest, Mr. Phillips found that his material support was also 
falling short. About this time (1738) he left the town- 
house and occupied a house of his own, and in May he 
petitioned the trustees for an addition of about one and 
a half acres to his lot, which was granted. 

The Episcopal denomination had for several years 
been gaining ground in the tbwn, and the adhe- 
rents of the Church of England were now demand- 
ing at least a share in the patronage of the town. 
To quiet all disturbances that had arisen in respect 
to this matter an arbitration was appointed, the set- 
tlement of the differences being referred to a com- 
mittee composed of Isaac Brown, William Smith, 
James Tuthill and Richard Woodhull, who decided Oc- 
tober sth 1 741 that the various parcels of land and prop- 
erty that had from time to time been set apart by the 
town for gospel or church purposes should be divided 
between the two sects, and thus the matter be forever 
put at rest. In this division^ the church party were to 
have one-half the parsonage lot, forty acres of woodland 
in the Equalizing Division, one half a piece of thatch 
bed lying between Little Neck and Old Field Beach, and 
half a right in all common land that should afterward be 
allotted to a parsonage accommodation. To the Presby- 
terian or dissenting party was given half the .parsonage 
lot, half the thatch bed lying between Little Neck and 
Old Field Beach, a twenty-acre lot on the west side of 
the town, twenty acres in West Meadows, half of lot No. 
17 in the west division of Long Lots, half of lot No. 9 
in the Skirt Division, half of lot No. 14 in the Sheep 
Pasture Division southeast of the town, half of lot No. 
35 in the West Meadow Neck Sheep Pasture Division, 
share No. 45 in the creek thatch in the mill creek, lot 

No. 5 in the meadow and creek thatch of Old Man's 
Hollow, half of lot No. 15 in the Old Man's Sheep Pas- 
ture, half of lot No. 47 lying on the south side of the 
Country road, the lot numbered 24 in Great Division and 
the lot numbered 32 in Little Division, lot No. i in the 
division on the east side of the Connecticut River, a five- 
acre lot at Newtown called the parsonage lot, share No. 
22 of meadow at Fireplace Neck, half of lot No. 34 on 
the east side of the head of Connecticut River, half of 
lot No. 43 at Long Swamp, and half of all common land 
afterward divided to the right of a parsonage. In order 
to consolidate the scattered possessions of the Presbyte- 
rian church a town meeting May 3d 1743 voted to sell the 
different parcels above named, and buy with the money 
arising from such sale a tract of land with the buildings 
upon it then belonging to Selah Strong, Jonathan Thomp- 
son and Richard Woodhull, lying between the home lots 
of Richard Floyd and Joseph Brewster, and also such 
other tract as the overplus of money would buy; the 
premises thus purchased to be devoted to the same use 
as those which should be sold. This plan seems to have 
proved abortive, and on the 20th of May 1756, at a town 
meeting of which all the Presbyterian party had been 
duly warned, it was voted that the different parcels of land 
should be sold and the money invested where its interest 
could be turned to account for the benefit of the party 
to whom the lands belonged. At this meeting three 
trustees, John Roe, Benajah Strong and Benjamin Brew- 
ster, were elected to have the care of the matter, to act 
in behalf of the Presbyterian party. 

With this appears to close the history of the intimate 
association of town and church. The payment of min- 
isters' salaries had for more than half a century been made 
by voluntary contributions; the erection and keeping in 
repair of church buildings had been mostly provided for 
in the same way; the lands of the town originally de- 
signed for religious purposes had been divided between 
the two sects occupying the field, and the town as a polit- 
ical body ceased to exercise the functions of a religious 

Let it not be supposed, however, that the townspeople 
or the trustees ceased to respect or to exercise interest 
in the observances and welfare of the Christian church. 
As late as February 6th 1792 the trustees, having met at 
the house of Joshua Smith at Coram, directed one of 
their number, Isaac Overton, to invite the Rev. David 
Rose to preach an election sermon in the Baptist meet- 
ing-house at Coram, on the occasion of the coming an- 
nual town meeting on the first Tuesday in April, the ser- 
mon to begin at 11 o'clock in the forenoon. 

WiNTHROp's Patent. 

We have noticed thus far only so much of the ter- 
ritory of Brookhaven as was purchased and divided by 
the original town proprietors or their legal representa- 
tives. There were other large tracts of land upon the 
south side of the island, which near the time of the Rev- 
olution became connected with the town and have since 
been under its jurisdiction, but were never owned by the 



common proprietors. Of the purchase and settlement of 
these we propose now to speak. 

Winthrop's Patent was a tract lying between the creek 
called by the Indians Namke, or Namcuke, on the west, 
and an imaginary line drawn through a certain fresh 
water pond in Starr's Neck, called Occombamack, to the 
middle of the island. This tract was purchased of the 
Indians by Governor John Winthrop of Connecticut in 
1666, and a patent for the same was issued by Governor 
Andros of New York, dated the 29th of March 1680. 
The several necks along its southern border have been 
known as Blue Point, Tucker's Neck, Smith's Neck, 
Short Neck, Pochoug Neck, Swan Creek Neck, Pine 
Neck, Moger's Neck, and Francis Neck. The land 
thus held was for many years but little improved. 

The uncertainty of the position of the boundary line 
was at one time a cause of considerable annoyance to 
the town. September 3d 1688 the trustees appointed a 
committee to go over and establish the line, with Mr. 
Winthrop's bounds beginning at the Fresh Pond at the 
west side of Starr's Neck, " which we hold to be the 
bounds by our deed from the Indians, and by our Pos- 
session delivered by the Sachem." This, however, did 
not settle the matter; for March 24th 1697 Andrew Gibb 
complained to the trustees that he was disturbed in the 
possession of his land at Occombamack, and the trustees 
agreed to defend him, and accordingly appointed Mr. 
Floyd and Daniel Brewster a committee to attend to the 
matter, with power to use an appropriation of five pounds 
in feeing lawyers. The result of that action seems to 
have been a temporary quietus; but again in 1739 the 
claims of Winthrop's patent and Brookhaven seem to 
have come into conflict. February 12th the trustees ap- 
pointed John Smith to employ Mr. Clowes, a prominent 
lawyer of Jamaica, to go to New York to search into Mr. 
Winthrop's patent and title to the land. It is probable 
that at this time the trustees were looking toward the 
possibilities of holding that tract of land for the proprie- 
tors of the town, under the terms of the town patent, if 
Winthrop's title was at all defective. On the 25th of the 
last named month the trustees appropriated five pounds 
to the feeing of counsel, and on the 15th they sent the 
town patent by John Smith to Mr. Clowes for him to ex- 
amine. The proprietors of the Winthrop patent had 
probably neglected to do anythmg with their property 
here until it had become a question whether they had 
not forfeited their claims by that negligence. This action 
of Brookhaven seems to have aroused them to a more 
definite appreciation of their estate here, and the result 
confirmed their title. 

The eastern part (two necks called Francis and Mo- 
ger's necks) was sold by John Still Winthrop to Thomas 
Strong and John Brewster October 14th 1749. The re- 
maining portion was sold to Humphrey Avery, of Boston, 
March 27th 1752, for ^^2,599. Avery, becoming consid- 
erably involved in 1756, obtained license by an act of the 
colonial Legislature to make a sale of this property by 
means of a lottery for the payment of his debts. Richard 
Floyd, Nathaniel Smith and William Nicoll were ap- 

pointed to manage the business. They appraised the 
whole at ^^6,900, and divided it into 36 parts, varying in 
value from _;£2o to ;^i,ooo. The drawing was done in 
June 1758, by two sworn clerks, in presence of two jus- 
tices of the peace. Eight thousand tickets had been sold 
at 30s. each, and the overplus, after paying for the land 
and ;^36o for expenses, was distributed in 1,580 cash 
prizes of ^^ each. This tract being within the limits of 
the Brookhaven town patent, as it began to be inhabited 
the people settling upon it took part in the political de- 
liberations and movements of this town. 

Colonel William Smith's Purchase — The Manor of 
St. George. 

The neck of land lying between the waters of Con- 
science Bay and Cromwell Bay, now Setauket Harbor, 
was a favorite residence of the Indians. For many years 
after the settlement by Europeans the former occupants 
lived upon it. A part had in 1663 been bought of them, 
and in 1687 the Indian title to the remainder was extin- 
guished. At a town meeting on the 2nd of April of that 
year it was resolved that Richard Woodhull sen. and 
Thomas Helme should lay out and divide the common 
land and measure the line for the fence. The division 
of this land seemed not an easy task. It was a small and 
choice parcel of soil, and it was difficult to arrange its di- 
vision so as to satisfy all parties concerned. It may have 
been a fortunate circumstance for the peace of the little 
colony that at this time a particular friend of the gov- 
ernor of New York, in the person of Colonel William 
Smith, came upon the scene with a proposal to purchase 
the whole undivided land in a body. This proposal was 
presented by Colonel Smith at a town meeting October 
i8th 1687, he being favorably introduced by a letterfrom 
Governor Dongan and willing to pay each person inter- 
ested as much as any of them had sold their shares for_ 
The Indian field was about one hundred acres in extent, 
and was bounded east, west and north by water, and 
south by a lot of land lately purchased of Richard 
Smith sen., another of Mr. Brewster, and "so over the 
highway by Samuel Muncy his lot to a place Commonly 
Called the Indian Well, to ye waterside." 

After the short reign of disorder and uncertainty which 
accompanied the administration of Leisler at New York, 
Colonel Smith obtained license from Governor Sloughter 
on the 14th of May 1691 to buy land of the Indians, and 
accordingly proceeded to the southeast of the territory 
that had already been bought by the Brookhaven pro- 
prietors, where a large tract of wild land stretched away 
to the eastern settlements, thirty miles distant. In the 
exercise of his license he purchased on the 2Sth of the 
same month a large tract of land from the Indian John 
Mahew, whose good fortune or shrewdness enabled him 
to lay claim to a large tract of land along the south side. 
For the sum of ^^35 Colonel Smith purchased the land 
lying east of Mastic River to the Southold and South- 
ampton bounds, and back to the middle of the island, as 
well as south to the " main sea;" except the two necks 
" being Meritces and Mamanok Necks, lying together " 


by which he evidently meant to except the land after- 
ward covered by the Moriches patentship, which he had 
already sold to other parties, as will appear elsewhere. 

September nth 1691 the town meeting voted to ratify 
and confirm the sale to Colonel William Smith of all the 
land in the Little Neck called the Indian land, also all 
other common and undivided land in said neck, and all 
the meadows around it. 

"At a town meeting upon the 28th of March 1693 
Coll. William Smith of Brookhaven did then and there 
acquaint the Towne, as he did before, that with the Gov- 
ernor's Lycence he had and intended to purchase divers 
Tracts of land unpurchased of the Indian natives by the 
Towne, and within ye limits of theire patent and reserved 
to theire majtis by theire said patent; — and did require 
to know whither the towne layd any claime to the same 
or not, and whither they were content that hee the said 
Smith should purchase and peassablie enjoy the same. 
Voated and agreed that the above saide Coll. Smith may 
purchase and peacably injoy as aforesaide." 

The northern boundary of the larger tract purchased 
on the south side of the island being sometimes loosely 
defined as the " middle of the island," the trustees exer- 
cised the precautionary wisdom of securing a more defi- 
nite interpretation of that line, by making it '' within tw;o 
poles of the now country or common road to the towns 
eastward." This interpretation was established by an in- 
denture made on the 2tst of September 1693, signed by 
William Smith and the trustees, and witnessed by the 
surveyor-general and others. 

Finally the lands thus obtained were confirmed to Col- 
onel Smith by a patent from Governor Benjamin Fletcher, 
dated October 9th 1693. The territory laid out by the 
surveyor-general, Augustine Graham, and described in 
this patent was bounded by a line from the ocean to the 
west bank of Connecticut River, up that, along the west 
bank of Yaphank River, from the head of that in a direct 
north line to the Connecticut River again, thence following 
the west bank of that river to its head at the Country 
road near the middle of the island; north by the Country 
road; east by a line running directly south from the 
Country road to the head of Senekes River, and down 
that river to the ocean; and "south by the sea;" also the 
" beach meadow and bay," with " all the islands in the 
s'd bay" from " Huntington East Gutt " to a stake at 
" Coptwauge," the westernmost bounds of Southampton 
on the beach, said beach and bay running a distance east 
and west of twenty-four miles and seven chains; also the 
Little Neck at Setauket, " being bounded southward by a 
lyne running along ye east syde of the sd isthraues and by 
ye gate of ye now highway, so running west along ye 
fence between ye said Smithe's land and Justice Richard 
WhodhuU's house lott to a creek lying on the west syde 
of ye said isthmus, and so bounded by ye bay, harbour 
and salt water round the neck aforesd, to ye marked tree 
by ye gate and highway aforesd;'' also an island of 
thatch-bed lying between Little Neck and Old Field; 
also " a certaine part of a great thatch bedd lying alongst 
the easternmost part of ye said neck, called the Indian 
I, and, as also all such thatch beds or creek thatches as 

lyes with in the harbour in a direct lyne from ye marked 
tree by ye gate to ye southermost poynt of ye said Little 
Neck called ffloyd's Poynt." These parcels of land and 
water were by the patent constituted a lordship or manor, 
under the name of the Manor of St. George, and the 
proprietor and his heirs and assigns forever were invested 
with power to hold " court leet and court baron " at such 
times as he or they should consider proper, "to award 
and issue out the accustomary writts to be issued," to 
distrain for rents, services, etc., and with their tenants 
to " meet together and choose assessors within the man- 
nour aforesaid according to the true rules, wayes and 
methods as are prescribed for cittyes, townes and .coun- 
tyes" of the province; and to continue forever "free and 
exempt from the jurisdiction of any towne, towneship or 
raannor whatsoever; to be holden of us, our heirs and 
successors in free and common soccage, according to the 
tennour of our mannor of East Greenwich in the county 
of Kent in our Kingdom of England," reserving a 
quit-rent of twenty shillings a year. 

Colonel Smith, having received this patent, lost no 
time in publishing it, and accordingly caused it to be 
read before a meeting of the trustees November 27th 
following its issue. The trustees consented to its limits 
and powers, and in consideration of forty-two shillings to 
be paid to them by Colonel Smith did forever acquit him 
" from any or all Quitt-rent due from the little Neck and 
his home Lots." Again, in public town meeting on the 
first of May 1694 the patent was read, and it was voted 
and agreed that the inhabitants consent to the bounds 
and privileges expressed therein, except that the indi- 
vidual rights of those who had taken up meadow at the 
south side within the limits of the patent should be re- 

Though the majority vote thus disposed of the matter, 
there was still a minority, composed of those who looked 
upon Smith's patent as an infringement upon the rights 
of the proprietors in the matter of boundaries, and this 
view gained strength, until after many years their claims 
were listened to and an adjustment of them was effected. 

By an exchange of quit-claims between Colonel Smith 
and the trustees of the town of Southampton, made on 
the 14th day of June 1694, the line of division of 
meadows and beach was established at a place on the 
beach called Cupsawege, on the east side of a certain 
house once occupied by a whaling company, which was 
also the western boundary of the Southampton patent. 

By a second patent, which bears date June 17th 1697, 
an additional tract of land was annexed to the manor of 
St. George. This addition was embraced by a line start- 
ing at a certain pepperidge tree near Wading River, 
standing at a distance of 432.35 chains north from Pe- 
conic River and about a mile from the sound, and run- 
ning in a southeasterly direction, crossing Peconic River 
at the site of the present village of Riverhead, and con- 
tinuing to Red Creek in the town of Southampton, a dis- 
tance of fifteen miles from Wading River; and from Red 
Creek (called by the Indians Toyonnges) returning in a 
southwesterly direction to the head of Seatuck River; 



down that river in a straight line to the ocean; and on 
the west adjoining the town of Brookhaven and the for- 
mer patentship of St. George's manor. From its juris- 
diction, however, were excepted the necks of land which 
had been purchased by Thomas Willet, Henry Taylor 
and Thomas Townsend, and were afterward included in 
the patentship of Moriches. 

This remarkable grant, let it be remembered, was issued 
by Governor Benjamin Fletcher, who became notorious 
for his extravagant and unreasonable grants of land to 
his friends, and whose removal from office is supposed 
to have been partly owing to this cause. 

Un-reasonable and extravagant as this grant certainly 
was, the following extract from a letter written by Earl 
Bellomont to the Lords of Trade July 22nd 1699 will 
show what extravagant ideas of it were entertained at 
that time. In this letter it is represented that for the 
sum of not more than ^5° Colonel Smith had obtained 
a valuable grant of land upon Long Island, reputed to be 
worth more than ^^25,000 and said to be in extent " 50 
miles long and whole breadth of the island." The letter 
then adds: 

" Besides, Colonel Smith has got the beach on the sea- 
shore for forty miles together, after an odd manner as I 
have been told by some of the inhabitants, having arbi- 
trarily and by strong hand (being favor'd and supported 
by Colonel Fletcher and being chief justice of the prov- 
ince — a place of great awe as well as authority) got or 
rather forced the town of Southampton to take a poore 
_;£io for the greatest part of said beach, which is not a 
valuable consideration in law; for Colonel Smith himself 
own'd to me that that beach was very profitable to him 
for whale fishing, and that one year he cleared ;^5oo by 
whales taken there. I confess I can not have a good 
opinion of Colonel Smith; he knows what pressing or- 
ders I have from England to suppresse piracy, and if he 
were honest and did his duty there would not a pirate 
dare to show his head in the east end of Nassau Island. 
He is so seated towards that end of the island that he 
could disturb and seize them as he pleas.'d, and yet that 
end of the island is at present their rendezvous and sanc- 
tuary. Colonel Smith is under a double obligation to 
suppresse piracy, being both chief justice of the province 
and judge of the admiralty court." 

It will be remembered that at that time piracies along 
this coast were alarmingly frequent, and that Governor 
Fletcher himself had been suspected of being secretly 
interested in them. The extract is of interest in show- 
ing the incorrect impressions which must have existed at 
New York in regard to the extent of Long Island and the 
relative position of different localities. When we remem- 
ber that impressions almost as wide of the truth exist in 
the minds of some even in these days of railroads, news- 
papers, maps and gazetteers, it is not so much a matter 
of wonder that in those days of geographical darkness it 
should be thought possible to locate a grant of so liberal 
dimensions upon the island without interfering with half 
a dozen patents already held; or from the retirement of 
St. George's to guard and protect the eastern waters, 
sixty to a hundred miles away, from the invasion of pi- 

With the explanation that Earl Bellomont was identi- 

fied with a political faction whose sympathies and 
opinions were opposed to those of Governor Fletcher, of 
which Colonel Smith was an adherent, the reader may 
estimate how much of the aspersions contained in the 
above letter may have been prompted by the prejudice of 
the writer. 

To provide for the necessities of the remnant of Un- 
cachaug Indians upon his domain at Mastic, Colonel 
Smith, on the second day of July 1700, gave a lease to 
eleven Indians by name, and their posterity forever, to 
plant and sow 175 acres and burn the '' under wood." 
The herbage growing after their crops were off was re- 
served, and the Indians were not to sell or relet any part 
of this land to any one else. The consideration named 
in the instrument was an annual acknowledgment forever 
of "Two yellow Eares of Indian come." 

The claim of the inhabitants to the meadows which 
they had bought of the Indians at Mastic, now included 
in Colonel Smith's patent, had not been surrendered by 
them, and some disturbance appears to have arisen be- 
tween the representative of Colonel Smith and the pro- 
prietors. It has been intimated that at the reading of 
his patent before the town meeting in 1694 so much of it 
as might be construed to cover the ownership of the 
meadows in question was then objected to. The asser- 
tion of this claim after several years resulted in litigation, 
which was finally brought to a conclusion by a release 
given by William Smith (son of the patentee) June ist 
1734, in consideration of the payment to him by the in- 
habitants of ^7 5s., and the award of an arbitration on 
the 27th of July following, which release and award con- 
firmed to the inhabitants the meadows on the west side 
of Mastic called Noccomack, lying between the upland 
and the river or bay, with the privilege of making stack- 
yards on the upland at the head of the meadows for 
stacking hay, foddering cattle, and placing houses for 
their convenience while haying; and a free pass-way to 
and from their meadows. The board of arbitration con- 
sisted of Isaac Hicks, David Jones and Epenetus Piatt. 
The committee which had been appointed to designate 
the bounds was composed of Mordecai Homan, James 
Tuthill and Josiah Robbins. 

Other disputed or indefinite matters concerning the 
boundaries between Smith's patent and the town were, 
after some litigation in respect to part of them, submitted 
to an arbitration, the award of which was rendered No- 
vember ist 1753, to the following effect : First, that the 
gore piece of land bounded east by a north line from 
Yaphank River to the Country road, west by Colonel 
Smith's west patent line, north by the Country road, and 
south by the right bank of the Connecticut River, should 
belong to the proprietors of the town, the west line of 
Smith's patent being the north line from the head of Yap- 
hank River to the Country road; second, the north line 
of Smith's patent should be the Country road as far as 
the east line of the town; third, the meadow belonging to 
the proprietors at Noccomack should be bounded by 
Colonel Floyd's share of meadow (No. 50) on the south, 
the Connecticut River on the west, the upland on the 



east, and a line from a certain marked tree near the 
meadow, westward to the river, on the north; fourth, one- 
fourth part of the beach lying from the head of Long 
Cove on the west to the Southampton bounds on the east 
should belong to the said Smith, and three-fourths of it 
to the proprietors, the beach to be divided with respect 
to value and the east end to be Smith's and the west the 
town's; and fifth, the court charges in a certain case of 
trespass by ejectment then pending in the supreme court 
of the province should be paid by the said Smith. The 
men composing this board of arbitration were Eleazer 
Miller and Isaac Barns of East Hampton, Job Pierson and 
Abram Halsey of Southampton, Daniel Brown of Shelter 
Island, and Joshua Wells, John Salmon and Thomas 
Goldsmith of Southold. 

Under the same date as the award William Smith quit- 
claimed to the trustees, in accordance with its terms, his 
title under the patent to the three-fourths of beach and 
the Noccoraack meadows; also to the proprietors, in con- 
sideration of ;^5 to him paid, to the " gore piece " lying 
between Connecticut River and the north line from Yap- 
bank River to the Country road. 

The account of the expense for entertainment at Lieu- 
tenant Robinson's while the arbitration was in progress is 
a curiosity, but space forbids inserting it at length. The 
aggregation of each different item in it is as follows, and 
the prices mentioned are what appear as the common 
prices on the bill, though there are instances of deviation: 
14 bottles of wine, at is. 3d. to is. 6d.; 31 bowls of punch, 
at gd.; 7 pots of "syder,"' at 2d.; 36 suppers, at is.; 22 
lodgings, at 4d.; 34 breakfasts, at is.; 47 dinners, at is.; 
81 drams, at 4d.; 10 pecks of oats, at is.; pasturing a 
horse, 6d.; keeping 11 horses 4 days and nights, 153.; 4 
qts. '■ syder," at 4d. 

On the third of March 1767 William Smith gave a 
deed to the trustees of the town for '" all that part of 
South Bay or lands covered with water, and the island in 
the said bay situate, lying and being between a north 
line from Huntington East Gut and a south line from 
Richard Woodhull's point of meadow on the west side of 
the mouth of East Connecticut or Sebonnack River." 
On the day following the trustees gave to William Smith, 
for the same consideration — the nominal one of _;^5 — 
one equal half of the same premises described in his 
deed to them. This maneuver was for the purpose of 
strengthening the title. 

Under date of March 3d 1767 the trustees and Wil- 
liam Smith above referred to made an agreement by 
which the ownership of that part of the bay described 
in these deeds should be forever held in partnership be- 
tween them and their heirs and successors, and that the 
profits and losses should be equally divided between 
them, and they are bound under the penal sum of ^1,- 
000 to the fulfillment of this agreement. 

The division of the beach according to the award of 
1753 was not accomplished until twenty years later. On 
the 7th of June 1773 the trustees appointed a committee 
to fix the dividing line with William Smith. The com- 
mittee did its work, made its report, and the agreement 

was entered into on the 3d of July, that the dividing 
line should be "at a Place ye west End of a Slip of 
meadow between Quanch and Whale house poynt." 
The beach lying west of that belonged to the proprietors 
and that east of it to the Smith patentship. The west- 
ern boundary of the beach belonging to the proprietors, 
as has been stated, was Long Cove. The beach and ad- 
joining meadow lying west of the latter point as far as 
the jurisdiction of the Smith patent extended, viz. Hunt- 
ington East Gut (now Fire Island Inlet), was sold by 
Henry Smith of Boston, a grandson of the patentee and 
cousin of the occupant of the manor, to a company of 
inhabitants, September 15th 1789, the price named be- 
ing ^200. 

By instruments bearing date the 12th, 13th and 14th of 
May 1790 William Smith conveyed to the trustees of the 
town the East Bay, from the eastern part of Patterquash 
Island to Southampton's west bounds; also the beach 
and meadow from "Bayley's Stage," opposite a point of 
land at Moriches then owned by Oliver Smith, east to the 
Southampton line; also a tract of land bounded north by 
the Country road, south by Dongan's line, east by 
a north line from Senekes River, and west by a north 
line from the head of Mastic River. At the same time 
the trustees conveyed back to William Smith one equal 
half of the same premises. An agreement was then en- 
tered into between the parties, by which the management 
of all the bay, beach and land described was given to the 
trustees, who were from time to time on reasonable de- 
mand to render account and divide equally any net 
profits arising therefrom. Neither Smith nor the trustees 
could sell any of the premises without consent of the 
other party. By the agreement they were bound in the 
penal sura of _;^2,ooo for the faithful observance of its 
conditions. The jurisdiction over the East Bay is still 
held by the trustees according to the terms of that agree- 
ment, the partnership interest having descended to Hon. 
Egbert T. Smith, of Mastic, great-grandson of Judge 
William Smith, the author of the above agreement. 

The tract of land included in the agreement and con- 
veyances above referred to, lying between the north lines 
from Mastic and Senekes Rivers and the Country road 
and Dongan's line, covers a part of the present township 
of Brookhaven of which the records and historical au- 
thorities tell us but little. Dongan's line, spoken of, is a 
line running west from the head of Seatuck River, strik- 
ing the line north from the head of Mastic Kiver about 
five and a quarter miles distant, its course being from 
two to five miles distant from the shore of the bay. It is 
probable that at some time during the administration of 
Governor Dongan a patent was issued for the Moriches 
tract lying south of it, and thus it was originated and 
named. Senekes or Senex River or Creek is that water 
which comes nearly to the business part of Center Mor- 
iches, on the west of the main avenue leading to the bay. 
So much of the tract of land in question as lay from 
the Country road south to the Peconic River was in- 
cluded in a large triangular piece of land, which had no 
doubt been purchased of the patentee of St. George's 



long before, and certainly was owned in common by 
twenty-five residents of Southold, and divided to the 
several individuals holding title to it on the loth of 
March 1742. 


That part of the before described tract that lay south- 
ward from Peconic River afterward appears as the prin- 
cipal part of Brookfield. The boundaries were the same, 
except that the eastern line of Brookfield was a due 
north line from Terrell's River, which gave the latter 
tract a greater width by more than a mile. 

By what steps title was transferred we are not informed, 
but the territory was probably occupied at an early 
period by a hardy class of pioneers, mostly from the 
eastern towns, who seem to have been determined on 
beating a livelihood out of the virgin soil, with perhaps no 
great respect for the claims of either civilian or savage 
upon it. On the 26th of March 1793 petition was made 
to the court of common pleas for a partition of Brook- 
field among the several owners. This was granted, and 
the court appointed Captain William Phillips and John 
Bailey, of Brookhaven, and Captain James Reeves, of 
Southold, commissioners for the purpose. These com- 
missioners met, and with the assistance of Isaac Hulse, 
surveyor, laid out the tract to the several owners, whose 
names appear as follows: 

John Turner, Matthew Raynor, Tuthill Dayton, Joseph 
Raynor, Isaac Raynor, Nathaniel Lane, Henry Turner, 
Joseph Raynor jr., Jonathan Robinson, Benjamin Ray- 
nor, David Carter, Benjamin Conkling, John Conkling, 
John Robinson, Nathaniel Terry, Justus Raynor, Free- 
man Lane, David Robinson, Jonathan Halliock, Jona- 
than King, William Petty, Ishraael Reeve, Daniel Lane, 
George Cobit, Samuel Wines, Susanah Overton, 
Patience Howell, Samuel Robinson, David Fanning, 
Henry Raynor, John Wells, Joshua Terry, William Ayres, 
Joshua Wells, Solomon Wells. Elijah Terry, Enos 
Swezey, Higby Raynor, James Smith and Daniel Robin- 
son jr. 

The survey and partition was begun on the i6th of 
April, and the commission reported the result to the 
court October 2nd 1793. Brookfield contained about 
6,600 acres, and about this time it appears to have been 
joined to the town of Brookhaven. 

Halsey's Manor 

was a section of territory adjoining Brookfield on the 
east, with a more definite history but with a less definite 
boundary. The latter indefiniteness however holds only 
in relation to the eastern boundary. The tract was 
bounded on the north by Peconic River, on the west by 
Brookfield, on the south by the Moriches patentship, and 
on the east by the town of Southampton. This land was 
included in the Smith patent of 1697. It was sold by 
Major William Henry Smith to Isaac Halsey, of South- 
ampton, March 30th 1716, for ^^65. Captain Abraham 
Howell and Theophilus Howell were partners with Hal- 
sey in the purchase. The tract was estimated to con- 
tain 14,000 acres. If that estimate was correct it must 

have extended some distance beyond the present eastjine 
of the town of Brookhaven. Still, if it had extended as 
far east as the boundary of the patent of 1697 it would 
have been greater. There was probably a compromise 
somewhere. It is said the share of Theophilus Howell 
was one-seventh of the whole, or 2,000 acres. In 1776 
9,779 acres were owned by Matthew Smith, David How- 
ell and Josiah Smith. In 1786 the tract was divided 
among its individual owners in twenty-five lots, of vari- 
ous size and irregular shape. The owners at that time 
were David Howell, Matthew Smith, Josiah Smith, David 
Wells, James Petit sen., widow Ann Smith, Phebe How- 
ell, Joseph I^ane, Christopher , William Halsey, 

Timothy Halsey, and Hugh Smith. As then surveyed 
the east line of the " manor " was the present east line 
of the town, but in that division the tract contains only 
about 10,700 acres. The record has been discovered 
that Isaac Halsey sold 2,500 acres to Timothy Hudson, 
and this land must have been beyond the present east 
line. It is probable that the balance was sold in the 
same way to some individual to whom it was set off be- 
fore the division of the main body among the different 
owners. Halsey's manor, as well as Brookfield, was un- 
der the political jurisdiction of the manor of St. George 
until about the time of the Revolution, when the whole 
was annexed to the town of Brookhaven. 

The Moriches Patentship. 

South of Halsey's manor, and surrounded by the 
jurisdiction of St. George's except on the east, where it 
joined the Southampton line, lay the independent patent- 
ship of Moriches. The earliest purchase from the In- 
dians in this section ot which we find any record was 
made by Dr. Henry Taylor and Major Thomas Willets, 
of Flushing, and Captain Thomas Townsend, of Oyster 
Bay. Dr. Taylor, having received liberty from Governor 
Andross October 31st 1677 to purchase land on the south 
side of Long Island, and associating with himself the 
other two, purchased of the Indian John Mahew the neck 
called Watshauge February 12th 1679. This neck at 
present contains the eastern section of the village of 
East Moriches, locally known as "the Neck." The 
name is frequently called Watchogue. The neck is 
bounded on the east by a small brook called Mattuck, 
running down between the residences of Jehial S. Ray- 
nor and J. C. Havens, and on the west by a creek called 
Pomiches, the head of which, once a marsh, is now the 
valley which crosses the main village street near the 
boarding house of Joshua Terry in the village. The 
language of Mahew's deed covers " all the meadow &c. 
from river to river, being 2 miles in breadth, and from the 
meadow northward one mile into the woods, and what 
wants of the two miles in breadth to be made up in 

January 7th 1681 Richard Woodhull received a deed 
from John Mahew, the Indian who laid claim to all this 
territory, for a neck of land with a small island lying just 
south of it, bounded on the east by Watchogue and on 
the west by a small creek " pung-plues," and extending a 



mile back into the woods. This small neck was only a 
part of the neck called Moriches or Maritches. Whether 
the title thus gained was transferred or abandoned is un- 
known. Probably the latter was the case. 

Colonel Smith's Second patent admits the claims of 
Colonel Thomas Willets, Dr. Henry Taylor and Thomas 
Townsend, whose purchase had no doubt been confirmed 
by a patent, and the neck called Maritches and other 
necks which lie within the limits of Smith's patent are 
excepted from its jurisdiction. These three men sold 
their rights to Richard Smith in 1697, and he the same 
year obtained a patent from Governor Fletcher for the 
same. The boundaries given in this patent are as fol- 
lows: — "On the west by a river on the west side of Mar- 
itches Neck, called Paquatuck; on the north by a line 
from the head of said river to a white oak tree marked, 
on the west side of the neck called Watshage, by apond, 
and from thence to a line [east] to Seatuck River; on the 
east by Seatuck River aforesaid, and on the south by the 
sea." By "the sea" is meant the bay, and the river 
Paquatuck is now known as Terrell's River. The patent is 
dated November 12th 1697. The title to this tract, con- 
taining as it did about 3,000 acres, was further confirmed 
by a quit-claim from Cononel William Smith to Richard 
Smith and Matthew Howell, dated March 15th 1703, in 
which substantially the same boundaries are recited as in 
the patent. Whatever interest Matthew Howell thus 
held in the matter was sold by his heirs to Richard Smith. 
This tract was by instruments bearing date 1719 and 1734 
transferred to Nathaniel Smith, the ancestor of the Smith 
family of Moriches, through the line of whose succession 
much of the property has been held down to the present 

The land lying between Terrell's River and Mastic 
River was taken up by settlers at an early period. As 
early as March 15th 1703 Samuel Terrell was in posses- 
sion of a neck called Warratta, lying on the west side of 
the river named in his honor. His possession of that 
land was acknowledged by Colonel Smith, and probably 
was obtained from him. This Samuel Terrell appears to 
have been an active pioneer in the purchase and improve- 
ment of land. On the nth of April 1738 he was admit- 
ted by the trustees of the town as a proprietor and tenant 
in common, and at the same time was acknowledged to 
be the owner of Yaphank Neck. 

Town Boundaries. 

The manor of St. George, Brookfield, Halsey's manor 
and the Moriches patentship having, about the time of 
the Revolution, been annexed to the town of Brookhaven, 
the trustees on October 2nd 1797 ordered that a survey 
of the town and a map of the same should be made by 
Isaac Hulse, who was then the clerk of the town. With 
the assistance of Captain William Phillips, supervisor at 
the time, and others, he began the survey on the loth of 
the same month. The sum of ^^50 was appropriated to 
the expense of this enterprise, which was completed dur- 
ing the months of October and November, and the map 
was filed in the office of the secretary of state at Albany. 

Boundaries of the town have been surveyed or adjusted 
at different times as follows: 

In 1696 Brookhaven by its clerk requested Southold to 
appoint a day when its committee would meet a commit- 
tee from this town to establish and run out the line be' 
tween the two towns. On the 22nd of May the trustees, 
having heard from Southold, appointed Richard Wood- 
hull, John Hallock, Thomas Helme and Peter White- 
haire to. represent Brookhaven in the joint commission. 
The line does not appear to have been definitely settled, 
for on the 3d of June 1709 the trustees agreed for a con- 
sideration to resign to Southold all their right to land and 
meadow on the east side of the Wading River. In 1742 
the line was run out between this town and Southold 
from Wading River to the Peconic, on a south, line. 
Again, in 1748, a committee appointed for that purpose 
reported May 2nd that they had run the east line of the 
town across the island, and found the distance to be, 
from the sound to the bay, fourteen and a half miles, 
lacking thirteen rods. November 2nd 1840 a committee 
appointed by the towns fixed a stone monument on the 
line between Brookhaven and Riverhead, in place of the 
old pepperidge tree at the head of Wading River, which 
had stood as a land-mark for many generations. 

The line between this town and Southampton was es- 
tablished by a commission April 30th 1782; December 
i6th 1817 the land-marks were renewed. With the pass- 
ing years some points of the line had become indistinct, 
and it was again established May 21st 1873. A survey 
was made and stone monuments were set up at con- 
venient points. This line runs from a red stone stand- 
ing at some distance above the head of Clam Creek on 
the beach, northward to the center of the mouth of Sea- 
tuck River, and so on, crossing the center of the mill- 
dam, to a stone at the Country road on the west side of 
Seatuck River, which stands in place of the "Bound 
Tree at Seatuck," so frequently mentioned in ancient 
records. From that point the line runs on a course 
north 20° 40' east to Peconic River. 

Several differences having arisen with the people of 
Smithtown regarding the line between the towns, men 
were called in from other towns to decide upon the line. 
As fixed by that commission on the 27th of March 1725 
the line runs from the head of the middle branch of 
Stony Brook, down the brook northerly to the harbor 
and through the channel to the sound; and southerly to 
a certain tree by the side of Ronkonkonia Pond. A dis- 
pute which afterward arose in regard to the location of 
the dividing line running through the harbor was referred 
to Hon. Charles H. Ruggles, of Poughkeepsie, who de- 
cided that the line should be the center of the middle 
branch of the brook from the mill-dam, and the center of 
the main channel through the harbor. 

The western boundary of the jurisdiction of Brookhaven 
over the South Bay was settled December 15th 1834, by 
a commission composed of Nathaniel Potter, Joel Jarvis 
and Selah Carl, of Huntington; Eliphalet Smith, Tredwell 
Scudder and Richard A. Udall, of Islip, and Mordecai 
Homan, Davis Norton and James M. Fanning, of Brook- 



haven. They decided that the line in question should 
run from "the northermost range pole on the South 
Beach" a due north course, "polar direction," across the 
South Bay to a point on the main island, which should be 
marked by a stone monument. Stone monuments were 
set up at either end of the line September 15th 1835. 
The outer end of this line is about four miles east of 
Fire Island light-house, and the inner end is at the east 
side of the mouth of Great River in Islip. 

The line between Brookhaven and Islip had for many 
years been in controversy. In i860 a joint commission 
was appointed to settle the boundary. In this commission 
William Sidney Smith, John S. Havens, Manly Ruland 
and Thomas S Strong represented Brookhaven, and 
WaltM' Scudder, Abraham G. Thompson and William 
Nicoll represented Islip. They decided upon the follow- 
ing line: Beginning at a point on the north side of Ron- 
konkoma Pond, where the line between Brookhaven and 
Smithtown stops; running southerly along the eastern 
margin of the pond for the time being, to a fixed monu- 
ment near the south end; thence southerly by and with 
the center of the old highway or Pond road to the Long 
Island Railroad; thence easterly by and with the north 
bank of the railroad to another fixed monument; fromi 
which the line runs south, by the magnet, along the cen- 
ter of the highway leading to Patchogue, a distance of 
72 chains and 65 links, where it meets a line running 
north 60° 47' east from the head of Namkee Creek, 
which line and creek it follows to the bay. The work 
of the commission was consummated on the 8th of Sep- 
tember i860. 

During the Revolution. 

On the eve of the Revolution the freeholders and in- 
habitants of this town met, and June 8th 1775 elected a 
" committee of observation " to act for the town 
in the emergencies which threatened. That com- 
mittee, consisting of sixteen persons, met on the 27th of 
June, at which meeting there were present John Wood- 
hull, Thomas Helme, John Robinson, Thomas Fanning, 
Lieutenant William Brewster, Noah Hallock, Joseph 
Brown, John WoodhuU jr., Nathaniel Roe jr.. Captain 
Jonathan Baker, Daniel Roe, Samuel Thompson, of 
Brookhaven; William Smith and Jonah Hulse, of the 
manor of St. George, and Josiah Smith, of the Moriches 
patentship. The meeting was held at Coram, and after 
John Woodhull had been appointed chairman and Sam- 
uel Thompson clerk the following resolutions, expressive 
of the bold patriotism which ruled the men of that per- 
iod, were passed: 

" That we express our loyalty to His Majesty King 
George III., and acknowledge hira as our rightful lord 
and sovereign." 

" That it is the opinion of this committee that the sev- 
eral acts passed in the British Parliament for the purpose 
of raising a revenue in America, also the acts for stopping 
the port of Boston, for altering their charter and govern- 
ment, for establishing the Roman Catholic religion, and 
abolishing the equitable system of English laws and 
erecting in their stead French despotic government in 

Canada, as also the act for restraining the New England 
fishery, and further declaring they have power to make 
laws binding on us in all cases whatsoever, are contrary 
to the constitution and subversive of our legal rights as 
English freemen and British subjects." 

"That we will use our utmost endeavor strictly to ad- 
here to the resolutions of the honorable Continental Con- 
gress, and to comply with the injunctions of our Provin- 
cial Convention, which funder God) we hope is the most 
effectual means to obtain redress of our present griev- 
ances and save us from impending ruin. 

" We do unanimously make this our apology to the re- 
spectable public and to our several Congresses that we 
have come so late into the Congressional measures, and 
hope a veil may be cast over our past conduct; for our 
remissness was not for want of patriotic spirit, but be- 
cause opposition ran so high in some parts of this town, 
which arose, we verily believe, from want of better in- 

" It is unanimously resolved that we will keep a strict 
watch that no provisions be transported from the bounds 
of our constituents so as to fall into the hands of our 

As the contest deepened no town in the county was 
more intimately associated with the national movement 
than Brookhaven. The representatives of the leading 
families of the town were among the leaders of the prov- 
ince and confederation. General Woodhull, a veteran 
military officer, at the outset placed in command of the 
militia of Suffolk and Queens, president of the Provin- 
cial Congress of New York, and one of the first heroes 
to sacrifice his life upon the altar of American liberty, 
was bound by the blood of generations to Brookhaven, 
and his ashes repose here still. William Floyd, one of 
the patriot band who set their signatures to the immortal 
scroll which will be read with pride as long as America 
has a name, was a son of Brookhaven. Colonel Josiah 
Smith, who accompanied his regiment of Suffolk militia 
into the battle of Long Island, Selah Strong and Wil- 
liam Smith, who represented the county in the Provincial 
Congress during several years of its existence, and others 
who were active in the cause and whose wisdom assisted 
in the councils of the State or nation rose to the emer- 
gencies of the hour from the home-like retirement of 
Brookhaven or its associated precincts. 

During the war this town was the scene of many petty 
depredations as well as some engagements and exploits 
worthy of special mention, accounts of which will be 
found in other parts of this work. On page 37 is given 
an account of the capture of Fort St. George, at Mastic, 
by Colonel Tallmadge. Henry Onderdonk jr. gives some 
additional particulars, and furnishes the accompanying 
cut to illustrate the narrative. 



Mr. Onderdonk says: 

"Tallmadge took William Booth for a guide, and as 
he neared the sentry of the fort he crept along the 
ground, and watched till the latter's back was turned, 
when he rushed on and the sentinel was dead before he 
knew whence the bayonet thrust came. The watch-word, 
' Washington and glory,' was shouted forth simultaneously 
on the three sides, as the victors cut down the pickets 
and rushed into the center of the parade. Thus was the 
fort taken by surprise and almost without a blow. As 
the victors stood elated with joy a volley of musketry 
was discharged on them from the second story of Mr. 
Smith's house, which formed a corner of the stockade. 
In an instant the doors were broken in by the enraged 
Americans, who darted up stairs and pitched all the men 
they could lay hands on out of the windows — they having 
forfeited their lives by the rules of war. All would have 
been massacred on the spot had not Colonel Tallmadge 
humanely interfered and stopped the carnage. In ten 
minutes all was quiet again. 

" The vestiges of the old fort are still to be seen at 
Smith's Point, Mastic, where the writer hereof was shown 
and told many things that have never yet found their way 
into history. The colonel committed the preceding plan 
_ and sketch to paper for the benefit of his children, who 
now possess the manuscript. Fort St. George was 96 
feet square, and, as will be seen by the above cut, was 
connected by a strong stockade with General Smith's 
mansion and a smaller house. These were both bai»- 
ricaded, and from the larger house it was that the tories 
fired on Colonel Tallmadge after the capture of the fort. 
The dotted line denotes the passage of Colonel Tall- 
madge through the pickets and gate into the main fort." 

Game Laws — Local Currency — Votes against Di- 

The trustees of the town have from time to time en- 
acted regulations for the preservation of deer and other 
game with which the woods in early days abounded. 
One of the first acts of this kind was passed December 
4th 1786, and it prohibited the destruction of deer and 
grouse. The town meeting took the matter in hand on 
the third of April 1798, and voted that no non-residents 
should be allowed to hunt deer or other game in the 
town. In the following year the people gave their votes 
to the same order. The generation has not yet passed 
away that can remember when deer hunts upon the 
plains of this town were common, and among the grey- 
haired inhabitants may be found a few men who have en- 
gaged in that exciting sport. But the race of that game 
is almost extinct, and the sound of the huntsman's horn 
and the baying of the eager hounds no longer start the 
echoes upon a clear November morn as whilom they were 
wont to do. 

In 1815 there was a scarcity of fractional coins in cir- 
culation. A number of business men who felt the in- 
convenience of this state of monetary matters petitioned 
the trustees to do something to remedy the matter. 
They accordingly made arrangements for issuing a frac- 
tional currency. They ordered of Alden Spooner, 
printer, a quantity of blank bills, and directed the town 
clerk to sign and put them in circulation. This was done 
during the long service of that faithful and honored 
clerk Mordecai Horn an. 

The great territorial extent of Brookhaven has often 
been remarked. At times the eager desire for something 
new has prompted a few to clamor for the division of the 
town. The proposal, however, has been treated by the 
popular vote with uniform disfavor. At the annual town 
meeting of 1830 a vote was taken, which resulted in an 
opposition of about five to one against division. Again 
in 1831 the question was brought up, only to be repulsed 
by unanimous opposition. Ten years later it was again 
agitated. April 6th 1841 a vote by ballot was taken, and 
of the 260 votes then cast every one was against dividing 
the town. 


It may be said that practically the settlers brought the 
institution and custom of slavery with them. The first 
record of its existence in this town appears December 9th 
1672, when Richard Floyd of this town bought of Robert 
Hudson, of Rye, a negro man named Antony, warranted 
to be sound in wind and limb, for ;!^48 sterling in wheat, 
pork or beef at market rates. The said negro was sold by 
Richard Floyd to^John Hurd, of Stratford, March 9th 
1674. December 13th 1677 John Thomas bought of 
Isaac Raynor, of Southampton, a negro man " Samboe," 
for ;^38 in whale oil at £,2 to the barrel, or in other 
goods. March i8th 1678 Richard Starr, of Brookhaven, 
sold a negro man named Martin to John Mann, of Ja- 
maica. May sth 1683 Ralf Dayton sold his negro Jack 
for a three-acre lot in Newtown, eight pounds of beef and 
-Q/i^. October 7th 1684 Captain John Tooker bought of 
Isaac Arnold, of Southold, a negro man named Dick. 

The gradual abolishment of slavery began soon after 
the Revolution. Under the act of February 27th 1788 
persons wishing to set free any slaves were required to 
obtain licenses from the trustees and justices, which were 
granted on evidence of the negroes being under fifty years 
of age and capable of providing for themselves. The 
town records show the certificates of 66 slaves set free 
under that act during the years between 1795 and 1831. 
The following are the names of their former owners, with 
the number set free by each: 

Mariam Brown, Mills Brewster, Joseph Davis, Daniel 
Davis, Mary Davis, Thomas Helme, and Elisha Ham- 
mond, I each; Noah Hallock, 3; John Homan, i; John 
Howard, i; William Helme, 2; Joseph Homan, Jeremiah 
Havens, Jonas Hawkins, Thomas S. Mount, Robert Haw- 
kins, Sarah Helme, Zophar Hallock, William Howell, John 
Havens, Joseph Jayne, Daniel Jones, and Benjamin Jones, 
reach; Timothy Miller, 2; Richard Oakley, i; Henry P. 
Osborn, 3; Phillips Roe, i; Richard Robinson, 2; Thomas 
S. Strong, 7 ; Selah Strong, 1 ;Wessell Smith, 2 ; Theophilus 
Smith, i; John Smith, 2; Henry Smith, 2; WoodhuU 
Smith, Thomas R. Smith, Oliver Smith, Josiah Smith, and 
Ebenezer Smith, i each; Dr. Samuel Thompson, 4; 
William Tooker, 2; Abraham Woodhull, 2; Mrs. Ruth 
WoodhuU, Dr. David Woodhull, Hannah Woodhull, and 
John Woodhull, i each. 

Under the act of March 29th 1799, requiring the regis- 
tration of all slave children, in order that their owners 
might hold them until they reached a certain age, the 
following persons registered slave children born to their 
possession at different times between 1798 and 1834: 



Samuel Carman i, Joseph Davis i, Goldsmith Davis i, 
General William Floyd 2, Colonel NicoU Floyd 17, Sarah 
Hallock 2, Robert Hawkins i. Joseph Hedges 3, Robert 
Hawkins jr. i, Ehenezer Jones i, Joseph Jayne i, Tim- 
othy Miller 2, Sarah Miller 3, Daniel Petty i, John 
Payne i, Daniel Robert i, Richard Robinson 4, 
Mrs. Mary Robert 7, Samuel Smith i, Oliver Smith 
4, Joanna Smith i, William Smith 8, Josiah Smith 
4, Woodhull Smith 7, General John Smith 7, Theophilus 
Smith 4, Amos Smith i, Stephen Swezey i, Selah Strong 
4, William Tooker i, Nathaniel Tuthill i, Ruth Thomp- 
son 2, Samuel Turner i, Jehial Woodruff i, Ruth Wood- 
hull 2, Meritt S. Woodhull 2, James Woodhull i, John 
Woodhull 2, Mary Woodhull i, Benjamin Woodhull 1, 
Abraham Woodhull i. Total number registered, 108. 

Provision for the Poor. 

Public charity engaged the attention of the town au- 
thorities at an early period. December 26th 1701 the 
trustees recorded their conviction of duty " not to suffer 
any of God's creatures to want," and accordingly ordered 
that a certain child which had been left with Hugh Mo- 
sier should be taken care of until the next quartc r ses- 
sions, and that Hugh Mosier should -be paid 2s, 3d. a 
week for such service. But little record of any action of 
the town in the matter of charity for many years after 
that period remains. March 26th 1739 Obadiah Seward 
seems to have fallen in distressing need of a coat, and 
the trustees appropriated 4s. 6d. for making him one. 
The cost of keeping those dependent upon the town for 
the year for which accounts were made up April 30th 
1739 was as follows: 

£ P. 

To widow Moger for keeping widow Hirst 9 IS 

Nathaniel Farret, for keeping his father 1 13 

William Gerrard, for keeping his father 1 8 

Eleazer Hawkins, for providing for John Gooding 3 4 

Daniel Smith, what he paid to Obadiah Seward 1 

Daniel Smith, treasurer for money advanced to the poor 6 15 

Widow Moger for attending widow Hirst when she was sick. . . 3 

Afterward the poor of the town were "farmed" out; 
that is, put in charge of whoever would keep them at the 
lowest price. Under this system the dependents of the 
town were disposed of on June 13th 1787 in the follow- 
ing manner: 

£ s. 

Mary Seward to William Sexton for 14 

Elizabeth Francis and her child to IsaacSmith jr. for 1 19 

Jerusba Loomis to Gilbert Hulse, for 13 15 

Anna Hulse to Gilbert Hulse, for 5 C 

Nancy Overton to Judge Strong, for 3 19 

This practice continued many years, but a more culti- 
vated humanity at last sought some more satisfactory 
method of taking care of the public wards. April ist 
1817 it was voted that the trustees should provide a house 
for the town poor, in conjunction with Islip and Smith- 
town. NicoU Floyd, Thomas S. Strong and William 
Tooker were appointed a. committee to confer with those 
towns on the subject. This movement resulted in the 
purchase during the year 1817 of a farm at Coram for 
$900, and the establishment of the town poor-house. An 
addition to the house was made by order of the trustees 
September gth 1851, which order required the additional 
part to be strongly built for the security of lunatics. 

During the years 1850 and 185 1 Dr. Brown was employed 
by the trustees as almshouse physician. 

The question of establishing a county poor-house was 
agitated as early as 1831, but the popular sentiment was 
not favorable to it. The vote taken at town meeting 
that year was unanimously opposed to it. The same re- 
sult attended a vote taken on the question in 1839, and 
when it was again submitted to the people in i86g a ma- 
jority voted against it. But this repeated expression of 
the popular wish was disregarded, and the county-house 
was built. Before its completion the Brookhaven trust- 
ees recommended (July ist 187 1) that each town should 
be at the expense of supporting its own poor at the house, 
which plan has been adopted. 

The inmates of the town poor-house were transferred 
to the county-house December 8th 1871, and the furni- 
ture of the vacated house was sold at auction on the 13th 
of the following January. The house and farm — reserv- 
ing the burying ground, six by eleven rods, in the north- 
east corner — were sold by the trustees May 7th 1872 for 
$600 to Lester Davis. 

From the confusion of the town records we are able to 
glean the items of appropriations for various expenses of 
the town as follows: 1794, .3^300; 1796, .;^3oo; 1802, 
$1,000; 1803, $600; 1806, $r,ooo; 1807, ,$1,000; 1808, 
$800; 1823, $1,200; 1824, $r,ooo; 1825, $850; 1826, 
$1,000; 1827, $800; 1830, $750; 1831, $1,000; 1834, 
$800. Appropriations were made specifically for the 
support of the poor as follows: 1848, $1,400; 1849, 
$1,600; 1850, $1, 600; 1851, $1,200; 1852, $1,600; 1853, 
$1,600; 1854, $1,800; 1856, $1,700; 1857, $1,800; 1858, 
$2,000; 1859, $2,500; i860, $2,500; 1861, $2,600; 1862, 
$2, 800; 1863, $3,000; 1864, $4,000; 1870, $7,000; 1871, 
$7,000; 1877, $5,500; 1878, $6,665.35; T879, $5,319.59; 
1880, $4,385-62. 

Educational Administration. 

What efforts may have been made in a private way to 
educate the children of the first settlers we do not know, 
but as early as the year 1687 the town employed Francis 
Williamson as a schoolmaster. This action was taken at the 
town meeting July 13th, and the trustees were instructed 
to employ Mr. Williamson at a salary of ^^30 a year, and 
to raise one-third of this amount by a tax on the people 
and the other two-thirds by a rate upon the children at- 
tending the school. How long this man was employed 
does not appear, but in 1704 John Gray appears as a 
teacher. He taught school in the meeting-house. May 
2nd of that year the town meeting gave him liberty to use 
the meeting-house for that purpose on condition that he 
would have it cleaned every Saturday and make good any 
damage done by the scholars. This arrangement doubt- 
less gave some dissatisfaction, and the growing wants of 
the community demanded a house for this exclusive use- 
The trustees accordingly ordered, October 6th 17 18, that 
a rate of ^^38 be raised and ;i school-house be built by 
the end of the year. 

As settlement extended to other parts of the town other 
school-houses were built and schools established, but this 



was generally done by private contributions and enter- 
prise more than by public action and tax. The town 
generally granted land for school-house sites wherever 
common land was owned in the localities. Beyond that 
the town paid but little attention to public education dur- 
ing the colonial period. 

The first commissioners of schools were elected in 
1796. They were Jonas Hawkins, Meritt S. WoodhuU, 
William Phillips, Caleb- M. Hulse, and Daniel Roe. The 
board elected in 1797 was composed of Abraham Wood- 
hull, Goldsmith Davis, John Bayles, Meritt S. Woodhull, 
and General John Smith. The commissioners for 1798 
were Joseph Brewster, Caleb M. Hulse, John Bayles, 
Meritt S. Woodhull, and Austin Roe. This office ap- 
pears to have been considered of so small account that 
at the regular town meeting of 1799 it was omitted, and 
a special meeting was necessary to secure the election of 
men to fill it, which was held on June 3d, resulting in 
the election of three commissioners, Joseph Brewster, 
Meritt S. Woodhull, and John Bayles. In 1800 four 
were elected — Richard Floyd, Isaac Hulse, John Havens, 
and Daniel Comstock. The office was then abandoned 
for several years. 

In 1813 there were elected three commissioner! 
and six inspectors of schools. This arrangement, with 
slight modifications, continued for several years, the 
officers being elected annually. The commissioners 
elected each year were; 

1813, 1814, Benjamin F. Thompson, John Rose and 
Mordecai Homan; 1815-18, William Beale, Mordecai 
Homan and John R. Satterly; 1819-23, Mordecai Homan, 
Archibald Jayne and Nathaniel Miller; 1824, Mordecai 
Homan, John R. Satterly and Sineus C. Miller; 1825, 
Sineus C. Miller, Selah B. Strong and Mordecai Homan; 
1826, Selah B. Strong, Mordecai Homan and William 
Beale; 1827, 1828, Mordecai Homan, Selah B. Strong 
and James M. Fanning; 1829, Mordecai Homan, Sereno 
Burnell and William S. Smith; 1830-34, Mordecai Homan, 
Selah B. Strong and Samuel F. Norton; 1835-37, Selah 
B. Strong, William Sidney Smith and Samuel F. ^fo^ton; 
1838, Selah B. Strong, Nathaniel Conklin and Simeon H. 
Ritch; 1839-41, Selah B. Strong, Simeon H. Ritch and 
Brewster Woodhull; 1842, Selah B. Strong, Simeon H. 
Ritch and Albert A. Overton; 1843, Selah B. Strong, 
Benjamin T. Hutchinson and William Wickham jr. 

The inspectors of common schools during this period 
were as follows: 

1813-18, Rev. Zachariah Green, Rev. Noah Hallock, 
Nicoll Floyd, William Beale, Rev. Ezra King and Joseph 
B. Roe; 1819, 1820, John R. Satterly, Russell Green, 
Rev. Ezra King, Nicoll Floyd, William Beale and Joseph 
B. Roe; 1820-23 (the number being reduced to three). 
Russell Green, Rev. Ezra King and William Beale; 1824, 
Sereno Burnell, Rev. Ezra King and William Beale; 1825, 
John R. Satterly, Rev. Ezra King and Jonathan Burnell; 
1826, John R. Satterly, Josiah Smith and Nathaniel 
Smith; 1827, 1828, John R. Satterly, William Sidney 
Smith and Nathaniel Smith; 1829, John R. Satterly, 
James M. Fanning and Nathaniel Smith; 1830, none re- 
corded; 1831, 1832, John R. Satterly, William Beale and 
Joel Robinson; 1833, John R. Satterly, Daniel G. Gillette 
and Lester H. Davis; 1834, John R. Satterly, James M. 
Fanning and Daniel G. Gillette; 1835-37, Benjamin T. 
Hutchinson, John R. Satterly and James M. Fanning; 

1838, John R. Satterly, Benjamin T. Hutchinson and 
William S. Preston; 1839, 1840, John R. Swezey, James 
Rice and Orlando Burnell; i84i,Elias H. Luce, John R. 
Satterly and Orlando Burnell; 1842, John R. Swezey and 
Joel Robinson; 1843, John R. Swezey and Simeon H. 

Following the last date the duties of commissioners and 
inspectors were combined in a single office under the title 
of town superintendent of schools. This office continued 
until that of Assembly district commissioner was consti- 
tuted, and was held by the following persons: 1844, 
William Sidney Smith; 1845, William Wickham; 1846, 
William S. Preston; 1847, 1848, William J. Weeks; 1849 
-55, Lewis R. Overton. 

The pay of these early school officers was not unreason- 
ably liberal. A vote of town meeting in 1839 fixed the 
pay of inspectors at fifty cents a day. The town meeting 
of 1841, however, increased this to one dollar a day. 

The town -was first divided into school districts by 
action of the commissioners of schools, November 3d 
1813. Twenty-three districts were then formed, and their 
locations were as follows: No. i, at Stony Brook; No. 2, 
the western part of Setauket, including " Lubber Street 
and Dickerson's Settlement;" No. 3, the eastern part of 
Setauket; No. 4, Drown Meadow; No. 5, Old -Man's; 
No. 6, Miller's Place and " Hopkins Settlement;" No. 7, 
Rocky Point; No. 8, the western part of the interior, 
about Ronkonkoma Pond, to the Smithtown line; No. 9, 
New Village, as far west as Jarvis Hawkins's, and east to 
Richard Norton's and Joseph Roe's; No. 10, Coram, as 
far west as James Norton's; No. 11, Swezey Town and the 
northern part of Middletown; No. 12, the lower part of 
Middle Island (or Middletown) as far west as Isaac 
Howell's, and north to James Dayton's and James 
Barnaby's; No. 13, " Manner as far west as George 
Cotits and Mosier King's, and east to Southampton line, 
including Halsey's Manner;" No. 14, the remainder of 
the manor; No. 15, the eastern part of Moriches west to 
Havens's Mills; No. 16, Moriches to the paper-mill; No. 
17, " Mastic as far west as Fireplace;" No. 18, west of 
Fireplace Mills as far as Jeffrey Brewster's; No. 19, from 
the latter point west to Austin Roe's; No. 20, west of 
Austin Roe's, to Patchogue Stream; No. 21, west of 
Patchogue, to the Islip line; No 22, east of Thomas 
Aldrich's in Middletown to the Wading River line; No. 
23, Coram Hills, as far east as the widow Howell's. 

Other districts were afterward formed as follows: 

No 24 on the north road at Manor, taking all east of 
the house of Caleb Smith (then deceased), formed De- 
cember 8th 1814; No. 25, May 9th 1815, at Westfield, 
from the house then occupied by Lemuel Smith eastward 
to include the houses of George Smith and David Ford- 
ham; No. 26, at Southaven, from the eastern part of 18, 
May t2th 1815; No. 27, May ist 1817, at Bald Hills; 
No. 28, February 4th 1818, that part of No. 2 which lay 
south of Benjamin F. Thompson's and a road called 
Bailey's Hollow, at Setauket; No. 29, June 8th 1822, that 
part of 16 lying from the east line of John Penney west- 
ward to a house formerly occupied by '' Ben, a colored 
man, not including the houses down the neck on the west 



side of the river;" No. 30, October 28th 1823, including 
the northeastern part of Stony Brook; No. 31, June 6th 
1827, from the western part of 21 at Blue Point; No. 32, 
January loth 1833, from parts of 18 and 19; No. 33, 
March 6th 1835, from the eastern part of 11 and north- 
ern part of 12, at Middle Island; No. 34, March 30th 
1835, from the northeastern part of 3, at Setauket; No. 
35, at Wading River, February 24th 1838. 

The districts of the town were renumbered October 
24th 1842, the changes being as follows: 

Old Number. 












East Stony Brook. . 

West Setauket 


East Setauket. . 
Northeast Setauket 

Port Jefferson 

Mt. Sinai 

Miller's Place 

Rocky Point 


New Village 


Bald Hills 


Coram Hills 

Middle Island ch. . . 

Middle .Island 



North Manor 

West Manor 

East Manor 

Blue Point 

West Patchogue. . . . 
East Patchogue. . . . 
Patchogue Lane. . . 

Union Street 


Fireplace Neck. . . . 



West Moriches. ... 
Centre Moriches. . . 
East Moriches 

New Number. 

















The parts of joint districts were numbered as follows: 
South Stony Brook i, Ronkonkoma 2, Wading River 3 
Conungum Mills 4, Seatuck 5. 

The following changes were afterward made : No. 35 
was formed from the southern part of 26, at Patchogue. 
No. 36 was formed at Canaan, from the northern part of 
26. No 37 was formed at Seatuck, from the part district 
No. S, May ist 1852. No. 38 was formed May ist 1855, 
from the western part of 29. No. 39 was formed May 
nth 1857, from parts of 25 and 27, at East Patchogue. 
No. 40 was formed from the western part of 13, May j8th 
1857. It was afterward numbered as 15 of Islip. No. 
36 was annulled May ist i860 and its territory divided 
between 24 and 25. No. 41 was formed of part No. i at 
Stony Brook August 7th 1865. No. 42 was formed of 
part No. 2 at Lakeville August 7th 1865. Setauket 
union school was formed by the union of Nos. 4 and 5, 

February 6th 1866, and the number 36 given it August 
22nd 1866. Union free school district, No. 24 was 
formed of 24, 25, 26 and 35, at Patchostue, March 4th 
1869. No 41 was changed to 4, and 42 to 5, August 
22nd 1866. No. 38 was changed to 25, 39 to 26, and 40 
to 35, March 4th 1869. The numbers 31 and 37 were 
interchanged November 12th 1875. By these changes 
the numbers that have been made vacant by the consoli- 
dation and annulling of former districts were taken by 
the higher numbered districts, and thus, the consecutive 
numbers being filled, 37 became the highest. No. 38 
was formed at Comsewaug, from No. 6, June 2nd 1874. 
No. 25 was annulled September 28th 1874, and its terri- 
tory divided between Nos. 28 (at Bellport) and 29 (at 

Elections and Officers. 

Elections of town ofificers were probably at first held 
whenever occasion required, without any definite regu- 
larity. The following is a transcript of one of the earliest 
records of a town election that can now be discovered. 
Two or three words are defaced beyond recognition. 

" Brookhauen the 3 day of Aprill 1676 at Towns meet- 
ing was chosen William Saterley Constable for this pres- 
ent yeare at the same tyme was chosen for Ourseers Na- 

thanell Norton and Thomas Smith also John 

Tucker was chosen Recorder for the Town 

— at the same tyme for this present yeare." 

By the patent of 1686 the "' first Tuesday of May for- 
ever " was fixed as the time for holding elections of town 
ofificers. This rule continued in operation a full century, 
being superseded by the State law of 1787 fixing the an- 
nual election on the first Tuesday in April. Beginning 
with the year last mentioned that arrangement has con- 
tinued till the present time. 

It is probable that as the study of political maneuver- 
ing advanced some abuses were permitted by the fact 
that no definite hour had been fixed for the election of 
officers on town meeting day. To correct this the town 
meeting in 1701 voted that "forever hereafter the hour 
of meeting for choosing of officers shall be at one of the 
clock in the afternoon." 

The general elections under State laws were held at 
first with some irregularity, most of the time in April or 
May, but sometimes at other seasons of the year. This 
general election, afterward called the " anniversary elec- 
tion," was during the first years of the present century 
fixed on the three days beginning with the last Tuesday 
in April. It was presided over by a board of four inspect- 
ors, who moved with the ballot box from point to point, 
holding sessions in various places in the town during the 
three election days. 

At a special election to vote on the amended State 
constitution, held in January 1822, Brookhaven gave 116 
votes for and 95 against the amendments. After that 
the general elections were held in November. 

The number of electors in this town in 1801 (when a 
property qualification was necessary) was 554. Of this 
number 462 possessed " freeholds " valued at j^ioo or 
more, 31 at _^2o or more, and 61 at less than ;^20. 



After the election arrangements had undergone some 
further modifications the present system of holding elec- 
tions in election districts was introduced in 1842. In 
accordance with the State law passed April 5th of that 
year the town was divided into five election districts on 
the 6th of the following September. The officers to 
whom fell the duty of making this division were Nathan- 
iel Conklin, supervisor, John R. Satterly, Davis Norton, 
John Davis and James Ketcham, assessors, and Mordecai 
Homan, town clerk. District No. i comprised the north- 
west part of the town as far east as Crystal Brook Hol- 
low. No. 2 comprised the north part of the town east of 
the former. No. 3 comprised that part of the town ly- 
ing south of No. 2 and east of the Yaphank line and 
Creek and Carman's River. No. 4 included all the ter- 
ritory lying west of No. 3 and south of the Long Island 
Railroad. No. 5 comprised the middle part of the town 
west of the Yaphank line. The southern bound of No. 

2, which had been the Country road east of Corwin's road, 
was moved north to the " Butt line," October 6th 1845. 
By this change the " Butt line " (an imaginary line running 
east and west through the middle of the wooded plain) 
became the southern bound of both the north side dis- 
tricts and the northern bound of No. 5, which, being erj- 
larged by the territory vacated by No. 2, now extended 
the entire length of the town, on the north side of the 
Country road. By another change, made several years 
later, the territory of No. 5 on the south of the Country 
road was extended several miles further east. A new 
district was formed from that part of No. 4 lying west of 
Overton's Brook in Union Street, and the new district 
was numbered 5, while old No. 5 was numbered 6. No. 
I was divided October 4th 1869, and a new district 
formed comprising Port Jefferson and the eastern part 
of Setauket. This was made No. 2, and the numbers of 

3, 4, 5 and 6 were changed respectively to 4, 5, 6 and 7. 
The earliest officers of the town were the members of 

a committee of three or more men to whom the people 
gave power to act for them in all affairs, with full power 
to settle differences between men except in the disposi- 
tion of lands. After the union with Connecticut in 1662 
the town government was vested in three overseers and a 
constable. Soon . afterward surveyors of highways 
were chosen, though this office may not have 
been continuously maintained. The overseers were af- 
terward called commissioners, and the constable was also 
made the collector and treasurer. The patent of 1686 
directed that seven trustees, a clerk, a constable and two 
assessors should be elected annually. The office- of 
clerk, or '" recorder," had at that time been in operation 
many years. In 1687 the town meeting elected t'hree 
commissioners in addition to the officers named in the 
patent. Fence-viewers were elected as early as 1697. 
At that time the town had but two, which number was 
afterward greatly increased. In 1740 the number of 
constables was increased to three: one "in town," one at 
"Old Man's," and one at "South." The different offi- 
cers were increased in numbers from time to time, until 
in 1 781 there were 5 constables, 10 commissioners and 

18 fence-viewers. In 1790 there were 5 assessors, 3 com- 
missioners of highways, 6 constables, 12 overseers of 
highways and 21 fence-viewers. In 1796 the town meet- 
ing voted that fence-viewers should have 6s. a day for 
their services. In 1795 there were 22 fence-viewers, in 
1798 only 14, while in 1815 there were 36, and in 1829 
the office was abolished, its duties being given to the 
commissioners of highways and assessors. By the year 
1798 the number of assessors was increased to 7, and the 
number of constables was the same. There were then 
18 overseers of highways, which number had increased in 
1815 to 31. At the latter date there were 9 constables. 

The whole number of assessors and commissioners 
was elected annually until 1846, when the present system 
of electing one-third of the number every year and mak- 
ing the official term three years was introduced. The 
number of constables was increased to 8 in 1857. 

The early justices of the peace were appointed by the 
governor. The office was regarded as one of considera- 
ble honor. This was so much the case that men who 
reached it almost dropped their first name, being ad- 
dressed and named by the title instead. Even after the or- 
ganization of the State government they were appointed, 
until 1827, when the office became elective, and four 
justices were assigned to Brookhaven. They were at 
first chosen at the November elections, but in 1830 they 
began to be elected as they now are, at the town election 
in the spring. In 1854 the number was increased to 8. 
Since the office became elective the following men have 
filled it during the terms indicated: 

John S. Mount, 1828-35; William Beale, 1828-34; 
Samuel Davis, 1828-38; William Helme, 1828; Barnabas 
Wines, 1829-36, 1841-44; Brewster Woodhull, 1835-54; 
Charles Phillips, J836-55; David Worth, 1837-40; David 
Overton, 1838-45; Richard Robinson, 1845-51; Brewster 
Terry, 1846-49; Franklin Overton, 1850-53, 1858-61; 
Jesse W. Pelletreau, 1851-71; Samuel F. Norton, 1854- 
57; Samuel C. Hawkins, 1855-58; Joel Robinson, 1855; 
Z. Franklin Hawkins, 1855-64; Silas Homan, 1855-57; 
Richard O. Howell, 1855-58; Richard W. Smith, 1856- 
59; Samuel R. Davis, 1856-59; Warren Conklin, 1859-62; 
David T. Hawkins, 1858-74; Walter Dickerson, 1860-67; 
Orin W. Rogers, 1859 81; Jeremiah G. Wilbur, 1862-68; 
Charles Price, 1863-70; Lester Davis, 1863-78; John S. 
Lee, 1865-77; Richard T. Osborn, 1869-81; Charles A. 
Davis, 1869-75; Charles R. Smith, 1871 to present time; 
William H. Clark, 1872-79; Charles E. Goldthwaite, 
1875-81; Sylvester D. Tuthill, 1876; William H. Osborn, 
1879; Thomas H. Saxton, 1878 to present time; George 
W. Hopkins, 1880 to present time; George E. Hallock, 
1880 to present time; Jacob De Baum, 1880 to present 

The office of president of trustees, constituted by the 
patent of 1686, has been held by the following persons: 

Thomas Biggs jr., 1687-91; Richard Woodhull, 1692, 
1693; Thomas Helme, 1694, 1695, 1698; Richard 
Floyd, 1696, 1699, 170O1 part of 1704; Joseph Tooker, 
1697; Captain Thomas Clark, 170104; William Nicoll, 
1705-08; Colonel Henry Smith, 1709-13, 1715, 1716, 
1718-20; Timothy Brewster, 1714, 1731; Colonel Rich- 
ard Floyd, 1717, 1747-62; Selah Strong, 1721; Samuel 
Thompson, 1722; Richard Woodhull, 1723-25, 1727, 1729, 
173°. 1732-36, 1740, 1 741; Samuel Davis (of Stony 
Brook), 1726; Jonathan Owen, 1728; Captain Robert 



Robinson, 1737-39, 1742-46; William Nicoll, 1763; Na- 
thaniel' Brewster, 1764-66; Nathaniel Woodhull, 1767, 
1768; Jonathan Thompson, 1769-76; Joseph Brewster, 
1777, 1778; Gilbert Smith, 1779; Selah Strong, 1780-97, 
1803-07, 1810; Daniel Roe, 1798, 1799; Meritt S. Wood- 
hull, 1800, 1801; Nicoll Floyd, 1802, 1810, 1817; Wil- 
liam Jayne, 1808; Caleb M. Hulse, 1809; Abraham 
Woodhull, 1811; William H. Helme, 1812; Josiah Smith, 
1813, 1818, 1823; John Rose, 1814, 1821; Isaac 
Satterly, 1815 ; Thomas S. Strong, 1816, 1819, 
1820, 1822, 1824-26 ; Isaac Brewster, 1827-29; 
Daniel Overton, 1830, 1831, 1834, 1836-40; Davis Nor- 
ton, 1832, 1833, 1835, 1842, 1843, 1853-56; Silas Homan, 
1841; William S. Williamson, 1844, 1848; Nathaniel 
Tattle, 1845-47 ; Samuel Carman, 1849; William C. 
Booth, 1850, 1851 ; William Phillips, 1852 ; Charles 
Woodhull, 1857; Lester Davis, 1858, 1859; John Symms 
Havens, 1860-63 ; Nathaniel Tuthill, 1864, 1869, 
1870; William H. Clark, 1865-68, 1871-79; Henry W. 
Carman, 1880, i88r. 

The supervisors of this town, from the earliest period 
of which we find any record of that office or its functions, 
have been as follows: 

Richard Floyd (ensign), 1692; Thomas Helme, 1694; 
Richard Floyd, 1695, 1697, part of 1704; Daniel Brewster, 
1696, 1698; Thomas Clark, 170004; William Nicoll, 
1705-11; Colonel Henry Smith, 1712-15; Colonel Richard 
Floyd, 1716-18, 1720-29; Jonathan Owen, 1719; Richard 
Woodhull, 1730-41; Richard Floyd, 1742-62; Richard 
Miller, 1763-73; Major Benjamin Floyd, 1774, 1775, 
^^777. 1778; Nathan Woodhull, 1776; Robert Jayne, 
1779; Frederick Hudson, 1780, 1781; Selah Strong, 
1782, 1784-94; Nathaniel Woodhull, 1783; William 
Phillips, 1795-97; General John Smith, 1798; Meritt S. 
Woodhull, 1799-1801, 1803, 1804; Isaac Hulse, 1802; 
John Rose, 1805-09, 1811-20, 1822-24; Jonas Hawkins, 
1810; Nicoll Floyd, 1821; Thomas S. Strong, 1825-28; 
William Sidney Smith, 1829-33; John M. Williamson, 
1834-40, 1852, 1853; Nathaniel Conklin, 1841-43; Thomas 
J. Ritch, 1844-46; George P. Mills, 1847-51; John S. 
Havens, 1854-56, 1859-61; William H. Smith, 1857, 
1858; Nathaniel Miller, 1862-65; Charles S. Havens, 
1866-68, 1874-77; Effingham Tuthill, 1869-73; John S. 
Havens, 1878-81. 

The following persons have held the office of town 
clerk : 

John Tooker, 1668 (and probably earlier") to 1677 and 

later; Andrew Gibb, 1686; Thomas Helme, 1687; 

John Jenner, 1688; Timothy Brewster, 1689-1711; Daniel 
Brewster 1712-37; Daniel Smith, 1738-75; Amos Smith, 
1776-81; Elijah Smith, 1782-88; Isaac Hulse, 1789-1800, 
1802-06; Apollos Wetmore, 1801; Mordecai Homan, 
1807-47; Benjamin T. Hutchinson, 1848,1849, 1860-77; 
SamuelA. Hawkins, 1850-56; Lewis R. Overton, 1857-59; 
Henry P. Hutchinson, 1877-81. 

The Bay Fisheries. 

Previous to the Revolution the trustees of the town 
appear to have given but little attention to their claims 
upon the waters and shores over which their patent gave 
them jurisdiction. At the same time the successive occu- 
pants of the South Bay proprietorship experienced much 
difficulty in enforcing their claims to that water and its bot- 
tom. Under the partnership arrangement effected by 
the agreements of 1767 and 1790 the managing control 
of the south side bays fell to the charge of the trustees. 

and they have ever since continued to exercise that 
power. By that arrangement the limits of their jurisdic- 
tion were enlarged so as to cover all the salt waters em- 
braced within the patent lines of the town. 

The business of taking oysters from the South Bay 
had gained considerable magnitude, as may be inferred 
from the fact that as early as July 4th 1785 the trustees 
considered it necessary to pass an order that not more 
than two hundred cargoes should be carried out of the 
bay between that time and the next town election day. 
The vessels carrying oysters out of the town were by the 
same order required to obtain permits, the price of which 
was fixed at 24s. In November of the .same year for 
this charge was substituted a royalty fee of twopence 
for every tub of oysters taken. Under the first date the 
trustees also enacted that twopence a bushel should be 
paid for a permit to take clams from the same waters. 
Fishing with net or seine without a permit was at the 
same time also forbidden. A fine of 40s. was prescribed 
for the violation of either of these provisions. 

April 7th 1788 the trustees passed a regulation requir- 
ing every vessel engaged in taking oysters from the South 
Bay to be measured, and a fee of is. 6d. for each ton of 
the vessel's capacity to be paid in advance. At this time 
it was also ordered that no fishing with net or seine 
should be allowed, and that no one except resideijts of 
the town should be allowed to catch oysters or clams. 

About this time the trustees adopted the practice of 
leasing or selling the privilege of fishing in the partner- 
ship bays from year to year. June nth 1789 this right, 
covering all the bay west of Smith's Point, was sold to 
Elijah Chichester and James Berry for ^^24. The term 
for which it was sold closed with the first of the follow- 
ing December, and the rights of inhabitants to catch 
fish for their own use were reserved. The penalty for 
violation of the enactments in regard to fish, at first 
fixed at 40S., was increased May 2nd 1791 to ^4. The 
fine for taking oysters from the town without permit, 
fixed at first at 40s., was in i 792 raised to ^5, and a fine 
of £3 was to be collected of any one who should assist 
in loading an unlicensed vessel. The fee was also raised 
to 3s. a ton for the capacity of all vessels carrying oysters 
out of the town. 

In 1794 the question of oystering and other bay privi- 
leges was considerably agitated. The trustees appear to 
have submitted it to the vote of the people in town 
meeting, and they were unanimously opposed to hiring 
out the fishing, or allowing oysters to be carried out of 
the town "by any person or persons whatsoever." The 
trustees passed enactments in accordance with that ex- 
pression, and fixed a penalty of ;^io for their violation. 
On the 22nd of the fojlowing October, however, this ar- 
rangement had proved so unsatisfactory that a special 
town meeting was called, and the matter was again placed 
in the hands of the trustees " to do with it according to 
their Descrecian." 

The trustees have ever since continued to exercise the 
sublime prerogative of their " Descrecian," which has 
given the history of the management of the bays a char- 




4icter too fluctuating and confusing to be followed with 
any respect to details within the limits of this article. 
Regulations similar to those already mentioned were fre- 
quently enacted, amended, confirmed or repealed. Dur- 
ing that portion of the year from May to September the 
taking of oysters or clams was forbidden altogether, or 
taxed at so high a rate as to make a practical restriction; 
but during the remaining portion of the year inhabitants 
of the town had free access to the bay, to supply their 
own individual needs with its products. The business 
of taking those products for export or profit was gene- 
rally heavily taxed, and severe fines were prescribed for 
the violation of the rules. Piracies were frequent, prob- 
ably induced in a large measure by the confusing insta- 
bility and frequently exorbitant demands of those regu- 
lations, together with the imperfect arrangements for en- 
forcing them. 

May 4th 1795 the trustees decided that their jurisdic- 
tion extended to the drawing of seines upon the ocean 
shore of the beach, and accordingly they placed restric- 
tions upon that privilege the same as upon the bay fish- 
ery. At that time they also prohibited the taking of 
shells from the bay. The privilege of fowling on the 
bogs and in the marshes of the bay was also within th^ 
trustees' authority, and that privilege was generally sold 
to some individual for the year. Among the first in- 
stances of this kind the trustees, May 6th 1799, sold the 
right of fowling in the South Bay for one year to Wil- 
liam Albeen, for $42.50. The privilege thus granted did 
not debar inhabitants from shooting for their own sport 
or use, but secured the monopoly of the business of 
taking birds away from the town for market. The same 
privilege was sold at public auction May 5th 1800 to 
Willet Raynor & Co. for $50, and in the following year 
to the same parties for $40. In 1802 the fowling privi- 
lege was given to William Albeen, who was to allow the 
town one-tenth of the proceeds. In 1807 the right was 
sold to Hampton Howell for $50. These claims of the 
trustees upon the fowling privilege were exercised for 
many years. As late as 1852 the gunning privilege of 
the West Bay was leased for three years to John Homan 
for $7.50 a year. 

The trustees enacted that fish should not be taken from 
the bay to be carried out of the town. The monopoly of 
fishing for market, however, was sold from year to year 
to individuals: for example, in 1801 to Elijah Chichester 
for $too, and for the year 1803 to George Brown and 
John Turner for $100. About this time "horse-fish" 
seem to have been taken considerably for manure, and it 
was forbidden by the trustees under a fine of f iC The 
fishing privilege for 1807 was granted to Captain Josiah 
Smith and Hampton Howell for one-tenth of the pro- 
ceeds. As late as 1852 the privilege of fishing in the 
West Bay was sold for $50 for a terra of three years. 
This custom had for many years been practically obso- 
lete, and the attempt then made to revive it proved un- 

In 1806 the trustees ordered a fee of two cents a 
bushel for all clams taken out of the town, and three 

cents a bushel for " horse-fish." Similar regulations were 
passed at different times during the years preceding and 
following the one mentioned. Fines ranging from $12.50 
to $25 were fixed at different times for a violation of 
these orders. In 1833 an act was passed that no shell- 
fish should be taken from the waters of the north side 
except on Tuesdays and Fridays of each week. This 
was repealed during the same year. In 1844 a toleration 
fee of three cents a bushel was required for all hard 
clams carried out of the town from these waters. 

In 1812 the trustees forbade taking sand from the har- 
bors and shores of the town. It was again forbidden in 
the following year, under a penalty of $20. In 1818 they 
allowed sand to be taken by those having permits, which 
were to be obtained only on payment of one cent a 
bushel for the sand. In 1823 they forbade taking stones 
from the shores witjiout permit. Fines of $12.50 were 
prescribed for the violation of the enactments in regard 
to sand and stones. 

Among the earliest records of leasing ground for laying 
down oysters appears a grant dated January 3d 1800, in 
which the trustees gave to Daniel Smith, of Setauket, the 
right to lay down oysters on a tract of bottom in Drown 
Meadow Bay, on the west side of the bay, from the 
" west end of the third salt pond " to the north end of 
the " fourth salt pond," and thirty rods out into the bay 
from low water mark. Leasing ground for planting 
oysters in the south bays commenced about 1829. 
March 3d of that year a tract of about ten acres was 
leased to William Tooker for a term of fourteen years. 
This practice has increased from that time, until a large 
extent of those portions of the bays available for the 
propagation of oysters, on both north and south sides of 
the town, is occupied for this use by individuals under 
leases from the trustees. 

A toleration fee of two cents a bushel was established 
in 1841, to be paid on all oysters taken from the South 
Bay to be carried out of the town. This was changed 
several years' later to a fee to be paid by each man en- 
gaged in the business. This fee in 1851 was 75 cents for 
a part of the year, or $1 for the full year if paid in ad- 
vance, or $1.25 if delayed until June. This in substance 
has been the plan since followed, though details have 
been modified. 

Dredging in the South Bay was forbidden by an act of 
the trustees May 4th 1841. A fine of $12.50 was the 
penalty established for its violation. The law was re- 
pealed in 1848, and re-enacted in 185 1, with the penalty 
increased to $50. 

The ownership of the bay against a part of the town 
of Islip being held by Brookhaven, and the people of 
that section being as a natural consequence debarred 
from the privileges of the waters adjoining their land, 
there arose, as might be expected from such a collision 
of moral and legal rights, frequent encroachments and 
contentions. After the subject had been agitated for 
several years an agreement was effected July 13th 1880, 
and confirmed by an act of the Legislature in May 1881, 
by which the people of Islip residing east of Conetquot 




River were to enjoy equal rights with the citizens of 
Brookhaven in the fisheries of the bay. For this privi- 
lege they were to pay $1,500 to the Brookhaven trustees, 
who in turn agreed to use $1,200 of that money in the 
improvement of the fisheries for the common benefit of 
all interested. The trustees reserved the right to punish 
any violation of their common rules governing the bay 
by withholding the privilege from the offending in- 

Brookhaven in the Civil War. 

When the "irrepressible conflict" ripened into the civil 
war of 1861 it found the people of Brookhaven ready to 
take up their share of the necessary burdens. On the 
i8th of August 1862 the board of supervisors at River- 
head passed a resolution that each town should fill its 
own quota of men in the service, or raise its own funds 
independently of any associated action of the county. 
August 2ist 1862 it was voted at a meeting at Coram 
that the supervisor should raise money by a loan and pay 
a bounty of $150 to each volunteer who would enlist to the 
credit of the town. About this time the government was 
making loud calls for men to carry on the war, and it was 
thought that a draft might be necessary to fill the quotas. 
On the 26th the Supervisor and assessors met at 
Coram and began making an enrollment of men liable to 
military service, which work occupied several days. On 
the first of November following a commission with a 
surgeon sat at Coram to examine men claiming exemption 
from military duly on account of any physical disability. 
Enlistments, however, were numerous enough to prevent 
a draft, and, the quotas of many other towns being filled, 
the surplus of recruits was obtainable at a lower bounty 
than had been voted by the town. The supervisor at the 
time — who, by the way, was Nathaniel Miller, to whose 
kindness we are indebted for many items relating to this 
subject — went to New York on the 5th of November, and 
was there able to make up the deficiency in the town's 
quota by securing 107 three-years men in Corcoran's 
Irish brigade at $80 each, thereby making a considerable 
saving to the town. 

After the meeting of August 21st the work of raising 
a loan began. It will be remembered that at that time 
the town had no authority to ask a loan for this purpose 
or to raise money by tax to pay it. At that time the 
political prospect was enshrouded in darkness, party spirit 
was rampant, and the very foundations of the govern- 
ment were trembling. The man who loaned a dollar to 
the cause took every risk himself without a scrap to 
vouch for its return. His only security was his faith in 
the final triumph of the cause and the integrity of the 
people and their government. The men who made that 
loan staked their money on this, and we think the inser- 
tion of their names here is no more than a just tribute 
to the practical patriotism by which they were actuated. 
The following list contains the loans rhade before any 
authority existed for their being returned at any future 
time. The Legislature of 1863 did sanction such loans, 
and granted the power to secure them, after which loans 

this list does not include 

in larger sums were made, but 
any of them: 

George C. Campbell $50, Holmes W. Sweezey $50,. 
William A. Walker $100, F. F. Darling $50, C. L. &' W. 
T. Hulse $100, James R. Taylor $100, Thomas J. Ritcb 
$100, Reuben H. Wilson $50, Apollos Dayton $50, Joseph 
J. Harris $50, Hamilton Tooker foo, Jas. L. Bayles & 
Sons $100, George W. Brewster $50, Thomas B. Haw- 
kins Iso, Van Buren Norton $50, Micah Jayne $100, 
Daniel Hawkins $100, Walter Jones $100, William R. 
Satterly $100, Thomas S. Strong $150, Selah B. Strong: 
$500, S. Sylvester Hawkins $50, Algernon S. Mills $100, 
Nicholas Smith $100, James Hulse $100, Sylvester Hulse 
$50, Samuel Smith $160, Charles Dickerson, $50, Ruth 
Van Brunt $300, Bryant C. Hawkins $100, Alfred Darl- 
ing $200, Oliver Smith $200, Daniel R. Miller $100, Wil- 
liam M. Brown $100, George P. Helme $100, Samuel 
Hopkins $500, Eiisha Norton I200, John Hutchinson 
I50, Davis Norton $100, J. T. French, J. E. Longbotham 
and A. R. Norton $100, William J. Gould $50, Henry 
Murray $100, Davis Hammond $100, Samuel A. Haw- 
kins ifoo, Eiisha N. Hawkins $70, Samuel Dare $100, 
Harriet T. Norton $25, Lester H. Davis fioo, F. T. 
Drake $50, Moses Ackeriy $25, Christopher Robinson 
I30, Seth Raynor~$25, Clfnton Raynor $50, Nehemiah- 
Hand $500, Samuel S. Thompson $100, Edward 
A. King $100, Ebenezer Hawkins $50, William J. 
Weeks $150, James H. Weeks $150, Samuel W. Ran- 
dall |iSo, Sereno B. Overton $25, Philetus Phillips 
$150, Nathaniel Tuthill $r50, D. D. Swezey $100^ 
Wm. S. Robert $250, Richard W. Smith fioo, Mrs> 
Richard W. Smith $200, George P. Helme $1,800, 
Charles J. Smith $500, Henry Nicoll (a gift) $ioc^ 
John Sims Havens $1,200, John G. Floyd $700, Samuel 
Carman $100, N. Miller $100, William Phillips $200, 
Edward Oakes $100, Joseph Hawkins jr. $100, Charles- 
E. Hawkins $50, Benjamin F. Wells $50, Isaac Bellows 
$80, Daniel W. Sperry $50, David T. Bayles $50, George 
W. Davis $100, Lewis Hallock $400, William Lester 
Hawkins $100, Alonzo Hawkins $50, Henry E. Smith. 
$100, Benjamin Brewster $300, Nancy J. Brewster $100, 
Richard Davis $25, Samuel Hopkins $3,100, Jacob Elli- 
son $100, George P. Helme $100, Lewis Hallock $300^ 
Samuel A. Hawkins $100, Joseph S. Hawkins $100, David 
T. Bayles $25, Samuel Hopkins $r,ooo, John Roe Smith 
$roo, C. J. Randall $ioo, John F. Hallock $100, John 
Rowland $50, Abijah T. Moger $50, Lester H. Davis- 
$300, Austin Culver $100, E. D. Topping $30, Charles S. 
Piatt $100, Samuel F. Norton $150, J. Robert Laws $50^ 
Edward Homan $25, J. W. Petty $10, Henry Mills $300, 
Edward A, King $100, Jonas Smith $1,000, William Roe 
$100, Sally Raynor $50, James F. Goodale $100, Fisher 
& Bro's $50, J. B. Duff $500, Charles Price $100, Alfred 
Price $100, E. T. Moore $150, Henry Blydenburg $25,. 
David F. Conklin $50, Stephen S. Roe $100, Oliver 
Wicks $100, Alfred Mott $25, Eiisha Saxton $200, Joseph- 
Petty $25, John S. Havens $150, S. S. Hammond $200,, 
Austin Roe $150, A. Lambert $100, Edward Hammond 
$200, N. O. Smith $100, William Avery $100, William B. 
Arthur $200, J. R. Smith $50, George P. Mills $100,. 
Richard W. Smith $400, George F. Carman $300, David 
Hedges $100, Daniel Robinson $100, John R. Smith 
$100, Phineas T. Robinson $100, Daniel Wicks $100^ 
Mulford Hedges $100, Nathaniel T. Swezey $100, Smith 
Rider $100, Azariah F. Hawkins $150, Alfred Price $100, 
J. B. Duff, $100, Edward Hammond $200, Daniel Robin- 
son $100, Oliver Wicks $50, Charles Price $100, Isaac 
Overton, Joseph O. Robinson $50, Norton Robinson 
$50, Theodore Darenert $50, John R. Smith $100, J. C. 
C. Hurten $100, Daniel Overton $100, John Deery $50, 
Alvina Hawkins $50, Henry F. Osborn $100, George- 



Robinson $50, John Roe $250, J. B. Terry $20, William 

E. Gould $150, Walter Jones jr. $50, Maria W. Hutchin- 
son fioo, James M. Bayles $300, Walter Leek $100, F. 

F. Darling $50, Bryant D. Norton $125, Charles Schryver 
$50, Apollos Dayton $100, Ezra Hart $25, Smith Dayton 
$50, Elbert Raynor $50, Noah H. Jones $50, Van Buren 
Norton $50. 

Under the draft which took place in 1863 the town 
made no "effort to provide for its citizens who were 
drafted, as the act of that year released any drafted man 
who paid $300. 

At a special town meeting held January 4th 1864 it 
was resolved to raise a fund by the contribution of $25 
from each man subject to a draft, the fund so raised to 
be divided among those who were drafted. 

A special town meeting, having been legally called, was 
held on the 18th of February, at which it was voted that 
$60,000 should be raised to secure the town's quota of 
men for the call lately made. A town committee was 
appointed to collect and expend the money in employing 
men and finding substitutes in case of a draft. These 
committeemen with the supervisor spent much time in 
New York on this business, but- as many other towns 
were offering larger bounties the work progressed slowly. 
On May nth the draft occurred, taking from Brookhaven 
201 men. Through the efforts of the men engaged in 
that work, substitutes were obtained for those who de- 
sired and, with the assistance furnished by the town, 
could pay for them. 

Another call having been made for men, a special 
town meeting was held June 28th 1864 to provide for it. 
It was then decided to raise as much money on the 
credit of the town as would be necessary to pay not more 
than $300 each for the quota of the town, either as 
bounty for volunteers or to assist drafted men in finding 
substitutes. John P. Mills, Henry Mills and George C. 
Campbell were appointed a town committee to carry out 
the work. 'The vote of the meeting stipulated that the 
loan should be returned in seven equal annual install- 
ments, beginning with March ist 1866. Another meet- 
ing was called together on the 19th of August to decide 
what proportion of the $300 should be given for one- 
year men. The vote decided that they should receive 
the same as the three-years men. 

Another call for 300,000 men having been made, a 
special town meeting to act upon it was held on the 12th 
of January 1865, at which it was decided to raise a loan 
and pay $500 to three-years men, $400 to two-years men 
and $300 to one-year men. George C. Campbell and 
George T. Osborn were chosen a town committee to raise 
the money and obtain substitutes. It was also voted 
that with the authority of the Legislature the amount 
should be raised by tax within the same year. This was 

The amount of money raised by loans for which the 
bonds of the town were issued during the war was $131,- 
115. On the equalization of the years of service fur- 
nished by the different towns it was found that Brook- 
haven had furnished about two hundred years' service 
more than its necessary proportion, and on this account 

there stood to its credit about $46,000, which it received 
in seven per cent. State bonds. The war debt, except 
about as much as was provided for by these State bonds, 
was paid by tax raised during the war and in the year 
1865, and the last of the State bonds were sold and the 
last of the town bonds paid up in 1872, according to the 
original plan adopted by the meeting of June 28th 1864. 




Setauket, the original settlement in Brookhaven, lies 
in the northwestern corner of the town. It comprises 
two village centers, one Setauket proper, and the 
other East Setauket, each having a post-ofifice and a few 
stores and shops. The " Green," an open field beside 
which stand the ancient landmarks, the churches and 
burial grounds, lies between the two centers spoken 
of. The population of the entire neighborhood, esti- 
mated in 1843 at seven hundred, is now probably more 
than double that number. The people are farmers, sea- 
faring men and mechanics. The soil is heavy, and its 
cultivation has been successfully carried on for two and 
a quarter centuries. 


Conscience Bay and Setauket Harbor, opening west- 
ward from Port Jefferson Bay, approach this village, at 
different points. Upon- these waters ship-building has 
for a long time been carried on. It is impossible to say 
just when the business was begun here. As early as 1662 
the records tell us one Richard Bullock purchased tim- 
ber and plank of John Ketcham and built a boat here. 
The size of the vessel is unknown, but from the fact that 
he was allowed four months time in which to complete 
it, and that he was then to leave the town with it, we may 
infer that it was designed for the navigation of the sea. 
From that time forward the trade of ship-building has 
no doubt been carried on here. In the period not many 
years remote from Revolutionary times the business was 
carried on by Benjamin Floyd, a representative of the 
prominent family of that name. The scale upon which 
it was conducted, however, was at a later period en- 
larged. In the early part of the present century the 
building of sloops was extensively carried on. David 
Cleaves was engaged in it in 1820, and continued until 
about 1835. From 1832 down to the present time the 
brothers Silas and Nehemiah Hand and George, son of 
the tatter, have conducted this enterprise here to a greater 
extent than any one else, the first taking the lead until 
1838, the second till 1875 and the third since that time. 
N. Hand, during the active years of his business career, 
built 44 vessels, many of them of considerable size. The 
largest vessel ever built here was the ship "Adorna,"of 
1,700 tons measurement, which was constructed under 
the superintendence of David Bayles, in 1870. Another 
mammoth vessel, of more than double that size, was be- 
gun a few years later by the same parties, but owing to 



the remarkable financial depression of that decade the 
original design was never carried out, but that which was 
intended to become one of the proudest specimens of 
marine architecture was afterward finished as an ungrace- 
ful barge. 


The village contains two school-houses, one located on 
the "Green,'' a very neat building of modest dimensions, 
placed there about ten years ago, and a larger, one in the 
eastern^ part of the village. The latter was built in 1866, 
is two stories high and a respectable specimen of archi- 
tecture, and the school within it is conducted by three 


The first settlers of the town found some difficulty in 
getting their grain made into flour. There being no 
mills here they were obliged to endure the inconvenience, 
the risk and the delay of sending their grain to Connect- 
icut to be ground. To hasten their relief from this un- 
desirable state of things they were ready to offer every 
encouragement for the erection of mills at home. The 
townspeople accordingly granted to Daniel Lane in 
1664 the right to establish a mill on the stream which 
then ran down. into the head of Setauket Harbor. The 
townspeople built the dam, and the mill was established 
previous to 1667. It was probably the same mill that 
in 1671 was owned by Henry Perring, who in a will dated 
December 17th of that year gave it to his sons-in-law 
Joseph and Jacob Longboltom. In 1674 the mill was in 
the possession of his widow and Jacob Longbottom. 
For more than a hundred years the site has been aban- 
doned, and where once the mill pond was there are now 
the highway and the stores which constitute the village 
center of East Setauket, while the discharge of those 
springs which fed the pond now quietly finds its way to 
tide-water through the channel of a very little brooklet. 

Another mill was built by John Wade, on a stream in 
the western part of the village, under a grant of the town 
dated March 31st 1680. About one hundred years later 
this is supposed to have been in the possession of Rich- 
ard Woodhull, to whom the town in 1784 granted the 
privilege of moving the dam down stream on certain con- 
ditions. In 1824 the mill was owned by Isaac Satterly, 
who then released the town from its obligation to keep 
the dam in repair, according to the grant made to John 
Wade in 1680. Since its first occupation by Isaac Sat- 
terly it has been retained in the family. 

The manufacture of pianos was begun in this village 
about 25 years ago. A large building was erected and 
filled with machinery and material for carrying on the 
work. This enterprise was conducted by Robert Nunns, 
and for a while it promised a degree of success; but the 
confusion which accompanied the late war brought dis- 
aster, and the business was closed. For several years 
the mammoth building, occupying a conspicuous posi- 
tion upon a prominent hill, stood unoccupied. In 1876 a 
Stock company was formed and the building was pur- 

chased and made a manufactory of india rubber goods, 
such as boots, shoes, hose, belting and packing. This 
enterprise was founded by Robert S. Manning, Joseph 
W. Elberson and Edwin Elberson. It has enjoyed a 
somewhat fluctuating measure of success. Its title, at 
first the "Long Island Rubber Company," has been 
changed to the " L. B. Smith Rubber Company." The 
business was opened in November 1876. 'The main 
building is 180 by 50 feet in size and four stories high, 
and there is an addition 75 by 33 feet. Some 200 hands 
are employed, and the value of the daily product is about 
$1,500. About 2,500 pairs of shoes and 150 pairs of 
boots are daily manufactured, besides other articles. 
Market for these goods is found in all parts of the United 
States and Canada. The establishment is still under the 
personal direction of J. W. and Edwin Elberson. 


On the east side of the " Green " stands the Presbyte- 
rian church. This is supposed to occupy nearly the 
same site and to be the lineal successor of the original 
church, which, as we have already seen, was built about 
167 1. The original church was built by the town and it 
also served the purpose of a town hall. In 1714-15 a 
new meeting-house was built by the town, and it was 
agreed in the town meeting by a majority vote of the 
contributors, August 9th 17 14, that it should be for a 
" Presbyterian meeting-house forever, and no other use 
or uses whatsoever." This church, according to Thomp- 
son, was replaced by a new and larger one in 1766, which 
stood through the turbulent years of the Revolution, and 
was desecrated by the barbarities of war. Around this 
church the British soldiers cast up an intrenchment, not 
forbearing to unearth the bones of the honored dead 
which were buried near. The interior of the church was 
destroyed and the building used for the accommodation 
of the garrison. The present church was built during 
the year 1811. A handsome lecture room adjoining the 
north side of the building was added about five years 
since. The parsonage, established in accordance with a 
vote in town meeting May i8th 1689, "upon the land that 
was Goodman Moshier's, the same demensions of John- 
athun Smith's, to remaine a personedge house to perpet- 
uity," having been worn by the march of time, was aban- 
doned, and a new one built in 1872. 

The following is the earliest item to be found in rela- 
tion to the employment of a minister: 

"The 12 of May, 1662. 

" At a town meeting Legally called it was voted and 
agreed upon by the Towne that the towne would give Mr. 
William Flecher Fortie Pounds a year, towards his 
niaintaneance for the Dispencing the word of god 
amongst them as long as he resides amongst them per- 
forraeing his function." 

We do not know what may have been the result of 
this action. The first minister of whom any definite 
record has been preserved was Rev. Nathaniel Brewster, 
who entered upon the discharge of the ministerial func- 
tion here in 1665. He was a near relative of Elder 

TUfe tOWN Of BROOKItAVte^f. 


William Brewster, one of the " pilgrims " of the " May- 
flower." Graduating at Harvard in 1642, he is supposed 
to have been the first native graduate of the New World. 
He continued to occupy the position of minister of the 
town till his death, in 1690, though in his old age he was 
assisted in the discharge of his duties by Samuel Eburne 
and Dugald Simson, Mr. Jonah Fordham, of Southamp- 
ton, filled the ministerial office as a supply for a few years 
during the interim between the death of Mr. Brewster 
and the settlement of Rev. George Phillips, in 1697. 
During the pastorate of Mr. Phillips, which continued 
about forty years, the church assumed a character inde- 
pendent of the town. 

In the early years of the seventeenth century there 
were a few inhabitants who favored the Church of Eng- 
land, while the great majority of the townspeople were 
dissenters. Each of these parties claiming the civil patron- 
age, disputes arose which were only quieted by a division 
of the lands which had been set apart by the town for 
the benefit of a ministry. This was done by an arbitra- 
tion in 1741. With the pastorate of Rev. George 
Phillips, which closed with his death in 1739, the intimate 
connection of town and church faded out, and the church, 
receiving its share of the corporation lands, assumed its, 
distinct character. 

Rev. David Youngs was pastor from 1745 to 1751; Rev. 
Benjamin Talmadge, installed October 23d 1754, re- 
mained till his death, in 1786; Rev. Noah Wetmore served 
from April 17th 1786 till his death, March 9th 1796. 
Rev. Zechariah Greene, installed September 27th 1797, 
continued in active service until 1849, and as senior pastor 
till his death in 1858, at the age of 99 years. He was a 
native of Connecticut; had been a volunteer in the Rev- 
olutionary service, and was with Colonel Parsons when 
he led the unsuccessful assault upon the British fortifi- 
cations here in August 1777. During his army service he 
received a wound in the shoulder which disabled him for 
the time, and he turned his attention to study, and was 
ordained in the ministry at Cutchogue in 1787. When 
the infirmities of age began to depress him he was assisted 
in his work by other clergymen. For a while Rev. Ezra 
King devoted half his time to that work. Rev. John Gile 
became associate pastor in February 1843, and continued 
in the service of the church until his untimely death by 
drowning, September 28th 1849. Rev. James S. Evans 
was installed here March 19th 1850, and continued in the 
pastorate till December 17th 1867. Rev. William H. 
Littell, the present pastor, was installed October 28th 


The church in 1845 had 81 members. It nowhas 140, 
which number has never been exceeded. Preaching 
stations in connection with this church are maintained at 
Stony Brook and South Setauket, and a Sunday-school 
has been established at the latter point. The Sunday- 
school at the church numbers about 100 scholars and 12 
teachers. It has a good library of 500 volumes. The 
superintendents have been Floyd Smith, David B. Bayles, 
W. F. Smith, Thomas S. Strong, William H. Littell and 
Selah B. Strong. 

Adjoining the meeting-house lies the old burying 
ground, the nucleus of which was the first established in 
the town. Since Colonel Richard Floyd in 17 14 " did 
freely and voluntarily give for the use and benefit of a 
public burying place half an acre of land, to be laid out 
of his home lot adjoining the old burial place," it has 
been gradually creeping out over the adjoining fields to 
make room for the successive generations who have 
sought its restfulness. The graves of more than two 
centuries are there, and countless historic associations 
hover round the sacred spot. 

Hard by, the venerable structure of 


lifts heavenward its grand old tower, while the quaint 
windows, " blank and bare," look silently out upon the 
graves of the generations of former worshipers who have 
come to rest within its shadow. From some notes fur- 
nished by the present rector we glean the following facts 
in regard to its history. 

The church was organized during the first quarter of 
the last century. The earliest notice on the books of the 
" Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts " is of the appointment of the Rev. Mr. Wetmore 
as missionary in the town of Brookhaven in 1723. That 
the services of the Church of England were known here, 
and worship in accordance with that form conducted 
many years before that date, there is scarcely room to 
doubt. It is not known however that the church had an 
edifice of its own until the present one was erected in 
1730. For this building, which appears to be enjoying a 
robust old age, is claimed the double honor of having 
been the first church edifice ever erected at the expense 
of the Episcopal denomination on Long Island, and at 
present being the oldest church edifice standing on the 
island. The original name of the church was Christ 
Church, but the name was changed-to its present one in 
compliment to Queen Caroline of England, who had pre- 
sented to the parish a silver communion service and em- 
broidered altar cloths. This royal gift was sacrilegiously 
abstracted during the Revolutionary period. Through a 
long term of years the society in London helped to sus- 
tain the missionary stationed here by a contribution of 
from ;£s° to ;^6o a year. The church was stronger and 
its services were more largely attended during the colo- 
nial period than for many years afterward. 

Within a few years past the parish has recovered some- 
what. Since 1878 a new fence has been set up around 
the churchyard, a rectory of handsome appearance and 
comfortable dimensions has been erected, and the church 
repaired and thoroughly painted. Within the same pe- 
riod 24 adults and the same number of infants have been 
baptized, 38 have been confirmed, 33 communicants 
added anew and 22 received from other parishes. There 
are now 70 communicants. The Sunday-school, under 
the superintendence of the rector, consists of 50 children 
and six teachers. The following is a list of the rectors, 
which also shows the term each served the church, as 
nearly as can be ascertained: 



Rev. Mr. Wetmore, 1723-25; Rev. Mr. Standard, 1725- 
28; Rev. Alexander Campbell, 1728-30; Rev. Isaac 
Brown, 1733-43; Rev. James Lyons, 1746; Rev. 
T. Lambert Moore, 1781-83; Rev. Andrew Fowler, 1788- 
90; Rev. Mr. Sands, 1800; Rev. N. B. Burgess, 1811-14; 
Rev. Charles Seabury, 1814-44; Rev. William Adams, 
1843, 1844; Rev. Frederic M. Noll, 1844-77; Rev. Robert 
T. Pearson, since 1878. 

The Rev. Charles Seabury was the son of the first 
American bishop, and was introduced at the recommend- 
ation of Bishop Hobart, in 1814. After 30 years of 
faithful service he was buried in the churchyard, and a 
marble pillar there marks his tomb. Rev. F: M. Noll, 
who served the church 33 years, was unmarried, and for 
many years occupied rooms at the rear of the church, 
where the graves in the surrounding churchyard lay so 
near that one could step upon them from his threshold 
or reach the marble slabs from his bedroom windows. 
Amid such gloomy surroundings he enjoyed undisturbed 


A Methodist Episcopal class was formed here in 1843, 
and a small chapel was built during the same year. 
This was one of the results of a very important revival 
which took place at Port Jefferson and spread to the 
neighboring villages that year. The chapel here became 
a preaching station on the Smithtown circuit, which at 
that time covered a large area. In 1848 it was set off 
with Port Jefferson from the former connection. At 
that time it had a Sunday-school numbering 21 members. 
The present somewhat commodious church edifice was 
erected in 1870. It occupies the site of the former 
chapel, about half way between the two village centers. 
A churchyard, occupied as a burial ground, surrounds 
it. The church continued in its connection with Port 
Jefferson until 1873, when it was transferred to a con- 
nection with Stony Brook, which is still existing. 


Setauket Division, No. 414, Sons of Temperance was 
instituted here in September 1868. In 1871 it had a 
membership of 83. It was disbanded in June 1875. 

The Long Island Star, a weekly newspaper, was estab- 
lished in this village in 1866, by a joint stock company 
with a capital of $1,500. Its editor and business mana- 
ger was James S. Evans jr. It enjoyed for a while an 
encouraging degree of prosperity. In 1869 it was moved 
to Port Jefferson and in the following year to Patchogue, 
where after a few issues its publication was suspended. 

Stony. Brook. 

At the head of Stony Brook Harbor and upon the east 
side lies the village of Stony Brook, in the northwest 
part of the town. A very small part of the village is in 
Smithtown. The site is hilly and a brook runs down 
into the harbor, forming the boundary of the town and 
suggesting the name of the village. 


Upon this stream a mill was established, by a grant 
from the town, voted May i8th 1699. The right of 
the stream and two acres of land were given at that time 
to Adam Smith on condition that he should construct a 
dam and maintain a "good and sufificient " m-ill, and the 
rates of toll which he was allowed to exact were one- 
tenth for wheat and one-eighth for corn or rye. The 
water in the harbor is shoal, large " flats" extending over 
a considerable portion of its area. -A channel permits 
navigation to the docks, of which there are two. The 
first of these was established under a grant from the town 
trustees to George Hallock, given November 5th 1809 
and confirmed March 7th 1826; and the other by a grant 
to Jonas Smith May 3d 1831. The Indian name of the 
locality was Wopowog. Rassapeague and Sherwoguewere 
names given by the natives to localities in the immediate 

Settlement was commenced here in the early part of 
the last century, but it made slow progress during the 
first hundred years. The population is at present about 
eight hundred. Farming, ship-building and commerce 
have been the principal occupations of the people. The 
names of Captain George Hallock and Jonas Smith are 
prominent in connection with the commercial and ship- 
building enterprises of the place. The commerce of the 
village in 1843 employed one brig, eight schooners and 
fifteen sloops. At that time there were annually sent 
from the harbor about four thousand cords of wood, and 
received about twenty thousand bushels of ashes and 
more than three hundred tons of other fertilizers. The 
manufacture of pianos was carried on by C. S. Seabury at 
one time. An establishment for desiccating soft clams 
was commenced a few years since, but was soon discon- 


The village contains two flourishing district schools, 
one near either end of the long avenue upon which most 
of the dwellings and business places are built. An un- 
successful attempt was made a few years since to unite 
the districts. The citizens of former generations were 
forward in matters pertaining to education and culture. 
The records tell us that on their application the town 
trustees granted a site for a school-room April 6th i8or. 
This was to be selected from the public land lying north- 
west of Isaac Davis's blacksmith shop, but not to inter- 
fere with the highway. 


A church for the use of different denominations was 
erected in the village in 1817. As the years advanced 
the Methodist Episcopal denomination gained ground, 
and the building fell into its possession. Until 1848 this 
was a preaching station on the Smithtown circuit. In 
connection with Port Jefferson, Seatuket and Mount 
Sinai it was in that year set off from the former circuit. 
It then had a Sunday-school numbering 30 scholars. The 



society remained in the latter connection until 
1859, when it was separately established, with a mem- 
bership of 75, and a flourishing Sunday-school of 202 

The present church edifice was erected in i860. It is 
of handsome proportions, and is well furnished. A par- 
sonage, which its occupants credit with being a superior 
one, was built by the congregation in 1873, costing, 
with the plot of ground upon which it stands, about 

Since it became a separate charge this church has 
numbered in its membership as follows; in 1860,75; 
1865, 77; 1870, 88; 1875, 134; 1880, 158. The Sunday- 
school connected with it numbered in 1862, 116; 1870, 
145; 1880, 224. The society has been served by the 
following ministers: 1859, Otis Saxton; i860, 1871-74, 
Daniel Jones; 1861, Christopher S. Williams; 1862, 
William R. Webster; 1863-65, J. V. Saunders; 1866-68, 
E. K. Fanning; 1869, 1870, D. F. Hallock; 1875, R. S. 
Putney; 1876, G. H. Anderson; 1877-79, D. McMullen; 
1880, Nathan Hubbell; 1881, S. F. Johnson. 


Between the villages of Stony Brook and Setauket 
stands a small church maintained by the neighboring 
colored population, which has been established several 
years. It is called Bethel Church. A lot of one acre 
at Laurel Hill was set apart as a negro burying ground 
by the trustees of the town in 1815. In 1871 (January 
3d) this was confirmed to the trustees of Bethel 


A division of the Sons of Temperance was organized 
here about the year 1870, which in 1873 had iii mem- 
bers, and was sustained with more or less interest till 
1876, when it ceased operation. 

Oak Hill Cemetery, beautifully situated in the eastern 
suburb of the village, contains five or six acres, and was 
opened as a cemetery in 1864. Its site was formerly 
owned by the late John Oakes, who designated it as his 
own burial place, and was in accordance with his request 
buried there in 1863. Edward Oakes, his son, owned the 
ground, and has heretofore managed it as a private cem- 
etery, but it is designed to place it in the hands of an 
association as soon as practicable. Forty-two lots have 
been sold from it. The plot is well wooded, and it is 
the design of its founder that all revenue derived from 
the sale of timber or lots shall be devoted to the improve- 
ment of the grounds. 

A newspaper called the Independent Press was started 
in this village in 1865, by Harvey Markham. Its initial 
number was a four-page paper, 12 by 18 inches in size, 
and was printed on the 17th of August. It was soon 
after enlarged to 18 by 24 inches, and at the end of a year 
its size was again increased, to 20 by 28 inches. In the 
spring of 1868 it was moved to Port Jefferson, in 
connection with which village it will be further 

South Setauket. 

On the southwest border of Setauket lies the locality 
called by the Indian name of Nassakeag, or by the mod- 
ern name of South Setauket. A church under the title 
of "Free Christian Church" was established here and 
a house of worship erected in 1869. The leader in this 
enterprise was Ephraim HallocTk, who for' several years 
supplied the pulpit. 

On Old Field Point, which lies on the sound shore, 
northward of this village, a light-house was built in 1832. 
It has a white tower, 34 feet high, and stands on a- bluff 
over 30 feet above the shore. Its lantern, elevated 67 
feet above the sea level, gives a fixed light from a lens of 
the fourth order. The house, built at an original cost of 
$3,500, was refitted in 1855. 

Strong's Neck. 

Little Neck, now Strong's Neck, the initial part of 
" St. George's manor," lies near Setauket. It was called 
by the Indians Minasseroke. It is nearly surrounded by 
Conscience Bay and Setauket Harbor, and is joined to 
the mainland by an isthmus which has been sometimes 
flooded by the tide. 

There has also recently been constructed a bridge and 
dock across the harbor, by which the neck is connected 
with the mainland at a convenient point. This bridge, 
established under a grant from the town, is 800 feet long, 
and is raised about three feet above ordinary high water. 
It was completed in September 1879, and cost about 
$4,000. Here was once the royal seat and a favorite res- 
idence of the Indians. The principal part of the neck 
was bought of the Indians by Daniel Lane, whose title 
was transferred to the town proprietors in 1663. Ac- 
cording to Thompson a certain part, called the " Indian 
Ground," about 70 acres, not included in this purchase, 
was bought of the Indians by Andrew Gibb November 
28th 1685, and a patent was issued for the same by Gov- 
ernor Dongan December 20th 1686. Colonel William 
Smith bought the interest of the town proprietors in this 
neck September nth 1691, and it was included in his 
patent of 1693. His grandson, William Smith, in 1768 
sold it to Andrew Seaton, reserving a mortgage upon it. 
This being soon after foreclosed the property was bought 
by Selah Strong, and by him and his descendants it has 
ever since been held. 

Port Jekferson. 

Port Jefferson lies at the head of a beautiful harbor, 
two miles east of Setauket. The site and surroundings 
of the village present a very picturesque appearance. 
The Indian name of the locality was Sonasset. The 
neck of land on the west side of the harbor, lying be- 
tween this and Setauket Harbor, was called by the 
Indians Poquot, and has since been known as Dyer's 
Neck. The site of the village was not naturally favora- 
ble for building upon. It consisted of a valley, sur- 



rounded by steep, high hills. The harbor is one of the 
finest on the Long Island cost. Itg entrance, however, 
is through a narrow channel, which the current along 
shore continually filled with drifting sand. Ap- 
propriations have at different times been made by 
the State and federal governments for the improve- 
ment of this channel by the extension of a break- 
water far into the sound to hold back this drifting 

The site of this village, formerly called Drown Meadow, 
remained almost unnoticed for a century after the es- 
tablishment of a settlement at Setauket. Since the first 
years of the present century it has grown from a hamlet 
of half a dozen houses to a village of about two thousand 
inhabitants. It is now the principal village and 
trade center on the north side of the town. 
Packet lines have been in operation between 
here and New York city, and efforts have repeated- 
ly been made to establish regular communication 
by steamboat, but they have not been sufficiently suc- 
cessful to insure permanency. A steam ferry between 
this place and Bridgeport, Conn., has been in operation 
since 1872. The boat used on this ferry is a 50-ton pro- 
peller, called the "Brookhaven," 61 feet long, 15 feet 
beam and 4 feet deep. The railroad to this place was 
put in operation in January 1873. Telegraphic connec- 
tion with the world, however, was not established until 
December 1880. 

The village school has ranked among the first in the 
county. It has an attendance of about three hundred, 
and employs five teachers. 


Ship-building is the principal industry to which this 
village owes its prosperity. The pioneer in this and kin- 
dred enterprises was Captain John Wilsie, who began to 
build vessels here as early as 1797. He purchased of 
Judge Strong a tract of land in the northeast part of the 
present village, extending from a point at the foot of 
East Broadway up the hill eastward along the north side 
of that street and northerly down to the water's edge. 
In the house now owned and occupied by James M. 
Bayles he established a tavern, and upon the site of the 
ship-yards of James M. Bayles & Son he began to build 
vessels. August ist 1809, after a committee appointed 
July 7th 1807 to represent the town in negotiations to 
that end had reported, the trustees granted to John Wil- 
sie the privilege of extending a wharf into the bay from 
his land. After his death this right was confirmed to his 
son John, in 1819, for a term of 21 years. At the ex- 
piration of that time the grant was renewed to James R. 
Davis (1840). In 1825 the same dock had been in pos- 
session of Israel Davis. In the early part of the present 
century Richard Mather, who married a daughter of the 
senior Wilsie, engaged with him in the business, and 
afterward continued it. John R. Mather, son of the 
latter, whose life has been spent in this enterprise, is still 
engaged in it. 


About the year 1836 a new era seemed to open to the 
progress of this industry and the improvement of the 
village generally. This was in a considerable measure 
owing to the enterprise of Captain William L. Jones, who 
probably ventured more capital and energy in developing 
the village than any other man has ever done. Captain 
Jones was a member of a native family, and was born 
about the year 1792. In early life he naturally took to 
the water. His parents were Daniel and Bethia Jones. 
He inherited considerable landed property about Comse- 
wogue, which furnished him with the means for carrying 
out the designs of an inventive and enterprising genius. 
The estate of the Roe family comprised the greater part 
of the present village site, and from this Captain Jones 
purchased a large tract, reaching from about the site of 
the Presbyterian church, along the west and north sides 
of Main street to the neighborhood of the Baptist church, 
and so northerly to the shore of the bay; including 
also a tract on the east side of Main street, up Prospect 
street as far as the residence of John R. Mather. No- 
vember loth 1837 he received a grant from the town for 
a dock into the bay from the shore of his property, and 
at the same time entered into an agreement to construct 
a causeway over the salt meadows to the dock through 
his land, so as to make a public highway 18 feet wide, to 
be stoned up on either side and of sufficient height to be 
above ordinary high tides. This two-fold enterprise was 
completed in a few years, at a cost of several thousand 
dollars. The dock is maintained in part, and the high- 
way thus opened over the flooded meadows is now the 
busy street that runs from Hotel square to the shore. 
Nearly half the business of the present village is carried 
on upon the land that forty years ago was owned by Cap- 
tain Jones, the greater part of which was made available 
for business by the improvements just noticed. Captain 
Jones was married November 30th 1814, to Hetta Hal- 
lock. After her death he married the widow of Richard 
Mather, and his third wife was Hannah Hallock, who 
survived him. He died in i860. 


At the commencement of the present century there 
were only five houses in the village. During the first 
twelve or fifteen years the average growth was one house 
a year. During that period and for many years after- 
ward the place was important mainly as a point for the 
shipment of cordwood. 

During the war of 1812 the shipping of this little port 
was considerably annoyed by the British cruisers which 
sailed up and down the sound. For the protection of 
the harbor a small fortification was erected at the ex- 
tremity of Dyer's Neck, on the west side of the harbor, 
and this was mounted with a single thirty-two pound 
gun. On one occasion two English frigates, the " In- 
demnity " and the " Parmoon," made a descent upon the 
harbor at night and captured seven sloops. One of them 
grounded in the harbor's mouth, and was set on fire and 



burned to the water's edge. The others were afterward 
ransomed by their respective owners. 

The name Port Jefferson was given to the village in 
1836. The ship-building interest which was then 
aroused grew until it reached a higher rank here than it 
has attained in any other village in the county. The 
shore of the harbor is lined with docks, railways and 

A steam flour-mill was established here by Mr. Manny 
in 1858. This was bought by R. W. Wheeler & Co. in 
1864, and in the following year was enlarged and a saw- 
ing department added. In 1867 it was altered somewhat 
and its capacity for the manufacture of flour consider- 
ably enlarged. It was destroyed by fire in October 1877. 
Phoenix-like, from the ashes of the old mill there arose a 
new one of far superior magnitude, equipments and ca- 
pacity. The Port Jefferson Milling Company was incor- 
porated in 1878, and the building erected during that 
year and 1879. The main building first erected was forty 
feet square and four stories high, to which an engine 
room 28 by 30 feet, for the accommodation of a sixty- 
horse-power engine, was added. In 1880 an addition 
was built upon the east side of the building 20 by 40 feet, 
three stories high. Other buildings have been added for 
storage. The mill contains four runs of stone and two 
sets of rolls; working on the new process system, it has 
a capacity of one hundred barrels per day of twenty four 
hours, and at present is being run to the full extent of 
its capacity. Twelve hands are employed, and the daily 
consumption of grain is 450 bushels of wheat and 50 
bushels of corn and oats. Long Island and Connecticut 
furnish a market for most of the product. 


Port Jefferson, included in the district of New York, 
was made a port of entry by act of Congress approved 
August 31st 1852. The custom-house was established in 
1855. Sidney S. Ngrton was the first surveyor of the 
port. He held the office until May 8th 1874, when it 
was transferred to his son Frank P. Norton. During 
most of those years the duties of the office were per- 
formed by Holmes W. Swezey under the title of a deputy. 
In June 1878 G. Frank Bayles received the office of sur- 
veyor of the port, and he was succeeded by Samuel R. 
Davis, whose appointment was confirmed January 31st 
1879. In the summer of 1881 he resigned, and Sidney 
H. Ritch was appointed to the position. The following 
figures give the gross tonnage of the district for the 
quarter ending June 30th of each year, as fully as the 
records of the office can show, omitting the fractional 
parts of a ton: 1858,14,225; 1859,14,910; 1860,16,715; 
1861, 19,795; 1862, 22,091; 1863, 25,146; 1864, 29,476; 
enrolled by new measurement up to June 30th 1865, 
7,073; 1866, 12,806; 1867, 14,660; 1868, 30,492; 1872, 
14,850; 1873, 15,273; 1874, 17,527; 1875- 21,72°; 1876, 
17,847; 1877, 15,486; 1878, I2,g86; 1879, ir,435; 1880, 
12,503; 1881, 10,825. 

The number of vessels enrolled here during the years 
since 1874 has been: 1874, 203; 1875, 239; 1876, 176; 

1877, 153; 1878, 128; 1879, 113; 1880, no; 1881, 96. 
The total tonnage documented in this district June 30th 
1881, including three steam vessels and sailing craft of 
all sizes, was 15,145, and the number of vessels it8. 


The first religious denomination to gain an establish- 
ment here was the Methodist Episcopal. This being a 
preaching station of the old Smithtown circuit, the 
rapidly increasing demands of the village were answered 
by the erection of a commodious house of worship in 
1836 on Thompson street. The building stood until 1873, 
when it was removed to a new site in the southern part 
of the village. This church was set off from the Smith- 
town circuit in June 1848. The charge then consisted of 
Port Jefferson, Setauket, Stony Brook and Mount Sinai. 
Stony Brook was withdrawn from the connection in 1859, 
and Setauket in 1873. 

The following ministers have occupied the pulpit: 
Samuel W. King, 1848, 1849; Henry Hatfield, 1850-52; 
Daniel Jones, 1853, 1854, 1864-66; William Wake, 1855, 
1S56; John F. Booth, 1857, 1858; Otis-Saxton, 1859; 
Nicholas Orchard, i860, t86i; Robert Codling, 1862, 
1863; John S. Haugh, 1867-69; William Lawrence, 1870, 
1871; A. B. Smart, 1872; Henry Aston, 1873, 1874; John 
Pilkington, 1875; William Ross, 1876; Samuel H. Smith, 
1877, 1878; Lemuel Richardson, 1879, 1880; L. W. 
Holmes, i88r. 

The present membership is 231. The value of the 
church property, including parsonage, is $3,500. The 
Sunday-school connected with the church numbers 245. 


The present Baptist church was erected by a Con- 
gregational society in 1855. In 1861 the building was 
purchased by the Baptists, and their church was organized 
October 6ih of that year. The pastors of this church 
have been as follows: Lanson Stewart, 1861-67; J- B. 
Barry, 1867-7 c; P. Franklin Jones, 1871-76; J. B. Barry, 
1876, 1877; M. R. Fory, D. D., 1877, 1878; S. L. Cox, 
June 1st 1879 to the present time. 


A Presbyterian church was erected in 1854, as a branch 
of the old church at Setauket. It continued in that con- 
nection until a church was organized here, November 9th 
1870. This was denominated the First Presbyterian 
Church of Port Jefferson, and it originally consisted of 
47 members. Its pastors have been as follows: Edward 
Stratton, February 1871 to June 1872; John V. Gris- 
wold, October 1872 to October 1876; W. S. C. Webster, 
May 1877 to the present time. 


Suffolk Lodge, No. 60, F d^ A. M. was first organized 
in 1797, and ceased to meet in 1827, at the time of the 
anti-masonic excitement. The lodge was reorganized in 
1856 as No. 401, with the following charter members,: 
Hon. Charles A. Floyd, General John R. Satterly, Hon, 



John M. Williamson, Captain Caleb Kinner, Captain 
Tuttle Dayton, Charles W. Darling, Jeremiah Darling, 
Tuttle O. Dayton and Lewis Wheeler. The first six were 
members of the old lodge when it was broken up. 

Since its reorganization the following persons have 
served as masters of the lodge in the order in which they 
are named: Tuttle Dayton, William T. Hulse, Effingham 
Tuthill, A. G. Mervin, E. A. Raynor, James E. Bayles, 
George Hart, G. F. Bayles, Thomas H. Saxton, Allen 
F. Davis and Charles E. Dayton. 

The present officers are: Charles E. Dayton, master; 
W. H. Bayles, S. W. ; E. T. Newton, J. W. The 
lodge meets on the first Thursday evening of eacli month 
from May to October, inclusive, and on Thursday even- 
ing of each week during the rest of the year. It has 
about 130 members. 

In 1876, through the well directed efforts of the W. 
M., Thomas H. Saxton, the grand lodge granted a peti- 
tion to restore the number under which the old lodge 
was organized, and the lodge has since been known as 
No. 60. It has in its possession the records and jewels 
of the old lodge, which are justly prized as relics of 
great value. 

Port Jefferson Division, No. 169, Sons of Temperance 
was instituted in this village April nth 1867, with 26 
charter members. It flourished for a few years, and in 
1872 had 228 members. It was disbanded in the early 
part of 1877. 

Another division of this order, composed of colored 
members, was organized on the west side October 7th 
1868 and disbanded in the latter part of 1870. It was 
named West Side Division, No. 406. 


Several newspapers have been published in the village. 
The first of these was the Independent Press, which was 
moved here from Stony Brook in July 1868. After 
several enlargements it gained the size of seven columns, 
and was continued by its founder, Harvey Markham, 
until August 1874, when its publication was suspended. 
Mr. Markham soon after started the Courant, which was 
printed at Northport, and after a few months was sus- 
pended. The Long Island Star was moved here from 
Setauket in July 1869, and hence to Patchogue in Au- 
gust 1870. A monthly sheet called Our Own, devoted to 
the Sons of Temperance,.was issued from the office of 
the latter a few months in 1870. The Long Island Leader, 
a nine-column weekly, was started by William A. and 
Winfield S. Overton April 12th 1873. It enjoyed a liberal 
circulation. Its very elaborate office equipments, con- 
sisting of type, power pr.ess and steam engine, were sold 
and removed to Panama, U. S. C, in September 1874, 
and the paper suspended. During the following -year a 
paper by the same name was printed at Babylon and 
hailed from this village. For a while in 1876 the paper 
was partly printed here. It is still in circulation, being 
issued from Babylon. The initial number of the Port 
Jefferson Times was issued here December 14th 1878, by 
Walter R. Burling. In October 1879 it was purchased 

by T. B. Hawkins and L. B. Homan, the latter having 
been its editor from the start. In June 1881 L. B. Ho- 
man became sole proprietor, and he still continues its 


occupies a commanding site on one of the highest hills 
a little south of Port Jefferson. The association was 
formed March 30th 1859. In April following thirteen 
acres were purchased of Hubbard Gildersleeve, and a 
part was laid out for use as a cemetery. The first officers 
were: R. H. Wilson, president; J. B. Randall, secretary; 
Abram Brown, treasurer. The first trustees were the 
officers named and Hamilton Tooker, Daniel Hulse and 
Cyrus E. Griffing. Two hundred and eighty lots have 
been sold, and about $27,000 spent in the general im- 
provements which have been made upon the grounds. 


Brick Kiln is a section of but little improved ground 
adjoining the village on the west. In 1875 a large tract 
of land in that section was bought by the representatives 
of P. T. Barnum, and some improvements were made 
upon it. Avenues were laid out and a considerable 
amount of grading was done. A few nice residences have 
been erected. 

Comsewogue is an open plain of good farming land 
lying on the elevated level inland from the village. The 
cemetery and railroad station are here. 

Mount Sinai, 

a scattered settlement of some three hundred inhabitants, 
lies at the head of a harbor about two miles east of Port 
Jefferson. It is one of the oldest settlements of the town, 
though the settlement never grew with much vigor. Soon 
after the plantation of Setauket was established the abun- 
dant meadows which skirt this harbor made the spot at- 
tractive, and the "Old Man's," as it was then called, was 
a desirable locality in the eyes of the early inhabitants. 
As early as the year 1808 ship-building was carried on 
upon the shore of the harbor by a Mr. Prior. In 1819 
the business was carried on by Jonah Smith. The ves- 
sels built here were mainly sloops. The entrance to this 
harbor has been subject to change. A mouth near the 
east side was dug out in 1820. As this became ob- 
structed a new mouth and channel through the flats were 
(lug, and opened to the action of the tide June 13th 1850. 
This water abounds with shell-fish of various kinds. 
Thousands of tons of clams have been taken from here 
to markets on the island or along the Connecticut shore. 
In past years considerable quantities of cordwood were 
shipped from here, and fertilizers and other merchandise 
were returned, but the small vessels which did that work 
have almost gone out of use, and the commerce of this 
port is very greatly diminished, 

Into the west side of the harbor a small stream once 
found its way from the plains of the interior. This was 



called the "Crystal Brook," and the valley left by it is 
still known by that narae. A mill was once located upon 
it. The grant for this mill was given by public 
town meeting to Moses Burnet December 9th 
1718. It stipulated that the privilege should be given 
him as long as he should maintain a good and 
sufficient grist-mill, and no longer. The mill was long 
since demolished, but some part of the dam still remains. 
The Indian name of Mt. Sinai was Nonowantuck. 


In the eastern part of the settlement, on a pleasant 
elevation, stands the Congregational church. Its pre- 
decessor on the same site was the first church of this 
neighborhood. This early church was erected about the 
year 1720, and at first seems to have been a preaching 
station of the church of Setauket. A church organization 
was formed here September 3d 1760, under the care of 
the Suffolk Presbytery,, with Rev. Ezra Reeve as pastor, 
he having been ordained in that capacity over this con- 
gregation October loth 1759. He remained until October 
2Sth 1763, after- which the organization lost its original 

The First Congregational Church of Brookhaven was. 
organized on the field of the disorganized church Decern 
ber 23d 1789. This church consisted of nine members, 
their names being as follows: Jeffrey Amherst Woodhull, 
Jacob Eaton sen., Joseph Brown, Jeremiah Kinner, Josiah 
Hallock jr., Philip Hallock, • Bethiah Davis, Elizabeth 
Baley and Sarah Kinner. 

This Congregational church has had the following pas- 
tors: Noah Hallock, from its organization till his death, De- 
cember 25th iSiS; Noah H. Gillette, December 1820- 
;i2; John Stoker (6 months), Parshall Terry, Smith P. 
Gammage (6 months), Ebenezer Piatt (4 years), till about 
1841; Prince Hawes, 1841-46; Thomas Harris, 1846-61; 
Aaron Snow, till 1875; Morse Rowell, 1875-80; A. A. 
Zabriskie, 1880 to the .present time. 

The present membership is a little over 100. The old 
church edifice was removed and a new one built in 1805, 
which is still standing. An ancient, well-filled burial 
ground lies near it. 

A Methodist Episcopal class was organized here in 
February 1843, and during the same year a small church 
was built in the central part of the village, on the road 
leading to the harbor. The class had about twelve mem- 
bers to begin with. It has always been connected in its 
ministerial supply with the church at Port Jefferson. 

Miller's Place and Eastward. 

Miller's Place, a pretty little village, lies on the el- 
evated plain near the sound. The settlement is said to 
have been founded by Andrew Miller in 167 1. He was 
a son of John Miller, of East Hampton. His will, re- 
corded in the town books and bearing date June 13th 
1715, is as follows: 

" The last Will and desire of Andrew Miller, deceased, 

is that there shall be a decent Burial Place reserved in 
the Orchard where his Mother was buried, for him and 
all the posterity of the house of the Millers forever." 

An academy was established in this hamlet in 1834. 
For several years it was well patronized, and a good 
school maintained, but the star of prosperity moved to 
other fields, and for years this institution enjoyed but an 
intermittent life. It has been silent now for more than 
a decade. 

United Division, No. 281, Sons of Temperance was 
instituted here January 8th 1868, with 140 charter mem- 
bers. It was composed of people from the two neigh- 
boring villages, Mount Sinai and Middle Village. It 
prospered for a while, but the interest flagged, and in 
April 1873 it was disbanded. 

Eastward from the last named place lies a thinly set- 
tled farming district which extends to the east line of the 
town at Wading River. This section comprehends the 
localities of Rocky Point and Woodville, extending about 
seven miles. 

At Rocky Point a Congregational lecture room was 
built in 1849. The society is a branch of the church at 
Mount Sinai. The land on which the building stands 
was given for the purpose by Amos Hallock. 

The principal part of the present village of Wading 
River lies within the town of Riverhead. The initial 
step toward establishing a settlement here was taken by 
Brookhaven in a public town meeting November 17th 
1671. It was at that time voted that a village of eight 
families or men should be located there "or thereabouts," 
and it is probable that most of them were established 
"thereabouts," i. e. in the section now called Woodville. 
The men to whom accommodations in this part of the 
town were at that time granted were Daniel Lane jr., 
John Tooker, Thomas Jenners, Elias Bayles, Joseph 
Longbottom, Thomas Smith and Francis Money. A 
grant for a grist-mill on the Red Brook here was given 
by the town to John Roe jr. and others May 4th 1.708. 
The grant required that the mill should be established 
within two years and that it should be continually main- 
tained. The site is still occupied. 

New Village. 

New Village is a scatte'red settlement lying along the 
old Country road from near the west line of the town 
eastward a distance of about four miles. The people are 
mostly farmers. 

A Congregational church stands in this locality.. It 
was erected in 1812 as a union meeting-house, but a 
church of the Congregational order being organized 
March 27th 1815 the building soon after passed into the 
hands of that denomination. The land on which the 
building stands, about half an acre, was given for the 
purpose by Deacon Jeremiah Wheeler. The original 
number of members was ten. The church now has a 
membership of 55. The adjoining burial ground was 
opened for that use April 4th 1819. 



Lake Grove. 

Extending southward from the locality just mentioned 
to the borders of Lake Ronkonkoma lies a continuous 
settlement comprising about three hundred inhabitants, 
called Lake Grove. Lakeland, Lakeville and Ronkon- 
koma have been names applied to nearly the same local- 
ity. Several men from New York have made this locality 
their country residence. The beauty of the lake pre- 
sents an attraction such as but few of the island villages 
can claim. 

Ronkonkoma Division, No. 306, Sons of Temperance 
was organized here February 19th 1868, with 13 charter 
members. Its membership at one time numbered more 
than one hundred. The charter was surrendered April 
6th 1876. 


The Methodist Episcopal church here was a part of 
the old Suffolk circuit as early as 1820. Later it was a 
preaching station in the Smithtown circuit, in which con- 
nection it continued until 1879, when it, with Hauppauge 
and St. James, was set off from that circuit. The class- 
book of 1825 shows 31 names, with Caleb Newton as 
leader. Meetings were then held in the old " Pond 
school-house." The church was built in 1852, on land 
bought of A. W. Rosenian in the previous year. It was 
considerably enlarged, by the addition of 18 feet to its 
length, in 1868. The society has at present 60 mem- 

The following ministers have supplied the pulpit. 
Though not complete in the early years the list is as 
nearly so as a reasonable amount of research could make 
it: R. Travis, 1822; Henry Hatfield, 1824; J. Bowen, 
1829, 1830; Edward Oldrin, 1831; A. S. Francis, 1S32; 
J. B. Merwin, 1834, 1835; W. C. Hoyt, 1838; S. W. King, 
1840,1841; G. Hollis, 1845; Zechariah Davenport, 1846; 
F. C. Hill, 1847; Eben S. Hebberd, "1849, 1850, 1859, 
1860; William Gothard, 1851, 1852; Joseph Wildey, 
1853, 1854; Robert Codling, 1855, 1856; Daniel Jones, 
1857, 1858, 1869, 1870; William Wake, 1861, 1862; Ed- 
ward K. Fanning, 1863-65; J. H. Stansbury, 1866-68; 
Charles Stearns, 1871-73; T. Morris Terry, 1874; Ben- 
jamin Redford, 1875, 1876; S. Kristeller, 1877, 1878; S. 
A. Sands, 1879, 1880; J. T. Langlois, 1881. 

Lakeville rural cemetery, near this church, occupies 
land bought of A. W. Roseman in 1861. It is not in the 
hands of an association. It was founded by R. W. New- 
ton, and the sale of lots opened in 1862. It contains 
about eighty burial plats, most of which have been 
sold. The enterprise is now in the hands of C. W. 

St. Mary's Episcopal church, a handsome gothic struc- 
ture, of modest dimensions but neat design, was built in 
1867. It stands near the northeast shore of the lake. 

Near the site of the M. E. church a house of worship 
was erected by the Baptists in 1869. They have not yet 
become strong enough to sustain regular and frequent 
ministerial service. 


Selden, formerly called Westfields, received its present 
name in honor of the celebrated Judge Selden. It lies 
along the old Country road, east of New Village. The 
cultivation of garden vegetables, melons and small fruits 
has during late years engaged the chief attention of the 

An undenominational chapel was built here in 1857. 
It was occupied for several years as a branch of the 
Presbyterian church at Middle Island, but since 1863 has 
had connection with Holbrook most of the time. A 
Presbyterian church was organized here August nth 
1868, which by paying a debt that was upon the house 
gained possession of it. 


or Waverly Station, is a small hamlet on the Long Island 
Railroad about four miles south of Selden. When the 
old Long Island Railroad monopolized the travel over 
the island this was an important point on account of the 
stage connections with Port Jefferson, Patchogue and 
other villages. 

The Waverly Baptist church was organized July 2nd 
1876, with 19 members. Rev. George R. Harding was 
its pastor three years and a half, since which term the 
church has had no regular minister. 

Coram and Middle Island. 

Coram is an ancient settlement, lying on the old Coun- 
try road, near the geographical center of the town. The 
name is supposed to have been derived from that of an 
Indian chief, Coraway, who once lived in the neighbor- 
hood. When the settlements on the south side, which 
were made first at Fireplace and Mastic, became of suf- 
ficient importance to balance in a degree those of the 
north side it was found desirable to fix upon a place of 
meeting for the transaction of town affairs about half 
way between those two sections. Coram was the point 
chosen, and it has ever since occupied that position. 

A Baptist church was established here at a very early 
period. A church edifice was erected in 1747. This 
church was the first, and for many years the only one, 
of that denomination in the county. In 1847 the build- 
ing was torn down, and the materials were used in the 
erection of a dwelling house at Port Jefferson, which is 
still standing. It was in this old church that the town 
trustees in 1792 invited Rev. David Rose to preach an 
"election sermon," at i r o'clock in the forenoon of the 
annual town election day. The site of the old church is 
now occupied by the Methodist Episcopal church moved 
here from Middle Island in 1858. 

Middle Island is a scattered settlement of farmers 
about two miles east of Coram, in the interior of the 

A public burying ground was opened on the opposite 



side of the street from the Presbyterian church about the 
time the first church was built. Union Cemetery, ad- 
joining this on the south and west, was opened for burial 
in 1867. It contains five acres, the greater part of which 
is still covered with timber. 

Brookhaven Division, No. 191, of the Sons of Tem- 
perance was instituted at Coram, January isth 1847. 
This was during the time when the agitation of the tem- 
perance question was exciting much attention throughout 
the country. But little is known of the history of this 
division. After a short life it ceased working. 

Another division of the same order, Brookhaven Cen- 
tral, No. 364, was instituted July 7th 1868. Its meetings 
were held, during most of the time of its existence, at 
Middle Island. In 1870 its membership reached 107. 
Its charter was surrendered in July 1872. 


In the early part of the year 1766 steps were taken 
toward establishing a church here. A piece of ground 
four by five rods was given by Selah Brown as a site for a 
meeting-house. This was on the corner of the Country road 
and the road leading -to the Half-mile Pond, where the 
church now stands. The instrument by which this land was 
given was executed February 19th 1766, and the work of 
building a house of worship was carried forward and 00 
doubt completed during the same year. A Presbyterian 
church was organized here in November 1767, and the 
parish name which it has held from that time to the 
present is Middletown. In 1837 the present church was 
built on the same site. The tower was added in 1863, 
and the bell in 1870. A chapel at Yaphank, then em- 
braced in this parish, was built in 1851. October 17th 
187 1 a church was organized there by the withdrawal of 
60 members from the old church. A preaching station 
has for many years been occupied by this church at the 
Ridge school-house, about four miles east of the meeting- 
house, and since 1872 another has been maintained 
at the Middle District school-house, only one mile east. 
In 1800 this church had 19 members, the number being 
considerably les.s than it had been. During that year, 
however, a revival added more than 40 to the number. 
The present number of resident members is about 100. 
A parsonage and several acres of land were purchased in 
1849. This church was connected with that of South 
Haven in ministerial supply from the time of its organi- 
zation till April i6fh 1839. The following pastors have 
served it: David Rose, from 1766 till his death, January 
ist 1799; H. Chapman, 1800, 1801; Herman Daggett, 
1801-07; Ezra King, 1810-44; James S. Evans, 1844-50; 
Winthrop Bailey, 1850-52; Francis T. Drake, 1854-62; 
Charles Sturges, 1863-72; John Woodruff, 1872-77; 
Frederick E. Allen, July 1878 to the present time. 


When the' Methodist Episcopal denomination began 
its work in this community its meetings were held in the 
school-house standing under the shadow of the Presby- 
terian church. As might have been expected there was 

a strong popular prejudice against the sect, and this at 
length became so strong that upon 6ne occasion when 
the minister, Mr. Martindale, came to fill his appointment 
he found the door of the house locked against him. Not 
to be defeated thus he invited the assembled audience to 
a convenient spot in the public highway, and there, be- 
neath the stars and in the mild air of a pleasant evening, 
he conducted the appointed service. A house of wor- 
ship was soon after built not far from the same spot. 
This was completed in 1841. The society organized 
about that time numbered 16 members. . In 1858 the 
church was taken down and moved to Coram, where it 
was rebuilt, a little smaller in size, on the site formerly 
occupied by the Baptist church. Previous to about the 
year 1850 the church was connected with the Smithtown 
circuit, and during that time was served more or less 
regularly by Rev. Messrs. Martindale, J. D. Bouton, 
Elbert Osborn, Timothy C. Youngs, Hammond, Worth, 
Nathan Rice, J. N. Robinson, D. Osborn, T. G. Osborn, 
F. W. Sizer and others. Since 185 1 the following minis- 
ters have been in charge: Latting Carpenter, 1851, 1852; 
T. Morris Terry, 1853, 1854; S. F. Johnson, 1855; Dan- 
iel Jones, 1856, 1868; William Trumbull, 1857, 1858; A. 
C. Eggleston, 1859, i860; Richard Wake, 1862; Latting 
Carpenter, 1863, 1864; J. O. Worth, 1865-67; Henry 
Still, 1869; Stephen Baker, 1870; J. T. Langlois, 1871; 
A. M. Burns, 1872; F. M. Hallock, 1873, 1874; I. C. 
Barnhart, 1875; F. C. Overbaugh, 1876; John W. La 
Cour, 1877; Samuel Thompson, 1878; C. W. Dickenson, 
1879-81. A small church of this denomination was built 
in the southeast part of Middle Island in i860. This 
has generally been supplied by the same minister as the 

" The Ridge " and Longwood. 

Eastward from Middle Island a thinly settled region 
is locally known as " the Ridge. This for the last one 
hundred and fifty years has been mostly owned and oc- 
cupied by the members of the Randall family. South- 
ward from it lies the large tract of land, once a part of 
St. George's manor, now called Longwood. 


The southeastern part of what was once the parish of 
Middletown, locally known as Millville, is now comprised 
in the village of Yaphank, the name of which is bor- 
rowed from a little stream that joins the Connecticut 
River some four miles below. Yaphank is a village of 
about three hundred inhabitants, and has recently be- 
come conspicuous on account of the county alms-house 
located here. 

The Yaphank Cemetery Association was organized 
April ist 1870. Four acres of land were bought near 
the village, of John P. Mills, and soon opened as a cem- 
etery. Forty-three lots have been sold. The first trus- 
tees were John Hammond, Alfred Ackerly, John P. 


Mills, Samuel Smith, Sylvester Homan and James I. 


Two valuable mill sites are furnished by the river, 
which runs through the village. Two other sites, one 
above and another below the present ones, have been 
occupied, but they were long since abandoned. Of these 
four sites the one occupied by Swezey's Mill, now some- 
times called the " upper mills," was the first to be utilized. 
This mill was established under a grant from the trustees 
to Captain Robert Robinson, February 12th 1739. By 
this grant the town's right to the full benefit of the river 
for that use was given for the consideration of six 
shillings. The site has ever since been occupied- The 
site and water privilege for the lower mill were granted 
by the trustees February 4th 1771 to Daniel Homan, 
who at that time owned a saw-mill that had been set up 
at the same place. An abandoned site about half a mile 
north of the upper mills is known as the " old fulling- 
mill." At what time this was established is not known, 
but as early as February 20th 1792 the trustees granted 
to Ebenezer Homan for ;^3 the '' town right and no 
more " to the stream north of his fulling-mill, or so much 
of it as should be necessary for the working of the mill. 
February 15th 1799 a road was laid out from the east 
end of the "Granny road" to the Yaphank road, across 
the " old fulling-mill dam;" from which we may suppose 
that at that early day the dam had been abandoned as a 
mill site. The road spoken of was closed again in 1823. 
The fourth site was about half a mile below the lower 
mill. A saw-mill was established on it, and a grant for 
the site was given May 4th 1820 by the trustees to Daniel 
Homan. The site was soon abandoned. 


was built for a branch of the church at Middle Island, in 
1851, on land obtained from James H. Weeks. In 1871 
a tower was added. October nth of the same year a 
church was organized here, composed of members who 
had withdrawn from the old church. The following m,in- 
isters have served the church: Clark Lockwood, 1873- 
75; Charles J. Youngs, 1875-78; William B. Lee, August 
1879 to the present time. The church now has 71 

ST. Andrew's protestant episcopal church, 

a neat building of modest dimensions standing in the 
eastern part, was built in 1853. Services have generally 
been conducted in it, though for much of the time it has 
had no resident clergyman. 

THE baptist church OF BROOKHAVEN 

was organized here by Henry Bromly, acting as a mis- 
sionary, September 29th 1853. It had at first nineteen 
members, and since then has had some of the time as 
many as one hundred and twenty-four. Forty-three were 
dismissed at one time to join in forming the church at 
Port Jefferson. 

A church edifice was dedicated July 4th 1854. It oc- 
cupied a site on the main street just below the residence 
of Dr. J. I. Baker. It was sold in 1873, and is now do- 
ing service as a school-house at Comsewogue, near Port 
Jefferson. The money received for the building was ap- 
propriated to the erection of a house of worship at North- 
port. The church, which has never been formally dis- 
banded, still owns a small burial ground with land enough 
fronting on the street to furnish a site for another build- 
ing should it ever be needed. It has had the following 
pastors: Henry Bromly, 1853, 1854; William A. Bron- 
son, 1854-57; Albert F. Skidmore, 1858, 1861, 1862; 

Thomas M. Grinnell, 1858-60; Benjamin Wheeler, 



looated near the railroad station at this place, was built 
in 187 1. It is located on a farm of 170 acres, the greater 
part of which is cleared and under cultivation. The 
farm was purchased in 1870, at a cost of $12,700. Only 
the smaller part of it was at that time cleared. The 
work of subduing the wooded portion has been carried 
forward by the inmates of the institution. Another farm, 
lying on the east and separated from this by the avenue, 
was purchased of John Louden in 1879 for $5,000. It 
contains about 80 acres. The alms-house is three stories 
high, with wings two stories high, and a basement under 
the whole. The original building is 35 by 90 feet, with 
wings 40 by 80 feet on either side. To this was added 
in 1877 another wing, adjoining the northeastern part, 
for the accommodation of female lunatics. The house 
is heated by steam. The boiler and engine were at first 
placed in the basement, but in order to lessen the danger 
from an explosion they were in 1879 removed to a sepa- 
rate building which had been erected for the purpose at 
the west end of the house. The establishment is sup- 
plied throughout with all the improved appliances called 
for in a first-class institution of the kind, and in its 
equipments and management it ranks among the fore- 
most of the State. The keepers of the house have been 
William J. Weeks, from its opening till April 1873; Jo'^n 
Louden, 1873-79; Holmes W. Swezey, from April 1879 
to the present time. During the five years ending with 
September 30th 1880 the average number of inmates was 
182. During that period there were 98 deaths in the 
house. The average cost for food and clothing for the 
town and county paupers during the same period was 
a trifle less than twelve cents a day. The institution was 
for several years patronized by the State, but that patron- 
age was withdrawn by the removal of all the State 
paupers June 30th 1879. The product of the farm for 
1880, the labor being done by the paupers, was 2,000 
bushels of ears of corn, 2,100 bushels of potatoes, 1,000 
bushels of turnips, 800 bushels of wheat, 420 bushels of 
oats, 130 tons of hay and several other crops of less im- 

The Children's Home, an auxiliary of the alms-house 
though distinct from it, occupies the house which stood 
on the farm purchased of Mr. Louden, near the railroad. 



It was established August 3d 1879, and was then placed 
in charge of Mrs. Mary Wheeler, who still holds the care 
of it. The object of this is to provide a cheerful home 
for children without exposing them to the demoralizing 
and gloomy associations of pauper society. The enter- 
prise has met with encouraging success. From fifteen to 
twenty children are cared for by it, and the average cost 
for food and clothing for each one is about fifteen cents 
a day. 


Manorville is a farming district of large extent, com- 
prising about 500 inhabitants, and is situated mainly on 
the tracts formerly known as Brookfield and Halsey's 
manor. Though the surface of the country is elevated 
nearly fifty feet above the sea level it abounds in swamps, 
and these have been considerably utilized in the cultiva- 
tion of cranberries. The head waters of Peconic River 
are in the neighborhood. 


In the latter part of the last century the few hard 
working pioneers who occupied this section, being several 
miles distant from any established church, engaged in 
worship under the leadership of Jonathan Robinson, one 
of their number. Services were at first held in his own 
house, then in other dwellings, and afterward in the 
school-houses. These movements, commencing soon 
after the Revolution, resulted in the organizatiorr of a 
Presbyterian church April 19th 1796. To the church 
was given the early name of the locality, Brookfield, 
which it still holds. The house of worship was erected 
in 1839. This was enlarged in the summer of 1874, and 
a belfry and bell were at the same time added. The 
membership in 1845 was 25. At the present time it is 
about 40. The church has supported a pastor independ- 
ently but a small part of the time. After the services of 
Mr. Robinson, which continued many years, the church 
was supplied for terms of greater or less duration by the 
following ministers: Alfred Ketcham, Thomas Owen, 
Youngs, Moase, Hodge, Lord, Thompson, Agustus Dob- 
son, Phineas Robinson, William H. Seeley (1873-77), 
C. J. Youngs, of Yaphank, and William B. Lee, of Yap- 
hank, who now preachSs once in two weeks. A Sunday- 
school has been maintained about forty years. It now 
numbers about 40. A burial ground was established on 
the opposite side of the highway from the church soon 
after the erection of the building. 


Worship was conducted by the Methodist Protestant 
denomination in connection with the church of that 
order at Eastport for many years. A society held meet- 
ings in the east school-house until 1869, when, a church 
edifice being given to the society here by the church at 
Moriches, the building was moved to a new site near the 
railroad station. Services were first held in it here" dur- 

ing the pastorate of Mr. Dibble, who was pastor also of 
the church at Eastport. At its organization it had ten 
members. Up to 1872 it was connected with the church 
at Eastport, but from that time to October 1877 it had 
the following pastors independently: J. C. Berrian, 1872, 
1874, 1875; A. A. Marshall, 1873; R. Woodruff, March 
to July 1874; L. D. Place, 1876, 1877. Since then it has 
been connected with Eastport, under the pastoral care of 
A. B. Purdy, until October i88r, from which time its 
pastor has been Alexander Patton. 

Blue Point. 

Blue Point, celebrated throughout the country for the 
fine quality of its oysters, lies in the southwest corner of 
the town. The land was called by the Indians Manow- 
tasquott. The little creek called by the Indians Namkee 
forms the western boundary of the village, as well as of 
the town. T be village has been increasing in popula- 
tion during a few years past with considerable rapidity. 

The house of worship occupied by the Baptist church 
of this village was built as a union church in 1865. In 
1870, a Baptist church having been organized here, with 
nine members, the edifice was transferred to that denom- 
ination. Beginning with that time pastors have served 

here as follows: James Gregory, Henry Hunter and 

Valentine, each one year; George R. Harding, two 
years; John L'Hommedieu, three months; C. G. Callen, 
four years — to the present time. The church, standing 
in the center of the village, is valued at $1,200. The 
Sunday-school numbers 80 scholars. Its first superin- 
tendent was Nelson Danes. 

A Methodist Episcopal church was built here in 1866. 
In ministerial supply it was associated with Sayville from 
the latter date till 1878; with Patchogue from 1878 till 
1880; and with Bayport in 1881. 

A division of the Sons of Temperance was organized 
here October loth 1867, with 23 members. It official 
number was 243. In 1870 it had 47 members. Its 
charter was surrendered October 5th 1876. 


Patchogue, the largest and most flourishing village in 
Brookhaven, lies *on the bay, two miles east of Blue 
Point. The site of the village, from Patchogue Creek on 
^he west to Swan River' on the east, containing some 
three hundred acres, was lot No. 3 in the sale by lottery 
made by Humphrey Avery in 1758. It was sold to 
Leofford Leoffords, the instrument of sale being ac- 
knowledged March 15th 1759. The village site is level 
and sandy. The people derive a very important part of 
their support from the neighboring oyster beds and the 
other bay fisheries. Considerable ship-building is car- 
ried on upon the shore of the bay. This is mainly con- 
fined to the construction of the smaller class of vessels, 
such as are used in oystering and the other business of 
the bay. 



Patchogue was made a port of entry in 1875. Since 
April ist of that year E. T. Moore has been surveyor. 
The gross tonnage of the port has been as follows for the 
respective years, ending June 30th: 1875, 934; 1876, 
2,521; 1877,2,717; 1878, 2,766; 1879, 2,925; 1880, 2,730; 
1881, 2,486. The number of vessels belonging to the 
port has been: 1875, 57; 1876, 134; 1877, 161; 1878, 
179; 1879, 209; 1880,' 207; 1881, 201. 

The union school of this village is one of the largest 
in the county. The building is three stories in height, of 
handsome proportions, and was erected in the spring of 
1870, at a cost of $10,700. The school, numbering about 
five hundred pupils, is under excellent management, and 
employs nine teachers. 

Cedar Grove cemetery, located on the east side of the 
Patchogue Rivej mill pond, contains about 13 acres. 
The association was organized May 3d 1875, and the 
land was purchased of Sarah H. Jayne. The cemetery 
was formally opened by a dedication service, conducted 
by Rev. B. F. Reeve, October 24th 1875. Sixty-four lots 
have been sold. The first trustees were George F. Car- 
man, E. T. Moore, O. P. Smith, William S. Preston, An- 
drew Fishell, J. R. Smith, George M. Ackerly, Brewster 
Terry and Charles E. Rose. 


The oyster business which is carried on from this vil- 
lage is estimated to give employment to about four hun- 
dred men, and its annual proceeds probably reach nearly 
a quarter of a million dollars. 

Several streams in the vicinity of the village afford 
considerable water power. This has been for many 
years utilized in driving various mills and factories. A 
paper-mill has been for many years established upon the 
stream called Patchogue River, a mile and a half back of 
the village. Grist-mills are located on • this stream and 
Swan River in the eastern part of the village. The 
manufacture of twine was commenced here by parties 
from Massachusetts during the latter part of the last cen- 
tury. It was continued by Justice Roe, and about the 
year 1800 enlarged and carried on by George Fair, of 
New York. He was succeeded by John Roe, who owned 
two factories, one on either stream. These mills were 
the third cotton-mills established in the United States, 
and the first to manufacture carpet warp from cotton. 
The factory on Swan River was burned in 1854, but was 
soon after rebuilt. The two mills — that on the west 
called the " Eagle " and that on the east the " Swan 
River," the former occupying the original site — were in 
1873 using about 200,000 pounds of raw material annu- 
ally. They were then in the possession of John E. Roe, 
successor to his father. They then used 1,600 spindles, 
but they have now been for several years idle. 

A short distance west of the village is a small stream 
called Little Patchogue. Upon this a woolen factory 
containing about 500 spindles was formerly located. In 
April 1832 a grant was issued by the commissioners of 
highways to Nathaniel Smith and Daniel G. Gillette to 
raise a dam where the south Country road crosses this 

stream, for milling or manufacturing purposes. The 
building was removed several years since.. 

Other manufacturing enterprises which have been in 
operation here in the past are an iron forge, several tan- 
neries and a machine shop employed i-n the manufacture 
of machines for making envelopes. 

The Patchogue and Suffolk County Bank was estab- 
lished October loth 1881, by Edward S. Peck, formerly 
a prominent business man of Brooklyn. Mr. Peck also 
built a residence in Patchogue during the same year. 


The first house of worship in this village was erected in 
1794, by a union of the Congregationalists, Methodists, 
Baptists and Presbyterians. Each sect was allowed to 
occupy it a portion of the time. About the year 1822 
the building was replaced by a new one on the same site. 
This is in the western part of the village. Its use has 
for many years been changed from religious to secular 
purposes. In 1831 the Methodists, having erected a 
church of their own, withdrew from the union, and, the 
Baptist and Presbyterian societies being extinct, the 
building fell into the full possession of the Congregation- 
alists, who occupied it until the building of their new 
church. The old parish burying ground lies near this 
old church. It contains about two acres, well filled with 

The Congregational church was organized January 4th 
i793i by Rev. Noah Hallock, with eight members. It 
had no regular minister until 1822. From that time for- 
ward its ministers have been: Noah H. Gillette to 1833; 
Smith P. Gammage 1834, 1835; Mr. Moas'e, 1836; Par- 
shall Terry, 1837; Mr. Baty, 1838; B. Matthias, 1839-43; 
James H. Thomas, 1844-49; H. W. Hunt, 1849-58; Mr. 
Bachelor, 1S59, i860; Charles Hoover, 1861-64; Samuel 
Orcott, ,1865-69; Frederick Munson, 1870-74; S. S. 
Hughson, 1874-77; T. C. Jerome, 1877-80; S. F. Palmer, 
1880 to the present time. In 1858 the handsome and 
commodious edifice on Pine street, which is now occu- 
pied, was erected. A parsonage was added to the church 
property about the year 1862, and this during the past 
year has been repaired at an expense of about $1,000. 
The church has 205 members. The church of this de- 
nomination at Sayville was formed in 1858, by the with- 
drawal of 40 members from this. 


was organized in the early part of the present century. 
A class may have been formed during the last years of 
the last century. Itoccupied the union meeting-house 
until 1831, when a church was built for its exclusive 
accommodation. This was afterward sold to the Roman 
Catholics and the present church was built in 1853. It 
has been ascertained that the following ministers served 
this church during the periods indicated: N. Mead, 1835; 
Zechariah Davenport, 1837, 1838; J. B. Merwin, 1839, 
1840; J. Sanford, 1841; J. Henson, 1842; David Osborn, 
1843-45; David Holmes, 1846; Laban Cheeney, 1847; 
T. G. Osborn, 1848, 1849; F. W. Sizer, 1850, 185 1; J. 



D. Bouton, 1852, 1853; Ira Abbott, 1854; William H. 
Bangs, 1855, 1856; Charles Gorse, 1857; C. Stearns, 
1858, 1859; R. Codling, i860, 1861; Nicholas Orchard, 
1862, 1863; William H. Russell, 1864, 1865; E. Sands, 
1866, 1867; Charles Pike, 1868; J. H. Stansbury, 1869- 
71; William Lawrence, 1872, 1873; B. F. Reeve, 1874- 
76; W. W. M'Guire, 1877; Henry Aston, 1878-80; George 
Taylor, 1881. 

ST. Paul's episcopal chapel 

was built about 1843. Ministerially it is connected with 
St. Ann's at Sayville. Religious services according to 
the Episcopal form of worship are regularly conducted 
by Rev. John H. Prescott, who has officiated here during 
the past nine years. The chapel enjoys the honor of 
having the- only pipe organ in the village, and of being 
entirely out of debt. The society has 50 members. A 
Sunday-school of 68 scholars is connected with it. 


was built on Ocean avenue in 1876, and was dedicated 
August 9th of that year. July 8th 1877 a church was 
organized with five members. Rev. George R. Harding 
preached for the church one year, since which it has ha4 
no regular preacher. 


owns and occupies the building formerly occupied by the 
Methodists. It is a neat little church, standing in the 
western part of the village. Occasional services are con- 
ducted by. a priest from some other place. 


South Side Lodge, No. 493, F. &• A. M. was instituted 
in June i860, with seven charter members. The officers 
for that year were: W. S. Preston, W. M.; S. W. Chapell, 
S. W.; W. J. Horton, J. W.; A. C. Mott, secretary; D. 
J. Wheeler, treasurer; George F. Carman, S. D.; Charles 
W. Miller, J. D.; Henry Parks, tyler. February 22nd 
1862 the building in which its meetings were held was 
burned, and the lodge lost all its regalia, furniture and 
records. It was reorganized in the following June. The 
masters of the lodge have been: W. S. Preston, i860; 
S. W. Chapell, 1861; George F. Carman, 1862, 1863; 
Daniel J.Wheeler, 1864, 1865, 1867; Alfred C. Mott, 1866; 
John S. Havens, 1868; John Furguson, 1869, 1870; 
Alfred Price, 1 871; John M.Price, 1872, 1873,1877; 
Robert Mills, 1874; Edwin Bailey, 1875, r876; John 
Roe Smith, 1878; E. G. Terrill, 1879, 1880. The lodge 
meets every Monday evening during the year, except 
through June, July and August, when it meets only on 
the first Monday of each month. The number of mem- 
bers June ist 1881 was 121. 

Brookhaven Lodge, No. 80, /. O. O. F. was organized 
here August 6th 1846, with five charter members. The 
first officers were: Nathaniel Conklin, N, G.; William S. 
Preston, V. G.; Henry Ketcham, secretary; Lewis G. 
Davis, treasurer. The presiding officers have been as 
follows: William S. Preston, Henry Ketcham, Lewis G. 

Davis, D. W. Case, Z. D. Fanning, Charles Price, Gils- 
ton Gillette, William C. Smith, John R. Swezey, Brewster 
Terry, John Woodhull, Samuel Ackerly, John S. Havens, 
Jonathan T. Baker, William P. Wicks, Israel Green, 
Rumsey Rose, George Jennings, E. T. Moore, John B. 
Wiggins, Edwin Bailey, John Bransford, N. O. Smith, 
John Baker, Samuel W. Overton, Edwin Bailey, George 
M. Webb, John Furguson, Robert Mills, William H. 
Hait, Charles H. Smith, N. M. Preston, Gilbert H. Car- 
ter, Carman Smith and Elias Hawkins. 

Patchogue Division, No. 240, Sons of Temperance was 
instituted October 9th 1867. It had 50 charter mem- 
bers. In 1870 its membership was 211. It was dis- 
banded in 1877. 

William J. Clark Fost, No. 210, Grand Army of the 
Republic was chartered April 22nd 1881, and on that day 
the following officers were mustered in: John Furguson, 
commander; William H. Parks, Sen. Vice-com.; Sylvester 
Rowland, Jr. Vice-com. ; William C. Gray, adjutant; Fran- 
cis Nugent, quartermaster; Lewis Homan, surgeon; 
Charles Satterley, chaplain; Edward A. Coles, officer of 
the day; William W. Homan, sergeant major; Jacob 
Bumpstead, officer of the guard. The post meets on the 
second and fourth Wednesdays of month. 

Patchogue Volu77teer Fire Company, No. i, was incor- 
porated by the board of town auditors March 30th 1880, 
according to' a general act of the Legislature. 


A weekly newspaper called the Suffolk Herald was 
started here by one Van Zandt. It was afterward edited 
by A. D. Hawkins. In the winter of 1864-5 i^ ^^^ ^ol^ 
to Harrison Douglass, who after a few months abandon- 
ed it and it was for a time edited by A. V. Davis, M. C. 
Swezey and others. Not long afterward its publication 
was suspended. In the summer of 1870 the Long Island 
Star was moved here from Port Jefferson, and after a 
few issues it was abandoned. The office materials were 
sold, and with them The Advance was started by Timo- 
thy J. Dyson, September ist 1871. It was purchased by 
Thomas S. Heatley in September 1876, and by him it 
has since been continued. It has gained the position of 
a prosperous village weekly. 


Bellport, a village of about 500 inhabitants, lies about 
four miles east of Patchogue, on the gr-^at bay. The 
site is level and beautiful. It was called by the Indians 
Occombomock or Accombamack. The village was com- 
menced about fifty years ago, and was named in honor of 
two brothers, Thomas and John Bell, to whose enterprise 
it was mainly indebted for its early growth. Good water 
for the approach of vessels is found off the shore here, 
and several docks have been constructed. January 6th 
1807. the town trustees granted to Nathaniel AVoodruff 
liberty to build a dock six rods into the bay, against his 
own land. March 3d 1829 a grant from the same author- 



ity was issued to Colonel William Howell, Thomas Bell 
and John Bell to build a dock into the bay opposite the 
land of the former, far enough to get six and a half feet 
depth of water at comiTion high tide. A grant was issued 
in 1833 to Charles Osborn to build a dock seven hun- 
dred feet into the bay and one hundred feet wide. Some 
ship-building was formerly carried on here. 

After the completion of the Long Island Railroad a 
station was established about four and a half miles di- 
rectly north of ' here for the accommodation of this vil- 
lage. That station was at first called Tooker's Turnout, 
afterward Bellport Station, which name a year or two 
since gave place to Bartlett. An avenue thither from the 
village was laid out May igth 185 1. Since the extension 
of a railroad along the south side the old station 
has been almost abandoned by the people of this 

An academy was established here in the early days of 
the village, but an academic school has not been main- 
tained in the building for many years. The village dis- 
trict school, in a flourishing condition, occupies it. 


A Congregational. church was organized here in the 
early years of the village. Its meetings were held in the 
academy. In 1845 it had 37 members, and Rev. Abijah 
Tomlinson was its pastor, and at the same time principal 
of the academy. Later Rev. Samuel Gibbs was pastor 
of the church. It occupied the lower room of Temper- 
ance Hall. The society gradually faded out, and in 1870 
the remnant of it was merged in a Methodist Episcopal 
society which was then organized here. This denomina- 
tion built a church in 1873. It is in the same minister- 
ial charge as the church at Brookhaven. 

The Presbyterian church of this village was erected in 
1850. In is pastoral supply it has since that date been 
associated with the church at South Haven. It has a 
nice pipe organ; its property, including a parsonage, is 
free from debt, and it has a membership of nearly one 

Bellport Division, No. 373, Sons of Temperance is one 
of the oldest in the county, having been organized in 
the early days of the order, more 'than thirty years ago. 
It is deserving of special notice on account of the fact 
that at an early period of its history a somewhat commo- 
dious building was erected for its use. This is Temper- 
ance Hall, and the division still has an existence and 
owns the building. It has about 90 members. 

Brookhaven Temple of Honor, another temperance or- 
ganization, was instituted at Bellport October 6th 1866. 
In 1873 it had thirty members. A few years later it 
ceased working. 

A small settlement of colored people lies a short dis- 
tance north of the village, on the avenue leading to the 
new railroad station .established on the newly completed 
section in 1881. Aneat little church is creditably sus- 
taine.d by the colored inhabitants. Near the settlement 
a cemetery has been laid out, and it contains a number 
of handsome monuments. 

Brookhaven Village. 

The territory extending from Bellport east to the Con- 
necticut River embraces the first land purchased of the 
Indians on the south side of the town. It was called 
Fireplace until within a few years, when the name of the 
town was appropriated to a part of this section. The 
chief attraction here to the early settlers of Setalcott was 
the meadows, which are very extensive. At times the 
whaling business, carried on off the ocean shore, and the 
manufacture of tar from the pine forests which abounded 
here, were matters of considerable importance. Perma- 
nent settlement, however, grew slowly. As an instance 
of the value of land in primitive days we may mention 
that Little Neck, adjoining Connecticut River just below 
Yaphank Creek, was sold at public auction May 15th 
1716, and Nathaniel Brewster bought it for _;^7o 13s. 
"in money." May sth 1724 the town meeting voted 
that Nathaniel Brewster should have the stream " at 
South," called the Beaverdam River, to build a grist- 
mill and fulling-mill upon, to be commenced within two 
years; the stream to remain in his possession as long as 
it was used for such purposes. The fact that on the 
26th of March 1742 the trustees granted the privilege of 
locating a mill on this stream to William Helme jr. sug- 
gests the suspicion that the former grant had been ne- 
glected. A low dam is nearly all the mark that is left to 
show that this grant was ever used. A dock has been 
constructed at a point on Connecticut River called 

A SAD AND mysterious CASUALTY 

occurred on the ocean shore opposite here on the night 
of September sth 1813. Eleven men who went from 
here to draw a seine on the beach were all lost in the 
sea, not one surviving to tell the terrible details of the 
calamity. The names of the drowned men were William 
Rose, Isaac Woodruff, Lewis Parshall, Benjamin Brown, 
Nehemiah Hand, James Homan, Charles Ellison, James 
Prior, Daniel Parshall, Henry Homan and John Hulse. 

brookhaven village CHURCHES. 

A small Methodist Episcopal church was built in this 
village in 1848. In r872 this was removed to another 
site and enlarged. This church up to 1870 was supplied 
in connection with the church at Coram. It was then 
associated with Moriches, but has since only been united 
in ministerial charge with Bellport. These congregations 
have been supplied by the following ministers: Siegfried 
Kristeller, 1871; J. T. Langlois, 1872; C. P. Cowper, 
1873; Smith A. Sands, 1874, 1875; Daniel Jones, 1876- 
78; W. T. Beale, 1879, 1880; D. F. Hallock, 1881. 

The first worship according to the forms of the Epis- 
copal church in this village was held by Rev. Charles 
Douglass at the dwelling house of Charles Swezey. Other 
clergymen afterward officiated. In the year 1873 ^ 
church was built and named in honor of St. James. The 
building cost about fi.soo. The ground on which it 
stands was given by John L. Ireland. The first minister 
located here was I. N. W. Irvine, who officiated' here and 



at Yaphank about three years, and was succeeded by 
Thomas Fletcher, for two years. There was then no 
regular pastor until 1881, when Rev. Josephus Traggett 
was stationed here. A Sunday-school has been main- 
tained since the organization of the church, with an av- 
erage attendance of about 25. 

South Haven. 

South Haven is a small settlement on the west side of 
Connecticut River, between it and the small tributary 
stream which the Indians called Yamphank. The name 
Yamphank was originally applied to the neck of land 
thus formed. The settlement is of very ancient origin. 
It cannot be definitely stated at what time it began, but 
there are documents on record which show that a grist- 
mill, saw-mill and fulling-mill had been established on 
the river here, and that 


stood near them, in the midst of a settlement, as early 
as the year 1745. The name of the locality was changed 
from Yamphank Neck to South Haven by vote of the 
people of the town May 3d 1757. The first minister of 
this church of whom we can find any record was Abner 
Reeve, who was ordained pastor of the church at 
Moriches November 6th 17SS; this parish and West 
Hampton were at that time branches of Moriches. 
He was dismissed in 1763, and David Rose succeed- 
ed him, being ordained here December 4th 1765, over 
the charge which consisted of " Moriches, Manor 
of St. George, Southport and Winthrop's Patent," to 
which was added a year or two later the church at Mid- 
dle Island. Mr. Rose died January ist 1799. Ministers 
have supplied this church since then as follows: Robert 
H. Chapman, a few months in 1 800-1; Herman Daggett, 
1801-07; Ezra King, 1814-39; Abijah Tomlinson, several 
years from 1840; R. Cruikshank, who - resigned in 
August 1854; J. A. Saxton, 1854-56; William H. 
Cooper, 1856-80; N. I. Marselus Bogert, June ist 1881 
to the present time. The present meeting-house was 
erected in 1828. 


On the east side of the Connecticut River lies the 
peninsula of Mastic, a valuable and beautiful tract of 
land projecting so nearly across the great bay as to re- 
duce it to the width of a mere channel. This tract forms 
the shore front of the principal part of the territory in- 
corporated as the manor of St. George. Several of the 
most conspicuous members of three prominent early 
families, the "Tangier" Smiths, the Floyds and the Wood- 
hulls, have had homesteads upon it. The soil is good, 
and several large farms are employed in 'stock raising. 

though this interest is probably now on the decrease. 
The shore, which is extremely ragged, is broken into 
several necks, which, with the small creeks that divide 
them, still preserve their Indiam aames, among which 
are Poosepatuck, Sebonack, Necommack, Coosputus, 
Patterquash, Unchahaug and Mattemoy. 

During the Revolutionary war the British troops 
erected a fort near the present residence of Hon. Egbert 
T. Smith, on the southwest part of the peninsula. This 
fort was captured and partially destroyed' by a detach- 
ment of continental troops under Major Benjamin Tall- 
madge, November 27th 1780, a more full account of 
which will be found elsewhere. 

On a reservation on the east side of the peninsula 
live a remnant of the Pochaug tribe of Indians. They 
have a small church, and a school, which is supported 
by the State. The deed by which the right to plant and 
use 175 acres was given by William Smith to these 
Indians is dated July 2nd 1700. 


The title to the land on which the extended village 
of Moriches is built was gained by three different pat- 
ents. That lying between Mastic River and the creek 
Senex was included in Smith's first patent; that between 
Senex and the mill stream now called Barnes's Mill Pond 
(formerly Terrill's River) was included in Smith's second 
patent; and that east of the latter point was covered by 
the patent given for land purchased by Messrs. Taylor, 
Townsend and Willets, commonly known as the 
Moriches patentship. During the first years of the last 
century the neck of land lying on the west of the mill 
stream was called Warratta, and was in the possession 
of Samuel Terrill. The mill stream named in his honor 
was by the Indians called Paquatuck, and the land on the 
east of it was callled Moriches or Maritches. Settlement 
was begun here at a very early date, probably in the 
early part of the last century. It did not become a part 
of the town of Brookhaven until about the time of the 


A Presbyterian church appears to have existed here 
previous to the middle of the last century, though it is 
not known to have had any house of worship of its own. 
Private houses were used for that purpose. Rev. Nehe- 
miah Greenman, licensed by the Suffolk Presbytery Oc- 
tober 20th 1748, was appointed to preach here and one 
year later was released. This was then a part of a large 
parish comprising Moriches, West Hampton and South 
Haven. In 1754 Rev. Abner Reeve appears as the 
pastor of these churches. He continued in that relation 
with this church until 1763. The Presbyterian element 
seems to have died out in the course of several years and 
the church became extinct. 

The first church erected here, " the union meeting- 



house," was built in 1809 and used by the different de- 
nominations which were then struggling for an existence. 
In 1817 ^ Congregational church was organized here. 
November 14th 1831- the Presbyterian church was re- 
organized. The present church was built in 1839, and 
it was for several years used by both these denomina- 
tions. The parish was incorporated in 1849, as a Presby- 
terianchurch, and about that time the Congregational 
society became practically extinct. Captain Josiah 
Smith about this time gave to the parish some seven 
acres of land for a parsonage, which was built in 1850. 
The adjoining cemetery was opened for burials in 185 1. 
The church edifice was enlarged in 1861. The church 
membership is over 200. Since the reorganization the 
following ministers have been in charge: Alfred Ketcbara, 
1831-34; Christopher Youngs, 1834-36; John Moase, 
1836-38; Thomas Owen, 1838-47; Henry M. Parsons, 
1847-52; Augustus T. Dobson, 1853-69; Robert Scott, 
1869-72; Samuel Whaley, 1872-76; Hamilton B. 
Holmes, 1877 to the present time. 

A Methodist Protestant class was formed here March 
i2th 1839, by Rev. Elias Griswold. During the same 
year a church was built. The following pastors served 
the church: Rev. Messrs. Griswold, Moran, W. F. Har- 
ris, R. Lent, T. K. Wetsell, J. Feltey, Webber, Skinner, 
Frederick Dickerman, J. S. Kingsland,- Joshua Hudson, 
E. Stockwell and T. L. Dibble. The membership hav- 
ing been reduced to five persons the church building 
was in 1868 given to the society of the same denomina- 
tion at Manor, and it was moved thither in 1869. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of this village was 
built in 1839. A church had been organized four or five 
years previously, consisting of. ten members. . Its present 
membership is about 135. In ministerial supply the 
church was connected with West Hampton until 1870, 
when it was associated with the church at Fireplace, 
with Rev. Henry Still pastor. Since that year the church 
has had a pastor independently. The following ministers 
have filled that position: Henry Still, 187 1; George 
Filmer, 1872-74; A. A. Belmont, 1875; Robert Codling, 
1876; Charles H. Beale, 1877-79; William Ross, 1880; 
L. S. Stowe, 1881. 

East Moriches and Eastport. 

At East Moriches, a village of five hundred inhabi- 
tants, the Presbyterian and Methodist churches both have 

Eastport is a village of five hundred inhabitants lying 
on the dividing line between this town and Southampton. 
A grist-mill was established on the boundary stream 
about a hundred years ago. The village name, taken 
from the Indian name of this stream, was Seatuck, and a 
post-office by that name was established here in 1849. 
This was discontinued in 1857, and the present name 
was adopted in i860, while the present post-office was 
not established until 1873. 


George F, Carman. 

George Franklin Carman, whose portrait appears upon 
another page, was born in Patchogue, April i8th 1827. 
His father, Gilbert Carman, came from Hempstead, in 
which town the family have long resided, with a history 
that places them among the early pioneers in settlement, 
and among the leaders in all public and private enter- 
prises. In civil and political life the name is permanently 
recorded. Stephen Curman, great-grandfather to George 
F., was elected from Queens county to the State Legis- 
lature in 1788, where he was kept by the suffrages of his 
fellow citizens till 1819 — 31 consecutive years. The his- 
tory of Long Island or of the State has no parallel to 
this case of continuous political service. 

Mr. Carman's early life was not blessed — or cursed, 
as is frequently the case — with the surroundings of 
wealth and consequent ease. The incentives to per-- 
sonal exertion existed from the very first, so that after 
the usual routine of a boy's life — farm work summers 
and district school winters, much of the time living away 
from home — he went at the age of 16 to learn the car- 
penter's trade. Four years later he became, in common 
with hundreds of other young men, enamored with the 
notion of a whaling voyage. With the promptness of 
his decisive nature the act at once followed the decision, 
and in company with three acquaintances he went to 
Greenport and sailed in the ship "Nile," Captain Isaac 
Case, on a whaling voyage that lasted 37 months before 
he again looked on the familiar scenes and faces in Suf- 
folk county. He had not been ten days at sea before he 
considered his action a foolish one, and he continued to 
regret it all the time he was gone. Still the trip, which 
took him the whole length of the Pacific Ocean four 
times, did him more good than he could then measure. 
He had abundant time for reading and reflection, which 
was well improved, and his contact with men necessitated 
an intimate study of their dispositions, emotions and 
actions, that has continued to bear fruit of constant use. 
Besides he saw the world, mastered the science and prac- 
tice of navigation, learned much of the language of the 
Sandwich Islanders, and when he again set his foot on 
land he was a matured man, with a settled determination 
to do his best at whatever he should undertake. 
Although offers of rapid promotion were placed before 
him the sea had no charms, and he returned to his la- 
borious occupation and became a builder and contractor. 

In 1855 he was elected one of the seven town trustees 
and one of the two overseers of the poor. In the fall of 
the same year he was elected sheriff of Suffolk county, 
which necessitated his removal to Riverhead, where he 
lived for the next three years in the apartments in the 
county buildings provided for that functionary. His ad- 

* Some of these were written by others than the author of the fore- 
going history. Those by Mr. Bayles are the sketches of the Floyd 
family (exoeptins that of the present William Floyd), Mordecai Homan, 
Benjamin T. Hutchinson, Nathaniel Miller, the Mount family, John 
Rose, the Smiths, the Strong family (excepting that of Judge' Selah 
Brewster Strong and his children), Benjamin F. Thompson, John M 
Williamson, Alfred D. Wilson, G. P. MUla and the WoodhuU family 




ministration of the affairs of this office was entirely satis- 
factory to his constituents, and his successor, Stephen J. 
Wilson, appointed him under-sheriff, in which capacity 
he served till July ist following, when he resigned and 
returned to his home in Patchogue. Here he took 
charge as editor and proprietor of the Suffolk Herald, a 
paper that he had established two years previously, and 
devoted his time to its interests until the summer of 1862. 
At this time the internal revenue laws framed to pro- 
vide funds to help meet the extraordinary expenses 
caused by the great slave-holders' rebellion went into 
operation, and Mr. Carman was designated by the pres- 
ident as " collector for the ist collection district of the 
State of New York, during the pleasure of the president 
of the United States, for the time being and until the 
end of the next session of the Senate of the United 
States, and no longer." This appointment was dated 
the 22nd day of August 1862, and was signed by 
Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States, and 
S. P. Chase, secretary of the treasury. This document, 
as may be imagined, has been carefully preserved, for 
Mr. Chase assured Mr. Carman that it was the first of 
the kind issued by the department, and was the first one 
signed by President Lincoln. The great State of New 
York was selected as the starting point, on account of 
its chief city being the money center of the nation, and 
the three counties of Richmond, Queens and Suffolk, 
having large and complicated manufacturing interests, 
and a more extended water front than any other in the 
nation, constituted the ist collection district. Mr. 
Carman's appointment was not solicited, but on the con- 
trary President Lincoln asked Mr. Carman in person if 
he would accept it. When the Senate again met his 
name was put in regular nomination by the president, 
the nomination was confirmed by the Senate, and a 
second appointment, dated March 6th 1863, signed as 
before, was forwarded to the appointee. Under this 
commission Mr. Carman discharged the duties of the 
office through the administrations of Lincoln and John- 
son, and from March to June 23d 1869, under President 
Grant's administration, when he resigned his position. 
The following paper, more weighty than a volume of 
praise, was forwarded to his address: 

"Treasury Department, 
"Comptroller's Office, 
" March 8 1870. 
^'Geo. F. Carman, Esq., late U. S. Internal Revenue 
Collector ist Dist. of State of New York, Long Island 
City, N. Y. 

" Sir : Your accounts as Collector of Internal Revenue 
and Disbursing Agent to June 23d 1869 have been ad- 
justed, balanced and closed on the books of this De- 
partment. " Very Respectfully Yours, 

" R. W. Taylor, 


The like of this paper more than one collector of in- 

tarnal revenue in this State has never been able to get 

from that day to this. It is but justice to state that the 

■books and methods of doing the business of the first dis- 

trict of New York were regarded by the department as 
models of their kind, and openly commended to other 
collectors as worthy of their study and guidance. No 
description can give any adequate idea of the magnitude 
and complexity of the interests involved, or the immense 
labor and skill demanded and expended in conducting 
the affairs of this, one of the most important and most 
difficult internal revenue districts in the nation. 

Upon quitting the service of the federal government 
Mr. Carman entered the service of the South Side Rail- 
road Company as general manager, in which capacity he 
served two years, under the presidency of Charles Fox. 
The road was then sold to Jacob R. Shiphard & Co., 
who assumed control, which continued one year, when, 
failing to meet their obligations for the balance of pur- 
chase money, the property reverted to the original stock- 
holders. The old board of management was re-elected 
and reorganized as before, with the exception of the 
presidency, in which office George F. Carman was placed, 
with Charles Fox as vice-president. When sold to 
Shiphard & Co. the road was in good condition finan- 
cially, with provision for completing and paying for an 
extension of 15 miles east of Patchogue, that was under 
contract and in process of construction. The wildcat 
purchasers, from considerations never made public, com- 
promised this contract, and abandoned the extension. 
When the old directors came to investigate matters they 
found the company hopelessly bankrupt, evidently the 
result of the most reckless and questionable manage- 
ment. As president Mr. Carman struggled along six 
months, hoping to effect some compromise, when it be- 
came evident that the State courts were about to appoint 
a receiver. To avoid this the company, having made 
previous arrangements for such a contingency, handed 
the road over to the United States marshal, acknowledg- 
ing itself bankrupt. Charles Jones was appointed by 
Judge Benedict receiver in bankruptcy, and he appointed 
G. F. Carman as his representative to ran the road, 
which he did very successfully till its public sale, when 
it was bought by Conrad Poppenhusen, and Mr. Car- 
man's official connection with it ended. About 1870, 
previous to his retirement, he bought of Orange Judd 
for $100,000 the Flushing Railroad, from tide water at 
Hunter's Point to Winfield, about three miles, and sold 
it to the South Side Company. This property, with its 
water-front and dock franchises, remains to the present 
time one of the company's most valuable adjuncts and 

In the fall of 1869 Mr. Carman was elected member 
of Assembly. During the ensuing session, in which the 
house was under Democratic control, he was appointed 
and served on the committees of commerce and naviga- 
tion and engrossed bills. In 1879 Mr. Carman was 
again the Republican candidate for the Assembly, and 
Charles T. Duryea was the Democratic candidate. 
Upon canvassing the votes the Democratic board of 
supervisors declared Mr. Duryea elected by a majority 
of one. Mr. Carman, contending that he was elected by 
one majority, contested the matter in the Assembly, 



which, after a memorable examination, seated him in 
place of Mr. Duryea. His services during both terms in 
the Legislature were creditable to himself and highly 
satisfactory to his constituents. 

He was a Fillmore man in 1856, and has been a Re- 
publican ever since. He was one of the radicals who in 
1872 supported Horace Greeley, the wisdom of which he 
has never doubted. Often a representative of his party 
at State conventions, he has been prominently identified 
with all its movements. He was a warm supporter of 
Mr. Hayes's administration, and of Mr. Garfield and his 
administration. His political standing would not be 
justly represented if it were not added that he has been 
for many years one of the most influential men in his 
district, both at home and with the powers at Albany 
and Washington. He has always belonged to that 
branch of his party who believe that a majority of the 
people is the real authority in all matters, and should be 
respected, and not a majority of the politicians who re- 
joice in being called " Stalwarts." Through all the com- 
plications of politics Mr. Carman has preserved his 
manhood and his honor. His integrity as a citizen, or 
in the administration of public affairs, has never been 
assailed. He knows that in the eternal nature of things 
"honesty is the best policy," because it pays the best. 

Mr. Carman's mother was Mary Ann, daughter of 
Samuel Homan, of Brookhaven, where the Homans were 
among the first settlers. He had one brother who died 
some thirty years ago, and a sister who now lives in New 
York city. 

In 1850 he married Ellen, daughter of Captain John 
Prior of Patchogue. The issue of this marriage has been 
a son and a daughter. 

Mr. Carman commenced the contest of life with nothing 
but his sturdy hands and brain, and his unswerving de- 
termination to work and win. He supplied the deficien- 
cies of early education by mastering the mysteries of 
grammar and other studies one by one, from an open 
book as he worked at the carpenter's bench. No for- 
tune, or the smallest factor of a fortune, to the amount 
of a single dollar, ever came to help him start in life. 
One evidence of his acquirements is the fact that he has 
been president of the board of education in Patchogue 
for the past ten years. He is naturally a leader among 
men, but never assumed or accepted leadership until 
thoroughly qualified. 

In 1872 he built the house and fitted up the grounds 
and pleasant surroundings that now constitute his attrac- 
tive home on Ocean avenue, Patchogue, where the old 
homestead of his wife's family had once been. He is 
eminently genial and hospitable, and his interesting 
family contribute their full share to the attractions of 
this domestic circle. 

Mr. Carman is a natural conversationist, with an un- 
usually large and firm grasp of subjects, upon which he 
expresses his views in a consise, exact manner, with a 
delightful mixture of humor and anecdote. He is a man 
of prompt decision and incisive action, and has a weight 
and momentum of character that make him a notable 
man wherever he is placed. 


Mordecai Homan, whose memory is cherished by a 
generation that is fast passing away, as one of the most 
prominent residents of his day, was a native of that part 
of Yaphank then included in Middle Island. He was 
born November 5th 1770, and in his early life worked 
on his father's farm and taught school. About the close 
of the last century he purchased the interest of other 
heirs in his father's farm, and, having married Miss 
Polly Buckingham of Old Milford, Conn., settled down 
to the active duties of a useful life. In society, in the 
church and in town affairs he was recognized as a leader. 
His own modfest disposition alone prevented his rising 
to positions of greater prominence. He held the office 
of justice of the peace until he became familiarly known 
as Squire Homan, but his greatest service to his town 
was in the office of town clerk, which he held during 41 
successive years, 1807-47. He died March 8th 1854, 
and his remains were laid at rest in the old parish bury-^ 
ing ground at Middle Island, near the church in which 
for many years he had been the clerk, and leader of the 
music. His works " do follow " him, as also does a 
numerous posterity. 

Dr. Nathaniel Miller 

was born at Springs, in the town of East Hampton, April 
17th 1783. He was the son of Elisha and Abigail Mil- 
ler. His academic education was obtained at Clinton 
Academy, and his further course was pursued at the New 
York Medical College, from which he received a diploma. 
His practice as a physician at this place began in 1812 
and ended in 1863. He was a prominent man and an 
acknowledged authority in his day. He was sent to the 
Assembly in 1818, and again in 1849. His wife was 
Sarah, daughter of Captain John Havens of Moriches, 
and he had seven children living at the time of his death, 
viz.: Nathaniel, Mary A., Caroline E., Jerusha K., Sarah. 
Laura C, and Julia F. He died May 7th 1863, and was 
buried in the private cemetery on the homestead. 

George P. Mills 

was born in Smithtown, May 30th i8oi. His parents 
were George and Tabitha Mills. After receiving a fair 
education at the district school and at Clinton Academy, 
East Hampton, he engaged in the mercantile business with 
his father in Smithtown, and afterward with Harry W. Vail 
at Islip. In 1844 he removed to a farm at Bellport. He 
was supervisor of Brookhaven from 1847 to 1851, inclu- 
sive, and represented the western district of Suffolk in 
the Assembly in 1858. He was married January ist 
1834 to Sarah, daughter of Thomas Hallock of Smith- 
town, and had five children, one of whom died young 
One daughter and three sons survived him. He died at 
Bellport, March 6th 1868, and was buried at the Pres- 
byterian church cemetery of Smithtown. 


#.*»i/^ ^(o Mcey/UJ 

James ■ M. Bayles. 

The subject of this sketch is an old and prominent 
ship-builder at Port Jefferson. His father, Elisha Bayles, 
removed from Mount Sinai in 1809 to this place and be- 
gan business as a merchant when Port Jefferson was a 
hamlet of. barely more than a dozen houses and was 
dubbed by the suggestive title of " Drowned Meadow." 
The store he kept stood on what is now Main street, 
then little more than a wood road, from which the gates 
and bars had scarcely been removed. His family con- 
sisted of four sons and a daughter, all of whom are still 
living. Here for 10 or 15 years he kept the general 
store that supplied the varied wants of the young vil- 
lage. His old home is still standing on Main street 
and is occupied by his youngest son. Captain Joseph 
Bayles. Under its roof was born, on the i8th of Jan- 
uary 1815, the subject of this sketch, James M. Bayles. 
His brothers were Alfred, Charles L., and Joseph. His 
sister's name was Maria. 

About the year 1822 a general desire was manifested 
to change the name of the village, and the senior Mr. 
Bayles, then an ardent Democrat and an admirer of Mr. 
Jefferson, urged the adoption of the name the village 
now bears, in honor of the great president. 

In his early years James M. Bayles spent his winters 
in attending district school, and his summers on board a 
wood sloop that ran to New York. The first summer of 

this work was when he was 14 years old, and his wages 
were $5 per month for six months. At the end of the 
season he received $31, the extra dollar being a present 
from the captain for his neatness in taking care of the 
vessel. This money he gave to his father. He continued 
this kind of life for the next three years, making several 
trips to southern ports, including Newbern, Charleston, 
Savannah and Mobile. From the last of these trips he 
saved $50, which became the nucleus of all his future 
accumulations. From the age of 17 to 20 he worked 
with his father in caulking and rigging vessels. For the 
last year of his minority he paid his father $150 and 
began business for himself one year before he was of age. 

At the age of 23 he had accumulated $250, and like a 
sensible young man made up his mind to take a partner 
for life. So in November 1838 he was married to Desire 
Ann Hawkins, whose family was among the first and 
oldest in Setauket. The business to which he had de- 
termined to devote his life was ship-building, and the 
first vessel of his construction was built in 1836. Since 
that time Mr. Bayles has built over 90 vessels. In 1861 
he took his oldest son, James E., into partnership, the 
business having a large increase about that time. From 
that time to the present the firm has remained J. M. 
Bayles & Son. 

Mr. Bayles has served his town as assessor three years, 
as commissioner of highways three years, and three years- 
as sole trustee of the school district. In politics he has 


always been a consistent Democrat of the Jackson 
school. Although his usual place of worship has been 
at the Presbyterian church he contributes to the support 
of other churches as well. In temperance matters he has 
taken an active interest, believing that no cause is more 
worthy the support of all who have the greatest good of 
mankind truly in view. He has always been a warm 
friend of the common school system, as a paying in- 
vestment for this generation to make and hand down 
to the next. 

Strict integrity, good work, honest pay, deserve confi- 
dence and you will get it — these are some of the rules 
and maxims that have guided him through his long, hon- 
orable and prosperous career. 

The wife of Mr. Bayles died on the 21st of January 
1880. His children are very pleasantly and harmoniously 
settled in life, as follows: James E., partner in ship- 
building; Samuel H., master of the schooner "Annie 
A. Booth "; George F., partner in the mercantile firm of 
J. M. & G. F. Bayles; Annie S., Mrs. A. Curtis Almy, 
of Hempstead; Hamilton T., clerk in a store; Stephen 
Taber, assistant cashier of a bank in New York; Havens 
Brewster, M.D., physician in Brooklyn, being the only 
one of Mr. Bayles's sons who has chosen one of the 
learned professions. 

The firm of J. M. Bayles & Son employs 50 men the 
year round, thus largely contributing to the prosperity 
of the village. Mr. Bayles was active in the construc- 
tion of the Smithtown and Port Jefferson Railroad. 
He was made president of the company in 1870 at the 
first meeting of the board of directors, and has retained 
that position ever since. 

Benjamin F. Thompson, 

the honored historian of Long Island, whose name 
will grow brighter as the passing generations learn to 
appreciate the service he did in rescuing many of the 
fragments of Long Island history from oblivion, was a 
native of South Setauket. His great-great-grandfather 
was John Thompson, who came to Setauket in 1656. 
Benjamin F. was born May isth 1784. He was the son 
of Dr. Samuel Thompson, who was also a farmer of this 
village. He was educated at Yale College, but did not 
graduate. He studied medicine with Dr. Ebenezer Sage, 
of Sag Harbor, and practiced that profession about ten 
years, after which he exchanged it for that of the law. 
He was married June 12th 1810 to Mary Howard, 
daughter of Rev. Zechariah Greene. He represented a 
district of this county in the Assembly in 1813, and 
again in 1816. He was also a town commissioner of 
schools for this town in 1813 and 1814. He afterward 
removed to Hempstead, and in 1839 published a history 
of Long Island in one volume. A second edition, 
greatly enlarged and improved, was published in 1843, 
comprising two volumes. Still later he prepared the 
matter for a third edition, which unfortunately was never 
published. While making preparations for its publica- 
tion he was suddenly attacked by disease, which re 

suited in death on the 21st of March 1849. His remains 
were buried in the family plot at Hempstead, where he 
left two children. 

Edward Osborn. 

Edward Osborn was born in New York city, July 26th 
1817. His father, Charles Osborn, was born in East 
Hampton, Suffolk county, and was educated at the 
academy in that village. At the age of 16 he went to New 
York city and engaged as a clerk in Mr. Van Wagnan's 
hardware store on Fulton street. After a term of years 
he married, and engaged in the same business on his own 
account. In the course of time his former employer be- 
came embarrassed, and Mr. Osborn bought his stock and 
stores, his business expanding until he became one of the 
leading importing and wholesale merchants in his line of 
trade. His location was Nos. 33 and 34 Fulton street, and 
the property still remains in the possession of the family. 

About 1830 he purchased a tract of land at Bellport, 
built upon it, removed his family, and there spent the re- 
mainder of his life. He was an able man, commanding 
the respect of all who knew him, and his ample fortune 
was the result of his own application and energy. He 
had six sons, of whom Edward, the subject of this sketch, 
was the fifth. Besides the schooling he received in New 
York city he attended for a time the academies at East 
Hampton and Huntington. In early life he developed a 
great taste for hunting, fishing, boating and sportsman- 
ship in all its better phases. 

In July 1844 he married Catharine, daughter of Rich- 
ard Gerard of Brookhaven. She was born May 3d 1824, 
and was one of a family of ten daughters and two sons, 
themother of whom is still living, at the age of 85 years. 

Mr. Osborn was of an active and observing turn of 
mind, feeding his love of variety by a great deal of travel. 
In 1855 he went to Europe in a sailing vessel. Dr. Rice 
of Patchogue accompanying him. He made two other 
trips across the Atlantic, the last with Dr. Chapell of 
Patchogue; and went in 1872 to California, making the 
tour of that remarkable portion of ouf country. 

His social qualities were specially prominent, winning 
many warm friends, who seemed attracted to him by the 
strongest regard. They were always welcome and made 
to feel at home at his charming residence in Bellport, 
and of the comforts and courtesies there experienced 
they never tire of telling, 

A sudden attack of illness cut him off in the 56th year 
of his age, universally mourned and regretted. His death 
occurred at his home January 24th 1873. 

He left one son, Charles Edward, who was born April 
loth 1849, and who still lives on the old homestead. 
Charles Edward Osborn married Nellie, daughter of 
George W. Rogers of Brooklyn. They have one child, 
Charles Whytelaw, born February 7th 1879. 

In 1876 Mrs. Edward Osborn built a house across the 
road from the old homestead, where she settled the next 
year and still lives, enjoying good health and the society 
of many friends. 



The Tangier Smiths. 

Colonel William Smith the patentee of St. George's 
manor, was born at Newton near Higham-Ferrers, in 
Northamptonshire, England, February 2nd 1655. In 
1675 he was appointed by King Charles II. governor of 
the royal city of Tangier, Africa, and commander of the 
troops necessary to protect an establishment on that bar- 
barous coast. He remained governor of Tangier 13 
years; hence his descendants are distinguished from 
other families of the name of Smith by the appellation 
of " Tangier Smiths." In the Protestant church at 
Tangier, November 26th 1675, by Rev. Wibiam Turner, 
D.D., Colonel William Smith was married to Martha, 
daughter of Henry Tunstall, Esq., of Putney, county of 
Surrey, England. In 1683 they, with their three living 
children, returned to England. Three years later they 
embarked for America, and arrived in New York August 
6th 1686. He was very soon appointed a member of his 
Majesty's council, under Governor Dongan*, which posi- 
tion he occupied until his death, 1705. On the death 
of the Earl of Bellomont in 1701, in the absence at 
Barbadoes of John Nanfan, the lieutenant governor. 
Colonel Smith by virtue of his position as president of 
the council was pro tem. at the head of the govern- 
ment, although four of the members opposed it. Colonel 
Smith showed great decision of character, as neither 
threats nor bribes could induce him to swerve from 
his duty. In May 1691 the supreme court was established 
by an act of the Legislature, and Colonel Smith was at 
once appointed associate judge and soon after chief 
justice. He is said to have discharged the duties of his 
various offices with great dignity and impartiality. 

Soon after his arrival in America Colonel Smith visited 
Setauket, and in 1687 purchased Little Neck, where he 
soon established his residence. June 8th 1693 he was 
commissioned to succeed Colonel Youngs in command 
of the militia of Suffolk county. About this time he 
purchased of the Indians the large tract of land which 
with Little Neck was constituted as the manor of St. 
George by the patents of 1693 and 1697. Colonel Smith 
erected his family mansion, beautifully situated, on a 
neck of land overlooking Long Island Sound from 
Setauket Harbor, where the family of the late Judge 
Selah B. Strong now reside; honored descendants of 
Colonel William Smith, through his son Colonel Henry 

Colonel William was actively interested with the inhab- 
itants of Brookhaven in most of the public enterprises of 
the time, and joined with them in their worship in the 
old town church. There his wife was accorded peculiar 
honor by a specification in the order for seating people 
made about the year 1703, by which she was the only 
woman to be allowed to sit at the table with the honored 

* " And whereas there ia a clause in my instructions to send over the 
names ol six persons more fltt to supply the vacancy of the council, 
six of the Attest I find In this government are as f oUoweth : Matthias 
Nichols, waiiam Smith, James Graham, Gabriel Minvielle, Francis 
Rumbouls, Major Nicolas Uemyre." Colonial Hist. State of N. Y., Vol. 
Ill, page 417 ; from Governor Dongan to the Lords of Trade, February 

justices and all householders who should contribute forty 
shillings or more to the minister's salary. 

Colonel William Smith died at his residence February 
i8th 1705, and was buried in the cemetery which he had 
prepared not far from his mansion, where he had laid to 
rest several of his children. His widow, a very intelli- 
gent and well-bred lady, survived him four years. She 
was known as the " Lady of the Manor." 

Colonel William and Madam Martha Smith had thir- 
teen children, only five of whom, three sons and two 
daughters, survived their parents. Of these, the eldest, 
Colonel Henry, remained in possession of the homestead 
at Setauket, while the second surviving son and tenth 
child — William Henry — established a residence at MaStic, 
on the south side. Colonel Smith's descendants are al- 
lied to the best families of our country, among them the 
De Lanceys, Mcllvaines, Dwights, Johnsons, Rowlands, 
Aspinwalls, Woolseys, WoodhuUs, etc. 

Colonel Henry Smith, above referred to, was born 
in Tangier, Africa, January 19th 1679. He was a man 
of ability and prominence in his day, occupying many 
positions of honor and trust in the county as well as in 
the town. He filled the office of county clerk from 1709 
to 1716, and was for many years a judge of the county 
and a delegate to the prerogative court, for taking the 
proof of wills, etc. He was president of the Brookhaven 
trustees most of the time from 1709 to 1720, and during 
several of those years was also supervisor of the town. 
He was married January 9th 1705 to Anna, daughter of 
Rev. Thomas Shepard, of Charlestown, Mass., the cele- 
brated Rev. Cotton Mather officiating in the ceremony. 
By this wife he had nine children. He afterward mar- 
ried Frances Caner, who died, leaving no children. His 
third wife was Margaret Biggs, by whom he had two 
children, one of whom became the wife of Captain Wil- 
liam Nicoll. 

Rev. Charles Jeffrey Smith, the only son of Henry, 
who was the son of Colonel Henry, the eldest son of 
Colonel William Smith, was born at Setauket, in 1740. 
Possessed of a sufficient estate, which he inherited from 
his father, who died when he was byt a lad, he in early 
manhood showed a determination to devote his time, his 
energies and his means to the work of educating and 
Christianizing the Indians. He received the honors of 
Lebanon College at the age of 17, and four years later 
received the offer of a position as tutor in that institu- 
tion, which offer he refused for the sake of teaching an 
Indian school at that place. In June of the following 
year (1763) he was ordained at Lebanon, and with Jo- 
seph, a favorite Indian pupil of the school, as an inter- 
preter, he started on a missionary excursion into the 
Mohawk country, being directed to proceed to Onohogh- 
quage. The Pontiac war soon afterward cut short his 
progress in this undertaking and he returned to his home 
at Setauket, where he resided in 1766. He afterward 
went south and engaged in preaching the gospel to the 
colored people of Virginia, where he is said to have been 
very successful. In all his efforts for the elevation of 
these despised races he seems to have been actuated by 



a spirit of pure benevolence, receiving no pay for his 
labor, and bearing his own expenses. Having returned 
to his home and family at Setauket, he came to an un- 
timely death by the discharge of a shotgun while out 
hunting. It was supposed to have been an accidental 
discharge of the gun while in his own hands, but many 
years afterward a negro at some place in the Southern 
States, when about to be executed for a murder which 
he had committed there, confessed that he had not only 
committed the crime for which he was about to die, but 
that he had years before murdered a minister by the 
name of Charles Jeffrey Smith, at Setauket, on Long 
Island, of which crime he had never been suspected. 
The exact account of this confession has unfortunately 
been lost. Mr. Smith's death occurred in August 1770, 
while he was in his thirty-first year, and his body was 
laid in the family cemetery on Little Neck. 

Major William Henry Smith, son of Colonel Wil- 
liam, the progenitor of the " Tangiers," was born at Se- 
tauket, March 13th 1689. He married a lady by the 
name of Merrit, from Boston, by whom he had one son, 
Merrit. For his second wife he married Hannah Cooper, 
of Southampton, March 3d 17 18, by whom he had two 
sons and five daughters. He died January 27th 1743. 
Major Smith inherited the southern part of his father's 
domain, and chose for his home a point on the Great 
South Bay known as Sebonack, St. George's manor, 
commanding extensive views rarely surpassed in beauty. 
That seat is now owned and occupied by his lineal de- 
scendant Hon. Egbert Tangier Smith. 

William Smith son of the major, and commonly 
called Judge William, was born at Mastic, in 1720. He 
was a man of considerable note during the Revolution- 
ary period. He was county judge several years, from 
which circumstance he received his distinguishing title. 
He was a member of the Provincial Congress of July 
1776, and among the men who framed the State consti- 
tution upon which the "new form of government" was 
established in 1777. During the remainder of the Revo- 
lution, while the island was in the hands of the British, 
he represented the district in the State Senate. He was 
at this time, 1776-83, in exile from his property. Before 
leaving it he buried the patent in the ground. He after- 
ward returned and enjoyed the fruits of peace for several 
years. He died march 17th 1799, leaving a widow and 
five of the eight children who hadbeen born to him. His 
seventh son, William, born April 30th 1769, married 
Hannah Phoenix Smith, of Smithtown, and established a 
homestead at " Longwood." 

William Sidney Smith, a great-great-grandson of 
Colonel William, the original " Tangier Smith," and 
through his mother a lineal descendant in the fifth gen- 
eration from Richard, the original " Bull Smith," was 
born on that portion of St. George's manor known as 
Longwood, July 8th 1796. He was the son of William 
Smith the proprietor of Longwood, who, dying in the 
vigor of his manhood, left William Sidney an orphan at 
the tender age of seven years. From that time until 
he reached his majority he was under the guardianship 

of his uncle. General John Smith, of Mastic. After ac- 
quiring his education, during the advanced years of his 
youth he entered' the mercantile office of Cotheal & Rus- 
sell in New York, one of the firm being his brother-in- 
law Robert M. Russell, in whose family he was also an. 
inmate. Here he continued for several years. 

While residing in New York he enlisted in the military 
service of the State, and in 1815 received the commis- 
sion of ensign in the 142nd regiment of New York State 
infantry, and the following year was appointed lieuten- 
ant of a company in the same regiment. Later he was 
promoted by a commission from Governor Yates to be 
brigade major, which position he resigned in the 
autumn of 1823. At the age of 21 Mr. Smith left the 
city and took possession of his estate at Longwood. In 
the spring of 1821 he received an introduction, through- 
a mutual friend — Honorable Silas Wood, the_ pioneer 
historian of Long Island — to the family of Major William 
Jones of Cold Spring, L. I. In this family he soon be- 
came a favorite guest, and two years later was married 
to Eleanor, the third daughter of Major Jones. This 
event, which took place on the 7th of May 1823, proved 
in its lifelong sequel an unusually happy one, not only to 
the families immediately connected, but to the wide 
range of appreciative society with which the young 
couple in their chosen home were afterward surrounded. 

After spending a year at the home of the bride, while 
the old homestead at Longwood, which for twenty years 
had stood unoccupied by the family, was being fitted up 
for their occupancy, they removed thither and entered 
upon the active duties of a long and useful life. For 
nearly 55 years they walked together, and as the twilight 
of life's evening was drawing its calm shades around 
them, she, whose days of usefulness had been so nobly 
filled, reviewed in a collection of "Golden Wedding 
Mementos " some recollections of their united journey. 
In these pages we read that in their early life they had 
" settled down in the old homestead at Longwood, with 
courage and determination to encounter cheerfully the 
trials which were sure to meet them. * * * They 
were remote from all the conveniences of a settled com- 
munity or village, having neither railroad nor telegraphic 
communication with the outer world, and even mails 
were infrequent. Yet, with all these privations, their 
home has been one of happiness, peace, plenty, and con- 
tentment, through half a century. Here they have borne 
each other's burdens, shared in the cares, the joys, the 
sorrows, the sicknesses and the pleasures of all these 
different dispensations, until now, when the battle of life 
is nearly ended. Here, by the help of God, they have 
reared to manhood and womanhood their ten children." 

Mr. Smith, having established himself upon his estate 
of several thousand acres, a great part of which was 
heavily timbered, gave his attention to the cultivation of 
his farm, the management of his estate, and the various 
enterprises which at different times demanded his ener- 
gies. He was elected supervisor of the town in 1829, 
and held the same office for five years in succession. 
He was county treasurer from 1834 to 1848, inclusive- 



represented the western district of Suffolk in the State 
Assembly in 1834, 1848 and 1856. He was for seven 
years either inspector, commissioner or superintendent of 
common schools, and was at different times elected by 
his townsmen to other offices of less importance. His 
own business interests prompted him to an active parti- 
cipation in the early management of the Long Island 
Railroad, and the flouring mills and woolen factory at 
Yaphank. Through a period of more than half a 
century he was constant in serving his generation in the 
various capacities in which duty called him to act. Dur- 
ing these years he was an earnest supporter of Christian 
enterprise and benevolence, and a <?bnstant attendant 
upon the services of public worship in the Presbyterian 
church, at first with the united congregations of South 
Haven and Middletown, and with the latter after the 
union ceased. He was also a life member and director 
of the American Board of Foreign Missions and the 
American Bible and Tract Societies, and vice-president 
of the Long Island Bible Society. Having filled the 
rounded measure of his days and his usefulness, he 
quietly passed away on the 19th of January 1879, leaving 
a widow with eight sons and two daughters. 

General John Smith, eldest son of Judge William,, 
was born at Mastic, February T2th 1752. He was thrice 
married: first to Lydia Fanning, October i6th 1776; 
second to Miss Piatt of Poughkeepsie, in 1785; and 
third to Elizabeth, widow of Henry Nicoll and daughter 
of General Nathaniel WoodhuU, in October 1792. By 
the first he had one son, William, whose son, Hon. 
Egbert T. Smith, still occupies the ancestral homestead. 
By the third he had four children. He was a very 
active and prominent man during the latter part of the 
last century and the first part of the present one. It is said 
of him: " His early life was devoted to his country, while 
yet she was struggling against the tyranny of an unnatural 
parent. Ardent and enterprising in the support of prin- 
ciples which were his own by conviction and inheritance, 
his best counsel and exertions were bestowed with an 
unsparing liberality through the most perilous scenes of 
the Revolution." He occupied a seat in the Assembly 
from 1784 to 1794, inclusive, with the exception of the 
year 1786, and was again in the Assembly in 1798, 
1799 and 1800. He was a representative in Congress 
from 1799 to 1804, and United States senator from 1804 
to 1813. He was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention of 1788, and in 1814 was appointed by President 
Madison marshal of the southern district of New York, 
which position he occupied until his death, in June 1816. 
A writer of Congressional history says of him: " He was 
a man of eminent ability, and highly esteemed by all who 
knew him for the attributes of a great and good man." 
His ashes repose in the private cemetery on his former 

William Smith, who was the eldest son of General 
John Smith, was a distinguished agriculturist, residing at 
the manor of St. George. His mother was a daughter 
of Colonel Fanning, governor of Prince Edward's 
Island. He married Miss Hannah Carman. His sons 

were Sylvester, William and Egbert T. William re- 
moved to Indiana and became a judge of the supreme 

Hon. Egbert T. Smith was born in August 1832. He 
was educated at Clinton Academy and other schools in the 
county, and entered the College of New Jersey at the age 
of 18. After graduating he studied law with Judge George 
Miller, of Riverhead. He was soon elected to the As- 
sembly from the western district of Suffolk, and though 
he was the youngest member he ranked iiigh in the 
house, introducing the celebrated Nicaragua resolutions, 
protesting against English encroachments. For a while 
he was speaker. Two years later he ran for Congress, 
and then again for the Assembly. During the war he 
was again a candidate for Congress. Later he ran as the 
temperance candidate for Congress, and in 1881 was a can- 
didate for nomination as United States senator. He re- 
sides at the manor of St. George, the seventh of his line. 
He is ever doing good, and is as highly esteemed by the 
people as any of his ancestors. He is making his mark 
upon the times in which he lives. During the civil 
war he was sent to Europe by Mr. Lincoln as a secret 
envoy, and for a time was in the army. He was one of 
the most ardent supporters of the Union. He married 
Miss Annie M. Robinson, a descendant of Elder Robin- 
son of the " Mayflower." His children are Martha 
Turnstall, William E. T., Eugenie A., and Clar- 
ence T. Mr. Smith is a lawyer, a farmer, a physician 
(having been a surgeon in the army), a sailor, and 
an honest politician, and has traveled nearly through- 
out the world. 

Colonel Josiah Smith. 

Colonel Josiah Smith, prominent in the Revolutionary 
period, was a resident of East Moriches. He was the 
son of Nathaniel Smith and grandson of Richard Smith, 
the founder of Smithtown, and was born November 28th- 
1723. He married Susannah, daughter of Judge Hugh 
Gelston, of Southampton, December 15th 1742. In- 
heriting a large estate from his father he was a man of 
substance, and occupied a high position in the county. 
Previous to the Revolution he was colonel of the militia, 
and at the breaking out of the war was appointed colonel 
of the regiment of minute men. He was with the regi- 
ment at the battle of Long Island. It is supposed he 
was taken prisoner, but soon after liberated. He was 
then allowed to remain in peace on his estate here. 
He was treasurer of the county from 1764 to 1786. 
After the death of his first wife, which occurred Decem- 
ber 22nd 1754, he married Mary, daughter of David 
Howell, November 5th 1758. His residence was the old 
family mansion at present occupied by his great-grand- 
son Hugh Smith. He died May 15th 1786, leaving one 
son and three daughters. His remains rest in obscurity 
and peace in the corner of a field near his former home- 
stead, while a tombstone in a neighboring cemetery bears 
the record of his memory. 



Richard W. Smith. 

Richard W. Smith, a man of considerable local prom- 
inence in his time, was a native and for most of his life 
a resident of Coram He was the son of Joshua and 
Lucy Smith, and was born January 29th 1799. He was 
educated at North Salem academy, and in his younger 
days taught school. Later he was a secretary in the 
office of Colonel Floyd. At an early age he became in- 
terested in politics and the public questions of the day. 
He occupied many public positions in the town and 
county; was sheriff in 183234, census marshal in 1840, 
member of Assembly in 1844, justice of the peace in 
1856-59, and coast inspector — the office now called 
superintendent of life-saving stations — from 1862 till his 
death, in i868. He also held other offices, and fulfilled