(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The History of Jackson county, Missouri, containing a history of the county, its cities, towns, etc., biographical sketches of its citizens, Jackson county in the late war... history of Missouri, map of Jackson county .."

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT 
FUND GIVEN IN 189I BY 

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE 



Cornell University Library 
F 472 J 1 H67 

History of Jackson ,fO"V,ltXiii|W,iliSi}iii&^^ 




3 1924 028 846 505 ^^^^ 
olin 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028846505 



^5S^^"^^ 



.e-' 







m^ 



COURTHOUSL, INDEPtNDLNCL MO 



J,^-^»)>a"llil|llliijMauli- 
/A>»iiii|Nl||l!| ijiiiiriin 



'"^.miiliiiMlllillia^W' 




i>^ 



/if 'J. 



CUSTOM H0U5E& P05T0FFICt,KANSAS CITY MO. 



lif^'" 



IlLUtTT ft HUDSfjtl.V 



- ^NIC; 



THE 



HISTORY 



OF 



JACKSON COUNTY, 



MISSOURI 



CONTAINING 



A HISTORY OF THE COUNTY, ITS CITIES, TOWNS, ETC., 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF ITS CITIZENS, JACKSON COUNTY IN THE LATE WAR, 

GENERAL AND LOCAL STATISTICS, PORTRAITS OF EARLY SETTLERS 

AND PROMINENT MEN, HISTORY OP MISSOURI, MAP OF 

JACKSON COUNTY, MISCELLANEOUS 

MATTERS, ETC., ETC. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



KANSAS CITY, MO.: 

UNION HISTORICAL COMPANY, 

BIRDSALL, WILLIAMS & CO. 

1881. 



/) (pS/^'^X- 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, hy 

BIEDSALL, WILLIAMS & CO., 
in Office of Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



KANSAS CITY, MO., 

Ramsey, Mii,i,ett & Httdson, Printers, Binders, etc, 

1881. 



PREFACE. 



The history of Jackson County has been written, in many respects, under 
trying circumstances. There has been no lack of material, but the work of col 
lecting and compiling the same into one homogeneous record has been attended 
by many obstacles and perplexities. 

While it has been an interesting occupation to gather from the oldest citizens 
their reminiscences of events occurring in the first settlement of Jackson County, 
her metropolis, towns and villages, it has also been one of arduous labor and deli- 
cate responsibility, necessitating the careful perusal of many old volumes, and 
newspaper files, those daily records of by-gone years. Many of the founders of 
our great cities and towns may still be found where they first settled and like 
sea shell found where the ocean once surged, tell of a tide of life of which little 
is known by the present generation. The old pioneer has often been able to 
narrate with clearness many important events, but utterly unable to give the date, 
which is so essential in a historical work. The records of the county and the files 
of the oldest newspapers have furnished much matter of inestimable value. 

In the absence of written record, it has often occurred that different indi- 
viduals, honest and sincere in their statements, have given conflicting versions of 
the same events, and it has been a matter of much care and delicacy to bring 
harmony out of these conflicting statements. It has been our aim to record 
only such facts as are based upon the most reliable and trustworthy authority, 
and to this end we have exhausted every available source of creditable informa- 
tion. How well the task has been performed, the intelligent reader must judge. 



IV PREFACE. 

It would be strange indeed, if, in the multiplicity of names," dates and events, 
no errors or omissions should be detected. To say that it is perfect would be 
presumption. No mortals were ever perfect except Enoch and Elijah, who were 
translated, and it is written that even the latter committed errors. The few typo- 
graphical errors are such as are liable to be found in all publications, and the 
intelligent reader will find them no obstacle to a clear and easy understanding of 
the subject before him. Unwearied care and studious and constant watchful- 
ness has been exercised in the hope of making a standard work of reference, as 
well as a work of interest to the reader. Through the kindness of many, the 
courtesy of all, we have been enabled to present a very complete volume. To 
those who have thus assisted in collecting and arranging the historical record, 
our sincere thanks are due. 

We especially desire to thank the pioneer settlers who so cheerfully responded 
to our request for early events; also the county officials of Jackson County. In 
addition to these, we desire to acknowledge valuable aid from the press of the 
county, and from the following named gentlemen : Colonel Theodore Case, Jacob 
Gregg, J. C. McCoy, D. I. Caldwell, Martin Rice. 

Our thanks are also due to the county officers of Wyandott County, Kansas, 
its press, and to Dr. Root, who rendered us important service, and to all others 
who so kindly assisted us in our arduous task. In the belief that our book will 
meet with a generous appreciation, it is submitted to the public. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



^, 



:^GOSTEETS.fe 



^ 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



CHAPTER I. 

Page. 
Louisiana Purchase. — Brief Historical 
Sketch 9 

CHAPTER II. 
Descriptive and Geographical.— Name 
— Extent — Surf ace — Rivers — Timber — 
Climate — Prairies — Soils— Population by 
Counties 13 

CHAPTER III. 
Geology of Missouri.— Classiflcalion of 
Rooks— Q,uaternaryPormation— Tertiary 
—Cretaceous— Carboniferous— Devonian 
— Silurian— Azoic— Economic Geology- 
Coal — Iron— Lead— Copper— Zinc — Build- 
ing Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — 
Clays— Paints— Springs — water Power... 18 

CHAPTER IV. 

Title and Early Settlekents.— Title to 
Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — 
Title of Prance and Spain— Cession to 
the Ujaited States— Territorial Changes- 
Treaties with Indians— First Settlement 
— Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon— St. 
Louis— "When In corporated— Potosl— St. 
CharJes— Portage des Sioux— New Mad- 
rid—St. Francois County— Perry— Missis- 
sippi — Loutre Island — "Boon's Lick" — 
Cote Sans Dessein — Howard County — 
Some First Things— Counties— When Or- 
ganized 23 

CHAPTER V. 
Territorial Organization. — Organiza- 
tion 1812 — Council — House of Representa- 
tives — Wm. Clark first Territorial Gov- 
ernor — Edward Hempstead first Delegate 
—Spanish Grants— First General Assem- 
bly—Proceedings — Second Assembly — 
Proceedings — Population of Territory- 
Vote of Territory — Ruf us Easton — Ab- 
sent Members — Third Assembly — Pro- 
ceedings-Application for Admission 28 

CHAPTER VI. 
Application of Missouri to be Admitted into 
the Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — " Missouri Compromise" — 
Constitutional Convention of 1820— Con- 
stitution Presented to Congress — Further 
Resistance to Admission— Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report— Second 
Compromise— Missouri Admitted 31 

CHAPTER VII. 
Missouri as a State. — First Election for 
Governor and Other State Oflicei-s— Sen- 
ators and Representatives to General 
Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. 
Senators— Representatives in Congress- 



Page 



Supreme Court Judges— Counties Organ- 
ized—Capital Moved to St. Charles— OfH- 
cial Record of Territorial and State Offi- 
cers , 35 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Civil "War in Missouri. — Fort Sumter 
Fired Upon— Call for 75,000 Men— Gov- 
ernor Jackson Refuses to Furnish a Man 
— U. S. , Arsenal at Liberty, Missouri, 
Seized — Proclamation of Governor Jack- 
son—General Order No. 7 — Legislature 
Convenes — Camp Jackson Organized — 
Sterling Price Appointed Major-General 
— Frost's Letter to Lyon — Lyon's Letter 
to Frost — Surrender of Camp Jackson 
—Proclamation of General Harney— 
Conference between Price and Harney 

— Harney Superseded by Lyon— Second 
Conference — Governor Jackson Burns 
the Bridges Behind him— Proclamation 
of Governor Jackson — General Blair 
takes possession of Jefferson City- 
Proclamation of Lyon— Lyon at Spring- 
field — State OJBces <Declared Vacant 
—General Fremont Assumes Command 
— Proclamation of Lieutenant-Governor 
Reynolds — Proclamation of Jefferson 
Thompson and Governor Jackson — 
Death of General Lyon — Succeeded by 
Sturgls — Proclamation of McCulloch 
and Gamble — Martial Law Declared — 
Secoad Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson 
—President Modifies Fremont's Order- 
Fremont Relieved by Hunter — Procla- 
mation of Price— Hunter's Order of As- 
sessment — Hunter Declares Martial Law 
—Order Relating to Newspapers— Hal- 
leck Succeeds Hunter— Halleck's Order 
81 — Similar Order by Halleck — Boone 
Comity Standard Confiscated- Execution 
of Prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — 
General Ewing's Order No. 11— General 
Rosencrans takes Command— Massacre 
at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — 
General Dodge Succeeds General Rosen- 
crans— List of Battles 89 

CHAPTER IX. 
Early Military Record. -^ Black Hawk 
War— Mormon Difficulties — Florida War 
— Mexican War 47 

CHAPTER X. 

AGRICULTURE AND MATERIAL WEALTH.— 

Missouri as an Agricultural State— The 
Different Crops— Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and Other 
Cattle — Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — 
Missouri Adapted to Live Stock— Cotton 

— Broom-Corn and other Products — 
Fruits — Berries — Grapes — Railroads — 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
First Neigb of the "Iron Horse" in ills- 
souri — Names of Railroads — Manufac- 
tures — Great Bridge at St. Louis 50 

CHAPTER XI. 
Educatiou.— Public School System— Public 
School System of Missouri — Lincoln In- 
stitute—Officers of Public School System 
— Certificates of Teachers — University of 
Missouri — Schools — Colleges — Institu- 
tions of Learning — Location — Libraries 
—Newspapers and Periodicals— Number 
of School Children— Amount Expended 
— Value of Grounds and Buildings — 
" The Press." 55 



Page 
CHAPTER XII. 
Religious Denominations. — Baptist 
Church— Its History— Congregationa,l — 
When Founded— Its History— Christian 
Church— Its History— Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church— Its History— Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church- Its History- 
Presbyterian Church- Its History— Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church— Its History- 
United Presbyterian Church— Its His- 
tory—Unitarian Church— Its History- 
Roman Catholic Church— Its History 02 



HISTORY. OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



CHAPTER I. 

Name and Location. — Different Counties 
Named Jacjison — Most Favored County 
in the Union — The Area and Exact Geo- 
graphical Position — General Observa- 
tions for the Reader &y 

CHAPTER II. 

Physical Features. — Names and Descrip- 
tion of Water Courses— The Surface- 
Beautiful Land— Timber, etc 71 

CHAPTER III. 

Geology, Botany and Climate. — General 
Observations — Different Formations — 
Indications of Coal— Trees, Plants and 
other Productions — Horticulture — Bee 
Culture — Climate and Health — The Jack- 
son County Cyclone — Climate, Health 
and Disease Continued 74 

CHAPTER IV. 

Early Settlements.- Fort Osage Started 
in 1808 — Slate Admitted 1821 — County 
Organized 1826— Different Settlements in 
the County — The Names of Voters in 
Jackson County 1828 — The Vote for Gen. 
Jackson — Examples of Ancient Records. 101 

CHAPTER V. 

Organization of the County.— St. Louis 
County Included what is now the East- 
ern Part of Jackson in 1813 — Then How- 
ard County— Then Cooper— Then Lillard 
— Then Lafayette— And then Jackson — 
Jackson County Organized December 15. 
182S, and Included what is now Cass and 
Bates Counties — First County Court — 
County and Township System— Govern- 
ment Surveys — Organization of Town- 
ships — Three Townships at first. Blue, 
Fort Osage and Kaw — Location of Roads 
— HarmonyiTownship— Boone Township 
— S n i-a-b a r Township — Washington 
Township — Van Buren Township — 
Prairie Township— Westport Township 
— Brooking Township 115 

CHAPTER VI. 

Old Settlers of Jackson County.— Meet- 
ing at Kansas City December 30, 1871— 
Names of Old Settlers with date of Settle- 
ment — Officers of the Association — Reso- 
lutions— First Address— The "Far West" 
—The Pioneers— Tom Rule— The Site of 
Kansas City— Dates of Important Events 
—Meeting March, 1872— Old Settlers As- 
semble July 4, 1872— The Life of Daniel 
Boone by Dr. Johnston Lykins — Meeting 
of Pioneers July 4, 1874— Speeches of W. 
H. Wallace, General Bingham, Jacob 
Gregg, Johnston Lykins, Colonel Van 
Horn and others — Prizes Awarded — 
Death of Daniel Boone— Meeting April 
24, 1880— The Pioneers— Addre.ss by Mr. 



McCoy— The Last Grand Meeting of the 
Fathers and Mothers, May 22, 1880— 
Speeches of Jacob Gregg, Alexander 
Majors, J. C. McCoy, Dr. Winfrey, and . 
Martin Rice— An Old Timer's Poem- 
Rev. Father Donnelly— Old Residents 
and Date of Coming 131 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Santa Fe Trade.— Originated and 
Started from Old Franklin, Howard 
County- Began at Independence in 1831 
—About the Year IS:i7 the Trade Sprung 
Up at Westport— Names of Firms at In- 
dependence Engaged in the Trade- 
Starting Out of a Caravan— Hostile In- 
dians—The Earliest Traders— Lost on the 
Plains and Dying of Thirst — Council 
Grove— Surgical Operation in the Desert 
—Santa Fe— Revolt of Indians In i680— 
New Mexico in 1840— Names and Dis- 
tances of Camping Places Between Inde- 
pendence and Santa Fe 170 

CHAPTER VIII. 

County Officials. — County Court — County 
Clerks — Circuit Clerks— Recorders — 
Treasurers — Assessors — Sheriffs — School 
Commissioners — Surveyors — Marshals — 
Collectors— State Senator-s- State Repre- 
sentatives — Verbatiin Record of Marri- 
ages—The First WarrantyDeed— Regis- 
tration Notice 178 

CHAPTER IX. 

Railroads.— Names of the Different Roads 
—Missouri Pacific- Chicago & Alton — 
Wabash — Hannibal & St. ^Toseph — Kan- 
sas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluff's- 
Kansas City, Leavenworth & Atchison — 
Union Pacific — Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe — Kansas City & Fort Scott — 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and others — 
Non-completed Roads — Misappropria- 
tion of Funds by the County — One Mil- 
lion Dollars Paid by the County and no 
Benefit Derived 191 

CHAPTER X. 

Finances.— Introductory— Current Expen- 
ses for the years 1869, 1870 hnd 1871— An- 
nual Report, January 1, 1872, Showing 
all the Receipts and Expenditures for 
the Year — Jackson County Finances 
from November 1, 1875, to February 15, 
1876— The Last Official Report of Jackson 
County Finances to the County Court 
—Indebtedness of the County— County 
Treasurer's Report— Township Railroad 
Funds- County Poor Farm— A Report 
for Ten Years Ago 212 

CHAPTER XI. 

Agriculture.— Its Establishment and the 
Men Active in the Enterpiise— The First 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Fair lu Jackson County— In 1S54 New 
Grounds Purchased — No Fairs During 
the War— Names of tlie Officers ol the 
Association Each Year— Complete Ac- 
count of the Fair for 1870— Fair of 1871- 
The La*:t Fair of the Association 229 

CHAPTER XII. 
Educational,.— Introductory— Private En- 
terprise— Six Mile Academy— The Wood- 
worth School, of Independence— Mrs. 
Buchanan's School — D. I. Caldwell's 
School — Independence Female Academy 
—Mrs. Bettie T. Tillery's Academy- 
Woodland College- Highland College- 
Independence High School— Independ- 
ence Female College — St. Mary's Semi- 
nary-Public Schools of the County- 
Superintendent's Report in 1866— Jack- 
son County Teachers' Institute— Report 
of the School Commissioner, D. I. Cald- 
well, in 1870 230 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Mormons in Jackson County. — An Au- 
thentic and Impartial History from the 
Foundation of the Church — A Sketch of 
the Life of Joseph Smith, the Prophet — 
The Book of Mormon — The Rapid 
Growth of the Church— They come to 
Jackson County, Missouri, in July, 1831 
— The "Morning and Evening Star" — 
DifHcultles Arising Between the Saints 
and Gentiles — The Saints Assemble for 
Protection— Several Deadly Encounters 
—The Saints driven into Clay County — 
Documentary Evidence of Unlawful 
Violence— The Subseqvieut Action of the 
Mormons in Missouri, and their final 
Expulsion from the State 250 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Incidents of the Wae.— Politics in Jack- 
son County from 1857 to 1860— Missouri 
Men and Families Abused — Colonel 
Henry Younger and John Fristoe — Cole 
Younger's Revolution to Avenge his 
Father's Death — Dr. Lee and the Sum- 
mit, etc. — The County Officers — Two 
Silly Young Men — Captain Quautrell 
and his Men— He Dashes upon the Head- 
quarters of the Troops, and Escapes 
Again — The Community 270 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Jackson County During the War.- Sack- 
ing of the United States Arsenal, at Lib- 
erty — Confederate Camp on Rock Creek 
—Death of Captain Halloway— Confed- 
erates enter Independence in 1861 — Burn- 
ing of Property— Captain Fuller takes 
Independence, and Hangs a Man on the 
Public Square — Quantrell comes into In- 
dependence — Campaign in 1862 — Battle 
of Lone Jack — Fort Pennock — Order 
Number Eleven— Price's March through 
this Section- Organization of the Home 
Guards— The Iron-Clad Oath— Etc., etc.. 277 

CHAPTER XV. 
BiiUE Township.— Organized May 22, 1827— 
At First it Included Land in what is 
Cass and Bates Counties — Present Bound- 
aries and Physical Features — Blue 
Township a Favored Locality— Names 
of the Pioneers — What the Pioneers 
Themselves say of Early Days— The Old- 
est Man in the State— Additional Items 
—Wayne City— Lexington — New Salem 
Church 296 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Fort Osage Township.— Boundaries and 

General Features— The Oldest Township 

in the County— Pioneers of Port Osage 

Township— General Slble.\ — Fort Sibley 



Page. 
—Town of Sibley Laid Out in 1836— First 
Lots Sold — The Town Burned — Great 
Flood— Present Business of Sibley— The 
Town Plat Being Vacated — Buckner — 
Ancient Bed of the River- Business Di- 
rectory of Buckner— Levasy— Lake City. 306 
CHAPTER XVII. 

Sni-a-bae Township.— Geographical Posi- 
tion and Population— The Name— Phys- 
ical Features — Early Settlers — Blue 
Springs— Churches— Business Directory 
— Oak Grove — Incorporation of the Town 
—Business Enterprises— Grain Valley — 
Pink Hill— What Jacob Gregg has to say 
About a J. P.— Incidents by Daniel 
Joyce— The Sni Hill Rangers 312 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Van Bueen Township.— Its Location and 
First Settlement on Big Creek — First 
Entries of Land— First Cabin— First Set- 
tler at Lone Jack— Pioneer Life— Going 
to Mill — Preachers, Preaching, and 
Churches — Lone Jack Church — New 
Liberty Church— Sni Mills' Church— The 
Christian Church- The Methodists— The 
Presbyterians — Schools — Doctors and 
Lawyers— Mails and Newspapers— First 
Township Officers- Lone Jack— Retro- 
spect^The Oldest Man —The OldestWom- 
an— Physical Features 325 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Peaikie Township. — Organization and 
General Features of the Municipal Town- 
ship-Early Settlers of the Township- 
Lee's Summit Laid Out in October, 865, 
by W. B. Howard— Lee's Summit in 1869 
—Incorporation as a City— City Ordi- 
nances-List of City Officers— The Busi- 
ness a'nd Public Enterprises— Churches 
and Schools — Business Directory — 
Greenwood College — Cemetery 341 

CHAPTER XX. 
Westport Township.— Geographical Posi- 
tion — Old Settlers — Westport Formerly a 
Part of Kaw— The Santa Fe Trade, and 
Those Engaged in It — Justices of the 
Peace from 1854 to the Present Time— 
The 'Town of Westport Laid Out— Incor- 
poration — City Charter — City Govern- 
menf^Names of Mayors and Other Offi- 
cers — Churches and Schools — Business 
Directory 350 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Washinoton Township.— Washington 
Township Organized February 9, 1836 — 
The Orders of Court fixing the Bound- 
aries — First Election held at the House 
of Anson McCrackln— The Lost Town- 
ships-Physical Features— Old Settlers — 
Hickman's Mills — New Santa Fe — Lay- 
ing out the Towti — Notes from New San- 
ta Fe— Union Points-Washington Town- 
ship saw much of the Border and Civil 
Wars— A story of Border Warfare 357 

CHAPTER XXII. 
BeookingTownship— The Youngest Town- 
ship in Jackson County — The Order of 
Court Organizing the 'Township, bears 
Date March 13, 1872— The Order Itself— 
First Constable— A Word from Rev. J. J. 
Robinson— Interesting Reminiscences— 
A Letter in the Spring of 1876— West Fork 
Baptist Church— A Farmers' Meeting 367 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Kaw Township. — When Established and 
its Original Extent — The Establishment 
of Washington and Westport Townships 
—The First Settlers and First Officers- 
The First and Second Elections, etc 370 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORY OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Page. 
CHAPTER I. 
Introductory.— How Ancient Cities were . 
Founded and Built— The Considerations 
Determining their Location — American 
Cities, how Located and Built — Western 
Cities — The Importance of Transporta- 
tion Facilities — ^The People who Determ- 
ined their Location, and Why — "Motion 
Follows the Line of Least Resistance."... 374 

CHAPTER II. 
Early Expeditions and Settlements.- 
The Pur Companies — The First Settle- 
ment of Kansas City^ How and Why it 
was Made— In the Wilderness— The En- 
try of the Land — The French Settlement 
and Life Among the French Settlers— 
The Advantages of the Place Recog- 
nized by Others— An Anecdote of Wash- 
ington Irving 376 

CHAPTER III. 
The Great Indian Tradk.— Proposed Re- 
moval of the Indians to the west— The 
Numbers to be Moved— The Removal — 
The New Locations- Effect on Western 
Trade— Founding of Westport, and Con- 
centration of the Trade There 385 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Santa Fe Trade. — Its Origin and 
Character— Its Real Beginning- The Ef- 
fect of Steamboats — It Locates at Inde- 
pendence — Changing to Westport^Char- 
acter and Methods of the Trade— Statis- 
tics to 1838 389 

CHAPTER V. 
The Founding of Kansas City.— The Sit- 
uation in 1838 -The First Ferry — The 
Santa Fe and Indian Trade Tend to Kan- 
sas City— Purchase of the Prudhomme 
Estate for a Town Site— The Survey and 
Sale of 1839— Troubles of the Company 
Retarded the Town— What was Thought 
of It^Its Early Trade— A Description of 
Early Kansas Cit.y— Efforts to Divert the 
Santa Fe Trade— Its Suppression In 184.3— 
Statistics— Situation in 1843— The Great 
Flood of 1844— The Events of 1843 to 1846 
—The Mexican War 395 

CHAPTER VI. 
Kansas City Redivii'us.- Re-organization 
of the Town Company— The First Great 
Sale of Lots — An Interesting Record — 
Bad Titles— Further Surveys and Sales 
—The Company Dissolve— Town Devel- 
opment—The California Emigration — 
The Concentration of the Santa Fe and 
ludian Trades at Kansas City— Cholera 
and its Direful Effects — Municipal Or- 
ganization—The First Newspaper — Re- 
vival After the Cholera 408 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Settlement of Kansas. — The Kan- 
sas-Nebraska Act Preparations by Pro- 
Slavery and Anti-Slavery Parties to 
Occupy Kansas — Early Settlement — 
Kansas City Again Recognized— Devel- 
opment of Kansas — Navigation of the 
Kaw River— The Kansas Troubles— The 
Effect on Kansas City— Col. Coates 421 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Growth of Kansas City Prior to 
the War. — Improvements of Streets 
and Roads— Trade and Steamboats— Ri- 
val Cities— Rapid Growth of Kansas City 
—Stages and Malls— The Commerce of 
the Prairies— The First BanJis, Jobbing 
Houses, and Telegraphs— The First Com- 
mercial Organization- The Panic of 1857 
—The Enlargement of the City 431 



Page 



CHAPTER IX. 



The Inception of our Railroads.— Kan- 
sas City Takes the Lead in Efforts to Se- 
cure Railroad Facilities — Her Efforts 
Start a Fever in Railroad Enterprises In 
Western Missouri and Kansas — The In- 
ception of Her Own System — The Hos- 
tility of Kansas— The First Efforts in Be- 
half of Trans-Continental Railroads- 
Kansas City in the Struggle with Both 
the Slave and Anti-Slave Sections for 
the Road — The Enthusiasm of the Pe- 
riod—Beginning of Railroad Work— The 
Real Founders of Kansas City, Their 
Trials and Triumphs 443 

CHAPTER X. 

Kansas City in the War. — The Excite- 
ment and Events Preceding the Great 
Struggle — The Marshaling of the Hosts 
on Both Sides— Van Horn's Battalion— 
The First Fighting— Bush-whackers and 
Red Legs — The Depression of Trade, and 
its Revival — Resumption of Railroad 
Building— The Great Raid of 1864 466 

CHAPTER XI. 

A Great Bra in Kansas City.— The Close 
of the War — The Resumption of Rail- 
road Construction — Seven Roads and the 
Bridge Completed Before 1870 — Other 
Railroad Enterprises not Finished- Rap- 
id Growth — Schools, and Street Im- 
provements—Population Grown From 
5,000 to 30,000 478 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Progress From 1870 to 1872.— Imjjrove- 
ment and Enlargement of the Railroad 
Facilities— Inception of the Barge Line 
—Water and Gas Works Buill^The Law 
Library— The Barge Line— The Exposi- 
tion, the Board of Trade, and Other Im- 
provements 494 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Progress of 1873 to 1876.— Street Rail- 
roads—Barge Line Agitation— The Panic 
of 1873— Efforts to Get the Indian Terri- 
tory Opened to Settlements-Efforts for 
Transportation Improvements — Free 
Mail Delivery — The Securing of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroads — 
How the Latter was Done — The Grass- 
hopper Plague— The Revision of the City 
Charter — Efforts to Secure a Mint—The 
Re-organizatlou of the Board of Trade, 
and Building of the Exchange Building. 512 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Markets and Packing Houses.— His- 
tory of the Texas Cattle Trade— Its Fi- 
nal Concentration at Kansas City— The 
Growth of the Market and Character of 
the Present Supply— The History of the 
Packing Business — Why It Came to 
Kansas City — Its Statistics— The Grain 
Market, When and How It Started— Its 
Development, and Circuiustances At- 
tending it — Its Present Facilities and 
Magnitude 532 

CHAPTER XV. 

The Progress of Three Years. — The 
Events of 1877 — The Alton Road— The 
Union Dcpol^The Test of Barges on the 

Missouri— The Great Railway Strike 

Bank Suspension — Railway Extension 
Affecting Kansas City.— The United 
States Court House and Post-office, and 
United States Courts— Rapid Growth of 
the City 544 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
CHAPTER XVI. 
The Events of 1880 to 1881.— The Establish- 
ment of the Smelting "Works— The Barge 
Company Organized — The Missouri Riv- 
er Improvement Convention — The Mis- 
souri River Improvement Association 
Formed — Street Improvements — Col. 
Van Horn's Election to Congress— Rail- 
way Construction and Railway Changes 
—The Great Flood of 1881— The Growth 
of the City — Statistical Exhibit of the 
City's History 557 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Social Development of Kansas City.— 
The History of the Press— Social Socie- 
tles— Masons— Odd Fellows— Knights of 
Pythias — Other Secret Orders — The 
Churches, Schools, and Other Social In- 
stitutions 573 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Kansas City — "Why She is and "What 
She is. — A Summary of the Facts of 
Her History — The Facts that Caused 
Her Growth — Her Markets, Her Rail- 
road System, and Fast Freight Lines- 
Steamship Agencies — The New "West 
and Its Resources 612 

HiSTOKY OF Independence.— Introductory 
Names of Early Settlers Given Under 
Blue Township— County Seat Located 
In 1827— Additions to the Town of Inde- 



Page, 
pendence— Sale of Lots— First Instru- 
ment of Record— The First Court^Gold 
Excitement— The First Court House- 
Jails and Sheriffs— Business of the City- 
Banking, Etc.— Streets and Boulevards 
— Beautiful S c e n e r y — Incorporation- 
Names of Mayors — Religious History — 
Joab Powell— Baptists— M. E. Church, 
South— Christian Church— Old School 
Presbyterians— M. E. Church— Cumber- 
land Presbyterians— Old School Baptists 
— Latter Day Saints— Catholic Church— 
The Cemetery— Colleges and Schools- 
Secret Societies— Business Directory— 
"Wavne City Bluff— The Finest Mansion 
in Jackson County 633 

HiSTOEY OF "Wyandott, KANSAS.— The City 
—The Organization of Kansas Territory- 
Constitution of the State— The First Set- 
tlements in "Wyandott— Great Flood of 
1844^Electlon in 1852— First Churches 
and Schools— Organization of "Wyandott 
County in 1859— First Railroad in Kansas 
-Early Elections at "Wyandott— Com- 
plete Roster of County Officials — Statis- 
tical-Financial Report— Early History 
of Wyandott and Qulndaro— Incorpo- 
ration of the City— Complete Roster of 
City Officials- Church History— History 
of Secret Societies— "Wyandott the Me- 
tropolis of Kansas- Newspapers 668 

Additional HisTOKY OP Lee's Summit 947 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



"Wyandott, Kansas 713 

Kansas City 734 

independence 868 

Blue Township 884 

Fort Osage Township 899 

Sni-a-bak Township 811 

Van BuREN Tq"wnship 930 



Lee's Summit 948 

Prairie Township 957 

"Washington Township 977 

Brooking Township 988 

"Wbstport Township 994 

Kaw Township 1004 



CoL. R. T. Van Horn ; 

Col. Theo. S. Case 689 

Ed. H. "Webster 721 

"Wm. B. Grimes 753 



LITHOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS. 

; 657 



Dr. G. S. Todd 

Chas. D. Lucas 

Isaac M. Ridge 

Gen. W. H. Morgan., 



785 

. 807 

817 




INDEPENDENCE FEMALE COLLEGE. 



History of Missouei. 



CHAPTER I. 
LOUISIANA PURCHASE 

BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



The purchase of the vast territory, west of the Mississippi River, by *he. 
United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific coast and south to the 
Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most important event that ever occurred in 
the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Republic, additional room for that expansion and stupendous 
growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it strong and enduring, 
and forms the seat of an empire, from which will radiate an influence for good 
unequaled in the annals of time. In 1763, one hundred and eighteen years ago, 
the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, was ceded to 
Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of St. Ildefonso, concluded in 
1800, Spain ceded it back to France. Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island 
of St. Domingo, not only because of the value of its products, but more especially 
because its location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field, whence he could the more effectively guard his newly acquired 
possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain should be kept a profound 
secret until he succeeded in reducing St. Domingo to submission. In this under- 
taking, however, his hopes were blasted, and so great was his disappointment, that 
he apparently became indifferent to the advantages to be derived to France from 
his purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 lie sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the people of 
Louisiana the first intimation that they had had, that they had once more become 
the subjects of France. This was the occasion of great rejoicing among the inhabi- 
tants, who were Frenchmen in their origin, habits, manners and customs. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the IJnited States, on being informed of the 
retrocession, immediately dispatched instructions to Robert Livingston, the 
American Minister at Paris, to make known to Napoleon that the occupancy of 
New Orleans, by his government, would not only endanger the friendly relations 
existing between the two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make 
common cause with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy ; as the 
possession of the city by France, would give her command of the Mississippi, 
which was the only outlet for the produce of the Western States, and give her also 



10 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

control of the Gulf of Mexico, so necessary to the protection of American 
commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy 
of New Orleans, by France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the 
two nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he urged Mr. 
Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi, but to 
negotiate for the purchase of the city and the surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the United 
States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full power, to act in con- 
junction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all emergencies, and prompt in the 
Cabinet, as well as in the field. Napoleon came to the conclusion that, as he 
could not well defend his occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on 
the best terms possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he' 
summoned two of his Ministers, and addressed them as follows : 

" I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish to repair 
the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 176-5. I have scarcely 
recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; but if I am obliged to give it up, it 
shall hereafter cost more to those who force me to part with it, than to those to 
whom I shall yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern 
possessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am determined 
that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although Louisiana is but a trifle com- 
pared to their vast possessions in other parts of the globe, yet, judging from the 
vexation they have manifested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am 
certain that their first object wi be to gain possession of it. They will probably 
commence the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in the Gulf of 
Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily getting worse since the death of 
LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might be easily made, and I have not a 
moment to lose in getting it out of their reach. I am not sure but that they 
have already begun an attack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance 
with their habits ; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the United States. 
Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not yet possess it ; and if I wait 
but a short time my enemies may leave me nothing but an empty title to grant to 
the Republic I wish to conciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I 
believe that in the hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political 
and even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain it. 
Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but the other 
opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed by them, before the 
conference was ended. The next day, Napoleon sent for the Minister, who had 
agreed with him, and said to him: "The season for deliberation is over. I 
have determined to renounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, 
but the whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louisiana, 
I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with Spain was to 
recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am convinced it would be folly 
to persist in trying to keep it I commission you, therefore, to negotiate this affair 
with the envoys of the United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr Monroe, but 
go this very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that I 
need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to commence it by 
levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain have incurred great 
expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for which her trade has never indemnified 
them. Large sums have been advanced to different companies, which have never 
been returned to the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory to the United 
States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged to part with it, I shall be 
moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I must have fifty millions of francs, and 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 11 

1 will not consent to take less. I would rather make some desperate effort to 
preserve this fine country." 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris on the 
1 2th of April, and the two representatives of the United States, after holding a 
private interview, announced that they were ready to treat for the entire territory. 
On the3othof April, 1803, eighteendays afterward, the treaty was signed, and on the 

2 ist of October, of the same year, congress ratified the treaty. The United States 
were to pay $11,250,000, and her citizens to be compensated for some illegal cap- 
tures, to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of $15,000,- 
000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of France and Spain 
should be admitted into all the ports of Louisiana free of duty for twelve years. 
Bonaparte stipulated in favor of Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, 
incorporated into the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and the clause 
giving to them these benefits, was drawn up by Bonaparte, who presented it to the 
plenipotentiaries with these words: "Make it known to the people of Louisiana, 
that we regret to part with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages 
they could desire ; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any European govern- 
ment as they will when they become independent. But while they enjoy the priv- 
ileges of liberty let them remember that they are French, and preserve for their 
mother country that affection which a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the treaty. 
Mr. Livingston said : "I consider that from this day the United States takes rank 
with the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the power 
of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when he said: "By 
this cession of territory I have secured the power of the United States, and given 
to England a maritime rival, who, at some future time, will humble her pride." 
These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the British met with 
a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of which the great Corsican 
had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when it was pur- 
chased by the United States, no change had been made by the French authorities 
in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower Louisiana, and during this period 
the Spanish laws remained in full force, as the laws of the entire province ; a fact 
which is of interest to those who would understand the legal history and some of 
the present laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who were jointly 
commissioned to take possession of the territory for the United States, arrived in 
the city of New Orleans at the head of the American forces. Laussat, who had 
taken possession but twenty days previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up 
his command, and the star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of 
France. The agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the United States 
service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on the 9th of March, 1804, by 
Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant, and on the following day he 
transferred it to the United States. The authority of the United States in Mis- 
souri dates from this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi Valley be- 
came identified. They were troubled no more with the uncertainties of free navi- 
gation. The great river, along whose banks they had planted their towns and vil- 
lages, now afforded them a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Un- 
der the protecting aegis of a government. Republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the diversified 
climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for fertility, beauty of 



12 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every incentive to push on their enter 
prises and build up the land wherein their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great em lire had been se- 
cured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to corns, but of its 
grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources and the important relations it 
would sustain to the nation and the world were never dreamed of by even Mr. 
Jefferson and his adroit and accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress, which 
would mark the history of the "Great West." The adventurous pioneer, who 
fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, or threaded the dark laby- 
rinths of its lonely forests, little thought, that a mighty tide of physical and in 
tellectual strength, would so rapidly flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build 
up and enrich the domain which he had conqaered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until at length 
the mountains, the plains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks and the 
caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

" I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded Nations. 
All the land was full of people, 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes. 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys ; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act, passed in April of the same year, divided 
Louisiana into two parts, the "Territory of Orleans," and the "District of 
Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana" This district, included all that por- 
tion of the old province, north of "Hope Encampment," on the Lower Missis- 
sippi, and embraced the present State of Missouri, and all the western region of 
country to the Pacific Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north lati- 
tude not claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was placed 
within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of Indiana, and its 
government put in motion, by Gen. WiUiam H. Harrison, then governor of 
Indiana. In this, he was assisted by Judges Griffin, Vanderberg and Davis, 
who established in St. Louis, what were called. Courts of Common Pleas. The 
District of Louisiana, was regularly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by 
Congress, March 3d, 1805, and President Jefferson, appointed Gen. James 
Wilkinson, Governor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the 
Territory, was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs, and John 
B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded by Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of his having made the expe- 
dition with Clark. Governor Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President 
Madison, appointed Gen. Benjamin Howard, of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his 
place. Gen. Howard resigned October 25, i8io, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and Clark's 
expedition, was appointed Governor in 1810, to succeed Gen. Howard, and 
remained in office, until the admission of the State into the Union. 

The portions of Missouri, which were settled, for the purposes of local 
government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau was the first, and 
embraced the territory, between Tywappity Bottom and Apple Creek. Ste. 
Genevieve, the second, embraced the territory from Apple Creek to the Meramec 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. . 13 

River. St. Louis, the third, embraced the territory between the Meramec and 
Missouri Rivers. St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between 
the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these districts at 
that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of the district of Louis- 
iana, when ceded to the United States was 10,120. 



CHAPTER IT. 
DESCRIPTIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL. 

Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies— Soils — Populati^ti by Counties. 

NAME. 

The name Missouri, is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies muddy. 

EXTENT. 

Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is separated for 
about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines River), and on the east 
by the Mississippi River, which divides it from Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and on the west by the Indian Territory, and by the states of Kansas and Nebraska. 
The state lies (with the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis 
and the Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36°), between 36° 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from Washington. 

The extreme width of the state east and west, is about 348 miles ; its width 
on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast corner along the Iowa 
line, to its intersection with the Des Moines River, is about 210 miles ; its width 
on its southern boundary is about 288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the state north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It is about 
450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast corner, and from the 
northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is about 230 miles. These limits 
embrace an area of 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as 
large as England, and the states of Vermont and New Hampshire. 

SURFACE. 

North of the Missouri, the state is level or undulating, while the portion 
south of that river (the larger portion of the state) exhibits a greater variety of 
surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive marsh, reaching beyond the 
state into Arkansas. The remainder of this portion between the Mississippi and 
Osage Rivers is rolling, and gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, 
forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast expanse of 
prairie land which stretches away toward the Rocky Mountains. The ridges 
ibrming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and southwest direction, separat- 
ing the waters that flow northeast into the Missouri from those that flow southeast 
into the Mississippi River. 

RIVERS. 

No state in the Union enjoys better facilities, for navigation than Missouri. 
&y means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along her entire eastern 
boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with the most northern territory 



14 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



and state in the Union ; with the whole valley of the Ohio ; with many of the 
Atlantic States, and with the Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 

The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 

On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm ; 

Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued, 

Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 

To hide its terrors in a sea of gloom ; 

The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow, 

The fount of fable and the source of song ; 

The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 

'Ihe loving sky seems wedded with the wave ; 

The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils, 

A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms ; 

And Thames that bears the riches of the world ; 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolhng proudly on, 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky Mountains, 
and receive in return the products which will come in the course of time, by its 
multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest Hne of the State for about 250 miles, 
following its windings, and then flows through the State, a little south of east, to 
its junction with the Mississippi. The Missouri River receives a number of trib- 
utaries within the limits of the State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, 
Platte, Loutre and Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Grand, Osage 
and Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Mississippi within 
the State, are the S ilt River, north, and the Maramec River south, of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain the southeastern 
part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The Osage is navigable for steamboats 
for more than 275 miles. There are a vast number of smaller streams, such as 
creeks, branches and rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of ancient 
Lebanon, nor more precious in their utility were the almUng-trees of Ophir, than 
the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms are covered with a luxuriant 
growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cottonwood, linn, white and black walnut, and 
m fact, all the varieties found in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more 
barren districts may be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense 
growth of pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and salubrious. 
Like that of North America, it is changeable, and subject to sudden and sometimes 
extreme changes of heat and cold ; but it is decidedly milder, taking the whole 
year through, than that of the same latitudes east of the mountains. While the 
summers are not more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on 
and near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, except 
during the month of February, which has many days of pleasant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it north and 
northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the water courses, abound 
with the thickest and most luxurious belts of timber, while the " rolling " prairies 1 
occupy the higher portions of the country, the descent generally to the forests or 
bottom lands being over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, ex- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 15 

hibit a gracefully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded_ outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal surface and the 
interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or two in- 
stances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the spring and summer 
they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and gaily bedecked with flowers of 
various forms and hues, making a most fascinating panorama of ever changing 
color and loveliness. To fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they 
must be seen. 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri- is good, and of great agricultural capabilities, but 
che most fertile portions of the State are the river bottoms, which are a rich allu- 
vium, mixed in many cases with sand, the producing qualities of which are not 
excelled by the prolific valley of the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but much of it 
is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts there are rich valleys, 
.and about the sources of the White, Eleven Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, 
the soil, though unproductive, furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a system of 
drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 

POPULATION BY COUNTIES IN 1870, 1876, 1880. 

1870. 1876. 1880. 

Adair ii,449 13.774 i5>i90 

Andtew 15. ^37 i4,992 '6,318 

Atchison 8,440 10,925 14,565 

Audrain 12,307 i5,iS7 i9,739 

Barry 10,373 11,146 14,4^4 

Barton 5,087 6,900 , 10,332 

Bates 15,960 17,484 25,382 

Benton 11,322 11,027 12,398 

Bollinger 8,163 8,884 11,132 

Boone . 20,765 31,923 25,424 

Buchanan 35,109 38,165 49,824 

Butler 4,298 4,363 6,011 

Caldwell 11,390 12,200 13 654 

Callaway 19,202 25,257 23,670 

Camden 6,108 7,027 7,269 

Cape Girardeau 17,558 17,891 20,998 

Carroll 17,44° 21,498 23.300 

Carter i,44o i,549 2,168 

Cass 19,299 18,069 22,431 

Cedar 9,471 9,897 10,747 

Chariton 19,136 23,394 25,224 

Christian 6,707 7,936 9,632 

Clark 13,667 14,549 15,631 

Clay • 15,564 15.320 15.579 

Clinton 14,063 13,698 16,073 

Cole 10,292 14,122 15,519 

Cooper 20,692 21,356 21,622 

Crawford 7,982 9,391 10,763 

Oade 8,683 11,089 12,557 

AJlas 8,383 8,073 9,272 

Daviess i4,4io i6,557 19>174 

DeKalb 9,858 ii,iS9 13.343 

Dent 6,357 7.4oi 10,647 



16 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Douglas 3,915 

Dunklin 5,982 

Franklin 30,098 

Gasconade 10,093 

Gentry 11,607 

Greene 2r,549 

Grundy 10,567 

Harrison 14 63s 

Henry 17,401 

Hickory 6,452 

Holt 11,652 

Howard 17,233 

Howell 4,218 

Iron 6,278 

Jackson 55, 041 

Jasper 14,928 

Jefferson 15,380 

Johnson 24,648 

Knox 10,974 

Laclede . ' 9,380 

Lafayette 22,624 

Lawrence 13 ©67 

Lewis 15,114 

Lincoln 15,960 

Linn 15,906 

Livingston 16,730 

McDonald 5,226 

Macon 23,230 

Madison 5,849 

Maries 5,9 '6 

Marion 23,780 

Mercer ii,5S7 

Miller 6,616 

Mississippi 4,982 

Moniteau 13, 375 

Monroe 17,149 

Montgomery 10,405 

Morgan 8,434 

New Madrid 6,357 

Newton i2,82r 

Nodaway 14,751 

Oregon 3,287 

Osage 10,793 

Ozark 3,363 

Pemiscot 2,059 

Perry 9,877 

Pettis 18,706 

Phelps 10,506 

Pike • 23,076 

Platte. , , 17,352 

Polk 14,445 

Pulaski 4,714 

Putnam 11,217 

Ralls 10,510 

Randolph 15,908 



6,461 


7,753 


6,25.') 


9,604 


26,924 


26,536 


11,160 


11,153 


12,673 


17,188 


24,693 


28,817 


13,071 


i5,2or 


18,530 


20,318 


18,465 


23,914 


5,87° 


7,38^ 


13,245 


15,51" 


17,815 


i8,42JJ 


6,756 


8,8m 


6,623 


8. 1 S3 


54,04s 


82,328 


29,384 


32,021. 


16,186 


18,736 


23,646 


28,177 


12,678 


13,047 


9,845 


11,524 


22,204 


25,761 


13,054 


17,585 


16,360 


15,925 


16,858 


17,443 


18,1 10 


20,016 


18 074 


20,205 


6,072 


7,816 


25,028 


26,223 


8,750 


8 806 


6,481 


7,304 


22,794 


24,837 


13.393 


14,674 


8,529 


9,8c7 


7,498 


9,270 


13,084 


14,349 


17,751 


19,07s 


14,418 


16,250 


9,529 


10,134 


6,673 


7,694 


16,87s 


18,948 


a3,i96 


29,560 


4,469 


5,791 


11,200 


11,824 


4-579 


5,618 


3,573 


4,299 


11,189 


11,895 


23,167 


27,285 


9,919 


12,565 


22,828 


26,716 


15,948 


17.372 


13,467 


15,74s 


6,157 


7,250 


12,641 


13,556 


9,997 


11,838 


19,173. 


22,751 



18 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Ray 18,700 18,394 20.196 

Reynolds 3>7S6 4,7i6 5-722 

Ripley 3,175 3.913 5.377 

St. Charles 21.304 21.821 23,060 

St. Clair 6,742 11,242 14,126 

St. Francois 9.742 11,621 13,822 

Ste. Genevieve 8.384 9.409 i°.309 

St. Louis* 351.189 • • • 31.888 

:,aline 21,672 27,087 29,912 

Schuyler 8,820 9.881 10,470 

Scotland 10,670 12,030 12,507 

Scott 7.317 7,312 8,587 

Shannon 2,339 3,236 3,441 

Shelby 10,119 13.243 14,024 

Stoddard 8,535 10,888 13,432 

Stone ■ 3.253 3.544 4,4o5 

Sullivan 11,907 14,039 16,569 

Taney 4.407 6,124 5,605 

Texas 9.618 10,287 12,207 

Vernon 11,247 I4,4i3 i9.37o 

Warren 9.673 10,321 10,806 

Washington • ii,7i9 13,100 12,895 

Wayne 6,068 7,006 9,097 

Webster io,434 10,684 12,175 

Worth 5,004 7,164 8,208 

Wright 5. 684 6,124 9,733 

City of St. Louis • • • 35°,522 

"o 1,721,295 1,547,030 2,168,804 

Males 1,127,424 

Females 1,041,380 

Native i, 957, 564 

Foreign 211,240 

White 2,023,568 

Coloredf 1 HS- 236 



CHAPTER IFL 
GEOLOGY OF MISSOURL 

Classification of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Cartoniferous— Devonian 
— Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — Copper — Zinc — Building Stone 
Marble — Gypsum — Lim^ — Clays — Paints — Springs — Water Power, 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. G. C. 
Swallow, belong to the following divisions : I. Quatenary ; II. Tertiary ; III. 
Cretaceous ; IV. Carboniferous ; V. Devonian ; VI. Silurian , VII. Azoic. 

"The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most valuable to 
man : valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

* St. Louis city and county separated in 1877. Population for 1876 not given, 
t Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 19 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 feet 
thick ; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick ; Bluff, 200 feet thick ; and Drift, 155 feet 
thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute the Alluvium, and includes 
the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegetable mold, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Missouri, of more 
than four millions acres of land, which are not surpassed for fertility by any 
region of country on the globe. 

The Bluif Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are washed 
by the two great rivers which ci)urse our eastern and western boundaries, and 
while it is only about half as extensive as the Alluvial, it is equally as rich and 
productive." 

" The Bluff formation," says Prof Swallow, "rests upon the ridges and river 
bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest valleys, the formation cap- 
ping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the 
Mississippi from Dubuque to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum 
beneath the soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Mississippi counties 
on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River from the 
Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet thick. At St. Joseph it 
is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, in St. George's quarry, and the Big 
Mour.d, it is about 50 feet ; while its greatest observed thickness in Marion 
county was only 30 feet." 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, having, as 
Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to-wit : "Altered Drift, which 
are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the banks of the Missouri, in the north- 
western portion of the state. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel and 
boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which pebbles 
are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some localities in northern 
Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe-clay color." /-\ 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, saiy ^^e, and 
sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, reachinsr • \:om- 
merce, Scott county, to Stoddard, and south to the Chalk Bluffs in / '0-<^. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is/ '^^^os,eA of 
variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish-brown imp' ic sandstone, 
fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, purple, red and blue iiays, all being 
in the aggregate, 158 feet in thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and 
nothing by which their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or coal- 
measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. The coal- 
measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, limestones, shales, clays, 
marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds of iron, 
embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The varieties of coal found 
in the State are the common bituminous and cannal coals, and they exist in 
■quantities inexhaustible. The fact that these coal measures are full of fossils, 
which are always confined to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point 
them out, and the coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color, and are 
quarried in many different parts of the State, being extensively utilized for build- 
ing and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archimedes 
Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Middle Archimedes, 50 



20 HJSTORY OF MI.SOURI. 

feet; St. Louis Limtstorie, 250 feet; Oolitic Limestone, 25 feet; Lower Archi- 
medes Limestone, 350 feet ; and Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These lime- 
stones generally contain fossils. 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard and du- 
rable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and is found skirting the 
eastern coal measures from the mouth of the Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. It is 
found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing rocks of 
Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of Carbonifer- 
ous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and white. In these strata are 
found the remains of corals and mollusks. This formation extends from Marion 
county to Greene .county. The Devonian system contains: Chemung Group, 
Hamilton Group, Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline and St. Gene- 
vieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 feet; Ver- 
micular sandstone and shales, 75 feet; Lithographic limestone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, and when 
first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building purposes but makes an ex- 
cellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish brown, and 
perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-textured lime- 
stone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. It is called "pot met- 
al," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, ringing sound. It has but few 
fossils. 

The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 170 feet 
of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, thick-bedded 
and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri pres,ents such variable and wide 
ly different lithological characters as the Onondaga. 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : Lower Hel- 
derburg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet; Cape Girardeau limestone, 60 feet. 

Tl-.e Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray and reddish cherty and ar- 
gillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The upper part of this group consists of red, yellow and ash- 
colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated with bands and nodules of 
chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, 
is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth fractures in layers from 
two to six inches in thickness, with argillaceous partings. "These strata contain a 
great many <ossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to-wit : Hudson River 
Group, 220 feet; Trenton limestone, 360 feet; Black River and Bird's Eye lime- 
stone, 175 feet; first Magnesian limestone, 200 feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 
feet; second Magnesian limestone, 250 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third 
Magnesian limestone, 350 feet ; third sandstone, 60 feet ; fourth Magnesian lime- 
stone, 350 feet. 

Hudson River Group: — There are three formations which Prof. Swallow re- 
fers to in this group. These formations are found in the bluff above and below 
Louisiana; on the Grassy a few miles northwest of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, 
Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve Counties. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 21 

Tretiton limestone : — The upper part of this formation is made up of thick 
beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, variegated with irregular 
cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of Salt 
River, and near Glencoe, St. Louii county, and are 75 feet thick. 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton lime- 
stone. 

The first Magnesian limestone cap the pictilresque bluffs of the Osage in Ben- 
ton and neighboring counties. « 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the state. In a bluff about 
two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thickness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the first. 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish-brown, sometimes becomes a pure 
white, fine-grained, soft, sandstone as on Cedar Creek, in Washington and Frank- 
lin counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque bluffs 
of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryces' Spring. 

The third sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesian limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage Rivers. 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious and other 
slates which contain no remains of organic life. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State in the 
Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of the past— long 
before the existence of man, nature, by a wise process, made a bountiful provis- 
ion, for the time, when in the order of things, it should be necessary for civilized 
man — to take possession of these broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack 
of forests, she quietly stored away beneath the soil, those wonderful carbDniferous 
treasures for the use of man. 

Geological surveys, have developed the fact, that the coal deposits in the 
State, are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best bituminous coal. 
The southeast boundary of the State, has been ascertained, to be one continuous 
coal field, stretching from the mouth of the Des Moines River, through Clark, 
Lewis, Scotland, Adair, Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, 
Cooper, Pettis, Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton, 
and Jasper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of this 
line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Montgomery, Warren, 
St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford, and Lincoln, and during the 
past few years, all along the lines of all the railroads in north Missouri, and along 
the western end of the Missouri Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between 
Kansas City and Sioux City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds ol 
mines in different localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the south- 
western boundary of the State alone, embrace more than 26,000 square miles, ol 
regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the average be one 
foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the developments already made, 
in the different portions of the State, will give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal, to the State; its influence in domestic 
life ; in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond the imagination of 
man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the possession of her developed, and 
undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a motive power, which in its influences 
for good, in the civilization of man, is more potent than the gold of Cahfornia. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals, which increase the power and pros- 
perity of a Nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inexhaustible quantity, 
and like her coal fields, it has been developed in many portions of the State, 



22 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



and of the best and purest quality. It is found in great abundance in the coun- 
ties of Cooper, St. Clair, Green, Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, 
Stone, Madison, Iron, Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, 
Scott, Dent and others. The greatest deposit of iron, is found in the Iron 
Mountain, which is two hundred feet high, and covers an area of five hundred 
acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to contain from 65 to 
69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mount&in contains from 64 to 67 per cent of metallic 
iron. The ore of Pilot inob, contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron, are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at Russell 
Mountain. This ore has in its nude state, a variety of colors, from the red, 
dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The red ores are found in 21 or 
more counties of the State, and are of great commercial value. The brown 
hematite iron ores, extend over a greater range of country, than all the others 
combined; embracing about 100 counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Missouri, by 
the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the state, at two or three points on 
the Mississippi. At this time more than five hundred mines are opened, and 
many of them are being successfully worked. These deposits of lead cover an 
area, so far as, developed, of more than 7,000 square miles. Mines have been 
opened in Jefferson, Washinsfton, St. Francis, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Reynolds, 
Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Camden, Morgan and 
many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in Missouri. The 
copper mines of Shannon, Madison, and Franklin counties have been known for 
j'ears, and Some of these have been successfully worked, and are now yielding 
good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, Maries, 
Green, Lawrence. Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds, and Wright counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern part of the 
state, and since the completion of the A. fir P. R. R. a market has been furnished 
for this ore, which will be converted into valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building stone in 
Missouri. Limestone, sandstone, and granite exist in all shades of buff, blue, red, 
and brown, and are of great beauty as building material. 

There are many marble beds in the state, some of which furnish very beauti- 
ful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, St. Louis, and other 
counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3d Magnesian 
limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, silico-magnesian lime- 
stone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blossom, and clouded by deep flesh- 
colored shades. In ornamental architecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have been discovered 
in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white crystalline variety on the lifie of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kansas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists 
Iso in several other localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures to the 
fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure carbonate of pure 
lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State suitable for 
making bricks. Potters' clay, and fire-clay are worked in many localities. 

There .are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which possess the 
properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yellow and red ochres are 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 23 

found in considerable quantities on the Missouri River. * Some of these paints have 
been thoroughly tested and found fire-proof and durable. 

SPRINGS AND WATER POWER. 

No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water than 
Missouri. Out of the bottoms there is scarcely a section of land but has one or 
more perennial springs of good water. Even where there are no springs good 
water can be obtained by digging from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are 
abundant in the central part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, 
Saline, Howard, and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper 
and Howard counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. ' The Chouteau 
springs in Cooper, the Monagaw springs in St. Clair, the Elk springs in Pike, and 
the Cheltenham springs in St. Louis county have acquired considerable reputation 
as salubrious waters, and have become popular places of resort. Many other 
counties have good sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet springs on the Blackwater, and the 
Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, the most popular of the 
kind in the State. There are, however, other springs impregnated with some of 
the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, Lafayette, 
Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called lubricating oil is the more 
common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are particularly 
abundant on the waters of the Maramec, Gasconade, Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, 
Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. Besides these, there are hundreds of 
springs sufficiently large to drive mills and factories, arid the day is not far distant 
when these crystal fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz lo 
their dashing music. 



CHAPTER IV. 
TITLE AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain— Cession to the United 
States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settlement— Ste, Genevieve and 
New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — 
New Madiid — St. Francois County — Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — " Boon's Lick " — 
Cote Sans Dessein — Howard County — Some First Things^Counties — When Organized, 

The title to the soil of Missouri, was, of couf-se, primarily vested in the 
original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery by the whites. 
But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few rights that civilized nations 
considered themselves bound to respect, so when they found this country in 
the possession of such a people, they claimed it in the name of the King of 
France, by the right of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until r763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America, was divided 
between France, England, Spain, and Russia. France held all that portion th;t 
now constitutes our national domain west of the Mississippi River, except Texaf, 
and the territory which we have obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast 



24 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

^region, while under the juTisdiction of France, was known as the " Province of 
Louisiana," and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
"Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the continent, and 
Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the Mississippi River, 
while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions northward, having obtained 
'hat territory by conquest, in the war with France. For thirty seven years the 
lerritory now embraced within the limits of Missouri, remained as a part of the 
possession of Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October ist, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the United 
States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the liquidation of certain 
claims, held byjcitizens of the United States against France, which aniounted to 
the further sum of $3,750,000, making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be 
seen that France has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory 
embracing Missouri, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our government 
an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, authorizing 
the President to take possession of the newly acquired territory, and provided 
for it, a temporary government, and another act approved March 26th, 1804, 
authorized the division of the "Louisiana Purchase," as it was then called, into 
two separate territories. All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north 
latitude, was called the " Territory of Orleans,'' and that north of the said 
parallel was known as the "District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as " Indiana Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the " District of 
Louisiana," was organized as the "Territory of Louisiana," with a territorial 
government of its own, which went into operation July 4th, of the same year, 
and it so remained till 1812. In this year the "Territory of Orleans," became 
the State of Louisiana, and the " Territory of Louisiana," was organized as the 
" Territory of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 4th, 181 2. 
In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as " Arkansaw Territory," and 
in 182 1, the State of Missouri was admitted, being a part of the former " Terri- 
tory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the " Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian Territory, 
and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, Buchanan, Holt, Noda- 
way, and Platte, was made by treaty with the Indians, and added to the State, 
It will be seen then, that the soil of Missouri belonged : 

I St. — To France with other territory. 

2d. — In 1768, with other territory it was ceded to Spain. 

3d. — October ist, i8oo, it was ceded with other territory from Spain, back 
to France. 

4th. — April 30t 1, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by France, to the 
United States. 

5th. — October 31, iSos, a temporary government was authorized by Con 
gress, for the newly acquired territory. 

6th. — October i, 1804, it was included in the " District of Louisia?ia," and 
placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7th. — July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the "Territory of Louisiana," 
then organized with a separate territorial government. 

8th. — June 4, 181 2, it was embraced in what was then made the " Territory 
of Missouri." 

9th. — August 10, 182 1, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

loth. — In 1836, the " Platte Purchase" was made, adding more territory to 
the State. 

The cession by France April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United States, 



26 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly the policy of the 
government to recognize. Before the government of the United States could vest 
clear title to the soil in the grantee it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title 
by purchase. This was done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians, at 
different times. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now embracec* 
in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at what precise period the 
first settlements were made. It is, however, generally agreed that they were made 
at Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of these settle- 
ments in the autumn of 1735. These towns were settled by the French from 
Kaskaskia and St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Lignest, on the isth of February, 
1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the members of the company 
of Laclede Lignest, Antoino Maxant & Co. , to whom a royal charter had been 
granted, confirming the privilege of an exclusive trade with the Indians of the 
Missouri as far north as St. Peter's River. 

Wnile in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far as the 
mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town site of St. Louis. 
After the village had been laid off he named it St. Louis, in honor of Louis XV, 
of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other towns on 
the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely increased by many of the 
Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their peltry trade from the same towns to 
St. Louis. It was incorporated as a town on the 9th day of November, 1809, by 
the court of Common Pleas of the district of St. Louis ; the town trustees being 
Auiuste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F.Cabanne, Wm. C. Carr and Wm. 
Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 1822. The selection of the 
town site on which St. Louis stands was highly judicious, the spot not only being 
healthful and halving the advantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but sur- 
rounded by a beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and is to-day, the 
great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, the Mississippi and their trib- 
utaries, and, with its failroad facilities, it is destined to be the greatest inland city 
of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 1765, by 
Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the mine near the present 
town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was Moses Austin, 
of Virginia, who, in 1873, received by grant from the Spanish government a league 
of land, now known as the " Austin Survey." The grant was made on condition 
that Mr. Austin would establish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a 
palatial residence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little village, which 
was, for many years, known as " Durham Hall." At this point the first shot- 
tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made in Nonh- 
em Missouri was made at or near St. Charles, in St. Charles county, in 1769. 
The narne given to it, and which it retained till 1784, was Les Petites Cotes, signi- 
fying, Little Hills. The town site was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, sur- 
named LeChasseur, who built the first fort in the town and established there a 
military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the old 
French village of Portage des Sioux, was located on the Mississippi, just below 
the mouth of the Illinois river, and at about the same time a Kickapoo village 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 27 

was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. The present town site of New Madrid, 
in New Madrid county, was settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being 
occupied by Delaware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St. 
Francois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater, and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following year, a 
settlement was made in the same county, just below the present town of Farm- 
ington, by the Rev. Wm. Murphy, a Baptist minister from East Tennessee. In 
1796, settlements were made in Perry county by emigrants from Kentucky and 
Pennsylvania; the latter locating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the 
former generally settling in the " Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, 111., was settled August 
6th, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant from the commandant 
under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and Charleston, in the same county, 
were settled respectively in 1800 and 1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. 
Loutre Island, below the present town of Herman, in the Missouri River was 
settled by a few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers 
suffered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving and 
blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character could be 
related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel Boone, sons of the great hunter and pioneer, in 
company with three others went from St. Louis to " Boone's Lick," in Howard 
county, where they manufactured salt, and formed the nucleus of a small 
settlement. 

Cote Sans Desseiu, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, in 
Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little town was 
considered at that time, as the "Far West" of the new world. During the war 
of 181 2, at this place many hard-fought battles occurred between the whites and 
Indians, wherein woman's fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defense 
of the settlement. 

In 18 10, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty families 
immigrated to Howard county, and settled in the Missouri River bottom, near the 
present town of Franklin. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of Missouri, 
covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along the banks 
of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them transportation for their 
marketable commodities, and communication with the civilized portion of the 
country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did by the 
river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by whom they were for 
many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the Territory, 
have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improvements of their 
descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared, and died, are seen the 
comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and thrifty city. Churches and school 
houses greet the eye on every hand ; railroads diverge in every direction, and, 
indeed, all the appliances of a higher civilization, are profusely strewn over the 
smiling surface of the State. 

Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land ; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene. 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 



28 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



SOME FIRST THINGS. 



The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic), was erected in 1775, at St. Louis. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. Louis. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis, {Missouri Gazette), in 1808. 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus Easton, post- 
ma,ster. 

The first Protestant church erected at St. Genevieve, in 1806 — Baptist. 

The first bank established, (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 1811, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, Capt. 
Jacob Ried; landed at St. Louis 1817. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 181 7, St. Louis. 

The first college built, (St. Louis College), in 1817. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as Franklin was 
the Independence, in 181 9; Capt. Nelson, master. 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 1847, 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 



CHAPTER V. 
TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION. 

Organization iSiz — Council— House of Representatives — Wm. Clark first Territorial Governor 

Edward Hempstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants — First General Assembly — Proceedings^ 

Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population of Territory — Vole of Territory Rufus Easton — 

Absent Members — Third Assembly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 181 2, with a Governor 
and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Rep- 
resentatives exercised the Legislative power of the Territory, the Governor's 
vetoing power being absolute. 

The Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose tenure of 
office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by the House of Rep- 
resentatives to the President of the United States, from whom he selected with 
the approval of the Senate, nine Councillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every two years 
by the people, the basis of representation being one member for every five 
hundred white males. The first House of Representatives consisted of thirteen 
members, and, by Act of Congress, the whole number of Representatives could 
not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and Inferior 
Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court having three Judges 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 29 

whose term of office continued four years, having original and appellate jurisdiction 
in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor Clark issued 
a proclamation, October ist, 1812, required by Congress, reorganizing the districts 
of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into 
five counties, and fixed the second Monday in November following, for the 
election of a delegate to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of 
Representatives. 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first Territorial 
Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 1813. 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Mathew Lyon 
were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 

Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Delegate to Con- 
gress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a second, and was instrumental 
in having Congress to pass the act of June 13, 1812, which he introduced, con- 
firming the title to lands which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish 
grants. The same act confirmed to the people "for the support of schools," the 
title to village lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held and enjoyed by 
them, at the time of the cession in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 181 2, the first General Assembly held its Session 
in the house of Joseph Robidoux, on the 7th of December, 1812. The names of 
the members of the House were : 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, and Richard 
Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac McGready. 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the oath of 
office. William C. Carr was elected Speaker, and Andrew Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen persons from 
whom the President of the United Spates, with the Senate, was to select nine for 
the Council. From this number the President chose the following; 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr. , and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, was 
announced by Fredrick Bates, Secretary, and Acting-Governor of the Territory, 
by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first Monday in July following, as 
the time for the meeting of the Legislature. 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by William 
Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the Acting-Governor's 
proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were never officially published. Con- 
sequently but little is known in reference to the workings of the first Territorial 
Legislature of Missouri. 

From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of that day ; 
a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found that laws were passed 
regulating and establishing weights and measures ; creating the office of Sheriff; 
providing the manner for taking the census ; permanently fixing the seats of 
Justices, and an act to compensate its own members. At this Session, laws were 
also passed defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer; establishing Courts of Common T'sas^ incorporating the Bank of St. 



30 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Louis; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county into the county of 
Washington. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, December 6, 1813. 
George Bullet, of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker elect, and Andrew Scott, 
clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. Since the adjournment of the former 
Legislature several vacancies had occurred, and new members had been elected to 
fill their places. Among these was Israel McGready, from the county of Wash 
ington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. No journal 
of the council was officially published, but the proceedings of the house are found 
in the Gazet/e. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were passed, hav- 
ing reference to the temporal as well as the moral and spiritual welfare of the peo- 
ple. Laws were enacted for the suppression of vice and immorality on the Sab- 
bath day ; for the improvement of public roads and highways ; creating the offices 
of auditor, treasurer and county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Wash- 
ington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature adjourned on the 19th of Jan- 
uary, 1 8 14, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States census in 1810, 
was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 1814 gave the Territory a 
population of 25,000. This enumeration shows the county of St. Louis contained 
the greatest number of inhabitants, and the new county of Arkansas the least — 
the latter having 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel Ham- 
mond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus Easton and Samuel 
Hammond had been candidates at the preceding election. In all the counties, 
excepting Arkansas, the votes aggregated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton re- 
ceived 965, Mr. Hammond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had 
withdrawn previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 18 14 showing a large increase in the population of the Terri- 
tory, an apportionment was made increasing the number of Representatives in the 
Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The General Assembly began its session in 
St. Louis, December 5, 1814. There were present on the first day twenty Repre- 
sentatives. James Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and 
Andrew Scott, who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen clerk. 
The President of the Council was William Neely, of Cape Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, and Seth 
Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, were dead. The county 
of Lawrence was organized at this session, from the western part of New Madrid 
county, and the corporate powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 18 15 the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature again began its session. Only a partial report of its proceed- 
ings are given in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized from 
St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of the State lying 
north of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge between the Mississippi and 
Missouri Rivers. 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its session in De- 
cember, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many important acts were 
passed. It was then that the "Bank of Missouri" was charted and went into 
operation. In the fall of 1817 the " Bank of St. Louis " and the " Bank of Mis- 
souri were issuing b lis. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, cliar- 
tering the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for superin- 
tending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also passed to encour- 
age the "killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in December, t8i8, and, among other 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 31 

things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jefferson, Franklin, Wayne, Lin- 
coln, Madison, Montgomery, and three counties in the Southern part of Arkan 
sas. In 1819 the Territory of Arkansas was formed into a separate government 
of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, anxious 
that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities of a sovereign 
State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the Territory, the population 
had rapidly increased, many counties had been established, its commerce had 
grown into importance, its agricultural and mineral resources were being devel- 
oped, and believing that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh 
impetus to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legislature 
of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the passage of an act 
authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a state government. 



CHAPTER VL 



Application of Missouri to te Admitted into thi Union — Agitation of the Slavery Question — " Mis- 
souri Compromise" — Constitutional Convention of iSzo — Constitution presented to Congress — 
Further Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and his Committee make Report — Second Compro- 
mise — Missouri Admitted, 

With the application of the Territorial Legislatlire of Missouri for her admis- 
sion into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the slavery question in the 
United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discussions, but 
everywhere throughout the length and breadth of%he Republic the "Missouri 
Question " was the all-absorbing theme. The political skies threatened, 

"In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through such a cri- 
sis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to the admission of 
Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which distracted the public coun- 
sels of the nation for more than forty years afterward. 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. ' ' Lower Louis- 
iana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the door of the Union eight years 
previously, and was admitted as stipulated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges 
and immunities of a State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same 
treaty, Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges and 
immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the " Missouri Com- 
promise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent measures that had up to 
that day engaged the attention of our National Legislature, we shall enter some- 
what into its details, being connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

JPebruary i^th 18 ig. — After the House had resolved itself into a Committee 
of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Missouri into the Union, 
and after the question of her admission had been discussed for some time, Mr. 
Tallmadge, of New York, moved to amend the bill, by adding to it the following 
proviso : 

" And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary serv- 
itude be prohibited, except for the puishment of crime, whereof the party shall 



S2 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

have been duly convicted, and that all children born within the said State, after 
the admission thereof into the Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry discussions 
which lasted for nearly three years, finally culminating in the Missouri Compro- 
mise. All phases of the slavery question were presented, not only in its moral 
and social aspects, but as a great constitutional question, affecting Missouri and 
the admission of future States. The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was 
adopted — 79 to 67, and so reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Territory of Mis- 
souri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he had the privilege of 
participating in the debates which followed. On the i6th day of February the 
proviso was taken up and discussed. After several speeches had been made, among 
them one by Mr. Scott and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the 
amendment, or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the word "convicted," was adopted— 87 to 76. 
The remaining part was then voted upon, and also adopted, by 82 to 78. By a 
vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the same to 
the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted first upon a motion to 
strike out of the proviso all after the word " convicted," which was carried by a 
vote of 32 to 7. It then voted to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed 
— 22 to 16, thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House decUned to concur in the action of the Senate, and the bill was 
again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede from its position. 
The bill was lost, and Congress adjourned. This was most unfortunate for the 
country. The people having already been wrought up to fever heat over the agi- 
tation of the question in the National Councils, now became intensely excited. 
The press added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of Congress. 
That body indicated by its vote upon the " Missouri Question," that the two great 
sections of the country were politically divided upon the subject of slavery. The 
restrictive clause, which it was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of 
her admission, would in all probability be one of the conditions of the admission 
of the Territory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great doubt and 
uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took place on the 6th of Decem- 
ber, 1819. The memorial of the Legislative Council and House of Representa- 
tives of the Missouri Territory, praying for admission into the Union, was presented 
to the Senate by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. It was referred to the Judiciary 
Committee. 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the Senate, 
the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 19th of February, when 
the bill from the Senate for the admission of Maine was considered. The bill for 
the admission of Maine included the "Missouri Question," by an amendment 
which read as follows : 

"And be it further enacted, That in all that territory ceded by France to the 
United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty six degrees 
and thirty minutes, north latitude (excepting such part thereof as is) include 1. 
within the limits of the State, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary 
servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited; Provided, always, That 
any person escaping into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed, 
in any State or Territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully re- 
claimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or services as afore- 
said." 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 33 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the " Missouri 
Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the words, ^'^ excepting only such 
'<art thereof ." 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 34 to 20. On the 2d day of March 
the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, and by a vote of 
134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and the bill being passed by the two 
Houses, constituted section 8, of " An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri 
Territory to form a Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of 
such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and to 
prohibit slavery in- certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fifteen organ- 
ized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State were authorized to 
hold an election on the first Monday, and two succeeding days thereafter in May, 
1820, to select representatives to a State convention. This convention met in St. 
Louis on the 12th of June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors 
on the 19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Wm. G. Pettis, 
Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, men of abihty and 
statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which they framed amply testifies. 
Their names and the counties represented by them are as follows : , 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. Thomas, Alexan- 
der Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper.— RohtrX. v. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duff Green, John Ray, Jonathan S. Find- 
ley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jeffcison. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcolm Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook- 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

Si. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. Brown. 

St. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, Wm. Rector, 
John C. SulHvan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, Thomas F. Riddick. 

Washington. ^r-1o\a\ Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 6th of the 
same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, presented to the House the 
Constitution as framed by the convention. The same was referred to a select com- 
mittee, who made thereon a favorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, was resisted, because it was claimed, 
that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the Legislature to pass laws 
preventing free negroes and mulattoes from settling in the State. The report ot 
the committee to whom was referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied 
by a preamble and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South CaroUna. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in the Senate. 
The question was referred to a select committee, wlio, on the 29th of November, 
reported in favor of admitting the State. The debate, which followed, continued 
for two weeks, and finally Mr. Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the 
resolution as follows : 

" Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to give 
the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of Missouri, if any such 
there be, which contravenes that clause in the Constitution of the United States, 



34 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

which declares that the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the pnvileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several States." . , 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and proviso 
were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the committee agreea to 
report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the committee 
of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution afterward passed tne 
Senate, but was again rejected in the House. Then it was that that great states- 
man and pure patriot, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come 
when angry discussions should cease 

" With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd 
A pillar of state ; deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat and public care ; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
Majestic" ***** 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a committee 
consisting of .twenty-three persons, (a number equal to the number of States then 
composing the Union,) be appointed to act in conjunction with a committee of 
the Senate to consider and report whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 

The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay made its 
chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act with the committee 
of twenty- three, and on the 26th of February the following report was made by 
that committee: 

"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall be admitted into 
the Union, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever, 
upon the fundamental condition that the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section 
of the third article of the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Con- 
gress, shall never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of either of the 
States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the privileges 
and immunities to which such citizen is entitled, under the Constitution of the 
United States ; provided. That the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public 
Act, shall declare the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, 
and shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the fourth 
Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act ; upon the receipt 
whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall announce the fact ; whereupon, 
and without any further proceeding on the part of Congress, the admission of the 
said State into the Union shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and passed 
the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June following, 
a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the conditions of admission, 
as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. August loth, 182 1, President 
Monroe announced by proclamation the admission of Missouri into the Union to 
oe complete. 



HISTORY Of MISSOURI. 36 

CHAPTER VII. 
MISSOURI AS A STATE. 

First Election for Governor and Other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to General Ai- 
sembly —i-heriffs and Coroners — U, S. Senators — Representatives in Congress — Supreme Court 
Judges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. Charles — Official Record of Territorial and 
State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 1820, 
the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the third Monday in 
September of that year, and an election was ordered to be held on the 28 th of 
August for the Election of a Governor and other State officers, Senators and Rep- 
resentatives to the General Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Sena- 
tors and Representatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a State, but in 
anticipation of that event, and according to the provisions of the constitution the 
election was held, and the General Assembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and Alexander 
McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair received 6,576 votes, Clark 
2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There were three candidates for Lieutenant 
Governor, to-wit : William H. Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley 
received 3,907 votes. Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. John 
Scott, who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to both Congresses 
without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of September, 1820, 
and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. Genevieve speaker, and John 
McArthur cierk, William H. Ashley, Lieutenant-Governor, President of the 
Senate ; Silas Bent, President, pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook and John R. Jones were appointed Supreme 
Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State ; Peter Didier, State Treas- 
urer; Edward Bates, Attorney-General and William Christie, Auditor of Public 
Accounts. 

David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General Assembly 
to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, Chariton, 
Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Percy, Ralls, Ray and Saline were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of the differ- 
ent Legislatures which followed; the elections for Governors and other State of- 
ficers ; the elections for Congressmen and United States Senators, but for want 
of space we can only present in a condensed form the official record of the Ter- 
ritorial and State officers. 

OFFICIAL RECORD TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

Governors. — Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting- Governor, 1812-13. 
William Clark, 18 13- 1820. 

OFFICERS OF STATE GOVERNMENT. 

Governors. — Alexander McNair, 1820-24. Frederick Bates, 1824-25. Abra- 
ham J. Williams vice Bates, 1825. John Miller vice Bates, 1826-28. John 
Miller, 1828-32. Daniel Dunklin, 1832-36, resigned; 'appointed Surveyor 



36 HISTORY OF MISSOTTBI. 

General U. S. Liburn W. Boggs vice Dunklin, 1836. Lilburn W. Boggs, 1836- 
40. Thomas Reynolds, 1840, died 1844. M. M. Marmaduke vice Reynolds- 
John C. Edwards, 1844-48. Austin A. King, 1848-52. Sterling Price, 1852-56. 
Tiusten Polk, 185657, resigned. Hancock Jackson vice Polk, 1857. Robert 
M. Stewart vice Polk, 1857-60. C. F. Jackson, i860, office vacated by ordinance. 
Hamilton R. Gamble vice Jackson; Gov. Gamble died 1864. Wilham P. Hall, 
1864, vice Gamble. Thomas C. Fletcher, 1864-68. Joseph W. McClurg, 1868 ■ 
70. B. Gratz Brown, 1870-72. Charles H. Hardin, 1874-76. John S. Phelps, 
1876-80. Thomas T. Crittenden, 1880, and is now Governor. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — William H. Ashley, 1820-24. Benjamin A. Reeves, 
1824-28. Daniel Dunklin, 1828-32. Lilburn W. Boggs, 1832-36. Franklin 
Cannon, 1836-40. M. M. Marmaduke, 1840-44. James Young, 1844-48. 
Thomas L. Rice, 1848-52. Wilson Brown, 1852-^5. Hancock Jackson, 1856- 
60. Thomas C. Reynolds, 1860-61. Williard P. Hall, 1861-64. George Smith, 
1864-68. Edward O. Stanard, 1868-70. Joseph J. Gravely, 1870-72. Charles 
P. Johnson, 1872-74. Norman J. Colman, 1874-76. Henry C. Brockmeyer, 
1876-80. Robert Campbell, 1880, and is the present incumbent. 

Secretaries of State. — Joshua Barton, 1820-21. William G. Pettis, 1821-24. 
Hamilton R. Gamble, 1824-26. Spencer Pettis, 1826 28. P. H. McBride, 1829- 
30. John C. Edwards, 1830, term expired 1835, re-appointed 1837, resigned 
1837. Peter G. Glover, 1837-39. James L. Minor, 1839-45. F. H. Martin, 
1845-49. Ephraim B. Ewing, 1849-52. John M. Richardson, 1852-56. Benja- 
min F. Massey, 1856-60, re-elected i860, for four years. Mordecai Oliver, 1861- 
64. Francis Rodman, 1864-68, re-elected 1868, for two years. Eugene F. 
Weigel, 1870-72, re-elected 1872, for two years. Michael K. McGrath, 1874, 
and is the present incumbent. 

State Treasurers. — Peter Didier, 1820-21. Nathaniel Simonds, 1821-28. 
James Earickson, 1829-33. John Walker, 1833-38. Abraham McClellan, 1838- 
43. Peter G. Glover, 1843-51. A. W. Morrison, 1851-60. George C. Bingham, 
186264. William Bishop, 1864-68. William Q. Dallmeyer, 1868-70. Samuel 
Hays, 1872. Harvey W. Salmon, 1872 74. Joseph W. Mercer, 1874-76. Elijah 
Gates, 1876-80. Phillip E. Chappel, 1880, and present incumbent. 

Attorney- Generals. — Edward Bates, 1820-21. Rufus Easton, 1821-26. Robt. 
W. Wells, 1826-36. William B. Napton, 1836-39. S. M. Bay, 1839-45. B. F. 
Stringfellow, 1845-49. William A. Roberts, 1849-51. James B. Gardenhire, 
1851-56. Ephraim W. Ewing, 1856-59. James P. Knott, 1859-61. Aikman 
Welsh, 1861-64. Thomas T. Crittenden, 1864. Robert F. Wingate, 1864-68. 
Horace P. Johnson, 1868-70. A. J. Baker, 1870-72. Henry Clay Ewing, 
1872-74. John A. Hockaday, 1874-76. Jackson L. Smith, 1876-80. Mclntire, 
1880, and present incumbent. 

Auditors of Public Accounts. — William Christie, 1820-21. William V. Rector, 
1821-23. Elias Barcroft, 1823-33. Henry Shurlds, 1833-35. Peter G. Glover, 
1835-37. Hiram H. Baber, 1837-45. William Monroe, 1845. J. R. McDer- 
mon, 1845-48. George W. Miller, 1848-49. Wilson Brown, 1849-52. Wilhara 
H. Buffington, 1852 60. William S. Moseley, i860 64. Alonzo Thompson, 
186468. Daniel M. Draper, 1868-72. George B. Clark, 1872-74. Thomas 
Holladay, 1874-80. John Walker, 1880, and present incumbent. 

Judges of Supreme Court. — Matthias McKirk, 1822-41; John D. Cooke, 
i822-'23; Jno. R. Jones, 1822-24; Rufus Pettibone, 1823-25; Geo. Tomp- 
kins, i824-'45; Robt. Wash, 1825-37; Jno. C. Edwards, 1837-39; Wm. Scott, 
appointed 1841 till meeting of General Assembly in place of McKirk resigned, ; 
re appomted 1843; P. H. McBride, 1845 ; Wm. B. Napton, 1849-52 ; Jno. F. Ry 
land, 1849-51 ; Jno. H. Birch, 1849-51 ; Wm. Scott, Jno. F. Ryland and Hara 
ilton R. Gamble elerted by the people 1851 for six years; Gamble resigned 1854; 
Abitl Leonard elected to fill vacancy of Gamble; William B. Napton (vacated 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 4 37 

by failure to file oath), William Scott and John C. Richardson (resigned), elected 
August, 1857, for six years ; E. B. Ewing, 1859, to fill Richardson's resignation; 
Barton Bates appointed 1862; W. V. N. Biy appointed 1862; John D. S. Dry- 
den appointed 1862; Barton Bates, 1863-65; W. V. N. Bay, elected 1863; John 

D. S. Dryden, elected 1863; David Wagner appointed 1865 ; Wallace L. Love- 
lace, appointed 1865; Nathaniel Holnes, appointed 1865; Thomas J. C. Fagg, 
ippointed 1866; James Biker, appointed 1868; David Wagner, elected 1868- 
"70; Philemon Bliss, 1868-70; Warren Currier, 1868-71,' Washington Adams, 
appointed 187 1 to fill Currier's place who resigned; Ephriam B. Ewing, 
elected 1872; Thomas A. Sherwood, elected 1872 ; W. B. Napton, appointed 
1873 in place of Ewing, deceased; Edward A. Seins, appointed 1874, in place of 
Adams, resigned; Warwick Hough, elected 1874; William B. Napton, elected 
1874-80; John E. Henry, 1876-86; Robert Ray succeeded William B. Napton, 
in 1880: Elijah H. Norton, appointed in 1876 — elected in 1878. 

United States Senators. — T. H. Benton, 182050; D. Barton, 1820-30; Alex. 
Buckner, 1830-33; L. F.Linn, 1833-43; D. R. Atchison, 1843-55; H. S. Geyer, 
1851-57; Jas. M. Green, 1857-61; T. Polk, 185763; Waldo P. Johnson, 1861; 
Robt. Wilson, 1861; B. Gratz Brown, 1863, for unexpired term of Johnson; J. 
B. Henderson, 1863 69; Chas. D. Drake, 1867-70; Carl Schurz, 1869-75; D. F. 
Jewett, 1870, in place of Drake, resigned; F. P. Blair, 1871-77; L. V. Bogy, 
1873; F. M. Cockrell, 1875-81, re-elected 1881; Geo. G. Vest, 1879. 

Representatives to Congress. — Jno. Scott, 1820-26; Ed. Bates, 1826-28; Spen- 
cer Pettis, 1828-31; Wm. H. Ashley, 1831-36; John Bull, 1832-34; Albert G. 
Harrison, 1834-39; Jno. Miller, 1836-42 ; John Jameson, 1839-44, re-elected 1846 
for two yeats; Jno. C. Edwards, 1840-42; Jas. M. Hughes, 1842-44; Jas. H. 
Relfe, 1842-46; Jas. B. Bowlin, 1842-50; Gustavus M. Boner, 1842-44; Sterling 
Price, 1844-46; Wm. McDaniel, 1846; Leonard H. Sims, 1844-46; John S. 
Phelps, 1844-60; Jas. S. Green, 1846-50, re-elected 1856, resigned; Williard P. 
Hall, 1846-53; Wm. V. N. Bay, 1848-61; John F. Darby, 1850-53; Gilchrist 
Porter, 1850-57; John G. Miller, 1850-56; Alfred W. Lamb, 1852-54; Thos. 
H. Benton, 1852-54; Mordecia Oliver, 1852-57; Jas. J. Lindley, 1852-56; Samuel 
Caruthers, 1852-58; Thomas P. Akers, 1855, to fill unexpired term of J. G. Mil- 
ler; Francis P. Blair, jr., 1856, re-elected i860, resigned ; Thomas L. Anderson, 
1856-60, James Craig, 1856-60; Samuel H. Woodson, 1856-60; John B. Clark, 
sr., 1857-61 ; J. Richard Barrett, i860; John W. Noel, 1858-63; James S. Rol- 
lins, 1860-64; Elijah H. Norton, 1860-63; John W. Reid, 1860-61; William A. 
Hall, 1862-64; Thomas L. Price, 1862, in place of Reid, expelled; Henry T. 
Blow, 1862-66; Sempronius T. Boyd, elected in 1862, and again in 1868, for two 
years; Joseph W. McClurg, 1862-66; Austin A. Ki g, 1862-64; Benjamin F. 
Loan, 1862-69; John G. Scott, 1863, in place of Noel, deceased; John Hogan, 
1864-66; Thomas F. Noel, 1864-67; John R. Kelsoe, 1864-66; Robt. T. Van 
Horn, 1864-71; John F. Benjamin, 1864-71; George W. Anderson, 1864-69; 
William A. Pile, 1866-68; C. A. Newcomb 1866-68 ; Joseph E. Gravely, 1866- 
68 ; James R. McCormack, 1866-73 \ John H. Stover, 1867, in place of McClurg, 
resigned; Erastus Wells, 1868-82; G. A. Finklinburg, 1868-71; Samuel S. 
Burdett, 1868-71; Joel F. Asper, 1868-70; David P. Dyer, 1868-70; Harrison 

E. Havens, 1870-75 ; Isaac G. Parker, 1870-75; James G. Blair, 1870-72 ; An- 
drew King, 1870-72; Edwin O. Stanard, 1872-74; William H. Stone, 1872-78; 
Robert A. Hatcher, elected 1872; Richard P. Bland, 1872; Thomas Crittenden, 
1872-74; Ira B. Hyde, 1872-74; John B. Clark, 1872-78; John M. Glover, 1872; 
Aylett H. Buckner, 1872; Edward C. Kerr, 1874-78; Charles H. Morgan, 1874; 
John F. Phelps, 1874; ^. J. Franklin, 1874; David Rea, 1874; Rezin A. De- 
Bopt, 1874; Anthony Ittner, 1876; Nathaniel Cole, 1876; Robert A. Hatcher, 
1876-78; R. P. Bland, 1876-78; A. H. Buckner, 1876-78; J. B. Clark, jr., 1876- 
78; T. T. Crittenden, 1876-78; B. J. Franklin, 1876-78; Jno. M. Glover, 1876-78; 



38 



HISTORY OF MISSOirBI. 



Robt. A. Hatcher, 1876-78; Chas. H. Morgan, 1876-78; L. S. Metcalfe, 1876-78 j 
H. M. Pollard, 1876-78; David Rea, 1876-78; S. L. Sawyer, 1878-80; N. Ford, 
1878-82; G. F. Rothwell, 1878-82 ; John B. Clark, jr., 1878 82; W. H. Hatch, 
1878-82; A. H. Buckner, 187882; M. L. Clardy, 1878-82; R. G. Frost, 1878-82; 
L. H. Davis. 1878-82 ; R. P. Bland, 1878-82 ; J. R. Waddill, 1878 80 ; T. Allen, 
1880-82 ; R. Hazeltine, 1880-82 ; T. M. Rice, 1880-82 ; R. T. Van Horn, 1880-82. 

COUNTIES — WHEN ORGANIZED. 

Linn January 7, 

Livingston January 6, 

McDonald March 3, 

Macon January 6, 



Adair ^January 29, 

Andre'W January 29, 

Atcliison January 14, 

Audrain December 17, 

Barry January 5, 

Barton December 12, 

Bates January 29, 

Benton January 3, 

Bollinger , March i, 

Boone November 16, 

Buchanan February 10, 

Butler February 27, 

Caldwell December 26, 

Callaway November 25, 

Camden January 29, 

Cape Girardeau October i, 

Carroll. January 3, 

Carter March 10, 

Cass September 14, 

Cedar February 14, 

Chariton November 16, 

Christian March 8, 

Clark December 15, 

Clay .January 2, 

Clinton January 15, 

Cole November 16, 

Cooper December 17, 

Crawford January 23, 

Dade • ■ . January 29, 

Dallas December 10, 

Daviess .... . December 29, 

DeKalb February 25, 

Dent February 10, 

Douglas October 19, 

Dunklin February 14, 

Franklin December 11, 

Gasconade November 25, 

Gentry February 12, 

Greene January 2, 

Grundy January 2, 

HarrisoB February 14, 

Henry . , .... December 13, 

Hickory February 14, 

Holt February 15, 

Howard January 23, 

Howell March 2, 

Iron February 17, 

Jackson December 15, 
asper January 29, 

Jefferson. . December 8, 

Johnson ..... . December 13, 

Knox February 14, 

Laclede February 24, 

Lafayette November 16, 

Lawrence February 25, 

Lewis January 2, 

Lincoln December 14, 



841 
841 
84s 
836 
83s 
835 
841 

835 
851 
820 

839 
849 
836 
820 
841 
812 

833 
859 

835 
845 

82) 

860 
818 
822 

833 
820 
818 
829 
841 
844 
836 

845 
851 

857 
845 
8^8 
820 
841 
833 
843 
845 
834 
845 
841 
816 
857 
857 
826 
841 
818 
834 
845 
849 
820 
845 
833 
818 



Madison December 14 

Maries March 2, 

Marion December 23 

Mercer February 14, 

Miller February 6, 

Mississippi February 14, 

Moniteau February 14, 

Monroe January 6, 

Montgomery December 14, 

Morgan January 5 

New Madrid October i 

Newton , ■ • December 31 

Nodaway February 14 

Oregon February 14 

Oiage January 29 

Ozark January 29 

Pemiscot February 19 

Perry November 16, 

Pettis January 26, 

Phelps .... . November 13 

Pike December 14, 

Flatte December 31 

Polk March 13 

Pulaski December 15 

Putnam February 28 

Ralls November 16, 

Randolph January 22, 

Ray November 16 

Reynolds February 25 

Ripley January 5 

St. Charles October I, 

St. Clair January 29, 

St. Francois ... . December 19, 

Ste. Genevieve Octo er i 

St. Louis October I 

Saline November 25 

Schuyler February 14, 

Scotland January 29 

Scott December 28- 

Shannon ......._ January 29, 

Shelby January 2 

Stoddard January 2, 

Stone February 10, 

Sullivan February 16, 

Taney January 16 

Texas February 14, 

Vernon February 1 7; 

Warren January 5, 

Washington , August 21 

Wayne December 11 

Webster March 3 

Worth February 8, 

Wright January 29, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 39 

CHAPTER VIII. 
CIVIL WAR IN MISSOURI. 

Fort Sumter find upon — Call for 7S,ooo men— Gov. Jackson refuses to furnish a man — V. S. 
Arsenal at Liberty, Mo,, seized — Proclamation of Governor Jackson — General Order No. 
7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized— Sterling Price appointed Major- Gen- 
eral — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Frost — Surrender of Camp Jackson — Procla- 
mation of Gen. Harney — Conference between Price and Harney — Harney superseded by 
Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jackson bums the bridges behind him — Proclamation 
of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of 
. Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes com- 
mand — Proclamation of Lieut. Gov. Reynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. 
Jackson-^Deaih of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCulloch and 
Gamble — Martial Law declared — zd Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — President modifies 
Fremont's Order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hunter's Order 
of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to Newspapers — Halleck 
succeeds Hunter — Halleck' s Order 8i — Similar order by Halleck — Boone County Standard 
confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — Gen. Swing's Order No. ii — 
Gen. Rosencrans takes command — Massacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen. 
Dodge succeeds Gen. Rosencrans — List of Battles, 

" Lastly stood war — 

With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 

Ah ! why will kings forget that they are men ? 
And men that they are brethren ? Why delight 
In human sacrifice ? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love ? " 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April isth, President 
Lincoln issued a proclamation, calling for 75,000 men, from the militia of the 
several States to suppress combinations in the Southern States therein named. 
Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of War, sent a telegram to all the gov- 
ernors of the States, excepting those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting 
them to detail a certain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's 
quota being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram, Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To THE Hon. Simon Cameron, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C, : 
Sir: Your dispatch of the isth inst., making a call on Missouri for four 
regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I 
apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a part of the President's 
army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in 
my judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and cannot be complied with. Not one 
man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri. 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of Governor 
Jackson. 



40 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening the Legis- 
lature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take into consideration 
the momentous issues, which were presented, and the attitude to be assumed by 
the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued the 
following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Orders No. 7.) 
i. io attain a greater decree of efficiency and perfection in organization and 
discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military districts in this State, 
having four or more legally organized companies therein, whose armories are 
within fifteen miles of each other, will assemble their respective commands at 
some place to be by them severally designated, on the 3rd day of May, and to go 
into an encampment for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of 
companies not organized into battalions, will report the strength of their companies 
immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quartermasters of 
Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all necessary tents and camp 
equipage, to enable the commanding officers thereof to carry the foregoing orders 
into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, and one 
company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and soldiers belonging to the 
First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, and report to Gen. D. M. Frost 
for duty. The remaining companies of said battalion will be disbanded for the 
purpose of assisting in the organization of companies upon that frontier. The 
details in the execution of the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John 
S. Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several companies in 
the Districts will be reported at once to these Headquarters, and District Inspec- 
tors will furnish all information which may be serviceable in ascertaining the 
condition of the State forces. 

By order of the Governor. 

WARWICK HOUGH, 

Adjutant-General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra Session. Many acts were 
passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to purchase or lease 
David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the manufacture of arms and 
munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to appoint one Major-General ; to 
authorize the Governor, when, in his opinion, the security and welfare of the 
State required it, to take possession of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; 
to provide for the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; 
to borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State to repel 
invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. An act was also 
passed creating a "Military Fund," to consist of all the money then in the 
treasury or that might thereafter be received from the one-tenth of one per cent, 
on the hundred dollars, levied by act of November, 1857, to complete certain 
railroads ; also the proceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the 
assessed value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and the 
I)roceeds of the two mill tax, which had been theretofore appropriated for educa- 
tional purposes. 

Mays, 1861. " Camp Jackson," was organized. 

May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State Guard. 



42 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

May 10, 1861. General Frost commanding "Camp Jackson" addressed 
General N. Lyon, as follows : 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, may 10, i86r. 
Capt. N. Lyon, Commanding U. S. Troops in and about St. Louis Arsenal: 

Sir : — I am constantly in receipt of information that you contemplate an at- 
tack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are impressed with the idea that 
an attack upon the Arsenal and United States troops is intended on the part of 
the Militia of Missouri. I am greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in 
attacking citizens of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their 
duties, devolving upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instructing 
the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, have been dis- 
posed to doubt the correctness of the information I have received. 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any truth in 
the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So far as regards any 
hostility being intended toward the United States, or its property or representa- 
tives by any portion of my command, or, as far as I can learn, (and I think I am 
fully informed,) of any other part of the state forces, I can positively say that 
the idea has never been entertained. On the contrary prior to your taking com- 
mand of the Arsenal, I proffered to Mayor Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my command, 
and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect the United States in the 
full possession of all her property. Upon General Harney taking command of 
this department, I made the same proffer of services to him, and authorized his 
Adjutant-General, Capt. Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been 
done to the War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through orders of 
my Constitutional commander. 

I trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by fully under- 
standing each other, to keep far from our borders the misfortunes which so unhap- 
pily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my Chief of 
Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth in the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL D. M. FROST; 

Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May loth, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson : 

Sir: — Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have openly 
avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have been plotting at the 
seizure of its property and the overthrow of its authority. You are openly ir 
communication with the so-called Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with 
the United States, and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy 
and under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is known 
to be the property of the United States. These extraordinary preparations plain- 
ly indicate none other than the well-known purpose of the Governor of this State, 
under whose orders you are acting, and whose communication to the Legislature 
has just been responded to by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, hav 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 43 

ing in direct view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 
enemies. 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in obedience 
to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent necessities of State 
policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed upon me by instructions from 
Washington, it is my duty to demand, and I do hereby demand of you an imme- 
diate surrender of your command, with no other conditions than that all persons 
surrendering under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believ- 
ing myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before doing so 
will be allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. LYON, 
Capt. 2d Infantry, Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all released except- 
ing Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe the parole. 

May 12, 1 86 1. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a proclamation to 
the people of Missouri, saying " he would carefully abstain from the exercise of 
any unnecessary powers," and only use " the military force stationed in this dis- 
trict in the last resort to preserve peace." 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1861. General Harney held a conference with General Sterling 
Price of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June 11-, 1861. A second conference was held betiveen the National and 
State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 

June II, i86r. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, burning the 
railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling into active 
service 50,000 militia, "to repel invasion, protect life, property, etc." 

June 15, 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capital, Gov. 
Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th of June for Boon- 
ville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces of Gen. 
Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people of Mis- 
souri. 

July 5, 1 86 1. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigeland Gov. 
Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared -the offices of Governor, 
Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C Fremont assumed command of the Western 
Department, with headquarters in St." Louis. 

July 31, 1861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds, issued a procla- 
mation at New Madrid. 

August I, 186 r. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at Bloom 
field. 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's forces and 
General Rains. 

August 5, 1 86 1. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 5, 1 86 1. B-ittle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861. BTttle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces under Gen- 
eral Lyon and General McCuUoch. In this engagement General Lyon was killed 
General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 



44 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

August 12, 1864. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left Missouri. 

August 20, 1864. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling for 32,000 
men for six months to protect the property and lives of the citizens of the State. 

August 30, 1 86 1. General Fremont declared martial law, and declared that 
the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an active part with the enemies 
of the Government should be free. 

September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation in re 
sponse to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Drywood creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. Fre- 
mont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation of property and 
liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Springfield on Colo- 
nel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, i86r. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surrendered. 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

November 2, i?6i. General Fremont succeeded by General David Hunter. 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, who took 
command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 50,000 
men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assessment upon cer- 
tain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and clothing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the country adja- 
■ cent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Generals Curtis 
and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the following 
order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, 
General Department of Missouri. 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. 

(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of newspapers 
in the State of Missouri, (St. Louis City papers excepted), furnish to this office, 
immediately upon publication, one copy of each issue, for inspection. A failure 
to comply with this order will render the newspaper liable to suppression. 

Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of this order, 
and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 
Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 1 8) which forbade, among 
other things, the display of Secession flags in the hands of women or on carriages, 
in the vicinity of the military prison in McDowell's College, the carriages to be 
confiscated and the offending women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to Order No. 
18, to railroad companies and to the professors and directors of the State Univer- 
sity at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the institution to be used "to teach 
treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military commission, 
which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Edmund J. Ellis, of Columbia, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 45 

editor and proprietor of ^' The. Boone County Standard" for the publication of 
information for the benefit of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United 
States Government. Ellis was found guilty, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving General 
Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under Colonel Jos. 
C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major John 
Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August II, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at Macon by 
order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra by order 
of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863 Battle at Springfield between the forces of General Mar- 
maduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 

August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, Arkan- 
sas, with his staff. 

August 25. 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated Order No. 
II, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : 

Headquarters District of the Border, ] 
Kansas City Mo., August 25, 1863. J 
(General Order No 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates counties, Missouri, and 
in that part of Vernon included in this district, except those living within one 
mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrison- 
ville, and except those in that part of Kaw township, Jackson county, north of 
Brush Creek and west of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are 
hereby ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen days 
from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establifh their loyalty to the satisfaction of the 
commanding officer of the military station nearest their present places of residence, 
will receive from him certificates stating the fact of their loyalty, and the names 
of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificate will 
be permitted to remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the State. All others 
shall remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies and detach- 
ments serving in the counties named, will see that this paragraph is promptly 
obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the district from 
which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach of military stations, 
after the 9th day of September next, will be taken to such stations and turned 
over to the proper officer there, and report of the amount so turned over made to 
district headquarters, specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of 
such produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district after 
the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these headquarters, 



46 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



will at once be vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the 
district, and at the stations not subject to the operations of paragraph First of this 
Order — and especially in the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City. 

Fourth — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all who have 
borne arms against the government in the district since August 20, 1863. 
By order of Brigadier-General Ewing. 

H. HANNAHS, Adjutant. 

October 12-13, Battle of Arrow Creek. 

January, 1864, General Rosecrans takes command of the Department 

September, 1864, Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Morceau River. 

October 5, 1864, Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's farm. 

October 8, 1864, Battle at Glasgow. 

October 20, 1864, Battle at Litrie Blue Creek. 

September 27, 1864, Massacre at Ceatralia, by Captain Bill Anderson. 

October 27, 1864, Capt. Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Rosecrans relieved, and General Dodge ap- 
pointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after Decem- 
ber, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they occurred without com- 
ment or entering into details. Many of the minor incidents and skirmishes of 
the war have been omitted because of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of all the 
batties fought in Missouri during the civil war. It will be found, however, that 
the list given bejow, which has been arranged for convenience, contains the 
prominent battles and skirmishes which took place within the State : 



Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Siation, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Run, July 17, I^6I. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 186 1. 
Wilson's Creek, August 9, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1861. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Dry wood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 
Blue Mills Landing, September 17, 

1861. 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, Oct. 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, Oct. 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, Oct. 15, i86t. 
Big River Bridge, Oc-. 15, 1861. 
Fredericktown, Oct. 21, 1861. 
Springfield, Oct. 25, 1861. 
Belmont, Nov. 7, 1861. 
Piketon, Nov. 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, Nov. 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, Nov. 11, 1861. 
Zion Church, Dec. 28, 1871. 



Silver Creek, Jan. 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1862. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , ii)62. 
Pierces Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, Aug. 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, Aug 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, Aug. 13, 1862. 
Independence, Aug. 11, 1862. 
Lone Jack, Aug. 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, Sept. 13, 1862. 
Springfield, Jan. 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Arrow Rock, Oct 12 and 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, Sept. — , 1864. 
Harrison, Sept. — , 1864. 
Moreau River, Oct. 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, Oct. 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, Oct. 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, Oct. 20, 1864. 
Albany, Oct. 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, Sept. 23, 1864. 
Ceatralia, Sept. 27, 1864. 



HISXORV OF MISSOURI. 47 

CHAPTER IX. 
EARLY MILITARY RECORD. 

Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the 14th day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took place between the 
Ti gular forces of the United States, and a part of the Sacs, Foxes, and Winneba- 
goe Indians, commanded by Black Hawk and Keokux, near Dixon's Ferry in 
Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages would invade 
the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard Gentry to raise one thou- 
sand volunteers for the defense of the frontier. Five companies were at once 
raised in Boone county, and in Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, 
Pike, Marion, Ralls, Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John Jaimison, 
of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman, of Boone county, were mustered 
into service in July for thirty days, and put under command of Major Thomas W. 
Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort Pike on the 
15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not crossed the Mississippi into 
Missouri, General Gentry returned to Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of 
Major Conyers. Thirty days having expired, the command under Major Con- 
yers was reheved by two other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, of Boone, 
and Patrick Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by Col. 
Austin A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major Conyers home. 
Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where he remained till September 
following, at which time the Indian troubles, so far as ^lissouri was concerned, 
having all subsided, the frontier forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally defeated 
and captured in 1833. 

MORMON DIFFICULTIES. 

In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the chosen prophet 
and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with many followers to Jack- 
son county, Missouri, where they located and entered several thousand acres of 
land. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskirts of civilization 
at that time — was to more securely establish his church, and the more effectively 
to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located their 
"Zion, " and gave it the name of "The New Jerusalem." They published here 
The Evening Star, and made themselves generally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who 
were then in a minority, by their denunciatory articles through their paper, their 
clannishness and their polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be inspired 
only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles threw the press and type 
iiito the Missouri river, tarred and feathered one of their bishops, and otherwise 
gave the Mormons and their leaders to understand that they must conduct them- 
selves in an entirely different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became furiously incensed, 
and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Matters continued in an uncertain 



48 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

condition until the 31st of October, 1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near 
Wes'port, in which two Gentiles and one ISlormon were killed. 

On the 2d of November following the Mormons were overpowered, and com- 
pelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county with their families by 
January ist on the conditioQ that the owner would be paid for his printing press. 

Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in Clay, Car- 
roll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell county a town site, 
which they called " Far West," and where they entered more land for their future 
homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting themselves in 
the East and in different portions of Europe, conve ts had constantly flocked to 
their standard, and "Far West," and other Mormon settlements, rapidly 
prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection of a magnificent temple but never 
finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they became bolder in 
their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town of De- 
Witt, on the Missouri river, having purchased the land from an Illinois merchant. 
DeWitt was in Carroll county, and a good point from which to forward goods and 
immigrants to their town — Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, the Gen- 
tiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of the prominent 
citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at this meeting, but at a 
subsequent meeting, which was held a few days afterward, a committee of citi- 
zens was appointed to notify Col. Hinkle (one of the Mormon leaders at DeWitt), 
what they intended to do, 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indignant, and 
threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would attempt to 
force them from DeWitt, Mormon recruits flocked to the town from every direc- 
tion, and pitched their tents in and around the town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this encarripment, 
to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, accordingly, one hundred 
and fifty men bivouacked near the town on that day. A conflict ensued, but 
nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some log houses, where they 
could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had in the meantime returned 
to their camp to await reinforcements. Troops from Howard, Ray and other 
counties came to their assistance, and increased their number to five hundred 
men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier-General ; Ebenezer Price, Colonel ; 
Singleton Vaughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarchel Woods, Major. After some 
days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an assault but before the attack was 
commenced Judge James Earickson and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens 
of Howard county, asked permission of General Jackson to let them try and ad- 
just the difficulties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the Mormons 
that, if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed belonging to the citizens, 
and load their wagons during the night and be ready to move by ten o'clock next 
morning, and make no further attempt to settle in Howard county, the citizens 
would purchase at first cost their lots in DeWitt and one or two adjoining tracts 
of land. 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts to settle 
the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposition. 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without lurther delay, loaded up their 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 49 

wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. Whether the terms of the 
agreement were ever carried out, on the part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the result oi 
their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so great that 
Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering M<ijor-General David R. Atchi- 
son to call the militia of his division to enforce the laws. He called out a part of 
the 1st brigade of the Missouri State MiHtia, under command of Generalx^. W. 
Doniphan, who proceeded to the seat of war. General John B. Clark, of Howard 
county was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about i,ooo men, and were led by G. W. 
Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, where one Mormon 
was killed. The principal fight took place at Haughn's Mills, where eighteen 
Mormons were killed and the balance captured, some of them being killed after 
they had surrendered. Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of Far West 
to General Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That they should deliver 
up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders for trial, and the remainder of the 
Mormons should, with their families, leave the State. Indictments were found 
against a number of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, killed at 
Carthage, Ilhnois, with his brother Hyrum. , 

FLORIDA WAR. 

In Feptember, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on Governor 
Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service in Florida against the 
Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation had made common cause under 
Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone county by Colonel Richard 
Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel; John W. Price, of Howard county, 
Lieutenant-Colonel; Harrison H. Hughes, also of Howard, Major. Four com- 
panies of the second regiment were raised and attached to the first. Two of these 
companies w.ere composed of Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat of war, 
stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where thev were mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence trans- 
ported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. General Zachary Taylor, 
who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. Gentry to march to Okee-chobee 
Lake, one hundred and thirty-five miles inland by the route . traveled. Having 
reached the Kissemmee river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in 
which Col. Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leaving many of 
their dead and wounded on the field. There being no further service required 
of the Missourians, they returned to their homes in 1838. 

MEXICAN WAR. 

Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 8th and 
9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma were fought. 
Great excitement prevailed throughout the country. In none of her sister States 
however, did the fires of patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not 
waiting for the call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legion" hastened to the field 
of conflict. The "Legion" was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. During 
the month of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, called for volunteers 
to join the " Army of the West," an expedition to Santa Fe — under command of 
General Stephen W. Kearney. 



50 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. By 
the i8th of June, the full complement of companies to compose the first regi- 
ment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Saline, Franklin, Cole, Howard 
and Callaway counties. Of this regiment A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; 
C F. Ruff, Lieutenant-Colonel, and William Gilpin, Major. The battalion of 
light artillery from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer ; battalions of infantry 
from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains Murphy and W. Z. 
Augney respectively, and the " Laclede Rangers," from St. Louis, by Captain 
Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the 
summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one 
mounted regiment, one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion of Mor- 
mon infantry to reinforce the " Army of the West. " Mr. Price was made colonel, 
and D. D. Mitchell lieutenant-colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for one thou- 
sand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised at once. John 
Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen colonel, but before the regiment marched 
the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, commanded 
by Captain Wm. T. Lalfland. Conspicuous among the engagements in which 
the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico were the battles of Brazito, Sacra- 
mento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos and Santa Cruz de Rosales. The forces from 
Mi^ouri were mustered out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history 
of the Mexican war, for 

"A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels, and immortal fame." 



CHAPTER X. 
AGRICULTURE AND MATERIAL WEALTH. 

Missouri as an Agricultural State— The Diferent Crops— Live Stock— Horses— Mules— Milch Co^us 
—Oxen and other Cattle— Sheep-Hogs— Comparisons-Missouri Adapted to Live iitock— 
Cotton— Broom-Corn and other Products— Fruits—Berries—Grapes—Railroads— First Neigh 
of the "Iron Horse" in Missouri— Names of Railroads— Manufactures-Great Bridge at St. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the first in supply- 
ing his necessities. It favors and strengthens population ; it creates and maintains 
manufactures ; gives employment to navigation and furnishes materials to com- 
merce. It animates every species of industry, and opens to nations the safest 
channels of wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals 'Among all 
the occupations and professions of life, there is none more honorable, none more 
independent, and none more conducive to health and happiness. 

" In ancient times the sacred plow employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared, your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 51 

Have held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 
Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 
Disdaining little delicacies, seized 
The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in the Union. 
It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps an abundant harvest. 
The soil, in many portions of the State, has an open, flexible structure, quickly 
at^orbs the most excessive rains, and retains moisture with great tenacity. This 
being the case, it is not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered 
with sweet, luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay, grass not surpassed 
by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy in growing and fat- 
tening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giving nutriment as it was when 
cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the antelope and the deer, and costs the herds- 
man nothing. 

No State or Territory has a more complete and rapid system of natural 
drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than Missouri. Both 
man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand perennial fountains, which 
gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, and wend their way through verdant 
valleys and along smiling prairies, varying in size, as they onward flow, from the 
diminutive brooklet to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, soil and 
scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in the sweat of his brow. 
Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri offers superior inducements to the 
farmer, and bids him enter her broad domain and avail himself of her varied re- 
sources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop in 
Missouri for 1878. 

Indian Corn 93,062,000 bushels 

Wheat 20,196,000 '' 

Rye 732,030. " 

Oats 19,584,000 " 

Buckwheat 46,400 " 

Pota oes 5,415,000 " 

Tobacco 23,o2j,ooo pounds 

Hay 1,620,000 tons 

There were 3,552,000 acres in cornj wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 48,800: oats, 
640,000; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; tobacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. 
Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; 
oats, $3,325,120; buckwheat, $24, 128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco. $1,151,- 
150; hay, $10,416,600. 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69; average yield of corn per acre, 
26 bushels; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The following 
table shows the number of horses, mules and milch cows in the different States 
for 1879: 

STATES. HORSES. MULES. MILCH COWS. 

Maine 81,700 169,100 

New Hampshire . . 57,100 98,100 

Vermont 77, 400 217,800 

Massachusetts . . . 131,000 160,700 

Rhode Island . . . 16,200 22,000 

Connecticut. . . . S3, 500 116,500 



52 



STATES. 



New York 

New Jersey . . . 
Pennsylvania . . . 
Delaware .... 

Maryland 

Virginia .... 
North Carolina . . 
South Carolina . . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama .... 
Mississippi . . . 
Louisiana .... 

Texas 

Arkansas .... 
Tennessee . . . 
West Virginia . . 
Kentucky .... 

Ohio 

Michigan . . . 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin .... 
Minnesota .... 

Iowa 

Missouri .... 

Kansas 

Nebraska .... 

California .... 

Oregon . . , . . 

Nev., Col. andTer's 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

HORSES. MULES. 

898,900 11,800 . 

114,500 14,400 . 

614,500 24,900 . 

19,900 4,000 . 

108,600 11,300 . 

208,700 30,600 . 

144,200 74,000 . 

59-600 SI>'5°° • 

119,200 97,200 . 

22,400 11,900 , 

112,800 111,700 . 

97,200 100,000 , 

79,300 80,700 , 

618,000 180,200 . 

180,500 ... . 89,300 

323,700 99.7°^ ■ 

122,200 2,400 , 

386,900 117,800 . 

772,700 26,700 

333.800 4.3°o 

688,800 61,200 . 

:, 100,000 138,000 . 

384,400 8,700 

247,300 7,03O . 

770,700 43,400 

627,300 191,900 

275,000 50,000 

157,200 13,600 

273,000 25,700 

109,700 3,500 

250,000 25,700 , 



MILCH COWS. 
,446,200 
152,200 

82^,4oo 
23,200 
100,500 
236,200 
232,300 
131,300 
273, 100 
70,000 
215,200 
188,000 
110,900 
544,500 
187,700 
245,700 
130,500 
257,200 
714,100 
416,900 
439, 200 
702,400 
477,300 
278,900 
676,200 
516,200 
321,900 
127,600 
459,600 
1 12,400 
423,600 



It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is the -fifth State in the 
number of horses ; fifth in number of milch-cows, and the leading State in num- 
ber of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, which produces the next largest 
number. Of oxen and other cattle, Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which 
was more than any other State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,000. 
In 1879 Missouri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep, was 1,296,400. The num- 
ber of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as follows : 



STATES. NO. 

Ohio 932,878 

Indiana 622,321 

Illinois 3,214,896 

Iowa 569,763 



states. no. 

Missouri 965,839 

Wisconsin 472,108 

Kentucky 212,412 



Average weight per head for each State : 



states. pounds. 

Ohio 210.47 

Indiana 193.80 

Illinois 225-71 

Iowa 211.98 



states. pounds. 

Missouri 213.32 

Wisconsin 220.81 

Kentucky 210.11 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 63 

From the above, it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more hogs 
than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third in the average 
weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock-raising 
State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of corn and oats upon 
which the stock is largely dependent, the climate is well adapted to their growth 
and health. Water is not only inexhaustible, but everywhere convenient. The 
ranges for stock are boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent 
pasturage of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern portions 
of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, New Madrid, Law- 
rence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure but profi- 
table. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive well, and 
all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abundance and are found 
in the markets during all seasons of the year. Fruits of every variety, including 
the apple, pear, peach, cherries, apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with 
great success, as are also, the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and black- 
berry. 

The grape has not been produced, with that success that was at first antici- 
pated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a million of gallons. 
Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason why they should not be as sure- 
ly and profitably grown in a similar climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly 
in many of the counties north and east of the Missouri River. 

RAILROADS. 

Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the "iron horse" was heard for the first 
dme, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming presaged the dawn of a 
brighter and grander era in the history of the State. Her fertile prairies, and more 
prolific valleys would soon be of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, 
and the ores and minerals of her hills and mountains would be developed, and 
utilized in her manufacturing and industrials enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and commerce ; 
transportation from the interior of the State would be secured; a fresh impetus 
would be given to the growth of her towns and cities, and new hopes and inspi- 
rations would be imparted to all her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, between four 
and five thousand miles of track have been laidj additional roads are now being 
constructed, and many others in contemplation. The State is already well sup- 
plied with railroads which thread her surface in all directions, bringing her 
remotest districts into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of west- 
ern railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock, aggregat- 
ing more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded debt of about the 
same amount. 

The lines of railroads which are operated in the State are the following : 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May loth, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkansas Branch ; 
The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad. The Cairo & Fulton Railroad : The 
St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway; St. Louis & San Francisco Railway ; 
The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Railroad; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Rail- 
road ; The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad ; The Illinois, Missouri & Texas 
Railroad; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad ; The Keokuk 
& Kansas City Railway Company ; The St. Louis, Salem & Little Rock Rail- 



54 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

road Company; The Missouri & Western ; The St. Louis, Keokuk & North- 
western Railroad ; The St. Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, 
Iowa & Nebraska Railway; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad; The 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; The Burlington & Southwestern Rail- 
road. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great manufacturing 
State. She is rich in soil; rich in all the elements which supply the furnace, the 
machine shop and the planing mill; rich in the multitude and variety of her gi- 
gantic forests; rich in her marble, stone and granite quarries; rich in her mines 
of iron, coal, lead and zinc; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the 
force; rich in water power and river navigation; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their multiplied track- 
ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establishments, 
1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 80,000 hands. The cap- 
ital employed is about $100,000,000, the material annually used and worked up, 
amounts to over $150,000,000 and the value of the products put upon the markets 
$250,000,000, while the wages paid, are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, Jackson, Buc- 
hanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Green,. Lafayette, Platte, Cape Giardeau, 
and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, 
which is now about the second manufacturing city of the Union. Flouring mills 
produce annually about $38,194,000; carpentering $18,763,000; meat-packing 
$16,769,000; tobacco $12,496,000; iron and castings $12,000,000; liquors $11,- 
245,000; clothing §10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging and bags $6,914, - 
000, and maAy other smaller industries in proportion. 

GREAT BRIDGE AT ST. LOUIS. 

Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and reflect 
great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space only, to mention 
the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total length of 
which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly $8,000,000. The 
bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to the Missouri shore, and has sep- 
arate railroad tracts, roadways, and foot paths. In durability, architectural beau- 
ty and practical utility, there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that 
approximates it. , 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the Hellespont; 
of Csesar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, famous in ancient histo- 
ry, were built for miUtary purposes, that over them might pass invading armies 
with their munitions of war, to destroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, 
and to slaughter the people. 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over it are 
coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and thence are passing 
the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowding legions of men, armed not 
with the weapons of war, but the implements of peace and industry ; men who 
are skilled in all the arts of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining ; men who 
will hasten the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill the measure 
of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 55 

CHAPTER XI. 
EDUCATION. 

Puhtic School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Officers of Publii 
School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — Schools — Colleges — Institu- 
tions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspa.pers and Periodicals — No. of School Chit- 
dren — Amount Expended — Value of Grounds and Buildings — "The Press." 

The first constitution of JMissouri provided, that ' ' one school or more, shall 
be established in each township, as soon as practicable and necessary, where the 
poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day, (1820), the framers of the con- 
stitution made provision for at least a primary education, for the poorest and the 
humblest, taking it for granted that those who were able would avail themselves 
of educational advantages which were not gratuitous. 

The establishment of the public school system in its essential features, was 
not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Governor Boggs, and since 
that period, the system has slowly grown into favor, not only in Missouri, but 
throughout the United States. The idea of a free or public school for all classes 
was not at first a popular one, especially among those who had the means to pat- 
ronize private institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public 
schools, the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromising 
their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that they were to 
some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. Entertaining such preju- 
dices they naturally thought that the training received in public schools, could not 
be otherwise than defective, hence many years of probation passed, before the 
popular mind was prepared to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring 
from these institutions. 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the more 
earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legislatures, and to the 
esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander and more potent promoters of civili- 
zation, than the free school and the free press. They would indeed seem to con 
stitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the happiness and intellectual 
growth of the Republic and all that was necessary to broaden, to liberalize and 
instruct. 

"Tis education forms the common mind; 

"For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect sk'iU, 
Things to reform as right and justice will, 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union, have in practical operation the public school 
system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing materially in the 
manner and methods by which they are taught, but none have a wiser, a more 
Uberal and comprehensive machinery of instruction than Missouri. Her school 
laws since 1839, have undergone many changes, and always for the better, keep. 



56 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

ins; pvce with the most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienc- 
ed ed icators in the land. But not until 1875, ^^en the new constitution was 
adoptei, did her present admirable system of public instruction go into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African descent, 
and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices of unfriendly legisla- 
tures, or the whims of political parties. The Lincoln Institute, located at Jeffer- 
son Ci y, for the education of colored teachers, receives an annual appropriation 
trom t le General Assembly. 

F jr the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual income de- 
rived from the public school fund, which is set apart bylaw, not less than twenty- 
five p 'r cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of the interest and sinking fund, is 
annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests, are the State 
"Board of Education;" the State Superintendent; County Superintendent; 
County Clerk and Treasurer; Board of Directors; City and Town School Board : 
and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed of the State Superin- 
tendent, the Governor, Secretary of State and the Attorney General, the execu- 
tive officer of this Board, being the State Superintendent, who is chosen by the 
people every four years. His duties are numerous. He renders decisions con- 
cernin'^ the local application of school law ; keeps a record of all the school funds 
and annually distributes the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county 
school officers ; delivers lectures; visits schools ; distributes educational informa- 
tion ; grants certificates of higher qualifications; and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Superintendents are also elected by the people for two years. 
Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks and make reports. Coun- 
ty clerks receive estimates from the local directors and extend them upon the 
tax-books. In addition to this, they keep the general records of the county and 
township school funds, and return an annual report of the financial condition of 
the schools of their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gather- 
ed with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school funds 
belonging to the schools of the counties, is the county treasurer, except in coun- 
ties adopting the township organization, in which case, the township trustee 
discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are governed 
by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annually, on the second Sat- 
urday in September, and hold their office for three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school district, at the 
annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not exceeding forty per cent, on 
the one hundred dollars valuation, provided such annual rates for school purposes 
may be increased in districts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not to ex- 
ceed one dol'ar on the hundred dollars valuation ; and in other districts to an amount 
not to exceed sixty five cents on the one hundred dollars valuation, on the condi- 
tion that a majority of the voters who are tax-payers, voting at an election held to 
decide the question, vote for said increase. For the purpose of erecting public 
Ijuildings in school districts, the rates of taxation thus Umited, may be increased 
when the rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall have 
been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the qualified voters of 
such school district voting at such election shall vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect to the 
choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of all important business, 
such as the erection of a school house or the extension of a term of school beyond 
the constitutional period, they simply execute the will of the people. The clerk 
of this board may be a director. - He keeps a record of the names of all the chil- 
dren and youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one; records 



58 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

all business proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual meeting, to the 
County ClerK and County Superintendents. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or County 
Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certificates are granted upon 
personal written examinations in the common branches, together with the natural 
sciences and higher mathematics. The holder of such certificate may teach in any 
public school of the State without further examination. Certificates granted by 
County Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are suscepti- 
ble of two grades, differing both as to length of time and attainments. Those 
issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by qualification alone. 
The township school fund arises from a grant oflandby the General Government, 
consisting of section sixteen in each congressional township. The annual income 
of the township fund is appropriated to the various townships, according to their 
respective proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each district. The 
greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one per cent. ; the tax per- 
mitted for school-house building cannot exceed the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first in impor- 
tance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone county. When the 
State was admitted into the Union, Congress granted to it one entire township of 
laind (46.080 acres) for the support of " A Seminary of Learning." The lands 
secured for this purpose are among the best and most valuable in the State. 
These lands were put upon the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Missouri, where 
it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of $100,000. In 1839 by 
an act of the General Assembly, five commissioners were appointed to select a site 
lor the State University, the site to contain at least fifty acres of land in a com- 
pact form, within two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, 
Callaway or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named and the county ol 
Boone having subscribed the sum of$ii7,92i, some$i8,ooo more than any other 
county, the State University was located in that county, and on the 4th of July, 
1840, the corner-stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. There are 
still unsold about 200,000 acres of land from the grant of 1862. The donations 
to the institutions connected therewith amount to nearly $400,000. This Uni- 
versity with its different departments, is opened to both male and female and 
both sexes enjoy alike its rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, 
which form a part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching ; the Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of Mines and 
Metallurgy; the College of Law ; the Medical College; and the Department ot 
Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments are contemplated and 
will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and institu- 
tion of the State as reported by the Commissioner of Education in 1875 : 

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

Christian University Canton. 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau. 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College , Fayette. 

Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow. 

Lincoln College Greenwood. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 59 

Hannibal College Hannibal 

Woodland College ... Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder. 

La Grange College • • . . La Grange. 

William Jewell College . , _ Liberty. 

Baptist College Louisiana! 

St. Joseph College St. Joseph. 

College of Christian Brothers St. Louis. 

St. Louis University St. Louis. 

Washington University St. Louis. 

Drury College '. '. Springfield'. 

Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 

FOR SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 

St. Joseph Female Seminary St. Joseph. 

Christian College Columbia 

Stephens' College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College Palmyra. 

Linden Wood College for Young Ladies St Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 

FOR SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand River College Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rens-elaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 

SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE. 

Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) . Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 

St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) , Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School) Fulton 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St. Louis. 

SCHOOLS OF LAW. 

Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University • • . . . St. Louis. 



60 HISTORY OF MrSSOURI. 

SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 

Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia. 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph. 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children . St. Louis. 

Missouri Central College St. Louis. 

St. Louis College of Pnarmacy St. Louis. 

LARGEST PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 
NAME. LOCATION VOLUMES 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau 5,500 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School . . . Cape Girardeau 1,225 

University of Missouri . Columbia 10,000 

Athenian Society Columbia i 200 

Union Literary Society -Columbia; 1,200 

Law College Columbia 1,000 

Westminster College Fulton 5, 000 

Lewis College Glasgow 3,000 

Mercantile Library Hannibal 2,219 

Library Association Independence i.ioo 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson 1,000 

State Library Jefferson City 13,000 

Fetterman's Circulating Library . . Kansas City i,3-o 

Law Library Kansas City 3,000 

Whittemore's Circulating Library Kansas City 1,000 

North Missouri State Normal School .... Kirksville 1,050 

William Jewell College Liberty 4,000 

St. Paul's College Palmyra 2,000 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy . . Rolla 1,478 

St. Charles Catholic Library St. Charles 1,716 

Carl Frielling's Library St. Joseph 6,000 

Law Library St. Joseph 2,000 

Public School Library . . . St. Joseph 2,500 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library . . .St. Joseph 1,500 . 

Academy of Science . St Louis 2,744 

Academy of Visitation St. Louis 4,000 

College of the Christian Brothers St. Louis 22,000 

Deutsche Institute St. Louis 1,000 

German Evang. Lutheran, Concordia Col. ege. St. Louis 4,8co 

Law Library Association . . . . .St. Louis 8,000 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis 1,000 

Mrs. Cuthberts Seminary (Young Ladies) . St. Louis 1,500 

Odd Fellows Library St. Louis 4,000 

Public School Library St. Louis 40,097 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis 1,100 

St. Louis Mercantile Library St. Louis 4 5, 000 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis 2,000 

St. Louis Turn Verein St. Louis 2,000 

St. Louis University St. Louis ....... 17,000 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 61 

NAME. , LOCATION^ VOLUMES. 

St. Louis University Society Libraries . . . .St Louis 8, ooo 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis 2,000 

Washington University St. Louis 4,500 

St. Louis Law School St. Louis 3,000 

Young Men's Sodality St. Louis i 327 

Library Association Sedalia 1,500 

Public School Library Sedalia 1,015 

Drury College Springfield 2,000 

IN 1880. 
Newspapers and Periodicals 481 

CHARITIES. 

State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb Fulton. 

St. Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb St. Louis. 

Institution for the Education of the Blind St. Louis. 

State Asylum for Insane Fulton. 

State Asylum for the Insane St. Louis. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Normal Institute Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) . Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) Jefferson City. 

City Normal School St. Louis. 

Missoiiri State Normal School Warrensburg. 



Number of School Children 

IN 1878. 

Estimated value of School Property $8,321,399 

Total Receipts for Public Schools 4,207,617 

Total Expenditures 2,406,139 

NUMBER OF TEACHERS. 

Male Teachers 6,239; average monthly pay $36.86. 

Female. Teachers 5, 060; average monthly pay 28.09. 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and seventy-one 
newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants are not only a reading and 
reflecting people, but that they appreciate ' ' The Press, " and its wonderful influ- 
ence as an educator. The poet has well said : 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance, 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance. 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress- 
Mightiest of mighty is the Press. 



62 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

CHAPTER XTI. 
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

Baptist Church— Its History— Con^e^ational— When Founded— Its History— Christian Church 
—Its History— Cumberland Presbyterian Church— Its History— Methodist Episcopal Chweh 
—Its History— Presliyterian Church— Its History— Protestant Episcopal Church— Its History 
—United Presbyterian Church— Its History— Unitanan Church— Its History— Roman Cuth 
olic Church — Its History. 

The first representatives of religious thought and training, who penetrated 
the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, La Salle and others 
of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary labor among the Indians. A 
century afterward came the Protestants. At that early period 

"A church in every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads." 

constituted for a time, their only house of worship, and yet to them 

"No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered along the 
shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and western boundaries of 
the State, and still a little later they were sown upon her hill-sides and broad 
prairies, where they have since bloomed and blossomed as the rose. 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The earliest An ti- Catholic religious denomination, of which there is any 
record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through the efforts of 
Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. In 1816, the first associa- 
tion of Missouri Baptists was formed, which was composed of seven churches, all 
of which were located in the southeastern part of the State. In 181 7 a second 
association of churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name 
being afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834, a general conven- 
tion of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard County, for 
the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which time, was commenced 
what is now known, as the "General .Association of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body, is committed the State mission work, denominational educa 
tion, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. The Baptist 
Church has under its control, a number of schools and colleges, the most import 
ant of which is William Jewell College, located at Liberty, Clay County. As 
shown by the annual report for 1875, there were in Missiouri, at that date, sixty- 
one associations, one thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty- 
four ministers and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the State in 
1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, and Rev. Daniel 
Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by the Massachusetts Congrega- 
tion Home Missionary Society during that year, and in November, 1814, they 
preached the first regular Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Rev. Salmon Gid- 
dings, sent out under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 63 

Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, consisting often members, 
constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized by Mr. Giddings were all 
Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, when the 
"First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis" was organized. The 
next church of this denomination was organized at Hannibal in 1859. Then 
followed a Welsh church in New Cambria in 1864, and after the close of the war, 
fifteen churches of the same order were formed in different parts of the State. 
In 1866, Pilgrim Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, to Gener- 
al Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis District Associations 
were formed, and following these, were the Kansas City and Springfield District 
Associations. This, denomination in 1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 
church members, and had also several schools and colleges and one monthly 
newspaper. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Callaway, 
Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. The first church 
was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. Fife. The first State Sunday 
School Convention of the Christian Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Be- 
sides a number of private institutions, this denomination has three State Institu- 
tions, all of which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance 
of pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, '■'The Christian," 
which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The membership of this 
church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in the State and is increasing 
rapidly. It has more than five hundred organized churches, the greater portion 
of which are north of the Missouri River. 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

In the spring of r820, the first Presbytery of this denomination west of the Mis- 
sissippi, was organized in Pike County. This Presbytery included all the territory 
of Missouri, western Illinois and Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two 
of whom resided at the time in Missouri. There are now in the State, twelve 
Presbyteries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty thou- 
sand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. They have a 
number of Hig 1 Schools and two monthly papers published at St. Louis. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent out to the 
"Western Conference" which then embraced the Mississippi "Valley, from Green 
County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. Travis organized a number of small 
churches. At the close of his conference year, he reported the result of his 
labors to the Western Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and 
showed an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had been formed, 
and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and members constantly in- 
creased, until 1812, when what was called the Western Conference *v as divided 
into the Ohio and Tennessee Conferences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee 
Conference. In 1816, there was another division when the Missouri Annual Con- 
ference was formed. In 1810, there were four traveUng preachers and in- 1820, 
fifteen traveling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the territory of 
the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri Conference includ- 
ed only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling preachers, 177 local ministers 
and 13,992 church members. Between 1840 and 1850, the church was divided 



64 HISTORY OF MIS-OURl. 

by the organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the mem- 
bership of the M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten 
years the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 274 
church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church, South, reported 443 
church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomination has linder its control 
several schools and colleges and two weekly newspapers. 

PRESBY PERIAN CHURCH. 

The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of their missionary efforts in 
the State as far back as 1814 but the first Presbyterian Church was not organized 
until 18 1 6 at Bellevue settlement eight miles from St Louis. The next churches 
were formed in 1816 and in 1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Pres- 
byterian Church was organized in St. Louis in 1817, by Rev. Salmon Giddng. 
The first Presbytery was organized in 181 7 by the Synod of Tennessee with four 
ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house of worship (which 
was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1719 and completed in 1826. In 
1820 a mission was formed among the Osage Indians. In 183 r, the Presbytery 
was divided into three : Missouri, St. Louis and St. Charles. These were erected 
with a Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In i860 the 
rolls of the Old and New School Synods together showed 109 ministers and 146 
churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was divided on political questions 
springing out of the war — a part forming the Old School, or Independent Synod 
of Missouri, who are connected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the 
Old and New School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has stead- 
ily increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more than 220 
churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its control one or 
two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. That part of the origi- 
nal Synod which withdrew from the General Assembly remained an independent 
body until 1874 when it united with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The 
Synod in 1875 numbered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has 
under its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The Si. 
Louis Presbyterian, a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of the Synod. 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 1819, when 
a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, an agent of the" Do- 
mestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the city, who reported the condi- 
tion of things so favorably that Rev. Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary 
and in 1825, he began his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed 
in 1830. In 1836, there were five clergyman of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boouville, Fayette, St. Charles, Hannibal 
and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in convention, a diocese 
was formed, a constitution and canons adopted, and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, 
he beinp, the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks. 

Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was founded near 
St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of pecuniary troubles. In 
1847, the Qlark Mission began and in 1849 the Orphans Home, a charitable in- 
stitution was founded. In 1865, St. Luke's Hospital was estabhshed. In 1875, 
there were in the city of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve cler- 
gymeh. This denomination has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

This denomination is made up of the member of the Associate and Associate 
Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two bodies united in 1858, taking 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 65 

the name of United Presbyterian Church of North America. Its members were 
generally bitterly opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation 
was organized at Warrensburg, Johnson county in 1867. It rapidly increased in 
numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred members. 

UNITARIAN CHURCH. 

This church was formed in 1834, by Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. Louis. The 
churches are few in number throughout the State, the membership being probably 
less than 300, all told. It has a mission house and free school, for poor children, 
supported by donations. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri shows that 
Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Gene,vieve, in 1760, and in 
St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Meurin erected a small log church in St. 
Louis. In 1818, there were in the State, four chapels, and for Upper Louisiana, 
seven priests. A college and seminary were opened in Perry county about this 
period, for the education of the young, being the first college west of the Missis- 
sippi River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now known as 
the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was appointed Bishop of St. 
Louis, and, through his instrumentality, the Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. 
Joseph and of the Visitation were founded, besides other benevolent and charita- 
ble institutions. In 1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches 
were built in different portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created an 
arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Arch-Bishop. 

In Kansas City there are five parish churches, a hospital, a convent and sev- 
eral parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of the State was erected 
into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, and Right-Reverend John J. 
Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, in 1875, ^^ the City of St, Louis, 34 
churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female pro- 
tectorates. There were also 105 priests, 7 male, and 13 female orders, and 20 
conferences of St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, 
outside of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, about 120 
priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of St. Joseph there were, 
in 187s, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, i college, i monastery, 5 convents 
and 14 parish schools. 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1878 " 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 18,010 

Number of Pupils in 1878 139,578 

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 

Iristruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection with col- 
legiate study, or in special theological courses, at : 

Central College, (M. E. South) Fayette. 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) Warrenton. 

Christian Univesity (Christian) Canton. 

Concordia College Seminary (Envangehcal Lutheran) Si. Louis. 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Glasgow. 

St. Vincent's College (Roman Catholic) Cape Girardeau. 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) . . ; Liberty. 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 



History of Jackson County. 



CHAPTER I. 
NAME AND LOCATION. 



Different Counties Named Jackson— Most Favored County in the Union— The Area and Exact 
Geographical Position — General Observations for the Reader. 

In honor of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, 
this county received its name. There are twenty counties in the Union bearing 
the same distinguished appellation, but Jackson county, Missouri,_ with her 85,- 
000, has nearly twice the population of Jackson county, Michigan, which is 
second in point of inhabitants. Of these twenty counties the one in Oregon, 
bordering on California is much the largest in extent, having an area of 11,000 
square miles, but a population in 1870 of only 4,778, and while Jackson county, 
Missouri, is the first in wealth and population, it is eleventh in area. Twenty- 
three post offices in the several States and Territories are known by the name of 
Jackson, and many others by the name of Jacksonville, Jackson Station, Jackson 
Valley, etc. It seems to have been a favorite custom to christen a new county 
or town with the name of some distinguished man, especially one who at that 
time stood prominent before the people. We have twenty eight counties, and 
thirty four post-towns and villages named Washington, and during the last twenty 
years not a State or Territory has been organized which does not contain the 
name of Lincoln. In this State we have counties bearing the immortal names of 
Washington, Webster, Clay, Douglas, Frankhn, Lafayette, Lincoln, Jefferson, 
Green, Warren, and many more, and although it is said "there is nothing in a 
name," in many instances a name means a great deal. It frequently carries with 
it a whole history. Names are sometimes given to towns and counties by ac- 
cident; sometimes they originate in the childish caprice of some one individual. 
Those counties and cities of our State, however, which were named' after distin- 
guished individuals, or to commemorate great national events or to perpetuate the 
memory of aboriginal tribes, as Jackson, Independence, and Kansas' City, have 
real significance. The name of its principal river and the State itself are among 
the almost numberless examples of the significance of names with which our 
language is enriched. 

The State had been admitted into the Union, and in the course of a few 
years all the best tracts of land had been taken along the Mississippi River and 
far up the Missouri. The county next east which now bears the name of La- 
fayette had been organized in 1820 and named Lillard; the pioneer pressed west- 
ward and it was supposed when he reached the mouth of the Kaw, that this 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 67 

would be at the extreme limit of civilization for many years to come ; but still, 
" westward the course of empire takes it way." 

The period during which a large portion of Missouri was settled, and during 
which the county was organized, was a period of great events in the history of 
our country. In the latter part of 1817 a war with the Seminole Indians broke 
out. General Jackson was sent against Jhem, and speedily brought them to.terms, 
and for sixteen years thereafter Jackson's name was one of the most prominent in 
the nation. In his annual message to Congress, December, 1823, the president 
alluding to the Spanish colonies of America, recently recognized as sovereign 
powers promulgated the famous " Monroe Doctrine." 

In 1820 a violent debate arose in Congress on the question of admitting Mis- 
souri as a slave-State and then the world renowned Missouri Compromise was 
effected. 

In 1824 Lafayette came to the United States as the guest of the nation 
whose independence he had assisted in gaining with his blood and his fortune. 
The presidential campaii^n of 1824 had four candidites in the field, Jackson, 
Adams, Crawford and Clay, and although Jackson received a plurality of the 
electoral college, yet the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams 
president. The fiftieth anniversary of the national independence, July 4, 1826, 
was made memorable by the deaths of two eminent American patriots, John 
Adams and Thomas Jefferson. In 1827 occurred the controversy in reference to 
the Creek Lands in Georgia. The vexed question of tariff agitated the country 
in 1828, and the most intense and bitter party strife entered the presidential 
campaign that fall that the country has ever experienced, and resulted in the 
election of Jackson president. Daring the greater part of Jackson's administra- 
tion the Republic was agitated from center to circumference by grave and im- 
portant questions championed by the eloquence and statesmanship of Webster, 
Clay and Calhoun. Indian wars, Nullification and the United States Bank were 
also before the people. 

These are some of the leading events transpiring in the nation at or near 
the time when the county was born and christened. 

Andrew Jackson was born in North Carolina March 5, 1767, and died near 
Nashville, Tennesee, June 8, 1845. The distinguishing features and prominent 
events in this great man's life are too well known by all to need further reference 
here, but it is no wonder the future greatness of this county was presaged by our 
fathers with his great name. 

Jackson county is located on the extreme western border of Missouri, 160 
miles from the south line, and 112 miles from the north line of the State. It is 
bounded on the north by Clay and Ray counties separated by the Missouri River, 
on the east by Lafayette and Johnson, on the south by Cass county and west by 
Johnson county, Kansas. The area is exactly 385,404 acres or 6o24- square miles. 
It boundaries are more exactly defined in the following: Beginning at the con- 
fluence of the Kaw (Kansas) and Missouri Rivers and running due south on the 
line dividing the States of Missouri and Kansas to a point 18.86 miles from the 
starting point the southwest corner of the county is reached; thence due east on 
the line dividing the counties of Jackson and Cass to southeast corner of section 
thirty-three (33), township forty-seven (47) north of the Base Line, and range 
twenty-nine (29) west of the Fifth Principal Meridian, a distance of 26.27 miles 
the southeast corner of the county is established ; thence north on the line divid- 
ing Jackson from Johnson and Lafayette to the Missouri River a distance of 
21.57 miles , thence in a westerly course following the meanderings of the river a 
distance of forty miles to the point of starting. 

The south and east Unes were run by the land surveyors who surveyed most 
of the country in this vicinity, at a magnetic variation of from 7° 30' to 9°, and 
the west line of the county was established by the conraission appointed to locate 



68 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the western boundary of Missouri, September 23d, 1823, at the true variation of 
11° 8'. The latitude of the mouth of the Kaw (Kansas) river, is exactly 39 4 , 
that of Kansas City and Independence being the same. The longitude ot Kan- 
sas City is 94° 30' west. . , . 

Beginning at the south-east corner of Jackson county, for a distance ot six 
miles Johnson county forms its eastern l?oundary, the remaining 15.57 miles to 
the Missouri River is the dividing line between Lafayette and Jackson begin- 
ning with the north-east corner of Jackson county, the Missouri forms the boundary 
line between Ray and Jackson for a distance of nine or ten miles, and for the re- 
mainder of the distance it separates Jackson and Clay counties. The center of 
Jackson county is two hundred and seventy miles a little north of west of St. 
Louis by the shortest railroad line. By the Missouri Pacific Railroad, Kansas Lity 
is two hundred and eighty-two miles from St. Louis, and one hundred and fifty- 
seven miles from Jefferson City. By the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Rail- 
road, Kansas City is five hundred and thirty miles from Chicago. By the Chicago 
and Alton Railroad, the distance is four hundred and eighty-nine miles. At Kan- 
sas City, the north-west corner of the county, the Missouri River makes a great 
bend from the south to the east, and from thence pursues an easterly course till it 
unites its waters with the Mississippi. No other county in the State is. so favor- 
ably located as Jackson. It is in the heart of the best agricultural region in the 
Missouri Valley, and enjoys the center of traffic for western Missouri and eastern 
Kansas. Situated as it is in the exact geographical center of the Republic, north 
and south, and only a few miles east of the geographical center east and west, and 
possessing natural and developing resources superior to all other sections of the 
country, ^he future greatness of Jackson county is almost beyond our comprehen- 
sion. Having referred at sufficient length to the name and location of the county 
we now proceed with a few general observations, which will be found of service 
to the reader. The difficulty of compiHng a history of Jackson county, we do 
not underestimate. 

The importance of the work becomes more and more apparent as, in passing 
from one county to another, we become more and more deeply impressed by the 
fact ihat there exists throughout the several counties of the State a deplorable, if 
not a reprehensible ignorance of those events which form the staple of local his- 
tory, in which consist the data for determining the ratio of material progress and 
which form the sole basis for estimating the social, mental and moral conditions of 
the present. The difficulty of the task consists, to a large extent, in the fact that 
the events to be treated, while they have to do with the past, are so intimately 
interwoven with the present, that they are a part of it. The writer of history, as 
a general rule, deals wholly with the affairs of past generations, and his aim is to 
pause when he arrives at the realm bounded by the memory of men now living. 
The whole field of our investigations lies inside that boundary line, as there are, 
doubtless, some who will peruse these pages, who have witnessed and acted a part 
in the events which we shall attempt to narrate. 

The first settlement in the county was made in 1808, and there continued to 
be new arrivals from that time until the organization of the county, December 
15th, 1826. More importance attaches to the first few, than to the many who 
came subsequently. The history properly dates from its organization, and taking 
that date as a beginning, thgre is a period of fifty-five years since then, and some 
who were here at that time or came shortly after, still live, and have been critical 
observers of passing events, even as they will be critical readers of the following 
pages. And such, while they have grown old in body by reason of the hardships 
and privations incident upon a life of more than ordinary activity and trial, have 
not grown old in mind. Each one of such knows the history of the county ; and 
be it said with due reverence for their hoary heads and bended forms, each one 
knows that history better than any one else. Such readers are very uncharitable 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 69 

critics : and a work of this kind absolutely accurate in all its details and particu- 
lars, were it within the power of human ability to make such a work, would un- 
doubtedly be pronounced by many well-meaning and honest persons, faulty and 
untrustworthy. This results fn.m the fact that fifty-five years, though not a long 
period in the history of the world, is a long time in the past life of an individual. 
Events occurring at that length of time in the past we think we know perfectly 
well, when the fact is, we know them very imperfectly. This is proved and illus- 
trated by the reluctancy and hesitation manifested invariably by old settlers when 
called upon to give the details of some early transaction ;. the old setder usually 
hesitates before giving a date, and after having finally settled down upon the year 
and month when a certain event occurred, will often come to you in less than a 
day and request the privilege of correcting the date. In the meantime you. have 
found another old settler who was an eye-witness of the act in question, and the 
date he will give you does not correspond with the first date, nor the corrected- 
date as given by the first old settler. 

We have noticed the same uncertainty in regard to other details of a particu- 
lar transaction, such for instance, as an early election, whether Mr. A was the 
successful or defeated candidate; and in regard to an altercation whether Jones or 
Smith was the aggressor. 

There is, at this time, living in a neighboring county, a noble old gray-head 
ed man, whose pioneer feet trod close to the tracks of the receding red man ; who 
has held many offices of honor and trust, and although life has lost none of its 
charms, he would rather die than utter an untruthful word or commit a dishonor- 
able deed. It appeared from the official record that at an early day he held the 
office of county surveyor, and the fact having been made public in a work of this 
kind, he sought out the writer and informed him that the statement was incorrect ; 
that not he but a certain Mr. B. had been elected to the position named at the 
time mentioned. He clung tenaciously to his position and refused to recede from 
it even when the poll book was produced confirming the statement of the writer. 
To this day, the old gentleman firmly believes that Mr. B. and not himself was 
county surveyor in 1849, although in addition to the evidence of the poll book, 
was the evidence of the county plat book where were certified over his signature, 
the surveys of at least three different towns. There are some marked exceptions, 
but as a rule, the memory of the old settler is untrustworthy; his idea of the gen- 
eral outlines are generally correct, but no one who puts the proper estimate upon 
his mental faculties when they are impaired by age and weakened by the many 
infirmities of years, will trust his memory in the arbitrament of questions of partic- 
ulars and details. 

The historian who goes into a county possessed of none of the information, 
which those have after years of residence, works at a great disadvan tage in sever- 
al respects. At first he knows not whom to consult or where to find important 
records, he must necessarily spend considerable time in learning what others al- 
ready know. He, however, possesses advantages which'more than outweigh his 
disadvantages : he enters upon his work with an unbiased mind. He has no 
friends to reward and no enemies to punish, his mind is not preoccupied and 
prejudiced by reports which may have incidentally come into his possession while 
transacting the ordinary affairs of business, and when, in addition to this, he is 
much better qualified for the task, and to discriminate between statements, seem- 
ingly of equal weight than those who immediately or remotely are interested 
parties and whose regular employment lies in other fields of industry. This is 
true, even though the former be a total stranger and the latter have become famil- 
iar with men and things by many years of intercourse and acquaintance. He is 
best judge and best juror who is totally unacquainted with both plaintiff and de- 
fendant, and he is best qualified to arbitrate between conflicting facts of his- 
tory, who comes to the task without that bias which is the price one must pay for 



70 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

acquaintanceship and familiarity. The best history of France was written by an 
Englishman, and the most authentic account of American institutions was written 
by a Frenchmen, and it remained for an American to write the only authentic his- 
tory of the Dutch Republic. 

The American people are much given to reading, but the kind of reading is 
such that in reference to many it may truthfully be said, that "truth is stranger 
than fiction." Especially is this the case with respect to those facts of history be- 
longing to one's own immediate county and neighborhood. This is, perhaps, not 
so much the fault in every instance of the" reader as the bookmaker. Books, 
as a rule, are made to sell, and in order that a book may have a large sale, its 
matter must be of such general character as to be applicable to general, rather 
than particular conditions— to station and State rather than to county and town- 
ship. 

Thus it is, that no histories heretofore published pertain to matters of county 
and neighborhood affairs, for, such books, in order to have a sale over a large 
extent of territory, must necessarily be very voluminous and contain much matter 
of no interest to the general reader. The fault, however, belongs not wholly to 
the book pubhsher; it lies partly at the door of the people themselves. Things 
are regarded great in proportion as they are far off. " Distance lends enchant- 
ment to the view." Like a lens of wonderful power of refraction, it makes events 
important in proportion as they are far away. The fact is illustrated by the 
thousands who annually leave America for a journey through Europe. The in 
convenience, the expense and the danger of an ocean voyage are cheerfully 
endured by the tourist in order that he may view the mountains and rivers of 
Germany and Italy, whilst loftier peaks, larger rivers, higher cataracts and broad- 
er plains at home conspire to make American scenery grander and more magnifi- 
cent by far than any European scenery, and the thousands who cross the Atlantic 
to view the Rhine, know nothing of their own beautiful Hudson or grand Mis- 
souri; they become ecstatic at the prospect from the Alps when their own homes 
are in the shadow of loftier mountains. It is the same with men as with great 
events and grand scenery; the great man is usually in the distance, and now, as 
eighteen hundred years ago, it is true that " A prophet is not without honor save 
in his own country." The same is true of books. For many years after the settle- 
ment of America, no book was regarded as worth reading which had not been pub- 
lished in London or Edinburg and contained a certain quahty of matter. In more 
recent times, no book could be sold which was not published in New York or 
Boston. Owing to the enterprise of western authors, and intrepidity of certain 
western publishers, the fact has been demonstrated recently, that a book worth 
reading, may be written and printed west of the Alleghany Mountains, and peo- 
ple are beginning to realize that right in their own state and in their own county 
are to be found materials for the making of books, the reading of which will afford 
more interest and profit than those books which are concerned with times and places 
more remote. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 71 

CHAPTER II. 
PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Names and Description of Water Courses — The Surface — Beautiful Land — Timber, etc. 

Big Blue — There are in Jackson county four considerable creeks and some 
other smaller streams. Nearly all have a general course north and discharge their 
waters into the Missouri. The largest, Big Blue, rises in the south-eastern corner 
of Johnson county, Kansas, and at first taking a north-easterly course, immedi- 
ately enters this county at the south-west corner of Washington township ; it then 
follows a course nearly north across the whole township of Washington, forms the 
dividing line between Brooking and Westport townships, then between the town- 
ships of Blue and Kaw and forms a confluence with the Missouri six miles below 
Kansas City. It has a deep channel and rapid current. On both sides for near- 
ly its whole course there is timber of good quality, and outcropping from the 
bluffs building stone is found in endless quantities. 

Brush creek, one of its principal ti'ibutaries, also rises in Johnson county, 
Kansas, flows east across the center of Westport township and forms a junction 
with the Big Blue about six miles from its mouth. 

Little Blue — This creek has a longer course than any other stream flowing 
over the surface of Jackson county. It rises in Cass county near the Kansas line, 
and taking a north-easterly course, trav.erses Jackson county its entire length 
through the geographical center of the same. It separates Washington from Prai- 
rie township, Prairie from Brooking, then flows through the eastern part of Brook- 
ing and the southern part of Blue, after which it separates Sni-abar and Fort 
Osage from Blue township. Its tributaries are East Fork and Clear Creek, both 
of which join it near the center of the county from the east. There is consider- 
able timber along its lower course but from the center of the county south, timber 
is not plenty. . 

Fire Prairie Creek— \n Sni-a-bar township this'^creek rises and flows north and 
east into Lafayette county and thence into the Missouri. It has numerous tribu- 
taries but all are small. 

Sni-a-bar Creek — Rises close by the little town of Lone Jack near the southeast 
corner of the county in Van Buren township, flows north into Sni-a-bar township, 
thence east into Lafayette county and finally discharges its waters into the 
Missouri. 

Big Creek — Rises near Lee's Summit in Prairie township, flows south into Cass 
county, thence south east, finding its way into the Osage River a little distance 
above Warsaw, in Benton county. Rock Creek one of the most noted creeks in 
the county, though small, forms its head waters south-west of Independence, 
flows north and empties into the Missouri a short distance below the mouth of 
Big Blue. * There are still other small creeks in the county and among them we 
mention Spring, Bryan's, Camp, Mouse, Big Cedar and Little Cedar. 

Numbering by counties, Jackson is the eighth from the Arkansas line, and 
the sixth from the Iowa State line. It is on very near the same parallel of lati- 
tude as Annapolis, Md., and Cincinnati, O., being about 39° north. , It consists 
of nine civil townships, equal in area to a little more than sixteen and a half Con- 
gressional townships. The civil townships as now constituted are as follows : 
Blue, Fort Osage, Sni-a-bar, Van Buren, Prairie, Washington, Brooking, West- 
port and Kaw. None of these correspond to the regular Congressional town- 
ships as is customary in the newer States. The boundaries in most cases follow 



72 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the course of some creek or river, and on this account the lines of these town- 
ships are very irregular. The present arrangement of townships, all things 
considered, is as good as could be made. The Missouri River makes a regular 
division of the northern part of the county into civil townships impracticable. It 
must not be supposed, however, that the present sub-division of the county into 
civil townships has been such from the beginning ; on the contrary it has been 
the growth of years and has only become possible in more recent times. Origi- 
nally the first settlements were the basis for the formation of the first townships, 
and new townships were formed from time to time as the county settled up, and 
such organizations became possible. The sub-divisions of the county into civil 
townships as they originally existed together with the subsequent changes is a 
matter which forms a very interesting and important part of the county's history. 
It will be treated more fully elsewhere. The surface of the county is an undulat- 
ing plane, there being, however, several marked elevations and depressions in 
the vicinity of the Missouri River and the creeks. The surface in most places is 
far from being flat, and there is a perfect system of natural drainage. From some 
of the highest points the eye commands views of exquisite loveliness, embracing 
the silvery course of river and creek, the waving foliage of trees, the undulating 
surface of the prairie, with cultivated farms, farm houses — from the log hut of the 
first settler, to the brick or painted houses and barns of the more advanced culti- 
vaters of the soil, and the palatial mansions of the wealthy capitalist. 

A writer of considerable reputation and a close student of natural history, 
says: 

"The real beauty of this section can hardly be surpassed; undulating prai- 
ries, interspersed with open groves of timber, and watered with pebbly or rocky 
streams, pure and transparent, with bariks spotted here and there with timber and 
again with green sward of the prairie — there are the ordinary features of the land- 
scape. For centuries, the successive annual crops have accumulated organic 
matter on the surface to such an extent, that the succession, even of exhausting 
crops will not materially impoverish the land." 

Jackson county is well watered, as before stated, by many streams, the prin- 
cipal being the Missouri River. All the streams are timbered, especially in the 
northern portions of the county. The surface of the earth in some portions is quite 
broken and uneven, but as these portions are generally covered with timber, they 
are none the less valuable. In other parts of the county, the land near the 
streams is rather level in some places, but the very superior system of drainage 
renders it unsurpassed for agricultural purposes. The high table lands away 
from the streams are unsurpassed for fertility. The "divides," as they are called, 
embrace three belts of land about ten miles wide and extending the whole . 
length of the county north and south. This, as well as the county generally, is 
settled by thrifty, enterprising and industrious citizens. The soil is chiefly a rich 
loam of vegetable deposit with a porous subsoil. The depth of the vegetable de- 
posit, which has been accumulating for ages, varies from two to six feet, and 
is inexhaustible in fertility. The ease with which the soil is cultivated, is an 
important item to the farmer. One man with team can tend from forty to sixty 
acres of corn. There is very little waste land in the county. Such 'portions as 
are not well adapted to the cultivation and growth of wheat, corn and other ce- 
reals are the best for grazing lands. The county presented to the first settlers an 
easy task in subduing the wild land. Its broad prairies in the south were fields 
almost ready for the planting of the crop, and its rich black soil seemed to be await- 
ing impatiently the opportunity of paj'ing rewards in the shape of abundant crops 
as a tribute to the labors of the husbandman. The farms of Jackson county are 
generally large, unbroken by sloughs and without other obstructions such as 
stumps and boulders, but they are excellently well cultivated. Corn planters, 
reaping machines, mowers and all kinds of labor-saving machinery can be used 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 73 

with great ease. The prairie of the county is gently rolling throughout its whole 
extent. The timber is of a good quality, but the original growth has, to a con- 
siderable extent, disappeared in some parts. 



The first settlements of the county were invariably made in the timber or 
contiguous thereto. The early settlers so chose both as a matter of necessity 
and convenience. The presence of timber aided materially in bringing about an 
early settlement, and it aided in two ways : first, the county had to depend on 
emigration from the older settled States of the East for its population, and espe- 
cially Kentucky and Tennessee. These States originally were almost covered 
with dense forests, and farms were made by clearing off certain portions of the 
timber. Almost every farm there, after it became thoroughly improved, still re- 
tained a certain tract of timber commonly known as "the woods." The woods is 
generally regarded as the most important part of the farm, and the average farmer 
regarded it as indispensable. When he emigrated west, one objection. to Jackson 
county was the scarcity of timber, and he did not suppose that it would be possi- 
ble to open up a farm on the bleak prairie. To live in a region devoid of the 
familiar sight of timber seemed unendurable, and the average Kentuckian could 
not entertain the idea of founding a home away from the familiar forest trees. 
Then again the idea entertained by the early immigrants to Missouri, that timber 
was a necessity was not simply theoretical. The early setder must have a house 
to live in, fuel for cooking and heating purposes, and fences to inclose his claim. 
At that time there were no railroads by which lumber could be transported from 
the pineries. No coal mine had yet been opened and few if any had been 
discovered. Timber was an absolute necessity, without which material improve- 
ment was an impossibility. 

No wonder that a gentleman from the East, who in early times came to the 
prairie region of Missouri on a prospecting tour with a view of permanent location, 
returned home in disgust and embodied his views of the country in the following 
rhyme : 

"Oh! lonesome, windy, grassy place. 

Where buffalo and snakes prevail ; 
The first with dreadful looking face. 

The last with dreadful sounding tail! 
I'd rather live on camel hump, 

And be a Yankee Doodle beggar. 
Than where I never see a stump. 

And shake to deaths with fever'nager." 

The pioneers were in the main, descendants of the hardy backwoodsmen 
when that was a new country. When farms were opened in that country a large 
belt of timber was invariably reserved from which the farmer could draw his sup- 
ply of logs for lumber and fence rails for fencing, and fuel for heating and cook- 
ing purposes. Even to the present time, a farm without this accompanying patch 
of timber is exceedingly rare in those countries. 

Having from their youth up become accustomed to the familiar sight of tim- 
ber, there is no wonder that the early immigrants were dissatisfied, deprived as 
they were of the familiar sight of timber and shut off from the familiar sound of 
the wind passing through the branches of the oaks. 

In this day of railroads, herd laws, cheap lumber and cheap fuel, it is easy 
enough to open a farm and build up a comfortable home away out on the prairie, 
far from the timber. But not so under the circumstances surrounding the first 
settlers. There was no way of shipping lumber, coal mines were unknown, and 
before a parcel of land could be cultivated it was necessary to fence it. Hence, 



74 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the most important resource in the development of this western country, was the 
belts of timber which skirted the streams; and the settlers who first hewed out 
homes in the timber, while at present, not the most enterprising and progressive, 
were, nevertheless, an essential factor in the solution of the problem. 

Along either side of the various streams which flow across the country, were 
originally belts of timber; at certain ' places, generally near the mouths of the 
smaller tributaries, the belt of timber widened out, thus forming a grove, or what 
was frequently called a point, and at these points or groves were the first settle- 
ments made; here were the first beginnings of civilization ; here "began to operate 
those forces which have made the wilderness a fruitful place and caused the desert 
to blossom as the rose." 

Much of the primeval forest has been removed for the building of houses and 
the construction of fences; other portions and probably the largest part, have 
been ruthlessly and improvidently destroyed. This destruction of timber has 
been somewhat compensated by the planting of artificial groves. Among the 
most abundant of the trees originally found is the walnut, so highly prized in all 
countries for manufacturing purposes. Oaks, of several varieties, are still very 
plenty, although for many years this wood has been used for fuel. The best tim- 
ber in the State is to be found in this county. Detached groves, both natural 
and artificial, are found at many places throughout the county, which are not 
only ornamental, in that they vary the monotony, but are very useful in that they 
have a very important bearing on the climate. It is a fact fully demonstrated by 
the best authority that climate varies with the physiognomy of a country. 



CHAPTER III. 
GEOLOGY, .BOTANY AND CLIMATE. 

General Observations— Different Formations — Indications of Coal — Trees, Plants and other Pro- 
ductions — HorticuHure — Bee Culture — Climate and Health — The Jackson County Cyclone — 
Climate, Health and Disease Continued. 

A few introductory words may not be out of place at this time, and a brief 
synopsis of this chapter will doubtless benefit the reader and furnish a guide 
for the writer. In all branches of intellectual and physical labor some plan of 
operations is at first necessary. Every person who aspires to the position of an 
intelligent American citizen, capable of discharging all duties which attach to 
such a person, must read, and his reading should, if not extensive, be devoted 
to matters which particularly affect him in the proper understanding of home 
and local affairs ; he should be informed in regard to the history of his own State 
and county, he should, in brief, read just such a work as we propose to make 
the history of Jackson county. But if he should even read no more it would be 
well for him to have the facts of local Geology, Botany and Health presented in 
such a form that it may serve for reference. In this chapter we shall notice but 
briefly the most important facts in relation to these two sciences as they appertain 
to Jackson county. Jackson county might be taken as a representative county 
in the State, not only for agriculture, horticulture and internal improvements, 
but also in respect to its physical features, mineral resources, growth of forest 
trees and plants and cultivated crops of all kinds. Its soil, surface, drainage, 
salubrity of climate and other desirable qualities are not surpassed in the Union. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 75 

There are five sub-divisions of geological time, and beginning with the earliest 
formation they are named as follows : Azoic, or Archean, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, 
Cenozoic and Age of Man. The Paleozoic Time is divided into (i), the Silurian 
Age, or age of invertebrates, (2), the Devonian Age, or age of fishes, and (3), 
the Carboniferous Age, or age of the formation of coal. Mesozoic Time includes 
the Reptihan Age, or age of reptiles. The Cenozoic Time includes the Mam- 
malian Age, or age of mammals. This brings us to the Tertiary Period, or the 
geological formation which includes all the rock formations found in this county. 
The sub division of the Tertiary Period are, beginning with the lowest, the 
Eocene, the Miocene and Pliocene. The Quaternary, or time of the alluvial 
deposit ushering in the age of man is at the surface. The average thickness of 
the tertiary formation is 1,319 feet. The Quaternary, or Post tertiary formation, 
as it is sometimes called, extends to a depth in Jackson county ranging from a 
few feet to 150 feet. This last formation includes the bluff, or Loess formation, 
also the alluvial deposits and soils above the tertiary rocks, The Quaternary in- 
cludes three periods; i, the Glacial, or the Drift; 2, the Champlain, and 3, the 
Recent, or Terrance. 

The following general vertical section of coal-measure rocks below the Jack- 
son county group is taken from the geological survey of Missouri for 1872. Be- 
ginning with the top rock at Kansas City and Independence, a strata thirty feet 
thick of irregularly bedded gray and buff thin bedded limestone, then blue clay 
shales with ochre concretions twenty-five feet thick, bluish gray limestone containing 
■ large fossils, five feet thick, blue and bituminous shales two feet, even bed of cor- 
alline limestone one foot, blue shales within upper part, five feet, drab lime- 
stone nine feet, blue and olive shales five feet, nodular and buff shales two feet, 
irregularly bedded bluish drab limestone three feet, fossils eighteen feet, shales 
fifteen feet, blue limestone with fossils fourteen feet, blue clay shales two and one- 
half feet, rotten coal four inches, very dark blue silicious limestone with lenticu- 
lar forms and concretionary beds of black chert with numerous fossils especially 
in upper (art, nine feet, fine-grained dove and drab-colored limestone with calcite 
specks throughout, nine feet four inches, shales five inches, irregularly bedded 
drab and blue limestone with some chert concretions and has buff shaly partings 
with fossils, three feet eight inches, blue shales five inches, concretionary ash-blue 
limestone fourteen inches, blue shales eleven inches, bituminous shales one foot, 
seven inches, clay shales, two feet, nodular and shelly fine grained limestone four 
feet, oolite limestone one foot, Bethany Falls limestone, dun and gray twenty feet, 
blue clay shales two feet, bituminous shales one foot four inches, blue clay shales 
seven inches, concretionary limestone six inches, blue clay shales two feet, gray 
and ferruginous limestone six feet, clay shales fourteen feet, calcareous sandstone 
and sandy limestone two feet." 

The above rocks have entire thickness of 240 feet. The area and thickness 
of the coal measures are obtained from the same report: The upper or barren 
coal measures of Missouri include a vertical thickness of 1087 feet. To this we 
add 180 feet of the Atchison county rocks with probably about fifty feet of rock 
not seen in Missouri which should be placed at a lower geological position than 
our Atchison county rock, thus making a total of 13 17 of upper coal measures, 
extending to the highest rock in Atchison county, and embracing an area of 8406 
square miles, including the rocks in the counties of Atchison, Holt, Nodaway, 
Andrew, Buchanan, Chnton, Dekalb, Gentry, Worth, Harrison, Daviess, Platte, 
Clay, and most of Cass, Jackson Caldwell, with limited areas in Johnson, Lafay- 
ette, Ray, Livingston, Grundy and Mercer. 

The south and last boundary of the upper coal measures is about as follows : 
Entering the State near the southwest part of Cass county, passing eastwardly, 
near Harrisonville, thence northeast across the mounds between Big Creek and 
Camp Branch, thence northeast to the middle of T. 46, R. 29, thence north to 



76 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Chapel Hill in Lafayette county, thence via Oak Grove and Pink Hill or Owens' 
Landing on the Missouri River, crossing the river, the line passes down to the 
vicinity of Albany, Ray county, thence it tends off to the north part of Ray 
county and the line of Caldwell and Livingston counties, thence northwardly 
along the ridges on the west side of the east bank of Grand River, to the line of 
Grundy and Mercer counties, and thence northwardly to Iowa State line. 
Around and without this line are occasional outlines of upper coal measure rocks, 
for instance, Center Knob at Kingsville, Johnson county, and the knobs to the 
north, the long ridge east and north of Greenton, Lafayette county, Grady's 
Knob near Wellington and hills east of Grand River, Mercer county. Within 
this border where the streams have made deep erosions, the sandstones of the 
middle coal series are often exposed for some distance up stream, as for instance, 
on Big Creek, Cass county, nearly to Jackson county line, on Little Blue, Jack- 
son county, as far up as the middle of T.48 and on Shoal Creek, Caldwell coun- 
ty, nearly to Kingston, and up the west fork of Grand River above Gallatin. 

In this great thickness of upper coal measures, only about eight thin seams 
of coal are found, amounting in the aggregate to about four feet, including one 
of ten inches, another of about a foot, two are three inches in thickness and the 
others mere streaks of one to two inches thick. 

COAL. 

Speaking more particular of coal, it may be proper first to observe that in 
the fall of 1859, a company was formed for the purpose of sinking a shaft, and 
the shares at that time were $100 each. The members of the company, so far as 
the writer can now collect, were, J. A. Lobb, R. N. Hudspeth, John Wilson, 
David Waldo, Wm. McCoy, W. N. White, N. B. Stone and M. O. Jones. 
There was no money paid in at that time neither was the company fully organiz- 
ed, and the war put an end to the undertaking before the work was done. The 
theory advanced at that time was, that coal in paying quantities had been found 
all around Jackson county, and that from the known laws of the coal measures it 
must underlie our county; but deeper than in some counties adjacent. The 
Lexington coal formation had been traced as far up the Missouri River as Napo- 
leon, where it was to be seen at low water mark, and that it still continued, was 
evidenced from the fact the floods of 1844 threw up quite a quantity of coal on 
the head of an island just below Cogswell's (now Mathews') landing. Jonathan 
Colcord hauled several loads from thence to blacksmith shops in and near Sibley. 
Some of the blocks were as large as two men could lift and the coal was said to 
be of the best quality. 

A. M. Allen, living near Cogswell's landing, about two years before the war, 
struck a layer of excellent coal about eighteen inches thick, in a well some thirty- 
five or forty feet deep, at the foot of a bluff in Fire Prairie bottom. A mile or 
two south of Mr. Allen's discovery in the hills of Fire Prairie Creek, coal has also 
been found of about the same thickness. The last mentioned formation can be 
traced through the Bone Hill country to Sni-a-bar Creek, and across the creek 
up Horse Shoe Branch to the neighborhood of Oak Grove. The next best sur- 
face indications are to be found about three miles northwest of Lone Jack, on the 
head waters of Sni-a-bar Creek, where sand rock, similar to the sand rock that 
overlies the Warrensburg coal, is to found, but no coal has been discovered or 
even prospected for at this place. Surface indications in nearly all the remaining 
portions of Jackson county are not good, and the presumption is, if we get coal 
outside of the above named localities, _ we must go deep, although there are nu- 
merous beds of shale or slate all over the county, and some of them carry a very 
thin seam of coal, as may seen in the railroad cut north of Little Blue station on 
the Missouri Pacific Railroad. 

We will now glance at the configuration of our county with reference to coal 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 77 

deposits. Stratified coal, in the carboniferous age, it is conceded, extended over 
great areas of country, and at that time the deposits were about on the same level ; 
the thickness of the deposits were not uniform, but would vary gradually at differ- 
ent places. In subsequent geologic periods the strata of the earth's surface be- 
came greatly changed, so that in some places they were wavy, in other places 
broken by faults or other depressions, and in other places, particularly in mountain- 
ous countries, they were changed by upheaval and the shrinkage of the earth into 
folds of every conceivable angle, from the horizontal to the perpendicular. 

The surface of our county gives but Uttle evidence of upheaval, hence all 
stratified formations that are in place, including the coal measures, have not 
changed their former horizontal positions abruptly, but gradually, and have gener- 
ally a wavy dip or angle of depression for consideration, and then changing the 
angle for some other direction. The dip of the stratifications in this county ap- 
pears to be toward the west or northwest, and the geologic, or rock formations at 
the water's edge Kansas City are similar to the formations on the top of Bone 
Hill in the eastern part of the county. From the foregoing it appears that if 
coal exists in the central and western portions of the county, it must lie deeper 
than it does farther east. There is presumptive evidence of its existence deep in 
the earth at Kansas City, since in all their deep borings around that place they 
strike an inflammable gas, which we cannot well account for, unless we consider 
that it arises from carboniferous deposits in that locaHty, and we know that still 
farther to the northwest the enterprising citizens of Leavenworth have developed 
coal in paying quantities some hundreds of feet below the level of the Missouri 
River. From the foregoing deductions we conclude that enterprise will develop 
coal in almost any locality in Jackson county, if there is only the purse and nerve 
to go deep enough. 

The great consideration is, can we find coal in sufficient quantities by going 
deep to obtain it. 

We cannot flatter ourselves that the stratum that appears at Lexington, un- 
less it becomes thicker, would pay in deep excavations, but the experience in 
coal mining is, that the first stratum indicates other strata below, which, as a rule, 
are thicker and of better quality ; we would also state, that since the dip of the 
coal measures in this county are toward the west or northwest, the inference ob- 
tains that the coal deposits in Jackson County are in a kind of basin, since the 
coal formations again appear at or near the surface north and west of this county. 
If this basin-like depression had commenced forming in the carboniferous period, 
which seems probable, then we may look for an increase in the thickness of the 
coal strata throughout this basin on the same principle that we look for a deeper 
soil in low situations. 

The next inquiry is, where to find the best localities for prospecting. In 
making a selection, we must not deceive ourselves because we have found a bed 
of shale or slate cropping out of a hill or ravine, or a spring of mineral water, and 
conclude that by following them into the hill we shall find coal, since we have 
good evidence, as above stated, that if we find it we must go deep — deeper per- 
haps than the bed of the Missouri River, consequently deeper than any tributary 
of that stream. In our view of the proper place to begin work, would be in the 
bottom lands of some stream, and near where such bottom lands meet the hill or 
bluff, since in such situations the formations have not been changed at any great 
distance beneath the surface by the action of water in ages past. 

This was the plan adopted at Leavenworth where they sunk their shafts at 
the fof t of the bluff and near the margin of the Missouri River. They are at 
work there on the second stratum, and although they are so near they river, they 
experience no inconvenience from an influx of water. In an enterprise like this, 
experienced men should select the site for operations with an eye to railroad facil- 
ities as well as the lay of the ground. If.coal can be found in paying quantities, 



78 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

it would undoubtedly pay better (everything else being equal) to have the works 
located near Kansas City; but we have reasons to believe that we would reach 
the coal measures sooner and at less cost east of Independence in the bottom 
lands of Little Blue or Fire Prairie Creek, where we might reasonably expect to 
strike the first or Lexington forrnation between one and two hundred feet. 

Prospecting for coal should be done by boring, the cost of which would be 
much less than the sinking of a shaft. A capital of many thousand dollars would 
be needed to purchase lands, buy and put up the necessary machinery, buildmgs 
and fixtures required to carry forward the work. 

It is perfectly reasonable to expect that the mineral wealth stored up in the 
bosom of historic old Jackson, will be utilized in the coming years of progress. 

Taking the dip of the rocks from Lexington, distance about forty miles east, 
and also the fall of the river, we may calculate (i) the dip, in a general westerly di- 
rection, which is about three feet to the mile, which would make about 120 feet 
below the river at this place, and (2) the fall of the river plus 120 feet would give 
the depth at which a good vein of coal would be found below low water mark of 
our own river frontage at Wayne City. 

We are located in what is known as the upper or barren coal measures, which 
are about 300 feet below what is known as No. 78, in the State survey, and which 
rocks outcrop of the bluff at Wayne City about iifty feet above the river, and the 
peculiar formation of the rock with their stratification and above all, the fossils 
found here, is evidence that coal is there in paying quantities, provided the bor- 
ing or shaft is sunk deep enough, which, at the elevation of the courthouse, would 
be about 700 or 800 feet. 

Mr. Thomas, an old miner, whose experience in coal digging extends to for. 
ty years under ground in the business, and who has prospected all over the 
county and found what there is in small seams, and knows well their different lo- 
calities, is sanguine that a four foot vein of coal can be had. 

It appears that we are here right o^er the deepest part of a basin of coal, as 
all around us coal is found, some places outcropping and at various depths, as 
for instance we have an eight-inch vein on Little Blue River, this is, however, an 
inferior quality; and closer to the city on Mill Creek we have a good vein of coal 
of four inches, and on Rock Creek a two-inch vein of very good bituminous coal, 
while in the bluffs at Wayne City a vein of semi-anthracite eighteen inches in 
thickness outcrops, and bu-rns with all the characteristics of the Lehigh coal and 
leaves as pure and white ash as can be found in any coal. 

Geologists give in their general sections of the upper coal measures a series 
of 224 strata of rocks, shales and clays. We here in our neighborhood have nu- 
meral order about No. 100, the public springs of Independence coming out of 
No. 98, so it can be seen from a, geological point of view, our horizon is not as 
near as in Atchison where No. 224 outcrops, and at places is 1087 feet. Where 
here it is about 245 feet, in Platte and Buchanan counties No. 159 outcrops and is 
the highest there, and has a geological elevation of 757 feet. A geological hori- 
zon must not be confounded with a geographical horizon, for the latter refers to 
the level of the earth, whereas the former refers to the upheaval of the rock, caus- 
ed by the shrinking of the earth's crust. As for instance, Independence is geo- 
logically higher than the Rocky Mountains. 

Our rocks are mostly limestone, but on the eastern part we have a carbonif- 
erous sandstone, and at Kansas City there occurs in the bluff in one strata about 
one foot of the same and about the foot of the bluff at Wayne City. No. 98 is 
the top rock at Kansas City and Parkville, and in it may be found fossils thft give 
good indications of the much sought for carbon which has called forth so much 
discussion and labor. They are unerring guides to the rich treasures lying be- 
low. Among them we find three varieties of Productus, also Terebratula bovi- 
dens, Athyris subtilita, Meekella, Myalina quadricostatus, Plerutomaria tabulata, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



79 



P, spherulata, Machrochular Chonites, Athyris and Orthis (Brachropods) and 
among the Lamellibranchs Macrodon carbonarius and Allorisma subcuneata. 
Among the Radiates we find Corals and crinoides, and varieties of fish teeth, 
notably several varieties of Petalodonts and Placoids which are abundant in a 
quarry just east of Independence. We also have the Proetus Euprops, Danse, 
Spirorbis and numerous other fossils belonging to the carboniferous age, that if 
mentioned here would take too much space. 

Stratum 98 is about thirty feet thick. We next come to bluish gray limestone. 
We find here the first and upper traces of Trilobites, PhilliDsia and other numer- 
ous fossils and scales of the Lepidodendron, transformed from their native trees 
as the epidermis of them to a beautiful sulphuret of iron, and preserving their 
shape in all their pristine beauty still luring the enthusiast on to deeper diggings 
to find what must be below, viz : Thicker and better veins of carbon which in- 
crease as we go deeper. 




WEEPING MOUNTAIN ASH. 



80 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



The following is a copy from the 
in Kansas City : 



' State Geological Survey '' of a well bored 



I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
lo 
II 

12 

13 
14 

IS 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

3° 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



Kinds of Strata. 



Drift at top of bed rock 

Fin? grained bluish limestone (78) 

Light blue clay 

Dark colored clay 

Gray limestone (No. 77) 
Dove colored clay shales .... 
Bituminous sandy clay ..... 
Clay . 



Bituipinous limestone (brown) .... 

Soapstone 

Limestone, with water and oil . . . 
Arenaceous clay (soft drab sandstone) 

Buff limestone 

Soapstone 

Clay (arenaceous) . . 

Clay and shelly coal and fossils . . . 

Blue micaceous clay 

Dark blue fine-grained sandstone . . 

Dark shales (salt water) 

Coal 



Clay with sand 

Three laminated dark shales . . . . 

Black bituminous shales 

Coal 

Clay and mud 

Mud 

Dark mottled crystalline sandstone 
Virtreous crystalline .limestone . . 



Fire clay 

Clay and limestone thrarlite 

Dark shale and coal, fossils, plants, salt water flowing 

Coal, dense and bright 

Clay and limestone 

Coarse gray sandstone, strong lime 

Gray and fine sandstone ... 

Blue clay ^ 

Clay or soapstone ... 

Sandy clay, fine grained sandy clay 

Black shale ... ; 

Coal 



2,H 





P n 


3 n 


CA 




ft. 
37 


in 


ft. 


m 








21 


... 


5« 




I 


... 


S9 




4 




63 




13 




76 




100 


... 


176 




4 




180 




84 




264 




4 


... 


268 




5 


... 


273 




18 


... 


291 




4 


... 


295 




23 


.. 


3i« 




24 




342 




23 


... 


365 




5 




370 




25 


... 


395 




37 




432 




I 


... 


433 






4 


433 


4 


10 




443 


4 


5 


8 


449 




I 


... 


45° 


b 




6 


451 




16 


6 


461 


... 


12 




479 




10 




489 


6 


3 


6 


493 


... 


7 


6 


500 


... 


119 




619 


... 


3 




622 




I 




623 


... 


S° 




673 


... 


6 




679 


... 


3 




782 


... 


I 


8 


683 


8 


16 


4 


700 


... 


34 


10 


734 


10 


10 


2 


745 


10 


13 




758 





So it would appear (from the above) that the deeper we go the thicker the 
coal, and consequently the better article. There is no doubt but if the boring 
had proceeded further, say 100 feet, a heavier vein of coal would have been 
found. The above table appears to correspond with the Leavenworth shaft be- 
fore it was sunk to its present depth. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 81 

That there is coal here there is no doubt. We have all that is required to 
positively indicate its existence ; all it wants is for capitalists to go to work and 
get enough together and let the matter be tried. There are two wells that can be 
bored deeper (the distillery and Waggoner's); they are now 300 to 400 feet deep, 
a good beginning, and by following them up it would not take long to tell wheth- 
er the matter would pay or not. Those wells wef e bored for the purpose of pro- 
curing a permanent flow, but failed as was predicted ; they cannot get a good 
flowing well here short of 1,500 or 2,000 feet, for the reason that we are at the 
bottom or eastern water shed off Pike's Peak. 

Let those who feel interested in the welfare of Jackson county, strike now, 
before the counties south stop the enterprise, by stocking the markets. 

PLANTS. 

God might have bade the earth bring forth, 
Enough for great and small. 

The oak tree and the cedar tree. 
Without a flower at all. 1 

He might have made enough, enough 
For every want of ours : 

For luxury, medicine and toil, 
And yet have made no flowers. 

Our outward life requires them not — 
Then wherefore have they birth? 

To minister delight to man. 
To beautify the earth ; 

To comfort man — to whisper hope. 
Whene'er his faith is dim ; 

For whoso careth for the flower. 
Will much more care for him. 

Jackson county is the most favored locality in the State for the successful 
growing of forest trees, evergreen trees, apple trees of all varieties, together with 
peaches, plums, pears, apricots, grapes and small fruits. All kinds of ornament- 
al and shade trees, flowers and hedges grow and flourish with only reasonable 
care and with a certainty that is not known east or west, north or south. If 
we go further south the apple will not flourish, if further north the peach is liable 
to blight ; but here, all are almost sure to do well. In the following list we give 
some of the most common native trees and plants. 

The lobelia, mint, sassafras and birthwort families furnish many species of 
plants having valuable medicinal qualities. The lilies, wild roses, cacti, wild 
honeysuckle, violets, etc., meet the eye in every wood in early spring and sum- 
mer with a profusion of rare and beautiful flowers. There is a great variety of 
valuable forage grasses, such as blue grass, foxtail grass, timothy, millet, etc. 
Many species of trees and plants are cultivated with great success which are not 
mentioned in this list. All kinds of trees, shrubs, grains and fruits adapted to 
this latitude and climate can be produced in the greatest profusion and luxuriance. 

PRODUCTS, ETC. 

The lands of Jackson county, are of the best known in the State — a rich and 
fertile bottom and upland deposit, producing everything planted. The industrious 
husbandman is amply rewarded for his labors, abundant crops greet him on 
every side. Jackson county holds out the most promising inducements to 
settlers. If you want a good house, good land, water, health, climate, plenty 
of fruit of all kinds, and good neighbors, come to this county. We have every- 



82 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

thing here that the most avaricious could desire. Nature has been liberal with 
her gifts, bestowing fertile valleys, rich uplands, abundant woods, pure streams, 
fine orchards, healthy climate and immense deposits of coal. Commerce observ- 
ing these facts, reached out with its arms of iron and steel, and embraced us. 
Numerous railroads center here conveying to and from the world articles of trade 
and traffic. We would say to you, come and behold Jackson county and its 
lands. Come and see us if you want good homes. 

THE SUB-SOILS 

of the county are generally rich in silicious marls, are strongly marked with the 
Loess characteristics, range from one to one hundred feet in depth, slack like 
quick lime on exposure to frost and atmosphere, and are an inexhaustible mine 
of productive wealth which some day will make Jackson county, and indeed, all 
Central Missouri, the classic ground of American husbandry. As a whole, the 
soils mentioned give 

THE WIDEST RANGE OF PRODUCTION 

known to modern husbandry. Every domestic product of the soil that flourishes 
between the northern limit of the cotton fields and the northern Red River, is at 
home and reaches perfection, in these soils. Jackson county is emphatically 

THE HOME OF THE GRAIN GROWERS. 

Corn, the great staple cereal of the lower Missouri Valley, gives a yield of thirty- 
five to ninety bushels per acre, depending upon soil, season and culture, and it 
is safe to estimate the total crop of the county for 1880 at 4,000,000 bushels. 
This is 

A CAPITAL WHEAT COUNTY, 

as the superior quality of the late crop fully attests. The south half of the county 
is largely underlaid with limestone, the subsoils are rich in lime, and every con- 
dition to successful wheat growing obtains in high measure. Fully 500,000 bushels 
of white winter wheat were grown in the county in 1879, and the area in wheat for 
the coming harvest, with the exceptionally fine stand, promises a yield of 1,000,- 
000 bushels. The oak and hickory soils give a yield of fourteen to thirty bushels per 
acre, and with anything like thorough culture following clover, the county would 
give an average yield of twenty-five bushels in ordinary seasons. Jackson county 
certainly presents a splendid field for ambitious wheat growers. Among 

OTHER FIELD CROPS, 

oats, barley and rye all do finely here, the former often give a yield of fifty to 
seventy-five bushels per acre. Broom corn makes a fine growth of the finest 
brush and might be made a very profitable crop. Sorghum is cultivated with 
decided profit for local use. Hungarian and millet make a wonderful growth and 
are in great favor with the best farmers. Up to a recent date, 

TOBACCO 

has been an abundant crop here, the dry, warm oak soils of the greater elevations 
producing a very superior quality of leaf, which under the treatment of old experi- 
enced Virginia cultivators made an enviable reputation in the great markets. The 
product of the county^ 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 pounds, could easily be increased 
300 per cent if the demand shall again warrant the general culture of this plant. 

FIELD AND GARDEN VEGETABLES 

fairly luxuriate in any part of the soil of this noble county, giving generous 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 83 

returns to the cultivator, who may gratify his nobler senses with a little paradise of 
vegetables, plants and blooms, with half the labor required in the east and north. 
To the credit of old Jackson be it said that 

NO FAILURE OF THE GRAIN CROP 

is recorded in her 65 years of agriculture. Extreme conditions of climate have 
sometimes shortened the export surplus of some of the cereals and grasses, but 
the bounteous soil has never faild to yield ample supply for the use of the home, 
the flocks and herds. 

HORTICULTURE. 

The people of Jackson county took an interest in the cultivation of fruits at 
an early day, and no county in the State had a local supply of all the fruits inci- 
dent to this climate at an earlier period in their history. Apples, peaches, grapes, 
pears, cherries, apricots and a number of kinds of berries all flourish in Jackson 
county. Of the earliest orchards nothing now is known but it has been the usual 
course with the farmers to plant orchards as soon as practicable after the Oiening 
of their farms, and hence Jackson became a fruit growing county before there 
was any attempt on the part of those interested in orchards to organize and so 
preserve a history of the industry. 

The first horticultural organization in Jackson county was effected on the 
1 8th day of December, 1869, at Independence, when a small number of farmers 
and fruit growers assembled at the call of Maj. F. S. Ragan for that purpose. At 
this meeting the Jackson County Horticultural Society was organized, by-laws 
adopted and officers elected. Alexander Proctor was the first president; F. S. 
Ragan, Vice-President; U. P. Bennett, Secretary, and John Bryant, Treasurer. 
The Board of Directors was composed of J. O. Blair, E. M. McGee, W. E. Mc- 
Bride, Henry Parker and A. Renick. 

At this Meeting Maj. F. S. Ragan read before the association a paper on the 
General Subject of Horticulture. 

Further meetings were held by the society in January, February, March and 
April, 1870, at which a list of apples suitable to the country was adopted. Apple, 
pear and small fruit culture was discussed. 

The society renewed its meetings the following November and at the first 
meeting the society submitted a list of apples as those so far approved by the 
society for cultivation in Jackson county. 

We append this list so that our readers may have the benefit of the experi- 
ence of those longest engaged in the culture of apples in the county : 

Early Apples — Early harvest, early pennock, golden sweet, red astrachan, 
Carolina June, sweet June, summer pearmain. 

Fall Apples— Rambo, maiden's blush, fall wine, fall pippin, pale red streak. 

Wmter Apples — Ben. Davis, Jesse Black, Wagoner, white winter pearmain, 
white pippin, wine sap, northern spy, Clayton, McAfee's, none such, Newton 
pippin (green), Peck's pleasant willow twigg, Fryer's red, Missouri pippin, Rawl's 
jenet, Huntman's favorite, Talpahockin, Ortiey, Rome beauty, Smith's cider, 
golden russet. 

At this meeting the annual election was held, at which F. S. Ragan was 
elected President and U. P Bennett, Secretary, and it was also determined at 
this meeting that part of subsequent meetings should be held on the premises of 
members from which there resulted many pleasant gatherings of the horticultur- 
ists during the spring and summer months of succeeding years. On the 29th 
of May, 1875, this society was merged into the Missouri Valley Horticultural 
Society. 

In 1870 the Missouri Valley Grape Growers' Association was organized, for 
the purpose of fostering the cultivation of the grape. It held three meetings in 



84 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

1870 and 187 1, two of which were held at Leavenworth and one at St. Joseph. 
Its fourth meeting was held in Kansas City, in September, 1872, during the Kan- 
sas City Exposition, and in the Fine Art Hall of that association. At this time, 
Major F. S. Ragan, of Independence, was its president. At this meeting it was 
merged into the Missouri Valley Horticultural Society, which had been organ- 
ized in 1868, of which J. C. Evens, of Clay county, is now president, a,nd L. A. 
Goodman, of Jackson county, secretary. 

The Missouri Valley Horticultural Society has followed the habits of the 
Jackson county society, and holds monthly meetings, partly at the residences of 
the members, for about five months in the year. At these meetings essays are 
read on topics connected with the fruit growing interest, experiences and observa 
tions are exchanged, methods discussed and illustrated, and samples exhibited. 
Under its influence, and the influence of the other societies merged into it, horti- 
culture has been materially fostered in Jackson county, better methods have been 
brought into use, unprofitable varieties of fruits discarded, and more profitable 
ones adopted'; and the quality and quantities of the fruit produced has been im- 
proved. 

BEE CULTURE. 

Until 1866 little attention was given to the culture of bees as a distinct branch 
of industry. Prior to that time there were no opinions as such in Jackson coun- 
ty, but many of the farmers kept a few bees, allowing them to take care of them- 
selves during the summer season, and in the fall, when honey was wanted, killing 
a number of hives with sulphur matches. In 1866 Mr. Harper Bennett came to 
this county, as agent for improved hives, and went into partnership with Mr. 
James D. Meador, of Independence, in the manufacture of hives and the culture 
of bees. They obtained Italian queens, and conducted the keeping of bees in 
sucji scientific manner as soon to demonstrate its profit. From this small begin- 
ning the interest grew rapidly, until in 1872 there were so many engaged in it 
that they convened at Lee's Summit, and organized what they called the Green- 
wood Bee-keepers' Association of Jackson county, electing Mr. James D. Meader 
president; WiUiam McKedrick, vice-president; J. D. C. McFarland, secretary; 
and John Proudfitt, treasurer. This movement gave a great impetus to the inter- 
est, and caused many others to undertake the keeping of a few colonies by im- 
proved methods. 

In 1878 the interest met with great disaster in the bees in many colonies by 
death during the winter from causes which have never been satisfactorily ascer- 
tained. Many then abandoned the business, but a few of those who understood 
it belter continued it and have fully overcome the losses of that year. Among 
these are Messrs. William M. Kitterick, of Greenwood; M. O. Rowe, of Grain 
Valley; L. W. Baldwin, P. Baldwin, F. J. Farr, J. D. Meador and Charles 
Crandall, of Independence; Mr. Grigg, Mr. Briant, Mr. Salesbury and E. M. 
Hayhurst, of Kaw township. Some of these gentlemen, especially those at In- 
dependence, make bee culture a specialty, and during the year 1 880 the product was 
not less than twenty-five thousand pounds of excellent honey, mostly gathered 
from the blossoms of the linden in the space of about eighteen days, and from an 
area not exceeding five miles square. Mr. Hayhurst of Kaw township, makes 
more of a specialty of raising improved queens, of which he produces several 
thousand annually, and distributes them on orders to all parts of the United States. 

Through the efforts of the gentlemen here mentioned, Jackson county has 
been brought to the front rank of bee-keeping counties in the United States. The 
county abounds in honey producing flora, and her apiculturists are of the enter- 
prising intelligent character necessary to realize its highest possibilities. 

THE NATIVE AND DOMESTIC GRASSES. 

Jackson county is pre-eminently a grass country. All the grasses of this great 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



85 



grazing belt attain luxuriant growth here. Better still the soil and climate give 
them a perfection of quality rarely attained in other regions. 

THE NATIVE PRAIRIE GRASS, 

though not equal in variety to the wild grasses of Nebraska (of which 154 varie- 
ties have been catalogued by Prof. Aughey) are yet very numerous, especially on 
the grand Prairie, and from early April to the last of July, give more flesh to 
grazing animals than any of the domestic grasses ; but they are fast disappearing 
before 

THE ALL-CONQUERING BLUE-GRASS, 

and may not be named among the permanent grazing resources. The green, 
luxuriant, nutritious, tenacious blue-grass is the all prevading, all-absorbing herb- 
age of this beautiful herdman's paradise. It is "marching on to the conquest" 
of field and forest with a sort of Roman firmness, persistence and confidence that 
seems heroic enough to be human. It is the grand imperial resource of the country, 
leading the grain fields " two to one " in net returns. These splendid blue-grass 
pastures of forest and field in Jackson county, will compare with the best range in 
Illinois or Kentucky — every acre representing the net returns of two acres of good 
corn. The writer, though neither venerable with years nor sage in worldly wisdom, 
remembers in half a dozen years of western travel, a score of opulent blue-grass 
herdsmen to every instance of personal independence in the great wheat regions. 

THE TIMOTHY MEADOWS 

of Jackson county, though not as extensive as in some of the prairie counties fur- 




RESIDENCE AND SHEEP FARM OF SAMUEL JEWETT. 



86 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

ther North, are equal to the very best in Illinois, the Canadas and the Western 
Reserve. 

RED CLOVER. 

makes a splendid growth here, especially in the oak and hickory soils, is very suc- 
cessfully cultivated on the oak lands in the southwest part of the county, and is 
becoming popular among the farmers of other portions resulting here, as every- 
where, in enrichment of, and large increase in the productive power of the lands. 

WHITE CLOVER, 

like blue-grass, is indigenous to the country, flourishes in all the silicious soils 
and in years of full moisture adds largely to the grazing capacity and wealth of the 
country. With the foregoing notes upon the climate, soils, water supply and 
grasses of Jackson county, it seems almost superfluous to pronounce it 

A SUPERB STOCK COUNTY. 

But I am reminded that three-fourths of the prospective immigrants who are look- 
ing westward for Etopia, locate that fabulous land somewhere on the broad savan- 
nas of the New West, and think, talk and dream only of becoming shepherds and 
herdsmen. Well, that is natural, honorable and sagacious, for no calling is more 
profitable and reputable, and these gentlemen of the prospective flocks and herds 
will permit the writer to tell them that north lii^estern Missouri is the 

HOME OF THE STOCK GROWER, 

and that grand old Jackson county is; "pretty nigh" its head center. Here are 
the cheap lands, here the matchless herbage and clear plenteous waters, here the 
forest ravines, bluffs, gulches and chaparral that make the finest natural stock 
shelter known to a mild and equable climate, and these with cheapest transporta- 
tion to the National and Union stock yards are the things that go into the make 
up of a royal stock country. We must not forget to add those other essentials — 
cheap corn and 

ALMOST PERENNIAL PASTURAGE. 

They grow corn here at a cost of fifteen cents per bushel, and the years are rare 
that do not furnish ten months grazing for young stock. Only a field of rye and 
a reservation of the autumn growth of blue grass in the underbrush woodlands are 
necessary to complete as full year's pasturage. It should interest those coming 
herdsmen, too, to know that there are none of the climatic rigors of the far west- 
ern plains ; that the good Lord giVes this region plenteous rainfall ; that the coal 
and wood and fencing timber are almost as "cheap as dirt; " that the highways 
are made, the bridges and school houses are built ; that there is 

A SLIGHT DIFFERENCE 

between life here and on the borders. It may be well to remind him, too, that 
there is such an order as polite and refined society for his wife and good schools 
for his children ; that the country is full of first-class railways ; that the rough 
work of pioneering was done by other hands than his, half a century ago ; and 
that Jackson county has stood the test of sixty years of unfailing agricultural pro- 
duction without diminishing the productive power of its soil. This prospective 
stock grower who is already asking if Jackson county is really a good county to 
live in, will pardon me for telling him a little story about the 

EXTENT AND PROFIT OF STOCK HUSBANDRY 

In Jackson county. The late assessors returns accredit the stock men of the 
county with a total of 19,680 horses; 4,212 mules; 18,325 cattle; 23,275 sheep 
and 35,390 swine. This splendid aggregation of domestic animals is not made of 

SCRUBS AND SCALAWAGS, 

For these rude tribes, hke the "bushwhacker" of the genus homo, are mainly 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTV. 87 

passed into history. It is worth the journey of a thousand miles to look over the 
stock ranches, farms and herds. Hardly too much can be said of 

THE CHARACTER OF THE HERDS 

And their progressive owners. There are half a hundred short horns of illustri- 
ous heraldry and Hneage here ; another half hundred animals of model types, fit 
for the show-ring, and several hundred finely bred animals of noteworthy families. 
The feeding herds are all good or high grades, a large per cent, of this stock being 
bred and fed for the European trade. Some of the enterprising breeders are in- 
troducing Herefords, to meet a fast growing demand from the ranchmen of new 
prairie States and Territories. Hundreds of young thorough-bred short horn bulls 
are annually shipped out of the county for the same destination. Imported Jer- 
seys, whose names and fame are known to two continents, are kept and bred here 
in fair numbers. Imported Cotswolds, Downs, Leicesters and Marines of na- 
tional fame, grace the estates of several sheep breeders, and are giving generous 
infusion of the best blood into many of the local flocks. Model Berkshires and 
Poland Chinas that have swept the Provincial and National prize may be found 
here, and it may be safely said that Jackson county, in regard to blooded stock, 
has no superior in the west. 

Many another good word might be said for old Jackson county, and its enter- 
prising citizens, but there are some live and successful stock men in it who are 
more than deserving of passing notice. Scattered throughout this beautiful county 
of hills, vales and picturesqueness are some dozen or more noteworthy fine stock 

BREEDERS 

Of short horns, and, indeed, of all other kinds of stock, a note of whom will 
serve to show the character of the county and herds, and men who are pursuing 
this noble caHing. Jackson county stands second to no county in the State in the 
quality of her stock. Three miles east of Independence is Mr. C. Pugsley's Elm.^ 
Wood farm, that stands as a model of what energy and enterprise can do. It 
consists of 317 acres of good land, all splendidly fenced and heavily coated with 
a good covering of blue grass. A good home, ample and convenient stabling, 
sheds and corrals, ponds and elegant pastures, make up this model farm. His 
herd consists of 40 recorded short horns of the Rose of Sharon, formerly bought 
of T. C. Anderson, of Kentucky. His herd is well handled, and has a high 
pedigree, the bull of the herd is a royal Princess and Bates cross. In addition, 
Mr. Pugsley has 400 Spanish Merino sheep of pure breeding, and was the first 
to introduce them into this county. Jackson county has in Mr. Pugsley an old 
Ohio raised farmer and stockman, a worthy and exemplary citizen, farmer and 
stockman. A visit to his farm, and a look at his beauties, will convince the -most 
skeptical that there is something in life yet worth living for. In our researches 
after food of the above mixture we^run across 

WM. ANDERSON, 

A man rich in mortgages, stocks and bonds, rich in all good human feeling, has 
a large and exhaustless stock of good common sense, sympathizes with every 
movement for the advancement of the county, and in practical business talent is 
the peer of any man in the State. Mr. Anderson, with the enterprising energy 
characteristic of his nature, has not only added to the lovely attractions of his 
rural home, but has invested largely in fine blooded stock, among which may be 
mentioned the following noted families : 

THE GLENDALE HERD 

Of fine short horn cattle, the best in the county, and handled with the best of 



88 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

care. The herd is a large one, headed by a male of the celebrated Rose of Sharon 
family. Mr. Anderson's farm presents to the eye an attraction seldom found m 
the travels of a lifetime. [We have been unable to glean all the facts connected 
with the fine breeds of the county, and the fault is not ours, as we have earnestly 
questioned all.] Mr. H. M. Vaile, another of our fine breeders, has m quarantme 
at Baltimore a herd of fine blooded cattle, one of which cost him the fabulous 
sum of $3,000. [We are sorry to say we were unable to see Mr. Vaile.] One 
more fine stock, man calls for our words of encouranement, and that man is 

MR. JEWETT, 

who resides about two miles east of Independence. He is a man who believes 
in a good home, good farm and stock, and, therefore, he has all of them. He is 
a careful, discreet breeder and feeder, is successful in the business, and believes 
this is one of the finest stock countries in the world. He is a model farmer and 
a born gentleman of rare good sense, courteous, conservative temper, exception- 
ally good habits, fine sense of honor, well disciplined mind, is practical, enter- 
prising and liberal, and is held in high esteem throughout the county for his manly 
qualities. His farm is one of the best in the county, and his stock of the finest 
and purest breeds. His attention has been more directly turned toward the breed- 
ing of fine wool growers than anything else, and his flocks to-day are the best in 
the State. 

There are several other stock men whose names should appear, but owing to 
their own carelessness, or fear of notoriety, or loss of a few dimes, failed to give 
the desired information. Men are known by their enterprise and pluck, and 
when soft heads decline giving information for ' ' fear you are not posted in regard to 
stock," they need expect nothing. It is supposed that a practical newspaper man 
understands his business, and one who does not had better shut shop. Of all the 
men in this world, a newspaper man should be, if he is not, the most gifted and 
best posted man, though there are any number of men who are capable of holding 
wealth, though incapible of making it. 

CLIMATE. 

Missouri is situated in the southern half of the north temperate zone, conse- 
quently the winters are not long and rigorous, neither are the summers excessively 
hot and depressing. 

Jackson county though subject to the sudden changes which visit all 
parts of the country has a great advantage both in locality and elevation over 
other counties of this state and also Kansas. At one time it was asserted that 
the climate of the Missouri Valley was colder in winter and warmer in summer 
than the Atlantic States in the same latitude, but this idea has long since been 
exploded by observations which have been made in both regions. The mean 
temperature during the summer is 75°, and the annual average rainfall is forty 
inches, no other section of the State having a greater supply of rains. 

From Blodgett's Climatology of the United States we learn that the " early 
distinctions between the Atlantic States and the Mississippi Valley have been 
quite dropped, as the progress of observation has shown them to be practically 
the same, or to differ only in unimportant particulars. It is difficult to designate 
any important fact entitling them to any separate classification ; they are both 
alike subject to great extremes; they both have strongly marked continental 
features at some seasons and decided tropical features at others, and these influ- 
ence the whole district similarly, without showing any line of separation. At a 
distance from the Gulf of Mexico to remove the local effect, the same peculiar- 
ities appear which belong to Fort Snelling ; Montreal as well as to Albany, Balti- 
more and Richmond." 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 89 

As this county is nearly on the same parallel as Maryland it is fair to pre- 
sume that the climate is nearly identical, provided the above be true, yet observa- 
tion shows that there is a perceptible tendency to extremes as we go further west, 
owing to the lakes and prairies, probably, and shows that the spring and summer 
are decidedly warmer, and the winters colder here than in Maryland. From the 
open country, the great sweep of the winds and the force of the sun, the malaria 
arising from the rich alluvial soil is counteracted and dispelled, so that the cliamte 
here is as healthy as in any portion of the known world. 

In his observations on the climatology of Missouri, Dr. Engelmann states 
that the principal elements of the climate of a country are its temperature and 
moisture. They influence and condition the existence and prosperity of organic 
life and the well-being of the human family. But these elements are to be con- 
sidered not only in their average but even more so in their extremes ; for the 
extremes more than the means establish the capability for and the geographical 
limits of many productions. The climate of Missouri is on the whole a dry one 
with strong evaporation, and an atmosphere but rarely overloaded with moisture. 
The average amount of vapor, or rather dissolved water in the atmosphere, the 
relative humidity, in only 66°, 72° in winter and 59° in spring, 66° in summer 
and 68° in autumn. Thus spring proves to have the driest atmosphere, and 
April more than any other month, which by the way is perfectly comfortable with 
the considerable fall of rain which we often notice in spring. We enjoy in this 
country an unusual amount of fair weather. Our autumnal season is celebrated 
for it and also in the other parts of the year fair weather and bright sunshine 
prevail to the great benefit of organized life and the well-being of the human 
family. Thunder storms are frequent in spring, on an average fourteen, in sum- 
mer twenty, principally from May to July, they occur rarer in autumn seven, and 
in winter only two. In the warmer seasons they are sometimes accompanied by 
short but violent tornadoes, which invariably like most thunderstorms come from 
the southwest, and sometimes do considerable damage. Violent hail storms have 
prevailed in some seasons and some localities, while others have been free from 
their injurious visitation. 

The following occurred in this county the first week in June, 1879: 

THE CYCLONE. 

The cyclone struck Jackson county about two miles south of Lee's Summit. 
For about a half hour it had been raining and hailing from the northwest when 
another cloud came up from the south bearing a deep, dark color. At once the 
wind changed and blew furiously from the south, and when the two clouds came 
together it formed a figure in appearance to that of an inverted funnel, the upper 
end of the funnel-shaped cloud reached far up in the heavens, while the lower or 
larger end rested on the ground, and as it advanced seemed to drive the other 
clouds right and left as a steamboat ploughs through the water. The cyclone 
was now organized and took a northeasterly course in the direction of Dr. Dun- 
nington's residence. At that time the family were in the basement at supper, the 
cyclone seized the house as with the grasp of a giant and scattered it, furniture, 
clothing, etc. , in fragments all over the surrounding fields,but none of the family were 
hurt. When it passed the Missouri Pacific Railroad, it twisted off the telegraph poles 
at the surface of the ground as if they had been pipe stems, and scattered them 
in fragments over the plain as it had done the house of Dr. Dunnington. Pro- 
ceeding on its way it mowed its course through crops, fences, hedges, etc. , on a 
line about half way between the residences of Mr. Goodman and Mr. Reeder, 
drawing the house of the latter off its foundation about ten feet, but leaving it 
whole and not injuring a single member of the family, of whom there were sev- 
eral, but seriously frightening them. Just opposite to Reeder's and a half mile 
away, it destroyed Mr. Goodman's barn, but doing no further damage. Its next 



90 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

pranks were concerned with Mr. Watson's nursery buildings which it damaged 
somewhat, moving one of the buildings twenty feet in its course without other- 
wise damaging it. Passing along three or four hundred yards further, it entered 
the orchard of Mr. John C. Howard, and ploughing its way through it at about 
two hundred yards in width, uprooted and tore off at the surface large numbers 
of trees, destroying at least two-thirds of the orchard ; thence it proceeded carry- 
ing away fences, pulling posts out of the ground, transferring them and the rails 
and planks to various distances from one hundred yards to a half mile. When it 
reached the residence of Mr. Cushenbary on the farm of John R. Blackell, it did 
its work more completely even than before, whirHng the house around, tearing it 
literally to pieces, carrying most of it for several hundred yards. The family, con- 
sisting of Mr. Cushenbary, his wife and two children, were taken with the house into 
the air and borne along in the wind. When they fell to the ground they were more 
dead than alive, having been dropped down from the clouds head foremost, for their 
hair was all matted with mud and their clothing was torn in shreds. Mrs C. and 
one of the children were thought to be fatally injured, but Mr. C. and the other 
child were uninjured. It seemed a miracle that any being could live through 
such an experience. Everywhere were scattered pieces of lumber, fences, furni- 
ture and debris covering the ground. Here more damage was done to the crops 
than anywhere else on the route of the storm, even the young corn being torn to 
tatters. On it went reaching and unroofing the house of J. A. Scruggs and the 
family escaping unhurt except Mrs. Scruggs whose collar bone was broken, just 
how no one could tell. Next the residence of Mr. T. Constable was demolished 
and everything it contained, the family escaping with nothing left but their lives. 
Then the district school house yielded to the unceremonious visitor and was 
numbered with the things that are past. The fine two-story residence of Mr. 
John Hutchings was next swept away, hardly leaving a vestige to tell the tale of 
distraction, but all the family, part above and part on the ground floor, escaped un- 
hurt. It was by Divine intervention that their lives were preserved. The residence 
of Mr. Thaddeus Warden, built of large, heavy logs, was taken to pieces in an 
instant and scattered, the family of six or seven were hurt, but none fatally. 
Thence the destroyer tore Mr. Black's residence to pieces and proceeded on its 
way to Blue Springs. 

The little boy Frank Harris who was present and saw the terrible catastrophe 
says that the first Mr. Harris and family knew of the approach of the cyclone 
was when it reached the railroad about three hundred yards south of the house. 
Believing it was coming directly toward the house, Mr. Harris seized the babe 
and bade the others to follow and with his wife started west and went thirty or 
forty yards from the house, then saying to his wife "It is coming right here," 
they reversed their course and ran back to the house, and twenty-five yards east 
to the straw stable. Here they were overtaken by the cyclone at about its center, 
the western part sweeping away the house but not extending as far west as the 
parties had gone on their first attempt to escape. The boy who was a bright lit- 
tle fellow of nine years of course knew nothing of what occurred after the cyclone 
struck the family, but was himself thrown into the straw rick and covered over 
with straw and was there quite a while before he could get out. He was not 
seriously hurt only bruised or burned about the face. When Mr. Mallory Smith 
who was the first on the ground arrived, the boy had in his arms the babe which 
he had picked up from the ground where it had been thrown Hterally stripped of 
its clothing. The boy stated that when he got out of the stack and saw first his 
mother that she ran toward him, which with her wild and strange appearance 
frightened him and he ran from her, but she soon fell to the ground. When Mr. 
Smith reached the place she was still prone on the ground but conscious. She 
spoke to Mr. Smith telling him she was killed. Leaving her, Mr. Smith went in 
search of the others. He passed along the course of the cyclone and in about 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 9] 

thirty or forty yards found the httle eight-year-old girl dead, and going still farther 
at about three hundred yards in the corn field, he discovered Mr. Harris strug- 
gling to rise and when he reached him he found him unable to rise and though 
trying to talk was unable to do so by reason of the mud in his mouth. He 
assisted him as best he could and amongst the first things said by Mr. H. was 
that he was killed. His clothing was literally torn into tatters and rolled in the 
mud, his leg broken and his ribs and other parts of his body seemed to be crush- 
ed. Other help coming up the entire family dead and ahve were taken to Mr. 
Smith's, the wife dying on the way and Mr. H. dying about 12 o'clock that night. 
The tornado after leaving the Harris place kept on in the same general direction, 
but did no damage of consequence until it reached the residence of Mr. Under- 
wood, half a mile away, which it also completely demoHshed. The family saw 
the storm coming and saved themselves by running out of the house lying flat on 
the ground and clinging to the shrubbery. The next place the storm struck was 
the residence of Martin Gore, one mile farther on. The gable ends of his dwel- 
ling were torn out leaving the sides standing and the roof on. After this the 
storm did no further damage of consequence and after pursuing its course for 
three miles further it seemed to scatter and was seen by ex-County Judge A. G. 
Williams to rise directly in front of his residence and disappear into the clouds 
with a loud noise like the roar of artillery. Mr. Williams and family were pre- 
paring to vacate their dwelling when the storm disappeared. 

All along the whole path of the tornado trees were uprooted and the leaves 
were scorched and blackened as if a fire had burned them. The general appear- 
ance of the storm was very much like that of the cyclone which passed over 
Richmond, Ray county one year before. As above stated this cloud from which 
the wind and rain seemed to come was in the shape of an immense inverted fun- 
nel of a dark bluish cast and seemed to be continually whirling and grinding 
within itself. The funnel seemed to float along with the bowl part close to the 
ground but frequently bounding up and almost disappearing in the air for a space 
of several seconds when it would again drop to the earth. The storm was accom- 
panied by a heavy storm of rain, and in the vicinity of Blue Springs the rainfall 
was accompanied by a large shower of black sulphureous mud. 

The storm was plainly visible at Independence, Buckner and other adjacent 
points, but no effects of it were felt. It was upon the whole the most terrific, as 
well as most disastrous storm that has ever visited Jackson county and one 
which will long be remembered and talked of. The damage to life and property 
was very great. 

Mr. Cushenbary was in bed sick and by his side lay a little babe. He was 
carried one hundred and fifty yards from the house and was found sitting in the 
corn field holding the babe in his arms. At the same time a dog was blown about 
same distance and found near Mr. C. in a hole scooped out apparently for him. 
On the line of the storm at one place a mule was caught and carried off". At 
intervals he would reach the earth and plant his feet in it, ploughing it up with 
the vain endeavor to hold his own — failing he would sail on with the storm, and 
then stop again in the same way, but there was no use Mr. Mule had to yield up 
his own preference and obey the exigencies of the master that had him. The 
same facts are predicted of the horses belonging to Mr. Scruggs, but only two of 
which were as unfortunate as the mule. A rock two and a half by six feet was 
pulled out of its bed, turned over and whirled about like a plaything. 

At Mr. Samuel Constable's house a bedstead was taken from under a bed on 
which two ladies were resting and carried a half mile, and the house scattered in 
all directions, the occupants of the bed being left intact on the bed on the ground 
beneath where the floor had been. Several persons report having seen a ball of 
fire, some say as large as a bushel measure, others like a barrel in size, moving 
in front of the storm, and leading it whithersoever it went. 



92 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



Mr. Harris's little son mentioned above was lifted up, deposited in a straw 
stack near by, and covered over entirely, thus escaping without much injury. 
Persons carried up compare their sensations to what would be felt in sinking into 
a snow bank, or in some yielding substance thicker than water. All speak of a 
sulphureous odor. The storm dispersed when it struck the elevation in the neigh- 
borhood of Judge Williams' farm, thus leading many to the conclusion that high 
localities protect against the cyclones. 
I 

CLIMATE, HEALTH AND DISEASE. 

We shall use as the basis of this article on pathology the notes and experiences 
of Dr. Leo Twyman, who was for many years a successful practitioner in Jackson 
county. Dr. Twyman was born in Scott county, Kentucky, January 23, 1799, 
and was educated at Bardstown in the same State. He married Julia Ann Payne, 
a native of Woodford county, Kentucky. He removed to Illinois, and there for 
a short time followed his profession, and in 1827 came to Missouri and settled at 
St. Charles, where he lived till 1844. I" addition to the medical practice, Dr. 
Leo Twyman carried on a large mercantile business at St. Charles, and when the 
St. Charles College was established, under the auspices of the M. E. Church, he 
erected a large boarding house in connection with the institution, which, however, 
proved a financial failure. In 1844 he removed to Jackson county, where he 
died April 22, 1872. He practiced in this county for more than a quarter of a 
century, and showed himself a superior man in his profession. He was a good 
student, and did much to advance the science of medicine in Jackson county and 
the country adjoining. During his later years he kept hotel in Independence, 
and was an exceedingly popular landlord. At one time he belonged to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, but some years before his death united with the Catholic 
Church, the sect in whose care he was brought up and educated, having in youth 
graduated at the Saint Joseph's Catholic College in Bardstown, Kentucky. At 
his funeral great respect was show his memory in the vast concourse that assem- 
bled to do him honor. The funeral obsequies were conducted by Father Donnelly, 
who died recently in Kansas City. 

The following resolutions of respect were presented at a 

MEETING OF THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF INDEPENDENCE, MO. 

At the summons of the President, Dr. Asa Farrar, the Medical Society of 
this city met to pay the last tribute of respect to the venerable Dr. Leo Twyman, 
who died at his residence Monday night, the 2 2d inst, at 10 o'clock. 

On motion, a committee of three members, Drs. J. T. Brown, J. P. Henry 
and John Bryant, Jr., were appointed to report resolutions expressive of regret 
and sympathy for his friends. The Chairman of the committee reported the 
following : 

Resolved, That it is with sorrow we meet to commemorate the demise of our 
learned and venerable associate in the Medical Profession, Dr. Leo Twyman. 

Resolved, That this society and the profession at large, have lost a member 
of exemplary distinction. 

Resolved, That we follow his remains to their last resting place. 

Resolved, That we tender our sympathies to his family and friends, and that 
a copy of these proceedings be presented to the family of the deceased. 

Resolved, That a copy of the proceedings be furnished the city papers for 
publication. 

A. M. FARRAR, M. D., President. 
J. H. McMuRRAY, M. D., Secretary. 

Independence, Mo., April 22d, 1872. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 93 

Dr. Twyman gave considerable attention to the relation of meteorology to 
hygiene. He studied the typography and climate and the origin of the principal 
diseases. It is quite important for settlers and immigrants to know what sections 
of the county are most healthful. Some have asked if this is a healthy county ? 
The answer without any hesitation will be given in the affirmative, that it is as 
much so as any in the State. In all the counties there are somethings that are 
calculated to produce disease — some localities are more healthy than others, and 
to enable strangers coming into the county to select the one and avoid the other 
is our object. Jackson county in its general aspect is an elevated, undulating 
plain intersected by numerous small streams running generally from the southwest 
to the northeast, and emptying into the Missouri River which forms the north- 
ern boundary of the county. The principal of these streams are the Big Blue^ 
the Little Blue, Rock Creek, Sni-a-bar Creek, Fire Prairie Creek, Sugar Creek 
and Mill Creek and their tributaries. Adjacent to all these streams are bottom 
lands, more or less extensive, nearly along their whole course on one side, and 
bluffs or hills on the other. These bottoms are but little subject to overflow for 
the reason that their beds are very deep and capable of containing and carrying off 
a large amount of water, and the great number of them when compared with 
other sections. As may be supposed the country is well supplied with springs 
of good water ; as an evidence of this let us mention that the city of Indepen 
dence is situated on one of the highest points of the dividing ridge between the 
Little Blue on the one side, and Rock Creek and Big Blue on the other. Within 
the limits of the city are numerous springs which are the sources of considerable 
creeks, some of which will be noticed. On the southeastern portion of .the town 
is one of the heads of Sanders Creek, emptying into the Little Blue at a distance 
of five and a half miles. On the east there are five springs which are the sources 
of Lick Fork Creek, emptying also into the Little Blue at a distance of six miles. 
On the north there are seven which unite with various others to form Mill Creek, 
emptying into the Missouri River eight miles distant. On the west is one of the 
head springs of Sugar Creek, running into the Missouri River about four miles 
from its source. In the southwest are three of the sources of Rock Creek, which 
after running southwest about two miles, turns nearly north and empties into the 
Missouri River between Sugar Creek and Big Blue. Some idea may be thus 
formed of the abundance of water, and the perfect manner in which the land is 
drained. 

The bottoms above mentioned extend up the several branches to near the 
summit of the dividing ridge, and many of the springs rise within fifty yards of 
the summit. In the larger bottoms are a number of small ponds or lakes, and 
spots of marshy ground which are filled with water the greater part of the year, and 
in rainy seasons become quite extensive, which evaporate and dry up in the hot, 
dry seasons usually following in the months of July, August and September, and 
thus generate the poisonous exhalation about which so little is- known, and called 
by physicians "miasm" or "malaria" which produces fevers of various types 
and grades. This exhalation follows along the different ravines, even to the 
summit of the highlands, and is carried a greater or less distance in proportion to 
the current of air or wind. 

But they do not seem to extend very far up the sides of the ravines unless 
carried by a strong breeze ; care should, therefore, be taken to avoid locating resi- 
dences near the heads of ravines, and more particularly where they terminate on 
the ridges, which is a frequent error. A man finding a good spring near the sum- 
mit of a hill, builds his house so as to be near the water, on the hill or ridge, and 
immediately in the course of the ravine, and as a consequence receives the con- 
centrated "miasm" arising from it. Now at a distance of fifty or at least a 
hundred yards a point may generrally be selected very nearly if not entirely free 
from it, The existence of this malarious air in the ravines is very clearly proven 



94 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

to any man of observation ; in walking or riding across them in the night, m 
descending a hill as he approaches the base he will be sensible of cold darnp 
atmosphere which will disappear at the same elevation in ascending the opposite 
slope. This fact is often observed in Missouri and Illinois. It is generally be- 
lieved that the bottoms are much more sickly than the hills, or uplands, which is 
to some extent true. The cases of fever are perhaps more frequent in the bottom 
lands, but less malignant, and all experience goes to show that persons fivirig on 
the bare slopes or summits of hills near the bottoms, suffer most, and those living 
near the banks of rivers, or creeks of running water in the bottoms, are rnore 
healthy. The reason is that the exhalations rise and are carried by the winds 
over the dwellings in lowlands and are wafted to the tops of the highest hills. 
Several precautions are necessary in selecting sites for dwellings on hills near bot- 
toms. First, build if possible, on the opposite side of the hill from the bottom, 
so that the "miasm" after reaching the summit may pass above you j second, avoid 
the heads of ravines ; third, have a grove of timber between you and the bottom 
— this will have the effect of protecting you from the "miasm," and moreover, the 
trees absorb a large portion of it. Again, hills having bottoms to windward of 
them will be more sickly than those that the wind blows from them to the bottom. 
The prevailing winds here in the months of June, July and August, are from the 
south and southwest, but in the lattei part of August they begin to blow from the 
north and continue mostly during September and October in that direction. Thus 
it will be seen that persons living north and south of the bottoms will, in a sickly 
season, suffer first, say in July and August, but the fevers would be milder than 
later in the season, when the "miasm" has become more concentrated and virulent 
when the winds are from the north, that is during the latter part of August, and 
the whole of September and October, then those living south of the bottoms will 
suffer most, and, for the reasons given above, the fevers will be of more malignant 
type. Hills east and west of the bottoms are most healthy because the winds in 
the hot months seldom blow in these directions. 

In speaking of topography of Jackson county it should be observed that in 
the vicinity of all the streams are strips of woodland more or less extensive, and 
that along the Missouri River the timber land extends from three to ten miles in 
width from the river, and in many places the timber is large and of excellent 
quality, and in others the growth is smaller, forming dense thickets in many 
places, showing clearly that the timber has encroached on the prairie, and it is 
interesting to note the gradual change which takes place from almost impenetrable 
thickets to open woods. As the trees grow and overshadow the undergrowth, 
such as hazel, sumach, etc., this dies out and the more thrifty and larger trees 
continue to grow, while the more feeble and delicate die out one after another and 
give place to their more stately neighbors ; and thus in a few years thickets become 
open woodlands, and as this process goes on the sun has freer access to the earth 
and it is consequently drier and more healthy. Many thickets in this county during 
the period of thirty years have undergone these changes, and are now beautiful 
open woodlands of trees of considerable size and height. Another very interest- 
ing fact going to show that the country is becoming more healthy, is that the wet 
lands in the bottoms are being filled up by the alluvial deposits brought down to 
them from the roads and cultivated fields, and are being covered by a thick sward 
of blue grass as fast as they become dry enough, and at the same time the chan- 
nels of the branches which run through them are being deepened and compressed 
into narrow space. There are quite a number of bottoms along the Blue which 
thirty years ago were quite wet and swampy, which have become dry tillable land, 
and which will, in all probability, continue in the future to improve more rapidly 
than in the past. This holds good with the broader ravines and valleys in the 
upland prairies, many of which are quite wet and in many places marshy. Now 
as these slopes of the hills are cultivated, these marshy spots are filled up and the 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 95 

land rendered more compact by the trampling of stock, the blue grass takes hold 
readily and a firm sward covers them so that they are less likely to generate "miasm" 
and consequently the country around will become healthier. Those settling in 
the prairies should be advised to observe the same rules in building homes as in 
the timber, that is, to avoid heads of ravines, as mentioned heretofore, and even 
more carefully on account of the want of protection by trees. It may seem 
strange, but I believe the statement is fully attested by experience, that in very 
rainy and consequently sickly seasons, persons living on the prairies suffer more 
than those in the timber; the cause of this may I think, be found to be the protec- 
tion afforded by the timber in absorbing and warding off "miasm." Such persons, 
as soon as possible, should make for themselves a protection by planting groves 
of timber and orchards near their dwellings, which will be a source of safety 
from disease and at the same time of pecuniary profit, to say nothing of the agree- 
able shades in the summer and protection from cold in the winter — both important 
objects for the preservation of health, and particularly in a climate as variable 
as ours. 

In considering the causes tending to influence the health of any locality, we 
should take into account the effect of temperature and the particular season in 
which we have the greatest amount of rain and highest temperature. As a rule, 
our rainy season commences about the 20th of May and extends to the loth of 
July ; when we say season, we do not mean that it is only in that season that we 
have rains, but that rains are more abundant then than at other times. Yet, there 
occur seasons that are exceptions to the rule, as we shall see hereafter. The 
months of June and July, and the early part of August, are marked by the high- 
est range of temperature. 

We will now endeavor to give a brief account of many of the seasons since 
I844. The year A. D. 1844 is known in Missouri as the great flood. In the 
month of May there was considerably more rain than in any other year, especially 
in the valleys of the Kansas and Platte rivers, so as to cause a partial overflow of 
the bottoms of those rivers and of the Missouri River. 

About the i sth of June the rains abated, and the rivers receded from the 
bottoms, but in a short time recommenced exceedingly copious rains of almost 
daily occurrence to about the loth of July, and the Missouri River and its tribu- 
taries overflowed their banks to the depth of twenty feet, and in many places to 
the depth of thirty feet — the temperature at this time being high. It is remarka- 
ble that during this season the Missouri River, above the mouths of the Kaw and 
Platte rivers, continued low. The latter part of July and the month of August 
were very dry and hot, and sickness was general throughout the State, the dis- 
eases being mostly of a mild character, and yielding readily to the influence of 
medicines. The winter of 1844 and 1845 was very mild, little snow or rain fell 
during the winter or spring, so that the rivers were quite low to the latter part of 
May, when the rains commenced and continued to the beginning of July. Some 
of the heaviest rains ever know in the State were witnessed this season, but west 
and north in the valleys of the Kaw and Platte rivers there was but little rain, 
and the Missouri overflowed its banks but little at the mouths of the Osage and 
North Grand rivers. This season was also very warm, and about the first of Au- 
gust sickness commenced and was more general, and of a more malignant type, 
than in the preceding year, but still quite managable. The succeeding winter 
was cold, with considerable snow, and the spring pleasant. 

The season of 1846 had no excess of rains, and had not a great many cases 
of fever, but some of those we had were more violent and difficult to manage. 
During the early part of the summer there was an epidemic of scarlet fever, and 
in the fall a great many cases of jaundice. 

The winter following was mild, and the spring aad summer not remarkable 



96 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

■for rain and but little sickness. The following year, 1847, partook very much of 
the same character, and was also a tolerably healthy year. 

The winter of 1847 and 1848 was very mild, so much so that very little ice 
formed sufficiently thick to keep. The spring and summer of 1848 was dry and 
healthy. 

The winter of 1848 and 1849 was remarkably cold, with a great deal of snow, 
which melted partially in the month of January and froze suddenly, leaving the 
ground covered with a very firm coat of ice from three to five inches in thickness, 
which remained the greater part of February, and then melted off, accompanied 
by rain, and broke up the ice in the rivers, which had formed to a thickness of 
fifteen to eighteen inches. The spring of 1849 was wet and cold till sometime in 
April, when commenced a succession of hot weather with frequent rains, alter- 
nated with sudden changes of cold, which continued through May, June and 
most of July. Such was the peculiar condition of the atmosphere that a feeling 
of debility and exhaustion was very generally experienced, and those who have 
been exposed to its influence will thereafter recognize it as a cholera atmosphere ; 
the wind during the greater part of this time, and especially during the damp 
days, was from the east and southeast. In the month of April there occurred a 
number of cases of sraall-pox among immigrants, which, however, did not spread, 
to any extent among citizens ; diarrhcea, and other diseases of the digestive or- 
gans were of frequent occurrence, and on the 17th of April occurred the first 
case of genuine Asiatic cholera in a vigorous and previously healthy negro man, 
the property of Jabez Smith. From this time forward occasional cases occurred, 
not, however, very mahgnant until the 6th of May, on which day it broke out 
with great malignancy in various parts of Independence which was crowded to over- 
flowing with California immigrants ; the hotels were excessively crowded, and at 
the Independence House there occurred seven deaths in the first twenty-four 
hours; in four or five days afterward ten persons died at the Noland House 
within twenty-four hours. From this time the disease continued to prevail, with 
occasional remissions, until sometime in July, and was succeeded by fevers in 
August, September and October. 

The year 1850 was not remarkable for heavy rains or any great vicissitudes 
of temperature, and was comparatively healthy; but the following year, 1851, 
this region was again visited by hot and rainy weather and eastern winds, and 
cholera again made its appearance and was excessively malignant, continuing 
from the latter part of May to almost the first of August, which was again fol- 
lowed by fever ; during this year a greater number of citizens fell victims to 
cholera than in 1849. The year 1852 was again "a very equable season; there 
was not a great amount of sickness until late in the fall and beginning of winter, 
when the vicissitudes of temperature were great and sudden, and there occurred 
a large number of cases of pneumonia of a typhoid character and a general prev- 
alence of typhoid diseases. About the middle of December epidemic erysipelas 
— also assuming a typhoid character — made its appearance, and continued to pre- 
vail in some neighborhoods until the following April. 

The year 1853 was a mild and pleasant season, unmarked by great rains or 
changes of temperature, and although there were occasional cases of cholera, it 
was, in the main, a healthy season. The spring of 1854 was pleasant, and vege- 
tation came forward very early. About the last of May it began to rain very 
frequently and heavily, and continued till the 19th of June, from which time 
scarcely any rain fell until the i8th of November. The crops of small grain were 
heavy, but in consequence of the long continued drouth after heavy rains the crop 
of corn was very small, not being more than one-third the usual yield. On the 
1 8th of June, when we had had several days of hot showery weather, with an 
easterly wind, the cholera again made its appearance with great violence, and ex- 
tended generally over the country more than any previous year, the reasons of 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 97 

which were, that there were on the 17th and i8th an unusual number of persons 
living in the county who were in town attending a meeting at the Christian Church, 
which was then in progress, and who sickened in a day or two after their return 
home. The disease continued about two weeks, gradually declining after the first 
few days. We had considerable fever in August and September ; early in October 
it became quite healthy, and continued so during the fall and winter. 

The spring and beginning of the year 1855 were pleasant until the latter 
part of July, when there set in a succession of heavy rains which lasted until 
about the 20th of August. Crops of all kinds were good, wheat and oats were 
far better than usual, both as to quality and quantity; but the farmers having 
adopted the use of threshers, and being busy with the corn and hay crops, failed 
to house or stack them in season, and at least three-fourths of the crop of small 
grains was spoiled, and rotted in the fields. This year was quite healthy, except 
a short time in September and October. The year 1855 was not remarkable as 
to health, there being no unusual sickness until late in the fall, when typhoid 
fever prevailed to a considerable extent for some three months. Sometime in 
November, when the epidemic of very mahgnant scarlet fever made its appearance 
in the northeast part of the county, and spread over a large portion of the county 
and towns, and continuing through the winter. The winter of 1856 and 1857 was 
unusuatly cold, with but little snow, and we had an unusual number of cases of 
rheumatism, and in the spring considerable pneumonia and other inflammatory 
affections. The season during most of the year 1857 was not unusual. The fol- 
lowing winter was not marked by any unusual extremes, and the spring of 1858 was 
rather dry and pleasant, until the month of June, when we had again excessive 
and long continued rains, extending to the early part of July; during this month 
and August the weather was hot anddry. Early in August fever commenced, and 
we had more sickness than in any year since 1845. 

The ensuing year of 1859 was very similar in regard to temperature and 
rains, and we again had a considerable amount of sickness through the fall and 
winter months. The winter and spring of i860 was unusually dry and windy, 
there being no rain sufficient to wet the ground until the 2Sth of May, at which 
time and also some time in June, there was a good shower in the northeast part 
of the county, particularly on the Little Blue, near its mouth. This drouth con- 
tinued through the summer, and consequently the crops were exceedingly short ; 
and west of us, in the State of Kansas, almost an entire failure. About the loth 
of July we had for two or three days a south wind, as hot as if coming from a 
furnace, which was very oppressive to man and beast, and wilted the vegetation 
considerably. There was also on the 4th of July a severe storm of wind, amount- 
ing almost to a tornado, with very little rain. In this year, as well as 1854, we 
had incontestible evidence of the superiority of the bottom lands along the Mis- 
souri .River, which are bedded on sand as subsoil, in dry seasons, for reason that 
the water from the river percolates this sand, and a sufficient quantity of moisture 
arises to sustain the growth of grain. This is also true to some extent in uplands, 
in which there is a considerable amount of sand mixed with the sub-soil. The 
year 1861, which will be long remembered for the inauguration of She civil war, 
which cursed our country and desolated the finest portions of our land, among 
which Jackson county is one of the most beautiful and fertile, was a season of 
unusual health and productiveness — full crops and fruits of all kinds, rewarded 
the labors of the husbandman ; and had we been blessed with peace, would have 
been one of abundance and comfort. There was but little sickness during this 
and the two following years. 

The winter of 1863 and 1864 was exceedingly cold with considerable snow, 
the spring was pleasant but too cold to bring forward vegetation This dry 
weather extending through the greater part of summer there was great drouth and 
vegetation became scarce. The crops of all kinds were light and the Httle prod- 



98 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

ucewas mostly destroyed by the two contending armies during Price's raid, which 
passed through in the latter part of October. During the latter part of summer and 
beginning of fall there was a severe form of dysentery, followed later in the season 
by typhoid fever. The year 1865 may be properly called a rainy season for 
frequent and exceedingly heavy rains set in early in June and continued till the 
latter part of August. Dysentery again made its appearance in July and prevailed 
during that month and August. In September,- October and the fore part of 
November there were many cases of fever which were very violent, being mostly 
of a congestive type, and complicated with diseases of the bowels. Later in the 
season we had some cases of typhoid fever, also attended with disease of the 
bowels and in some cases of the lungs. During the year 1866-7 all the diseases 
were of a mild character and easily managed. There were no cases of epidemic 
diseases. In the year 1868 there were more cases of sickness, and some were 
typhoid fever, but not of a very malignant type. Since the war, even to the 
present time, there have been no severe cases of cholera since 1854. In 1869 
the cases of sickness were less frequent than in 1868, all diseases easily managed. 
There have been no cases of small-pox since the year 1865, and it might be 
remarked that as the county grows older it becomes more healthy. The summers 
which are wet and excessively warm are followed in the fall months by more or less 
fevers. In 1870 there were several cases of " Rothlene," a form of scarlet fever, 
in the spring, some cases of intermittent fevers in the fall and taken altogether 
it was more sickly than 1869. During the years 1871 and 1872 there was some 
pneumonia in the spring, with mild cases of fever in the fall of 1871. There 
were very few deaths. Several severe accidents occurred in the year 1871 ; one 
was the falling from a wagon of Mr. A. G. Robinson, of which injuries he died 
soon after, and another a son of Mr. Oldham receiving so severe a fracture of 
his leg, from a kick by a horse, that he died. The year 1873 was healthy and 
all the cases requiring the attention of a physician were easily managed. The 
summer of 1874 was very dry and hot, several persons required treatment for 
sunstroke, the mercury ranging for considerable time from 95° to 100° in. the 
shade. There were some cases of diphtherietic croup, several of which were fatal. 
There was also epidemic whooping cough. The spring of 1875 ^^s very wet, 
and there were cases of capillary bronchitis among children and sore throat and 
catarrh among adults. There were some fatal cases of consumption. The summer 
of 1876 was healthy and also the year 1877. I" 1^77 there were some cases of 
scarlet fever, but of mild type and easily managed. The year 1878 was quite 
healthy. The year 1879 chronicled some scarlet fever in the spring. Mr. John 
Wilson, one of the prominent citizens of Jackson county, died July 23d, of what 
is termed chronic cystitis. Mr. Wilson was for many years a resident Independ- 
ence and a highly respected man. 

Considerable sickness of a typho-malarial character existed during the spring 
of 1880, but the remainder of the year it was exceedingly healthy. There were 
sufficient rains to produce the growth of abundant crops, and probably never in 
the history of the county has there been a better average yield to the labors of 
the husbandinan. Grekt quantities of fruit and cereals matured and have been 
gathered for the market. General prosperity and abundance have crowned the 
year. Men who were in debt are paying up the mortgages on their farms and 
houses and becoming independent. 

Independence is the highest point of land in the Missouri Valley in the State 
and admitted by all as being situated in the most healthy locality in this whole 
region. There are few deaths here, nearly all the old persons who die, die of 
nervous exhaustion or old age. J. N. Wallace died January 19, 1880, and 
Thomas Stayton June 14, 1879, the latter's death was caused by softening of the 
brain.' In the city of Independence there are at present eight regular practicing 
physicians. The city physician and marshal are constituted a health board and 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 99 

through their vigilance all nuisances injurious to the health of the people are 
promptly abated. 

We have now given a condensed history of the seasons for the past thirty- 
seven years, and by it a tolerably correct idea may be formed of the healthfulness 
of this county. 

It will be found that seasons in which there has been an excess of rains, and 
of floods in the streams, have produced a large amount of sickness, and this is 
also true with other portions of this great valley. It will also be remarked, that 
in our seasons rains are later and more immediately followed by dry and hot 
weather than in the Eastern States and as a necessary result we would expect in 
those seasons a considerable amount of fever, but the comparative frequency of 
such seasons are not greater than in other locaUties. We find also that we have 
had several visitations of cholera during its last appearance in the West, but this 
being then a great thoroughfare of travel across the plains and being greatly crowded 
this was rationally expected, and such, was the case on all the great lines of travel, 
moreover some places of undisputed reputation for health, have been, similarly 
afflicted during .the prevalence of cholera at different times, for instance, Lexing- 
ton, Versailles and Louisville, Kentucky, in the epidem.ic of 1832-3 and various 
other points in 1849 and the following seasons, to say nothing of the larger cities 
and their surroundings. As to the prevalence of scarlet fever, measles, erysip- 
elas and other diseases of similar character, it may be asserted that our county 
has not suffered more than other parts of the Western, and perhaps less than many 
of the Eastern States. Of typhoid fever it may be said that the disease is milder 
and less frequent than in many of the Northern or Eastern States. In the course 
of thirty-seven years there have been five, or less than one seventh, in which there 
were heavy and long continued rains in early summer and general prevalence of 
fevers, the remainder being comparatively healthy. Tljere has been no year 
when there has been an entire loss of crops and nearly every year great abund- 
ance has been produced. 

The greater portion of the county — leaving out the bottom of the Missouri 
River and larger streams — is posed upon a bed of limestone at various depths ; 
yet such is the formation of the country that the stone very little, if at all, inter- 
fere with the cultivation of the soil, for the reason that it does not crop out, ex- 
cept in the immediate vicinity of streams, on the slopes of hills, or at their base. 
So abundant is the rock throughout the county that it is said that there can 
scarcely be found four contiguous sections of land on some one of which there is 
not rock enough for all building purposes ; furthermore, very few spots, and 
those small, in which the stone is so near the surface as to interfere with the 
growth of vegetation in dry seasons. Those sections in which the limestone is 
wanting are based on sand of very considerable depth. There is also in the 
greater part of the county a large admixture of sand both with the soil and the 
sub-soil, and consequently, as may be inferred, the land is light and easily culti- 
vated, much more so than in many fertile regions elsewhere, as, for instance, the 
rich blue grass lands of Kentucky. No amount of tramping can make it so hard 
that, if broken up in large clods, it will not shake and fall to pieces, like lime, 
in the first considerable shower; and moreover, it has the additioual advantage 
of becoming sufficiently dry in a short time after rains for plowing, and does not 
break and become hard so easily if worked a little wet. This enables the farmer 
to cultivate his crops in wet seasons to better advantage than if the sand was want- 
ing. In addition to this, as mentioned in the last article, drouth does not so 
greatly affect the crops, because a considerable amount of moisture arises from 
below, which goes to support vegetation. Indeed, our farmers say that crops 
will grow here with less rain than in almost any other country. We have in this 
•county but Hitle poor land; yet the quality of the soil and the growth of the tim- 
ber indicating thoSe qualities vary a great deal, and the changes are frequently 



100 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

abrupt. We have, for example, strips of land covered by walnut, hickory, elm, 
box elder, honey locust, coffee bean, lima, etc, of some miles in extent, and 
changing in many instances abruptly, to Oakland, of inferior quality. Again, we 
have strips on which the growth is white hickory, different species of oak, wild 
cherry, slippery elm, etc., and the undergrowths are in oak lands, hazel, sumach, 
and a species of dogwood. The papaw abounds in the walnut and hackberry 
lands, and on river bottoms and hills contiguous to them. There are also some 
spots of rather sponty lands, with stiff clay sub-soil, the growth on which is almost 
exclusively a species of pin-oak, of a dwarfish character, with the limbs extendiiig 
almost to the ground. There is some diversity of opinion in regard to the fertil- 
ity of the different characters of soil, but the statement is fully borne out by ex- 
perience that the walnut and hackberry lands are strongest, and in favorable sea- 
sons will produce the largest crops of hemp and corn, and are better adapted to 
the domestic grasses, especially the blue grass, while the brush lands, in which 
the white hickory abounds, with the undergrowth of hazel and sumach, will on an 
average pf all seasons, and all kinds of crops, surpass them, and are greatly supe- 
rior for wheat and other small grains. This county is well adapted to the produc- 
tion of various kinds of fruits, as the apple, pear, apricot and peach, all of which 
grow rapidly and yield abundantly, fruits of excellent quality. The common mo- 
rello cherry also yields well, but the finer qualities of cherries and damson plums 
do not seem to do as well. The gooseberry, black raspberry, dewberry, black- 
berry and strawberry are indigenous to the soil, growing in large quantities in the 
woodland and prairies. Grasses have not yet been extensively cultivated, but so 
far as their cultivation has been tried the result has been very satisfactory. 

The climate of Missouri is very changeable, the changes of temperature being 
frequent and sudden, varying often fifty or sixty degrees in a few hours. Great 
precaution is, therefore, necessary to adapt the apparel so as to be little affected as 
possible by these sudden vicissitudes, and I would advise those whose business 
requires them to be at such a distance from the dwellings as to be unable to change 
their clothes readily, to suffer the inconvenience of being uncomfortably warm 
for a time rather than run the risk of exposure to these sudden changes when 
thinly clad. Woolen clothing, therefore, is preferable to lighter fabrics even in 
summer. 

Dwelling houses should be so constructed as to have free ventilation in every 
part from cellar to garret, and especial care should be taken that houses without 
cellars should be somewhat elevated from the ground with openings sufBcient to 
admit the free circulation of air under them and these should be open in summer. 
In damp, rainy weather fires should be made occasionally to dispel the dampness 
and dry the rooms. They also serve to purify the air by producing a draught or 
current of air which carries off the impure atmosphere which is generated, 
especially in sleeping rooms, and for these reasons small fires night and morning 
will be found beneficial. It is improper to close sleeping apartments at night so 
as entirely to exclude the air, especially when the atmosphere is dry. Yet we 
should avoid sleeping with a current of air blowing over us. It is better to open 
the upper sash of windows which will generally admit sufficient external air and 
carry off that which has become heated and impure. Exposure to cold and damp 
air especially in the latter part of the night and early morning should be avoided, 
and if this kind of exposure is necessary it is better to fortify the body by taking 
a quantity of food, say a cup of coffee with a little bread before going out, and 
this is more especially necessary during the prevalence of epidemic. Indeed it is 
better, especially with farmers and others engaged in outdoor labor, to have 
breakfast before commencing the labors of the day. In the latter part of summer 
there are very heavy dews and care should be taken to avoid having the feet and 
legs wet with them, as is frequently the case, and as a rule it is better not to go 
out before sunrise in the morning. Long contiued exposure to midday sun and 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 101 

heat should also be avoided. Meals should be regular and all unripe fruits and 
substances difficult of digestion should be avoided. Cleanliness is also an import- 
ant item, both in person and in habitation. The accumulation of water in cellars 
and low places as well as all kinds of garbage, decaying animals and vegetable 
substances should be carefully guarded against. A free use of lime, both by 
whitewashing houses and cellars and spreading in damp places, will also tend to 
purify the air and promote health. Cesspools and drains can be purified and 
deodorized by lime and a strong solution of sulphate of iron thrown into them. 
Shades about dwellings are very pleasant and promotive of health, but the trees 
should not be so close together that the sun cannot have access to the ground 
at some time during the day. 



CHAPTER IV. 
EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 



Fort Osage started in 1808 — State admitted in 1821 — County organized 182b — Different settlements 
in the County — The names of the voters in Jackson County in iSsS — The vote for Gen. Jackson 
— Examples of Ancient Records, 

Fort Osage was established as a government fort and factory in 1808. Around 
the fort a tract of land six miles square was laid off, upon which a limited number 
of white settlers were permitted to locate in order to raise supplies for the fort. 
Hon. Geo. C. Sibley, late of St. Charles, was government factor and agent from 
1818 until the abandonment of the fort in 1825. By treaty with the Osage, Kan- 
sas and other tribes, the Indians' title to nearly all the territory of Missouri was 
extinguished in 1808, excepting a strip twenty-four miles wide lying eastward 
from the western boundry of the State and extending from the Missouri River 
south into the territory of Arkansas. The eastern line of this strip was a few 
miles east of Fort Osage and in it lay nearly all of Jackson county. The Indian 
title to the strip including an immense territory lying westward was extinguished 
in 1825. 
^ The treaty was as follows : 

"June 2, 1825. 

" Art. ist. The Great and Little Osage tribes or nations do hereby cede and 
relinquish to the United States all their right, title, interest and claim to land lying 
within the State of Missouri and territory of Arkansas and to all lands lying west 
of said State of Missouri and territory of Arkansas north and west of the Red 
River, south of the Kanzas River, and east of a line to be drawn from the head 
sources of the Kanzas, southwardly, through the Rock saline, with such reserva- 
tions, for such considerations, and upon such terms, as are hereinafter specified, 
expressed and provided for." 

June 3d, 1825, a treaty was concluded with the Kansas Indians ceding 
territory to the United States described as follows : 

"Art. I. The Kanzas do hereby cede to the United States all lands lying 
within the State of Missouri, to which the said nation have title or claim lying 
west of said State of Missouri and within the following boundaries ; Beginning 
at the entrance of the Kanzas River into the Missouri River, from thence north to 
the northwest corner of the State of Missouri, from thence westwardly, to the 



102 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Nodewa river thirty miles from its entrance into the Missouri, from thence to the 
entrance of the Big Nemahaw river into the Missouri, and with that river to its 
source, from thence to the source of the Kanzas river, leaving the old village of 
the Pania :^epublic to the west, from thence, on the ridge dividing the waters of 
the Kanzas river from those of the Arkansas to the western boundary of the state 
line of Missouri, and with that line, thirty miles to the place of beginning." 

"The settlers who had been previously stopped in their westward progress 
at the eastern confines of this strip of land, immediately made a general rush into 
the new purchase. The next year (1826) a census was taken preliminary to 
establishing a general county organization. The county records show the cost of 
taking this census by Jabob Gregg, still a resident of the county, to be ten dollars 
for ten days services. In 182 1, Francis G. Choteau estalDlished a trading post on 
the, south bank of the Missouri River about three miles below the present site of. 
Kansas City. He brought his wife and family all the way from St. Louis to the 
post in canoes and pirogues, the journey occupying over twenty days. By the 
great flood of April, 1826, every vestige of his improvements were swept away, 
and the post was transferred to a point on the Kansas River six miles above the 
mouth. A few years later several Frenchmen, who were mountain trappers, with 
their Indian families settled along the Missouri River below the mouth of the 
Kansas. The county was organized December isth, 1826, and July 2d, 1827, 
the first county court was held at Independence, Henry Burris presiding and 
Abraham McClellan and Richard Fristoe associate judges, L. W. Boggs, after- 
ward governor, clerk. The commissioners, the same month, located the county 
seat at Independence. Although the timbered portion was soon quite thickly 
settled, various causes contributed to retard the development of the county, and 
principally the fact that a large portion of the finest lands were for many years 
withheld from sale. On the Blue River thirty-six sections were selected for 
educational purposes for the Kansas Indians, as provided in the treaty of 1825, 
and a still larger amount under an act of Congress donating public lands to Mis- 
souri for seminary purposes. These last were sold in 1832 and the proceeds 
applied to the state University at Columbia. That portion of the public land not 
reserved for other purposes was offered at public sale on November nth, 1828. 
Another drawback arose in 1830 in a bitter feud between the original settlers and 
the Mormons who emigrated in large numbers and settled in Jackson county. 
They entered several thousand acres of land, mostly west of Independence, 
professed to own all things in common, though in reality their bishops and leaders 
owned everything, especially the land titles, and established a Lord's Store-house 
in Independence, where the few monopolized the trade and earnings of the many. 
They published the Evening, Star, the first newspaper in the county — in whichv 
appeared weekly installments of 'revelations,' promising wonderful things to the 
faithful, and denouncing still more wonderful things against the ungodly Gentiles. 
The result was that the Gentiles threw the press and type into the Missouri River, 
tarred and feathered the Bishop and two others on the public square at Indepen- 
dence, and otherwise maltreated the Saints who retaliated upon their adversaries 
'smiting them hip and thigh' at every good opportunity. On October 31st, a 
deadly encounter took place two miles east of Westport, in which two citizens and 
one Mormon were killed. The Mormons routed their enemies, and elated with 
victory determined to destroy that wicked place. Independence, which had been 
the scene of their sorest trials. A 'revelation' ordered the work of destruction 
and promised victory. They marched during the night, and soon after daylight 
of November 2d, arrived one mile west of the town, but the Gentiles pouring in 
from all quarters met them at that point and forced them to lay down their arms 
and leave the country in 24 hours, which they did, crossing the Missouri, Novem- 
ber 3d, 1833." 

The above was written for the Gazetteer of Missouri by one of Jackson 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 103 

county's oldest and most prominent settlers, hence we have given it entire as 
showing exactly what an old pioneer had to say of that locality in which he took 
such a- lively interest. Then again old settlers themselves will accept it as more 
authentic than the writings of one who has only lived in this county sufficient 
time to compile this work. The following short extract is found in the Historical 
Atlas of Jackson county, published by Brink, McDonough & Co., in the year 
1877: 

" Jackson county was not settled or organized at as early a date as some 
others adjoining it. The territory embraced within its limits together with that of 
Cass, Bates and a part of Carson was occupied by the Osage Indians. Their 
title was extinguished by treaty with the government during the summer of 1825. 
However its first occupancy b)' white men dates back to the year 1808, when the 
government purchased from the Indians a tract of land six miles square which 
was afterward known as the ' Six Mile,' a name which that territory still contin- 
ues to bear. This purchase was embraced within the limits of the Missouri 
River, Fire Prairie and Little Blue. A fort was erected upon it during the same 
year, and military garrison established which derived its name from the tribe of 
Indians called 'Osage.' The site of the fort was on a bluff of the Missouri River 
and a short distance from where the town of Sibley now stands. At the beginning 
of the war with England in 181 2, this fort was evacuated, and again re-occupied 
after the war until 1822 when it was finally abandoned. During the occupancy of 
this fort a few white families were encouraged by its officers to settle on the 
adjacent territory. After the removal of the troops immigration commenced 
filling up the country with great rapidity. The Indians were removed during the 
summer of 1825 and in the autumn of that year all the timbered portion of the 
county west of the Little Blue was partially occupied. The first settlers were 
principally from other portions of the State, but during the following year large 
immigrations from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, etc., augmented the population 
rapidly. During that year an application was prepared to submit to the Legislature for 
county organization, and the census of the district was taken. The 'Blue County,' 
as it was then called, was attached for civil and military purposes to Lafayette 
county and in the year 1826, at a general election, Abraham McClellan, of ' Six 
Mile,' and Silborn W. Boggs, of the same place, were returned as representatives 
to the Lower House of the Legislature. The ensuing Assembly passed an act 
organizing the county, which was approved December 15th, 1826, and Daniel 
Ward and Julius Emmons, of Lafayette county, and John Bartleson, of Clay 
county, were appointed Commissioners for the purpose of locating the County 
Seat. These gentleinen failed to comply with that portion of the act under which 
they were appointed requiring them to fix the future capital within three miles of 
the center of the county. The prevaihng opinion at that time and for many years 
afterward, in which these worthy Commissioners appear to have participated, that 
the magnificent savannahs which spread out in supernal beauty over that desig- 
nated 'center,' was utterly useless for any agriculturnal purposes and would 
remain unsettled to the end of time, and following the line of settlement which 
was confined to the 'timber,' they located their seat of justice on the 29th day of 
March, 1827, in the southwest quarter of section two, township 49, in range 32, 
and gave it the name which it has since borne, that of ' Independence.' 

"On the 22d day of January, 1827, the Legislature appointed Abraham 
McClelland, Richard Fristoe and Henry Burris as presiding judges of the county. 
These officers held their first session and were sworn in on the 21st day of May 
following. These orders at that session provided for the division of the county 
into three townships. Fort Osage on the East, Kaw on the West and Blue in the 
center. The first deriving its name from the Fort referred to, the second from 
the Kaw or Kansas River, and the third from Blue River, which was named 
from the color of its waters. They likewise ordered that a plat of the county seat 



104 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

should be made and. presented to the court, which was done and approved on 
the first day of the following June. At the same session the following named 
persons were appointed Justices of the Peace : Wm. J. Baugh, Jesse Lewis and 
Joel P. Walker, for Fort Osage ; Wm. Yates, Lewis Jones, James Chambers and 
William Silvers, for Blue; Samuel Johns jn and Andrew P. Patterson, for Kaw 
township. 

The first session of the Circuit Court was held at the house of John Young, 
near where the Ross House now stands, on the 29th day of March, 1827, in Inde- 
pendence, and was presided over by Judge David Todd, of Howard county. 

Its first clerk was Robert Wilson, of Howard county, who was the appointee 
of the Judge and accompanied him for that purpose. It appears that this gentle- 
man was so unfavorably impressed with what he regarded the rough exterior and 
uncultivated manners of the people, and the unfavorable prospects of ultimate 
civilization and refinement, that he gave up his position in disgust. He was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Samuel C. Owens, who served in that capacity for many years. 

Subsequent to the survey of the county an act was passed by Congress 
granting to the State of Missouri a certain amount of land for seminary purposes. 
A large port on of that land was selected ia the vicinity of Independence, and 
the best lands of the county were thus reserved for settlement and held at $2.00 
per acre. This miUtated to some extent against its early improvement. There 
were likewise two townships in the eastern part of the county, 49 and 50 in range 
30, which was not opened for purchase for about fifteen years after the organiza- 
tion of the county. This likewise retarded its early settlement and improvement. 
" Lost townships" have a singular history. They were situated in the southwest- 
ern part of the county and known as "High Blue," and were not surveyed or 
sectionalized in the original survey. The officer reported to the government that 
as they were mostly "prairie" he did not think they would pay the expense of 
bringing ihem into the market, and further, that in attempting to run some lines 
through them he found the pressure of some powerful magnet which so influenced 
his compass as to make survey impossible. An amusing story is told in this con- 
nection by some old settlers, from which it appears the surveyor in "knocking 
around" came up one evening to a small distillery on the banks of the "Sni," 
and being of a familiar turn of mind he was soon on the most excellent terms with 
the distiller, and before leaving was so hospitably entertained that he lost his hat 
and field notes, which were discovered by an old sow and efifectually demolished. 
Ashamed of his loss, and not wishing to go over the ground again, this faithful 
official made the report as above stated. We cannot undertake to decide whether 
it was the head or the compass of this surveyor which was so much disturbed, the 
result is all we have to deal with, and we know that was to keep this land out of 
market frorn fifteen to twenty years after the other portion of the county. This, 
however, did not entirely prevent its settlement, as it appears that it was finally 
offered by the government. It was dotted over by finely impoved farms, and 
is now one of the best portions of the county. All difficulties in the way of settle- 
ment being at length removed, the county augmented in wealth and numbers very 
rapidly. 

It is evident from all sources that the first settlement was at Fort Osage, on 
the Missouri River, afterward called Sibley. The government had established 
this for the purpose of frontier defense, and also to trade with the Indians. It is 
understood that Lewis and Clark made their discoveries along this county's north- 
ern border in the year 1804, and Fort Osage was established four years later. 
For nearly twenty years there were no important permanent settlements within 
the limits of the county, but just as soon as the Indian title was extinct the 
county was settled and organized. At Fort Osage there was a ferry across the 
Missouri River and all along to the present time it has been more or less used for 
crossing. Settlements were afterward made in the neighborhood at Blue Mills, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 105 

and what was known as the " Hudspeth Settlement." This was eight or ten miles 
a little north of east, of Independence, on the road to Sibley. William Hudspeth, 
William Frankhn, Christopher, Joel and Richard Childs, Thomas Potts, Sr. , and 
Jr., David Bittle, Lynchburg Adams, Lewis Franklin, Jesse Morrow, William 
Huntsucker, John Hambright, Michael Rice, and many others, were among early 
and prominent settlers of that vicinity. A mill was built and operated on the east 
side of Little Blue by Michael Rice. At an early day a school was taught in the 
neighborhood by Geo. S. Parks. In this vicinity was built the iirst church in the 
county, called the "Six Mile Baptist Church." 

Settlements were next made at Independence, then at Westport, then Lone 
Jack, then Blue Springs, then Kansas City, and many other points, such as New 
Santa Fe, Hickman's Mills, Stony Point, Wayne City, Oak Grove, Pink Hill, 
Greenwood, Lee's Summit, Raytown, Buckner, and others. 

The early settlements were all in or near the timber or some spring of water, 
the settlers thinking the prairie land not only difficult to be subdued, but actually 
worthless as far as agricultural purposes were concerned. When they first com- 
menced breaking the prairie they used the " barshear" plow, to which they at- 
tached from four to eight yoke of oxen. Independence was located for the seat 
of justice in March, 1827, and from that time it became the most important point 
in the county, both in size and business. Soon the Santa Fe trade, of which more 
particular mention will hereafter be made, sprang up, and soon rendered Inde- 
pendence a growing city of extensive commerce on the prairie. Among some of 
the early settlers were John O. Agnew, Solomon Flournoy, Robert Rickman, 
William Lawrence, Leonard H. Renick, Henry Baker, Samuel C. Owens, John 
R. Swearengen, Russell Hicks, John W. Moodie, Reuben Wallace, Joseph H. 
Reynolds, Samuel Weston, Robert Weston, John Lewis, Richard McCarty, Lewis 
Franklin, Allen Chandler, S. D. Lucas, Richard Friscoe, John McCoy, William 
McCoy, Alexander Todd, Henry Ruby, Reuben Ruby, and others. After a 
correct enumeration in the fall of 1834, it was found that the town of Indepen- 
dence contained just 250 inhabitants. 

At an election held in the court house at Independence, August 4, 1828, 
there were 231 votes cast for John Miller for Governor. The following is a ver- 
batim copy of the abstract of the votes : 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, 
County of Jackson, 

Township of Blue, 

' ' An abstract of the votes given at a general election held at the court house 
in the town of Independence, in the County of Jackson, and Township of 
Blue, on the first Monday in August, the same being the fourth of said month, in 
the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight. 

John Miller, for governor, two hundred and thirty-one (231) votes. 

Alexander Buckner, for lieutenant-governor, one hundred and fifty-two (152) 
votes. 

Alexander Stuart, for lieutenant-governor, twelve (12) votes. 

Felix Scott, for lieutenant-governor, one (i) vote. 

Daniel Dunklin, for lieutenant-governor, two (2) votes. 

Samuel Perry, for lieutenant-governor, forty-six (46) votes. 

Spencer Pettis, for representative to congress, two hundred and thirty-one 
(231) votes. 

William Carr Lane, for representative to congress, five (5) votes. 

Edward Bates, for representative to congress, one (i) vote. 

Lilborn W. Boggs, for state senator, one hundred and eighty-three (183) 
votes. 



106 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Richard Linville, for state senator, one hundred and eighty-three (183) votes. 

William D. McRay, for state senator, two (2) votes. 

Ware S. May, for state senator, three (3) votes. 

Abraham McClellan, for state legislature, fifty (50) votes. 

Smallwood V. Nolan, for state legislature, one hundred and six (106) votes. 

Robert Johnson, for state legislature, seventy-five (75) votes. 

Joseph R. Walker, for sheriff of Jackson county, ninety-eight (98) votes. 

Richard B.- Chiles, for sheriff of Jackson county,* twenty-eight (28) votes. 

Isaac Drake, for coroner of Jackson county, thirty-eight (38) votes. 

Eli Roberts, for coroner of Jackson county, one hundred and eighty (180) 
votes. 

"We, the undersigned, judges of the election held^at the time and place above 
designated, do certify that the preceding is a correct and fair abstract of all the 
votes given, and that the number annexed to each in4ividual name is the amount 
of votes respectively given to each person. Given under our hands, this fifth day 
of August, in the year aforesaid. ' 

Samuel Weston, ) ,-1 , /- t^, ^- i 

Samuel C. Owens, } ^^^'^' of Election. 

AARON OVERTON, 

WILLIAM YATES, \- Judges of Election. 

S. G. FLOURNOY, 

STATE OF MISSOURI, 
County of Jackson, 

Township of Blue. 

"I, Isaac Jones, a justice of the peace within and for the county and township 
aforesaid, do certify that Aaron Overton, William Yates and Solomon Flournoy, 
as judges of the foregoing election, and Samuel Weston and Samuel C. Owens, 
as clerks of said election, were each of them sworn according to law, prior to 
their entering upon their duties. Given under my hand this fifth day of August, 
1828. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

The following are the names of those voting at the aforesaid election : 
"A poll-book of a general election held at the court house in the town of 
Independence, in the county of Jackson and State of Missouri, on the first Mon- 
day in August, 1828. 

NAMES OF VOTERS : 

Edwin T. Hicks, Wm. Moon, Jesse BuUer, David Burris, Mulse Box, John 
Moore, Hiram Wilburn, Edward Wilburn, Samuel Sweet, Britian Williams, Elder 
League, Joseph Kenyon, John Silvers, William Noland, Joshua Yates, Mark 
Foster, Jamison D. Dicky, James Wood, Paul Pulkit, John Baxter, James Roth- 
well, William Nolan, George H. Arnold, William Davis, Peter Hart, Richard 
Canada, Doctor Smith, Enoch Shepherd, Thomas Burgen, Edward Bradley, 
Ashford D. Nolan, John Gibson John Drummond, John Burgen, Jesse Moon, 
Daniel Kink, Ira Smith, James Ross, Phillip Russell, Jason L. Dickey, Wright 
Akeman, Thomas Pitcher, WilHam Burgen, John R. Swearingen, John Fitzhugh, 
James Shepherd, Jr., Joseph Moon, John Proctor, Solomon Fitzhugh, William 
Bledso, John Tucker, Joshua Nolan, Nicholas Proctor, James Baxter, Hermon 
Brigham, Samuel Kimzly, Larkin McCarty, Jacob Wells, Hugh Patten, John 
Wiseman, James Shepherd, Sr., James McCarty, Dabney Johnston, Jacob Powell, 
Henry Nolan, Jr., James Brock, Jesse Overton, Henry Nolan, Sr., Robert AuU, 
Jonathan Cameron, Greenberry Pitcher, Michael McClellan, Andrew Tibell, 
Daniel P. Lewis, John Young, James W. McClellan, Levi Yates, Richard Fristoe, 
Isaac Donahoe, Thomas Riddle, John Cook, David Reed, Joshua Anderson, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 107 

John McCarty, Henry . Burris, Perry Brock, Richard Millam, Johnson Srnith, 
Henry Tucker, Samuel Hays, John Becket, Joshua Lewis, William Ferril, Zach- 
aria Linville, Aaron Linville, Joseph Keeney, John Shepherd, James Donahugh, 
Elisha Hartley, James Bingham. Will. Shepherd, Thomas E. Dicky, Hugh 
Parsons, Mirick Davis, Jabez Jones, lola Cheeseney, John Busier, John Powers, 
James Gray, John Hayes, Thomas Hearrengdon, Lewis Shepherd, James King- 
ley, Solomon Yates, William Worden, Darling Williams, Ambrose Williams, 
Delany Williams, Jesse Nolan, Lawrence Flournoy, Hugh Horton, John Jack- 
son, John Covenet, William Bratten, Davis L. Cadle, Robert Anderson, William 
Silvers, John Wedle, Samuel R. Moore, James Savage, Edward Wilburn, Sr. , 
Cheeseney Young, Joseph Brown, Thomas Fitzhugh, John S. Dean, Joseph C. 
Davis, James King, David Lynch, Elliott Johnson, Jesse Cox, Levi Russell, 
Daniel Monroe, Nimrod McCracken, Jesse Lewis, Joseph Connor, Frances 
Prian, Willis Creeson, Stephen Wells, William Davis, Eli Glasscock, Perry G. 
Cheeseney, John Johnston, James Lynch, William McCarty, Sr., William Butler, 
Adam Christopher, James Parson, James Brown, Samuel Hink, ]ra Hitchcock, 
Benjamin Burns, Isaac Lance, Aaron Roberts, James King, Solomon Lynch, 
David Dickey, Antony House, Samuel Johnston, Tederton Nowland, Charles 
Johnston, William Parish, Aminus Carry, Zachariah Morris, Morris Backer, John 
Sneed, William Baxter, Herman Noland, Bryant Baxter, James Flournoy, Hugh 
Glen, Frederick Barnes, George Nelson, Jacob Gregg, Benjamin Mayors, John 
W. Clenny, James Riddle, Isaac Allen, James Gibson, Edward E. Sneed, James 
Connor, Dodson Tropp, William Connor, William Barnes, Jonathan C. Fugate, 
John McCord, John Walker, G. Johnston, Anderson Jones, David Daily, Luke 
Vaughn, Jeremiah Burns, Isaac Lynch, Andrew Wilson, Morgan Wikinson, Wil- 
liam Yatter, William Blanton, William McCarty, John Blanton, H. Warden, _ 
Hiram Silvers, Eli Roberts, James Chambers, G. Bledso, Noah Williams, Robert 
Smith, James Welch, James Scott, Elisha Watkins, Edward Shepherd, James 
Blakely, James Lewis, Amos Velley, Thomas Frost, Abner Teddair, John Davis, 
A. Davis, William Prian, Lewis Jones, Joseph Walker, Abraham McClellan, 
Smallwood Nolan, Robert Johnston, Nathan Teague, Charles Williams. William 
Arrington, John B. Lucas, George T. Taylor, Richard B. Chiles, William I. 
Baugh, Timothy Riggs, William Munkis, John Smith, John King, Solomon 
Fournoy, Sam'l Weston, Aaron Overton, William Yates, Herman Gregg, Samuel 
C. Owens." 

At the same general election for State officers the electors in Fort Osage 
township met at the house of Joel P. Walker, and the following is a list of the 
voters : 

James Rose, John Patton, John Huntsucker, Joshua Adams, Joshua Lane, 
John Huntsucker, Jr., William Huntsucker, W H. Russell, William Lewis, 
Joseph Russell, William Adams, Thomas Huntsucker, Richard Addams, Frances' 
Williams, Stephen Bledsoe, L. W. Ailstock, Peter Kendrick, Lathan Russel, 
William Williams, Isaac Moody, Thomas Patton, — — Williams, Joseph Glen, 
Lynchburg Addams, Joel Walter, E. Cornet, Thomas Williams, Zedediah Baker, 
James Lewis, David G. Buttersell, Daniel Redman, David Brittle, William Strick- 
lan, Nathan Russel, Sr. , Robert A. Renick, Isaac Bledsoe William Smith, Isaac 
Drake, Isaac Burnes, Joel Riddle, James Bledsoe, John Fitzhugh, William Drake, 
John Wilson. 

A general election held at the house of Joel P. Walker, in the county of 
Jackson, Fort Osage township, on the first Monday of August, A. D. 1828. 

John Miller, for Governor 44 votes. 

Alexander Buckner, for Lieut. Governor 44 " 

Alexander Stewart, " " — " 

Daniel Dunklin, " " — " 

Felix Scott, ■ " " — " 



108 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Samuel Perry, " " — 

Spencer Pettis, for Representative in Congress 43 votes. 

W. C. Lane, " " — " 

Edward Bates, " " 2 " 

L. W. Boggs, for State Senator 43 votes. 

Wm. D. McRay, " " i " 

Richard Linville, " " — " 

Wm. S. May, " " — " 

Abraham McClellan, for State Representative 42 votes. 

Robert Johnston, " " — " 

SmallwoodV. Nolan, " " i " 

Joseph R. Walker, for Sheriff 4i votes. 

Richard B. Chiles, " — " 

Edward C. Sneed, " — " 

Isaac Drake, for Coroner ". 42 votes. 

" We the undersigned do certify that this is correct to the best of our belief. 

ZEBADIAH BAKER, 
JAMES LEWIS, 
THOMAS WILLIAMS, 

Judges." 

Kaw township held an election at the house of William Johnson at the same . 
time, and the following is the only extant record of the same : 

"A poll book of the general election held at the house of William Johnson in 
the township of Kaw, Jackson county, on the first Monday of August, A. D. 
1828. 

NAMES OF VOTERS. 

"William Lewis, John Bostic, Abraham Linvill, Permin Henderson, Dyer 
Cash, Benjamin Hancock, Major Hancock, Lewis Huneau, Paul Lacoot, Francis 
Tromley, WiUiam Johnson, Thomas Linville, Pier Revellett, Taplew Bingham, 
Andrew Patterson, John Savage, Andrew Gaudy, Isaac Ray, Joseph Boggs, 
Robert Y. FouUer, Silas Hitchcock, Samuel Son, Michael Farrer, Lewis Levan- 
tieur, Sampson Hitchcock, John Young, Andrew Patterson, William Master, 
James Jennings, Richard Hancock, James Johnson. 

"We the undersigned, Judges of the above election, having carefully compared 
and corrected the poll books thereof, of which this is one, do certify that the 
above poll book presents a correct statement of the votes given at said election, 
and for whom the said votes were given. 

Certified by us this Fourth day of August, A. D. 1828. 

Attest: ANDREW P. PATTERSON. 

James Jennings, JOHN YOUNG, 

Rd. Hancock, WILLIAM MASTERS, 

Clerks. Judges." 

The fourth and last voting precinct in Jackson county was called Harmony, 
and the following named persons voted at the August election, A. D. 1828. 

"A poll book of a general election, held at the Mission school house in the 
township of Harmony, county of Jackson and State of Missouri, on the ist 
Monday of August, 1828. 

NAMES of voters. 

" James Moore, L. Dodge, H. Spearer, A. Jones, K. B. Dodge, S. B. Bright, 
Richard Colby, D. H. Austin, Wm. Madvel, Joseph Porter. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 109 

John Miller, 12 votes. 

Alexander Stewart 11 

Edward Bates 13 

L. W. Boggs 16 

Abraham McClellan 11 

Joseph P. Walker 10 

Richard B. Chiles i 

State of Missouki, 

County of Jackson, 

Township of Harmony. 

" We the undersigned Judges and Clerks, after being duly sworn do certify 
that the above election was held according to law, August 4th, 1828. 

S. B. BRIGHT, 
D. H. AUSTIN, 
RICHARD COLBY, 
WM. MADVEL, 
JOSEPH PORTER." 

The manner of conducting elections in those early times was somewhat dif- 
ferent from the present time. Three judges of the election and two clerks were 
selected to receive and record the votes. Each clerk kept a separate list of those 
who presented themselves at the polls. The elector would give the name of the 
candidate whom he desired to receive his vote, and the clerk would record the 
same opposite his name, thus leaving a record, not only of the party voting, but 
also the name of the person for whom he voted. Of those who voted at the 
August, as well as the November, election of 1828, none are left without a record 
of their favorite candidate. At the above election, August 4, 1828, there were 
316 votes cast in the county for John Miller, 231 in Blue, 44 in Fort Osage, 29 in 
Kaw and 12 in Harmony township. 

It is impossible to find all the returns of the Presidential election of 1828, 
November 4, when Andrew Jackson, after whom this county is named, was elected 
the first time. We have nearly all the names of those who voted for Jackson in 
Independence and Fort Osage, but in the fifty-three years that have passed since 
that time the papers containing the balance of the county electoral vote have been 
lost. 

Herewith we give a copy of the judges certificate to the vote in Indepen- 
dence, which shows that the Jackson electors received 57 times as many as the 
Adams electors, or a majority of 157, being over 98 per cent of all the votes cast 
in Blue township. There was not a vote cast in Fort Osage township for J. Q. 
Adams, but there were 49 cast for Jackson, as the reader will perceive from what 
follows the Blue township canvass : 

"State of Missouri, 

■Jackson County, 

Blue Township, 

"We, the undersigned judges of an election, held on the first Monday in No- 
vember, 1828, in the county and township aforesaid, for the purpose of electing 
electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, do certify that the 
following named persons got the number of votes annexed to their respective 
names, to wit : 

John Bull got 161 votes 

Benjamin O'Fallon got 161 " 

Augustus Jones got 161 " 



110 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Benjamin H. Reeves got 3 " 

Joseph C. Brown got 3 " 

John Hall got 3 " 

"Given under our hands and seals at Independence, this 3d day of Novem- 
ber, 11828. 

LEWIS JONES, [seal." 

WILLIAM YATES, [seal. 

JAMISON D. DICKEY, [seal. 
Judges." 
Thomas E. Dickey, 
John P. Shepherd, 

t Clerks. 

"An election held at the house of Joel P. Walker on the 3d day of Novem- 
ber, 1828, for President and Vice-President, electors received the following vote: 

John Bull ■ 49 votes 

Benjamin O'Fallon 49 " 

Augustus Jones 49 " 

B. H. Reeves ' None 

Joseph C. Brown None 

John Hall None 

Given under our hands and seals this the day and date above. 

JAMES LINES, [seal 

ZEBADIAH BAKER, [seal 
ISAAC ALLEN, [seal 

Judges." 

H. FUGATE, 

L. W. Ailtork, 

Clerks. 

"I do certify that the judges and clerks were sworn according to law. 
"Given under my hand, this the 3d day of November, in the year of our 
Lord eighteen hundred and twenty-eight. 

J. P. WALKER, 

Justice of the Peace." 

In the year 1830, at an election held in Harmony township, we find there 
were 14 votes cast, which the following will show : 

"Mr. Samuel C. Owens, Clerk. 

''Dear Sir: — At an election held at Harmony township, in the county of 
Jackson, in the State of Missouri, A.ugust 2, 1830, for the purpose of choosing a 
Representative to the Legislature, High Sheriff and Coroner for said county, we 
the undersigned affirm that Robert Johnson, Representative, received 13 votes; 
J. R. Swearingen, for High Sheriff, received 14 votes; A. McClelland, for Repre-, 
sentative, received i vote. 

A. JONES, 
R. COLBY, 
WM. MODREL, 

Judges." 
S. B. Bright, 
J. H. Austin, 

Clerks. 
"We the said Jones, Modrel, Colby (judges), and S. B. Bright and J. H. 
Austin (clerks), were duly qualified by oath of office as the law directs." 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. Ill 

The same year we have the following from Boon township : 

" We certify that Abraham McClelland got ten votes, Richard Johnson none, 

S. V. Nolan six, Lewis Jones none, for representative; Jacob Gregg four, John 

Swearingen seven, James Brown four, G. Hensley none, for Sheriff; J. B. Floury 

ten, for Coroner. 

"Given under our hands this 2d day of August, in the year of our Lord, one 

thousand, eight hundred and thirty. 

' D. G. BUTTERFIELD, 
JOSHUA ADAMS, 
JOHN BECKETT, 

Judges." 
The following will show the vote of the entire county in 1836 : 



'STATE OF MISSOURI, 

y ss 

COUNTY OF JACKSON, ' 



■} 



"We, Samuel C. Owens, Clerk of the County Court, and Richard R. Rees 
and John Smith, two acting Justices of the Peace within and for the county afore- 
said, do certify that we have carefully examined the poll books of general election 
held on the first Monday in August, 1836, in the different townships of said 
county, and find on inspection thereof that 

FOR GOVERN6R, 

S. W. Boggs received 597 votes 

William H. Ashley received 192 " 

FOR LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR. 

Franklin Cannon received 516 votes 

James Jones received 164 " 

FOR CONGRESS. 

Samuel C. Owens received 351 votes 

James H. Birch received 145 " 

John Miller received 480 " 

Albert G. Harrison received 533 " 

George F. Strother received 15 " 

Alpheus Wetmore received ^ << 

George Shannon received i " 

FOR STATE LEGISLATURE. 

Smallwood V. Nolan received 585 votes 

Thomas Jeffries received 541 " 

Jacob Gregg received 161 " 

John R. Swearengen received ■ 252 " 

FOR SHERIFF. 

Amos Riley received i votes 

John King received 474 " 

Thomas G. Hudspeth received 93 " 

Page Nolan received 212 " 

FOR CORONER. 

Joseph H. Reynolds received 487 votes 

FOR ASSESSOR. 

Isaac Crabtree received 43 1 votes 

Jesse W. Morrow received 89 " 

Archibald Stuart received. . . ' 168 " 



112 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

FOR CONSTABLE OF BLUE TOWNSHIP. 

Henry Basey received 210 votes 

T. Elledge received 170 ' 

Jesse Noland received 43 

FOR CONSTABLE OF KAW TOWNSHIP. 

William Lovelady received 57 votes 

Peter Booth received _ 44 

FOR CONSTABLE OF SHNEEABAR TOWNSHIP. 

William Williams received 1 1 votes 

Jephtha Crawford received 4° 

Thomas P. Clark received 29 " 

William Nolan received 5 

FOR CONSTABLE OF FT. OSAGE TOWNSHIP. 

JohnW. Hambright received 21 votes 

FOR CONSTABLE OF WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP. 

Anson McCracken received 32 votes 

Given under my hand this sth day of August, 1836. 

SAMUEL C. OWENS, 
Clerk. 

JOHN R. SWEARENGEN, 
JOHN SMITH, 

Justices ofthe Peace." 

The following ancient document was handed us by Mr. R. Wallace, which 
we publish without comment, further than to state that Mr. Jacob Gregg, of Sni- 
a-bar township, is the only man now living whose name is mentioned in the doc- 
ument referred to. Here it is : 

"County of Jackson, to-wit : 

"The State of Missouri, to the sheriff of Jackson County, greeting: — You are 
hereby commanded to cause to be empannelled and come before the judge of our 
circuit court of pur said county of Jackson, on the first day of our next Novem- 
ber term, at the court house, in the town of Independence, a grand jury of good 
and lawful men, not less than sixteen nor more than twenty-three, housekeepers 
of said county, who are then and there upon their oaths, to enquire into and pre- 
sent all such offences as may have been committed within the body of said county, 
and that you make due return of the names of said jury and this writ : 
f Private! Witness: Samuel C. Owens, clerk of our said court, at office, 

I Seal, j this 15th day of September, A. D. 1828, with my private seal, 
(there being no seal of office provided). Sam'l C. Owens, Clerk." 

"Following is the grand jury summoned in accordance with the above order: 

Venire Facias, November term, 1828. 

John Busby, Jamison D. Dickey, John Shepherd, 

Thomas Arrington, Doctor Smith, John Whismon, 

Thomas Frost, Michael Earns, Solomon Yates, 

John Davis, Jabez Jones, Austin Bledsoe, 

Anderson Jones, Thomas Williams, Nathaniel Teague, 

Abraham Linville, Robert Smith, John B. Lucas, 

James Lovelady, James Brock. • James Shepherd, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 113 

"I, Joseph R. Walker, sheriff of Jackson County, do certify that the forego- 
ing named persons were summoned as grand jurors for November term, 1828. 

J. R. Walker, Sheriff." 
Jacob Gregg, Deputy Sheriff" 

Westport was the next place to become settled after the town of Independence 
and vicinity; and after the Santa Fe trade had found its chief starting point at Inde- 
pendence, for several years it gradually transferred a portion of it to Westport. J. C. 
McCoy, who now resides in Johnson county, Kansas, laid out the town, and was 
one of its principal settlers for some time. Robert Johnson was another early 
settler there; James McGee and sons, John Harris, Jacob Ragan, William Mat- 
ney, Johnston Lykens, and many more, were among the early settlers in the 
vicinity of Westport. Before Kansas City became of any commercial importance 
Westport was a flourishing town, with a large Santa Fe trade. 

Perhaps the next settlement was made at Lone Jack, where families had clus- 
tered in the vicinity, and became very much attached to the place. Lone Jack 
was thus named from a large jack oak tree, which stood alone there in the prairie. 
It has since been a post-village of considerable importance. Among the early 
settlers in the vicinity we mention the names of Warham Easley, Galen Cabe, 
John Snow, Stephen Easley and John Daniel. This was the principal settlement 
in the southeastern portion of the county, and here their township elections were 
held. 

Kansas City was not settled for a long time after Sibley, Independence and 
Westport. As late as 1839 wild deer, wolves and wild turkeys inhabited those 
bluffs and valleys, where Kansas City now stands, undisturbed by man; there were 
large trees and thick underbrush, which made it most emphatically a wilderness. 
In the month of December, 1839, Mr. H. G. Rees, who now lives at Indepen- 
dence, crossed the river from Kansas City to Harlem, at a point just below the 
present great railroad bridge, and when about to step upon the ferry boat a large 
flock of wild turkeys came from the opposite shore, sailing over his head, and 
ahghted only a few yards distant. When the turkeys saw the men they ran up 
the bluff into the unsettled wilderness, where the business portion of Kansas City 
is now located. Mr. Rees had remained over night in an old log hut among the 
trees, on the south side of the river, in which Thomas Smart then lived. Blank- 
ets were nailed upon the inside of the cabin, to break the wind from those en- 
deavoring to keep warm 'within; the chinks between the logs had not been plas- 
tered with mud, and it was difficult to keep warm. 

New Santa Fe was also an early but not very important settlement. It was 
on the direct route of travel for those starting from Independence engaged in the 
Santa Fe trade, situated near the southwest corner of the county on the Kansas 
State line. There were only a few houses here and at the present time scarcely 
more, but some of the early inhabitants in that locality were John Bartleson, 
William Gray, John Whitsett, Edward Gray, Richard Kirby, John Fitzhugh, 
George Fitzhugh, John B. l,ucas, John Self, Linzey Lewis. Most of the early 
settlers in this section went to Independence and Westport for supplies. They 
usually lived in the timber and ate hominy and potatoes, frequently having no 
bread. At or near Stony Point, near the south boundary of Sni a-bar Township, 
there were several early settlers. Near the present site of the little village of 
Blue Springs was the early home of the Smiths, Clarks, Burrises, Dailies, Judge R. 
D. Stanley and others. The first prairie broken in Jackson county was done here 
by David Dailey near the East Fork of the Little Blue. The work was accom- 
plished with a "barshear plow," which consisted of a beam to which was 
fastened the coulter or "shear," as it was called, to cut the tough sod, with 
wooden mouldboard. When Mr. Daily undertook to cultivate or cross plow his 
field the tough sod collected in a huge pile in front of the plow, necessitating an 



114 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

abandonment of the work till the turf became dead and decayed. When it 
became apparent that he could not mellow the sod he took his ax and cut holes 
in the obdurate turf, dropped therein his corn and with another stroke of the ax 
covered the seed. In this way he planted and raised a good crop the first year. 
At that time there were no weeds and grasses, such as the fox-tail and other 
species, which at the present time so obstinately resist the labors of the husband- 
man. When they plowed the prairie they attached to the plow six or eight yoke 
of oxen and opened a much larger and deeper furrow than at the present time. 
Mr. Dailey lived here a long time and finally sold out to a wealthy Virginian by 
the name of Frank Coward, Dailey moving further southeast in Van Buren. 
When Mr. Dailey first came to this State he landed at St. Louis and obtained hats 
for his dozen boys. We have never heard of a man who by one and the same 
wife had so large a family as Mr. Dailey afterward reared. They had twenty- 
seven children. The anecdote told of him on landing at St. Louis is this : "When 
he applied for a dozen hats for his boys the merchant was surprised and told him 
if he would bring twelve of his own boys into the store he would give each a hat. 
Mr. Dailey, delighted with the promise as his money was very scarce at that 
time, went down to the river landing and took his boys back to the merchant who 
provided each with a good new hat." 

David Dailey was a very industrious man and possessed an iron constitution. 
No neighbors hved near and wild turkeys came to the house and ate feed with 
the hogs in the trough; wolves howled about and often destroyed the pigs and 
sheep of early settlers. He built a grist-mill and ground for customers who came 
from long distances. The mill was run by horses on a tread wheel, corn and 
wheat being the principal grain. He also had a distillery to manufacture whisky, 
and it may be well to note in this connection that it found a ready market in the 
immediate neighborhood. The old man died about five years ago at the 
advanced age of ninety. 

It may be interesting to read a few entries found in the account book of 
Henry Chiles : 

Sept. 20, 1833. George Rider, Dr., to writing two bonds $ i.oo 

Jan. 10, 1834. Amos Ridley, Dr., to hog about 100 pounds 3.00 

Jan. 24, 1834. Wm. I. Cayton, Dr., to writing mortgage to Shepherd . . i.oo 
Feb. 6, 1834. T. Waller, Dr., to balance on settlement 4.79 

Same Cr. by order to Moreland 4.79 

Feb. 6, 1834. J. H. Flournoy, Dr., to taking depositions, three days in 

all, as per act. rendered .... . 15.00 

Sept. 28, 1834. Wm. I. Baugh, Dr., to deed from Franklin to Gregg . . i.oo 

Cash loaned 50 

July 22, 1835. John Parker, Dr., to oxen and wagon part of one day . . .75 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 115 



CHAPTER V. 
ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

St. Louis County included what is now the eastern part of Jackson in iSij — Then Howard County 
— Then Cooper— Then Ltllard — Then Lafayette — And then Jackson — Jackson County organ- 
ized December ij, 182b, and included what is now Cass and Bates counties — First County 

Court — County and Township system — Government Surveys — Organization of townships Three 

townships at first. Blue, Ft. Osage and Kaw — Location of roads — Harmony Township Boone 

Township — Sni-a-bar Township — Washington Township — Van Buren Township Prairie 

To7onship—-Westport Township — Brooking Township. 

• 
The territory which now bears the name of Jackson county, Missouri, was 
first embraced in the county of St. Louis except the western part which belonged 
to the Osage Indians. The eastern boundary of the Osages at that time com- 
menced at a point on the Missouri River near the mouth of the Little Blue and 
thence ran directly south. The boundaries of St. Louis county fixed by an act 
of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri, December 31, 1813, included a strip 
of land lying south of the Missouri River and containing about twenty-five counties 
as at present organized. The- boundaries as fixed by the aforesaid act were as 
follows : "All that portion of the territory bounded north by the south line of 
the county of St. Charles, east by the main channel of the river Mississippi, 
south by a line to commence in the main channel of the Mississippi immediately 
opposite to the upper hne of a tract of land owned by Augustus Chouteau which 
is about half way between the mouths of the Plattin and Joachim rivers ; thence 
running in a direct line to a point on the dividing ridge bfetween those waters 
where Wright's road falls into the road leading from the town of Herculaneum to 
the Mine a Burton; thence along said road to a point thereon immediately oppo- 
site a noted spring called the " Dripping Spring," which spring is situated about 
two hundred yards south of said, road ; thence on a direct course to the mouth of 
Mineral Fork of Grand River, thence such a course as shall leave all the persons 
now settled in that settlement, usually known by the name of the Richwood 
settlement to the south of said course or line in the county of Washington, thence 
southwest to the western boundary line of the Osage purchase; thence north- 
wardly on said line to the river Missouri, thence down said river Missouri in the 
main channel of the same to the southwest corner of the county of St. Charles 
shall compose one county and shall be called and known by the county of St. 
Louis." 

This territory remained as St. Louis county till the act of January 23, 181 6, 
which constituted Howard county as follows : 

"All that part of the county of St. Louis and all that part of the county of St. 
Charles and bounded as follows, to wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Great 
Osage River, thence up said river and in the middle of the main channel thereof 
unto the Osage boundary line thence north with said boundary line to the river 
Missouri, thence up the river Missouri and in the middle of the main channel 
thereof to a point opposite the mouth of the Kansas River, thence with the Indian 
boundary line (as described in a proclamation of the governor issued on the ninth 
day of March, 181 5) northwardly one hundred and forty miles, thence eastward 
with said line to the main dividing ridge of high ground between the rivers Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri, thence with said ridge of high ground to the main fork of 
the river Cedar, thence down said river to the Missouri, thence down the river 
Missouri and in the middle of the main channel thereof to the mouth of the 



116 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Great Osage river, the place of beginning is hereby laid off and erected into a 
separate and distinct county, which shall be called and known by the name_ of 
Howard county. William Head, Benjamin Estill, David Jones, David Kincaide 
and Stephen Cole, be and are hereby appointed commissioners with full powers 
and authority to point out and fix upon the most suitable place in said county 
whereon to erect a court house and jail and the place whereon they or a majority 
of them shall agree, shall be and is hereby declared to be the permanent seat of 
justice for said county of Howard." 

Howard county remained with the above described boundaries from January 
23, 1816, to December 17, 1818, when a part of it was laid off and named 
Cooper. The act entitled ' ' An act establishing a part of the county of Howard 
into a separate and distinct county by the name of Cooper county," was as fol- 
lows : " Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Territory of Missouri, 
that all that part of the county of Howard bounded as follows, to wit : beginning 
at a point in the middle of the main charftiel of the Missouri River opposite the 
middle of the main channel of the Osage River at its mouth, and running thence 
to the middle of the main channel of the Osage River at its mouth ; thence up 
the Osage River along the middle of the main channel thereof to the Osage boun- 
dary line ; thence north with said boundary line to the middle of the main channel 
of the Missouri River ; thence down the middle of the main channel of said last 
named river to the beginning, is hereby laid off and established into a separate and 
distinct county, which shall be called and known by the name of Cooper county. 
William Weir, Luke WiUiams, Julius Emmons, ^el Owen and Charles Canole 
be, and they are hereby appointed, commissioners of the said county of Cooper, 
with full power and authority to point out and fix upon the most suitable place in 
the said county of Cooper whereon to erect a court house and jail for said county 
of Cooper. 

Approved December 17, 1818." 

From December 17, 1818, to November 16, 1820, the boundaries of Cooper 
remained unchanged, but at the latter named date a county called " Lillard," in 
honor of a State Senator by that name, was laid off, including the territory now 
included within the present counties of Lafayette, Johnson, Henry, part of St. 
Clair, Bates, Cass and Jackson. 

An act estabUshing the county of Lillard : " Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the State of Missouri that, all that part of the county of Cooper 
lying and being within the following bounds, to wit : beginning at a point in the 
middle of the main channel of the Missouri River opposite the range line between 
ranges twenty- three and twenty-four; thence with said line to the termination 
thereof; thence due south to the middle of the main channel of the Osage River; 
thence up said river in the middle of the main channel thereof to the western 
boundary hne of the State, and thence north with said boundary line to the mid- 
dle of the main channel of the Missouri River ; thence down said river in the 
middle of the main channel thereof to the place of beginning, shall be, and the 
same is hereby laid off and erected into a separate and distinct county, which 
shall be known and called by the name of Lillard. John Duston, James Bounds, 
Senr., David McClilland, James Dillard and David Ward, be, and are hereby 
appointed, commissioners with full power and authority to select the most suitable 
place in said county whereon to erect a court house and jail, and the place which 
they, or a majority of them, shall agree to erect a court house and jail on, as 
aforesaid, shall be, and is hereby declared to be, the seat of justice of Lillard 
county. 

Approved November 16, 1820. 

By the act of the Legislature February 16, 1825, the name of Lillard was 
changed to Lafayette, and the western boundary thereof was the middle of range 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 117 

number twenty-nine. By an act of the General Assembly, approved February 
i6, 1825, the county of Jiickson was laid off. The act was entitled " An act de- 
finining the limits of the several counties in this State ;" s^tion 30 reads as 
follows : be it enacted, that all that portion of the country bounded as follows, to 
wit : beginning at a point in the middle of tiie main channel of the Missouri 
River due north of the termination of the line running through the middle of 
range twenty-nine west ; thence due south with said line to the middle of the 
main channel of the Osage River; thence due west to the western boundary of 
this State ; thence north with the said western boundary line to the middle of the 
main channel of the Missouri River ; thence down said river in the middle of the 
main channel thereof to the beginning, shall comprise the county of Jackson. 
Provided, That the territory included within the bounds above named shall con- 
tinue to be attached to and form part of the county of Lafayette for all civil and 
military purposes until the same be established and organized as a separate county 
by law. 

Approved February 16, 1825. 

The organization of Jackson county, though also including the present 
counties of Cass and Bates, was effected by an act entitled, " An act to organize 
the county of Jackson," approved December 15th, 1826, which was as follows: 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, that the 
county of Jackson, heretofore attached by law for all civil and military purposes 
to the county of Lafayette, be, and the same is hereby declared to be erected 
into a separate and distinct county, and that all rights and privileges granted by 
law to separate and distinct counties, be and the same are hereby extended to the 
said county of Jackson. 

2. David Ward and Julius Emmons, of the county of Lafayette, and John 
Bartleson, of the county of Clay, be and are hereby appointed Commissioners 
for the purpose of selecting the seat of justice for said county, and the said 
Commissioners are hereby vested with all the powers granted to Commissioners 
under the law entitled 'an act to provide for organizing counties heretofore 
established.' 

Approved January 14th, 1825. 

3. The said county of Jackson shall be added to and form a part of the 
first judicial district and that the circuit courts for said county shall be held on the 
third Mondays of March, July and November in each and every year until oth- 
erwise provided for by law. 

4. The courts to be holden in the said county shall be at the house of John 
Young, until the tribunal transacting county business shall fix on a temporary 
seat of justice for said county. 

5. The Probate Court shall be holden in the said county of Jackson on the 
second Monday of March, June, September and Ddfcember. 

6. The said county of Jackson shall be attached to and compose a part of 
the Thirteenth Senatorial District, and shall, in conjunction with the counties of 
Clay, Ray and Lafayette, elect one Senator at the general election in eighteen 
hundred and twenty-eight. 

This act shall take effect from and after the passage thereof. 
December isth, 1826 " 

r The reader will now inquire how and when it transpired that Jackson county 
was circumscribed within its present limits. The answer is briefly as follows : 
When by act of the Legislature March 3d, 1835, the county of Van Buren was 
defined then the present southern boundary of Jackson county was established 
and in the following language : Beginning at a point on the middle of range 
twenty-nine, where the same intersects the township line between townships 



Il8 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

forty- six and forty-seven thence west with said township line to the State 
boundary. 

It will be remembered that Van Buren county was subsequently named Cass. 
In the same act it is further stated that : "The northern boundary of Van Buren 
as constituted by the foregoing section shall be the permanent southern boundary 
of Jackson county ; and all the territory included in the county of Bates shall 
be, for all civil and military purposes, attached to the county of Van Buren (now 
Cass) until the said county of Bates shall be organized into a separate and distinct 
county by law. David Ward, of Lafayette, Samuel Hinck and Wilham Brown, 
Jackson county, are hereby appointed Commissioners to select the permanent 
seat of justice for said county." 

March 3d, 1835. 

We have thus followed the organization of counties in which Jackson was 
concerned, from December 13, 1813, to March 3, 1835, during which time the 
counties of which Jackson formed a part, were reduced from the size of the State 
of Massachusetts to its present limits. The organization, early settlements and 
first elections have been alluded to in a former chapter ; but in order that a county 
should be fully organized, and legally qualified to transact business, the county 
court must be qualified, accordingly we give herewith the names of the Judges 
appointed by Governor John Miller, together with their commissions and oath of 
office. When this has been perused the student of Jackson county history will 
have followed each step in the laying off and organization of the county. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE FIRST COUNTY COURT. 



'■} 



STATE OF MISSOURI, 

COUNTY OF JACKSON. 

At a special term of the county court, for the county of Jackson, begun and 
held at the house of John Young, in said county, on the 21st day of May, 1827, 
agreeably to public notice, where (in pursuance of an act of the Legislature of this 
State, entitled an " act to amend and alter an act entitled an act to establish 
Courts of Justice and prescribe their powers and duties," approved 2d January, 
1827,) the following gentlemen, to-wit: Abraham McClelland, Richard Fristoe 
and Henry Burris, Esquires, being appointed Justices of the County Court, for 
this county, and each of the said parties having been duly qualified according to 
law, produced the following commissions, and the said commissions being read in 
open court, took their seats as the Justices of the County Court within and for 
the county of Jackson. 

COMMISSION OF JUDGE ABRAHAM m'CLELLAND. 

"JOHN MILLER, 

Governor of the State of Missouri. 
To all who shall see these presents Greeting: 

Know ye, that reposing especial trust and confidence in the integrity, learn- 
ing and abilities of Abraham McClelland, I have nominated, and by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate, do hereby appoint him a Justice of the County 
Court of the county of Jackson, and do authorize and empower him to discharge 
the duties of said office according to law ; to have and to hold the said office with 
all the privileges and emoluments of the same of right appertaining unto him, 'the 
said Abraham McClelland, for the term of four years, and until his successor is 
duly commissioned and qualified., unless sooner removed for misdemeanor in 
office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereinto set my hand and caused the great seal 
of the State of Missouri to be affixed. Done at the city of Jefferson, this first 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 119 

day of May, A. D. 1827, of the independence of the United States the fifty-first, 
and of this State the seventh. 

, > (Signed) JOHN MILLER. 

THE GREAT SEAL ") 

OF THE STATE V By the Governor, 

OF MISSOURI. ) Spencer Pettis, Secretary of State." 



COMMISSION OF judge RICHARD FRISTOE. 

"JOHN MILLER, 

Governor of the State of Missouri. 
To all who shall see these presents Greeting : 

Know ye that reposing special trust and confidence in the integrity, learning 
and abilities of Richard Fristoe, I have nominated and by and with the advice 
and consent of the senate, do hereby appoint^ him a Justice of the County Court 
for the county of Jackson, and do authorize and empower him to discharge the 
duties of said ofifice according to law. To have and to hold the said office with 
all the powers, privileges and emoluments to the same, of rights appertaining 
unto him, the said Richard Fristoe, for the term of four years, and until his suc- 
cessor is duly commissioned and qualified unless sooner removed for mis- 
demeanor in office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great seal of 
the State of Missouri to be affixed. Done at the city of Jefferson this first day of 
May, A. D. 1827, of the independence of the United States the fifty-first, and of 
the State of Missouri the seventh. 

. ■ > (Signed) JOHN MILLER, 

the great SEAL ") 

OF THE state [■ By the Governor, 

OF MISSOURI. 3 Spencer Pettis, Secretary of State." 



COMMISSION OF JUDGE HENRY BURROWS. 

"JOHN MILLER, 

Governor of the State of Missouri. 
To all who shall see these presents Greeting: 

Know ye, that reposing special trust and confidence in the integrity, learn- 
ing and abilities of Henry Burrows, I have nominated, and by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate, do hereby appoint him a Justice of the County 
Court for the county of Jackson, and do authorize and empower him to discharge 
the duties of said office according to law. To have and to hold the said office 
with all the powers, privileges and emoluments to the same of right appertaining 
unto him, the said Henry Burrows, for the term of four years and until his succes- 
sor is duly commissioned and qualified, unless sooner removed for misdemeanor 
in office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great seal 
of the State of Missouri to be affixed. Done at the city of Jefferson, the first day 
of May, A. D. 1827, of the independence of the United States the fifty-first, and 
of the State the seventh. 

, ' . (Signed) JOHN MILLER. 

f THE GREAT SEAL ~\ 

\ OF THE STATE Y By the Govcrnor, 

(^ OF MISSOURI. ) Spencer Pettis, Secretary of State." 



120 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

The following is the oath of office taken by Abraham McClellan and in- 
dorsed on his commission. 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, | ^^ 
County of Jackson. j 

Personally appeared before me, Joel P. Walker, one of the acting justices of the 
peace for said county, the within named Abraham McClellan and took an oath 
to support the constitution of the United States and of the State of Missouri, and 
to demean himself truly, faithfully and impartially as a judge of the County Court 
for the county of Jackson during his continuance in office. Sworn to before me 
this i8th day of May, 1827. 

(Signed) JOEL P. WALKER, 

Justice of the Peace. 

The following are the oaths of office taken by Richard Fristoe and Henry 
Burrows and indorsed on their commissions : 

"STATE OF MISSOURI,! ^^ 

County of Jackson. [ 

Personally appeared before me Abraham McClellan an acting justice of the 
County Court Vvithin and for the County of Jackson the within named Richard 
Fristoe, and took the oath to support the Constitution of the United States and of 
this State and to demean himself truly, faithfully and impartially as a judge of the 
County Court for the County of Jackson during his continuance in office. 

Sworn to before me this 21st day of May, 1827. 

[Signed.] Abraham McClellan." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, Igg 
County of Jackson, [ 

Personally appeared before me Abraham McClellan an acting judge of the 
County Court within and for the county of Jackson the within named Henry 
Burrows, and took an oath to support the Constitution of the United States and 
this State and demean himself truly, faithfully and impartially as a judge of the 
County Court for the County of Jackson during his continuance in office. 
Sworn to before me this 21st day of May, 1827. 
[Signed.] Abraham McClellan." 

The court thus qualified appointed Abraham McClellan president thereof 
and Lilburn W. Boggs clerk pro tempore. The court being now organized pro- 
ceeded to the discharge of public business. 

county and township system. 

Some of the general properties that belong to counties and townships will 
doubtless be interesting and profitable to the intelligent reader. So much depends 
in business and civil transactions upon county limits and county organizations 
that for the general reader we should not do justice without giving some explana- 
tion, before proceeding further, of the county and township system. 

"A county," says Webster, "is a circuit or particular portion of a State or 
kingdom separated from the rest of the territory for certain purposes in the admin- 
istration of justice." It is legally defined to be "A civil division of a State or 
kingdom for political and judicial purposes formerly governed in England by 
the earl or count from whom it derived its name." Another authority says: "In 
Great Britain and some of the British colonies and in all the States of the Union 
except Louisiana which is still divided into parishes, a county is a politic;! 1 divis- 
ion nearly corresponding to a province of Prussia or a department of France." 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 121 

It is synonymous with shire with which designation it is often interchanged 
in England but never in Ireland. This division in England though popularly 
attributed to Alfred was probably earlier since several counties as Kent, Sussex 
and Essex, are nearly identical with ancient Saxon kingdoms. There are fifty-two 
counties in England and Wales, thirty-three in Scotland and thirty-two in Irelaiid. 
The county is an administrative division and its principal officers aie a lord-lieu- 
tenant who has command of the militia; a castor rotulorum, or keeper of the rolls 
or archives; a sheriff, a receiver-general of taxes, a coroner, justices of the peace, 
an under-sheriff and a clerk of the peace. The assize court, county court and 
hundred courts are the chief judicial tribunals. There are in England four 
counties, Palestine, Chester, Lancaster and Durham, the earl of which had all the 
jura regalia, or rights of sovereignty in the shire. The first two of these have 
been long annexed to the crown, and Durham previously governed by its bishop 
was annexed in 1836. In the United States there are in each county, officers who 
superintend its financial affairs, a county court of inferior jurisdiction and stated 
sessions of the supereme court of the State." 

With regard to the origin of dividing individual States into county and town- 
ship organizations, which, in an important measure, should have the power and 
opportunity of transacting their own business and governing themselves, under 
the approval of, and subject to, the State and general government, of which they 
both form a part, we quote from Elijah M. Haines, who is considered good author- 
ity on the subject. 

In his "Laws of Illinois, Relative to Township Organizations," he says : 
" The county system originated with Virginia, whose early settlers soon became 
large landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeljng, living apart in almost baronial 
magnificence on their own estates, and owning the laboring part of the population. 
Thus the materials for a town were not at hand, the voters being thinly distributed 
over a great area. 

" The county organization, where a few influential men managed the whole 
business of the community, retained their places almost at their pleasure, scarcely 
responsible at all, except in name, and permitted to conduct the county concerns 
as their ideas or wishes might direct, was moreover consonant with their recollec- 
tions or traditions of the judicial and social dignities of the landed aristocracy of 
England, in descent from whom the Virginia gentlemen felt so much pride. In 
1834 eight counties were organized in Virginia, and the system extending through- 
out the State, spread into all the Southern States, and some of the Northern 
States; unless we except the nearly similar division into 'districts' in South 
Carolina, and that into ' parishes ' in Louisiana, from the French laws. 

" Illinois, which with its vast additional territory, became a county of Vir- 
ginia on its conquest by General George Rogers Clark, retained the county organ- 
ization, which was formally extended over the State by the constitution of 1818, 
and continued in exclusive use until the constitution of 1848. 

" Under this system, as in other States adopting it, most local business was 
transacted by those commissioners in each county, who constituted a county court 
with quarterly sessions. 

" During the period ending with the constitution of 1847, ^ large portion of 
the State had become filled up with a population of New England birth or char- 
acter, daily growing more and more compact and dissatisfied with the compara- 
tively arbitrary and inefficient county system. It was maintained by the people 
that the heavy populated districts would always control the election of the com- 
missioners, to the disadvantage of the more thinly populated sections — in short, 
that under that system, ' equal and exact justice ' to all parts of the county could 
not be secured. 

" The township system had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates back to 

1635- 



122 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTV. 

"The first legal enactment concerning this system provided that, whereas, 
' particular townships have many things which concern only themselves, and the 
ordering of their own affairs, and disposing of business in their own town, there- 
fore the freemen of every township, or a majority part of them, shall have power 
to dispose of their own latds and woods with all the appurtenances of said town, 
to grant lots, and to make such orders as may concern the well ordering of their 
own towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders established by the general 
court. 

" They might also (says Haines) impose fines of not more than twenty shil- 
lings, and ' choose their own particular officers, as constables, surveyors for the 
highways and the like.' 

" Evidently this enactment reHeved the general court of a mass of munici- 
pal details, without any danger to the power of that body in controlling general 
measures of public policy. 

" Probably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt for the 
control of their own home concerns. 

' ' The New England colonies were first governed by a General Court or Legis- 
lature, composed of a governor and a small council, which court consisted of the 
most influential inhabitants, and possessed and exercised both legislative and judi- 
cial powers, which were limited only by the wisdom of the holders. 

" They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and decided 
civil and criminal cases, enacted all manner of municipal regulations, and, in fact, 
did all the public business of the colony. Similar provisions for the incorpora- 
tion of towns were made in the first constitution of Connecticut, adopted in 1639 ; 
and the plan of township orgajiization, as experience proved that it was remark- 
ably economical, and that it was adapted to the requirements of a free and intel- 
ligent people, was universally adopted throughout New England, and went west- 
ward with the emigrants from New England into New York, Ohio and the West- 
ern States." 

Thus we find that the valuable system of township and county organization 
had been thoroughly tested and proven before there was need of adopting it in 
Missouri or any of the broad region beyond the Mississippi River, but as the 
country began to settle up, and eastern people began to move westward across 
the mighty river, county and township organizations followed in quick succession, 
and those different systems became more or less modified as the tastes and 
requirements of the people demanded. Experience and the demands of the 
people brought about these changes — not suddenly, but gradually, until the sys- 
tem reached its present state of efficiency and perfection. 

The subsequent subdivision of territory into separate and distinct counties 
was not the work of a day. It was in the interests of the older counties to 
retam the territory attached to them and the movement to detach territory and 
form new counties usually originated with the settlers living in the sparsely setded 
regions. Of course, these movements were not at first successful. 

The Legislature began by organizing counties along the Mississippi River. 
As each new county was formed it was made to include, under legal jurisdiction, 
all the country bordering on it from the west, and required to grant to the occi- 
dental settlers electoral privileges and an equal share in the county government. 

GOVERNMENT SURVEYS. 

No person can intelligently understand the history of a country without a 
the same time knowing its geography, and in order that a clear and correct idea 
of the geography of Jackson county may be obtained from the language always 
used in defining different localities and prices of land, we insert herewith the plan 
of Government Surveys as given in Mr. E. A. Hickman's Property Map of 
Jackson county : "Previous to the formation of our present Government the 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 123 

eastern portion of North America consisted of a number of British colonies, the 
territory of which was granted in large tracts to British noblemen. By treaty of 
1783 these grants were acknowledged as valid by the colonies. After the Revo- 
lutionary War when these colonies were acknowledged "Independent States," 
all public domain within their boundaries was acknowledged to be the property 
of the colony within the bounds of which said domain was situated. 

Virginia claimed all the northwest territory including what is now known as 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois. After a meeting of 
the representatives of the various States to form a Union, Virginia ceded the 
northwest territory to the United States Government. This took place in 1784 ; 
then all this northwest territory became Government land. It comprised all south 
of the lakes and east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the States 
having definite boundary hnes. This territory had been known as New France 
and had been ceded by France to England in 1763. In the year 1803 Napoleon 
Bonaparte sold to the United States all territory west of tl^e Mississippi River 
and north of Mexico, extending to the Rocky Mountains. 

While public domain was the property of the colonies it was disposed of as 
follows: Each individual caused the tract he desired to purchase to be surveyed 
and platted. A copy of the survey was then filed with the Register of lands, 
when by paying into the State or Colonial treasury an agreed price, the purchaser 
received a patent for the land. This method of disposing of public lands 
made lawsuits numerous, owing to different surveys often including the same 
ground. To avoid these difficulties and effect a general measurement of the ter- 
ritories, the United States adopted the present mode, or system, of land surveys, 
a description of which we give as follows : 

In an unsurveyed region a point of marked and changeless topographical 
features is selected as an initial point. The exact latitude and longitude of this 
point is ascertained by astronomical observation, and a suitable monument of iron 
or stone to perpetuate the position. Through this point a true north and 
south line is run, which is called a Principal Meridian. This principal meridian 
may be extended north and south any desired distance. Along this line are 
placed at distances of one-half mile from each other, posts of wood or stone, or 
mounds of earth. These posts are said to establish the line, and are called section 
and quarter-section posts. Principal meridians are nmmbered in the order in 
which they are established. Through the same initial point from which the prin- 
cipal meridian was surveyed, another line is now run and established by mile 
and half-mile posts as before, in a true east and west direction. This line is called 
the Base Line, and like the principal meridian, may be extended indefinitely in 
either direction. These lines form the basis of the survey of the country into 
townships and ranges. Township lines extend east and west parallel with the base 
line, at distances of six miles from the base line and from each other, dividing 
the country into strips six miles wide, which strips are called townships Range 
lines run north and south parallel to the principal meridian, dividing the country 
into strips six miles wide, which strips are called ranges. Township strips are 
numbered from the base line and range strips are numbered from the principal 
meridian. Townships lying north of the base line are "townships north," those 
on the south are " townships south." The strip lying next the base line is town- 
ship one, the next one to that, township two, and so on. The range strips are 
numbered in the same manner, counting from the principal meridian east or west 
as the case may be. 

The township and range lines thus divide the county into six-mile squares. 
Each of these squares is called a congressional township. All north and south- 
lines north of the equator approach each other as they extend north, finally meet 
ing at the north pole ; therefore north and south lines are not literally parallel. 
The east and west boundary lines of any range being six miles apart in the 



124 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



latitude of Missouri or Kansas, would, in thirty miles, approach each other 2.9 
chains, or 190 feet. If, therefore, the width of the range when started from the 
base line is made exactly six miles, it would be 2.9 chains too narrow at the dis- 
tance of thirty miles, or five townships north. To correct the width of ranges 
and keep them to the proper width, the range lines are not surveyed in a continu- 
ous straight line, like the principal meridian, entirely across the State, but only 
across a limited number of townships, usually five, where the width of the range 
is corrected by beginning a new line on the side of the range most distant from the 
principal meridian, at such a point as will make the range its correct width. All 
range lines are corrected in the same manner. The last and west township line 
on which these corrections are made are called correction lines or standard paral- 
lels. The surveys of the State of Missouri were made from the fifth principal 
meridian which runs through the State, and its ranges are numbered from it. The 
State of Kansas is surveyed and numbered from the sixth. Congressional town- 
ships are divided into thirty-six square miles, called sections, and are known by 
numbers, according to their position. The following diagram shows the order of 
numbers and the sections in a congressional township : 



io_ 


> 


— r~^ 


is 


I2 


i) 


•J 


S 


i« 


10 


\\ 


12 






i 


! 






18 


iV 
j 


16 


l'5 


\'i 


I's 


i 






19 


20 


21 


2 2 


is 


ii 








80 


i^ 


28 


in 


2fi 


5>'k 




1 






; 


1 


31 


32 


S3 


s'4 


3 5^ 


3'fi 

1 



Sections are divided into quarters, eighths and sixteenths, and are described 
by their position in the section. The full section contains 640 acres, the quarter 
160, the eighth 80 and the sixteenth 40. In the following diagram of a section 
the position designated by a is known as the northwest quarter ; t is the northeast 
quarter of the northeast quarter ; d would be the south half of the southeast quar- 
ter, and would contain 80 acres. 



Sec.post 






H Seo.post 


Sec.post" 


leOaor'B'. 


?l 


i 




/ 


9 


K Sec.post 




b 


c 


e 


S_eo.poBt 


a 


^ec.poBt 



Jackson county, Missouri, lies north of the south line of township 47 north, 
and west of the center of range 29 west from the fifth principal meridian, and extends 
to the Missouri River on the north, and to the western side of range 33 on the 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 125 

west, where it joins range 25 east from the sixth principal meridian, from which 
Kansas is surveyed. Congressional townships, as we have seen, are six miles 
squares of land, made by the township and range lines, while civil or municipal 
townships are civil divisions, made for purposes of government, the one having 
no reference to the other, though similar in name. On the county map we see 
both kinds of townships — the congressional usually designated by numbers and 
in squares ; the municipal or civil township by name and in various forms. 

By the measurements thus made by the government, the courses and distances 
are defined between any two points. St. Louis is in township 44 north, range 8 
east, and Independence is in township 49 north, range 32 west; how far, then, 
are we apart on a direct line? St. Louis is 40 townships east — 240 miles — and 
five townships south — 30 miles; the base and perpendicular of a right-angled tri- 
angle, the hypothenuse being the required distance. 

ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS. 

In the organization of Jackson county into townships, no regard was had to 
the congressional township boundaries; the county lines, rivers and creeks have, 
as a rule, determined the limits of civil townships in this county. The "town- 
ship," as the term is used in common phraseology, in many instances, is widely 
distinguished from that of "town," though many persons persist in confounding 
the two. " In the United States, many of the States are divided into townships 
of five, six, seven, or perhaps ten miles square, and the inhabitants of such town- 
ships are vested with certain powers for regulating their own affairs, such as re- 
pairing roads and providing for the poor. The township is subordinate to the 
county." A " town " is simply a collection of houses, either large or small, and 
opposed to " country." 

The most important features connected with this system of township surveys 
should be thoroughly understood by every intelligent farmer and business man ; 
still there are some points connected with the understanding of it, which need 
close and careful attention. The law which established this system, required that 
the north and south lines should correspond exactly with the meridian passing 
through that point ; also, that each township should be six miles square. To do 
this would be an utter impossibility, since the figure of the earth causes the merid- 
ians to converge toward the pole, making the north line of each township shorter 
thiui the south line of the same township. To obviate the errors, which are, on 
this account, constantly occurring, correction lines are established. They are 
parallels bounding a line of townships on the north, when lying north of the prin- 
cipal base ; on the south line of townships when lying south of the principal base, 
from which the surveys, as they are continued, are laid out anew ; the range lines 
again starting at correct distances from the principal meridian. In Michigan 
these correction Hues are repeated at the end of every tenth township, but in 
Oregon they have been repeated with every fifth township. The instructions to 
the surveyors have been that each range of townships should be made as mUch 
over six miles in width on each base and correction line as it will fall short of the 
same width where it closes on to the next correction line north ; and it is further 
provided that in all cases, where the exterior lines of the townships shall exceed, 
or shall not extend six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and 
added to or deducted from the western or northern sections or half sections in 
such township, according as the error may be in running the Unes from east to 
west, or from south to north. In order to throw the excess of deficiencies on the 
north and on the west sides of the township, it is necessary to survey the section 
lines from south to north, on a true meridian, leaving the result in the north line 
of. the township to be governed by the convexity of the earth, and the converg- 
ency of the meridians. 

Navigable rivers, lakes and islands are "meandered" or surveyed by the 



126 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

compass and chain along the banks. " The instruments employed on these sur- 
veys, besides the solar compass, are a surveying chain thirty-three feet long of 
fifty links, and another of smaller wire, as a standard to be used for correcting 
the former as often at least as every other day, also, eleven tally pins, made of 
steel, telescope, targets, tape measure and tools for marking the lines upon trees 
or stones. In surveying through woods, trees intercepted by the line are marked 
with too chips or notches, one on each side; these are called sight or line trees." 
Sometimes other trees in the vicinity are blazed on two sides quartering toward 
the line ; but if some distance from the line the two blazes should be near to- 
gether on the side facing the line. These are found to be permanent marks, not 
only recognizable for many years, but carrying with them their own age by the 
rings of growth around the blaze, which may at any subsequent time be cut out 
and counted as years ; and the same are recognized in courts of law as evidence 
of the date of the survey. They can not be obliterated by cutting down the 
trees or otherwise, without leaving evidence of the act. Corners are marked 
upon trees if found at the right spots, or else upon posts set in the ground, and 
sometimes a monument of stones is used for a township corner, and a single stone 
for section corner; mounds of earth are made where there are no stones nor 
timber. At the corners the four adjacent sections are designated by distinct 
marks cut into a tree, one in each section. These trees, facing the corner, are 
plainly rriarked with the letters B. T. (bearing tree) cut into the wood. Notches 
cut upon the corner' posts or trees indicate the number of miles to the outlines of 
the township, or if on the boundaries of the township, to the township corners." 
When Jackson county was first divided up into townships it contained three, two 
of which, Fort Osage and Blue, were each larger than the present county. The 
following order of the County Court, bearing date of "Tuesday, 22d May, A. D. 
1827," defines first, the boundaries of Fort Osage, Blue and Kaw townships re- 
spectively : The court met pursuant to adjournment, all the members (Abraham 
McClelland, Richard Fristoe and Henry Burris) present. 

Ordered : That this county be subdivided into three townships, to be denomi- 
ated as follows, to wit : 

jsi. Fort Osage Township. — To commence eastwardly at the eastern line 
of this county ; thence running with the Missouri westwardly to Brine's Ferry on 
the Missouri ; thence southwardly by a direct line so as to strike Little Blue at 
Fristoe's Fish Trap ; thence up the said creek to the mouth of the Cedar Fork ; 
thence due south to the southern boundary of the county ; thence east to the 
southeast corner of the county; thence north to the beginning— all of which ter- 
ritory lying within the limits of the above described boundary shall compose the 
township of Fort Osage. 

2d. Blue Township. — To commence on the Missouri River at Brine's Ferry 
and run with the western boundary of Fort Osage township to the southern boun- 
dary of the country ; thence west with said boundary to the southwest corner of 
iad county ; thence due north with the State line to where it crosses the main fork 
of Big Blue; thence with said creek to its junction with the Missouri River ; 
thence down the middle of the main channel of the Missouri to the point of 
beginning— all which described territory within the aforesaid limits shall constitute 
the township of Blue. 

3d. Kaw Township. — To commence at the mouth of the Big Blue, thence up 
said creek to the state line, thence north with said line to the middle of the main 
channel of the Missouri River, thence down said river to the point of beginning ; 
all of which territory contained within the above boundary shall compose the 
township of Kaw." 

On the same day the County Court recommended to the Governor of the 
State for the justices of the peace for Fort Osage township, William J. Baugh, 
Jesse Lewis and Joel P. Walker ; and justices for Blue township, WiUiam Yates, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY.. 127 

Lewis Jones, James Chambers, and William Silvers ; and justices of the peace 
for Kaw township, Samuel Johnson and Andrew P. Patterson. 

The boundaries of these townships have undergone many and material 
changes, till at the present time they contain only a portion of what they con- 
tained in 1827. At that time Fort Osage contained its present territory, together 
with Sni-a-bar and Van Buren townships, and the whole eastern portion of Cass 
and Bates counties. 

Blue township contained what is now Blue, Brooking, Prairie and part of 
Washington, also more than a half of Cass and Bates counties. Kaw township 
then contained its present dimensions, Westport and a part of Washington. 

Soon after the county was organized and the County Court qualified, public 
roads received considerable attention as will be observed from the follwoing re- 
ports of road commissioners and petitions for roads. The first commission of 
road viewers consisted of the following named persons : 

"On petition of twelve householders, inhabitants of Jackson county, pre- 
sented to the Court by Mr. Aaron Overton, praying for the appointment of 
suitable persons to view and mark out a road from Joel P. Walker's on the "Six 
Mile" by the nearest and best way to the county seat of this county. It is there- 
fore ordered by the Court that David Lynch, Jacob Powell, David Dealy, Daniel 
Musno and William Williams be appointed commissioners for that purpose. 

May 22d, A. D. 1827." 

The next petition of the same kind was during the August term of court and 
read as follows: "On petition of twelve or more householders, inhabitants of 
this county, presented to the Court, by Edwin F. Hicks, praying for the appoint- 
ment of suitable persons to view and mark out a road from the public square of 
the town of Independence to intersect the Missionary road , on the east side of 
Little Blue, crossing Little Blue at Fristoe's fish trap. It was ordered by the 
Court that John Cornett, John Cook, James Ross, Perry Brock and Joshua 
Yates, be appointed commissioners to view and mark out said road the nearest 
and best way, and make their report to this court on the first Monday in Septem- 
ber next." 

Various other roads were ordered viewed and marked out, and several com- 
missions reported, the first of which was as follows : 

"We the undersigned, commissioners appointed to view and mark out a 
road leading from the wagon ford of Little Blue to Prines Ferry, in pursuance of 
an order of Court to us directed, we have viewed and laid out and do report for 
public use the following road, to-wit : Beginning at the wagon ford of Little 
Blue and running near a west course with very little variation from the present 
road as now traveled as the nearest and most practicable route from the said wagon 
ford of Little Blue to Prines Ferry, and to the greatest ease and convenience of 
the inhabitants, and as little as may be to the prejudice of any person or persons. 

Given under our hands this 6th day of August, 1827. 

(Signed) JAMES LEWIS, 

ISAAC ALLEN, 
BENEDICT WILDER, 
JAMES BLAKELY, 
DABNEY JOHNSON. 

Ordered. — That the above road be established as a public highway, agreeably 
to the foregoing report. 

Before the first general election had transpired another township was formed 
from the south part of Ft. Osage township. This township was named Harmony 
from the name of the mission to the Indians. It included about one-half of 
Bates county. The county there was first settled in 1818 by missionaries sent to 



1 
128 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the Osage Indians by the American Board of Foreign Missions. Harmony mis- 
sion was established August 2, 182 1, and maintained with good success until 
1835 when it was abandoned, the Indians having removed farther west and south. 
The missionaries traveled from New York in keel boats and landed near the present 
site of Papinville. The Indians received them in the most friendly manner and 
the missionaries had no difficulty in taking possession of the three sections of land 
which the government had donated them. They selected for their establishment 
a beautiful location above high water level partly timber and partly prairie near a 
little brook which they called Missouri Branch; this with the Marais des Cygnes 
(Osage) river which at this place is about two hundred feet wide running over a 
gravelly bed and easy of access afforded plenty of water. They built a mill, 
store, blacksmith shop, church and several dwelling houses, also planted an orch- 
ard of apple trees. They called the settlement Harmony Mission and dwelt 
among the Osage Indians for many years, doing what they could to teach arid civil- 
ize them. After the Indians were removed to the Indian Territory, the missionaries 
broke up the establishment and located in different parts of the county where 
some of them who were then young still reside with their descendants. In 1861 
and subsequent years of the war it suffered greatly, being on the border it became 
the prey of the Kansas Jayhawkers, and Missouri Bushwhackers In 1863 Gen. 
Ewing issued his famous "General Order No. 11," ordering the inhabitants to 
leave the county within fifteen days, and when that time had expired nearly every 
inhabitant had crossed its border, and for three years its history was a blank. 
During these years the prairie fires swept over the land adding to the desolation. 
In the spring of 1866 some of the former inhabitants returned, but with a very few 
exceptions not a vestige of their old homes was left, save the chimneys rising 
above the beds of rank weeds. 

The order of "court organizing Harmony township was during the May 
term, 1828, and clothed in the following language: 

"Ordered: That there be established in this county a new township with 
the following boundaries and be denominated the township of Harmony. To 
commence at a point on Grand river where the eastern line of Ft. Osage township 
crosses the same, thence with the meanderings of Grand River westwardly to the 
line between Ft. Osage and Blue townships, theuce with said line southwardly to 
the southern boundary of the county, thence with the said southern boundary of 
the county eastwardly to the southeast corner of the county, thence with the 
eastern boundary of Ft. Osage township northwardly to the point of beginning 
on Grand River, all the territory comprised within the aforesaid limits shall consti- 
tute the township of Harmony, and it is further ordered by the court that the 
northern boundary of the Harmony township shall be the southern boundary of 
Ft. Osage township. And that the clerk be directed to certify the same to the 
Secretary of the State. May 5, 1828." 

At the first general election held in Jackson county, for Governor, August 
5th, 1828, the number of votes cast by the four townships were as follows, the 
names of the votes having been given in the preceding chapter : 

Fort Osage township cast 44 votes. 

Blue " " 231 

Kaw " " 29 

Harmony " " 12 " 

Total 316 

The Presidential election which occurred on the first Monday of November, 
1828, at which selection Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United 
States, the election in the respective townships, was held at the following named 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 129' 

places : The election in Fort Osage township was held at the house of Joel P. 
Walker. For Kaw township at the house of William Johnson. For Blue town- 
ship at the Court House. For Harmony township at the Harmony Mission 
School House at Harmony on the Marais des Cygnes River; and the judges of 
the elections in the respective voting precincts were for Fort Osage, Thomas 
Williams, Stuart Lewis and Zebadiah Baker ; for Blue, Aaron Overton, William 
Yates and Solomon Flournoy ; for Kaw, Andrew P. Patterson, James Welch and 
William Lewis ; for Harmony, Nathaniel B. Dodge, Amasa Jones and Samuel 
B. Bright 

At the same sitting Eli Wadkins was ordered recommended to the Gover- 
nor for Justice of the Peace for Fort Osage township in place of William J. 
Baugh who had removed. Doubtless the election was held as arranged, but as 
very few are now alive who witnessed that election and there are few records of 
the event no positive statement can be made. 

The following constables were appointed May 31, 1828, and their term of 
office commenced July 8, 1828 : James W. McClellan, constable for Fort Osage 
township; Solomon G. Flournoy, for Blue township; William Lewis, for Kaw 
township. 

The next township formed was Boone, the order of court defining its 
boundaries given in the month of May, 1830: "In the petition of several 
inhabitants of Fort Osage township, it is ordered that the following district cr 
country be erected into a separate township and to be knovvn by the name of 
Boone township, "to wit: Beginning east of the county line between townships 
number forty-seven and forty-eight, thence running due west until it intersects 
the line of Blue township, thence south to the main channel of Grand River, 
thence down Grand River to the county line, thence north to the beginning. It 
is further ordered that Joel P. Walker and David G. Butterfield be appointed as 
justices of the peace in said township, and Isaac Dunaway constable." At the 
general election in 1830, polls were opened at the following places : 

For Fort Osage township at the house of Nathan Russell, with Anderson 
Davis, James Lewis and John Patten judges of the election. 

For Blue township, at the Court House, with John Davis, G. Johnston and 
John Smith, as judges. 

For Kaw township at the dwelling house of Michael Farns, with Andrew P. 
Patterson, James Welch and William Lewis as judges of the election. 

For Boone township at the house of Reddin Crisps, with David G. Butter- 
field, William Dunaway and Joshua Adams as judges of the election. 

For Harmony township at Harmony Mission school house, with Samuel 
Bright, Leonard Dodge and M. Moderal as judges of the election. 

On the first day of November, 1830, the boundaries of Fort Osage and Boone 
towships underwent further changes. 

Sni-a-bar (or Shnee-a-bar, Shnebar) township was defined and named May 
Sth, 1834. 

" On petition of sundry inhabitants of the township of Fort Osage, praying for 
the division of said township, the Court doth order that said township be and the 
same is hereby divided and formed into two distinct townships as follows, to-wit : 
Commencing on Little Blue creek at Benjamin Mayor's mill, on the upper road lead 
ing from Independence to Lexington, thence on a line with said road east to the 
line of Lafayette county, and that all that section of territory lying north of the 
aforesaid road, and within the boundaries of the aforesaid Fort Osage township, 
be and the same is hereby erected into a separate township to be known and 
designated by the name of Shne-bar township, and that all the territory of land 
lying on the north of the aforesaid road and within the boundaries of Fort Osage 
township, be known and designated by the name of Fort Osage township." 

On the 23d day of July, 1836, the fractional part of Boone township which 
9 



130 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



Still remained within the boundaries of Jackson county, after the organization of 
Van Buren (now Cass), was attached to "Shne-bar" township. 

An order of the County Court, February 9, 1836, defines the boundaries of 
a new township, largely from Blue township, and called Washington. The order 
is as follows : 

"On application of the inhabitants of the south and of Blue and Kaw town- 
ships, in Jackson county, the Court orders that a new township be formed out of 
said townships, said new township to comprise the following bounds, to-wit : Com- 
mencing at Cummins' mill on Big Blue, so as to include said mill, thence running 
due west to the boundary line, thence south with said boundary line to the corner 
of Van Buren (now Cass) county^ thence east with said county line to a point oppo- 
site the head of Little Cedar Fork of Little Blue, thence dowa said Cedar Fork 
until it intersects the main fork of Little Blue, thence a straight direction to the 
beginning, all which territory lying within the limits of the above described 
boundary shall compose the township of Washington." 

Van Buren township was laid off by order of court May 3, 1837. " The 
court divides ' Shnee-a-bar ' township in this county into two townships by an east 
and west line running through the center of township 48 in all the ranges that 
were included in ' Shnee-a-bar ' township and make all the county south of said 
line that formerly belonged to Shnee-a-bar township into a new township to be 
called 'Van Buren.'" All of the above order was made on the petition of the 
inhabitants of Shnee-a-bar township. 

Prairie township was ordered organized June 4, i860. "Now at this day 
comes William Dapuy and S. Maddox and presents a petition of sundry citizens 
of the west part of Van Burnen township in Jackson county, praying the court to 
divide said township of Van Buren into two municipial townships by the follow- 
ing line, viz. : Beginning at the farm owned by Thomas M. Field and running 
southward along the line of the county road and terminating at the Cass county 
line at the southeast corner of the farm formerly owned by Col. James A. Fisher, 
which said petition being by the court here seen and understood and for the reasons 
set forth in said petition the court doth divide said municipal township of 
Van Buren by the line above set forth making all that part of Van Buren 
township west of said line into a new township to be called by the name of 
' Prairie ' township, in Jackson county, Missouri, and the territory included in 
said new township shall be known in law as Prairie township, of Jackson county, 
Missouri." 

Westport township was established by order of court May 17, 1869, ^^'^ '^e fol- 
lowing is a copy of the order : ' 'The court orders that a new municipal township be 
formed out of that portion of Kaw township described as follows : Beginning at 
the southwest corner of section 18, township 48, range 33, thence north along 
the State line to a point 60 chains north of the southwest corner of section 18, 
township 49, range 33, thence east at a variation of 80° 30' to the center of Big 
Blue River, thence south in the center of said river to where it intersects the 
south line of 14, township 48, range 33, thence west along the south hne of sec- 
tions 15, 16, 17 and 18 to the place of beginning, and that said township be called 
Westport township." 

Brooking township was organized by order of County Court, March 13, 
1872. "The court orders that a new municipal township be formed out of that 
portion of Washington and Blue townships described as follows : Beginning at 
the mouth of Round Grove Creek, thence up said creek to where it crosses the 
half section line running east and west through the center of section 29, town- 
ship 49, range 32, thence with said line to the range line between ranges 31 and 
32, thence south to line of Prairie township, thence west to Little Blue Creek, 
thence up said creek to where the south line of section 22, township 48, range 
32 crosses the same, thence west with said line to the half section line on south 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 131 

side section 19 of said township, thence north to the center of said section, thence 
west to Big Blue Creek, thence with said creek to place of beginning, and that 
said township be called Brooking. 

The Court on the same day appointed T. L. Cassell constable for the new 
township of Brooking to serve till the general election, and till his successor 
should be qualified. He was required, in accordance with the custom to give 
bond in the sum of one thousand dollars. 



CHAPTER VI. 
OLD SETTLERS OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Meeting at Kansas City December jo, iSjI — Names of Old Settlers, with Date of Settlement — Of- 
ficers of tipe Association — Resolutions — First Address — The ^^ Far West''"' — The Pioneers — Tom 
Rule — The Site of Kansas City — Dates of Important Events — Meeting March, 1872 — Old 
Settlers Assemble July 4, 1872 — The Life of Daniel Boone, by Dr. Johnston Lykins — Meeting 
of Pioneers July 4, ^874. — Speeches of W, H. Wallace, Gen. Bingham, Jacob Gregg, Johnston 
Lykins, Col. Van Horn, and others — Prizes Awarded — Death of Daniel Boone — Meeting 
April 24, 1880 — The Pioneers — Address by Mr. McCoy — The Last Grand Meeting of the 
Fathers and Mothers, M^iy 22, 1880 — Speeches of Jacob Gregg, Alexander Majors, J. C. 
■McCoy, Dr. Winfrey and Mirtin Rice — An Old Timer's Poem- — Rev. Father Donnelly — Old 
Residents and Date of Coming. 

A meeting of old settlers of Jackson county was held at the Council Cham- 
ber, Kansas City, December 30, 1871. It was called to order by Dr. Lykins, and 
Walter Bales was made chairman and Daniel Geary secretary. On motion of 
Col. R. T. Van Horn, the settlers of twenty-five years proceeded to organize the 

OLD SETTJLERS HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

The following names, with date of residence, were then recorded : 

David Dealy, February, 1823. 

John R. Swearingen, March 6, 1825. 

John Majors, March 6, 1825 ; settled in Lafayette county in 1819. 

Thomas Pritcher, November 10, 1826. 

William Mulkey, 1826. 

Mobillon W. McGee, 1827. 

William Dealy, February, 1823. 

Walter Bales, October, 1831. 

John C. McCoy, August, 1830. 

Johnston Lykins, July 8, 1831. 

Samuel Campbell, November, 1834. 

William O. Shouse, October 25, 1837. 

Ansel Collins, April, 1834. 

Levi W. Bradley, December 17, 1833. 

John W. Polk, 1838. 

Lucius Carey, 1840. 

Major H. Alley, December, 1844. 

Frances M Alley, December, 1844. 

Wallace Smith, October, 1841. 

James H. McGee, born in county 1837. 



132 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

William Bales, born in county December 28, 1834. 

James C. Evans, born in county April 25, 1833. 

John T. Dealy, born in county August 26, 1845. 

The society -then being organized elected David Dealy, President ; Dr. 
Johnston Lykins, Vice-President, and John C. McCoy, Recording and Corres- 
ponding Secretary. The following gentlemen were then made members by vote 
of the society : 

R. T. Van Horn, J. W. Cook, Kersey Coates, Theo. S. Case, Joseph C. 
Ranson, Daniel Geary, Sands W. Bouton, John Hayden, D. Y. Chalfant, A. B. 
Earle, T. B. Lester, Charles Long, 'John Baeurlein, Peter Schmidt, John C. 
Groom. 

A resolution was adopted that any citizen of twenty-five years residence 
could become a member of the society by subscribing his name to the roll. 

On motion of John W. Polk, the editor of each newspaper in Jackson and 
adjoining counties were voted honorary members of the society. 

The following resolutions were then adopted : 

Resolved, That the officers of this society be, and they are hereby authorized, 
to take such steps as may be necessary to the permanent organization of this 
society under the laws of Missouri, and all such other action as may be necessary 
to the permanent organization of this society and carrying out of the object of 
the same, viz : the collection and preservation of the history of the settlement of 
Jackson county and western Missouri, its preservation and compilation. 

Resolved, That the secretary be authorized to keep the list of members open 
for the enrollment of the names of those desiring to become members, and who 
come within the rule prescribed — a residence of twenty-five years — at any time, 
and all such are hereby made members of this society. 

Resolved, That the President or Vice President and Secretary shall have 
authority to call meetings of this society at any time and that six members shall 
constitute a quorum to do business. 

R'solved, That John R. Swearengen be appointed Assistant Secretary at In- 
dependence, to receive the names of members and perform all the duties necesary 
for the eastern portion of the county, in the same manner as the regular Secretary. 

R. T. Van Horn, John W. Polk, John C. Groom, Kersey Coates and Theo- 
dore S. Case were appointed a committee at that meeting to draft a constitution 
and by-laws for the society. After some other business by the society a paper 
was read by John C. McCoy. 

THE FIRST PAPER READ BEFORE THE OLD SETTLERS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

This first paper was by John C. McCoy, and is worthy a place in the lasting 
records of Jackson county : 
My Old Friends and Neighbors : 

You will agree with me, I think, that it is eminently right and proper for us 
to have occasionally a social friendly gathering of as many of the few remaining 
survivors of the first settlers of this favored region as can make it convenient to 
meet together, where we may interchange friendly greetings and recall almost for- 
gotten memories of incidents and persons once familiar in " Auld Lang Syne," 
and at these meetings, like stand points or mile stones by the road-side in life's 
journey, look back along the track of our past journey. A retrospect down the 
long dim outline of our past pilgrimage will doubtless be reflected' with shadows 
and sunshine, with dark clouds and clear sky — will recall many long forgotten 
incidents and mem-ories, some of them casting a shadow of sadness and gloom, 
and manv of them lighted up with the joys and blessings of other days. From 
half a century tp three score years and ten (and some even longer) have we been 
steadily borne onward as we hope toward a better land. 

Not inappropriately might we compare a few venerable survivors like a few 
scattered trees of the old primeval forest, scattered by the storms and covered by 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 133 

the frosts of many winters, one after another their companions have lost their 
verdure, withered and have fallen, but what a vigorous dense growth has taken 
their places, what a wonderful transformation has the face of nature undergone 
within the recollection of us all. 

Those of us who, during the past half century have been eye witnesses of 
the gradual but rapid development of this goodly land, can appreciate the change. 
In early youth we removed to and settled in a country universally known over 
the continent as the "Great West." We have until to day remained citizens of 
this region, but are today citizens of the " Great Center." All of the vast terri- 
tory almost unknown and untraveled, lying from the Mississippi westward to the 
Pacific ocean, was once known as the "Great West." Towns, steamboats, post- 
ofifices, and children were named " Far West," in honor of that wonderful country. 
Persons hailing from that far-off country were regarded with pecular interest in the 
old States as travelers from a distant land, and in the hall of Congress and in de- 
liberative assemblies they were addressed as "gentlemen from the Far West," — 
but where is that famous land to-day? — even the name is unused and unknown. 
Col. Bartleson, Gov. Boggs, Joab Powell, Jim Baxter, Tom Rule and a host 
of the first pioneers of this region, long years ago chased that vanishing phantom 
Lind over the western plains, the snowy range, the Sierra Nevadas, and lost sight 
of it forever in the broad Pacific. Only one of the number, as far as I know, 
holds on to the chase, poor Tom Rule, who used to preach a pretty fair back- 
woods hardshell sermon, and boasted that with only hickory withes and a jack-knife 
he could make a very good wagon, refused to be comforted or give up the chase 
after his beloved " P'ar West." 

Only last year I met him on Grand Avenue mounted on a mountain mustang, 
his face, what little of it could be seen besides hair, looking very much like a small 
piece of buffalo meat, and with hair standing out hke porcupine quills. He was 
spurring and belaboring his jaded mustang in an easterly direction, evidently, as 
I conjectured, bound to head off his favorite " Far West " as it came 'round the 
world from sun-rise; he may have given up the chase however at old Davy Sur- 
ges', where he expected to spend the night. The panorama which has been un- 
rolled before the eyes of old settlers who still survive, by the westward rolling 
wave of civilization and empire, has been so rapid and wonderful, that we may 
with propriety exclaim : "A nation is born in a day." 

The very ground upon which we now stand, was only a few years ago a wild 
uncultivated wilderness, now transformed as if by magic into the busy, crowded, 
proud city we see it to-day. Truly, "the wilderness and the solitary place have 
blossomed like the rose." Let us endeavor to recall some of the features of the 
landscape then and now. A clearing or old field of a ie.vf acres lying on the high 
ridge between Main and Wyandotte, and Second and Fifth streets, made and 
abandoned by a mountain trapper. A few old, girdled, dead trees standing in 
the field, surrounded by a dilapidated rail fence. Around on all sides a dense 
forest, the ground covered with impenetrable brush, vines, fallen timber and deep 
impassable gorges. A narrow, crooked roadway winding from Twelfth and Wal- 
nut streets, along down on the west side of the deep ravine toward the river, 
across the Public Square to the river at the foot of Grand avenue. 

A narrow, difficult path, barely wide enough for a single horseman, running 
up and down the river under the bluff, winding its way around fallen timber and 
deep ravines. An old log house on the river bank at the foot of Main street, oc- 
cupied by a lank, cadaverous, specimen of humanity, named Ellis, with one blind 
eye and the other on a sharp lookout for stray horses, straggling Indians and 
squatters, with whom to swap a tin-cup of whisky for a coon skin. Another old, 
dilapidated log cabin below the Pacific depot. Two or three small clearings and 
cabins in the Kaw bottom, now caHed West Kansas, which were houses of French 
mountain trappers. The rest of the surroundings was the still solitude of the na- 



134 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

tive forest, unbroken, only by the snort of the darting deer, the barking of the 
squirrel, the howl of the wolf, the settler's cow-bell and mayhap the distant bay- 
ing of the hunter's dog, or the sharp report of his rifle. 

This, my old compeers, is a brief and imperfect outline of the place in which 
we now meet, and which many of us will recognize as it appeared to us then. I 
need not attempt to describe the picture as it appears to us now. It is spread out 
before us. The ceaseless hum of the busy, restless multitude, the rumble and 
clatter of a hundred locomotives and trains and a thousand vehicles of all degrees. 
The continual scream of the steam whistle and a thousand other sounds all con- 
tribute to make up a medley of discordant music, far different from that once 
heard by us around the " old field," from the sonorous cow-bell and the melan- 
choly howl of the wolf, and tells us unmistakably, that something has happened 
in the neighborhood of the " old field," and we are confirmed in the conviction, 
when we look around us — miles of crowded thoroughfares lined with stately, mag- 
nificent buildings, the Court House, Opera House, the towering Broadway and 
other hotels; the church spires and schools, and the greatest monument of genius 
and enterprise, the great iron bridge spanning the river, in short a wilderness of 
houses has crowded in and taken the place of the venerable six thousand year old 
forest once clothing these hills. 

Well, my dear old iriends, have you become accustomed and reconciled to 
the scenes which now surround us? They call it progress and manifest destiny 
and all that. We have this day called a halt at our milestone, to take a look back- 
ward along the line of march, and this reminds me that this writing was designed 
to be a short historical sketch of men and events, which were notable in this re- 
gion forty years ago. As a historical sketch I confess it is a failure thus far, and 
without spinning my yarn to a length which would probably put some of my 
friends to dozing, I cannot do more now than to make a brief mention of a few of 
those historical facts. 

The treaties between the United States government and the Osage and Kan- 
sas Indians, ratified in 1825, extinguished the Indian title to all the country lying 
in western Missouri, and what is now the State of Kansas, except the reservations 
for these two tribes situated in the latter State. These treaties opened the border 
counties lying in Missouri territory for the settlement of the whites, and the 
people were not slow to avail themselves of the privilege; consequently in 1825 
the first settlers entered this county. 

Fort Osage ( Sibley ), situated on the river near the northeast corner of the 
county of Jackson, was established in 1803 by Merri weather Lewis, the first gov- 
ernor of Louisiana after its purchase, and continued as a military and trading 
post until the country was settled. Before 1825, Francis Chouteau, father of P. 
M., and brother of Cyprien Chouteau, both now of Kansas City, had a trading post 
an the south bank of the river about three miles below the citv. In 1826 every 
vestige of his improvements was swept away by the great flood'which occurred in 
the Missouri River that year. This flood made a clear sweep of all improve- 
ments situated in the bottoms, but was no higher than that of 1844 — and this 
reminds me that prehaps P. M. Chouteau, the present city collector, is the old- 
est resident, still living, in this county although not an old man. The county 
seat was located, and the town of Independence begun in 1827 When I passed 
through the town four years afterward, the square was thickly studded with 
stumps of trees. Westport was laid off into lots in 1833, J. C. McCoy, proprietor. 
Westport Landing is situated about three miles north of the town on the river, 
and has growij to be a place of considerable importance. A town was laid off 
there which was named Kansas City first in the year 1839, but the proprietors of 
the ground disagreed in some particulars and the town made but little progress 
until 1846, when it was laid out on a larger scale a second time (not with a grape 
vine), since which time it has been increasing with varying prospecft. 



HTSTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 135 

But my friends I find that the historical part of this sketch must be curtailed. 
Your patience is doubtless already exhausted, and the space I ought in decency 
to claim has more than been exhausted, and I beg leave, therefore, to wind up my 
uninteresting yarn very rapidly taking no thought of my going. I will in 
addition merely mention some o'f the most interesting and important events which 
now occur to me which have transpired in this county, viz : 

The first advent of Mormons, 1830. 

The Mormon war and expulsion, 1833. 

The great flood in the Missouri, 1 844. 

The Osage war, 1836. 

This little war has been overlooked by modern historians, not even men- 
tioned by them for the last thirty years. I will at some future time try to rescue 
from oblivion the heroes and daring deeds of that glorious campaign. Suffice it 
now only to say that it was a military raid from the border against the Osage In- 
dians. Some of those ruthless savages committed murder upon several hogs 
belonging to settlers near Westport. The command numbered 560 officers and 
men, consisting of one Major-General, two Brigadiers, four Colonels, besides 
Lieutenant Colonels, Majors, Captains, Lieutenants, Chaplains, Surgeons, etc., 
ad infinitum, being 98 officers to command 432 privates. It is needless to tell 
you that the expedition was a success. Old Girand's squaws, papooses, and six 
other savages, if still living, have a sorrowful recollection that the way of the 
transgressor is hard. I will take occasion ere long to sharpen my pen and chron- 
icle a few of the interesting facts connected with that famous war,' but for the 
present, my old friends, I beg that you will allow me to close this hastily written, 
imperfect sketch to permit those of you who have fallen asleep during its delivery 
to wake up, and with a heartfelt expression of the hope that we all may meet 
again, if not here amid the transitory, vanishing scenes of earthly conflict, at least 
in that better land where weary, way-worn travelers may forever be at rest. 

J. C. McCOY. 

A meeting of Old Settlers was held in Kansas City the latter part of March, 
1872. There was a large attendance of members of the society, the men who 
first broke the sod of Jackson county and those who drew from the bowels of 
the earth the first fruits of the abundance that has since given its fertile fields the 
proud name they now bear. On account of the absence of the President, the 
Vice President of the Association, Dr. Lykins, called the meeting to order, and 
in a short address announced its objects, which were to take what further steps 
were necessary to perfect their organization and to make the beginning of an 
authentic history of the county. 

The proceedings of the first meeting, held at Kansas City, December 30, 
1871, was ordered read, but owing to some oversight they had been left and their 
reading was therefore dispensed with. 

Addresses were delivered by E. A. Hickman, J. J. Robinson and others ; 
on motion of Mr. E. A. Hickman, Dr. Waldo was requested to write up the 
history of 'the Santa Fe trade. 

The following new members were announced. The dates after each name 
indicate the time at which they first became settlers : Alexander Harris, Novem- 
ber, 1839; David Waldo, May, 1828; James D. Meador, January, 1845; 
Redmon G. Silvers, born. May, 1833; Samuel Ralston, October, 1842; Thos. 
B. Swearingen, born, November, 1843; Benjamin F. Wallace, October, 1833; 
Beverly Todd, 1844; Samuel Robinson, born, November, 1833; John Lewis, 
July, 1830; William McCoy, June, 1838; Edwin P. Hickman, November, 1830; 
James B. Yager, June, 1837; John Dickey, March, 1846; John M. Wallace, 
October, 1833; John C. Wallace, May, 1843; Wiley M. Aiken, February, 1841; 
W. T. McLellan, October, 1844; Porter McLannahau, August, 1841 ; Edwin A. 



13li HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Hickman, May, 1829; Reuben Wallace, October, 1833; John Wilson, April, 
1834; Redmon D. McKinney, October, 1825; Hugh L. Dodds, September, 
1839; C. R. Barnes, March, 1839; Philip Uhlinger, May, 1840; Martin L. 
Kritzer, 1838; Jaqueline A. Lobb, October, 1836; J. H. McMnrry, October, 
1832; Wm. Botts, October, 1841 ; Benjamin F. Davidson, October, 1844; John 
W. Smart, July, 1842 ; lohn A. Overfelt, September, 1841 ; Bennett Hale, April, 
1833; Amos Allen, October, 1838; Henry C. Owens, born, February, 1838; 
William Parker, October, 1838; Perry G. Brock, born, March, 1831 ; Henry C. 
Parker, November, 1837; J. J. Robinson, September, 1843; Lyncburg, Adams, 
spring of 1820; W. C. Adams, b )rn, March, 1836. 

On motion, David Waldo, E. A. Hickman and the editors of the Independ- 
ence papers, with Theo. S. Case, J. C. McCoy, aud the editors of the Kansas 
City press, were appointed a committee to select historical notes. 

The following resolution was offered by J. J. Robinson : 

Resolved, That we invite all friends to give us short written sketches of any 
and all of the old or early settlers of Jackson, and of any event; and that such 
communications be addressed to the Chairman of our Historical Committee. 

On motion, E. A. Hickman, John Wilson, J. J. Robinson, J. A. Lobb and 
Henry Parker were appointed a Committee of Arrangements for holding the 
next meeting of the Society. 

It was also carried that a meeting should be held on the 4th of July, on the 
fair grounds at Independence. The Committee were empowered to select speak- 
ers and arrange interrogatories for historical facts. 

A committee, consisting of Geo. Sinclair, W. C- Adams, Warham Easly, 
Benj. F. Wallace, were appointed to enroll the names of old settlers as members, 
and forward them to the Secretary, after which, and the transaction of some 
minor business, the Society adjourned. 

OLD settler's re-union at independence. 

July 4, 1872, was a day long to be remembered by both the young and old 
of Jackson county — the events of which mark an epoch in the history of the 
county, over which the most pleasing recollections will ever linger. It was the 
assembling together of the old settlers — the pioneers who laid the corner stone of 
the present magnificent structure, and have been spared to witness its grandeur — 
who came to this section, some of them half a century ago, when it was a perfect 
wilderness, inhabited only by the red man. 

They were met also by a younger generation, who, even in this latter day, 
reverence old age, and had come from every household to do honor to the pioneers 
of Jackson county. 

The weather was all that could be desired — bright, genial, pleasant, and all 
nature seemed inclined to smile upon the scenes of the day. At an early hour 
the road leading to the fair ground was literally thronged with wagons, carriages, 
buggies, horsemen and pedestrians. At a later hour the train from Kansas City 
augmented the number, -until the ample grounds could hold no more. 

The gray-haired grandfather and grandmother, familiar with the 'events of 
the last century, were there perhaps for the last time — the middle aged man was 
there with his wife and bouncing children — young men, gallant beaux, blushing 
damsels — rosy lipped angels and innocent prattling children were all there. The 
farmer, the mechanic and the professional man for one day had laid aside busi- 
ness and assembled to honor the old settlers. 

The members of the I. O. O F. of Independence had formed in procession, 
preceded by the band, and followed by an array of children, marched to the 
grounds, where the first order of the day was the reception of the Kansas City 
delegation, after which a number of old settlers formed in line inside the amphi- 
theater. Then followed an eloquent address in behalf of the youth to the Old 



HISrOKY OF JACKSON COUN'IY. ] 37 

Settlers by Capt Turner A. Gill, of tLansas City, responded to in the most appro- 
priate manner by Col. S. H. Woodson of Independence. A sketch of the life of 
Dan'l M. Boone, of Jackson county, was given by that venerable old settler. Dr. 
Johnston Lykins, of Kansas City. A complete sketch of Independence, the county 
seat of Jackson, was read by John McCoy, of Independence. It was intensely 
interesting;. A sketch of the lives of Judge Brooking, Richard Fristoe and 
others, was read by Rev. J. J. Robinson, of Raytown, and highly appreciated, as 
was also a sketch of the lives of S. C. Owen, Smallwood Noland and Sam'l D. 
Lucas, by Wm. McCoy. The historical sketch of Kansas City, by Jno. C. Mc- 
Coy of that place, received, and was deserving of great praise. 

Just before the premiums were awarded, calls were made for Mr. Lynchburg 
Adams, the oldest settler in the county, who responded in a few interesting, 
appropriate and touching remarks. 

Then came the most interesting event of the day — the awarding of premi- 
ums Mr. Henry Noland and Elizabeth Noland received the elegant silver 
pitcher, as having resided the longest time in the county as man and wife. They 
were married on the nth day of January, 1826, her maiden name being Elizabeth 
Pitcher — so the old pioneer was a second time made happy with a Pitcher. In 
consequence of there being no justice of the peace in the county at that time, 
the couple were compelled to go to Clay county to have the ceremony performed. 
They were both Kentuckians, and had lived for forty-six years in this county, as 
husband and wife. 

The splendid silver goblet was awarded to Mr. Lynchburg Adams, as being 
the oldest settler in the county, having been here nearly fifty-three years. 

The presentations were made in a most happy and appropriate manner by 
Hon. A. Comingo, of Independence. 

This closed the programme, and the immense throng dispersed, perfectly 
satisfied that a pleasant day had been enjoyed, and one that will often be reverted 
to with feelings of pride and pleasure. The meeting of old friends, who will 
perhaps see each other no more in human form, the respect paid them by the 
younger and still younger generation, the happy strains of music, gushing songs, 
and the delightful repast, all combined to render the occasion a peculiarly happy 
one. May the old settlers of Jackson live to witness many more scenes of a 
similar nature ! 

The following appeared in the Kansas City Journal of Commerce, Saturday, 
July 6, 1872 : 

" The Old Settlers' celebration, at Independence, stands without parallel, in 
that it was not only one of novelty, but also in numbers and pleasures, a grand 
affair and success. The Missouri Pacific trains were crowded with parties excurt- 
ing to the grounds until the number had been swelled to four thousand, all with 
joy depicted on their countenances, and their hearts leaping with expectant enjoy- 
ment. The exercises were opened by the introduction of Mr. Turner Gill, who 
delivered a splendid oration on the Old Settlers of Jackson county, followed and 
answered by Samuel Woodson, who distinguished themselves by the excellent 
manner in which they handled the subject. Dinner was then announced, which 
was certainly one of unusual sumptuousness. After dinner, Mr. Lykins read an 
essay on "The Life of Daniel Boone," followed by Mr. John McCoy, on the 
" Early Settlements of Jackson County," which was filled with interesting remi- 
niscences in the history of the county. A silver pitcher was then presented to the 
married couple that had lived longest together in Jackson county. What 
couple received this handsome present we have been unable to learn, but did 
learn of the great inconvenience they were subjected to, by having to cross 
the river into Clay county to get the marriage ceremony performed, as there was 
then no justice of the peace in Jackson county. Mr. Adams, who came to this 
county in the year 18 19, having resided in the county fifty- three years, was given 



138 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



the silver, gold-lined goblet, as the oldest resident of the county. Our space for- 
bids the full description we so much desire to give. Suffice it to say the affair 
was a perfect success." 

SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF A SON OF DANIEL BOONE. 

The following sketch by Dr. Johnston Lykins, of Kansas City, was read at 
the Old Settlers meeting at the Fair Grounds near Independence, July 4, 1872 : 
Ladies and Gentlemen of the Old Settlers Association, and Fellow Citizens : 

" I am called upon to speak of the life and incidents in the life of the late 
Daniel Morgan Boone, son of the far-famed pioneer of our sister State, Kentucky. 
In the discharge of this duty, I can, at present, give but a glance at the character 
of this strange and wonderful man, whose worth and merit were only understood 
by his compeers, and whose memory is fast passing away. But I promised, 
should my life be prolonged, to gather up the facts and events of Daniel M. 
Boone's life, and place them in your hands for perpetuation. In order to fully 
comprehend the worth and character of the man of our subject, it is necessary 
that we should glance back to that period where the past is as dark as the future. 
At the time of the landing of our forefathers on the Atlantic shores and settle- 
ment at Jamestown, our great West was utterly unknown to civilized men. No 
one from the walks of literature, or culture, had ever looked upon its grandeur, 
or gazed upon its beauties. The mighty river which sweeps by our northern 
boundary had never mirrored the face of other than the wild and rude nomad of 
its banks. Far removed from the din of commerce and the clatter of busy man, 
it slumbered in the embraces of an unwritten age, powerless to assert it beauties, 
or to extol its munificent wealth in climate, soil, minerals and all that challenges 
fitness for the seat of empire. 

" About the year 1673, Marquette, the French Jesuit, in pursuit of savage 
tribes to save or enlighten, was the first to near the shores of the mighty Missouri, 
and to gaze upon its angry and turbid waters. Close upon the track of this dis • 
ciple of Loyola and herald of the cross, followed the devotees of Mammon, the 
fur traders of France, Spain and other lands, were established at Portage De 
Sioux, St. Louis, Kaskaskia and St. Charles, and while our State was yet a prov- 
ince of Spain and afterward of France. The objects sought by these early 
comers to the Missouri Valley were purely mercenary and for the Indian trade, and 
in no sense in the promotion of agriculture or civilization, and hence their num- 
bers were small, confined for many long years to the wants of the Indian trade. 
It matters not that the rich and varied soil tempted to the plow and the sickle. 
For these the happy and volatile Frenchman, and the gay and chivalrous Spanish 
cavalier had no taste. They sought only the rich furs of our plains and streams, 
and found in Indian life a happy escape from the trammels and conventionalities 
of civilized societies. For these the mighty West might have remained a wilder- 
ness for ages to come. At the time of which we speak no honey-bee, the accom- 
paniment of civilized man, had ever been seen this side of the Mississippi, or had 
ever sipped the honey of Missouri's flowers ; no tiller of the soil with his family 
had ever crossed the Father of Waters or built his rude cabin within this mighty 
valley. Laclede, the ancestor of the great Chouteau family, had not yet pushed 
his heavy batteaux against the stubborn current of the Mississippi from New 
Orleans to St. Louis, and long before the celebrated Lewis and Clark had reached 
this port in the month of June, a stranger— a strange being — was discovered on 
the east bank of the Mississippi opposite St. Louis making signals. After many 
hours of fruitless effort a canoe was dispatched for him. That stranger, strange 
being, a mere stripling, was Daniel Morgan Boone, the representative, the 
pioneer, the leader and forerunner of the noble, toiling sons of the plow and the 
axe who have since filled our mighty State. 

' ' Kentucky, the dark and bloody ground, under the pioneership of the elder 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 139 

Daniel Boone, was filling up with hardy and noble men, but no white man 
with his family had dared to pass beyond the confines of their settlements 
east of the Ohio River. All the country from the Ohio to the Mississippi, was a 
wide wilderness, destitute alike of men or tenement, save him of the war-club and 
scalping-knife. Across this trackless and forbidding desert, occasionally a strag- 
gling trapper from the Spanish posts of the Missisippi, had found his way to 
Kentucky, and told wondrous tales of that far-off and goodly land. To these 
young Daniel Boone, our subject, listened with quiet delight, and they filled him 
with the same thirst for adventure which had inspired the bosom of his noble 
father with the desire to cross the Alleghany Mountains and penetrate the 
goodly land of Kentucky. The mind of young Daniel Boone was at once made 
up. Like his father, for him the wild beasts of the forest, nor the more fearful 
red savage had any terrors. He resolved to go, but there was no one of like 
nerve or taste to accompany him, and he determined alone to brave the dangers 
of the way. Being eighteen years of age, (a mere boy of his day,) in the month 
of May, in or about the year 1787, mounted on a pony he addressed himself tp 
this perilous task by boldly steering without compass, chart or path for the Span- 
ish post of St. Louis. When Columbus headed his little fleet out of the port o' 
Palos, in Spain, in search of an unknown world, he had trustworthy ships and 
skilled companions in the art of navigation. Our young Boone when he turned 
his back upon Fort Hamilton, a post on the big Miami just west of Cincinnati, 
and plunged into the dark wilderness forest, was alone. Wirh a courage tamely 
denominated heroic, he went forward, rafting streams, killing his food by the way, 
sleeping in the dense jungles by night undisturbed by the howl of the wolf, the 
hooting of the owl or the scream of the panther. On the 30th day from Fort 
Hamilton, and without having seen a single human being, he stood and beheld the 
majestic Mississippi before him. He had so far won, but closely scanning the view 
far and near,he could perceiveno signs of human beings andhuman habitation. He 
was perplexed.and knew not whether he was above or below St. Louis, the object of 
his search. He encamped and rested. He reflected that St. Louis was a trad- 
ing post, and the tracks of the Indian horses might indicate the direction of the 
post. On closely inspecting a buffalo trail near by, he found that the pony tracks 
mostly ascended up the river. He pursued the trail, and came in sight of St. 
Louis on the opposite side of the river. There was no ferry and it was with great 
difficulty that he made his presence known. At length, to his delight, a canoe 
came and landed him safely in the little Spanish village where a most generous 
welcome was extended to him. Of the heroism of this exploit I cannot now 
speak, much less can I here properly dwell upon the influence his coming at that 
time has had upon the destinies of our now great and prosperous State. Among 
these simple villagers, as a trapper, he made his home for some years. But of 
his life and various incidents connected therewith, I shall not now speak, reserv- 
ing that part of my duty until a future occasion, devoting a few remaining re- 
marks to the influence which he exerted in promoting the early settlement of the 
upper Louisiana territory, now the noble State of Missouri. After having ex- 
plored the country from St. Louis to the mouth of the Kansas as a trapper, he 
devoted his attention to the procuring of the removal of his friends from Ken- 
tucky to this then garden portion of the world. To his noble father. Col. Boone, 
then an exile from the beautiful land of Kentucky, and a sojourner in the wilds 
of Western Virginia, he sent messages concerning the goodly land which he had 
found, and he came in 1795, drawing after him by his influence many of those 
hardy pioneers whose sons now fill our State. Daniel Boone, the younger, 
occupied himself in inducing emigrants to come from Kentucky and all parts of 
the country, he meeting the caravans of new comers in the wilderness and pilot- 
ing them to this Eden of the West, and that the great pioneer of Kentucky, and 
the younger pioneer of Missouri, with their united influence and friends came to 



140 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

people our great State, and to found a Commonwealth destined to become the 
proudest and greatest of the American Union. Kentucky has re-claimed and 
borne back to the land he loved so well, the bones of her own great pioneer, and all 
that great State was moved when the remains of her noble Boone were laid to 
rest in her soil. The remains of our own great pioneer, no less worthy of a mon- 
ument, rest in our midst, near Westport, within twelve miles of this spot, in an 
unmarked grave. Surely the pen of some historian will not suffer the memory of 
one so worthy to perish. Surely the State, our own Missouri, will not fail to 
honor him. 

"This strange man, strange in his meek and quiet spirit, strange in the great- 
ness and benevolence of his nature, in his heroism and disinterested goodness — 
first opened his eyes to the light of day, beyond the Blue Mountains, on the 
banks of the Yadkin, N. C. After a pilgrimage of over three score years, almost 
upon the western line of the State, and upon the, then,' very verge of civilization, 
he closed them in death. Too generous to be accumulative, to liberal to hoard up, 
he died shorn of property and destitute of wealth. To this association I commend 
the task of perpetuating in history his memory, to the Legislature of our noble 
State, that of erecting over his remains a monument." 

July 4, 1874, there was another Old Settlers' meeting at the fair grounds, near 
Independence, when it was estimated that at least 3,500 of the inhabitants of 
Independence, Kansas City,, and other places enjoyed their Fourth. 

The train from Kansas City on the Missouri Pacific leaving at 9:45 A. m. 
was crowded to its utmost capacity. Two extra coaches were added, each seat 
counted its three excursionists, the aisles and platforms were thronged, and upon 
the "round whirligig" of each brake was perched a happy thoughtless picnicker, 
intent only upon getting to Independence, and of spending the day with one 
grand hurrah for the gay festivities, speeches, races and songs which were to con- 
stitute the celebration for Jackson county, 1874. 

THE KANSAS CITY DELEGATION 

arriving at the place of destination found the gay throng already assembled, and, 
in an interest common to all shook hands in friendly grasp and commenced the 
occasion in earnest. The grounds, though large in the extreme, were filled even 
to the smallest and most inconsiderable standing room. In the center of the in- 
closure was erected a large square lunch stand, and this was crowded around the day 
long. The speakers' stand had been in use for many years, the steps leading to the 
platform were broken and the stand itself was fast crumbHng to the ground. 

The amphitheater was the scene of busy life from morning till nearly mid- 
night. The seats were filled with thousands of visitors, each with programme in 
hand, watching and awaiting the ceremonies. 

At about 10 o'clock the attention of the multitude was called to the speakers' 
stand and the speeches began. The introductory address was delivered by 

MR. W. H. WALLACE, 

of Kansas City, who spoke in an earnest manner, claiming the attention of his 
hearers from the beginning to the end of his very interesting and elaborate dis- 
course. He spoke as follows : 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: — There are times when the feelings of the human soul 
are so intense that they find no adequate expression through the medium of ordi- 
nary language. There are occasions in the history of every struggling, aspiring 
young man when, suddenly becoming the recipient of some feeble token of the 
regard or esteem of his fellow men, there wells up in his bosom a tide of gratitude 
so deep and so high, that the tongue itself is drowned in its flow, and he stands 
perfectly mute in the presence of his benefactors. Thus stands your unworthy 
speaker to-day. For appearing before you as the humble receiver of the unex- 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 141 

pected and unsolicited confidence and esteem of the Old Settlers, the hoary 
headed sages of my county, whose bare recognition I have always regarded as a 
lasting eulogy, [ am unable to return any fit thanks for the honor they have con- 
ferred upon me, but must content myself with simply assuring them that, deep 
down in the inmost recesses of this heart of mine, there dwells a sense of gratitude 
which no circumstance will ever erase, no lapse of time can ever obliterate, and 
which no poor words of mine could possibly describe. 

"To me there is something peculiarly beautiful, as well as becoming, in those 
little civilities and courtesies which are generally paid by a rising to a retiring 
generation. Surely there is no more appropriate custom in all the code of com- 
mon politeness than that which requires that the young should bow in reverence 
to the old. Yea, I may say, no more sacred or binding duty in all the code of 
Ethics than that which teaches that we, who are in the morning or meridian of 
life, should look up with profoundest respect to those at its close — confessedly the 
worthiest of earth to become the objects of our veneration. Rhetoricians may 
talk as they please of hill and dale, and mountain and river ; of the roaring cata- 
ract ; the belching volcano ; the bespangled firmament above, or the surging ocean 
beneath, as objects of beauty, grandeur or sublimity, but to me the purest type of 
the grand or sublime to be found in all the wide domain of the handiwork of God, 
is simply the Creator's culminating work in its ripeness — the venerable gray-haired 
old man. To look upon one of these old warriors, who has withstood the rifts 
and shocks of time, and it may be for three score and ten years like some giant 
oak, bared his breast to the storms and forked lightnings of earth, now that the 
tempest is past and the quiet eve of life is about him, calmly leaning upon his 
staff, standing upon the boundaries of two worlds and looking back with com- 
placent memory to the one and forward with bright anticipation to the other, is 
certainly the sublimest spectacle that has ever greeted these eyes of mine. 

" How eminently appropriate then, to set aside a great celebration day like 
this, that we who are in the prime of manhood and womanhood may turn aside 
from the din and hurly-burly of the world to commemorate the heroic lives of that 
little host of aged ones, who still honor us with their presence, to pay our grate- 
ful homage at their feet, hold up their noble examples once more for our imita- 
tion, and as they pass rapidly down the rugged hill, attempt to smooth their 
pathway in front of them, not forgetting at the same time to cherish a hallowed 
memory for those who are gone and to decorate their graves with the freshest and 
sweetest flowers we can pluck. As I sat at my window a few evenings since, 
meditating upon the sacred duty of this hour, I looked out, and yonder blazing 
king of day, that now hangs in meridian glory, had just finished h s fiery course 
and hidden himself behind the western hills; I looked up, and immediately there 
sprang forth upon the blue canopy of heaven a whole generation of stars and 
seemingly bowed their heads in reverent awe at his glorious departure. So, 
thought I, should the generations of men bend themselves in lowly, continual 
obeisance when one of our stately fathers has run his course through the brief 
day of life, and gone down forever in the night of death. I looked again, and 
the soft majestic moon rolled slowly on in her orbit, and in a few hours had 
buried herself beneath the horizon, and immediately another myriad of gUttering 
orbs came silently forth, and though they shone still more brightly in the "azure 
glow of night," drew around them a deeper and heavier mourning as they sang 
together a melancholy requiem that the beauteous queen was no longer one of 
their number. So, thought I, should even children's children gather around and 
attune their voices to plaintive strains when one of our gentle mothers has accom- 
plished her holy mission on earth; and, drawing about her the drapery of death, lays 
her down to peaceful slumbers in the tomb. If there is a single one in that vast 
concourse of young men which I have the privilege of representing upon this 
occasion who does not indorse the sentiments now being expressed,' but who is so- 



142 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

lost to all nobility as to attempt (as, with shame and sorrow, I have often heard 
them) to cast a reproach upon the dignity and sacredness of old age, he certainly 
deserves to be held up as the object of the just scorn and execration of every 
grateful being. Let him be assured that no bright future awaits him ; his way is 
not upward, it is groveling and downward, and his end will be bitterness — yes, 

"If such there breathe, go mark him well : 
For him no minstrel raptures swell; 
Living, he shall forfeit fair renown ; 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust from whence he sprung. 
Unwept, unhonored and unsung." 

If, as some have seriously feared, that accursed day shall ever arise in the 
history of this great republic, when the youth of the land shall have advanced so 
far beyond their fathers as to cease "to rise up before the hoary head," and 
" young Americanism" shall have gone so far as to openly scoff and jeer at the 
venerable Elishas in Israel, then may you bid a long farewell to all our boasted 
freedom; then may you wipe completely out all that this hallowed day commemo- 
rates ; then may you appropriately strike up the funeral dirge of moral and social 
happiness, and through the black darkness of universal anarchy, sound out the' 
death knell of American liberty. 

But I am not only reminded upon an occasion like this, of the dignity of 
age and the veneration which is due it, but being told that it was also a time for 
the interchange of practical experience, I am reminded of my own checkered 
but mostly delightful stay in this the county of my adoption. When as a mere 
child, something more than seventeen years ago, I exchanged village for rural 
life and came with my father's family to this portion of Missouri, it seemed to me 
that I had suddenly been ushered into the very Eden described by the pen of 
Moses. And indeed if there is anything in universal prosperity, anything in 
overflowing abundance or aught in the rapturous intercourse of a united brother- 
hood, it certainly came as near it as ever did a favored spot on the broad earth. 
Joy then seemed to loom up in every soul; unity was the watchword upon every 
lip, and fraternal affection the ruling passion in every breast. Barns and store- 
houses were filled with plenty, and the winepresses of the land "burst forth with 
new fatness." Neighbor met neighbor in those days not as now miser meets 
miser, each to scan the purse of the other, but as brother meets brother with his 
heart in his hand. The very animals and rocks and hills and glens seemed to 
catch the joyous spirit of the times, and to revel in the all pervading beatitude. 

When as a school boy I roamed our rolling prairies and gathered the flowers 
with which they were fretted, methinks now they breathed to heaven the 
fragrance of brotherly love ; when as a barefoot I stood in the running brook, I 
can distinguish even now in its warbhng waters the accents of by-gone purity, 
and when I lay me down to rest on the green grass under the shade, I hear 
piercing the silent air the mellow cooings of the dove of peace, and all around, 
beneath and above are bathing in the broad sunlight of happiness and prosperity. 

But so delightful a reign was not destined to be perpetual. It is a sad truth, 
that the choicest blessings are shortest in their visits to undeserving men. After 
but a few years, a black and ominous cloud was seen to protrude its terrible crest 
above the horizon, and ere we could prepare ourselves for the coming shock it 
came rolling onward and burst upon us in all the wild fury of civil war. 
The American J anus was thrown wide opan ; horrid, foreboding specters 
stood before me in my dreams, and the hideous "dogs of war" went 
howling through' the land. Ears till then only accustomed to the soft 
notes of peace, were suddenly affrighted with the loud alarum of battle, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 143 

the rattle of musketry and the peal and roar of the wide-mouth can- 
non. Brother arrayed himself against brother, father against son and 
son against father, and, casting aside the purest love of earth for the bitterest 
hatred of hell, plunged into the din and smoke of the contest and amidst expir- 
ing groans and demoniacal yells reveled oft times hand to hand in the bloody 
work of death. Where once was heard the merry prattling of the child or the 
sweet music of a mother's voice, the widow's cry and the orphan's wail rent the 
air. Our fair land, accustomed only to the light tread of the sons of peace, 
trembled beneath the heavy tramp of mustering squadrons, and its luxuriant 
verdure, hitherto bedecked solely with the white hoarfrost of morning or the' 
silvery dew of evening, was dyed with the crimson tinge of human gore. Fire, 
Sword, Rapine, Death went on with their terrible work, until at length a poor, 
homeless fugitive, the last to cross the borders of my country, I cast back a long 
lingering look, not at a paradise but at a wide waste wilderness, where on many a 
silent chimney the solitary owl screeched out the shrill moan of our departed 
glory. 

" But it has been beautifully said that ' there is no night without a morning.' 
After four years of scourging the hand of a beneficent Providence was reached 
down and the blackened cloud at least partially removed, and as we gazed upward 
we behold once more the glorious sun of liberty peeping through its crevices. 
But, alas, its first rays fell upon an impoverished, ruined, but thank Heaven, not 
a down cast or dispirited people. The highest type of manhood is seen, the 
noblest feats of heroism are performed, not in the full blaze of prosperity when 
all goes well, but in the deep, dark hour of adversity when the man is crushed to 
the very earth, but when like eternal truth he rises again, shakes off the dust of 
oppression and prepares to regain his fortunes and vindicate himself in the eyes 
of the world. Such, without the slightest reference to either contendmg party, are the 
evidences of manhood which have been portrayed, and the deeds of heroism which 
have been achieved under the most trying circumstances in the noble old county of 
Jackson. They are mentioned not in the effort to recall any unpleasant remembrance 
or to awake in any breast the bitter feeling of the war, but because I conceive that 
that there is to be found in the history of those times the crowning glories of 
many of our Old Settlers, and because by this just comparison we can then see the 
hardships they have endured and the obstacles they have overcome in the progress 
of the last ten years. I mention it, because I know at least one young man who 
is proud that it was not his lot to be reared in the sickly lap of luxury, but that 
he was called upon to share the necessity and watch the bright examples of just 
such a race of heroes. No, far be it from me, to attempt to throw an apple of 
discord into an assembly like this, for even this morning I have beheld if possible 
a still grander exhibition of Christian manhood than the one just mentioned, in 
that, 1 have seen the conquered and the conqueror ' clasp hands across the bloody 
chasm,' and that hardest of all divine injunctions, ' forgive thine enemies,' 
beautifully and practically illustrated. 

"To-day, as we look around us, instead of beholding a howling wilderness we 
see a land of prosperity and plenty, and can count over the teeming thousands of 
the second county in the great State of Missouri. In ten short years by a series 
of triumphant progress almost unprecedented in the history of nations, we have 
emerged from the desolation of war, and now with a population of more than 
60,000 inhabitants stand out to the gaze of an admiring world a little empire 
within ourselves, larger and stronger than the petty republics of ancient Greece, 
the primitive cradle of the liberties we now enjoy. Agriculture, science and all 
the peaceful arts again flourish in our midst, whilst upon our western border, on 
the banks and commanding the commerce of the valley of what is really "the 
father of waters," there rises upon a thousand hills 9, busding growing metropolis 
that one day bids fair to bring the blush of shame to the cheek of ancient Rome, 



144 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

as she sat upon only seven hills, on the banks of the classic but insignificant 
Tiber. Whatever else may be said, harmony is again restored, the sweets of 
peace are again within our fruition, the olive branch again blooms upon the grave 
of the past, and even though a gauzy cloud may now and then bedim our sky, 
let us look forward with hope to a bright future, and once more in the pure 
atmosphere of free, open, independent thought and action, look up and thank 
the Giver of all Mercies that ours is indeed the citizenship of the "land of the 
brave and the home of the free." 

"Although your patience has been already put to a much severer trial than 
was anticipated, you must be kind enough to permit me, in conclusion, to apy a 
passing tribute to what is doubtless far the noblest reflection suggested by an occa- 
sion like this, for otherwise I should feel that I had come infinitely short of my 
duty, and fallen far below the dignity of this hour. There are those nice, flip- 
pant, airy, modernized ones, who have doubtless sneeringly called this "the meet- 
ing of the old fogies." Old fogy ! I must confess that, to me, there is something 
noble in the term. They possess a god-like element of character, which, to our 
reproach be it said, seems now to have almost gone out of date — in a lax, vacil- 
lating, degenerate age — you always know just where to find them I See you yonder 
mountain, firmly planted in its base ? It may not be covered with a particle of 
moss, nor be decked with the green foliage of herbs and trees ; it may not be 
decorated with all the fantastic lattice-work and ginger-bread of modern civiliza- 
tion ; but there in its native, unadorned simplicity it stands; and all the storms 
and tempests of heaven may come and beat against it, but there it remains, un- 
moved and unshaken. Thus have I seen what you, call the old fogy stand; and, 
though the billows of error beat against him, the machinations of men assailed 
him, and the whips of parties cracked around him, he stood there, and all the 
powers of earth and hell combined, couldn't move him. To come plainly to the 
point, as I here gaze down into the wrinkled faces of the sires of a former gener- 
ation, I am reminded of those time-honored, immutable, glorious principles of 
our government, handed down to us, bedewed with tears, hallowed by the prayers 
and stained in the blood of our forefathers, and of which to our shame be it con- 
fessed, we are too often the ungrateful recipients. I am reminded that there was 
a time in the history of this nation, when all the miserable sham and deceit, and 
wire- working and trickery of policy and party were unknown, and when men 
planted themselves upon eternal principle; a time when there were "giants in 
the land" who had but one heart, one purpose, one country, one God; a time 
when rulers ruled not for sordid pelf alone ; when patriots struggled not for ambi- 
tion, but for the good of their race and when we stood out not a " bye-word and 
hissing " to the nations, but the wonder and admiration of the world. How, 
if I had time, could I dwell upon so delightful a theme ! How could I wish for 
my country a return of those happy days ! Oh, how I could pray heaven for the 
gift to my own lax times of a few such immortal men ; men who would dare 
to stand at the post of honor, men who lived not for themselves but for others ; 
men who cared not for majorities; men who, in the midst of threats, and scorns, 
and ridicule, would not be afraid to do their duty; men who stand like mighty 
invincible rocks, and roll back the tide of error and iniquity that now engulf the 
land. Would to God that I had an archangel's voice, for louder than ten thun- 
ders, would I sound it out through the length and breadth of this fair land, call- 
ing the young men to action, calling them away from the giddy whirl of modern 
life, to a just appreciation of the sacred trusts committed to their care. My fel- 
low comrades, ye who hear me now, gather around, and here behold in the per- 
son of our fathers, the embodiment of that which is really substantial and sub- 
lime. Here contemplate types of grander proportions and more unfading beauty 
than ever yet the painter drew upon the glowing canvass, or the "Grecian chisel 
awoke from out the sleeping marble." Here let us come to emulate their exam- 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 14& 

pies, and, like so many solar stars, place them high in the northern sky, and while 
the way is still lighted up, by ihe aurora borealis of their own effulgent hves, 
press onward to the attainment of their virtues. Yes, as vahant soldiers, let us 
come and take our places in the ranks of war, with the few battle-scarred veterans 
who still remain with us as our standard-bearers; and when amid the roar and 
smoke of the mighty contest, the tattered ensigns shall drop from their trembling 
hands, let us catch them as they fall, and bear them on to victory or to death. 

"I am happy that ray poor effort on this occasion is now to receive a response 
from just the kind of a man I have attempted to describe — the living portrayer of 
those independent traits and graces which we are all bound to love and admire — 
a man who always reminds me of an inexorable old Roman soldier at his post; 
a man who would not turn aside from the path of duty were all the execrable 
shapes of the infernal world to impede his progress ; a man, who, in America's 
second but darkest hour of affliction, like the immortal Lafayette, threw aside his 
own self-interest, overcame the power of prejudice and maganimously and defiant- 
ly bared his breast to the tyrant's bolt, in the cause of the oppressed. Let me assure 
you, sir, you have your reward. So long as there breathes a disinterested patriot's soul 
on Missouri soil ; so long as the undying artist may perpetuate his genius on the 
painted canvas; so long as there lives a tongue to lisp the name of the true and 
brave ; just so long shall you dwell in the fond memory of thousands ; just so long 
shall your unfading productions embellish the walls of our habitations, and just so 
long shall the voices of an admiring people dwell with delightful rapture on the 
name of George C. Bingham." 

At the conclusion of W. H. Wallace's remarks the next speaker was General 
George C. Bingham. His response was as follows: 

" In responding to the kind, considerate and eloquent address, which as a rep- 
resentative of the young men of this portion of the State, you have delivered to your 
gray-haired seniors of the same se tion, who in accordance with their annual custom, 
are here assembled, 1 state but the truth in affirming, that I feel myself but poorly 
quahfied to meet the just demands of the occasion. 

THE REMINISCENCES 

growing out of the trials and struggles of the past — its successes, reverses, tri- 
umphs and defeats — constitute the history with which they are associated. This, 
so far as it relates to them, must soon reach its last chapter and last page, thence 
forward to be laid on the shelf, to form a portion of those annals which give to 
each succeeding generation the experience and garnered thought of its predeces- 
sors; tending thus to make the sons wiser than the fathers, and by so doing, force 
onward and upward that march of human progress, the measured step of which, 
we have reason to believe will continue with accelerated pace when our mortality 
shall put on immortality, and the temporary sleep of the grave give place to the 
ceaseless activity of an endless Hfe. 

ON THE OTHER HAND 

those whom you represent have but recently entered upon the stage of active life. 
Your history is yet to be made. How its fair and uninscribed pages are to be 
filled up, whether they shall exhibit a record of manly and patriotic deeds, of ill- 
directed and abortive efforts, or worse still, be blurred with transactions such as 
disfigure the sad and dark portion of the history of our tempted and erring race, 
are matters which yet belong to the unknown, and which the future only can 
reveal. 

" Men who have supposed themselves drowning, and thus perishing without 
disease in the vigor of manhood, have testified, that all the transactions of their 
lives, both good and bad, passed in review before them in that brief and terrible 
moment. 



14U HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

" It is well known that very aged men, in the act of throwing off the wornout 
habiliments of this life, have frequently imagined that they were school-boys again, 
conning over their lessons, or sporting on the lawn with the associates of their 
childhood. It seems indeed to be 

A LAW OF OUR NATURE 

that impels us, as we approach the end of our earthly pilgrimage, to look back 
and survey the route over which we have traveled, recount the adventures and 
dangers, the mishaps and successes which have marked our journey, and by the 
blessed faculty of memory, with which we are so highly endowed, walk amidst 
the scenes, and enjoy anew the society of long-buried companions of our early 
life. 

"Those of us who have chalked down our three score years, and our still more 
advanced and more venerable associates, have but little more to anticipate in our 
earthly future. The hopes which gave energy and elasticity to our movements 
in our younger days, can impel our sluggish blood no longer. They have either 
perished beneath the relendess tread of a harsh experience, or been realized by a 
reasonable fruition. They have nothing further to promise us in the brief space 
that intervenes between us and the terminus to which we are ticketed, and which 
marks the finale of all sublunary desires and expectation. 

"But it is far different with you, and those whom you so creditably represent 
upon the present occasion. All that now appears to you is tinged with the roseate 
hues of the morning. 

" From our own early experience we can safely venture the assertion that the 
active fancy of yourself, and of each of your young associates,is daily teeming with 
plans and purposes looking to the future, and abounding in promises of rich re- 
sults, all seemingly assured to your yet inexperienced minds by the cheering fal- 
lacies of hope. Some of you have diligently qualified yourselves for the learned 
professions, and expect to achieve wealth and distinction therein. 

HONORS AND EMOLUMENTS. 

" The tempting bait of official position which inspires alike the low craft of 
the politician, and the nobler ambition of the statesman, may reasonably be sup- 
posed to obtrude itself occasionally in the prospect which lies open before you. 
This is as it should be. Such aspirations are in complete harmony with the great 
design of our being, and stimulate to exertion that period of human life most 
capable thereof. And although the result of individual exertions in myriads of 
cases may fall immeasurably short of the expectations which prompted them, it is, 
nevertheless, to human effort impelled by human aspirations that we are indebted 
for all those real, tangible and grand results which we now behold around us, 
and which confer the practical blessings of an advanced civihzation on so many 
millions of the human race. Many of the most important and most wonderful 
of these results are to be credited to the genius, energy and perseverance of those 
whose surviving representatives and colaborers are to be seen in the venerable 
forms and time-scarred visages which are here assembled. Within the compara- 
tively brief period commencing with their birth, we shall scarcely go beyond the 
truth in affirming that more has been accomplished by man for the benefit and 
amelioration of his race than can be properly credited to the aggregated human 
effort of any preceding five hundred years. When they drew their first breath, 
the locomotive which draws the freight of nations over every quarter of our globe, 
had no existence even in the dreams of its immortal projector. 

' 'The use of steam in propelling water craft was equally unknown, and had any 
one. at that period, predicted that the person was then living who would see the 
lightning of heaven subdued and put in harness by the genius of man, and its 
fiery speed utilized in transmitting instantaneous intelligence over every quarter of 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 147 

the inhabited earth, he would have been regarded as the wildest visionary that 
ever merited quarters in a lunatic asylum. But these and other miracles of human 
invention equally wonderful — and all contributing to the advancement of our race 
— by no means transcend in importance the redemption from savage sway, and 
the opening to emigrants from all lands, of this vast western territory which we 
inhabit. For this service, the millions who are to succeed us, and whose ballots 
are destined to shape the future policy of our great republic, will not fail to give 
a due portion of credit to the hardy pioneer — '■Hht old settler" — who boldly ven- 
tured beyond the confines of civilization, and by the stroke of his ax, or the 
crack of his rifle, first broke the silence of the primeval forest. 

DANIEL BOONE 

and his hardy and adventurous associates, and the old time-worn settlers who are 
here to-day, are as fully entitled to the gratitude of our coming generations as the 
statesmen who have given organic form to our republican institutions, the generals 
who have led our armies to victory, or the Morses, Fultons, and Stevensons who 
have enriched the world by their inventions. They have been leaders in a field 
which made leadership pre-eminently the position of hardship, danger and pri- 
vation, requiring the constant exercise of those qualities of the head and heart 
which form the elements of the hero. In the full vigor of early manhood, they 
tore themselves from the associations in which they were reared, and boldly 
ventured out into untrodden paths to make available to civilized man the locked- 
up wealth of a region whose products are now burthening the channels of com- 
merce, and feeding the hungry of distant lands. No discouragements were 
allowed to impede them in their perilous journeyings. Through malarious swamps 
and mountain passes, they pushed onward until their stakes were fixed on the 
virgin soil which was to be the future homes of themselves and children. Their 
unerring rifles furnished them the means of immediate subsistence. The ax and 
a few simple tools were all that they required in the construction of their primitive 
log cabins. 

"These up, and affording shelter to their wives and little ones, the clearing 
and the cornfield next appeared. The golden grain gathered therefrom, and the 
porkers fattened thereon, soon secured them the well-known and substantial 
luxuries of frontier life. The dressed skins of the wild deer furnished the men 
and boys with outer garments, than which none could be better adapted to resist 
briers, brush, and the frosts of winter. The spinning wheel and the looms were 
set in motion in every cabin, and the fleece of a few sheep, and products of the 
flax or cotton patch were constantly being wrought by steady and dexterous 
female hands into shirts for the men and gowns for the women. 

" Thus, without commerce or intercourse with the civilized world, from which . 
they had separated, each sparse settlement, formed by their location, became a 
self-sustaining community, supplying from its own unaided resources those essen- 
tial wants of life beyond which the temperate desires of its members seldom, or 
never extended. 

"Against all assaults of the red men, banded together for their extermination, 
they heroically defended their infant settlements and successfully maintained their 
right to dwell upon and cultivate the soil which savage possessioa would have 
continued a perpetual wilderness. And it is this right to occupy and bring into use 
the unappropriated soil of the earth, thus bravely defended and maintained by 
our Old Settlers, which now constitutes the real basis of the title to every acre 
of land lying within the limits of our broad domain. 

"It would be folly iu me here to attempt even a brief recital of their heroic 
deeds of self-sacrificing services in the cause of civiUzation. Many of them 
occupy a conspicuous place in the written history of their country. Others will 



148 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

go down to posterity in traditions from father to son, and furnish material for the 
poet, novehst and painter for unnumbered years to come. 

" Well merited, therefore, is the honor which you have so elegantly recognized 
as due to their venerable survivors who yet linger with us and give interest to this 
occasion by their presence. And when those of you have the good fortune to 
survive the dangers, accidents, and diseases which strew the journey of life with 
the wrecks of mortality, shall become the old men of Jackson county, and as 
such meet together as these venerable citizens now do, may your retropections 
be as pleasant and satisfactory as theirs, and a life of patriotic devotion, integ- 
rity and usefulness equally entitle you to the remembrance and gratitude of pos- 
terity." 

FOLLOWING THIS 

the Old Settlers of the county, sixty-four in number, formed in line and, headed 
by the band, marched in procession around the ring. This concluded and an 
hour of recess was allowed for dinner. Baskets filled with home food were hauled 
from their hiding places in the wagons, clean white cloths were spread upon the 
grass, gay couples ranged in order round the tables and the grounds fast assumed 
the look and shape of a real old-fashioned picnic. 

After the sandwiches were disposed of the merry assembly was again called 
to order and 

JACOB GREGGS, ESQ., 

of Sni-a-bar township, was introduced. He delivered a very interesting speech, 
giving a thorough history of Jackson county from its earliest settlement down to 
the present time. 

The "early French settlers" of Jackson county called 

DR. JOHNSTON LYKINS 

to his feet. He spoke as follows : 

" I was appointed to prepare for presentation to you on this occasion brief 
sketches of the early French settlers of Jackson county. For this service the 
notice was too short and unexpected, and urgent business intervening, I have 
been unable to do more than to get up a list of the names of those early and 
hardy comers to our pleasant county, and have to beg your indulgence for further 
time and opportunity for sketches which may appear in the papers. 

"Almost forty-five years ago, almost in youth, with a young wife and child, I 
came to this region and found here the most lovely and fertile country — in its 
almost virgin state — to be found anywhere under the broad expanse of heaven. 
The best country, the best people, and let me say, the best wives, sisters and 
mothers in the world. 

" Old Settlers and New, I rejoice to meet you here to-day, to shake hands and 
to wish you a prosperous and happy future. 

" Reference was made by the eloquent young gentleman who, in behalf of a 
younger generation addressed us Old Settlers, to the days of the past, and here allow 
me to say that when the early pioneers took possession of this land, we found on its 
highways no stage coaches or daily mails, on its rivers no steamboats, no railroads, 
no telegraph lines, no steam power in use, no cities, no towns, no churches or 
school-houses, or improvements of any kind, save the rude and hasty structures 
prepared by our hardy and daring pioneers. In surrendering this, our noble 
charge, to you, a younger generation, to you young men before me, we do it with 
a mournful pleasure, because we are passing away. We pause to-day to recall 
with pleasure the remembrance of the wooed and cherished ones, the long list of 
our loved fellow pilgrims who sleep by the wayside of the past, and are admonished 
that our rest draws near. But in turniiig from you, perhaps never again to thus 
stand before you, I gladly and proudly point to a wilderness found by us fifty 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 149 

years ago, now budding and blossoming as the rose, with exultant feelings of joy, 
to the great net-work of railroad everywhere bisecting our country ; to our multi- 
pUed telegraph lines flashing inteUigence to every land'; to our cities, our towns, 
our stately churches, our palatial halls of education, our floating palaces, and that 
type of civilization, intelligence and refinement present and before me to-day — a 
land filled with arts, sciences and wealth. So have we, your sires, discharged 
our trust, 

" Such is the charge we surrender, as one by one welie down to rest — a heri- 
tage — a land — the soil, the climate, the locaHty of which wiH compel this to 
become the cradle of the highest type of civilization, the center of the greatest 
activities, of commerce, the arts, sciences, and human progress, and from which 
shall go out a moral, religious and political power to bless the world." 

An address was then delivered by 

COL. R. T. VAN HORN, ' 

On the " Commercial Future of Jackson County." 

In the meantime the judges had been busily engaged in receiving, taking 
down and counting the votes and names for the different prizes to be awarded. 
When completed they ran as follows : 

For the oldest settler of Jackson county, an easy chair, value $21.50, which 
was awarded to Mrs. Pitcher. 

The names of the contestants for this prize, together with the year in which 
they first became resident, are subjoined : 
Mrs. Mary A. Pitcher, 1821. 
Wilson Lewis, 1822. 
Emanuel Bitter, 1823. 
Mrs. Flora A. Gregg, 1823. 
Col. James Lewis, 1825. 
Mrs. Polly Lewis, 1825. 
Jacob Gregg, 1825. 
Henry Noland, 1825. 
Mrs. Margaret Chambers, 1825. 
James Chambers, 1826. 
William Shepherd, 1826. 
Silas Hudspeth, 1827. 
Mrs. M. A. Irwin, 1827. 
Sloper Adams, 1828. 
Roiiet Hudspeth, 1828. 
Joel Hudspeth, 1828. 
George Hudspeth, 1828. 
Mrs. M. P. Bell, 1828. 
Mrs. Mary Smart, 1829. 
Abraham Coger, 1829. 
Levi Potts, 1829. 
Mrs. Tobithe Silvers, 1829. 
Albert Vaughn, 1832. 
Landes Stayton, 1833. 
Mrs. Michael Rice, 1835. 
For parent or parents of greatest number of children born in Jackson county, 
silver pitcher, goblet and waiter, value $41. The contestants were fewj as fol- 
lows, David Daily carrying off the prize : 
David Daily, 22. 
Nelson Warren, 20. 
Levi Montgomery, 19 
Francis E. Johnson, 16. 



150 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

For the oldest continued resident of Jackson county, an easy chair, value 
$20.50. The entries were as follows : 

Mrs. Mary A. Pitcher, December, 1821. 

David Daily, January, 1822. 

John Bogard, February, 1822. 

Larkin Johnson, November, 1822. 

Mrs. Jemima Russel, May, 1823. 

Mrs. Matilda Maxwell, August, 1823. 

John Majors, February, 1825. 
As the two first and oldest names recorded had already been the recipient of 
one prize, and as none were allowed to receive but one, the chair was placed in 
the hands of the third, Mr. John Bogard, he having resided in the county over 
fifty-two years. 

For the oldest native born citizen of Jackson county, now a resident, set of 
silver knives and forks. The following names were found recorded, which re- 
sulted in the first, Mrs. Margaret Christeson, now in her fiftieth year, having been 
born and lived since in the county; 

Mrs. Margaret Christeson, March, 1824. 

Sarah A. McClanahan, April, 1828. 

C. B. L. Boonhe, April, 1829. 

Nelson Adams, May, 1829. 

Fannie C. Twyman, April, 1829. 

Jesse Nolan, October, 1830. 

Landes Stayton, October, 1833. 
The presentation speeches were made by Mr. Richard R. Reese, now of 
Leavenworth, Kansas, but for years one of the old Jackson county boys, in a 
fluent and acceptable manner, and as each would receive and bear off his or her 
prize, cheer upon cheer would ascend from the crowds around ; and though there 
were many disappointed faces to be seen, the utmost good humor prevailed 
throughout, and none. seemed to envy the other or to begrudge him the present. 
Next in order came the foot race, booked for which there were six contest- 
ants, all of whom were over 65 years of age: Henry Donahue, Thomas Pitcher, 
Henry Tull, George W. Clair, Samuel Ralston, Bennett Hail. 

From some unaccountable cause, however, but the first three ran for the 
prize, which consisted of a gold-headed cane, valued at $15, which fell to the lot 
of the first, Mr. Henry Donahue, aged 70 years. 

This last concluded the long and very agreeable programme provided for the 
day's entertainment, and gradually the buggies began to fill, horses were saddled 
and harnessed to the old- country wagons, and by twos and threes the vast crowd 
began to move homeward. 

Many of the residents of Kansas City boarded the return train at 3:30, 
though the majority were determined to "see it out," and the train leaving Inde- 
pendence at 9:50 p. m. found many weary picnickers in waiting at the depot. 

Matters, however, in the meantime were varied. A large number of the ex- 
cursionists received and accepted a courteous invitation from Mr. Vaughan, of 
Narrow gauge fame, and indulged in a delightful ride for a few miles up the road. 
> Others sought the city of Independence, and time passed pleasantly in the 
watching of fireworks, etc., and for hours did the dull old town resound with 
Kansas City shouts. But when the time came to go home they were all there, 
and the train left the depot bearing away many a full stomach and an aching 
head. t 

As far as heard from none regretted the visit, and in the minds of the many 
thousands who attended, the Jolly Old Settlers will ever remain fresh, while "The 
Fourth, of 1874, at Independence," will never be forgotten by the picnicking 
people of Jackson county. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 151 

DEATH OF DANIEL BOONE. 

The following recollections were penned by Mr. J. C. McCoy on the death of 
Daniel Boone, one of the pioneers of this region of country : 

" From a brief notice we receive intelligence of the death of Daniel Boone, 
one of the earliest pioneers of Jackson county, Missouri, and of the State of 
Kansas, which occurred at his old homestead, eight miles south of Kansas City, 
February 22, 1880. Deceased was a grandson of the famous Kentucky and 
Missouri pioneer, and son of Daniel Morgan Boone, who was, without doubt, the 
first actual resident householder within the limits of the State of Kansas, and who 
died at the same old homestead about the year 1834. 

" For almost half a hundred years I had been on terms of intimate friendship 
with him, and honored the sterling worth and guileless life of my worthy old 
friend and fellow pioneer. I may not call the news of his death sad. His earthly 
pilgrimage had extended beyond the ordinary limit of three score years and ten. 
His active work on earth was finished, and believing, as I do, in the wisdom of 
the conclusion of the King, that a ' good name is better than precious ointment, 
and the day of death better than the day on one's birth,' why then should we 
contemplate the departure of such an one to his long home, with sadness and 
regret ? The same wise King hath said : ' Then shall the dust return to the 
earth as it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it.' 

" Deceased was born in St. Charles county, Missouri, August 27,1809, and in 
1826, his father, Daniel Morgan Boone, lived in the lower part of Kansas City, 
near the mouih of the small creek below the gas works, that point being the 
agency for the Kanzan Indians; and at that point resided Benito Vasques, who 
was United States agent, and Daniel Morgan Boone, the father of the subject of 
this notice, with his family — the latter having the appointment of government 
farmer for the Kansas tribe. 

" Early in 1827, they removed, and established the agency at a point about 
eight miles above Lawrence, on the north bank of the Kansas River. It was 
here that I first met my friend, who is now deceased Daniel Boone was then 
about twenty, while I was nineteen. From that day till the day of his recent 
death, through the long lapse of half a century, during which the wild wilderness 
of our youth had become transformed into smiling fields and busy marts of com- 
merce, and all the appliances of human industry and progress, we were friends 
in the true meaning of the term. I can use none other more expressive of our re- 
lations during that long period. 

"In 1833 his father removed with his family, to the State of his old home- 
stead, where his son died where he lived in 1834. 

" In 1832 our old friend was married to Mary Philbert, who is still living in 
the enjoyment of health and vigor, mental and physical, at that pleasant, unosten- 
tatious, hospitable homestead. She, too, has a personal history full of interest 
connected with the early settlement of these western wilds. The panorama un- 
rolled to our vision, and the experiences of half a hundred years, would fof m the 
subject and theme of an epic worthy of the grand old Homer. Eulogies are de- 
livered in set speeches, by chosen and gifted orators, on the demise of great men 
of the earth, and those holding high official trusts, and the inanimate clay is con- 
signed to earth, the rappings and blaze of funeral pomp. All proper and right, 
if the eulogies pronounced tell the truth, and the whole truth, and if the sable 
badges of mourning represent the true sorrow of the multitude. 

"Not so, however, was it with our deceased old friend, Daniel Boone. His 
humble eulogy was more appropriate, more eloquent, and more touching, pro- 
nounced by tearful eyes and loving hands, and the heartfelt sympathies of life- 
long friends, who surrounded his bedside, and cheered him as his feet met the 
waters of the dark river. It would hi a pleasant and grateful task to write an 
obituary of such an one ; but none is needed. It is already graven on the hearts 



152 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

of his triends, ' Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like 
his.'" 

MjEETING APRIL 24, 1880. 

The old settlers met at Kansas City, in the county court room, including 
men who have lived in and around Jackson county from twenty-five to fifty years, 
who date their arrival with the earliest pioneers who settled in this section of 
Missouri. At the morning session a committee was appointed to prepare the pro- 
gramme for the evening. WiUiam O. Shouse was selected as chairman, and C. 
D. Lucas, secretary. In ihe afternoon the old settlers again assembled, and the 
committee made a report, which was adopted, and the proceedings had in regular 
order, as suggested in the report. The first question under consideration, the 
advisabihty of forming themselves into an association, was discussed by R. N. 
Hudspeth, J. C. McCoy, F. R. Long, William Jarboe, and others. 

They then adopted the name of " Historical Society of Old Settlers." The 
society was understood to include all the old residents of Jackson, Clay, Cass and 
Piatt counties, Missouri, and Wyandqtte and Johnson counties, Kansas. Jacob 
Gregg was elected President. He is now one of the olde^ residents in Jackson 
county, was sheriff in an early day and has served in the State Legislature, D. 
C. Allen, of Clay county, was elected first Vice-President, Chas. D. Lucas, 
second Vice-President, J. C. McCoy, Secretary, and Joseph S. Chick, Treasurer. 
An executive committee was appointed with powers to appoint various sub-com- 
mittees to arrange for the meeting on the 2 2d of May at the Fair Grounds in 
Kansas City.' The committee consisted of Wallace Laws, Col. Theo. S. Case, 
Col. A. B. H. McGee, Col. R. T. Van Horn, and Judge F. R. Long. By re- 
quest Judge Adams, Secretary of the Historical Society of Kansas, address- 
ed the meeting giving valuable suggestions as to the mode of operation for the 
gathering of historical facts. Judge Adams was then invited to be present at the 
re-union May 2 2d. 

A resolution was adopted appointing John C. McCoy, Col. Case, L. B. 
Dougherty, D. C. Allen and E. A. Hickman a permanent committee on history, 
with a view of collecting historical facts connnected with the early settlement of 
this portion of the West. 

The following is a list of the names of those present and the date at which 
they settled in this locality, some of them running back fifty years or more : 

Allen McGee 1827 F. R. Long 1828 

C. B. L. Boothe 1829 R. A. Hudspeth 1829 

WiUiam Mulkey 1829 J. C. McCoy 1830 

Samuel Gregg 1831 Walter Bales 1831 

James M. Adams 1833 C. D. Lucas 1834 

William J. Jarboe 1834 Alexander Collins 1835 

Larkin Steele 1836 William Stewart 1836 

J'siah Davenport 1836 Bryan Wright 1836 

W. J. Wright 1837 John C. Wallace 1837 

Amazon Hayes 1837 Samuel Bales , . 1837 

Myers Hale 1837 W. O. Shouse 1837 

John J. Moore 1837 G. B. Regan 1837 

J. F. Thomas 1838 Joel Lipscomb 1839 

N. B Wallace 1839 Wallace Smith 1840 

Joseph C. Ranson 1842 William Radcliff 1843 

George W. Shepherd 1844 W. S. T. Patton 1846 

Wallace Laws 1846 William R. Bernard 1847 

John C. Agnew 1847 A. B. Earle 1848 

J. M. Ross 1850 Isaac McCarty i8c2 

R. T. Van Horn 1855 D. Y. Chalfant tsU 

A. M. Allen 1855 • " 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 153 

By request J. C. McCoy then read an address to the society. 

ADDRESS BY J. C. m'cOY. 

The following was delivered before the pioneers of Jackson county, April 
24, 1880 : 

" This reunion of Old Settlers is to me as it is no doubt to all present an 
occasion of great and profound interest. Aside from the opportunity it affords 
us for an interchange of friendly greetings and the renewal of old friendships and 
the expression of words of mutual sympathy and cheer as we draw near the end 
of life's journey, it may not be inaptly regarded as a pleasant way-station, a halt- 
ing place, where we may take our bearings and view the surroundings, a high 
point from whence we may note and fix upon land-marks that shall safely guide 
us to oar haven of rest. Only a few years more will come and go, before such 
a meeting as this will cease to be held altogether, and when the small remnant 
of the pioneer band who first entered this goodly land shall have passed over to 
another and we may hope a better one. In this regard, then, this meeting of 
Old Settlers has no ordinary significance. It means, not only a reunion of old 
familiar friends, but a sort of leave taking, an adios to the scenes and the recollec- 
tions of our early boyhood, our mature manhood and our autumn days whose 
chilling blasts have so plentifully sprinkled our heads with withering frosts. 

"Half a hundred years have elapsed since many who are now here first 
entered this beautiful, bountiful land, known then as the farthest "Far West." The 
broad boundless area lying westward and a very large proportion of that lying 
eastward and northward, was then a wide, waste wilderness, clothed in the garb 
of nature's own handiwork, unknown and almost untrod by civilized man undis- 
turbed and unmarred by the ax or plowshare, the pick and shovel. But all this 
is now changed. Instead of the lonely wolf howl and the scream of the panther, 
the hills and valleys now resound with the shrill warning of the steam whistle, 
the rumbling and rattle of the locomotive with its long, swift flying train, and 
the ceaseless hum of the busy multitude over the vast wild region from the 
Mississippi to the Pacific, and from the Northern Lakes to the Gulf. Civilization 
and enlightened human progress, like a broad wave has swept across plain and 
mountain, hill and valley, in its onward, resistless, westward flow, obliterating 
our ancient land marks, uprooting our grand old forests, spanning our rivers with 
iron bridges, building throughout its entire length and breadth a network of rail- 
roads, cities, towns and villages. Churches and school houses have sprung up 
until we find ourselves to-day no longer in the Far West, but in the great mid- 
continental center of commerce and trade. Nearly all these marvelous results 
have been accomplished within the last twenty years. 

"Our old slow going modes of locomotion and travel, of cultivation of soil, 
of harvesting and handling its products, in the diff'usion of knowledge, in the 
mechanic arts, in the contrivances and labor saving inventions to help carry on 
the various industries and the necessary household duties, and in all the depart- 
ments of trade, commerce and manufacturing, everything has been changed. 
The world now moves by machinery and steam and electricity — and its inhabi- 
tants now live, move, work, think, preach and pray by machinery — for one can 
now hold familiar converse with friends many miles distant, or listen to a sermon 
delivered in a distant city while comfortably seated at his own fireside. What 
think you would have been the emotions of good old Joab Powell, who emigrated 
from the Sni country to Oregon in 1843, and who was credited with selecting his 
text on one occasion from the "two-eyed chapter of the one-eyed John," or of 
old uncle Jimmy Savage had they been assured that this mode of preaching the 
gospel could, and would be practiced, during his lifetime. Little doubt we have 
but that in the extremity of their disgust and in behalf of outraged common sense 
they would have exclaimed : " Now, Gabriel, blow your horn, and take us out 



154 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

of this pestilent atmosphere, to where we can get a good breath of God's own 
fresh, wholesome air." We need only to open our eyes and look around us to 
realize something of the triumphs of ambitious man over nature's obstacles. The 
rough unsightly hills and deep gorges of primitive times, once scattered all 
around where we now meet have melted away, and in a great measure been 
leveled down before the pick and shovel of the stalwart omnipresent Irishman. 

"The floor of the county court room where we meet is forty feet below the 
original surface of the surrounding ground ; and if the earth were again restored 
to its original level, nothing of the proportions of the large and costly court house 
would be visible except its dome. All around us is the great and growing city. 
When we came fifty years ago the nearest newspaper office was 130 miles east of 
this (the Boonehck Monitor, published at Fayette, Howard county, by James H. 
Birch). 

"I need not tell you or attempt to enumerate the number of those luminaries 
now shedding abroad their bright rays around us and away off toward the setting 
sun. Their name is legion, and the State of Kansas alone, that old American 
desert, now rejoices in the light of nearly three hundred periodicals and publica- 
tions. Leaving out of the estimate the mihtary cantonment, Leavenworth, the 
entire white population of the State of Kansas fifty years ago numbered less than 
sixty souls. It now numbers nearly 1,000,000, and the old mythical desert has 
become the banner wheat producing State in the Union. The wild denizens and 
countless herds that once roamed over those plains from time immemorial, have 
all taken their flight before the shrill scream of the locomotive and the steam 
thresher. The long straggling line of the yeatly outgoing and incoming caravans 
of white-topped prairie schooners with its herds and boisterous, jovial happy 
crowds of American and Mexican Greasers, no longer winds its slow length across 
those plains. I doubt whether there was then a stationary steam engine west of 
St. Charles. We were then destitute of a thousand things, that people nowadays 
consider indispensable, and yet I can't see but people were just as happy and 
contented then as now. I think the average man was gifted with an allowance 
of brains fully equal to the man of the present day, and I am very sure they were 
better, and came nearer the divine standard ; were more honest, more given to 
practice of hospitality and the virtues that ennoble and adorn mankind. It is 
true that knowledge has greatly increased, but we may have grave doubts whether 
the true wisdom that looks beyond to the higher sphere of excellence has had 
any increase. 

"Will some tell us this is the bliss' of ignorance? One can now make the 
journey around the earth with more safety and more expeditiously than he could 
then travel from the mouth of Kaw River to the Pacific. It required two years 
of great privation, danger and fatigue for Lewis and Clark in 1804-5 '^ make the 
journey from St. Louis to the Columbia and back with all the needful aid of the 
government in men and money. The world is now moved by steam, machinery, 
electricity and the thousand subtile and incomprehensible agencies provided by 
an all-seeing, wise and beneficent Creator for the well-being of his creatures. 
Where is the limit, the height and depth, the boundless' scope that has not been 
reached or attempted by the daring ambition and irrepressible intellect and genius 
of the human race? Truly, it would seem that in this evening of the nineteenth 
century of the Christian era the time had arrived predicted in the last chapter of 
the book Daniel, ' when many shall run to and fro in the earth and knowledge 
be increased.' And yet, there are a few transcendently wise men, and scientists 
who tell us this world and the human race has existed many millions of years, 
and will continue to exist many more. I won't dispute it. I am only too thank- 
ful that they allow us to have a beginning and ending at all. But more than 
that, they tell us that all the stupendous results just spoken of have been accom- 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 155 

plished by being descended from baboons. Ah ! what a fall is this, my country- 
men, from the sublime to the ridiculous. 

' They tell us ******* We must 

Give up our origin Divine; 

We came by methods we define — 

Development — from toads and swine. 

The man is but a brute complete. 

The maiden, laughing, loving, sweet, 

Should with a cousin's welcome, greet 

Each kindred thing 

With beak and witig. 
And ne'er with pride of former shape, 
Forget she's but a lovely ape. 
Bound down to earth beyond escape. 
Must we accept this pedigree ? 
This stunted, scrubby family tree ! 
This beauty, genealogy ! ' 

" Never, is my unfaltering and ernphatic answer in behalf of the Old Settlers, 
although I am sorry to confess that I have in my long experience, known a few 
men who did have very strongly marked characteristics of the hog. But, enough 
of this. When an old back-woodsman, who couldn't tell the difference between 
a thoroughbred Pegasus and a spavined cart-horse, takes to quoting poetry, its 
time to put on the brakes. I said that it was a great pleasure to me to recall the 
faces, the incidents and pleasant memories of by-gone years, to draw comparisons 
between the past and present.- In doing this, the question naturally arises, 
whether with all the wonderful discoveries and inventions, wrought out and set 
in motion by scientific knowledge and the genius of man, the sum of human 
happiness has been increased. 

" Whether the average man comes nearer the divine standard to-day than he 
did fifty years ago ? With the increase of knowledge and wealth has there been 
a corresponding increase in the virtues that alone make man god-like ? These 
are questions profoundly impressive and full of interest to the old timer — and 
which we fear are fully answered " not so." We have listened to speeches and 
discourses as grandly eloquent and logical, in the unpretentious court house and 
the humble log meeting house of the backwoods, as we ever heard in the halls of 
legislation or under the tall church spire. There is a very large amount of knowl- 
edge, so called, of the present day, that it would be a great blessing to the 
human race were it unlearned and obliterated altogether. It would greatly thin 
out our over crowded penitentiaries, jails and alms houses. No my friends, we 
need have no fears to institute a comparison from a moral or a social stand point 
between the people with whom we mingled in the days of our youth, and those 
who now occupy their places. As for me it is a source of unalloyed pleasure and 
profound interest to recall the faces and scenes of my boyhood, my youth and 
early manhood', of the boy, the careless, joyous, happy boy, plodding along to the 
small log school house, embowered in the shade of the grand old forest near the cool 
sparkling spring, to listen again to the sonorous cow bell, to reconstruct the almost 
forgotten picture of the unpretentious but comfortable log house with its surround- 
ings of out houses and fields of waving grain, to listen again to the hum of the 
spinning wheel and cast shy, furtive glances toward the red-cheeked maiden who 
so daintily trips back and forth as she deftly whirls around the big wheel and 
gathers her woof on the spindle. Talk of your modern dancing schools 1 was 
there ever a school teaching the poetry of motion and posture like unto or equal 
to this. Then the ceasless clatter of the everlasting loom, without which no con- 
siderable housewife could consent to live a day ; and the old familiar tread-mill 



156 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

or pull-round horse mill, ?.nd the gossipy miller, and the old log meeting house 
where we all went on Sundays to show our Sunday clothes and take no notice of 
the girls dressed out in their brilliant ginghams, calicoes and linseys. Ah! well! 
no need to proceed further with this topic. Every one of you old veterans know 
how it is yourself. It is very true that "distance lends enchantment to the view" 
—and perhaps the distance of time (not place) leads us to view with undue par- 
tiality and favor the persons and faces famihar to us in our early life ; but we 
have reason to rejoice and thank God that we can do so conscientiously. We 
do not say that all men in our early days were good men and true, but we do say 
that the proportion of the bad to the good was much smaller than now ; that the 
vast increase of population, wealth and knowledge has also brought with these 
elements of civil progress a vastly disproportioned increase of crime in a thousand 
new and varied forms then unknown, permeating our whole land and yielding a 
rich and perennialharvest of rogues and criminals of high and low degree. We need 
then have no fear to institute a comparison between the social, moral, physical or 
mental standing of the men of our early days and those who swarm around us. 
"Nearer my God to thee." And now my old friends do we fully realize the vast 
changes that have been wrought all around us, for better or worse ? All, all is 
changed, and we old pioneers, too, are changed. Our once vigorous, buoyant, 
elastic step is changed to the slow, cautious plodding of the weary as we pick our 
way along the down grade of life. Our dark locks are changed to iron-gray and 
white. Our early dreams, our aspirations and our hopes are changed, a few to 
full fruition many to ashes of disapp .intment and sorrow, and the bright air castles 
of our youth are vanished to the baseless fabric of a vision. Our home circles 
and our familiar friends who have passed on before us are changed, we fully hope, 
in their new sphere of existence, "where the wicked cease from troubling, and 
the weary be at rest." That we, too, who still linger on the way m&y with our 
loins girded, and our lamps burning, in God's own good time have with them one 
other happy, unending re-union, is the fervent wish of one of the Old Settlers." 

MEETING OF OLD SETTLERS, MAY 2 2, 1880. 

It was a gala day for the Old Settlers of Jackson county. Their meeting was 
at the Fair Grounds in Kansas City. The plain, old, substantial farmer, arrayed 
in th,e primitive homespun, was there with his bright, happy, and healthful family. 
The old and the young mingled together in a gay and joyous holiday. Here and 
there beneath the great forest trees were noted groups of Old Settlers, who re- 
counted to each other the scenes of bygone days. The gray-haired pioneer re- 
counted his battle with life, and the Usteners drank deep of the historic lore of 
half a century ago. 

The silvered locks of the lordly old man blended in the scene with the auburn 
curls of youth and beauty. Friends who had not seen each other for years shook 
hands in a warm and friendly grasp, and the deep, cheery tones, " How are you ? " 
and " God bless you my old and true friend," rendered the picture a pleasing and 
happy one. Relatives met after a lapse of many years and greeted each other 
with warm demonstrations of joy. The day itself was beautiful and of the right 
temperature for a pic-nic. The forenoon was spent entirely in hunting up old 
friends and relatives, and in pleasant converse. At twelve o'clock preparations 
were commenced for the pic-nic dinner. Baskets loaded to the fullest capacity, 
were brought from the wagons and buggies. The tablecloths were spread on the 
grass and work of unburdening the baskets began. All over the southern por- 
tion of the grounds, groups, of five to twenty, were soon engaged in the pleas- 
ing pastime of devouring the good things prepared by the thrifty house-wife. 
There were no formalities about the meal ; everybody, stranger or friend, was in- 
vited to join and dine with one of the many groups, there was enough, and to 
spare. The generous hospitality tendered by the honest yeomanry of Missouri, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 157 

permitted no one to go away hungry. Chicken, ham, mutton chops, pies, cakes, 
pickles, jellies, ice-cream and all other edibles found in the house of the old set- 
tler, were on the bill of fare. 

The preparations by the executive committee had been ample and complete, 
except the arrangement made for speakers Generals Doniphan and Atkinson 
did not arrive, and there were no orators of the day. The other arrangements, 
including chairs and seats provided in the grand stand, were most ample and satis- 
factory. Here was stationed the splendid band that discoursed excellent music 
all day long. 

Wallace Laws Esq. , had provided a large register, in which the names of the 
Old Settlers could be registered. Swings, lemonade stands, and other convenien-- 
ces, for pleasure and comfort were provided. About two o'clock it was announ- 
ced that some of the Old Settlers would make a few remarks on the subject of old 
times. Hon. Jacob Gregg, one of the Oldest Settlers in Jackson county, was the 
first speaker. He said that he came here a long time ago, among the first. He 
could remember when spinning-wheels and looms occupied almost the entire atten- 
tion of the female portion of the inhabitants ; now such articles were a curiosity. 
He could also remember when on a Sabbath the young folks went to church, they 
carried their shoes and stockings in their hands, until within a short distance of 
the meeting-house, then sat down and put them on. He remembered when Kan- 
sas City was a corn-patch. No idea of its present dimensions entered the heads 
of the primitive settlers. He could have bought the entire land upon which the 
city now stands for a mere song. 

Alexander Majors was the next speaker. Mr. Majors came here in the month 
of March, 1825. The Indians then owned all the lands in the western portion of 
the county. He was only old enough to drive a yoke of oxen and ride the near 
steer. The progress made by the county since he came here had been remarkable. 
The railroad in his time was something unheard of and the iron horse was en 
tirely unknown to the hardy pioneer. Mr. Majors made quite a lengthy speech, 
full of good points and interspersed with anecdotes that elicited laughter and ap- 
plause from all present. 

John C. McCoy, one of the oldest residents of the county, then made a few 
remarks, winding up with the following : 

"Sometime during the summer of 1829, half a century ago, when I was a 
youth about eighteen years old, I was standing in front of the principal hotel, 
kept by Ignatius P. Owens, in the small town of Fayette, Howard county, Mis- 
souri, listening to a conversation going on between two gentlemen, who were 
sitting on the sidewalk, under the shade trees. They were talking about the 
' Great West' — the land we now live in : its prospects and its destiny. One of 
them was a merchant, I think, from Boonville, then a small village situated on 
the south bank of the Missouri River; the other was a tall, fine-looking young 
man, with sandy colored hair, approaching to red; if I mistake not, a young 
lawyer, who came west to cast his lot with the early pioneers. While sitting there, 
the gentleman from Boonville took from his pocket two cigars, and then also 
took from his pocket something, the like of which I had never before seen, and 
few, if any others, had ever seen west of the Mississippi River. He rubbed it 
on the sole of his boot, and lo ! there was combustion fire. It was the friction 
match, a new invention, and wonderful discovery of how to produce fire. Pre- 
vious to that, our resource to produce fire was the flint and steel, the punk and 
tinder. Fifty eventful years, with their lights and shadows, have come and gone 
since then. The tall, good-looking young man, who came to cast his lot with 
early pioneers, had remained, and been one of them to this day ; their people 
have been his people, and their cause his cause, and their God his God. And 
now, my old friends, you will, no doubt, think that thus far this simple story is 
very tame and pointless; and so it is; but I expect to be able to give it some in- 



158 



HISTORY OB' JACKSON COUNTY. 



terest by pointing out to you, in this assembly, that tall, bright-haired Kentuck- 
ian, now the gray-haired veteran of three score years and ten, who I expected 
would make an address to the Old Settlers to-day — General A. W. Doniphan." 

For some reason. General Doniphan could not be present, and the Old Set- 
tlers were not treated to his experiences. 

Dr. Winfrey, an old pioneer of 1843, ^^^ ^^^ '^^^' speaker. The doctor 
said he crossed the Missouri River at St. Joseph, when that place was a little vil- 
lage. When he arrived here, there were only a few straggling houses, here and 
there, and little did he imagine, at that time, that Westport Landing, as it was 
then called, would ever amount to such a place as Kansas City is to-day. The 
• doctor dwelt upon the fact that the geographical situation of this city would make 
it a great metropolis in spite of anything that could result to the contrary. Fol- 
lowing the doctor's remarks, Martin Rice, of Lone Jack, Van Buren township, 
read the following original poem, which has since elicited the most favorable 
comments from all who have seen it. We deem it of great value, not only as a 
literary production from one of the Old Settlers, but also from the authentic his- 
tory it contains : 

OLD SETTLERS' POEM. 



BY MARTIN RICE. 



'Tis almost half a hundred years. 
Since you and I, old pioneer. 

With aspirations free 
A home within this region sought; 
But who of us then dreamed or thought 
To see the many changes wrought. 

That we have lived to see ? 

From different counties then we came ; 
Our object and our aim the same — 

A home in this far West. 
A cabin here and there was found. 
Perhaps a little spot of ground 
Inclosed and cleared, while all around 

In nature's garb was dressed. 

Here then we saw the groves of green 
Where woodman's ax had never been — 

The spreading prairies too. 
Within these groves so dense and dark 
Was heard the squirrel's saucy bark ; 
The bounding stag was but the mark 

To prove the rifle true. 

But all is changed and cabin's gone ; 
The clapboard roof with weight poles on. 

The rough hewn puncheon floor : 
The chimneys made of stigk and clay 
Are seen no more ; gone to decay ; 
The men that built them, where are they ? 

I need not ask you more. 

They're gone, but they're remembered yet. 
Those cabin homes we can't forget 
Although we're growing old : 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 159 

Fond memory still the spot reveres, 
The cabin homes of youthful years 
Where with compatriot pioneers 
We pleasure had untold. 

The dense and tangled woodland too, 
The groves we often wandered though 

No longer now are there ; 
The prairie with its sward of green 
With flowerts wild no more are seen. 
But farms with dusty lanes between 

Are seen where once they were. 

Large towns and villages arise 
And steeples point toward the skies, 

Where all was desert then ; 
And nature's scenes have given place 
To those of art ; the hunter's chase 
Has yielded to the exciting race 

Of speculating men. 

The very spot on which we stand — 
This city, so superb and grand — 

How did we see it then ? 
How wild was that forbidden scene. 
The hills, with gorges thrown between. 
As if by nature it had been 

Made for a panther's den. 

Those hills have since been leveled down, 
The gorges filled, the streets of town 

In all directions range ; 
The labors of ten thousand hands, 
The workingman from thousand lands, 
The energy that wealth commands. 

Have made the wondrous change. 

Ah, what a change the pioneer 
In forty years has witnessed here; 

(And things are changing still;) 
And streets and alleys then were not ; 
Its greatest thoroughfare was — what ? 
A ground-hog walk or a possum trot 
Which led from hill to hill. 

Ah, yes my friends, old pioneers. 
Full many a change within those years 

The country's undergone ; 
How many changes it's passed through — 
And we old friends are changing too — 
There's been A change in me and you 

And still that change goes on. 

And when we think upon the past. 
Those friends whose lots with us were cast 

On this one wild frontier, 
And pass them all in our review. 



160 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

As oftentimes in thought we do — 
Alas ! how very few 

Are there remaining here. 

A few more years will come and go, 
As other years have done, you know ; 

And then — ah, yes, what then ? 
The world will still be moving on; 
But we, whose cheeks are growing wan, 
Will not be here : we'll all be gone 

From out the ranks of man. 

Our places will be vacant here. 
And of the last old pioneer 

The land will be bereft. 
The places which we here have filled. 
The fields which we have cleared and tilled. 
Our barns, though empty or though filled. 

To others will be left. 

But ere we pass to that far bourn, 
From whence no traveler can return. 

We meet old pioneers. 
The few of us who yet remain, 
And we who here have met, would fain 
Now clasp those friendly hands again. 

We clasped in by-gone years.. 

In glad reunion now we meet. 
Each other once again to greet, 

And conversation hold ; 
And while we socially to-day 
A few brief hours may while away. 
Let us, although our heads are gray. 

Forget that we are old. 

Let us gt) back — in memory, go 
Back to the scenes of long ago. 

When we were blithe and young ; 
When hope and expectation bright 
Were buoyant, and our hearts were light; 
And fancy that delusive sprite 

Her siren sonnets sung. 

And as we join in friendly chat, 
We'll speak of this and talk of that. 

And of the many things 
That have occurred within the land. 
Since first the little squatter band 
Came to this country, now so" grand. 

Before 'twas ruled by rings. 

'Tis natural that we should think. 
While standing on the river's brink, 

How wide the stream has grown. 
We saw it when 'twas but a rill. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 161 

Just bursting from the sunny hill; 
And now its surging waters fill 
A channel broad, unknown. 

'Tis natural and proper, too, 

That we compare the old and new — 

The present and past, — 
And speak of those old fogy ways 
In which we passed our younger days, 
Then of the many new displays 

That crowd upon us fast. 

We little knew of railroads then, 

Nor dreamed of that near period when 

We'd drive the iron horse; 
And 'twould have made the gravest laugh. 
Had he been told but one-half 
The wonders of the telegraph — 

Then in the brain of Morse. 

We did not have machinery then. 
To sow and reap and thresh the grain. 

But all was done by hand ; 
And those old-fashioned implements 
Have long ago been banished hence. 
Or rusting, lie beside the fence — 

No longer in demand. 

Yes, there are grown up men I know. 
Who never saw a bull-tongue plow, 

A flail or reaping hook ; 
And who could not describe, you know, 
A swingling board or knife, although 
Their grandmas used them long ago. 

And lessons on them took. 

The young man now would be amused 
To see some things his grandsire used. 

Some things he ne'er has seen. 
The way in which we clean our wheat. 
When two strong men with blanket sheet 
Would winnow out the chaff and cheat. 
And twice or thrice the thing repeat. 

Until the grain will clean. 

The single shovel plow and hoe. 

To clean out weeds was all the show — 

We knew no better ways; 
And now olir sons would laugh to scorn 
Such poky ways of making corn, 
And bless their stars that they were born 

In more enlightened daysi 

They say the world is wiser grown, 
They've got the speaking telephone — 
Talks twenty miles or more. 



162 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

And preachers now may preach and pray 
To congregations miles away ; 
And thousand other things they say 
We never had before. 

And yet I do not know but what 
The pioneer enjoyed his lot, 

And lived as much at ease, 
As men in those enlightened days 
With all their strange, new-fangled ways. 
Which wealth and fashion now displays, 

The mind of man to please. 

'Tis true we did not live so fast, 
But socially our time was passed. 

Although our homes were mean. 
Our neighbors then were neighbors true. 
And every man his neighbor knew. 
Although those neighbors might be few 

And sometimes far between. 

Ah, yes, old pioneers, I trow. 

The world was brighter then than now 

To us gray-headed ones. 
Hope pointed us beyond the vale, 
And whispered us a fairy tale 
Of coming pleasures, ne'er to fail 

Through all the shining suns. 

Ambition, too, with smile so soft, 
Was pointing us to seats aloft. 

Where fame and honor last. 
We had not learned what now we know, 
The higher up the mount we go. 
The storms of life still fiercer blow, 

And colder is the blast. 

That though we reach the mountain top ; 
Fruition find of every hope. 

Or wear the victor's crown ; 
Though far above the clouds we tread. 
There's other clouds still overhead. 
And on the mind there is the dread, 

The dread of coming down. 

Ah, yes. Old Settlers, one and all. 
Whatever may us yet befall. 

We will not, can't forget, 
The simple, old fashioned plan, 
The routes in which our father's ran 
Before the age of steam began 

To run the world in debt. 

And while we talk upon the past, 
Of friends who are dropping off so fast. 
And those already gone, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 163 

It may not be, my friends, amiss 
For each of us to this — 
The curtain of forgetfulness 

Will soon be o'er us drawn. 

And though in glad reunion we 
Have met to-day, perhaps 'twill be 

A day of taking leave. 
And we who oft have met before, 
And parted in the days of yore, 
We'll part, perhaps, to meet no more 

When we shall part this eve. 

The mind goes back through all the years — 
We call to mind the pioneers, 

Those bold and hardy men ; 
We pass them in the mind's review. 
The many dead, the living few, 
Those unpretending settlers who 

Were our compatriots then. 

Men who of toil were not afraid, 
Men who the early history made 

Of this now famous land ; 
The men who ere the Mormons came 
This heritage so fair to claim. 
Were here prepared through flood and flame, 

Those claimants to withstand. 

Sara. Lucas, Boggs and Swearingen, 
The Nolands and the Fristoes, then 

The Greggs, with Owens, two ; 
The Davises and the Flournoys, 
The Kings and Staytons and McCoys, 
And Dailey with his twenty boys — 

All these and more we know. 

The Wilsons and the Adamses, 
The Irvings and the Lewises, 

The Webbs and the Fitzhughs, 
The Powells and the Harrises, 
The Walkers and the Barrises, , 

The Bakers and the Savages, 

The Hickmans, Woods and Pughs. 

Yes, some of these were noted men. 
Well known, and much respected then, 

Although their coats were plain ; 
And when in office they were placed, 
They proved themselves not double-faced — 
The people's trust was not misplaced, 

We need such men again. 

We had our courts of justice then, 
A terror to dishonest men 

Who feared the halter's drop. 



164 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Judge Rayland then the courts could hold 
In full a dozen counties told, 
Decide the cases manifold, 

And keep with business up. 

We had our lawyers too, but they, 
Or nearly all, have passed away, 
We expected one of them to-day — 

A brave and goodly man ; 
But we are disappointed sore, 
That man of fame and legal lore, 
Now we may never see here more — 

Brave Colonel Doniphan. 

But where are all his old compeers ? 
The lawyers 'mongst the pioneers. 

Old French and Hicks and Young ? 
Where now are both the Reeces gone, 
And where is Hovey, noisy one, 
And where is David Atchison, 

That man of fiery tongue ? 

They're gone, you say, 'tis ever thus. 
The men of note are leaving us. 

The men of greatest heft ; 
But when we pause and look around, 
A few whose heads are 'bove the ground, 
A few, perhaps, may still be found ; 

Sawyer and Woodson left. 

■And then we had our preachers too, 
And one of them I think you knew. 

And knew their christian worth ; 
And who of you that ever heard 
Good Joab Powell preach the word. 
But had his better ieelings stirred 

By plain and simple talk. 

McKinney, Ferrell, Nelson too, 
Slayton, Warder and Fritzhugh, 

Tillery, Rice and Hill, 
And there was Elder Kavanaugh, 
And those of yore who ever saw 
Old Jimmy Savage, sure to draw 

A picture of him still. 

4h, yes, the preachers of those days 
Were noted for their simple ways, 

And some for style uncouth. 
But they are gone, they all are dead, 
Another class are in their stead, 
Much better paid and better read. 

But have they more of truth ? 

But time would fail to speak of all 
Those changes that our minds recall; 
The world is shifting strange. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 165 

And soon its shifting scenes will bear 
The last old pioneer to where 
His lost and loved companions are, 
Low in the silent grave. 

But ere, my friends, we hence embark, 
We fain would place some lasting mark. 

Upon this mountain shore 
A mark the traveler may see 
In coming years and know that we 
Have lived and passed the road that he 
May then be passing o'er. 

When death's dark curtain shall be drawn 
And we old pioneers are gone, 

Let truthful history tell 
To far posterity the tale. 
As down the stream of time they sail, 
How we with motto " never fail " 

Came here and what befell. 

Let history then impartial state 
The incidents of every date, 

And that it so may do. 
Let pioneers of every age, 
In this important work engage. 
And each of them produce his page. 

His page of history true. 

The incidents of early years, 
Known only to the pioneers, 

With them will soon be lost. 
Unless before they hither go. 
Those incidents are stated so 
Posterity the facts may knew. 

When they the stream have crossed. 

The last speaker of the day was Rev. Father Donnelly who related some 
interesting personal reminiscenses of his early pioneer life in this county. Father 
Donnelly has been a Catholic priest in this county for many years. 

OLD PERSONS PRESENT. 

John Christerson, of Jackson county, can lay claim for being the oldest 
pioneer within its limits. He was born here in 1819 and has lived in the coiinty 
ever since his birth, making a total residence of sixty-one years. 

David Tyburn, of Clay county, comes next on the list. He is from Ken- 
tucky where he was an infant. The date of his arrival is also 18 19, and he was 
reared in Clay county where he has lived about sixty-one years. 

Margaret Christerson was the first white female child i)orn in this county. 
This occurred in the year 1824 in what is now Sni-a-bar township. She is still a 
resident of the same township. 

Adam Christerson has lived in Jackson county since 1825. He was born in 
1794 and was the oldest man on the grounds. Alexander Majors of Platte county 
has resided there ever since 1825, and is sixty-six years old. 

James Hunter has resided in Jackson county since 1829. 

Edward Turner has lived in Clay county for the last fifty years. 



166 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



REGISTERED LIST. 



The following is a complete 
county : 

Walter Balis, Jackson county- 
James K. Sheley, " " 
Martin Rice, " " 
M. Hale, Platte county . . . 
John Trenter, Jackson county 
Alsom Renick, " " 
J. Farmer, Cass county . . . 
Greenup Bird, Clay county . 
Henry Adams, Platte county 
Mrs. S. Chick, Saline " 

F. R. Lorey, Clay " 
J. M. Belcher, Jackson " 
E. A. Hickman, " " 
John Gunter, " " 
Wm. McCraw, " " 
J. S. Davenport, " ', 
J. A. Steele, " " 
James Wilson, " " 

B. F. Duck, Jackson county . 

C. Powell, " " 
A. B. H. McGee, " 
Caleb Winfray, " " 
E. Marion, " " 
J. B. Forbs, " " 
E. Allen, " " 
J. H. J. Harris, " " 
James Genders, " " 
Richard Keely, " 
Edward West, " " 
W. E. Boyne, " " 
W. H. Radcliff, " 
Agnes Flournoy, " " 
Rebecca Potet, " " 
David Tyburn, Clay county - 
J. B. Wornall, Jacksqn county 
E. R. Hickinan, " " . 
J. M. Teegardin, Ray county 
— Jackson, Jackson county 
Thos. J. Ford, " 
Geo. Sellman, " 
A. V. Freeman, " 
Wallace Smith, " 
C. G. Hopkins, " 
S. W. Hopkins, " ' 
C. Whitehead, 
I. Hopkins, " 
R. Harris Sr., 

G. R. McCorkle, Clay county . 
J. J. Willoughby, Jackson county 
G. Lejnon, Clarke, county . 
Sol. Young, Jackson county . . 



list of names registered, with date of coming to the 

1 83 1 Margaret Christerson, born in Jack- 

1852 son county 1824 

1833 John Christerson, born in Jackson 

1837 county 

1836 James Hunter, Jackson county 

1843 J. R. Fry, 

1837 W. D. Steele, 

1 83 1 Adam Christerson , • ' " 

1838 C. PhiUibert,. " " 
1822 John M. Hale, " " 
1828 Alexander Majors, " " 

1832 Jesse Davis, " " 

1840 Alexander Harris, " " 
1842 B. B. Cane, Cass " 

1836 L. B. Leef, Jackson " 

1833 Philip Weinger, " " 

1844 R. L. Shanks, " " 

1825 J. P. Withers, " " 
1852 Edward Tanner, Ray county 

1 83 1 N. W. Ashlog, Jackson county 

1828 B. F. Minis, " 

1842 John Long, " 

1833 J. P. Henry, 
1868 N. Vinquest " 
1826. J. O. Matthews, " 

1832 W. M. Cogswell, " 

1837 Benj. Ricketts, Clay county 
, 1 836 J.H. Robertson, Jacks'n county 

1834 C. B. L. Boothe, " " 

1843 Clifton Twyman, " " 

1843 W. H. Winship, " " 

1826 W. C. Staples, " 
1836 E. Von Schwonefeldt, " 
1819 J. D. Noland, " " 

1844 O. P. W. Bailey, " 

1 84 1 H. C. Brooking, " " 

1839 James M. Reed, " " 

1835 Thomas Winship, " " 
1850 W. E. Croysdale, " " 

1857 W. H. Hill, 
1846 John Frazier, " " 

1840 A. B. Earle, " " 

1840 John C. Agnew, " " 

1858 Archibald Clark, " " 
1856 Daniel Dofflemyer, " " 

1842 John P. Knoche, " " 

1827 J. S. Chick, " " 
1848 S. H. Woodson, " " 

1829 Robt. Barnhart, " " 
1850 Charles Keller, " " 

1841 W. M. Johnson, " " 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



167 



T. M. James, Jackson 


county 


• i8S4 


S. W. Speas, Jackson county 


■ ■ 1852 


J. R. Morrison, 






. 1865 


J. M. Adams, 






• ■ 1833 


S. J. Piatt, 






. 1844 


Richard Steele, 






1832 


Chas. D Lucas, 






■ 1834 


Jos. C. Ranson, 






. 1842 


Wallace Laws, 






. 1846 


D. W. Banta, 






• 1857 


J. R. Griffin, 






. 1857 


Chas. Long, 






■ 1847 


J. C. McCoy, 






■ 1853 


Geo. Long, 






. 1848 


H. M. Northrop, 






. 1844 


C. E. Miles, 






. 1867 


Mary J. Clark, 






. 1842 


C. J. White, 






. 1865 


William Mulkey, 






. 1826 


John H. Reid, 






• 1854 


Catharine Mulkey, 






• 1839 


L. A. Allen. 


CI ic 


. 1858 


Margaret Northrop, 






. 1842 














A RELIC. 









J. S. Davenport of Jackson county exhibited an old rusty plow point made 
on the Little Blue River, forty years ago, by a blacksmith named Cockrell. That 
plow broke up the entire farm formerly owned by Rufus Montgall, but now known 
as^the Joe Thompson farm. The plow-point is certainly a historic relic of by-gone 
days and is highly prized by its owner. 

All in all this was one of the most enjoyable meetings ever held by the Old 
Settlers Association, and will be remembered for a long time. There were at least 
five hundred in attendance. 

Doniphan's expedition. 

The following, in reference to the veterans of General Doniphan's expedi- 
tion, appeared in the Ray County Conservator, September, 1871 : 

" As will be seen, by a letter published elsewhere, it is proposed by the peo- 
ple of Kearney, Clay county, to give a grand dinner to the surviving soldiers of 
"Doniphan's Expedition to Mexico." This is a move in the right direction. 
Nearly a quarter of a century since, these gallant men responded to the bugle 
call. Old Ray sent her bravest sons, and they proudly bore their banner where 
the foe was the thickest; and many, like General Henley, whose honored remains 
lie within sight of our city, sealed their valor with their blood. Clay and Clinton, 
and Lafayette, and Jackson, and, in fact, the whole State, was represented in 
that band, whose marches across the plains and through Mexico, gave them a 
world wide reputation, and added luster to the American name. Since then time 
has set his seal upon many of its best and bravest. Their chief still lives, buoy- 
ant and stout of limb as when he was welcomed by the spontaneous outburst of a 
hundred thousand voices in St. Louis, and himself and worthy followers the re- 
cipients of an ovation, second only to a Roman triumph. But in the gathering 
now proposed, many will be missed, whose e|..itapns have been written, whose si- 
lent resting places have been bedewed with tears, and whose names are as dear 
to us as household words. 

" ' It will be a time for memory and for tears.' 

'' The warm heart of friendship will throb in manly bosoms, gray hairs will 
bow over the recollections of friends gone to the vale of shadows, and the grasp 
of manly hands will be tightened by the tumultuous rush of feelings warmed into 
life from the misty realms of the past. 

" A new generation will surround them, gray-haired veterans of a war that 
added luster to our history, and will listen to the eloquence of their honored chief, 
whose voice and sword has always belonged to his common country. It will be 
worth a score of every day gatherings, to be present upon this occasion, and we 
sincerely hope that every one of the members of General Doniphan's command, 



168 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

that can possibly get there, will put in a personal appearance. We want to see 
them." 

OLD CATHOLIC CEMETRY, KANSAS CITY. 

One by one the marks by which the old timers note the increase of the_ city's 
growth are disappearing. One by one the old landmarks— if any institution of 
this infant giant of towns can properly be called old — are going, swept out of 
sight and obliterated by the never-ending march of progress. The last to go is 
the old burying ground on Penn street. Notwithstanding the fact that every inch 
of the ground has been made sacred by the tears of mourners and sanctified by 
the prayers of bereaved ones, the cemetery must be vacated, a writ of restitution 
served on the silent tenants of the hill top, to make room for their animated suc- 
cessors. No matter that each tree and shrub in the little plot of ground derived 
a portion of its vitality and growth from the overflowing fountains of the orphan's 
heart, or that each flower has been bedewed by the tears of parents for their loved, 
ones, the homes of the dead must make way for the residences of the living. 

Little did the old Catholic fathers dream, as they dedicated the ground to its 
holy purposes, that in thirty years their secluded, out-of-the-way little cemetery 
would be in the center of the most prosperous, rapidly growing, and altogether 
the most phenomenal city of America, or of the world. The old graveyard, 
where lie the buried hopes of a generation, is in the way, and must go, taking 
with it all the tender, 

CLUSTERING MEMORIES OF THE PAST. 

In less than a year, in all probability, the cemetery will be graded down to 
the street level, and its site occupied by dwelling houses, or perhaps business 
blocks. The cemetery has not been used for five years, the last interment being 
made in 1877. The spot has been unkept and uncared for since that time, the 
grading of the streets rendering the place difficult of access, and the building up of 
the neighborhood with dwelling houses has made it neccessary to "improve" the 
graveyard, and it was decided last fall to begin the work of removing the coffins 
this year. The frost, in coming out of the ground this spring, loosened the earth 
on the embankments made by grading the streets and the soil caving away ex- 
posed several coffins. Certain ghouls of the daily press of Kansas City, in their 
thirst for a sensational article, which thirst is as reprehensible as it is common, 
magnified the scare and attempted to horrify the public. The enbankments were 
boarded up and the work of exhumation and removal of the dead to St. Mary's 
on the hill began. Already thirty-two graves have been opened and orders for 
the removal of twelve more are made. The work will be carried on rapidly to 
completion. Rev. D. J. Doherty is giving lots in the new cemetery gratis to 
those who desire to have the remains of their friends removed. After the first 
of June the officers of the church will have all the bodies of the unknown dead, 
and of those whose friends are unable to bear the expense, removed, and by the 
first of October the cemetery will be vacant. 

HISTORY OF THE OLD CEMETERY. 

The history of the spot of ground for so many years used by the parishioners 
of the Catholic church is very interesting. 

The property first came into the possession of the church in 1834. On the 
5th of April of that year. Father Roux, one of the advance guards of civiliza- 
tion, purchased forty acres of land of Pierre La Liberte, one of the first settlers, 
for sixty dollars. Ten acres of the tract was deeded to the church. A log 
structure was at once erected, and for many years was used as a place of worship 
by the devout of the parish. This log church was torn down some years since 
when Penn street was graded. On another part of the lot Father Donnelly put 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 169 

up his historic log cabin. As was customary when Kansas City consisted of but 
one or two houses, the church yard was used as a burial ground, and thus it was 
that the graveyard grew up around the log church. The record of interments 
was begun January i, 1846, although it is probable that one or two burials had 
been made prior to that date. The record shows that people were brought from 
distant points in the territory of Kansas, for funeral services here. 

THE FIRST ENTRY 

is in the handwriting of Father Donnelly, the pioneer in the cause of religion. 
The death was of an Indian girl known as Mary, who was of the tribe of Otta- 
was. The funeral services were conducted by Bishop Edward Barron, who was 
visiting Father Donnelly at the time. As a historical reminiscence it might be 
interesting to note that Bishop Barron was a brother of Sir Henry Winton Bar- 
ron, Waterford, and was vicar apostolic of Liberia and of the Guineas. In 1845 
he resigned his charge on account of ill-health and came to America and to the 
West to recuperate. In 1854, during the yellow fever season in the South, Bishop 
Barron, with the spirit of self-sacrifice characteristic of his brotherhood, went to 
Georgia to care for the sufferers, and on the 12th of September of that year died 
in the cause of humanity. 

The entries on the book are very infrequent during the early days, the next 
being dated June ist, an explanatory note saying that the burial occurred during 
Father Donnelly's absence. The early occupants of the graveyard were princ- 
ipally French settlers and Indians. Among them was Mary Montredieu, also of 
the Ottawa tribe. A little incident connected with this girl was very frequently 
related by Father Donnelly. One evening he noticed some one in the burying 
ground near a grave, and going out found an Indian lad, a brother of the girl, 
planting a little sapling near the head of the grave. The tree grew and is now one 
of the largest in the cemetry. During the year 1849 several entries on the record 
are by Rev. A. Lannier. In 1850 Father Donnelly returned from Independence 
to again assume charge, and all subsequent entries are made by him. December 
23, 1853, Pierre La Liberte, the original owner of the graveyard, was laid away to 
rest. In the list of burials which follows a great number of the deaths are shown 
to have been from violent causes, banks caving in, falling trees, and the bullet 
reaped almost as large a harvest, proportionally, as now. One very suggestive 
entry states that the person who was buried was killed in a riot on Delaware street. 
The names of several persons designated as slaves appear on the book previous to 
1861. The Bluff street bridge also had an example for its fatality in 1858. Pat- 
rick Kelly was buried, his death resulting from a fall from the "Market street 
bridge." In 1859, Dr. Benoist Troost was interred, his age being seventy-two 
years. War times came on and the burials multiplied. The first victim of the 
unpleasantness whose name appears was John Boland, who was killed, so the rec- 
ord shows, by a train falling through "a bridge burned by the secession rebels 
near St. Joseph." 

And so the entries run until May 14th, 1873, when the book is filled closing 
with the following : 

May 14, 1873. — I am obliged to close this volume at this date. The forego- 
ing records preserve the names of all persons interred in the Catholic cemetry to 
this date. The total number is about 1,406. Not only must I commence a new 
volume, but in a few months, begin to bury the dead in a new cemetery already 
paid for. B. Donnelly. 

The new record which follows the entries are made by Father Donnelly until 
the time when Father Doherty took charge of the pastorate. The last interment 
in the old cemetry was a man killed by a boiler explosion in West Kansas. The 
whole number was 1,886, the last being made December 20, 1876. The first in 
the new cemetry was January 2, 1877. 



170 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE SANTA FE TRADE. 

Originated and Started from Old Franklin, Howard County — Began at Independence in i8^i — 
About the Year 1837 the Trade Sprung Up at Westport — Names of Firms at Independence 
Engaged jn the Trade — Starting Out of a Caravan — Hostile Indians — The Earliest Traders 
— Lost on the Plains and Dying of Thirst — Council Grove — Surgical Operation in the Desert 
— Santa Fe — Revolt of the Indians in 16S0 — New Mexico in 1840 — Names and Distances of 
Camping Places Between Independence and Santa Fe. 

The Santa Fe trade first began at Old Franklin, a little town on the Missouri 
River, in Howard county, and continued from this point till the year 1831, when 
it sprung up at Independence. The town of Independence being a hundred 
miles further west, and near the great bend of the Missouri River, it was thought 
to be a more favorable place for fitting out caravans for Mexico, since also the 
route could be made from Franklin to Independence much better by water than 
land. At Independence the bulk of the trade continued till about the years 
1838-40, when it began at Wesport, and subsequently at Westport Landing (now 
Kansas City). Some of the men who early engaged in the Santa Fe trade were 
Nathan Simons, Philip Thompson, Robert Isaacs, Edward Samuel, Josiah Gregg, 
and many others. 

Some of the persons engaged in the trade at Independence were Col. Samuel 
C. Owens, one of the principal wholesale dealers connected with the Mexican 
trade. He was a general merchant, having a general store on the southwest cor- 
ner of the square. Many of his goods were bought in Philadelphia, brought to 
Pittsburgh over the Alleghany Mountains, then shipped by boat down the Ohio 
River to Cairo, then up the Mississippi to St. Louis, thence up the Missouri 
River to Independence Landing. 

Samuel D. Lucas had a store on the north side of the square, near the center 
of the block, where he did a large business. 

John O. Agnew had a general store also on the north side, and dealt largely 
in goods designed for the New Mexican trade. 

Robert Courtney had a store on the southeast corner. The firm was after- 
ward known as Courtney & Mickelborough, then Courtney & Lewis. 

McCoy & Lee had a Store on the south side of the square, and continued 
from 1839 to 1845. Lee died about the year 1848. 

Henry Speares was a merchant trader, and accompanied the caravans to their 
destination in New Mexico. He continued for a long time in this occupation ; 
afterward went to New York City, and finally failed and committed suicide on 
account of losses met on the Black Friday crash in Wall street. He was a Ger- 
man Jew. There were others engaged in the same trade, and some of them quite 
extensively. The two landings for boats that brought merchandize to Indepen- 
dence were at Wayne City, and the other Owen's Landing. The trade became 
so extensive that the United States government established here a custom house 
office, so that goods kept in original packages could be subjected to a rebate. 

The large trade necessarily created a demand for wagons, and their manu- 
facture was commenced at Independence. Frank Simpson, John W. Modie, 
Robert Weston, and later Hiram Young, a free negro, who still lives in Inde- 
pendence, were engaged in the wagon manufacture. 

Early in the trade, goods were carried on pack mules. The packs consisted 
of two parts fastened together by means of straps passing over the back of the 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 171 

mule. A train consisted of from ten to 150 pack animals, and usually about five 
or six pack horses to each man, sometimes as high as fifteen to a man. These 
caravans would travel fifteen, twenty or twenty-five miles a day, and in some 
cases as many as thirty milgs in a day. 

The train of traders usually started out of camp early in the morning, some- 
times before sunrise, and made a long halt for dinner, encamping again for night 
before dark and getting everything prepared to prevent a surprise by the Indians. 
The stopping places were suited to the conditions of grass and water, sometimes 
a long and weary distance would be necessary before they could reach an advan- 
tageous camping ground. In some cases when extremely hot, they would travel in 
the night and take longer halts at noon. In a hostile country where danger was 
apprehended from Indians, guards would be posted as soon as a halt was made, 
and always by night as well as by day the rifle was within reach. 

The introduction of wagons for these expeditions was made in the year 1824 
by a company of traders, about eighty in number. A portion of this company 
employed pack mules. There .were some twenty-five wheeled vehicles, of which 
some were road wagons, two carts, the whole conveying about $25,000 to $30,- 
000 worth of property. Colonel Marmaduke, afterward a State official in high 
position, was one of the party. This first expedition, transporting their merchan- 
dise on wheels, made the journey with little difficulty, probably less than could 
have been reasonably expected from its being the first attempt. It should be re- 
marked here that probably no where else on the American continent can be 
found a route of 8co miles in extent more easily traversed by wagons than the 
one between Independence and Santa Fe. 

When this trade began, small companies of traders could cross the plains 
with little trouble anticipated from the Indians, but soon the hostile red man so 
often imposed upon by the white, sought every opportunity to rob aud even kill 
when it could be done without too much exposure to himself The traders were 
in a great measure blamable for the treacherous conduct of the Indians. They 
would cheat and often kill in cold blood every Indian who came near the camp 
when he was friendly and intended good rather than harm. 

When the traders returned from Mexico their proceeds were usually partly 
in specie and partly in buffalo robes and furs ; and sometimes, although set upon 
by marauding Indian bands, they could easily persuade the savages to retire, 
if resolute, and this, too, without the killing of a man, for the Indians seldom 
jeopardizes the life of a brave unless in revenge or in open warfare. When the 
Americans appeared defenseless and afraid, the Indians became more bold and 
took such advantages as they could. A story is told of what happened to a 
party of half dozen traders in the year 1826 on the Cimarron River. The 
party were bringing through a herd of five hundred horses but had only four 
servicable guns between them, hence were virtually unprotected against the 
Indians. 

A party of Indians, discovering their defenselessness, came in a friendly 
manner, talked a little while, and then went away. Soon, however, they return- 
ed, about t)iirty strong, all on foot. They said that they were tired of traveling 
on foot, and desired each a horse. The Americans, knowing the uselessness of 
refusing, quickly consented; but the Indians were not satisfied with one horse 
apiece, so they asked for two. This being granted also, they drove into the herd 
with a whoop, and ran them all off. 

At another time an incident transpired on the banks of the same river — the 
Cimarron — which had a strong tendency to render the Indians more hostile. Two 
young men by the name of McNees and Monroe, were straggling from the main 
caravan, the Indians came upon them and shot them. They were buried accord- 
ing to the fashion on the plains, and just as they were returning to camp, another 
party of Indians came along on the opposite bank of the river. They evidently 



172 HISTORY OF JACKSON" COUNTY. 

desired a friendly conference, of course, not having even heard of the outrage 
upon the two whites. Some of the traders desired to vent their revenge upon 
these Indians, caring not to inquire if they were concerned in the murder of their 
friends or not, but simply because they were Indians, fired upon them, and killed 
all except one, who returned to his tribe to relate the sad fate of his comrades. 
Such acts as these served to make the Indians hostile. The Indians became more 
and more desperate against the pale face, and lost no opportunity to wreak their 
vengeance. The same caravan mentioned above was attacked several times be- 
fore they reached the United States, and many of their horses taken away. The 
traders realizing their danger, petitioned the Government for an armed escort, 
and accordingly, Major Riley, with three companies of infantry, was sent out to 
accompany the expedition as far as Choteau's Island, in the Arkansas River. The 
next day the Indians attacked the caravan, and killed one man. A courier was 
dispatched for Major Riley, who soon came up, and continued several days, till 
no danger from the "children of the desert" seemed to threaten. Captain 
Wharton was also in aid of the traders, with two companies of dragoons. 

In 1843, large escorts were under convoy of Captain Cook. The exact 
origin of these expeditions to Mexico, or the very first, is not definitely known. 

James Pursley, while trading with some Indians near the sources of the 
Platte River, heard of settlements in New Mexico, and in the year 1805, made 
his way to Santa Fe, where he remained till his death. James Pursley is said by 
Captain Pike to have been the first American who crossed the plains to Santa Fe. 
Other writers say that a merchant of Kaskaskia, named Morrison, had, in 1804, 
sent a French Creole, by the name of La Lande, to Santa Fe, who, also, on ac 
count of his kind treatment, never returned to the United States. 

The first great impetus given to the traffic with New Mexico, and the Indians 
in the mountains southwest of here, was about the year 1812, after the glowing 
account of this new region by Captain Pike, on his return, had been published. 
Pike had been sent out by the Government, to explore the region. 

The first expeditions, however, met with many disasters. One party was 
taken to Chihuahua, and thrown into prison, where they were kept for nine years. 
Another party suffered with almost starvation on the journey. A man by the 
name of Glenn, from Ohio, reached Santa Fe with his caravan in 182 1, by way 
of the upper Arkansas. In the year 182 1, Captain Becknell, of this State, went 
to Santa Fe by the far western route. Captain Becknell and his little party start- 
ed from old Franklin with the purpose of trading with the Comanche Indians, 
but when they reached the Rocky Mountains, they fell in with a party of Mexican 
rangers, who had little difficulty in persuading them to accompany them to Santa 
Fe. Here they disposed of their few goods at a handsome profit. 

Up to this time — 182 1 — New Mexico had received nearly all her goods and 
supplies irom the interior provinces, whither they had been transported from Vera 
Cruz; these goods were sold at exorbitant rates, common calicoes selling as high 
as two and three dollars a yard, and other articles in proportion. When Captain 
Becknell returned to the United States and gave a glowing description of the 
country many others at once embarked in the enterprise. Colonel Cooper with 
a few neighbors with pack animals, started in the month of May, 1822. They 
reached Taos in safety. 

A month later, Captain Becknell started a second time, having thirty men 
and about $5,000 worth of goods. He was desirious of avoiding the circuitous 
route which had been previously taken, accordingly, when he reached the place 
called "The Catches," he took a straight course toward Santa Fe, not anticipat- 
ing the fearful trials he was destined to meet with on the arid and pathless des- 
ert. He hoped to be able within a reasonable length of time to reach Cimarron 
River. 

They had provided sufficient water to last them two days, but this scanty 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 173 

supply being exhausted, the suffering of man and beast was intense. On they 
pressed, expecting soon to obtain relief from the terrible thirst which parched 
their throats. The blood of slain dogs was drunken, they cut off the ears of 
some of their mules to obtain blood to quench their thirst, but it seemed to 
madden and exasperate them. They separated in squads and followed the 
"mirage" or " false ponds," as these alluring pictures are called, all to no pur- 
pose. They knew a horrible death was near at hand, and not knowing that they 
were upon the very banks of the Cimarron, resolved to retrace their steps and 
meet almost certain death before they should again reach the Arkansas. They 
were not equal to the journey, and would certainly have perished on those ver- 
dureless plains had not a stray buffalo come within range of one of their rifles, 
his stomach distended with water recently quaffed from the river just beyond. 
One of the party afterward relating the circumstance to a friend, said: "No 
cooling draught from a limpid mountain spring was ever half so sweet and re- 
freshing to my lips as that obtained from the stomach of that slaughtered buffalo." 
Knowing from the condition of the buffalo that water in abundance must be 
close at hand, they pressed on, and immediately came to the Cimarron River, 
where man and beast partook of God's beverage to man. The party finally 
reached Santa Fe by way of Taos without further serious difficulty. Since that 
time many other traders have crossed the same country, but being better acquaint- 
ed with the distances and topography of the country, have provided against the 
possibilities of the scarcity of water. 

When an expedition was being fitted out many things were almost indispens 
able, such as provisions, proper clothing, training the animals, etc. The ordinary 
supplies for each man were about fifty pounds of flour, the same of bacon, ten 
pounds of coffee, twenty pounds of sugar and some salt, these are considered in- 
dispensable in the line of provisions, while sometimes, crackers, beans and other 
articles of food are found in the train. A supply of fresh meat can nearly always 
be obtained from the buffalo, and the traveler is excited with joy when he can 
for the first time see this king of the plains. The most common substantial 
clothing is provided for the men, some with linsey or leather hunting clothes, 
others with jeans, and still others with flannel suits. 

Oxen were first used in 1829, by Major Riley, and after that about one-half 
the animals in a train were oxen, and it was found that they could make the trip 
in about the same time as mules. The tenderness of the feet of oxen, to some 
extent, render them less valuable than mules, though the hoof of the mule some- 
times became dry, hard and slippery, so much so that he could not haul a heavy 
load without shoes of iron or steel. The horses, mules, oxen and provisions 
being provided for the journey, the next thing was to load the merchandise. So 
expert had some of the wagoners become in loading, that they could stow away 
a vast amount of goods in a small amount of space, and so pack the articles to- 
gether that they could not jostle or move from the exact position in which they 
had been placed, through the whole journey of 800 miles, the goods would be 
found to have sustained less injury than in going a mile in a common farmer's 
wagon over an ordinary turn-pike road. When the loads are all arranged, the 
men and animals in their places, the grand caravan leaves Independence with as 
much joy and light-heartedness as a party going to a Fourth of July celebration; 
but how changed when they have experienced all the hardships of the plains. 
Generally, a thorough organization was not effected till out on the journey some 
distance from Independence. This point was sometimes at the place called 
Council Grove, which is about one hundred and fifty miles from Independence. 
Council Grove consists of a long strip of forest trees about half a mile in width, 
extending for many miles along the bank of a creek of the same name, and in- 
cludes such trees as the oak, walnut, ash, elm, hickory, and other varieties. 
There is a legend or story told of this Council Grove worthy of mention, and 



174 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

that is ; " Here the Pawnee, Arapaho, Comanche, Leloup and Eutaw Indians 
all of whom were at war with each other, meet once a year and smoke the pipe 
of peace." 

When the different parties reached this place they would camp till all arrived 
and then effect an organization and appoint their officers to aid in mutual defense 
against the hostile Indians. Sometimes the merchandise of the whole caravan 
was valued from $200,000 to $300,000, and ponsisted of over a hundred wagons 
and two hundred men effective for service. After the organization had been 
effected, the company was divided into eight watches, each watch standing one- 
fourth of every alternate night, though when the company is small the numberof 
watches is reduced, and each man had more of this disagreeable duty to perform. 
No man able to bear arms in the caravan is exempt from night-watch duty, not 
even to procure a substitute. The captain seeing all preparations complete, 
sounded the familiar note of "catch up!" Then all was commotion and bustle 
till each teamster, one after another, responded " All's set. " Again from the cap- 
tain came the word, " Stretch out !" " Fall in !" and the long line of wagons was 
on their way across the plains. The command of "catch up," is joyously re- 
ceived by the caravansers after the weary delay of preparation. Let us follow a 
caravan across the plains. We are now far beyond Council Grove and entering 
the Arkansas valley at a point 270 miles out from Independence. Cries of 
"The Indians!" strike great terror into the minds of the novices, and every 
wolf yell, every bellowing of the ox, and every snort of the horse seems to indi- 
cate that the animals are snuffing the crouching savages approaching the camp. 

The banks of the Arkansas are very low, bordered with a narrow strip of tim- 
ber of stunted trees. In some places, however, we find no trees on the banks of 
the Arkansas, and one would come to the stream without suspecting from the 
usual indications that a river was at his feet. Most of the trees in this vicinity 
are cottonwood, though occasionally we see hackberry. After leaving Council 
Grove, or the Neosho River, vegetation grows less and less, till Missouri's verdant 
growth of trees and grasses is entirely lost in the almost barren plains. The route 
is now up the course of the Arkansas for twenty miles before reaching Walnut 
Creek. In the summer of 1826 a surgical operation was performed at this point 
which is worthy of note. A Mr. Broadus, in attempting to draw his rifle from a 
wagon, muzzle foremost, discharged its contents into his arm. The bone being 
dreadfully shattered, the unfortunate man was advised to submit to an amputation 
at once, otherwise, it being in the month of August and exceedingly warm, morti- 
fication would soon ensue. But Mr. Broadus obstinately refused to consent to 
this course till death began to stare him in the face. By this time, however, the 
whole arm had become gangrened, some spots having already appeared above the 
place where the operation should have been performed. The invalid's case was,* 
therefore, considered perfectly hopeless, and he was given up by all comrades, 
who thought of little else than to consign' him to the grave. But being unwilling 
to resign himself to the fate which appeared frowning over him without a last 
effort, he obtained the consent of two or three of the party, who undertook to 
amputate his arm merely to gratify the wishes of the dying man, for in such a 
light they viewed him. Their only " case of instruments" consisted of a hand- 
saw, a butcher's knife and a large iron bolt. The teeth of the saw being too 
coarse, they scon filed a finer set on the back. The knife having been whetted 
keen, and the iron bolt laid upon the fire, they commenced the operation, and in 
less time than it takes to tell it, the arm was opened round to the bone, which 
was in almost an instant sawed off, and with the sizzling hot iron the whole stump 
was so effectually seared as to close the arteries completely. Bandages were then 
applied, and the company proceeded on their journey. The arm commenced 
healing rapidly, and in a few weeks the patient was sound and well, and perhaps 
may be living to-day, though this happened fifty-five years ago, to bear witness 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 175 

to the superiority of the " hot iron " over " ligatures " in " taking up " arteries. 

After leaving Walnut Creek the caravan usually passed the Pawnee Rock, 
about fifteen miles distant from the customary camping ground on the Walnut. 

It is called Pawnee Rock because early in the nineteenth century the Pawnees 
had bloody battles with some other tribes at this point. The plains in the vicin- 
ity of the Pawnee Rock teemed with buffalo in the early days of Santa Fe expe- 
ditions, and the land was peculiarly adapted to the pleasures of the chase. Rat- 
tle snakes were very numerous and there being no stick or stone with which to 
destroy the dangerous reptile, the pistols, rifles and whips of the wagoners were 
brought into effective use. 

The route was up the course of the Arkansas River for more than a hundred 
miles before they attempted to cross the arid plains before reaching the Cimarron 
River. 

The distance across this trackless and treeless ocean plain is over fifty miles, 
not a thing to mark the direction, and the compass was their only guide. Before 
crossing the casks were always ordered filled with water, about five gallons to 
each wagon. After reaching the Cimarron several days' travel is occupied along 
its course toward the higher plains, then to the Canadian River and along the 
region of rocks, the wagons by this time showing signs of wear; tires loosening 
and spokes falling out. Before reaching the principal mountains the trader 
journeys passed the Point of Rocks, a spur projecting from the north, and from 
beneath whose ledges issues a large cooling crystal spring. At this point there is 
always a halt. This is more than a hundred and fifty miles from Santa Fe and 
the course is for that distance in sight of the snow capped mountains. This 
region is frequented by terrible thunder and hail storms. Sometimes the light- 
ning would kill horses, mules and oxen from the train, and the hail fall in immense 
size and thick showers. 

San Miguel was the first settlement of any note on the whole route, it was 
fifty miles southeast of Santa Fe consisting of mud-wall huts in the fertile valley 
of the Rio Pecos. Here the route made a grand turn to find a passway through 
a broken extremity of the spur of mountains and took a course to the northwest 
till Santa Fe was reached. The houses of Santa Fe were built of unburnt brick 
and presented a novel appearance to the American who saw them for the first 
time. 

The stores generally contained in those days an assortment of goods and 
notions usually kept by western merchants; a variety of dry goods, silks, hard- 
ware, domestic cottons, both bleached and brown, etc. The demand for these 
goods was so great that at least one-half of the merchandise of the caravan was 
of that kind of stock. 

Santa Fe was a very old town when this trade across the plains commenced ; 
it dates among the earliest settlements of America. It is related that soon after 
the conquest of Mexico by Hernon Cortez a small band of adventurers proceeded 
as far north as this point. Some fix the date of the first settlement in 1581-83. 

In the year 1680 there occurred an uprising among the Indians in all north- 
ern Mexico, and the Spanish people who then lived in New Mexico and other 
provinces south, suffered the horrors of Indian warfare. The Indians had fixed 
upon the 13th of August, 1680, for the day in which to mercilessly butcher all the 
Spanish population except such females as they desired to save for wives So 
secretly did^they mature their plans that not even an Indian woman in all the 
country knew of the uprising, the men, only, being informed. But a few days 
before the war of extermination was to begin, two Indians informed the governor 
and he sent with all dispatch to collect all the Spanish population at Santa Fe, 
Taos, La Canada and other fortified towns. The Indians seeing that their plot 
had been discovered, commenced at once their work of murder. The villages 
were sacked, and the Spanish inhabitants that could be found were put to the 



176 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

sword, the priests were especially treated with barbarity. Some were compelled 
to go on all-fours through the streets of Pueblo while the savage monsters lashed 
them with whips and rods. The Indians finally either killed or drove out all the 
Mexicans from the vast territory extending from Santa Fe 300 or 400 miles south. 

Santa Fe at that time as now was the capital of New Mexico and was the 
only town of importance in the whole region. It was sometimes called Santa Fe 
de San Francisco (Holy Faith of St. Francis). Like most of the towns at that 
time in Northern Mexico it occupied the site of an ancient pueblos or Indian vil- 
lage, whose race had been extinct for a great many years. It is situated fifteen 
miles east of the Rio del Norte, at the western base of a snow-clad mountain, 
upon a beautiful stream of rippling water which comes down from the icy cas- 
cades of the mountain peaks and joins the Rio del Norte some twenty miles 
southwest of the town. The population of the city itself at that time was then 
a little over 3,000 ; yet including several surrounding villages which were em- 
braced in the corporate jurisdiction of Santa Fe, it amounted to about 6,000. 
Its height above the level of the sea is 7,000 feet ; and the highest peaks which 
are northeast of the town are 5,000 feet higher. 

Santa Fe was very irregularly laid out, and most of the streets were httle 
better than common highways traversing scattered settlements which were inter- 
spersed with cofn fields nearly sufficient to supply the inhabitants with grain. 
The only attempt at anything like architectural compactness and precision con- 
sisted in four tiers of buildings whose fronts were f^haded with a fringe of portals 
or corridors of the rudest possible description. They stood around the public 
square and comprised the Palacio or Governor's house, the Custom House, the 
Barracks (with which was connected the fearful Calabozo), the Casa Consistorial 
of the Alcaldes, the Capilla de los Soldados or Military Chapel, besides several 
private residences, as well as most of the shops of the American traders. The 
population of New Mexico was then (1840-44) almost exclusively confined to 
towns and villages, the suburbs of which were generally farms. Even most of 
the individual ranchos and haciendas had grown into villages — a result almost 
indispensable for protection against the marauding savages of the surrounding 
wilderness. The principal of these settlements were located in the valley of the 
Rio del Norte, extending from nearly one hundred miles north to about one hun- 
dred and fifty south of Santa Fe. Wheat and corn could be raised in great crops 
in the valleys whose soil had been cultivated for two hundred years without any 
apparent diminution of the productiveness. The whole population of New Mex- 
ico in 1841, including mixed Creoles, Spaniards and Indians, was estimated to be 
about 70,000. 

In New Mexico the arts and sciences had been so neglected, that it might be 
said that no progress had been made for a hundred years. Education was almost 
entirely neglected, no one pretended to study in the schools more than the simple 
accomplishment of learning to read and write. There were some who were edu- 
cated abroad for the duties of priests, and some to manage the affairs of Govern- 
ment, but the common people, were ignorant of arithmetic, geography and all 
other branches usually taught in the public as well as private schools of the Uni- 
ted States at that time. 

Below will be found a table of distances from Independence to Santa Fe, to- 
gether with the names of the principal camping places on the entire route. 

MILES. TOTAL. 

Independence — - — 

Round Grove 35 35 

Narrows 30 65 

no-Mile Creek 35 100 

Bridge Creek 8 108 

Big John Spring (crossing several creeks) 40 148 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



177 




PAWNEE ROCK. 



MILES. 

Council Grove 2 

Diamond Spring 15 

Last Spring 15 

Cottonwood Creek 12 

Turkey Creek 25 

Little Arkansas 17 

Crow Creek 20 

Arkansas River ... 16 

Walnut Creek (up Arkansas River) •. . . 8 

Ash Creek' 19 

Pawnee Fork 6 

Coon Creek 33 

Caches 36 

Ford of Arkansas 20 

Sand Creek (leaving Arkansas River) 50 

Cimarron River (lower spring) 8 

Middle Spring (up Cimarron River) . . . . 36 

Willow Bar 26 

Upper Spring 18 

Cold Spring (leaving Cimarron River) 5 

McNee's Creek 25 

Rabbit Ear Creek 20 

Round Mound 8 

12 



TOTAL. 

I6S 
180 
192 
217 
234 
254 
270 
278 
297 

336 
372 
392 

442 

450 
486 

512 

53° 
S35 
560 
580 
588 



178 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

MILES. TOTAL. 

Rock Creek 8 596 

Point of Rocks 19 615 

Rio Colorado 20 635 

Ocate 6 641 

Santa Clara Springs 21 662 

Rio Mora 22 684 

Rio Gallinas (Vegas) 20 704 

Ojo de Bernal (spring) 17 721 

San Miguel 6 727 

Pecos Village 23 750 

Santa Fe 25 775 

The distance from Independence to Santa Fe, was variously estimated at 750 
or 800 miles. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
COUNTY OFFICIALS. 



County Court — County Clerks — Circuit Clerks — Recorders — Treasurers — Assessors — Sheriffs — 
School Commissioners — Surveyors — Marshals — Collectors — State Senators — State Representatives — 
Verbatim Record of Marriages — The First Warranty Deed — Registration Notice. 

JUSTICES OF THE COUNTY COURT. 

1827 — Richard Fristoe, Abraham McClellan, Henry Burris. August, 1829, 
Samuel Weston. 

1831 — Richard Fristoe, Lewis Jones, Samuel D. Lucas. August 7, 1832, 
Richard B. Chiles; February 13, 1833, John Smith. 

1834 — Moses G. Wilson, Lawrence Flpurnoy, Daniel P. Lewis. 

1838 — John Davis, Lawrence Flournoy, John Smith. 

1842 — James B. Yager, Alvin Blocking, Richard Stanley. 1844, Richard 
Fristoe. 1846, James Smart. 

1846 — Alvin Brooking, Richard D. Stanley, James Gray. 1848, Walter 
Bales. 

1850 — Richard D Stanley, Walter Bales, Richard Stith. 

1854 — Richard D. Stanley, James Porter, James B. Yager. 

1858 — Richard D. Stanley, James McClellan, Thomas A. Smart. 

1862 — Jacob Leader, Nathaniel H. Scruggs, Oscar H. Cogswell. 1864, 
Lucius Carey. 

1865 — M. T. Graham, James D. Allen, A. G. Newgent. 

1866 — Andrew G. Newgent, M. T. Graham, Jacob Leader. 

1867 — G. W. Gates, Lucius Carey, Joshua Petty. 

1869 — James B. Yager, Lucius Carey, Joshua Petty. 

187 1 — James B. Yager, L. Carey, J. Petty. 

Jan. I, 1873 — James B. Yager, Lucius Carey, Luther Mason, and May 6, 
1873, the two following were added: A. L. Harris, W. R. Bernard. 

Jan. 1, 1875— A. G. Wilhams, J. B. Yager, A. M. Allen, T. H. Brougham, 
Thomas McNamara. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. ] 79 

Jan. I, 1877 — Josiah Collins, J. B. Yager, A. M. Allen, T. H. Brougham, 
Thos. McNamara. 

Aug. I, 1877— W. E. Hall, Josiah Collins, J. B. Yager. 

Jan. I, 1879 — J. B. Yager, D. A. Frink, Charles E. Strode. 

Jan. 1, 1881 — James B. Yager, W. O. Shouse, Charles E. Strode, present 
court. 

COUNTY CLERKS. 

1827 — Lilburn W. Boggs, circuit and county clerk, and ex-officio recorder. 
1828 — Samuel C. Owens, circuit and county clerk, and ex-officio recorder. 
1842 — Samuel D. Lucas, circuit and county clerk, and ex- officio recorder. 
1848 — John R. Swearingen, county clerk. 
1867-7— Ezra R. Hickman, county clerk. 
1876 — W. Z. Hickman, present county clerk. 

CIRCUIT CLERKS. 

1848 — Samuel D. Lucas, circuit clerk, and ex-officio recorder. 
1865 — W. C. Ransom, circuit clerk, and ex-officio recorder. 
1867 — Reuben Wallace, circuit clerk. 
1871 — Wallace Laws, present circuit clerk. 

RECORDER. 

1867 — A. Comingo, recorder. 

1 87 1 — Chas. D. Lucas, present recorder. 

TREASURERS. * 

1827 — Samuel C. Owens. 1862 — Reuben Wallace. 

Russell Hicks. 1866— John T. Pendleton. 

1858 — O. P. W. Bailey. 1870— Joseph B. Glover. 

i860 — Dr. John Montgomery. 1872 — Joseph W. Mercer. 

1861 — J. B. Glover. 1874— John Murray. 

1878 — Benjamin Holmes, present treasurer. 

ASSESSORS. 

1848-52— George Hedges. 1866 — R. A. Ball (died after i mo.) 

1854 — George Anderson. 1866 — James K. Sheley. 

1852 54— Elliott Carriger. 1868 — W. Z. Hickman 

1856— B. F. Thompson. 1870— C. A. Moor. 

1 86 1 or 2 — Daniel O'Flaherty. 1874 — Leander Dehoney. 

1865 — James Lee (appointed). 1878 — Russell Noland. 

SHERIFFS. 

1827 — Joseph Walker. 1854 — William Botts. 

Joseph Brown. 1858 — John W. Burrus. 

Jacob Gregg. 186 i—O. P. W. Bailey. 

John King. 1862 — John G. Hayden. 

1840 — Joseph H. Reynolds. 1864 — H. H. Williams. 

1844 — Thomas Pitcher. 1866 — Charles Dougherty. 

1846 — Benjamin F. Thompson. 1870— James Gray. 

1848— George W. Buchanan. 1872 — C. B. L. Boothe. 

1852 — Benjamin F. Thompson. 1876 — O. P. W. Bailey. 
1880 — John C. Hope, present Sheriff. 

SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS. 

1853 — William Chrysman. 1862 — John R. Swearingen. 

1856 — John O. Buchanan. 1866 — George S. Bryant. 

i8gy_W. L. Bone. 1868— David I. Caldwell. 

i860— William Taylor. 1870— John E. Hale. 

1872 — David I. Caldwell, present commissioner. 



180 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

SURVEYORS. 

1836— John C. McCoy. Edmund O'Flaherty. 

1840— George W. Rhodes. 1872— Martin O. Jones. 

1844-8— G. W. Buchanan. 1876— Thos. C. Lee. 

1848— Lat. Coffman. 1880— Daniel O'Flaherty. 

MARSHALS. 

1872 — George D. Page. 1874 — Patrick Conneis 

1873 — Jeremiah Dowd. 1876— James W. Liggett. 

1880 — Cornelius Murphy, present marshal. 

COLLECTORS. 

1872 — M. W. Anderson. 1876— Daniel Murphy. 

1880 — Joseph M. Green, present collector. 

List of Senators representing Jackson county in the State Legislature from 
the organization of the county till the present time. 

Jackson county was organized by an act of the General Assembly, approved 
December isth, 1826. It was attached to the 13th Senatorial District and in 
conjunction with Clay, Ray and Lafayette counties was authorized to elect one 
Senator in the year 1828. 

1828 — sth General Assembly, met November 17, 1828. Lilburn W. Boggs, 
13th District. 

By an act of General Assembly, approved December 23d, 1828, the sena- 
torial districts were re-apportioned and Lafayette and Jackson counties were con- 
stituted the 14th Senatorial District. 

1830— 6th General Assembly, met November 15th, 1830. Lilburn W. 
Boggs, 14th District. 

1832 — 7th General Assembly, met November 19th, 1832. Julius Emmons, 
14th District. 

1834 — 8th General Assembly, met November I'jtY^, 1834. Abraham Mc- 
Clelland, 14th District, 

1836 — 9th General Assembly, met November 21st, 1836. Abraham Mc- 
Clelland, 14th District. 

During this session a new apportionment was made for the loth and nth 
General Assemblies, and the counties of Jackson and Van Buren, (now Cass,) 
were constituted the 26th Senatorial District. 

1838 — loth General Assembly, met November 19th, 1838. Smallwood V. 
Noland, 26th District. 

1840 — nth General Assembly, met November 6th, 1840. Lewis Franklin, 
26th Senatorial District. 

At this session there was another re-apportionment, and Jackson, Van Buren 
and Bates were made the 14th Senatorial District. 

i842—i2th General Assembly, met November 21st, 1842. Lilburn W. Boggs, 
14th District. 

1844— 13th General Assembly, met November i8th, 1844. Lilburn W. 
Boggs, 14th District. 

At this session there was an apportionment and the counties of Jackson, 
Johnson, Van Buren and Lafayette were constituted the 25th District, with two 
Senators. 

1846— 14th General Assembly, met November T6th, 1846. James Chiles, 
William Calhoun, 25th District. 

1848— isth General Assembly, met December 25th, 1848. James Chiles, 
John J. Burtis, 25th District. 

At this session there was an apportionment, and the counties of Jackson and 
Van Buren were constituted the 23d Senatorial District. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 181 

1850 — i6th General Assembly, met December 30th, 1850. Alvan Brooking, 
23d, District. 

18.52 — 17th General Assembly, met August 30th, 1852. Alvan Brooking, 
23d, District. 

1854 — i8th General Assembly, met December 25, 1854. William J. Mayo, 
23d District. 

1856 — 19th General Assembly, met December 29, 1856. William J. Mayo, 
23d District. 

At the adjourned session of the 19th General x\ssembly which met October 
19, 1857, there was are-apportionment and Jackson, Cass and Bates counties were 
constituted the 14th District. 

1858 — 20th General Assembly, met December 27, 1858. R. L. Y. Peyton,. 
14th District. 

i860 — 2 1 St General Assembly, met December 31, i860. R. L. Y. Peyton, 
14th District. 

1862 — 22d General Assembly, met December 29, 1862. Robert T. Van 
Horn, 14th District. 

1864 — 23d General Assembly, met December 26, 1864. R. T. Van Horn, 
14th District. 

R. T. Van Horn was also in the adjourned session which met November i, 
1865, at \vhich there was an apportionment, but the 14th District remained un- 
changed. 

1867 — 24th General Assembly, met January 2, 1867. Minor T. Graham, 
14th District. 

1869 — 25th General Assembly, met January 6, 1869. Minor T. Graham, 
14th District. 

1871 — 26th General Assembly, met January 4, 1871. Jno. B. Wornall, 
14th, District. 

1873 — 27th General Assembly, met January i, 1873. Jno. B. Wornall, 
14th District. 

1875 — 28th General Assembly, met January 6, 1875. J- B. Newbury. 

By the constitution of 1875 the senatorial districts were re-apportioned and 
Jackson county was constituted the 15th Senatorial District. 

1877 — 29th General Assembly, met January 3, 1877. Geo. F. Ballingal. 

1879 — 30th General Assembly, met January 8, 1879. Geo. F. Ballingal. 

1881 — 31st General Assembly, met January i, 1881. T. V. Bryant. 

The representatives who have served Jackson county in the General Assembly : 

1828 — Smallwood V. Nolan, 5th General Assembly. 

1830 — Robert Johnston, 6th General Assembly. 

1832 — Smallwood V. Noland, 7th General Assembly. 

1834 — Smallwood V. Noland, Richard Pristoe, 8th General Assembly. 

1836 — Smallwood V. Noland, Thomas Jeffries, 9th General Assembly. 

1838 — Thos. Jeffries, J. Chiles, loth General Assembly. 

1840 — John King, Coleman C. Kavanaugh, nth General Assembly. 

1842 — Geo. F. Tate, Robt. G. Smart, 12th General Assembly. 

1844 — Joseph H. Reynolds, William Patterson, 13th General Assembly. 

1846 — Frank Smith, 14th General Assembly. 

By the apportionment of 1845 'he representation of Jackson county was re- 
duced to one member. 

1848 — Franklin Smith, isth General Assembly. 

By an apportionment made at this session Jackson county was again allowed 
two representatives. 

1850— Benj. F. Thompson, Jacob Gregg, i6th General Assembly. 

1852 — Samuel H. Woodson, Joseph H. Reynolds, 17th General Assembly. 

1854. — E. C. McCarty, John W. Reid, i8th General Assembly. 



182 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

1856— John W. Reid, James Childs, 19th Gen eraV Assembly. 

At the adjourned session, which met October 19, 1875, ^r. Childs was 
elected Speaker. 

1858 — George W. Tate, James B. Yager, 20th General Assembly. 

i860 — N. C. Claiborne, James Porter, 21st General Assembly. 

1862— M. J. Payne, E. M. McGee, 22d General Assembly. 

1864 — M. J. Payne, 23d General Assembly. 

1867 — Jesse P. Alexander, John C. Gage, 24th General Assembly. 

1869 — 25th General Assembly. There was no one from Jackson county at 
the first session of the 25th General Assembly, and no election returns are on 
file in the office of Secretary of State from Jackson county. In October, 1869, 
J'acob G. Boarman and Sidney S. Neely were elected to fill a vacancy, and served 
in the adjourned session of 1870. 

1871 — G. W. Tate, Henry J. Latshaw, 26th General Assembly. 

By an act of the General Assembly, approved April i, 1872, Jackson county 
was given three representatives. 

1873 — Stephen P. Twiss, James McDaniels, James R. Sheley, 27th General 
Assembly. 

1875 — A. B. Spruill, Stephen P. Twiss, A. H. Powell, 28th General Assem- 
bly. 

The constitution of 1875 g^'^^ Jackson county four representatives. 

1877 — Benjamin F. Wallace, George N. Nolan, Stephen P. Twiss, Henry H. 
Craig, 29th General Assembly. 

1879 — W. C. Adams, S, C. Ragan, N. M. Gwynne, P. H. Tiernan, 30th 
General Assembly. 

1881— A. W. Randall, A. M. Allen, D. P. Bigger, Harmon Bell, 31st Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

FIRST RECORD OF MARRIAGES. 

Cupid, who is everywhere busy, was at work here in the hearts of the youth- 
ful immigrants, and as no officiating priest could be had, the aid of the Justice 
was invoked. Records followed as a legal necessity, and the first marriage notice 
we have on the books, is that of David G. Butterfield and Nancy Grayham, Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1827. Herewith we insert a verbatim copy of a few of the earlier 
marriages. 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, ) 
Jackson County. f 

' ' This is to certify, that on the fifteenth of February, I celebrated the writes 
of matrimony between Francis Prine and Eliza Daily, and joined them together 
as husband and wife, according to law. Given under my hand this i8th day 
of May, 1827. JOEL P. WALKER, 

J. Peace." 
" The above certificate was received and recorded on the 27th of July, 1827. 

Sam'l C. Owens, Clerk 
Circuit Court, Ex-Officio Recorder. 
"STATE OF MISSOURI, I 
Jackson County. | 

"This is to certify, that on the 15th day of February last, I celebrated the 
rites of matrimony between Silas Hitchcock and Margaret Patterson, and joined 
them together as husband and wife, according to law. Given under my hand 
and seal this i8th day of May, 1827. JOEL P. WALKER, J. P." 

" The above certificate wa« received in my office on the 27th day of July, 
1827, and recorded on the same day. Sam. C. Owens, 

C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson county. Mo." 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 183 

FIRST MARRIAGE. 

"STATE OF MISSOURI,! 
County of Jackson. [ 
"This is to certify, that on the 26th day of February I celebrated the writes of 
matrimony between David G. Butterfield and Nancy Grayham, and joined them 
together as husband and wife, according to law. Given under my hand this i8th 
day of May, 1827. JOEL P. WALKER." 

" The above certificate was recorded in my office on the 27th day of July, 
1827, ami recorded on same day. Sam. C. Owens, C. C. and 

Ex-0'fficio Recorder for Jackson county." 

" I do hereby certify, that I married David Reed and Timmy Brock in the 
holy matrimony on the ninth day of April. Given under my hand this twenty- 
first day of April, 1827. WM. SILVERS." 
" Recorded 7th of July, 1827, recorded on same day. 

Sam'l C. Owens, Cl'k, 
and Ex-Officio Recorder of Jackson county, Mo." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, 1 ^r i,- <■ t^i . •. 
County of Jackson. j- Township of Blue, to wit : 

" I do hereby certify, that I joined together William Butler and Margaret 
Warden, in the holy estate of Matrimony, on the first day of April last, this the 
28thday of June, 1827. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

" Recorded on the 7th day of July, 1827; received on same day. 

Sam. C. Owens, Clerk, 
and Ex-Officio Recorder of Jackson county.'' 
"JACKSON COUNTY,! 
State of Missouri, j 

" This is to certify, that I, Caleb Weeden, a regularly authorized preacher 
of the Gospel, did on the 17th day of April, 1827, legally solemnized the rite of 
matrimony between Mr. James Chambers and Miss Margaret Johnson, of the 
county and State above mentioned. Given under my hand this i8th day of April, 
1827. CALEB WEEDEN." 

" The above certificate was received in my office on the 27th day of July, 
1827, and recorded on the same day: Sam. C. Owens, C. C. 

and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson county." 
"STATE OF MISSOURI,} 
Jackson County. j 

"This is to certify, that on the 27th day of May, 1827, I Celebrated the 
writes oi matrimony between Hyram Shears and Eliza Creek, and joined them 
together as husband and wife, according to law. Given under my hand this 2 2d 
day of August, 1827. ABR'M McCLELLAN." 

" The above certificate was received in my office on the 24th day of August, 
1827, and recorded on the same day. Sam'l C. Owens, 

Ex-Officio Recorder." 
" STATE QF MISSOURI, ) 

County of Jackson, [• to-wit : 

Township of Blue. ) 
"I do hereby certify that I joined together in the holy state of matrimony 
Mr. William Warden and Mahulda Butler on the 27th of this instant, this the 
28th day of June, 1827. 

LEWIS JONES, J. P. 
Recorded on the 7th of July, 1827 ; received on the same day. 

Samuel C. Owens, Clerk, 
and Ex-Officio Recorder of Jackson county. Mo." 



184 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, 
County of Jackson. 
"I, William I. Baugh, a justice of the peace within and for said county, do 
certify that on the 17th day of August, A. D. 1827, I joined together as husband 
and wife, Moses Belcher and Eliza Richy. 

Given under my hand this 3d day of November 1827. 

WM. I. BAUGH, J. P." 
"The above certificate was received in my office on the 3d day of Novem- 
ber, 1827, and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

Clerk and Ex-Officio Recorder." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI,] 
Jackson County. } 

" I, Lewis Jones, a justice of the peace within and for said county, do cer- 
tify that I joined together Mr. James Lewis and Miss Margaret Gregg, both of 
this county, on the 6th day of this instant, this 20th day of November, 1827. 

LEWIS JONES, J. P." 
"The above certificate was received in my office on the 20th day of Novem- 
ber, 1827, and recorded on same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson county.'' 

"JACKSON COUNTY,") 
State of Missouri, j 

" I do certify that I joined together in bonds of matrimony Jonathan Cam- 
eron and Phoebe Connor, September 27th, 1827. 

JOEL P. WALKER, J. P." 
" The above certificate was received in my office on the 27th of March, 
1828 and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C. and Ex-Qfficio Recorder for Jackson county, Mo.'' 

"December the 29th day, 1827. 
' ' To the Clerk of the Circuit Court of Jackson County : 

This is to certify that I solemnized the rites of matrimony between Charles 
Johnston and Kisiah Trapp according to Law, on the i8th of October 1827. 

ZACHARIAH LINVILLE, 
Elder of the Christian Church." 
" The above certificate was received in my office on the 31st day of Decem- 
ber, 1827, and recorded on the same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson coi^ty." 

" STATE OF MISSOURI; 

Jackson County. 

"I, William I. Baugh, a justice of the peace for Fort Osage township in 
said county , do certify that on the 18 of October, 1827, I joined together as man 
and wife Levi Russell and Nancy Bledsoe in the holy bands of matrimony. 

Given under my hand this 18 January, 1828. 

W. I. BAUGH, J. P." 

" The above certificate was received in my office on the 1 8th. of January, 
1828 and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson County." 

"STATE OF MISSOUki, | 

Jackson County. f 

" I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the Peace within and for said county do cer- 
tify that I joined together Mr. James Lewis and Miss Mary Gregg both of this 
county, on the 6th day of this instant, this 20th day of November, 1827. 

LEWIS JONES, J. P." 



I' } ss. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 185 

" The above certificate was received in ray office on the 20th day of Novem- 
ber, 1827, and recorded on the same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. and ExOfficio Recorder for Jackson county." 

" STATE OF MISSOURI, ] 

Jackson County. ) 

"I, Lewis Jones, a justice of the peace within and for said county, do hereby 
certify that I, joined together in the holy state of matrimony on the i8th day 
of this instant, Mr. John Smith and Miss Sarah Fristo. both of this county, this 
20th day of November, 1827. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

" The above certificate was received in my office on the 20th day of Novem- 
ber, 1827 and recorded on the same day. Samuel C. Owens. 

C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson county." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, 
County of Jackson, 

Fort Osage Township. 
" I, Jesse Lewis, a justice of the peace within and for the county aforesaid, 
do certify that on the 22d day of December, 1827, I united Jonathan Smith and 
Elizaan Dier in the holy estate of matrimony according to law. 
Given under my hand this isth day of February 1828. 

JESSE LEWIS, J. P. 
"The above certificate was received in my office on the 17th of March, 
1828, and recorded same day. S. C. Owens, 

C. C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder, Jackson county." 

"JACKSON COUNTY,] 
State of Missouri. ) 

' ' This is to certify that I joined together in the bands of matrimony Daniel 
Prine and Catharine Bryant, December iith, 1827. 

JOEL P. WALKER, J. P." 
"The above certificate was filed in my office on the 27th of March, A. D. 
1828, and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C, and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson Co." 



^ STATE. OF MISSOURI, ) ^^^^ ^^^ ^^., 

Jackson County. J ' 



"I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the Peace, within and for the county afore- 
said, do certify that on the 27th day of December, 1827, I united Joseph Keeny 
and Winny Chesney in the holy state of matrimony. 

"Given under my hand this, the ist day of March, 1828. 

LEWIS JONES, J. P." 
"The above certificate was received in my office on the 17th of March, 
1828, and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C, and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson Co." 



' STATE OF MISSOURI, I „ t^ 

o T „„^„„ r Blue Township, to-wit : 

County of Jackson. J ' 



"I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the Peace, in and for the county aforesaid, 
do certify that on the third day of January, 1828, I united Thomas Pitcher and 
Nancy Parish in the holy estate of matrimony. Given under my hand this first 
day of March, 1828. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

" The above certificate was received in my office on the 17th of March, 
1828, and recorded the same day. Samuel C, Owens, 

C. C. C, and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson Co." 

"I do hereby asertify that I, William Silvers, z. justes of the peace, did, on 



186 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the 14th day January, 1828, marry Thomas Milsaps and Matilda Chesney in the 
holy matrimony. Given under my hand this tenth day of April. 

WILLIAM SILVERS, 1828. 
"The above certificate was filed in my office on the 12th of April, 1828, and 
recorded same day. Samuel C. Ovs^ens, 

C. C. C, and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson County." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, I T^.^„^ Blue Township. 
County of Jackson. ) 
"I, Lewis Jones, a justice of the peace, within and for the county afore- 
said, do certify that on the 30th of January, 1828, I united Joseph Brown 
and Nancy King in the holy estate of matrimony. Given under my hand this 
I St day of March, 1828. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

"The above certificate was received in my office on the 17th of March, 
1828, and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C, and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson County." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, 

County of Jackson, 

Fort Osage Township. 

' ' I, Jesse Lewis, a Justice of the Peace, within and for the county aforesaid, 
do certify that on the 8th day of February, I united in the holy estate of matri- 
mony James Linch and Mary Smith, according to law. Given under my hand 
this, the first day of May, 1828. JESSE LEWIS, J. P. 

"The above certificate was filed in m.y office on the first day of May, 1S28, 
and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson County, Mo." 

"I do hereby certify that I, William Silvers, a justice of the peace, for the 

County of Jackson, did, on the 14th day of February, 1828, marry Mirich Davis 

and Sary Anderson, in the holy mattremony Given under my hand this, the 

I oth day of April. WILLIAM SILVERS, 1828. 

"The above certificate was filed in my office on the 12th of April, 1828, 
and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C, and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson County." 
"JACKSON COUNTY, I 
Missouri. J 

"This is to certify that I joined in the bands of matrimony the persons under 
named, Jacob Gregg and Nany Lewis, on March 4, 1828. 

JOE P. WALKER, J. P." 
" The above certificate was filed in my office this 27th day of March, A. D. 
1828, and recorded same day. Samuel C. Owens, 

C. C. C. and Ex-Officio Recorder for Jackson county.'' 
" This is to certify that I joined together in the bands of matrimony Reuben 
Collins and Hannah Crisp, March 11, 1828. JOEL WALKER, J. P." 

"I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the peace within and for the county of Jack- 
son, do certify that on the 20th day of March, 1828, I united John Gibson and 
Sarah Noland in the holy estate of matrimony. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

"I, William Silvers, a justice of the peace, within the county aforesaid, do 
certify that on the 25th day of May, 1828, I joined together as man and wife 
Hugh Parsons and Nancy Smith in the holy estate of matrimony. 
Given under my hand this day and date aforesaid 

WILLIAM SILVERS, J. P." 

"I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the Peace within and for the county aforesaid, 
do certify that on the 23d day of March, 1S28, I united James Townson and 
Hannah Smith in the holy bands of matrimony. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 187 

" I, William Silvers, Justice of the peace within and for the county aforesaid, 
certify that on the nth day of June, 1828, I joined together as man and wife 
Edly Garnet and Elizabeth Davis in the holy estate of matrimony. 

WILLIAM SILVERS, J. P." 

"This is to certify that I joined together in the bands of Matrimony Bryant 
Baxter and Sarah Ross, on the 8th day of July, 1828. 

JOEL WALKER, J. P." 

" This is to certify that I joined together in the bands of matrimony Jeremiah 
Burnes and Sarah Baxter, on the 3d day of July, 1828. 

JOEL P. WALKER, J. P." 

"I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the peace within and for said county, do 
certify that on the loth day of July last, I united Mr. Bretton Savage and Mrs. 
Rachel Linch in the holy estate of matrimony. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

"I, Lewis Jones, a justice of the peace within and for said county, do 
certify that on the 19th day of August last, I united Absolom Smith and Hilly 
Kinzly in the holy estate of matrimony. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

" I William Silvers, a justice of the peace for Jackson county, did on the 
24th of August, 1828, join together as man and wife Benjamin Tucker and Clar- 
issa Noland. WILLIAM SILVERS, J. P." 

"I do hereby certify that Pierre Reualette was married to Mrs. L. Roi, 
both of the one said county, and that they were married in the presence of sev- 
eral witnesses by the undersigned Justice of the peace on the tenth day of Sep- 
tember last. 

given under my hand and seal the 8th of October, 1828. 

SAMUL JOHNSTON, J. P." 

" I, Lewis Jones, a Justice of the peace within and for said county, do 
certify that on the 25th day of December, 1828, I united in the holy estate of 
matrimony Mr. Hesekiah Warden and Miss Sarah Butler, by the consent of each 
of their parents. LEWIS JONES, J. P." 

" Married by the undersigned justice of the peace .on the 25th day of De- 
cember, 1828, Andrew Patterson to Elizabeth Hitchcock, both of this county, 
and were married in the presence of several witnesses. 

SAM'L JOHNSTON, J. P." 

In the year 1827 there were recorded seventeen marriages, in 1828 nineteen 
marriages. We have thus fully chronicled these first marriages because of the 
peculiarity of their style of expression, and because the names are now nearly 
forgotten and lost. Many, however, yet living in Jackson county and elsewhere 
will recognize in these their ancestral names. Marriages have rapidly increased, 
and, whereas, formerly nearly all the ceremonies were performed by justices of 
the peace, now it is the prevailing custom to call in a minister of the gospel to 
solemnize the matrimonial rite. In the year 1880 there were 557 marriages in 
Jackson county, and it is very probable that there will be a much larger list during 
the year 1881. 

THE FIRST WARRANTY DEED. 

To All to Whom these Presents shall Come : 

Greeting : Know ye, that I, John Baptiste James lonka, of Jackson county 
and State of Missouri, for and in consideration of the sum of two hundred and 
fifty dollars, lawful money of the United Sta,tes, to me in hand paid by Joseph 
Roi, of the county and State aforesaid, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowl- 
edged, have granted, bargained, sold and conveyed, and by these presents do 
grant, bargain, sell and convey unto the said Joseph Roi all my right, title and 
claim unto a certain tract or parcel of land containing six hundred and forty acres. 



188 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

which land I hold as a half-beed of the Kansas Nation or tribe of Indians, by 
virtue of a reserve made said nation from the United States in the late treaty 
between the Kansas Nation and the United States, together with all and singular 
the rights, privileges and appurtenances thereunto belonging unto him, the said 
Joseph Roi, his heirs and assigns forever ; and I do covenant unto the said Joseph 
Roi that I am lawfully seized in fee of the premises, and that they are free from 
all encumbrances. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty-fifth 
day of June, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight. 

his 
JOHN BAPTISTE X JAMES lONKA. 
mark [seal] 

Signed, sealed and delivered before us, 
Robert Johnson, 
William Lewis. 

" STATE OF MISSOURI, 1 
County of Jackson. j 

" On the twenty-fifth day of June, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, John 
Baptiste James lonka, personally known to me, appeared before nie and exe- 
cuted and acknowledged the above and foregoing instrument of writing, as his 
hand and seal, for the purpose therein contained, this 2Sth June 1828. . 

SAMUEL JOHNSON, 

Justice of Peace." 
"STATE OF MISSOURI, Kg 
County of Jackson, j 

" I Samuel C. Owens, Clerk of the Circuit Court and ex-officio Recorder for 
the county aforesaid, do certify that the preceding instrument of writing from 
John Baptiste James lonka to Joseph Roi was filed in my office on the 5th day 
instant, and by me duly recorded same day, September 3, 1828. 

SAMUEL C. OWENS, 
C. C. C. & Ex- Officio Recorder." 

another warranty deed. 

This indenture, made and entered into this twenty-ninth day of September, 
one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, between Abner J. Adair and Mary 
Adair, his wife, of the county of Jackson and State of Missouri, of the first 
part, and Joseph Adair, of the county of Fleming and State of Kentucky, of the 
second part; witnesseth, that the party of the first part, through natural love and 
affection, do give unto our brother, Joseph Adair, of the second part, all that lot 
or parcel of ground, situate lying and being in the town of Independence, Jack- 
son county, Missouri, numbered twenty and twenty-one, with all the rights, titles, 
claim or interest of us or either of us inlaw or equity, of, in and to the above premises; 
to have and hold unto his own proper use, benefit and behoof; for which we bind 
ourselves, our heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, to the said Joseph 
Adair, his heirs or assigns, that the before recited tract of land and premises 
aforesaid, they will warrant and forever defend against the right, title, claim, in- 
terest or estate of all and every person or persons whatever. In testimony where- 
of, we have hereunto set our hands and seals the day and year aforesaid. 

ABNER J. ADAIR, [seal]. 
MARY ADAIR. [seal]. 

STATE OF MISSOURI, ^ 
County of Jackson, 

Be it remembered, that on this tenth day of December, in the year of our 
Lord, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, before me, a justice of the peace with- 



[■ ss. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 189 

in and for the county aforesaid, personally came Abner J. Adair and Mary, his 
wife, both personally known to me to be the persons whose names are subscribed 
to the foregoing instrument of writing, as having executed the same, and severally 
acknowledged the same to be their act and deed, for purposes therein mentioned ; 
she, the said Mary Adair, being by me first made acquainted with the contents 
thereof, and examined separate and apart from her husband, whither she executed 
the said, and relinquishes her dower to land and tenements therein mentioned vol- 
untarily, freely, and without compulsion or undue influence of her said husband, 
acknowledged and declared that she executed the said deed, and relinquishes her 
dower in the said lands and tenements therein mentioned, voluntarily, freely and 
without compulsion or undue influence of her husband. 
Taken and certified the day and year aforesaid. 

WILLIAM SILVERS, J. P. 
STATE OF MISSOURI, ] 

County of Jackson, ) ^^' 
I, Samuel Weston, deputy clerk of the Circuit Court, and ex-officio recorder 
for the aforesaid, do certify that the foregoing instrument of writing, being a deed 
from Abner J. Adair and his wife, was filed in the office on the tenth instant, and 
by me duly recorded same day, December lo, 1828. 

SAMUEL WESTON, 
Deputy, ex-officio Recorder. 
This indenture made and concluded this 12th day of August, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand, eight hundred and twenty-nine, by and between Samuel 
Owens, commissioner of the seat of justice for the county of Jackson (the same 
being the town of Independence), in the State of Missouri, on the one part, and 
Abner J. Adair of the other part, witnesseth that the said Samuel C. Owens, 
commissioner aforesaid, for, and on behalf of the county of Jackson 
aforesaid, has this day for, and in consideration of twenty-two dollars, 
lawful money, to him paid by the said Abner J. Adair, the reseipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged, bargained and granted, sold and con- 
veyed, and do by these presents bargain, grant, sell and convey unto the 
said Abner J. Adair, his heirs and assigns forever, certain tracts or parcels 
of land lying and being in the town of Independence, the same being the seat 
of justice for the county of Jackson, containing each forty-five square rods 
and known as the plat of said town by the numbers of twenty and twenty- 
one, together with all and singular the privileges and appurtenances to the said 
land, lots, parcels or pieces of ground of aforesaid thereto belonging or in any 
wise appertaining. To have and to hold the above granted premises to said 
Abner J. Adair, his heirs and assigns to his and their use and behoof forever. 
And I, the said Samuel C. Owens, commissioner aforesaid, for and on behalf of the 
county aforesaid, do covenant with the said Abner J. Adair, his heirs and assigns, 
that I the said Samuel C. Oivens commissioner aforesaid for and on behalf of the 
county aforesaid, am lawfully seized in fee of the afore granted premises that 
they are free from all encumbrances. That I, Samuel C. Owens, commissioner 
aforesaid for and on behalf of the county aforesaid have as such good right to 
sell and convey the same to the said Abner J. Adair as aforesaid. That I Samuel 
C. Owens commissioner aforesaid for and on behalf of the county aforesaid will, 
and that my successor or successors in office shall warrant and forever defend 
the same to the said Abner J. Adair, his heirs and assigns, against the lawful 
demands of all persons whatsoever. 

In testimony whereof I, Samuel C. Owens, commissioner aforesaid, for and in 
behalf of the county aforesaid, have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal at 
the county of Jackson, this day and date aforesaid. 

. Signed, sealed and acknowledged in the presence of John D. McRay. 

Samuel C. Owens, [seal.] 



190 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



"STATE OF MISSOURI,) 
County of Jackson. j ^^ 

Be it remembered that I, Samuel C. Owens, the within named commissioner, 
and who was personally known to the undersigned, personally came and appeared 
before me, John Smith, a justice of the peace within and for the county afore- 
said, and acknowledged the within deed of conveyance for and on behalf of the 
county aforesaid, and that the premises herein described to be the property of 
Abner J. Adair. 

Given under my hand and seal this i8th day of August, 1829. 

John Smith, J. P." 
"STATE OF MISSOURI, ") 
County of Jackson. j ' 

"I, Samuel C. Owens, of the Circuit Court, and Ex-OfEcio Recorder for the 
county aforesaid, do certify that the foregoing deed from Samuel C. Owens, 
commissioner on the part of said county to A. J. Adair, was filed and recorded 
in my office on the 18th of August, A. D. 1829. SAMUEL C. OWENS, 

C. C. C. J. C." 
registration notice. 

The several registering officers appointed to make registers of the qualified 
voters in the several election districts of this county, will be in session for 
the purpose of registering all persons entitled to registration as voters, in their 
respective districts, from 8 o'clock a. m. to 6 o'clock p. m. , on each and every 
Saturday, between the twentieth day of September, 1866, and the fifteenth day 
prior to the sixth day of November, 1866, said Saturdays being the twenty-second 
and twenty-ninth days of September, 1866, and the sixth, thirteenth and twentieth 
days of October, 1866, at the usual place of voting in each election district of 
said county as follows r 

At Independence, Blue Township, ist Election District. 

At Sibley, Fort Osage Township, 2nd Election District. 

At the Baptist Church, Sni-a-bar Township, 3d Election District. 

At Lone Jack, Van Buren Township, 4th Election District. 

At the school house, near James Wilson's, Prairie Township, sth Election 
District. 

At Hickman's mill, Washington Township, 6th Election District. 

At Westport, in part of Kaw Township, 7th Election District. 

At the court house, Kansas City, .8th Election District. 

At Metropolitan Hall, McGee's Addition, 9th Election District. 




HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 191 

CHAPTER IX. 
RAILROADS. 

Names of the Different Roads— Missouri Pacific — Chicago dr' Alton — Wabash — Hannibal 6f 
St. Joseph — Kansas City, St. Joseph <5i^ Council Bluffs — Kansas City, Leavenworth &f 
Atchison — Union Pacific — Atchison, Topeka ^ Santa Fe — Kansas Cityhf Port Scott — Mis- 
souri, Kansas &" Texas, and others — Non-completed Roads-r- Misappropriation of Funds 
by tlie County — One Million Dollars Paid by the County and no Benefit Derived. 

Railroads have done more toward building up and developing the resources 
of Jackson county than any other one enterprise. There are at least a dozen 
great railroad lines centering at Kansas City, several of which run entirely ath- 
wart the county, furnishing direct connection with all points north, south, east 
and west. Among these great railroad corporations are the Chicago & Alton, 
Missouri Pacific, Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs, Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, Kansas City, Lawrence & Southern, Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf, 
Hannibal & St. Joseph, Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, Union Pacific, Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the Kansas City, Bur- 
lington & Santa Fe Railway companies. 

Of these we mention first the Missouri Pacific Railroad, running to St. Louis 
on the south side of the Missouri River. 

Second — The Chicago & Alton Railroad, running on the south side of the 
Missouri River to Glasgow, where it crosses to the north side and runs to both 
St. Louis and Chicago. 

Third— The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway, running on the north side 
of the Missouri River to St. Louis, and branching at Moberly to the Iowa line, 
where it connects with the Iowa Central for central Iowa and St. Paul, Minnesota, 
also at Brunswick for Omaha, and at R. and L. Junction for St. Joseph. 

Fourth — The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, running to Hannibal, Mis- 
souri, and Quincy, Illinois, where it connects with the Wabash road for Toledo 
and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy for Chicago. 

Fifth — The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad, running to 
the northward along the eastern bank of the Missouri River to St. Joseph, Coun- 
cil Bluffs and Omaha, connecting at Council Bluffs with, the Sioux City & Pacific 
for Sioux City and St. Paul, and at Omaha with the Union Pacific for California. 
It also branches at St. Joseph to Creston, Iowa, where it connects with the Bur- 
lington & Missouri River Railroad for Burlington and Chicago. 

Sixth — The Missouri River Railroad, operated under lease by the Missouri 
Pacific, running along the west bank of the Missouri River to Leavenworth, 
Atchison and St. Joseph, connecting at Leavenworth with the Kansas Central for 
Holton, Kansas, and at Atchison with the Central Branch Pacific for Beloit, Kan- 
sas, and the Atchison & Nebraska for Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Seventh — The Union Pacific Railway, running along the north bank of the 
Kansas River to Lawrence and Topeka, Kansas, and crossing the State to Den- 
ver, Colorado, and Cheyenne and Hazard, Wyoming, and with the Colorado 
system of railroads for all points in the mines of that State. This road has a 
branch from Junction City to Clifton, one from Solomon City to Beloit, and one 
from Salina to McPherson, Kansas. 

Eighth — The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, running along the 
south bank of the Kansas River to Lawrence and Topeka, and thence to the 
southwest, through the famous Arkansas Valley, to Pueblo and Canon City, Col- 



192 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

orado, and Cliftona, New Mexico. This road connects with the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railroad, for Denver, and with the Southern Pacific Railroad of Califor- 
nia, at Deming, which makes it a great transcontinental line It has branches to 
Wichita, Wellington and Arkansas City, to McPherson, to Manhattan, and to 
El Dorado, in Kansas, and to Santa Fe, in New Mexico. 

Ninth— The Kansas City, Lawrence & Southern Railroad, running to the 
southwest to the southern line of Kansas at Coffeyville. At Ottawa it has a 
branch to Lawrence, and connects with the Kansas City, Burlington & South- 
western Railroad for Burlington, Kansas. It has a branch also from Cherryvale 
to Wellington, Kansas. 

Tenth— The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad, running southward 
from Kansas City, through Fort Scott to Baxter Springs, Kansas. At Girard, 
Kansas, it connects with the Joplin Railroad for Joplin, Missouri. It has a 
branch from Prescott, Kansas, to Rich Hill, Missouri, one from Fort Scott to 
Springfield, Missouri, and one from Baxter Springs to Carthage, Missouri. 

Eleventh — The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad, connecting at Nevada, 
Missouri, with the Lexington & Southern Branch of the Missouri Pacific, which 
leaves the main line of that road at Pleasant Hill, in Cass county, and over which 
its trains run to Kansas City. It runs to the southward through Kansas and the 
Indian Territory to Dennison, Texas, where it connects with the Texas Central 
for Houston, Austin and Galveston. 

Twelfth^The Kansas City & Eastern (Narrow Gauge) Railroad, running 
eastward along the south side of the Missouri River to Independence and Lex- 
ington, Missouri. 

Thirteenth — The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad (which uses the 
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad track to Cameron, Mo.), running to Chicago, 
Illinois, Leavenworth and Atchison, Kansas. 

Thus Jackson county is so provided with railroads that her trade reaches 
directly over her own or tributary lines into every nook and corner of the country 
for hundreds of miles in all directions. 

The lines all terminate at her depots, and are so arranged that, she is the 
gateway through which all trade between the country east of her and that to the 
west must pass. So long as there were no railroad pools west of the Mississippi 
River, Kansas City enjoyed exceptional advantages in through freight rates to the 
East, often getting lower rates than were given St. Louis, and sometimes equally 
as low as were given Chicago. Still, under the present pool, she usually gets 
advantages when large consignments are offered. 

The tendency of the railroads is to make Kansas City the western out-post 
of trade and the western point of competition, as they have heretofore made St. 
Louis and Chicago, and the effect will be to put Kansas City on an equal footing 
with those places, and eventually to consign St. Louis to the position of a way 
station, as has already been done with Cincinnati. 

In the construction of several of these roads the county has liberally aided, 
bonds to the amount of $275,000 were issued for stock in the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad; $300,000 in the Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad ; 
$50,000 in the Lexington, Lake & Gulf Railroad; $100,000 in the Kansas City, 
Lawrence & Topeka Railroad; $250,000 in the Wyandotte, Kansas City & 
Northwestern Railroad; $25,000 in the Westport Horse Railroad Company. 

The Missouri Pacific bonds were all paid off as early as 1867, while a greater 
part of the balance of the railroad bonds are still outstanding. Of these bonds 
$100,000 in favor of the Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Railroad are against 
Kaw Township, it having voted a separate tax, and in favor of the Wyandotte, 
Kansas City & Northwestern Railroad a like sum against Blue Township, it also 
having voted the amount. Kaw township issued bonds to the amout of $150,- 
000 — to the Wyandotte, Kansas City & Northwestern Railroad Company. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 193 

Of these corporations for whose benefit such immense amounts of money 
have been expended, the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho 
Railroad, and the Lexington, Lake & Gulf Railroad have not been constructed, 
and not a dollar of direct benefit has accrued to the county, save perhaps a 
piece of experience with gigantic fraud and wholesale stealing. Some grading 
and masonry work was the only perceptible outlay of the people's money. Two 
of the bonds, $i,ooo each, issued to the Lexington, Lake & Gulf Railroad Com- 
pany have already been paid, and the remaining forty-eight together with all in- 
terest thereon, the county's credit is holden for. In the case of the Clinton & 
Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, the tax-payers of Jackson, 
Cass and Henry counties were fearfully defrauded, and since such a vast 
sum of money has been fraudulently charged to the credit of the county, the 
people have taken a deep interest in the project, and it becomes one of the most 
important historical facts in connection with Jackson county. The bonds are 
now bearing eight per cent interest and before they can be paid the scheme will 
haVe cost Jackson county over one million dollars; every dollar must be paid; 
the bonds were declared valid by the Supreme Court of the United States. Who 
those parties were that concocted the frauds, wasted and stole the public funds 
of the county your historian is entirely ignorant, but he has sufficiently investi- 
gated to know that there was great wrong committed, and it becomes his duty 
to give some of the facts in this work, most of which are in the form of pubhc 
records, thus no one person can be censured for relating what is public property. 
The records alone will show that the county for the last ten years has been 
deeply humiliated and incensed on account of the burden of taxes which the 
Tebo & Neosho Railroad scheme has imposed, and will continue to impose for 
the next ten years to come. 

The following record of the County Court proceedings contains the several 
orders that were made for the subscription of three hundred thousand dollars to 
the Kansas City & Memphis Railroad, and the revocation of that order, and 
subsequent subscription of a like sum to the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of 
the Tebo Neosho Railroad Company, together with a full history of all sub- 
sequent proceedings in court, touching said subscription, and issuing and deliver- 
ing the bonds to pay such subscription. 

The following is an exact copy of one of the thousand dollar bonds, issued 
by the court: 

"UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 
STATE OF MISSOURI, 

Jackson County Bond. 
$1,000.00. No. 149. 

" Interest eight per cent, per annum, payable on the first day of August and 
February, in New York. 

" Know all men by these presents, that the County of Jackson, in the State 
of Missouri, acknowledges itself in debt and firmly bound to the Tebo & Neo- 
sho Railroad Company, to the use and benefit and in the name of the Clinton 
& Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, in the sum of one 
thousand dollars, which sum the said county for value received hereby promises 
to pay to the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, or bearer, to aid in building 
the said Branch Railroad, at the National Bank of Commerce, in the city of New 
York, on the first day of May, A. D. 1891, redeemable, however, at the option 
of the County Court of said county at any time after the lapse of eight years af- 
ter the date hereof, together with interest thereon, from the first day of May, 
1871, until paid, at the rate of eight per cent, per annum, which interest shall 
be payable semi-annually, on the first days of August and February of each year, 
including the interest due at the maturity of this bond, on the presentation and 

13 



19-4 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

delivery at said bank of the coupons of interest, hereto severally attached. 

"This bond is issued under and in pursuance of an order of the County 
Court of the County of Jackson, in the State of Missouri, and in pursuance of 
and by authority of an act of the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, 
entitled, an act to incorporate the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, approved 
January i6, i860, and of an act of the General Assembly of the State of Mis- 
souri, entitled, an act to aid in building of branch railroads in the State of Mis- 
souri, approved March 11, A. D. 1868. 

"In testimony whereof the said County of Jackson has executed this bond by 
the presiding justice of the County Court of Jackson county under the order of 
said court signing his name hereto and by the clerk of said court under the order 
thereof, attesting the same and affixing the seal of said court at the city of Inde- 
pendence, County of Jackson of aforesaid, this tenth day of July, A. D. 1871. 

^-" ' Attest, JOSHUA PETTY, 

Jackson \ presiding Justice of County Court of Jackson county, Missouri. 

Cpunty, V s J ^ ^ HICKMAN, 

Missouri. ) ^^^^^ pj. Qounty q^^j.^ ^f Jackson county, Missouri." 

^ ^ 

A copy of one of the coupons : 
" $40. Independence, Jackson Co., Mo., 1 

May I, 1871. J 
"The County of Jackson acknowledges itself to owe and promises to pay to 
the bearer forty dollars on the first day of February, 1891, at the National Bank of 
Commerce in the city and State of New York, being six months' interest on bond 
No. 149. E. K. HICKMAN, 

•Clerk of Jackson County Court, Missouri." 

"STATE OF MISSOURI, I In the Jackson County Court, September 

County of Jackson. ) ^ ' term, 1871. 

" Be it remembered that at the term aforesaid and on the isth day of said 
month amongst others the following proceedings were had and made, viz : 

"It is ordered by the court that an election by the tax-payers of Jack- 
son county shall be held at the respective voting precincts in the County of Jack- 
son, on the 8th day of October next, A. D. 1870, to ascertain the sense of the 
voters at such election upon the following proposition : 

"That the County of Jackson shall subscribe to the capital stock of the 
Kansas and Memphis Railroad, it being a branch of the Hannibal & St. Joseph 
Railroad, as organized under the charter of the original Kansas City, Galveston 
& Lake Superior Railroad the sum of thre ehundred thousand dollars upon such 
terms and conditions as the County Court may affix. One of which conditions 
shall be that said road shall start at a point near the southern tier of Kansas City, 
and near Grand avenue, and shall be located so as to run through the corporated 
limits of Westport, thence to the southern line of the county in the general direc- 
tion of Hickman's Mill and Harrisonville. Another of which conditions shall be 
that the bonds of Jackson county to be issued in payment for said subscription shall 
not be issued until the County Court shall be satisfied that a sufficient amount of 
stock has been subscribed to grade, bridge and tie the road to the south line of 
the State or to its intersection with some other road in like manner to be grad- 
ed, bridged and tied leading to the state line in the same direction the money to be 
expended in Jackson county. And further that the County of Jackson subscribe 
such an additional amount to the capital stock of the Louisiana & Missouri 
River Railroad Company as may be necessary with the subscription already made 
to complete the grading, bridging and tieing said railroad through the County of 
Jackson, including the purchase of the right of way, depot grounds, water stations, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 195 

side tracks, etc., etc., and on such terms and conditions as the County Court 
may prescribe not inconsistent with the terms of the former subscriptions of said 
county to the cipital stock of said last mentioned company. Such subscriptions 
however riot to exceed the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. The bonds of 
Jackson county in payment thereof shall not be issued until the County Court of 
Jackson county is satisfied of the ability of said company and of their intention 
to complete said railroad its entire length from Louisiana to Kansas City to run 
through the counties of Saline, Lafayette and Jackson, the money to be expended 
in Jagkson county. Said stock to both of said companies to be payable in the 
coupon bonds of Jackson county of the denomination of one hundred dollars 
each at their par value, payable not exceeding twenty years after their issue and 
bearing interest at the rate of not exceeding ten per cent, per annurti, payable 
semi-annually in the city of New York upon the coupons to be attached to said 
bonds. 

The clerk of this court shall prepare the Poll Books, and distribute the same 
to the different voting precincts ; said clerk shall also give notice of such especial 
election by publishing this order, together with a statement of the time said elec- 
tion shall be held, twenty days previous to the day of election, in each of the 
daily papers of Kansas City, and each of the papers published in Independence. 

The form of the ballot shall be as follows : For the subscription to the Kan- 
sas City & Memphis Railroad and to the Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad 
Company — "Yes." For the subscription to the Kansas City & Memphis Rail- 
road and to the Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad Company — " No." 

And afterward, to wit: At the October term 1870, and on the 21st day of 
said month, amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz. : 
Whereas, at the September terra of this court, and on the isth day of September, 
A. D. 1870, an order was'made by said county for an election to be held by the 
tax-payers of Jackson county at the several voting precincts in said county on the 
8th day of October, A. D. 1870, for the purpose of ascertaining the will of said 
taxpayers upon the proposition for the County of Jackson to subscribe to the 
capital stock of the Kansas City & Memphis Railroad Company, a branch of 
the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad Company, the sum of three hundred thousand 
dollars, and to the capital stock of the Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad 
Company, a sum not exceeding two hundred thousand dollars, upon the terms 
and subject to the restrictions in said order specified. 

And, whereas, at said election on said day the vote cast in the several pre- 
cincts in said county in favor, of said subscription being made was as follows : 
For the subscription, 4,403; against said subscription, 940 ; majority in favor of 
said subscription, 3,463; and at said election the majority of votes cast in favor 
of said subscription being made being 3,463, it is therefore ordered by said court, 
that said subscription be made to the capital stock of said railroad companies 
respectively in accordance with and upon the terms and subject to the restrictions 
contained in said order. 

And afterward, to wit : At the November adjourned term, 1870, and on the 
17th day of said month, amongst others, the following proceedings were had and 
made, viz. : 

Ordered by the court, that the county of Jackson, in the State of Missouri, 
take and subscribe to the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad Company for^three 
thousand shares of the stock of said company of the denomination of one hun- 
dred dollars to. the share, amounting to three hundred thousand dollars, to aid in 
the building of a branch road, the name of which branch is, " The Kansas City 
& Memphis Railroad," and which branch is to commence at a point in Kansas 
City, and near the southern line thereof and near Grand avenue, and from the 
last point to be located so as to run through the corporate limits of Westport, 
thence to the southern line of the county in the general direction of Hickman's 



196 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Mill and Harrisonville. The subscription shall be made under and by virtue of 
"an act to incorporate the Kansas City, Galveston & Lake Superior Railroad 
Company," approved February 9th, 1857, and of "an act to amend an act to 
incorporate the Kansas City, Galveston & Lake Superior Railroad Company," 
approved February 9th, 1857, and for other purposes, approved February i6th, 
1864 and of " an act to aid in the building of a Branch, Railroad in the State of 
Missouri " approved March 21st, 1868. The subscription shall be made to said 
company as required by "an act to aid in the building of a Branch road in the 
State of Missouri," in the name of, for the use of, and aid in the constiuction of 
said branch, the name of which branch is, " The Kansas City & Memphis 

Railroad." . , , ,. x , 

This subscription shall be paid for, in coupon bonds of Jackson county, Mis- 
souri, at their par value, of the denomination of One Thousand Dollars, payable 
not exceeding twenty years after date, at the National Bank of Commerce in New 
York City. Said bonds shall bear eight per cent, interest, which interest shall be 
paid semi-annually, on the first days of January and July, at the bank aforesaid, 
on the coupons to be detached from said bonds. 

The subscriptions shall be made subject to the following stipulations and 
conditions : 

Pirst. — No bonds in payment of said stock shall be issued, until the County 
Court of Jackson county shall be satisfied, that a sufficient amount of stock has 
been subscribed to grade and bridge the road, from the south line of this county 
to the southern line of the State. 

Second. — The money received on the bonds, here and before provided for, 
shall be expended in Jackson county. 

Third. — That Jackson county as a subscriber to the stock of said company, 
shall be protected in all her rights under the law, and particularly those rights se- 
cured her under " an Act to aid the building of a Branch Railroad in the State of 

Missouri. 

Fourth. — When the County Court is satisfied there has been sufficient sub- 
scribed to grade and bridge the road from the southern line of the county to the 
southern line of the State, there shall be issued the bonds heretofore provided for, 
which bonds shall be signed by the Presiding Justice of this Court, countersigned 
by the Clerk and attested by the seal of the Court. The coupons shall be signed 
by the Treasurer of the county. Said bonds shall be delivered as follows : 

pifth, — The work shall be commenced at the designated point in Kansas 
City, and for every mile graded and bridged from said point on, the line as here- 
tofore designated, there shall be delivered fifteen of said bonds, but the Court 
may use its discretion, for heavy work increase the number of bonds per mile, 
for any number of miles it may seem proper. The contracts for grading and 
bridging on said road for its entire length, through said County of Jackson, shall 
be let at the City of Kansas, in said county, and the letting thereof shall be ap- 
proved by the agent or agents appointed by the County Court of said county. 

It is further ordered, that Samuel H. Woodson be appointed a Commissioner 
to subscribe for said stock in the name of Jackson county, and that he be instruct- 
ed to make the subscription in strict compliance with this order. 

The County of Jackson stipulates to comply with all the conditions hereinbe- 
fore 'set forth, and to pay her subscriptions faithfully as herein made. 

And afterward, t.o-wit, at the March term 1871, and on the 13th day of said 
month, amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz.: 

Whereas, this court, at their November term 1870, made an order that the 
County of Jackson take and subscribe to the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 
Company for three thousand shares of the stock of said company to aid in the 
building of a Branch Road the name of which branch is the Kansas City & Mem- 
phis Railroad, upon certain conditions of said order named. And whereas the 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 197 

agent of court thereafter made such subscription upon conditions in said order 
named. And whereas this court is advised and fully satisfied that the conditions 
in said order named have not been complied with, and will not be, and that said 
subscription has never been accepted by said Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 
Company, or by any one for them, it is ordered, adjudged and ordained that said 
order of subscription so made as aforesaid be and the same is hereby rescinded, 
and the subscription so made as aforesaid be, and the same is hereby reckoned 
withdrawn, canceled and annulled. 

It is further ordered by the county that the board of construction of said 
Kansas City & Memphis Railroad be served with a certified copy of the fore- 
going order. 

And afterward, to-wit, on the i6th day of March, 187 1, the following pro- 
ceedings were had and made, viz.: 

Whereas, at an election heretofore held in the County of Jackson, a large 
majority of the tax payers of said county voted in favor of a subscription to be 
made by the county to aid in the construction of a railroad from Kansas City to 
Memphis, in the State of Tennessee, and whereas, this court is desirous to carry 
out the will of the people in securing the early construction of said railroad through 
the County of Jackson, in the general direction of Memphis, and being author- 
ized so to do by law, it is ordered, adjudged and ordained that the County of 
Jackson, in the State of Missouri, do subscribe for and agree to take three thou- 
sand shares of the capital stock of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, now 
in part the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company, in the name and for 
the benefit of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Rail- 
road, and to aid the construction thereof, each share being of the denomination 
of one hundred dollars and amounting in the aggregate to three hundred thousand 
dollars, under and by virtue of the authority in the charter of the Tebo & Neosho 
Railroad Company contained, and under the act of the General Assembly of the 
State of Missouri, "entitled an act to aid the building of branch railroads in the 
State of Missouri," approved March 21st, 1868, and in accordance with the order 
and resolutions of the Board of Directors of the said Tebo & Neosho Railroad 
Company, establishing said Branch Railroad, and authorizing subscriptions to said 
capital stock to aid in the building thereof, adopted on the 6th day of June, 1870, the 
said stock to be paid for by the issue and delivery to the committee appointed to 
construct said Branch Railroad of the coupon bonds of said County of Jackson of the 
denomination of one thousand dollars, each bearing date the first day of May, 187 1, 
with interest from date at the rate of eight per cent per annum, payable semi-annu- 
ally on the first days of August and February in each year thereafter, excepting the 
last three months' interest, which shall be payable at the date of the maturity of said 
bonds at the National Bank of Commerce in the City of New York, at which place 
the principal of said notes shall also be payable twenty years after the date thereof, 
redeemable, however, at the option of this court at any time after the lapse of 
eight years from their date, the said notes to be signed by the presiding justice of 
this court and attested by the chief clerk thereof with the seal of the court at-, 
tached and the coupons to said bonds be signed by the clerk of this court or by 
the /ac simile of his signature lithographed or engraved thereon ; and when so sign- 
ed the said bond shall be delivered to and deposited in the City of New York, 
subject to sale either of the whole amount or by installments of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars or less, and upon any sale being made by the committee of construc- 
tion of said Clinton & Kansas City Branch Railroad,the bonds so sold shall be deliv- 
ered to the purchasers and the proceeds of such sale shall be deposited in the said 
bank to the credit of Jackson county, or paid over to the said committee as here- 
after provided, the said subscription, however, being made upon the following 
express terms and conditions — that is to say : 

j?ifst — That said Branch Railroad shall be located through the County of 



198 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Jackson as follows, to-wit: Commencing at a point in the City of Kansas, near 
the southern limits thereof and near Grand avenue, near which point there shall 
be established and maintained passenger and freight depots ; thence by the most 
practicable route through the corporate limits of Westport to the southern limits 
of Jackson county by way or near to Hickman's Mill, and thence to Harrison- 
ville and CHnton, at which last named place unbroken connection shall be made 
with the Clinton & Memphis Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad so as to 
form a through line of said road from Kansas City through Clinton to the south- 
ern hne of the State in the direction of Memphis, in the State of Tennessee. 

Second — That said bonds, or the proceeds thereof, shall be applied and ex- 
pended in the construction of said Branch Railroad within the limits of said County 
of Jackson. 

Third — That said bonds or proceeds thereof shall be issued, delivered and 
paid to the committee of construction of said Branch Railroad, or its duly author- 
ized agent, as follows, to-wit; When ten miles of the work of gradation and 
masonry on said line of road within the limits of Jackson county, has been let to 
contract to responsible parties, of whose responsibihty the court shall be reason- 
ably satisfied, one hundred thousand dollars of said bonds, or the proceeds there- 
of, shall be delivered and paid as aforesaid; and when the remainder of said road 
within the limits of Jackson county, shall be let to contract as aforesaid, and the 
gradation and masonry on said Branch road within the county shall be commenc 
ed in good faith, then the additional sum and amount of one hundred thousand 
dollars of said bonds or the proceeds thereof, shall be delivered and paid as afore- 
said ; and when the sum of one hundred thousand dollars shall have been ex- 
pended in and upon said work, according to the estimates of the engineers of 
said Branch Railroad, within the county, then the remainder of said bonds, or the 
proceeds thereof, shall be delivered and paid as aforesaid — provided, however, 
that before any of said bonds are issued and delivered as aforesaid, the court 
shall be satisfied that a sufficient amount of stock has been subscribed in good 
faith by responsible parties or by municipal bodies, to the capital stock of said 
company, in aid of said Branch Railroad and in aid of the CHnton & Memphis 
Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, to grade, bridge and furnish the ties 
thereof from the southern line of Jackson county to the southern line of St. Clair 
county ; and that said subscriptions are available and sufficient to accomplish said 
work, and that said company have the ability and intention to build said Clinton 
& Memphis Branch Railroad to the southern boundary line of the State, in the 
direction of Memphis. 

Fourth— That the work of gradation and masonry shall be commenced with- 
in the County of Jackson, on the line of said Branch road, within three months 
after the making of this subscription, and shall be thereafter diligently and contin- 
uously prosecuted until the said railroad is built through the county of Jackson. 
And the court further order that Samuel H. Woodson be and is hereby appointed 
the agent of this court and of the County of Jackson, in the State of Missouri, 
to subscribe for the capital stock aforesaid, in accordan.ce with the terms of the 
foregoing order, and that he cause the said bonds to be prepared and lithograph- 
ed, and that they may be signed and disposed of as aforesaid. And afterward, 
to-wit, on the day and year aforesaid comes Samuel H. Woodson, the agent of 
the county, to make the subscription ordered by the Tebo & Neosho Railroad 
Company, in the name of and for the use and benefit of the Clinton & Kansas 
City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, and reports to the court that he 
has m obedience to the order of the court, made the said subscription to said cap- 
ital slock, in the words and figures following, to-wit : 

The County of Jackson, in the State of Missouri, by Samuel H. Woodson, 
IS duly appointed agent for that purpose, hereby subscribed for, and agrees to 
take three thousand shares of the capital stock of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad 



HISTORY OK JACKSON COUNTY. 199 

Company (now in part the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company) in 
the name of and for the use and benefit of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch 
of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, each share being of the denomination of one 
hundred dollars, and amounting in the aggregate to the sum of three hundred 
thousand dollars, and to pay for the same in the manner and form provided in 
the order of the County Court of said county, made and entered of record on the 
15th day of March, A. D. 1871, the said subscription being made in accordance 
in said order contained. 

Done at Independence in said Jackson county, this 15th day of March, 187 1. 

JACKSON COUNTY, 
By S. H. Woodson, Agent. 

And the Court having heard the said subscription read, and being fully ad- 
vised thereof, approve the same and ordered the said subscription to be spread 
upon the records of this Court. 

And afterward, to-wit: at the May Term, 1871, and on the second day of 
said month, amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz : 

It is by the Court ordered, adjudged and ordained that the condition of the 
subscriptions by Jackson county to the capital stock of the Tebo & Neosho Rail- 
road Company for the use and benefit and in the name of the Clinton & Kansas 
City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, be and the same are modified as 
follows, the committee of construction of said Branch Railroad assenting thereto: 

First : — The bonds in said order provided to be issued and delivered, shall 
be deposited with Northrup & Chick, bankers, in the city and State of New York, 
to be disposed of as hereafter provided. 

Second: — A financial agent for the county shall be appointed by the Court, 
who shall in conjunction with the financial agent of the committee of construction 
of said railroad company negotiate and sell such bonds, the proceeds of which sale 
shall be deposited in the city of New York with said firm of Northrup & Chick to 
the credit of the County of Jackson for the use and benefit of the Clinton & Kansas 
City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, subject to the draft, from time to time, 
of the said financial agent of Jackson county who is hereby required to draw 
the same as fast as shall be required to pay the current expenses and monthly 
estimates of work actually performed on said Branch Railroad within the limits of 
said County of Jackson, and proceeds of said bonds when so drawn to be paid to 
the treasurer of the construction committee of said Branch road by the financial 
agent of said county, the amount from time to time so agreed to be paid to be 
determined by the certificates of the chief engineer and superintendent of said 
Branch Railroad. 

Third : — A passenger and freight depot shall be established and maintained 
at the town of Westport, provided the right of way for said railroad through said 
town and suitable grounds' for said depots are furnished to said company free of 
charge. 

Ordered further — That William Chrisman be and he is hereby appointed the 
financial agent of the County of Jackson to negotiote and sell said bonds as herein 
above provided. It is also 

Further ordered — That should the subscription heretofore made to the capi- 
tal stock'of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company in the name and for the use 
of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, prove in- 
sufficient to complete the gradation, masonry and the furnishing the ties for said 
Branch Railroad within ihe limits of the County of Jackson, the additional amount 
required to complete the same shall be raised by means other than subscription 
by the County of Jackson at large." 

At a meeting of the committee of construction of the Clinton & Kansas 



200 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

City Branch of the Tebo & Nesoho Railroad, held at Kansas City on the 2d day 
of May 187 1 the following among other proceedings were had, to-wit : 

Resolved, That the modifications of the order of subscription heretofore 
made by Jackson county to the capital stock of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad 
Company in the name of and for the use and benefit of the Chnton & Kansas City 
Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, this day made by the County Court of 
Jackson county, be and the same are hereby assented to and accepted. 

We certify that the foregoing is a true and correct copy of the resolution 
this day adopted by said committee as fully as the same is found upon the records 
of said committee. 
P. A. SADIEE, DEWITT C. STONE, 

Secretary pro tem. Chairman. 

And at the May term, 187 1, and on the 29th day of said month, amongst 
others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz. : 

Whereas, There exists in the community a feeling of uneasiness that the 
subscription of Jackson county to the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company is 
illegal, and that said organization has not a legal existence, and that there is 
danger that the county subscription may be wasted and lost if issued to and 
superintended by said company, and to avoid all uncertainty in this matter, and 
to ascertain the validity of said organization and of the county subscription thereto, 
and to ascertain whether siid company proposing to build the Clinton & Kansas 
City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, has a valid and legal 
existence, the court hereby appoints a committee, consisting of Wm. Chrisman, 
P. M. Black, John C. Gage, James R. Sheley and C. O. Tichenor, with the 
request that they will make a thorough examination with the above questions, and 
report to this county as soon as they determine the legal status of said railroad 
organization, and whether it is safe for the court to issue the bonds to such com- 
pany; in the meantime this court will take no further steps in issuing such bonds 
until such report is made. And afterward to wit: at the July term, 1871, and 
on the 10th day of said month, amongst others, the following proceedings were 
had and made, viz. : 

In the matter of the subscription by the County of Jackson to the capital 
stock of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, in the name of, for the use and 
benefit of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad. 

The court being satisfied, by sufficient evidence, that the terms and conditions 
in the order of this court, and the subscription made thereunder by the County of 
Jackson to the capital stock of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, in the 
name and for the use and benefit of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad contained, 
upon which the bonds therein provided for were to be issued and delivered, 
have been fully complied with, it is ordered by the court that three hundred bonds 
of the County of Jackson of the denomination of one thousand dollars each in 
form and terms as are in said order and subscription provided (except they be 
dated this day instead of ist day of May as in said ord^r specified), be prepared 
and signed as the said order and subscription, provided, and when so prepared 
and signed, be delivered to William Chrisman, the financial agent of the County 
of Jackson, to be disposed of by him as is provided in the order of this court in 
relation thereto, made on the 2d day of May, 187 1. Ordered by the court, that 
the order of this court, made on the 2d day of the May term, 1871, of said 
court, directing the deposit of the bonds and proceeds thereof issued to the Tebo 
& Neosho Railroad Company for the use and benefit of the Clinton & Kansas 
City Branch thereof be modified so as to allow the financial agent therein named 
to deposit said bonds or proceeds either with the banking house of Northrup & 
Chick, in the city of New York, or with the Third National Bank, in the city of 
St. Louis, at option of said agent. And afterward, to wit : at the November 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 201 

term, 1871, of said court, and on the 15th day of said month, amongst others, 
the following proceedings were had and made, viz. : 

Whereas, The agent of Jackson county heretofore appointed by the order 
of this court to sell the bonds of the county and pay over the proceeds to the 
proper officers of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Rail- 
road Company as the works on said railroad in Jackson county, Missouri, 
progressed, has sold a portion of said bonds and paid over the proceeds as directed 
by said order. And 

Whereas, Estimates have now been furnished said agent, amounting to $266,- 
233 j'q'q, upon which the officers of said road are now claiming from him the 
remainder of said bonds or their proceeds. And 

Whereas, Some of the taxpayers of said county have expressed to this court 
their belief that either some error exists in said estimates, or that there has been 
some mismanagement on the part of the officers in charge. Wherefore, the 
court considers it due to the taxpayers of the county, as well as to the officers of 
the company, to have said matters examined into at once. It is therefore ordered 
by the- court here, that a committee be appointed to cause a fair and impartial ex- 
amination and measurements to be made to ascertain the actual amount and value 
of the work done and legitimate expenses incurred on said road in Jackson county. 
Said committee is hereby authorized, on behalf of said county, to employ some 
practical, reliable civil engineer, and such assistants as may be needed, to aid 
them in making the required estimates, as the representatives of the county of 
Jackson (said county being a stockholder in said company). Said committee is 
authorized to make such examination of the books and papers of the company as 
they may deem necessary. They are also requested to ascertain and report, not 
only the contract prices, but also the usual ordinary prices of any of the works 
done. The object of this investigation being to ascertain the real value of the 
work done. They are also requested to make said investigation and report the 
result to this court as speedy as practicable. George W. Bryant, W. R. Bernard 
and Sol. Young are hereby appointed said committee. Until the report of said 
committee shall be made, and the further order of this court in the premises, the 
financial agent of said court is requested to make no further payment to the officers 
of said company out of the proceeds of said bonds. And afterward, to wit : 
on the 15th day of November, 1871, among others, the following proceedings 
were had and made, viz. : 

Ordered by the court that the appointment of Sol. Young and W. R. Barn- 
ard, as commissioners to examine into the affairs of the Clinton & Kansas City 
Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company be, and the same is hereby 
revoked, and that A. S. Packard and M. O. Jones be appointed on said com- 
mittee in their stead. 

And on the i6th day of November, 1871, among other proceedings, the fol- 
lowing were had and made, viz. : 

Ordered by the court that the order made on yesterday rescinding the ap- 
pointment of Sol. Young and W. R. Barnard, and appointing A. S. Packard and 
M. O. Jones be, and the same is hereby rescinded. Judge Yager protesting and 
asking that all of said five men be appointed on said committee. And on 
the 20th day of November, 1871, among others, the following proceedings were 
had and made, viz. : 

The court orders that the names of A. S. Packard and M. O. Jones be 
added to the committee appointed by this court to investigate the action of the 
Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, and 
that they act in conjunction with the other members of said committee. And 
afterward, to-wit: at the January term, 1872, and on the i8th day of said month 
amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz. : 

Whereas, The affairs concerning the construction of the Kansas City & 



202 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Clinton Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad within the limits of Jackson 
county have become complicated so that it is difficult to obtain a clear and satis- 
factory statement of the condition of the work and expenditures within the limits 
of this county; and 

Whereas, The subscription of this county court was made on the express 
condition that the whole amount thereof should be expended in construction in 
this county, and 

Whereas, A full and complete statement and understanding of amount of 
work done in this county, and of the amount paid and expended therefor, and 
for rights of way, and a fair proportion of the engineering experises is necessary, 
before the county agent can be justified in paying over any additional amount to 
said board, or on their order. Therefore, it is ordered by the county, that Wra. 
Chnsman is instructed not to pay over either in cash or in bonds, any further 
sum upon any estimates or order of said committee of construction of said Branch 
Railroad, until first there shall be a full and complete statement made of the 
dispositions that have been made of the amount of $107,000, which has heretofore 
been paid over to said committee of construction, and in case any part of said 
money has been applied to other purposes than the construction in this county, 
and to the fair proportion of engineering expenses and of a reasonable salary to a 
superintendent of construction, then such money so misappropriated shall be 
refunded to the Jackson county agent and applied to the payment of debt, still 
due for construction in this county. That this settlement must be full and com- 
plete and accompanied by proper vouchers to the satisfaction of the county court. 
That when such statement shall be made, showing that said amount of funds 
have been applied strictly within the terms of the order of this court making said 
subscription in good faith, the county agent will be- authorized on the order of 
said construction committee, or the proper officers thereof, to pay over either in 
money or bonds to the contractors any amount that may still be due to them on 
construction in the county, provided said contractors shall consent to accept the 
measurements and estimates made by the commission of citizens and engineers 
appointed by this court, and the prices made in the original contract made by 
these with said committee of construction and if any difference in measurements 
the county agent may make arrangements with said contractors for a new measure- 
ment to be settled thereafter, and as to the contract of second class masonry, the 
said county agent is authorized to pay off at the rate of $8.50 per cubic yard, 
and no more, and upon such payments to all of said contractors, they shall each 
execute a release to said Branch Railroad in full, for all demands against the 
same. It is further requested that upon a full settlement of all accounts upon 
this basis the said committee of construction shall pass an order agreeing to 
re-offer, and shall resign and turn over the said Branch Railroad and its control 
and all of its assets still on hand and consenting, shall pass an order agreeing to 
resign, and shall resign and turn over the said Branch Railroad and its control 
and all of its assets still on hand, and consenting for the Board of Directors of 
Tebo & Neosho Railroad and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad Company 
as the successor of Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company to appoint a new board 
of committee of construction to take and complete said Branch Railroad which 
shall be satisfactory to the counties that are stockholders. It being understood 
responsible parties are ready 10 take and complete the road upon fair and reason- 
able terms, if such change shall be made. And afterward, to-wit : at the Janu- 
ary term, 1873, and on the 20th day of said month amongst others, the following 
proceedings were had and made, viz. : 

Whereas, inquiries are continually made of this court by tax-payers of Jack- 
son county as to the condition of the assets and accounts of the Kansas City & 
Clinton branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company and of its illegal 
successor the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company (which last 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 203 

named company seems to have charge of the whole matter), and as to the man- 
ner in which the one hundred and seven thousand dollars of the Jackson county 
subscription, received by said Branch road, has been disbursed. And, whereas, 
the court is not informed in reference to these matters and it is due to the tax- 
payers that this information should be given, and when given should be reliable. 

It is therefore ordered by the court here that a committee of five be appoint- 
ed to investigate the aforesaid matter fully, and ascertain, if possible, whether 
the funds of said company have been properly expended, and if not, in what 
respect ; and that said committee consist of Howard M. Holden, Henry W. Ess, 
John Q. Watkins, Preston and William Chrisman, and these five are appointed 
and requested to make said investigation as soon as convenient and report to the 
court with such recommendations as said committee may see fit to make." 

And afterward, to-wit, at the July term 1873, and on the 23d day of said 
month, among others, the following proceedings were had and made : 

SUBSCRIPTION CHANGED. 

"In the matter of the subscription of Jackson county to the capital stock of 
the Clinton' & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company. 

Whereas, heretofore, to wit, on the i6th day of March, 187 1, this court by an 
order of record did subscribe for and in the name of the county of Jackson, 
$300,000 to the capital stock of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo 
& Neosho Railroad Company, upon terms in said order named and afterward, 
to-wit, on the 2d day of May, 187 1, by an order of record duly accepted by said 
company, did modify and change said original order of subscription so as to pro- 
vide that the bonds of said county provided tp be issued in payment of said sub- 
scription should be deposited with the banking house of Northrup & Chick in the 
city and State of New York, that a financial agent should be appointed by this 
court for said county who, in connection with the financial agent of said company, 
should be authorized to sell said bonds and deposit the proceeds thereof with 
said Northrup & Chick. That said financial agent should be authorized, empow- 
ered and required to draw such proceeds and pay the same over to said companj , 
upon monthly estimates of work actually done upon said road, and the current 
expenses of said Company, and did appoint William Chrisman such financial 
agent for said county who took charge of said bonds and deposited the same with 
said Northrup & Chick. And, whereas, said Chrisman as financial agent as 
aforesaid, did sell a number of said bonds and did pay over in money and bonds 
to said company upon estimates of work done on said road the sum of one hun 
dred and thirty thousand dollars, and has remaining in his hands about the sum 
of twenty- five thousand, six hundred and eleven dollars and sixty cents, proceeds 
of the sale of bonds and accrued interest collected, and there remains on deposit 
with said Northrup & Chick one hundred and forty-seven of said bonds, being the 
balance of said bonds now in his hands and being the proceeds of the sale of a 
portion of said bonds heretofore sold, less any charges he may have for expenses 
incurred or commissions on sale of said bonds. And, whereas, a large amount 
of work consisting of gradation and masonry has been done upon said road by 
said company which has been greatly damaged by rain and other causes, and is 
liable to entire destruction if not repaired. And, whereas, as by reason of dif- 
ficulties arising in regard to estimates of work done upon said road and other 
causes, suits have been commenced in reference thereto causing the entire sus- 
pension of work thereon. And, finally, said road and company have been 
thrown into bankruptcy, and a suit instituded and now pending in the District 
Court of the United States for the Western District of Missouri, by the assignees 
in bankruptcy of said road and company against said county of Jackson and 
William Chrisman, agent as aforesaid, to recover said bonds and the proceeds of 
such thereof as has been sold now in the hands of said agent, involving the 



204 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

whole subject n such complications as to render the carrying out of said modify- 
ing order impracticable, if not impossible. And, whereas, this court is informed 
and is satisfied from the installments of writing now before them that said Clinton 
& Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company with all its rights, 
privileges, franchises and property, including the rights of said Branch Rail- 
road to said unsold bonds and the proceeds of such as were sold and remained in 
the hands of said agent, has been sold, conveyed and transferred according to 
law to the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company, a corporation 
duly organized under the laws of the State of Missouri, and is the property of 
the last named company. And, whereas, said Kansas City, Memphis & 
Mobile Railroad Company propose to complete said road over the route hereto- 
fore adopted and partially constructed, and to establish depots at Kansas City, 
Westport and Hickman's Mill, as in said original order provided, and to adjudge 
and have dismissed the proceedings in bankruptcy and the suit against said county 
and Chrisman, as aforesaid. Now, therefore, in order to release said road and 
the County of Jackson and the said financial agent from all complications and em- 
barrassments, and to faciliate the speedy completion of said road and carry out 
and fulfill the original object and purpose of said subscription, it is ordered by the 
court that as soon as a certified copy of the order of the District Court of the 
United States for the Western District of Missouri describing said proceeding in 
bankruptcy and said suit, is filed in the office of the clerk of this court, said 
William Chrisman, financial agent as aforesaid, be and is hereby ordered and di- 
rected to deposit with Donnell, Lawson & Co., bankers of New York City, the 
whole of the bonds aforesaid remaining unsold, and the balance of the proceeds 
of such of said bonds as may have been sold, together with the interest that may 
have been collected on any of such bonds remaining in his hands, such deposit 
to be made in the name of Jackson county, Missouri, as the property of said 
county and subject only to the order of this court, and said agent is required to 
take the receipt of said Donnell, Lawson & Co. to that effect, and return the 
same to this court at its next session after such deposit. 

"And it is further ordered by the court that when said company shall have 
completed the gradation and masonry of said road in a style and quality provid- 
ed for in said original order of subscription, and of a width and quality adapted 
to and suitable for a standard gauge railroad, and in a condition to receive the 
ties, and superstructure beginning at Kansas City, at the point named in said 
original order, and running over the same route heretofore adopted, and upon 
which work has been done from Kansas City to Harrisonville, in Cass county 
(stipulating hereby that said work shall include not only the unfinished grada- 
tion and masonry thereon, but the complete repair and adjustment to the stand- 
ard gauge of such work as may have been done, and inferred as aforesaid) ; and 
shall also have secured the rights of way over said route, then upon the report of 
commissioners to be appointed by this court, who shall have made a thorough ex- 
amination of the same, that said gradation and masonry has been completed, 
and the right of way secured as aforesaid, the whole of the proceeds of the sale 
of said bonds and the money deposited by said financial agent, as in this order 
provided, remaining in the hands of said Donnell, Lawson & Co., after the pay- 
ment of such orders of this court, securing the right of way for said road for' ad- 
justing claims in bankruptcy, and the cost of said proceedings in bankruptcy, as 
hereinafter named, shall be paid over to said Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile 
Railroad Company in full payment of the balance due upon said subscriptions. 
And said Donnell, Lawson & Co. are hereby authorized and directed to sell the 
said bonds at the highest prices that can be obtained, not less than eighty cents 
on the dollar, over and above commission, and exclusively of accrued interest, 
and to retain the whole of the proceeds of such sale, together with the money to 
be deposited as aforesaid by said financial agent, until the completion of the 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 205 

work upon said road as in this order provided, except so much thereof as this 
court may from time to time direct to be paid out for securing the right of way 
for said road within the County of Jackson, and eighteen thousand dollars or any 
less amount, to cover advances in adjusting claims in bankruptcy, and the cost 
of said proceedings in bankruptcy. And it is further ordered that when the pro- 
visions of this order are complied with by William Chrisman, agent, as aforesaid, 
and said bonds are removed from the banking house of said Northrup & Chick, 
said Chrisman as said financial agent, and said banking house of Northrup & 
Chick, shall be and they are hereby in that siJlit held harmless, and released from 
all further responsibilities in the premises. And it is further ordered that this or- 
der shall be in force and take effect when and not until the Board of Directors of 
said Kansas City, Memphis and Mobile Railroad Company, by an order duly 
entered of record in the books of said company, shall accept the same, in all its 
terms and provisions, and file with the clerk of this court a certified copy of such 
order of acceptance. Judges Yager and Mason dissenting. And afterward, to- 
wit, at the August adjourned term, 1873, and on the 20th day of said month, 
amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz : 

RESOLUTION. 

KANSAS CITY, MEMPHIS & MOBILE RAILROAD COMPANY, ) 

Office of the General Superintendent, I 

Kansas City, Mo., July 26th, 1873. ) 

At a meeting of Board of Directors of the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile 
Railroad Company, held at the office of the company in Kansas City, July 26th, 
1873, among other proceedings the following resolution was passed and recorded 
on the records of the company : 

Resolved, That the order- passed by the County Court of Jackson County, at 
Independence, on the 24th day of July, 1873, at adjourned term, requiring this 
Company to complete the gradation and masonry on the line of the road from 
Kansas City to Harrisonville before said company shall be entitled to receive the 
balance of the bonds and money now in the hands of William Chrisman, financial 
agent of said county, which said agent holds in trust for this Company, and re- 
quiring said Chrisman, among other things, to deposit said bonds and money in 
the Banking House of Donnell, Lawson & Co., New York, is hereby accepted in 
all of its terms and provisions, and the Secretary pro tem. is hereby directed to 
cause to be filed with the Clerk of said county, at Independence, a copy of this 
resolution. 

A true copy of the records of the Company. 

HENRY REIHL, 

Secretary Pro Tem. 

ORDER district COURT IN BANKRUPTCY. 

In the District Court of the United States for the Western District of Mo. : 
In the matter of The Clinton and Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho 

Railroad — Bankruptcy. 

At Court, City of Jefferson, in said district, on the 19th day of August, A. 
D. 1873, Western District of Missouri, ss. It now appearing to the Court that 
the publication ordered notifying all parties interested that an application for 
dismissal of proceedings herein had been filed, has been duly made, and also- 
all costs and charges in this cause and in the several issues arising out of the 
same have been fully paid, as also all officers' fees, no objection having been filed 
to such dismissal nor any person interested having appeared and objected to an 
order dismissing proceedings herein. 

It is now ordered by the Court that said proceedings in bankruptcy pending 



206 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

in this Court against the CHnton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho 
Railroad be and the same are dismissed. 

[Seal.] Witness the Honorable Arnold Krekel, Judge of the said Court, 

and the seal thereof at the City of Jefferson, in said Dis- 
trict, on the 19th day of August, A. D., 1873. 
ALFRED S. KREKEL, 
Clerk of District Court for said District. 
Be it remembered that on the Tuesday August 19th, 1873, ^^ the District 
Court of the United States for the Western District of Missouri, the following, 
among other proceedings, were had to-wit : 

In the matter of the Clinton & Kansas \ 

City Branch of Tebo & Neosho [- Insolventary Bankruptcy Case 812-3. 
Railroad Company. ) 

Morrison Mumford and James ") 
C. Babbit, Assigners. 

Plaintiffs. | 
vs. J- Bill in Chancery. 

WiUiam Christman and Jack- I 
son County, I 

Defendants. J 
Now, on this day of the costs being paid by the Kansas City, Memphis & 
Mobile Railroad, it is ordered by the Court that this cause be and the same here- 
by is dismissed. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, } 
Western District of Missouri, j ' 
I, Alfred S. Krekel, Clerk of the District Court of the United States for the 
Western District of Missouri, hereby certify that the writing hereunto annexed is 
a true copy of the record of the dismissal in the cause, wherein Morrison Mum- 
ford and James C. Babbitt, assigners of the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of 
the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, Bankrupt, are plaintiff, and William 
Chrisman and Jackson County are defendants, as the same remains of record in 
said case in this office. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name and affix the seal of said 
county at office in the city of Jefferson, in said District, this 2d day of August, 
A. D. 1873. 

ALFRED S. KREKEL, 

Clerk. 



] SEAL [ 



"And afterward, to-wit : at the June term 1874, and on the 6th day of said 
month, amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz : 

"Whereas, This Court at its July term, 1873, made an order in relation to 
the completion of the gradation and masonry of the Kansas City, Memphis & 
Mobile Railroad from Kansas City in this county to Harrisonville in the county 
of Cass ; and in pursuance of the terms of said order the bonds therein men- 
tioned were placed in the hands of said Donnell, Lawson & Co., of New York, 
therein specified, who now hold the same or proceeds thereof; and, 

"Whereas, Peter Soden and Patrick Soden, contractors, with said Kansas 
City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company, have done a large amount of work 
in said order provided to be done, which they claim to be due them from said 
company the sum of fifty-seven thousand, five hundred dollars, and for which 
they have a judgment against said company. And, 

"Whefeas, Divers and sundry persons and corporations who claim to be 
creditors of said company have instituted suits in the State and county of New 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 207 

York against said company in said State and county of New York, and are seek- 
ing to subject the said bonds or proceeds thereof to the payment of their said 
claims, and in order to prevent the same from being done, the county has also 
instituted certain suits in said county and State of New York, and which last suits 
are now pending. And, 

"Whereas, Said company has also been adjudicated a bankrupt by the Dis- 
trict Court of the United States for the Western District of Missouri. 

Now Therefore, With a view to avoid further suits, litigation, delay, and id 
the end that said road may and shall be completed, it is ordered as follows : It is 
agreed by the County of Jackson, the said railroad company and said Sodens, that 
when and so soon as the said company or any one for it shall cause all of the said 
suits and proceedings so brought or pending against it in the State and county 
of New York to be dismissed, and said bonds and proceeds thereof to be relieved 
from any and all of the said claims, and the said proceedings in bankruptcy to be 
dismissed, and the proper evidence of such dismissal of all of said proceedigns to 
be filed in this Court, then the Court will cause the said suits so brought by the 
county to be dismissed and will also cause to be turned over Soden Brothers' 
bonds at eighty cents on the dollar or the proceeds thereof to the amount of their 
said debt, interest and cost as aforesaid, and will also cause to be turned over to 
the Continental Bank Note Company at eighty cents on the dollar or proceeds 
thereof to the amount of its judgment, in payment of the claims against said 
railroad company and will also cause to be paid to W. F. Chittenden in payment 
of his claim against railroad company bonds at eighty cents on the dollar or 
proceeds thereof to the amount of his judgment and warrants, being the claims 
on the Lillie & Co. and Morther warrants amounting not to exceed $5,600, with 
interest and costs to be added. And will also cause to be turned over to said 
railroad company an amount of bonds or proceeds thereof not to exceed $3,000- 
to be used solely in payment for services rendered by the engineers of said rail- 
road company since the date of the aforesaid order and for no other purpose, and 
$1,000 of said bonds at eighty cents on the dollar or proceeds thereof to the 
amount of $1,000 shall also be turned over to the treasurer of Jackson county to 
be by him used in defraying the costs received by this county in the said suits by 
it brought as aforesaid ; the remainder of said bonds or proceeds thereof to be 
used and applied as hereinafter provided for and are hypothecated for said pur- 
poses alone, and to be held in trust therefor. 

And in consideration of all which, and for such other consideration as may 
be agreed upon by said railroad company and the said Sodens' covenant, and 
agree to and with the County of Jackson, to proceed at once and do and complete 
the entire gradation, and repairing the old road bed of said road from Kansas 
City to Harrison ville, over the line and in such manner as is specified in their 
proposition heretofore, filed and proposed; and so soon as said gradation and 
repairing shall be fully completed from Kansas City to Belton, then an estimate 
of the work done in all by the said Sodens since the last estimate shall be made 
by such engineer as shall be selected and agreed upon by this court, the said 
company and said Sodens, at prices specified in the present contract of said So- 
dens with said company, except earth-work in repairing old road bed, for which 
forty (40) cents per cubic yard shall be allowed, and a sufficient amount of said 
bonds at eighty cents on the dollar, or proceeds thereof, if enough, there shall 
be paid over to said Sodens to pay said estimate ; and another like estimate shall 
be made when said Sodens shall have fully completed all work to a point equi-dis- 
tant between said Belton and Harrisonville, and another like payment made if 
enough there be of said bonds, or the proceeds thereof, remaining. 

And when said Sodens shall have fully completed said work to Harrison- 
ville, another like estimate shall be. made, and paid for as before mentioned, if 
enough there be of said bonds or the proceeds thereof remaining ; but in no 



208 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

event shall this county be liable or bound to pay any other amount of money or 
bonds than is left in the hands of said Donnell, Lawson & Co. after the payments 
hereinbefore first provided for. 

And if the said bonds or the proceeds thereof shall be exhausted at or be- 
fore the completion of said road to any one of the aforesaid points, the said So- 
dens bind themselves to do and complete such work, as in their proposition em- 
bodied in preliminary order throughout, and rely wholly and solely on said com- 
pany for the payment of any and all deficiencies. Said work shall be prosecuted 
with all reasonable diligence, and completed to said Harrisonville by the ist of 
December next, as provided, and conditions in the proposition of Soden Brothers 
embodied in preliminary order of court. 

Before this order or any part thereof shall take effect or be in force, the said 
Sodens, with securities to be approved by the court, shall file herein their bond 
to the County of Jackson, in the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, condition- 
ed for the faithful fulfillment and performance of each and every and all the pro- 
visions and conditi ns of this order, on their work provided to be done and perform- 
ed, and the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company shalUikewise file 
therein its written acceptance of all the terms, conditions and provisions of this 
order. The necessary engraving expenses to be paid at times of making esti- 
mates and paying same ; said road to be repaired and completed as now located, 
and at present width of old road bed, to wit — nine feet on surface. The said 
Soden Brothers also agree, on the terms aforesaid, to repair the third-class mason- 
ry of culverts to Bolton, in Cass county. It is further agreed that in completing 
the gradation of the road bed from Belton to Harrisonville, that where culverts 
are out of repair a gap may be left, as may be required by the engineer in charge 
of the right of way in Jackson county, to be provided for as in the order of July, 
1873, Judges Yager and Mason dissenting. 

In pursuance of the power and authority conferred upon us by the Board 
of Directors of the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company, by a 
resolution dated and adopted May 26th, 1874, we hereby accept the terms of 
settlement and contract with Soden Brothers, and all the provisions and condi- 
tions of the trial order of the Jackson County Court, made and ordered to be 
recorded on the 6th day of June, 1874, in regard to the payment of the balance 
of the subscription of Jackson county and the completion of the road bed of 
said Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad oq the terms and in the manner 
in said trial and preliminary orders of said county court, as modified and adopted, 
is provided, and on the part of said Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad 
Company, and in pursuance of the authority vested in us by the aforesaid reso- 
lution of the Board of Directors, we hereby accept, consent to ratify and confirm 
said agreement and settlement as provided in said trial order and preliminary 
order of said County Court of Jackson county, and hereby consent and agree, 
on behalf of said railroad company, to carry out and perform all the requirements 
and conditions of said preliminary and final order of June the 6th, 1874. 

ROBT. T. VAN HORN, 
A. D. SADIEE, 
JOHN W. POLK, 

Committee. 

Appointed by the Board of Directors of the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile 
Railroad Company to complete and ratify the settlement with Jackson county. 

Kansas City, Mo., May 20th, 1871. 
To the Committee of Construction of the Clinton b" Kansas City Branch of the Tebo 

&= Neosho Railroad: 

Gentlemen : — We propose to do the work of gradation and masonry on 
the first ten (10) miles of your road at the following rates, namely: 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 209 

Earth excavation per cubic yard $00 243^ 

Solid rock excavation per cubic yard 115 

Loose rock excavation per cubic yard o75 

Tunnel work per cubic yard 3 25 

Third class masonry per cubic yard 4 00 

Chopping and clearing per acre 35 0° 

Extra haul (this is after first 100 feet) at the rate of one cent per cubic 
yard for each additional 100 feet. 

Respectfully, &c., 

P. SODEN & BRO. 

The foregoing bid was accepted by the Construction Committee of the 
Clinton & Kansas City Branch of Tebo & Neosho Railroad, and afterward 
adopted and sanctioned by the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Com- 
pany, and reduced to contract June 5, 1874. 

A. D. LaDUE, 
General Superintendent. 

Now at this day comes P. Soden & Bro. and file herein their bond as 
mentioned in the foregoing order, which said bond is in words and figures fol- 
lowing, to wit : 

Know all men by these Presents, That we, Peter Soden and Patrick Soden, 
under the firm name of Peter Soden & Brother, as principal, and Bernard Don- 
nelly, Michael Diveley, Francis Foster, C. J. White, J. W. Cook, Amos Green, 
as securities, are held and firmly bound unto the Kansas City, Memphis & 
Mobile Railroad Company and the County of Jackson, in the sum of $100,000, 
for the payment of which, well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves, our 
heirs, executors and administrators firmly by these presents, signed and sealed, 
this 2d day of June, A. D. 1874. Now the conditions of the above obligation 
are such that, whereas, the above named Peter Soden 8z: Bro. have entered into 
a contract with said Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Ra^road Company for the 
completion of the gradation and repairing of the road bed of the Kansas City, 
Memphis & Mobile Railroad from its starting point on the Santa Fe switch in or 
near Kansas City in the County of Jackson, to the town o'f Harrisonville in the Coun- 
ty of Cass. Now, if the said Peter Soden & Bro. shall complete the gradation 
and repairing of said road bed according to the terms and stipulations of their 
said contract, and in the manner and within the time therein specified, and fully 
perform and keep said contract on their part, then this obligation to be void, else 
to remain in full force and effect. 

PETER SODEN, [seal 

PATRICK SODEN, [seal 

BERNARD DONNELLY, [seal 
MICHAEL DIVELEY, [seal 
FRANCIS FOSTER, [seal 

C. J. WHITE, [SEAL 

J. W. COOK, [seal 

AMOS GREEN. [seal 

Which said bond bears the following indorsements. 
Approved by the court June term, A. D. 1874. 

E. R. HICKMAN, Clerk. 

The court nominates Charles H. Knickerbocker as the engineer of the 
Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company. 

And afterward, to-wit: at the June adjourned term and on the 23d day of 
said month amongst others the following were had and made, viz. ; 

It is ordered i)y the county court that Donnell, Lawson & Company out of 

14 



210 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the bonds of Jackson county on deposit with their pay to Peter Soden & Brother 
the sum of fifty-nine thousand, six hundred and eighty dollars and twenty-five 
cents in bonds at eighty cents on the dollar, or if said bonds are sold pay said 
sum of ($59,680.25) in money out of the proceeds of sale, also that they pay to 
the Continental Bank Note Company, of New York, the sum of $2,000 and in- 
terest, and costs in bonds at eighty cents on the dollar, or if sold pay said sum in 
money; also that they pay to John J. Mastin & Company so much of the judg- 
ment in favor of W. F. Chittenden as is owned by said John J. Mastin & Com- 
pany ; and also pay to James Campbell the sum of three thousand dollars in 
bonds at eighty cents, or if sold in money, to be applied by said Campbell to 
paying pro rata the amount due the engineer corps, said amount to be paid by said 
Donnell, Lawson & Company so soon as the attachment suits now pending against 
said bonds are dismissed and discharged as to said bonds, and the leases, if any 
created thereby discharged, so as to release said bonds from all lease by reason 
thereof, said amount to bear interest until paid, except the three thousand dollars 
to James Campbell frpm the date of this order, and a certified copy of this order 
indorsed by the parties to whom said amounts are respectively payable, shall 
be sufficient authority to said Donnell, Lawson & Co. for paying, and a re- 
ceipt to them or voucher against Jackson county. The one thousand dollars also 
to be paid the treasurer of Jackson county, to be applied as fees of said county 
and expenses and costs, same as the foregoing amounts. 

The Mastin's judgments amount to $4,300. The county to dismiss its 
suit as soon as Judge Barbour, the attorney of Jackson county, is satisfied that 
the attachment leases on the bonds are all discharged. The dismissal of the 
bankrupt case also to be complete before any payment is made, and a certified 
copy of such dismissal to be presented to Donnell, Lawson & Co. before paying 
any of the aforesaid amounts. The right of way through Jackson county to be 
provided for out of funds with Donnell, Lawson & Co. if the amount now in 
the Mastin bond is insufficient to pay the same as per order of July, 1873. 

And afterward at the July term, 1874, and on the 9th day of said month 
amongst others the following proceedings were had and made, viz : 

Ordered by the court that Honorable John M. Barbour, of the City of 
New York, attorney, employed by this court to institute and prosecute certain 
suits in the name of Jackson county against the Continental Bank Note Company, 
W. F. Strickland, Strickland, the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Rail- 
road Company and Donnell, Lawson & Company, bankers, of the City of New 
York. Which said suits are now pending in the Supreme Court, of said City 
of New York, be, and is hereby authorized and directed to dismiss said suits so 
soon as he is satisfied that all the suits now or hereafter pending in the courts of 
the county and State of New York against said Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile 
Railroad Company have been dismissed and the bonds of the County of Jackson 
and the proceeds thereof now in the hands of said Donnell, Lawson & Co. are fully 
and entirely released from any and all claims sued upon in said last n med suits, 
and that the proceedings in bankruptcy in the District Court of the United States 
for the Western District of the State of Missouri against said Railroad Company 
be discharged therefrom. 

Ordered by the court that Donnell, Lawson & Co., bankers, of the City of 
New York, be, and they are hereby authorized and directed out of the proceeds 
of the bonds of Jackson county now in their hands, which by an order of this 
court, made on the 23d day of June, 1874, was directed to be paid into the 
county treasury to pay fees, expenses and costs in certain suits brought by said 
county in the Superior Court, of New York, they pay all such costs as may be 
required to be paid before the dismissal of said suits, and report the amount so 
paid to this court, and this order shall be then sufficient authority for paying the 
same. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 211 

And afterward, to-wit: at the October term, 1874, and on the 26th day of 
said month amongst others, the following proceedings were had and made, viz : 

In the matter of the Kansas City, Memphis and Mobile Railroad Company. 
This day comes the said Kansas City, Memphis and Mobile Railroad 
Company, also Peter Soden & Brother, and file the estimate for work done in 
completing the gradation of the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad to 
Belton, in the County of Cass, under the contract heretofore made and entered 
into between the County of Jackson, said railroad company and said Peter Soden 
& Brother, which estimate amountstothesum of $52,151 24; and also the account 
for engineering expenses under said contract, which said account amounts to the ag- 
gregate sum of $4, 730 90. And the Court having duly signed, and attested by the 
engineers, and the Court being satisfied by their correctness ; and it is also further 
appearing to the Court that the estimate of said Soden & Brother and said en- 
gineers' accounts exceed the residue of the subsciiption of Jackson county now 
receiving the hands of Messrs. Donnell, Lawson & Company, of No. 92 Broad- 
way, New York, in the bonds of Jackson county or their proceeds if sold. 

It is therefore ordered by the Court that said Donnell, Lawson & Co., on 
the presentation, by said Peter A. Soden & Brother, of a duly certified copy of 
this order, pay to said Soden & Brother all the remaining bonds of Jackson coun- 
ty now in their hands; or, if sold, the proceeds thereof, and the said certified 
copy of this order so presented by said Soden & Brother with their receipt there- 
on shall be a full and complete voucher and discharge to said Donnell, Lawson & 
Co. from all liability under their said trust for said bonds and their proceeds ; and 
it is also ordered that said Soden & Brothers pay over to said engineers the 
amount of said engineers' account in bonds at eighty cents on the dollar, or if 
sold, in money. Also that the said Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad 
Compariy file with the Clerk of this Court a receipt in full for the subscription of 
said County of Jackson, and that said county be and is hereby released from all 
further liability under its said subscription, and- all contracts made in reference 
thereto, both to said railroad company and to said Soden & Brother, this being a 
full and final setdement of said subscription of Jackson county, so far as the 
county is concerned, of all liability on her part under the aforesaid contract with 
Peter Soden & Brother." 

And on the 27th day of October, 1874, the following proceedings were had 
and made, viz. r 

Received of the County of Jackson for and in behalf of the Kansas City, 
Memphis & Mobile Railroad Company, three hundred thousand dollars in 
bonds, at their face, being in full of the subscription of said county to the Tebo 
& Neosho Railroad Company to aid in the construction of the Clinton & Kan- 
sas City Branch, and which last named Branch road was afterward sold and with 
all its assets stransferred to the Kansas City, Memphis & Mobile Railroad Com- 
pany. This receipt to cover all former receipts. 

Witness our hands officially and the seal of the company this 27th day of 
Oct., 1874. 

W. O, MEAD, Secretary. R. T. VAN HORN, President. 

By Henry S. La Due, Secretary Pro Tem. 

I, William J. Hickman, Clerk of the County Court, within and for the coun- 
ty and State aforesaid, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a full and complete 
transcript of all the proceedings in the matter of the subscriptions of Jackson 
county to the Clinton & Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad 
Company as fully as the same appears of record in my office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal 
of said county at my office, in the City of Independence, this 
20th day of November, A. D. 1878. 

WILLIAM J. HICKMAN, Clerk. 



212 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

CHAPTER X. 
FINANCES. 

Introductory — Cun ent Expenses for the Years i8bg, 1870 and 1871— Annual Report, January 
I, 1873, showing ali the Receipts and Expenditures for the Year— Jackson County Finances 
from November i, 187 J, to February /J, 1876 — The Last Official Report of Jackson County 
'Finances to the County Court — Indebtedness of the County — County Treasurer's Report — 
Township Railroad Funds — County Poor Farm — A Report for Ten Years Ago. 

During the early history of the county, revenues were light, although the 
rate of taxation was very Uttle, if any, less than at present. During the first four 
or five years the county expenses ranged from fifteen hundred to three thousand 
dollars. The books were not kept in a very systematic manner, and it is difficult 
now, even as it must have been then, to so far understand the system of book- 
keeping as to be able to determine accurately the exact condition of the county 
finances. This much we know, that with the very limited resources at their 
command, the persons whose duty it was to manage county affairs kept the ma- 
chinery in operation, and no large debts were contracted. 

A complete account of the finances of the county would, of itself, make a 
large book, and the facts necessary for such an authentic history are not at hand, 
even though we might desire to record them. There are to be found at various 
places throughout the county records certain facts at our command, whereby we 
are enabled to form some idea of financial affairs from the first. It is our pur- 
pose, at this place, to give a brief insight at some of the more salient features of 
money affairs. 

CURRENT EXPENSES OF THE COUNTY FOR 1869, 1870 AND 1871. 

1869 $ 76,530 04 

1870 90,325 23 

187I 109,592 GO 

The first is the clerk's official statement for that year. The second is the 
footing up of warrants issued in 1870. The third is amount of warrants issued 
in 1871. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

In presenting the annual financial report of Jackson, county for the year end- 
ing December 31, 1871, and in order that it may be clear and comprehensive, 
I propose in this preface to submit a report, the grand total of which will show, 
without a labyrinth of figures, the indebtedness of the county, including the 
bonds issued to the Kansas City Branch of the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, and 
the funding bonds of two hundred thousand dollars, and all other indebtedness 
of every kind : 

Total indebtedness of Jackson county, December 31, 1871 . . . .$646,66961 
May be deducted from above — 

There is in the hands of the treasurer, in cash, to meet 

the above indebtedness $ 47,352 67 

Uncollected taxes for 1871 98,840 27 

1870 • . . 43's68 5° 

1869 43,682 03 

1868 22,079 20 

Uncollected taxes for 1871 to 1867, inclusive .... 76,642 54 

Bonds subject to the control of Wm. Chrisman, financial 

^gSI^t 170,000 00 $502,195 21 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 213 

The above credits may be deducted or not, at the pleasure of the Court or 
the public generally, as they may choose. I deem it but right to set these facts 
forth in this preface and in this comprehensive form, in order that it may be un- 
derstood by the most superficial reader. It is but fair to say that the county has 
had to assume the delinquent school tax of r868 and 1869, which amounted to 
about fifty-six thousand dollars, which they were compelled to do by an act of 
the legislature, passed in 1867, and compelled to bear the burden of runnmg the 
criminal courts of the county, which perhaps amounts to eight or ten thousand 
dollars a year, the fines of which are absorbed by the public school funds of the 
county, and which already amounts to twenty thousand dollars. Hence it will 
be seen the revenue proper of the county is made to subserve the public school 
system in more ways than by direct taxation. In the foregoing statement is in- 
cluded the appropriation for repairing and building both our court houses. And 
another important item is about sixty thousand dollars which has been appropri- 
ated in building bridges over the different streams in the county. 

RECAPITULATION. 

To the honorable County Court of Jackson county : 

I have the honor to report to you the financial condition of Jackson county 
on the first day of January, A. D. rSyz, as follows: 
Amount of outstanding revenue warrants : 

1851 $ 22 20 

1852 . . 4 40 

1853 58 30 

1854 4 50 

185s 5 00 

1856 II 00 

1857 12 15 

1858 00 50 

1859 61 55 

i860 66 15 

1861 244 00 

1862 7 5° 

1863 31 25 

1864 22 75 

1865 32 80 

1866 534 00 

1867 1,185 °o 

1868 342 10 

1869 505 45 

1870 561082 07 

1871 18,826 45 

Poor House warrants 783 49 

Bridge • 9>502 00 

Road 290 00 

Total amount of warrants $88,657 61 

The bonded debt is as follows : 

To the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company $300,000 00 

Funding bonds of Jackson county 200,000 00 

Missouri Pacific Railroad 14 000 °o 

Bond No. 16 " • ■ 12,000 00 

Bridge bonds held by John Lewis 5>°°° °° 

Borrowed school money . . . i 27,012 00 

Total warrants and bonds $646,669 61 



214 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Of the above item of $300,000.00, issued to the Tebo & Neosho Railroad, the 
sum of $170,000 is in the hands of the financial agent of Jackson county and sub- 
ject to the order of this court. 

The receipts for the year 187 1, from all sources, is as follows : 

County revenue • ^T^j'^IS 91 

.Railroad 31,9°9 32 

Special interest 47,329 93 

Poor House 8,626 18 

Bridge 21,705 37 

Road 16,903 44 

Total $204,760 18 

The amount of expenditures for same time is as follows : 

County revenue . $66,745 13 

Special interest 6,138 27 

Poor House 10,848 92 

Bridge 12,402 32 

Road 1,944 68 

Total $98,079 32 

The amount in the hands of the treasurer to pay protested warrants is as 
follows : 

County revenue $3,000 00 

Bridge 9,874 60 

Road 3,924 85 

Poor House 1,667 91 

Railroad 8,920 85 

Special interest 19,964 46 

Total $47,352 67 

All special interest and road warrants have been paid on presentation, and 
there is money enough on hand to pay all Poor House warrants protested to Jan- 
uary, 1872. 

All interest on borrowed money has been paid up promptly, and leaves a 
balance, as before stated, of $19,964.46 to be appHed on interest falling due in 
July next. 

The difference between receipts and expenditures on the road fund has been 
worked out by the overseers. 

Our resources are as follows : 

Delinquent list of 1871 — 

County revenue $27,872 07 

Railroad 20,916 95 

Special interest 27,875 07 

Poor House 4,357 76 

Bridge 11,656 71 

Road 6,158 71 

Total . . $ 98,740 27 

Delinquent list, 1861 to 1879 inclusive 186,002 27 

Total $284,842 55 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTV. 215 

The following is a financial statement of our indebtedness for and in behalf of 
Van Buren township : 
For bonds issued to the Lexington, Lake & Gulf Railroad . ... $50,000 00 

Delinquent tax on the same for 1871 ... . . . . i)73S 00 

For and on behalf of ^Cansas City and Westport Horse Railroad . . . 25,000 00 
DeHnquent tax on same for 1871 . . 533 25 

The indebtedness created by the two last named townships is not a part of the 
county indebtedness at large, but is set forth for the satisfaction of the court and 
the residents of said townships : 

Theassessed value of real estate property of Jackson county for 1872, is $12,930,585 

Personal 3.552. °35 

Merchants' goods 1,100,000 

Total $17,581,620 

In the foregoing report it will be borne in mind that I have in all instances 
deducted the State tax, and reference is only made to county indebtedness. 

It will be observed that the outstanding warrants for the year i87o_is much 
larger than for any other year given, which may be accounted for in the fact that 
warrants were in March of said year for the delinquent school tax already referred 
to. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

E. R. HICKMAN, Clerk. 

JACKSON COUNTY FINANCES FROM NOVEMBER 1ST, 1875, TO FEBRUARY I5TH, 1 87 6. 

State tax $44,997 62 

County tax ■ . . . 48,925 45 

Special interest tax 28,175 07 

Poor House tax 11.740 5° 

Bridge tax 9, 291 05 

Van Buren Township Railroad tax 1.968 86 

Blue Township Railroad tax. 2,504 97 

Kaw Township Railroad tax 13.558 87 

Westport Horse Railroad tax 917 60 

Penalty 176 30 

Kansas City School ... . 51,456 06 

Independence School 4 154 77 

Westport School . .' . . 1,966 88 

Lee's Summit School 1,826 85 

Total $221,760 85 

RAILROADS. 

State tax ;?i,05i 48 

County tax 1,161 19 

Special interest 290 29 

Bridge 232 24 

Road 339 43 

School 1.285 19 

Kaw Township Railroad 219 97 

Blue Township Railroad 144 17 

Total $34,723 96 



216 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

AMOUNT COLLECTED ON BACK TAXES. 

State tax $10,514 39 

County revenue 8,500 89 

Special interest . 5; 178 9° 

Poor House •• • 897 38 

Bridge 2,378 81 

"Van Buren Township Railroad . . . . ... 244 41 

Blue Township Railroad 132 25 

Kaw Township Railroad ■ 45 1 9^ 

Westport Horse Railroad • i37 48 

Penalty 5.724 62 

Advertising 446 56 

Independence School tax 230 97 

Lee's Summit School tax 61 14 

Westport School tax 633 22 

Kansas City School tax 9,651 08 

Total $45,154 07 

RECAPITULATION. 

Total amount collected on merchants' tax and regular 

tax books for 1875 $221,760 85 

Total amount collected on railroads for 1874 4,723 96 

Total amount collected on back taxes 45,154 08 



$271,638 89 

We give the foregoing figures in full, in order that all who are interested 
specially in any of the funds, may have a better knowledge of their status, and 
that the people at large may see what their servants are doing. 

For the first time in twenty years we are told county warrants are at par. 
This, too, has been accomplished through the management of those having the 
finances of the county in their hands, without funding. The collector turned 
over $26,000 cash, the other day, to the treasurer, on county revenue, a fact 
worth remembering, in connection with the never-to-be-forgotten grasshopper 
year. The total collections on the tax books are about 70 per cent, of the whole, 
and collections on the delinquent or back taxes, as will be seen above, run up to 
the handsome sum of $45,154.07. This is a splendid showing, and is worthy of 
the good old county of Jackson. 

An official report of the financial affairs of -Jackson county for the year 1879 : 
To the Honorable County Court of Jackson County, Mo. : 

I hereby submit my annual report of the receipts and expenditures of Jackson 
county for the year 1879, and also giving the amount of the indebtedness of said 
county. The outstanding indebtedness of said county is as follows: $300,000 
bonds issued to the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company; $200,000 funding 
bonds of Jackson county; $150,000 Kaw township bonds, issued to the Wyan- 
dotte, Kansas City & Northwestern Railroad Company; $100,000 Kaw town- 
ship bonds issued to the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Topeka Railroad Company ; 
Jioo,ooo Blue township bonds issued to the Wyandotte, Kansas City & North- 
western Railroad Company ; $48,000 Van Buren township bonds issued to the 
Lexington, Lake & Gulf Railroad Company; $1,300 Westport bonds issued to 
the Westport Horse Railroad Company. Of the above bonds, those issued on 
the Tebo & Neosho Railroad Company, to the amount of $300,000, are bearing 
8 per cent, interest. No interest has been paid on the same since February, 1876, 
and as your Honors are well aware suit has been entered and judgment rendered 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 217 

against Jackson county for the sum of $48, 549.54, in the United States Circuit 
Court for the Western District of Missouri, on the part due coupons of said bonds, 
and mandamus has been issued to enforce the collection of the same. There have 
also been judgments rendered against Jackson county on behalf of Kaw township 
to the amount of $7,398.22 and Blue township to the amount of 36,586.87, in 
favor of the bondholders on past due coupons, both of which townships are be- 
hind on interest since August, A. D. 1876. No suit has been begun by the bond- 
holders of the Van Buren township bonds, but it is understood that the decision 
of Kaw and Blue township cases also decides theirs. In the Westport & Kan- 
sas City Horse Railroad bonds, suit has been brought in the United States Court 
and decided against the bondholders. Whether they have been appealed to the 
United States Supreme Court, I am not informed. 

There are no outstanding warrants against the county, all having been paid 
on presentation to the county treasurer, and there is in the hands Of the treasurer 
the following amounts to the credit of the following funds, to-wit : 

County revenue fund $47)839-95 

Special interest fund 20,166.98 

Poor House fund 8,084.78 

Bridge fund '. 6,345.64 

Road fund . . , 3,450.08 

Indebtedness fund 1,597.92 

Van Buren township railroad 2,671.04 

Westport Horse Railroad 462.75 

Blue township railroad 839.77 

Kaw township railroad 2,779.61 

Making a total of $94,288.52 

In addition to the amounts on hand to the credit of the township funds, 
there are the following amounts loaned out on real estate security, which can be 
called in when wanted, to-wit : 

Kaw township railroad fund $10,969.95 

Blue township railroad fund 2,731.68 

Van Buren township railroad fund 619.81 

Total $14,321.44 

For a detailed statement I refer your Honors to the following accounts of 
each fund made out separately : 

REVENUE FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $ 39,236 81 

To amount received as per schedule "A" 69,761 20 

$108,998 01 

Credits. 

By amount county warrants paid off $51,72858 

By criminal scrip paid off 5; 768 53 

By law and Equity Court scrip paid off 2,219 5° 

By Circuit Court scrip paid off, 1,082 75 

By commission on railroad taxes 16 39 

By coroner's accounts allowed 196 61 

By W. T. Wright, wolf scalp i 50 

By J. Pendleton, damages on road 64 60 

ByG. W.Adams, " " 64 60 

By W. A. Cunningham, damages on road 15 °° 

By balance on hand 47)839 95 

$108,998 01 



218 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

SPECIAL INTEREST FUND. 

To balance on hand last year ... .$13,686 55 

To amount received as per schedule "A" 24,924 14 

$38,610 69 
Credits. 

By 399 coupon funding bonds $15,960 00 

By warrants paid off 2,45^ °S 

By exchange and express charges 20 25 

By commission on railroad taxes 5 4^ 

By balance on hand 20,168 98 

$38,610 69 

POOR HOUSE FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $ 7,660 37 

To amount collected as per schedule "A" 9,286 08 

$16,946 45 
Credits. 

By amount warrants paid off $ 8,859 04 

By commission on railroad tax 2 63 

By balance on hand • 8,084 78 

$16,946 45 

BRIDGE FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $1,002 40 

To amount collected as per schedule "A" 7,917 33 

$8,919 79 
Credits. 

By warrants paid off $2,574 15 

By balance on hand 6,345 64 

$8,919 79 

ROAD FUND. 

To balance on hand last settlement $ 2,833 43 

To amount collected as per'schedule "A" 7)897 06 

$10,730 52 
Credits. 

By warrants and road receipts paid off $ 7.273 95 

By commission 6 49 

By balance on hand 3,45° 08 

$10,730 52 

INDEBTEDNESS FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $ 877 44 

To amount received per schedule "A" 720 48 

$1,597 92 
Credit. 



By balance on hand $i)597 9 



2 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 219 

VAN BUREN TOWNSHIP FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $2,739 25 

To amount received as per schedule "A" i8i 79 



$2,921 04 
CredUs. 

By amount loaned' $ 250 00 

By balance on hand 2,671 04 



Dr. 



$2,921 04 

WESTPORT HORSE RAILROAD FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $387 33 

To amount received, schedule "A" 75 42 



Credit. 



$463 75 



By balance on hand $462 75 

BLUE TOWNSHIP RAILROAD FUND. 

To balance on hand last year. ., $ 832 03 

To amount received as per schedule "A" 557 74 



^ ,. $^-389 77 

Credits. 

By amount loaned $500 00 

By balance on hand 889 77 

KAW TOWNSHIP RAILROAD FUND. 

To balance on hand last year $6,139 11 

To amount as per schedule "A" 2,040 50 

$8,179 61 
Credits. 

By amount loaned out $5, 400 00 

By balance on hand 2,779 61 



$8,179 61 
Below is given the financial statement of Collector JVIurphy's final settlement 

with the County Court. For current year 1880, collections on real estate and 

personal property were : 

State $ 54,038 76 

County 40,700 78 

Tebo and Neosho special interest 27,138 51 

Special interest ^3,566 79 

Poor House 6,782 45 

Bridge 6,781 01 

Road S)085 11 

County schools 20,124 12 

Independence schools 3.347 98 

Lee's Summit schools 598 10 

Kansas City schools 68,702 99 

Westport schools 1,962 29 

Interest 212 38 

Collections $248,032 20 



220 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

State $ 65,254 26 

County 49>i84 79 

Tebo and Neosho special interest 32,789 82 

Special interest i63,9S5 59 

Poor House 8,203 80 

Bridge 8,205 20 

Road 6,145 10 

County school 23,754 52 

Independence school 3,759 54 

Lee's Summit school 701 3° 

Kansas City school 83,571 90 

Westport school 2,729 47 

Total assessments for current year $3ao,9o8 13 

DELINQUENT TAXES OF 1880. 

State $ 11,215 50 

County 8,484 01 

Tebo and Neosho special interest 5,651 3^ 

Special interest 2,828 80 

Poor house 1,420 35 

Bridge 1,424 19 

Road . 1,059 99 

County School 3,63° 43 

Independence school 411 96 

Lee's Summit school 103 20 

Kansas City school . . . , 14,868 97 

Westport school 767 22 

Total delinquent $ 51,865 93 

OTHER COLLECTIONS. 

Merchants' and manufacturers' license $ 28,369 39 

Dramshop, billiard and auctioneers' license 21,311 19 

Total $ 49,680 58 

Total collections . . . $267,712 78 

CREDITS. 

Delinquent list $ 51,865 93 

Abatements by County Court 6,759 37 

Commission on current tax 4,240 01 

Commission on dramshop tax, etc 372 92 

Commission on merchants tax 496 43 



Total credits $ 63,734 66 

Cash paid county treasurer $286,854 05 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



221 



s 
s 

a 


s s 




















S 




s 






















§ 




s 


















; s 




Kaw Tp. 
Narrow 
G. R. R. 
Bonds. 


5" ° 
















\ I 1 


CD 

g 




g e g 














; ■; g 






1 ^ 
















: : !M 


;5 




i> I— ( 

8 
















; sg 


s 
1 




5 3 3! 










8 








« 


^ s s s ^ 

CO S o5 rS S 


1 : 1 1 ^ j ?2 
: : : : co : co 
: : i : ^ : g 








o 
o 




s 

t^ 

^ 


1 


•^ o uo CO §3 


^ ■ • • : : 
(M : ; : I • 














2 

OS 


O a 


^ of uT : : : : : 




S 8 i 






1^ 




; : S s 

1 : o (M 
i : §■ 






o 




S" 2" "^ S" *=" '^'" j 
m : 


§3 










G 

§ 
.a 
a 
o 

s 
i 

n 


d 

o 

>> 

- .a 

Pi 
u 
3 

R 

■a 
o 

£ 
S 


"5 

o 

Ph 

-d 

a 

o 

u 

1 


c 

i 

a 

o 

■o 

a; 

a 


i i 

^ 1 
e 1 

a 1 

« ^• 

O o 

5 a 

o o 

o o 
o o 

a e 


iiii N : 

mm : 

S .S S 3 ^ 1 g 

« ^ t« p, 'O g ■« 
a f) d a a s § 

O O O O O 3 £ 
'd 'S 'C 13 *« ^ ^ 

.g 5 S .g .g ^ s 

o o o o o 1^ ^ 
© Qj © a; cy tS a 
S 5 3 S " o o 

8 8 8 8 8 £ a 

+3 +j ^J +3 +3 +3 +i 

a a a a a a a 

<< <j. <| <! -Jl <1 <! 


d 

1 

g 
<! 


1 § 

■rH O) 03 

" s 1 
^ ^ 1 

O O 1^ 

§ i i 

£ S S 

«H <H S-f 

*i ^J *: 

a a a 
< < < 


i 

■a 

a 
g 

a 


i 
B 

1 

a 


• o 
: o 

\ a 

: T3 
: a) 

a 1 

1 ^ 

2 a 
° 1 

•J CO 

a a 

o o 

^ a 

<! <! 




o 



222 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Below will be found a report submitted to the County Court ten years ago : 
1 have the honor to report the indebtedness of Jackson county on the first 
Monday, lA. D. 1870, as follows: 

WARRANTS OUTSTANDING. 

For the year 1851 $ 25 20 

For the year 1852 4 4° 

For the year 1853 5^ 3° 

For the year 1854 6 00 

For the year 1855 ■ . . . 15 3° 

For the year 1856 " 00 

For the year 1857 12 14 

For the year 1858 12 55 

For the year 1859 61 70 

For the year i860 96 93 

For the year 1861 765 25 

For the year 1862 7 5° 

For the year 1863 . . 42 25 

For the year 1864 55 54 

For the year 1865 156 47 

For the year 1866 869 58 

For the year 1867 3>8i4 81 

For the year 1868 • 4,891 45 

For the year 1869 3,265 54 

Making a total of $17,21221 

Borrowed school money 20,174 11 

Bond No. 16 held by Sawyer & Chrisman 12,000 00 

Bond No. 7, held by Fletcher 1,000 00 

63 bonds of Pacific Railroad 63,000 00 

Interest on the same 8,600 00 

II bonds to Louisiana and Missouri R. R 5,506 00 

Bridge bonds due February i, 1871 19,600 00 

Grand total $147,086 32 

The amount of receipts from all sources, for the year 1869, amounted as 
follows : 

County revenue . . $ 56,362 89 

Pooir House 6,868 94 

Special interest 13,070 06 

Bridge 14,096 99 

Road 15,145 65 

Railroad 29,430 14 

Total $135,904 47 

The amount of expenditures for the year 1869, for all purposes, amounted as 
follows : 

County revenue $ 44,423 73 

Poor House 9,002 32 

Special interest 5,406 64 

Bridge 7,813 61 

Road . 3,419 24 

Railroad 6,404 50 

Total $ 76,530 04 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. , 223 

Leaving a balance of receipts over expenditures of $59,374.43, which has 
been apphed to the payment of old debts. 

It will be seen that the receipts of the county revenue have exceeded the 
expenditures by $11,939.10, leaving a balance of that much to be applied to the 
payment of the outstanding warrants that have been protested. 

The expenditures of the Poor House fund have exceeded the receipts by 
$2,133.38, which has been expended in erecting a new and additional building 
on the county farm. 

The receipts on the road fund have been $15,143.65, while the expenditures 
in road warrants have been only $3,419.24, the balance has been expended by 
the road overseers in the various districts, and as they have not, as yet, made 
settlement, it is impossible for me to lay before your honor the result of their 
labors. 

The special interest fund shows receipts of $13,976.06 and expenditures of 
$5,406.04. As this is a new fund created out of the old county bounty fund, the 
expenditures have not been so great, but will mostly be consumed in paying off 
the interest due on borrowed school money and railroad bonds due February ist, 
1870. 

The receipts on the railroad fund have been $29,460.14, and expenditures 
have been $6,404.50, of which amount $5,500.00 was issued to Samuel L. Saw- 
yer, as one of the directors of the Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad Company 
for the purpose of making the survey through the County of Jackson, and for 
which the said Jackson county is to have credit on the subscription of $250,000 to 
the capital stock of said road. 

The interest on bonds No. 7 and 16 have been paid by Jackson county up to 
January ist, 1870. 

The interest on the bridge bonds has been paid (or money set aside to pay) 
up to April ist, A. D. 1870. 

Of the amount of interest due on old warrants I am unable to state, as I have 
no knowledge of the date of presentation of the same to the treasurer for payment, 
and can, therefore, form no idea of the amount necessary to pay the same 

I find after careful examination there is due on the delinquent list of 1869, 
and the same lists of 1861 to 1868 inclusive the following amounts : 

County revenue .... $35,754 80 

Special interest . . . . 10,980 08 

Poor House 5>277 27 

Bridge • • 9, 941 21 

Railroad . . . ■ • 3°;5S5 0° 

Road 6,214 73 



Total ... $98,722 73 

So that it will be seen if all delinquent taxes were paid it would leave our 
gross indebtedness only $48,345.58. 

There would also be in the treasury money as follows : 

County revenue $18,541 79 

Special interest .... . 10,980 50 

Poor House ... 3!^43 67 

Road 6,214 73 

Making a general total of . '. .$37,960 73 

And the balance due on the railroad debt to be only $46,545.00. All of 
which is respectfully submitted, 

E. R. HICKMAN, Clerk. 

By W. Z. Hickman, D. C. 



224 , HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

COUNTY POOR FARM. 

There were few applications in early days for county aid by persons who 
were poor and unfortunate. In those days few persons were very rich, and it is 
likewise true that there were few very poor. The history of Jackson county in 
this respect was not different from that of other counties. As the county settled 
up, farms were improved, elegant farm-houses erected, and the natural resources 
of the county developed; the more industrious and economical and fortunate 
became richer, and those who were less energetic or fortunate became poorer. 
After the lapse of some time the number of paupers was so great, and the expense 
of maintaining them so large, that the taxpayers began to clamor for some more 
economical method of relieving the deserving poor. Not only had the number 
of paupers increased rapidly, but exorbitant prices were frequently demanded for 
maintaining such, and, when accommodations could not be procured elsewhere, 
the authorities were compelled to pay the prices demanded. Under these circum- 
stances the people began to inquire after some plan whereby the poor could be 
more economically cared for. In 1852 there seemed to be a general feeling in 
favor of purchasing a farm and erecting buildings suitable for an infirmary. The 
County Court had been, previous to that time, frequently petitioned by various 
individuals, and the feasibility of the undertaking, doubtless, had frequently sug- 
gested itself to that honorable body. 

Jackson County Poor Farm is situated ten miles south of Independence, and 
contains 160 acres. It was bought in the year 1852. A summary of the annual 
reports of Superintendent D. Gregg for 1879 and 1880 will be sufficient to show 
the practical workings of the institution : 

REPORT FOR 1879. 

Number of paupers on hand January i, 1880 52 

Number received in 1879 . 46 

Number discharged in 1879 42 

Number of deaths in 1879 11 

Total January i, 1880 45 

Number insane and idiotic January i, 1879 28 

Number received in 1879 4 

Number of deaths in 1879 3 

Total January i, 1880 29 

SEX OF PAUPERS. 

White males 11 

White females i 

Black males 3 

Black females i 

SEX OF INSANE AND IDIOTIC 

White males 16 

White females 6 

Black males . 2 

Black females 5 

EXPENDITURES. 

/' Goods $350 17 

Groceries 625 22 

Plour 37 75 

Hardware 48 36 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 225 



EXPENDITURES CONTINUED. 



Amount brought forward *i ogj 



44 
48 00 



Coffins 

Blacksmithing ■ ^42^ 

Beef cows, etc ■,-,a a^ 

' 334 45 

00 



Lounges . . ^8 

Harness 

Rails .....[ 

Salaries 

Ice '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.['.'.. 21 eg 

Superintendent coo 00 

Physician ,2^ 

Paid County Treasurer on sale of mule 94 



9 8s 

22 so 

720 70 



00 



T°'^l- ■■ „ $3,093 19 



Amount on hand January i, 1879 i,373 



00 



4,466 19 



00 



25 00 
5 00 



BY PRODUCE OF FARM — CREDIT. 

Milch COWS . . $241; 

One bull .".'.".!! 

One calf 

Beef cattle 280 00 

Stock hogs 120 00 

Pork on hand .... . iso 00 

Two stacks of hay 20 00 

One rick of oats S° °° 

Clover seed and two ricks hay 100 00 

100 bushels of potatoes 40 00 

560 lbs. lard 56 00 

16 acres growing wheat 80 00 

360 bbls. corn 450 00 

4 bbls. molasses 48 00 

40 bushels wheat 40 00 



$1,709 00 

$4,466 10 

1,709 00 



$2,757 19 
Deduct bill for rails 70 50 



$2,686 69 
The average number of paupers for the year is 40^, at a cost $59.47 per 
annum per capita; $i.io_^ per week, or 15^ cents per day. 

REPORT FOR 1880. 

Number of paupers on hand January i, 1880 4S 

" received during i88o 57 

" discharged 1880 . • 34 

" died 1880 9 

Total number on hand January i, 1881 59 

15 



226 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

REPORT FOR 1880 — CONTINUED. 

Number of insane in 1880 28 

" " received in 1880 10 

" " discharged 7 

" " deaths ■ • • ■ ■ 3 

Total insane • ■ • 28 

Number of children 4 

SEX OF PAUPERS : 

White males 23 

" females ... 3 

Black males 3 

" females 2 

Total ■ 31 

SEX OF insane: 

White males 14 

" females 7 

Black males 2 

" females 5 

Total 28 

paupers received in 1880. 

White males '..... 36 

" females 8 

Black males 2 

" females i 

Total 47 

Deaths 10 

, expenses. 

Goods $ 471 04 

Groceries 420 06 

Bacon 366 08 

Hogs 405 18 

Beef 3°3 73 

Wood and coal 232 13 

Coffins 49 5 1 

Hardware 75 10 

Wagon 70 00 

Saddlery iS 25 

Lounges 24 00 

Oats. 7 50 

Blacksmithing ' 36 95 

Tobacco 10 00 

Repairing wagon 6 95 

Threshing and cutting grain 5375 

Transportation of paupers 35 60 

Labor on farm 183 15 

Steward , .... 277 00 

Cook 192 00 

Medicine • 138 45 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



227 



$3,379 
1,709 
500 



EXPENSES — CONTINUED. 

Amount brought forward 

Moneys on hand 

Superintendent 

Physician ^"g 

Matron's services j-^ 

Total expenditures ... $6 oi;i 

CREDITS BY 

2,250 bushels corn $671; 

3 stacks hay ■ • qq 

I " oats ... ; .' ■ 60 

100 bushels potatoes 40 

24 fat hogs _■ 240 

67 stock hogs 240 

S heef cattle 

5 cows 

1 calf 

Pork 

Clover seed 

Clover seed sold 

" " sown 

Wheat sown 

2 steers sold 

5 calves sold 

Hides 

Wagon 

Lounges 



43 
00 
00 
61 
00 



175 

17s 

15 

150 
57 
77 

15 

100 

96 

SO 
27 
70 
24 



°3 

00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
5° 
5° 
00 
00 

25 
00 

50 
00 
00 



A- l^'377 75 

Expenditures • $6,051 03 

Credits 2,377 75 

Net expenditures $3,673 28 

The average number of inmates for the year was fifty-one, at a cost of $72. 
02^ per annum, $1.38^^ per week, 19^ cents per day. 

Respectfully, J. P. HENRY, M. D. 

D. GREGG, Supt. 




PRAIRIE HOMES. 



228 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



INVENTORY. 



To the Honorable Court of Jackson 
" I have this day, February 2 
me to go upon the Poor Farm and 
upon said farm. 

5 Mules in good order. 

5 Milch cows in common order. 

I Beef steer. 

78 Stock hogs in good condition. 

1,842 Bushels of corn. 

3 Ricks of clover hay. 

1 Rick of oats. 

2 Wagons. 

1 Spring wagon. 

2 Sets wagon harnesses. 

2 Single plow harnesses. 

1 Molasses mill and evaporator. 
I Cutting box. 

1 Harrow. 

3 Carpets. 

2 Bedsteads. 

2 White blankets. 

2 Mattresses. 

I Medicine desk. 

I Domestic sewing machine. 

I Hay. knife. 

I Wash stand. 

28 Chairs. 

36 or 40 Bushels of potatoes. 

140 Pieces of bacon. 



County : 

18, 1881, complied with your order directing 

make an inventory of the personal property 

2 Large kettles. 

3 Axes. 

1 Bathing tub. 

4 Double shovel plows. 

2 Large plows. 

2 Single shovel plows, 
i^ Bushels salt. 
I Twenty gallon barrel of lard. 
^ Barrel Lard. 

3 Large tin cans of lard. 
I Brace and bit. 

1 Hand saw. 
3 Planes. 

2 Cythes and cradles. 
60 Lounges with blankets, apparently 

sufficient for them. 
16 Stoves. 

1 Scalding box. 

2 Pairs handcuffs (one key lost). 

5 Pitch forks. 
I Sausage mill, 
t Churn. 
I Pick. 
I Shovel. 
I Spade. 

" In making out the above list, some things I gave but a passing notice, as, 
for instance, the vessels for the cooking stove. I did not count the dishes, 
plates, knives, forks, and many other things belonging to the pauper table. 

" Please accept this report. ' P. N. GRINTER." 

It will be seen from the foregoing that the farm is well managed, and that 
the management is carefully and systematically looked after. 

With such facilities for receiving inmates, it is certainly proper that parties 
subject to public maintenance be removed to the infirmary as speedy as possible. 
There are cases when it is advisable to pay a weekly sum for the -support of an 
individual or family, but these are exceptionable. It is neither to the interest of 
the needy nor in the interests of public morals to furnish indiscriminate aid to 
out- door paupers. 

Asylums for the poor and disabled are peculiarly Christian institutions, and 
they become more common with the growth of civilization. None of the heathen 
nations of antiquity in the times of their greatest prosperity established benevo- 
lent institutions for the unfortunate; but in this age, a State, or even a county of 
any considerable size, would be considered far behind the times in all the ele- 
ments of progress, unless some provisions were made for the care of the unfortu- 
nate. " Over the hills to the poor house " is a sad story, but there are many 
sadder ones to be found in the history of those people who have no such institu- 
tions. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 229 

CHAPTER XI. 
AGRICULTURE. 

Its Establishment and the Men Active in the Enterprise — The First Fair in Jackson County In 

i8$4 New Grounds Purchased — No Fairs During the War — Names of the Officers of the As- 
sociation Each Year — Complete Account of the Fair for i8yo— Fair of iSyi — The Last Fair 
of the Association. 

JACKSON COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL ASSOCIATION. 

It was established at Independence in the fall of 1853. Those prominent in 
the organization of the association : Wm. Chrisman, Samuel H. Woodson, Alvin 
Brooking, A. Comingo, Isaac Hockaday, Ezra R. Hickman, W. B. Howard, N. 
B. Stone, William Stone, John Wilson, John Parker, J. B. Hovey, B. F. Thomp- 
son, Samuel Ralston, B. S. Grant, Jacob Stonestreet, John B. Wornall and 
Robert Hill. 

The first fair was held in Wood Noland's pasture, which was between where 
Alex. Proctor lives and the Chicago and Alton Depot. It was held in September, 
1853, and continued three days. 

The first fair was well patronized by the people, and as many as 1,500 or 
2,000 were in attendance on the last day. Twenty-five cents was charged for 
each ticket. There was a small ring in which to parade the stock and try the 
speed of horses, a few seats for the ladies, and a rope inclosed the grounds. The 
show of stock was large, but fruit, grain and implements were not numerous. 
Mr. Robert Weston and Mr. John G. McCurdy exhibited a few farm implements. 
In 1854 the association bought 15 acres, at $75 per acre, of John R. Oldham, 
one and one-half miles south of Independence, and afterward held their exhibits 
here. The land and improvements were paid for by the issue of stock, which 
was in sums of $20 each. The stock was always at par value until the Civil 
War. 

An eight-foot picket fence was built all around, and an ampitheater, which 
would seat about 6,000. Fairs were held on these grounds till the war broke out, 
and then again in 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870 and 187 1. 

Those influential in the Jackson County Agricultural and Mechanical Asso- 
ciation afterward gave their influence to the Kansas City Exposition. 

The first officers w^e : Alvin Brooking, President, William Chrisman Sec- 
retary. Directors : James K. Sheley, A. Comingo, Isaac Hockaday, Robert G. 
Smart, Jacob F. Stonestreet. 

Officers in 1854 : Alvin Brooking, President, E. R. Hickman, Secretary. 

Officers in 1855 : S. H. Woodson, President, E. R. Hickman, Secretary. 

Officers in 1856 : John B. Wornall, President, E. R. Hickman, Secretary. 

Officers in 1857 : James K. Sheley, President, E. R. Hickman, Secretary. 

Officers in 1858: Benj. Thompson, President, Schuyler Lowe, Secretary. 

Officers in 1859 : Benj. Thompson, President, Robert Hill, ist Vice Presi- 
dent, J. B. Hovey, 2d Vice President, Schuyler Lowe, Secretary. 

Officers in i860 : Thomas M. Fields, President, Schuyler Lowe, Secretary. 

In 1 86 1 the war came and no Fair was held until 1866. 

Officers in 1866 were : Preston Roberts, President, Schuyler Lowe, Secre- 
tary, A. T. Slack, Treasurer. 

In 1866 many of the prominent agriculturists of the country again united 
their efforts and held a fair during the second week of September of that year. 



230 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

The officers for 1867 were S. K. Knox, President, William L. Bryant, Sec- 
retary. 

In 1868 Failing Lane was President and William L. Bryant was Secretary. 

In 1869 Felling Lane was again President, and William L. Bryant was also 
again Secretary. 

In the fall of 1869 the association issued new stock in shares of twenty dollars 
each, which sold readily. 

The Fair for 1870 was held Sept. 12, 13, 14 and 15. 

At a meeting of the stockholders November 20, 1870, Henry C. Parker was 
chairman and O. P. W. Bailey was secretary. The stockholders then proceeded 
to the election of officers for the year 1871, with the following result : O. P. W. 
Bailey, President ; Henry C. Parker, Vice-President. 

Directors — M. W. Anderson, W. E. Croysdale, W. H. Franklin, Schuyler 
Lowe, A. S. Packard, Jacob Powell, C. R. Barnes, Sam'l Jewett, John T. Smith, 
John B. Wornall, Wm. B. Howard, S. K. Knox, Z. S. Ragan. 

O. P. W. Bailey, Sec'y. 

At a meeting of the directors of the Jackson County Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical Association, held at the office of Messrs. Woodson & Sheley in the city of 
Independence, Mo., on Monday, 21st November, 1870. V. M. Hobbs, Esq., 
was elected secretary for the ensuing year, and John T. Pendleton, treasurer. 

It seems that the society had a successful exhibition in September, 187 1. 

The last fair under the auspices of the Jackson County Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Association was held September 5-7, 1872. The attendance was not 
large, although a very respectable number were present. It seems that the dis- 
trict fairs had attracted nearly all interest from county exhibitions. We under- 
stand that the association was out of pocket some one or two hundred dollars. 



CHAPTER XIL 
EDUCATIONAL. 



Introductory— Private Enterprise— Six Mile Academy— The Woodworlh School, of Independence-^ 
Mrs. Buchanan's School^D. I. Caldwell's School— Independence Female Academy— Mrs. 
Betlie T. Tillery's Academy— Woodland College— Highland CMlege— Independence HighSchool 
—Independence Female College— St. Mary's Seminary— Public Schools of the County— Suits. 
Report m 1866— Jackson County Teacher's Institute— Report of the School Commissioner, D. 
I. Caldwell, in 18^0. 

Missouri having been admitted as a member of the Union in 182 1, as early 
as 1825, the Legislature, impressed with the importance of a general system of 
education, as a factor in the success and permanence of Republican institutions, 
as well as of personal and social happiness, passed a bill establishing a system of 
public schools for the State. Born, as Missouri was, amid the alarming conflict 
of sectional prejudices; together with many hardships and calls for self-denial 
ever incident upon the settlement and organization of a new State, it was not 
wonderful that the people were slow in the practical adoption of such a system, 
and would pause to consider its advantages ; more especially, as the older States, 
from which many of the early settlers had come, had not given the public school 
system such importance in their legislation in this direction as it really deserved. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 231 

The hardy yeomanry, who are generally the pioneers in new States, are not, 
generally, as a rule, of that class, who comprehend in all its relations, the benefits 
of a thorough and general education; and not realizing these, they are generally 
disposed to subordinate them to the acquisition and accumulations of the more 
material comforts of life. Yet, at an early day, individual counties, as they in- 
creased in population, and had gathered around them the means of comfort, 
availed themselves of the munificence of the general government, supplemented 
by the intelligent legislation of the State. 

The western border counties, contiguous to the Indian Territory, were sub- 
jected to many hindrances to the advancement of their educational interests. 
Like all border territory, the people found many exciting topics, and many ab- 
sorbing subjects in the different departments of trade and business, to occupy 
their thoughts; Jackson county, from her peculiar location, had more of this 
than any other border county. Yet, settled as she was, by a hardy and indus- 
trious people; they were, from the very first, an enterprising, intelligent class of 
men and women, many of them men of fine ability, if not of liberal education, 
such as the Greggs, Owens, Simpson, Stith and others; and as early as 1838, 
having a number of scholarly citizens, such as Waldo, McCoy, Lee, Palmer, 
Woodson and Chiles. We are authorized in believing that attention was early 
directed to establishment and encouragement of good private schools, some of 
them affording advantages equal to those of older States. 

As early as 1841 a charter was secured from the Legislature for the estab- 
lishment of a Seminary, to be called the Six Mile Academy, and to be located in 
the Six Mile country, in the northeast part of the county, near the line between 
ranges thirty-one and thirty-two, east of Little Blue River. The trustees of this 
Seminary, as named in the articles of incorporation, were Thomas Douglas, 
Samuel Kimsey, Ebenezer Dixon, Jonathan Cameron, Thomas Hudspeth and 
Joseph Handson. For some cause, unexplained, this Seminary was never or- 
ganized under the charter; but the enterprising citizens, with other intelligent 
neighbors, determined to avail themselves of the spirit of improvement thus 
aroused, and, near the original location, erected a commodious log house and 
made arrangements to open a school during the year 1814. The school was ac- 
cordingly opened, with Mr. Walker Buckner, a native of Kentucky, as its 
principal. This house was continuously occupied from that time until the sum- 
mer of 1880, when the citizens of district number one, township fifty, range 
thirty, substituted a good substantial frame building. The old log house was left 
standing as a memorial of the early enterprise of the pioneers and a sample of 
the original school houses all over the State. This house, however, was more 
pretentious, having glass windows, fire-places and chimneys of brick. The " old 
log school house" is not only traditionary, but, in many places, is still the only 
temple in which "the young idea is taught to shoot." Nor is this description of 
school house pecuUar to Missouri. Well does the writer remember, long years 
ago, in his native State, Kentucky, sitting through the long summer, or shorter 
winter, days, in just such a school house, on benches hewn from the trees of the 
neighboring forest, in the construction of which the only tools used were the axe, 
saw and auger. In these houses the children were generally free from any lia- 
bility to contract diseases incident to the want of sufficient ventilation, however 
crowded they might be. Ventilation was admirably secured by the removal of a 
log the whole length of the room, and the aperture closed when necessary by a 
plank suspended by leathern straps. The most efficient means of ventilation, 
however, was the ceiling (loft), consisting, as it often did, of loose boards laid 
upon round poles, which served the place of rafters. The ill-fitting door, muti- 
lated chinking, and floor made of slabs hewed from the larger trees and loosely 
laid, contributed essentially to the furnishing of fresh air to the future conservators 
of republican institutions. The means of warming were just as efficient. The 



232 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

fire-place occupied the greater part of one end Of the house. The chimney, from 
coping up, consisted of spUt sticks, the interstices daubed with mud. Many were 
the narrow escapes from conflagration incident to the near approach of the com- 
bustible to the abundant flame in such a furnace. Many more costly edifices have 
failed to furnish professional and business men superior to those receiving the 
ground-work of their usefulness in these old log school houses. Presidents, 
senators, judges and theologists have here received their first impulses to eminence. 
The love of learning, which has urged men on to deeper and higher attainments 
of sciences that have resulted in so much benefit to the world, was here first ex- 
cited. Around the old log school house cluster brightest and dearest recollections, 
and for them the sensitive heart entertains a respectful reverence. 

About this time — 1841 or 1842 — the enterprising citizens of Independence, 
many of whom in the states of their nativity had enjoyed the advantages of a 
liberal education, and having young families growing up around them, were 
moved to provide means of education superior to those furnished by the primary 
schools. Fortunately, a man well educated and devoted to the cause, endowed 
with a happy faculty and aptness for teaching and conducting a school of high 
order, presented himself in the person of Prof. H. D. Woodsworth. 

A stock company was organized, composed of the intelligent citizens of the 
town ; a site was selected, and a building of limited accommodations was erected 
in the southern part of the city, near the present site of the Narrow Gauge round- 
house, and Independence Female Academy opened. (This title has been attached 
to several other institutions at later dates. ) Its opening prospects promised much 
more for the educational interests of Western Missouri than any former enter- 
prise. This institution became the pride of the embryo city, and deserved all 
that was claimed for it. The patrons looked to it with hope for the education of 
their daughters, and not without circumstances of encouragement. For two 
years its success was wholly satisfactory. Unfortunately, however, circumstances 
wholly unconnected with the school occurred which resulted in disaffection and 
alienation on the part of the people toward Prof Woodsworth. Patronage was 
withdrawn ; and, after a successful career of nearly three years, the institution 
declined and finally closed. Discouraged by this failure, no effort was made to 
continue the school under the same arrangement, successive teachers continued, 
however, to supply the demand for the next four years. 

In 1846, Mrs. Gertrude Buchanan, a lady of superior accomplishments, good 
scholarship, fine administrative ability, withall endowed with decided practical 
talent, opened a school for young ladies in the Presbyterian church on Rock 
street, on the site of the present First Baptist church. The citizens were in a 
condition to embrace so favorable an opportunity, and, consequently, the school 
was a success from the first. Mrs. Buchanan, in addition to her accomplishments, 
possessed superior qualifications as a teacher of music ; and through the urgent 
solicitation of her patrons to enlarge her sphere of usefulness, was persuaded to 
take a music class, which she continued to teach, in addition to her other duties, 
until the summer of 1847, at which time she was only too glad to relinquish her 
school to Mr. D. I. Caldwell. Mr. Caldwell, a graduate of Center College, at 
Danville, Kentucky, brought to the school ripe scholarship connected with large 
experience and energy and decision of purpose. This enterprise was necessarily 
hmited for want of suitable buildings. In the winter following, Mr. Caldwell pur- 
chased the property known as the Old Irish Tavern, well located on South Main 
street, but not as suitable for the purpose of a seminary as could have been 
desired. The school increased in patronage until every foot of space was filled. 
Thus it continued until the spring of 1849, when, worn and enfeebled by over- 
work,' he was constrained to retire to the country to recuperate his health. At 
this time the community was much excited with regard to the Smta Fe trade, 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 233 

which excitement arose to fever heat upon the news of the discovery of gold in 
California. 

Had the people been free to give to the cause of education that attention 
which its importance demanded, this was the time to have inaugurated a female 
school on a high basis, liut the circumstances above mentioned so absorbed all 
attention, that schools and all pertaining to schools were measurably lost sight of. 

In 1850, Rev. R. S. Symington opened a school for young ladies in the room 
formerly occupied by Mr. Caldwell. This school met with a success fully com- 
mensurate with the accommodations until 1852, when Mr. S. was called to Pleas- 
ant Hill to take charge of the Presbyterian church and the Female Seminary of 
that thriving village. 

Dr. Bruner succeeded as the principal of the school at Independence. How 
long he continued to conduct the school is not known to the writer. 

Independence thus continued to be supplied with good schools until 1853. 
About this time Rev. W. H. Lewis, of the Methodist Episcopal church, South, 
who had been President of Monticello Academy, in Howard county, and after- 
ward Principal of a Female Seminary at Jefferson City, opened a school in the 
Methodist church on Rock street. 

The next year a stock company was organized, and the large, commmodious 
building on North Liberty street, now occupied by the city Public Schools, was 
erected, and a large and flourishing school opened with Mr. Lewis as President, 
aided by a full corps of competent assistants. 

This school was well patronized by the citizens of this and adjoining counties and 
soon became a beacon of encouragement to Western Missouri. All the departments 
of literature generally taught in the best schools of the country were filled by com- 
petent teachers and success was secured. A career of prosperity adorned its 
history until 1861, when the scourge of nations and the destroyer of our highest 
hopes — the unfortunate civil war — dashed these hopes and closed the doors of 
the seminary which promised so much usefulness to an anxious people. The 
school was suspended and the building occupied as a barracks and hospital for 
Federal soldiers. 

This institution having continued longer, was, perhaps, the most successful 
in its results of all the enterprises undertaken up to this period- 
Mr. Lewis, having during the war made other arrangements, did not propose 
to open the school after the close of the unfortunate interruption. 

In 1847, Mrs. M. M. Langhorne, a lady of fine culture, opened a school on 
West Lexington street, for young ladies, and was well patronized for about two 
years, when her husbund, Dr. J. W. Langhorne, partaking of the great California 
epidemic, determined to embark for that Eldorado of the West. 

One of the most successful enterprises in the interest of education, and one 
that told with marked results upon the community and especially upon the young 
ladies enjoying its advantages, was that of Miss Bettie T. Tillery. Mrs. T. was 
endowed with more than ordinary mental ability, cultivated and strengthened by 
education in all the branches usually taught in our best seminaries ; possessed 
also of firmness of purpose, connected with kindness and amiability of temper; 
all these adorned with womanly modesty. She commanded not only the respect, 
but the love and devotion of the young ladies under her tuition and control. Her 
fine administrative ability contributed very much to her eminent, success. Mrs. 
Tillery opened her school in the basement of the First Presbyterian church, on 
West Lexington street. Soon after, she purchased the property nearly opposite 
the church on South Osage street, and added largely to its accommodations, and 
in 1855 moved her school to that place and connected with it a boarding depart- 
ment. Mrs. T. aimed at no more extensive arrangements than such as she could 
personally supervise and control; hence, school was always as full as she 
desired it to be. It must not, however, be concluded that it was very much lim- 



234 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

ited in its range of influence. On the contrary the boarding department was 
usually filled to its utmost capacity with pupils from a distance. Rarely has \yest- 
ern Missouri enjoyed such educational advantages as were afforded by thig. insti- 
tution. 

Like most of the private institutions of learning, especially those under the 
control of principals and teachers not in sympathy with the invasion of southern 
rights, this school was suspended, during the war and Mrs. Tillery was banished 
from her home. When the war closed Mrs. T. returned, but so reduced in her 
resources that she was unable to afford the accommodations usually enjoyed in 
the institution. Having conducted the school for a few years longer, the posi- 
tion of first assistant in the public schools of the city was offered and accepted; 
which situation she continue to fill until 1876, when she resigned and went to 
Kentucky, where she still resides. 

In 1869 Profs. W. A. and W. Buckner, former principals of Bourbon Female 
College, Paris, Kentucky, purchased at a cost of $11,000 the property known as 
the McCauley property, in the western suburbs of the city, an eligible and command- 
ing site on the Kansas City road, and on the line of the contemplated boulevard. 
The building was suitably enlarged, by the addition of wings, at a cost of $4,500, 
making the whole cost of property and furniture nearly $17,000. 

With encouraging prospects, these enterprising young gentlemen opened 
their school in the fall of the same year. This school was from the first designed 
for a female school, and Messrs. Buckner, bringing to the institution ripe scholar- 
ship and large experience, could but command the patronage of an intelligent 
community. The faculty was composed of Profs. W. A. and W. Buckner, as- 
sociate principals. Mrs. H. S. Twyman, first assistant, and Miss Hattie Hutton, 
preparatory department. 

The music department was under the instruction of Miss M. Gossine. 

The session of 1870-71 opened with the same gentlemen as principals. Prof. 
Frank Smith, mathematics; Mrs. Smith, preparatory, and Miss M. Gossine, 
music. 

The graduates this year were Misses Eva Mariner, Jessie Farrar and Nannie 
Ragan. 

For the years 1871-2-3, the working principal. Prof. W. A. Buckner, having 
been called to the presidency of Lexington Christian Female College, Wood- 
land College came under the control of Prof. A. E. Higgason. During this time 
young gentlemen were admitted to the classes. 

At the opening of the session of 1873-4 Prof. W. A. Buckner again took 
charge of the school, as president, assisted by Mr. F. W. Smith, Mrs. C. B. 
Buckner and Miss Jessie Tipton. 

The graduates were Misses Lizzie Mariner, Emma Ragan and Kate Ross. 

1874-5. Faculty' — Prof. W. A. Buckner, President; Mrs. Aldrich and Mrs. 
C. B. Buckner, assistants; Mrs. Sallie Price, music department. 

1875-6. Faculty— Prof. W. A. Buckner, President; Mrs. C. B. Buckner, 
assistant; music. Prof. H. Schultz. 

1876-7. Prof. W. A. Buckner, President; assistants, F. W. Allen and Miss 
Ida Gray; music. Miss Louise Hoffman. 

Graduates : Misses Ida Gray, Kate Gibson, Linda Thomson, Louise L. 
Noland, Lula Waldo, Laura Moss, Emma Weitzel and Lula Stone. 

1877-8. Faculty same as preceding. 

Graduates: Misses Carrie Robinson, Alice M. Moore, Maud McVay, Lou. 
Hardin, Kate Buckner, Annie Oldham, Betta Frazier and Annie Wize. 

1878-9. Faculty — Prof. W. A. Buckner, Mrs. C. B. Buckner, Miss Kate 
Buckner; music. Miss M. E. McGary. 

In 1879 the institution was purchased by a stock company and organized as 
a mixed school for young ladies and gentlemen, with the following gentleman as 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 235 

a board of trustees : Messrs. E. A. Hickman, J. S. Mott, J. P. Jones, Chas. E. 
Wilson, L. M. Sea, H. C. St. Clair, John Bryant, Jr., H. H. Noland, Alexander 
Procter and J. P. Alexander. 

The officers of the board were Maj. E. A. Hickman, President ; J. S. Mott, 
Vice-President; H. H. Noland, Secretary, and H. C. St. Clair, Treasurer. 

The faculty consisted of the following: Alex. Proctor, A. M., President 
and Professor of Mental and Moral Science and Evidences of Christianity ; J. W. 
Ellis, A. M., Professor of Mathematics, Latin, Ancient and English Literature, and 
Dean of Faculty; H. Christopher, A. M., M. D., Professor of Natural Science, 
Natural History and Greek; W. A. Buckner, A. M., Professor of English 
branches and Astronomy; Maj. E. A. Hickman, Professor of Field Practice and 
Applied Mathematics; Miss Nellie Loar, instrumental and vocal music; Mrs. C. 
Buckner, primary department. 

Graduates for 1880; Misses Nannie D. Cox, salutatory. Gertrude L. 
Beard, Martha Crenshaw, Lucy E. Crump, Louisa Famish, Myra Gilkey, Lena 
G. Hardin, Lizzie H. Masters, Virginia White, salutatory. Mr. Alfred N. 
Gosset, valedictory. 

At the close of the first session, Prof. EUis retired and took possession and 
control of the flourishing Academy at Plattsburgh, Mo. The vacancy thus 
occurring, was filled by the appointment of Prof. C. R. Thomson, of Midway, 
Kentucky. 

Miss Nellie Loar having resigned her position as teacher of music, the 
vacancy was filled by the appointment of Miss Rosa Lee Wilhoyte, of Louisville, 
Kentucky. 

There has been inaugurated a school, which, .with intelligent and liberal 
management, may prove a rich blessing to this broad, God-favored western 
country. 

In 1845, McDonald District No. 2, in the southwestern part of the county, 
in township lorty-eight, range thirty-three, was organized into a High School, by 
Mr. Jefferson H. Johnson, of Hinds county, Mississippi, a gentleman of liberal 
education and endowed with a spirit of enterprise and progress. Devoted to the 
cause of education, and realizing the necessity of suitable accommodations for 
such an enterprise, he, on his own land, and at his own expense, the next year, 
erected suitable buildings, about one and a half miles from the original site, and 
a short distance north of the south hne, of what is now Brooking township. 
In the fall of 1846, Mr. Johnson, as proprietor and head of the [boarding 
department, opened the school under the title of Highland Academy. The first 
Principal was Mr. S. S. Woods, Of New York, a man of superior scholarship and 
accomplishments, but soon developed a lack of administrative ability, and was 
discharged after a few months' service. The number of pupils was about forty. 
In this school were taught the higher branches of English, together with Latin 
and Greek. Prof. Woods was succeeded by Mr. Young, who, proving wholly 
incompetent to conduct the school, at his own suggestion, was relieved, and suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Joseph Bledsoe, a gentleman of fine endowments, who had de- 
voted himself to the profession of law; and having with great ability and success, 
conducted the Academy for five months, resigned, to enter upon the practice of 
the profession of his choice. The resignation of Mr. Bledsoe was much regretted 
by all the friends of this young and growing enterprise. Through all these dis- 
couragements the school was continued, and in 1846, Prof. J. H. Youley was 
induced to accept the position of Principal, than whom, perhaps, no better selec- 
tion could have been made. Thoroughly conversant with all the departments of 
English and classical education; and endowed with eminent decision of character, 
and withal devoted to the profession of teaching, he was especially fitted to take 
charge of such an institution. His eminent qualifications being recognized, the 
school opened with fifty or sixty pupils, which number was soon augmented to 



236 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

seventy or eighty of all grades, but chiefly of the higher. They came from several 
different States, north, as well as south. Prof. Youley continued to preside over 
the institution until 1849, when, having been called to a position at Camden 
Point, in Platte county, he resigned the trust, carrying with him the regret of the 
whole community. 

In this school, were educated young men, who, in after life, became the 
most useful and influential citizens ot the States, from which they came ; among 
whom may be mentioned, of this county : J. T. Belt, J. L. Winchester, Hon. 
S. C. Ragan, N. L. Simpson, H. Clay, James Cogswell and Charles Cowherd ; 
Reed and McGee, of Platte, James Payne, of Clay, Quincy and Thomas Mercer, 
of Hinds county, Miss., and R. and W. Forbes, of Nelson Co., Ky. 

The failing health of Mr. Johnson, shortly after resulting in his death, lead 
to the suspension of the school. After his death, the property fell in other hands, 
and the school was not re-opened. 

After the suspension of Highland Academy, the intelligent citizens of the 
same neighborhood, having enjoyed the blessing of a good school, and not alto- 
gether disposed to give up the good work, built a commodious school house, 
about one and a half miles southwest of Highland, which is now known as 
Union Point. A school was here opened under the direction and tuition of Mr. 
S. C. Ragan, a pupil of Highland. At this place, a good school has ever since 
been sustained. The school, however, about 1850 or 1851, was organized under 
the public school law, and has thus been conducted ever since. 

An important enterprise connected with the educational interests of Jackson 
county, known as Independence High School, chiefly under the supervision arid 
instruction of Prof. George .S. Bryant, deserves especial notice. Some time in 
1857 Prof. M. W. Miller opened a school for instruction in the higher branches 
in the southwestern part of the city. The accommodations being limited and 
wholly unsuited to the purpose, the friends of Prof. M. associated themselves in 
a stock company and erected the building still standing on the property adjoining 
that of Dr. John Bryant, Sr., where the school was conducted by Prof. M. until 
i860. At this time George S. Bryant, having graduated with honors at Bethany 
College, Va. , and the success of the school demanding assistance, went in as 
associate principal. The war ensuing a few months later, Prof. Miller, on account 
of his strong Southern proclivities, was forced to leave the county. He went to 
St. Louis, and is now one of the ward principals in that city. Mr. Bryant con- 
tinued the conduct of the school after the war and until 1875. At this date he 
was chosen Principal of the Christian Female College at Columbia, Mo., and 
severed his connection with the school at Independence, and is still the popular 
and honored President of the above named college. 

Independence High School has, perhaps with justice, been regarded as the 
school of the county. The writer of this sketch has had much to do with the 
schools of the county, and, as a general thing, has found the students of Indepen- 
dence High School better drilled and more thoroughly instructed than those of 
any other school in the county, and perhaps not excelled by any institution in the 
State. 

In the summer of 1871 the corner stone of Independence Female College, 
on North Liberty street, was laid with masonic ceremonies. Grandmaster W. E. 
Whiting officiating, and Rev. M. M. Fisher, D. D., delivering the address. 

This institution was founded by enterprising citizens in connection with the 
First Presbyterian Church of Independence. The following gentlemen consti- 
tuted the first board of trustees: William Chrisman, A. Comingo, George P. 
Gates, Charles D. Lucas, G. W. Buchanan, John H. Taylor, William McCoy, 
John T. Smith, John McCoy. 

The school opened with flattering prospects in the fall of 1871, and had in 
attendance during its first session eighty-three pupils. The faculty consisted of 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 237 

Rev. M. M. Fisher, D.D., President; Miss M. Henderson, First Assistant; Miss 
Sadie Allen, Intermediate, and Miss Kate Buchanan, Preparatory. At the close 
of the first session, June, 1872, there were three graduates. Misses Velona Hen- 
derson, Annie Ralston and Mattie A. Wyatt. The music department was under 
the direction of Prof. H. Shultz, Mrs. M. Moulton and Mrs. M. Lucas Watson. 

The session of 1873-4 was under the same faculty, and graduated six young 
ladies. Misses Hattie Colbern, Emma Farrar, Bettie Parberry, Laura Ragan, 
Susie Mariner and Maggie Chrisman. 

In 1874 Prof. Strother, formerly President of St. Charles Female College, a 
gentleman of fine scholarship and much experience in teaching, succeeded Dr. 
Fisher in the presidency of the college, and brought to his assistance his accom- 
plished lady, Mrs. S. Strother, and his daughter Miss Minnie Strother and Miss 
Ruffner in the preparatory department. 

Mrs. Strother, Miss Neeb and Miss Bertha Strother had charge of the 
music department. 

The graduates this year were Mi'-ses Ella Dent, Luella Mitchell, Marietta 
Garvin, Jennie McCoy, Lizzie Chiles, Minnie Waldo and Scottie Buchanan. 

The session of 1875 opened with the same faculty. 

The only graduate this year was Miss Mary Collins. 

In the fall of 1875 Rev. J. E. Wheeler, formerly of Vicksburg, Miss., and 
latterly of Sedalia, Mo., a gentleman of accomplished scholarship and ability, 
having accepted the charge of the First Presbyterian Church, was chosen presi- 
dent, and in September opened the school, with Miss M. Clark, First Assistant, 
and Miss Lillie Treadway in the primary department. 

Prof. Sherwood has charge of the music department. 

Mrs. Harriet Groesbeck controlling the boarding department. 

Owing to a change in the curriculum and management of the school, there 
were no graduates in 1876. 

The session of 1876-7, under the control of the same faculty, with the ex- 
ception of the primary department, which was efficiently conducted by Miss An- 
nie Groesbeck. 

Graduates in 1877 : Misses Lora Cannon, Anna Pagsley, Maggie White, 
and Mamie Langhorne. 

In 1877 the board secured the services of Prof. P. F. Witherspoon, of Pau- 
totoe, Mississippi, a gentleman of much experience in conducting Female Col- 
leges in the South. Mr. Witherspoon entered the college in June, but not until 
September did he take full charge of the institution, at which time he opened 
with an encouraging roll of pupils and the following faculty : 

Prof. P. F. Witherspoon, President. 

Rev. J. E. Wheeler, mental and moral science. 

Mrs. Witherspoon, elocution and history. 

Miss Sue Myers, intermediate department. 

Miss Anna Gordon, primary department. 

Miss Caroline StoU, German department. 

Prof. B. F. Curtis, music department. 

The graduates this session were : Misses Maggie Hollis, Ida H. Hope, Liz- 
zie I,owe and Florence Perry. 

The faculty for the session 1878-9 were Prof. P. F. Witherspoon, Rev. J. C. 
Wheeler, Mrs. W. Wheeler, Miss Jessie Farrar, Miss Ida Hope, and Miss Maggie 
Hollis. 

Miss S. A. Smith, music. The graduates were Misses Mary Baird and Car- 
oline Stoll. 

The session of 187,9-80 opened with the following faculty : 

Prof. P. F. Witherspoon, President. 

Rev. J. E. Wheeler. 



238 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Miss Nellie Epler. 

Miss Mary Gentry. 

Miss Caroline Stoll, German. 

Miss S. A. Smith, music. 

The graduates this year were Misses Lizzie Collins, Neddie Cowherd, Vena 
Henderson, Lillie Sampson, and Pauline Witherspoon. 

During the vacation of 1880, the board re-organized the faculty, with the fol- 
lowing appointments : 

Prof. P. F. Witherspoon, president and professor of mental and moral sci- 
ence; Rev. A. Carroll, superintendent literary department and professor of 
ancient languages, science and mathematics ; Mrs. Witherspoon, history, physiol- 
ogy and botany ; Mrs. Helen M. Nash, modern languages and English literature; 
Miss Mary Fulton, preparatory department; Miss Evelyn Westlake, vocal and 
instrumental music; Mrs. H. C. Crysler, oil and portrait painting; Mrs. Wither- 
spoon, wax and hair flowers, photocrome and Grecian painting ; Miss Lila Carr, 
matron. 

Rev. A. Carroll, having for several years conducted the Independence pub- 
lic schools, as superintendent, and more lately the schools of Olathe, Kansas, 
brought to the institute that literary culture and experience that give to the friends 
of the college assurance of large success. This institution has been founded 
with an outlay of about $19,000. A liberahty and devotion to the cause of edu- 
cation, and consequently to the best interests of the city and vicinity, on the 
part of the founders, so commendable, calls for cooperation and encouragement, 
on the part of a community so enlightened. 

With Independence Female College, Woodland College, St. Mary's Semi- 
nary (afterward to be mentioned), and Independence public schools. Indepen- 
dence offers educational advantages unsurpassed by any city in the west. 

St. Mary's Seminary, under the control of the Catholic Church, was built in 
1878. The building is substantial and commodious, and well suited for the pur- 
poses for which it was built. It is located on North Liberty street. 

This institution opened in the fall of 1878, with the following corps of in- 
struction in the female department : Mother Vincent, Sister Mary Francis, 
Sister Bernadette, Sister Mary Gregory; Sister Mary Gougago, music; Sister 
Rose, male department. The above conducted the school for two years. 

In 1880 the institution was placed under the control and instruction of the 
following corps of teachers in the female department : Mother Xavier, Sister 
Joseph, Sister Mary Austin, Sister Placide, Sister Cunagunda ; Sister Seraphine, 
music ; Sister Mida has control of the boys' department. 

This institution opened with a full attendance in both departments, which 
patronage has continued to the present time, thus insuring success to the institu- 
tion. 

In addition to the above mentioned schools there have been several private 
schools, the history of which, at this present writing, could not be fully ascertain- 
ed. Notable among these is that of a school for boys, conducted by Mr. John 0. 
Buchanan. It is much to be regretted that so few facts regarding this school are 
accessible to the writer. Perhaps, for the time it continued in operation, there 
was no school more worthy to be remembered than this. Mr. Buchanan came 
from New York to this county at an early date and taught several schools in dif- 
ferent parts of the county, and in 1846 or 1847 located in Independence and oc- 
cupied the building originally built for the Independence Female Seminary, in the 
southern part of the city. This was a school for boys. But where facts are so 
meager it must suffice to mention them, with such remarks as we are fully per- 
suaded are reliable. The writer was well acquainted with Mr. Buchanan and 
has ever esteemed him as an able instructor of youth in the common branches. 

We regret very much that, owing to the want of proper records, so little can 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 239 

be learned at this dite concerning the first organization of schools under the com- 
mon school laws. All that can be learned rests upon the recollection of the old 
citizens interested in this cause, paramount to all others save that of the church 
of Christ. 

From the best information derived from this source, it is certain that there 
were organized districts, with schools and teachers, as early as 1842. In 1841, 
the citizens of township 48, range 32, with a spirit of progress worthy each man, 
conceived the idea of availing themselves of the privileges and advantages vouch- 
safed by the Government, and took the preliminary steps to organize a district 
school, which is beheved to be the first common school district in the county. 
This organization was completed in 1842. The Hon. Alvin Brooking, John 
Minir and Ben. Thomson composed the first board and Jas. H. Thomas was the 
first teacher. The school house was built on thp southwest quarter of section 27, 
township 49, range 32. 

In the same year another district was organized in township 47, range 29, of 
which David Harris was the first teacher. This was in what is now called Van 
Buren township, and was numbered 6, from which we reasonably conclude that 
there were five previously organized. It is probable, however, that these were 
all organized during the same year. In 1838 the Legislature revised the school 
laws, and, from the superior provisions offered, doubtless a spirit of progress in 
this direction was aroused in the minds of the people which awoke them to a 
sense of their best interests and the advantages of a system that looked to the 
education of the masses. The school house in the last mentioned district was 
built on the southeast quarter of section 29, township 47, range 29. It was a log 
structure and remained until 1861 ; at this date having the same stove that warm- 
ed the fingers and toes of the little sovereigns who there secured the foundation 
of their future usefulness. We are assured by the rural bard, who was a citizen 
of this district at the time of its organization, that the said stove is good for at 
least twenty years longer 

From this time onward districts continued to multiply, adding more or less 
every year to the number. These schools, however, having no supervision, it is 
not remarkable that the advance was slow. It must not be inferred that the un- 
organized territory was destitute of all means of education. On the contrary, in 
many districts where the population was sufficiently dense, might be found good 
schools — some taught in the "old log school house," and others in buildings 
more pretentious. The people, having no one whose business it was to visit their 
schools, explain the law to the people, and to set the system before them with all 
its advantages, were prone to hold on to the old system of "pay schools." Un- 
der the system in operation at this time, the teachers were examined by a com- 
mission — usually the township directors who gave the certificates. 

The first County Commissioner of whose acts we have any record, was Mr. 
Wm. Chrisman, at present one of the banking firm of the banking house of 
Chrisman, Sawyer & Co. From the record we infer that he was appointed to 
theofficein 1853. For that year twenty-six districts reported. The enumeration of 
children, thus reported, amounted to 1,981. The apportionment of public funds 
amounted to bank dividend, $1,278.99; county revenue, $1,755.56; total, 
$3,034.35. In addition to this there was apportioned to districts not reporting 
$734.90, making the whole amount of public funds for that year $3,767.25. 
Installment not given. , 

In 1854 Mr. Chrisman reports 4,853 children enumerated, with an enrollment 
of 1,229. This year fifty-three districts reported, giving an average enrollment 
of twenty-three to the district. 

In 1855 examinations of thirty-seven teachers are recorded, but no grade 
given. Enumeration 4,339. No enrollment given. 

In 1856 Mr. John O. Buchanan succeeded to the office of County Commis- 



240 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

sioner. The only word recorded, other than the examination of teachers, during 
his continuance in office, is the enumeration of children, which amounted to 
4,931. The number of districts reporting, fifty nine. 

In November, 1857, W. L. Bone, Esq., was appointed County Commissioner. 
The record, of this administration, is much more full and satisfactory than that 
of any previous commissioner. In 1858, together with the last two months of 
1857, certificates were granted to seventy-four teachers. The enumeration of 
children of school age amounted in 1857 to 5,110. Enrollment not recorded. 
The amount of public funds disbursed was as follows ; Township fund, $2,598.- 
97; county fund, $743.00; State fund, $3,577.00; total, $6,918.97. The 
enumeration of children for 1858 was 5,539. The distribution of public funds, 
not given. 

For 1859 the number of certificates recorded was only forty-nine. The re- 
port to State Superintendent shows the following facts : Number of districts, 

seventy; enumeration, 5,677; money disbursed, ; township fund, $2,150.- 

00; State fund, $3,860.00; county fund, $2,085.00. 

At this date the records fail, and we have no certain knowledge of facts 
connected with the history of pubUc schools, until 1862. At this date it appears 
that one worthy County Clerk, John R. Swearingen, was appointed County 
Commissioner. How long he held the office, or what was done, during his ad- 
ministration, appears not on the record, save a few items with regard to district 
government, of no pubHc interest. 

From a single item, we find that after this time. Prof. Wm. Taylor served as 
County Commissioner ; but as to date of appointment or length of term of service, 
or what was done, we have no record. 1866 Mr. W. J. Shaw seems to have 
acted as County Commissioner, as there is a record of the examination of a few 
teachers, but nothing more. 

In November, 1867, Prof. Geo. S Bryant was elected commissioner; and 
this seems to have been the first election of County Commissioner, by the people. 
The only record left by Prof. Bryant, is that of the examination of 125 teachers, 
between November i, 1867, and the close of 1868. 

In November, 1868, at the general election. Prof. D. I. Caldwell, without 
solicitation on his part, was elected County Commissioner, and contmued to per- 
form the duties of the office until January ist, 1871. 

According to his report to the State Superintendent, there were at that time 
eighty-two districts, in addition to the city schools of Kansas City, Independence 
and Westport. Total number of teachers in the county, 103; total enumeration 
of children, 12,379; total enrollment, 5,293; number of months taught, 4^; 
average salary of teachers per month: males, $50.50, females $36.00; estimated 
value of property, $100,000. Previous to the administration of Prof. Caldwell, 
the schools of the county had not been visited, whilst required by the law, to 
visit all the districts in the county ; yet the time allowed for this work, together 
with his office work, examination of teachers, etc., was only sixty days. The 
consequence was that he failed to visit half the districts in the county. He visit- 
ed enough, however, to find out that there was a number of schools where good 
work was being done. An additional fact was also fixed firmly in his mind, viz : 
that intelligent, faithful supervision was the life of the system. The limited visi- 
tation which the commissioner was able to do, in the time adopted, infused new 
life and vigor into the work, and public schools, all over the county, were greatly 
improved. The work was better done ; the children became more interested ; 
and the people estimated their schools at an increased value. 

During the year 1869-70 the number of districts had increased to eighty- 
six — the number of teachers the same as the preceding year. Total enumeration, 
as far as reported, 12,400; total enrollment 7,461. The above enumeration and 
enrollment embraced the cities. Average salaries of teachers: males, $46.80; 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 241 

females, $41.58. Total valuation of school property, including cities, $150,000. 

In the letter of County Superintendent to State Superintendent, the follow- 
ing facts and suggestions were stated: "The cause of common schools has 
steadily increased in interest and in favor with the people. The handsome, com- 
modious school-houses — most of which are fitted up with patent desks and good 
blackboards, and some with globes, maps, charts, blocks, etc. — all are evidence 
of great interest on the part of the people. Another, and perhaps a better 
evidence, is the demand for a higher grade of teachers. 

"In as large and populous a county as Jackson, and where the school officers 
— township and local — are so little acquainted with the law and the duties of their 
offices, and where the law itself is so vague and unsatisfactory, there is a great 
deal of work of which the County Superintendent can make no note or record, 
which, however, requires many little ' scraps ' of time, and which, in the aggre- 
gate, make quite an item. 

"In a few weeks I shall leave the office. Permit me, respectfully, to suggest 
to you, as State Superintendent, and through you to the Legislature, that the 
office of County Superintendent, at least in Jackson county, should be a salaried 
office, the salary at least fifteen hundred dollars. 

"The enlightened judgment and skill of the city superintendents and boards 
in the organization and management of the public schools under their direction, 
have done much toward rendering the cause popular. The qualifications of 
teachers is about what it has been, not up to the demand, nor what it ought 
to be. 

"The great obstacles to the success of the public school system are prejudice 
and a want of interest on the part of many good citizens, but especially of the 
school officers. I am happy to say, however, that these are slowly but surely 
passing away. D. I. CALDWELL, 

County Superintendent, Jackson County, Mo." 
To Hon. T. A. Parker, 

State Superintendent. 

At the general election in 1870 Prof. Caldwell having declined a re-nomina- 
tion, Mr. John E. Hale was elected County Superintendent, and administered 
the office for two years. From his first annual report for 1870-71 we gain the 
following facts : Number of districts 93, besides Kansas City, Independence, 
Westport, Lee's Summit and Lone Jack, organized under the special act. There 
were employed during the year, winter and summer terms, 156 teachers; total 
enumeration 14,310; total enrollment 10,062; average salary of teachers per 
month, males $61.00; females $41.00; estimated value of school property 

$223,357- 

The report, embracing the work of 1871-72, shows as follows: enumeration, 
whites 13,627 ; colored 776; total 14,703; enrollment 9,656; number of teachers 

137- 

In the fall of 1872 Prof. Caldwell, at the general election, was again called 
up to take charge of the office of County Superintendent. 

The annual report for 1872-73 shows the following facts : The enumeration 
and enrollment, as reported, were very imperfect, the former amounting to 14,343 
— the latter 9,861; number of districts xoo; number of teachers 151; average 
salary per month, males $47.68; females $39.04; total valuation of school prop- 
erty $208,538. 

The report for 1873-74 embraces the following statistics: enumeration 15,381 ; 
teachers 158; average salary per month, males $61.55; females $40.96; total 
valuation of school property $253,378. 

In the annual letter to the State Superintendent for this year, we find the fol- 
lowing : 

" I am gratified to be able to report a healthy progress in the following re. 

16 



242 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

spects : an increased demand for teachers of a higher grade ; an increased interest 
on the part of the people and the manner in which the township and sub-district 
officers discharge their several duties ; but especially in the improved methods of 
teaching, giving more life and cheerfulness to the school-room. I might also 
mention, as another encouraging feature indicative of progress, the fact that, 
whilst there has ever lurked in the bosom of a number of the people of the county 
an antipathy to the whole policy of public schools, there is a giving away of op- 
position, and many former op posers are now earnest advocates of the system. 

Having been for many years, a sincere and earnest advocate for the educa- 
tion of the masses, I am more than gratified to find the system so nearly a com- 
plete success. This county is now dotted all over, as previously remarked, with 
commodious, comfortable school houses. There is not a neighborhood, where 
the children do not enjoy the privilege of a primary education, from four to ten 
months in the year. Much of this, I am sure, is the result of the efficient work 
of the county superintendency. 

In compa.ring the grade of teachers four years since, with those of the pres- 
ent year, I am pleased to find a difference of from twelve to fifteen per cent in 
favor of the latter. 

The city schools, organized under the special act, are an honor to the county, 
and some of them, in their appointments, second to none in the State. I trust, 
that I may, without any seeming favoritism, allude especially to the schools of 
Kansas City, under the intelligent and scholarly superintendence of Prof. John 
R. Phillips, whose energy, aided by an intelligent board, has brought the schools 
of this young but growing city, to a degree of efficiency, little inferior, if not 
equal, to any in the west. The corps of teachers, from the Primary to the High 
School, is of the best material that good wages can command. Their school' 
buildings and furniture are at once a wonder to strangers and an ornament to 
the city, as well as an honor to the wisdom, energy and perseverance of the 
board. 

I might also speak in complimentary terms of the schools in Independence, 
Westport, Lee's Summit and Lone Jack. 

It may here be remarked, that, from 1866 to 1874, the public schools were 
under the supervision of a county superintendent, whose business, in addition to 
the common duties of examining teachers, and gathering statistics for the annual 
report, was to visit and examine the schools, deliver lectures on education, etc. 
In 1874, the office of county commissioner was restored, the duties of which were 
the same as above, with the exception of visiting and examining schools. This 
was a great mistake on the part of the Legislature, and its results were soon 
marked in the efficiency and consequent dechne in the grades of schools. 

The report of the county commissioner for 1874-5, shows the enumeration 
to be 16,353. Number of teachers, 162. Statistics of this year are unavailable. 
For 1876-7, the statistics are more complete. Enumeration was so changed as 
to include only those between six and twenty, instead of those between five and 
twenty-one. The enumeration consequently, instead of being proportionately 
increased, was only 16,839. Enrollment, 9,399. Number of teachers employed 
during the year, 194. Average cost per day, .06^-^-^ cents. Receipts public 
funds, $23,543.91. District tax. $116,512.55. Total, $140,056.46. Total ex- 
penditures, including teacher's wages, incidentals, fuel, etc, $86,590.26. Past 
indebtedness, $58,760.64. 

The report for 1877-8, shows a total enumeration of 18,878. Total enroll- 
ment, 9,361. Total number of teachers employed during the year, 205. Amounts 
received, public funds, $23,696. District tax, $130,307,97. Average salary of 
teachers per month, males, $45.44. Females, $42.70. Expenditures: Teachers' 
wages, $63,106.85.' Fuel, repairs and incidentals, $10,576.03.. Building, $960.00. 
Defraying past indebtedness, $43,853.57. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



243 



Commissioner's report for 1878-9 shows the following statistics • Enumera 
tion, 19,480. Enrollment, 11,885. Average cost per day, .07 cents Teachers 
employed, 223. Average salary per month, males, $66.88. Females $57 c8 
Receipts, including cash on hand and money from all sources $1^0 ocx' 76* 
Total expenditures, $149,177.86. ^^ '' ' 

The annual report for 1879-80 developes a large increase in the number of 
children of school age, m the county. Total enumeration, 23,726. Enrollment 
12,486. Number of teachers, -males, 84. Females, 154. Total, 238 Average 
salary per month, males, $43.79. Females, $38.58. Average cost per day 
.07 cents. Value of school property, $250,840.75. Total receipts, including 
cash on hand, $173,858.45. Total expenditures, including past indebtedness 
$123,037.32. ' 

The above includes all the work under the public school system, as far as 
recorded, to the last report made. 

It will be readily observed, that the educational facilities have kept pace 
with the wonderful increase in population. The increase in the population of 
the county for the last ten years, will be found to be about 49.5 per cent, while 
the increase in the number of teachers employed will amount to a 'small fraction 
less than 69.0 per ceat. 

The people of Jackson county have ever been awake to the importance of 
education; and while some parties, sectional or denominational, may claim to be 
paragons in this the paramount interest in all sects and in all parties, it will be 
found that Jackson county, in her educational history, gives a flat denial to any 
such assumption. The people as a people, without any reference to sects or par- 
ties, have ever been ready to second every effort looking to the better education 
of the masses. 

The schools organized under the special act for cities, towns and villages de- 
serves a special notice ; notable, those of Kansas City and Independence. 

In 1866, the people of Independence— the city at that time including what 

is known as Gilpin town, together with the territory north to the river held a 

meeting and resolved to organize the city into a school district under the special 
law. September 4th an election was held, and the following gentlemen elected as 
a board of directors : Wm. Chris man, Jacob Leader, Wm. McCoy, Jacob May, Peter 
Winters and U. P. Bennett. These gentlemen were soon qualified, and resolved 
to open a school for the primary branches, fixing the salaries of teachers as follows : 
superintendent, per month, $100 ; ist principal,$75 ; assistants, $50. Very liberal 
salaries, certainly. It was resolved to have one school for whites to be taught in 
the Anderson building.on Rock street, near the M. E. Church ; and one for colored 
children in the German church in the southeast part of the city. The teachers em- 
ployed were Rev. Jasper A. Smith, superintendent, Paul Glove, ist assistant, Miss 
Sue Leader, in city proper and Miss Lucy J. Bennett in Gilpin town. Mr.' Wm. 
Byrne was principal of the colored school. 

The first enumeration amounted to 1152. The president of the board and 
superintendent were authorized to increase the number of teachers as necessity 
required ; also to appoint the teachers so added. 

In 1867, Mr. Geo. F. Thomson was employed at a salary of $75 for a 
month to teach in the basement of the Presbyterian church on Lexington street. 

In March of this year the board purchased of the Rev. W. H. Lewis the 
Female Seminary building and grounds, at a cost of $11,000 to be paid in three 
annual installments. Thus having incurred heavy indebtedness, in addition to 
that of teachers salaries, incident to the want of a levy the previous year, the 
board now ordered a levy of $5,000 to pay the current expenses of this and the 
next year, together with a further sum of $5,000 to pay their indebtedness. 

This is a clear indication of the liberahty of the board, and the determina- 
tion to establish a first-class school. 



244 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

In May, 1867, the school — whites — took possession of the seminary building, 
where the school has ever since been conducted, except for a few years, the board 
allowed the Catholics to fit up two rooms in the old Catholic church, at their own 
expense, for the Catholic children. While the teachers were members of the 
Catholic church, they were chosen by the board and as much under the super- 
vision and control of the superintendent and «board as any room in the main 
building In 1874, however, the arrangments being unsatisfactory to some mem- 
bers of the board as well as to a large number of the citzens, they were abolished 
and the schools transferred to the main building. 

In July, the salaries of the teachers were readjusted, and the superintendent 
allowed $1200 per annum; ist assistant $800; and all others $400, except the 
teacher at Gilpin town who was allowed $500. 

For the session of 1867-8, Rev. J. A. Smith was continued as superinten- 
dent, Prof. A. Carroll, ist assistant, with Misses Lucy J. Bennett, Sue Leader, 
Clara B. Allen, Mary Wardell, and Mrs. R. F. Thomas, completing the corps 
of teachers for the whites ; and Harriet L. Alivard and Mrs. Ellen J. Wilson 
had charge of the colored school, while Mr. James Rice and Miss Mary Ward 
conducted thfe Catholic school, and Mr. Wm. Kennedy had charge of the school 
in Gilpin town. In October 1867, Misses Isa Dodd and M. E. Hampton were 
added to the corps of teachers. Miss Isa Dodd has continued to occupy, with 
credit, the same room in the school from that date to the present, and is now the 
only teacher who has continuously occupied a position all the time from her first 
appointment. She now fills the place of ist assistant. 

Mrs. Thomas occupied her position from the date of her appointment until 
the close of the term of 1879-80. 

During the fall of 1867, Prof. Smith was requested, by the board, to deliver 
a course of lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry, and Prof. Carroll was 
requested to give a series of vocal concerts by the scholars. It was also proposed 
by the board that a class be formed for instruction in the theory and practice of 
teaching. It was further resolved by the board that the Congressional Teachers 
Institute be requested to hold their next session at Independence. These meas- 
ures all manifest a wide-awake and intelligent interest in the cause of education, 
and in the elevation of the standard of moral and intellectual culture. 

In 1868, Prof. Carroll was promoted to the superintendency of the city 
schools. Prof. Carroll was eminently qualified for the work. Through many 
difficulties surrounding his boyhood and youth, he succeeded in cultivating a 
naturally good intellect ; but especially is he adapted to work of supervision of 
schools, through his systematic and discriminating methods of thought. Quick 
in discernment, as well as firm and decided in his judgment, and kind in the ad- 
ministration of discipline, he was an eminent success as superintendent. He 
continued to conduct and control the school until 1873.' 

In the summer of 1873, P^^of. A. E. Higgason succeeded Prof. Carroll, as 
superintendent. Prof. Higgason is a Virginian by birth, and a graduate in i860, 
of Bethany College, in that State. He came to Independence in 1871, and was 
associated with Prof. G. S. Bryant, in the Independence High Schools. In 
1872-3 he had charge of Woodland College, and the next fall took charge of the 
Independence public schools, which position he still retains. 

Prof. Higgason has developed fine executive ability, as well as aptness. De- 
voted to the cause of education, and thoroughly imbued with a spirit of progress, 
with discrimination of judgment, and skill in organization and drill, he has proved 
himself worthy of the trust committed to him. 

The public schools of Independence having been mostly under an intelligent 
working board, superintended by intelligent, working superintendents and teach- 
ers, have taken rank among the best schools of the West. Ample provision has 
been made for competent instruction for all children, both white and colored; 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 245 

thus adding to the testimony above given, to the devotion of the people of Jack- 
son county, of all parties, to the education of the masses. Let the people of 
other States, who have been duped and frightened by lying magazines and other 
pubHcations, come and examine for themselves, and it will be found that the 
grade of teachers, the appearance, comfort and convenience of the school houses 
and fixtures, as well as devotion to the efficiency and success of the schools, on 
the part of the people, no part of the Union will take precedence to Jackson 
county, Missouri. The work done in Kansas City and Independence will com- 
pare favorably with that of Boston or any other city in the Union. Many of the 
country districts are doing a work which, if more extensively known, would com- 
mand commendation from intelligent educators. 

The following report was made to the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, November i, 1866, by County Superintendent, W. J. Shaw : 

Dear Sir: — Were the school interests of Jackson county in as flourishing 
a condition as her wealth and natural resources should indicate, I would take 
more pleasure in penning, and you would be more highly gratified in perusing 
this letter. It is anything, sir, but a pleasant duty to make a just statement of 
educational matters as they stood at the time Of the adoption of the late law ; 
but the approaching future under the new order of things begins to mantle 
brightly over the gloom. 

SCHOOL HOUSES. , 

The school buildings of our county are, as a general thing, very inferior 
structures, chiefly log, and permitted, during the war, to get much out of repair. 
Occasionally, however, is found a more substantial brick or frame building, and 
there are some five notable exceptions in the way of seminaries or colleges. I 
have considered it strange that our agricultural community are, on the whole, 
better than our towns and cities supplied with school structures. For example : 
Independence, with its 1,052 children to educate, has but one public school 
house, located in one of its additions, and Kansas City has none of which I am 
aware. Independence and Kansas City, however, had their seminaries for the 
education of such in the community as could afford to pay. Such facts induce 
the conclusion that it has been held wise in Missouri conservative policy not to 
educate the poor ; and the old imperfect system, while it gave a mite of state 
patronage behind which the moneyed- aristocracy could hide their worst designs, 
proved a fitting instrument to accomplish the object. In September our citizens 
of Independence adopted the special act, and elected as a board of instruction 
progressive men, who, entering spiritedly upon their task, have accomplished 
everything that could be immediately hoped for. Houses have been rented, 
qu#lified teachers employed, and to-day, six school rooms are filled to overflow- 
ing and the number of scholars daily increasing. About twenty-eight sub- 
districts in the county have organized under the law. Besides these, a number 
of private or select schools have been put in operation, as well in the city as in the 
county, gene 'ally under the auspices of men who with difficulty can scratch their 
own names, yet affirm " they will school their own children before they will send 
to aiman who will take the oath of loyalty." Such opposition, however, must 
shortly cease. The wedge has been entered in Jackson county, and will accom- 
plish its work. 

So far as I can learn, there is no school furniture in Jackson county worthy 
the name ; nor apparatus of any kind. These things, I ana assured by many of 
the boards, will be obtained when the opportunity for raising money by taxes 
comes round. Our boards have shown a disposition generally to pay teachers 
liberal salaries ; but I have found it difficult to supply the demand for good teach- 
ers. With one or two exceptions, those certificates by me have held the third 



246 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

and fourth grades. I have adopted for teachers a periodical written examination ; 
for schools none, as they have been in operation but a few weeks. 

Our county institute has been convened but once, and was then adjourned 
until the completion of school organizations in the county. There are now ma- 
terials out of which to organize an effective association. 

The reports of schools officers have been necessarily incomplete; for that, in 
this county at least, there have been very few public schools in operation since 
the inception- of the war. 

In the matter of the education of the colored people, there are prejudices to 
overcome, and such influences have been brought to bear upon it as made it diffi- 
cult, for some time, to obtain a person with sufficient nerve to undertake the 
duty of instruction in this city. It has, however, been accomplished, and a fine 
school is in operation. I know of no place in the county where they are of suffi- 
cient numbers to make school privileges practicable. 

The school interests of Kansas City never have, and probably will not thrive 
under their special act. Such of the citizens to whom I have spoken on the sub- 
ject seem to realize the fact, and would doubtless, on its repeal, support the 
adoption of the general act for towns and cities. The success of the school sys- 
tem in our county, as throughout the State, doubtless depends in a great measure 
upon the election. Should the progressive party fail, from the disposition mani- 
fested by our local conservative leaders, it will be uprooted or rendered ineffec- 
tive in its administration. That such may not be its fate, is the wish of 

Yours, respectfully, 

WM. J. SHAW, 

County Superintendent. 

The Jackson County Teachers Institute was organized in 1868. It held its 
second session at Lee's Summit, October 25th to 29th, at which the following 
instructions were presented : 

Resolved, That we tender our hearty thanks to the citizens of Lee's Summit 
and vicinity for the manifestation of their support of the public schools of Jack 
son county, and their very hospitable entertainment of the teachers in attend- 
ance. 

Resolved, That we tender our sincere thanks to the Baptist Church, who 
have so kindly tendered to the institute the use of their house of worship. 

Resolved, That Superintendent Hale, of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, re- 
ceive the thanks of this institute for return tickets. 

Resolved, That we, the teachers of common schools of Jackson county, re- 
gard the attendance at the institutes as imperative and obligatory. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be requested to assign conductors 
before the close of this session, for the different class exercises, and essayists Tor 
the next session of the institute. 

Resolved, That we recognize in the public school system of the State, an ed- 
ucational system well calculated to meet the wants of the greater number, and, 
therefore, worthy of our earnest support. 

Resolved, That as an organization dependent upon and growing out of our 
pubHc school system, we will stand by our public school officers in their efforts to 
secure to the public a more general, thorough and efficient organization through- 
out the county. 

CORNELL CRYSLER, 
C. W. LITSINGER, 
J. S. DAVIS, 

Committee. 

The resolutions were adopted unanimously, with the exception of the sixth, 
on which a discussion arose, opened by Mr. Carroll, who took strong grounds in 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 247 

favor of public schools, bringing forward a vast array of facts and figures in sup- 
port of the resolution. 

It having been previously announced that any person in the audience might 
take part in the discussion, Mr. Yantis, of Lee's Summit, in reply to Mr. Carrol, 
denied that " the State should educate the children of the State." ' He did not 
believe that common school education was cheaper — did not think the burden 
was equalized. With regard to religion and politics, he thought politics was in 
the system, from the Superintendent downward. He complimented the teachers 
present, but " was down on the whole system." 

President Caldwell agreed in part with Mr. Carroll, but spoke against the 
resolution. The system in our community was forced upon us, and does not 
meet the wants of the people. The school law was imperfect, and the County 
Superintendent has only advisory powers in case of dispute There was too 
little religion in the schools: for he had not yet found the Bible used as a text- 
book. But we have the new system and should make the best of it. 

Rev. Mr. Bright next spoke. Considered the system wholly unrepublican, 
and, further, as a Missourian, he was not in favor of it. He thought the public 
schools ignored religion and that therefore, as in Germany, they will foster infi- 
delity. The only safe method was to place the schools in the hands of those who 
had the moral interest of the community in their care. He was opposed to the 
whole system. 

Mr. Crysler was astonished that a minister of the Gospel and County Super- 
intendent should oppose the system and not suggest a remedy. After some 
stirring remarks on the prejudices against the system, he proposed a plan for 
remedying the defects. 

Mr. Caldwell, in reply, stated that he was pledged to try to make the system 
■ work, and cared not where it came from ; was in favor of the education of the 
masses, but still contended that the school system, in its plan and working, was 
very imperfect. 

J. A. Blair, of Lee's Summit, replied to the charge that the public school 
system was unrepublican, and wanted to know when Missouri would be ready for 
tihe system, if not ready now. If the system is imperfect, it is our duty to try to 
correct it. 

The following view of Jackson county schools was furnished the Independ- 
ence Sentinelhy Mr. D. I. Caldwell, December 24, 1870 : 

Permit me to occupy a small space in your excellent paper, to make a few 
remarks with regard to the public schools in Jackson county. I am ha.ppy to say 
that the public schools, for the most part, are in a hopeful condition. That is, 
they are improving. The system is becoming better understood. The people 
are taking more interest in the subject. The law has been improved a little. A 
better grade of teachers are occupying the school houses. The school houses are 
better, and better furnished. Altogether the whole machine is in a better condi- 
tion than formerly. All we want for a complete success, is a little change in 
some parts of the law, and more efficiency on the part of the school officers. I 
am sorry to say they are too little interested in the matter of reports. Facts that 
are of vital interest to the complete working of the system are often not reported 
without trouble on the part of the County Superintendent. This is a great draw- 
back ; and much of the opposition to the system, is the result of an improper 
understanding of its workings ; and this depends mainly upon the efficiency of 
the officers, township and local. For the want of proper statistical reports, I am 
unable to give a full and complete report of the facts. But as I have said above, 
the condition of the schools is gratifying. The following is a summary of my 
annual report to the State Superintendent : 



248 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Whole number of children between five and twenty-one . 12,500 

Whole number enrolled in public schools 7)53° 

Number of teachers 140 

Number of school houses 102 

Value of school houses $197,529 

Value of furniture, apparatus, &c 14,546 

During the last year, there has been an increase in the demand for teachers 
of a high grade ; an evidence of progress and elevation in the grade of schools. 

The public schools in Kansas City, under the judicious and intelligent 
management of Prof. J. R. Philhps, have attained to a position, that challenges 
the respect, if not the indorsement, of their most violent opponents. In Inde- 
pendence, Prof. Carroll, by his untiring energy, and the co-operation of an 
intelligent board, has placed the schools under his superintendence, upon a 
footing, not inferior to any schools of the same grade in the State. Not having 
had the opportunity and pleasure of visiting the public schools at Westport and 
Lee's Summit, I cannot speak so confidently of their condition. But from what 
I have learned from members of the boards, and from what I know of the 
teachers engaged in those schools, I feel warranted in saying, that their success 
is worthy the generous liberahty of those, who have furnished such commodious 
and comfortable buildings and such suitable furniture, as are to be found at each 
of these thriving little cities. 

Any report of the educational statistics, of our county, would be incomplete 
without something being said of the several private enterprises in the county. 
To go into detail would make this communication too long. In Kansas City 
there are six such schools, and in Independence two : all of them worthy the 
very liberal patronage they enjoy. These schools employ twenty-seven 
teachers, and have enrolled 1,014 pupils, making the whole number of children • 
in school, in the county, 8,544. 

About to retire from the superintendency of public schools in Jackson 
county, permit me to thank you for the prompt and generous support you have 
always given me, in my efforts to render the public school system a success and 
to give to the public, schools worthy of their support. Permit me, also, to 
bespeak for my worthy successor in office, the same kindness and co-operation. 
And, in conclusion, permit me to say, that I trust your pen and your tongue 
may ever be ready to plead the cause of popular education. 

Respectfully, 

D. I. CALDWELL, 

County Superintendent. 

The following address was issued to the citizens of Jackson county in the 
interests of her public schools, by the County Commissioner of schools, March 
26th, 1881. 

To the Legal Voters : In a few days you will be called upon to re-adjust your 
boards by the election of one or more'directors, and to consider the interests of 
your several districts in all matters pertaining to the efficient running of your 
schools for the next year. 

I have frequently been asked the question, "Who are qualified voters?" 
The general question is settled by the Constitution, in Art. viii. sec. 2. "Every 
male citizen of the United States, and every male person of foreign birth who may 
have declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States accord- 
ing to law, not less than one year or more than five years before he offers to vote, 
who is over the age of twenty-one years, possessing the following qualifications, 
shall be entitled to vote at all elections by the people. 

''First, He shall have resided in the State one year immediately preceding 
the election at which he offers his vote. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 249 

"Second, He shall have resided in the county, city or town where he shall 
offer his vote at least sixty days immediately preceding the election." 

The only difficulty with regard to the above provision is, whether the sixty 
days residence applies to school districts. I am happy to say that the State 
superintendent, whose legal adviser is the attorney-general of the State, sustains 
me in my decision that it does apply to the school districts. I may also add that 
this decision is concurred in by the best legal talent of the country, including 
those who helped to make the constitution. No one, then, has any right to vote 
at the annual meeting who has not resided in the district at least sixty days imme- 
diately preceding that meeting. All such have a right to vote on any of the 
questions usually considered at the annual meeting, and enumerated in section 
7031, School Laws. 

There are, however, certain questions that may be considered at special 
meetings, such as the increase of levy for school purposes, or for erection of 
school houses ; in these cases none but tax payers can vote. A tax payer has 
been defined to be a man who has a tax receipt or is on the assessor's books, 
liable to pay taxes. 

With this question settled, permit me to suggest the importance of selecting 
the best men in your district for directors. I do not mean best men so far as 
honesty and morality are concerned, but men, in addition to those things, who 
will best discharge the duties of the office. 

This is a very important and responsible office. Every good citizen will not 
make a good director. He should be a man of sound judgment, interested in the 
success of the school, of fair education, of fair business qualifications and experi- 
ence, and withal willing to make some sacrifice for the benefit of all. 

The trust committed to a school board is a serious trust. The people's money 
is under their control and management, as well as the higher and more sacred 
interest, the proper instruction of your children. 

To the directors and others, I would say, see well to the exercise of the pre- 
rogatives intrusted to you by the people. Do all things according to law. Let 
no warrant be issued except by order of the board, met and organized as a board. 
If possible, every member should have notice of each meeting; otherwise, I 
doubt the legality of any business transacted. See that every act of the board 
be recorded by the clerk, especially for the issue of a warrant for the payment of 
money, however small the amount. 

In the selection of a teacher, the board should be very careful as to qualifi- 
cations. A certificate of good grade is not the only criterion of qualification. 
While I would say that a certificate of a low grade, as a general rule, is sufficient 
reason for the rejection of an applicant. Yet there are a few every year who are 
examined for the first time, and consequently are not expected to obtain as good 
certificates as teachers of age and experience, and yet make successful teachers ; 
but these are the exceptions, and their success is the result of application, study 
and a determination to succeed. The general rule is good scholarship for good 
teachers. The means of Normal instruction are in the reach of all who desire to 
qualify themselves.. We have Kirksville and Warrensburg Normal schools sup- 
ported by the State. Also a normal class at Woodland College and one at the 
Independence Female College, under the instruction of Prof. Carroll, a gentleman 
of large experience in this kind of work. Besides these means, we have a num- 
ber of excellent educational journals, devoted to the instruction of teachers in all 
the departments of their work. So that there is no excuse for the want of quali- 
fication. I would, as a general rule, discourage the employment of a teacher 
who does not expect to make teaching his profession. See to it, then, that all 
applicants for positions are those who have availed themselves of the best means 
at command to prepare them for their work. A young man looking to the law 
or medicine, as a profession, or mechanics as the business of his life, not only 



250 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Studies his profession as a science, but its practical work. As a mechanic studies 
how to prepare and fit his work, so ought a teacher to study the art of organiza- 
tion and will of his pupils. 

Again, the people and the boards as such should see to it, at the annual 
meeting, that the District Clerk is prepared to make a report that will show all 
the work of the school, and has made his settlement with the County Treasurer, 
and can give accurately the receipts and expenditures for the year. Then will his 
report to the county commissioner show a cltan balance. 

These suggestions are eminently important to every citizen who feels any in- 
terest in the success of our public school system. There has been a manifestly in- 
creased interest, and consequent improvement in all these matters suggested in 
the last few years , and I trust the day is not far distant when the whole business 
of running the public schools will be such as we shall not be ashamed for the 
State Supeiintendent and Legislature to see ; and when the County Commissioner 
shall be enabled to make such a report as shall be an honor to the intelligence 
and business qnalifications of the school officers of our county. 

To the clerks of districts, I would say and urge that, in making your reports 

to the annual meeting and County Commissioner, you should hunt up every item 

of expense, and see that the receipts and expenditures balance exactly, and then 

your commissioner can with pride report your work to the State Superintendent. 

Respectfully, D. I. CALDWELL, 

County Commissioner. 



CHAPTER XIIL 
MORMONS IN JACKSON COUNTY. 

An Authentic and Impartial History from the Foundation of the Church — A Sketch of the Life of 
Joseph Smith the Prophet — The Book of Mormon — The Rapid Growth of the Church — They 
Come to Jackson County, Mo., in July, iS^i — The " Morning and Evening Star" — Difficul- 
ties Arising Between the Saints and Gentiles — The Saints Assemble for Protection — Several 
Deadly Encounters — The Saints Driven Into Clay County — Documentary Evidence of Unlawful 
Violence — The Subsequent Action of the Mormons in Missouri, and their Final Expulsion 
from the State. 

A very prominent feature of the early history of Jackson county was the 
trouble between the Mormons and other citizens during 1831 and 1832, which 
led to the expulsion of the former from the county during the latter part of the 
year 1832. This sect was brought into existence on the 6th day of April, 1830, 
near Manchester, New York. The first society consisted of six persons — Joseph 
Smith, Sr., Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smith, Samuel Smith, Oliver Cowdrey and 
Joseph Knight. The three Smiths last mentioned were brothers, and sons of 
Joseph Smith, Sr., and Joseph Smith, Jr., was the the reputed author of the new 
faith, and is the prophet of Mormon history. 

This Smith family came from Vermont, where Joseph, Jr., was born at 
Sharon, in Windsor county, December 23, 1805. They are represented by their 
neighbors, both in Vermont and New York, to have been a shiftless, worthless 
family. The parents are represented as having been dishonest, unreliable, igno- 
rant and superstitious, and the sons seem to have inherited all these peculiarities. 
A part of the business of the father was that of "water witch," in which capacity 
he went about the country with a hazel rod divining where water could be found 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 251 

by digging wells, by the writhings of the rod when held in the hands in a peculiar 
manner. 

Young Joseph is reported to have been a wild, reckless boy, dishonest, un- 
truthful and intemperate. As he grew toward adult age he adopted his father's 
profession of water-witching, and afterward added to it the more practical busi- 
ness of digging the wells he thus located. While in this capacity he discovered a 
smooth, round stone of peculiar shape while digging a well for a Mr. Chase near 
Manchester. This he adopted as a " pup stone," and pretended that by placing 
it in his hat in a peculiar way it had the miraculous power of revealing to him 
where lost and stolen articles could be found, and he then added this to his pre- 
vious miraculous business of water-witchery. 

During the decade from 1820 to 1830 a great religious revival swept over 
the country, and gave rise to the phenomena known as "jerks." This excite- 
ment raged greatly in western New York and in the neighborhood of the Smiths. 
Joseph, Jr., and some of his sisters and brothers became converted at one of the 
revivals, but Joseph was greatly vexed in spirit by the uncertainty as to which of 
the sects was the right one. He became a constant reader of the Bible for a time, 
but subsequently fell again into his old ways, and later events indicate that he fell 
also into some new ones, which have extended the peculiarities of his nature 
much beyond the sphere of his personal influence and beyond the period of his 
time. He put forth the claim that in September, 1823, God sent messengers to 
him to say that he was forgiven for, his sins. Again in 1826 he claimed an angel 
visited him with the information that in the hill Cumorah, not far from Manches- 
ter, were hidden certain golden plates which he was to unearth and translate. 
These plates were exhumed in September, 1826, as Joseph represents it, "with 
a mighty display of celestial machinery," and were delivered by the angels to 
him. These plates were afterward translated by Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery, 
a schoolmaster, and one Martin Harris, and pubHshed in the early part of the 
year 1830 as the "Book of Mormon." 

Another account of the origin of the Book of Mormons is that it was written 
as a historical romance, to account for the Indians in America, in 1812, by a Mr. 
Solomon Spaulding, a retired preacher, and presented to Mr. Patterson, a book- 
seller in Pittsburg, for publication, together with a preface representing it to have 
been taken from plates dug up in Ohio. Mr. Patterson did not think the enter- 
prise would pay, and hence, did not publish it ; but Sidney Rigdon, afterward 
quite noted in early Mormon history, was then at work in the office of Mr. Pat- 
terson, and it is suggested that he stole the manuscripts, and had his full share in 
bringing Mormonism into existence, though he did not appear in connection with 
it for some months after the organization of the first society. 

But, however the book may have come, Joseph Smith appears from the first, 
as prophet, and directed the movements of the new sect by what he claimed to 
be divine revelations, and put forth the most extravagant claims for himself and 
his prophetic powers. This was a time particularly favorable for the cultivation 
of such a superstition. The religious ideas prevailing at the time of the rehgious 
excitement referred to, embraced the belief in the direct dealings of God with 
man, very much after the manner represented in ancient Jewish history, which 
made such pretenses as these, peculiarly liable to be accepted. Immediately af- 
ter the organization of the first society, as above stated, there was an administra- 
tion of the sacrament, and the laying on of hands for the " Gift of the Holy 
Ghost." Five days afterward, on the irth of May, Oliver Cowdery preached the 
first sermon on the new faith, and before the close of the month, at Colesville, in 
Browne county. New York, there wae what was claimed by the new sect, to be 
miracles performed. From this the new sect took strong root with the ignorant 
and superstitious, and it gained members rapidly, notwithstanding the prophet 
was several times arrested for misdemeanors. In August, Paxley P. Platte and 



262 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Sidney Rigdon appeared as Mormons, and soon afterward Orson Platte was con- 
verted and baptized .into the new sect. 

The work of propagandation now became very active and effective. Smith 
put forth a revelation that mundane things were about to be brought to an end, a 
claim that was likely to strike terror into the hearts of the ignorant and supersti- 
tious, after the strong religious excitement, that had been prevailing, and with the 
ideas of hell and the future state at that time current in theology. This was 
industriously proclaimed by the preachers, and accompanied with the narration 
of Smith's miracle, and the injunction to ask safety in the new church. Its effect 
upon the ignorant and superstitious was very great, and by October, 1830, the 
society numbered fifty, and by June, 183 1, about two thousand. Rigdon having 
taken up his residence near Kirtland, Ohio, had gathered around him about fifty 
very fanatical people. In January, 1831, he visited Smith in New York, and 
Smith returned with him to Kirtland, and soon afterward there was a gathering 
of all the adherents at Kirtland. This is known in Mormon history as the 
"First Hegira." 

The sect at this time, as at all others, was composed of ignorant super- 
stitious and fanatical people prepared by these qualities to accept anything 
marvelous that might be told them, or to do anything to which they might be 
directed by one imposed upon them as a prophet or something demanded of 
them by the Lord. 

Such was the character of the people w,Jiom Smith attempted to settle in 
Jackson county. In June, 1831, Smith put forth a revelation to the effect that 
the final gathering place of the Saints, which name they had now assumed, was 
to be in Missouri. Accordingly he set out with a few elders for the new land of 
promise, arriving at Independence in July. Here he put forth another revelation 
staling that this, was the land, or as he put it, " the Zion that should never be 
moved," and that the whole land was "solemnly dedicated to the Lord and his 
saints." They began at once to build and first erected a log house in Kaw 
township about twelve miles from Independence. On the 2d of August he 
gave out another revelation that the site of the great temple was three hundred 
yards west of the court house in Independence, and accordingly on the 3d of 
August the spot was taken possession of by Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, 
Edward Partridge, W. W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery, Martin Harris and Joseph 
Coe, and dedicated with great ceremony, and followed by an "accession of 
gifts " from God. The next day, August 4th, another and larger party arrived 
from Kirtland and the first "general conference" in the land of Zion was imme- 
diately held. During this conference Smith gave utterance to another revelation, 
stating that the whole land should be theirs and should not be obtained ' ' but by 
purchase or by blood." The situation, surroundings and leadership of these people 
seemed to impress their ignorant and superstitious minds with the idea that they 
were a chosen people designed in the purposes of God, to effect some great 
reformation in the world, and they seem to have imagined that they occupied a 
similar position to that assigned by the Bible to the ancient Jews at the time of 
their escape from Egyptian bondage and replanting in Canaan. From this 
extravagance the way to others was open, easy and natural. In their poverty 
the purchase of the "whole land" by them was manifestly not intended and 
hence they seemed to expect that in some way the Lord would establish them in 
the possession of Missouri without that. Assuming this that they were the holy 
people of the Lord, that the Lord was the real owner of all things, and that all 
his possessions were free to them, they were not calculated to be respectful of the 
rights and interests of their non-Mormon neighbors. But though no overt acts 
of transgression upon such rights were being committed, the rapidly gathering 
members of the Mormons, their ignorance, poverty and fanaticism, and the 
boastfulness and assurance with which they reiterated their beUef in their 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 253 

destined possession of the country, backed by Smith's significant revelations 
and the dishonesty of the methods of the leaders, made the new sect an object 
of profound solicitude to the people. 

In August following the " general conference," Smith and Rigdon returned 
to Kirtland, where they established a mill and a bank, the latter being an irre- 
sponsible "wild cat" concern that failed soon after its notes were well afloat, 
which failure was attended by another revelation to Smith, directing him and 
Rigdon to depart at night for Missouri. 

Soon after their arrival at Kirtland in August, W. W. Phelps was appointed 
to purchase a press and estabhsh a church paper in Independence, to be called 
the Evening and Morning Star. The prospectus for this paper appeared in 
February, 1832, and the paper itself in June following. On the 25th of March, 
1832, Smith and Rigdon, while away from home, were seized by a mob and 
tarred, feathered and beaten for "attempting to establish communism, and 
for forgery and dishonorable dealings." In April, 1832, Smith being at Inde- 
pendence a council was held and the printing press set up with religious cere- 
monies. In June the paper made its appearance and further excited the appre- 
hensions of the citizens by an article on " Free People of Color," which was un- 
derstood by the slave-holding population of Missouri to mean that the new sect 
were what was the appropriately called " abolitionists," and which, in the excite- 
ment of that time about slavery, were as abnoxious to slave-holders as though they 
had possessed the " cloven foot." This was a further cause of apprehension and 
led to a reply in a pamphlet entitled, " Beware of False Prophets ! " In the spring 
of 1833 the Mormons numbered fifteen hundred in Jackson county. They had 
nearly taken possession of Independence, and were rapidly extending their set- 
tlements. They grew bolder as they grew stronger, and daily proclaimed to the 
older settlers that the Lord had given them the whole land of Missouri ; that 
bloody wars would extirpate all other sects from the country ; that it would be 
"one gore of blood from the Mississippi to the border," and that the few who 
were left unslain would be the servants of the Saints, who would own all the 
property in the country. 

At the same time they fell into equal extravagances regarding spiritual things, 
and declared themselves " kiiigs and priests of the Most High God," and all 
other religious sects or reprobates, the creation of the devil designed to speedy 
destruction, and that all but themselves were doomed, cast away Gentiles, worse 
than the heathen and unfit to live. They notified all "Gentiles" who were 
building new houses and opening new farms that is was needless, that the Lord 
would never allow them to enjoy the fruits of their labor and that in a few months 
the "Gentiles " would have neither name nor place in Missouri. 

At the same time that these extravagances were thus indulged, there does 
not appear to have been any more lawlessness among them or by them than would 
result from any equal number of low, ignorant people, so that while their pres- 
ence was rapidly becoming insufferable they were doing nothing that would war- 
rant their legal expulsion. Still, their numbers constantly increased by accessions 
from the east and from time to time large and enthusiastic meetings were held. 
In addition to their paper they had established a church store in Independence, 
which was kept by Bishop Partridge. During the spring and summer it began 
to be manifest that they would be strong enough at the fall election to control 
the election of officers and the other settlers could not regard, except with grave 
apprehension, the filling of all the county offices by members of such a sect. 
These apprehensions were intensified by scandalous stories, which about this tinie 
began to reach Missouri about the leaders of the sect in Ohio, and as the feeling 
of apprehension increased, there arose a state of restlessness and friction closely 
bordering upon open hostility. However, beyond some mutual petty annoyances, 
such as throwing stones at houses, breaking down fences, etc. , there was no open 



254 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

action taken until the 20th of July, when a number of citizens, about four hun- 
dred, assembled to take action on the situation. 

The following account of this meeting is taken from a report published in the 
Western Monitor, at that time published by Weston F. Birch, at Fayette, Mo. ; 

The meeting was organized by calling Colonel Richard Simpson to the 
chair, and appointing James H. Flournoy and Colonel Samuel D. Lucas, as 
Secretaries. 

Messrs. Russell Hicks, Esq., Robert Johnson, Henry Chiles, Esq., Colonel 
James Hambriglet, Thomas Hudspeth, Joel F. Chiles, and James M. Hunter, 
were appointed to draft an address ; the meeting then adjourned, and convened 
again, when the following was presented : 

"This meeting, professing to act not from the excitement of the moment, 
but under a deep and abiding conviction, that the occasion is one that calls for 
cool deliberation, as well as energetic action, deem it proper to lay before the 
public an expose of our peculiar situation, in regard to this singular sect of pre- 
tended Christians, and a solemn declaration of our unalterable determination to 
amend it. 

"The evil is one that no one could have foreseen, and it is therefore un- 
provided for by the laws, and the delays of legislation, would put the mischief 
beyond remedy. 

' ' But little more than ten years ago some two or three of these people made 
their appearance in the upper Missouri, and they now number some twelve hun- 
dred souls in this county, and each successive autumn and spring pours forth its 
swarm among us, with a gradual falling of the character of those who compose 
them, until it seems that those communities from which they come were flooding 
us with the very dregs of their composition. Elevated, as they mostly are, but 
little above the condition of our blacks, either in regard to property or education, 
they have become a subject of much anxiety on that point, serious and well 
grounded complaints having been already made of their corrupting influence on 
our slaves. 

" When we reflect on the extensive field in which the sect is operating, and 
that there exists in every country a leaven of superstition that embraces with 
avidity notions the most extravagant and unheard of, and that whatever can be 
gleaned by them from the purlieus of vice and the abodes of ignorance, it is to 
be cast like a waif into our social circles. It requires no gift of prophecy to tell 
that the day is not far distant when the civil government of the county will be in 
their hands ; when the sheriff, the justices and the county judges will be Mormons, 
or persons wishing to court their favor from motives of interest or ambition. 

" What would be the fate of our lives and property in the hands of jurors 
and witnesses who do not blush to declare, and would not upon occasion hesitate, 
to swear that they have wrought miracles, and have been the subjects of miracu- 
lous and supernatural cures ; have conversed with God and his angels, and possess 
and exercise the gifts of divination and of unknown tongues, and fired with the 
prospect of obtaioing inheritances without money and without price, may be 
better imagined than described. **>i=*:H*;t:* 

" And we do hereby most solemnly declare, 

" That no Mormon shall in future move into and setrie in this county. 

" That those now here who shall give a definite pledge of their intention, 
within a reasonable time, to remove out of the county, shall be allowed to remain 
unmolested until they have sufficient time to sell their property and close their 
business without any material sacrifice. 

' ' That the editor of the Star be required forthwith to close his office, etc. 
* * * ******* 

" That those who fail to comply with these requisitions be referred to those 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 255 

of their brethren who have the gift of divination and of unknown tongues to in- 
form them of the lot that awaits them." 

CompUance with these demands being refused, the people assembled, tore 
down the printing office, scattering the materials and papers on the ground, and 
took Bishop Partridge, and a man named Charles Allen, to the public square, 
where they stripped and tarred and feathered them. Mr. Gilbert, who was now 
connected with the store, agreed to close it, and the mob then dispersed until the 

On the 23d of July this convention of citizens again convened, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to confer with the Mormon leaders. This committee was 
met by Messrs. Phelps, Partridge, Gilbert, and Messrs. Covil, Whitmer and 
Morley, elders of the sect. Between them an agreement was made to the effect 
that Oliver Cowdrey, W.W.Phelps, William McLellin, Edward Partridge, Lyman 
Wright, Simeon Carter, Peter and John Whitmer, and Harvey Whitlock, were 
to remove from the county on or before January i, 1834, and were to use their 
influence to secure the removal of all the Saints — one-half by January ist, the 
other half by April i, 1834; John Corril and Algernon Gilbert were to be al- 
lowed to remain as agents to settle up the business of those removing ; the Star 
was not again to be published nor any other press set up in the county ; Mr. 
Phelps and Mr. Patridge, if their families removed by January ist, were to be al- 
lowed to come and go in settling up their business. The committee of citizens 
pledged themselves to use their influence to see that no violence was to be used 
against the Saints while compliance to the agreement was being observed. 

This agreement was reported to the meeting, was unanimously adopted by 
the citizens, and the minutes signed by the chairman, Richard Simpson, and the 
secretaries, S. D. Lucas, J. H. Flournoy. 

In September Orson Hyde and W. W. Phelps were appointed by the Mor- 
mons as a delegation to Governor Dilnklin, then Governor of Missouri, to 
represent the affairs already recited, and to ask- for protection. They prepared 
and presented to the Governor, October 8th, a long memorial setting forth a long 
list of grievances, wrongs and intimidations which they had suffered at the hands 
of the people of Jackson county. The Attorney-General being absent, Governor 
Dunklin declined to take any action until his return, so that it was not until the 
19th of October that they received his decision. The case presented to him was 
an ex parte one, and it received a decision which led the Mormon leaders to rely 
upon his protection. He denied the right of any citizen to take into their own 
hands the redress of their grievances, and recommended the Mormons to appeal 
to the civil courts by affidavit and legal process for redress of the wrongs com- 
plained of, and promised them a faithful enforcement of the laws. 

In pursuance of this action of the Governor, the leaders resolved not to abide 
by the agreement made with the people in July. Preparations for removal from 
the county were stopped, and their leaders engaged Messrs. Woods, Reese, 
Doniphan and Atchison to defend them and prosecute for them in the courts. 
This aroused the citizens again, and although the Mormons had not so violated 
law as to enable the people to proceed against them by legal process, the prospect, 
from the facts already stated, were regarded by the people as so extraordinary as 
to warrant extraordinary measures. Their safety, appeared to them, depended 
upon the expulsion of the Mormons from the county by force, and they at once 
began preparations to that end. 

On the 31st day of October, a party of forty or fifty armed men, without 
other warrant than their own judgment of the requirements of the situation, visit- 
ed a settlement of Mormons on the Big Blue, destroyed ten houses and whipped 
a number of the men. On the night of the ist of November another party visit- 
ed a settlement about twelve miles southwest of Independence, where Parley P. 
Pratt had assembled a force of about sixty men ; here they encamped for the 



256 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

night and put out guards, two of which, Robert Johnson and a man named Har- 
ris, had an encounter with Pratt, whom one of them knocked down with a mus- 
ket. They were then captured by Pratt's party and detained over night. The 
same night they were attacked in Independence and houses were stoned, doors 
broken down, etc. Part of A. S. Gilbert's house was pulled down and the doors 
of the store were broken in and the goods scattered on the street. A party of 
Mormons, summoned from a neighboring settlement, saved part of the goods and 
attempted to have a man named Richard McCarty arrested for participation in 
the affair, but the Justice of the Peace applied to, Samuel Weston, refused to 
issue a warrant for the purpose. At the same time other Mormon settlements 
were visited by the people and great consternation was caused thereby among the 
women and children, the men having fled, but no injury was done them. The 
next day, November 2d, all the Independence Mormons, numbering about thirty 
families, left town arid gathered together for protection. The same day people 
made another attack on the Big Blue settlement, when they unroofed another 
house. They attacked also another settlement about six miles from Independ- 
ence. The next day, November 3d, Joshua Lewis, Hiram Page and two 
other Mormons went to Lexington to ask protection from the circuit court, which 
was refused; while others applied to Justice of the Peace Silvers at Independence 
with a like result. A number of persons at this time visited the Mormons and 
advised them to leave the country as the people were so incensed at them that 
their lives were in danger. This was Sunday, and the Mormons had a rumor 
among them that a general massacre was impending for Monday. 

When Monday came the citizens collected and took possession of a ferry be- 
longing to the Mormons across the Blue, but they soon abandoned it and gather- 
ed in greater numbers at Wilson's store about one mile west of it. A party of 
Mormons, numbering about thirty started from an adjacent settlement to help 
those on the Blue, but hearing of the assembly of the citizens at the store fled 
through the cornfields and were pursued by the citizens. Later in the day a 
party of about thirty arrived from the settlement on the prairie where Pratt had 
encountered the guards a few nights before, and between them and the citizens a 
fight occurred, in which Hugh L. Brozeal and Thos. Linville of the citizens were 
killed and a Mormon named Barber fatally wounded. This fight created great 
excitement throughout the county. 

The same day Richard McCarty caused Gilbert and Whitney to be arrested 
for assaulting him in Independence Saturday night, and for causing his arrest and 
attempting to prosecute him afterward. The situation of affairs now was that no 
Mormon could receive justice from the public courts any more than a citizen 
could have received justice in a trial by Mormons. The conduct of the Mormons 
had so disrupted pubUc peace and order that the county was virtually in the 
hands of a mob. In this situation Samuel C. Owens, Clerk of the County Court, 
advised Gilbert and Whitney to go to jail as a means of protection, and they 
together with W. E. McLellin and a Mr. Covil and Morley, and one other 
Mormon, took his advice. During the night Gilbert, Covill' and Morley were 
taken out for the purpose of an interview with their fellow Mormons, but on being 
returned the next morning were fired upon by a party of six or seven citizens. 
Covill and Morley ran and escaped, but Gilbert was retained by the sheriff. The 
balance of the party were released next day. 

The next day, November 5th, brought still more exciting times, for rumors 
from both sides exaggerated the scenes that had transpired ; the citizens gathered 
to the number of hundreds from all parts of the county ; the Mormons, too, were 
rallying, one hundred of them collecting about a mile west of Independence. 
There they halted waiting to learn the condition of affairs. They were informed 
that the militia had been ordered out for their protection and that Colonel Pitcher 
was in command. Upon application to this officer the Mormons were told that 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTV. 257 

there was no alternative, they must leave the county forthwith; and deliver into 
Col. Pitcher's hands certain ones of their number to be tried for murder; and to 
give up their arms. To these demand the Mormon's yielded. The arm's, about 
fifty guns of all sorts, were surrended; the men present accused of being in the 
skirmish the evening before, were given up for trial ; and after being kept in dur- 
ance for a day and a night Col. Pitcher took them into a cornfield near by and 
said to them, " Clear out! " 

Following this event small parties of citizens went over the country warning 
the Mormans away wherever found, and not unfrequently using violence with the 
men when any of them were caught. This was continued by the infuriated citi- 
zens until the Mormons had all fled the county. They attempted to find refuge 
in adjoining counties, but Clay was the only one that would receive them. 

This was the end of Mormonism in Jackson county but not the end of the 
Mormon trouble, for through the influence of their attorneys, and in the absence 
of such open violations of law as would have warranted the legal expulsion from 
the county, they were able to impress Governor Dunklin with the idea that they 
were then the victims of a ruffianly mob and were being persecuted on account of 
their religion. Hence for several years afterward there was a sort of support 
given them by the governor, which, though insufficient to reinstate them in Jack- 
son county, was sufficient to inspire them with the hope, and caused them to 
expect and to some extent propose to return. This kept up the trouble. 

Whether the people were justified in so employing violence to rid themselves 
of an obnoxious sect, the members of which had not so violated law as to war- 
rant their legal expulsion, was shown by the events of the next few years. The 
Mormons settled, finally, in Clay, Carroll, Ray, Caldwell and Davies counties, 
where they grew strong and prosperous, and, as in Jackson county, became cor- 
respondingly arrogant, and unbearable. They took political possession of Davies 
county, and there and in Caldwell county began to put in practice the things 
the people of Jackson county had apprehended and to prevent which they ex- 
pelled them from the county. After making for themselves a record for treason, 
arson, burglary, theft, murder, and a long list of other crimes, they were finally, 
in 1838, expelled from the State by Governor Boggs, whom they attempted after- 
ward, on the 6th day of May, 1842, to assassinate while sitting in his house at 
Independence. 

A quite detailed account of their efforts to get back to Jackson county, and 
of the action of Governor Dunklin, and the negotiations between them and the 
people of Jackson county has been furnished in the following, which, it will be 
observed, is as favorable to the Mormons as possible : 

November 21st, R. W. Wells, Attorney-General of Missouri, wrote to the 
legal counsel employed by the Saints, that he felt warranted in advising them, 
that in case the " Mormons " expelled from Jackson county desired to be re'in- 
stated, he had no doubt the Governor would send them military aid. He further 
advised that the ■" Mormons" might organize into miHtia and receive public arms 
for their own defense. Judge Ryland, also wrote attorney Amos Reese, stating 
that the Governor had inquired of him respecting the " outrageous acts of un- 
paralleled violence that have lately happened in Jackson county ; " and wished 
to know whether the " Mormons " were willing to take " legal steps against the 
citizens of Jackson county." 

He further wished to know whether a writ issued by him upon the oath of 
Joshua Lewis and Hiram Page had been handed to the sheriff for service ; and 
if so, what was the fate of said writ. This letter was dated Nov. 24, 1833. 

In answer to the Governor's inquiries Mr. Gilbert wrote that officer on Nov. 
29th, giving the following reasons why an immediate court of, inquiry could not 
be held. " Our church is scattered in every direction : some in Van Buren, (a 
new county ;) a part in this county, (Clay : ) and a part in Lafayette, Ray, etc. 

17 



258 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Some four principal witnesses would be women and children, and while the rage 
of the mob continues, it would be impossible to gather them in safety to Inde- 
pendence. And that your Excellency may know of the unabating fury with 
which the last remnant of our people, remaining in that county are pursued at 
this time, I here state that a few familes, perhaps fifteen to twenty, who settled 
themselves more than two years ago on the prairie, about fifteen miles from the 
county seat of Jackson county, had hoped from the obscurity of their location, 
that they might escape the vengeance of the enemy through the winter ; conse- 
quently, they remained on their plantations, receiving occasionally a few individ- 
ual threats, till last Sunday, when a mob made their appearance among them; 
some with pistols cocked and presented to their breasts, commanding to leave 
the county in three days, or they would tear their houses down over their heads, 
etc." =i= * * 

" An immediate court of inquiry called while our people are thus situated, 
would give our enemies a decided advantage in point of testimony, while they 
are in possession of their homes, and ours also ; with no enemy in the county to 
molest or make them afraid." 

This letter was read and concurred in by Mr. Reese. 

Those people threatened on the 24th, as stated by Mr. Gilbert, fled into 
Clay county and encamped on the Missouri. 

December 6th, an additional memorial of facts and petition for aid, was 
sent to Governor Dunklin, setting forth the facts of their dispersion, and signed 
by six of the elders of the church. A letter accompanied the petition informing 
His Excellency of the wish and intention of the Saints to return to their homes, 
if assured of safety and pretection. 

On Monday, December 24th, four families, living near Independence, whose 
age and penury prevented their removal in haste, were driven from their homes ; 
the chimneys of their houses were thrown down, and the doors and windows 
broken in. Two of these men were named Miller and Jones, Mr. Miller being 
sixty-five years old, and the youngest of the four. 

A court of inquiry was held in Liberty, Clay county, during December, 
which resulted in the arrest of Colonel Pitcher, for driving the Saints, or Mor- 
mons, from Jackson, for trial by Court Martial. 

Mr. Gilbert wrote Governor Dunklin from Liberty, Clay county, January 
9th, 1834, submitting for consideration the idea of the Saints making the endeav- 
or to purchase the property of a number of the most violent opposers, if such 
effort would be satisfactory, and help to solve the question peaceably. 

Governor Dunklin replied to the memorials and petitions of the Saints in a 
friendly manner, avowing his desire and design to enforce the civil law, and, if 
practicable, to re-instate those unlawfully dispossessed of their homes. Two 
clauses in this letter disclose something in reference to the peculiar animus of the 
persecution waging against the Mormon population. He wrote : "Your case is 
certainly a very emergent one, and the consequences as important to your society 
as if the war had been urged against the whole State ; yet, the public has no 
other interest in it, than that the laws be faithfully executed. Thus far, I presume 
the whole community feel a deep interest, for that which is the case of the Mor- 
mons to-day, may be the case of the Catholics to-morrow ; and after them, any 
other sect that may become obnoxious to a majority of the people of any section 
of the State. So far as a faithful execution of the laws is concerned, the Execu- 
tive is disposed to do everything consistent with the means furnished him by the 
Legislature, and I think I may safely say the same of the Judiciary. 

"As now advised, I am of the opinion that a mihtary guard will be neces- 
sary to protect the State witnesses and officers of the court, and to assist in the 
execution of its orders, while sitting in Jackson county." 

An order was sent by the same mail from the Governor, directing the captain 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 259 

of the Liberty Blues, a military organization, to comply with the requisitions of 
the Circuit Attorney, in the progress of the trials that might ensue. This letter 
is dated February 4th, 1834. 

Suits were instituted by Messrs. Phelps and Partridge, in the proper courts 
of Jackson county, and a dozen or so of the brethren summoned by subpoena to 
attend the sitting of the court of inquiry to be held. These witnesses were met 
February 23d, at Everett's Ferry, by the Liberty Blues, fifty strong, commanded 
by Captain Atchison, to guard them into Jackson county. They crossed the riv- 
er, and encamped about a mile from it. From reports brought into camp by 
scouts sent out, Captain Atchison sent an order to Captain Allen for two hundred 
drafted militia, and to Liberty for ammunition. The next day the party reached 
independence, where the witnesses met the District Attorney, Mr. Reese, and 
the Attorney General, Mr. Wells ; and from them it was ascertained that all pros- 
pect for any criminal prosecution was at an end. Mr. Wells had been instructed 
by the Governor, to investigate, "as far as possible,'' the outrages in Jackson ; 
but the determined opposition presented to the enforcement of the law, by those 
who had driven the Mormons out, prevented the performance of executive duty. 
The Judge discharged Captain Atchison and his company of Blues, stating that 
their service was not needed ; and that officer marched out of town, with the 
witnesses under guard, to the tune of " Yankee Doodle." 

While all this was transpiring time passed on and others were made to 
suffer. One old man, Lindsay, nearly seventy, had his house thrown down, his 
goods, corn, and other property piled tDgether and fired, but was fortunate 
enough, after the parties, who did it left, to save a pirt of his effects through 
the exertions of a son. Lyman Leonard, one of those who was compelled to 
return from Van Buren county was dragged from his house, beaten and left for 
■dead, but revived and escaped. Josiah Sumner and Birnet Cole were beaten 
severely at the same time. 

March 31, 1834, Ira L WiUis went over from Clay county into Jackson to 
look for and reclaim a cow that had strayed. While at the house of Justice 
Mmship, making proof to the ownership of the cow he was set upon and 
cruelly whipped. 

April 10, 1804, a petition was prepared memorializing the President of the 
United States, and stating the facts of the expulsion of the people from Jackson 
county ; and further setting forth that an impartial investigation into their several 
individual wrongs in the county where those wrongs were committed was 
impossible; they therefore asked that the executive power of the United States 
be exercised in their protection. This memorial and petition was signed by 
one hundred and fourteen of the expelled refugees. 

In answer to this petition the president by order replied that the matter of 
the petition was referred to the War Department, and the department declined 
interference, as it did not appear that the emergency warranting such interference 
had occurred. This information was dated May 2, 1834, and signed by Lewis 
Cass. On the same day Governor Dunklin wrote to Messrs. Phelps and others, 
that the Court of Inquiry, before which Lieut. Col. Pitcher was to answer, had 
decided that the demand made by that officer for the surrender of the arms of 
the Saints on November 5, 1833, was improper, and an order was sent to Col. 
Lucas to return them. This order directed Col. Lucas to deliver to W. W. 
Phelps, E. Partridge and others, fifty-two guns and one pistol, received by Col. 
Pitcher from the Mormons, November 5, 1833. 

The result of this order is seen from the following communication made to 
Gov. Dunklin, May 7, 1834 : . "Since the 24th uit , the mob of Jackson county 
have burned our dwellings to the number of over one hundred and fifty. Our 
arms were also taken from the depository, (the jail), about ten days since and 
distributed among the mob. " * * * 



260 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

The order for the restoration was forwarded to Col. Lucas, at Independence, 
May 17th, with a statement that he might return the arms to eitherof the three 
ferries on the Missouri, the line between Jackson and Clay counties. Of tl:"= 
delivery of the order the Governor was informed by letter dated May 29th. To 
the letter and order to Col. Lucas, that officer stated that he would reply by May 
2 2d, but before that time he removed to Lexington and did not reply what he 
would do. 

Some time in May the expelled Mormons and their friends in Clay county 
began the manufacture of weapons, in order to be prepared for defense if occasion 
again required it ; and in this many of the influential men of the county encour- 
aged them in order, as they said, "to help the Mormons to settle their own diffi- 
culties." 

In the fall, and before the agreement to leave Jackson county had been 
made, by the Mormons afterward expelled, a number of their brethren in Ohio, 
including Joseph Smith, Sylvester Smith, Frederick Williams and others, not far 
from one hundred and fifty men in all, had made arrangements to move into 
Missouri, with the intent to aid their followers there in defending themselves, or to 
share with them the fate that might await them. Of their intention thus to enter 
the State as immigrants, they notified their brethren in Missouri, who by letter 
dated April 24th, 1834, informed the Governor, asking that their arms be restored 
to them and they be re-instated in their homes with the privilege of maintaining 
themselves in those homes, when so re-instated, by force; further asking the 
Governor to give them a guard to escort them to Jackson county, when their 
friends from the east arrived. This letter was signed by A. S. Gilbert and four 
others. 

This company, above referred to, left Kirtland May sth, 1834, arid on June 
5th, Mr. Gilbert notified the Governor, in accordance with the opinion of Mr. 
Reese, District Attorney, that the company was nearly to their journey's end ; 
and again asked for an escort. 

In answer to the communications of Mr. Gilbert and others, Governor Dunklin 
made answer, dated at Jefferson City, June 6th, 1834, from which letter, directed 
to Col. J. Thornton, the following extracts are taken : 

' ' Dear Sir : — I was pleased at the reception of your letter, concurred in by 
Messrs. Reese, Atchison and Doniphan, on the subject of the Mormon difficult- 
ies. * * * A more clear and indisputable right does not exist, that the 
Mormon people, who were expelled from their homes in Jackson county, to 
return and live on their lands, and if they cannot be persuaded as a matter of 
policy to give up that right, or to qualify it, my course, as the chief executive 
officer of the State is a plain one. The Constitution of the United States declares : 
"That the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States." Then we cannot interdict any people who have 
a political franchise in the United States from immigrating to this State, nor from 
choosing what part of the State they will settle in, provided they do not trespass 
on the property or rights of others. * * * And again, our Constitution says, 
"That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God 
according to the dictates of their own consciences." I am fully persuaded that 
the eccentricity of the religious opinions and practices of the Mormons, is at the 
bottom of the outrages committed against them. They have the right constitu- 
tionally guaranteed to them, and it is indefeasible, to believe, and worship Joe 
Smith as a man, an angel, or even as the true and living God, and to call their 
habitation Zion, the Holy Land, or even heaven itself. Indeed, there is nothing 
so absurd or ridiculous, that they have not a right to adopt as their religion, so 
that in its exercise they do not interfere with the rights of others. * * I con- 
sider it the duty of every good citizen of Jackson and the adjoining coun- 
ties, to exert themselves to effect a compromise of these difficulties, and were I 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 261 

assured I would not have to act in my official capacity in the affair, I would visit 
the parties in person and exert myself to the utmost to settle it. My first advice 
would be to the Mormons to sell out their lands in Jackson county, and to settle 
somewhere else, where they could live-in peace, if they could get a fair price for 
them, and reasonable damages for injuries received. If this failed I would try 
the citizens and advise them to meet and rescind their illegal resolves of last 
summer ; and agree to conform to the laws in every particular, in respect to the 
Mormons. If both these failed, I would then advise the plan you have suggested, 
for each party to take separate territory, and confine their numbers within their 
respective limits, with the exception of the public right of ingress and egress 
upon the public highway. If all these failed then the simple question of legal 
right would have to settle it. It is this last that I am afraid I shall have to con- 
form my action to in the end, and hence the necessity of keeping myself in the 
best situation to do my duty impartially. 

To facilitate any effort that might be made to effect a settlement of the trouble, 
the Governor appointed Col. Thornton as an aid to the commander-in-chief, and 
requested him to keep himself and the Governor closely informed of all that was 
transpiring. 

The company emigrating from Ohio, under the charge of Joseph Smith, were 
joined at Salt River, Missouri, by a number from Michigan in charge of Hyrum 
Smith and Lyman Wright, their united number being two hundred and five men. 
These were organized and drilled under Mr. Wright, who was appointed to the 
command of the whole force. 

June 9, 1834, the Governor issued a second order for the return of the arms, 
directed to Col. Pitcher, Col. Lucas having resigned his command and left the 
county. This order to Col. Pitcher required him to collect the arms, if not in 
his possession, and return them to Messrs. Phelps, Partridge and others from 
whom they were taken. 

June loth, Judge John F. Ryland wrote Mr. Gilbert from Richmond, re- 
questing that the Mormons be called together at Liberty the following Monday, 
the 1 6th, at which time he would meet them with a deputation of some of the 
most respectable citizens of Jackson county and explain to them his views ; stat- 
ing further that he dreaded the consequences likely to ensue if he failed in his 
efforts to secure an amicable adjustment between the parties. This request was 
acceded to. Mr. Gilbert and others notified their brethren of the time and place 
of meeting and its object ; and on the i6th the meeting was held, the citizens of 
Clay county, including the Mormons, numbering between eight hundred and a 
thousand, assembled at the Court House, where they were met by the Judge and 
a deputation from Jackson county. At this meeting the citizens of Jackson 
county, through a committee consisting of Mr. Samuel C. Owens and nine others, 
submitted propositions in substance as follows : That they would purchase the 
lands and improvements of the Mormons at a valuation to be fixed by arbitrators 
to be agreed upon by the parties; that when these arbitrators should have been 
chosen, twelve of the Mormons should be permitted to go with the arbitrators to 
point out the lands and improvements to be valued, the people of the county 
guaranteeing their safety while so doing ; that when these arbitrators should have 
fixed said valuation, the people of Jackson county would pay the same with one 
hundred per cent added thereto within thirty days after said report. That upon 
said payment so made the Mormons should execute deeds for the lands, and make 
no effort ever after to settle as a community, or as individuals within the county. 
Both parties were to enter into bonds to keep the terms of the agreement when 
made. A counter proposition was that the Mormons should buy all the lands of 
the people of Jackson county and their improvements on the public lands, the 
valuation to be made in the same way by arbitrators, and the same addition of 
one hundred per cent to such valuation when reported, payment to be made by 



262 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

the Mormons within thirty days after said report of valuation, as in the first propo- 
sition. 

After the reading of this proposition, its adoption and enforcement were 
warmly urged by Mr. Owens, chairman of the deputation from Jackson county, 
and were as warmly met and opposed by Gen. Doniphan. Rev. M. Riley, of 
the Baptist church, urged the expulsion of the Mormons, stating that they had 
"lived long enough in Clay county, and must either clear out or be cleared out." 
Mr. Turnham, the moderator of the meeting, answered this speech, counseling 
moderation, saying, among other things, "let us be Republicans; let us honor 
our country and not disgrace it like Jackson county. For God's sake don't dis- 
franchise or drive away the Mormons. They are better citizens than many of the 
old inhabitants." This expression was indorsed by Gen. Doniphan. Consider- 
able excitement ensued, during which a quarrel occurred between some part- 
ies outside the door, in which one Calbert stabbed another man named 
Wales. Some one shouted into the door of the court room, "A man stabbed," 
which broke up the meeting. Pending the restoration to order, Messrs. Phelps, 
McCIellin and others consulted together and replied to the proposition, that they 
were not authorized to accede to either of the set of terms submitted, but that 
they would give general notice and call a meeting of their brethren and make 
definite answers by the following Saturday or Monday; and that such answer 
should be placed in the hands of Judge Turnham, chairman of the meeting earli- 
er than the day named if possible ; assuring Mr. Owens and others that there was 
no design to open hostilities upon the people of Jackson or other counties. They 
further pledged themselves to prevent any of their brethren coming from the east 
from entering into Jackson. 

Messrs. Philips and Gilbert submitted to Mr. Owens and others of the Jack- 
son committee a reply dated June 21st, 1834, stating that they had consulted with 
their brethren, as agreed, and were authorized to state that the propositions as 
made to them June i6th could not be acceeded to. In the same communication 
they gave the assurance that there was no intention on the part of themselves or 
their brethren to invade the County of Jackson in a hostile manner. 

By this uniting, immediate conflict seemed to be averted, and the Jackson 
county committee returned home by way of the ferry where is now the Wayne 
City landing. The boat was taken over to them and ten or twelve men and as 
many horses went aboard the boat. When about the middle of the Missouri the 
boat filled with water and sank ; men, horses and all went down together. 
George Bradbury, David Linch and James Campbell were drowned. S. V. 
Nolan could not swim, but catching hold of his horse's tail was hauled safely to 
the Jackson county shore. Samuel C. Owens and Thomas Harrington clung to 
the wreck of the boat and floated down a mile, and when the boat reached a sand 
bar Mr. Owens divested himself of all his clothes except his shirt, left the wreck 
and swam safely to the shore. He found a cow path which he followed to the 
main road. While traveling the path he found himself terribly annoyed by the 
sting of the nettle, but he walked to Independence a distance of some four miles. 
Mr. Harrington hung to the boat and was drowned. Wilham Everett swam to 
the Jackson shore anrfwas washed against a drift and was found there ten days 
afterward, one hand fast hold of a projecting snag. The other men swam back 
to the Clay county shore where they all made it safe except Smallwood Nolan 
who clung to a "sawyer" only a short distance from the shore. The men who 
made the shore built a fire and encouraged Nolan to "cling on" till they could 
rescue him. He did cling with the grip of death. When daylight came and the 
men went in to take him off his scanty support, they found that the water was 
only waist deep and he could have waded to the shore with ease if he had known 
it. 

It was rumored that the Mormons had secretiy bored holes in the boat above . 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 263 

the customary water mark, but when loaded would sink to the holes and then fill 
with water. But the most reasonable idea was that the boat did not generally 
carry such heavy loads, hence the timbers had become dry and the corking loose, 
and when the water pressed against it gave away and the boat filled. 

Joseph Smith and his party passed through Richmond, Clay county, June 
19th, and encamped between two branches of Fishing River, not far from their 
junction. Here they were met by five armed men, who informed them that sixty 
men from Ray, and seventy from Clay counties, were to meet others from different 
places and prevent their further progress. They also learned that two hundred 
from Jackson county were to cross the Missouri River at Williams' Ferry, there 
to meet the forces from Ray and Clay counties, at Fishing River Ford, and thence 
to attack and disperse or destroy them. Their designs, if entertained, were pre- 
vented, for on the night following a severe storm of wind and rain occurred, 
which raised the" streams, flooded the country and prevented any hostile move- 
ments being made by either party. 

Mr. Smith's band moved out on the prairie on the 20th and encamped, 
where on the 21st they were visited by Col. Sconce and two other leading men 
from Ray county, who were anxious to know what were their intentions. Mr. 
Smith replied stating that they had come to assist their brethren, bringing with 
them clothing and other supplies to aid them in being re-instated in their rights; 
and disclaimed any design to interfere with, or molest any people. These men 
returned from this visit satisfied of the intentions of Mr. Smith and those 
with him, and rode through the neighborhood using their influence to allay the 
excitement. 

Cornelius GiUium, Sheriff' of Clay county, went to the camp of Mr. Smith 
and party on June 22nd, and aslced for Mr. Smith; and upon being presented to 
him, gave them some instructions concerning the peculiarities of the inhabitants 
of the county ; and advised Mr. Smith and the rest as to the course that should 
be pursued by them to secure the protection of the people. Mr. Smith and those 
with him resumed their march to reach Liberty, Clay county, on the 23rd ; but 
were met by Gen. Atchison and others, when within six miles of the town, and 
were by them persuaded not to go to Liberty, as the people were too much in- 
censed against them. The party, therefore, turned away to the left and encamped 
upon the premises of a member of the fraternity named Burghardt, on the bank 
of Rush Creek. 

From here, a proposition for settlement was agreed to on the part of the 
Mormons, and was by them sent to Mr. S. C. Owens, and others, the committee 
from Jackson county. This proposition was in substance, as follows : 

That if the inhabitants of Jackson county would not permit them to return 
to their homes and remain in peace, then twelve disinterested men were to be 
chosen, six by each party to the strife, and these twelve men were to fix the 
value of the lands of those men resident in the county who were opposed to the 
Mormons, and could not consent to live in the county with them ; that when this 
valuation was made, the Mormons were to have one year in which to raise the 
money ; that none of the Mormons should enter the county to reside until the 
money was paid; that the same twelve men were also to fix the am«unt of 
damages incurred by the Mormons in their expulsion, and the amount of damages 
so fixed, should be taken from the aggregate sum to be paid by the said Mor- 
mons for the land appraised by said arbitrators. 

On June 25th Mr. Smith caused his company to be broken into small bands, 
and scattered them among the resident members. He also apprised Generals 
Doniphan, Atchison and Col. Thornton of what he had done, informing them 
that his company of emigrants would so remain dispersed until every effort for 
an adjustment of differences had been made on their part, " that would in any- 
wise be required of them by disinterested men of Republican principles." 



264 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

June 26th, by agreement among the Elders of the Mormons, a letter was 
prepared to Governor Dunklin, informing him of their arrival in Clay county, of 
their having been met by General Doniphan, of their present condition and the 
nature of the negotiations then pending, of the character of the proposals made by 
them, and notifying the Governor that if the present effort for peace failed they 
should do all that could be required of them by human or divine law to secure peace- 
ably their homes in Jackson county, their claim to which they would not abandon. 
They further notified the Governor that within the week one of their brethren was 
taken by some citizens from Jackson county, and forcibly carried from Clay county 
across the Missouri, and after being detained in custody for a day and night was 
threatened and released. Also, that the houses of a number of their members in 
Clay county had been broken into and rifled of guns and arms during the absence 
of the men folks, the women being threatened and intimidated. , On the same day 
they received a rejection of their proposals to Mr. Owens, by the way of their 
attorney, Mr. Reese. 

While encamped on Rush Creek the cholera broke out among them, and out 
of sixty-eight attacked thirteen died, among them John S. Carter, Eber Wilcox 
and Algernon S. Gilbert, he who was expelled from Independence. 

Mr. Gillium published the result of his visit to the Mormon camp, and the 
propositions made by them as stated above, in the '■'■Enquirer," July ist, 1834, 
apd the whole country then became acquainted with the purposes and wishes of 
these worshipers. We quote from this publication the following : 

" We wish to become permanent citizens of this State, and bear our proportion 
in support of the Government and to be protected by its laws. If the above prop- 
ositions are complied with, we are willing to give security on our part, and we 
shall want the same of the people of Jackson county, for the perfoimance of this 
agreement. We do not wish to settle down in a body, except where we can pur- 
chase the land with money ; for to take possession by conquest or the shedding of 
blood is entirely foreign to our feehngs. The shedding of blood we shall not be 
guilty of, until all just and honorable means among men prove insufficient to re- 
store peace." 

This declaration was signed by Joseph Smith, Jr., F. G. Williams, then 
Acting-President of the Church, Lyman Wright, Rodger Orton, Orson Hyde and 
John S. Carter, all leading men among the Mormons. It was directed to John 
Lincoln, John Sconce, George R. Morehead, James H. Long and James Collins. 

The Mormons also appointed a committee of their number, who drafted an 
Appeal to the people of the United States, in which they set forth the purposes 
expressed by them in their statement to Mr. Gillium. This appeal was published 
and scattered abroad, but it is not known what effect it had, other than possibly 
to exasperate the feeling in Missouri against them. 

The message of the Governor of Missouri to the General Assembly of the 
State, then in session, communicated on November 20th, 1838, recommended a 
commission of members of both Houses of the Legislature to inquire into the 
Mormon difficulties. The House, in Committee of the Whole on the State of the 
Republic, November 2 2d, appointed a select committee of seven to co-operate 
with such number from the Senate as that body might appoint, to inquire into the 
" causes of said disturbances, and the conduct of the military operations in sup- 
pressing them, with power to send for men and papers." The Senate, on Novem- 
ber 23d, appointed Messrs. Turner, Noland and Scott as their part of said com- 
mittee, thus concurring in the action. This committee reported in the Senate, on 
December i8th, that they had taken the matters submitted to them into consider- 
ation, and decided that they "thought it unwise and injudicious under all the 
circumstances of th^ case to predicate a report upon the papers, documents, etc. , 
purporting to be copies of the evidence taken before an examining court, held in 
Richmond, Ray county, for the purpose of inquiring into the charges alleged 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 265 

against the people called Mormons, growing out of the late difficulties between 
that people and other citizens of this State." 

The reasons given are : The evidence given in that examination was in a 
great degree ex parte, and not of a character to afford a "fair and impartial 
investigation." The papers had not been so certified as to satisfy the committee 
of their authenticity. There were still charges pending against some of the 
Mormons for treason, murder, and other felonies, which charges were to be tried 
before the courts in the several counties, where such crimes were charged to 
have been committed. Publication of the evidence and papers referred to might 
affect seriously, the right of trial by a " jury of the vicinage," by prejudicing public 
sentiment against the accused. Were the committee to act, and send for papers 
and persoris, it might interfere with the action of the courts wherein the suits 
were pending. For these reasons the committee recommended the appointment 
of a committee, who should, after the adjournment of the assembly, go into the 
vicinity of the scenes of difficulties, there to make inquiry and make proper 
report to the legislature of their inquiry and examination when concluded. 
Among other reasons given for such recommendation occur these; that the 
"documents, although serviceable in giving direction to the course of inquiry, 
are none of them, except the official orders and correspondence, such as ought 
to be received as conclusive evidence of the facts stated." And that it "would 
not be proper to publish the official orders and correspondence between the 
officers in command, and the Executive, without the evidence on which they were 
founded ; and that evidence is not sufficiently full and satisfactory to authorize 
its publication." 

The recommendations of the committee were concurred in by the senate, 
January loth, and on the i6th, Mr. Turner introduced a bill providing such 
inquiry ; making it the duty of the commission when appointed to inquire into 
the causes of the disturbances. This bill passed after amendment, and being 
reported to the house, was on February 4, 1839, laid on the table until July 4th, 
by 48 to 37. 

Pending the expiration of the time for which this bill to inquire into the 
causes of disturbance of the peace in the various counties of Clay, Ray and 
Davies, the history of the Mormons of the State is about as follows : 

After the removal from Jackson, and the acceptance of the final decision, 
nothing further appears of any settlement being attempted in Jackson county by the 
expelled party, or their brethren. Joseph Smith returned to Kirtland, Ohio, 
with many others, while some concluded to remain in the, to them, land of Zion; 
and these settled in and through the counties above named. 

Things did not long remain in a peaceful condition, however, and, it became 
apparent that there would again be trouble. To avoid this, if possible, it 
appears that some of the leading men among the Mormons were sent to Rich- 
mond, Ray county, and made inquiry as to whether the citizens would be willing 
that they should settle upon the territory, north and contiguous to the county of 
Ray, at that time unorganized. To this no answer was given, and, taking it for 
granted that no objections would be offered, many removed, and Mr. James M. 
Hunt, in his "Mormon War," written in 1844, declares that: " Here, for some 
time, the prophet concentrated his followers; houses were erected, as if by 
magic — improvements were prosecuted with such rapidity as to promise a flour- 
ishing town and country in a very short time. The country round about was fast 
being settled, and undergoing improvements — every month bringing swarms of 
deluded fanatics, to forward the designs of their ambitious leader." 

Settlements were made at Far West ; one on Grand River in Davies called 
Adam-on-di-Amon, and one in Carroll county called DeWitt. At these places, 
says Hunt, "members gathered, improving town and country rapidly." "It is 
due the Mormons," further says this writer, "here to state, that they were an 



266 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

industrious, agricultural people, or at least that portion of them who located in 
the country round about the 'stakes' " as these settlements were called by them. 

Between the years 1834 and the beginning of 18.38, these settlements, out- 
side of Jackson, continued to thrive, disturbed, possibly, by now and then an 
outrage or reprisal, such as may occur in newly settled countries among any class 
of settlers, for which mutual wrongs, attempted redresses were sought before 
mutual courts, as some of the local minor courts were in the hands of the Mor- 
mons, though the county and superior ones were held by other citizens ; and each 
party claimed that injustice was done them by these courts by reason of partisan 
iDias. The feeling was growing bitter against the Mormons on the part of the 
citizens, and the feelings of injury and resentment began to crystallize into provo- 
cation and resentment, (especially so with some indididuals,) on the part of the 
Mormons. Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon had settled with their families in 
the State, and under their direction the people had been organized and armed, 
more or less efficiently, to repel encroachments and protect themselves, as they 
stated, from unlawful aggressions. They had been told that the authority of the 
Legislature and Executive could not be brought to bear for their defense until 
remedies at the lesser courts failed them, and then only at the requisition of local 
civil officers, and had been advised whether judiciously or otherwise to defend 
themselves. There grew up some dissensions among themselves ; a few, some of 
their prominent men among them, dissented from the rules of the society and 
the authority of Messrs. Smith and Rigdon ; these were denounced as apostate, 
and attempts made to drive them out from the society and settlements, which 
resulted in mutual recrimination and the making public exaggerated accounts 
of the intentions of the Mormon leaders. Some of the brethren more fanatical 
or more unwise than others, were guilty of of flagrant excesses of language 
calculated to createsuspicion and uneasiness in the minds of those already 
prejudiced against them as a people. There were some law-breakers among them 
who committed crimes and were not punished ; all of which hastened the 
impending trouble. These things among themselves, and the constant, manifesta- 
tion of hostility from many of the citizens, lawless and irresponsible, and some of 
note and ability among' the most respectable as well, with occasional depre- 
dation upon the Mormons, resulted in making further .peace very improbable. 

In June, 1838, Sidney Rigdon preached a sermon taking strong ground 
against the dissenters and the Missourians. This sermon was construed as a dec- 
laration of war against the apostates and of reprisal against the citizens. Mr. 
Hunt states that in this state of things the citizens apprehended wrong-doers 
against them, but having to go before a Mormon justice and jury they failed and 
were abused by the Mormons for bringing vexatious suits ; and that the Gentiles 
were not idle in "setting afloat their grievances, and probably exaggerating them." 

Mr. Rigdon is said to have delivered an oration July 4th, 1838, at Far West, 
before a gathered multitude, which was called a treasonable speech. This oration 
we have carefully read, and can now see that the passages construed as treas- 
onable and dangerous, may have been but the indignant protest against violence 
that a possible enthusiast might unadvisedly use. They are as follows: "And 
that mob that comes on us to disturb us, it shall be between us and them a war of 
extermination ; for we will follow them till the last drop of their blood is spilled, 
or they will have to exterminate us, for we will carry the seat of war to their own 
houses and their own famihes, and one party or the other shall be utterly de- 
stroyed. Remember it, then, all men ! We will never be the aggressors — we 
will infringe on the rights of no people, but shall stand for our own until death. 
We claim our own rights, and are willing that all others shall enjoy theirs. No 
man shall be at liberty to come into our streets, to threaten us with mobs for if he 
does, he shall atone for it before he leaves the place ; neither shall he vilify or 
slander any of us, for suffer it we will not in this place. ;!< * h< =K 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 267 

Neither will we indulge any man or set of men, in instituting vexatious law-suits 
against us to cheat us out of our rights ; if they attempt it, we say woe be 
unto them." 

August I St, at an election in Davies county, a quarrel ensued between some 
citizens and Mormons. One of the latter was badly stabbed, and others on both 
sides wounded. From this occurrence, rumors flew in every direction. The 
Mormons at Far West were told that several of their number had been killed, and 
two hundred of them went into Davies county, to inquire into it. They found 
no one killed ; but Mr. Adam Black, a justice of the peace of Davies county, 
stated under oath, before John Wright and Elijah Foley, fellow justices, that Mr. 
Smith and others, to the number of one hundred and fifty-four, exacted from him 
about August 8th, 1838, a written promise to support the Constitution of the 
State and the United States ; and not to support a mob, nor to attach himself to 
any mob, nor to molest the Mormons. To answer to this charge, Mr. Smith, L. 
Wight and others were arrested, and recognized to appear for trial. Other dis- 
turbances followed, and upon representation of a depiitation of citizens from 
Davies county, Major-General Atchison, at the head of a thousand men of the 
Third Division of Militia, went to the scene of trouble. The Major-General 
found the citizens and the Mormons in hostile array. He dispersed both parties, 
and reported to the Governor, with the further statement that no further depreda- 
tions were to be feared from the Mormons. Almost simultaneously disturbances 
occurred in Carroll and Caldwell counties. The citizens determined to drive the 
Mormons out of the State ; the Mormons refused to be driven. A number of 
the citizens made representations to General Atchison, on September loth, that 
the citizens of Davies had a Mormon in custody, as a prisoner, and that the Mor- 
mons had Messrs. John Comer, Wm.. McHamy and Allen Miller prisoners, as 
hostages. Certain of the Mormons, and other citizens of Carroll county, peti- 
tioned the Governor from De Witt, stating the committal of lawless acts against 
them, among which was the ordering them to leave the county, giving them until 
October ist, and asking interference and relief. This was dated September 22d, 
1838. 

From reports filed with the Governor, by Generals H. G. Parks, David R. 
Atchison and A. W. Doniphan, copies of which accompanied the message of the 
Governor to the Assembly, it appears that when the proper authorities of the State 
appeared on the scene of difficulty, the Mormons gave up, not only the prisoners 
they had taken in reprisal, but their arms, and also the men of their number 
against whom civil processes were pending. General Parks, in a report dated 
Mill Post, September 25th, 1838, states : " Whatever may have been the dispo- 
sition of the people called Mormons, before our arrival here, since we have made 
our appearance, they have shown no disposition to resist the laws, or of hostile 
intention." * * * "There has been so much prejudice and exaggeration 
concerning this matter, that I found things, on my arrival here, totally different 
from what I was prepared to expect. When we arrived here, we found a large 
body of men from the counties adjoining, armed, and in the field, for the pur- 
pose, as I learned, of assisting the people of this county against the Mormons, 
without being called out by the proper authorities." General Atchison wrote the 
Governor from Liberty, Missouri, September 27th, 1838: " I have no doubt 
Your Excellency has been deceived by the exaggerated statements of designing 
or half crazy men. I have found there is no cause of alarm on account of the 
Mormons ; they are not to be feared ; they are very much alarmed." 

Hostile feeling culminated rapidly. The citizens, in absence of the militia, 
gathered their forces together, and, on the night of October ist, attacked Dewitt. 
A committee of citizens of Chariton county went into Carroll county and found 
Dewitt invested by a large force, the Mormons in defense and suing for peace, 
and wishing for the interposition of the civil authorities. They reported October 



268 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Sth, 1838. General Atchison reported October i6th that the Mormons had sold 
out in Carroll county and left, and that a portion of their assailants were on the 
march to Davies county with one piece of artillery, " where, it is thought, the 
same lawless game is to be played over, and the Mormons driven from that 
county, and probably from Caldwell." " Nothing, in my opinion," wrote this 
general in his report, " but the strongest measures within the power of the execu- 
tive will put down this spirit of mobocracy." 

The Mormons resisted, and in their turn plundered the store of Jacob Stol- 
lings at Gallatin, removing the goods, burned the store and other buildings in that 
place and Millport. The citizens of Ray, Davies, Carroll, Jackson, Howard and 
some other counties gathered, and apprising the governor that the Mormons, now 
growing desperate, had become the aggressors, the governor, L. W. Boggs, moved 
thereto by the representations made to him, issued orders to General John B. 
Clark, placing him in command of all the force necessary, with instructions that 
he was in receipt of information of the most appalling nature, ' ' which entirely 
changed the face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude of an open 
and armed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this 
State. * * * The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exter- 
minated or driven from the State, if necessary for the public peace — their out- 
rages are beyond all description." 

In obedience to this order. General Clark, associated with General Lucas, 
proceeded to the seat of war, and, without much resistance, disbanded the armed 
forces of the Mormons, demanded and received their arms, took Joseph Smith, 
Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith and fifty other leading men prisoners for trial upon 
various charges — high treason against the State, murder, burglary, arson, robbery 
and larceny. These men were examined before Austin A. King, Judge of the 
Fifth Judicial Circuit in the State of Missouri, at Richmond, beginning Novem- 
ber 12, 1838. At this examination some were discharged for lack of evidence 
to hold them, but Joseph Smith, Lyman Wright, Hyrum Smith, Alexander 
McRae and Caleb Baldwin were held for trial and comrnitted to jail in Clay 
county; some others were recognized for trial and gave bonds. A further demand 
was made to the effect that the Mormons make an appropriation to pay their debts 
and indemnification for the damage to citizens done by them. The property said 
to have been taken by them was mostly restored upon demand of the officers. 

The Mormons began leaving at once , and continued to leave until all were 
gone, except now and then a recalcitrant member, or one who had some personal 
friends among the citizens. Many sold out for what they could get, and many 
were compelled to go without selling at all. Their leaders were taken prisoners, 
their means of defense, as well as offense, were taken from them by law, and by 
the will of the citizens, enforced by the order of the governor, some twelve thou- 
sand people were driven from the State. The number of killed in this Mormon 
war is stated by the official report of the general in command in the following 
language: "The whole number of the Mormons killed through the whole diffi- 
culty, as far as I can ascertain, are about forty, and several wounded. There 
has been one citizen killed and about fifteen badly wounded." This is rather a 
damaging result against the State after the terrible character given the Mormons 
by those opposed to them, and upon whose reports the governor ordered their 
suppression. Messrs. Smith, Rigdon and his comrades in jail in Liberty took 
change of venue to Boone county, but the officer charged with their delivery in 
Boone in his return of the order of removal to Davies county states that the 
prisoners escaped. They afterward reached Illinois in safety. 

Such in brief is the history of that strange people called Mormons, in Mis- 
souri; the events succeeding their departure from the County of Jackson and 
settlements in Ray, Clay, Caldwell, Davies and other counties, have been hurried 
over as not properly belonging in our history of Jackson. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 269 

After this expulsion from Missouri, the Mormons settled in Illinois, where in 
six years, from 1838 to 1844, they increased rapidly, and laid the foundation for 
a magnificent city. They began the erection of a stone temple upon a sightly 
location. Trouble followed them, the citizens were again aroused; Process was 
issued for the arrest of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, on charge of treason ; awaiting 
trial upon which charge in the jail of Hancock county, Illinois, June 27th, 1844, 
they were attacked and killed by a mob. Two years after that, the Mormons, 
under the leadership of Brigham Young, were expelled from Illinois, and Utah 
and polygamy are the outcome. 

There is now in Jackson countyj a body of people calling themselves Latter 
Day Saints. They are in fact a branch of the Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints, of wlTich chur.ch Joseph Smith, Jr., the eldest son of 
Joseph Smith, the putative father of Morfflonism, is the president. The present 
headquarters of this church is at Piano, Kendall county, Illinois; where they 
have a printing house, containing engine, presses, type and other facilities for car- 
rying on quite an extensive business. They number some fifteen thousand mem- 
bers now, dispersed through the United States in over four hundred congregations, 
including branches in Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Salt Lake City 
and many other prominent cities ; and are most numerous in Illinois, Iowa and 
Missouri. In many places they have houses of worship, which they by the en- 
couragement and aid of the citizens have built ; one of these buildings is in Inde- 
pendence. 

This church, under Mr. Smith's presidency, has kept an active ministry at 
work in Utah, endeavoring to disabuse the Mormons of that territory of the dogma 
of polygamy, which they assert to be no part of primitive Mormonism ; and from 
the history of the sect during its stay in Missouri from 1835 to 1838, it would 
appear that these organizers are correct ; for not a single charge of such dogma 
being held or taught appears in the many statements made against them, or in the 
published orders and reports of the officers engaged in expelling them from the 
State. They, at all events, oppose the tenet, and are directiy antagonizing Utah 
Mormonism. 




27o HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 

Politics in Jackson County from i8S7 to i860 — Missouri Men and Families Abused — Colonel 
Henry Younger and John Fristoe — Cole Younger' s Revolution to Avenge His Father's 
Death — Dr. Lee and the Summit, Etc. — The County Officers — Two Silly Young Men— 
Capt. Quantrell and His Men — He Dashes Upon the Headquarters of the Troops and 
Escapes Again — The Community. 

The enormities of violated law in Jackson county will never be recorded ; 
figuratively speaking, the half has never been told and the history of the important- 
events alone would fill a book. 

At this late day when our country is sailing over the smoothest seas of pros- 
perity, and when all is favorable and inviting for at least a succession of years to 
come, men are beginning to be disposed to remember that unfortunate period in 
our history as a dream, as some story of romance that they remember to have 
read years ago. Therefore there is some difficulty in getting men to agree to 
live that life over again in the way of telling men what they saw and suffered 
during those times. 

It is not so much our wish to learn which individual was guilty and thereby 
establish the innocency of his neighbor, or which party was just and right while 
the other was wrong and deserving of annihilation, but to know and record the 
facts, in the case, as the attorney would say, in his pleading at the bar. The 
harsh and unreasoning world is by no means in sympathy with historians ; but 
to the contrary, often times, there is the bitterest feeling toward them, simply 
because they endeavor to solicit and place on record the truth. In the following 
sections on the civil and criminal record of Jackson county, from the spring of 
i860 to the autumn of 1866, the charity and good will of all are sought, and 
their assistance is earnestly desired that true and reliable facts as they really 
occured might go down to coming generations. 

It is not the trouble to find something to write about, as much as it is what 
to write, and what not to write. There is not a more prolific period for a multi- 
plicity of interesting subjects in the history of Missouri than in that of Jackson 
county during the years 1860-6. Crime and blood-shed held high carnival for 
some time outside of the above indicated years, a part of which has found 
its way into the history of our country, but the great part is yet unwritten and 
remains within the minds of those who were unfortunate enough to experi- 
ence it. 

There must be a difference made between crimes. As a matter of course, 
rebellion and treason are more or less reprehensible wherever found, yet quite 
frequently in the history of nations do we find very respectable and plausible 
rebellions and revolutions. No particular illustrations are necessary to prove this 
observation ; it is almost understood as a condition of man's energies in behalf of 
liberty. Consequently, it need not be expected by either North, East, South or 
West for the late Civil War — in the great Rebellion, as some choose to call it — to 
be considered as a crime in these pages; not that there were no crimes committed 
during those troublesome times, for both sides of that desperate struggle did things 
that have disgraced the fair name of American freemen. So, if any have charges 
to make, let them be made against the times and not against the men ; and hardly 
so much against the times as against the culmination and development of certain 
counter and exceptional principles that enter the constitutions of all Republics. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 271 

Most certainly, if men did wrong as individuals, they are responsible, and their 
names will ever be praised or blamed, according to what they did. 

There has been more or less interest taken in politics in Jackson county ever 
since the border troubles in 1857 and some time afterward. About the year of 
1858 there were quite a number of new settlers in Jackson county, an important 
majority of whom were first class citizens, and consequently were cordially wel- 
comed by the people of the county. Along with this number came others who 
strenuously contended for the notions and prejudices of the sections from which 
they came, whether North or South. It would not take a very imaginative mind, 
therefore, to perceive that if there was much persistence on the part of either class 
of citizens, there would be trouble. These two classes, the slaveholders and the 
non-slaveholders, continued to increase, as also did the feelings concerning the 
abolition question, By the time of the Presidential nominations in the spring of 
i860, matters took a definite course, and it only took the example of the earlier 
seceding States to throw the country into party lines. All during the summer of 
i860, as the campaign of the several Presidential nominees was going on, some 
considerable feelings were being aroused throughout the country, to the extent 
that the election of Lincoln in the autumn of i860, and his inauguration in the 
spring of 1861, sounded the key-note of what was to follow. 

Of course, as the question of slavery was the hinging issue of the election, its 
success in the election of Abraham Lincoln was at once manifest ; consequently the 
feelings between the border counties of Missouri and Kansas were almost at once 
raised to blood heat. The least infringement upon the rights of any of either 
party were causes whose effects, before the troubles were over, were destruction 
of much property and the cruelest blood-shed and murders. In the autumn of 
1861 the Kansas Volunteers, under Colonel Jennison, entered Jackson county and 
committed many atrocious crimes, which should, and perhaps would, had circum- 
stances been favorable, have convicted any man in the Criminal Court of the 
county; but as things were then going, revenge and retaliation were about the 
only measures adopted. 

Many citizens of the county, who were, in fact, good, law-abiding men, 
Union men, were roughly handled, their families abused, and property confiscated 
by those robbers and marauders who came into the county from Kansas, under 
the pretense of protecting property and the people. Had they proven true to 
the purpos/for which they were sent, and faithful to the authority that sent them, 
perhaps hundreds of their own men, and scores of the country's best citizens, as 
well as millions of her property, would to-day be blessing the world. But alas ! 
they are no more ; only the little biographical pamphlets and stories of the 
wrongs of the Civil War remain. It might not be of much use to mention any 
of the several families, that fell victims to this first attack and storm of violence, 
for they have been given to the world in many different forms ; but as this chap- 
ter is exclusively devoted to incidents of the late war in the whole county, 
the names of Colonel Henry Younger, old Esquire Lee, the Wilsons, etc. ,• can- 
not well be omitted. There is no doubt that the above named families and many 
others that could be mentioned as well as not, were unjustly and unmercifully 
treated by those men from Kansas. It is highly probable that the people from 
among whom these Volunteers came,had been unjustly treated ; but the moral that 
" Two wrongs never make one right," should have been considered by the 
United States authorities before they commenced to destroy and kill in the way 
they did. And then, after that was done, the other side should not have taken 
the desperate steps it did, by any means in the world ; for it inaugurated a strug- 
gle of annihilation, that has not been surpassed since the days of the memorable 
crusades. Were the National Volunteers responsible for what they did ? Were the 
people of the county responsible for what they did ? are questions that will have 
to be answered at the judgment, and perhaps they will never before. -We may 



272 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

form whatever conjectures we will, notwithstanding; but besides this high handed 
species of crime, in which many people were engaged, there were many lesser 
crimes, or, to be more explicit, many personal and individual crimes, such as 
murdering, killing, thieving, etc., trespassing upon the rights of others, violating 
the written and unwritten laws of the county and State. 

Colonel Henry W. Younger and Mr. John Fristoe were living, when the war 
broke out, on the Independence and Harrisonville road, a few miles from what is 
now known as Lee's Summit — at least they owned valuable property in that neigh- 
borhood. Judge Younger was County Judge for eight years and afterward was 
twice elected to the State Legislature; it seems that when he, his family and his 
property were first attacked, he was a United States Mail Contractor and had 
his transportation ^«^^ stationed at Harrisonville, Missouri. The first dash of Jenni- 
son through Jackson and Cass counties swept the lovely property of Colonel 
Younger away ; this gained, of course, for the Federals, eternal hatred from the 
Younger family ; they espoused immediately the Confeder3,ie cause, though they 
were primarily Union men. The next year brought its full harvest of death and 
crime. On the 20th of July, 1862, Colonel Younger was waylaid and assassin- 
ated five miles from Independence. As he had been trading in town the day be- 
fore rather extensively, the presumption is that he was killed for his money. 
Though he had some $2,000 or $3,000 about his person, the robbers did not get 
but about $400. It would have been good for the world and Jackson county had 
the assassins that killed Colonel Younger never been born. For this and other 
insults that have been offered to the Younger family brought to the front one of 
the most daring and dangerous characters that ever drilled beneath the black flag. 
Coleman Younger, more hastily called Cole, son of Colonel Younger, while be- 
holding the agonizing tremors of his delicate mother and sisters over the dead 
body of his dear father, made resolutions the faithful carrying out of which has 
cast a shadow over his father's family and good name, made hundreds of widows 
and fatherless children, and scattered forgotten graves over the entire portion of 
Western Missouri and Eastern Kansas. Many a noble son and brother that vol- 
unteered to fight for the glorious stars and stripes of our native land melted and 
went down before the remorseless anger and resolutions of that injured son and 
brother. The historical narrative and connection would be entirely broken, were 
the deeds and crimes of the Younger brothers to be followed. 

Mr. John Fristoe, who was related to the Younger family by marriage, was the 
owner of considerable land, stock and residences, by his relation to the guerrillas, 
the presumption was that he offered them aid and comfort. Consequently his 
fine country mansion was burned to the ground, his stock driven off, etc. , to the 
extent that his creditors came upon him and nearly broke him up. His troubles 
and anxieties, exposures and melancholy had a fatal effect upon him, so much so, 
that he died a few years afterward of pulmonary consumption ; his widow still 
lives on the old homestead near Lee's Summit. 

Doctor Lee, also, suffered much from those troublous times, and shortly 
afterward was shot upon his own premises in cold blood. He lived upon and 
owned many of the broad acres of land in and around the station on the Missouri 
Pacific Railroad, now known as Lee's Summit. If there was any cause for the 
maltreatment of the doctor and his property, more than that his sons and 
nephews were in the Confederate army, it has not come to light; neither does it 
appear that he made any resistance, but suffered those men who were actually 
enemies to law and order, in whatever cause, to lead him forth in his own yard 
and before his own family, and shoot his head full of lead. How completely must 
those times have been a reign of terror ! The house of Esquire Hink was also 
burnt with that of a dozen others, in that part of the county. Thus far, it might be 
observed, that the names above given were in sympathy with the Confederacy, as 
many others may be given, who were badly treated and some of whom were 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 273 

killed. By the summer and autumn of 1862, cases of murder and other crimes 
were occurring frequently and fast all over the county, many cases of which 
were completely in the dark and are until this day. It is quite likely, that can- 
vassers for this very book, as they travel over the county, will find many families 
that lost a husband, a father, or a brother concerning whose death and for what 
they died they cannot give the remotest idea. One thing they can tell, however, 
and that is, that my husband, my brother, or my son on a certain day in 186 — 
left home, to go and see our neighbor beyond the Blue or the Kaw, and he never 
returned. Ah ! how sad must the helpless have fell, when there was no assurance 
that their loved ones would ever return again. The mother with her little 
ones did not know how much to fear or how much to dare; perhaps, her stay 
and protector would be met by the "Red-legs " or the guerrillas, the Federals or 
the Confederates and be murdered or hung like a dog. Some citizens of Jackson 
county during those times, disappeared under circumstances like the above, and 
have never been seen or heard of since. They surely must be dead, but how can 
we know it, where will the widowed wife and orphan children go and weep ; 
what wound will they dress, and strew with garlands of spring — where will they 
scatter beautiful flowers, upon the grave of a husband, a father, or a brother? 
No, no, no, that is impossible, he was mortally wounded and was burnt to death 
in his neighbor's dwelling, or was hung in the midst of a lone and desolate forest, 
where none would visit him but the fowls of heaven ; or was mangled and muti- 
lated and his body was buried in the rough sands of the bottom of the Blue. As 
for who killed the poor man, or innocent youth it is as much a mystery as where 
they left him, or where he lies to-day. It seems as if all the furies of infernal 
hell had been let loose in Jackson county, there would not have been more agen- 
cies benton the destruction of human life. The " Red legs," mighthave done it; 
or the bush-whackers, or guerrillas, or desperate Confederate scouts might have done 
it, it is absolutely impossible to determine; but one thing we are quite sure of, 
and that is, that it was done, and too frequently in cold blood. It was cold blood 
murder in many cases as far as the unfortunate individual was concerned; but the 
men who did such things, (and they did frequently,) were very often in close 
places; perhaps more than a dozen times had the surging breath of death and 
destruction scorched their blood-stained garments, and it was in the cowardly act 
of killing the innocent that they took revenge. 

The question might be asked where was the County Sheriff, or the County 
Marshal when so much outlawry and committance of crime was going on ? You 
might as well ask where the parson was, for one would have done about as much 
good as the other. That was the trouble ; there was no law ; the law was set 
aside for the time being, and every man was a law unto himself. No doubt there 
were county officers — plenty of them, but they were mere figure-heads. They 
were housed up at Independence, Kansas City and Westport, taking care of 
number one as best they could, and perhaps did not hear of half the crimes com- 
mitted in the county. Were they to blame we might ask ? Perhaps not in every 
instance ; there were no informers, no warrants issued and no one to confess his 
guilt. So, from circumstances such as these, we can partly conceive of the 
troubles and disasters that swept over our county during the years 1862-4. 

In the summer of 1863, a respectable and well-known citizen by the name of 
John Hagan, was living a few miles south of Independence ; he was a man that 
respected the rights of others, and by words and actions asked others to respect 
his, but alas ! the sequel will tell things quite differently. One bright Sunday 
morning, while he and his family, a wife and three children, were driving up to 
his brother's, William Hagan, who still lives near Lee's Summit, he met a band of 
Federal soldiers, who were much exasperated because the telegraph wire had 
been cut the day before. They ordered him to dismount from among his family 
and go before them into a neighboring wood, where they shot him through the 

18 



274 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

head ; he was found next day killed in the manner described. This was the 
cause of a more bloody tragedy, or at least a more desperate one. Whether a 
murder could be more bloody and censurable than that which drags a devoted 
husband and father from the midst of his family and cruelly takes his life, so that 
the half-distracted wife and her frightened little ones had to go on and find some 
one to return and search for the missing husband and father, is a serious ques- 
tion. Yet, we will presently see where blind vengeance and madness did their 
gory work without the least suspicion as far as learned. 

Two young men, both of confederate sympathies resolved upon revenge. 
One was known as Ed. Hink and the other as Sam Jones, the former was an 
uncle to the latter. As they were riding along the road where Mr. John Hagan 
was killed a short time before, they in the ardor and indiscretion of youth, 
vowed to each other to kill the next man they met. How silly and yet how 
singular was such as this to the spirit of the times! See those boys that might 
have been, under favorable circumstances, pious and model young men, sweeping 
along the highway swearing eternal death and destruction to the first man they 
met, whether friend or foe ! Behold their misguided zeal hurrying them on to 
the next meeting where they were to imbue their youthful hands in innocent 
blood. How can we imagine they felt as they turned the bend of the road and 
saw their victim approaching without the least intimation of their diabolical design. 
Oh ! how fortunate it would have been if some friendly hand could have stopped 
those youths from their first murder, how some mother's heart would have 
rejoiced if her wayward son had escaped the terrible sin of blood-guiltiness! 
But like the dangerous son of Hamilcar, they were bound under the heaviest 
oaths to shed human blood. As they charged along the highway, making the 
air hideous with their mischievous threats, they met another young man a few 
miles from Independence. The name of the latter has not been ascertained, 
though much can be found concerning the high esteem in which he was held by 
every one. From oral statements of the former young men, when they met the 
man they killed they did not ask him a single word, not even for the cause with 
which he sympathized, not whether he was a Union man or a Confederate man, 
but simply drew their deadly revolvers and shot him dead upon the spot. They 
did not show him as much mercy as the guiltiest and most deserving of death 
would have received at the hands of the most desperate guerrilla band. When 
they had done their worst, after they had sent all that was immortal of their 
comrade, trembling into the presence of the Great Judge of all without a single 
moments warning, they searched the body of his fair person and found to their 
great horror and regret that he was a young medical student just returned home 
to his friends and relatives with his diploma.' Poor man ! He was entirely inno- 
cent of all the wrongs and their exaggerated reports of either side ; little did he 
dream as he bore his authority "to go and heal the nations" that his career 
would terminate so unnecessarily and cowardly. But then, he that sheddeth 
man's blood by man shall his blood be shed " has gone forth into the world and 
has certainly been verified among all tongues and peoples. Not very long after 
this bloody deed had been done, one of these young men, and the presumption 
is, the principal one, met his fate. The other is still living, but his garments, as 
it were, smell of blood. Like Cain, he is fearful of being slain. 

Thus far it has been seen that there were crimes committed — black and in- 
delible crimes that our country can never blot out ; crimes, for generations yet 
to come, that will make the blood chill to relate. And these, too, we must re- 
member, were committed by men who were on both sides of that dreadful war ; 
over which, however, we ask our kind readers and noble Americans to spread 
the robe of charity, so that a few years hence the world will never know that we 
were once engaged in such a deadly struggle. But before concluding this chap- 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 275 

ter, it is but due the historical narrative that some of the crimes committed in 
Jackson county in the years of 1864-5 should be noticed. 

By the spring of 1863 there were to be no doubts as to a man's politics, 
whether a " jayhawker " or a "bush-whacker," a militiaman or a guerrilla, a Fed- 
eral or a Confederate, he was to show his colors and get into Hne or leave^the 
country. Prominent among those who had distinguished themselves in the deeds 
of crime was Quantrell. He did many things as a guerrilla chieftan that the 
world would not believe, and perhaps he himself will not conceive of its enormity 
until he stands before the Judge of all the earth at the last day, and then in what 
he did he was not alone by any means; it was through Quantrell that the world 
ever heard and felt the merciless vengeance of Cole Younger, Bill Anderson 
George Tucker, the James Boys and a host of other blood-thirsty wretches that 
have long since met their terrible fate. As has been stated elsewhere, most of these 
had causes of their own for entering so desperately into the war. Many of their 
families and relatives had suffered almost inhumanly from the other side. By the 
unfortunate crimes offered to Quantrell and his neighbors, to the Younger Brothers 
their parents and sisters, was brought such a whirlpool of madness upon the peo- 
ple of the country, that the like has never been experienced in the history of the 
country; but it is not so much the insults that brought these outlaws to the front 
as the terrible deeds they committed — not that their injuries should be overlook- 
ed, for such is not the case. They have given rise to not a few almost fictitious 
works, in which the very wrong offendings done have been greatly exaggerated. 
The year 1863, it seems inaugurated a different movement on the part ot the des- 
peradoes and guerrillas in Jackson county. The country was being filled with 
Federal soldiers, so that it was impossible for the guerillas to have anything like a 
permanent camp or headquarters ; consequently, they selected from among the 
Southern sympathizers the bravest and most dangerous men to be found; they 
bound themselves together by an oath that, perhaps, has not its equal in the mem- 
ory of man, that they would work together, act under the black flag and take no 
prisoners ! About the time such a combination was effected, and as though it 
needed some fresh and startling crime to revive the memory of Colonel Younger's 
assassination, his daughters' prison death and the recent death of other friends 
and neighbors, Mr. Lee, Quantrell's respected friend, was dragged from his house 
and put to death. Mrs. Younger, Cole's mother, though deprived of her hus- 
band and stripped of all her children, was compelled, at the point of the bayonet, 
to apply the torch to her own house. Such fresh deeds as this brought to light 
the bloody Bill Anderson and some of the James Boys and relatives. Bill An- 
derson was, perhaps, the most unconscientious man that ever shed blood. The 
number of lives these men have destroyed has never been known. The number 
that the soldiers and county officials destroyed in attempting to take them has 
never been ascertained. The innocent suffered invariably, while the guilty es- 
caped. 

Quantrell and his men, principal among whom was Cole Younger, in these 
latter years of the war, did not hesitate to dash into the very heart of any defens- 
less community, do their fatal work, make their way back into the eastern por- 
tion of Jackson county, and there suddenly disappear in their mysterious 
cave. Do we wish to stop and learn more definitely? Will we attempt to reviv- 
ify those horrid scenes that the most credulous will hardly believe ? Were we 
disposed, the spirit and culture of our time forbid. What huge volumes it would 
take to contain descriptions of the bloody and ghastly steps of the Guerrilla chief- 
tains ! But will we call all these individual crimes, for whom the perpetrators 
should have suffered ? Should the unqualified outrages committed by all persons, 
of whatever name or sympathies, be traced to the guilty hand, and it be made to 
feel the vengeance of a violated law ? Were such the case, many of the best 
and most respectable citizens in the county and surrounding country, would be 



276 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

made to tremble; many of our best and most religious mothers, who are now in- 
stilling the strictest piety into their growing up children, would be shown to have 
wished, anxiously brooded over the shrine, that death and destruction might 
sweep over the homes of their next door neighbors. Were they culpable ? per- 
haps, will be the debatable question in a few generations to come. If so, the 
guilty could, undoubtedly, have been found in every regiment and army in the 
field ; in every cast of party, and, to a qualified extent, every home to be found 
in the thickest of the trouble. Oh, the horrors of a civil war ! May we all 
drink such Lethean draughts that we might never have aught against our neigh- 
bor. Then, it seems, as for the crimes of individuals, they have all vanished into 
the clouds of the war. The county records, of course, contain a great deal about 
outraged justice during those years of our history, but, to say the least, they 
must be very incomplete. Then it was the times and the occasions, and not the 
men, to a wonderful degree. The crimes, however, that these times inaugurated 
did not terminate with the war; but they are continuing on till this day (1881), and 
perhaps will grow for years to come. But for all later crimes, the law endeavors, 
and justly, too, to apprehend and bring the offenders to justice; in some degree 
it has been successful, but there are to-day, running at large, many highwaymen, 
who almost put the law at defiance. They had their start in this career of crime 
in Jackson county, and are, therefore, to some extent, connected with its history. 
The bloody and destructive attack upon Lawrence, Kansas, could almost be in- 
corporated into the history of Jackson county, for the identical leaders of that 
bond of death, and the most of its two hundred privates, lived formerly in Jack- 
son county, Missouri. When Quantrell and his blood-guilty men returned from 
that raid of annihilation, they mysteriously disappeared somewhere in the county. 
Recent revelations seem to indicate that that wily chief, in association with Cole 
Younger, had a cavern in which they could conceal themselves, with several men 
and their horses and booty. Whenever, in the' desperate years of 1861-4, they 
did mischief, either upon the Federal soldiers or upon citizens around in the coun- 
try, they could be traced into certain localities in the county, and suddenly disap- 
pear as though the earth would swallow them up. 

Imagine, if you can, the terrible condition a community would be in when 
they would be situated between the galling fires of Federals and guerrillas; not 
very often at once, but where one party would go killing and burning persons and 
things of the other party, the soldiers and scouts of that party would come in a 
few days and do worse. And it is well to notice and record, the burning shame 
upon our history, that many crimes, individual crimes, were committed, but, per- 
haps, not one in a score was brought before the courts. Why were not those un- 
controllable soldiers that murdered several innocent men, some few cases women, 
and fewer children, made to pay the debt of their guilt? Why was not that most 
terrible of all devils. Bill Anderson and his accomplices, that stabbed so many 
hearts and cut so many throats, brought to the bar of a most completely violated 
law and made to answer for his crimes? The answers to the preceding might 
be many and various, but the simplest and best would be, perhaps, that it was 
not able under such disorganized circumstances. The depredations of the guer- 
rillas ; their almost certain escape with valuable spoils; the soldiers pursuit 
out into the country districts of the county inaugurated a species of retaliatory 
vengence that did not subside for several years after the war. In fact, crimes 
and misdoings that resulted from those times have reached down to a very few 
years since ; a full history of which, however, will be found in other parts of this 
volume. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 277 

CHAPTER XIV. 
JACKSON COUNTY DURING THE WAR. 

Sacking of the United States Arsenal, at Liberty — Confederate Camp on Rock Creek — Death of 
Capt. Halloway — Confederates enter Independence in 1861 — Burning of Property — Capt. 
Fuller takes Independence and Hangs a man on the Public Square — Quantrell comes into In- 
dependence — Campaign in 1862 — Battle of Lone Jack — Ft. Pennock — Order Number Eleven 
— Price's March through this Section — Organization of the Home Guards — The Iron- Clad 
Oath — Etc., etc. 

The secession of several of the Southern States in the spring of 1861, precip- 
itated the strife in Jackson county, and especially in and around Independence, 
and men began to express their opinions openly and boldly,_with the cause that 
had their sympathies, whether it gave offense or not to their neighbors. The 
first immediate attack it seems between the two sections — the North and South — 
in these parts had anything to do, was the sacking of the United States Arsenal 
in Clay county. 

Men were in that action from the counties of Clay, Jackson, Platte and 
Lafayette. They supplied themselves with muskets,, holster pistols, sabers, am- 
munition, etc., and then quietly returned to their several counties and homes 
and awaited the course of events. It was not long afterward when a similar 
occurrence took place at Lexington, Missouri ; as these things had been done it 
was evident to any one that there were serious apprehensions of trouble. So, 
early in the summer of 1861, there was a camp formed of Confederates, on 
Rock Creek, a few miles west of Independence ; as ascertained, many of these 
were citizens of Independence. A short while after they had struck their camp, 
perhaps a day or two, there was a reconnoitering party sent out from Kansas City; 
the two companies met under truce — and it so turned out that the Captains were 
very nearly dressed alike, and were acquainted with each other, and each one 
advanced and both were talking upon the circumstance of their thus meeting, 
when the Confederates fired upon the Federal soldiers, which precipitated a fight, 
in which Captain HoUoway, of the Confederates, was killed. This created no 
little excitement in Independence ; the gravest and most unexcitable men of the 
town of both parties felt that a portentous crisis was just ahead. 

A short time afterward Lowe & Jennison's cavalry from Kansas attacked In- 
dependence, placed several citizens under guard care at the grocery store of Porter 
& Eraser, and the hardware store . of Moss & Co. and carried away a great deal 
of property such as carriages, horses, harness, wagons and cattle. As they were 
returning, it seems, to Kansas City they burnt Pitcher's mill, as well as his and 
Reuben Johnson's residence. This was in the fall of 186 1 ; and during the win- 
ter Capt. Oliver was sent into the county with five companies of the seventh 
Missouri — the bloody seventh they called themselves. He and his command 
were charged by the people of Independence with many oppressive acts and 
needless cruelties. 

In the spripg of 1862, Capt Fuller was sent from Kansas City to Independ- 
ence, soon after the bridge over the Big Blue had been burned by Quantrell. In 
the neighborhood of the burned bridge he captured a man whom he had reason to 
believe was a member of Quantrell's band,andhe took him to Independence and 
hanged him publicly on the public square. This same Capt. Fuller also captured 
the town and gathered many of the citizens on the public square, where they were 
more or less questioned concerning their political predilections. Fuller did not re- 



278 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

main in Independence very long, before Lieutenant-Colonel Brown, in the spring 
of 1862, with a detachment of soldiers came down from Kansas City; there 
were then in town several companies of infantry and cavalry. About this time 
when the Federal soldiers were making, or beginning to make, Independence a 
kind of headquarters for these parts, Quantrell, with his desperate scouts, who 
had been causing the Federals some trouble for some time, was known to be hov- 
ering around the neighborhood. They made one of their intrepid dashes upon 
the town, and before the Federals had time to array themselves, the Confederates 
were on the public square. Imagine the confusion. Three or four dozen men 
in the center of perhaps a thousand well armed soldiers. From the actions of 
Quantrell, it appears that he did not intend to hazard an engagement at this time, 
that it was not his wish to measure strength with a thousand soldiers ; but rather 
to charge in, capture some important equipments, some five prisoners from whom 
to receive all the information that could be had, concerning the anticipated 
movements of the opposing side. Reports of persons who were living in the 
town at that time, say that there was one of Quantrell's men killed and two of the 
Federals, besides what were wounded on both sides. 

Quantrell's men took a young man prisoner, unarmed him and were marching 
him off with them, as they were going out on the east side of the square, the 
young man was ordered to ride faster but he refused to do so, and he was shot, it 
is said on good authority, somewhere about the head. But the result of the shoot- 
ing was not fatal The young man, either on foot or on horseback, broke and 
ran away, the Confederates after him. It appears, however, that he left his horse, 
and by dashing through alleys, over fences and through houses, he got away; 
perhaps, they were being too hotly pursued by the Federal soldiers and had to get 
out of town to save their hves. 

As they were leaving Independence by way of the Spring Branch road, 
Quantrell's horse was either shot from under him, or stumbled and fell, and he 
had to take it afoot ; such might have been a little unusual to Quantrell at that 
early day of the war, but at a later date it was quite ordinary for him to have to 
escape in that and similar ways. This little retreat of Quantrell's was nothing 
more than he expected, if we receive the best and most authenticated accounts of 
that transaction. The Federals stationed in the town took a little more precau- 
tion and consequently increased their assurances of future safety — but they 
"should have taken heed least they fall." 

In the summer of 1862, Colonel Buell was placed in command of the forces 
at Independence; though a good soldier and splendid commander, he did not 
thoroughly understand the kind of men he was expecting to meet. If he had and 
studied their modes of warfare, it probably would have saved him an inglori- 
ous defeat. About fifteen hundred men under Hughs and other com- 
manders, atatcked Independence and after hard fight defeated Colonel Buell 
and took about 350 prisoners, all of whom they paroled. But the Federal 
soldiers came into town in such numbers that the Confederates could not hold 
the place. But as it seems from their general mode of warfare in these parts, 
they had done mostly what they had desired to do, namely, to show their power, 
to obtain arms and large stores of ammunition, all of which they got in abundance 
in that engagement. They also dislodged many offensive persons and restored as 
well as took off some considerable property. In no State of the Union was the 
horrors of the war more visible, or more severely felt than in Missouri; especially 
was Missouri more deeply and severely scourged with the evils and evil conse- 
quences of guerrilla warefare than any other. No county of Missouri suffered as 
much from that species of warfare as did the County of Jackson; and no town- 
ship, perhaps, in the county had greater reason to complain of those evils than 
Van Buren. The Sni Hills in this and adjoining townships came to be consid- 
ered but another name for bush-whacking exploits, and barbarities on one side, and 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 279 

Federal retaliation and revenge on the other. Every southern State had its battle- 
fields, gory with blood and ghastly with the dead ; some of them surpassing in 
ghastliness anything in modern times, but none of them surpassing in stubborn 
courage, determined resistance, and heroic valor that scene which was wit- 
nesssd in the little village christened for the lone tree of the township. 

The citizens of that village had been accustomed to alarms and scenes of 
bloodshed and cruelty. Scarcely a week passed without some exciting occur- 
rence, or some violent death. But it was reserved for the i6th of August, 1862, 
to witness the grim monsters, war and death, and carnage, in all their horrors. 
It is the battle then of Lone Jack that the historian of the township will have to 
record as the bloodiest of all the bloody scenes in the township during all of that 
long and crual war. 

For months the guerrilla, Quantrell, and others had been carrying on their 
system of bush-whacking warfare from their hiding places in the Sni Hills and 
other parts of the county; while the Union soldiers held and garrisoned the 
principal towns, and sent out scouting parties to chastise the troublesome bush- 
whackers; and too often the chastisement fell upon the innocent in place of the 
guilty. During the first week in August, 1862, a strong effort was made to 
strengthen the Confederate force in the county, and recruiting officers were busy 
swelling their ranks. A very large majority of the citizens were in sympathy with 
the South, and many of them who were opposed to a guerrilla warfare, and had 
managed to stay at home, by hiding in the woods when ever a Federal scout was 
in the vicinity, were persuaded then to enter the regular Confederate service, as 
the surest means of safety; and Col. John T. Hughes, a regular Confederate officer, 
on recruiting service, was prepared to enlist and swear them into service, as 
honorable soldiers. While others, who were not at all averse to the bush-whack- 
ing mode of warfare, were at the same time swelling the ranks of Quantrell. 
Hughes, Quantrell and Hays having mustered and united their forces, on the 
loth of August made an attack on Independence; garrisoned by a Federal force 
under Col. Buell; which place and force they captured, with all its stores of arms 
and ammunition; which circumstance still further aided and stimulated the Con- 
federates in the work of recruiting. Col. Hughes was killed at the taking of In- 
dependence, and his command devolved on Col. Gideon Thompson, of Clay 
county, and Col. Upton Hays. The Confederate officers, with their regiments, 
battalions and companies, were hurrying up from the South, recruiting and swel-- 
ling their ranks as they came ; and it was given out, that Lexington and other 
Federal posts would soon fall, as Independence had dope. In the forenoon of 
August 15th, those regiments, battaHons and companies began to arrive in Lone 
Jack, and continued to arrive during the day, under the command of Cols. 
Cockrell, Tracy, Hunter, Jackman and Lewis. Col. Totten, commanding the 
Federal post at Lexington, after the battle at Independence, having learned that 
Thompson and Hays were somewhere between Independence and Lone Jack, 
in compliance with orders from General Schofield, sent out Major Emory Foster, 
with eight hundred men to cut them off from the reinforcements coming from the 
south, before those reinforcements could arrive. At the same time Col. Fitz 
Henry Warren, 15th Iowa cavalry, was ordered from Clmton to co-operate with 
Major Foster, having left Lexington early in the morning of Friday, August 15th ; 
sent out two small flanking parties to make inquiries, and hunt up the enemy he 
was after; posted on with his main force, over seven hundred strong, and arrived 
at Lone Jack at 8 o'clock in the night. His force consisted mostly of Missouri 
militia, mustered into the United States, drawn from the 6th, the 7th and 8th, 
Catherwood's, Phillips' and McClurg's regiments, and Nugent's battalion. He 
also had some Illinois and Indiana soldiers and the 7th Missouri cavalry, with 
two field pieces of Babb's Indiana battery. Foster had been told before reaching 
town that Confederates to the number of four thousand were there ; but, as he 



280 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

said, having been lied to so often, he refused to credit the report, and pushed on 
thinking it was the force he was in search of. That force, however, was not there ; 
nor was there any immediately in the village. Thompson and Hays with five 
hundred men or more were encamped on the eastern banks of the Little Blue, 
some fifteen miles away; Quantrell, still further off, and of the reinforcements 
just from the South, Cockrell was northwest of the village three or four miles; 
Tracy and Coffee south of it about a mile, on the farm of David_ Arnold; Lewis 
still further south ; Jackman was also in the neighborhood. Passing through the 
village, Foster opened fire on Coffee's and Tracy's company; a skirmish ensued 
as the Confederates retreated west, in which a few of them were wounded, and 
two of Foster's men killed by their comrades, in the darkness and confusion. 

After the retreat, Foster returned to the village, where he remained unmo- 
lested until morning. Foster and some of his officers occupied the large hotel of 
B. B. Cave; who, with a majority of the male citizens of the place, had left the 
town in the care of the woman and children. The horses were picketed in the 
town, and along a lane running south ; and the men lay down to sleep as best 
they could. In the mean time, the word was being carried to Cockrell, Hays, 
Quantrell and others, of the situation of things in the village. Thompson and 
Hays united their forces with Cockrell's, and at daylight arrived within one and 
a half miles of town ; there they first heard the Federal bugle, sounding the morn- 
ing reveille, and then they dismounted and marched to the attack on foot. 

The town was divided into new and old town. The hold, and Federal 
camp being in the new town, on the prairie ridge, where stood the lone tree, from 
which the town derived its name. The main street being half a mile in length, 
from the south side of the new town to the north of the old. On the east of the 
new town, was a hedge, and full of corn ; on the west was a field, uncultivated 
that year, and overgrown with rank and tall weeds. Through these weeds, the 
Confederates made their way, stooping and crouching, and arrived in shooting 
distance undiscovered ; and while the Union soldiers were busy in feeding their 
horses, and getting breakfast, a single gun, and then a volley, announced the 
battle begun. 

The Federals were taken by surprise, but they soon rallied, each man to his 
post. The artillery drew up on the public square, and joined its roar to the 
roar of musketry already going on. The hotel, the hedge row, the fences, 
the shops and the houses, were converted into fortifications and breastworks. 
The Confederates advanced on and on ; and it was soon a hand to hand conflict. 
The artillery supports, the artillery horses, and the artillery men were shot down, 
and the guns were taken by the Confederates. In a short time they were re-taken 
by the Federals. Taken by the Confederates a second time ; and again re-taken. 
A large blacksmith shop, which stood near, was a blockhouse and fortification, 
for each party in turn. The hotel, was at the commencement a fortification for 
the Federal forces ; from the windows of which they fought and did great action : 
but the Confederates worked their way nearer and nearer, and at length set fire 
to it, and it was soon in flames ; and the occupants forced to retire ; and two or 
three dead bodies were consumed in the burning building. The hours passed, 
and the contest was kept up, it was Missourian against Missourian, and neighbor 
against neighbor. Boys who had played together, gone to school together, and 
grown up together ; were opposed to each other in a deadly strife. Four hours 
passed, and the conflict of arms was still going on. Both parties, however, were 
nearly exhausted ; faint with hunger, thirst, heat and fatigue : and shortly after 
ten o'clock, the Federals spiked the cannon, drew them off a short distance, col- 
lected their horses and retired, unmolested from the field, and made good their 
retreat to Lexington. This was a hard fought contest ; and for the numbers 
engaged, the hardest fought in the State — perhaps in any State — during the whole 
war ; and it is often asked who had the best of it ? 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 281 

Many accounts have been given of it, more or less partial to one side or the 
other ; but as this is intended as a part of the history of the county, that will 
live when all the actors in that bloody drama shall have passed away ; and the 
hand that writes it will be cold in death ; and there will be none left to correct 
its errors, or false statements ; let it for once be impartial, and true ; and the im- 
partial reader, whoever he may be, will say of a truth, neither party had much 
to boast of, in the way of victory. The Confederates could, with truth , and did 
claim the victory, as the field was left in their possession ; they buried their own 
dead, and cared for their wounded, and could show as trophies, the two aban- 
doned field pieces, which they carried off with them the next day ; when they 
themselves had to retreat before superior numbers. On the other hand, the 
Unionists claim that when the fight ended, and the firing ceased, they were in 
possession of the ground, and that the Confederates had drawn off to the northern 
part of the village, and were there being re-inforced by fresh troops ; and thus it 
was only when they saw, or heard of the re-inforcements of Coffee, Tracy, and 
Quantrell, that the field was abandoned ; and that the artillery was left for the 
want of horses to draw it off. The Federal Commander, Major Foster, was left 
on the field severely wounded, and his brother mortally wounded ; the command 
devolving on Capt. M. H. Browner. In retreating to Lexington, the Federals 
made a detour southward, hoping to meet or fall in with Fitz Henry Warren, 
from Clinton ; but were disappointed, and following the Warrensburg road, to 
the cross-road from Holden to Lexington, they turned north and arrived at Lex- 
ington before night. The battle over the little town presented a ghastly spectacle. 
The wounded were gathered up, and almost every house became a hospital. The 
Confederate dead were gathered together and buried that evening; a few feet 
away from the lone tree, which though dead, was still standing at that time. 
Some, however, of the dead, on each side, were carried away by friends, and 
buried in the county cemeteries. Some prisoners, from twenty to fifty had 
been taken, and to them and a few citizens was assigned the task of burying the 
Federal dead. At the request of W. H. H. Cundiff, the Federal surgeon. Ambers 
Graham, and A. L. Snow two of the citizens, harnessed a team and gathered up 
and carried the killed to the place of burial, and the wounded to the hospital or 
seminary. On account of the scarcity of help, none of the Federal dead were 
buried that day. Next morning (Sunday), while engaged in burying the Union 
dead, and in hauling off the dead horses ; the advance of Warren's and Blunt's 
army came in sight ; marching up from the south ; and the Confederate forces 
retreated, making a detour to the east, a few miles, and then turning south, 
closely pursued for several days ; but finally making good their retreat into Ar- 
kansas. This retreat of the Confederate forces, left to the citizens of the county, 
with the surgeons and nurses that remained, the task of finishing the burial of 
the dead, and taking care of the many wounded ; and it was not till Wednesday, 
the 20th, that the dead horses, numbering about sixty, were all removed from the 
town. There have been many, and conflicting statements, as to the number of 
killed and wounded on each side ; also, as to the numbers engaged in the con- 
flict, and perhaps the exact truth will never be kpown. As has already been said 
800 Union soldiers were dispatched from Lexington : of these, two small flanking 
parties were not in action. 

Of the Confederates, they claimed, the day before when they came in, to 
number over 4,000. A writer has since said that Cockrell, Tracy, Hays, Hun- 
ter, Jackraan and Quantrell had between them but 900 men, and that of these 
200 were not in the action. It is well to make allowance for both of these 
statements. When we recollect that an object of this expedition north was for 
the purpose of recruiting their numbers, and when we recollect that recruiting 
officers generally picture things to the eye of the recruit in a color different from 
the reality, we may readily suppose that the number would be represented as 



282 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

larger than it really was, and when the young man was told by these recruiting 
agents that they had come to the county to stay, that a new leaf was now turned, 
and that Confederates would garrison the towns, these same agents would fain 
have had them believe that they had the force to carry out their promises. On 
the other hand, when it is recollected that one avowed object, and perhaps the 
real intention, was to make an attack on Lexington and capture that as they had 
Independence, Mo., no sane person will admit that 900 was the sum total of their 
forces, especially as the same writer, who places it at 900, has said only a few 
pages before, that Cockrell, Tracy, Hunter and Jackman had each a regiment, 
Quantrell a battalion, and Hays 300. Though these, and suck stories as these, 
have been repeatedly told and printed, they are not necessarily all true. But 
putting all the information together, that appears most reliable. It is thought the 
combined force of the Confederates in and near Lone Jack was over (3,000) 
three thousand, of which more than half were in the action, perhaps not all at 
one time, but at some time during the few hours conflict. A letter from one of 
Hays' captains, who can be relied on, and who furnished for this sketch, writes 
thus: " On the 15th of August, 1862, about 500 Confederates, mostly raw and 
undiscipHned troops, under Cols. Hays and Thompson, went into camp on the 
east bank of Little Blue, about twelve miles southeast of Independence and 
twelve northwest of Lone Jack. About 2 o'clock a. m. of the i6th the troops 
were awakened and ordered to mount and fall into line, and march in the direc- 
tion of Lone Jack. The order was obeyed with quietness and alacrity. About 
daylight we arrived within one and a half miles of Lone Jack, midway between 
Noel's and Long's. Here we first heard the enemy's bugle. Here nearly all the 
cavalry were dismounted ; the troops marched to the battle ground on foot — a 
part of the way through tall and growing corn and high weeds. 

" The Confederates, about one thousand strong, under Colonels Hays 
and Cockrell, approached the town from the west, consequently the enemy were 
attacked on their western side." 

The battle then having been commenced by Hays and Cockrell with 1,000 
men, and other detachments of other commands claiming to have been engaged, 
the impartial mind comes to the conclusion above stated. As to the number 
killed on the Confederate side, there is not much room for doubt, or for conflict- 
ing statements, and there never has been much. They were buried with more 
care than the Union soldiers, and head boards were placed at their graves, on 
which were written the names of the several soldiers. Two weeks after, these 
boards numbered fifty-nine, which, with an addition of perhaps a dozen carried 
away by friends, will approximate the number of the killed and the mortally 
wounded. Of the number killed on the Federal side there have been statements 
made differing widely. They were all buried in one long and narrow trench — 
laid in side by side, with no board or other mark to designate the name or 
number. The writer above alluded to says : one hundred and thirty-six were 
dead on the ground. Some others claim to have counted over one hundred, 
others eighty, etc., etc. 

The Federal surgeon reports forty dead when the battle ended, and A. L. 
Snow, who assisted in carrying the dead to the place of burial, counted, when 
done late in the evening, forty-three. About twelve or thirteen of the wounded 
are said to have died that night, and a few others before they were removed on 
the 20th. 

The grave, six feet in width, in which they were laid side by side as closely 
as men could be placed, will serve to indicate, or approximate, the number very 
nearly. It is eighty feet in length, and any person who has had any experience 
in burying men in that way, can arrive very nearly at the number that are repos- 
ing there now. That silent mound is an important and an impartial witness, the 
testimony of which cannot be doubted. From all the evidences obtainable, then. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 283 

we venture to say that the loss in killed was so nearly equal that it cannot be said 
with certainty which suffered the greater loss. 

It has been said that more than one half the number engaged in the fight on 
each side were killed and wounded. We think this an over estimate. The num- 
ber of the wounded reported by the Federal officer was i6o, and the number of 
the Confederate wounded is thought not to have been much, if any, in excess of 
that number. 

This battle, like all other hard fought battles, had its incidents, incidents 
which will never be forgotten by those who witnessed them ; and not only were 
the combatants there to witness them, but others, now combatants were unwilling 
spectators of the bloody scene. The citizens of the town were there ; at least 
the women and children were there; and the conflict was in their midst, and 
around and about them. In the streets, in the houses, in the yards, and in the 
f\elds, on either side. When the house of B. B. Cave was occupied by armed 
men, his mother, his wife and little children were there, and there they remained 
till the attack was made, remained while the storm of battle was raging in and 
around it, not daring to face the leaden tempest outside, but crouching in the 
safest rooms of the building, while their once peaceful home was converted 
into a blockhouse, filled with armed warriors, dealing death and meeting the 
same. There they remained, until to the roar of the battle was added the roaring of 
the flames above and around them, and when the aimed occupants were driven 
from it by the devouring element, they too had to leave and encounter the showers 
of leaden hail that fell and passed on every side. The mother was an aged lady, 
very fleshy, who on ordinary occasions could walk but slowl)', and with great 
difficulty; but there was no help for it now, she must get away ' somehow. 
Safely they passed out of the burning building, out of the Union line into the 
field on the west, through the Confederate line, and beyond it and lay down 
amongst the tall weeds which shut out the sight, but not the sound of the raging 
battle. After some time the infant child demanded the sustenance which nature 
requires, and the young mother partially raising herself to apply the breast to the 
lips of her suffering babe, was pierced with a ball, which passing through the 
lungs inflicted a fatal wound, of which in a few weeks she died; another victim 
of cruel war, and of that sanguinary contest. 

Another house further north, the one now owned and occupied by Wm. 
Phillips was then occupied by Benjamin Pitcher. He too was about, having 
left when the soldiers came in on the night of the 15th. But his wife and two 
small children and a niece of sixteen were here. When the attack was made 
some of the Union soldiers were in the house cooking breakfast — a breakfast 
they were destined never to eat. As the fight waxed warmer and warmer the 
women and children crept into a wardrobe to escape the bullets that were 
piercing the house. In the course of the fight the confederates occupied the 
house and fought from it, firing from the windows above and below. This 
being noticed the artillery was turned upon the house, and ball after ball 
went crashing through it, one ball cutting off" the part of an old fashioned bed- 
stead near the wardrobe. The soldiers in the house then assisted them out and 
told them to escape for life. They fled to the church 600 yards away and took 
refuge in the house of their God. That lady-left her house a fortification suffer- 
ing a cannonade ; she returned some hours after to find it a hospital, filled as 
other houses in the town were, with the wounded and dying, the beds and 
bedding saturated with blood, or torn into strips to make bandages for the 
wounded. She met some days afterward, at the "house of the writer, the Federal 
sergeant who was cooking breakfast in the house when the action began. He 
had received a severe wound, a wound from which he never recovered, but rode 
with the retrea:ting column two and a half miles to the house of Jacob Bennett, 
when faint and unable to proceed further he stopped and was well cared for. 



284 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

In an incredibly short time the result of the action was known for miles 
around, and citizens were coming in to give the needed assistance to the wounded 
or to carry oif and bury the friends who had fallen, for amongst the dead were 
some of Van Buren's own citizens; some who had but recently entered the 
Confederate service and fell in their first fight, amongst whom may be men- 
tioned James Helms, D. C. Webb, John Temple, Walden and Tally. Those 
or nearly all of them were carried off by relatives and friends in Round Prairie. 

In a few hours, too, friends were there from Pleasant Hill and beyond, and 
carried back with them the dead body of Drary Farmer, a Union soldier, and 
Capt. Wm. Allen Long, mortally, and Sergeant Luke Williams, severely 
wounded. 

Women, too, when the men were absent, or too timid to venture, were soon 
seen coming in with baskets and boxes of provisions and other needed articles ; 
and this continued for several days, until the necessity ceased. 

When General Blunt, on Sunday, the 17th, came into the town, and the 
Confederates retreated, he did not stop to take possession of the field, or the 
woundedj or leave any garrison, but pushed on with his whole force in pursuit ; 
and the town and the wounded prisoners were left in command of Colonel Gideon 
Thompson, who remained for some time. The Federal authorities at Lexington 
sent ambulances and carriages, and, on Wednesday, the 20th, removed nearly all 
the wounded to Lexington, from which place they were sent in boats to Jefferson 
City ; and in the National Cemetery, there may be seen more than one head 
stone, in memory of soldiers who died of wounds received at Lone Jack. Some 
few of the wounded, who had been quartered, or had found a resting place in the 
houses of citizens, and comfortably situated, preferred not to go, and were left to 
the hospitality of strangers ; and one poor unfortunate was left alone,- in a dying 
state, in the Seminary building, which had been used as the Federal hospital. 
He, too, was cared for while living, and buried when dead, by John W. Tate, 
Thos. Potter, and other. 

With a few exceptions, the brave Union soldiers, who were wounded, and 
those taken prisoners, were treated with kindness and courtesy, by their equally 
brave captors, of the Confederacy, and by the citizen sympathizers with the Con- 
federacy ; and nearly all who would accept it received a discharge on parol of 
honor. A few exceptions there may have been — a few exceptions there were — as 
there almost always is ; some were robbed of their money, their valuables, and 
some of their clothing ; and one. Lieutenant Levi Copeland, who had incurred 
the ill will of a portion of his captors, as was said by unnecessary acts of severity 
toward the friends and families of bush-whackers ; and, on that account, was 
particularly obnoxious to them, was given over to the Guerilla Quantrell, and 
was never seen by his friends again. There is no doubt as to what his fate was, 
(It is said there were two or three others, but this is not certain.) As has been 
said, in this fierce conflict, neighbor and friend fought against neighbor and 
friend ; members of the same Christian church, who had together knelt at the 
altar, and had partaken of the sacrament together, were here on opposite sides ; 
and many have, or might possibly have, taken each others lives. Major Foster, 
who commanded the Federal soldiers, and Colonel Vard Cockrell, who brought 
on the attack, were neighbors and acquaintances in Johnson county; Captain Al- 
len Long, who led a company in Foster's command, and Colonel Warner Lewis, 
were friends and neighbors in Cass. Long, who was mortally wounded, also had 
many friends and acquaintances in the Confederate column, and among the 
Confederate sympathizers ; and by some of them he was carried to Pleasant Hill, 
where he died in a very few days. 

These are but some of the incidents of this memorable struggle, which has 
made the little town of Lone Jack historic. Where the lone tree once stood now 
stands a marble shaft, which has been erected by voluntary contributions from 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 285 

the friends of the lost cause. On each of the four sides of the pedestal, is the 
following inscription : 

IN MEMORY OF THE 

CONFEDERATE DEAD 

WHO FELL IN THE BATTLE OF LONE JACK, 
ON THE i6tH of AUGUST, 1862. 

Just west of this, and but a few paces from it, is the long and narrow mound 
in which the Union soldiers sleep, with no stone to mark their resting place. 

Several years ago a society was formed, and an effort made, to raise the 
needed funds to erect a monument to their memory ; but the required amount 
was not obtained, and it was abandoned. Congress has appropriated money to 
place head stones at the grave of every Union soldier that can be identified ; but 
here are at least sixty brave rnen promiscuously laid together, and no one of them 
can be distinguished from another. 

Year after year the citizens of Jackson and surrounding counties have met on 
the 1 6th of August, to commemorate the deeds <9i daring done on that memorable 
day in 1862. It is the big day of the year, for all the country round; and the 
i6th of August, brings together larger crowds to the little village of Lone Jack, 
than even the 4th of July does in some of our large cities ; and one pleasing cir- 
cumstance, in relation to these gatherings is, that as time passes, at each succeed- 
ing anniversary, there is less of partisan feehng manifested. May it continue to 
be so until none of that sectional partisan bias and feeling will be perceptible. 

Among the killed and wounded on the Federal side were Captain Wm. 
Plumb and Captain Jas. Dunden, of Catherwood's regiment, and Captain H. D. 
Moore and Lieut. Jno. R. Foster, of McChengo's regiment. Captains Brady and 
Bryant among the Confederates were killed. 

THE DYING SOLDIER AT LONE JACK. 

A soldier of the Union lay 

Sore wounded at Lone Jack, 
And as his life-blood ebbed away. 

His thoughts were wandering back — 
Back to his childhood's early home. 

Back to his native land. 
And dreaming, fancy seemed to roam 

Amid a kindred band. 

No wife or child beside him now. 

Though wife and child he had; 
No comrade bathed his bloody brow — 

His comrades all had fled ; 
And there upon that hard fought field, 

In that small village street. 
He lay with those who scorned to yield. 

Disdaining to retreat. 

No kinsman's hand or voice was nigh 

To minister relief; 
But yet there was a pitying eye 

Looked on the scene with grief — 
A stranger, though a friend, stood near 

The dying soldier's side. 
And wept, his dreaming talk to hear, 

And soothed him till he died. 



286 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

" Farewell my wife and children all 

My country calls away, 
And can I hear my country call, 

And not the call obey ? 
I go, and ere I shall come back. 

Grim war shall cease to frown ; 
I go though men may call me back. 

To put rebellion down." 

" I go my wife ; I go my son, 

The Union to sustain, 
For North and South shall still be one, 

And one shall still remain. 
' I go and if I ne'er return, 

Farewell ye loved ones all — 
And if I fall I trust you'll learn 

I fell as man should fall." 

But then his fancy more and more. 

And wider seemed to roam — 
He seemed to think the war was o'er, 

And he was safe at home. 
And there as if to friends, he told 

Of war and war's alarms. 
Of many a comrade soldier bold, 

And many a feat of arms. 

Of conflicts sore, he spoke of one — 

A sore, a bloody fight — 
The hard day's march from Lexington, 

The skirmish of the night. 
Spoke of the sleepless bivouac. 

As on their arms they lay 
Within the village town of Lone Jack, 

To wait the coming day. 

And then he spoke of the attack. 

Which came at early morn — 
The rebel charge, the falling back — 

The hedge and growing corn. 
He spoke of deeds of daring done, 

Of many a soldier slain, 
The loss of the artillery gun, 

The taking it again. 

But here his memory seemed to fail — 

His voice was failing too — 
Alas! he ne'er will tell .the tale 

To those he loved so true ; 
Some other tongue to them will tell 

The story he assayed ; 
Describe the battle where he fell, 

The spot where he was laid. 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 287 

Through scenes of youth he seemed to pass, 

Though now his hair was gray, 
And once again he led his class, 

As in his school boy days ; 
He called his playmates' names, although 

None answered to his call, 
For some had died long years ago, 

And far, far distant all. 

He often called his father's name — 

He called his brother's, too — 
But oftener still his mother came 

Within his dreaming view ; 
He seemed to think that mother near, 

And for her hand would feel, 
'Twould melt the hardest heart to hear 

His piteous appeal ! 

"Oh, mother, help your little son — 

My head is aching sore. 
And here I lie, with pillows none, 

Upon the cold hard floor. 
Oh, lay me on my trundle bed. 

Or take me on your knee — 
She does not hear what I have said; 

Oh, where can mother be ? " 

Anon the scene would change, and he 

By fancy still beguiled 
A husband — father — seemed to be, 

And spoke of wife and child ; 
He spoke of them so tenderly, 

So often called their names. 
Though absent, yet 'twas plain that they 

Were present in his dreams. 

His days of early manhood came, 

And passed in plain review 
His constant struggles after fame, 

His disappointments too ; 
He spoke of hardships undergone. 

He spoke of dangers passed. 
And still his thoughts kept wandeirng on. 

And wandered to the last. 

But when more recent scenes appeared, 

To claim his wandering thought — 
The storm which civil war had stirred, 

The suffering it had wrought. 
Upon his home and family 

His thoughts appeared to dwell, 
With them again he seemed to be — 

To them he bade farewell. 



288 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

And there beneath that lonely tree 

Which gave the town its name, 
The traveler will turn to see 

And read the warrior's fame. 
And when that tree shall cease to stand, 

As it must shortly do, 
A monument with marble hand 

Will point to where it grew. 

The Federal troops in Jackson county in the fall of 1862 and spring of 1863, 
were commanded by such officers as Lieutenant-Colonel Thompson, Colonel Pen- 
nock and Major W. C. Ranson. Colonel Pennock's regiment remained in Inde- 
pendence until the spring of 1863. During the time he remained in town he 
burned several houses; the Confederates were also occasionally beating around the 
town trying to burn some houses, especially the house still known as Samson's store 
and the public school building, which was then a seminary owned and conducted by 
Prof. Lewis. The buildings, however, by the action of the citizens were put out. 
There was some fighting between these outlying Confederates around the town 
and the Federal soldiers within, but nothing that amounted to much. Some 
rather close shots were made at the assailants and they left. Then there was 
formed what was called the Home Guards who closely invested the town, took 
every precaution toward preventing the place from falling into the hands of the 
Confederates, but, from facts that will be related presently, they also failed in 
that. The court house and yard were packed full of the citizens of Independence, 
but that measure did not seem to bear much fruit or safety, either to the Federal 
or Confederate elements among the people of the town. In fact it would have 
been a great blessing to the adherents of both parties living in the city limits, or 
those adjacent, if either one or the other of the contesting armies had gotten pos- 
session of the place and secured it during the whole civil war. There certainly 
would have been more protection offered to inoffensive women and children 
than was, if such had been the case. We, at this time, have reasons to believe 
unless the soldiers had lost all their gallantry and bravery, that the weak and 
helpless would have been protected, though the husbands, brothers and fathers 
had been in the opposing army. But as it was, first one side and then the other 
was in control of the town, so there was cruelty and needless injuries inflicted 
upon the once noble and beautiful little city of Independence. During this same 
spring of 1863, or the summer following, Colonel Pennock built what was called 
Fort Pennock, near the public spring in the city of Independence. He was oc- 
cupying this post when General Ewing's famous order No. n was issued. 

ORDER NO. II. 

This celebrated order was issued just one week after the memorable butchery 
at Lawrence, by the Guerrilla mob, led by Quantrell, and the object of it was to 
deprive Quantrell of a lodgment and rendezvous in the borders of Missouri, 
where he and his band had been protected and supported by sympathizing citizens 
for the preceding three years. ' 

General Order No. 10, which immediately preceded Order No. 11, should 
also be understood, for we are well aware that after nearly a score of years have 
passed, many of those who were here then have passed away, and others, who 
were young, have come into the active stations of life, but knew little or nothing 
about the particulars. Then, again, there are thousands who having come into 
Jackson county, never heard of these transactions that occurred during the prog- 
ress of greater events in the great Civil War. 

There were only three paragraphs of Order No. 10 that bore any particular 
relation to Order No. 11, and these were paragraphs i, 2, and 3. Order No. 10 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 289 

provided (i)--For escort to all loyal persons desiring to remove to a military 
post in the district, and to all persons who had been slaves of persons in rebel- 
lion, and that the teams of those who had aided in rebellion, whenever needed, 
should be taken to assist in the removal, and then turned over to the ofificer com- 
manding the military station. 

(2) — All persons who willfully gave aid to the guerrillas, except women, who 
were heads of families, were to be arrested ; but careful discrimination was to be 
made between those who were compelled by threats to do so, and those who aid- 
ed them from disloyal motives. Wives and children of known guerrillas, and 
women, heads of families, willfully engaged in aiding the guerrillas, were to be 
notified to remove out of the district forthwith, and be permitted to take unmo- 
lested their stock, provisions and household goods. If they did not so remove, 
they were to be sent to headquarters at Kansas City, for shipment south. 

(3) — Persons who laid down their arms and surrendered themselves, to be 
banished with their families, were to be sent to such State or district outside the 
department as the commanding officer might direct. No. 3 was revoked, as will 
be seen by reference to Order No. 11. General Order No. 10 was issued Au- 
gust 18, 1863, just one week before Order No. 11, of which the following is a 
copy : 

general order no. ii. 

Head Quarters District of the Border, 1 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863. j 

I. All persons living in Jackson, Cass and Bates counties, Missouri, and 
in that part of Vernon- included in this district, except those living within one 
mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harri- 
sonville, and except those in that part of Kaw township, Jackson county, north of 
Brush Creek and west of the Big Blue, are hereby ordered to remove from their 
present places of residence within fifteen days from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfaction of the 
commanding officer of the military station nearest their present places of resi- 
dence, will receive from him certificates stating the fact of their loyalty and the 
names of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificates 
will be permitted to remove to any military station in this district, or to any part 
of the State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern border of the State. 
All others shall remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies and 
detachments serving in the counties named, will see that this paragraph is prompt- 
ly obeyed. 

II. All grain and hay in the field or under shelter, in the districts from 
which the inhabitants are required to remove, within reach of military stations, 
after the gth day of September next, will be taken to such stations, and turned 
over to the proper officers there ; and report of the amount so turned over made 
to District Head Quarters, specifying the names of all loyal owners, and the 
amount of such produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such dis- 
trict after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, will be 
destroyed. 

III. The provisions of General Orders No. 10 from these headquarters will 
be at once vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the dis- 
trict, and at the stations, not subject to the operation of Paragraph i of this Or- 
der — and especially in the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City. 

IV. Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all who have 
borne arms against the Government in this district since the 20th day of August, 
1863. 

By order of Brig. Gen. Ewing. H. HANNAHS, Adjutant. 

19 



290 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

Five months after the order was issued, Col. Theo. S. Case, Chief' Quarter- 
master of the Border under General Ewing, now postmaster at Kansas City, 
wrote a letter to the Missouri Democrat, of St. Louis, commenting on railroad 
matters in this part of the state, the anniversary of the emancipation proclama- 
tion and other things in which he referred to General Order No. ii, in the 
following language : "The experience of the. past three years has shown that 
the plan adopted in constructing the ' Division of the Border ' from the territory 
on both sides of the boundary line of Kansas and Missouri, is the only one 
which has succeeded in giving anything like peace to this vexed region. It 
must not be forgotten that less than six months ago this border was alive with 
bush-whackers and guerrillas on one side and with 'red legs' on the other, the 
first of whom exceed the atrocities of the savages in their horrible deeds of 
blood, while the latter excel in dexterity the horse steahng exploits of John A. 
Murrell's most experienced gangs. Now neither party is known on this border. 
Not a bush-whacker has been heard of in any part of the District of the Border 
for months and the term ' red leg ' is rapidly becoming obsolete. Stage coaches, 
solitary horsemen and footmen can and do travel ummolested from this city 
(Kansas City) to Lexington, Warrensburg, Harrisonville or Fort Scott, a state- 
ment which could not have been truthfully made at any previous time since 
May, 1861 ; while horses, mules and cattle roam about at large with almost the 
same immunity as of yore. 

' ' All this has been brought about by the well-directed efforts of General 
Ewing who having control of both sides of the boundary line has been enabled 
to produce a result which no officer could have secured, whose jurisdiction 
ceased at the line on the other side. His measures have been harsh, it cannot 
be denied, but when we recall the history of the part in Jackson and Cass 
counties, the almost unanimous adherence to the rebel cause among their people, 
the harboring of bush-whackers, the persecution of Union men, as long as any 
remained to be persecuted, the impossibility of obtaining information in regard 
to the movements of the guerrillas amongst them, the certainty of the heralding 
to the enemy of any movement of the federal troops, the determined and 
repeated acts of duplicity and treachery by almost the whole population, men, 
women and children — when all these things are considered, and the result of Gen. 
Ewing's course ascertained, none but copperheads and traitors find any objection 
to it, while all loyal and true hearted men applaud it. It will be remembered 
that by order No. 11 these counties were depopulated. The entire population was 
ordered to remove. Such as would take the oath of allegiance and could prove 
that they had never harbored bush-whackers were permitted to remain at the 
various military stations in the district. All others were compelled to remove 
altogether. The forage thus abandoned has been collected and used by the 
government and paid for where the owner was loyal. Ample time was given for 
the removal of cattle and thus the guerrillas were deprived of all means of support 
and information. After several months General Order No. 20 was issued, per- 
mitting all loyal citizens to remove to their homes, the males to enroll them- 
selves, form militia companies for home defense, receiving arms, clothing and 
subsistence from the government. Under this order about 250 men, mostly 
heads of families, have returned, enrolled themselves, and are now prepared to 
defend themselves against the bush-whackers should they attempt to return. Of 
course none are permitted to return whose loyalty is not abundantly attested. 
This course will gradually fill up the counties again with men who have been 
true to their country from the beginning, but who have been exiles from their 
homes since 1861. They know personally the bush-whackers and their harborers, 
and will not permit them to return. There are families now living almost desti- 
tute in this city, who have good farms, within from ten to twenty miles, but who 
have not dared to visit them for two years, through dread of the rifle or bowie 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 291 

knife of their former neighbors and friends. It is the latter class of people who are 
expelled by General Order No. ii. And the former class who are permitted to 
again enjoy the happiness and comfort of living upon their own farms by General 
Order No. 20. 

" It is true that there is very little of the conservative element about this 
mode of dealing with the enemies of the country and their sympathizers, and it 
is equally true that little is needed. 

" The first order relieved us entirely of the presence of the guerrillas for the 
first time during the war. The second order re-admitted a loyal people to Jack- 
son and Cass counties for the same time during the same period. All loyal men 
thank General Ewing for both orders. 

' ' This plan will succeed without doubt, but should any mistaken policy dictate 
the removal of the barriers thus set up by General Ewing, the same scenes of per- 
secution, robbery, murder and wholesale butchery may be expected on the bor- 
der during the coming season, that have marked the past three years. The first 
to rush in, should an indiscriminating permission be granted to all former resi- 
dents, would be those who have been the sysmpathizers and harborers of the 
guerrillas, the spies upon the movements of the Federal troops, the persecutors of 
their Union neighbors in past days ; and close upon their heels the ruthless butch- 
erers of Lawrence, Olathe and Shawneetown. 

" Rely upon it, the only successful plan of filling up these depopulated coun- 
ties is the straining or filtering process by which all noxious matters are excluded 
and only the pure and loyal allowed to pass through." 

The American Cyclopaedia for the year 1863, published by D. Appleton & 
Co., has the following paragraph relating to Quantrell and General Order No. n : 

"The most atrocious outrage of the war was the attack of Col. Quantrell 
and his band of Confederate guerrillas upon the thriving city of Lawrence on the 
2ist of August, 1863. The attack was made, in the early morning and entirely 
without warning. Th-e citizens, unarmed, were unable to make any defense, 
and were many of them shot down in the streets in cold blood. 

"The Eldridge House, the largest hotel in the city and all the stores on Mas- 
sachusetts street, the principal business street, were plundered and burned, as 
were many dwellings and stores in other parts of the city. Two hundred and five 
men were killed and many others wounded. No women or children were killed 
or wounded, though one assailant snapped his pistol at Miss Lydia Stone, a heroic 
woman who had exposed her life for the preservation of others. Several of the 
churches were destroyed, and the projperty stolenand burned was estimated to 
exceed the value of $2,000,000. 

" Quantrell, the leader of the gang, had been at one time a resident of Law- 
rence. Senator Lane (General James H. Lane) was in Lawrence at the time, 
but succeeded in avoiding the guerrillas, and as soon as they left the town raised 
such a force as could be gathered and started in pursuit. Some thirty or forty 
of the guerrillas were overtaken and slain, but the remainder got away safely with 
their plunder. 

" Much indignation was felt by the citizens of Kansas at the alleged remiss- 
ness of General Ewing, who was in command of the district of Kansas and West- 
ern Missouri, and of General Schofield, who commanded the department of Mis- 
souri. Two days after the attack. General Ewing issued the order known as 
General Order No. 11. Quantrell and his band of marauders still hovered 
around the Kansas border. 

"There have been in Kansas and probably in Western Missouri, also, a con- 
siderable number of men, soldiers of fortune, who, while professing to belong on 
the side of the Union, have been ready to plunder and rob in the name of free- 
dom, all against whom they could raise any suspicion of sympathy with the Con- 
federates. These "Jayhawkers," as they were called, had really as little interest 



292 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

in the success of the Union cause as their counter-parts, the guerrillas, had in the 
Confederates; the controlling motive being in both instances the obtaining of 
plunder lor their own emolument." 

GENERAL PRICE'S MARCH THROUGH JACKSON COUNTY. 

The autumn of '64 will ever remain important in the history of our country. 
There were some little things of importance going on in the county about that 
time; but things took a definite and determined course when it was rumored 
throughout the county that Gen. Sterling Price was on a northern war march and 
would certainly come through the county. News reached St. Louis that General 
Price, with Generals Fagon, Joe Shelby and Marmaduke, crossed the Arkansas 
River at Dardanelles, a village in Pope county, Arkansas, on his way north. The 
size of Price's army when he crossed the river was not ascertained, though it is 
pretty certain that by the time he struck Lexington and Jackson county, .his ar- 
my swelled to nearly 30,000 men. 

Many were the reports and messages sent hither and thither throughout 
Missouri and adjoining states during Price's raid. The movements of General 
Price were closely noticed and anticipated by the Federal General Rosecrans, 
who was then stationed at St. Louis ; he kept his other officers well informed, 
concerning the marches and proposed attacks of the Confederate army. 

So they rightly anticipated his course, and made heavy preparations. There 
were officers and men enough on the elert to have annihilated the whole invading 
army, if they had been properly disposed and had made the best assaults. The 
presumption is, that why Price was not driven back to his rebel retreats in 
Arkansas, our men were too much scattered, and had but little hopes of success 
when they did attack. General Curtis, who was stationed in West Kansas, was 
called to Jackson County, Missouri, while Generals Blunt, Sykes, Lowe, Ford, 
Pleasanton, Moonlight, A. J. Smith and a host of others from Kansas and the 
Indian Territory, were gathered along the line of march; there surely could not 
have been many less than 60, 000 soldiers and militia ready to strike the enemy. 
After General Price passed Jefferson City there were to be no doubts as to -his 
direction and his intention. Many preparations were made by the Union army 
to keep Lexington from falling into the hands of the Confederates. But Price, 
accompanied by Fagon, Shelby and Marmaduke, some of whom were acquainted 
with the country, was not to be defeated or turned from his line of march. They 
marched upon Lexington, which with but little resistance surrrended. The Fed- 
erals then were very well satisfied that Price and his whole army would make for 
Kansas City and Westport by way of Independence. 

In the meantime guerrillas did much skirmishing and much damage to the 
Federal army. The Union soldiers did noble fighting, and as it has been well 
said, contested almost every foot of ground between Lexington and Independ- 
ence. While the engagements were going on at and around Lexington, Inde- 
pendence was occupied by Colonel James H. Ford; when it was known that 
Price was marching toward Independence, on the 20th of October, 1864, Gen- 
eral Blunt with several other commanders reinforced Colonel Ford at Independ- 
ence. Colonel Moonlight, Captains Green and Huntoon, with a strong force, 
were ordered to make a strong resistance at Little Blue River, a few miles east of 
Independence. In due time did Price's army make its appearance. On the 
morning of the 21st, General Joe Shelby drove the pickets in, and the battle 
known as the Little Blue began in good earnest. As the river was shallow, at 
that season of the year, an army could ford it at a number of places. The Con- 
federates poured across the stream in almost countless numbers; the Union forces 
were compelled to give way and burnt the bridges as they retired. Major 
Nelson Smith, of 2d Colorado regiment, fell in this fight shot through the heart, 
and where also fell George Todd, the guerrilla. Price's entire army moved up 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 293 

to the scene of battle, the Federals could not do anything else but give way; 
though they fought nobly, they were driven from all their entrenchments. The 
Confederates arrived in time to extinguish the burning bridge, so that their artil- 
lery had no trouble in passing the river. This defeat, which from the circum- 
stances could not have been otherwise, threw the whole county into the greatest 
confusion, for as soon as the results were known at Independence, the greatest 
hurry was made to evacuate the town. It is true a second stand was made by 
General Blunt about two miles from Independence, but it proved of little avail, 
as the position was soon swept away by the double columns of the advancing 
edemy. Independence, that had been for years the headquarters of the Federal 
forces, was taken without a struggle. 

General Curtis and his corps of officers decided to take the next stand on the 
west bank of the Big Blue River, a few miles west of Independence ; and it was 
there that they did some of their best fighting. It was deemed exceedingly im- 
portant that the Confederate army should not be allowed to penetrate further 
toward Kansas City and Kansas, and no place offered better advantages for suc- 
cessful resistance. 

The fall of Independence had nothing about it of interest in the history of 
Price's raid, as it is generally called, however of importance it might be in the 
history of the town. The Confederate soldiers remained in the town only a day 
or two and then pressed on their march toward Kansas City. It was well known 
by all, that General Curtis had decided to measure strength with the enemy at 
Big Blue. After taking his stand at the bridge, he was immediately reinforced by 
General Deitzler of the Kansas division. Colonels Hogan and Blair, Weir and 
Montgomery, and Captains Dodge and Minor, the latter of whom was of the 
colored volunteers. As the river was rather large, deep, and of steep banks, it 
was reasonably thought that a successful stand could be made. Above the 
main crossing McLain's Colorado battery held a commanding position, at Sim- 
mon's Ford, two miles south. Colonel. Pennock was stationed with the loth Kan- 
sas regiment. Pennock was soon re-enforced by Colonel Moonlight, who had 
just come from the engagement at Little Blue east of Independence. Three 
miles from Simmon's Ford is another known as Byrom's Ford, which proved to 
be the objective point made to by Price's army. The roads from Raytown and 
Independence cross at the latter ford and then diverge to Kansas City and West- 
port. Colonel McLain was directed to proceed to Byrom's Ford and hold it for 
further orders, but was also instructed to thoroughly scout the eastern bank and 
vicinity, as well as to open communication with Russel's Ford if possible. Colo- 
nel McLain, with some difficulty, took his position on the 2 2d, and dispatched 
an escort of twenty men to Hickman Mills, all of whom were taken prisoners by 
the Confedrates except one who escaped by the fleetness of his horse. At 9 
o'clock next morning Colonel Jennison with the ist Brigade also took a position 
at the same crossing. Still further above on the same stream, was another ford 

called Hickman Mills Crossing, which was held by General . Such 

was, in the main, the order of the Federal forces when Price's army made its ap- 
pearance on the opposite bank of the Big Blue, October 22d, 1864. From the 
skirmishers situated on Rock Creek, the Union soldiers soon. learned that the 
main body of Price's army was near at hand. The pickets from Rock Creek 
were driven in, and from a feint thrown out by General Shelby on the main road 
to Kansas City, the Federal army- soon discovered that Price was intending to 
cross the Blue at some ford above where Curtis was garrisoned. The following 
dispatch will show how accurate was the Federalists' information concerning 
Price's movements the day before the fight : 

Headquarters, Forks of the Road, \ 
9 A. M. October, 22d, 1864. j 

General ; — Price is making very feeble demonstrations in front ; look 



294 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

out for your position. Send scouts on road to Pleasant Hill, and also toward 
Independence to see if Price is moving toward my flank. Send me reports every 
thirty minutes. S. R. CURTIS, Major-General. 

When it was known that Byrom's Ford was the place of greatest importance, 
Colonel Jennison had trees felled, crossed and piled so as to make it almost im- 
passable by these obstructions, and the concentration of Federal troops at the 
latter place. Shelby was retarded from about eleven o'clock in the morning 
until three o'clock in the afternoon, but finally he effected a passage. In the 
meantime. Colonel Jennison had placed his howitzers in the road commanding 
the east bank. Their pieces poured into the advancing columns many deadly 
volleys, but by the onward rush over logs, rocks, pit-falls and tree tops the Union 
forces were compelled to give way. During this deadly contest, messages were 
sent to Generals Curtis and Blunt for assistance, they heard the reports of the 
artillery and made efforts to render aid, but they were too late, Price's army had 
forced the crossing and were bearing everything before them ; along in the after- 
noon, however, Shelby was compelled to fall back to the river where he struck 
camp with the main body of Price's army. From a Confederate who was cap- 
tured about this time it was learned that Price's army comprised something like 
thirty thousand men. 

In completing the history of General Price's raid, as it is called, in Jackson 
county, we have reports and orders of only one side, and many of which are 
manifestly whitewashed and defective. In behalf of history only could we wish 
that the full materials and reports of the rebel army were in our hands. Thus, 
having but little that amounts to much on that side, we have to supply as best we 
can and go on. 

Whether it was Price's intention to attack Kansas City, and then make for 
Fort Leavenworth and a circuitous route in eastern Kansas, is not known. We 
have no documents to prove either case coming from Confederate headquarters. 
So whether the Union forces turned him south from Westport, or whether he 
turned of his own accord, is a question unanswered. General Price and his army 
had certainly proved themselves irresistible on all the preceding occasions of 
that memorable campaign. However the foregoing might be, we are quite sure 
that at the battles of Westport and State Line he turned southward. 

The Sabbath of October 23, 1864, will ever remain prominent in the history 
of Westport. The night before had been one of continual dread. Price's array 
lay in the neighborhood, and the next day would decide whether he would go 
into northern Kansas or not. It was a day such as seldom dawns upon a people. 
After the fight closed on the Saturday evening before, the Federals were busy 
directing and concentrating their different armies. The troops of General Curtis 
were on watch all night, and any movements made by the Confederates were 
soon reported to headquarters. The Union armies were well stationed along the 
roads that led to Kansas City, and the way to Westport was fortified with the 
greatest care. From the house-tops in Westport the commanding officers, with 
their field-glasses, could easily observe the movements of the advancing army, 
which, in the early morning, were seen moving in almost all directions. General 
Pleasanton was bringing up the rear of Price's army, not that he dared to attack 
the main army, but he retook Independence after Price had advanced on toward 
Westport and Kansas City. From many written accounts of this engagement, it 
appears that the general pressure upon Price's army from all quarters by the 
Federals compelled him to move in some direction. Though General Joe Shelby 
had some detachments out toward Westport, the main body moved from the 
beginning in a southwesterly direction, leaving Westport entirely to the right, 
being led by General Marmaduke. This movement on the part of Price's army 
was rightly construed that he was turning southward, and that he did not intend 
to come to an engagement with his whole army unless forced to it. There was 



HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 295 

more or less fighting on the outer skirts of the town between General Shelby's 
division and the Federal soldiers, though none such as characterized the deadly 
struggle at Big Blue the day before. On Sunday night Price's army camped 
about ten miles south of Westport. On Monday morning, October 24, 1864, 
they moved off with their immense train down the State Line. It seems from 
their trail that they marched in two columns, with their artillery in their midst. 

Price's army left Jackson county some miles south of Westport and entered 
Linn county, Kansas. They marched to Mound City, county seat of Linn coun- 
ty, and halted for refreshments. They were warmly pursued by the Federals, 
but nothing of historical interest was transacted, as a matter of course, by being 
pursued, the receding army did not have so much time to deploy and send out 
soldiers to learn and to kill. In fact, such business was almost impossible any- 
way, for the country was not much more than a dry and desolate prairie. 

In the spring of 1865 came the surrender, which, instead of being the an- 
nouncement for peace and good will between citizens of all classes and political 
proclivities, it was the beginning of civil troubles in Independence and Tackson 
county to a great extent. There was organized what was called Home Guards, 
for self protection ; if they had stopped at that the movement would have been a 
good one, they certainly did much good as it was, but after there had been such 
a wear on the patience of good and law-abiding citizens so long, it would almost 
have taken perfect humanity to have done no wrong. Many people that had 
been identified with the Confederate cause were more than willing to accept the 
situation and return peaceably and quietly to their dilapidated homesteads to 
do the best they could for themselves and country; but the end was not yet. 
There had been too many injuries received from both sides of the war for every- 
thing to subside calmly and quietly ; people were mad and not satisfied. Conse- 
quenriy the guerrillas, themselves, and their families which in many cases had 
been roughly treated, were not disposed to lay down their arms. So for a year 
or two after the surrender in April, 1865, there was no little trouble and blood- 
shed. 

And then the "iron-clad oath," as it has passed into history, had the tenden- 
cy to revive many of the unpleasant transactions between friends and neighbors 
that have taken place during the war. This oath required all voting citizens to 
come to Independence and swear to eighty actual conditions ; the substance of 
which was, what they did do or what they did not do during the war. As a mat- 
ter of course. Independence was the place where many acrimonious scenes took 
place. Neighbors would appear before the register's office and challenge his 
neighbor's oath. Some would come and swear that they were not in such and 
such offenses during the war, others would appear and swear that they were. So, 
for some years after the war, and perhaps now, there is much slumbering feeling 
toward one another, for actions done in those times. 

But such is the case in all civil wars. In the fall and winter of 1865, things 
took a start to calm down in Independence, and a few years hence one would 
never know that Independence had passed through the times of fire and blood. 



296 HISTORY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 

CHAPTER XV. 
BLUE TOWNSHIP. 

Organized May 23, 1827 — At First it Included Land in what is Cass and Bates Counties — Present 
Boundaries and Phyiscal Features — Blue Township a Favored Locality — Names of 
the Pioneers — What the Pioneers Themselves say of Early Days — The Oldest Man in the State 
Additional Items — Wayne City — Lexington — New Salem Church. 

Blue township was organized May 22, 1827, the order of court fixing the 
boundaries as follows : ' ' Commencing on the Missouri River at Prine's Ferry 
and running with the western boundary of Fort Osage township to the southern 
boundary of the county, thence west with said boundary to the southwest corner 
of the county, thence due north with the State line to where it crosses the main 
fork of Big Blue, thence with said creek to its junction with the Missouri River, 
thence down the middle of the main channel of the Missouri to the point of be- 
ginning." Subsequently the township has been reduced to its present geograph- 
ical bounds by cutting off the counties of Cass and Bates from Jackson, and still 
later by the organization of the townships of Washington, Prairie and Brooking. 
The present boundaries of Blue township are north by the Missouri River which 
separates it from Clay county, east by Little Blue which separates it from the 
townships of Fort Osage and Sni-a-bar, north by Prairie and Brooking, and west 
by the townships of Brooking, Westport and Kaw, from the last two being sepa- 
rated by the Big Blue. 

There is considerable timber, especially along the creeks and the Missouri 
River. The land is high and rolling, some of the bluffs along the river attaining 
a height above the river of over three hundred feet. Limestone quarries are 
abundant in all parts of the township, furnishing superior advantages for building 
and other purpo